Skip to main content

Full text of "Report"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

D,i.,.db, Google 




^v.H. x\)^.v\^\.AA. 

^ '>i> .A.. .^ 


.,.jh, Google 


D,i.i.db, Google 


Id b, Google 

D,i.,.db, Google 




For the Year Ending December 31, 1891. 


liintf.filQH * FLiKT, pRimviu TO thk state. 


D,i.,.db, Google 



OFnoi OT TBS Sbcbctabt, 1 
AngnstR, Maine, 1892. J 

To His ExMlkncy. Edwin C. Burleigh, Qovemor, and the 
Bonorable Executive Council : 

Gkmtlehkm : — I hftve the honor of Bubmitting to you the Seventh 
AdddbI B«'port of the State Board of Health of Maine. 
Very respeclfnUy, 

A. G. YOUNG. M. D., 



E. C. JORDAN, c. »., President, 
O. A. HORR. u. D.. 
.1. 0. WEBSTER. M. D . 
Pkof. F. C. ROBINSON, 
A. G. YOUNG, H. D., SeiTtiary, 








Dictized by Google 


Note of TransmltUl 

Hemberehip of the Board i '.,..- 



SecreUrj's Report 

Membergut the Board and Standing Committees 

Sanitary Convention at Portland 

Circular No. S6. On Building School-Housee 

fffttfr Analyslg 

Additions to the Library 

ExpenaeB of the Board 

Reports of Local Boards of Health 

School Hygiene and Sohool-Houses 


Sanitary Conditions of some gchoolB in Maine and Elsewhere, 
School Diseases .'. .. 


Spasm of the Accommodation 




Spinal Curvature 


Diseaees of the Nervous System 


Detects of Heating 

Nasal and Throat Troubles 

Infectious Diseases 


Scarlet Fever 


Whooping Cough 

Rothein or German measles 


Dictized by Google 

fiONTBNfa. . 

>ol Hygiene— CtotKfntMd. page. 

Infectious Eye Dlaeases 137 

Period of Incubation ■ ■■ 138 

Period of Invasion , . . . . 1S9 

Period of IiifectloueneBH witb DlBinlectton 139 

Period of lafectlousneM without Disinfeotion 140 

iBoUtloQ 140 

Disinfection 140 

Tbe Closure of Sobools 141 

Dauf^er to tbe Conralesoeat from too Eariy Betnrn to 

Scbool 141 

The Feraoniil Hygiene of the Pupil 143 

Cleanliness 142 

Food 142 

Clotbing for Subool Children 145 

Sleep 147 

School Baths 148 

Tbe Hygiene of Instruction 161 

Points In tbe Physiology of Brain Work ... 161 

School Age 1G3 

Amount of Study 165 

Home Study 1«3' 

Arr&ngenient of Work 163 

One or Two Dally SeBSionRf 164 

Tbe Evils of Sitting Still 167 

Recesees and Pauses 167 

School Excursions 172 

Vacations and Holidays 172 

Some Recent Studies 174 

Vacation Colonies 176 

Discipline 178 

Punishments 180 

Individuality 181 

Public Examinations 181 

Number of Pupils to a Teacher 184 

Regularity of Attendance 186 

Courses of Study 186 

A Multiplicity of Studies 187 

Methods of Instruction 188 

Dictation Exercises 191 

Reading 192 

Spelling 194 

Writing 195 

Arithmetic 202 

Geography 201 

The Mother Tongue 206 

Foreign Languages 207 

Dictzsdbv Google 


School Hyglmn—Conttttued. faoe. 

Grammar 310 

Sense Education 313 

On tbe Study of Hy^ene • 313 

Elementgof Agriculture. School Gardens 315 

PhjBiea) Culture 316 

Points In the Phjaloloj;; of Musonlar Exerctie 21S 

DemoDBtratton of the Physical AdvaDtages 31B 

Intellectual Advantiifes of Physical Culture 331 

Gymnaatloa 333 

The Dust Queitlon 32S 

Gymnastic Teachers 337 

School Games and Sports 327 

FlayitroandH 331 

AthleUoB 331 

PoBtnres 335 

Breathing 33S 

Bunntng 335 

Manual Training 337 

Physical Culture (tor Girls 339 

Gaining Hme for Phyalcal Culture 340 

School Bnildlni^s 340 

Site 340 

Area and ArranKompnt of Grounds 343 

Tbe Building in General 343 

Orientation 343 

Foundations 343 

Baaement 343 

Height of School-Houses 244 

Exterior Finish 34S 

The Entrance 346 

HallB and Corridors 245 

Wardrobes 346 

Staircases 347 

The School-Room 348 

Its Shape 348 

I-ength 348 

Width 349 

Height of School-Boom 350 

Ploor Space and Cubic Air Space asO 

Teacher's Platform 361 

On Planning a School-Boom 361 

Wainscoting 360 

Color of Walls and Celling 365 

Blackboards 366 

Floors 368 

Cleanliness of Sehool-Booms 358 

Dictzed by Google. 


School HyKlene— Continued. PAGE. 

LlKbttng 360 

Direction of XAght 360 

A. With regard to the points of the coopttBt 360 

B. With regard to the pupil 363 

QualUyof Light 363 

Quantity O* Light 363 

Helghtof Window SIHb 364 

Helghtof Window Tops 364 

Shape and Size of Windows 264 

A Model Window WaU 365 

Windows Grouped or Distributed 266 

Suhosand their Hanging 366 

Blinds and Shades 366 

Double Windows 367 

Neighboring Buildings, etc 367 

Desksand Seats 270 

The Seat 370 

The Back-Beat 370 

Desks 373 

Relation of Desk and S'-at 373 

Sizes of Desk 374 

Adjustable Desks 27R 

Some other Patterns 379 

SInglBor Doable Desks 383 

Correct Sitting 383 

Ventilation S8S 

BesulU of Brekthlnic Impure Air 284 

Some o( the Pol8oaon« Prinolples of Polluted Air 286 

Organic Nitrogenous Poison 286 

Carbonic Aeld 288 

Carbonic Oside 289 

Hydrogen Sulphide 200 

Sewer and Privy Vault Uases 290 

Humldltyof the Air 390 

Amount of Air Supply 291 

Testlntf the Air.— Ueasnreraent ot Air Supply 291 

Various Hakeehlfts 302 

Heating and Ventilation 393 

Some Definitions 293 

Temperature of Booms 203 

LocaUoa of Inlets 294 

Location of Outlets 395 

Size of Inlet and Outlet 306 

Open Plreplaces 396 

Stoves 296 

Jacketed Stoyea 396 


School Hyeiene — Concluded. PAGE. 

Jacketed StovpB in Lynn. Mass 297 

AdvanUfrexof cheSyotem 305 

Expense of the System -...'. 306 

'riie CODdiilon of Success 308 

The Puritan Jacketrd Stoves 307 

Piirnacee for Schooi-Roases 30S 

Plans for beating and Ventilating Sclioo)- Houses. Arranged 

by Prof. S. H. Woodbridge 315 

Group I. An Eiglit-Koom School-House 332 

Group II. A.SIx-Koom School-House 338 

Group III. A Four-Koom School-House 381 

Group IV. A One-Story, Two-Room School-House 338 

Group V. A Two-Sl<iry, Two-Room School-House 3-12 

Group VI. A One-Room School-HouRe 348 

Privies. Water-Clospis, and Urinals... 352 

Privl-s 353 

Earth CloseiB 353 

Vf n tilttted Di ying CIosetH 366 

■ WattT CarrNge im 

Triiugh CloRi'is 367 

Vf iitlUted Water-CloseE Ranges 363 

IMiinlK SKI 

SupiTvlslon 3fll 

Scbo»l-Hous^ PIhd 363 <. 

One-KimiuHchool-Hoiises 8li3 

Two-Rimin Sclionl-HiinHes 3G9 

Tliree-Ronm School Housi^ 376 

F"ur-Rom achool HonsnH 876 

Six-RonmSchiK»l-Hiiuse* 377 

Buildings with luorp than Six Rooms 378 

Index 3x7 

Dictized by Google 



Each prospe lit. ive cilizen reared under the lane of our State is 
1-eqiiired to submit bimself mauv houi-s, week after week, and year 
after year, to a regime of inatnictiim, which, indispeDsable as it is, 
imposes couditious that are more or less ai'tilicial and irksome. 
Prolonged muscu'ar restraint, faulty poslnres, poisoned sch lol-nxim 
air, intellectual over-pressure,— all are an tntioni^tic to tlieup-biiilding 
of a sound physical basis of usefulness Tlia' the prevailing edu- 
cational conditions anil methods test severely tlie pliysic;d powers 
of. pupils as the schools tlud tliero, is sliown by the many children 
whose physical condition suffers injury during tlie school months — 
who, using the expressive term, become "f:igged out." The hope 
that this Seventh Annual Report may aid iu avuiding some of the 
dangers of education while the schools are conferring its beneflt^i is 
thought to be a suffleieut apology for devoting so large a part of it 
to school bytfiene. 

"Circular No. 65, On Building School-Houses" gives concisely 
the more important rules that shouUI guide in building school-houses 
that, while subserving the purpose for which they are built, will 
endanger the physical powers of the pupils as little as possible , but 
this very quality of tersene-s will prove unsatisfactory to some 
render^. '1 in^ lules may be good, but s >mewhat is wanted of ttie 
reasons for the rules and of pi-actieal ways of applying them. To 
supply this want, and especially lo incite to thought and discussion 
ill the Held of school hygiene, broadly considered, is the purpose of 
the [.aper mi "School Hygiene and School-Houses." 

In connection with the preparation of this paper the secretary 
w:i8 auLliiirized by the Board to employ Prof. Woodbridge of the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, to arrange the heat- 
ing and ventilation for a number of the school-house plans that 
were to be included in the series to be presented. This was done 
and the result, included as one of the chapters of "School Hygiene 



aD(1 School- H oases," ia & practiotil and v&luahle contribution to the 
subject of lieating am) ventilating school-houses. 

During the year no outbreaks of any infectious diseases have 
occurred save those that are always within the State, and of these 
but few that were not easily controlled hy the local boards of 

The iuiportant work in educati g the people in sanitary matters 
and of helping the local boards of health is carried steadily on. The 
principal circuluis published by the State Board have been issued 
again and agaiu in editions of froiu lU.OOO to 30,000 copies as the 
demand has required Tbe blank forms needed by the local 
boards of health in the management of infectious diseases and 
nuisances are all supplied from this office,- a policy found to be 
necessaty to facilitate as far as possible the efficiency of local sani- 
tary work. 

With the beginning of the year 1892, an act to provide for t e 
registration of vital statistics went into effect. The local records 
made in accordance with its provisions will be of inestimable value 
from many points of view. The statistical data derived from the 
work will also be of great worth as soon as the requirements of the lav 
are uaderBtood and imperfections, if found to exist, are remedied. 

Dictized by Google 


The DftniOB and addressu of the meinbeTa of the Board at the end 
of the year with the dates at which their terms or oflSoe expire are as 
follows : 

J. O. Wbbsteb, M. D., term expires January 31, 1892. 

E. C. Jordan, C. £., Portland, term expires Jannary 31, 1893. 

O. A. HoRR, M D., Lewiston, term expires January 31, 1894. 

Frof. F. C. Robinson, Brnnsvriuk, term expiresJanoary 31, 1)495. 

Hugh R. Chaflin, Esq., Bangor, term expires January 31, 1896. 

Cqas, D Sunn, M. D., rortland, term expires January 31, 1897. 

At the annual meeting March 30, 1891, £. C. Jordan, C. E., was 
unanimously re-elected President for the ensuing year. 

The following standing committees were appointed for the year. 

On Finance— Hugh R. Chaplin, J. O. Webster, and the Secretary. 

On Publications — C. D. Smith, J. O. Webster, and Uie Secretary, 

On Disposal of Excreta — C. D. Smith. 

On Ventilation — O. A. Horr, E C. Jordan, and the Secretary. 

On Summer Resorts — E. C. Jordan, and the Secretary. 

On Sewerage and Drainage — E. C. Jordan and F. C. Robioson. 

On Water and Water Supplies— Prof. F. C. Robinson, and the 

On School-Houses and School Hygiene — J. O. Webeter, and the 

On Sources of Animal Vaccine — C. D. Smith. 

In June the State Board of Health moved into the rooms asBigned 
to it in the basement of the State House extension. There the much- 
needed room is available for more conveniently and syatematicfilly 
carryicg on the general wotk of the office, Ibe distribution of supplies 

Dictized by Google 


to local boards, the matliag of the Sanilarif Inspector, and the work 
of water analysis. 

Ai tbe meeting in March it was voted to bold a sanitary conven- 
tion of local .boards of health sometime in the fall, and Dr. Charles 
D. Smith, Prof. F. C. Eobinson, and Dr. J. O. Webster, were 
appointed a committee t« arrange for it. 

In accordance with this vote a SaDitary Convention was held in 
the Common Council Chamber, City Hall, Portland, October 27. 
As a first experiment in this method of publicly diSasing a knowl* 
edge of sanitary science, the result was very enconraging. The 
papers read were of great practical value and were almost invariably 
followed by intereating and inBtrnctive discussions, in which repre- 
seutatives of a considerable number of local boards of health, as well 
as members of the 8tate Board and other persons partioipated. The 
papers and discussions were published in The Sanitary Inspector. 
Tbe following shows tbe programme carried out : 
Morning Session, 9.15 o'clock. 

Introductory Remarks, by the President of tbe Convention, 

E. C. Jordan, C. £., of Portland. 
Address of Welcome, by Hon. George W. True, Mayor )f 

The Experience of Local Boards of Health in Dealing with 
Contagions Diseases, by Cbae. D. Smith, M. D., of Portland. 
The Practical Employment of Disinfectants, by 0. A. Horr, 

M. D., of LewiBton. 
Home Sanitation, by A. K. P. Meserve, M. D., of Portland. 
Afternoon Session, 2.30 o'clock. 

School Hygiene, by J. O. Webster, M. D., of Angnsts. 
The discussion of this subject will include remarks upon Tbe 
Diapoeal of Excreta fiom School-Houses, by O. M. Lord., 
Esq., Superintendent of Schools, Portland. 
Proper Lighting of School-Rooms, by James A. Spalding, M. 
D., of Portland. 
The Practical Working of the ptesent State Sanitary Law, by 
Georgt-C. Burgess, Esq., Secretary Portland Board of Health. 
Local Boards of Health and their Relations to Public Nuisances, 
by R. J. Martin, M. D., Health Officer Anguata Board of 

'Dictized by Google 

sbcbbtabt's eepokt. 8 

Evening SeseioD, 8 o'clock. 

The AdalteratioD of Pood Sto&s, by Prof. Franklin C. Robinson, 

Relation of Animal Diseases to the Pnblic Health, by F. L. 

Rassell, D. V. S., State College, Oroco. 
Phases of Water Snpply and Seweri^e, by E. C. Jordan, C. E., 

As complaints bad been made by the owners of lands on Togas 
stream below the National Soldiers' Home aad of the pollution of 
that stream by the sewage from the Home, a committee consisting 
of the President of the Board and Dr. Smith visited the institution 
at the request of the local board of health of Chelsea and examined 
tbe stream and the lands below the outlet of the sewer. The com- 
mittee made the following report, a copy of which was transmitted 
to the board of managers of the Home : 

Portland, Mune, July 10, 1891. 
To tM Stale Board of Health, 

. A. G. Yoono, M. D., Secretary. 
Dear Sir: 

The committee appointed to examine into the canse and extent 
of alleged pollution of a certain brook in the town of Chelsea beg 
leave to report that they have personally observed the existing cod* 
ditions upon the brook valley, and. they Had that unless the use of 
the water in said brook is abandoned, both for domestic and animal 
pnrpoees a very serious degree of unhealthfulness is likely to arise. 
The cause of the pollution is very evident. Tbe Togus Kadonal 
Soldiers' Home, which contains about two thousand two hundred 
people, discharges its sewage into the brook. An attempt is made by 
means of certain catch basins to arrest a portion of the sew^e solids, 
but the part that still flows on possesses all the elements to make a 
naisance and work an injury to those farmers who formerly depended 
npon the water of this brook for their cattle or for their own nse. 
It is no longer suitable for these purposes, and wc consider it the 
duty of the local board of health of Chelsea, to notify the people - 
wbb are in the habit of nsing or buying and selling milk or batter 
from cows whose water snpply is dependent upon the brook, that 
the act is a dangerous and improper one. There is a just grievance 
against the author of tbe pollution, and the nuisance should be 
abated. When this fact is definitely brought home to the United 

Dictized by Google 


States authorities at Togas it shoald be properi; acted npoo, and at 

The remedj is not a difScalt one for them to apply, and many a 
simitar case has been amtiBfactorily arranged. The; have simply to 
apply the sewage intermittently to certain available areas of land 
specially prepared tor the pnrpose, and allow the (ffluent to pass 
into the brook. We hope the government officials will not be cap- 
tions in the matter ; what they are asked to do is nothing more than 
corporations and private individnala have been obliged to do in 
many cases, and above all, the people who pay for Togns Home 
have no desire to economize in its maui^ement at the expense of 

Yours truly, 

E. C. JOBDAN. C. E. 
Chas. D. Suith, M. D. 
At the quarterly meeting in June, the motion of Dr. Horr was 
adopted, that a committee be chosen, o( which the President and 
the Secretary shall be members, whose daty it shall be to confer 
wilb the proper ofBcials in reference t'j a representation of ibis 
Board in all sanitary matters of a public character at the Columbian 
Eshibition in 1893, and to make all needful arrangemenis tor such 
representation. The committee was completed by the appointment 
of Messrs. Smith, Horr, and Ribinaon as mttmbers. 

