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Copyright, 1925, by 

Published December, 1925 

Printed in the United States of America 



CHAPTER I. — Observations on Secondary Education for Girls in 

Baltimore, 1892-1900.— Physical Education 1 

CHAPTER n. — Opportunities for College and University Educa- 
tion of Women in Baltimore, 1892-1916. — Baltimore Associa- 
tion for the Promotion of University Education of Women... 16 

CHAPTER HI. — Baltimore's Great Contribution to Medical Educa- 
tion with Special Reference to the Medical Education of 
Women 31 

CHAPTER IV.— Medical Experiences in Baltimore, 1892-1924.— 

Evening Dispensary for Working Women and Girls 48 

CHAPTER V. — The Woman's Club Movement in Baltimore. — The 
Arundell Club, The Arundell Good Government Club, The 
Maryland State Federation of Women's Clubs 62 

CHAPTER VI.— Women's Activities in Public Health.— The Tuber- 
culosis Commission. — The Vice Commission. — Child Welfare. 
— Food Conservation. — Clean Milk 79 

CHAPTER VII. — Personal Experiences in the Suffrage Campaign.. 98 

CHAPTER VIII. — Personal Experiences as a Member of the Goucher 

College Faculty 114 

CHAPTER IX. — Personal Experiences with Goucher College 

Students 140 

CHAPTER X.— Conclusion 160 


Lilian Welsh, M. D., LL. D Frontispiece 

Lilian Welsh and Mary Sherwood, as Students at the University of 

Ziirich, 1892 50 

Dr. Lilian Welsh and Dr. Mary Sherwood 82 

Photographs of the Suffrage Parade, March 3, and the Inauguration 
Parade, March 4, 1913, Showing Contrasts in Police Pro- 
tection 112 

Goucher College 134 

Future Campus of Goucher College at Towson, Maryland 156 



From time to time my students in Goucher College 
have asked me to put into some permanent form the 
personal experiences and observations from which I 
drew many illustrations to emphasize special points in 
my course with them in personal and public hygiene. 
One year ago, when I talked informally to the Alumnae 
Council I said I should employ some of the leisure com- 
ing to me with my retirement from active connection 
with Goucher College in writing reminiscences of my 
life in Baltimore, covering as it has a very interesting 
period in the history of the education of women, of 
their political enfranchisement, of their organizations, 
and of their part in the applications of the principles of 
hygiene to social ills. In the year that has passed I have 
been asked a number of times about the book I had 
promised the Goucher Alumnae. I should probably 
have returned to Baltimore without any attempt at keep- 
ing this promise had not a combination of circumstances 
in the last week thrown me so completely on my own 
resources that I took to my pad and pencil as a last re- 
sort for amusement and diversion. I arrived at this 
charming resort on Lake Maggiore in the rain. For five 
days and nights it rained almost without intermission, 
sometimes gently when we ventured out of doors, but 
mostly in torrents which kept us under shelter. Walk- 
ing, motoring, lake trips were impossible and no books 
were available for reading. I have, therefore, spent 
several hours each day in writing what has proved so 

interesting to me that I venture to pass it on to the alum- 
nae as a contribution to their share of the Greater 
Goucher Fund. If its publication and sale yields nothing 
there will be at least no loss to the fund. As its contents 
may be of interest not only to my Goucher students, but 
to that large body of women of Maryland with whose or- 
ganizations I have had so much pleasure in working, I 
have ventured to dedicate the small volume to these two 
groups of women — to my Goucher students and to the 
women of Maryland with whom I have worked and 
with whom I have seen some of our dreams come true. 

Baveno, Italy, June 1, 1925. 


Chapter I 

Observations on Secondary Education for Girls in Balti- 
more, 1892-1900 — Physical Education 

On the 22d of February, 1892, I arrived in Balti- 
more to join my friend. Dr. Mary Sherwood, in an at- 
tempt to establish ourselves in the practice of medicine. 
Dr. Sherwood had come to Baltimore fourteen months 
previously to join members of her family temporarily 
resident in Baltimore, while her brother was completing 
his graduate work in the Johns Hopkins University. Her 
family had departed and left her in a lonely office, but 
she had found herself in the stimulating atmosphere of 
the pre-medical-school days of the Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital when anyone, man or woman, able to work in medi- 
cal laboratories or to profit in medical wards, and de- 
sirous of doing so, was made welcome to a share in the 
most stimulating medical companionship that possibly 
our country has ever known. We regard it as a lucky 
chance which took us to Baltimore at that particular 
time. Neither of us was quite convinced that we wanted 
even to try to practice medicine. We had both been edu- 
cated for the profession of teaching and had served an 
apprenticeship as teachers before we were drawn to 
medicine primarily by our interest in science. Our inter- 
est in education, and especially in the education of girls 


and women, was naturally keen and we made early con- 
tacts in Baltimore with women interested in advancing 
opportunities for women's education. 

At that time the standard school for girls of genteel 
families in the city of Baltimore was the finishing school 
or the young ladies' seminary. The high schools were 
looked upon as places for girls who could not afford 
to pay for their education, or as places for "females" 
who were unfortunate enough to be compelled to teach 
school, or to earn a living in some way that needed at 
least a modicum of education. A little more than fif- 
teen years after the Bryn Mawr School appeared on 
the Baltimore horizon, the old-fashioned boarding and 
day school for educating young ladies had disappeared 
and the high schools were preparing girls for college 
and otherwise giving them a liberal education. 

It would be difficult to estimate the influence of the 
Bryn Mawr School for Girls upon the advancement of 
educational opportunities for women in Baltimore. It 
was a direct assault upon the intrenched prejudices of 
a conservative community as to what constituted a fitting 
education for its daughters. College education was 
taboo. So far as I can ascertain previous to the found- 
ing of this school for girls, primarily intended as a col- 
lege preparatory school, only two native Baltimore 
women had obtained college degrees from any standard 

In the same year that the Bryn Mawr School was 
opened the Baltimore Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church had taken action to establish in Baltimore 
a college for women. When the Woman's College of 
Baltimore, now Goucher College, opened its doors it 


was obliged to begin its career on a non-collegiate basis, 
receiving as students those whose preparation for col- 
lege must be completed in so-called college classes; 
otherwise it could receive few students from Baltimore. 
Subsequently when it was able to exclude from its col- 
lege classes students preparing for college entrance it 
was found necessary to carry on a college preparatory 
school, the Girl's Latin School, for ten or twelve years 
until the Eastern and Western High Schools were able 
to prepare students to meet college entrance require- 

I have often heard Dr. Goucher say that when the 
Woman's College opened for the reception of students 
the only girls from Baltimore public schools who could 
have passed the entrance examinations were those gradu- 
ated from the colored high school. The reason for this, 
he said, was that the colored voters demanded that their 
boys should have opportunities for education equal to 
those of white boys in the City College, and as the col- 
ored high school was coeducational the girls could get 
there a kind of education not available to girls in the 
Eastern and Western High Schools. 

It is to be hoped that someone who knows the his- 
tory of the Bryn Mawr School from its beginning will 
permanently record an adequate description of its found- 
ing and its founders. I am merely trying to record my 
own observations and inferences. In 1892, when I came 
to Baltimore to reside, I found what to me was unique 
in my experience of secondary schools for girls. Here 
was a beautiful building, built for school purposes, 
adequately equipped not only with the ordinary school 
appliances, but with an esthetic setting lacking in any 


school I had hitherto seen, a curriculum designed to 
make girls work their minds, arranged in orderly se- 
quence leading to a definite end; a staff of teachers, all 
college graduates, carefully chosen and well paid. As 
a teacher eager for the improvement of conditions for 
the education of girls it was a great joy to find such a 
school; as a physician, however, who was seeing the 
dawn of the era of preventive medicine one department 
of this school made an especial appeal. I found an old 
acquaintance of mine. Dr. Kate Campbell Hurd, in the 
position of medical director of this school. Dr. Hurd 
had been selected by the Board of the school and had 
been required to make special preparation for this posi- 
tion by study and observation in the United States and 
Europe. She was brought to Baltimore for the special 
object of doing health work in the school. She was not 
a Baltimore physician who snatched a few hours of a 
busy day from the practice of medicine to devote to 
seeing children referred to her by some more or less 
observant teacher. She was engaged by the school to 
devote her time primarily to the study of the health 
needs of the children of the school, and was permitted 
to practice medicine only in so far as it did not inter- 
fere with her school duties. This was pioneer work in 
medical inspection, and so far as I know was the first 
time a secondary school either for boys or for girls had 
made adequate provision for such work. 

The same year Dr. Hurd came to Baltimore as medi- 
cal director to the Bryn Mawr School, Dr. Alice Hall 
was called to the Woman's College of Baltimore to lay 
the foundations of preventive health work in a woman's 
college. This, too, was pioneer work. Physicians had 


been attached to schools and colleges before this time, 
but their duty was primarily to care for the sick. In 
these two schools in Baltimore the physicians were em- 
ployed for an entirely different purpose. At the Wom- 
an's College it was not thought advisable to put the care 
of the resident students when they were sick in the hands 
of a woman physician. Dr. Goucher told me this when 
I became associated with the college six years after Dr. 
Hall had inaugurated her work. He said the resident 
students came from all parts of the country and their 
parents might not be satisfied to feel that they were in 
the care of a woman physician. The Bryn Mawr School 
had no provision for resident, boarding pupils. All 
pupils came from well-to-do families in Baltimore, hav- 
ing their own physicians, so that the medical school 
work was designed to be exclusively preventive and cor- 

There was, of course, opposition to this health work 
and the methods instituted to carry it on both from par- 
ents and from physicians on the usual ground of inter- 
ference with personal liberty, that is the liberty of the in- 
dividual to enjoy poor health unmolested, or to dissemi- 
nate disease to others. I remember well the letter an irate 
father wrote to the President of the Woman's College 
after I had made a physical examination of his daugh- 
ter. He said if he sent his daughter to school in clean 
clothes it was no one's business to make any further in- 
quiries about her health; his own physician would at- 
tend to that. Dr. Sherwood in her early experience as 
medical director of Bryn Mawr School had many de- 
pressing encounters with family physicians as well as 
with parents in her earnest efforts to prevent physical 


deformity and correct physical defects. Both at the 
Bryn Mawr School and Goucher College, however, the 
authorities have always been in thorough sympathy with 
all measures and methods recommended by their medi- 
cal directors for the prevention of disease and the pro- 
motion of health, and have fearlessly carried them out. 
Health supervision of some kind has today become such 
a sine qua non in connection with schools that it is diffi- 
cult to realize that it made its way so slowly and with 
so much opposition. 

More than thirty years passed after the Bryn Mawr 
School and the Woman's College had inaugurated 
methods of health supervision for their students before 
the Eastern and Western High School girls had any 
similar provision. In 1921 a school nurse was assigned 
to each of these schools, and in 1922 a woman doctor 
was attached to them to make medical examinations. It 
is to be hoped that thorough-going courses in modern 
hygiene may soon form part of the required courses for 
all our high school girls. Medical examinations of chil- 
dren and follow-up work by school nurses was begun 
in primary schools much earlier, about 1906. 

When under its new charter Baltimore obtained a 
small and efficient school board, Mr. Joseph Packard, 
President of the Board, called on Dr. Sherwood and 
me to discuss possible physical examinations of pros- 
pective teachers for the Baltimore public schools. 
The public health campaign for the study and preven- 
tion of tuberculosis was in its first stage. This was the 
first great public health educational movement in our 
country systematically undertaken, and under its stimu- 
lus the supervision of health in schools, industrial es- 


tablishments, etc., made steady progress. Mr. Packard 
explained that the Board had taken action requiring that 
prospective teachers for the schools must be free from 
physical disabilities that would interfere with their work 
as teachers. He asked if we would be willing to ex- 
amine the young women applicants for teachers' posi- 
tions. He explained that the Board did not desire a 
complete medical examination such as was made for 
life insurance, and that the compensation would be a 
nominal sum. The commercial side of medicine never 
made a sufficient appeal to Dr. Sherwood and myself 
and we thought not at all of the compensation offered, 
but were glad of the opportunity to increase the num- 
ber of observations we could make on the health of 
young women, and the opportunities offered to stimu- 
late in teachers an interest in all health problems as 
well as to try to give them a sane and sensible attitude 
toward their own health. We have always looked upon 
a physical and medical examination as an opportunity 
to get at the personal attitude of the girl as to her health 
and to try to change it if desirable. 

I have never ceased to be surprised at the permanent 
impression often left by a chance word or sentence 
used during these examinations. As I meet my for- 
mer students of Goucher College years after they have 
graduated, one of the commonest forms of greeting is: 
"Oh, Dr. Welsh, I have never forgotten something you 
said to me when you examined me;" and, strange to say, 
no two girls seem to remember the same thing. 

Appointed in Mayor Hayes' administration, from 
then until 1923, when the examinations of prospec- 
tive teachers were taken over by the Health Depart- 


merit, Dr. Sherwood and I examined all candidates for 
teaching positions. At first, until traditions had been 
established, we occasionally found difficulty in breaking 
down the opposition and securing the co-operation of the 
girls we examined. I remember one girl, sullen and 
resentful at being compelled to undergo what she evi- 
dently considered an ordeal and a violation of her per- 
sonal liberty. When questioned about her personal 
hygienic habits they all seemed pretty bad, and, at last, 
in spite of all the tact I could use she broke out angrily 
telling me that I was impertinent, that it was none of my 
business as to how she ate and slept and what kind of 
clothes she wore. I told her what she said was quite 
true, that the School Board simply required me to cer- 
tify that she had no contagious disease and no physical 
disability that would prevent her from teaching, but that 
I felt quite confident the time would come when a young 
woman who had the attitude she expressed towards all 
questions of health would be regarded as a greater 
menace in the schools than one who had certain physical 
disabilities. Gradually the candidates themselves, I 
think, came to look on these examinations as helpful 
and as giving them an opportunity to talk over very 
freely with a woman physician questions of the most 
intimate nature upon which they desired to have some 
authoritative statement. 

As a whole, in later years these physical examinations 
of high school graduates showed that few girls entered 
the training school with marked physical disabilities. 
We were able, however, to secure needed attention to 
adenoids, tonsils and bad teeth by refusing to pass stu- 
dents physically who did not have such defects reme- 


died within a certain given time, I remember saying 
once to a Goucher student from Baltimore, in her senior 
year, whose tonsils were a constant source of depressed 
health and whom I could not persuade to have them 
removed: "Well, it is a pity you did not go into the 
training school instead of coming to college; then I 
wouldn't have passed you to graduation until you had 
had those offensive organs removed." "Yes," said she, 
"I know that. You got my sister's out." "Is her health 
better?" I asked. "Yes, indeed," she said, "but I can't 
bear the idea." "Better bear the idea than the tonsils," 
I urged. 

At the same time that Dr. Sherwood and I were asked 
to serve as examiners for the School Board we were 
asked to serve in a similar capacity for the Teachers' 
Retirement Fund Board, and from its beginning we have 
examined the women teachers who have been retired. I 
remember well the first group that presented themselves, 
three women all, I think, over seventy-five years of age, 
and all able to do their day's work — a healthy trio. On 
general principles I have always certified that in my 
opinion a woman over seventy might be retired for phy- 
sical incapacity even though ordinary clinical methods 
could find no decided disability. I remember seeing in 
my office one hot afternoon a woman of eighty who had 
walked from Lombard and Green Streets to Charles and 
Mount Royal Avenue. She was a teacher of sewing 
and thought it time for her to retire. She had no 
marked disability that would have prevented her con- 
tinuing teaching sewing, but I gave her the required 
certificate stating the exact truth. The following Sep- 


tember she was back asking for reinstatment. It was 
during war time and the supply of teachers was short. 

After the first few years the entire work for the Re- 
tirement Board fell to me, and I had all my communi- 
cations with the Board through Miss Mollie Hobbs, its 
efficient secretary. For years I knew Miss Hobbs only 
through letters and telephone conferences, and I learned 
to have great regard for her sympathetic attitude and 
friendly helpfulness to the teachers of advancing years 
and those who suffered from illness. Some of the most 
pathetic cases my profession as a physician has brought 
me in contact with, I have found among these teach- 
ers grown old or disabled in a service hitherto so illy 
paid that provision, by themselves unaided, for sickness 
and old age has been impossible. 

Somewhat to our surprise, Dr. Sherwood and I found 
the public school system of Baltimore seemed behind 
those which we knew most about in states north of Mary- 
land. In 1893 a friend of Dr. Sherwood's, a wealthy 
woman from New York State, accustomed to spend the 
winter months in the South, decided to take residence in 
Baltimore in order to put her son into the public schools. 
Her husband in his lifetime had insisted upon sending 
the children to public schools, and she was anxious to 
put her youngest son in a good public school. She as- 
sumed she would find schools of high grade in a city of 
the size and importance of Baltimore. She and Dr. 
Sherwood tried to visit the school to which her boy 
would be assigned and were refused admission. Appli- 
cation to the Superintendent's office disclosed the rule 
that visitors were not welcome in the schools and could 
not be admitted except by special permission from the 


Superintendent's office. This visit to the Superintendent 
decided the lady that it would be to the advantage of 
her son to place him in one of the good private schools 
for boys in Baltimore. 

I remember well with what indignation a professor 
at Goucher College, from the State of Massachusetts, 
told me in 1894 he had been refused admittance to the 
school where his children were pupils. The reason as- 
signed for the closed door was that shortly before the 
Baltimore schools had won unenviable notoriety in a 
widely published report on their inefficiency. 

Subsequently in 1897 I had for a limited time op- 
portunity of freely visiting the schools and gaining di- 
rect information about them. When Mr. Alcaeus 
Hooper was elected Mayor of Baltimore he offended his 
political friends and astonished his enemies by a radi- 
cal change in the kind of appointments he made to pub- 
lic boards. In addition to selecting his appointees for 
their fitness rather than for political influence he, for 
the first time in the history of the city, appointed women 
to public boards. One morning in January, 1897, Dr. 
Sherwood, who, with Miss Kate McLane, had already 
been appointed to the Board of Trustees of the Poor, 
now called Supervisors of City Charities, reading aloud 
to me the headlines in the local news of the Baltimore 
Sun read: "Mayor Hooper has appointed a new school 
board." "Good," I said. "He has appointed a woman." 
"Better," I said. "Why, he has appointed you." My 
breath being taken away by this surprising statement I 
made no further comment. 

The School Board at that time consisted of as many 
members as there were councilmanic districts in the 


city, about twenty-three, I think, and the councilman of 
the district usually, I was told, controlled the appoint- 
ment. The school system was undoubtedly deeply in 
politics. Mr. Hooper had served as a school commis- 
sioner for many years and knew the situation thor- 
oughly. He was determined, I think, to completely re- 
form the entire system. He thought with the advice of 
the city solicitor that the law could be interpreted as 
giving the Mayor the right to appoint a new board. The 
personnel of the Board had been carefully chosen. On 
the afternoon of the day the appointments had been an- 
nounced Mr. Hooper came to the Woman's College 
and in the President's room he administered the oath of 
office to my colleague. Dr. Joseph Shefloe, who had been 
named a member of the Board from the twenty-second 
or twenty-third ward, and to me, who was to represent 
the eighth ward. He asked us to come to the City Hall at 
eight o'clock that evening when he proposed that the new 
Board should take possession of the School Board offices, 
its books and records. These offices were then in the 
City Hall and I remember well that, after we had 
all assembled in the Mayor's office, we marched, a 
silent group, through silent halls as if to storm a pro- 
tected fortress. The Mayor's plans, however, had been 
laid carefully, the Secretary of the old board had been 
won over with his keys, and we found ourselves in pos- 
session of the offices without opposition. President 
Gilman of the Johns Hopkins University was imme- 
diately elected president of the new board and organiza- 
tion was completed. We all accepted the position in the 
spirit expressed by President Gilman as an opportunity 


to Stand by the Mayor in the performance of a great 
public duty. 

I found myself occupying the seat and desk of Mr. 
Michael Sheehan, my next neighbor was Mr. Daniel Mil- 
ler. I was the only woman on the board and was the 
subject, I suppose, of considerable curiosity. I was, 
however, treated with the greatest courtesy and never 
felt at all queer or out of place. Indeed I felt quite in 
place, and even had I found it necessary at any time 
to cross swords with my colleagues on questions of edu- 
cational policy I should have done it not as a novice. 
I had been trained to be a public school teacher in one 
of the oldest and largest normal schools in the State of 
Pennsylvania. These normal schools were coeduca- 
tional and the number of men students at that time al- 
ways exceeded the number of women. I had taught in 
coeducational schools of all grades in my native state 
and also in its normal schools. I had served for sev- 
eral years as the only woman member on the Board of 
Control of the Woman's College. I was accustomed to 
study educational problems, to form opinions upon them 
and to defend these opinions, especially where girls and 
women were involved. 

The tenure of Mayor Hooper's reform School Board 
was, however, short. Possession may be nine points of 
the law, but the courts decided that the appointment of 
this board was not legal and at the end of about three 
months we vacated our seats as quietly as we had taken 

In the months I served on this board I was enabled 
to get a good knowledge of the general conditions of 


the Baltimore public schools. Whatever of good or bad 
there was in the system it lacked unity, co-ordination, 
direction and supervision. Mayor Hooper knew the 
schools well. He had served as a school commissioner 
for many years and he was determined if it was within 
his power to effect a complete reorganization. One of 
the first committees appointed was a small committee, 
of which I was a member, to consider this particular 
subject. Mr. Gilman was chairman and we had many 
meetings in Mayor Hooper's office with Mr. Hooper al- 
ways present and always taking a leading part in the 
discussions. He was determined that the boys and girls 
in the public schools of Baltimore should have oppor- 
tunities as good as the best in the country. Mr. Gilman 
insisted that the first step was to search the country for 
the best public school man that could be found and to 
call him to Baltimore as Superintendent of Schools. 
The soundness of such a proposition was so obvious 
that we were all in agreement. I often wonder what 
would have happened if Mayor Hooper's School Board 
had continued in office and proceeded to carry out this 
plan. What did happen subsequently when, under a new 
charter and a small and efficient board, this plan was 
put into operation is common history. It is not for me 
to discuss the troubled and unhappy period of the tran- 
sition of the public schools of Baltimore from an old to 
a new order. I do not know why Mr. Hooper, who as 
a member of the Board of School Commissioners was, 
I think, one of the committee which eventually invited 
Mr. Van Sickle to lead the schools into a promised land, 
became his bitter opponent, but I have always thought 


that if he had given Mr. Van Sickle his continued sup- 
port the outcome of that particular historical period 
would have been different. However, "when an irresis- 
tible force meets with an unsurmountable obstacle," 
nothing can happen but disruption. 

When the School Board, under the new charter, took 
office, far from trying to keep visitors out of the schools 
it attempted by a system of "school visitors" to create 
a closer contact of parents and citizens with the schools. 
In 1900 I was appointed on a board of visitors to the 
Eastern High School, then housed very inadequately in 
an old building. It had, however, sent out from its 
doors many able women who have taken an active part 
in all the various associations of women which have 
worked in our city for social and civic betterment. By 
these various direct contacts with the public schools of 
Baltimore I have kept myself well informed as to the 
education offered to the girls of our city. In addition 
to this, I number among my good friends all of the 
Goucher graduates who, as teachers in the Eastern and 
Western High Schools, have had a large share in bring- 
ing these schools to a high state of efficiency. It is im- 
possible to estimate the influence of these high schools 
for girls upon the life of the community. I often think 
that no greater opportunities for social service exist than 
those to be found by teachers in great high schools for 
girls. To follow this thought would take an entire book. 
Secondary education for girls in Baltimore has been 
marked by steady progress in the thirty years I have 
watched its development. 


Chapter II 

Opportunities for College and University Education of 
Women in Baltimore, 1892-1916. Baltimore 
Association for the Promotion of Uni- 
versity Education of Women 

In 1892 a boy who desired to have as complete a gen- 
eral education as was offered by any schools in our 
country could secure it in Baltimore at moderate ex- 
pense. He could prepare for college in the public 
schools, could proceed to the Johns Hopkins University 
for his college degree, availing himself of the many 
scholarships offered there to boys from Baltimore and 
Maryland. If he desired, he could go on to graduate 
work and the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in an in- 
stitution which was the leader of our country in the 
character of its university work. 

With a Baltimore girl the case was quite different. 
The community was indifferent to the collegiate educa- 
tion of women and the Johns Hopkins University was 
averse, if not hostile, to their university education. The 
high schools could not prepare girls for college, and the 
Woman's College of Baltimore had begun a precarious 
existence founded on high hopes, but a very insufficient 
financial basis. In order to secure students at all it 
was necessary for it to offer a combined preparatory 
and collegiate course which with the lack of endowment 
kept this college for many years without the pale of the 
standards college women themselves were setting up as 
necessary for a school designated as a college. 


It is an interesting fact that the first systematic at- 
tempt to define a standard American college was made 
by the Association of Collegiate Alumnae for the pur- 
pose of upholding standards for women's education. 
This organization, founded in 1885, numbered among 
its leaders able women of the generation that had fought 
their way to college education and were determined 
that a woman's college course must be the same as a 
man's if it were to be considered as good as a man's. 
This principle once established, then, they said, there 
might be grafted upon the woman's college a curricu- 
lum which might give some consideration to the de- 
mand that a woman's education should include some 
special preparation for her functions as a mother and 
homemaker, or for some other special field of woman's 
work if it could be shown that a general education failed 
to give such preparation. Early in its history the As- 
sociation appointed a committee to study the subject 
and to draw up a definition of a standard college. How 
well it did its work is evidenced by the fact that the 
Carnegie Foundation practically adopted the definition 
as worked out by the Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
as its definition of a standard American college. While 
some of the colleges which had been admitted to the 
Association as charter members did not meet the re- 
quirements laid down, the Association jealously guard- 
ed the entrance of others of the same class. The Wom- 
an's College of Baltimore, whatever other qualifications 
it had or had not, lacked an endowment fund adequate 
for its maintenance or sufficient to insure its perpetuity, 
so for many years, even after its record for scholarship 
placed it in the first rank of women's colleges, it could 


not qualify for admittance to membership in the Asso- 
ciation of Collegiate Alumnae. 

Dr. Van Meter has long promised us a history of 
Goucher College. He alone can tell us what were the 
motives that led the Methodist Conference of the Balti- 
more District to undertake to establish a woman's college 
in a city which had no interest in the collegiate educa- 
tion of women and no desire for it. Dr. Guth tells me 
that he has found in some of the early literature of the 
college records that the original idea was born in the 
mind of a woman, a member, I think, of the First Metho- 
dist Church. At any rate, it is to the Methodists that 
Baltimore owes the founding in the city of a college for 

In 1892, when I took up my residence in Baltimore, 
I heard very little about this college. It was usually 
spoken of as the Methodist College for girls and re- 
ceived scant consideration. I had first heard of it in 
1889 while I was studying medicine in the Woman's 
Medical College of Pennsylvania. A meeting had been 
called there in the interests of founding a chair of pre- 
ventive medicine in this medical college, to be the first 
of the kind in the world. All I remember of the dis- 
cussion was that the leaders had very hazy ideas of what 
should be included under such a chair, and that the most 
attractive speaker was Dr. Alice Hall of the Woman's 
College of Baltimore, who explained that she had been 
called to a professorship in this college of liberal arts 
to develop a department of health supervision which 
should deal with the promotion of health of students 
rather than with the cure of their diseases. 


When I arrived in Baltimore Dr. Hall had married 
and gone west and had been succeeded by Dr. Mary 
Mitchell, a sister of Mrs. Froelicher and an old ac- 
quaintance of mine. Dr. Sherwood had known both 
Dr. and Mrs. Froelicher before they were married, when 
she was a student of medicine in Zurich and they were 
students, at the same university, both candidates for the 
doctor of philosophy degree. It was through Dr. and 
Mrs. Froelicher and Dr. Mitchell that I learned what 
was really going on in this youngest of the women's 
colleges, and it is to the Froelichers and Dr. Van Meter, 
I believe, more than to any other persons that the col- 
lege owes the soundness of its early scholastic ideals. 

In 1894, when Dr. Mitchell resigned to marry and 
return to Pennsylvania, she suggested me as her suc- 
cessor. I was not her first choice for the position, but 
the other women she suggested were not available. In 
1894, when I became a member of the college faculty, 
the Girls' Latin School had been built and equipped as 
a preparatory school to be carried on, it was stated, by 
the Woman's College, until the girls' high schools of Bal- 
timore should be able to fully prepare their students for 
college entrance. Some members of the college faculty 
taught in both institutions and students were accepted 
for college work who were still doing preparatory work 
in the Latin School. Finally, about 1897, all such re- 
lationship was discontinued and academically the col- 
lege was making good. In 1893, when the Johns Hop- 
kins Medical School was opened for the reception of stu- 
dents. President Gilman stated that the University had 
investigated the academic preparation that could be ob- 


tained in the Woman's College and that it was accept- 
able for entrance into its Medical School. 

