m.*£p5iife^ f- 21
Digitized by the Internet Arciiive
in 2010 witii funding from
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Caldwell County, N. C.
Great War of 1861-65
Compiled and Published
G. W. F. HARPER
Whose war experience was not altogether unlike that of
our beloved and lamented Bill Arp, " Who saw
it with his eyes, heard it with his ears,
and a piece of it fell on his big toe."
Lenoir, N. C.
Aililrc^^ — I'lUriliiiL; tlir M > inuinciit tn tlu' L'oii I'u Kraii.' SnMjcr^
fi-diii L'.ililw rll Ciiunt\ — lly lli'ii. Waller (."larkc 4
l''artlusi ii. iIk- l'"riini at l'liickaniai;,u;a — !■'. I) ( )liU S3
.\i'i-lli (."ari'lina ai I'liiokaniaiiya — <■. W, I'', llariirr ^7
A \\"ar:inu' h'urlnuuli — (i. W. !■'. llarprr 41
I'ap'rn- nf l-'url llaniliy — S. I-'. Ilarinr _ 45
Kirk\ l\aiil ami Skirmish al .Mcii])X''s Cn iSM'oads — (1. W. 1''.
1 lar|ier _ ._ 51
Slurman a' Cn'iimkia. S. CV — (V W . \' llar|i(.T 55
With Coniplinieuts of
€f. W. Jt\ UARVEm
CALDWELL COUNTY, N. C.
In the Great War of 1861-5
by Hon, Walter Clark, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina
late Lieut. Colonel 70th North Carolina Regiment
On the occasion of the Unveiling
Monument to the Confederate Soldiers
LENOIR, JUNE 3rd, 1910
"In all time whenever there is speech of great deeds, they
shall be held in remembrance."
CLAY PRINTING CO.
HICKORY, N. C.
TWENTV-SECOXli RK( ilMEXT.
1. Johnston ,T. Pettitrrew, Colonel. 3. ( iraluun Daves. 1st Eieiit and
9. Thos. D. Jones. Captain. Co, A. 4 W \V. r)U'k.son. '.>(1 Lieut Co
5. Walter Clark, id IJeut. and r)iill Master.
Speech at Lenoir July 3rd, 1910
Ladies of the Monument Association, Fellow
Soldiers. Ladies and Gentlemen:
As the lig-htning flashes from one part of the
heavens to another, so passes the Hfe of man. Fifty
years, save one, have passed since the brave, ardent,
patriotic young men of Caldwell County, —to some of
you it seems but yesterday— passed down these streets,
with their flag floating in the breeze and with sound of
fife and drum. North Carolina had called on her sons to
defend her, and quick in response came to the reply
from Caldwell — "We are ready. Take us. "
That first company like all those from this county
was a splendid body of men. They always knew how
to do their duty. Like the 600 Marseillaise "they were
men who knew how to die for their country." They
became a part of the army of Northern Virginia and
their fame as part of the "incomparable infantry" of
that army is now in the keeping of the ages. On reaching
Raleigh, the company became Company A. of Petti-
grew's 22nd N. C. regiment. It was my good fortune
to be assigned to that regiment about the same time,
and I got to know them well, officers and men. There
was no better company in the army.
Quickly Caldwell County sent in succession, com-
pany after company of the same material, till the coun-
ty had filled the full measure of its devotion to the
State and to the South. You sent more soldiers to the
field than you had voters and there was left at home
only the old men, the women and the children. And
the women — God bless them— were then, as now, no
less patriotic than the men. Their trials and privations
were not surpassed, if indeed they were equalled, by
1. J. B. Clarke, 1st Lieut.. Co. A. 3. S. F. Harper. Private, Co. A.
•i. Sion H. Oxford, Ensign. 4. William T. Aberuatby, Private, Co. A.
5. Aurelius J. Dula, Private, Co. A.
those borne by the soldiers at the front
It lacks, as I have said, less than a year of half a
century since North Carolina, resuming her sovereign-
ty, took her stand with her sister Southern States, be-
neath a new flag. Four decades and a half have passed
since, wreathed around with laurel and with cypress
that banner passed into the eternal silence, where live
forever the deadless dead.
North Carolina sent to the front more than 125.000
stalwart sons to make her declaration good. More than
one-third, 43.000, came not home again. Dead by the
fire of battle, dead by wounds, dead by disease, from
exposure and hardship, 43.000 of our best and bravest
are sleeping their last sleep at Gettysburg, at Vicks-
burg, at Chicamauga, at Charleston, in the swamps of
the Chickahominy, around Petersburg, in the Valley of
Virginia, and wherever in that ring of fire, that encir-
cled the Confederacy, we faced the fearful odds that
slowly but steadily drove us inward. In the four de-
cades and a half which have passed since, the leaden
hail of the years has driven great gaps in the ranks of
the survivors. Another third, aye perhaps, half of the
remaining third have joined their comrades in the great
bivouac of the beyond. Of that dauntless host of North
Carolinians, 125,000 strong, who may well be said to
have carried on their bayonet points the fortunes of the
Confederacy, as well as the fame and the honor of North
Carolina, less than 20,000 are still with us.
I am glad to be with you Veterans of North Caro-
lina, and once more to look into the faces of some of
the survivors of that splendid soldiery whose fame is
now co-extensive with the world itself. Half fed and
poorly clothed, your array of "tattered uniforms and
bright muskets" taught the foe that courage and fideli-
ty to duty were inborn in the Southern race. You of-
ten marched with bare feet and fought on half rations,
but you marched to eternal fame and proved yourselves
in battle worthy comrades of the Tenth Legion of
Caesar and of the Old Giiai'd of Napoleon. The annals
of war, soldiers do not show your superioi's.
In the long centuries that are to come, legend and
song in this fair Southland will keep bright the stoi-y
of the Confederate soldier. His memory will sparkle
in the fountain, the mountain peaks will recall i-emeni-
brance of his marches.
"The meanest rill, tlu^ mig'htiest river,
"Rolls miiitrlin.u' with his fame forever. "
Posterity will recall too the simple faith and cour-
age with which when the end came, you turned your
faces homeward, and thei'e picking up the web of life,
where the sword had cut it. you l)egan again where
you had left off four years before. Your powerful aid
dissi])ated the evil influences that had come over your
native land. You raised u]) the broken and discarded
statues of Law and Order and replaced them with hon-
or upon their pedestals. You cleared your fields of the
bi"ambles that had grown up and your government of
the bad men who had climbed to jiower. At your bid-
ding, prosperity again started the hum of its wheels,
and honor and integrity became again the attendants of
your public service.
You did all this and more that will stand to your
everlasting honor. In the strenuous struggle of l£61-5
you were faithful to the highest ideals of the soldier
and in the years following you were equal to the high-
est duties of the citizen.
Patriotism is not with you an acquirement to be laid
aside at will. It is a part of your very existence.
The stress of years and the storm of battles have
reduced your numbers and enfeebled your steps. The
heads of the survivors have whitened with the snows
that never melt, but your patriotism has not diminished
with vour numbers or your strength, and the State has
no sons more jealous of her honor or more obedient to
her laws than you.
Of the Confederate soldiers, no less can be said
than Pericles the great Athenian, more than two thous-
and years ago, said of his own countrymen, w^ho had
fallen in a great war "Whenever, " in all time, there
shall be speech of great deeds, there shall be thought
and memory of them."
On this occasion, it will be appropriate for us to re-
call, even if briefly, the story of the companies from
Caldwell, to whose memory this monument is erected,
where they served and fought, how they bore them-
selves, and what they did that it may be seen, with
what just pride the ladies of Caldwell County have
placed it here
"IN PERPETUAL MEMORY OF HER CONFEDERATE
You sent to the front 7 full companies of more than
150 men each, besides many individuals to other com-
panies—probably 1100 soldiers being more soldiers in-
deed, as I have said, than the county cast votes in 1861.
The first company, as I have said, was company A,
22nd N. C. regiment. This company was originally
called the Caldwell "Rough and Ready Boys." The
first captain of this company was W. F. Jones, who was
succeeded by Capt. Thomas D. Jones, who was killed
at Seven Pines. The entire rank and file in this com-
pany, serving at one time or another during the whole
term of service, was 187 men. Its officers during its
service were Captains W. F. Jones, Thomas D. Jones,
James M. Isbell, William B. Clark, Lieutenants, Jos-
eph B. Clarke, James W. Sudderth, Felix G. Dula, Wil-
liam W. Dickson, Marcus Deal, J. W. Justice and Wil-
liam A. Tuttle.
Soon after the 22nd N. C. regiment was formed it
w^as ordered to Richmond, thence to Evansport on the
Potomac river where it supported the batteries which
for a while blocked all traffic to Washington by water.
In March 1862, Col. Pettigrew was made Brigadier
General but at that time declined promotion- a very
rare instance. The regiment was in the fight at Seven
Pines, May 31. 1862, and heavily engaged. Company
A. lost many men and Capt. Thomas D. Jones was
among the killed. Soon after the regiment was i)laced
in a brigade consisting of the 16th, 22nd, 34th, and 38th
N. C. regiments under the command of Brigadier Gen-
eral William D. Pender uhich brigade was assigned to
the celebrated Light Division of A. P. Hill.
An officer describing the bearing of the 22nd N. C.
regiment at Seven Pines says: "In all my reading of
veterans, and of coolness under fire, I have never con-
ceived of anything sui-passing our men in this fight'"
In the "Seven Days Fights" around Richmond,
which soon followed, the regiment was again engaged:
on 26th June near Mechanicsville at Ellison's Mills, and
at Gaines' Mill 27th June, where it won the highest
encomiums from Gen. A. P. Hill in his report and where
the 22nd N. C. at one time carried the crest of the hill
and penetrated the enemy's camp. It was again en-
gaged at Frazier's Farm on 28th June. In this series
of battles, the South was the attacking party thi-ough-
out. It was not made public at the time, but the offi-
cial records now show that tho we doubled up McClel-
lan's ai-my and drove him back to the shelter of his
gunboats, the South had 50 per cent more men killed
and wounded than the enemy. And the loss to the
22nd N. C. (including Co. A. from Caldwell) was par-
ticularly heavy. Notwithstanding, with unabated cour-
age and peculiar audacity. Gen. Lee's army soon start-
ed on a dash into Maryland. On Aug. 9th, the 22nd
N. C. under Jackson fought at Cedar Mountain. It
was again with Jackson when he struck Pope's arm\^
on 28th and 29th August, and distinguished itself at
Second Manassas on Aug. 30th, Two days later it was
again engaged with the enemy at Chantilly, or Ox HilL
which was fought in a terrible thunder storm, and in
which the artillery of heaven and earth seemed to rival
each other. Such were the hard service and heavy
losses of the campaign that there were only three field
officers out of twelve left in the brigade and some of
the companies were commanded by corporals.