Id view of the benefits that woald result to the work of thb Board 
by so doing, it was voted at the same meeting, to send a delegate 
to the Congress of Hygiene and Dimojraphy to be held in London 
in August, and, the better to enable the Board to do so, it was voted 
taot to s-;nd a representative as usual to the meeting of the American 
Public Health Association. In accordance with this vote. Prof. 
Robinson went as a delegate to the Congress. At the September 
meeting he made an interesting verbal report to the Board of the 
resnlts of his attendance, and was thereupon invited to make a 
Vritten report for publication in the Sanitary Inspector, which he 
subsequently did. 

In the (all the sudden outbreak of small-pox in q'jite a large nvm- 
ber of places in the Province of Quebec, down the St. Lawrence, 
caused some anxiety lest the disease be introdnced into the more 
exposed parts of this State. As precautionary measures, the filad- 
awaska and other towns particularly exposed by reason of proximity 

Dictized by Google 


or railfffty or other oonnectkni were iraroed, a medical inspector was 
sent up to the iofected regicHiB to learn the exact statas of aff»ira, a 
ooaference na^ held betweea members of the State Board and the 
local boards ot health of Lewiaton and Aubnrn, arrangements were 
made for co-operative action if need be with the health aatborities 
of New Hampshire and New Bmoswick, throogh the co operation 
of the Mtune Central and Grand Trunk Companiee projected excur- 
sions to Canada were cancelled, and preparationB were made for a 
railwa; inspection aervice it found neoesear;. 

The appreciation of the fact that there is now in existence a Pro- 
vincial Board of Health that will do all in its power to check such 
outbreaks, was an encoaragiDg circumstance. A ver^ difierent thing 
is the sanitarj organization of the Province of Quebec now from 
what it was 9<x years ago. This and other interesting tacts ma; be 
gathered from the following letter under date of October 24th, from 
Dr. Pelletier, Secretary of that Board : 

'^Yonrs of the 21st inet. came to hand yesterday. The accom- 
panying sketch will show you that almost all the oases of emall-pux 
ori^inaled from one persDu, who traveled 319 miles on the Inter- 
colonial Railway with a few miles across Baie des Cfaaleure, and that 
these cases are confined to very few places considering so many 
people were exposed to contagion. 

"We have BClnally 462 organized Boards of Health in this Prov- 
ince out of a possible 730, and instructions have been lately given 
to the remainder to organize immediately. Except in the case of the 
Jetlery Hale Hospital in Quebec, as soon as the diagnosis is made, 
the municipality notifies us immediately, and then our inspector visits 
the place and the municipality, rich or poor, has to obey our orders, 
of which I enclose a copy. Two sub-inspectors have been appointed, 
one for the county of Temiscouata and the other for the ooanty of 
Bi mod ski. 

"At our request strict orders have been issued by the railway 
companies to their conductors who are virtually our inspectors. We 
give the widest publicity to all cases as soon as the reports reach 
this ofQce. I will with pleasure notify you of every case as soon as 

Dr. D. G. Luce of Caribou, who went to the St. Lawrence region 
for this Board, personally visited St. Paul, the place the most seri- 
ously affected. He reported that at the time of his visit there had 
been tbirty-flve cases with seven deaths in that parish. "The spread 

Dictzsdbv Google 


from the first case is parti&Uy explained by the fact that it occarred 
at the post-offlce, and taembers of fifteen different families were 
infected before tlie nature of the disease was known." He further- 
more reported that all the infected houses were strictly qgarantined 
and that the prompt and efficient action of the Provincial and local 
boards of health made the introduction of the infection into our 
State rather improbable. 

The disease was practically confined to the primarily infected 
points and no cases of the importation of the disease into oar own 
Slate occurred. 



In General. — School-hoases should be built in places that are 
quiet and free from dangers of various kind^, and on ground that is 
either naturally dry or made so by subsoil drainage. 

Basements and foundations should be carefully built with a view 
to esclnding the evil influences of soil moisture. 

The play-grounds should be ample, and a portion of them at least, 
should have a sunny exposure and be protected from the cold west- 
erly and northerly winds by the school building or otherwise. 

The best general arrangement of the plan of the building is that 
in which the school-rooms are all placed on one side of the building 
with corridors, halls, stairways, and wardrobes on tbe other. Built 
in the old way with rooms all around, school-bouBes have dark cen- 
tral halls, staircases, and, for some of the schLol-rooms, a favorable 
lighting cannot be had. 

School- Booms. — Tbe best shape for school-rooms is that of an 
oblong, the width being to the length about as three to four. The 
teacher's platform should be placed at one end. 

The ceiling should be at least twelve feet high, and if tbe room is 
of considerable width, especially if unilateral lighting is employed, 
it may be necessary to have the ceiliog somewhat higher. 

In rooms for study it is desirable for each pupil to have 20 square 
feet of floor space, and 240 cubic feet of air space ; for example, 
a room for thirty-five pupils should have 700 square feet of floor 

Dictized by Google 


BorTace inclusive of aisles, and shoatd iaclude wlthia its walls an 
i^gregate or 8400 cubic feet of air space. A room 30 feet long, 
23 feet 4 inches wide, and 12 feet bigh will flit these requirements. 

Lighting. — The glass surface of the windovs should equal at least 
one-fifth of the floor space of tbe room. 

The principal light should come from the scholars' lefl ; windows 
may also be placed at the rear of the scholars when desired. Win- 
dows may be placed at the right for ventilating purposes or for admit- 
ting direct sanshine while the scholars are not engaged in study. 

The principal light of tbe schoolroom ia preferably taken from 
tJie N. E., E. or N., the preference being in the order in which the 
points ot tbe compass are named. Direct S.. S. W. or W. windows 
for tbe principal lifrht are to be avoided as far as possible. 

The window-sills should be three and oae-half or four feet from 
the floor. 

The windows should reach as near tbe ceiling as the construction 
of the building will permit, fer the higher the windows reach, the 
deeper the light penetrates into the room, and the more satisfac- 
torily the desks farthest from the left hand windows are lighted. 

When possible, the school-room wall opposite the principal light 
should be reserved for the blackboard. BUckbuards should not be 
placed between the windows or near them. 

Above the blackboard and opposite the principal windows small 
windows may be placed for ventilating purposes and transoms over 
doors may be used for tbe same purpose. 

It is advisable In all school -buildings to have double windows. 
Tbe increased cost of construction will be paid by them over and 
over again in the saving of fuel, and they facilitate very mnch that 
window ventilation which mast be the main reliance in mild weather. 
Both sets of saabes should be hung with weights and pulleys. 

Heating and Ventilation. — The warming of school-rooms may be 
accomplished by using stoves, furnaces, or steam- heating. 

Direct radiation from stoves or steam coils should never be used. 

Ills practicable to supply 2,000 cubic feet of air per hoar for each 
scholar and the plans for ventilation should admit of furnishing this 
amount at least ordinarily. 

Stoves should invariably be jacketed and connected with fresh-air 
inlets for the purpose of supplying fresh air to tbe room. 

Furnaces should be of a kind capable of snpplying 2,000 cubic 
feet of air for each scholar honrty, and a capacious fresh-air inlet 
should never be omitted. 

Dictized by Google 


Wben ateam bealiog ia nsed tbe uoiU should be placed in boxes 
or freah-air rooma in tbe basemeDt or elaeirhere for the purpoae of 
warming the air before it eoters tbe achool-rooci. 

Subool buildings should be so planaed as to periuU tbe ducta for 
fresh-uir and for foul air to be as direct and as free from horizontal 
exUntion as poasible. 

luleis and oudeta sboald be of ample size. Their crosa-aectioD 
should equal from sixteen to twenty square laches at leaat for each 

In ordioaty school-rooms it is preferable to place both Inlets and 
outlets on the same aide of Ibe room, namelj', upon the inner or 
warm side. When so placed, the warm air shonld be admitted seven 
feet or more above the floor, and the foul air should pass out close 
to the floor. 

Inlets and outlets should not be constructed with registers which 
occupy much space, but the opening should be covered with stout 
wire network. 

To insure successful ventilation in all kinds of weather when 
mecbaniual means are not employed to move tbe air, it ia necessary 
to have means for arliSciall; heating tbe lonl sir flue. This may be 
done by means of an open fire, by a small slove set Into the base of 
the shaft, or by steam coils. In email buildings warmed with stoves 
or furnaces, tbe smoke pipe of tbe heater will usually furnish builicient 
heat for this purpoae. When thua heated the loul air flue should 
contain an iron pipe parsing up ita center, or in ihe case of double 
Sues, set in the division wall, and into this the smoke-pipe should 

Instead of ventilation by heated flues, tbe air may be moved by 
mechanical means, that la, by fana run by any available motor. 

Each lurnace or steam beating apparatus ebonld be aupplied with 
a mixing valve or other arrangement by meana of which warm air 
and cold air can be mixed in such proportions as is required. 

Privies, Water-closets and Urinals. — Separate accommodations 
should be provided for the sexes, and for privies, entirely separate 
buildings are preferable. 

For country school-houses without sewerage facilities, privies with 
dry earth arrangements, supplemented with a sub-surface drain to 
cany away tbe urine. Tbe catch basin of the privy should be at 
the surlace of the ground, instead of below the ground in tbe form 
of a vault. 

Dictized by Google 


Under do circa mstaacee are privies In any form to be placed witbin 
or beneath the school building. The same interdiction applies to 
urinals without an abandsnt supply of water for flushing. 

For cities where there are sewerage f acililles and ample water sup- 
ply exists thereare two or three new designs of "water closet range" 
that are giving good satisfaction. 

For separate water-closetB for teachers use, the flushing rim short 
hopper with vented trap and exposed water seal are satisfactory. 

Urinals that are constantly or antoniatically flushed are desiiable. 

Water closets and urinals should be made to allow complete 
inspection and use of the scrubbing brush. 

Thoiough special ventilation of that part of a school building set 
apart for water closets and urinals should be planned for. 

The soil-pipe must extend beyond the Bxtures in a short and 
direct line to an uoobjectionable point above the roof. 

The following tabulation shows the number of analyses of sam- 
ples of water made in the laboratory and the results obtained in 
each Tbe. whole number made during the year is 134, of which 
75 Wfre from wells, 32 from springs. 18 from pablic water supplies, 
6 from proposed public water supplies, and S from other Eources. 

Dictized by Google 



i is issii s's ss 
s.SS.SSSSl =.= .. 5 = 

illMlillM llflll II 

B- >,- ~ fc,"- - - " ^->,BB,;; - ■■3- ■ 






■Bioonirav BiorfjQ 


■sinomon bbij 






S = = SSS = 55SS33JSSSIS55i;i 

_„.. „.„_„.,_ 

■TOnioJi ao ftoi 


.. . .; 

■tpnoB iwoj, 



r = := = r = = = = = = ' = ^ = = ' = l' = 





IllK ;;;:!; :!:;:; 

2 2£S£ = ^-=:£ «.S = = .2£3 



Dailiicdt, Google 


s e e 





-■ -J ■ '-"- - 


""""■""2"* ..-. — -;- — 



3 a -rs fe ■?-» a a a a ^ 

D,i.,.db, Google 



n m i m 



1 III! .11 

1 i its 1 1 III 


■■inoiunit o|ui9jo 


^■Jioomoie BBij 



• •.;_■ ■ ■-.•^- ■ ■^-; ^,^^ 


--,.__..= ,.-... -;,,.- 

noiiinSi no nai 


■«P!loi |«"I, 

"-5 = — S = 3S = -S = "" — SSi = 

■no|]»»||0!i JO »na 








D,i.,.db, Google 


Hi I i t i Isi sslsss sssssi 

s i i i 

e 5 5.5 

I II I ^i I 11 II I 


lA-^ ! M : M:: M n :!:!: N : N :: M :■::■: :4 n 

i|lil i i i|: ; i i i i i i ii :f ! i : i i ';; M : ■ ^« "li i 

:i9 ;« ;■■? : ::; ■ ; -.s-^ai ■ • • ■ ; .ss-h : ,.3-» .1 : : 


Dictized by Google 








II . 

■fl]noainiv O|oiiajo 







■nojl!"'! oo ""^ 


•PIIOI |.|OJ, 








D,i.,.db, Google 


Daring the year 1891 the folio iring books, jonrnals, and pam- 
phlets were added to the library of the Board b; exchange and 

lodex Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon- GeDeral's Office, 

Waehington. Vol. XII. 1891. 
B<>port8 and Fapera of the American Public Health Association. 

Vols. XV and XVI. 
Cowham. Kchool Organization, Hygiene and Discipline. London. 

Dukes. Health at School. London. 1887. 
Jacobi. Primary Edacation. New York. 1889. 
Newsbolme. School Hygiene. London. 1887. 
Prndden. Dast and Ito Dangers. New York. 1891. 

. The S-ory of the Bacteria. New York. 1891. 

, Water and Ice. New York. 1891. 

CoIliDean. L'Hygiene a L'Ecole Pedagogic Scientifique. Paris. 

Enlenbei^ nnd Bach. Schulgesandbeitslebre. Berlin. 1891. 
Fraenkel nnd Pfeiffer Mikropbotographiscber Atlas der Bakterien- 

kuode. Berlin. 1891. 
Gasaer. Ueber die Gesnndbeitspflege der Scbiiler. Wiesbaden. 

Department of Agriculture. Cause and Prevention of Swine Plague. 

Washington. 1891. 
■ . SixthandSeventh Annual Reports of the Bnreau of Animal 

Industry. 1889-90. 
■ Special Reportonthe Diseases of the Horse. Washington. 

Streets and Higbwaya in Foreign Countries. Washington. 1891. 
First Annual ReportoftbeState Dairy andFood Commission. Wis- 
consin. 1890. 
Annual Report of the Maine State College. 1890. 
Maine School Reports. 1890. 
First Anouat Report of the Board of CommlsBioners of Lunacy. 

New Hampshire. 1890. 

Dictized by Google 


Forty-Ninth Regiatiation Report of Mas§&c ha setts. 1890. 
TraQsactioQB of the State Medical AuociatioD of Texas. 1891. 

Alabama. Report of the SUte Board of Health for 18S9. 
CoDDecUcdt. Thirleentb AnoDal Report of the State Board of 

Health. 1890. 
lUinoia. Eleveath AnDnal Report of the State Board of Health for 

lodiaDB. Ninth Aaanal Report of the State Board of Health for 

KaDsas. Sixth Annaal Report of the State Board of Health for 

Maryland. Ninth BieoniiU Report ol the Slate Board of Health for 

Massachusetts. Tfrenty-secoad Annual Rsport of the State Board 

of Health for 1890. 

. KsaminalioD of Water Supplies. 1*'90. 

. Purification of Sewage and Water. 1X90. 

Minnesota. Thirteenth Report of the State Board of Health for 

New Hampshire. Ninth Annnal Report of the Slate Boafd of Health 

for 1S90. 
New Jersey. Fonrteenth Annual Report of the State Board of 

Health for 1890. 
New York. Eleventh Annnal Report of the Slate Baard of Health 

for 1890. 
North Carolina. Third Biennial Report of the State Board of Health 

for 1889-90. 
Ohio. Fifth Atinnal Report of the SUte Board of Health for 1890. 
Ontario. Ninth Annual Report of the Provincial Board of Health 

for 1890. 
Pennsylvania. Fifth Annual Report of the State Board of Health 

for 1889. 
Pennsylvania. Sixth Annual Report of the State Board of Health 

for 1890. 
Rhode Island. Thirteenth Annual Report of the State Board of 

Health for 1890. 
Wisconsin. Thirteenth AqdusI Report of the State Board of Health 

for 1889-90. 

Dictized by Google 


Bangor, Me. Annual Reports for 1890-91. 

Boston, Haas. Nineteentb Annual Report of the Board of Bealtb 
for 1890. 

Concord, N. H. Reiort of the Board of Health for 1890. 

Fall lUver, Mass. Thirteenth Report of the Board of Health for 

Lynn, Mass. Eleventh Annual Report of the Board of Health for 

Mancheeter, N. H. Annual Report of the Board of Health for 

Mansfield, Ohio. Report ol the Health Department for 1890. 

Nenburgh, N. Y. Report of the Health Officer for 1S90. 

Neir Haven, Ct. Eighteenth Annual Report of the Board of Health 
for 1890. 

Newport, R. I. Sixth Annual Report of the Board of Health for 

New York. Report of the Health Officer of the Port of Ne«- York 
for 1891. 

Old Town, Maine. Annual Report of the Town Officers for 1891. 

Portland, Me. Sixth Annual Report of the Board of Health for 

Memphis, Tenn. Twelfth Annual Report of the Board of Health 
of Shelbj County for 1890. 

St. Louis, Mo. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Health Commis- 
sioner for 1890-91. 