At this time and for many years subsequently the 
catalogues of Johns Hopkins University stated that 
women were admitted to the medical school, but not to 
any other department of the University. For a girl in 
Baltimore, then, at the close of the last century, the con- 
ditions were about like this: she could not completely 
prepare for college in the public schools, but if by hook 
or by crook she could get preparation she could proceed 
to the A.B, degree in the Woman's College. If she de- 
sired graduate work she could not get it in Baltimore 
unless she desired to proceed to the study of medicine. 

From time to time it was rumored that the ban on the 
admission of women to the graduate departments of the 
Hopkins was to be lifted. Occasionally women had suc- 
ceeded in getting some measure of recognition. One of 
the early fellows of the University was a woman, Miss 
Christine Ladd, afterwards Mrs. Fabian Franklin. The 
story as I always heard it was that among the applicants 
for the fellowships oflFered by the University was one 
signed "C. Ladd." The credentials accompanying her 
application indicated such a high grade of ability 
and attainment that the award of a fellowship in 
mathematics was granted. When it was discovered that 
"C. Ladd" was a woman, Professor Sylvester, the dis- 
tinguished professor of mathematics, insisted upon re- 
ceiving her as a student. When I asked Mrs. Franklin 
once if this story was true she smiled enigmatically. 

Not only, however, had this one fellowship been 
awarded to a woman, but in 1893 a woman was granted 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department 


of Geology. It was said at that time that her work was 
of such distinguished character that the University did 
not desire to lose so promising an investigator, and she 
refused to proceed with her work at the Johns Hopkins 
unless she could expect a degree if she fulfilled the re- 
quirements. At the commencement, however, she took 
her degree by proxy and did not appear with the other 

In 1897 it was rumored that the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity was ready to do something for women if there 
really seemed to be a demand for such action. A group 
of women well known for their efforts to obtain such 
recognition, some of whom had been most active in se- 
curing the funds which opened the medical school, 
formed a small organization and drew up a petition to 
the President and Trustees of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity. This petition stated that an organization had 
been formed by a number of persons interested in se- 
curing university advantages for women for carrying 
out such measures as shall from time to time be con- 
ducive to this end — that the organization had adopted 
the name "The Baltimore Association for the Promo- 
tion of the University Education of Women." The peti- 
tion proceeds: "The undersigned representatives of this 
Association beg to urge upon the Trustees of the Johns 
Hopkins University the desirability, in view of the con- 
ditions existing at the present time, of opening its gradu- 
ate courses to those women who are qualified to pursue 
them. We submit that such objections and difficulties 
as apply to the question of undergraduate coeducation 
are either totally absent or exist in an altogether insig- 
nificant degree in the case of graduate students, and that 


a number of the most important and distinguished uni- 
versities of this country and Europe have in the past 
decade recognized the propriety and the need of ad- 
mitting women to the privilege of their lecture rooms 
and laboratories. The increasing demand on the part 
of women for advantages which only a university can 
furnish, is one of the most salient and unmistakable 
phenomena of our time, and whatever doubts upon the 
subject may have been justifiable twenty or even ten 
years ago, such doubts can now be fairly said to have 
been dissipated by the action successively taken by so 
many leading universities in all parts of the world. 

"Being fully convinced that this step is not only of 
importance for the interests of learning in general, but 
also that it will distinctly promote the welfare of the 
Johns Hopkins University, we trust that the request of 
this Association for the opening of the graduate courses 
of the University to women will secure your prompt 
and favorable consideration." This petition was signed 
by thirteen women. The Trustees in answering it stated 
that it seemed inexpedient at that time to open the ques- 
tion of admitting a new class of graduate students. 

A majority of those who had signed the formal 
petition decided to preserve the organization for 
the purpose of assisting Baltimore women to pursue 
graduate work at universities that would receive them 
and of advancing in other ways the general cause of the 
university training of women. In pursuance of this ob- 
ject the Association offered in 1898 and every year fol- 
lowing until 1922 a fellowship of the value of $500 to 
a Maryland woman, subsequently to a woman from 
Maryland or the south, for graduate study in some ap- 


proved university in Europe, subsequently in the United 
States or Europe. The name adopted for the organiza- 
tion was the Baltimore Association for Promoting the 
University Education of Women. I acted as its Secre- 
tary during the entire period of its existence. 

In the same year the woman's College of Baltimore 
instituted a fellowship of the same value to be awarded 
to one of its graduates to proceed to graduate work at 
some university in Europe; subsequently, too, the fel- 
low was permitted to choose where she would study. 
These fellowships corresponded to a similar European 
fellowship which had been established by the Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae as one of its first activities. 
The reason for founding these fellowships for study in 
Europe is significant of the fact stated in the petition 
quoted — the great universities of Europe accepted 
women students before our own universities of similar 
grade would receive them. 

The graduates of the Woman's College of Baltimore 
were not at that time eligible for the fellowships of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae so that these two fel- 
lowships established in Baltimore were the only aids 
Baltimore young women could look to for proceeding to 
graduate work. 

As I served continuously on the Committee of Award, 
both for the Baltimore Association and for the Woman's 
College, it was possible to co-ordinate the work of the 
two committees in such manner that with few exceptions 
every Baltimore young woman able to proceed to gradu- 
ate work and desirous of doing so received aid from 
one or the other of these funds. The generous provision 
made by Bryn Mawr College for graduate fellowjs was 


another great source of helpfulness to Baltimore women 
seeking opportunities for graduate work. 

The Baltimore Association awarded its fellowship 
every year from 1898 until 1908, when the Johns Hop- 
kins University admitted women to its graduate courses. 
The question of disbanding was then considered, but 
the friends who had for so many years taken special in- 
terest in the Association and had secured the funds for 
its work decided to go on accumulating an annual in- 
come and reserving it for aiding women's research work. 

At the beginning of the Great War the long period, 
covering more than a century, of securing for women 
all educational opportunities enjoyed by their brothers 
from the kindergarten through the university, was over 
in Baltimore as elsewhere in the United States. For 
women who desired to do research, opportunities for 
preparation were as freely available as to men. 
The same could not be said of opportunities for pursu- 
ing research by women trained for the purpose. For a 
time, awards in the shape of fellowships, grants, prizes, 
etc., will be necessary. This is evidenced by the fact 
that of the last annual awards made by the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae by its fellowship committee, all 
but four were made to women who have completed their 
university work and are seeking opportunity for carry- 
ing on some special piece of research. 

The Woman's College fellowship, discontinued in 
1914, was revived by the alumnae of Goucher College 
a few years later and a permanent fund established. 
This fellowship now known as the Dean Van Meter 
Alumnae Fellowship is awarded by preference to an 
alumna who has a university degree and who is capable 


of carrying on independent research. The amount of 
these fellowships, too, has been increased in recent years 
so that at least $1,000 shall be available for each award. 
The last award made by the Baltimore Association was 
to Dr. Helene Connet, A.B., Goucher, Ph.D., Johns Hop- 
kins, to continue research in a problem of physiological 
chemistry in the University of London. The Associa- 
tion had decided to make her a grant of $1,000, but 
before the official announcement was made she received 
a fellowship of $1,000 from the Association of Col- 
giate Alumnae, and at the suggestion of the chairman 
of their committee our Association made a grant of 
$500 in addition to theirs. 

Mrs. Fabian Franklin was the original chairman of 
the committee that petitioned the Hopkins for admission 
of women graduate students, and was chairman of the 
first committee on award of fellowship of the Baltimore 
Association. In the second year when a permanent or- 
ganization was effected. Miss Kate M. McLane was 
elected President and has continued in that position ever 
since. It is due to her more than to any other person 
that the Association continued its existence for so many 
years. It is rather unique, I think, that an organization 
composed mainly of women of wealth and leisure should 
be maintained for so long a period in the interest of the 
somewhat abstract notion that to train women for re- 
search is a very important contribution to social and 
community service. This is due, I think, to the tradi- 
tions established by that small but remarkable group 
of Baltimore women who secured the foundation for 
the Johns Hopkins Medical School and established its 


How difficult it is to convince the average laywoman 
of the value of research may be illustrated by the fol- 
lowing incident: 

On one occasion an attempt was made to bring the 
work of this Association before the Maryland State Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs. I secured from President 
Guth permission for the State Federation to use the 
Goucher College auditorium for one of their annual 
meetings on condition that an evening meeting should 
be devoted to a consideration of university education of 
women, the program to be arranged by the Baltimore 
Association. Miss McLane presided at the meeting and 
Dr. Florence Sabin and Dr. Bertha May Clark, both 
former fellows, were the speakers. Dr. Sabin spoke 
on the relation of pure research to fundamental social 
and civic problems. Dr. Bertha May Clark, an A.B. of 
Goucher College and a native Baltimorean, head of the 
science work in the girls' high schools of Philadelphia, 
spoke on the necessity of a knowledge of the methods 
and applications of research to the high school teacher. 
Mrs. Sanderson, President of the Federation of Women's 
Clubs, was on the platform. So little interest, however, 
was manifested by the members of the Federation that 
the audience would have been nil had it not been for our 
own small group of the Baltimore Association and the 
faculty and students of Goucher College. 

Two incidents in the history of the Baltimore Asso- 
ciation for the Promotion of the University Education 
of Women may be recorded because of their special in- 
terest. Some time in the year 1900 Dr. Mall, then 
Professor of Anatomy in the Johns Hopkins University, 
called on Dr. Sherwood and me to propose a scheme 


whereby our Association could secure the appointment 
of a fellow in the University. Dr. Florence Sabin had 
then graduated from the medical school and was serv- 
ing an interneship in medicine in the Johns Hopkins 
Hospital. Dr. Mall had discovered in her when she was 
his student a special aptitude for research and was 
anxious that she should enter the field of scientific re- 
search rather than go into the practice of medicine. He 
suggested that our Association offer the Trustees of the 
University funds for a fellowship for one year to be 
used by the department of anatomy, the holder to be a 
woman. Our Association was, of course, delighted to 
have an opportunity of such a character. It was unani- 
mously decided to offer our annual fellowship to the 
University. When Miss Garrett, who had been a mem- 
ber of the Association from the first, heard of this sug- 
gestion, she entrusted Dr. Sherwood, under terms of 
strict secrecy as to the donor, which need not now be 
observed, to offer to the Association an additional sum 
of three hundred dollars to be applied to this fellow- 
ship so that the amount offered would be eight hundred 
dollars. The University accepted our offer and Pro- 
fessor Mall appointed Dr. Sabin to the fellowship. 
In the light of subsequent history the Baltimore Asso- 
ciation feels its existence justified if it had made no 
other contribution to the higher education of women 
than to be one of the factors that decided Dr. Sabin 
to enter the field of research. She is not only our 
most distinguished fellow, not only an eminent re- 
searcher, but she is also one of the most distinguished 
scientists of our country. In the year Dr. Sabin occu- 
pied this fellowship she made a brilliant study of the 


origin of the lymphatic system, which brought prompt 
recognition of her ability in scientific circles as well as 
a substantial reward in the shape of the first prize of 
one thousand dollars offered by the American Associa- 
tion to Promote Scientific Research by Women, then the 
Naples Table Association. 

The second instance has to do with opening of the 
other departments of the Johns Hopkins University to 
graduate students. In 1908 our Committee of Award 
was assembled for its final meeting. The candidates to 
be considered had been reduced to two, one a Balti- 
morean, a Goucher graduate in her third year of uni- 
versity work at Bryn Mawr College; the other a south- 
ern woman, an instructor in the University of Texas, 
who applied for the fellowship to continue graduate 
work at Radcliffe. I was empowered to say that the 
Goucher College fellowship would undoubtedly go to 
the Goucher graduate so that the Association fellowship 
could be awarded to the Texas candidate. Mrs. Morris 
Carey, a member of the committee, came to the meet- 
ing a little late. She said she had just been talking to 
Professor Elliot, then head of the department of Ro- 
mance Languages at the Hopkins, who had told her that 
it had been decided to open to graduate women students 
those departments of the Hopkins willing to receive 
them. We at once agreed that our candidate for that 
year should enter the Hopkins and that it would be a 
fitting occasion to have this woman fellow a Baltimore 
product, one who had had her preparatory and collegiate 
education in Baltimore. We had such a candidate be- 
fore us. Moreover, her strongest endorsement for the 
fellowship was the letter in her credentials from the 


professor in Bryn Mawr College with whom she was 
doing her graduate work. He had recently been ap- 
pointed to the head of a department in the Johns Hop- 
kins University whose duties he was to assume at the 
beginning of the next academic year. Dr. Eleanor Lord 
of the Goucher faculty, a doctor of philosophy of Bryn 
Mawr, undertook to interview the Bryn Mawr professor 
as to his willingness to receive a woman in his Johns 
Hopkins department. Much to our surprise he was very 
averse to the proposition. The committee then inter- 
viewed Professor Morley, head of the department of 
mathematics, as to his willingness to receive the Texas 
candidate, Miss Florence Lewis. He was perfectly will- 
ing, especially as she had a brilliant record as a student. 
We telegraphed her asking whether she would accept 
the appointment with the specification that the fellow- 
ship be used at the Johns Hopkins. She accepted, sub- 
sequently took her degree of Doctor of Philosophy under 
Professor Morley and was promptly incorporated into 
the Goucher faculty, where for many years she has been 
one of its best and ablest teachers. A few years subse- 
quently all departments for graduate work at the Johns 
Hopkins were freely open to women and the long strug- 
gle for equal educational opportunities for women in 
Baltimore was over. 

As I write this chapter a letter comes to me from Mrs. 
William Cabell Bruce, for many years Treasurer of the 
Baltimore Association and one of its most helpful mem- 
bers, that the Association has voted to give its accumu- 
lated funds, amounting to two thousand dollars, to 
Goucher College for the founding of a lectureship "in 
memory of the modest effort of the Association in pio- 


neer days to express its interest in the higher education 
of women." 

In view of the fact that the Maryland Agricultural 
College has become an integral part of the University of 
Maryland and that it makes provision not only for spe- 
cial courses, but for academic courses leading to the, 
bachelor of arts degree, it may be of interest to record 
here a note on its charter provisions: "That women shall 
be admitted to all its courses on the same terms as 

In 1914 I was asked by Mrs. William H. Ellicott to 
serve as the women's representative on a committee of 
the City Wide Congress interested in the reorganization 
of the Maryland Agricultural College. This committee, 
under the able and energetic chairmanship of the Rev. 
D. H. Steffins and the guidance of Mr. Hecht, Secretary 
of the City Wide Congress, undoubtedly was influential 
in securing the thorough-going reorganization of the 
Maryland Agricultural College and the adoption of its 
new charter by the Maryland Legislature in 1914. I 
asked that this committee recommend two provisions in 
the new charter, one, that one member of the State Board 
should be a woman, and second, that the charter should 
state that women would be received in all departments 
on the same terms as men. The sub-committee, of which 
I was a member, incorporated these two recommenda- 
tions in their final report on a charter to be approved 
by the City Wide Congress. Determined opposition, 
however, developed to both propositions. I remember 
at a joint meeting of several committees all at work on 
this new charter I was asked if I did not think the ques- 
tion of appointing a woman could be left to the discre- 


tion of the Governor of the State without making it a 
charter provision. I replied that women had not found 
it so in their history for securing educational privileges 
and we preferred to have it "nominated in the bond." 
Eventually I saw that it would be impossible to get into 
the charter the first of these provisions, but we did 
succeed in incorporating the clause making women 
eligible to entrance on the same terms as men. At first 
it stood: "Women to be admitted on such terms as shall 
be prescribed by the Board of Trustees," which mani- 
festly was not acceptable to women contending for equal 

If, as is now proposed, the Johns Hopkins University 
becomes strictly a graduate institution, it will be inter- 
esting to watch how quickly the city and the state will 
take action to provide adequate collegiate opportunities 
for its boys. Fortunately women may view the situation 
in regard to women's educational opportunities in Bal- 
timore and Maryland with equanimity. 

Chapter III 

Baltimore's Great Contribution to Medical Education 

With Special Reference to the Medical 

Education of Women 

The present anatomical building of the Johns Hop- 
kins Medical School was the first of the group built for 
the purposes of the Medical School apart from the hos- 
pital proper. Across its facade in iron letters is the 
legend: "The Woman's Fund Memorial Building, 1894." 


This simple legend records an epoch not only in the 
history of the education of women in our country, but 
in the history of medical education in general. 

A small group of Baltimore women had seen Johns 
Hopkins University founded and had watched its growth 
and development with eager hopes that it could be per- 
suaded to permit women to share in its opportunities of 
graduate work. Having failed in fifteen years to secure 
entrance to the University proper, they turned their at- 
tention to the proposed medical school of which the 
Johns Hopkins Hospital, opened in 1889, was to be an 
integral part. By their efforts they attained two objects, 
the elevation of medicine as a study to university rank 
and the admission of women to at least this department 
of graduate work in Johns Hopkins University. 

In 1890, when I returned from medical study at the 
University of Zurich, I was appointed to a position as 
assistant resident physician in the State Hospital for the 
Insane at Norristown, Pa. This was the first hospital 
for the insane where women patients were entirely un- 
der the medical care of women. Dr. Alice Bennett was 
the Medical Superintendent, and among the interesting 
things she told me when I began my service under her 
was that she was a member of a committee in Philadel- 
phia seeking funds to offer the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity provided, when it opened its medical school, it 
would admit women on the same terms as men. Similar 
committees had been organized from Baltimore as a 
center in Boston, New York and other cities. In 1890 
the sum of one hundred thousand dollars had been com- 
pleted by these committees by a final gift of forty-four 
thousand dollars by Miss Mary Garrett, and was offered 


to the University Trustees on condition that women 
should be received on the same terms as men. The Trus- 
tees accepted the offer with its conditions, but announced 
that the Medical School would not be opened until an en- 
dowment fund of five hundred thousand dollars had been 
obtained. In 1892 Miss Garrett completed the fund by a 
gift which, when added to the Women's Fund of one 
hundred thousand dollars, amounted to the sum fixed by 
the Trustees for opening the Medical School. Miss Gar- 
rett's gift was made under certain conditions, among 
them: (1) That entrance to the Medical School should 
require candidates to have an A.B. degree, which should 
represent certain definite preparation in biology, physics 
and chemistry, or to pass an equivalent examination. 
(2) That all positions, prizes, etc., established by the 
school should be open to women on the same terms as 
men. The first condition was so far in advance of the 
requirements for the study of medicine exacted by any 
medical school in the United States at that period that 
it is said neither the group of medical men charged with 
the duty of organizing the school nor the Trustees be- 
lieved that a medical school could be successfully estab- 
lished with the conditions of entrance demanded by Miss 
Garrett. The conditions were, however, accepted and 
subsequent events proved the wisdom of this decision. 
The twenty years succeeding the founding of the Johns 
Hopkins Medical School saw the thorough reorganization 
of medical education in the United States, and the suc- 
cess of the Johns Hopkins experiment was one of the 
most potent contributory factors in this development. 
The statement then is possibly not too extravagant that 
the rapid advance in the standards of medical education 


in our country owes much to the wisdom, the foresight 
and the persistence of one Baltimore woman. 

When the Women's Fund of $100,000 had been ac- 
cepted by the Board of Trustees "in order to further 
the endowment of the Medical School, the Trustees of 
the Hospital invited the members of the various com- 
mittees to visit Baltimore, to partake of a luncheon, and 
to inspect the hospital." I remember well assisting Dr. 
Bennett in her preparations for going to Baltimore and 
on her return hearing with profound interest her account 
of what had happened. It was, of course, a great oc- 
casion for women physicians who were entirely unac- 
customed to be the objects of much attention in any 
public meetings, especially where medical subjects were 
discussed. Dr. Bennett dwelt on the prominent lay- 
women from Washington, Philadelphia, New York and 
Boston who were present, among them the wife of the 
President of the United States, Mrs. Benjamin Harrison. 
She described the brilliant reception given by Miss Gar- 
rett at her residence on Monument Street, now the Mu- 
seum of Art, at which Cardinal Gibbons was present. 
But what gave me the greatest pleasure then, and always 
since, in thinking of this really great occasion in the his- 
tory of the education of women was the presence of 
women physicians who had blazed their way into the 
profession as pioneers. Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, the 
first woman in modern times to get a medical degree, 
had at that time taken up her permanent residence in 
England, but her sister. Dr. Emily Blackwell, the sec- 
ond woman in medicine, was there, and Dr. Elizabeth 
Cushier and Dr. Frances Emily White of Philadelphia 
and Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi, the most brilliant woman 


in medicine our country had produced until the Johns 
Hopkins itself gave us Dr. Florence Sabin. 

At the luncheon Dr. Jacobi responded in behalf of 
the invited guests to the address of welcome by Mr. 
Francis T. King, President of the Trustees of the Hos- 
pital, and I think it is worth while to transcribe here 
her words as reported in the Johns Hopkins Hospital 
Bulletin. She said: "I do not think I shall be accused 
of exaggeration by any of the ladies in whose behalf I 
speak, when I say that this is really a great occasion. 
As the term greatness is relative I can explain what I 
mean best by comparing it with something else. When 
Goethe was asked to interest himself in the French revo- 
lution he said that the French revolution did not interest 
him at all; that he considered the speculations which 
were then being carried on in France by Lamarck on 
the origin of the species as far more important. For 
these were concerned with an idea, and an idea far out- 
lasted in permanent influence any political turmoil. 
Something in the same way we may say — that we are 
here today under the inspiration of two ideas, either of 
which tends to dwarf the significance of even such politi- 
cal turmoil as that which has just prevailed among us. 
There is, in the first place, the idea that medical educa- 
tion properly belongs to a university; that it is an in- 
tellectual matter, and not a mere trade, to be practiced 
for pecuniary profit, and then there is the further idea, 
and which more especially concerns us, that women 
are to participate to the full in this intellectual aspect 
of medicine, and to follow it to the highest plane of in- 
tellectual development to which it can be carried. This, 
I repeat, is another great idea. It is the first time it has 


been distinctly enunciated, at this plane of thought on 
the American continent. Throughout the West it is true 
the most generous intention has been developed for 
women to enter all departments of the principal univer- 
sities, but in none of them has medical education reached 
the plane intended here. It is interesting to contrast 
what has been done here with what has been done in 
Europe. The majority of European universities have 
opened the doors of their medical, as of their other 
schools to women. This has been a gift from above 
with very little popular demand and without the aid of 
either popular effort or private munificence. But here 
it is the women themselves who have been aroused to 
feel the necessity of these higher intellectual opportuni- 
ties for women and to exert themselves personally and 
energetically to secure them. For the munificence of 
the noble woman who has so generously sustained this 
enterprise, for the generous energy of all those who 
have taken part in it, we medical women do feel espe- 
cially and profoundly grateful. It is a great occasion, 
and once more, Mr, President, on behalf of all the guests 
whom you have gathered together, I thank you." 

Dr. Sherwood and I are frequently asked whether we 
are graduates of the Johns Hopkins Medical School, but 
as we both went to Baltimore as doctors of medicine be- 
fore 1893, that is, before the Johns Hopkins Medical 
School existed, we can not claim that honor. What in 
general the status of women physicians was in Balti- 
more at this date may be indicated by a few of our ex- 
periences. I can recall the names of six medical schools 
in Baltimore in 1892. One of these was a small school 
on McCulloh Street for women. One or two of the other 


schools had at some period in their history admitted 
women and given them degrees, but in 1892 the Wom- 
en's Medical College of Baltimore was the only medi- 
cal school in Maryland admitting women. How well 
this small school, in spite of its lack of money and its 
poor equipment, did its work is evidenced by the fact 
that in 1890 two of its graduates were appointed 
as internes in the Philadelphia Hospital (Blockley) 
after a competitive examination which would have been 
glad to disqualify them, if possible, on two counts, first 
because they were women, and second because they were 
neither residents of the State of Pennsylvania nor had 
they received their medical training in Philadelphia. 
These two. Dr. Claribel Cone and Dr. Flora Pollack, 
are worthy representatives of the character of the work 
of this school, which very properly went out of existence 
with the changed conditions of modern medical educa- 
tion. Dr. Amanda Taylor Norris still, I believe, in ac- 
tive practice, a graduate of the Woman's Medical Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania, was, so far as I can ascertain, the 
first woman to practice medicine in the city of Balti- 

I have already said it was by chance that Dr. Sher- 
wood went to Baltimore, but after a year's residence it 
was by deliberate choice that she stayed there and per- 
suaded me to resign my position in the Norristown 
(Pa.) State Hospital for the Insane and join her. As I 
look back on those early years in Baltimore I wonder 
how we lived them through. The proverbial wolf 
howled loudly at our door, patients were few and far 
between, and our office hours were periods of solitary 
confinement. In 1893, when our fortunes were at their 


lowest ebb, Dr. Sherwood was offered an attractive posi- 
tion in one of the best northern colleges for women at a 
salary large for that period with opportunities for prac- 
tice unusual for a woman. About the same time I had 
a chance to resume work in a woman's department of 
another Pennsylvania State hospital at a good salary and 
an assured future. Three things were, I think, the de- 
cisive factors in keeping us in Baltimore: first, Dr. 
Sherwood's unbounded optimism and a kind of charac- 
teristic obstinacy — a fixity of purpose — which will not 
permit her to yield a course on which she has started 
until she has proved to herself the impossibility of car- 
rying it through; second, our proximity to the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital with its laboratories and workers fur- 
nishing an indescribably stimulating atmosphere to 
young men and women with medical training and medi- 
cal outlook; third, the Evening Dispensary for working 
women and girls with which we had become closely 

When Dr. Sherwood went to Baltimore to reside she 
took an office on Cathedral Street around the corner from 
the Johns Hopkins University buildings and its under- 
graduate school. Her sign on the outside under her one 
window was promptly stolen and doubtless adorned the 
walls of the room of one of the Johns Hopkins boys. 
After that she always kept her sign on the inside of the 
window. I think to this day she never passes that win- 
dow without a feeling of desolation coming up from the 
subconscious implantations of the lonely hours spent 
there. She, however, made early connections with the 
Johns Hopkins Hospital and its laboratories. When 
she had determined to turn from teaching chemistry to 


the Study of medicine, after investigating opportunities 
for study in the United States and finding that the two 
best schools open to her were exclusively women's 
schools, in order to be sure that her opportunities were 
equal to any man's, she decided to pursue her medical 
studies at the University of Ziirich where women had 
been received from 1865. After one year at Ziirich, 
desiring to continue her studies in her own country, if 
possible, she applied for admission to the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons in New York City, New York 
being her native state. Her application was answered 
about as follows: "This Medical College has never re- 
ceived a woman as a student." It may be added it never 
did receive a woman as a student until 1920, about 
thirty years later. 

Even without credentials Dr. Sherwood would have 
been received as a worker in the laboratories and the 
wards of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, as all they asked 
was a medical degree and a desire to work, but armed 
with letters from Professor Klebs and Professor Eich- 
horst of Ziirich, the one a distinguished pathologist, the 
other a distinguished teacher of internal medicine, she 
easily found a place in Dr. Welch's laboratory and a 
hearty welcome to Dr. Osier's wards, and to those of Dr. 
Kelly. When one considers the profound influence made 
upon the lives and work of the men who had the privil- 
ege of those early associations of the Hopkins Hospital 
in its pre-medical-school days, one can easily under- 
stand how a woman with education, understanding and 
ideals was willing to make any personal sacrifice to en- 
joy the opportunities to be found at that time in no other 
medical atmosphere in the world. 


In the interval which elapsed between the acceptance 
of the "Women's Fund" and the completion of the re- 
quired endowment fund by Miss Garrett, the women of 
the Baltimore Committee did not remit their efforts in 
behalf of the recognition of women in medicine by the 
hospital authorities. The positions of residents and in- 
ternes in the various departments of the hospital were 
eagerly sought by young medical men from the United 
States and Canada. So these active Baltimore lay- 
women, having found two candidates who they thought 
would make good. Dr. Alice Hall and Dr. Sherwood, 
proceeded to bring all possible influence to secure their 
appointment as residents. 

A few months ago among some old letters I found 
one from Dr. Sherwood jubilantly announcing that Dr. 
Osier had asked her to go into the hospital on his staff. 
I remember very well that she was not satisfied to write 
me such a thrilling piece of news, but followed it with 
a personal visit to Norristown to tell me all about it. 
Dr. Kelly at the same time had asked Dr. Alice Hall, 
who had come to Baltimore, as I have already told, to 
organize a department of hygiene at the Woman's Col- 
lege, to become a resident of the hospital on his staff. 
Their appointments were to begin in the fall of 1891 and 
that summer Dr. Sherwood joined her family in New 
York for a vacation with a light heart and great expec- 
tations. On her return to Baltimore she was doomed to 
a bitter disappointment caused by what Herr Dr. Froe- 
licher would designate "Das ewig weibliche." Again I 
find preserved one of her letters in which she says: "Yes- 
terday I went to a meeting of the Woman's Literary 
Club and the President announced the marriage during 


the summer of Dr. Alice Hall. Nobody seems to know 
anything about it, as I asked her friend, Dr. Kate Camp- 
bell Hurd, after the meeting, and she was as surprised 
as I was. This morning I have the enclosed letter from 
Miss King, followed later by a visit from her when she 
was so sorry for my disappointment that she quite took 
back what she had said in her letter." 