The 22nd North Carolina regiment next took part
in the capture 14th Sept. 1862 of Harper's Ferry and on
the 17th it was at the battle of Sharpsburg, one of the
bloodiest battles of the whole war. On these two oc-
casions, I had the honor to be again on the same field
wnth my old comrades of Company A., tho at that time
I was attached to another command, being then adju-
tant of the 35 N. C, commanded by Col,, afterwards,
Senator M. W. Ranson. At Sharpsburg the 22nd North
Carolina regiment with the rest of A. P. Hill's Division
arrived on the battle field after a forced march of 17
miles about 4:00 o'clock in the afternoon, just in time
to arrest the advance of Burnsides' corps who had at
last carried "The Stone Bridge" and was about to cut
off Lee's army from the river. This saved our army
from capture. On the night of the 18th, we recrossed
the Potomac and on the 19th, the Federals having at-
tempted to cross the Potomac, the 22nd N. C. was with
A. P. Hill's command which returned and drove the
enemy back across the Potomac at Shepherdstown with
great slaughter. In the latter part of November the
22nd North Carolina with its division was on duty near
Martinsburg, north of Winchester. It marched rapidly
by way of Snicker's Gap, for Fredericksbury where it
arrived 2nd December, a distance of 180 miles, just in
time to aid in heading off Burnsides' army which was
attempting to cross the Rappahannock. At the battle
of Fredericksburg IStli December, the regiment was in
the front line and acquitted itself in a way worthy of
At Chancellorsville, in May, 1863, the regiment was
in Jackson's famous flank attack on Hooker. Its losses
were, as usual, very severe. Its Colonel and Major
were both killed, and 219 men and 26 out of S3 compary
officers were killed and wounded. Chancellorsville was
the 18th battle in which the 22nd N. C. had been en-
gaged in two years and one of the most fatal. In July,
1863, it was at Gettysburg. Col. A. M. Scales (since
Governor) had then succeeded to the command of the
brigade. The 22nd N. C. was in the first day's brilliant
success at Gettysburg. It was engaged again on the
second day and on the third day it was under Petti-
grew in the famous charge on Cemetery Ridge. When
it came out, the entii'e brigade had not a single field
oflRcer left for duty and very few line officers. The
regiment was on the Rapidan in October and Novem-
ber, 1863, and at Mine Run 2nd December. On 5th
May, 1864, it shared the terrible loss when Gi'ant oi)en-
ed his campaign at the Wilderness and faced him in the
almost daily battles on his memorable march to the
James I'iver, in which in 60 days Grant lost more men
than Lee had in his whole army. The regiment then
took its place in the lines around Richmond. It was in
the constant fighting from then on to the beginning of
the retreat to Appomattox. On 25th August, 1864. it
Vv^as in the "North Carolina Victory" at Reams' Station
when three N. C. brigades captured the enemy's works.
The 22nd N. C. regiment served throughout the
war in the army of Northern Virginia, and shared in
every battle of any magnitude in which that army was
engaged except the first battle of Manassas . At Seven
Pines. Company A. carried into action 100 men of
whom 18 were killed or mortally wounded besides the
Ca])tain Thomas D. Jones. At Shepherdstown 4 were
killed out of 30 engaged. At Chancellorsville 8 out of
35 were killed and at Gettysburg 4 were killed out of
30 besides the wounded. Altogether, during the war
this company had killed outright, 44 men and oflficers
i. Zebulon B. Vance. Colonel.
2. Harry K. Burgwyn. Colonel.
3. John R. Lane, Colonel.
fi, Joha T. Jones, Lt. Col.
5. N P. Rankin, Major.
6. Thomas J. Boykin, Surgeon.
7. J. J. Young, Captain and Asst. Q. M.
8. James B. Jordan, Adjutant.
and 10 were discharg'ed because of total disability
caused by wounds and 23 died of sickness. Private A.
J. Dula, of this company, was standing- near Gen.
Stonewall Jackson when the latter was mortally wound-
ed at Chancellorsville.
Company A, has the following names on the roll of
Honor at Appomattox, being all that were left by the
attrition of war; Lieutenant William A. Tuttle, Serge-
aiU, M. M. Deal, 2nd Sergeant, P. Barlow; 3rd Ser-
geant, P. G. McCrary; 4th Sergeant, J. N. Stallings;
5th Sergeant. J. D. Sherrill; Corp. A. J.
Deal; Privates, R. B. Clark, W. F. Fowler, W. 0.
Healan. S. F. Harper, L. Holder, P. J. Kel-
l^v, S. J. Knight, John Munday, John Payne, E. L.
Moon, H. Sherrill, J. L. Sherrill", H. H. Stallings, Har-
The next companies from this county were the
"Hibriten Guards" which in battle were as steadfast
as that old mountain itself and which became the fa-
mous Company F. of the 26th N. C. regiment, and its
fellow and equal, the "Caldwell Guards" which became
Company I. of the same regiment. The officers of
Company F. during the war were in succession Captains
N. P. Rankin (who was promoted to Major) Jos. R.
Ballew and Romulus M. Tuttle. Lieutenants. Abner
B. Hayes, John B. Holloway, R. N. Hudspeth, Alfred
T. Stewart and Charles M. Sudderth. Later Lieut.
Stewart raised a Company for the 58th Regiment, of
which he was made Captain; was promoted to Major and
killed in battle Aug. 31, 1864 at Jonesboro, Ga. The
officers of Company L were Captains Wilson A. White
and John T. Jones, (who became Lieutenant Colonel and
was killed in command of the Regiment at the "Wilder-
ness") and N. G. Bradford. Lieutenants, M. B. Blair,
John Carson, Rufus Deal, S. P. Dula, J. C. Greer and
J. C. Sudderth.
No regiment in the service achieved more reputa-
TWENTY -SIXTH REGIMENT.
1. James T. Adams, Lieut.-Colonel. •) Stephen W. Brewer, Captain. Co. E.
2 Samuel P. Wagg, Captain, Co. A. 5. Jos. R. Ballew, Captain, Co. F.
3. William Wilson, Captain, Co. B. 6. R. M. Tuttle, Captain, Co. £.
7. H. C. Albright, Captain, Co. G.
tion than the 26th North CaroHna. There were other
regiments whose services wei-e as great and whose
losses were as severe, taking the war thro. But the
terriffic loss sustained by the 26th N. C. at Gettysburg,
and particularly by Company F. of this county, has
made its fame historic.
The I'egiment was organized with Zebulon B. Vance
as Colonel, whose name always stirs the hearts of North
Carolinians as with the sound of a trumpet. Its Lieu-
tenant Colonel who succeeded him as Colonel was the
brave young soldier who fell at Gettysburg, Harry K.
Burgywn. It was in its first battle and received its
baptism of fire at New Bern 14th March, 1862, under
Gen. Branch. Though this battle was a Confederate
defeat the 26th N. C. marched off the field intact, and
in good order.
The regiment was in the "Seven Days Fights"
around Richmond and suffered terribly in the battle at
Malvern Hill, 1st July 1862. In August. 1862, the reg-
iment was transferred from Ransom's brigade to which
it had been temporarily attached, to Pettigrew's in
which it remained to the end of the war. In the fall
of 1862, the brigade served in Eastern N, C, and the
26th North Carolina was engaged at Rawls' Mills on
2nd November of that year when 6 companies of the
regiment held in check 5,000 of the enemy under Gen.
Foster. It was in the attack on Washington, N. C, in
In May, 1863, the brigade was sent to Virginia and
thenceforward its record was conspicuous in the history
of the Army of Northern Virginia. The regiment w^as
in the march to Gettysburg. Its record in that battle
needs no repetition for it is a part of every history of the
war. In the first day's fight it met the Iron Brigade
and both commands suffered fearfully. On the third
day it was in the famous charge on Cemetery Ridge.
It carried 800 men into action on the first day and only
1. John Tuttle. Sergeant, Co. F.
t*. Wni. N. Snt^llintr, 3d Lieut., Co. D.
3. I., L. Polk, Sersfaut Jlajor
4. W. \V. Edward.s. Private, Co. E.
r>. J. D. Moore. Private. Co. F. (The 8.5th
man in liis Comiiany ivounded at
Gettysburg. July 1st, 18(;8.)
H C. Coffey, Private, Co. F. (The
S6th man in his Company wounded
at Gettysburg:, July Ist."lKtJ3.)
Laban ElMs, Private, Co. E.
1. K. C. Br:ihl>lc. Col.. l.ill.M at S|.ol t-.vlva.iia C. H. Ma.v l:ith. IsiU
Will. 11. Hatlle. Siiri^edii 1. .Aueii-lus Littlf. ( 'oi poial. »'o. K.
\V. 1,. l.onildii. I'apt., C.i. I o. H. .A. l.c.u.Um. C.uiri.T. Co. 1.
TWENTY SIXTH KEGDIEXT.
1. J. D. Mclver, Captain, Co. M. 4. W. W. Gaither, Assistant Surgeon.
2. Tiiomas Lilly, Captain, Co. K. 5. George Wilcox. 1st Lieut., Co. M.
8. Jas C, McLauchlin, Captain, Co. K. 6. Orran A. Hanner, 1st Lieut., Co. E,
7. J. G. Jones, 1st Lieut., Co. D.
216 came out unhurt, and its Colonel was killed. At
the end of the third day's fight, it had only 80 men and
officers fit for duty, and its Major, John T. Jones, of
this county, tho wounded, was in command of the bri-
gade. Company F. of this county, commanded by Cai>
tain R. M. Tuttle went into battle with 3 (officers and
88 muskets. Of these, not one came out untouched. 31
were killed or died of wounds. Of the other 60. all of
whom were wounded. Sei'geant Robert Hudspeth was
the only one able to report for duty after the fight and
he had been knocked down and stunned by the explo-
sion of a shell. In this com])any were three sets of
twin brothers. At the close of the battle 5 of the 6 lay
dead on the field. Colonel Fox of the U. S. army
states in his book on "Regimental Losses in the Civil
War" that the loss of the 26th N. C. regiment at Gettys-
burg was the greatest in per cent and the greatest in
number sustained in any one battle, of any of the 2.500
regiments which both sides sent into that great struggle.