Taunton, Maes. Annual Report of the Board of Health for 1890. 

Report upon the state of Public Health in the City of Dublin. 1889. 

Annual Report of the City Civil Eugineer, Portland. 1890-91. 

Report of the Massachusetts State Board of Health upon the sew- 
erage of the Mystic and Charles River Valleys. Boston. 1889. 

Report on the Disposal of SewE^;e. Ontario. 1891. 

Report of the Northeastern Sanitary Inspeotlon Association. 1889- 

Fifth Annoal Report of the Maine Eye and Ear Infirmary. Port- 
land. 1890. 
Report of the Committee on Contagions Diseases of Animals. 

Maine. 1890. 
Report of the Committee on Sanitary and Medical Service on Emi- 
grant Ships. 1891. 

Dictized by Google 


Ninth ADDual Report of the Brookija Home for Coubu motives. 

Report of the Fifth Anaual Meeting of Exeontire Health OfBcers 
of Ontario. 1890. 

SAMrrAST AMD Othbs Joubnals fob 1891. 
Index Medicus. Detroit and Boston. 
The Sanitsrian. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
The Sanitary Kews. Chicago. 
The Annals of Hygiene. Philadelphia. 
The Engineering and Building Record. New York. 
The Sanitary Record. London. 
Fnblic Health. London.' 

Architecture and Building. New York and Chicago. 
Brooklyn Medicaljoumal. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Medical News. Philadelphia. 
The Lancet. London. 
The Microscope. Trenton, N. J. 

The American Monthly Micro icopioal Joarnal. Washingtoa. 
Archives of Pediatrics. Philadelphia. 
Babyhood. New York and London. 
The BacterioloKical World. Battle Creek, Mich. 
Science. New York. 
Medical TimeB, New York. 
Canaila Health Journal. Ottawa. 
Occidental Medical Times. Sacramento. 
Medical Standard. Chicago- 
Medical Review. Pittsburgh. 
Abstract of Sanitary Reports. Washington. 
Revue D'Hygiene. Paris. 
Journal D'Hygiene Populaire. Montreal. 
Archiv lUr Hygiene. Munich and Leipzig. 
Zeitschrift lUr Hygiene. Berlin. 

ViertelJabrBschrifi: lilr oSentliche G-esundheitspflege. Braunschweig. 
Deutsche Medicinische Wochenschrift. Berlin. 
Zeitschrift fur Scfaulgeanndheitepflege. Hamburg. 
Arbeiten aus dem kaiserlichen Oesundheitsamte. Berlin. 
Centralblatt fhr Bakteriologie und Parasitenkande. Jena, 
Schweizeriecbe Blatter fllr G-esundheitepflege. Zurich. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


Giomale delU Resle Societa Italiaaa D'Igiene. Milaao. 

La Salute Fabblica. Perugia. 

Public Health in Minnesota. Red Wing. 

Monthly Bulletin of the Iowa State Board of Health. Dee Moines. 

Balletiu of the State Board of Health of TenneBsee. Nashville. 

Balletin of the North Carolina Board of Health. 

Monthly Bulletin of the State Board of Health of Rhode Island. 

Monthly Sanitary Record, State Board of Health of Ohio. 

Baker. A Plea for Public Health Work in Villagea. 1891. 
Conn. Hygienic Conditions of Passenger Care. 
Deoison. The Preferable Climate for Conaumptton. 
Denton. Trap-SJphongage and Trap-Seal Protection. Hoboken, 

N.J 1891. 
Enebnske. The Gymnaatic Pi-ogreasion. Boston, 1890. 
Gerrish. A Medical Dictionary. Portland. 1891. 
Hogan. Heating and Ventilating Hospitals. 
Homan. Tbe Relation of Land Monopoly to Population Health. 

Concord, 1891. 

. Land Liberation as a Health Measure. 

Jackson. Upright vs. Sloping Writing. London. 
Kerlin. The Moral ImbecQe. Elwyn, Pa. 1890. 
Ladies Sanitary Association, London. Tbe Use of Pure Water. 

. Cruelty to Children. 

, Sanitary Defects and Medical Shortcomings. 

. The Two Breaths. 

. Remarks on Woman's Work in Sanitary Reform. 

Lee. An Analysis of the StatisticB of Forty-One Thoosand Five 

Hundred Cases of Epidemic Influenza. Philadelphia. 1890. 
Marble. Sanitary Conditions for School- Houses. Washington. 

Martin. Chemistry in the High School. Indianapolis. 1886. 
McCletlan. The Sewer Gas Question. 

Mnlley. Songs and Games for oar Little Oaes. New Y')rk. 1389. 
Pendleton. The Physician and his Neighbor. Albany. 18 n. 
Pumpelly. Filtering Capacity of Soils- 
Robinson. Arsenic in Paper and Fabrics. Brunswick. 1891. 
Robertson. Overpressure in Sshools. Muscatine, la. 188d. 

Dictized by Google 


Sedgwick. Saoitary CondittOQ of the Water Supply of Lofrelt. 

Vollin. Salicylic Acid in Fooda. 
Wolff. The Ventilation of Bnildings. New Yoik. 
Woodbridge. Heating and VentilatioD of tbe Bnildingg of the Uaa- 

SBchnsetts Inetitnte of TechnoI<^. 
Altachul. Zur Scbularztfrage. Prag. 1890. 
Baaer. Die Schutzpockenimpfung nnd Ibre Technik. Stnttgart. 

Bernhardt. Ueber Schnlbj giene. Leutenberg i. Thur. 1891. 
Cohn. Die Schnlarztdebatte anf dem internationalen bygieniachea 

Kongreas zn Wien. Hamburg. 1388. 
Engelhorn. Schulgeaandheitapfl^e. Stuttgart. 1888. 
Felix. Sorget lilr die Oesundheit der Schulen. Berlin. 1891. 
Hasebroek. Ueber die Nervoeitfit and den Mangel an Korperlichen 

Bewegnng in der Grossatadt. Hambni^. 1891. 
Janke. Gmndrias der Schulbyglene. Hamburg. 1390. 
Janssens. Annuaire Demographique et Tableaux Statiaiiques dea 

Causee de Deges. Brnselles. 1890. 
Korosi. Neue fieitrage zur frage des Impfscbntzes. Berlin. 1891. 
Liebreicb. School Life in its Inflaence on Sight and Figure. 

London. 1885. 
Liceaga. Las Inoculacionea Preventivas de la Babia. Mexico. 

Mantegazza. Die Hygiene der Sinne. Konigsberg. 
Martin. Le Bureau D'Hygiene de Brnselles. Paris. 1890. 
Baydt. Daa Jugendspiel. Hanover. 1801. 
Boepcke. Die Animale Impfanatalt. Stnttgart. 1390. 
Schmidt. Die StaabschadigungeQ beim Hallenturnen. Leipzig. 

Schmidt- Rim pier. Die Schnlknrzsichtigkett und ihre Bekampfung. 

Leipzig. 1890. 
Schubert. Ueber Heftlage undSchriftricbtung. Hamburg. 1890. 
Schulz. Impfung, Impfgeachaft and Impftechnik. Berlin. 1888. 
La Fevre Juane. Paris. 1888. 
Rapport fait au Conaeil Comunal. Bruxellea. 1890. 
Care of the Feeble- Minded. San Franciaco. 1889. 
Befrigerators and Food Preservation in Foreign Countriea. Wash> 

ington. 1890. 
Summer Complainls of Infanta and Children. 

Dictized by Google 


The Quarantine System of Louisiana. 1837. 

National Smoke Abatement Exbibition. Albert Palace, Batteraea. 

London. 1837. 
Hearing before the Committee on Public Health on Dangers to 

Human Life from the Bacilli of Tuberculosis in Milk. Boston. 

Transactions Maine Medical Society. 1891. Vol. X. 
Transactions Vermont State Medical Society. 1887. 
Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference of the National Con- 
fectioners' Association. 1890-91. 
Proceedings of the American Association for the Adraooement of 

Physical Edncation. New York. 1888. 

. Cambridge and Boston. 1890. 

. Boston. 1891. 

Proceedings and Addresses at a Sanitary Convention held at Lapeer, 

Mich., March 27-28, 1890. 
Proceedings and Addresses at a Sanitary Convention held at Battle 

Creek, Mich. Jane 25-26, 1890. 
Proceedings and Addresses at a Sanitary Convention held at Alpena, 

Mich. July 10-11, 1890. 
Public Health Laws of Michigan. 1890. 
Local Boards of Health of the State of New Jersey. 1890. 
Bureau of Edncation. Higher Education in Indiana. Washington. 

Iowa State Board of Health, Decisions of thelowaSupreme Court. 
Minnesota State Board of Health. The Public Health Legislation 

of Minnesota. 
Pennsylvania State Board of Health. The Operations of the Board 

of Health in Consequence of the Floods at Johnstown of May 31, 


. Precautions against Sunstroke. 

■ School Hygiene. 

Provincial Board^of, Health, Quebec. Vital and Mortuary Statistics 

of the Catholic Population. 1889-90. 

. By-Laws and Regulations of the Board of Health of the 

t_. -Province of Quebec. 

Dictized by Google 


The amoant and character of the expenditares of the board'for 
the year 1891 were as followe : 

Engraving and drawing $ 2 80 

Books and Hsnitary journals 245 84 

InstrumeDts 18 50 

Paper and stationery 117 65 

Postage 256 25 

Printing and bindiog 657 24 

Secretary's salary 2,000 00 

Expenses of members 4SS 36 

Express and telegraph 202 20 

Clerical help 815 68 

Chemical and microscopical supplier 19 28 

Hired or expert help 136 05 

Office (nrnishings 45 70 

TotBl J5,000.00 

Dictized by Google 



Members of the board : J. B. Greeolief, Secretary ; Charles 
Fobs, GhairmaD ; F. W, Weymoolh. 


Members of the board : Dr. Geo. A. Allen, Secretary ; 0. N, 
Brackett, Cbairmao ; O. C. Titcomb. 

One nuisaDce was removed. No cases of the speciQed contagious 
diseases. Pneumonia and measles were quite prevalent ; the latter 
disease went all through the town. 


Members of the board : O. Meader, Secretary ; Dr. C. W. 
Abljott, Chairman ; R. L. Baker. 

No contagious diseases to report, except measles in the latt«r part 
of December. 


Members of the board : A. H. Perkins, Secretary ; C. M. Huff, 
Chairman ; J. A. Bohanon. 

We had two outbreaks of scarlet fever with three oases and one 
death altogether. 

Members of the board : Dr. A. M. Card, Secretary and Health 
Officer; B. W. Donnell, Chairman; A. B. Erskine. 

Dictized by Google 


We had one case of diphtheria and eight of scarlet lever, but no 
deaths resulted. 

Members of the board : H. L. McKechnie, Secretary ; Charles 
Clayton, Chwrman ; Dr. A. H. Twttchell. 

Members of the board : George O. Huse, Secretary ; Stephen 
Cabot, Chairman ; W. Z. Twitchell. 
We have had one case of diphtheria and one of scarlet fever. 

Members of the board : Stillman A. Walker, Secretary. 
Two nuisances were removed. We had one case of typhoid fever. 


Members of the board: Dr. F. A. Gruahee, Secretary; A. A. 
Linnekiu, Chairman; S. B Ripley. 

W.e had twenty or more cases of scarlet fever with one death and 
two cases of typhoid fever. Some of the cases of scarlet fever were 
complicated with diphtheritic laryngitis. One teacher was attacked 
with diphtheria and scarlet fever. The school was closed and the 
school-bouse fumigated. 


Members of the board : J. N. Tracy, Secretary ; J. M. Freese, 
Cha.rman ; W. H. Dow. 

We had six cases of diphtheria with two deaths, and one non- 
fatal case of typhoid fever. The houses were placarded and every 
thing done that the law requires. Our opinion is that long out- 
breaks are unnecessary if strict sanitary measares are enforced. 

Members of the board : J. S. Cuahman, Secretary ; Henry 
Preble, Chairman ; 0. S. Willis. 


Members of the board; J. H. Carter, Secretary; L. C. Coflln, 
Chairman; Dr. £. A. Daren. 

Dictized by Google 


We hftd aeTenteeu CEtaes of scarlet fever and aevea -of typhoid 
fever, but no deaths from these causes. 


Members of the board : L. N. Elllngfraod, Secretary ; James 
Tobey, Cb«rman ; H. C. Taggart. 

We had four cases of typhoid fever, but uoa^ of diphtheria or 
scarlet fever. Two of these cases were imported, the one from 
Portland, the other from Fairfield. 


Members of the board : J. W. Beede, Secretary; Daniel Lara, 
Chairmaa ; H. Lowell. 

Of nine nuissDces reported to the board, eight were removed. 
We have had thirteen cases of diphtheria with one death, twenty-three 
cases of scarlet fever with two deaths, and eighteen coses of typhoid 
tever with eight deaths. 

Scarlet fever made its appearance in the Chamberlain school. 
The honse was thoroughly fumigated, the books at the time standing 
OD the desks and seats with their leaves spread apart. All children 
from infected houses were excluded Arom the schools for the pre- 
scribed time. 

One street has had for several years more than its share of diph- 
theria, apparently from lack of sewerage. We need more and better 
flushed sewers, better plnmbing, and the abolition ot privies in the 
<ity proper. 

During the outbreak of small-pox in Canada we took the precau- 
tion to put a competent man on the Grand Trunk Railroad, secure 
a bouse in which to detain suspected passengers for observation, 
and vaccinated the Canadian children at the city's expense. 

Members of the board : Dr. B. J. Martin, Health Officer ; Dr. 
J. 0. Webster, Chairman ; E. R. Bean, Sanitary Inspector. 

Members of the board: A. E. Mace, Secretary; Greorge R. 
Crosby, Chairman ; Henry A. Rowe. 

■ DictizedbyGoOgle 


We have hftd five cases of typhoid fever with two deaths. Id 
connectioa with these cases, a warniag was given to the inmates of 
the house and the attendants to dispone of the discbarges from the 
patient properly, and to have ihi houses cleansed after the termina- 
tion of the disease. 


Members of the board : John D. Lawler, Secretary ; J. G-. 
Smith, Chairman ; G. W. Libby. 

Five cases of scarlet fever occurred in one house and there were 
two cases of typhoid fever in another, but no deaths resulted. 


Members of the board : Dr. Lorenzo Norton, Secretary ; I. S. 
Chase, Chairman; J. M. Sanborn. 

We had one case of typhoid fever in which thorough disinfection 
of all excreta was provided for. 

Members of the board : John Goldtbwait, Secretary ; Dr. G. M, 
Woodcock, Chairman ; D.-. Daniel McCann. 


Members of the board : Joseph Stevens, Secretary ; Jas. F. 
Tyler, Chairman ; Stephen T. Polleya. 

We dad two cases of scarlet fever and two of typhoid fever with 
one death from the latter disease. 

Members of the board : A. F. Libby, Secretary ; W. A. Coffin,. 
Chairman ; Eli Oakes. 


Members of the board : Dr. Elmer Small, Secretary ; Dr. S. W. 
Johnson, Chairman ; Dr. A. C. Ellingwood, Health OfHcer. 

Ten nuisances came to the notice of the board, all of which were 

We had twelve cases of scarlet fever in four houses, and four 
cases of typhoid fever in the same number of houses. No deaths, 
resulted trom these censes. 

Dictized by Google 

repobt8 of local boards. z7 


Members of the board; Miles Psase, Secretary; N. B. Allen- 
wood, Cbairm&Q ; D. A. Greer. 

We had one case of scarlet feyer. The school was closed and 
every precaution taken to keep it Trom spreadiiig. 


Members of the board : Thomas F. Ryan, Secretary ; Michael 
F. Dafly, Chairman ; J. D. Doyle. 

There were no cases of infectious diseases. It has been nnuaually 
healthy, with the exception of six or eight cases of pneamonia, all 
of which recovered. 

Members of the board : Augustus Crosby, Secretary ; J. W. Syl- 
vester, Chairman. 


Members of the board: Dr. P. B. Yoang, Secretary; C. M. 
Gnptill, Chairman ; Dr. H. V. Noyes. 

Four nuisances were reported to the board, all of which were 
removed. We had sixteen cases of diphtheria with fonr deaths from 
this disease. Infected houses were placarded, isolation was main- 
tained and disinfection was carried out thoroughly. Otherwise than 
from this disease and la grippe, Berwick has been quite free from 
disease. We need a better water supply. 


Members of the board: T. F. Houghton, Secretary; J. D. 
li^errill, Chairman ; Dr. A. A. Piper, Health Officer. 

One nuisance was removed by the board. We have had no cases 
of the infectious diseases. 


Members of the board : Dr. R. F. Grindle, Secretary and Health 
OEBcer ; A. C. Osgood, Chairman ; R. G. Lord. 

We have had no cases of the infectious diseases. A thorough 
cleaning out of a brook running through a section of the village and 
the covering of it for a distance of thirty rods are needed. 

Dictized by Google 



Members of the board: Dr. Alden Blosaom, Secretary and 
Health Officer; Bjtod Giles, GbairmaD ; John R. McDougal. 

We have had four cases of diphtheria, two of scarlet fever, and 
six of typhoid fever, but do deaths resnlted. Measles has been 


Members of the board : Albert P. Small, Secretary ; Thomas 
R. Rand, Chairman ; Abner CoDmbs. 