Miss Elizabeth King (afterwards Mrs. William Elli- 
cott), daughter of Mr. Francis T. King, President of the 
Board of Trustees of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, was 
one of the most ardent workers for the Women's Fund 
and for the appointment of women physicians as in- 
ternes. She knew that the authorities of the hospital 
would not admit a married woman as an interne, nor 
would they sanction the appointment of one woman. In 
her letter referred to by Dr. Sherwood she expresses 
her surprise that Dr. Hall had not seen fit to acquaint 
those interested of her intentions and her resentment at 
the failure of the scheme, and practically says for the 
future she washes her hands of women doctors. This 
was, of course, simply an acute reaction of disappoint- 
ment. She not only did not give up her interest in the 
progress of women in medicine, but she gave her friend- 
ship and support to Dr. Sherwood not only in those early 
trying years, but throughout the remainder of her life. 

It was, of course, a bitter disappointment to Dr. Sher- 
wood not to have that much coveted service under Dr. 
Osier, but she had gained the privilege of his friendship 
and good will, in a measure of which I was subsequently 
included, one of the rarest privileges life has brought 
to either of us. The year 1891 was one of the early 
years of Dr. Kelly's brilliant surgical career. In addi- 


tion to his work at the Johns Hopkins Hospital he had 
a large and growing surgical and obstetrical private 
practice in Baltimore. When the scheme for the interne- 
ship of women in the hospital failed he asked Dr. Sher- 
wood to assist him in his private work at a yearly modest 

In those early days of gynaecological surgery women 
physicians, as a rule, were very ambitious to enter that 
field. Naturally the early cases that come to every 
woman in her practice are gynaecological and obstetri- 
cal. Elizabeth Blackwell is said to have turned her at- 
tention to medicine as a profession for women because 
one of her friends, a great sufferer, frequently told her 
it would be a great comfort if she could have the attend- 
ance of a woman trained in medicine. Gynaecology had 
been in 1891 a rather recent entrant into the field of 
medical specialties and it was then becoming clear that 
its future lay more and more in surgical procedure. 
Personally I had made up my mind while I was study- 
ing medicine that neither surgery in any of its branches 
nor obstetrics made the same appeal to me as the study 
of internal medicine. Dr. Sherwood did not feel exactly 
that way, but no matter how she felt she was offered an 
opportunity that no woman physician at that time would 
have declined. I was glad enough when I arrived in 
Baltimore to have the slightest share in Dr. Sherwood's 
work with Dr. Kelly. It is needless to say that Dr. Sher- 
wood accepted Dr. Kelly's offer promptly with enthu- 

Dr. Kelly was a stimulating and inspiring chief. 
Something of his unbounded energy he managed to in- 
fuse into those who worked with him. He always had 


some problem on hand upon which he would set his 
assistants working. He had the mind and courage of 
an explorer. A field once worked over lost interest for 
him, and he was constantly seeking new worlds to con- 
quer. The charm of his personality, his generosity, his 
broad human interests claimed our admiration and re- 
spect. Our association with him laid the foundations 
for us of an enduring friendship that is one of our preci- 
ous possessions. He not only made Dr. Sherwood his 
assistant in his private work, but for the summer of 
1892 gave her a place on his staff in the hospital with- 
out residence. 

Optimistic as to the future, Dr. Sherwood now felt 
surely there was room in Baltimore for more women 
physicians, and urged me to join her. She is accus- 
tomed to say that it took one-third of a year to persuade 
me. However that may be, I did join her there on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1892. She had just taken possession of the 
office suite in the Arundel Apartments at Charles and 
Mount Royal Avenue, the first apartment house to be 
erected in Baltimore. Wyatt and Nolting were the archi- 
tects and Mr. Wyatt was the manager. Dr. Sherwood's 
brother had suggested that she take this, the only office 
suite the building was to contain, and went with her to 
interview Mr Wyatt while the building was under con- 
struction. After a little hesitation a lease was given her. 
The hesitation about leasing to a woman physician may 
have been due to the feeling put into words by two small 
boys whom I overheard one night in the early days of 
our occupancy. The building was advertised to contain 
bachelors' suites and housekeeping apartments. Sitting 
in the front office one evening, our signs safely on the 


inside of the windows, I heard two small boys reading 
them: "Dr. Mary Sherwood, Dr. Lilian Welsh;" then 
with loud laughter: "Bachelors' apartments and old 
maids livin' in them!" 

In those days it was occasionally borne in upon us 
that we belonged to a class apart. Dr. Osier jocularly 
said: "Human kind might be divided into three groups 
— men, women and women physicians." We never had 
any reason to complain of the treatment we received 
from our male colleagues. Those whom we knew were 
uniformly courteous and friendly and helpful in a pro- 
fessional way, but women doctors were in 1892 in Bal- 
timore somewhat of a curiosity. We early learned not 
to presume that an acquaintance made in a professional 
capacity in assisting Dr. Kelly or in our own offices en- 
titled us to any recognition in a social way, even as one 
passed in the streets. Dr. Sherwood's sister-in-law at 
a large afternoon tea was asked by her hostess whether 
she was related to Dr. Mary Sherwood. She answered 
with some pride that Dr. Sherwood was not only her 
sister-in-law, but her cousin as well. Her hostess rather 
frigidly replied that she knew Dr. Sherwood profes- 
sionally, but, of course, it would not be possible to know 
her in a social way. 

I remember once hearing someone ask Dr. Kelly's 
little daughter, then about three: "Well, Olga, when you 
grow up will you be a doctor like papa?" "No," replied 
Olga promptly, "I shall be a lady." In the Norristown 
Hospital for the Insane, while I was resident, it was cus- 
tomary for the entire staff of three women physicians to 
go through all the wards together Sunday morning. Dr. 
Sherwood on one of her visits accompanied us on this 


weekly visit. We reached the last ward where the most 
excitable patients were confined and the one who at the 
time was giving us most trouble planted herself firmly 
in our way and, looking at Dr. Sherwood, said: "Say, 
are you a doctor or a lady?" To the laugh with which 
we greeted this she continued: "Well, you look so young 
and pleasant I thought you might be a lady." Out of 
the mouths of babes and defectives come often current 
social opinions. 

In 1895 the American Medical Association met in 
Baltimore. Most of the women physicians in Baltimore 
were members and, of course, had paid their dues into 
the local society which was making arrangements for 
entertaining the visiting doctors. An auxiliary commit- 
tee of laywomen had been appointed, as usual, to look 
after the entertainment of the ladies who would accom- 
pany their male relatives. Among the entertainments 
arranged by this committee was an afternoon reception 
to be held at the rooms of the newly formed Arundell 
Club, then occupying a house on West Madison Street. 
We were afterwards informed that the "Ladies' Com- 
mittee" had spent several hours in discussing whether 
they would invite the women doctors, local and visiting, 
to this reception and finally decided with great reluct- 
ance to include them. Dr. Sherwood was much mysti- 
fied the afternoon of this reception to be followed per- 
sistently by one or two of her friends of the Arundell 
Club, of whose board of trustees she was a member, who 
insisted upon introducing her to many Baltimore ladies, 
in order as they told her afterwards to prove that be- 
ing a lady and being a physician were not incompatible. 


What the general public thought of us did not trouble 
us. We were too much occupied with our own work, 
our own outlook and our own hopes. Indeed it did not 
occur to us that anyone thought of us at all, but of the 
occasional gossip that reached us that which amused us 
most was the assumption that any woman who took up 
the profession of medicine must have done so from 
some profound emotional disturbance, some secret grief, 
presumably a disappointment in love. I was frequently 
approached with a demand to know why Dr. Sher- 
wood had not married and what "her story" was. 
An acquaintance of mine, a trained nurse who had 
known me from early girlhood, told me she had had a 
special visit from a woman who desired to know "what 
concealment like a worm in the bud was gnawing on my 
damask cheek." The truth is neither of us had any story 
behind us. We were two ordinary women who had 
looked forward from early girlhood to the possibility 
of self-support, who had gone into teaching because it 
was the only profession with any intellectual outlook 
which promised self-support and who had, following our 
intellectual bent, gone into medicine because we were 
interested in science and in human nature. 

Possibly nothing so well illustrates the change thirty 
years has wrought in the world's attitude towards women 
than just such incidents as I have related. The word 
lady has largely disappeared from our vocabulary as a 
designation for young women, and no one assumes today 
that there must be some peculiar underlying reason for 
a young woman choosing a professional or business 
career as an outlet for her energies. 


I once heard a medical instructor of mine, a man, 
say that the first five years after he had opened an office 
he did not have one office case, but that these years v^ere 
the most important and fruitful of his professional life. 
While in the years between 1892 and 1894 Dr. Sher- 
wood and I did have a few office patients, not by any 
means nearly enough to pay the office rent, we can say 
that those two years were for us the most important in 
our professional lives. We formed close and lasting 
friendships; we had access to the wards, the clinics, the 
laboratories, the lectures, the courses, the libraries and 
societies of the Johns Hopkins Hospital; we learned to 
understand the social traditions of Baltimore and to bear 
with tolerance those we could not always observe; we 
acquired a taste for the Baltimore Morning Sun that 
always yet leaves us unsatisfied with any other daily 
newspaper. In 1892 Dr. Sherwood's brother, Prof. 
Sidney Sherwood, was called from the Wharton School 
of Finance in the University of Pennsylvania to the As- 
sociate Professorship of Economics at the Hopkins, and 
he was our ever present help in time of trouble. 

During those two years we came to see clearly that 
so far as practical medicine was concerned our inter- 
ests lay definitely in the field of preventive medicine. 
This we owe in such large measure to our work in an 
Evening Dispensary for Working Women and Girls that 
I shall take a separate chapter for my experience here. 
Early Goucher students will remember how largely I 
drew my illustrations for my lectures on hygiene from 
my experiences in this dispensary. 


Chapter IV 

Medical Experiences in Baltimore, 1892-1924. Even- 
ing Dispensary for Working Women and Girls 

When women sought to study medicine in modern 
times it became necessary to establish separate schools 
in order to secure opportunities for them. The first of 
these, the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, 
grew out of Elizabeth Blackwell's visit to Philadelphia 
in 1848 when she was seeking a medical school that 
would admit her. It was the only woman's medical 
school in the United States that ever secured money for 
a permanent endowment. This amounted to about two 
hundred and fifty thousand dollars in 1893 when the 
Johns Hopkins Medical School was opened with an en- 
dowment of five hundred thousand dollars. This school 
is still in existence, the only woman's school surviving 
in our country, and has just celebrated the seventy-fifth 
anniversary of its founding. 

After the school was established its friends organized 
a hospital that would furnish clinical opportunities for 
women students. In New York later Dr. Elizabeth Black- 
well and her sister, Dr. Emily Blackwell, organized a 
hospital first and subsequently a medical school — the 
Medical School of the New York Infirmary. When 
Cornell Medical College was reorganized about 1898 
and admitted women, this medical school was closed, but 
its hospital was continued. In Boston the women organ- 
ized a hospital for the use of women physicians, the New 
England Hospital for Women and Children, but no sue- 


cessful medical school for women. These women's hos- 
pitals among their other activities — two of them claim 
the honor of having organized the first training school 
for nurses in the United States — organized special eve- 
ning clinics for working women and girls — the first eve- 
ning clinics, I think, in the field of dispensary practice. 
This movement began about 1890. Dr. Alice Hall and 
Dr. Kate Campbell Hurd, whom I have already referred 
to as coming to Baltimore about 1889, one as medical 
director of the Woman's College of Baltimore, the other 
as medical director of the Bryn Mawr School, both 
graduates of the Woman's Medical College of Pennsyl- 
vania and both having served interneships in the New 
England Hospital for Women and Children, had prob- 
ably worked in evening clinics. These two women evi- 
dently made early contacts with Baltimore laywomen 
most interested in the success of the Women's Fund 
for the Johns Hopkins Medical School. They are the 
only women physicians whose names are included in 
the Baltimore group of women invited to the luncheon 
when the Women's Fund was formally received by the 
hospital trustees. At all events, they succeeded in in- 
teresting some prominent citizens of Baltimore in or- 
ganizing an evening clinic for working women and girls 
to be in charge of women physicians. 

The Evening Dispensary for Working Women and 
Girls of Baltimore City was incorporated March 21, 
1891, by a group of prominent men — Francis T. King, 
Louis McLane, John Glenn, James Hodges, Ferdinand 
C. Latrobe, Daniel Miller, John Curlett, Lawrason Riggs. 
The Dispensary was opened at 621 South Charles Street 
March 1, 1891, under a board of managers consisting of 


Alice T. Hall, M.D., Kate Campbell Kurd, M.D., Eliza- 
beth T. King, Julia R. Rogers, Bertha M. Smith (Mrs. 
R. Manson Smith), Kate M. McLane, Anne Galbraith 
Carey (Mrs. Francis K. Carey). When this dispensary 
was finally closed on March 1, 1910, with the exception 
of Miss King, the lay members of the board were the 
same as at the beginning with the addition of Mrs. Caleb 
N. Athey, so it is seen that for eighteen years this small 
group of women, together with a small group of annual 
subscribers, gave continued and loyal support to a cause 
which made no great appeal to the general Baltimore 
public — that is, they gave opportunities to women who 
might desire in sickness the services of their own sex, 
and they gave opportunities for experience in the prac- 
tice of medicine to young women physicians at a period 
when such opportunities were difficult to find. 

I recall appearing once with the Dispensary Board 
before a committee of the Board of Charities and Cor- 
rections which controlled appropriations to the various 
hospitals and dispensaries of the city. This Board had 
decided to withdraw all appropriations to special hos- 
pitals and dispensaries and on the ground that women 
physicians for women patients represented a specialty 
they had decided to withdraw the city appropriation 
which the Evening Dispensary had received from its 
start. In the hearing the Committee granted us to pro- 
test against their ruling I made the point that they had 
granted an appropriation to the homeopathic dispensary 
and asked whether that was not more of a specialty than 
our own. The chief spokesman for the Committee, a 
fair and socially-minded man, replied that city patients 
might desire to be treated homeopathically, but in his 

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judgment there was no demand by women for treatment 
by women physicians and instanced his wife as an ex- 
ample of all women, saying she had never felt the neces- 
sity for the services of a medical woman. One of our 
members, Mrs. Carey, responded promptly that that was 
possibly true as to the women of the class to which she, 
herself, and the wife of the gentleman belonged, but 
that she had become convinced that large numbers of 
women served by the free dispensaries of the city did 
desire the services of women physicians. We did not, 
however, win our point and the city appropriation was 

How well the Dispensary fulfilled its two purposes 
may be indicated by the statement in its final report that 
in the eighteen years of its existence twenty-two thou- 
sand women and children had received medical care in 
its clinics and out-practice and that fifty-two women 
physicians then practicing in various parts of the world 
had gained valued experience in the opportunities they 
had found for medical work in this Baltimore Dispen- 

At first the Dispensary had a resident nurse, but after 
several years a woman physician was in residence 
who was on duty at all clinics and on call day and night. 
The conditions for living offered the resident were sim- 
ple — a furnished room and salary sufficient to pay for 
moderate board. The inducements were opportunity 
for work at the Hopkins and an increasingly good serv- 
ice in medicine, gynaecology and obstetrics in the clinics 
and out-practice. That the position of resident was al- 
ways filled after it was established under these trying 
and exacting conditions is evidence of the difficulty 


women physicians had at that time in finding opportuni- 
ties for hospital and clinical service. 

Two of the women who came to Baltimore as resident 
physicians of the Evening Dispensary took up perma- 
nent residence in Baltimore. They were both Canadians. 
One, Dr. Frances Carpenter, settled first in South Balti- 
more, where she established a large, lucrative and 
successful practice. She is still in active practice in Bal- 
timore. Dr. Carpenter, although a Canadian, had stud- 
ied medicine at the Woman's Medical College of Phila- 
delphia. The second Canadian, Dr. Elizabeth Hurdon, 
came to us from Toronto, where she had taken her medi- 
cal degree at the first Canadian University to admit 
women to its medical school. The chief attraction Bal- 
timore had for Dr. Hurdon was the opportunity for 
work at the Johns Hopkins Medical School. Dr. Thomas 
K. Cullen, now professor of Gynaecology at the Hop- 
kins, a Canadian too, was there as a member of Dr. 
Kelly's Gynaecological staff and had charge of the 
pathological work of this service. Dr. Hurdon promptly 
associated herself with him and it was largely through 
his assistance that she was able subsequently to develop 
her surgical technique. 

The medical and surgical services of the dispensary 
so far as its residents and staff were concerned were 
hampered by the fact that women physicians had no 
access to hospital beds where they could care for 
patients. So far as our patients were concerned, they 
were well taken care of as beds for them could usually 
be found — except the obstetrical cases — in some of the 
various city hospitals. They then, however, passed out 
of the hands of women physicians. Through Miss 


McLane's influence a free bed was granted the dispen- 
sary for surgical patients by the Church Home and In- 
firmary, and there Dr. Hurdon got her chance for prac- 
tical surgery. So well did she succeed that the follow- 
ing year Dr. Gavin, the superintendent, granted the Dis- 
pensary the use of a second bed for Dr. Hurdon's 
patients. When the Church Home and Infirmary was 
reorganized under a woman superintendent this privilege 
was withdrawn. Fortunately about this time the Wom- 
an's Hospital of Maryland was rebuilt and reorganized, 
and Dr. Hurdon was appointed to its staff^ and thus was 
able to continue her work as a surgeon. 

When the American College of Surgeons was organ- 
ized Dr. Hurdon was admitted to membership among the 
original fellows of that Association. For many years 
before she left Baltimore she was an Associate in 
Gynaecology of the Johns Hopkins Medical School and 
taught to its students the pathology included in the 
course on gynaecology. When the Great War began Dr. 
Hurdon grew restive to join her family who were then 
living in England and to get, if possible, into some active 
service. So she wound up her affairs in Baltimore, we 
hoped for a temporary absence. One evening in June, 
1915, Dr. Sherwood, Dr. Sabin and I saw her off from 
Union Station on a midnight train for New York from 
where she was to sail the following morning for Eng- 
land. She thought she might be able to get service in a 
laboratory to take the place of a man gone to the front, 
but even then England was finding a shortage in physi- 
cians and surgeons, and in a few weeks a letter from 
Dr. Hurdon said: "I am on board a steamer with a con- 
tingent of doctors bound for Malta." She had a com- 


mission and was in active service as a surgeon with the 
British Army until the armistice was declared. 

Had the dispensary served but the two purposes of 
giving working women an opportunity of being cared for 
by women physicians in the evening, at a time they were 
free to consult a doctor, and of giving women physicians 
an opportunity for practical experience in the treatment 
of the sick, it would have performed a useful function 
in community service. It did, however, much more 
than this. From the outset its work took on a distinctly 
social character which was then unique in a dispensary 

When Dr. Hall and Dr. Hurd married and left Bal- 
timore Dr. Sherwood and I took their places on the Dis- 
pensary Board and were thereafter responsible for the 
medical work and medical policies. At first we took 
charge of all the clinics, having occasional help from 
some of the other women physicians living in Baltimore, 
and a resident trained nurse, subsequently of a resident 
physician. From 1892, when we began our connection 
with the Dispensary, until 1910 when it was given up. 
Miss Kate M. McLane was chairman of our Board, and 
to her was due the social service features that character- 
ized our work. Those who are acquainted with the his- 
tory of the evolution of the social service movement in 
Baltimore need not be told that any organization that 
could receive from Miss McLane not only financial sup- 
port, but her time, her thought, and her active interest 
must of necessity do work having distinctively social 
value. It was to our association with Miss McLane on 
this Dispensary Board that Dr. Sherwood and I owe 
much of our early interest and our early opportunities 


in the field of medical sociology. Her friendship, ad- 
vice and sympathy have been ours for thirty years and 
have been to us an unfailing incentive and source of 
courage and help. 

The foundation for many of the subsequent activities 
of Dr. Sherwood and myself in public health, whether 
in the field of education or in practical service on com- 
missions and boards, or in administrative positions, was 
laid in the experience and knowledge gained in this dis- 
pensary service and in the associations to which it led. 
This is evident from an enumeration of public health 
activities in which the final dispensary report shows it 
was engaged. The report says: 

"In addition to caring for the sick and giving medical 
opportunities to qualified women physicians the Dispen- 
sary managers have always clearly recognized the im- 
portant function a medical dispensary may perform in 
preventing disease and promoting health. Its work has 
been isolated and its sphere of influence limited, but it 
may justly claim to have done pioneer work in using a 
medical dispensary as a means of investigating causes of 
distress, and of applying remedial measures in the do- 
main of preventive medicine. In this final report it may 
be permitted to enumerate briefly some of its activities 
in this field. 

"(1) Public Health Instruction. The medical staff 
and resident physicians have from the beginning freely 
offered their services to organizations of women and 
girls for health talks, and have responded to hundreds 
of invitations for talks on hygiene. 

"(2) Instructive Work in the Home. In 1893 a 
resident nurse was employed to follow up patients in 


their homes and instruct them in the care of the sick and 
the hygiene of the household. This was the first instruc- 
tive visiting nurse employed in Baltimore. 

"(3) Clean Milk Distribution. As part of its origi- 
nal equipment the dispensary had several milk sterili- 
zers for the use of mothers of infants. For several years 
during the summer a supply of clean milk from a pri- 
vate dairy was distributed to sick babies, the first dis- 
tribution of this kind in Baltimore. 

*'(4) Public Bath. The Dispensary opened with one 
public indoor bath installed in its house, the first in Bal- 
more. It was well patronized by the women of the 

"(5) Midwives. In 1893 the obstetrical service of 
the Mothers' Relief Society was undertaken by the Dis- 
pensary staff. In connection with the Mothers' Relief 
Society it investigated the conditions of the practice of 
midwives in Baltimore City. The published results of 
this investigation proved an efficient aid in securing the 
new midwifery law enacted by the last session of the 
Maryland Legislature. 

"(6) Birth Registration, During the past year the 
Dispensary has undertaken a study of some of the con- 
ditions of birth registration in Baltimore, the results of 
which will be published in the near future. 

"(7) Tuberculosis. In the early days of the tuber- 
culosis agitation the Dispensary undertook for the 
Health Department a statistical study of the deaths from 
tuberculosis in Baltimore for ten years — 1890 to 1900 
— with the purpose of ascertaining infected houses and 
infected localities. The result of this study was graphi- 
cally presented in a map exhibited by the Health De- 


partment at the Maryland Tuberculosis Exhibition and 
reproduced in its annual report of 1904. 

"(8) Sodal Service Department. The Evening Dis- 
pensary was the second dispensary in Baltimore to or- 
ganize a social service department under a trained social 
worker. This has become in the opinion of the Mana- 
gers an indispensable adjunct to the efficiency of the 

I could cite many illustrations of the lessons we 
learned in our work with individual cases. Early and 
insistently it was borne in upon us that the remedies 
needed by our patients were often economic and social 
rather than medical; that many times the best we could 
do for them was to cheer them up, to give them help and 
encouragement to meet the exigencies of their daily lives 
and this required far more time and patience than to 
give them a bottle of medicine. I remember Dr. Sher- 
wood coming home once about 1 o'clock in the morning 
— our evening clinics often found us still working at 
midnight — and the way home by the horse drawn street 
cars with a change and usually a long wait at Baltimore 
and Hanover Streets took much time. As she divested 
herself of her outer garments, which always needed to 
be carefully investigated after an evening's work, she 
said emphatically: "I am now through giving young 
women tonic drugs to stimulate their appetites when 
they have no food to satisfy them." She related a case 
of the evening, a young woman whom she had watched 
struggling to support herself and her sister on inade- 
quate wages, too proud to seek or receive alms, whose 
story she had drawn out with the greatest difficulty. I 
could heartily agree with her, as I was haunted by the 


white face of a young girl whom I was giving iron for 
anemia when she and her mother were trying to live on 
their combined wages of three dollars per week. 

It was our obstetrical service, however, and the con- 
ditions under which we found women bearing their chil- 
dren that stirred most deeply a feeling of medical re- 
sponsibility. We early determined to use all our oppor- 
tunities to instruct women in the hygiene of maternity 
and infancy, and to lead women to demand more en- 
lightened care for themselves in childbirth and for their 
children; to seek opportunities to aid every movement 
in our city and state that showed promise of furthering 
the health and welfare of women and children. With 
the Mothers' Relief Society, the dispensary undertook 
in a small way pioneer work in that we instituted ante- 
natal care of mothers, scientific care of women in child- 
birth and post-natal supervision of mother and child — 
now recognized as basic principles in the child welfare 

In the first year of the obstetrical service Dr. Sher- 
wood and I took all the cases; later we were assisted by 
Dr. Pollack. We became well acquainted with the small 
streets and alleys of South Baltimore and more than once 
walked from our own office at night or early morning the 
twenty squares or more necessary to reach our cases. We 
were never molested nor were any of our doctors who 
subsequently did the same work, although we often 
found ourselves in uncomfortable and unsavory districts. 
I remember only once, and that in my student days, hav- 
ing a man, a stranger, speak to me at night. Another 
medical student and I on our way home from an obstet- 
rical case were waiting on a corner in Philadelphia in 


one of the poorer sections of the city for a street car. 
A half tipsy man in gentlemen's clothes said: "Good 
evening, ladies." We turned our backs and he tottered 
around in front of us and repeated his salutation. Again 
we turned our backs and again he staggered around and 
addressed us. When this had occurred three times, I 
said: "Sir, we are two medical students who are out in 
the line of our duty. We have just come from seeing a 
sick woman and we shall be obliged to you if you will 
let us alone." He straightened up instantly, took off his 
hat, apologized and passed on. 

This obstetrical service was not only a source of edu- 
cation to us, a source of despondency at times, but also 
a source of pleasure. We were admitted to share the 
joys as well as the distress and sorrows of our patients. 
One of our friends came into our office one morning to 
tell us that she had gone into her church for some pur- 
pose and found two women in the vestibule waiting to 
have a baby baptized. She asked whether the baby was 
a boy or girl and what its name was to be. The mother 
proudly responded it was a girl and was to be baptized 
"Dr. Mary Sherwood." That she was to be so honored 
was quite unknown to Dr. Sherwood. I have myself 
several name-sakes dating from that dispensary service, 
whether they politely prefix "doctor" to their names or 
not, I do not know. 

The Dispensary service was large and varied and gave 
us valuable experience. We had no help in the early 
days from the City Health Department. There was no 
place to send scarlet fever, diphtheria and other infecti- 
ous diseases needing isolation, nor had we the laboratory 
aid to diagnosis and treatment which are now so freely 


given by City and State Health Departments. I remem- 
ber Dr. Hurdon, while she was resident, coming to our 
office late one evening saying she was much concerned 
about a small boy she had been called to see who she 
feared had laryngeal diphtheria and was in bad shape. 
We had never seen a dose of diphtheria antitoxin, but we 
decided to go to Hynson and Westcott and see if they 
had by chance the German product of von Behring. For- 
tunately they had it. We paid for it ourselves, went 
down and injected all we did not lose with a hypodermic 
syringe. It acted like magic — the boy was better the 
next morning and made an uneventful recovery. To- 
day in all cases of infectious disease the City Health 
Department is the physician's best friend. It is only 
when one can look back over a long period of years that 
one can realize the rapid strides made by so-called State 

Very early our experience in the dispensary was lead- 
ing us to the belief that the solution of many of the medi- 
cal problems for the care of the rich as well as of the 
poor lay in the application of the generalizations of 
medical science through public health measures. While 
our practical experience with the sick was enforcing this 
lesson a more powerful influence was emphasizing the 
same point of view. Modern preventive medicine and 
public hygiene had its origin in the rise and develop- 
ment of bacteriology. Yet in 1889, when I took my 
medical degree, so recent had been the entrance of this 
new science into the group of the medical sciences that 
it was not, I think, taught to medical students as part 
of their course in any of the medical schools of the 
United States. Dr. Sherwood and I in 1889 took the 


first course in Bacteriology offered in the University of 
Zurich, sacrificing a spring vacation for the purpose. It 
was given as an optional special course in the depart- 
ment of hygiene by a young physician who had been a 
student in Koch's laboratory. Whether it was in the 
Hopkins Hospital laboratories organized by Dr. William 
Welch that the first opportunities for studying bacteri- 
ology were given in the United States I am not sure, but 
it is not an exaggeration to say that it was the work done 
in his laboratories and the influence that went out from 
them that laid the foundations and gave the impetus and 
direction to the public health movement in our country. 
During my first year in Baltimore, the year before the 
medical school was opened. Dr. Welch, I remember, 
gave a weekly lecture at 5 o'clock in the afternoon on 
bacteriology to which the physicians of Baltimore were 
invited. Dr. Welch is a great teacher and could pos- 
sibly have made any subject fascinatingly interesting, 
but this new field itself was one of absorbing interest to 
students of medical etiology. Each lecture was some- 
thing to look forward to for an entire week. Dr. Sher- 
wood and I felt that it was "only death or sudden ill- 
ness" that could keep us from attending. 