The 26th N. C. regiment again sustained heavy loss
at Bristoe Station 14th Oct., 1863. On 5th May, 1864, it
aided to repulse Grant in his opening battle at the
Wilderness, and faced him day after day in the suc-
cessive battles down to the crossing of the James river.
It then took its position in the lines around Petersburg.
Its brigade was one of the three N. C. brigades which
made Reams' Station a '*N. C. victory" in Aug. 1864.
At the Wilderness it lost its brave young Lieut. Colonel
John T. Jones, of Caldwell. It was at Burgess' Mills
in Oct. 1864, at Hatcher's Run in February following,
and in the retreat to Appomattox which has been well
called "the Funeral March of the Confederacy." At
the Surrender, the Parole List show present: In Co.
F. : Sergeant J. C. T. Hood and Privates, J. Branch, C.
M. Tuttle, G. H. Harston, and C. H. Sudderth. No
officers. From Company I there was left to be paroled
1st Lieut. M. B. Blair, 2nd Lieut. J. A. Bush; Sergeant,
1. John B. P.-ilmeT, Colonel.
2. Benjamin F. Baird. Captain, Co. D.
3. G. W. F. Harper, Ma.ior.
4. Isaac H. Bale"-. Captain, Co. B.
.5. F. A. Tobey. Ojptain. Co. A.
6. Drurj' D, Colfuy, Sergeant-Ma.ior.
James Barnes: Privates, H. Holder, J. C. Hart, S.
Keller, P. W. Summerow, B. W. Manley, J. I. Brad-
shaw, H. W. Smith. J. A. league and W. H. McPherson.
The next companies to go from this county were
Company E. and Company H. of the 58 N. C. regiment.
The officers of Company E. were Captains A. T. Stewart
(pi'omoted to Major and killed at Jonesboro, Ga. 31st
August, 1864,) and Thomas J. Cotfey; Lieutenants, J.
B. Marler and W. E. Cotfey. The officers of Company
H. were Capts. T. J. Dula (promoted to Lieutenant
Colonel), G. W. F. Harper (wounded at Resaca, Ga.,
in May, 1864, and promoted to Major November, 1864,)
and L. W. Gilbert. Lieutenants. W. W. Lenoir, E. M.
Hedrick, A. D. Lingle, L. A. Page (killed at Dalton.
Ga., Feb. 1864.)
In September, 1862, this i-egiment was in the in-
vesting force at Cumberland Gap. In the summer of
1863 it was in East Tennessee and joining Bragg's
army took part in the great three days battle at Chick-
amauga 18th, 19th and 20th of September, 1863. In
that battle, this regiment lost over half its men and
was conspicuous in the final charge against the enemy
on Snodgrass Hill, the Gibraltar of the battle. The
steel tablet erected there on the crest of that hill by
the U. S. Government records the 58th N. C. regiment
as having reached the farthest point in that attack.
The official reports show that the loss of this regiment
equalled the combined loss of the other three regiments
of the brigade, which were from other States. These
two Caldwell county companies were with their regi-
ment at Mission Ridge and in the long campaign and
numerous battles under Jos. E. Johnston as he retreated
from Dalton down to Atlanta. After the fall of
Atlanta it was in Hood's army in the advance into
Tennessee. Late in December it was at Corinth, Miss.
When Hood fell back to Tupelo, Miss., it was sent to
South Carolina where it again faced Sherman. It was
*. Edmund Kirby, Lieut. -Colonel. (Killed 4.
at CliickaniauKa ) 5
1. R. M. Silver, Lieut. Cr>loDel.
2. L. \V. Gilbert, Captain, Co. H. 6.
3. E H. Crump. Serjeant. Co. H.
<SevereJy wounded at Chiekamauga.)
E. L. Moore, Sergeant, Co. E.
J. L. Craig. Private, Co. H. (Captured
1864, and died in prison.)
A. C. Craig, Sergeaut, Co. H,
then transferred to Smithfield, N. C. and was again
in battle at Bentonsville on the 18th. 19th and 20th of
Maich. 1865, where I hid the fcrtinetosee the regi-
ment 8"o into battle in one of the most magnificent
charges of the war and in which the Confederates
caiJtured the enemy's batteries and breastworks.
That gallant soldier. Major G. W. F. Har|)er. of this
county, commanded the 58th N. C. and 60th N. C.
regiments in that charge. It was worthy of the
best days of the Confedei'acy. I was with them in the
long retreat and at the surrender near Greensboro and
was i)aroled at the same time with them. 2nd May.
1865, three weeks after the surrender at Appomattox.
The 58th N. C. regiment was brigaded with troops
from other States and most of the time was either in
Reynolds' or Palmer's brigade.
The next company from the county was in the
Junior Reserves, the boys from, seventeen to eighteen
years of age, who were raised in April and May of
1865. This company was raised in Burke and Caldwell
Counties. Its Captain was L. A. Bristol since the
efficient Clerk of Burke Su])erior Court. It became
Company G. 72 N. C. regiment (3 Junior Reserves. )
The other officers were Marcus G. Tuttle 1st Lieutenant,
and George T. Dula, Horace W. Connally and John W.
Comially and John W. Harper 2nd Lieutenants. The lat-
ter laid down his young life on his country's altar. He was
killed at the battle of South West Creek March 8th, 1865.
This company was at first in the Eighth Battalion com-
manded by Maj. James B. Ellington. It was sent with
the other N. C. Junior Reserves to Belfield. Va.. where
on 8th December, 1864. they aided to repulse Warren's
Corps. The weather was severe and the poorly clad
young soldiers suffered terribly. They were hurried
back to Wilmington and under Gen. W. W. K^rkland
the Caldwell boys aided to repulse the first attack by
Butler and the Navy on Fort Fisher on Christmas day,
John W. Hinsdale, Colonel. 5. H. W. Connelly, 2d Lieut Co. C.
W Foster French, Lieut -Colonel. b. J M, B.uuly^d Lieut , Co. K.
w: W. KinK, 1st Lieut., Co A. 7 1>. S Re.d 2d Lieut Co K
Jno W. Harper, 2d Lieut . lo. C. 8. C. W. Taylor. Orderly .Sergt., Co. C.
a, J. L. JlcGinipsej-, I'rivate, Co. h.
1861. Lieutenant M. G. Tuttl'.^ of the Caldwell Com-
pany and some of his men were taken prisoners. When
the 72nd N. C. regiment was organized the Burke and
Caldwell l)oys became Company G. and the new legi-
ment was assigned to the Brigade (Nethercutt's) to
which my own regiment belonged and I saw them
under fire at South West Creek, near Kinston. N. C.
and again in the great 8 days battle at Bentonville, on
19th. 20th and 21st of March. 1865. They showed the
steadiness of veterans and proved themselves of the
same blood as their kinsmen and neighbors in the 22nd
N. C, 26th N. C. and 58th North Carolina regiments.
They were in the long Retreat passing through Raleigh
and Chai)el Hill and were paroled with the rest of
Johnston's army, near High Point. N. C. 2nd May. 1865.
There was still another company from Caldwell.
Company B. of 17th Battalion (Avery's). This com-
pany w^as commanded by Capt. Nelson A. Miller. It
fought Stoneman on his raid, in their own county, and
skirmished with his advance guard in the edge of this
town and some of the Company escaped capture, I am
told, only by riding up to the top of Hibriten. Indeed
members of this Company aided to protect the county
even after the surrender of Johnston and Lieut, Henly
of the Company was killed in the capture of Fort
Hamby on 14th May, 1865.
Besides the above companies who saw arduous
service at the front Caldwell county furnished a com-
pany of Senior Reserves—men between forty-five and
fifty — and also a company of Home Guards. These did
efificient service in keeping down Kirk, and other raiders
from East Tennessee, and in giving safety and pro-
tection to the women and children and the aged.
There were other soldiers from Caldwell who
served in companies not from this county. Their numbers
can not, at this late day be ascertained, but there were
several Caldwell men in the 9th N. C. (1st. Cav. ) 41st
SIXTY-FIFTH REGIMENT— SIXTH CAVALRY.
1. Gporpe N. I'olk, Colonel.
3. Martin V.INI ore, C.vptain and A.Q.M.
3. Barton Rohey Brown. Ciiptain, Co A.
4. V S. L.isU. Captain. Co. I. (For-
merly .5th Batt ) Prisoner, John-
son's Island, lS63-lb65.
Wiliiim B. Council], Captain, Co. B.
Stephen J. Brown, 'id Lieut., Co. A.
Wiley P Thomas, 2d Lieut., Co. A.
N. C. (3rd Cav.) and in 1st N. C, 18th N. C. and 34th
N. C. regiments.
Such is the brief and imperfect story of the soldiery
of Caldwell county. That story needs no embellish-
ment. It speaks for itself. These are the men to
whom the patriotism and atfection of the ladies of this
county have erected this monument ? Never were men
more worthv of it.
In 1870 France and Germany went to war. Their
population were about e(iual~38,000.000 each. Each
had an army of 400.000 men e(}ui])ped for war. The
army of France was inspired by the remembrance of
the giories of Napoleon. That of Germany, by the
victories of Frederick the Great. In six months the
German army had captured Paris and 300,000 French
troops and France had surrendered to the enemy two
great Provinces and agreed to pay a war indemnity of
In 1861 when our war began the South had no
government. It had to create one. It had not a soldier
and not a dollar. It had to raise an army, organize,
equip and feed it. It had to make a Treasury and fill
it. It had no arsenals, no powder and few guns.
These things had to be made. The enemy had twenty-
four millions of people to our six millions, many of them
colored. They had an organized government. They
had an army and a navy ready to hand. They had an
overflowing treasury and ready access to the outside
world from which they drew recruits for their ranks,
and supplies of every kind. When they lost a soldier,
killed or w^ounded, they could fill his place with three
more. When we lost a man, there was no other to take
his place. They put 3,000,000 of soldiers in the field.
We managed first and last to put into line 600,000,
It took the Germans 6 months to overcome the
French, a brave and martial race. It took the North 4
years to travel the 117 miles between Washington and
M W. RaTisnm, Colonel. 5 Wm. H. S. Biirtrwyn. Captain, Co. H.
John G Jones, Colonel. 6. Roh^-rt B. Peebles, Adjutant.
J. T. Johnson. Colonel. 7. David G. Maxwell, Captain, Co. H.
Simon B. Taylor, Lieut. -Colonel. 8. P. J. Johnson, Captain, Co. K.