One nuisance was removed and we have had one case of typhoid 
fever. One fatal accident occurred. 

Members of the board : Henry T. Williams, Secretary ; Dr. Wm. 
E. Walker, Chairman ; Dr. Daniel C. Dennett, Health Officer. 
No cases of infectious diseasea were reported during the year. 

Members of the board : A. W. Perkins, Secretary ; J. Bachelder ; 
J. N. Knapp. 

Members of the board : W. H. Gardiner, Secretary ; Dr. I. 
GetchelJ, Chairman; K. A. Stanley. 

Six^nuisances were removed by the board. We had one case of 
diphtheria, eighteen of bcarlet fever, and more than 135 of typhoid 
fever. Two of the scarlet fever cases and eight of the typhoid 
fever cases terminated fatally. 

In regard to the typhoid fever epidemic I would state that late in 
July the pnmps of the company that furnishes the water supply taken 
from the river at Veazie above the city, broke down, and, unknown to 
thejwater takers, water was furnished by a steam pump at a mill about 
one and one-half miles below the Bangor and Brewer bridge, and so 
received the sewage of both Bangor and Brewer. Wells long unused 
were'drawn from, furnishing, perhaps, as impure a supply as that 
taken from the river. This, iu the opinion of the chairman of our 
board, was the cause of the typhoid fever outbreak, and this opinion 
was concurred in by alt the other physicians. 

Dictized by Google 



Members of the board : R. H. Ferkias, Secretary ; Thomfta G. 
DurgiD, Cbairman ; Charles Kidder. 

One Quiaance w&b removed. No cases of infectious diseases 
except whooping cough. 


Members of the board : L. D. Mathews, Secretary ; Asa Strick- 
laod, Chairman; G. C. Davenport. 

No cases of infections diseases. 


Members of the board : E.P.Cole, Secretary; Geo. R. Allen, 
Chairman; Dr. F. S. Herrick. 

In the way of impr. vements for water supply, an artesian well 
was sunk 180 feet to supply a sardine factory and its employes with 
pure water. One oaisance was removed in part. We have had no 
cases of diphtheria, scarlet fever or typhoid fever, but measles and 
whooping cough prevailed dnring the epriug and summer. One 
fatal case of measles occurred in an infant. 

Members of the board : M J. Dow, Secretary ; I. G. Reynolds, 
Chairman ; Dr. A. W. Rich. 

Members of the board: Augustus O. Smith, Chairman; Geo. 
A. McCluskey. 

We had no cases of contagious diseases excepting of whooping 
congh which was unusually severe. 

Members of the board: Dr. H. F. Fitch, Secretary; Albert 
Blake, Chairman ; S. G. Boynton. 

We had one fatal case of typhoid fever. Pneumonia was more 
than usually prevalent. 

Members of the board : T. W. Pratt, Secretary ; G. G. BrowD, 
Cbairman ; Amasa Stanhope. 

Dictized by Google 


Members of the board: Dr. M. V. Adams, Secretary; Vf. 0. 
PetetBOD, Cbairm&n; Dr. G. H. Coombs. 


Members o( the board : E. A. Crocker, Secretary ; Dr. G. H. 
Emerson, Chairman ; Dr. W. C. Siilson, Health Officer. 

We have had six cases of dipGtheria, fourteen of scarlet fever, 
and five of typhoid fever. Scarlet fever was introduced \a one of 
the schools. The school was closed, houses were placarded and 
isolation was matnlained until the danger period was passed. Better 
sewerage is needed, 


Members of the board: J. W. Bradbury, Secretary; Thomas 
Sborey, Chairman ; Frank Bower. 

We have had eight cases of typhoid fever with two deaths. The 
houses were visited and the circulars, together with such advice as 
was thought proper, were given and euch assistance was offered as 
was Deeded. 

Our greatest need is improvement in the heating and ventilation 
of oar school-rooms. At first, considerable fault was fonnd with the 
work of the board, many of the citizens saying it is all noneeuae ; 
but more lately the people are seeing the need of sanitary work. 


Members of the board : George Dyer, Secretary ; N. E. Murray, 
Chairman ; Walter Edmunds. 
We had two cases of typhoid fever, one of which was fatal. 


Members of the board : Dr. Charles A. Dennett, Secretary and 
Health Officer ; J. H. Waterman, Chairman ; Charles Hobson. 

Of six nuisances, five were removed. Diphtheria, seven cases, 
one death; typhoid fever, one case. Dysentry was more than 
usually prevalent. 


Members ol the board: H. H. Richards, Secretary ; George H. 
Ladd ; Chairman ; A. S. Young. 

With the exception of measles we have had do iDfectious diseases. 

D,:„l,;.dtv Google 

bbpobt8 of local boards. 31 


MemberB of the board: Dr. D. E. Seymour, Secretary; C. 
Ellis, Chairman; Dr. E. H. Vose. 

Five nuisances were reported to the board ; eleven were removed. 
Diphtheria, fortj-niue cases, foitrteeD deaths ; scarlet fever, twenty- 
seven cases with one death i typhoid fever, three cases. The only 
outbreak of typhoid fever was believed to have had Hs origin in a 
polluted well. An analysis waa bad and the well was closed. 

Members of the board : J. B. LaBree, Secretary; J. W. Cole, 
Chairman ; G. E. BaUey. 

Members of the board : J. B. Swan, Secretary ; Charlea Bowers, 
Chairman; Alexander Buchanan. 

Fourteen nuisances were removed. We have had one case of 
scarlet fever and two of typhoid fever, but no deaths from these 
diseases. Our water supply ie perfect, but better aewer^e and 
drainage are needed very mucti, and at a meeting of the board 
. December 26tb, resolutions were adopted requesting the selectmen 
to undertake work of this kind. 


Members of the board: Dr. J. Gary, Secretary; Rev. C. E. 
Young, Chairman ; C. B. Roberts, Esq. 

Six nnisances were removed. We have had six cases of scarlet fever 
andjeighteen of typhoid fever, none of which were fatal. Better 
drainage is needed. One death resulted from a burn. 


Members of the board : F, A. Simpson, Secretary ; Henry Kim- 
ball, Chairman ; W. A. Swan ; Dr. S. W. Otis, Health Officer. 

Two nuisances were removed. Diphtheria, two cases with one 
death ; scarlet fever, two cases. 

Members of the board : S. C, Morae, Secretary ; W. W. Gkwd- 
win, Cha>rman ; John S. Swett. 

Dictized by Google 


We have had no cases of iofeotioas diseases and the year has been 
one of unnsDal heatthlnlness. 

Members of the board : L. W. Holden, Secretary ; H. B. Har- 
mon, Chairman ; Samuel Winslow. 
.No infectious diseases reported. 


Members of the board : Dr. Geoi^ A. Wbeeler, Secretary ; 
Curtie St«vena, Chairman; Dr. E. E. Pbilbrook. 
Three nuisances were removed. One case of typhoid fever. 

Members of the board : Dr. G. D. Cook, Secretary ; O. L. 
Smith, Chairman ; H. M. Stevens. 

Members of the board : F. J. Sprague, Secretary ; D. J. Fisher, 
Chairman ; H. W. Stuart. 
No infections diseases reported. 


Members of the board: A. N. Douglass, Secretary; Wm. T. 
Scarls, Chairman ; A. A. Sampson. ' 

Four nuisances were removed. We have had one case^of typhoid 
fever. A survey has been made by the United States Government 
with a view to laying a eewer from the National Home to the Ken- 
nebec river, thereby stopping the open flow of excreta through this 


Members of the board: Dr. C. J. Milliken, Secretary ;^Samnel 
Ray, Chairman ; Dr. E. B. Silsby. 

One nuieance was removed. Diphtheria, ten cases, no deaths ; 
typhoid fever, six cases, one death. 

Members of the board : J. D. Kyle, Secretary ; Edwin Savage^ 
Chairman ; Abiam Libby- 
One nniaance was removed. No hifectioas diseases. 



Members of the board: Dr. G. J. Nelson, ^cretary; C. E. 
Dutton, Chairman ; J. E. CrossmaD. 

Two nuisances were removed. Two fatal cases of typhoid fever. 
One death occnrred from drowntDg. Measles prevailed in the north 
part of the town. My observations with the epidemic of influenza 
which prevailed during the winter and spring have convinced me 
that this disease is contagious. 


Members of the board : S. A. Parks, Secretary ; W. D. Camp- 
bell, Chairman; H. G. Doble. 

We have had one case of typhoid fever. One school was closed 
on acoonnt of pneumonia. 


Members of the bo ird : J. M. Winn, Chairman ; Royal Wells ; 
Dr. E. F. Webber, Health Officer. 

We have bad one case each of diphtheria and scarlet fever. 

Columbia Falls. 
Members of the board: A. M. Leighton, Secretary; W. E. 

Bailey, Chairman j A. T. Worcester. 
We had one case of typhoid fever. 


Members of the board : E. O. Vittum, Secretary ; Amon Savage, 
Chairman ; C. R. Ellis. 

We had one case of scarlet fever ending in recovery. The house 
was placarded and the people took particular pains to keep the 
disease Irom spreading. One nuisance was removed. 

Members of the board : E. E. Leland, Secretary ; David Howe, 
Chairman; W. W. Sadler. 
No infectious diseases reported. 

Dictized by Google 



Members of the board : J. P. Curtis, Secretary ; Edirin Folsotn, 
Chairman ; Dr. 0. H. Merrill. Health Officer. 

Diphtheria, one case; scarlet fever, one case; typhoid fever, 
foDr cases with one death. Great care was taken that these diseases 
should not spread ; one school was closed and exposed scholars 
were removed. 


Members of the board : F. C. Small, Secretary; Dr. Wm. B. 
Swasey, Chairman and Health Officer ; B. F. Haley. 

Seven nais&nces were reported to the board, five of which were 
abated. We have had no cases of the infectious diseases. 

An accident happened from the explosion of a lamp in a bed 
room while the occupant was out. A neighbor sitting at a window 
near by, saw the explosion and rashed into the house in season to 
stop the fire from spreading from the room, but had her hands burned 
quite severely in smothering the fire in the bedding. The cause is 
supposed to have been the lack of oil in the lamp, tor there was very 
little oil in it. 


Members of the board: S. S. Woodman, Secretary; C. E. 
Smith, Chairman; C. C. Kinsman. 
We had one case of diphtheria. 

Cranbebrt Isle. 

Members of the board: W. P. Preble, Secretary; T. H. Stanley, 
Chairman ; John Gilley. 

One nuisance was removed. One case of typhoid fever. The 
one case of typhoid fever was supposed to have originated from water 
drawn from a cellar well. 


Members of the board : J. P. Jeflery, Secretary; N. S. Fenla* 
son. Chairman ; Robert Wallace. 

We had two cases of scarlet fever, both ending in recovery. 

Members of the board : Dr. C. T. Moulton, Secretary and Health 
Officer; L. H. Merrill, Chairman ; A. H. Grannell. 

Dictized by Google 

uepobts of looal boakd8. 'd5 


Members of the boanl: A. H. Snow. Secretary; Dr. E. F. 
Stetson, Chairman ; W. H. White. 

We had one fatal case of typhoid fever. Diarrbceal diseases in 
children were quite prevalent, jet there were but a score of cases of 
it in all with one fatal case. It woald seem that towas ought to be 
obliged to appropriate some money sufficient to reimburse the board 
for money actually expended by it, if do more. 


Members of the board : Dr. M. L. Porter, Secretary ; Jas, Car- 
son, Chairman ; Charles H. Merrill. 

Seven nuisances were removed. Scarlet fever, one case ; typhoid 
fever, nine cases, but no deaths from these diseases. We need 
bettfF drainage. 


Members of the board : Dr. Geo. Sylvester, Secretary ; Cyrus 
Ricker. Chairman ; A. R Dyer. , 

One nuisance was removed. Scarlet fever, six cases, no deaths; 
typhoid fever, one case. Scarlet fever broke out in one school dis- 
trict so as to compel uB to stop the school and cleanse and disinfect 
the house. 


Members of the board : L. B. Chapman, Secretary; Dr. A. P. 
Topliff, Chairman ; Capt. Wm. Sinnett. 

N ine nuisances were formally reported to the board, eight of which 
were abated. The other will be removed in the spring. In addi- 
tion to these nuisances that came under the consideration of the 
board, many complaintA of a minor character were attended to by 
the secretary alone. The following has been our rule of action ; 
First. On complaint the secretary has visited the premises and 
given SDch orders, as in his Judgment 'he cases required. S'cond. 
Failure to comply has been followed by an examination if necessary 
by the full board, and orders signed by the full board have been 
issued. Third. Ask the assistance of a magistrate. 

Diphtheria, ten eases, three deaths; scarlet fever, nine cases, 
no deaths ; typhoid fever, twenty-three cases, one death. In every 

Dictized by Google 


case the bouses iarect«d tiith diphtheria or acarlet fever are pla- 
carded, and such preventive measares as are indicated by the statate 
law and the town by-laws are pat in force. 

After the re -organization of the local board, a set of books of 
records was opened and a suitable portable box with shelves and 
compartments was procured in which to preserve the books and 
papers of the board. 

We employed a person to make aa examination of the Woodford» 
district by going from house to house inspecting vanlts, cesspools 
and sink drains with the view of being in readiness to present the 
real condition of matters in the locality shonld occasion require it, 
for a petition had been presehted to the selectmen. Aa the mnni- 
cipal officers have never reported the result, our work has not been 
made known. The conditions are bad ; complaints from the locality 
are many. 

Deer Isle. 

Uembers of the board : A. J. Beck, Secretary ; P. S. Knowlton, 
Chairman ; Seth Hatch ; .Dr. F. B. Ferguson, Health Offlcer. 

One nuisance was abated. Scarlet fever, one case ; typhoid fever, 
seven cases, one death. Immediate attention has always been given 
to every case of infectious disease. Better water and drain^e are 
needed in some parts of the town. 

Members of the board : Isaac H. Berry, Secretary ; Dr. S. T. 
Brown, Chairman and Health Offlcer; Joseph W. Colby. 

The past year has brought good health to our residents, and no 
cases of infectious diseases. 

Members of the board : E. P. Foster, Secretary ; G. W. Kilby, 
Chairman ; Dr. A. T. Lincoln, Health Offlcer. 

Members of the board : David F. Libby, Secretary ; Parker 
Sawyer, Chairman ; Isaac Spanlding. 

Members of the board: £. A. Rues, Secretary; Charles H. 
Hayden, Chairman ; Dr. 0. M. Foss, Health Officer. 

Dictized by Google 


Daring the year SOO feet of sewers were put down. Nine 
tmiBAQces, all of which were removed. Our greatest trouble ie from 
flink drainage entering our public streets. We have bad six cases 
of typhoid fever, but no cases of diphtheria or scarlet fever were 
reported. One death occurred from a burn, the result of the explo- 
fliOQOf a lantern in use near a hay press. A case of arsenical poison- 
ing of a family has already been reported to you in full. 

[The following correspondence passed relative to the case to 
which the secretary referred. A. G. Y.] 

Dextxb, Me., October C, 1891. 
A. G. Young, M. D., 

Secretary State Board of Health. 
Dear Sir: Our board has this day been called to visit the family 
of Mr. L. who appeared to have been poisoned. After a thorough 
examination by Dr. Fobs of our board, he pronounces itsnch. The 
circumstances are these : A week ago last Friday noon at their 
table four persons were seated, viz., Mrs. L., Mrs. M., Roy L., age 
five, and Mr. M., a farm hand. The vegetables on the table were 
corn, squash and potatoes ; no meats. About three P. M. of the 
same day Mrs. L., Mrs. M., and Mr. M. were taken violently sick. 
Symptoms were vomiting, pain in the stomach with burning sensa- 
tion. No doctor was called, but home treatment applied. All 
recovered. Yesterday (Monday) noon the same party at dinner, 
except in place of Mr. M. was a man by name of 0. For dinner 
baked potatoes, beans ; do meats. (The first day the vegetables 
were steamed.) About the middle of the afternoon C. was taken with 
Tioleot headache and vomiting in the field ; got to the house with 
difficulty; found Mrs. L. and Mrs. U. quite' sick and vomiting, Roy 
some sick. C. grew very sick with cramps, pain in the stomach, 
trembling, burning and hot sensation In stomach, legs and arms 
cold, no sensation, pulse very low. A physician was called and 
relief was brought. Now in the first case, Mr. L. being our elec- 
trician, was away on the line and took his dinner with him, which 
was the same as his family ate, except potatoes. In the second 
case he was away and not at home to dinner. Roy ate about a 
tablespoonlulof baked potato very thickly covered with cream ; he 
was not much sick, but vomited some. Mrs. M. ate very sparingly 
of potatoes and was quite bad ; Mrs. L. ate about one small one and 
was, as she expressed it, as sick as she cared to be, while C. ate 
three potatoes and with difficulty his life was saved. Now we have 

Dictized by Google 


thought best to send to you some of these potatoes, marked as they 
come from the bin, with request that you cause them to beexamined 
for arseDical poiBoniog. On the vines Paris greeu was Dsed both in 
dry and liquid state. We would like a report of this case aa soon 
as convenient and in the mean time we will watch for other cauees. 
Very truly yours, 

Edoab a. Rcss, 
Secretary Local Board of Eealth. 