Our proximity to the Hopkins, then, with its stimu- 
lating atmosphere of research as the foundation for 
medical practice was continually increasing our inter- 
est in the domain of public health and preventive medi- 

It is possibly more than a simple coincidence that be- 
tween 1890 and 1900, the years that marked the rise 
and progress of public health as an outgrowth of the 
scientific study of disease, another great movement was 


taking place which has furnished the leaders who ad- 
vanced the cause of public health probably their most 
efficient aid for propaganda, for public education and 
for securing that legislation and administrative control 
necessary for progress. I refer to the growth of the wom- 
en's club movement in the United States and the con- 
centration of much of their interest on problems relating 
to civic and social betterment. 

The progress of this movement as I saw it in Balti- 
more and Maryland has been one of the most interest- 
ing experiences of my life. It would take a whole book 
to record its history. 

Chapter V 

The Women s Club Movement in Baltimore. The Arun- 

dell Club, The Arundell Good Government Club, 

The College Club, The Maryland State 

Federation of Women s Clubs 

When I returned from Ziirich in 1890, each of two 
of my best friends, one living in eastern Pennsylvania 
and one in the western part of that state, unacquainted 
with each other, told me that the most interesting and im- 
portant thing that had happened to her in the year I had 
been absent had been attending, as a delegate, a meet- 
ing in Chicago to form a Federation of Women's Clubs. 
One represented a Shakespeare club and one a history 
club. I suspect that at that original meeting in Chicago 
most of the delegates represented similar clubs having 
for their object the promotion of individual self-culture. 


"The diffusion of sweetness and light" was a favorite 
term used by the press to designate their activities. At 
that date I was free from membership in any 
woman's organization which is proof to me that such or- 
ganizations were not very numerous in any place where 
I had lived. When I went to Baltimore in 1892 the only 
woman's club I heard of was the Woman's Literary 
Club. This club has had a long and interesting history 
as a purely literary club. Miss Lizette Woodworth Reese 
ought to record this history as she has been for many 
years one of its most distinguished members. 

Dr. Sherwood was a member of the Woman's Literary 
Club until the Arundell Club was organized in 1894. 
We were both charter members of this club and Dr. 
Sherwood was one of its original Board of Managers. 
It was organized to meet a demand for a club for women 
whose scope of activities should not be limited except 
by a careful consideration of those subjects in which 
ladies might properly show an interest in public. Sec- 
tions on art, literature and music were formed, and 
others heralded as sections for serious study were an- 
nounced from time to time, but were short-lived as seri- 
ous study is not a function that can well be carried on 
through the medium of a woman's club. One section, 
however, of great practical value did persist owing to 
its capable leadership and to the subjects considered, 
the section on Home Economics — a relatively new term 
at that time destined to elevate and dignify a very an- 
cient profession of women. 

The Arundell Club met with instant success. Miss 
Elizabeth King was elected president and it was un- 
doubtedly due to her dominating personality and her 


capacity for leadership that the club was finally 
launched and steered successfully through the difficulties 
of its early years. At first a few rooms, then a house 
on West Madison Street were rented for club purposes 
and later a handsome dwelling house on North Charles 
Street, in what was then a fashionable section of Balti- 
more, was acquired by purchase. Finally the club built 
a hall adjoining its house. It has maintained its house 
and assembly hall for many years as headquarters for 
manifold activities of club women. It was under the 
fostering care of the Arundell Club that the Maryland 
State Federation of Women's Clubs was organized and 
in its buildings have been held many historic meetings 
concerning the advancement of women's interest. Its 
greatest service, however, in my opinion, has been to 
furnish in its attractive rooms a meeting place not only 
for its own members, but for all groups of women in- 
terested in problems of public welfare. 

After Miss King, Mrs. Sioussat stands out most dis- 
tinctly in my recollection as a dominating figure in the 
early history of the Arundell Club. She has served its 
interests continuously for many years, and if she would 
consent to write a history of this club she could give a 
record of the early feminist movement in Baltimore that 
would certainly be of great interest, although I know 
quite well that the term feminist is anathema to her. 

Although my own engagements did not permit me to 
take any active part in the work of the sections of the 
Arundell Club proper I followed with great interest the 
work of its section on Home Economics. Fortunately 
the year the Arundell Club was organized the opening 
of the Johns Hopkins Medical School brought to Balti- 


more Professor and Mrs. John J. Abel. Mrs. Abel at 
that time was known as a scientific writer on dietetics. 
She was an intimate friend of Mrs. Ellen S. Richards 
and a co-worker with her in founding and advancing the 
Home Economics movement in the United States. Mrs. 
Abel was at once drafted into the work of the new club 
and from that time to the present she has been the most 
powerful single influence in educating club women of 
Maryland in the science and art of home-making 
and in directing their energies to securing aid from all 
sources educational, social and legislative for advancing 
the interests of women in the home. 

One of the first subjects she took up in her section 
was a consideration of a family budget. She took up 
a study of the proper distribution of a two thousand 
dollar and of a five thousand dollar family income 
under conditions of living in Baltimore. This, now a 
commonplace for high school girls, was a novel and 
revolutionary idea, causing considerable hilarity among 
the husbands. At the time this study was in progress 
I was taking my meals at a boarding house where sev- 
eral members of Mrs. Abel's section with their husbands 
took their meals. The days of the Arundell sectional 
meetings furnished lively discussions at the dinner 
table, and I well remember with what shouts of laughter 
and derision the men greeted the final report which stated 
the amount each income, if properly apportioned, would 
give to the husband for his own pleasures. I sometimes 
wonder whether the thorough teaching of women in their 
schools and clubs for the past twenty years as to the 
necessity and method of budget making for the wise 
expenditure of family income has not indirectly greatly 


influenced the policies of our State and national govern- 
ments to at last adopt a budget system for handling their 

At the period the Arundell Club was founded the idea 
that women could have any direct interest in govern- 
ment, municipal, state or national, found scant consid- 
eration in Baltimore. I have already referred to the 
attitude of public opinion toward the educational dis- 
abilities of women so that it will be easily understood 
that the question of their political disabilities was a 
topic not to be touched upon in polite society. Balti- 
more was a boss-ridden city, and city and state politics 
were looked upon as a nasty business from which right- 
thinking men would protect their women folk. And 
yet so keen an interest did Miss King and some of her 
associates have in civic problems that soon after the 
Arundell Club was successfully inaugurated a subsidi- 
ary club was formed known as the Arundell Good Gov- 
ernment Club. It was the first women's association or- 
ganized in Baltimore to consider civic problems. I have 
heard Miss King say that to no question with which she 
dealt in the organization of the Arundell Club did she 
give the same consideration as to the wisdom of attach- 
ing to it this good government club for women. She said 
she had sought advice from intelligent and public-spir- 
ited men of her acquaintance, that she had made it a 
subject of prayer, and that it was with considerable ap- 
prehension that it was finally launched. The constitu- 
tion affirmed its purpose to be "to bring together persons 
interested in the good government of Baltimore City, and 
by their co-operation to promote the honest, efficient and 
economical administration of said city and the choice 


of fit persons for public office; to protect the public 
health and morals and secure capable and faithful sub- 
ordinates in public employ from removal or other preju- 
dice for partisan or personal reasons." In order to 
guard the name of the Arundell Club from any sem- 
blance of radicalism the constitution of the Good Gov- 
ernment Club provided that the president of the Arun- 
dell Club should be ex-officio a member of the Executive 
Board of the Good Government Club and that no pub- 
lic action could be taken by the club unless approved 
by the Board of the Arundell Club. The Arundell Club 
Board was always a very conservative body and in 1905 
the Good Government Club feeling hampered by this 
restriction attempted to drop this clause from its con- 
stitution. The Arundell Club Board then passed a reso- 
lution to the effect that so long as the Arundell Good 
Government Club retained its name and held its meet- 
ings in the Arundell Club building any public action 
proposed must be subject to the veto of the President of 
the Arundell Club. 

So long as Mrs. Ellicott remained president of the 
Arundell Club and was a controlling influence in its 
policy there was no fear that any public action decided 
upon by the Good Government Club would be vetoed, 
as she was as keen as any of us in pushing the causes 
we were interested in. These causes were represented 
by committees on municipal hygiene, on medical inspec- 
tion of schools, on court for Juvenile offenders and on 
public schools. The Good Government Club was, how- 
ever, nine years old; it had served an important func- 
tion in the education of its members and had at least 
one constructive piece of work to its credit as it had se- 


cured a compulsory school law for Baltimore City. It 
was agreed that an active civic club could no longer be 
kept in leading strings by another organization, and its 
members voted to disband. 

I had been a member of the Executive Committee of 
the Arundell Good Government Club from its organiza- 
tion and in 1905 was its president. Associated with me 
on the Executive Board were Miss Edith Hamilton of 
the Bryn Mawr School and Mrs. B. A. Corkran as vice- 
presidents; Mrs. M. N. Perry, treasurer; Miss Frances 
Seth, secretary, and other members: Mrs. William M. 
Ellicott, president of the Arundell Club; Mrs. William 
Cabell Bruce, Mrs. John T. King, Dr. Eleanor Lord of 
Goucher College, Mrs. William H. Morriss, Miss Julia 
Rogers, Mrs. James H. Van Sickle. No subsequent at- 
tempt was made in Baltimore to organize a distinctly 
woman's civic club until the year 1915, which saw the 
birth of the Civic League. 

It is not surprising that the first subjects to claim 
women's interests when they organized for civic work 
should be the public schools and the public health. It 
is certainly interesting that their two achievements so 
far in Baltimore in initiating and securing legislation 
are the School Attendance Law secured by the Arundell 
Good Government Club and the City Milk Ordinance, 
one of the best in the country, secured by the Women's 
Civic League. 

Soon after the organization of the Good Government 
Club Miss Mary Richmond, now of the Sage Founda- 
tion, then general secretary of the Baltimore Charity 
Organization Society, suggested the formation of a com- 
mittee to study the conditions of school attendance in 


Baltimore with a view to securing legislation if an in- 
vestigation should warrant it. Such a committee was 
organized in 1899 with Miss Richmond as chairman. A 
fund was secured by private subscription for the pur- 
poses of the investigation and Miss Florence Pierce was 
appointed to conduct it. The plan was Miss Richmond's. 
She selected a number of representative neighborhoods 
which might show the effect of certain social and indus- 
trial conditions on school attendance, for instance, one 
where the school population was almost entirely foreign 
born, or of foreign born parentage; a colored district; 
one where mothers were engaged in the packing indus- 
try; and one in Woodberry in the vicinity of the cotton 
duck mills. The results proved very interesting and in- 
structive. While the investigation was in progress Miss 
Richmond was called to a position in Philadelphia and 
the report was completed by Miss Jane Brownell, then 
assistant head mistress of the Bryn Mawr School, and 
by Miss Pierce. When the report was ready it was sub 
mitted to a group of public-spirited men for their con 
sideration and advice in February, 1901. Finally a 
committee from the Good Government Club was ap 
pointed to draw up a bill and to see it throu2:h the As 
semblv. This committee consisted of Miss Brownell 
Miss Mary Willcox Brown (nov/ Mrs. John M. Glenn) 
Miss Mary Garrett, Dr. Sherwood, Miss Florence Pierce 
I was chairman, making the seventh member. At last 
came the fateful day for the presentation to the Assem 
bly of Maryland of the bill and for a formal hearing 
We were somewhat excited, as it was, I think, the first 
time any of us had appeared at a public hearing in An 
napolis. Mr. William Cabell Bruce (Senator Bruce) was 


to be our spokesman. On the morning of the day set for 
the hearing word came that Mr. Bruce could not be pres- 
ent. Consternation reigned, but Miss Garrett undertook 
to go to his office and get him to Annapolis if possible. 
She was successful and so was Mr. Bruce. 

The bill, of course, met with opposition. There was 
one gentleman in the counties who attacked it bitterly 
in the newspapers and finally got out a printed sheet 
for distribution, saying, among other things, that it was 
a bill sponsored by seven old maids who couldn't possi- 
bly know anything about the needs of children. Dr. 
Sherwood and I met Miss Brownell at the Women's 
University Club in Paris in November, 1924, where we 
were all staying, and in reviewing our common experi- 
ences in Baltimore Miss Brownell said she still has a 
copy of this manifesto among her treasures. The bill 
became a law and has not, I think, been much modified 
since that time. 

The Good Government Club was early in the field 
advocating medical inspection of schools. It is inter- 
esting to recall in the light of rather recent history that 
we discussed as an academic question whether medical 
school inspection should be administered by the Munici- 
pal Health Board or by the School Board. Both plans 
were being tried in different parts of the country. Dur- 
ing Dr. Bosley's term as Health Commissioner, he told 
Mrs. John T. King that he had a contingent fund at his 
disposal which he could devote to a beginning of medi- 
cal school inspection, and suggested that a formal re- 
quest be made to him by the Good Government Club. A 
committee was appointed with Mrs. King as chairman 
to proceed in this matter. I do not remember how the 


consent of the School Board was obtained, but the Health 
Board did at that time begin the work of medical inspec- 
tion which now has grown to large proportions. 

When it was made public that some special school 
inspectors would be appointed a prominent member of 
the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty suggested to Dr. 
Sherwood and me that one or two women doctors ought 
to be included in these appointments. The Good Gov- 
ernment Club immediately found two women able and 
willing to serve in such a capacity, but they were not 
considered. It was not until women had the suffrage 
that women physicians were appointed to work in the 
schools by the Health Board. In 1923, when the ap- 
propriation for medical school inspection was decreased, 
the women were the first to be dropped from the rolls — 
fortunately, however, four have now been re-employed 
for duty in the Eastern and Western High Schools. 

The first appointment of women to public boards in 
Baltimore was the voluntary act of Mayor Hooper in 
1897. Mayor Malster, who succeeded Mr. Hooper, re- 
appointed two women on the Board of Charities, but 
substituted Miss Eckles, the men of whose family were 
Republicans, for Miss McLane whom Mayor Hooper 
had selected as the most suitable woman for the board 
regardless of the politics of her family. Dr. Sherwood, 
having no male political complications, was appointed 
by Mayor Hooper and retained by his Republican suc- 
cessor. This may be one reason that Dr. Sherwood has 
had a continuous service on public boards ever since 
women have been appointed to such boards, first on the 
Board of Charities and second on the Bath Commission. 
She served through two administrations on the Board of 


Charities and Corrections and was slated with Miss 
McLane for reappointment to the same board under a 
third administration, but here for the first time, I think, 
women's organizations interested themselves in these 
municipal appointments of women and possibly made a 
mess of it. 

Exactly what happened I do not know, but Mayor 
Hayes, after stating in the daily press that he expected 
to appoint two women to the School Board, Miss Mary 
Garrett and Mrs. Judge Schmucker, and two to the 
Board of Charities, whom he did not name in public, 
finally let it be known to the women interested that so 
far as the appointments of women he had so far con- 
sidered were concerned he had wiped his slate clean 
with the exception of Mrs. Schmucker for the School 
Board. I presume he was pestered by various groups 
urging various candidates. His green bag went to the 
Council containing the appointment of Mrs. Judge 
Schmucker to the School Board, Mrs. J. J. Abel to the 
Board of Charities and Mrs. A. E. Robinson to the Jail 
Board. Mrs. Schmucker resigned after a short time and 
there were no further appointments to the Board until 
Mayor Broening appointed Mrs. Putts. I doubt whether 
women's organizations, strong as they have become, have 
had much influence in naming the women who have in 
recent years been appointed on municipal boards, except 
possibly in the last appointments to the School Board. 

The Woman's Civic League was the successor of the 
Arundell Good Government Club inasmuch as it was 
formed by women for the study of civic problems and 
for making their influence felt in the solution of such 
problems, but it was in no sense an outgrowth of that 


club, or of any existing woman's club. While Mrs. 
Corkran, Mrs. Abel, Mrs. Van Sickle, Mrs. Miller and 
other former workers in the Good Government Club were 
active as charter members of the Civic League the initia- 
tive in its organization was taken, I think, by a group 
of women who had not been hitherto identified with 
women's club activities. I remember accepting an in- 
vitation to the Belvedere in 1912 to consider the forma- 
tion of a civic league and being much interested in the 
group of women present and in the discussion. The fif- 
teen years which had passed since the organization of 
the Arundell Club had wrought a great change in the 
attitude of Baltimore women, and the formation of a 
league of women determined to actively interest them- 
selves in smoke abatement, proper disposal of garbage 
and refuse, clean milk and other questions of municipal 
housekeeping seemed quite natural to them and very 
properly not only the business of women but their duty. 

The Civic League was a success from the beginning. 
It effected an organization which included the entire 
city. It developed or brought to light leaders of great 
ability. When the great war came it formed the nucleus 
for co-ordinating the activities of the women of the city 
of Baltimore and the State of Maryland. 

The second Woman's Club of Baltimore of which I 
have any intimate knowledge is the College Club. It 
was chartered in 1894 and incorporated in 1909. When 
it was organized by Mrs. Fabian Franklin and Miss 
Elizabeth Carroll it was difficult to find any college 
women in Baltimore. The first year its membership 
included Mrs. Franklin, Miss Carroll, Mrs. Morris 
Carey, Miss Julia Rogers, Miss Searle, Mrs. H. M. 


Thomas, Dr. Sherwood and myself. Only four women 
in this group had college degrees, but all of them had 
had one or more years of college or university training 
I was admitted to membership because I had been a 
matriculate student at the University of Ziirich. When 
I took my medical degree the man or woman taking a 
medical degree who had a college degree, or any college 
training, was an exception rather than the rule. 

The College Club was organized for purely social pur- 
poses. Young college women were coming to Baltimore 
as teachers in the Bryn Mawr School and in the Wom- 
an's College, and those of us already on the ground 
wanted to show them a friendly spirit. The Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae, now the Association of Univer- 
sity Women, was a few years old, but college clubs for 
women with their own houses and centers had not 
emerged from chaos. The sole activities of the Balti- 
more College Club from 1894 to 1909 were tea and 
conversation. Members entertained the club during the 
winter months at their own homes. If any distinguished 
college woman visited Baltimore a special tea was given 
in her honor. It was all very pleasant, but the number 
of college women was increasing because more Balti- 
more girls were going to college and more college women 
from outside were finding employment in Baltimore. 
The number of members presently was limited, first to 
forty and then to sixty. In 1905, when the National 
College Equal Suffrage League was formed, then the 
youngest group to organize for suffrage, and it was pro- 
posed to find out whether it was feasible to form a 
branch in Baltimore, Miss Thomas and Miss Garrett 
arranged for an afternoon meeting at the Roland Park 


Country Club and the College Club secretary was asked 
to make a list of all women college graduates so that an 
invitation might be extended to them. To the surprise 
of most of our members the number of college women 
in Baltimore was found to be between three and four 
hundred. After that it seemed to me and to others 
absurd to have a college club with a membership limited 
to sixty. Truth compels me to say there had been no 
great demand for membership. Other cities, however, 
were beginning to have active college clubs taking 
leadership in women's civic and social activities. The 
Women's College of Baltimore was increasing yearly 
the number of its graduates resident in Baltimore and 
it seemed there should be a college club on some per- 
manent basis. 

In 1908 Miss Julia Rogers had closed her house at 
821 N. Charles Street and gone to Europe for a pro- 
longed stay. Miss Rogers had been one of the small 
group of Baltimore women who had attempted to work 
at the Johns Hopkins University in its early years. She 
had subsequently been in residence at Newnham Col- 
lege, Cambridge, She was one of the Baltimore Com- 
mittee of the Women's Fund for the Johns Hopkins 
Medical School. She had taken an active interest in 
establishing the Evening Dispensary for Working 
Women and Girls, had been its secretary and treasurer 
for many years. The Baltimore Association for the 
University Education of Women had been organized in 
her reception room. I once heard Miss Thomas, speak- 
ing to the College Club after it occupied Miss Rogers' 
house, say that the first college woman graduate she had 
ever seen was a cousin of Miss Rogers, a Vassar A.B., 


whom she had met in the very room in which she was 
then speaking. 

When I passed Miss Rogers' empty house that year 
she was in Europe I often thought how the College Club 
missed her entertainments. No one was absent the after- 
noons Miss Rogers entertained. When Miss McLane 
was going to join her in the early summer I said to her: 
"Tell Miss Rogers to come back, the College Club misses 
her, and if she isn't coming back tell her to give us her 
house for the College Club." I said this jokingly. As 
I recall it now I thought if the message were delivered 
Miss Rogers would be indignant at my temerity and I 
was glad I should not be there to see it. I heard noth- 
ing from this suggestion until Miss Rogers returned in 
the fall and established herself at the Belvedere. She 
sent for me one day and told me she had decided to 
open her house and let the College Club use it indefi- 
nitely. I never was more taken aback in my life. Her 
offer of a furnished house free of rent and taxes was so 
unexpected and so generous that when I, at her request, 
presented the matter to the Club the members wouldn't 
believe it. It was something that had never happened 
to a woman's College Club before and has never hap- 
pened since. The house was opened in 1910 with a bril- 
liant reception, Mrs. Fabian Franklin at the head of the 
receiving line. On that occasion the Club got more 
newspaper notice than it ever received before or since. 
It was immediately incorporated, adopted a formal con- 
stitution and offered membership with small dues to all 
college women resident in Baltimore and its vicinity. 
After the reorganization of the Club I acted as its presi- 
dent for a number of years. 


For the seventeen years it has occupied Miss Rogers' 
house it has steadily increased its membership and in- 
fluence. It is now the Baltimore branch of the Ameri- 
can Association of University Women, and one of the 
strong woman's college clubs in our country. Like the 
Arundell Club it has been, in its way, conservative, and 
while the College Equal Suffrage League used the club- 
house as its headquarters the College Club kept itself 
free from any entangling alliance with the suffrage 
cause. How college women in Baltimore became inter- 
ested in suffrage is interesting enough to have a chapter 
to itself. 

As I write these pages and recall the growth of the 
Women's Club movement in Baltimore and in Maryland, 
what interests me most is the avidity with which women, 
when once organization had been effected, took to the 
consideration of educational and social subjects. When 
the Maryland Clubs federated, there was not a single 
club whose interests were other than art and music and 
literature. As I have previously said, the period in 
which these various State Federations were being formed 
and bound together by the General Federation was the 
period of the rise of the public health campaign. The 
Maryland Federation had no Department of Public 
Health for a number of years. I asked Mrs. B. W. 
Corkran, the first year she was president of the Mary- 
land State Federation, to appoint me chairman of a pub- 
lic health section. I believed that health problems were 
bound to assume importance for the clubs and that there 
should be some one officially charged to bring matters 
pertaining to health before the club women and to ad- 
vise action on health measures brought before them. She 


secured the assent of her board to such a section and 
from that time until 1924 I appeared before the State 
Federation at its annual meetings to represent health 

My work at Goucher College and my other profes- 
sional engagements made it impossible for me to do any- 
thing except act in an advisory capacity. I have great 
sympathy with the chairmen of sections in the General 
Federation who advise State Federations against the ap- 
pointment of professional women as chairmen of their 
various sections. It is much better to have in such posi- 
tions a woman of leisure who can make the work of the 
section her principal interest, and who is able to initiate 
measures and carry them through. 

In Maryland, however, it has rarely been necessary 
for the women to take the initiative in public health. 
The State Health Board and the City Health Department 
have done that for many years, and the important serv- 
ice that the clubs could render was to stand behind and 
endorse the measures advocated by the State and by the 

In all legislation affecting public health for many 
years the State and City Boards have had the backing 
of the Federated Clubs, and if one reads the resolutions 
passed at their annual meetings one will be impressed 
by the advanced and yet conservative attitude taken on 
public health. Occasionally the women have been rest- 
ive because the City and State Boards did not move fast 
enough in the direction they had started, and they have 
at times brought pressure to bear to hasten action where 
health interests were involved, but they have always re- 
sponded to intelligent guidance. Dr. Sherwood and I 


have had no greater stimulation for our own progress 
along the road of public health than has come to us from 
our contact with the women in the Federated Clubs of 
Maryland. We have had the privilege of representing 
them at many public hearings in city and state, and we 
owe the club women a debt of gratitude for the inspira- 
tion they have given us and for the confidence they have 
placed in us. Why we and other women physicians of 
Baltimore were entitled to speak to them with some au- 
thority on public health questions was due to the knowl- 
edge and experience gained in the various public health 
campaigns which have characterized the last twenty or 
twenty-five years. 

Chapter VI. 

Women s Activities in Public Health — The Tuberculosis 

Commission — The Vice Commission — Child 

Welfare — Food Conservation — Clean Milk 

Any one with medical training who has followed 
closely the progress of the great experiment in public 
health made by the United States in Panama, of the 
campaign against tuberculosis, of the movement for 
sanitary and moral prophylaxis, and of that for the pro- 
tection of maternity and infancy may claim some fun- 
damental acquaintance with the public health problems 
of the present century and the methods evolving for 
their solution. It is not my province in these remi- 
niscences to try to trace the history of the public health 
movement, possibly the most important movement in 


modern civilization. It has, however, been a privilege to 
have watched it from infancy to maturity and to have 
lived to see it firmly established on a scientific founda- 
tion. Great schools of hygiene with other endowed 
foundations for research on the causes of ill health, the 
co-operation of many agencies in practically testing out 
methods of health control, and determining their value, 
the enlightened policies of public health administration 
in National, State and Municipal Boards, with the wide- 
spread educational propaganda designed to reach all 
classes and conditions of our citizens give promise of 
results that will incredibly reduce human misery and 
enhance the value of human life. 

The first modern public crusade for health in our 
country was the campaign against tuberculosis which 
began in the last decade of the last century. In Mary- 
land the movement was initiated by the appointment of 
a commission to study the entire subject of tuberculosis 
as found in the State. The Maryland State Board of 
Health sponsored this movement. My earliest recollec- 
tion of the State Board of Health is the fact that Dr. 
John S. Fulton was its secretary and that Dr. William 
Welch was a member of the Board. Dr. Sherwood and 
I early learned to look to Dr. Fulton for leadership in 
public health and to greatly value his advice and friend- 
ship. In 1902 Governor Smith appointed a Tubercu- 
losis Commission to study the problem of tuberculosis 
in the State of Maryland. I think I owe my appoint- 
ment to this commission to Dr. Fulton, at any rate the 
first I knew of the appointment was a letter from Dr. 
Fulton received in Maine when I was on my summer 
vacation, saying the Governor had received from me no 


acceptance of appointment, and he, Dr. Fulton, was anxi- 
ous to have a woman included on the Commission. The 
original notice I never received. Of course, I promptly 
accepted the appointment, considering it not only an 
honor, but a great opportunity for advancing my educa- 
tion in public health. It certainly did that. 

The Commission, under the chairmanship of Dr. 
Thayer and the co-operation of the State Board of 
Health, made a thorough study of all phases of the sub- 
ject as existing in the State of Maryland. The Commis- 
sion was continued with some slight changes in person- 
nel by Governor Warfield. It made its final report to 
the Governor of Maryland in 1906 with recommenda- 
tions for legislation which subsequently came to be 
known as the "Maryland Plan" — widely adopted in 
other states. 

This final report of the Maryland Commission fur- 
nishes an important source book for students of tuber- 
culosis as a public health problem. I have used it con- 
stantly in my college classes in hygiene as a required 
reference book. 

A fundamental requirement of the "Maryland Plan" 
now accepted as a commonplace of any plan for the con- 
trol of communicable diseases, the reporting of cases, 
met with much determined opposition both from the 
medical profession and from laymen on the usual 
ground of interference with personal liberty. The 
Maryland law provides that the report of cases shall 
be by name, but that the files of reported cases should 
not, in any way, be made public. I remember one of 
the early efforts of the Arundell Good Government Club 
was to request the City Health Department to placard 


houses containing patients with measles, scarlet fever 
and other communicable diseases and the hesitancy and 
delay with which such placarding was finally under- 

During the progress of the study of tuberculosis in 
the State of Maryland by the Commission, the State 
Health Board took the initiative in organizing a tuber- 
culosis exhibition, the first public exhibition of this kind 
held in the United States and one of the first hygiene 
exhibitions held in the world. The use of McCoy Hall 
was granted by the Johns Hopkins University for the 
purpose and arrangements were made to conduct 
throughout a week a symposium on all phases of the 
subject of tuberculosis by a series of evening lectures in 
McCoy Hall to be given by various speakers, experts in 
their special fields, drawn from the country at large. 
Various committees were appointed and made respon- 
sible for the various exhibits. Dr. Sherwood and I had 
charge of the one designated Home Care of the Tuber- 
cular. In addition to this we undertook through the 
Evening Dispensary, which collected a fund for the 
purpose, to go over the records of death from tuber- 
culosis in the City Health Department for ten years 
from 1890 to 1900, securing the data which Dr. C. 
Hampson Jones, then Assistant Health Commissioner, 
desired in order to represent graphically the sec- 
tional incidence of the disease in Baltimore. He 
had no funds at his disposal for such a study. With 
the data we secured Dr. Jones had a map made which, 
on the opening night of the exhibition, seemed to inter- 
est the newspaper reporters as much as anything in the 
display. Every organization in the city dealing with 


social and civic problems was impressed into the service 
under the general direction of Dr. Fulton and every one 
worked hard. 