9. Walter Clark, 1st Lieut, and Adjutant.
fiichmond. And a,u'aiii and a;jain tlicy were on the
point of failure. Had Albert Sidney Johnson's life lieen
spared 1 hour lon.uer at Slnloh, Gran' and Sherman with
the army under their command would have been prison-
ers. Had Stonewall Jackson i.ot been struck by a 1 ul-
let from (jne of our own men at Chaix'ellorsville. Hook-
er's army would have 1 etn cut off licm United Stat'_s
Ford and inisoners of war. Either event would have
ended the war like a clap of thunder.
The valor of our Generals, and the <i'enius of our
Generals were ecaial to success. They did i.ot C( m.m.ar.d
it. only because an infinitely ^"reater power than the
enemy could control willed it otherwise. As Napier
said of Napoleon "Fortune, that name for the unknown
combinations of an infinite power, was wanting- to us
and without her aid the designs of man are as bubbles
on a troubled ocean."
This and other monuments which the fair hands of
the women of the South have caused to be raised to the
memory of the Confedei'ate Soldiers are not the on y
ones. The enemy, in a sad sincerity have erected a
far more expensive one. In 1900, the pension rolls
showed more than 1,000,000 Union soldiers then draw-
ing pay from the ofovernment, for the reason sworn to
by every one of them, and the fact found to be true on
examination, that you. Confederate Soldiers, had wound-
ed and crippled him. or had made him very sick, per-
mantly sick, in fact. As there were first to last only
600,000 of you, some of whom were killed or wounded
themselves, you must have given the enemy, what the
Irish call a "Perfectly ilegant Time."
Since the war, this country has paid in pensions
and to "Soldiers Homes" for the Federal Soldiers, alto-
gether 4,000.000,000 of dollars. Of this, one third, say
$1,300,000,000, have been paid by the South, $100, 010,000
of it by North Carolinians. As nearly all this goes
north, this has aided vastly to keep us poor in our pov-
The soldiers who fought for the Northern States
have been thus rewarded. Those w^ho fought for the
Southern States have received only what we in our pov-
erty could do for them. The North has shown neither
generosity, nor magnanimity — not even moderation in
Yet when the w^ar again broke out, in no section
was the response to the call for troops by the Govern-
ment more prompt than in the South. And the county
of Caldwell, the valor of whose sons at Gettysburg, at
Chickamauga, and on other fields was historic, was one
of the first to step to the front with a gallant company,
at whose head was a brother of the brave young soldier,
w^ho brought Pettigrew's shattered brigade with honor
off the field at Gettysburg, and who sealed his devotion
to his State and the South with his life's blood in the
crisis of the battle at the Wilderness.
My review of the record of the soldiers of Caldwell
is necessarily brief and imperfect. May I not suggest
that before it is too late, some son or daughter of your
county should write the history of the soldiers from
Caldwell in the Great War, where they went and what
they did. Such writer could take the dry official re-
ports and from the lips of these veterans take down the
living details which will clothe the dry narrative with
life, color and complexion and breathe into the whole
the breath of life. When the work is done, it will re-
flect eternal honor on the county and the people that
could furnish such soldiers and on the loving- hand that
thus shall record Great Deeds, Nobly Done.
A LITTLE HISTORY
Largel}- compiled from the Lenoir News
Of the Monument in honof of the
CALDWELL COUNTY, N. C
LENOIR, JUNE 3, 1910
The preparation of the little history of the Monu-
ment and the collection of all the pictures of Caldwell
County Veterans published with Judge Clark's admira-
ble address has been a work demanding close personal
attention and much time and correspondence. It has,
however, been a labor of love and full of satisfaction.
The sad feature of it is the realization that nearly
all these soldiers are gone from us, and
"No more on Life's Parade shall meet.
"On Fame's Eternal Camping Ground
Their silent tents are spread
And Glory guards with solemn round
The Bivouac of the dead."
G. W. F. Harper.
Lenoir, N. C, October, 1910.
MISS ELLA DELIGHT BERNHARDT
"I do this in 1 onorof the men who wove the tjray.'"
Friday, June 3. 1910, Lenoir, North Carolina
Music by the Band
I.-IO o'clock A. M.— Procession forms on Mulberry Street, facin.L:
North" head of column at Pioneer Library.
ORDER OF MARCH.— 1— Chief Marshal and Staff mounted—2—
Speaker with Mayor, Lieutenant Governor and invited guests
in carriages— 3 -Band— 4 — Veterans, on foot, commanded by
their own officers, according to rank — 5 -Citizens mounted
lead by Marshals — (i — Citizens in carriages.
ROUTE OF PARADE-Mulberry Street to Ash Street, Ash
Street to West Boundary Street; West Boundary Street to
West Main Street; West Main Street to Monument.
7. -INVOCATION- Rev. J. F. England.
8. -PRESENTATION-Crosses of Honor to Veterans.
9.-ADDRESS — Chief .Justice Walter Clark, Supreme Court of
ll.-UNVEILING-Miss Ella Delight Bernhardt.
13. -DINNER To VETERANS-Court House Lawn.
14. -AUTOMOBILE RIDE to Veterans.
MR. DAVID F. CLARK
Caldwell's Confederate Monument.
Erected on the Public Square of Lenoir — The Handsome
Shaft Unveiled June 3, 1 9 1 0.
It is of North Carolina Granite and stands 35 feet
high. As may be seen from the picture it is a model of
beauty and symmetry and reflects the good taste of those
who chose the design.
A little more than three years ago the local chapter
of the United Daughters of the Confederacy took up
actively the matter of raising funds for a monument to
Caldwell county's noble sons who fought and died in the
great conflict between the States. There were 1,000 or
more of these devoted citizens who left her borders in
the five companies she furnished to her Confederate
army, besides many more who enlisted in other compa-
nies going from adjoining counties.
Of these, many noble sons never returned, but fell
in defense of what they believed to be the right on tlie
battle fields from Seven Pines to Appomattox.
To do honor to these men, the noble women compos-
ing the "Zeb Vance" Chaptei" of the Daughters of the
Confederacy voluntarily took upon themselves the plea-
sant task of erecting this handsome monument. By
personal solicitation, by active work in bazaars, festivals
and other means, as well as by liberal contributions of
money, they have earnestly devoted themselves to th's
work of love until success has crowned their efforts.
The monument cost erected $2,100. and it is a shaft
w^orthy of the grand men it is reared to commenK-rate.
The inscriptions are as follows
On the west front: —
"In honor of the men who wore the Gray." and
the followini;- beautiful lines from O'Hara's immortal
"Bivouac of the dead. "
"Nor shall your Glory be forgot,
While Fame her record keeps.
Or Honor points the hallowed spot,
Where Valor proudly sleeps."
Abova this on the main shaft a furled Confederate
On the east front is placedthe following record of
the companies that went from Caldwell into the Con-
"From Caldwell County.
Co. A. 22nd. N. C. Reg't. Inf't.
Co. F. 2oth. N. C. Reg't. Inf't.
Co. I 26th. N. C. Reg't. Inf't.
Co. E. 58th. N. C. Reg't. Inf't.
Co. H. 53th. N. C. Reg't. Inf't. and many of her
sons in other commands."
A'so on the east side the following:
"Erected by the Vance Chapter of the United
Daughters of the Confederacy of Caldwell county, N. C.
And above this on the main shaft a stand of arms.
High above on the belt course of the shaft in large
North side, 1865
South side, 1861
East side, U. D. C. in monogram
West side, C. S. A. in monogram
The weather for the unveiling of the Confederate
Monument last Friday was ideal and the day passed
most pleasantly to all the great host of people who at-
tended. The crowd was estimated all the way from
5,000 to 10,000, but we think a conservative estimate
was 6,000 people. Quite a goodly number of out-of-
town people came in Thursday eveninjj," and niKht and
Fi'iday nioi'n.ing dawned with the streets looking' lively
and city like.
Everything on tiie i)rograrn was cari-iedout without
a hitch and the entire occasion was conceeded a great
success. Promptly at ten o'clock the procession began
forming on Mulberry Street and shortly afterwards, to
the insi)iring- music by the Steel Creek Rand, the parade
started. Chief Marshall Clark was busy, and with his
corps of efficient assistants moved the i)rocession with
perfect order and precision.
An advance g"uard of four mounted marshals clear-
ed the way for the carriag'es and other members of the
procession which moved as follows: First carriage
Mayor Wakefield, Lieutenant Governor Newland and
Judge Walter Clark of the Supreme Court, speaker of
the (lay. Next came a carriage with Mrs. F. R. Will-
iams, of Newton, president of the North Cai'olina Divi-
sion of the Daughters of the Confederacy, Mrs. H. C.
Martin, president of the Zeb Vance Chapter of Lenoir,
and Mrs. Roberta L. Gwyn. pi-esident elect of the Zeb
Following this were some carriages containing some
of the elderly daug-hters ef the Chapter and then little
Miss Ella Delight Bernhardt, Maid of Honor who pulled
the cord to unveil the momument, and her assistants,
little Misses Margaret Jones, Virg'inia Hall. Vanda Tate
Coleen Melton and Sallie Holloway chaperoned by Mrs.
W. S. Coving-ton, treasurer of the Chapter, all in the
handsomely decorated carriage of Mrs. J. M. Bernhardt.
Following this was the band and then the veterans
marching in columns of fours to the number of about
200, convinanded by Maj. G. W. F. Harper who was the
ranking officer of those present. The old warriors look-
ed somewhat grizzled and some of them walked with
perceptable stoop and limp, but to the stirring music of
the band theii* faces and eyes showed the fire and vim
of the sixties. Many citizens liared their heads as the
Kfand old men passed them and felt that the debt of
honor due them by their country could never be paid.
The procession moved up Mulberry street to Ashe street,
thence to Vance, to West Main and to the momument
and the g-rand stand which had been provided for them.
The speaker's stand was tastely decorated and was oc-
cupied by the lady officials of the Chapter, the speaker
and other prominent local and visiting- persons. Rev.
J. F. England, himself a veteran, led the vast assem-
blages in an appropriate and earnest prayer, after which
Mrs. H. C. Martin, local president, introduced Mrs. F.
R. Williams, president of the North Carolina Division
of the Daughters, who made an interesting, brief ad-
dress explaining steps necessary to be taken to secure
crosses of honor and stating soniething of the work of
the organization thi'oughout the State.
Capt. Edmund Jones then introduced the speaker,
Chief Justice Walter Clark of the North Carolina Su-
preme Court, who delivered an able and scholarly ad-
dress of about an hour's length. We will not try to give
a synopsis of this fine sj^eech but urge all our readers,
who did not hear it, to read it. for it is full of historic
interest and tells us many things about the people of
our own county which many of us never knew.