AcocSTA, Me., October Itr, 1S91. 
£. A. Kcss, Esq., 

Secretary Board of Health, Dexter. 
Dear Sir : Prof. Robinson reports as follows on the potatoes 
sent by you: — 

"The potatoes from Dexter were in several difierent packages and 
I have given each a carefal examination for arsenic, but find none. 
I presume that they sent samples from each bin. If arsenic did tbe 
mischief, it must have been added to the dinner eaten, or have been 
in some small cavity in one of tbe potatoes cooked." 
Yours truly, 

A. G. YoDHG, Secretary. 


Members of the board: W. H. Tootbaker, Secretary; L. F. 
Simpson, Chairman; Dr. H. A. King, Health^Officer. 

Two nuisances were removed. No infectious dtseasee except 


Members of the board : G-. Gr. Downing, Secretary ; J. Q. 
Lauder, Chairman ; Dr. J. B. Cochrane, Health Oflicer. 

Seven nuisances were abated. Diphtheria, two cases, one death ; 
typhoid fever, four cases; measles, one case. The completion of 
our system of sewerage is needed. 


Members of the board : Dr. J. L. Wright, Secretary and Health 
Oflicer; J. E. Hasty, Chairman; A. C. Goddard. 

Scarlet fever, six cases ; typhoid fever, one case. In connection 
with tbe cases of the infections diseases the bouses have been 

Dictized by Google 


placarded and tbe patients isolated from the reat of the family aa 
far as possible. I have heard a little fault found with the law 
requiring placarding, looking after Quisances, etc., aa anneceesary, 
but the large majority of the citizens, and especially the better class 
and those better educated, heartily praise the law aad show a wil- 
lingness to cooperate with the board. 

Members of the board: A. F. Banker, Secretary; G. S.Croogin8> 
Chairmaa ; A. W". Googios, 
No cases of infectious diseases. 

E&ST Macs IAS. 

Members of the board : Dr. J. E. Tuell, Secretary ; A. J. Hans-' 
com. Chairman; F. H. Wiswell. 

We had two cases of scarlet fever ; the diarrhceal diBeases of 
children and whooping cough were unusually prevalent. 


Members of the board : A. W. Clark, Secretary ; A. M. Bibber, 
Chairman; Andrew Harrington. 

Fonrteen nuisances were abated. DipSitheria, forty-one casea 
with ten deaths ; typhoid fever, ihree cases with no deaths. 


Members of the board ; D. 8. Stevens, Secretary ; G. W. Esles, 
Chairman ; A. J. Merrill. 

We have bad one case each of diphtheria, scarlet fever, and 
typhoid fever. The typhoid case was a fatal one. 


Members of tbe board : C. R. Clark, Secretary ; 0. B. Knowles, 
Chairman ; W. B. Higgins. 

All nuisances reported to the board have been removed. Diph- 
theria, one case ; scarlet fever, two casea ; typhoid fever, four cases. 

Members of the board: Eben Chase, Jr., Secretary; Jos. A. 
Merry, Chairman ; D. B. Clifford. 



Scarlet fever, two cases; tjpboid fever, one fatal case, One 
accidental death by falliuf; trova the mast of a vessel. 


Members of the board: C. W. Eldredge, Secretary; C. G. 
Casej, Chairman ; G. H. Eldredge. 

We have had no infections diseases except measles, of which we 
have had seventeen cases. 


Members of the board : Dr. H. I. Durgin, Secretary ; Dr. J. L. 
M. Willis, Chairman; C. A. Hooper. 

Diphtheria, one ; scarlet fever, five, and typhoid fever, seven 
cases, but no deaths from these diseases. After the families where 
typhoid fever prevailed began to drink boiled water, the cases of 
typhoid fever rapidly diminished and soon ceased to occur. 


Members of the board : Dr. L. Hodgkins, Secretary ; Dr. A. C. 
Hagerthy, Chairman ; Dr. W. M. Haines, Health Officer. 

Thirteen nuisances were reported. Twelve were removed, one 
was decided not to be a nuisance. Scarlet fever, eigiht cases, one 
death ; typhoid fever, four cases, two deaths. 

Aa showing the importance ol suitable sanitary measures, I would 
state that in a family of four children, all nnder ten years of age, 
restricted to the use of two large rooms and one small one in a crowded, 
poorly ventilated and undrained tenement, snch measures, with a 
strict quarantine, restricted scarlet fever to a single child, though, 
meanwhile, a second one died of cholera infantum, making it almost 
impossible to maintain the quarantine. 

Members of the board : S. A. Walker, Secretarj- ; H. F. Durrell, 
Chairman ; Gilbert Dunbar. 

Members of the board : Stillmfui J. Locke, Secretary ; James 
Goodell ; E. E. Sylvester. 
Of infectious diseases, we have had only two cases of typhoid 

id by Google 



Members of the board : O. A. Hutcfains, Secretary ; C. D, 
Steveaai Chairman; F. L. Porter. 

One BDisaDce was removed. We have had no cases of iofectiona 
disease except whooping congh which prevailed ver; generally. 
Two men were drowned driving logs last spring. 

Id an adjoining plantation in which there ie no local Isoard of 
health, a case of diphtheria occnrred. It alarmed our citizens to 
snch an extent that we visited the place, placarded all the entrances, 
distributed notices of warning, etc., and by so doing hemmed the 
disease in and prevented its fnrther spread. 

Members of the board: Dr. W. F. Hart, Secretary; S. J. 
French, Chairman ; Dr. S. W. L. Chase. 
We bad no .cases of infectious diseases. 


Members of the board: Dr. F. M. Putnum, Secretary and 
Health Officer ; A. G. Stilphen, Chairman ; Arthur McCansland. 

Two nnisances were abated. One case each of diphtheria, scarlet 
fever, and typhoid fever. Measles, German measles, and influenza 
were unusually prevalent. One death from drowning. 


Members of the board : Dr. F. O. Lyford, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; E. 0. Greenleaf, Chairman ; H. W. Lowell. 

Three cases of scarlet fever and one of typhoid fever. Better 
sewerage is needed. 

F0EB8T Crrr. 

Members of the board: J. A. Lawler, Secretary; A. A. Cox, 
Chairman ; Frank Lydick. 

The foregoing are the members of the board of selectmen, acting 
as a local board. Three cases of scarlet fever. 


Members of the board : R. M. Ingalls, Secretary ; O. P. Martin, 
Chairman i G. H. Pratt. 

Dictized by Google 


Members of the board: H. T. Whitaker, Secretory; G. H. 
Rutler, Chairman ; C. T. Bunker. 
Two nnisancea removed. Five cases of diphtberia. 

Fkahkliu Plastation. 
Members of tbe board : L. C, Pntnam, Secretary ; C. G. Irisb^ 
Chairman; C. D. Lane. 

No cases of the infections diseases. 


Members of the board : C. P. Hutchins, Secretary ; J. E. Syl- 
vester, Chairman; Dr. C. E. Wilson, Health Officer. 

Two nuisances were reported and one of them was removed. We 
have had two cases of typhoid fever. Diarrh(Bal diseases were 
unusually prevalent in the snmmer. 

Members of the board : R. A. Dyer, Secretary ; Nelson Peter- 
son, Chairman ; J. M. Bnrbank. 


Members of the board : W. C. F<%g, Secretory ; J. P. Menillr 
Chairman ; B. P. Soule. 

A public water supply has been put in by the Freeport Water 
Company. Six nuisances were removed. Diphtberia, three cases, 
with two deaths ; typhoid fever, four cases. There was a light run 
of scarlet fever in the spring, so light that it was bard to tell what 
it was at first. 


Members of the board : Dr. G. C. Chamberlain, Secretory and 
Health Officer ; B. B. Morton, Chairman ; A. M. Simmous. 

One nuisance was removed. We have bad three cases each of 
scarlet fever and typhoid fever. 

Members of the board : E. Ballard, Secretary ; Dr. W. C. Towle, 
Chairman ; £. S. Chase. 

We have had one case of typhoid fever. 

Dictized by Google 



Uembers of the board : Dr. F. S. Packard, Secretary ; S. E. 
JohoBon, CbaJrmaD ; Van R. Beedle. 

A sewerage surrey has been made and two or three extensions to 
the sewers have been laid. Nearly all the anisanoes reported were 
abated. One filthy place had to be ordered to be vacated before 
the landlord would fix ap the premises. 

Diphtheria, three cases ; scarlet fever, one case reported ; typhoid 
fever, twelve cases, two deaths. Measles have beea prevalent dur- 
ing the winter. Two latal oases of cerebro-spinal meningitis. 

For improving the sanitary condition of the city, the building of 
more sewers and the making of every abutter connect with them ar« 
to be recommended. Two deaths occurred from accidental drowaing 
and one man was killed by the cars. 

Members of the board : Dr. F. A. C. Emerson, Secretary ; E. L. 
Oak, Chairman; D. H. RobinaoD. 


Members of the board: F. Harriman, Secretary; Seth Bemis, 
Chairman; Edgar Harriman. 
We have had no cases of the iofectioua diseases. 

Members of the board : J. P. Tolman, Secretary; Eliaha Hill, 
Chairman ; H. N. Parker. 
Two cases of typhoid fever. 


Members of the board : G. W. Heath, Secretary ; C. G. Carver, 
Chairman ; Dr. A. W. Lincoln, Health Officer. 

Three nuisances were removed. Scarlet fever, six ca^ee ; typhoid 
fever, one case. A little boy was burned badly by bis clothes 
taking fire. 

Members of the board : B. F. Sumner, Secretary ; B- R- Joy, 
Chairman; Dr. C. C. Larrabee. 

Dictized by Google 



Members of the board : Dr. J. F. Rowell, Secretary ; Dr. E. A. 
McCollister, Chairman ; Dr. E. T. Andrews. 

Improvements have been made in regard to water supply. Diph- 
theria, one case ; typhoid fever, three casee. Measles has been 


Members of the board : Geo. £. Parker, Secretary ; Dr. AlbioD 
Pierce, Cbairman ; Dr. Geo. Sleeper, Health Officer. 

Diphtheria, one case ; typhoid fever, four cases. In answer to 
your enquiry whether there are any particularly unhealthy localities 
in town, I would say that there ia one such at the town farm. The 
cause is a water-closet where an insane man is kept. 

Members of the board : Rev, Charles Davison, Secretary ; H. A. 
Saunders, Chairman; Wm. Shaw; Dr. H. Hunt, Jr., Health 


Members of the board : A. 0. Libby, Secretary ; Wm. Richard- 
eon, Chairman ; H. C. Berry. 

One complaint only of nuisance has been made and the nuisance 
was removed as soon as the owner's attention was called to it. We 
have had two cases of diphtheria, and one each of scarlet fever and 
typhoid fever. The case of typhoid fever was caused by polluted 


Members of the board : John Scales, Secretary ; L. N. Whittier, 
Chairman ; Henry Straw. 

We have had no cases of infectious diBcases. 

Hallo WELL. 

Membersof the board: E. W. Maddox, Secretary; Ira M. True, 
Chairman ; Geo. A. Safford. 

Six nuisances, all of which were removed. Diphtheria, two, 
scarlet fever, six, and typhoid fever, ten cases. Better sewen^e 
is needed in the city. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


Members of the board ; Dr. W. H. NasoD, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; C. F. Cowan, Chairman ; Hon. H. W. Mayo. 

Scarlet (ever, three cases ; typhoid fever, four caaes, one o( which 
was fatal. In addition to our other work we have endeavored to 
have the privy vaults of echool-houBes atteoded lo better and think 
we have succeeded in a measure. 

Members of the board: A. B. Crabtree, Secretary; R. H. 
Young, Chairman ; John Anderson. 
No infections diseases. 

Members of the board : J. B. Roberts, Secretary ; J. R. Howard, 
Chairman ; C. £. Chapman. 
One nnisance removed. No infectious diseases except measles. 


Members of the board: L. S. Reed, Secretary; S. Leigbton, 
Chabman ; Dr. F. K. Hnrdi Health Officer. 

One DuiBance was removed. No infectious diseases. One drown- 
ing accident while skating. The local board has been watchful and 
ready to act open the first indication of anything wrong. 


Members of the board : J. S. Farr, Secretary; J. M. Stinson, 
Chairman ; Geo. H. Dearbon. 

Three nuisances were removed. Scarlet fever, three cases ; typhoid 
fever, five cases. 


Members of the board : £. R. McKenzie, Secretary ; Dr. G. H. 
Walling, Chairman; Charles S. Wass. 

We have had two cases of diphtheria and one of typhoid fever. 
The typhoid case was contracted away from home. 


Members of the board : Dr. F. F. Whitaker, Secretary ; F. A. 
Bishop, Chairman ; Josiah Tnsely. • 

Dictzed by Google 


Two nuisaDcea were abated. Scarlet fever, tweot; cases ; typhoid 
fever, seven cases wilh oae death. Two schools were closed on 
account of scarlet fever. 


Members of the board : G. £. Morse, Secretary ; L M. Davis, 
Chairman ; J. P. Cromraett ; Dr; B. C. Woodbury, Health Officer. 
We have bad do cooti^ious diseases. 


Members of the board: John Pierce, Secretary; A. K. P. 
Googins, Chairmaa ; S. D. Wadaworth ; Dr. C. E. Wilson, Health 

Quite a number of citizens have discarded their ol(f wells near 
the outbuildings and have put down aqueducts, taking water trom 
the hillsides. One nuisance was removed. 


Members of the board : Moses Benn, Secretary ; Dr. J. V. 
Tabor, Chairman ; Wm. Atherton. 

We have had no cases of infectioQS diseases. 


Members of the board : Alexander Tirrell, Secretary ; D. S. 
Winchester, Chairman ; J. E. Bowe. 

Two nuisances were removed. We have had four cases of typhoid 
fever wilh one death. 


Members of the board : Thomas J. Carle, Secretary ; Charles 
Randell, Chairman ; Collins Haley. 

There has not been a case of contagious aicknesa in town for the 


Members of the board : D. H. Mansfield, Secretary ; M. Metcalf, 
Chairman ; Levere Howard ; Dr. laaac Bartlett, Health Officer. 

With the exception of one case of typhoid fever there have been 
no contagious diseases. For bettering the aanitary condition of the 
town I would improve the sources of some of the drinking water 
supplies. An occasional bath would not hurt a )me of ua. 

Dictized by Google 



Members of the board : Dr. C. £. Williams, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; L. B. JohnsoD, CbairmaD ; Dr. Gleorge Cary. 

Oor system of wakr-worka has been exteoded aod several haodred 
feet of the "Bailey Brook" have been enclosed. About t wen ty-flve 
naiBances were reported and alt aa far as possible were removed. 
Diphtheria, three cases, one death ; scarlet fever, five cases ; typhoid 
fever, eight cases, one death. In all the outbreaks the disease was 
confined to the first house infected. The patients were isolated. 
Invariably in cases of scarlet fever and diphtheria the secretary has 
visited the family and instructed tbem as to dan^^er and the impor- 
tance of isolation and other prophylactic measures. 


Members of the board : J. O. Davis, Secretary; L. T. Mason, 
Chairman; Oharles Cumminga. 

One nuisance was abated. Three cases of tyhoid fever with one 
death. Whooping cough prevailed. 

HuBBiCANE Isle. 
Members of the board: M. H. Mclntire, Secretaiy; E. S. 
Thomba ; W. S. Shields. 
Three nuisances were removed. No infectious diseases. 

Members of the board : H. B. Luce, Secretary ; C. W. Gilmore, 
Chairman; Harrison Daggett. 
We have had no infections diaeaaes except one of typhoid tever. 

IsLAKD Falls. 

Members of the board: G. H. Donham, Secretary; Alpheus 
Craig. Chairman ; W. D. Warren. 

One case of typhoid fever is all the infectious disease we have 
had. It has been very healthy all the year. There were but two 
deaths and one of these was a woman nearly ninety-one years old. 

ISLB An Haitt. 
Members of the board : Edwin Rich, Secretary; James Robin- 
son, Chairman ; J. T. Barter. 

Dictized by Google 


No infectious dise&sea. There has been bnt ooe death during 
the year. 


Members of the board : J. A. Sprague, Secretary ; Alonzo 
Coomba, Chairman; L. W. Hammoud. 

We have had four cases of diphtheria and seven of typboCd fever 
and a prevalence of whooping cough. One death by drowning. 

Members of the board : M. S. Stilee, Secretary ; D. D. Gould, 
Chairman ; A. J. Mudgett. 


Members of the board : H. H. Allen, Secretary ; S. B. Farnam, 
Chairman ; F. W. Merritt. 

Two cases of typhoid fever. One death resulted from fire caused 
by lightning. The school-bouses throughout the town are not 
properly ventilated. Better drainage is needed. 


Members of the board : J. J. Bond, Secretary ; Henry W. 
Clary, Chairman ; Dr. A. A. Jackson, Health Offlcer. 

Five nuisances were removed. Scarlet fever, twelve cases ; 
typhoid fever, two cases. Gastritis was prevalent in the autumn, 
which I attribute to the bad condition of the drinking water. For 
the improvement of the sanitary condition of the town I should 
recommend a leas intimate relationship of privies, sinks, and wells, 
and the ventilation of houses. 