The success of the evening lectures and the exhibition 
exceeded anything we had thought possible. McCoy 
Hall couldn't give standing room to all who tried to at- 
tend the evening lectures. The crowds at the exhibition 
were phenomenal and came from all classes of society 
in Baltimore. The exhibits were carefully and con- 
stantly demonstrated. It was not only Baltimore and 
the State of Maryland that supplied the visitors, they 
came from all parts of the country. It is possibly not 
an exaggeration to say that the "Maryland Tuberculosis 
Exposition," with its accompanying lectures, was one 
of the greatest events that ever occurred in the public 
health movement of the United States. 

During that week a meeting in the Donovan room of 
McCoy Hall gave birth to the National Tuberculosis As- 
sociation, which this year holds its twentieth annual 

Dr. Raymond Pearl of Johns Hopkins University 
says: "It may be fairly said that so strenuous a warfare, 
or one engaging in its ranks so many earnest and active 
workers, has probably never in the history of the world 
been waged against any disease as that which has been 
fought in the United States against tuberculosis during 
the past twenty-five years." Yet he maintains that this 
warfare against tuberculosis has had comparatively lit- 
tle effect on the diminution of the death rate which was 
steadily declining before this movement took place. 
That is an academic question not to be discussed here, 
but there is no gainsaying the fact that the anti-tubercu- 


losis campaign developed the methods for all subse- 
quent health campaigns and has to its credit much of the 
modification of the environment brought about by mod- 
ern sanitation and hygiene. 

One of the very early results of the anti-tuberculosis 
movement was the emergence of the public health nurse. 
In Baltimore the Instructive Visiting Nurse Association 
organized in 1896 under a board whose president was 
Miss Elizabeth King (Mrs. Ellicott) soon after the tuber- 
culosis exposition offered to place one of its nurses at 
the disposal of the City Health Department for exclusive 
use with tubercular patients. At that time the Depart- 
ment employed no nurses. Out of this pioneer work 
has come the employment of the health nurse, now a 
sine qua non for City and State Health Departments, not 
only in the departments of communicable diseases, but 
in their school work and child welfare departments as 

The success of the opening campaign against tubercu- 
losis encouraged groups of workers in other phases of 
health control to bring to the attention of the public 
their special problems. One of these which seemed to 
the initiated most pressing, possibly of greater impor- 
tance than tuberculosis, was the problem of the venereal 
diseases. By the year 1900 modern medical science 
had accumulated a body of facts with reference to these 
diseases — as to their causes, the manner of their des- 
semination and their etiological relationships which 
would ensure diminution in their incidence if they were 
brought under public health control. On the other hand 
the social sciences had accumulated appalling evidence 
of the economic and social misery growing out of the 


prevalence of these diseases. But the difficulties of 
launching a campaign against the venereal diseases and 
the social evil were manifestly greater and more com- 
plicated than an anti-tuberculosis campaign. I remem- 
ber at the end of the first public meeting ever held in 
Baltimore for the discussion of this subject Dr. Howard 
Kelly came from the audience to the platform, after the 
formal addresses, and began his speech with the words; 
"Thank God it is now in the open." This exactly ex- 
pressed the feeling of many of those present interested 
in public health. After this meeting Dr. Fulton wrote 
to Dr. Sherwood and myself, saying of all the meetings 
he had ever attended for the dissemination of health in- 
formation this was the greatest. 

The events leading up to this meeting are interesting 
enough to record here. There had existed in Maryland 
for a number of years a small association for the sup- 
pression of vice with national affiliations. Dr. Edward 
Janney, a member of the Society of Friends, was one of 
its most active members both in the local and in the 
national associations. Dr. Janney and I had been fel- 
low students at the Millersville State Normal School and 
I had renewed my acquaintance with him after coming 
to Baltimore. One evening in the fall of 1907 Dr. Sher- 
wood and I were invited to a meeting arranged by Dr. 
Janney, held in the home of Mrs. E. A. Robinson to 
hear an English clergyman speak on certain phases of 
the "White Slave Traffic." He had come to the United 
States to try to secure the co-operation of our Govern- 
ment with the Governments of certain European coun- 
tries in suppressing or controlling a growing traffic in 
girls. It was a profoundly impressive meeting. At its 


end I said to Dr. Janney: "Where are the Hookers, did 
you invite them to this meeting?" He said he did not 
know them and knew nothing about the work they were 
at that time instituting. Dr. and Mrs. Donald Hooker 
had that year returned from Europe and taken up per- 
manent residence in Baltimore, as Dr. Hooker had been 
appointed associate Professor of Physiology at the Johns 
Hopkins from which institution he had received his 
medical degree two years previously. 

During their student days in the medical school and 
during their sojourn in Germany Dr. and Mrs. Hooker 
had become so thoroughly impressed with the necessity 
of some movement for the control of sex relations and 
the evils physical and social growing out of these that 
they were giving time and study to various phases of the 
question. On their return to Baltimore they had opened 
and maintained a home for unmarried mothers. If fol- 
lowing these cases into the courts and learning the gross 
injustice these women received did not drive Mrs. 
Hooker actively into the suffrage movement, it did have 
that effect on some of her most intelligent co-workers, 
and certainly accentuated her own opinion about woman 

Soon after the meeting at Mrs. Robinson's Dr. Sher- 
wood and I brought Dr. and Mrs. Janney and Dr. and 
Mrs, Hooker together one afternoon at our home and, as 
a result of that afternoon's exchange of experiences, we 
decided that the time had arrived when the subject of 
the venereal diseases and the social evil might be made 
the subject for educational propaganda in Baltimore. 
By the joint efforts of Dr. Janney and Dr. Hooker a 
public meeting was arranged sponsored by the Medical 


and Chirurgical Faculty (The Maryland State Medical 
Society), the Maryland Conference of Charities and 
Corrections and the Maryland Federation of Women's 

This meeting was held in McCoy Hall in November 
1907. It was advertised as a meeting to consider sanitary 
and moral prophylaxis, a phrase which had been used 
first, I think, by Dr. Prince Morrow of New York who, 
as the pioneer in our country of this movement, had or- 
ganized a society in New York under this name. Dr. 
Morrow was the principal speaker of the afternoon. The 
president of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty, Dr. 
Hiram Woods, presided. In addition to Dr. Morrow, 
Dr. Charles P. Emerson, a member of the medical staff 
of the Johns Hopkins and a prominent social worker, 
spoke on certain social aspects of the question. I pre- 
sented the subject of social diseases and the home. After 
the formal addresses several persons from the audience 
came to the platform and addressed the meeting, among 
them Dr. Howard Kelly and Dr. Flora Pollock. Dr. 
Morrow made a profound impression upon the audience. 
This can be illustrated by a story told me by two friends, 
women physicians, who had come down to Baltimore 
from Philadelphia to attend the meetings of the State 
Medical Society and had remained for this meeting. 
They said a lady sitting by them before the meeting be- 
gan said: "I do not know what this meeting is about, 
but I belong to the State Federation of Women's Clubs 
and so have come to learn." After Dr. Morrow had 
begun his address and it dawned upon her what was 
meant by "sanitary and moral prophylaxis," she said: 
"I think this is no place for me, I must try to get out." 


The hall was crowded and getting out was no easy mat- 
ter. After another interval she said: "No, I shall stay, 
this is something women should know about." This 
exactly expressed what has been my firm conviction 
ever since my medical student days. Women who have 
been taught the truth about matters pertaining to sex 
will be the most potent factor in creating "a new con- 
science in regard to an ancient evil." Fortunately today 
such education is becoming general. 

As a result of this meeting and a study of the inci- 
dence of the veneral diseases in Baltimore presented at 
a meeting of the Baltimore City Medical Society by Dr. 
Hooker, the Maryland Society of Social Hygiene was 
organized under the fostering care of the State Medical 
Society, the constitution providing that the majority of 
the members of the Executive Committee should be phy- 
sicians appointed by the Medical Society. I served on 
the Executive Committee for many years, at first as the 
only woman member. It was for me an illuminating 
and educative service. 

During the early days of the campaign against the 
social diseases — the terminology finally generally adopt- 
ed — vice commissions were appointed in various parts 
of the country to study local conditions and to suggest 
remedial measures of control. In 1913 Governor Golds- 
borough appointed a State Commission for Maryland, 
the only state commission I think ever appointed. The 
committee numbered fifteen, two being women, Miss 
Anna Herkner, then a resident of Baltimore, a promi- 
nent social worker, and at that time a member of the 
staff of the State Board of Labor and Statistics, and 
mvself. Dr. George Walker was appointed chairman 


and it was to his indefatigable labor that the Commis- 
sion made a more thorough study of all phases of the 
subject than had been made by any other vice commis- 
sion. The Commission served three years. Its formal 
report to the Governor was never published in full, as 
there were no funds for the purpose. It would furnish 
an important source book for students of the subject. 

When the great war came, such progress had been 
made in the educational propaganda against the social 
diseases, and such able leadership developed by the na- 
tional society, the various state societies, and the na- 
tional and state departments of public health that it was 
possible to formulate a program for the study, the pre- 
vention and control of venereal diseases in the United 
States Army on a scale never before attempted and to 
carry it out under government supervision. The war 
program has been carried over as a peace program. 

In point of time as indicated by the formation of a 
national association the third great public health move- 
ment in our country was that now designated as the Child 
Welfare movement. The original national association 
was organized under the name "The Association for the 
Study and Prevention of Infant Mortality." In certain 
respects this has claimed a greater share of my interest 
than any of the other movements, first, because it is fun- 
damental and inclusive of all the others, and second, 
because this movement has been initiated, fostered and 
sponsored by women as a direct result of their higher 
education. The argument most commonly made both 
against extending women's educational opportunities and 
against removing their political disabilities was that 
either of these would disrupt the home. Yet the earli- 


est problems that claimed the studious attention of the 
first generation of college women were those directly 
bearing upon the home, and the first legislation secured 
by women after they had the franchise was a congres- 
sional bill for the protection of maternity and infancy. 
In 1911 the International Tuberculosis Association 
held its third session in Washington. Dr. Fulton had 
resigned as secretary of the Maryland State Board of 
Health a year previously to assume the duties of Di- 
rector General of this meeting and the Hygienic Ex- 
hibition which was held in connection with it. Among 
his various assistants he secured the appointment of 
Miss Gertrude Knipp, a graduate of Goucher College, 
to have charge of the press service, a very important 
position in an international meeting of this kind. Miss 
Knipp had then chosen journalism as a profession and 
was on the staff of the Baltimore Sun when she accepted 
the appointment referred to. Dr. Fulton told me dur- 
ing the progress of the Washington meeting that when 
he had suggested this appointment it had been objected 
to by his Board on the ground that she was a woman, 
and necessarily incompetent for such a job. But when 
the work assigned to her was accomplished with extraor- 
dinary success the same critics calmly said she couldn't 
have done it because she was a woman. However, dur- 
ing that week in Washington, Dr. Helen C. Putnam of 
Providence, R. I., a woman physician well known for 
her work in public health, especially as a lecturer on 
school hygiene and the social diseases, persuaded Miss 
Knipp to join her in arranging for a conference 
on the subject of Infant Mortality. Dr. Putnam had 
been a classmate of mine in the Philadelphia Medical 


School and a student at Vassar with Dr. Sherwood. In- 
deed, I recall, now, the first time I ever heard of Dr. 
Sherwood was in a letter from Dr. Putnam written to 
me in Ziirich, telling me to look up Miss Mary Sher- 
wood who was a student of medicine in Ziirich and who 
could undoubtedly be helpful to me. 

Dr. Putnam's conference was called in New Haven 
November, 1912, with Miss Knipp acting as executive 
secretary. Dr. J. H. Mason Knox, Dr. Sherwood and I, 
in addition to Miss Knipp, were the Baltimoreans pres- 
ent. At this conference the National Association for the 
study and prevention of Infant Mortality was formed 
with Baltimore chosen as its headquarters, and Miss 
Knipp appointed executive secretary. From small be- 
ginnings this Association, now known as the American 
Child Health Association, has become one of the most 
powerful public health organizations in our country. 

Shortly after this New Haven Conference the 
Children's Bureau of the United States Department of 
Labor was organized with Miss Julia Lathrop as its 
chief. Miss Lathrop had also been a student at Vassar 
with Dr. Putnam and Dr. Sherwod and, as is well known, 
had been a resident of Hull House for many years asso- 
ciated with Miss Jane Addams and Dr. Alice Hamilton 
and other distinguished leaders in the social service 
movement. Of the various papers read at the New Haven 
Conference the one I remember best was presented by 
Dr. Alice Hamilton on the relation of a high death rate 
to a high birth rate, a study made from Hull House on 
a Chicago group, the first study of this kind, I think, 
made in the L^ited States. Dr. Hamilton's sisters. Miss 
Edith and Miss Margaret Hamilton, are well known in 


Baltimore because of their long connection with Bryn 
Mawr School. Dr. Hamilton was one of the group that 
found opportunities for study and stimulation in the 
pathological laboratory of the Johns Hopkins Hospital 
in pre-medical school days. She has devoted herself to 
pathological research and stands out as an example of 
the possibilities of combining pure research with its ap- 
plication to some practical problems of social science. 
When Harvard established its school of Industrial 
Hygiene Dr. Hamilton as one of America's chief au- 
thorities on industrial medicine was called to an asso- 
ciate professorship in this school, the only woman who 
has ever held a position on the Harvard faculty. 

The work of Miss Lathrop in the Children's Bureau 
is too well known to need reference here. The studies 
carried out in this Bureau covering all phases of social 
conditions bearing upon the life and health of mothers, 
infants and children formed educational propaganda of 
inestimable value in advancing the Child Welfare move- 
ment. It was on the basis of these studies that the bill 
for the protection of maternity and infancy was formu- 
lated which women asked Congress to pass as their first 
contribution to the laws of the country following their 

In addition to the activities of the National Associa- 
tion and those of the Children's Bureau and antedating 
both, Child Welfare as a public health problem had 
been vigorously undertaken by the Health Department 
of New York City in a special bureau organized and di- 
rected by Dr. Josephine Baker, a department which has 
served as a model for all subsequent health bureaus of 
Child Welfare. 


I have already said that our experience gained in the 
Evening Dispensary had emphasized for Dr. Sherwood 
and me the rebellious feeling aroused in our medical 
school days against the conditions surrounding child 
birth and the care of infants. Obstetrics we saw as the 
one department of medicine which tolerated two stand- 
ards of practice, that of the doctor of medicine, often 
inadequately taught, and that of the midwife, in our 
country the untrained as well as the so-called trained. 
We watched the advance of medical science destined to 
affect the teaching and practice of obstetrics as pro- 
foundly as it was affecting every other branch of medi- 
cal practice and Dr. Sherwood, at least, began to feel 
stirring within her the spirit of a crusader. She had 
determined in Dispensary days that whenever and how- 
ever she found the opportunity she would press the cause 
of better obstetrics. As the first chairman of the Sec- 
tion on Obstetrics in the National Association for the 
Prevention of Infant Mortality she conducted at several 
annual meetings symposiums on this subject securing the 
co-operation of well-known men and women in the 
United States and Canada, among them notably Prof. 
J. Whitridge Williams of the Johns Hopkins University. 
The report of the papers in this section published in the 
annual transactions forms an important source of in- 
formation for students of this subject. 

Dr. Sherwood's service in the Evening Dispensary and 
her service as chairman of the midwifery committee of 
the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty (Maryland State 
Medical Society), her membership on the Executive 
Committee of the Baltimore Babies' Milk Fund Asso- 
ciation from its organization and her membership for 


many years on the Thomas Wilson Sanitarium Board, 
in addition to her work as medical director of Bryn 
Mawr School, gave her such an intimate knowledge of 
conditions surrounding child-birth and the care and 
health of children that among the women of Baltimore 
and Maryland she came to be looked to for leadership 
in these matters. 

It was, therefore, eminently fitting that she should be 
chosen to organize and develop the Bureau of Child 
Welfare in the City Health Department when it was es- 
tablished. The inception of this department is due to 
Dr. William T. Howard, Assistant Health Commis- 
sioner. Dr. Howard persuaded Mayor Preston that 
the time had come for Baltimore to develop a separate 
Bureau of Child Welfare, and it was Dr. Howard who 
invited and urged Dr. Sherwood to accept the head of 
such a department. 

The great war brought with it a most interesting pub- 
lic health campaign in regard to food. Fortunately 
women were prepared for this as the Home Economics 
movement and other agencies had carried the teaching 
of the new science in regard to food into girls' schools 
and colleges. 

One of the most impressive women's meetings I ever 
attended in Baltimore was the one held in the Lyric after 
the United States had entered the war. Mr. Hoover was 
to address the women. Everyone can recall how, under 
the slogan: "Food will win the war," the women in our 
country were organized for an intensive campaign of 
education in food values, effecting such co-operation of 
effort as they had never known before. The body of the 
Lyric was filled with women representing every section 


of the city. As I looked over that vast concourse of 
women every face seemed set in a fixed expression 
of determination which seemed to say "we can and we 
will." My memory travelled back across the years 
when, during the war between the States, I had seen 
in my home my mother in company with other women 
ravelling lint as their great service in war time. 
I thought what a marvelous change in the status of 
women fifty years had wrought. It was not the work 
of willing hands alone that was demanded of them in 
the great World War, but knowledge and its applica- 
tions were essential to guide those hands. Moreover, I 
knew that if it became necessary all the teaching in re- 
gard to food, scientific and practical, even the essential 
research, could be taken over by women. It brought 
home the triumph of the higher education of women and 
justified all the effort and struggle by which it had been 

Among the various experiences Dr. Sherwood and I 
have had in following these great movements in public 
health some have been discouraging, some have been 
depressing and some have been amusing. For the causes 
we were interested in we have listened to and taken part 
in hearings before mayors, before special committees 
of the City Council, before various city boards and be- 
fore committees of the State Legislature and of the 
United States Congress. We have testified as witnesses 
in courtrooms and before justices. 

Naturally, one of the earliest subjects that interested 
us was the milk supply. The ordinances of the city in 
regard to milk were few and primitive in our early days 
in Baltimore. Dr. Sherwood, in a paper presented to 


the Maryland Public Health Association about 1896, a 
rather short-lived organization, had discussed the sub- 
ject of food and milk and referred to the cow stables 
in the city. One of the health wardens asked her to visit 
with him a few of the worst where cows never saw the 
light of day. Subsequently he asked her to testify be- 
fore a justice in a suit brought against the owner of 
some of the cows she had seen. After she had given 
her testimony a man in the room arose and, shaking a 
fist in the air, asked who had paid this woman for com- 
ing here and giving testimony. She was then a mem- 
ber of the Bay View Board. As she came out of the 
room she encountered this man at the entrance, very 
suave and oily in manner, with profuse apologies. He 
was a dealer in cows and sold to the Bay View Board 
and some one had told him who "this woman" was. 

The fight for a clean and safe milk supply for Balti- 
more advanced slowly. The interests of the small as 
well as the large dealer had political protection. I re- 
call one occasion when, at the request of Dr. Jones, vari- 
ous organizations were asked to send representatives to 
the City Council to hear a discussion on an ordinance 
the Health Department was trying to have passed, and to 
speak to the question if the occasion arose. Many rep- 
resentative citizens, men and women, were present. Miss 
Mary Garrett I remember, sitting on the steps of the 
speaker's platform. The Council postponed the con- 
sideration of the question, but its members were evi- 
dently much incensed at the presence of its visitors, espe- 
cially the women, and we overheard many uncompli- 
mentary remarks as we went through the corridors of 
the City Hall, mostly to the effect that these things 


(councilmanic action) were none of women's affairs and 
they would better be at home attending to their own 
business. In the light of such opinions it is interesting 
that the final fight for securing a satisfactory ordinance 
controlling the sale of milk in Baltimore City was car- 
ried to a successful conclusion by the milk committee 
of the Woman's Civic League and won largely through 
the efforts of its chairman, Mrs. Francis King Carey. 

I remember once at a hearing on an ordinance re- 
garding pool rooms, with a clause designed to keep chil- 
dren out of them after a certain hour at night, that one 
of the women present overheard two men discussing the 
situation. One said: "The women are out in force to- 
day." "It makes no difference," said his companion, 
"they have no votes." More and more it was borne in 
upon the consciousness of women using their influence 
to promote the betterment of environmental conditions 
of living that they lacked one essential tool, and before 
1910 Dr. Sherwood and I had come to the conclusion 
that women must bend their energies to securing the 
suffrage before they could hope to make much further 
progress in making their influence felt on the causes in 
which they were interested. 

I recall walking from my office to Goucher College 
one morning after one of the hearings on a milk 
ordinance, through streets of doubtful cleanliness, 
seeing unsanitary milk being distributed by unsanitary 
methods, and thinking about our unfiltered water sup- 
ply, our lack of a sewerage system and of any sanitary 
and adequate method of disposing of refuse and gar- 
bage. The first person I met inside the College doors 
was a man holding an important official position in the 


business administration, whose opinions and mine did 
not agree on suffrage for women. I told him about the 
conditions I had been reviewing in my mind, about the 
meeting of the Council the previous afternoon and then 
said: "I feel so good this morning because I have no 
responsibility for these matters. I was told so last even- 
ing in the City Hall." "But you have," said he, and the 
following conversation took place. "What can I do," 
I asked. "You can talk about it, you can write to the 
public press about it, you can make public speeches 
about it, there are many ways in which you can exercise 
an influence about it." "Yes," I replied, "I have tried 
all those ways, lo, these many years, now why aren't 
you willing to let me express my opinion by quietly de- 
positing a vote in the ballot box." He had no answer 
but the usual one that woman's place was in the home. 
Thinking women had grown grey and tired hearing that 
answer, having learned that there wasn't a single ac- 
tivity concerned in successful home-making which was 
not dependent upon a community life regulated by legis- 
lation in which they had no direct voice. The demand 
for suffrage was a corollary bound to follow the educa- 
tion of women. 

Chapter VH 

Personal Experiences in the Suffrage Campaign 

As far back as I can remember I believed in Woman 
Suffrage. As a girl in high school I had committed to 
memory the Constitution of the United States and had 


rolled the sonorous sentences of its preamble under my 
tongue with unction. It was a rude awakening when I 
found that "we, the people," did not include women. 
All the schools I had ever attended before entering upon 
the study of medicine and all the schools in which I had 
taught were coeducational. In the normal school in 
which I had my preparatory training as a teacher, 
two active debating societies in which women had 
an equal share with men, were used by the 
men as training schools for their future political activi- 
ties. Few of the men proposed to spend their lives in 
the teaching profession. To them teaching was to be a 
stepping stone to some more lucrative and dignified 
activity. The extension of the suffrage to women was 
thoroughly debated in these societies. I never saw much 
reason in the arguments advanced against it. However, 
at that period I was not especially interested in suffrage 
propaganda, although I v/as an early subscriber to the 
Woman's Journal and a constant reader of its pages. 

I presume I passed my opinions over to my pupils 
because I remember once, when principal of a high 
school, I assigned the subject to the senior class for de- 
bate and the cleverest boy in the class was given the side 
against suffrage for women. He came to me in great 
distress and told me he could do nothing with the sub- 
ject because he believed thoroughly in suffrage for 
women and did not want to debate against his convic- 
tions. I pointed out to him that often the best way to 
test one's beliefs was to argue against them. I had found 
that method useful in my own experience. 

The first suffrage meeting I ever attended was when 
I was a student of medicine in Philadelphia in 1888. 


when the National Woman Suffrage Association held one 
of its annual meetings there. Strange to say, among the 
women medical students there was little or no sentiment 
on the subject at that time. Few of them were inter- 
ested enough to attend any of the meetings. Several 
of us, however, went to an evening meeting and had no 
difficulty in finding good seats. Susan B. Anthony, Julia 
Ward Howe and Lucy Stone Blackwell were on the 
platform and all spoke, Lucy Stone making the principal 
address. Had I not been convinced before that there 
were no valid arguments against extending the suffrage 
to women I should have come away from that meeting 
a suffragist. Some of my companions who had gone to 
scoff came away convinced. 

However, at that period and subsequently I was more 
interested in securing the extension of educational op- 
portunities to women than in helping to secure suffrage 
for them. I presume if I thought about it at all I con- 
sidered that full freedom of educational privileges was 
bound to be followed by the removal of women's politi- 
cal disabilities. Then, too, I had not at that time been 
brought intimately into contact with any of the workers 
in the suffrage cause. 

Theoretically, then, when I came to Baltimore, I was 
a suffragist, but I had never lifted a finger nor con- 
tributed time nor money to advance the suffrage cause. 
I have already pointed out how gradually, in my medi- 
cal-social work in Baltimore, it was borne in upon my 
consciousness that the ballot was a very important tool 
in securing social legislation. Hitherto it had been the 
injustice of the laws affecting women which impressed 
me most. In short the argument was based on women's 


rights to a share in a government "for the people, of the 
people and by the people." Now, however, the appeal 
was different. I saw the necessity of the ballot for 
women in obtaining the social legislation for which they 
were working. It was clear to me after appearing be- 
fore committees of the legislature that a request to legis- 
lators would have much greater force when we could 
say "thousands of voters stand behind this request," in- 
stead of "thousands of women desire such legislation." 

My teaching of hygiene as a community problem led 
straight to the ballot. Therefore, when the opportunity 
came to engage, as far as I could, in actively supporting 
the cause of woman suffrage, I was quite ready. 

How long there had existed in Maryland a branch 
of the National Woman Suffrage Association I do not 
know, but I had never heard of it previous to the year 
1905 when I was informed that on the invitation of the 
Maryland State Suffrage Association the annual meet- 
ing of the National Association would be held in Balti- 
more in February, 1906. It was this meeting that led 
me actively into the suffrage cause. It was this Balti- 
more meeting that Miss Anthony and Miss Shaw char- 
acterized as the turning point in the suffrage movement 
in the United States. It was at this time that large 
groups of college women became actively interested in 
suffrage. It was after this meeting that active suffrage 
propaganda was carried on in Baltimore and in Mary- 

In the fall of 1905 Miss Garrett, who was then living 
with Miss Thomas at Bryn Mawr, came to see Dr. Sher- 
wood and me to enlist our interest in the coming annual 
meeting of the National Women Suffrage Association to 


be held in Baltimore. She assumed we were suffragists. 
In the course of the conversation she turned to Dr. Sher- 
wood and said: "Of course, Dr. Sherwood, you believe 
in suffrage." It was quite characteristic of the general 
attitude of many educated women that Dr. Sherwood 
responded: "Why, Miss Garrett, I haven't thought much 
on this subject, but I think I shall believe in it." Miss 
Garrett had hardly left us when Dr. Sherwood took from 
our library shelves John Stuart Mill's "Subjection of 
Women." Before she was through with the book she 
was an ardent suffragist. Many college women profes- 
sors and others at that time retired to their studies with 
the literature on suffrage and emerged therefrom con- 
vinced and active workers in the cause. 

Dr. Sherwood and I promptly put ourselves at the 
service of Miss Thomas and Miss Garrett to work ac- 
tively for the success of the convention. Mrs. Ida Hus- 
ted Harper, in the third volume of her "Life and Work 
of Susan B. Anthony," gives a graphic description of 
the Baltimore meeting in a chapter headed "Tributes 
of College Women — Suffrage Funds," indicating that 
the outstanding features of this convention were the Col- 
lege evening and the promise of Miss Garrett and Miss 
Thomas to undertake to raise a fund of sixty thousand 
dollars payable in six annual instalments for the work 
of the Association. When this was finally assured it 
was the first time any large or definite sum could be 
counted upon by the Association for budget purposes. 

Mrs. Harper says: "Because of its unique character 
and the prominence of the speakers the evening devoted 
to College Women was the leading event of the week." 


The audience assembled in the Lyric for this meeting 
filled it to overflowing. It was probably, in point of 
numbers and in the character of the listeners, the most 
brilliant audience that up to that time had ever attended 
a suffrage meeting in our country. I remember Prof. 
Mary W. Calkins, who represented Wellesley College 
on the program, said to me the following day; "I was 
amazed at the size and character of the audience that I 
faced last evening. In Boston such an audience to hear 
Woman Suffrage discussed would be impossible." The 
audience, however, by no means represented Baltimore's 
interest in the subject. Miss Garrett had opened her 
house on West Monument Street for the week of the 
convention where she entertained as house guests Miss 
Susan B. Anthony, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe and other 
distinguished women, and where she gave, during the 
week, a series of dinners, luncheons and receptions. For 
the College evening she had sent out invitations for a 
large reception to follow the exercises at the Lyric and 
most of the guests who were going to the reception went 
to the Lyric first and this fact accounted for a large part 
of the audience. 

Those of us who acted as advance agents for Miss 
Thomas and Miss Garrett in preparations for this Col- 
lege evening had many amusing experiences. Two are 
worth relating, one connected with the appearance on 
the program of the name of President Remsen of the 
John Hopkins University as the presiding officer, and 
the other related to the statement on the program that 
students of the Woman's College in cap and gown would 
act as ushers. 