The presenting of crosses of honor to a number of
the veterans who had pi-operly prepared and sent in
their credentials to the ladies, was an interesting inci-
dent. Then came the unveiling, which was done skil-
fully by a cord from the speaker's stand, where the
pretty little maid of honor with her assistants were
stationed. As she exclaimed, "I do this in honor of the
men who wore the gray." the veil fell and a round of
a])plause went up from the assembly, but it was of a
subdued nature, few if any of the veteraus participat-
ing. In fact a feeling of deep solemnity and reverence
))ei-vaded the audience as the stately and beautiful shaft
was exposed to view and many moist eyes were seen in
the large assembly. After the Doxolog'y, which was
led by the band, the veterans, were served a splendid
dinner on the court house campus which was much
enjoyed, the greetings and hand shakings of the "Old
Boys. " as they called themselves, being one of the most
enjoyable features of this hour. The closing numberof
the day's program was an automobile ride for the veter-
ans which e\'ery one seemed to enjoy to the fullest ex-
Strong Box Placed in Monument
Last Thursday Major Harper had a strongbox made
to hold articles to be placed in the monument and in the
box was i)laced a copy of the sketch of the 58th North
Carolina regiment, a sketch of the 26th North Carolina
regiment, a copy of Miss Emma Rankins sketch, of wai-
time expei'iences. a roll of the veterans of compan\-
A 22nd. North Carolina regiment, a i-oll of the veterans
who hapi)ened to be in town on that day. some ])hoto-
grai)hic views of Lenoir, a few co])ies of the News, and
perhaps other ])apers.
In futu»-e years if the monument should
i)e torn down to give i)lace to a laiger ar.d
more imposing one. these things will lie looked ove)-
with much interest. The box in which they are placed
was of galvanized iron and was imbedded in solid ce-
ment, in a nich under the shaft of the monument.
'* Farthest to the Front at Chickamauga
Eight Xorth Carolina Rc(/iiiuvits Uliiclt Rciiiirrcd Pis-
tinyuishcd Services in the Ihiffles of the West — Opponents
Better fighters Than the Eastern federal .Irniies.
(By Fred A. Olds)
Written for The 01)server (Charlotte).
Xorth Carolina's Confederate troops became very notable
by reason of their services in Mrginia, where more than
sixty regiments from this State were on duty, it having in
\'irginia a larger number of troops than even the latter
State itself. There were, however, Xorth Carolina troops
in what was known as the Western Army, no less than
eight regiments participating in the great battles in the
West. One of these was the Fifty-eighth Infantry, of
which the State now possesses the battle flag. ha\ing also
in the historical col'.ection the musket carried by a prixate
of the regiment, and also a unique relic in the shape of
a box in which ammunition was issued by the Confederate
ordnance department at Richmond to the Fifty-eighth.
This regiment was organized in ^litchell County, on the
Tennessee line, in July, 1862, John B. Palmer being its
colonel, the regiment having been raised as part of a legion
of infantry, cavalry, and artillery, to l)e commanded by
Colonel Palmer. There were twelve companies in the regi-
ment, which in September went to Cumberland Gap, and
was put under command of General Stevenson. During the
following winter, the command lost many men by camp
fever and measles. In the following summer, the regiment
went to Chattanooga, and in the battle of Chickamauga
was very prominent. In the charge by the Confederates
wliicli roultcd in llic capture of Snodgrass llill. llic Federal
stronghold, that e\entfnl Sunihiy. the re.i^dnient lost in killed
and wounded (_)\ er half of the >tren,^lh it took into action.
In fact, the casualties in the regiment were greater than the
comhined o^s of the other regiments of the hrigade. Culonel
Palmer was, soon after the hattle, detache(l and place*] in
cemimand of the department of Western Xorth Caro-
lina, with head(|tiarters at Ashe\"illc. The hrigade, in which
was placed the Sixtieth Xorth Carolina, took- ])art in the
haltlcs around Chattanooga and in the defence c»f .Missionary
J\idge, where there was a stuljl)orn hght, the Federal force,
personalK' led h\- ( '.eneral Sheridan in sexera! charges, l)eing
repulsed. Cien. John C. 1 h'eckenridge uncoxercd as the
iM'fl\-eighth passed him, and com]ilimented the regiment on
fift\-I:i(/lit/i at r^cntoiisi'Ulc
The war hegan to come to an end, and earlv in icS(i5 tlie
regiment was sent to Sotith Carolina, where it again con-
frontecl ( leneral v^herman. In .March. ( 'icneral Johnston
made a f(_)rced march to 1 '.entonsx ille, .\. C. where the ":ast
hattle of tile war was fought, there henig a concentration of
the Confederate forces. The h*ift_\-eighth, in this its last
Ixittle, had thi'ee lumdred eHecti\e men, and its hrigade was
selected as the directin.g cohiniu for the Army of Ten-
nessee in the assatilt on the lA'deral line, the charge l)eing
\ery spirited, and the enenu' (lri\en some distance. This
last hattle. at 1 lentonsxil'e. was one of the most sexere (:»f
the war. though great exents were then crowding each other
so closely that r-elati\el\- little attention was jiaid to it. I'-oth
arnu"es fought sa\agel_\-. ddie restoration of Ceneral John-
ston to the command ga\e great confidence t() the armv.
P>oth the Fifty-eighth and Sixtieth Regiments hehaved
with distingtiished gallantrw and their State has recorded
th.is fact on the monument on the hattlefieid of r.entonsville.
March 22, i8(>5. Jolmston withdrew his army to a point near
Smithfield. and there organized the ".Xrmv of Ten-
nessee," consolidating com])anies, regiments, and hrigades.
On the tenth of Apri'. the rei,Mnient niarclied to Raleii^h. and
on tlie sixteenth encamped at Greensboro, wliere it was
chosen as the guard for the great accumulation of North
Carolina's quartermaster's stores, the discipline heing per-
fect, and the men not demoralized in the least. While at
Greensboro, the regiment was given part of the money from
the Confederate military treasure-chest, each man getting a
dollar and a quarter in Mexican silver; but, all the money
being in dollars, the men in groups drew for the odd cents.
This was the first coin seen by practically a'l the regiment
during the entire war.
Singular Disband incut
General Johnston announced the surrender of the army,
April 27. and the regiment was paroled ^lay 2. A very
singular thing then occurred, the regiment as an organized
body marching to Statesville. a distance of one hundred
and fifty miles, where it was regularly disbanded, the men
then marching to their homes. In the march from Greens-
boro, more than a third of the men, by order, retained
their rifies. and carried each forty rounds of ammunition,
while wagons carried reserve ammimition. rations, and
blankets. Discipline was maintained during this march
across the State, and it is hardly probable that any other
Confederate regiment had such an experience after sur-
render. The men retained their rifles, as has been stated,
and it was one of these, with the regiment number upon
the stock, which is now in the Hall of History at Raleigh,
and which is a loan from IMaj. G. W. F. Harper, of the
Fifty-eighth. This permission of the Federal officers for
these Confederates to bear arms was as a protection against
"bummers" and other riftrafif. who were by that time
spreading and marauding through Piedmont North Carolina
and some of the extreme western coimties.
North Carolina at Chickamauga
Extract from the Lenoir Topic.
The State of North Carolina. September iq and 20,
1863, was represented in the i^reat liattle of Chickamauga
by four regiments of infantry — the Twenty-ninth. Thirty-
ninth, Fifty-eiglith, and Sixtieth — no two of them Ijeing in
the same brigade.
The State, by the act of its recent General Assembly,
appropriated ii^50o.oo to defray the expense of putting up
stone markers, showing the positions occupied by the several
regiments named during or at the close of the battle.
The appropriation being too small to secure suitable
markers. 'Mr. G. \\'. Hinshaw, president of the Blount Airy
Granite Company, generously presented suitable granite
monuments, weighing one or two tons each, dressed on one
side for the inscription, and the Southern Railway delivered
them at Chattanooga, free of charge for freight. These
monuments have recently been placed in position, under the
supervision of Maj. A. C. Avery, late Judge of our Supreme
Court, who is chairman of the Commission appointed for
the purpose in the Act of the North Carolina Legislature.
Major Avery, an ofificer under Gen. D. H. Hill, having
served in this battle, and being familiar with the ground, his
appointment on the Commission to receive and place these
monuments was most judicious.
Caldwell County having two companies — Company E,
Captain Stewart's ; and Company H, Captain Harper's —
in the Fifty-eighth Regiment, the location of the monument,
with the inscription that it bears, will doubtless be of interest
to the survivors of that command, and their friends. The
monument to this regiment, which was a part of Kelly's
Brigade, I 'restoii's r)i\isi(Ui, of Liuckner's Corps, stands on
the summit of Snodgrass Hi 1, a commanding position where
the sexerest hgliting at close i|uarters occurred; and wliere.
ahoul se\en p. m.. a large ]H)rtion of the h'ederal op])osing
force was captured — this heing llie la>t tiring in the hattle.
The regiment loss here — killed 4(), wounded i i^, missing r ;
total if>i — was o\er half of th().se carried into action.
included in this statement, Compau}' \\ lost nine killed,
twe'\e wounded; Compau}' il lost eight kille<l. eleven
The inscription is a> follows;
''lircctcd by the State of XortJi i'aroliiia to Mark the
li.vtrcinc I'oliit attained In a ( 'hari/e hy the R'ujht of tJie
J' ij ty-etijhth Wnih Laroliiia l\e(/inteiit , about si.v
p. in.. Sef'teniber 20. iSf)^
The monument is southeast of the tall steel ( )l)ser\atory
on Snodgrass llih. and ahotU one hundred and twenty-five
feet from it. The monument to the Thirty-fifth ( )hio Regi-
ment, Colonel lloxnton, stands in front of and ahottt twentv
feet from the monument to the Fiftv-eighth Xorth Carolina.
The writer, in companv with Sergt. Elijah 11. Crump,
Company 11, iMfty-eighth Xorth Carolina Regiment, and
veterans representing other Xorth Carolina regiments,
visited the hattleground on the tenth instant. We were
shown marked courtesies by the ofticials of the Chickamauga
I'ark Coiuiuission, and hy \-eterans of Forest Camp, of Chat-
Sergeant Crump was severely wounded in this battle^
his name being on the list of mortally wounded. 1 le realized
that he stood on the same ground on which he fell, griev-
otisly wounded, fort\'-two years before.