Members of the board : £. M. Watts, Secretary ; G. E. Noyes, 
Chairman ; W. T. Noyes ; Dr. H. H. Smith, Health OflBcer. 

Ten or twelve nuisances were removed. There has been no occa- 
sion for making formal complaint as all have seemed willing to comply 
with the law as soon as their attention was called to it. We had 
one fatal case of tj'phoid fever. There was quite an epidemic of 
whooping cough. 


Members of the board : J. W. Peaaley, Secretary ; G. K. Watts, 
Chairman ; £. L. Eelley. 
We have bad no cases of the infectiona diseases. 

Dictized by Google 



Members of the board : Wm. H. Cluff, Secretary; E. T. Cole- 
mao, Chairman ; Ivor; Bickford. 

Five nuisances were abated. Our town has lieen remarkably fre« 
from coDtagioua diseases daring the past year, not a single case of 
diphtheria, scarlet fever, or typhoid fever havino; been bronght to 
oar notice. Better ventilation and greater cleanliness in school- 
honaes are needed. 


Members of the board: James Lord, Secretary; W. E. Cam- 
minge. Chairman ; Ednin Ellis ; Dr. W. 0. Simmons, Health Officer. 

Of infections diseases we have had only a single case of scarlet 

Members of the board ; J, R. Sparrow, Secretary ; J. H. Brown^ 
Chairman ; J. W. Linnikea. 
No cases of infections diseases have come to our notice. 


Members of the board : H. W. Blake, Secretary ; F. H. Savage, 
Chairman ; Dr. A. H. Stanhope, Health Officer. 

We have had no casesof infectious diseases, except five of typhoid 
fever in one family. 


Members of the board: W. S. Hodgkins, Secretary ; E. H. King, 
Chairman; I. N. Salisbury. 

We have had no infectious diseases. One death from drowning, 
and one lady fell from a team and broke her neck. 


Members of the board : H. M. Brewster, Secretary ; Dr. R. S. 

One noisance was removed. Diphtheria, seven cases, one death ; 
typhoid fever, six cases, two deaths. Measles and pneumonia have 
been unasnally prevalent. 

Dictized by Google 


Members of the board : C. W. Fernalcl, Secretary ; C. VL. Pag«, 
ChairmaD ; Dr. A. M. Purington, Health Officer. 
No iofectious diseases. 


Uembers of the board ; George A. Callaban, Secretary ; Thomas 
Vaughan, ChairmaD. 

Over one hundred DuisaDces were reported, all of which were 
removed. We have bad five cases of diphtheria, sixteen of scarlet 
fever, and twenty-two of typhoid fever. Fonr of the typhoid oases 
were fatal. All of the outbreaks have been confined to the first 
hoDse. Premises have been visited and inspected, entrances have 
been placarded and a disinfection has followed recovery. 

For the improvement of the sanitary condition of the city I would 
recommend an extension of the sewerage system and ordinances to 
compel entrance to the sewers. 

We employ a team regalarly to collect garbage from dweUings and 
stores. When emall-pox prevailed in Canada precautions were 
taken i^;ainBt the importation of the infection, and between two and 
three thousand French Canadians were vaccinated at the expense of 
the city. This report is for the last half of the year, as no record is 
obtainable for the first six months. 


Members of the board : A. D. Hatfleld, Secretary ; E. G. Wey- 
montb, Chairman ; Thomas Maines. 


Members of the board : L. P. Thompson, Secretary ; Dr. J. F. 
Moulton, Chairman ; Dr. G. W. Weeks. 

Two Duisancee have been removed. We have had twenty-foor 
cases of scarlet fever and three of typhoid fever with one death from 
the latter disease. 

Mrs. J. B. died. The premonitopj' symptoms appeared like lead 
poisoning without paralysis. The liver was much enlai^ed, and 
albumen was preeentin the nrine, the result, as the physician thought, 
of chronic lead poison. One other member of the family bad lead 
colic and paralysis a few months previous to the illness of Mrs. B. 

Dictized by Google 


A sample of the driDking water was analyzed by yoar board io 
1890 aod proDoODced charged with lead. 

Membere of the board : Dr. S. W. Br^g, Secretary ; Dr. L. A. 
White, Chalrmaa ; C. A. Sai^ent. 


Members of the board ; Dr. E. F. Browo, Secretary ; Asa 
Pitcher, Chairman ; Thomas Gushee. 

Three unisaDcea were removed. We have had three cases of 
typhoid fever. 


Members of the board : Robert Boyd, Secretary ; G. W. Getchell, 
Chairman ; C. H. Young. 


Members of the board : C. H. Miles, Secretary ; Henry Hackett, 
Chairman ; Josiah Farnsworth ; Dr. A. W. Potter, Health Officer;. 

Twenty-five nniaances were abated. We have had sis cases of 
typhoid fever, two of which were fatal. Pneumonia and the 
diarrhoeal diseases were prevalent. Unhe&tthful localities exist at 
Lisbon Falls for want of drainage. A good system of sewerage is 
needed. Six cases of tubercnlosis among cattle occnried. Precau- 
tions were taken by the local board against the importation of small- 
pox from Canada. 


Members of the board : G. Roberts, Secretary ; Dr. Enoch 
Adams, Chairman ; Thomas Holmes. 

We have had one case each of diphtheria and typhoid fever. An 
examination of the scbool-house in district number one was made. 
It was found unsafe for school purposes and we so reported to the 
snpervisor of schools, resulting in the erection of a new school- 
house in a healthful location. 

Membere of the board : H. A. Hall, Secretary ; G. C. Haywaid, 
Chairman ; L. F. Hall. 

Dictized by Google 


We have h&d one caee of diphtheria. There has been quite a 
prevalence of whooping coagb and pneumonia. One death resulted 
from an accident — falling from a team. 


Members of the board : I. T. Munroe, Secretary ; R. B. Brad* 
ford. Chairman ; A. G. Timberlake. 

We had two cases of typhoid fever. Pueomonia was prevalent in 
the spring. > 


Members of the board: C. P. Hubbard, Secretary; J. K. P. 
Vance, Chairman; H. W, Dnrgin. 

Members of the board: Jed. Varney, Secretary; L. B. Edge- 
comb, Chairman; M. O'Halloran. 


Members of the board : James B. Nettle, Secretary ; I. W. Ham* 
iltOD, Chairman ; Robert J. Peacock. 

No cases of infectious diseases except a few of measles and some 
of "scarlet rash." 


Members of the board: A. J. Blanchard, Secretary; Dr. E. 
Hurd, Chairman; A. F. Roberts. 

Two nuisances were removed. We have bad no cases of infec- 
tious diseases except some of German measles, one of which came 
near ending fatally. 


Members of the board: T. W. Travis, Secretary; E. Small^ 
Chairman ; R. P- Stewart. 


Members of the board: Arthur Daigle, Secretary; Michael 
Martin, Chairman ; Lament Fournier. 

No cases of infectious diseases have been reported. 

Members of the board : C. W. Dyer, Secretary ; Dr. C. D. Mor- 
rill, Chairman and Health Officer; J. F. Chadbonme. 



Tbe villi^ corporation has put in a system of water-works. 
Four DuiBBDces were reported, all of which were removed promptly. 
We have had oue case of scarlet fever ; five of typhoid fever ; and 
measles has been prevaleot. The board visited the houses od Madi- 
son street in the villi^e, examined tbe sources of water supply, and 
sent samples from wells for aDftlysis. 


Members of the board : L. P. Rowe, Secretary ; Beaben Sar- 
gent, Chairman ; Charles E. Mooers. 

We bad two cases of typhoid fever, caused, in our opinion, by an 
old well into which tbe sink diaiu emptied. 

Members of the board: G. M. Knowles, Secretary; W. R. 
Merrill, Chairman ; J. T. Collins. 
We have had no infectious diseases. 

Members of the board : J. C. Chandler, Secretary ; L. W. 
Huges, Chairman ; James McAlpine. 

Six nuisances were removed. We had one case of typhoid fever. 

Members of the board ; B. L. Smith, Secretary ; Joseph Thomp- 
son, Chairman ; Charles W. Bridges. 
No infectjons diseases have been present. 

Members of the board: J. W. Foss, Secretary; Wm. Kilton, 
Chairman ; Thomas Berry. 

We had one case of scarlet fever. 

Mabs Hill. 

Members of the board: F. L. Keay, SecreUry; Dr. J. H. 
Syphers, Chairman and Health Officer ; B. F. Pierce. 

We have had two cases of scarlet fever, and six of typhoid fever, 
two of the latter ending fatally. Whooping cough was prevalent. 

Members of the board : F. W. E. Gois, Secretary ; Eben Traf- 
ton, Chairman ; S. W. Clark. 

Dictized by Google 


A pupil in the pablic acbool bad scarlet fever and was excluded 
fi-om school. 


Members or tbe board : F.J. Bean, Secretary; H. G-. Mason, 
Cbairman; H. Hutchinson. 

No infectious diseaBes. 


Members of the board : F. W. Roberts, Secretary ; E. P. Boober ; 
H. J. Sawder. 


Members of tbe board; F. J. Fiske, Secretary; Alexander 
McClain, Cbairman ; G. F. Stratton. 

No cases of diphtheria, scarlet fever, or typhoid fever during tbe 


Members of the board : James Wiley, Secretary ; Greorge Emery, 
Ohairtnan; B.G.DeWitt. 

Except frbooping cough which caused the death of two Infants, 
there bare been do infections diseases. 


Members of tbe board : J. S. Bridges, Secretary ; C. L. Hatte, 
Chairman ; A. J. Allen. 

We have bad no infectious diseases, and there have been no 
deaths within the year. I have made it a point to look after the 
drainage, outhouses, and soarces of water supply. Tbe people of 
this town are much interested in the health of tbe town and cheerfully 
comply with all requests. 


Members of the board; S. O. Dinsmore, Secretary; D. A. 
Hatborn, Chairman ; R. F. Littlefield. 

Tbe inhabitants of our town have not been troubled with diseases 
of any epidemic or contagious nature daring tbe past year. 

Members of tbe board: S. Pomroy, Secretary; N. C. Powers, 
Chairman ; Charles Moors. 

Dictized by Google 


One Ddisaiice iraa removed. Tbere bare been no contagious dis- 

Members of the board : Dr. V. R. FerktDs, Secretary and Health 
Officer; I. S. Ford, Chairman ; A. V. Pattee. 


Members of the board : B. W. Park, Secretary ; L. H. Harlov, 
Chairman ; H. G. Virgin. 

One nuisance removed. We have l>een exempt from any Berioua 
trouble from any source. 


Members of the board : Dr. Geo. Got^ns, Secretary ; Dr. Geo. 
A. Sawyer, Chairman ; Wilson M. Dyer. 

Quite an extended and expensive Kork of drainage lias been done. 
A dozen oi more naisances were removed. We had eight cases of 
diphtheria with one death. Measles prevailed in the summer. One 
death occurred from drowning. Still more work on drainage is 
needed and improvements shoald be made in water supply. 


Members of the board; M. W. Sawyer, Secretary; M. A. 
Austin, Chairman ; Charles Mills. 

One Duisance was removed. We have had one case of typhoid 
fever. Better sewerage is needed. 


Members of the board : Dr. C. M. Cobb, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; P. R. Cobb, Chairman ; Dr. C. H. Tobic. 

Eight nniaanc«B were removed. There have been eight cases of 
typhoid fever with two deaths. Measles and pneumonia were 
unusually prevalent. Better drainage is needed. 


Members of the board: J. J. Sewall, Secretary; Freeman 
Atwood; E. H. Nealley. 

Dictized by Google 


Members of the board : D. J. Jackson, Secretary ; L. P. Bray, 
Cbairroan ; John A. Larson ; Dr. A. H. Harding, Health Officer. 
Six cases of typhoid fever with oae deatb. 


Members of the board : G. W. Lowell, Secretary ; O. A. Stan- 
ley, Chairman ; Dr. E. W. Boyer, Health Officer. 

One nuisance was removed. Diphtheria, flye cases with two 
deaths ; typhoid fever, three cases, with no deaths. The diarrhoeal 
diseases of children were quite prevalent in the BUmmer. 


Members of the board ; D. O. Bowen, Secretary ; J. R. Mears, 
Chairman ; J. W. Pearson. 

We have had no infectious diseases. One man was killed by a 
tree falling upon him. 


Members of (he board : Albert Burke, Secretary ; C. M. HiIIh 
Cbairman ; Thomas Emerton. 

One nuisance was removed. No coutf^ous disease the past year. 
No deaths, save one from consumption. Some families are suffering 
from the poor water supply. Until a change is made for the better, 
they will continue to suffer. 

Mt. Chase. 

Members of the board : E. A. Cooper, Secretary ; John Sargent, 
Chairman ; Willis Myrick. 

Mt. Vbrnon. 

Members of the board: Dr. H. F. Shaw, Secretary; R. F. 
Fletcher, Chairman ; J. A. Robinson. 

We have had one case each of scarlet fever and typhoid fever. 
Jaundice was unusually prevalent. 

Members of the board : P. O. Cannell, Secretary ; G. W. Hall, 
Chairman ; Eugene Tenney. 

Dictized by Google 


More attentioD has been given than usual to drainage and sew- 
«rsge. Two naisances were removed. We have had no infectious 
•diseases except whooping cough. Pneamonia has been unnsually 


Members of the board : D. S. Glidden, Secretary ; J. M. Glid- 
den, Chairman ; S. D. Wymau. 

We have bad some cases of scarlet fever, and one case of typhoid 
fever. In one case scarlet fever entered the school. The school 
was immediately closed and not reopened until the recovery of the 
patient and until the school-bouse bad been properly cleansed and 

Members of the board : Dr. I. M. Trafton, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; C. L. Wentworth, Chairman ; Amos Carlton. 
No cases of infections diseases. 


Members of the board : Dr. J. I. Sturgis, Secretary ; W. H. 
Tme, Chairman; M. C. Clark. 

One case ol diphtheria, one of scarlet fever and five of typhoid . 
fever. No deaths from these diseases. Measles was uunsually 
prevalent. One death from drowning. 


Members of the board : F. M. Shaw, Secretary ; R. H. Libby, 
Chairman; Dr. A, I, Harvey. 

One doubtful case of typhoid fever was reported. Measles and 
whooping oougb have been among us. 

New Fobtlamd. 

Members of the board : Dr. W. H. Stevens, Secretary; Dr. S. 
A. Bennett, Chairman ; Abel Thompson. 

Two nuisances were removed. Four cases of tyi>hoid fever with 
two deaths. Whooping cough was prevalent. Better drainage is 
needed in the villages [and greater care of privies and sink slops 
would be a good thing. 

Dictized by Google 


New Shakom. 

Members of tbe bosTd ; D. R. HorgrsTes, Secretuy ; E. W, 
YoQng, Chairman ; J. B. Jewell. 

Diphtheria, two cases; tjphoid fever, four eases. In cases of 
this kind the places are visited or the facta as to the sanitary condi- 
tion of the premises are learned b; a consultation with the attendin);; 
physician. One elderly lady lost her life by her clothes ti^ng fire. 


Members of the board: J. M. Winslow. Secretary; W. H, 
Moody, Chairman; Albert Cunningham; Dr. W. H. Parsons, 
Health Officer. 

Two nuisances were removed. In our outbreak of scarlet fever 
sixteen cases occurred with one death. The disease entered one of 
the schools. The school was closed, infected books were destroyed 
by burning, and the school-house was cleansed. 


Members of the board : Dr. P. S. Lindsey, Secretary ; A. 0. 
Frederic, Chairman ; Henry Murphy. 

Mnmps prevailed in our schools. Otherwise no Infectious diseases 
have been reported. 

North FIELD. 

Members of the board : E. M. Smith, Secretary ; Frank Smith, 
Chairman ; Jamee McReavey ; Dr. H. H. Smith, Health Officer. 

Otherwise than one fatal case of tvphoid fever, no infectious dis- 
eases have been reported. 

North Haven. 

Members of the board : Dr. J. A. Jordan, Secretary ; Jewett 
Turner, Chairman; B. B. Qulnn. 

We have had no infectious diseases except whooping cough. 


Members of the lioard : M. C. Hill, Secretary ; J. R. Hard, 
Chairman ; F. A. Bhoades. 

A great improvement has been made by bringing water to the 
camp gronnd from a spring a mile and a half distant. The source 

Dictized by Google 


of the Buppl; is above all buildiogs, and tbe water is very pure and 
soft. We have had no infections diseases save one case of scarlet 
fever with which the board took prompt actiOD. 


Uembers of the 1x>ard ; S. H. Sweetsi-, Seoretar; ; A. Hitcbell, 
Chairman ; Dr. Wm. Osgood, Health Officer. 


Members of the board : Dr. F. N. Barker, Secretary ; Dr. B. 
F. Bradbnry, Chairman ; E. W. Brown. 

Three nnisances were removed. We had fifteen cases of scarlet 
fever, none of which were fatal, and ten cases of typhoid fever with 
four deaths. Unhealthfulness of the village resnlts from bad drain- 
age and low land. 