Among the women whom Dr. Sherwood and I had 
tried to interest to the extent of being willing to endorse 
the program was the wife of a prominent professor of 
the Johns Hopkins University. She was a northern 
woman of independent views and we had very little 
doubt that she would be willing to place herself on rec- 
ord as favoring the suffrage movement. Much to our 
surprise when we approached her she was very hesitant 
about having her name used, but said she would con- 
sult her husband. A few days later she called me by 
telephone to say that she had talked it over with her 
husband and they both felt that, as the Johns Hopkins 
University was a very conservative institution, it would 
not be wise for her to have any share in our prepara- 
tions. I had hardly put down the telephone receiver 
when Dr. Sherwood received a telegram from Miss Gar- 
rett saying President Remsen would preside on College 
evening and Dr. William Welch had consented to occupy 
the chair at another meeting. 

I am afraid we took a good deal of malicious pleas- 
ure the night of Miss Garrett's reception in greeting 
woman after woman who had refused to have her name 
used in any way in connection with the meeting, but who 
was literally "bowled over" by the sight of Miss An- 
thony and Mrs. Howe. Mrs. Harper well says of this 
occasion: "No one present ever will forget the picture 
of Miss Anthony and Mrs. Howe sitting side by side on 
a divan in the large bay window of Miss Garrett's house 
with a background of ferns and flowers; at their right 
stood Miss Garrett and Miss Thomas, at their left Miss 
Shaw and the line of eminent college women speakers 


of the evening with a beautiful perspective of conserva- 
tory and art gallery." 

The college women of Baltimore, however, will recall 
with greater vividness the following Sunday afternoon 
when Miss Garrett invited them to come in for a cup of 
tea and a personal word from Miss Anthony. There 
we literally sat at her feet and knew we were in the 
presence of a great soul. Miss Anthony was then ap- 
proaching her eighty-sixth birthday which was to be 
celebrated in Washington the following week. I shall 
never forget the picture she presented in the fading light 
of the afternoon and the fitful play of the flames of an 
open fire. She wore her famous garnet-colored velvet 
dress and lace collar. We, a small group, sat on the 
floor and listened to the few words she had to say. What 
they were I do not recall, but what I carried away with 
me was an impression of a woman characterized by great 
simplicity, strength and dignity, indomitable spirit and 
infinite patience. I never think of Miss Anthony as I 
saw her that afternoon, without recalling what Dr. Sher- 
wood was wont to say when we had identified ourselves 
with the suffrage cause. She said it wa5 good to be an 
American woman in this particular period of our coun- 
try's history because we were the one class of human 
beings that were striving to obtain freedom and liberty, 
and that there was nothing in human experience so good 
for the soul as such a battle. What she and I did for a 
few years fitfully. Miss Anthony had done for more 
than half a century continuously and it had left a noble 
imprint upon her. 

Miss Anthony came to Baltimore an ill woman. Mrs. 
Harper says "Dr. Mary Sherwood, a skilled physician 


and a friend of Miss Garrett's, was at once summoned 
and during Miss Anthony's stay gave her most devoted 
attention, declaring it to be an honor and privilege to 
render service to one who had done so much for all 
womanhood. A trained nurse from the Johns Hopkins 
Hospital willingly consented to assume the garb of a 
maid in order that her patient might not know she was 
so ill as to need professional attendance." Woman doc- 
tor and woman nurse vied with each other to bring 
bodily comfort to their patient, while both felt that it 
was one of the great privileges of their lives to min- 
ister to her. The nurse accompanied Miss Anthony to 
Washington and then to her home in Rochester, where 
her death occurred March 13th, just about four weeks 
after her appearance in Baltimore. 

In the preparations for the College evening an invi- 
tation was extended to students of the Woman's College 
of Baltimore to send a group of students in cap and 
gown to act as ushers. I recall very distinctly a meeting 
of the Board of Control of the College held about a week 
before the Woman Suffrage Convention. President 
Goucher was in the chair after one of his prolonged ab- 
sences during which Dean Van Meter was acting presi- 
dent. After the business of the meeting had been trans- 
acted Dr. Goucher took from the table what I recog- 
nized as an advance program of the suffrage convention. 
He was not in sympathy with the suffrage movement and 
his views were shared by the majority of the professors 
who formed the Board of which I was the only woman 
member. Very quietly but with evidence of some feel- 
ing he said: "I have in my hand a program of the suf- 
frage convention to be held in Baltimore which states 


that on Wednesday evening students of the College will 
act as ushers in cap and gown. I should like to know 
who is responsible for this statement." For a minute 
there was a tense silence, then Dr. Van Meter said: "I 
am responsible. This will be an important occasion for 
college women. Bryn Mawr, Wellesley, Smith, Mount 
Holyoke will be represented on the program by promi- 
nent members of their respective faculties. The 
Woman's College of Baltimore should have a place 
on this program and I have taken the liberty of selecting 
a representative group of our students to act as ushers." 
The deed was done and the unwisdom of withdrawing 
permission was so obvious that no action was taken. Not 
only did the students turn out in a body on College even- 
ing, but Dr. Van Meter was on the platform to deliver 
the invocation with which the meeting was opened. 

More than one conservative group was swept into ac- 
tion contrary to the will of the majority during that 
memorable woman's week in Baltimore. The Arundell 
Club, with a membership mostly indifferent or actually 
hostile to the suffrage cause, gave Miss Anthony an after- 
noon reception. The president of the Club, Miss King 
(Mrs. Ellicott), was an outspoken advocate of woman 
suffrage and entered fully into active leadership in all 
subsequent suffrage work in Maryland. 

The Baltimore Convention was followed in City and 
State by active and general suffrage propaganda. Al- 
though our State did not finally ratify the Constitutional 
Amendment, it was not because Maryland suffragists 
failed to wage a vigorous, active and intelligent cam- 
paign under capable leadership. I doubt whether any 
State in the Union developed better leaders in their 


communities than Mrs. William M. Funck, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth King EUicott and Mrs. Donald Hooker. 

However much they may have differed in their opin- 
ions as to the methods to be used in advancing the cause 
they were honestly and loyally devoted to it and were 
always able to present a united front to the State Legis- 
lature and on other occasions when unity was essential. 

I have already said that so far as I know the only 
suffrage organization in Maryland prior to the Balti- 
more Convention was that led by Mrs. Funck. Promptly 
after the convention a group of women who had been 
active in the woman's club movement concluded that it 
would be wise to organize another association and they 
unanimously decided upon Mrs. Ellicott as president. 
Mrs. Hooker, I think, was one of the original executive 
board of this body. Eventually with the appearance of 
a militant wing in the national suffrage association, and 
its separation from the parent body, a third organiza- 
tion representing this group was formed in Maryland 
with Mrs. Hooker as its president. 

In addition to these organizations the National Col- 
lege Equal Suffrage League maintained a Baltimore 
branch with headquarters at the College Club. This 
National Association had been formed by Mrs. Maud 
Wood Park who represented it at the College evening 
of the Baltimore convention. Its object was to do propa- 
ganda work among women college graduates and col- 
lege students. Early in its history a meeting for college 
women with Mrs. Park as the speaker was arranged by 
Miss Thomas and Miss Garrett at the Baltimore Coun- 
try Club. About two hundred Baltimore college women 
drank tea together that afternoon, listened to an able 


address by Mrs. Park and were enthusiastic over her 
address and her charming personality, but very few of 
them were ready to commit themselves on the subject of 
suffrage. I remember very well that a few of us took 
dinner afterwards with Mrs. Park in the dining room of 
the Club and the surprise expressed by the men there 
that this young and charming woman had been the suf- 
frage speaker of the afternoon. 

There were all kinds of women in the suffrage ranks 
just as there are all kinds in any cause. Some of them 
undoubtedly were there because they were "queer." I 
remember meeting a woman delegate from the State of 
Washington at a reception to the delegates to the Balti- 
more Convention given by Miss Garrett Friday afternoon 
of convention week. She obviously belonged to a class 
familiarly known as "cranks." She told me after some 
conversation that no one had introduced her to Miss 
Garrett and she desired to meet her. I offered to pre- 
sent her, but asked what her name was and whether she 
was "Mrs. or Miss." She straightened herself up, gave 
me a haughty look and replied: "I have been married 
three times and the sweetest word in the English lan- 
guage to me is 'Miss.' " 

As the general campaign for suffrage waxed hotter, 
women college students, as a rule, having been won over, 
its sponsors felt that the National College Equal Suf- 
frage League had served its purpose and it was ami- 
cably disbanded. 

I was present in Washington at the annual conven- 
tion of the National Woman Suffrage Association as a 
delegate from the National College Equal Suffrage 
League when this action wa§ taken. There was no oppo- 


sition to such action and the league died peacefully and 
quietly. At the same time a new league was born. It 
was at this convention that the split came between the 
conservative and the radical wings represented on the 
one side by Miss Shaw and the old line suffragists and 
on the other by Alice Paul, Lucy Burns and a vigorous 
contingent of youth. It was not, however, a division 
between the old and the young as some of the oldest 
suffragists I knew, women seventy and eighty years of 
age, promptly joined the militant wing while many of 
the youngest I knew were found in the ranks led by Miss 

Whether militancy advanced the cause of suffrage in 
the United States and brought suffrage sooner than it 
otherwise would have come is an unanswerable question. 
The militants say it did and by dint of constant affirma- 
tion they have made many people believe it is true. I 
believe myself that while it did not retard the progress 
of suffrage, it was useless and much of it foolish. I had 
occasion once at the request of Dr. Kelly to visit a Wash- 
ington jail to see one of the women who was undergoing 
a hunger strike. It seemed to me that any person who 
took pleasure in a fancied martyrdom ought to be per- 
mitted this form of self-expression if she desired it. 
Forcible feeding was so familiar to me from my service 
in an insane hospital that it failed to arouse any par- 
ticular sympathy for those who chose to put themselves 
in the position in which it might be needed. The only 
time during my service at Norristown that a patient at- 
tacked me was when I had ordered a cessation of her 
feeding by a tube, a method which had been used with 
her for four or five years because she refused to take 


food in the usual way. There is nothing intrinsically 
unpleasant about the process after one is used to it. 

Of the many addresses made in Baltimore in the in- 
terest of woman suffrage, the one I remember most 
vividly is the first one made by Mrs. Pankhurst. This 
was on her first visit to America before she had adopted 
window-breaking as an argument for suffrage. The 
meeting was held in a theatre on a Sunday afternoon, 
two innovations that, in my opinion, boded ill for its 
success. I was, however, mistaken. The theatre was 
crowded with a representative audience and the speaker 
made a profound impression. I look back upon that 
address as one of the few great speeches on any subject 
I have heard in my life time. When Mrs. Pankhurst 
visited Baltimore a second time she had lost her ability 
to draw an audience or to hold spellbound those who 
listened to her. 

In the years between 1906 and the end of the cam- 
paign for suffrage Baltimore audiences had the oppor- 
tunity of hearing the subject thoroughly discussed by 
the ablest speakers in the country who took the plat- 
form for and against suffrage during that period. I re- 
call that the day after a meeting arranged by women 
opposed to the extension of suffrage to women at which 
the principal speakers were a Judge of the Federal 
Court and an eminent New York lawyer, a young woman 
came to see me in my office. She was a beautiful South- 
ern girl studying art in our city. She said: "Dr. Welsh, 
I was at that meeting last night and heard those two old 
gentlemen talking against suffrage. Now I am on the 
fence in this matter, but if I hear many more speeches 
like those I shall step down into the suffrage ranks. 


They said that if women got suffrage they wouldn't 
marry and homes would be broken up. Now, you know 
that is foolish. Nature will take care of that." There 
was, of course, plenty of foolish talk on both sides as 
happens with any controversial subject. 

The greatest thrills of the campaign came with the 
street parades. 1 marched in one in Baltimore and in 
the famous one staged in Washington the day before the 
first inauguration of President Wilson. I had elected 
to take my place in the parade with a group of women 
physicians from the Women's Medical College of Penn- 
sylvania. One of our most cherished traditions when I 
was a student there was the story of Dr. Ann Preston, 
the first Dean of the College, leading a small group of 
women medical students in a forced march down the 
middle of Chestnut Street protected by the police from 
a mob of male medical students who had hooted them 
out of a clinic which the women had been given permis- 
sion to attend. I doubt whether the jeers or insulting 
remarks which that small band listened to because they 
were seeking educational freedom for women were any 
worse than those we listened to fifty years later because 
we were seeking political freedom. 

The Washington parade with the accompanying pag- 
eant in spite of, and because of, the lack of protection 
afforded it by the Washington police, made a profound 
impression throughout this country. The professional 
women in cap and gown, lawyers, doctors, teachers and 
students formed a conspicuous section of the parade. 
The Trustees of Goucher College had refused to grant a 
holiday to the student body, but the newspaper photo- 
graphs showed a very large contingent of caps and 



gowns behind a conspicuous banner bearing the single 
word "Goucher." I think the majority of the students 
and a large number of the women members of the fac- 
ulty marched behind that banner. 

In the September following the Washington parade 
Dr. Guth entered upon his duties as President of Gou- 
cher College. His formal inauguration took place in 
the Lyric in November of that year. The audience filled 
the Lyric to its capacity, while on the platform was 
grouped a colorful assemblage in academic costume 
representing many of the leading universities and col- 
leges of the United States. In his inaugural address he 
declared in very positive terms his conviction that suf- 
frage should be extended to women. At that time of 
six prominent women's colleges along the Atlantic sea- 
board three of the presidencies, Vassar, Smith and 
Goucher, were occupied by men, and Goucher's new 
president was the first of these to publicly declare him- 
self in favor of woman suffrage. The three women 
presidents, representing Bryn Mawr, Wellesley and 
Mount Holyoke — all of whom were on the stage that 
afternoon — had been for many years workers in the 
suffrage cause. 

With suffrage for women an accomplished fact I am 
often asked whether I consider that it has been a suc- 
cess. That question has no interest for me. Obviously 
it admits of no answer. In a democracy, government is 
the business of the entire adult population. The bal- 
lot is the means by which an individual expresses an 
opinion on questions of government, and it is not only 
the right of the individual to use it, but it is his duty to 
do so. Once in a parlor meeting where I was one of the 


two speakers debating the question of woman suffrage, 
I made the assertion that in my opinion not only should 
every adult individual in a democracy have a right to 
vote, but that he or she should be punished by fine or 
imprisonment for failure to exercise that right. A lady 
in the audience gave vent to her aversion to such senti- 
ments by a prolonged hiss. As I passed her to my seat 
she seized some part of me and said: "Do you mean to 
say that if the vote comes to women I ought to be fined 
or sent to prison if I fail to use it," "Yes, madam," I 
replied, "that is my opinion, but do not fear. You and 
I will not live to see any such really democratic day." 

Chapter VIII 

Personal Experiences as a Member of the Goucher 
College Faculty 

In 1894 I was appointed by Dr. Goucher, then presi- 
dent of the Woman's College of Baltimore, to succeed 
Dr. Mary Mitchell as professor of Physiology and 
Physical Training. The first statement issued by the 
Woman's College, announcing its opening and its pro- 
posed courses, stated that it was the intention of the au- 
thorities of the College to make provision for the care 
of the health of its students in a department which 
should be co-ordinate with the other departments of 
the College. The catalogue of 1892 announced the ap- 
pointment of Dr. Alice Hall as the head of a depart- 
ment of Physiology and Physical Training with the title 
of professor and a place on the faculty and on its Board 


of Control which consisted of the president, the dean and 
instructors holding the rank of professor. It was not 
President Goucher's policy to appoint women to pro- 
fessorships and except in this department for many 
years the only woman on the Board of Control was the 
woman physician. In 1904 Dr. Eleanor Lord, associate 
professor of history, was made a full professor, and 
from that time until 1916 Dr. Lord and I were the only 
women on the Board of Control which determined the 
academic policy of the College, and, until student gov- 
ernment became a part of College policy, exercised a 
certain measure of control over the rules and regulations 
for the conduct of students. 

Now a woman who accepted a position in a woman's 
college in 1890 to develop a department of hygiene en- 
tered an unworked field and could practically make of 
it what she pleased. She could expect little or no help 
from her colleagues in trying to give her department 
academic rank because the subject of hygiene as a dig- 
nified subject for department standing in a college of 
liberal arts was unheard of and a professor of physical 
training was given scant consideration by the early gen- 
eration of doctors of philosophy who were rapidly fill- 
ing the professorial chairs in colleges. Indeed doctors 
of medicine themselves looked with doubtful eyes on 
teachers of college hygiene who supposedly gave their 
time to teaching gymnastics. I recall that Dr. Frances 
Emily White who, as professor of physiology in the 
Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, had taught 
Dr. Hall, Dr. Mitchell and myself, lamented the fact 
that three of her students were wasting their talents and 


their medical education in teaching gymnastic move- 
ments to girls. 

As a matter of fact none of us could have taught gym- 
nastics had we desired to do so nor were we engaged 
for that purpose. 

My predecessors saw to it that the foundations for 
developing a department of hygiene were well laid in 
that they insisted that animal physiology was to have a 
distinct place in the curriculum and that its teaching 
should be controlled by their department. 

Other women's colleges had physicians in their facul- 
ties, but they were employed primarily to look after the 
sick. In the Woman's College of Baltimore the distinct 
understanding was that the physician did not look after 
the sick. In my first interview with Dr. Goucher he told 
me that the policy of the college was to designate two 
male physicians resident in Baltimore, one of the regu- 
lar school (he said "allopathic") and one homeopathic, 
to be called to the dormitories in cases of illness, the 
nurse in charge calling the doctor after ascertaining 
from the student her preference. Until 1914 the cata- 
logue stated that illness in the dormitories was entirely 
in the care of the resident trained nurse. She made her 
report to Dean Van Meter every morning, and received 
her instructions from him. The woman physician on 
the college faculty had no official recognition so far as 
the dormitories were concerned and no authority over 
the nurse. Her salary included nothing for medical 
services to sick students. 

Manifestly there were difficulties in such an arrange- 
ment. To the nurses themselves it was unsatisfactory 
and I found they were eager to seek advice and direc- 


tion from me. As time passed on I gradually assumed 
the medical direction of the infirmary without any com- 
pensation and without any official appointment. This 
led to two complications — one an occasional explosion 
from Dr. Van Meter when difficulties arose, the other 
the assumption of students that they were entitled to 
medical service, although they paid nothing for it even 
in the shape of an infirmary fee. 

When Dr. Noble became President I was appointed, 
by action of the Board of Trustees, medical adviser to 
the College with the understanding that I was to organize 
the care of the sick in an infirmary as I saw best, but 
to receive no compensation for medical services from 
the College. I was never willing to establish a relation 
with students on a fee basis, as I felt that such an ar- 
rangement was not compatible with the relationship de- 
manded for preventive work. So long as the College 
was small and the medical work light I was glad to in- 
clude the care of the sick girls in the infirmary among 
my duties, especially as the policy was early adopted of 
sending those acutely ill for more than a few days to 
various hospitals of the city. 

When Dr. Guth came to the presidency he confirmed 
this arrangement and gave me full authority in the in- 
firmary. When the number of students increased rap- 
idly and my other duties became likewise greater, one 
year, with President Guth's approval. Dr. Mabel Belt, 
one of our own alumnae, was called in to care for stu- 
dents in the infirmary ill for more than one day. When, 
at my request, she sent her modest bills to the students 
there was a great uproar in the College. A meeting of 
the student organization was called to consider the mat- 


ter. Parents wrote protesting letters to the president 
and, altogether, the situation was very unpleasant, for 
Dr. Belt, who, by the way, has never been able to col- 
lect those bills. The catalogue distinctly stated that 
students were not entitled to medical care. My own re- 
action was first one of indignation and second the reflec- 
tion that it was my own fault. However, this led to the 
final step in the organization of the department of hy- 
giene. An infirmary fee to be paid by all resident stu- 
dents was instituted and an additional physician with 
the title of assistant professor of hygiene was included 
in the personnel of the department, part of whose duty 
is the care of sick girls in the infirmary. We were for- 
tunate to find one of our own alumnae — Dr. Van Duyne 
— to inaugurate this arrangement. 

So far, then, as my duties were defined when I be- 
came associated with the Woman's College of Baltimore, 
they included a physical examination of every student 
who entered college, day students and resident stu- 
dents, placing on permanent record the results of this 
examination. On the basis of these examinations I was 
to assign students to the work they might do in the gym- 
nasium. The instructors in the gymnasium were my 
assistants and were directly responsible to me in all 
questions affecting health. I was to give one hour lec- 
ture weekly on hygiene to freshmen, who were required 
to attend this course, and was to have charge of a course 
in animal physiology as part of the work required of 
students making a major in biology. 

The two parts of this program which appealed to me 
were the opportunity of observing presumably healthy 
girls and the effect of exercise upon them, and the op- 


portunity of teaching physiology. The one-hour course 
in hygiene did not seem to me worth while as a college 

In 1894 we were still in the midst of the discussion 
precipitated by Dr. Clarke's book entitled "Sex in Edu- 
cation." The reproductive organs in women were looked 
upon as the source of most of their ills and the function 
of menstruation as a monthly recurrent disabling period, 
even if not accompanied by dysmenorrhaea. One has 
only to read the pages devoted to the subject by Stanley 
Hall in his monumental work on Adolescence to realize 
on what insecure foundations one may weave a theory 
as to a suitable education for women. It seemed to me 
that the gymnasiums connected with women's colleges 
should be looked upon as laboratories where one might 
study the effects of exercise and of mental work upon 
the health of girls and women. Moreover, the emer- 
gence of gynaecology as a specialty of medicine with 
its intensive study of the cause of the diseases of the 
reproductive organs of women and their secondary mani- 
festations was yielding a harvest of generalizations 
founded on sound knowledge that were revolutionary in 
their character so far as their bearing on the health of 
women was concerned. No one can appreciate this quite 
so clearly as a woman physician who knew women stu- 
dents and their ideas on these subjects in 1894 and who 
dealt with the daughters of these students and the daugh- 
ters of other women of the same generation twenty-five 
years later. There was scarcely a student in those early 
days with a neurotic history or a neurotic tendency 
whose mind was not fixed upon her reproductive organs 
as the source of all her troubles. Her dismay and that 


of her friends at the idea of systematic gymnastic exer- 
cise or of athletics as a required subject was often too 
great to overcome. One young woman told me once that 
an eminent gynaecologiest of the old school had told 
her that if women knew what dangers lurked in their 
pelvic organs they would not step from the pavement to 
their carriages or vice versa. When I mildly suggested 
that it was then fortunate that the majority of women 
in the United States didn't have the opporuniy of per- 
forming these acts she did not seem much impressed. 

Dr. Alice Hall, who had organized the department of 
physical training, had advised that the College adopt the 
Swedish system of educational gymnastics and the em- 
ployment of teachers trained in the Royal Central In- 
stitute in Stockholm. The early students will remem- 
ber the various Swedes who presided over their required 
gymnasium work. Miss Oberg, Miss Palmquist, Miss 
Kellman, Miss Erickson. They possibly never knew 
that these teachers looked upon the American girls as 
"soft" in the sense that they were obliged to give them 
very mild exercises compared to what their country- 
women demanded. It was difficult for these teachers 
to learn that they must make many concessions to the 
prejudices of the American girl and not require her 
adherence to rigid rules or ask her to undertake really 
vigorous exercise. 

When I accepted appointment to the faculty of the 
College it was understood that I would proceed to Swe- 
den and observe directly the methods of educational 
gymnastics used there. So in April, 1894, Dr. Sher- 
wood and I set forth to learn what we could about Swe- 
dish Educational Gymnastics in Stockholm. We spent 


five months in the study and observation of the training 
schools for teachers and the actual teaching of gymnas- 
tics in Sweden, Germany and England. I came back 
convinced that the Swedish system offered the best foun- 
dation for systematic formal gymnastics in classes, but 
that there should be added the English zest for sports 
and athletics. I advised Dr. Goucher to try an English 
teacher when the next vacancy occurred, from the School 
of Madame Osterberg, a Swede, who had introduced 
the Swedish system into England and established a 
school there for training teachers which specially em- 
phasized athletics and sports. In 1897, when I visited 
England again, I was commissioned by Dr. Goucher to 
find a teacher, and through Madame Osterberg's influ- 
ence I was fortunate in securing the services of Miss 
Hillyard who will be remembered by many former stu- 
dents as a splendid specimen of physical vigor and an 
inspiring leader in outdoor sports. She introduced 
hockey to the College. Miss Hillyard had been a stu- 
dent at Girton, but because her health seemed not good 
had gone into physical training as a profession, and 
after her own experience could often laugh a girl out 
of her ideas concerning physical disability. 

While Dr. Sherwood and I were in Stockholm Dr. 
Sherwood received a cablegram from President Thomas 
asking her to accept a position as medical director of 
Bryn Mawr School and as lecturer on hygiene and medi- 
cal examiner of students in Bryn Mawr College. She was 
at that time lecturer in pathology at the Woman's Medi- 
cal College in Philadelphia, which took her to Philadel- 
phia once a week during the college year. She accepted 
the position offered and for a number of years spent a 


day and a half in Bryn Mawr and Philadelphia until her 
medical work in Baltimore no longer permitted of such 
regular absences. By this arrangement Dr. Sherwood 
and I began at the same time practical work in hygiene 
with girls in secondary schools and with college women. 
We worked out together methods of instruction and 
of medical supervision. As Dr. Sherwood has con- 
tinued as medical director of Bryn Mawr School ever 
since her appointment we have been most helpful to each 
other in school and college work. 

Until 1913 the instructors in physical training in the 
Woman's College were Swedes and English women, with 
one exception who did not increase my desire for Ameri- 
can trained teachers. However, our own schools of 
physical education were steadily improving and an in- 
creasing number of women college graduates were en- 
tering these schools, so, finally, when Miss Jervis, an 
English woman who had followed Miss Rodway, who 
had succeeded Miss Hillyard and who was one of the 
most successful of all our teachers, left us for work in 
China, the department was organized with all American 
teachers, with one of our own graduates as director. The 
success of Miss Von Borries is a great satisfaction to 
the College authorities. I believe the department of 
physical training in Goucher College has never been so 
efficient as it is at present. 

Gradually as I gained experience and knowledge and 
compared the final organization of our department in 
Goucher College with that in other women's colleges I 
became fully convinced of the wisdom of our arrange- 
ment in making physical training a special phase of hy- 
giene administered in close correlation with the teach- 


ing of hygiene and the care of the sick in one compact 
department with a definite head. As a rule the instruc- 
tors in physical training have learned to value this or- 
ganization, especially as they have been given free hand 
to develop their own ideas after thorough discussion and 
have been given full authority in their own field. 

The basis of the supervision of the health of students 
is laid in their physical examinations made on entrance. 
In the early days these were the subject of much discus- 
sion and of frequent, sometimes violent, objection. It 
was said it was useless and expensive and an interfer- 
ence with personal liberty. In the light of the present 
day campaign for periodical physical examinations of 
all individuals as a fundamental requisite for personal 
hygiene it is interesting to remember these objections. 
As years passed by and the methods of physical exami- 
nations used in colleges and elsewhere were made more 
uniform and complete our records have become more 
valuable for systematic study. In the light of large 
numbers of such examinations it is no longer possible 
to assert that college conditions have detrimentally af- 
fected the health of women students. It can usually be 
shown that the symptoms attributed to college life 
existed when the student entered college. I know more 
than one student who thinks her health was permanently 
injured by her gymnasium requirements or by her stu- 
dies in college, but I fail to recall one such case where 
the claims could be substantiated. Fortunately, in re- 
cent years, one rarely hears these forlorn stories. 

When I had my first interview with Dr. Goucher I 
told him of my interest in some of the physiological 
problems that might be studied in the gymnasium and 


he expressed his interest and thought I would have time 
for some of the studies I had in mind. This did not 
prove to be the case and my own contributions to the 
literature of this subject have been nil. Yet I have 
never lost sight of the possibility and have urged the 
same attitude on other members of the department and 
induced them to make special studies and publish their 

The prospect of teaching physiology to major stu- 
dents held special attractions for me because my inter- 
est in chemistry had been a factor in deciding me to 
take up the study of medicine. In my medical school 
days I had decided to take up the subject of physiologi- 
cal chemistry as a profession if I could get the oppor- 
tunity. In my last year in medicine I consulted Dean 
Bodley of the medical school in which I was a student, 
one of the first women in our country to teach chemistry, 
about leaving the medical school and taking up the study 
of chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. She said to me: "My experience in life has 
been that it is well to finish what one begins. You are 
one year from your medical degree and I think you 
would be unwise not to finish your course." She pointed 
out that opportunities for women in the field of chem- 
istry were very limited. The last consideration did not 
deter me, indeed it served as a stimulus until I learned 
the truth by experience. Her advice to finish what I had 
begun was very helpful and I have passed it on many 
times to perplexed students. At the end of my last years 
in college, however, I was led to believe that if I were 
qualified, a position for teaching physiological chemis- 
try would be available for me. I did not desire to prac- 


tice medicine and I rather think I seized upon the some- 
what nebulous hopes held out to me. I decided to go 
to Zurich as it seemed on inquiry the best place avail- 
able for a woman to get what 1 wanted. At the end 
of a year and a half in Ziirich, when I was about to be- 
gin my thesis for the degree of doctor of philosophy with 
physiological chemistry as my major subject, the pros- 
pects of securing the teaching position I had in view 
vanished. As I did not feel justified in incurring fur- 
ther financial obligations without a more definite out- 
look for the future, I returned home to seek a job, 
which I found in a hospital for the insane. When the 
Hopkins Medical School opened in 1893 I was residing 
in Baltimore, and found the opportunity of taking 
up a problem in physiological chemistry in Dr. Abel's 
laboratory. Work in this was interrupted, however, by 
my appointment to the Woman's College of Baltimore 
with its requirement of a trip to Sweden. 