A stee' tal)let, erected near the spot by the Chickamauga
National i'ark Comnussion, also marks the position of the
Fifty-eighth Regiment at the close of tliat eventful vSunday.
For this inscription, se^c Clark's Histories of North Carolina
Regiments. \'ol. Ill, page 435.
A singular coincidence in the names of two of the officers
commanding two opposing regiments develops in the name
of Col. n. Boynton. of the Thirty-fifth Ohio, and that of
Col. John Boynton Palmer, of the Fifty-eighth North Caro-
lina Regiment. Both of these officers were northern men
— G. W. F. Harper
A Wartime Furlough
(By AFaj. G. W. F. Harpkr)
In the latter ])art of Deeember, 1863, Gen. Josepli E.
Johnston, tlien in command of the army of Tennessee, at
Da'ton. Ga., granted leave of absence or furloughs to a
large number of the officers and enlisted men of the army —
the term "leave of absence" was usually ai)pliecl to officers,
and "furlough'' to enlisted men. The length of these fur-
loughs was to each ofticer or enlisted man an allowance of
ten days' stay at honK\ 'J'hose to men of Caldwell County.
N. C. were for eighteen days, giving eight days for the
round trip, and the ten davs at home.
With my lea\e was granted furloughs to several men
of my Company, and a like proportion from other Com-
panies of the Fifty-eighth North Carolina Regiment.
The sketch following, copied from a pocket diary kept
at the time, will give some idea of the delay and discomforts
incident to railway travel in those troublous times. Heavy
rains, with washouts, and extreme cold weather following,
aggravated the conditions in the case before us :
Thursday, December 31, 1863
Dalton. Ga. — Heavy rain all day ; night clear, and very
cold. Received an eighteen-days "Leave." Sergeant-Major
Inglis also in Tick. Called on Colonel and Mrs. Hardy.
Night, waded through the rain and wind, and took train
for Atlanta at eight o'clock, on a car without a stove, and
seats without cushions. The case made more provoking
by the slow train, which insured failure to connect with
outgoing train at Atlanta.
Friday, January i, iS(>4
Clear, \ery cold, .and lii.i^li wind. Arrixcnl at Atlanta
sc\en hours too late for Auijiista train — Atlanta Hotel.
Left for .\u.i.,^usta at d.^o \>. m. Car comfortable, but
another slow train, and hopelessK' liehmd time again.
v^aturda}-, januar_\ 2. iS()4
Clear and cold. Augusta, i i .00 a. m. (Air train was
dtie at four. Mainburg, S. C, o\-e'rtl(_)we(l liy freshet, and
\ugirsta parti}- so. Clobe 1 lotel. Took a walk o\er the
P. M. — Walked across Saxannali Ri\er I)ri(!ge, and took
])assage through the submerged streets of llamburg in a
boat, thence on foot half-mile to a train at farther side of
a washout. I'ulled out at seven and made the surprising
distance of twehe miles in two hours. Llranchville, S. C.
4.00 a. m. — sexeral hours behind time again. Our crowd
took possession of wacant room, and managed to keep a
small tire with barrel staves, palings, etc., until morning.
v'-^unday, January 3, 1864
Clear, cold, pleasant. Inglis secured a sumptuous I)re,ak-
fast for himse'f anil the writer at a Mr. Morrow's, and all
compensation refused by our kind entertainer. Cars at one
p. m. .Xnother slow train; arri\ed at Columbia three hours
after Charlotte train had left. Stock of patience becoming
much depleted. A night at Congaree I louse.
Monday, January 4. 1864
Cloudy, cold. Train at eight a. m. Encountered a train
off track at \\'iimsl)oro — two hours' delav here. A fine pros-
pect of missing connection at Cliarlotte foiled bv high rate
of speed, forty miles an hour, for the balance of the wav.
Train at Charlotte for Salisbury at dark. Spent the day
reading W'ilkie Collins' "No Name." Salisburv. nine p. m..
Mansion 1 lotel.
.^a'isliurw Tuesday. January 5. \S<()4
Clear, cold, i)leasant. Xo train today on Western Xortli
Carolina Railway, in conse(|uence of slide in bank (jf deep
cut six miles out. jol) was nc\er so detained on a railroad,
traveling on a short furlough — this is ni_\- prixate ojjinion.
Returned to "Xo Xaine." a f(jrtunate purchase — what else
could 1 ha\e resorted to for relief today?
Wednesda_\-, January 6, 1864
Cloudy, cold. Train seven ; started at nine ; changed cars
at the slide or washout. Another hour gone here, and an-
other lost by stalling on road to Statesvi'le for want of dry
wood. "No Name"" for it. ( Coal was not then in general
use on Southern Railrtjads. ) Poor dinner, in the woods at
Catawba, for the ridiculously low price of three dollars.
A charming voung lady on the next seat obliged me while
at dinner by taking u\> "Xo Name" and monopolizing its
contents for the balance of the ride to the next town. She.
of course, did not know that I had left oil reading at an
intensely interesting point of the story — how cou'd she? — or
that I had no resource left me but to post up my journal on
The charming V. L. : "W by don't she take the .-.(jualling
thing by the head and throw it out of the window? Whose
child is that?"
Young Gent : "Don't know, ma'am ; that would be a difft-
cult question for me to answer you just now."
The charming Y. L. subsides for the next ten minutes.
Hickory, six p. m. Dismounted from the train which had
carried us safely for nearly sixty miles in nine hours, and
struck out on foot for Lenoir, nineteen miles, which we
reached at 11.30. There was no other way to get there.
Dark, cloudy night; road rough and frozen; bad w^alking.
Home, Sweet Home. Tiresome tramp soon forgotten
in the pleasures and comforts of home.
( )n Icax'ing I I ickor}-. uur iiarl_\- minil)ere(l almut ten
arni\- men. Tlircc oiilx' — In^-lis. nnself. and a ne\L;"ro man —
rcacliLMl Lenoir the >ame ni.ijht : llu' otlier fc'lows fell (Hit at
dilfercnt ])iMnts. and miu.s^Iu rest and >lce]i ])\ imiiromptu
cam])th"cs (Ui tlic \va\sidc.
In.i;li^. Seri;cant-.Ma j(ir of the Ivc^'imcnt. a faitlifnl friend
and conn-ade, wa^ killeil in the dpenins^' hattle of the Atlanta
c-am]>ai,i;n alxiut two nKmllis iater. ,<4i-eatl\- to the loss and
i^rief of his friend, the writer.
An aii])Iieation for an extension of our furloughs so as
to i;'i\e u^ the adotteil lime at home w a> ilisa]>iiro\ed at
Arm_\- headi|uarters. hut our hrij^ade olVicerN withhe'd the
pajier^ from us, uotifyin^^ Us to take the ten (la\s at home,
whieh we were ,i;iad to do. We made the return trip in
tne day^, taking; with u^ >e\ eral recruit^ for our Coinpanv.
The reference to the death of lii^lis hrings up to the
writer the fate of a numher (»f his attached friends and com-
rades. ( If his mosmates. >ix were kil'ed in hattle, and,
includiu!^- himself. fi\e were wounded. The ])ersonnel of
the mess was coiistantl\- (diani,Mnt;". Imt the casualties stated
em])hasize the saiii^uinaiw character of the War.
The Capture of Fort Hamby
( \)y S. Fixi,L-:v 1 1 ari'iik )
In March, i8()5, General Stoneman, with a large l)0(ly
of cavalry, left Hast Tennessee on a raid into Xortli Caro-
lina. Passing through Watauga County, the_\- entered
Boone, the county seat, on March 2(). The command then
divided. General Stoneman going toward W'ilkesboro, while
the other, General Gil'.iam, crossed the Blue Ridge at Blow-
ing Rock and to Patterson, where they began their \ anda'ism
by burning the cotton and wool mill with all its contents and
a large amoiuit of other property in the store and ware-
houses. This burning was without provocation, and as the
Union citizens of East Tennessee were getting their supplies
of cotton yarn and cloth at this mill its destruction by the
Union army was a great surprise. This force, leaxing Pat-
terson, went to W'ilkesboro, arresting along the wa_\- a num-
ber of old and infirm non-combatants. A numl)er of worth-
less characters deserted v'^toneman's command along this
march, and formed with native bushwhackers bands under
the leadership of two desperate men. Wade and Simmons.
Wade's party located in a log house on a high hill half-
mile north of Holman's Ford of the Yadkin River, in Wilkes
County. Being heavily armed with army rifles and pistols,
they made daily raids into the surrounding country, rob-
bing, plundering, and terrorizing the citizens, taking every-
thing they could find to eat, as well as horses, etc. Their
practice was to ride up to a house, dismount, and enter,
pointing loaded guns at any person occupying the house,
threatening to shoot if they opened their mouths, while
others were searching closets, trunks, drawers, etc., taking
what suited them. The people for miles and miles In the
counlr\ surrounding li\fil in constant dread nf tliem, as
tlK'V seemed iVded with a spirit nf hatred and re\enge. treat-
ing all i)ersuns not in >\m|)ath_\' with them with the greatest
'J"he house the_\- u>ed for headtjuarters was hnel_\' located
for oflensi\e as well as defensixe operaticms. ( )n a high
hill, facing the \'adkin lvi\er on the south and front, and
Lewis' lM)i"k on the west, their guns couhl sweep the country
for a half-nnle each wa_\- up and down the ri\er. The
house was two sloiaes. with jiortholes cut in the upper storw
It was formerl\- (n-cupie(l 1)\' a famih' named Ilamhy. and
aftei' heing fortitivil was known as Fort IIaml)y.
The roliliers. numhering ]irohahl_\' twenty-h\e or thirty,
made se\e]-al raid.^ into Caldweh and Alexander Counties,
rolihing. plundering, and insulting in the grossest manner
the women and children, the alile-ho(heil men heing in the
C<infederale Arnhes. Maj. Mar\ey Ih'ngham. with a small
home-guard force, fohowed the raiders out of Cahlwell
Count \- on Ma\- d, executed a well-]ilanned mo\e on the
fort at night, and comjilcteK sur].)rising the <lefen(lers en-
tered the house. The men hegged for their lixes, and no
arms heing in .^ight Major I'ingham ga\e them time to dress.