Members of the board : H. W. Wells, Secretary ; G. W. Hub- 
bard, Chairman ; Dr. M. S. Holmes, Health Officer. 

We have had one case of scarlet fever. Measles was epidemic 
in the latter part ol the year. 

Old Obcbabd. 

Members of the board : F. <t. Staples, Secretary ; Dr. A. W. 
Dinsmore, Chairman; G. W. Butler. 

Twelve nuisances have been reported, seven ofwhich were removed. 
We had no cases of diphtheria, scarlet fever or typhoid fever. 

One case of drowning occurred. We have obliged every person 
whose premises have been in an nnhealthfnl condition to clean them 
at oDce. 

Old Town. 

Members of the board : Dr. A. W. Bowe, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; A. Rigby, Chairman ; H. M. Dickey. 

We have introduced a public water supply from the river and 
sewers have been canstructed in a portion of the city. Fifteen 
naisaiices were brought to the notice of the board, thirteen of which 
it was practicable to abate. The heallhfulnesa of the city would be 
better if it were not for poor drainage, old dilapidated tenement 
boases with foul cellars, cesspoolsi and over-crowded tenements. 

Dictized by Google 


We have had fifteen cases or scarlet fever with no deaths and 
twenty cases of typhoid fever with four deaths. The diarrhoeal 
diseases of children were quite prevalent. 


Members of the board : W. H. Decker, Secretary ; Daniel 
Maxell, Chairman ; Joel Fanlkner. 

We have had no iDfectiooB diseases. There is one thing that is 
neglected and that is the school room. I woald snggest having 
school rooms washed and scrabbed once a week, particularly when 
the weather is hot and dry. 

Members of the board : R. P. Harriman, Secretary ; Henry 
Partridge ; Dr. Frank P. Ferry, Health Officer. 
No cases of infections diseases have been reported. 


Memliers of the board : M. W. Morgan, Secretary ; Charles 
Boxie, Chairman ; F. W. Canney. 


Members of the board : W. C. Taylor, Secretary ; Dr. J. H. 
Knox, Chairman and Health Officer; C. P. Crowell 

Of six nuisances, all but one were removed. We had twenty 
cases of typhoid fever with four deaths. About all the cases of 
typhoid fever were on low damp ground near the river. 

Members of the board: G. B. Tibbetts, Secretary; A. N. 
Lufkin, Chairman; J. D. Hinds. 


Members of the board : J. R. Graat, Secretary ; Luther G-arland, 
Chairman ; C. E. Fogg. 

We have had three cases of typhoid fever, all of which recovered. 
There has not been a death in town the past year. 

Dictized by Google 



Members of the board : F. J. Sawyer, Secretary ; D. L. Brett, 
Chairman ; Otie Mitchell. 

We have no iDfectious diseases except whooping cougb. 

Membere o( tbe board : G. A. Poor, Secretary ; S. D. Edwards, 
Chairman; Dr. Wm. Haakell. 


Members of the board : C. M. Jewett, Secretary ; N. B. Doag* 
lasa, Chairman ; J. B. Chase. 

Two nuiaances were reported to the board, both of which were 
removed. We have had two cases of scarlet fever and two of 
typhoid, all of which ended in recovery. As reported by the 
physician, the cases of typhoid were tbe result of drinking impure 
water while in adjoining towns. Contagious diseases are promptly 
l(X)ked after. A yoke of oxen were found to have tuberculosis and 
were killed in accordance with the order of the State Cattle Com- 
missioner, Dr. Bailey. 


Members of the board : Dr. F. H. Packard, Secretary; Dr. I. 
Bounds, Chairman ; J. S. Wright. 

Of fonr nuisances, all were partly or wholly removed. Tbe worst 
nuisances are wooden sink spouts connecting second story tenements 
with the gronnd. I hav^ good reason to ascribe two outbreaks of 
typhoid fever directly to them. We have had two cases of scarlet; 
fever, both recovering, and ten cases of typhoid fever with four 

Two cases of dysentery with vomiting, in an aged couple were 
caused by bad water in a well too close to the barn-yard 

A young man aged eighteen was boarding in a family while a 
member was sick with typhoid fever. He came down with the fever 
and was taken to his home four miles away. It proved to be a 
very severe type of fever. He died the eleventh or twelfth day. 
Diorrhcea and active delirium set in very soon with high temperatnre 
and extreme restlessness. Two of tbe neighbors who came in to 
see him a few times the last two days of his sickness had the fever, 

Dictized by Google 


one dying. His brother who came home the last two days he lived 
also had the fever and ditd Hia grandmother, aged eightf-ooe, 
took the fever and died, although she had had this disease once 
before. One sister, aged sixteen, also had the fever, barely living. 
This case ran fifty days, vomiting more or less ihe whole time, and 
for one weeh after, she was auataiaed almost altogether byenemata. 
In regard to these cases I will say that I see no way of explaining 
them other than by contagion. The five cases enumerated came 
down about the same time, — a few dsys after the death of the Grat 
one. There were no bad conditions of bnildings or anything else to 
account for them. The discharges were carried away some six or 
eight rods and emptied into a hole in the ground and fresh loam 
thrown in each time. The bedpan was scalded with boiling water, 
then corrosive sublimate was used in it, 1 to 1,000. All bed clothes 
were removed at once if soiled. Carbolic acid was sprinkled aronnd 
the room often. My opinion is that the fevers vrere contracted from 
gas which escaped in large qnantitiee the last two days the first 
patient lived and was very ofl^ensive. 

Memtiers of the board: E. W. Wentworth, Secretary; J. P. 
Burbanh, Chairman ; John F. Bidlon. 
No cases of infections diseases reported. 

Members of the board : P. F. Haynes, Secretary ; J. W. Dennis, 
Chairman ; J. G. Clark. 
We have had one case of typhoid fever. 


Members of the board: Dr. J, C. Rogers, Secretary; C. W, 
Hersey, Chairman; E. K. Smart. 

We have had five cases of diphtheria, twenty-one of scarlet fever, 
and one of typhoid fever. No deaths occurred from these infectious 
diseases, except one of scarlet fever. 

Members of the board : D. E. A. Spragoe, Secretary and Health 
Officer; John Littlefield, Chairman ; J. B. Snowman. 

Dictized by Google 


We hftve had two Doa^ratal case? of typhoid fever, and whooping 
cough was needlessly introduced into a school at a bad season of the 
year. — fall aod winter. 

Fere INS. 
Members of the board : W. A. Lewis, Secretary ; T. A. Hinck- 
ley. Chairman ; W. F. Reed. 

No infectious diseases during the year. 


Members of the board : G. P. Bicker, Secretary; F. L. Glove, 
Chairman ; J. B Nutt. 


Members of the board : A. B. Walker, Secretary; A. E. Eiat- 
mau. Chairman; S. F. Kobinson. 

One nuisance was removed. lu one hoose we had two cases of 
scarlet fever which recovered. Cases of this kind are attended to 
at once. 

Members of the board: B. E. Pratt, Secretary; E. M. Robin' 
son. Chairman ; Dr. C. L. Toothaker. 

Two nuisances were removed. We have had two cases of typhoid 


Members of the board : Dr. T. M. Griffin, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; D. li. Parks, Chairman ; Benjamin Thompson. 

Further work was done in the construction ol sewers. Three 
nuisances were reported, all of which were removed. We have bad 
two cases of diphtheria, four of scarlet fever, and five of typhoid 
fever with one death from typhoid lever. Prompt action is taken 
with diseases of this kind to prevent their spreading. One man was 
killed by a train. 


Members of the board: Dr. W. H. Merrill, Secretary and 
Health Officer ; S. P. Giflford, Chairman ; John Longley. 

We have bad two cases of diphtheria and four of typhoid fever, 
all of which recovered. Measles waa imported from Boston. 

Dictized by Google 


Members of the board: Dr. E. F. Bradford, Secretar;; S. L. 
Littlefield, Cbairmaa ; B. U. Fernald. 


Members of the board : Geo. C. Burgess, Secretary ; Dr. Charles 
D. SmitL, Chairman ; Dr. A. K. P. Mcserve. 

During the year 4,654 feet of new sewers were built, excluaiT& 
of drains f^om stagnaat pools of water, etc. We have had thirty- 
two cases of diphtheria with eight deaths, sixty-ODe cases of scarlet 
fever with one death, and one hundred and s'x cases of typhoid fever 
with twelve deaths. Oar management of infectiouB diseases is tbe 
same as formerly. Cases of scarlet fever and diphtheria arc pla- 
carded, families are supplied with the circulars of the State Board, 
schools and the public library are notified, and if it is desired or 
becomes necessary we furnish a man to disinfect tbe premises. 

Seventeen deaths resulted from accidental causes. At the recom- 
mendation of the board, the city council ordered the construction of 
an isolation ward, now neaily completed, for the reception of con- 
tf^ous diseases. The following is an abstract from the report of 
our health inspector : 

No. of formal complaints to Secretary or Inspector 290 

No. ol vaults found iu bad condition 667 

No. of overflowing vaults 7 

No. of overflowing cesspools 7 

No. of cellars in bad condition ... 374 

No. of water-closets inspected 754 

No. found in good condition 577 

No. found in bad condition 177 

No. of swine ordered removed 17 

No. of vaults built ; no sewer in street 

No. of water-closets ordered built 143 

No. of bad sink drains, rubbish heaps, filth, etc., ordered fixed 

or removed 564 

No. of sinks (onnd without traps 104 

No. of visits made on account of contagions diseases 225 

No. of vaults found in good condition 118 

No. of cellars found in good condition 229 

No.- of sink drains fonnd in good condition £05 

Dictized by Google 


No. of jards foand in good condition 43 

No. of visits made, nDCltLSsified, chiefly to see that orders are 
carried ont or to find parties of whose premieeB complaint is 

made 1,17? 

Ths following rules and regalations relating to quarantine inspec- 
tion were adopted by the board November 28, 1891, and approved 
by Tbos. H. Haskell, justice of the Supreme Judicial Court, Decem- 
ber i, 1891 : 

I. All vessels arriving at this port with plagae, cholera, small- 
pox, yellow fever, typbns fever or other contagions disease on 
board, or having had the same during the voyage must be directed 
by the pilot or harbor master to aochor on quarantine ground and 
remain there until released by written order of the Board. 

II. Any vessel arriving from a foreign port, with or without 
sickness od board, and not having a clean bill of health from con- 
sular officer at port of clearance, will be directed by the pilot or 
harbor master to anchor at quarantine and remun nntil released by 
written otdkr of the Board. 

III. All vessels or steamships arriving fVom European or Asiatic 
ports will be compelled to anchor at quarantine and remain there 
until inspected nnder direction of, and released by written order of 
the board ; unless special permission shall be given in writing to 
allow any such vessel to come to its wharf for inspection there, in 
which case no person shall enter or leave the vessel until permitted 
by written order of the Board. 

IV. Inspection will he made promptly as scx>n as notice of 
arrival shall be received, but only during the hours of daylight, or 
from 8 A. M. to 6 P. M.,and the charges shall be as follows, to wit: 

For each sailing vessel, five dollars t5 00 

For each steamship carrying Treigbt only, ten dollars 10 00 

For each steamship carrying passengers, fifteen dollars 15 00 

In all cases the quarantine officer making the inspection shall 
collect the charges made against any veeeel either in currency or 
captain's draft on consignee, and account for the same to the Board. 


Members of the board: Dr. S. A. Vosmua, Secretary; I. S. 
Brown, Chairman ; H. B. Brown. 

We had one case of diphtheria ending in recovery. 

Dictized by Google 


Fkesque Isle. 

Members of the board : Dr. F. Kilburc, Secretsr; ; Dr. G. H. 
Freeman, Chairman; G. F. Daggett. 

Tbree nuisauces were remored. We had thirty-one cases of 
scarlet fever and twenty-nine o( typhoid fever with five deaths frem 
the latter disease. The epidemic of scarlet fever was in a very mild 
form. Dysentery was quite prevalent. All the typhoid cases were 
apparently caused by bad water. With two or three exceptions they 
all used well water. One death resulted from traumatic tetanus. 


Members of tbe board: Dr. S. G. Spooner, Secretary ; W. E. 
Gardner, Chairman ; H. F. Smith. 

Une nuisance was removed. Otherwise than an epidemic of 
scarlet fever the year has been one of unnsnal health among as. 
Sixty-two cases of scarlet fever are known to the board and it is 
likely that there were other cases unreported. The difease was in 
a very light form generally, yet five deaths resulted from it. We 
have always taken measures to stop the spread of contagious disease, 
but in this epidemic it seemed to develop in different families and in 
different parts of the town all at once. 


Members of the board : O. B. Gray, Secretary ; George Avery, 
Chairman i G. W.Crockett. 

We have had three cases of scarlet fever and one fatal case of 
typhoid fever. 


Members of the board : B. A. Cox, Secretary ; G. P. H. Jewett, 
Chairman ; H. S. Winslow. 

Three nuisances were removed. We have had two cases of 
typhoid fever in connection with which we visited the premises, left 
the circulars, and advised as to the disinfection of the excreta. 
There have been a few cases of measles. In September we bad one 
fatal case of cerebro-spinal meningitis. The building of sewers is 
needed to improve the sanitary condition of the village. 

CMembers of the board : Dr. Q. A. Bridges, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; John Herrick, Chairman; S. A. Ross. 



Odb nuiB&nce was removed. We bad one case of diphtheria. 
Mra. E. B., in filling a lamp, spilled qaite a quantity of the oil on 
her drees without noticiog it at first. Wh«D ehe got tbroagh, see- 
ing the oil on her clothing, see undertook to dry it b; the fire. The 
result was her clothing caught fire aud she was fatally burned. 

Members of the board : H. M. Cash, Secretary ; L. W. "Welch, 
Chairman ; Alfred Wilson. 


Members of the board : A. G. Farrar, Secretary ; A. R. Duulap, 
Chairman ; Wm. Hoyt. 

We have bad one case of diphtheria, six of scarlet fever, and one 
of typhoid fever. 


Members of the board : F. N. Leach, Secretary ; Alonzo Smith, 
Chairman ; N. E. Campbell. 

We have had two cases of diphtheria with one death, and two 
cases of scarlet fever. 


Members of the board : Dr. H. E. Abbott, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; Elliot Orbeton, Churman ; C. A. Sylvester. 

Five nuisances were reported. We have had thirty cases of 
scarlet fever and six of typhoid fever with one death from each of 
these diseases. A good system of sewen^e is needed in the village. 


Members of the board : L. G. Martin, Secretary ; G. S. Tibbetts, 
Cbaiimcin ; J. E. Farnham. 

One nuisance was removed. No cases of contagious diseases 
have been reported to the board the past year. 


Memters of tbe board : A. W. Robbius, Secretary ; S. M. Locke, 
Chairman; John Beed. 

We have had no contagious diseases of any kind during tbe year. 

Dictized by Google 


Members of tbe board: Dr. J. D. Cochrane, Secretary; Dr. 
W.. T. Goodale, Chairman ; Dr. L. D. Dennett. 


liembers of tbe board : G-. W. Harris, Secretary ; A. H . Ferry, 
Chairman ; George Willie. 

We have had one case of typhoid fever. Olherwiee no Infectiona 


Members of tbe board : George E. Allen, Secretary ; A. B. San- 
born. Chairman ; H. T. Bennett ; Dr. J. H. Neal, Health Officer. 

Our water snpply has been increased, but otherwise no changea 
except in isolated cases. Five nnisancee were removed. Diphtheria,, 
one, scarlet fever, four, typhoid fever, twenty-five cases. One death 
resnlted from typhoid fever. One death occnrred from drowning. 
A good system of drainage is needed. 


Members of the Iward : H. C. Ford, Secretary ; C. F. Dearth, 
Chairman; M. J. Jewett. 

Six nntsancee were reported, all of which were removed. There 
baa been one case of diphtheria, and one of scarlet fever. In con- 
nection with these the houses were placarded, tbe families kept by 
themselves as much as possible, and at tbe proper time tbe houses 
were disinfected. Whooping cough, mnmps, and tbe diarrbceal 
diseases of children were prevalent. 


Members of ibe board: Dr. A. S. Sawyer, Secretary; M, I. 
Milliken, Chairman ; Geo. H. Merrill. 

One case'of scar'et fever, in connection with which tbe patient 
waa isolated, tbe house was quarantined, and disinfection was car- 
ried out as recommended by the State Board. Measles and whoop * 
. ing cough in a mild form prevailed. Children afFected with these 
diseases were excluded from school. 

Membersofthe board; Dr. A. Millett, Secretary ; 0. D. Witsoiir 
Cbairman; A. G. Caswell. 

Dictized by Google 


One DniBancw was removed. We have bad one case of scarlet 
fever which was iaolated, the house was placarded, the discharges 
were baried, and dieinfeetioa was carried out. 


Members of the board : B. O. Sargent, Secretary ; Dr. E. H. 
Doi^io, Chairman; £. B. Sheldon. 

The sewer has been extended from Main street to the sea, a dis- 
tance of sboDt thirty rods. In the more thinly settled parts of the 
town, six cases of typhoid fever occurred. 


Membere'of the board: M. L. Elwell, Secretary; Dr. R. £. 
Hagertby, Chairman and Health Officer ; J. W. Penney. 