I make this rather detailed statement because it ex- 
plains why I say that the prospect of teaching physiology 
to somewhat advanced students was particularly attrac- 
tive to me and why I have always claimed physiological 
chemistry as a course to be given in the department of 
physiology. My first advanced courses were largely de- 
voted to this subject. 

When I accepted a position in the Woman's College 
of Baltimore in March, 1894, Bennett Hall Annex was 
in process of building, not because the College needed 
more gymnasium space, I was told, but because Mr. Ben- 
nett was willing to give an additional building, but only 
one for physical training purposes. It was, however, 


agreed that the first story and basement of the Annex 
were to be fitted up for the use of the departments of 
biology and physiology and hygiene, which were then 
taken care of in the basement of Goucher Hall. 

Dr. Maynard M. Metcalf was then in charge of the 
department of biology. When I entered upon my duties 
in September, 1894, the new building, while not quite 
completed, was ready for partial use. Students from 
1894 to 1916 will remember the first story of Bennett 
Hall Annex, one half its present size, divided into lec- 
ture room and laboratory serving the purpose of teach- 
ing biology, botany, physiology and hygiene. 

Whatever success I had in those early days in teach- 
ing was in large measure due to the generous en- 
couragement and cordial co-operation of Dr. Metcalf. 
Our departments had a common budget which he ad- 
ministered. All his material was freely at my disposal 
and our apparatus and books chosen with reference to 
the needs of the two departments were common prop- 
erty. The assistants and the mechanic were common to 
both. To me it was a congenial and helpful atmosphere 
and I feel I owe a debt of gratitude to Dr. Metcalf that 
I have never been able to repay. 

Dr. Metcalf was a stimulating and inspiring teacher 
and the department of biology under his direction took 
a leading place in the college and my work shone by 
reflected light. Of the five or seven students who were 
majoring in biology in my first year three subsequently 
took advanced degrees. Florence Peebles did distin- 
guished work at Bryn Mawr as graduate scholar and 
ifellow. She won the Bryn Mawr European fellowship 
and took her degree of doctor of philosophy at Bryn 


Mawr in 1900. Subsequently she returned for a time to 
the Woman's College as an instructor in our department 
and organized the first classes in vegetable physiology. 
Letitia Snow, now associate professor of botany at Wel- 
lesley College, a Ph.D. in botany of Chicago, was also 
in that group. The third student of the group, Lily Kol- 
lock, took a Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1899. These were the first Goucher 
graduates who proceeded to the degree of doctor of 
philosophy. Of the forty-six Goucher graduates who 
have taken the degree of doctor of philosophy or that 
of doctor of medicine at a university the large majority 
have majored in biology. It is evident that this depart- 
ment has stimulated its students to proceed with scholar- 
ly work. 

It is rather significant that the part of the work I was 
engaged to do when I entered the faculty of the Woman's 
College which interested me least was the weekly lec- 
ture on hygiene to freshmen, and yet, eventually, this 
elementary course led to the most important work I did 
at Goucher College as a teacher and to the constructive 
contribution I made to the College, the organization of 
a department of hygiene with three subdivisions. Health 
Instruction, Health Supervision and the Care of the 

The foundations for such a department were laid by 
my predecessors, but the superstructure was not possi- 
ble in their day. It was a gradual growth due to several 
factors, the most important of which was the rapid ad- 
vance of scientific knowledge upon which modern hy- 
giene is based. A second important factor was that in 
1895 the one-hour lecture course was changed to a three- 


hour course required of all students in the sophomore 
year. A one-hour required lecture course to College 
students on a subject which they think they know all 
about without any instruction commands respect neither 
from students nor faculty and that was exactly the posi- 
tion hygiene as a college subject held in women's col- 
leges, at least for many years. 

When I was called upon to organize a three-hour 
course in hygiene for college sophomores there were 
available no text-books, no periodicals and no reference 
books on the subject adapted to college requirements. 
The preceding chapters of these reminiscences show that 
during the early years of my college connection my own 
education was advancing and my interests were being 
definitely crystallized in the subject of hygiene and pub- 
lic health. My problem was to take a class of students, 
the majority of whom had had no previous training in 
science, and give them the necessary biological, chemi- 
cal and physical concepts necessary to the understanding 
of hygiene as applied science, to thoroughly instil into 
their minds a respect for hygiene as a growing body of 
truths of fundamental importance to human life and 
human happiness, and finally to make them familiar 
with the sources to which they might look in the future 
for authoritative information on hygienic subjects. How 
well I succeeded students alone can tell, but at any rate 
for many years by the method of lectures, recitations 
and demonstrations under the designation of "R one" 
I conducted a semi-popular course running through the 
year that at least possessed the one merit Hippocrates 
regarded as fundamental for any method of treating 
bodily ills — it did no harm. I was accustomed to tell 


the students that they might forget most of what they had 
learned in the classroom — which might be an advan- 
tage — but the subject itself would constantly grow in 
importance as they grew older. I presume most of them 
know now that this is true, even those who began the 
course with dislike and aversion and ended it with the 
same sentiments. 

Fortunately early in the history of this course the 
general college curriculum was modified so that all stu- 
dents in the freshman year were required to study either 
chemistry or physics. Finally, in 1914, when the college 
curriculum was entirely reorganized on a semester basis 
a required course in general biology was made to pre- 
cede the hygiene course, which became a one semester 
course. At present students, with few exceptions, come 
to the study of hygiene, having had preceding courses 
in chemistry, physics and general biology. Moreover, 
with the phenomenal growth and revival of spirit that 
have occurred in the College since Dr. Guth became 
president, the department of physiology and hygiene 
has had its share in the general development. It has 
been generously dealt with in the matter of personnel 
of its staff, in buildings and in equipment. Its courses 
have been increased and expanded, and as I look back 
over the years and see its progress I feel very grateful 
to have had a share in developing this department of 
Goucher College. 

Early in my college experience I saw that my time 
would be increasingly taken up with this elementary 
course in hygiene and administrative duties and that I 
should not be able to continue teaching the advanced 
course in physiology. 


In the most depressing period of the College history, 
when the outlook for the future was very grave with 
the finances of the College at their lowest ebb, the neces- 
sity arose for me to have an independent assistant, 
who could give all her time to my department. I felt 
this was my opportunity to secure the services of a 
physiologist, but two great difficulties stood in the way. 
First, women physiologists were very rare and, second, 
Dr. Noble, then president of the College, could not see 
his way clear to offer any adequate salary. It was 
rather a hopeless quest, successful finally only because 
while women physiologists were scarce, positions open 
to them were still scarcer. 

While I was pondering over a method of finding a 
satisfactory assistant I received a letter of inquiry from 
a young woman who said she was about to receive her 
degree of doctor of philosophy in physiology from Cor- 
nell University and was seeking a position for the fol- 
lowing year. This I learned subsequently was one of 
several letters she sent out to various women's colleges. 
I urged President Noble to give me at least a small ap- 
propriation to which I agreed to add from my own slen- 
der salary one-third the amount granted. With this I 
was able to offer the young woman a position which 
looked very unpromising both as to salary and as to con- 
ditions under which she must do her teaching. We 
were then using the gallery of Bennett Hall Annex for 
a demonstration laboratory and the small room over the 
archway as a physiological laboratory. She agreed to 
come to Baltimore for an interview on her way to her 
home in Indiana after the Cornell commencement. She 
came and seemed rather contemptuous. The one thing 


besides her general air of disapproval that I remember 
clearly about that interview was that she looked delicate 
and carried the heaviest suit case I had ever lifted. I 
had no idea 1 would ever see her again. That summer 
I spent in Europe in low spirits over the next college 
year prospects. In August I heard from the young 
woman that she would accept the position offered her 
and so Miss King came to the Woman's College. 

It is not necessary for me to tell Goucher students of 
the last fourteen years that whatever success has attend- 
ed the work of the department of physiology and hygiene 
in these years has been largely due to Miss King, and 
that the development of the advanced courses in physi- 
ology and bacteriology are almost entirely her work. 
Her services have been invaluable. 

I served the College under four presidents — Dr. 
Goucher, Dr. Noble, Dr. Van Meter and Dr. Guth. I 
honestly think that I never failed in loyalty to any of 
them and I think they were all my friends. With Dr. 
Goucher and Dr. Noble I never had conflicts of any kind 
and with Dr. Van Meter and Dr. Guth none that could 
not be amicably settled. I saw each of these men render 
invaluable service to the College and, except Dr. Noble, 
whose service was too brief for that, their personalities 
were permanently impressed upon the traditions of the 
College. I have already had the opportunity of giving the 
alumnae my personal impression of Dr. Goucher — his 
invariable optimism, courtesy, consideration and friend- 
liness are the qualities that always come to my mind 
first when I think of him. 

While we are all wont to think of Dr. Van Meter as 
"Dean" Van Meter he was far more intimately con- 


nected with the college and its policy than would be in- 
dicated by that title. Dr. Goucher because of the mul- 
tiplicity of his interests was absent from the College for 
long periods at a time and the continuity of its academic 
policy for many years was the work of Dr. Van Meter. 
It would be difficult for me to put into words what I feel 
about Dr. Van Meter and his services to the Woman's 
College of Baltimore, especially to its students. My 
long association with him in faculty meetings, on the 
Board of Control, and in his office in intimate discus- 
sions about the welfare of individual girls inspired me 
with respect for his ideals, confidence in his judgments 
and willingness to follow his intellectual leadership. 

Dr. Noble came to the presidency of the college at 
the darkest period in its history. It was during his presi- 
dency and through his influence that the name of the 
College was changed from the Woman's College of Bal- 
timore to Goucher College. I remember the evening of 
the day he had presented his final report to the Trustees 
with his resignation that he and Mrs. Noble came to 
dine with Dr. Sherwood and myself. He was late and 
very tired. He said he thought in his final report he 
had rendered a great service to Goucher College, and 
I am sure he did. As a result of that report the Trus- 
tees of the College were obliged to face the situation of 
a college hopelessly in debt and with no endowment. 

The recollection of the two or three years of the Col- 
lege, immediately preceding the advent of Dr. Guth, 
seem to me somewhat of a nightmare. I recall once dur- 
ing those years, when Dr. Van Meter was acting presi- 
dent, I had an unusually attractive offer of a position 
outside of Baltimore. When I asked Dr. Van Meter's ad- 


vice on the subject he said: "Were I in your place I 
should accept at once, the future for Goucher College is 
very dark." I had, however, no intention at that time of 
leaving Baltimore even if Goucher College went out of 

In the campaign undertaken in 1913 for a million 
dollars to pay the debts of the College, it was clear to 
those who knew that even were the College debts paid 
the College could not continue to exist, and certainly 
could not grow and develop if funds for a productive 
endowment were not available. 

The first interview I ever had with Dr. Guth he said: 
"I do not know what I came to Goucher for at any rate." 
It was a hot day in Baltimore and he and Mrs. Guth 
had been house hunting. I didn't see myself why 
he had come, until I knew him better. Then I saw that 
the hard job — to take a dying college and restore it to 
life and vigor — offered a challenge to him. The "job" 
has been hard, no one not intimately familiar with the 
inside history of President Guth's administration knows 
how hard, nor how successfully he has met it. Since I 
have been away from Baltimore Dr. Guth has given to 
the Alumnae Quarterly, I understand, an estimate of 
me in my relations to Goucher College. My observa- 
tions of him and his method of attacking his problem 
will be reserved for a later number of the same periodi- 

In the early days of my college relationship the fac- 
ulty was small enough for all of us to get pretty well 
acquainted with each other. All of the members of the 
faculty were, I think, my friends and many of them 
were not only my friends but my patients. This was 


true of the faculty families. I saw the Frolicher boys 
through various children's diseases and the Butler chil- 
dren through more serious illnesses. Students of the 
early years will remember Professor Butler, professor 
of English, as one of the ablest and most attractive men 
who have ever been members of the faculty. He gave 
the name to Donnybrook Fair, suggested the publication 
and assisted the students in getting out the first editions. 
It was a sad day for us when he was called to Boston 

Assisting Dr. Butler for several years was Miss Lathe, 
a rare spirit and an able and inspiring teacher. To the 
students she looked the picture of robust health, but she 
was in the early stage of an invalidism which ended in 
her death a few years after she joined the faculty. In 
addition to Dr. Butler, Miss Lathe and Dr. and Mrs. 
Frolicher, I found in the faculty, in 1894, Dr. Hop- 
kins, professor of Latin, a quiet scholarly gentleman 
who undoubtedly preferred his study and classroom 
to the administrative duties of the presidency, which had 
been his as first president of the College; Dr. Shefloe, 
professor of romance languages and librarian — never 
so happy as when he was doing chores for the students 
who knew well how to take advantage of his good na- 
ture; Dr. Blackshear, professor of chemistry, who did 
not think the female mind was adapted to the study of 
his subject and who was the object of never ending jokes 
among the students because of a devoted mother who 
always spoke of him as "Charlie" and related to them 
innumerable stories of his precocious childhood; Dr. 
Metcalf, associate professor of biology, who has become 
one of the most distinguished members of that early 




















group; Dr. Thomas, the much quoted by students — who 
was expected to cover in his teaching American history 
and all the social and political sciences — always an un- 
compromising advocate of woman suffrage; Dr. Gorton, 
professor of mathematics, who died early in the session 
of 1894, familiar to more recent students from the por- 
trait which hangs in Goucher Hall; Dr. Maltbie, asso- 
ciate professor of physics who took over mathematics at 
Dr. Gorton's death and had charge of two departments 
until Miss Gates was called to the chair of physics in 
1897. Aggressively efficient he organized a model regis- 
trar's office on a modern efficiency basis and, eventually, 
left the teaching profession because it offered too re- 
stricted a field for his growing interest in social and po- 
litical problems. Miss Lord, associate professor of his- 
tory, who, in her long connection with the College, left 
an indelible impression on the students whom she stimu- 
lated to scholarly work and upon the larger group with 
whom she dealt for many years as Dean of the College; 
Mademoiselle Melle, a brilliant and interesting French 
woman who assisted Dr. Shefloe and furnished abund- 
ance of entertainment to students and faculty; Miss 
Wells, who taught Greek and who constantly told the 
students how things were done at Smith, her alma mater, 
and who managed to get some graduate instruction at 
the Hopkins, but not in Greek; Miss Bunting, assistant 
in biology and physiology, who kept the students in- 
formed of how things were done at Bryn Mawr, where 
she had been a graduate student. 

On the whole the faculty was a strong faculty and 
did good team work. Among the women especially 
there was an eager desire to send students on to gradu- 


ate study, and in the main I believe it is true that most 
of the students of the Woman's College of Baltimore 
who sought opportunities for university study in the 
early years received their stimulation from some woman 
member of the faculty as well as the assistance they 
needed in finding ways and means of proceeding to 
graduate study. Students of the earlier period of the 
College history will recall Miss North, who succeeded 
Miss Wells in Greek, an able and forceful woman whose 
students under her direction gave a Greek play, one of 
the outstanding scholarly performances in the history 
of the College; Miss Van Dieman, now one of the best 
known authorities of the world in certain phases of 
Roman archaeology, a stimulating and inspiring teacher; 
Miss Knapp, famous in the English department for her 
short story and theme work; Miss Abel, a driving per- 
sonality whose course in history furnishes fireside talk 
wherever her former students gather; Miss Williams, 
Mile. Melle's successor in French, gracious and charm- 
ing, taking upon herself in her work burdens all too 
heavy for her physical well being — sacrificing herself 
to her scholarly and teaching ideals, laying down her 
work only when overcome by permanent invalidism. 

Two women, Mrs. Frolicher and Miss Bacon, belong 
in a peculiar way to the history of the College. One 
will be remembered best by the early students, and the 
other by all the students of the College since 1895. 
Mrs. Frolicher represents the pioneers among women 
who were obliged to seek their university training in a 
foreign country. She was, I think, the fourth American 
woman who took the degree of doctor of philosophy at 
the University of Zurich at a time when neither Ameri- 


can nor German Universities would receive women stu- 
dents. It is no wonder she exercised a powerful influ- 
ence upon the early scholastic ideals of the Woman's 
College. She was the first professor of German in the 
College and brought Dr. Frolicher over as the first pro- 
fessor of French, marrying him on his arrival, thus ter- 
minating the engagement which had taken place when 
they were both students in Ziirich. Even students who 
did not come directly in the classroom under the in- 
fluence of Dr. and Mrs. Frolicher appreciated the indi- 
rect influence that radiated from the German depart- 
ment. The Schiller Kranzchen and the German plays 
which they conducted were popular and well known. 
Undoubtedly many strong students majored in German 
merely to come under their scholarly direction. 

Miss Bacon was brought into the college in 1895 on 
the recommendation of Dr. Maltbie as assistant in 
Mathematics. I think I never knew any woman who 
kept at her subject more patiently and persistently than 
Miss Bacon. She took every opportunity she could find 
for advancing her mathematical education. When the 
Hopkins admitted women to its graduate departments 
she began work with Professor Morley and ultimately 
took her doctor's degree with but one semester's leave of 
absence from her college duties. Every one in College 
trusts Miss Bacon — students and faculty alike. They 
know she is honest and just, loyal to the College, a sym- 
pathetic friend to colleagues and students and a teacher 
who demands much of her students and urges them to 
scholarly work. She, as well as Miss Lewis, was a Fel- 
low of the Baltimore Association for Promoting the Uni- 
versity Education of Women. 


Five of our own graduates became major members of 
the faculty after they had completed their university 
work. Dr. Florence Peebles and Dr. May Kellar, the 
first of this group, remained but a few years when other 
opportunities offered them a more promising future. 
Dr. Annette Hopkins, the next of this group, has served 
her Alma Mater as a member of the department of Eng- 
lish, at present its chairman, both as a teacher and as an 
Alumna, with rare efficiency, devotion and loyalty. Dr. 
Merritt and Dr. Barton are the youngest of this group. 

Manifestly a college faculty is a changing group. 
While there was no very marked increase in the size 
of the college either as to students or as to faculty 
until 1914, numerous faculty changes had occurred be- 
fore that date especially in positions held by instructors 
and assistants. The assistants have always been largely 
recruited from our own graduates and in most depart- 
ments it has been the policy to urge them after two 
year's service to proceed to advanced study or to seek 
positions in secondary schools. It has been rare to have 
men appointed as assistants or instructors — Mr. Gay was 
brought from Hackettstown Seminary by President 
Noble as instructor in the English department when Dr. 
Hodell, who had succeeded Dr. Butler, was professor 
of English. When Dr. Hodell whose name is indis- 
solubly associated in the minds of his students and his 
associates of the faculty with "the Ring and the Book," 
resigned to go into business for which he had developed 
a great talent, Dr. Van Meter, then acting president, 
nominated Mr. Gay as his successor. When Dr. Metcalf 
was called to Oberlin President Goucher appointed as 
his successor a man carefully selected by Dr. Metcalf — 


Dr. Kellicott, distinguished for his scholarly and teach- 
ing ability. It had always been Dr. Metcalf's purpose 
to establish an independent department of botany and 
he had brought into the College Dr. Florence Peebles 
and then Dr. Forrest Shreve for this purpose. Subse- 
quently Dr. Mast, and on his call to the Hopkins Dr. 
Langley, were nominated for this post by Dr. Kellicott. 
Of these four only one, Dr. Shreve, had chosen botany 
for his field, the others were zoologists, willing to teach 
botany for a time. It was fortunate for the College 
that Dr. Langley was on the ground ready to succeed 
Dr. Kellicott in zoology. He has selected Dr. Cleland, 
a botanist, to develop a College department of botany. 
Dr. Shreve found his wife in the department of physics 
at Goucher College and turned her into a botanist. He 
resigned to accept a place in the Government service in 
research at Tucson, Arizona. Mr. Gay, by the way, also 
found his wife in the Goucher physics department. 

In my thoughts of Goucher College I am accustomed 
to think of my association with it as divided into two 
distinct periods — one from 1894 to 1914 and one from 
1914 to 1924. In the second period I saw the College 
take on new life, new vigor and new growth. The fac- 
ulty has become so large that it is no longer possible 
for one member, like myself, to have the intimate con- 
tact with her colleagues that was a marked feature of 
the early days, and yet by the various devices of faculty 
club, faculty teas and faculty meetings for general dis- 
cussion and other methods of approach between instruc- 
tors a rather surprising unity of purpose is attained. 
When there is added to this the social and other tradi- 
tions of students and faculty carried over from the old 


period into the new, one realizes that there really exists 
a distinctive Goucher spirit, constantly being translated 
into Goucher ideals. 

To my mind the most difficult and perplexing prob- 
lem in the large college is to devise a method for secur- 
ing true co-ordination of effort in the various depart- 
ments themselves, and then the co-ordination of the vari- 
ous departments into a unity of effort to secure that kind 
of education for all the students which will fit women 
to meet the demands life will make upon them. In a 
multitude of counsellors chaos will result unless there 
is wisdom with authority to settle differences and en- 
force unity. For this reason I rejoice that Goucher has 
a president who is a man of vision — a fearless leader 
with broad outlook, scholarly attainments and adminis- 
trative ability, and who is a profound student of the 
problems of college education. 

Chapter IX 

Personal Experiences With Goucher College 

From 1894 to 1924 I was more or less closely asso- 
ciated with every student who entered Goucher College. 
As my mind goes back across the years I see them in 
endless procession — thousands they number — passing 
before my vision — eternally young. However they may 
have differed at various periods in external appearance, 
in dress, in manner, in speech, this one thing they all 
had in common — youth, with its inconsequences, its 


seriousness and its fearlessness. It is for this last 
quality — their fearlessness — that one loves them and 
blesses them, and rejoices to live among them. 

Many of these young people were constantly seeking 
advice v^hich they did not intend to follow, flitting from 
one member of the faculty to another, keeping their 
friends awake at night craving sympathy for fancied 
ills, mental and physical, with an insatiable egoistic 
appetite. Eagerly in the early days they demanded op- 
portunities for "service," in their modern vocabulary 
insisting upon their right to "self-expression." It was 
largely through the persistence of one of our students 
who proceeded against the advice of all the leading so- 
cial workers in Baltimore that a George Junior Repub- 
lic was formed, located between Baltimore and Washing- 
ton, now defunct, but which had for a number of years 
a more or less precarious existence. 

College descriptive slang changes as fashions in dress 
change. For many years I haven't heard the word 
"grind" which, in the early days, was so constantly 
used to express contempt for any young woman who re- 
garded her classroom work as the principal object for 
which she was enrolled as a college student. This is, 
doubtless, partly due to the fact that as years have 
passed the opinion has become more general that edu- 
cation in the College in its broad sense means the use 
of all the activities provided for the development of 
body, spirit and mind, many of which are found outside 
classroom lectures and the study of the printed page. 

I might devote this whole chapter to a consideration 
of what might be called "Excursions in Freedom" in a 
Woman's College. In thirty years discipline, curricu- 


lum, teaching, administration have all yielded defence 
after defence against the onslaughts made in the name 
of freedom or of greater liberty. Student government 
has entirely replaced control of students' behavior 
by president, trustees and faculty — with constantly in- 
creasing authority over all conduct in the hands of stu- 
dents; the curriculum has been modified more and more 
by the elective system with greater and greater freedom 
of choice for students to determine what they will study 
and how much; already students occasionally pride 
themselves on "running an instructor out of college," 
and the next step in their progress will be to demand 
a choice of their instructors, a right to which is loudly 
now proclaimed in limited student circles. 

I have often wondered whether, after all, the benefits 
to be derived from our present methods outweigh the 
delightful moral and intellectual irresponsibility for the 
student resulting from a faculty supervision of conduct, 
and a rather fixed required curriculum. One thing is 
certain, students are far more severe as judges of con- 
duct and as imposers of penalties than their instructors 
and other constituted college authorities have ever been. 
Age and experience of life bring leniency in judgment 
of behavior. I have never sat in committee or other Col- 
lege body of instructors before which a case of disciplin- 
ing a student was brought that some one or more did 
not make every effort, usually with success, of having 
what seemed a just penalty remitted. As to the curricu- 
lum, with a free elective system we turn out neither bet- 
ter trained nor better satisfied students than we did with 
a fixed curriculum when an A.B. degree indicated that 
students had had largely the same required courses. 


The first case of discipline I recall that came before 
the Board of Control was in my first year in the Col- 
lege. President Goucher was in India and Dr. Van 
Meter acting president. A group of resident students 
had gone to a Hopkins reception at McCoy Hall under 
the chaperonage of Mrs. Pierce, the first mistress of a 
hall, I think, and a woman who seemed to have the 
respect and confidence of the students. The call of the 
dance — plenty of young men being present — was strong 
and six or seven of the young women yielded to tempta- 
tion and in spite of Mrs. Pierce's admonitions proceeded 
to enjoy themselves on the floor. Now dancing in the 
halls or outside of them was forbidden in accordance, 
I understood, with certain rules of discipline of the 
Methodist Church. All the culprits, I think, were mem- 
bers of this church and several of them were daughters 
of prominent clergymen of this denomination. The 
Board decided on some penalty — I do not think it was 
expulsion because I am quite sure 1 should not have 
voted for that — and I did vote for a penalty. I think 
the penalty imposed was that these students must with- 
draw from the halls of residence. At that time stu- 
dents were not required to live in the halls, but when 
they did do so they signed a paper on entrance saying 
they understood the rules of conduct required of stu- 
dents in residence and would abide by them. It was, 
therefore, a just penalty to withdraw the privileges of 
residence from those who had violated their promises. 
Action of the Board of Control in these matters had to 
be confirmed by the Board of Trustees and in this case 
the Board of Trustees did not confirm, but reversed the 
action of the Academic Board and the girls got off with 


a reprimand. I am quite sure this suited Dr. Van Meter, 
because a softer-hearted man to woman's fraihies never 
existed — no matter how fierce he sometimes seemed. As 
a rule this was true of all the men on the faculty. They 
always managed to find reasons and methods for letting 
the girls do what they pleased. Women instructors, es- 
pecially of the early period, jealous of the reputation 
of college women both as to scholarship and character 
were much more severe in their judgments and greater 
sticklers for holding the girls up to all requirements, 
scholastic and otherwise. 

As an illustration of this attitude on the part of women 
instructors I shall cite an incident that occurred in my 
first or second year. The German department gave a 
play during the year in the gymnasium or in the audi- 
torium of the Latin School, where plays were at that 
time presented. At this period, dramatics, as well as 
attendance at theatres and operas, was interdicted by 
the rules of the Methodist Church. Dramatic represen- 
tations were regarded as questionable performances for 
college entertainment. However, a German play, given 
in German, was looked upon as more or less scholastic 
in nature. At this particular play there was a mixed au- 
dience of men and women and some of the girls in the 
play, taking the parts of men, appropriately appeared 
in male attire. This was contrary to custom in women's 
colleges before mixed audiences. Some of the women 
members of the faculty took exception to this play es- 
pecially as they overheard some objectionable remarks 
by young men who were present. This led to consider- 
able unofficial discussion of the subject among faculty 
and students. The propriety of inviting men to the an- 


nual gymnasium exhibition came into the discussion. In 
the early years this exhibition was a prominent feature 
in college activities and always drew a large and repre- 
sentative audience. One of these gymnasium exhibitions 
which I attended at the invitation of Dr. Mitchell, at a 
time when I had no idea that I should ever be connected 
with the College, was the first time I ever visited 
the College. I recall standing in the gallery in a dense 
crowd of men and women and overhearing two young 
men who I subsequently heard were among the "col- 
lege beaux" commenting on the young women in what 
was to me an exceedingly offensive way. Moreover, at 
that time in the other women's colleges men were not 
admitted to these performances unless, in one college 
at least, they were sixty years of age or over. 

As a result of the general discussion a petition was 
circulated by a few of the older students, instigated un- 
doubtedly by some of the women members of the fac- 
ulty, asking the Board of Control to take action prohibit- 
ing students from giving plays in which they took men's 
parts in men's clothes before mixed audiences and ex- 
cluding men from the gymnasium exhibitions. Some 
such action was finally taken after much deliberation 
and plain speaking. It created a great stir among the 
students. A few days after the action was made public 
the students undertook a demonstration of disapproval 
in Goucher Hall. Various placards were put up on the 
walls, the general tenor of which were objections to fac- 
ulty interference with the liberty of students to enjoy 
themselves and employ themselves as they pleased. 
"Evil to him who evil thinks" appeared in various con- 
spicuous places. Statues in the hall were draped in the 


interests of modesty and a large group of students ap- 
peared in chapel with masks over their faces. As no 
one in authority paid any attention to this demonstra- 
tion the hubbub subsided. For a number of years after- 
wards, however, these rules remained in force. Gradu- 
ally, with a changing attitude of public opinion and the 
generally greater freedom permitted to young women, 
or assumed by them, the policy changed without any 
official action. 