The prisoners, taking adxantage of this opportunity, rushed
for their guns, and hred on the attacking ]iarty. killing two
— Rohert Clarke, son of (".eneral Clarke, and Henry ITenlcv.
both ui Caldwell County. The_\' were hrax-e Confederate
soldiers, and sij'endid men. The others, seeing themsehes
o\eri)Owered. made their esca])e. leaying the dead bodies on
The next week Wade made a raid into Alexander
County, with the a\o\yed intention of killing Lieutenant
Grt-en, son of Lew L L. Cireen. who had returned home,
after the surrender of the Confederate Armw Heing in-
formed of their intention. Mr. C.reen i)rei)ared to give them
a warm receiiti(^n. The_\- came and surrounded the house.
Wade, wearing a suit of gray, ckaimed to l.)e an ofhcer in the
Cunfedcralc Arnix returning" Ikhuc, and wislicd a nit^lirs
IddniiiiL;'. ( M"ccn c<.)uld, how c'\ ct. sec iIk'IIi, and said, "i know
_\du, and _\()U can'l conic in licrc un"css it is o\cr ni\- dead
hod}'." 'I'hrce of the gani;' were aliout t(j force entrance
through a rear \vin(low, when Lieutenant Green rushed to
tlie place and hrcd on tlieni. sligiuly wounchng one of them.
Tlic_\- then with(h-e\v, leaxing two horses, and returneil in
haste to the fort.
Coh Washington Sharpe, of IredeU County, gathered
up about twenty men, sokhers just returned from the Con-
federate .\rni_\- at Appomattox, pursued, crossing the \'ad-
kin Ri\-er, rushed up to within a few vards of the fort,
when Wades men opened tire and killed two — Mr. Jas.
Linney, brother of Hon. R. Z. Linney, and ]\Ir. Jones
Brown. Seeing their hazardous situation, the others made
a hasty retreat, leaving the two dead bodies. This second
disastrous repulse greatly depressed our ])eople, but they
determined the place must be taken at all hazards. Colonel
Sharpe co'lected a squad of al)OUt twenty returned soldiers,
and sent a message to Caldwell County for help. A numlier
went from Lenoir. Among them is remembered, A. S.
Kent, T. L. Norwood, Jas. W'. Xorwood, George IL Dula,
Robert B. Dula, and S. F. Harper. They collected others
along the wav, and met Rev. Isaac Oxford with a party
from the Little River country. They all i)roceeded to near
Holman's Ford, and waited for the Alexander company.
This was about ATav 18. The day before this, as a man and
his wife were in a wagon approaching the ford, the robbers
opened fire from the fort and killed the woman.
We were told bv citizens living nearby that W'adc was
expecting us, and that we had better return; that we cou'd
not take the fort, as they probably had sent for recruits, etc
Colonel Sharpe was put in command, and Captain Oxford
and T. L. Xorwood in command of the Caldwell company.
After consultation, it was decided to attack not by storm;
but surround and cut them off from water and compel
surrender by seige. Skirmishers were sent forward to pre-
\ L'lU ;mil)U.sli. r.\- a dctnur, the Cdmniauil came in on the
rear, ami e>tal)!i>lie(l ])ickel ])()Sl^; on tlirce sides nf ilie fort.
( )ur men kept U]i fn-in^- on the house all dax . and ihev re-
turned the lire with sueh accuracx' that (lur men had to i)ro-
tect theniseKes hehind trees and l(),i,^s. When the\" found
t]ie_\- were surrounded. lhe\- raised a teiadhle \-ell. and with
fearful oaths eui-sed our men ami dared them to come on.
.\ear nij4iit. our lines were mo\ ed up nearer. As da\'-
'i,i;ht appi-oacheil. .Mr. Sharjie, from IixmIcH. who was ^la-
tioned near the spriui.;-. \ er_\ (juieth ci"ept up to the (jld
kitchen, huilt of >mall jiine lo^s. which was oM and drv,
kee])in!^ tlu' kitchen hetween himself and the fort; i)Ut a
match to It, and dashed hack to his ]iost. Soon the kitchen
was ahlaze, and the hunhn^- lirandx fell on the roof of the
fort. It was now oui" time to \ell, which was done. .\ de-
mand tor surrender was made. The\" asked what would he
done with them, and wei'e told that the\- wnuld he killed.
'Jdiey came out. with Wade in froiU. Me raised his hands
as thouj^h he intended sui'remlei'ini;". made a dash down the
hi 1 to the ri\er. fortunateh' tor Inm ])assinL; hetween twaj
of our picket jiosts. made his escape to the ri\er. and hid
under the hank. .\ luimher of shots were fired at him, hut
it was still too dark to see him well. Di'.i^ent .search was
made, hut he could not he found.
h\jur of W ade"s men surrendered, and much stolen hootv
of \arious kinds was found in the house, and a nuniher of
stolen horses in the lot nearhy. There were onl\- h\e men
in the fort at this time — W ade. and four others. It was
cjuickh' decided that the four should pay the ]K-nalt\- with
their li\es, after gixin^- them a little time to prepare for
death. Upon re(]uest of the Colonel. Rev. Isaac (Oxford
said he wou'd jtray for them, and handing- his gun to a
conu'ade he thanked ("lod that none of us were killed and
that I'ustice ha<l o\'ertak-en them at last. Then after Rev.
W. R. (Avaltnev jiraved for them the_\- were tied to stakes,
and shot to death in regular militar_\' fashion.
'rheca])lurc and cxcciuion ot tliisliand had a \ cr\' whole-
some efk'ct in crtcctuallx' (hscitura^in^" an\- othci" parlies that
were inclined to j^o into r()l)l)in<;\ ])lunderin^-, and murder-
ing business, and our countr\- has liad no more of it. dhe
capture and destruction of lM)rt llanil)}' and il> defender^
ga\e a ,^ieal relief to the whole surrounding country.
Patterson, N. C, April, 1913.
The Capture of Camp Vance, and the
Skirmish at Moore's Crossroads
(By Maj. G. \V. F. Harper)
In tlie summer of 1864, the unfinished Western North
Carolina Railroad was operated to a point in Burke County,
N. C, about four miles east of Morganton, near which the
village of Drexel now stands. Here was located a camp of
instruction for a small force of junior reserves for the
Southern Army. There being no Federal Army nearer than
East Tennessee, no guard was on duty, and the camp had
little or no supply of arms or ammunition for its defense.
C)n the twenty-eighth of June, 1864, a messenger brought
the news to Lenoir that this post, known as Camp Vance,
had been captured by a Yankee raid from Tennessee, which
might take the route by Lenoir on its return.
Men were scarce in Lenoir in those troublous days —
most of the able-bodied men being at the front in the
Southern armies — a few of them only at home, on fur-
lough, on account of wounds or disease. One of this class
was the writer, waiting for the healing up of a bullet hole
made the month previous through his leg in the battle of
Resaca, Ga. To secure information, four or five men, in-
cluding the writer, volunteered to scout at once in the direc-
tion of Camp Vance, and poorly armed and mounted were
soon on the road. Crossing Lower Creek at Corpening's
Bridge, the squad rode rapidly until near Johnson's Ferry
on the Catawba, at which the raid had crossed, and learning
that it was returning by the same route over which it came
the day before, the scouting squad returned to Corpening's
Bridge, and kept guard over it during the night.
Atlcr cnjdxiui;- a ^-(i,,,! hrcakfast, tn wliich Mr. [oe
C(ir|>L-niii,i^- iinitcil u>, the sijuad. reinforced 1)\- our ho>t
and three of his neighbors, all o\ er eon>cri]it aj^^e. with tlieir
Hinlloek s(|Uirre] rifles, nio\ ed out in ]>ursuit of the raid,
and soon fell o]i the traces of it. Crossini;- hilni's Rixer at
I'erkiiis. we found the hulies of that and I )r. AlcDoweH's
chai-nniii^- homes nidl<4nant at the insolence of the stra.<4;u:lers
of the raid, who insulted and rohhed tlivni. lloth these
fann'hes wd'e near relati\es of the two Mil'ers of our ]iarty.
.\s all faxored a rai)id pursvut. with a \vell-nl.t,di cer-
taint_\- of a ti^ht in a few hotirs, it was su^'^ested 1)\" some of
our coo'vr heads that we had no organization, and shou'.d
elect a commander then and there, which was done while
momUed. The wi'iter, who was not a candidate, was com])li-
nieiUed 1>\ a nonnnat'on ;ind the miamnious \(ite of hi-
ei.i^lu t-onn"ades o]- companiiins, and the command fijrward
was forthwith i^'ixcn.
This was at one ]>. m. In the in-xl houi'. after a furious
ride, our horses coxered with foam, we encountered the rear
!.^"uard of the vnemx' at Moore's Crossroads, ahout h\e miles,
and after a li\el\- skirnnsh drove them, capturing' one
prisoner, two mules partl\- loaded with plunder, two army
carbines and ])isto's. ( )ur loss was a hue horse killed under
Robert C. Miller: and the Ca])tain's little steed was shot
imder him and left on the >4'rotnid. The saddles were trans-
fered to the ca])tured nuiles. but otir S(|uad was too much
disori^anized to contintie the ])tn-suit, with a handful onl_\-
of I)roken-(l()wn men and horses.
The little mare shot down was perha])s twelve or fifteen
years old, and was the favorite steed and pet of the writer's
mother, who was a tine e(|uestrian. It may interest the
lo\ers of good stock to know that this animal was carefully
looked after, and in a few weeks was able to return to her
home, on'v to encounter more enemies. \\ hen Stoncman's
Cavalry raid passed through Lenoir, in ^S,h^. she was
seized and carried off by it. but soon broke down under
Iiard usay'c, and wa-- aliandoiK'il and Ictl a tew nnlcs \ve>l
of Aloryantiin. Tlii^ faitlit'ul, I)all\'-si,-arre(l \ cR-ran w is
a.y^ain rccoxcred. and restored to lier owner's home, wiiei'e
she lixed some \ears thereafter.
( )n the followini^- day, a well-armed detachment from
the ,i,^arrison at Salishury. with militia and x'olunteers from
llurke Count}", all under the command of Col. Allen Ilrown,
of the h'irst Xorth C\arolina l\e,q-iment. overtook and at-
tacked the raiders on the mountainside several miles north
of the crossroarls. The enem\-, heing well armed, and hoM-
uv^ a strong position the attack was repulsed with 'oss, and
the raiders got awa_\- with the prisoners the_\- had taken at
Camp A'ance. Hon. W'aightstill W. Avery, of Morganton,
a distinguished North Carolinian, was here killed, as was
also Philip Chandler, formerly a citizen of Lenoir.