For many years it was considered extremely improper 
for a student to be seen out-of-doors in her gymnasium 
suit. At one period in the history of the College we 
had two high fences built between which, unseen by the 
outside world, gymnasium and basket-ball might be 
taken out of doors. For years no men were admitted 
to the annual basket-ball games. When the Annette 
Kellerman suit appeared as a bathing costume for stu- 
dents it aroused much adverse criticism. Fortunately 
all these questions of women's dress for athletic pur- 
suits have been settled by the common sense rule that 
if a woman is to do athletics she should be properly 
dressed for the purpose and a proper dress is one which 
impedes her bodily motions as little as possible. 

It is somewhat surprising when one passes in review 
the various student activities that have imbedded them- 
selves as traditions in the college life how many had 
their origin in the very early days of the College. 
Either the early students had more ingenuity, or enter- 
ing an empty field, they preempted all the space with 
things so essentially good that they have never been dis- 
placed. I have already referred to Donnybrook Fair 
as dating back to Professor Butler's day. The Phi Beta 


Kappa Chapter was secured for the College largely 
through the efforts of Dr. Maltbie. The Junior-Senior 
banquets began very early. They had been instituted 
before my time. The first one I remember is that 
given by the class of 1898 to the class of 1897, which 
I attended as honorary member of the class of 1898. 
Mr. Charles J. Bonaparte was honorary member of the 
class of 1897 and he came in from his country home 
and sat through the entire evening seemingly with great 
enjoyment, making one of his characteristic speeches in 
his inimitable manner. His speech and that of Georg- 
ette Ross were the features of the evening, and I have 
never heard better on similar occasions since. I attend- 
ed the banquet the following year given by 1899 to 
'98. The one thing I remember about this banquet 
was the presence of Mrs. Goucher, who was the honorary 
member of 1899. She was a gentle and gracious lady, 
and I retain very vivid and unforgettable memories of 
the social occasions at which she was present. After 
1899 it was many years before I attended another 
junior-senior banquet, as it was not customary until 
much later to invite guests other than the president and 
dean of the College and the honorary members of the 
two classes. 

Honorary memberships of the classes were instituted 
early, but these were not always bestowed upon mem- 
bers of the faculty, and in their early history honorary 
members were looked upon as ornamental rather than 
useful. Since 1902 or 1903 the honorary members 
have always been selected from the faculty and have 
been hard worked by their respective classes. 


Senior dramatics did not exist as a fixed custom un- 
til about 1900. I have already referred to the difficul- 
ties attempts at dramatic presentations by students under 
College auspices met because of the College church affili- 
ations. It was due, I think, to the efforts of Dr. Shefloe 
and Dr. Frolicher after long and earnest discussions in 
the Board of Control that action was finally taken that 
in view of their scholastic value to students plays care- 
fully chosen and supervised might be given by the stu- 
dents. For many years the senior play was always a 
Shakespeare play. The one I recall with greatest vivid- 
ness was that given outdoors at Evergreen, the Buckler 
estate, not at all because from the dramatic standpoint 
it was the best, but because of the delightful setting. 
Departmental plays were given from time to time more 
frequently in the early days than later. I remember 
once Mademoselle Melle urged me to come to a French 
play the department was arranging. I said I did not 
understand spoken French well enough to enjoy it. With 
a characteristic shrug of the shoulders she replied : "Oh, 
I shall not understand the students either, but then they 
are young and will look pretty." I went and enjoyed it. 

In spite of the fears entertained as one objection to 
dramatics in the College that it would enamour students 
of a professional actor's life — it has not done so. A few 
of our students have gone on the stage, but as a rule 
they have not sought the footlights. 

Boat rides as methods of class entertainment were 
early institutions. As this method of travel often has 
unpleasant consequences for me I have rarely had the 
pleasure of these excursions. The first one I remember 
was one over which Minna Reynolds presided which 


the juniors gave the seniors — at least she persuaded me 
to go and looked after me on the trip which was very 
wet and soggy. The second one I took was given by the 
Pennsylvania Club and I went on that because I was a 
Pennsylvanian — it also was wet and soggy. The last 
one, however, I shall always remember with great pleas- 
ure because nothing in the weather nor any other cir- 
cumstance happened to mar a perfect afternoon. It was 
one of the recent sophomore boat rides for seniors with 
a delightful entertainment in the open air. 

State and other sectional clubs have in some form 
always existed in the College, but with the exception of 
the Southern Club, "they had their day and ceased to 
be." The Southern Club, as a distinct organization, no 
longer exists, but it had the longest lease of life of any 
of the sectional clubs. When 1 came into the College 
and for many years afterwards "the Southern Prom," as 
it was called, given by the Southern Club was one of 
the chief events of commencement week, and the South- 
ern Club held a conspicious place in college activities. 
Not all southern girls were admitted, only those, I was 
told, who were fiercely loyal to "the lost cause." On 
one occasion, I was told, feeling ran so high that an 
American flag was torn to pieces and trampled under 
the feet of these loyal young women. 

It was a great thing for young women from all sec- 
tions of the country to be brought into intimate contact 
with each other and to see that, after all, their hopes 
and aspirations and problems were much the same no 
matter where they came from, and to learn that the 
world might hold other points of view than those of 
the small section which they called home. I recall two 


Students coming to my office one afternoon when the 
cause of woman suffrage was beginning to be a matter 
of discussion among college students. When we were 
through with the medical interview I said; "How do you 
feel on this suffrage question?" One of them, a splendid 
specimen of young womanhood, said: "You know. Dr. 
Welsh, I am from Wyoming, I have always been accus- 
tomed to women voting and I had to come to Baltimore 
to learn that it wasn't respectable." "Well," I said, "you 
know the argument that suffrage for women will have 
a baneful influence upon the home, how is it in Wyo- 
ming; do women neglect their homes and children?" 
"Look at me," she answered, "do I look neglected?" It 
was a sufficient answer. Turning to the other I asked 
"How do you feel on this question?" "You know. Dr. 
Welsh, I am from South Carolina and it is bad enough 
for me to have come to college; if I went home and said 
I was a suffragist I should be looked upon as an outcast 
in my small community." These two students belonged 
to the same sorority and one of the very few benefits I 
ever saw in sororities was that a small group bound 
together by some sort of a tie that held them, in spite 
of great differences in their home environments, were 
bound to reach some sort of agreement in fundamental 
differences of opinion. 

Sororities, or Fraternities as they were called in the 
earlier days, were introduced before my time. Whether 
those responsible for their introduction were benefac- 
tors or malefactors depends upon the point of view. 
They have possibly caused more discussion, more dis- 
sension, more ill will, more heart burnings than any 
other subject affecting the social life of our students. I 


have known occasions when they have been the imme- 
diate cause of serious conditions of ill health in stu- 
dents. I recall only one occasion when they were offi- 
cially considered by the College authorities. The sec- 
ond or third year of my college connection application 
was made for the establishment of a new sorority. The 
Board of Control appointed a committee to consider the 
whole subject of sororities in their relation to a woman's 
college. I served on this committee and I remember I 
thought the students who appeared before us to plead 
the cause of the sororities made a very poor showing 
However, the committee finally reported that as sorori- 
ties were firmly established in the College, to forbid 
them would require too drastic action. It recommend- 
ed, however, that the College should not recognize them 
in any official way and that they should be notified the 
rooms which they then used in Goucher Hall would be 
needed for other purposes. When one realizes how every 
nook and cranny of Goucher Hall is now used for aca- 
demic purposes and that four buildings in addition 
do not today provide adequate accommodations for 
classrooms, laboratories and library, it seems incredible 
that at one time in its history the College had rooms to 
spare in Goucher Hall for the use of a group of secret 
organizations owing allegiance to a national body with 
no college connections. Later the control of the ends of 
the corridors of the residence halls by the various 
sororities was objectionable to many students and was 
finally not permitted. Fortunately, with the growth of 
the College, the sororities no longer occupy such a con- 
spicuous position in the general student life, and I doubt 
whether it makes much difference whether they exist or 


not. Dr. Noble, a strong fraternity man himself, ob- 
jected to them in Goucher College because they did not 
exist in the other independent women's colleges of our 
grade along the Atlantic seaboard. 

My earliest recollection of attending a college social 
function after I had entered the faculty was the Friday 
evening reception to new students given then by the Col- 
lege Young Women's Christian Association — now more 
appropriately by the Student Organization. The recep- 
tions or social functions which the earlier students will 
remember best were two given annually by President 
and Mrs. Goucher. Some time in November, on the 
date of the annual meeting of the Board of Trustees, 
President and Mrs. Goucher entertained at an evening 
reception the senior class, the faculty, the officers of the 
College and the trustees in the president's house on St. 
Paul Street, now known as Goucher House. This was 
always a gala night for the seniors. It was "Alto Dale 
Day," however, which students looked forward to for 
four years, and the memory of which is treasured by 
all who ever enjoyed those days as one of the most pleas- 
ant experiences of their college life. Seniors, alumnae, 
faculty, officers and trustees wandered through the woods 
and spacious grounds surrounding the charming coun- 
try home of President and Mrs. Goucher, drank water 
from a bubbling spring, ate their suppers on the lawn 
overlooking the rolling country and hills of eastern 
Maryland, got close together in intimate comradeship, 
forgot their diflferences and their troubles, saw the sun 
go down, the grounds illuminated with Chinese lanterns, 
waited until the moon came up and walked down the 
long drive to the waiting cars. Dr. Goucher with them 


in his grey hat, his panama suit and his walking stick, 
always a conspicuous figure at the gate waving good 
night. They are unforgettable days for the earlier 

President and Mrs. Noble carried on the tradition of 
a winter reception to the seniors and faculty. President 
and Mrs. Guth transformed this into a most delightful 
Christmas party just before the Christmas recess, and a 
reception to seniors and alumnae as part of commence- 
ment week festivities. Returning alumnae of the earlier 
days who constantly bemoaned the lack of anything re- 
sembling "Alto Dale Day" will now rejoice in Alumnae 
Day on our own beautiful campus. Since this is now 
well established, why not call it "Alumnae Alto Dale 
Day," reviving the old name for a new setting and thus 
carry on an old tradition? 

In quite recent years the annual Thanksgiving Dinner 
the Saturday evening before Thanksgiving recess, which 
brings students, faculty, trustees and various officers of 
the College together in a delightfully informal way, has 
been, I think, permanently engrafted as a College insti- 
tution. With this and the revival of May Day celebra- 
tion, now an afternoon's outing on our own campus 
in which everybody connected with the College joins, 
carrying with it an entertainment which annually be- 
comes more worthy and dignified, the College has two 
new methods of cultivating college spirit. In this con- 
nection the annual sing-song contest of recent years fixed 
tion, now an afternoon's outing on our own campus 
for one of the evenings during the fall meeting of the 
Alumnae Council should be mentioned as another in- 
formal occasion where students come together in friendly 


rivalry and show that spirit of true sportsmanship that 
all efforts in athletics are designed to cultivate. 

The annual passing of Sophy Moore and other similar 
exclusively interclass social amenities, including the 
freshmen hazing, take place as they have done from 
the earliest years with little variation. I have person- 
ally come to endure the hazing period as a silly season, 
representing a mental escape from the repressions of 
adolescence — always hoping that a new form indicating 
more originality and ingenuity will be developed, better 
suited to adult life. 

In my own department gymnasium and athletic activi- 
ties have assumed many new forms and intra-mural 
contests innumerable mark the various periods of the 
year. The required three hours a week in physical edu- 
cation for all students is still in force, but the earlier 
students subjected to the strictly Swedish system would 
have difficulty in recognizing its modern applications. 
One thing, however, students both of the early and later 
periods would find preserved, a faithful and loyal pre- 
siding genius in Bennett Hall, earlier known as 
"Amanda" and later as "Harriet." Amanda I found 
established in her place and Harriet I contributed as her 
successor. I, myself, am under many debts to these two 
faithful women. Amanda was born a slave and looked 
back upon her old mistress with love and gratitude for 
the lessons she had taught her. She could neither read 
nor write, but so skilfully did she conceal this that it was 
months before I discovered it. She was very intelligent 
and one of the most loyal and faithful souls with which 
I have ever come in contact. She was a shrewd judge of 
character and I never knew her make a mistake in 


"sizing up" a girl, although she was exceedingly careful 
about expressing an opinion. She had a quaint and home- 
ly philosophy. It has always been to me a source of re- 
gret that I did not record some of our long conversa- 
tions in which she developed in epigrammatic sentences 
her observations of life as she saw it, and her common 
sense rules for meeting her problems. Harriet, in her 
way, is quite as individual a character. Both of these 
good women have taken great pride in their positions, 
and the keenest interest in all College activities. Both 
have had an almost uncanny power of making just esti- 
mates of the character of the girls with whom they come 
in such close contact. 

I could, of course, fill a large volume with anecdotes 
of my personal experiences with the students of Goucher 
College in the last thirty years. At times when I have 
been asked what my specialty in medicine is I have re- 
plied "young women between the ages of seventeen and 
twenty who go to college, whose bodily ills are few and 
whose mental ills are not usually serious." For this 
very reason, however, the College physician must be 
constantly on the alert or she will frequently find her- 
self in diagnostic error. I have seen unusual and rare 
medical cases in my college practice that I have not 
found in my private practice nor in a large dispensary 
practice. My most important work, however, and that 
which I have valued most, is the intimate personal con- 
tact which one gets with the students in a doctor's office 
where the doctor must seek to penetrate into the inmost 
recesses of the emotional nature, to make the girl, as 
it were, look at her real self as a first step to finding a 
way out of her difficulties. Girls have occasionally said 


to me: "Now, Dr. Welsh, do not use me as an example 
in your lectures," I have always been able to reply: "Do 
not trouble yourself, I have had plenty of experiences 
before I ever saw you and I do not draw on recent ones 
for illustrative material. You will never be able to fix 
any of the illustrations I use in class upon any one you 
ever knew." I had just one principle in dealing with 
students. I told them the truth always as I saw it at the 
time. I made many mistakes in dealing with them; I 
was often impatient over what seemed to them matters 
of great moment and I never hesitated about giving a 
girl "a piece of my mind" when I thought she needed 
it. Some never forgave me, but then that was to me a 
sure sign that they needed to be told by some one what 
I had said to them. In my own memory there linger 
only one or two disagreeable recollections connected 
with any of the Goucher students I have known. I think, 
on the whole, they believed in the honesty of my inten- 
tions and my desire to be of service to them. 

While it would be manifestly improper for me to 
record experiences with individuals, I can give a few 
examples to illustrate the qualities which made a strong 
appeal to me in these young people, their essential kind- 
liness, their self-control and their efficiency as shown 
in collective action. 

Always in my lectures in hygiene I was obliged to 
point out the essential need of the ballot as a tool for 
securing conditions in the community favorable to 
health. My opinions on suffrage for women were well 
known to the students. I have referred in the chapter 
on suffrage to the demonstration and great parade staged 
in Washington the day before Mr. Wilson's inaugura- 











tion in 1913. I have told there how Goucher College 
failed to give a holiday for that event. I had undoubt- 
edly told my classes that I intended to march in this 
parade as I always took them into my confidence about 
any of my actions that had a public or semi-public 
character. The parade was to take place Monday after- 
noon. I had two classes meeting from nine to eleven on 
Monday morning. Very late Sunday night a letter was 
delivered to me at my home saying that the sophomore 
class appreciated the fact that I desired to take part in 
the suffrage parade in Washington and they wanted me 
to be free to do so without feeling that I was neglecting 
any of my duties. They had, therefore, decided unani- 
mously to "cut" the nine and ten o'clock hygiene classes. 
As I had no intention of going to Washington until 
twelve o'clock, I presented myself as usual behind the 
lecture platform at nine and ten-twenty, but the seats 
were all empty. The kindness and generosity to me had 
its reward, in part, as a holiday for them as the Goucher 
contingent in the parade was a large one and the stu- 
dents made an entire day of it. 

The self-control of the average student and her ability 
to meet an emergency is sometimes very surprising to 
those who believe in the traditional view of woman's 
entire lack of these two qualities. I can recall so many 
incidents when students have shown presence of mind 
and ability to meet emergencies of serious nature that it 
is difficult to select one for illustration. I was called 
by a student one evening to come to one of the residence 
halls at once. She said a serious accident had occurred. 
A trained and experienced nurse, who was acting as 
temporary mistress of a residence hall, in manipulating 


the elevator met with an accident that caused her death 
in a few hours. The students handled the situation with 
rare good judgment. When I arrived very promptly on 
the scene the woman was dying, but she was in her bed 
with doctors and the College nurse in attendance. Stu- 
dents had released her from the elevator and secured 
prompt aid. I spent the night in the hall with the stu- 
dents, but there was not the slightest evidence of panic. 

In all cases of unusual illness, accidents and cases of 
infectious disease, I took the students promptly into my 
confidence, explained the situation to them clearly and 
asked for their co-operation which I always got. They 
understood this and that nothing was concealed from 
them about illness. Miss Browne, the resident nurse 
for a long period, was a very careful observer, and 
while the students sometimes objected to her as a nurse 
and to me as a doctor on the ground possibly of our 
peppery tongues they knew they had good and efficient 

When the great epidemic of influenza occurred very 
soon after College had opened in the fall of 1918, I 
had a good illustration of the collective efficiency of the 
students. We had more than one hundred cases to care 
for. It was possible to get but one nurse in addition to 
Miss Browne, our one resident nurse. These two nurses 
were obliged to give all their time to the infirmary 
which had about twelve beds reserved for the more seri- 
ous cases. The remainder of the residence hall of which 
the infirmary occupies the top floor was turned into a 
temporary hospital. With a volunteer service of stu- 
dents and a few women of the faculty we were able to 
organize the care of the sick in a way that would other- 


wise have been impossible. The student assistants 
never failed us, and I recall their efficient assistance as 
the one relieving feature in a situation fraught with 
great anxiety and responsibility. 

At another period in the history of Goucher College 
the assistance and encouragement of the students car- 
ried me through a very anxious period when I acted as 
chairman of the Women's Committee in the campaign 
for a million dollars undertaken by the College in 1913. 
In this campaign, lasting for a week, daily reports of 
various teams were made at luncheon at the Emerson 
Hotel. The trustees stated publicly that the College 
would close its doors if a million dollars was not pledged 
by the end of the week. I shall never forget that week 
with its daily disappointments at noon and the daily en- 
couragement of the afternoons when students and alum- 
nae always buoyed up my depressed spirits by some un- 
expected contributions and by their unfailing optimism. 
It was during this campaign that two large and impos- 
ing meetings were organized and carried through by 
students and faculty — one held in Ford's Opera House 
with the aid of the Eastern and Western High Schools 
and with a message from President Wilson regarding 
Goucher College brought over from Washington and 
read by his daughter Jessie, one of our alumnae. 
The second was a rally of College women held in McCoy 
Hall with President Thomas of Bryn Mawr as the 
speaker of the evening. Her address of that evening 
published and widely distributed was an important con- 
tribution to our college literature and should have a 
permanent place on the library shelves of every 


In short, as I review the thirty years I have associated 
with the students of Goucher College, I am more and 
more impressed with the debt I owe them. I have 
learned more lessons from them than I have ever suc- 
ceeded in teaching them. I have received from them 
many evidences of friendship and good will that have 
given me precious memories — I am very grateful to 

A few days ago, riding on a funiculaire up a wooded 
mountain which I was considering walking down, I 
looked through a beautiful forest of beeches to see if 
a road was available. I said to Dr. Sherwood, who was 
with me: "There is a road which goes down as well as 
up, we shall certainly be able to take it." I did not un- 
derstand for several minutes why she seemed so much 
amused. When I finally saw the point I could not 
help thinking how good it would be in life if we could 
find a road that only "goes up." This is my greatest 
wish for the future of Goucher College, that it is on a 
road that will always ascend — always go up. Its fate is 
largely in the hands of its students past, present and 
future. I am confident they can be trusted, and that 
for Goucher College "the best is yet to be." 

Chapter X 


A well known philosopher and teacher is said to have 
begun his lecture to students by telling them what he in- 
tended to say, then saying it and to have ended by tell- 
ing them what he had said. Having begun these remi- 


niscences by saying that my residence of more than 
thirty years in Baltimore covered a very interesting 
period in the history of the education of women, of their 
organizations, of their political enfranchisement, and of 
their active participation in public life; having reviewed 
in a general way these various movements as I saw them 
begin and progress in this city, it may be well finally 
to sum up briefly what I trust I have said. 

It was more than a lucky chance that brought Dr. 
Sherwood and me to Baltimore in the early years of the 
last decade of the last century. I feel confident that no 
other city in the United States could have offered at that 
time the same opportunities for personal education and 
public service to two women physicians interested pri- 
marily in the sound elementary education of girls; in 
training opportunities for the collegiate and university 
education of women; in the extension of the sphere of 
activities in which women might engage outside of the 
home, and in the application of scientific knowledge to 
the solution of social problems of the community and 
to the special problems of the home with which the 
majority of the women must always deal. 

In 1890 the Johns Hopkins University, fifteen years 
old, leading and promoting the development of Univer- 
sity education in our country, had influenced the ad- 
vance of standards of secondary education of boys in 
Baltimore by the relation of the undergraduate require- 
ments to the public high schools and other secondary 
schools for boys. The Woman's College of Baltimore, 
five years old, was destined to exert an even greater in- 
fluence on the secondary education of girls. It was of 
primary importance to the secondary education of girls 


in Baltimore that a college for women should have ad- 
vanced academic standards. Fortunately the Woman's 
College was founded in the shadow of the Johns Hop- 
kins and at a time when standards for the collegiate 
education of women were well established north of the 
Mason and Dixon line. Vassar was twenty-two years 
old, Wellesley and Smith were firmly established, while 
Mount Holyoke with a proud history of seminary work 
behind her had entered upon her collegiate career. Bryn 
Mawr was busy attacking the final problem of higher 
education of women by organizing its work on a univer- 
sity basis. It seemed at that time that the history of 
securing collegiate and professional opportunities for 
women in our country must be repeated, that is, that 
the sole hope of obtaining university opportunities lay 
in providing at least one special institution for this pur- 
pose. Intelligent women in Baltimore knew well what 
should be required of an institution professing to give 
college education to women. The success of such an 
institution would depend upon whether its founders and 
those responsible for its academic success builded on a 
firm foundation of sound scholarship and broad toler- 
ance of the search for truth. 

It cannot be gainsaid that in the early history of the 
Woman's College of Baltimore suspicion was outspoken 
as to the possibility of a college founded under denomi- 
national and sectarian influence meeting the ultimate re- 
quirements for the collegiate education of women. As 
a member of the faculty of this Baltimore College from 
1894, and because of relationships outside the College, 
I had abundant opportunity of watching its development 
both from within and from without. In 1915 in an ad- 


dress made at the celebration of the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the founding of the College, the day preced- 
ing the inauguration of President Guth, I reviewed the 
influences of external aid which seemed to have forced 
the College into the path of academic soundness. After 
referring to external causes already mentioned I 
said "Within the college various forces were working 
towards this same end (academic soundness). There 
was President Goucher's unfailing optimism which kept 
the College doors open in spite of constantly increas- 
ing financial indebtedness. Moreover, there was his 
zealous guiding of the academic freedom of instructors 
against attacks, whose rumblings were heard, upon the 
teaching especially of biology, Bible and history. There 
was Dr. Van Meter, a target of attack because of his 
teaching of Biblical history and interpretation — his ear 
always close to the educational ground, always an advo- 
cate of educational progress and educational freedom. 
There were the young men professors for the most part 
doctors of philosophy of the Johns Hopkins University, 
fresh from their university work, holding high ideals of 
scholarship. Above all, shall I say beneath all, was 
the influence of the women instructors, the majority of 
them graduates of northern women's colleges, deter- 
mined that the instruction of girls in this College should 
m.easure up to the standards women had set for them- 
selves. In the class room and outside of it they were 
continually encouraging the students to form high ideals 
of scholarship and to demand that the college should 
stand for these ideals, bringing their influence to bear on 
the college authorities on the one hand and on the 
students on the other." 


Whatever other forces were at work these external 
and internal influences certainly helped powerfully to 
guide the college in the direction of academic success. 
In 1913 during a campaign the College made for money 
to liquidate its indebtedness, President Thomas of Bryn 
Mawr made an address to a large meeting in McCoy 
Hall on the subject: "What College Education Means to 
Woman. What Goucher College Means to Baltimore." 
Miss Thomas is a native of Baltimore and the most dis- 
tinguished woman Baltimore has produced in my gen- 
eration. College women at least know that Miss Thomas 
is very chary of bestowing praise on educational insti- 
tutions for women unless it is well deserved. 

In the course of this address President Thomas said: 
"Recently to the surprise of Baltimoreans, perhaps 
even to the surprise of the faculty of Goucher College 
as well, Dr. Kendrick Charles Babcock, the Educational 
Expert of the United States Bureau of Education, after 
a searching examination extending over several years, 
has singled out Goucher and placed it among the fifty- 
nine colleges and universities of the first academic rank 
in the United States. No one who is not in the college 
world can realize the full significance of Goucher's 
place in Class I of the five hundred and eighty-one col- 
leges and universities of the United States, many of 
them with great reputations and endowments and long 
years of effort behind them. Only fifty-nine have been 
placed in Class I and little Goucher, only twenty-four 
years old, without a penny of endowment, staggering 
under its crushing load of a half-million dollars of debt, 
is among those fifty-nine colleges. Of the twenty-one 
best women's colleges in the United States only six are 


in Class I: Bryn Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Smith, Vassar, 
Wellesley and Goucher. Of the one hundred and eighty- 
five colleges and universities south of the Mason and 
Dixon line, only five are in Class I: the University of 
Virginia, the University of Texas, Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity, the Johns Hopkins University and Goucher College. 
But although Baltimore may have been surprised, other 
colleges like the Hopkins and Bryn Mawr which year 
after year have been testing the undergraduate training 
of Goucher as its graduates have worked side by side 
with the graduates of other colleges in their graduate 
schools were not surprised. They know Goucher ranks 
high among colleges for the excellence of its teaching." 
Since 1915 Goucher College has kept its pace in the 
educational world. It has more than doubled in size, 
and has been placed on a sound financial basis. To 
have had a part in the development of a great college 
for women with its direct influence upon secondary edu- 
cation of girls would in itself justify the statement that 
I had had in Baltimore unusual opportunities for ob- 
serving the development of educational opportunities for 
women. But further than this I have had unusual op- 
portunities of observing the extension of university 
privileges to women by a Baltimore university. This 
came slowly. Qualified women tried in the early years 
of the Johns Hopkins University to enter as graduate 
students. There are traditions of women seated behind 
curtains listening to lectures. Christine Ladd (Mrs. 
Franklin) had a fellowship in mathematics; Florence 
Bascom won her degree of doctor of philosophy, but 
took her diploma by proxy. 


Educational militancy was not unknown in Baltimore 
in the latter part of the last century. Just two years 
after the Woman's College was born a few militant 
Baltimore women having gained wisdom by defeat in 
fromtal attacks on the carefully guarded portals of the 
Johns Hopkins University, executed a successful flank 
movement, forced an entrance through a side door and 
made it simply a question of time when full freedom 
for all university courses would be theirs. When the 
Medical School was opened in 1893 on a foundation 
provided by women the University circulars contained 
the statement: "The medical school is open to women, 
but they are not admitted to any other departments." 
From 1897 until such restrictions were removed the 
Baltimore Association for the Promotion of the Univer- 
sity Education of Women kept an eye upon the Univer- 
sity watching for the first sign of a kindly spirit 
toward women graduate students and the other eye on 
Baltimore watching for women who demand univer- 
sity opportunities. 

The proximity to the Johns Hopkins Hospital in the 
pre-medical school days and to the hospital and medical 
school subsequently gave Dr. Sherwood and me oppor- 
tunities for medical work and for following the public 
health movement unparalleled in any other city in the 
country. The Hopkins laboratories and clinics were a 
me(Hcal Mecca for both men and women physicians 
throughout the United States. Dr. Osier, Dr. Welsh, 
Dr. Kelly, Dr. Halstead and Dr. Hurd saw to it that the 
women who came found their way to Dr. Sherwood and 
me. These women invariably told us that they found 
nowhere else conditions so favorable for the study of 


medical science and for stimulating interest in medico- 
social problems. We owe many lasting friendships to 
these women medical pilgrims. 

While it is doubtful whether our medical, educational 
and sociological interests would have brought us in any 
other city under the influence of such great men as we 
learned to know in Baltimore, I am quite certain that 
elsewhere in our country we would not, in 1891, have 
come into intimate contact with a small group of out- 
standing women actively interested in the medical edu- 
cation of women and in advancing professional oppor- 
tunities of women physicians. Subsequently Baltimore 
brought us opportunities for service in all phases of the 
movement which concerned itself with advancing the 
interests of women and children. 

My thirty years in Baltimore then have been rich in 
opportunities for progressive self-education and de- 
velopment; for contacts with great men and remarkable 
women; for lasting friendships; for service in educa- 
tional and social fields. They have stored up precious 
memories. Could any other place in the world have 
given me so much? I doubt it and am profoundly 

Baltimore, November 10, 1925.