Ahout the time of the skirmish at the Crossroads, a party
of Burke County mounted men got in advance of the raid-
ers, and fired on the head of the column as it approached,
unfortunately killing one of the prisoners taken at Camp
The hard riding and exposure in this atlair chafed and
irritated the unhealed wound of the waiter, and laid him up
two months or more for repairs — the latter end of that man's
wound being worse than the first.
The fodowing named men composed the stjuad of nine
in the ^Moore's Crossroads skirmish :
G. W. F. Harper, Captain, of Lenoir; Robert C. Miller, of
Lenoir; Xelson A. Miller, of Lenoir; Columbus A. Tuttle,
of Tw^enty-sixth Xorth Carolina Regiment, of Lenoir;
W'm. P. Sudderth, of Company F, Twenty-sixth North
Carolina Regiment; Joseph Corpening. of Caldwell
County; W. Alphonso Setzer, of Caldwell Countv ; Abram
S. Kent, of Caldwell County; C. A. Ambler, a refugee,
from Richmond, Ya. ; a cavalryman, name unknown, of
Vaughn's Cavalry P>rigade.
Sherman at Columbia
(By Ma.]. G. W. F. Harper)
To the Confederate I'eteran:
I have read with interest the articles in the Veteran for
November, by Gen. M. C. Ikitler and others, on the burning
of the Congaree bridge, at Columbia, S. C.. on February
i6, 1865, and I note your comment that "other reports on
this subject will be of interest." As I happened to be all
along there about that date, I will state a few facts that
were then and there recorded.
On February 4, the writer was on the north bank of the
Edisto, near liranchville, S. C. in command of the Fifty-
eighth Xorth Carolina Regiment. This regiment, with
other troops of Farmer's Brigade, freshly arrixed from the
Augusta train, was moving to meet our old antagonists of
Sherman's army. This veteran brigade of infantry, then
numerically small, led by that model soldier. Gen. Joseph
B. Palmer, of ]\Iurfreesboro, Tenn., was the van of the
Army of Tennessee.
From our bivouac on the river bank, we were aroused
at a late hour of our first night in South Carolina by the
command: "Take up your blankets, and fall in at once."
Our route was across the county bridge, here spanning the
river, then west over a road running south of the river to
the village of Midway, through which we passed before
It was a bright, cold winter's night, and the fields in the
moonlight were white with frost. At four a. m. of the fifth,
the brigade halted, stacked arms, and sought rest and repose.
I recall that, without fire, upon a single blanket spread upon
the frost-cnxcred leaxcs and one fur coxcring", witli a \(.)iinj;'
lieutenant as bedfelltiw". tlie eiiU])le sle])t s<>undl\ and >\\eetl\'
until the huqle ead at siinri>e. The men. thiuK' clad, each
carryiuL;' a simple h'ankct, dften on slmrt rations, passed the
se\ ere wintei" of iS(i4-()3 in acti\e tieM ser\ice.
In the prime of life. >ti"onL;". actixe. cheerful. fun-l(j\ ing,
li\in,i; in the open air the _\ear around, a s^reat part of the
time on the march, ihcy hecame inured to ]iard>hi]i>. and
complaints of cx]io~,ure to tlie winter's cold were I'ai'clv
heard, ddie (piestion of rations ,i,''a\e them more concern.
All of this applies with like force to the tield and company
ofhccrs. who were e(juall\ cx]iosed with the ])ri\"ate soMiers.
The old \elerans who marclied with 1 ,ee and Jackson and
with joe Johnston and Mood are fanuliar with a'l this. It
was so common that the\' rare.x' speak of U. It is recalled
here as information for a later generation.
After hreakfast from our haxersacks. the hrigade re-
crossed the ri\er (here known as South l\di-loi. at Ken-
ned) 's Ih'idge, where we halted and threw up some li.i^ht
entrenchments, coxerin^" the hridije and the wide swamp
which hor<lered the south hank, ddie enem\- a])]ieared in the
swamps hetore us on the sexenth. d'he picket tiring" and
skirmishini.; which hegan here continued at \ arious cross-
ings of South and .\orth h'llisto : in all cases the enemv
heing repulsed in front. onl\' to find unoccupied or unde-
fended ]ioints al)o\e or hehjw" us at which the\- crossed.
This position was exacuated at midnigh.t of the ninth,
the enem\- lia\ ing ettecled a crossing at Ihnaker's llridge,
a few mi'es ahox'e. Joined Stoxall's small hrigade of our
armx' txxo mi'es xx'est of ( )rangeliurg. and dug a light en-
treiudinient across the road to ])rotect the api)roach to the
town. .\t sunset, our little hrigade withdrew, crossing to
Orangehurg, and thence U]) the east side of the ri\er, a
march of twenty-four mi'.es today.
h'ehruarx- i i — MarclK'd three miles to Shilling's 1'ridge,
and (lug a short line oi ritle pits, the enemy in our front.
Sundaw i^'cliruarv \2 — Skirmisliinq' aloiio; our line. Tn
the aftenioim. tlic ciK-niy crossed llic ri\cr alxnc and liclow
us. when we e\ acualed llie posilidii, with the loss of sexeral
nieu wounded or captured.
ilivouaced nine p. m.. on the Columl)ia Road, sixteen
miles from Orangehurg.
l'*el)ruary 13 — ]\1 arched at daylight o\er the "State
Road,"' and Ilivouaced at Congaree Creek, The smoke of
niniierous tires seen on our left marked the progress of the
enemy, wIk) marched over roads parallel to our route.
The brigade, marching on the State Road, reached the
position abo\e Congaree Creek, two miles from Columbia,
on the fourteenth of February, and proceeded to fortify
it. We were glad to meet here I'ettus's splendid Alabama
brigade of our division, but it was greatly reduced by its
losses in Hood's Xashville campaign. We had hoped to
meet important reinforcements here — possibly a division
from Lee's army — but none appeared.
On February 15, the enemy deployed in large force in
the open bottoms, in plain \iew of our position, and we wit-
nessed here the skirmishing by our calvary under General
Butler with the enemy's infantry. The cahary moved as
orderly as on parade, squadrons frequently charging the
foe's adAance. and were not forced to retire until the enemy
in large force with artillery was brought, about sunset, to
bear upon them. (~)ur small brigade witnessed the action
of our calvary in this little encounter with unbounded ad-
A corps of Sherman's armv being in sight, and in a fair
way to capture our small force, the position was evacuated
early in the night, Pettus's lirigade had been hurried to the
bridge in the afternoon wdien the cavalry w^as engaged. On
reaching the bridge, the brigade was halted, wdien General
Palmer ordered the writer to "m.tve his regiment so as to
occupy the short line of rifle pits covering the bridge heads,
and take command of the ])osition. Have the men stack
ihcir arms and remain in ca>_\- reach, lliat the infantr\- jjick-
ets wonlil he hi'un^lit in ahoul ten (i"cl()ck, when small ])icket
guards from the regiment nui>t l)e })Oste(l ;U proper dis-
tances on the ap])roaches in front, and the regiment resume
their arms at the ritlc pits, and tliat you will hold the posi-
tion at all hazards luuil siuu'ise, unless sooner relie\'ed !"
'Idle ( leneral further >taletl that "si^me men were at work
cutting' down the west span (jf the l)ridge, l)cfore tiring," and
that 1 wotild he notihed when the work was completed, with
oi"(lers to call in our pickets and report to hrigade head-
(piarters in Columhia.
At a little after three a. m.. on the sixteenth, orders
were receixed to call in ottr i)ickets and march. On reach-
ing the hridge, we found two or three hridge men at the
entranc<;. and a lot of comhustihles pi'ed in and near the
west end of the hridge. awaiting the touch of a match.
'Idle reg^inient tiled 1)_\- us into the hridge, and, seeing that
otn- little rear guard had left none hehind, the writer
Ijrought up the rear of the regiment, and in a short time the
entire structure al)t)\e the masonry was hurning furiously.
The hridge was built of rich longleaf pine. co\ered with
shingles of same, and hurned so rapidl}- that the effort to
save any part of it was a failure.
.\s there seems to he some confusion with writers as to
the location of this bridge over the Congaree with the two
bridges above the city over the Broad and Saluda, it may
not be amiss to say here that the bridge, which we were the
last to cross, was at the foot of Gervais Street in Columbia.
( )n Fel)ruar\- i(>, the brigade picketed the river bank,
with its reser\e in the nearest streets receiving the lire of
the enemv's sharpshooters, which it was not permitted to
return. The enemy, nevertheless, threw shells into the city,
several of them striking the Capitol, leaving permanent scars
which serve as reminders of Sherman's visit.
After dark, the brigade marched north through the citv
to near the conthience of the T.road and Saluda ( which
make the Congaree), and took a position stipporting- the
cavah-y which were picketing- the upper crossings. At eight
o'clock on the morning of the seventeenth, it was with-
drawn, and marched alongside the Charlotte Railroad, the
enemy driving the cavalry in the rear, for a mile or two.
Sherman took possession of the city, and its inhabitants,
mostly women and children, learned to their dismay what
he meant when he announced that "War is Hell!'
The horses of the tield and staff officers, excepting one
for the general and two for his stall, were left with the
wagon train in ^Mississippi, an<l only reached their owners
April I, at SmTthfield, X. C, the officers of the regiments
meanwhile having marched on foot from liranchville. S. C.
to Columbia, and Charlotte. X. C, and later from Smith-
field to Bentonsville and return. Fording, or rather wading
the icv waters of the Catawba, at Lansford, in February,
was an incident to be remembered.
The writer, in these long, hard marches, wore long,
heavy, ill-fitting boots, one or two sizes too large for him.
which of course raised a fearful crop of blisters.
General Palmer, perhaps detecting the limping gait, fre-
quently dismounted and gave his subordinate a mount for
a mile or two — kind acts highly appreciated at the time and
gratefully remembered since.
Charlotte was reached February 23; thence, by rail,
Smithfield, ]\Iarch 13; the forced march to Bentonsville,
March 18; the last big battle of the War, March 19 and 20;
the return, also on foot, to Smithfield, a few days later,
where he rejoiced to meet his horse, from which he parted
at Tupelo, Miss., over two months before. Then, mounted,
marched with the army via Raleigh to Greensboro and
Jamestown — the surrender, April 27 ; then with the regiment
marched to Statesville, and disbanded ; then on his faithful
horse to his home, and loved ones at Lenoir, and the W^ar
was closed for him, and the struggle for bread, raiment,
and upbuilding, in the evil days of reconstruction, followed.
THE LIBRARY OF THE
THE COLLECTION OF