One nuisance was removed. It has been a year of unusual free- 
dom from contagious diseases ; there have been no cases except a 
few of measles. 


Members of the board : Dr. E. L. Thompson, Secretary ; Thomas 
Fugsley, Chairman ; F. A. Bragdon. 

Three naisances all of which were removed. Seven cases of 
diphtheria, and two of typhoid fever, but no deaths from these. 
Measles has prevailed. 


Members of tne board ; L. C. Caldwell, Secretary ; Dr. D. H. 
Owen, Chairman ; Gr. W. Durgin. 

We have had one case of scarlet fever and three of typhoid fever. 
In outbreaks of these diseases we take immediate measures to stamp 
it out. Since the oi^anization of the local board I think there has 
been a great improvement in the town from a sanitary point of view. 
Individuals take more pains with their premises and the people 
generally heartily sustain the action of the board in their efforts to 
improve the health of the town. 


Members of the board : Henry Blackstone, Secretary ; Joseph 
D^nnen; Chairman; A. T. Mitchell. 


Members of the board : Dr. Daniel Driscoll, Secretary and 
Health OfScer ; Charles Goodhue, Chairman ; J. H. Bean. 

Dictized by Google 


One nuisance was reoovecl. We have hod two cases of diphlberia 
aod nine of typhoid fevei. In these cases an inreatigation is made 
to see if proper care is taken to limit its spread. All of the oases of 
typhoid fever were referable to drinking water of poor quality. 


Members of the board : George Cushing, .Secretary ; S. A. Bick- 
ford, Chairman : W. H. Wildes ; Dr. J. N. Merrill, Health Officer. 

Section 9 of the by-laws of the board of health is as follows ; 

"9. It shall be the duty of the health ofllcer to miike & tonr of 
inspection annually, during the months of May and August, ot all 
the streets, vacant lots and premises within the corporation, where 
filth and mbbisb are allowed to accumulate, and shall exercise the 
power conferred upon the Board of Health, to order the suppression 
and removal of nuisances and conditions detrimental to life and 
health found to exist within the jurisdiction of this board." 

[The following is quoted from printed report of the health officer. 
A. G. Y.] 

"With but two or three notable exceptions every eSoit of the 
health officer to improve the sanitary condition of the town, was 
favorably met by every one fonnd suffering from unsanitary sur- 
roundings, and the inetruciione of the health officer for the removal 
oi unsanitary conditions, were more fully and cheerfully carried out 
than was expected when he commenced this disagreeable tour of 

"With ihe exception of the places reported for immediate attention, 
yonr health officer selected those streets and localities, known to be 
in an unsanitary condition, and where typhoid fever, bowel com- 
plaints, scarlet fever and diphtheria have largely prevailed in years 
past, and made an inspection from bouse to house, keeping a mem- 
orandum of the number of typhoid cases, scarlet fever and diphtheria 
that had occurred during the two years previous, also a memorandum 
of the distance of the sink drain or cesspool, privy, pig pen and 
stable from the well. Several samples of well and spring water 
were taken to the Secretary of State Board of Health for analysis. 
Some of the well water being reported by Secretary State Board as 
seriously polluted, and unfit for use, or in the language of the report, 
Dr. Young saj's : 'The large excess of organic ammonia and the 
very large excess of iree ammonia, together with the excess of 

Dictized by Google 


nitiatesi indicate a serious pottution. This water ought doI to be 
nsed for drlDking.' 

*'DuriDg the past seaBon there have been reported bat six cases of 
typhoid fever in the town, two of which were contracted by persous 
working out of town and coming home sick. 

"Early in the winter scarlet fever broke out in a family on Bloom- 
field street. No physician being called in, its existence did not 
come to the notice of the board of health, until it had extended to 
two other families near by who were taking milk from the house 
where the fever first made its appearance. A strict quarantining 
of the persons infected, and their exclusion from the schools for a 
proper length of time, prevented a further spread of the disease. 
There were six cases reported in the two families that contracted 
the disease from the first where there were five cases and where it 
could have been confined had it been reported in season. There 
have been no cases of diphtheria reported." 


Members of the board: W. J, Hay nes, Secretary ; I. W. Varney, 
Chairman ; C. N. Simonds. 

We have had do cases of oontagious diseases except occasionally 
ft case of measles or mnmps. 

Members of the board : Dr. S. F. Greene, Secretary and Healdi 
Officer ; Stephen Merrill, Chairman ; Jotham Whipple. 
We had one case of diphtheria. 

SoirrH Berwick. 

Members of the board: G. F. Clough, Secretary; Dr. G. D. 
Emerson, Chairman ; T. J. Goodwin. 

Twenty-two nuisances were removed. We have had four cases of 
diphtheria and eight of typhoid fever. The building of sewers is 
needed for the improvement of the health conditions of the town. 


Members of the board: Albert McEown, Chairman; Stephen 

We had two cases of typhoid fever. 

Dictized by Google 


South Thouastom. 

Members of the board : Dr. George C. Hora, Secretary ; Lewis 
A. Arey, Chftirman ; Lewie Graves. 

We have bad two cases of scarlet fever and a case of typhoid 
fever with one death from the latter disease. Whooping cough was 
in the town. 


Members of the board : Dr. P. H. Jones, Secretary and Health 
Officer; E. C. Ryder, Chairman; C. R. Brown. 

We had one fatal case of typhoid fever and several cases of 
measles and chicken pox. The case of typhoid fever was contracted 
away from home apparently. 


Members of the board; M, S. Spear, Secretary; Dr. W. S. 
Thompson, Chairman ; C. D. W. Shaw. 

Members of the board : Thomas Buswell, Secretary ; J. F. 
Frederick, Chairman; C. L. Holbrook. 

One nnisance was removed. We had one case of typhoid fever. 


Members of the board: B. W. Stevens, Secretary; G. W. 
Moore, Chairman; M. S. Smith; Dr. S. B. Overlock, Health 

We have had one ease of diphtheria and two of typhoid fever. 
One of the typhoid cases ended fatally. 

St. Albaks. 

Members ol the board : Dr. C. A. Moulton, Secretary and 
Health Officer ; N. H. Vining, Chairman ; N. B. Turner. 

One nuisance was removed. Two cases of scarlet fever and two 
of cerebro-spinal meningitis. A better construction and manage- 
ment of privies is needed in the interest of the health of the town. 

St. Georoe. 
Members of the board : Dr. Albert Woodside, Secretary ; H. F. 
Kellocb, Chairman ; W. H. Matthews. 

Dictized by Google 

bbpobth of local boabds. 73 

Stockton Sprikos. 
Hembere of ihe board : Dr. 6. A. Stevena, Secretary ; J. F. 
Hicbboro, Cbairmaa ; Samuel French. 

We had one case of scarlet fever ia which isolation and diBinfeo- 
tion were cartf for. 

Members of the board : C. W. Day, Secretary ; 0. P. Charles, 
Chairman ; 0. R. Barrows. 

We have bad no infectious diaeasee. 


Members of the board : Dr. F. W. Bridgbam, Secretary and 
Health Officer j M. H. Hawkins, Chairman ; M. E. Rideout. 

Our water supply is fh>ro wells and springs. Some springs have 
been cleaned out, badly situated wells have been filled up, and 
privies bave been improved under tbe instructions of the local board 
of health. Three nuisances have been removed. Dipbtlwria, one 
case ; scarlet fever, seven cases ; and typhoid fever, four cases. 


Members of the board: Sharon Robinaoa, Secretary; L. H. 
Bisbee, Chairman ; Dr. C. M. Bisbee, Heallb Officer. 

We have had fonr cases of scarlet fever, all in one family. Veiy 
few young people bave died. 


Members of the board : H. J. Miltiken, Secretary ; J. A. MilU- 
ken. Chairman ; D. G. Meanse. 
We have had three cases of typhoid fever, one of which was fatal. 


Members of the board : Z. L. Downs, Secretary ; C. M. Marden, 
Chairman ; I. B. Seekins. 

We had three cases of scarlet fever, and two fatal cases ot typhoid 
fever. All cases of this kind are attended to at once by the board. 
The boohs that had been need by one infectious scholar were burned. 

Members of the board: Wm. H. Gordon, Secretary; Nelson 
Mclntire, Chairman ; R. O. Maxwell. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


We had ooe case of typhoid fever aod there were two cases of 
measles in a light form. 


Members of the board : S. E. Norton, Secretary ; L. H. Farmer, 
Chairman ; Victor B. Hamlen. # 

One nnisance was removed. We have had no cases of the infec- 
tious diseases, but influenza and pneumonia were very fatal. The; 
caused the death of seven persons. 


Members of the board: Dr. H. C. Levensaler, Secretary and 
Health Officer ; J. H. H. Hewett, Chairman ; J. E. Walker. 

We have had four cases of scarlet fever, and five of typhoid fev«r 
with one death from each disease. The scarlet fever cases have 
been placarded and the sanitary rules of the State Board of Heaitb- 
have been carried ont in connection with all the cases of oonti^ioas 
diseases. The establishment of a system of sewerage is greatly 
needed. The survey and a plan for it has been made by a civil< 


Members of the board : O. H. Taylor, Secretary ; H. K. Mal- 
lory. Chairman ; H. C. Pineo. 

We have bad do cases of the contagious diseases. 


Members of the board: J. C. Purington, Secretary; R. F. 
Whitney, Chairman ; D. S. Colby. 

Four nuisances were reported, three of which were removed. 
We have had two cases each of scarlet fever and typhoid lever that 
have received prompt attention from the board. Measles and 
whooping cough have been prevalent. 


Members of the board : Dr. W. A. Spear, Secretary ; J, T.. 
Clark, Chairman ; J. H. Gilley. 

Two nuisances were abated by the board : No case of infections 
disease has come to the notice of the board, except one fatal case 
of typhoid fever. 

Dictized by Google 

bspobtb of local boabbs. 79 

Members of the board ; Joho Saanders, Secretary ; W. H. 
LeightoD, Chairman ; S. A. Wilcox. 

We have had uo cases of infectious disease. 


Members of the board: Dr. M. T.Dodge, Secretary; John 
Wood, Chatrman ; O. B. Bhoades. 

We have bad one case of typhoid fever. The diarrbceal diseases 
were very prevalent from August to October. 


Members of the board : E. B. Daniels, Secretary ; Lysander 
Norwood, Chairman ; Emery F. Joy. 

We have had nine cases of scarlet fever, and two tatal cases of 
typhoid fever. One of the typhoid cases came home from the State 
College with the fever and the other came from a neighboring state 
and came down with the fever soon after his arrival. Measles also 
prevailed and two deaths resulted from that disease. 

Members of the board : Austin Thomas, Secretary ; John Perley, 
Chairman ; B. F. Eelley. 

Members of the board : C. A. Sterling, Secretary ; Capt. Charles 
Cobb, Chairman ; A. W. Groodwin. 

Six nnisances were removed. We bad thirty-two cases of 
typhoid fever with two deaths. Measles and whooping cough have 
also troubled ns. 

Members of the board : Dr. Charles Mabry, Secretary ; Charles 
A. Stillson, Chairman; Dr. G. L. Randall. 

One nuisance was removed. There have been two fatal cases of 
typhoid fever. 

Members of the board : L. H. Park, Secretary ; A. J. Spencer, 
Chairman ; G. W. Frost. 

Dictized by Google 


Two nniBances were removed. There have been seven cases of 
typhoid fever, two of wbich were fatal. Whooping congh was 


Uembera of the board : L. C. Davia, Secretary ; Elbredge Allen, 
Chairman ; Horatio Porter. 

No cases of infecttoas diseases reported. 


Memtters of the board: Dr. F. A. Smith, Secretary; O. H. 
Lewis, Chairman ; James Hall. 

Members of the board: J. C. Neale, Secretary; J. B. Phelpa, 
Chairman ; Joseph Bagley ; Dr. L. Breh&nt, Health Officer. 
We have had one ease of diphtheria. 

Members of the board : J. G. Harding, Secretary ; A. J. Sim* 
mons, Chairman ; N. R. Cilley. 

We have had one case of scarlet fever. One man was killed by 
a mowing machine. 

Members of the board : B. Hodadon, Secretary ; A. M. Donnell, 
Chairman ; T. T. Jenkins. 

Members of the board ; Mrs. Hannah Fox, Secretary ; Molbry 
Haslam, Chairman : Alden Haslam. 

Members of the board : Dr. J. M. Wakefield, Secretary and 
Health OflScer ; W. O. Counce, Chairman ; B. B. Libby. 

Four cases of typhoid fever. There were a few cases of measles 
in a mild form. A better water supply and better drainage is 
needed in some places, 

Members of the board: Dr. H, S. Sleeper, Secretary and Health 
Officer ; L. H. Ballard, Chairman ; A. L. Hatch. 

Dictized by Google 


We had five cases of typhoid fever with fatal ending in one case. 
The water snpply of our toirn is defective. I am satisfied that three 
of onr five cases of typhoid had their origin from a certain spring. 

Members of the board : T. S. Botrden, Secretary ; J. F. Davis, 
ChainnaD ; E. A. Sidlinger. 

Two nuisances were removed. We had three cases of scarlet 
fever in connection with which the houses were immediately pla- 
carded and isolated as much as possible. Better ventilation in 
school-bonses is needed. 


Members of the board : C. W. Patterson, Secretary ; Dr. J. T. 
G. Emery, Chairman ; G-. P. Chase. 

We have had one case of diphtheria and several cases of typhoid 


Members of the board : C. L. Wilson, Secretary ; Melville Mon- 
roe, Chairman ; Dr. 0. M. Coolidge, Health Officer. 

No cases of infections diseases have been reported, except one 
of typhoid fever. 


Members of the board : Dr. C. £. Proctor, Secretary ; A. E. 
Houghton, Chairman; L. L. Jones. 

One unisauce was reported. We have had no iofectioiis diseases 
except whooping congh. 


Members of the board : Samuel Hawkins, Secretary ; A. L. 
Gray, Chairman ; J. Driscoll. 

We had one fatal case of typhoid fever that was not reported to 
the local board. One case that endedfatally was reported as scarlet 


Members of the board : H. K. Griggs, Secretary ; H. T. Clark, 
Chairman ; Dr. J. L. Horr. 

Ot seven nnisaoces reported to the board, five were removed. 
Our great difficulty is to obtain proper sewer^e accommodations. 

Dictized by Google 


The municipAl aDthoriUes move elowly in this matter. Mach mooe; 
bae beeo unwisely spent in the past by not having a proper system. 
Buildiug has been going on very fast for the past two or three years 
and in may places the drainage runs into the street, thas causing 
foul and stagnant pools of sink water. We are gradually substitu- 
ting water-closets in place of vaults. 

Diphtheria, three cases with two deaths; scarlet fever, tbirty- 
eight cases with three deaths ; typhoid fever, nine cases with three 
deaths. It was noticed that many of the cases of scarlet fever were 
among children attending a particular school. The school-house 
was disinfected, after which no cases appeared among the children 
attendiDg that school. 

A large pan made of galvanized iron with a ring in the center to 
receive a kettle and to allow water to stand under it has been pro- 
vided for use in fumigating with sulphur. All danger from fire is 
thus obviated 

I find that, in many cases, people desire to have their houses 
placarded in case of infections disease. It secures them From inter- 
ruption and annoyance. 

It is an encour^ing fact that all our physicians and the public 
generally cooperate cheerfully with the local board in the effort to 
secure proper sanitary conditions. The law itself creating the local 
board of health has been a good educator. 

West Gardiner. 
Members of the board : S. M. Pinkham, Secretary ; W. P. Has- 
kell, Chairman ; D. E. Merrill. 


Members of the board : James Thomas, Secretary ; S. P. Web- 
ber, Chairman ; Wilmot Greenleaf . 

We have bad two cases of typhoid fever and ten cases of measles, 
but no deaths from these diseases. 

Members of the board: S. S. Moody, Secretary; Dr. A. E. 
G-. Smith, Chairman ; G. A. Moody. 
We have had two cases of typhoid fever, one of which was fatal. 

Dictized by Google 



Members of the board: A. M. Craoe, Secret&ry; I. P. Dios- 
more, Cbairman ; Judeoo Hall. 

We have bad do cases of infectious diseases except one fatal case 
■of typhoid fever. 


Members of the board: C. H. SullivaD, Secretarj ; D, W. 
Bollins, Jr., ChairmaD ; M. E. Bridgbam. 

Ooe nuisance was removed. We have had three eases of scarlet 
"fever. We have taken prompt action in every case. 


Members of the board : M. W. KennisoD, Secretary ; L. F. 
Pitman, Chairman ; Adolphus Merrill. 

Willi HA NTic. 
Members of the board : Frank Hart, Secretary ; E. L. Chad- 
*)oarne. Chairman ; A, F. Flanders. 

No infectious diseases have been reported. 


Members of the board : Dr. A. B. Adams, Secretary ; J. S. 
WilkiuB, Chairman ; A. D. Parsons. 

One nuisance was removed. Three cases of typhoid fever, one of 
which ended fatally. 


Members of the board: Dr. I. D. Harper, Secretary; Dr. A. 
N, Witham, Chairman ; C. A. Kichols. 

Tno nuisances were removed. We have one case of typhoid 
fever and measles broke out in one district. The school was closed, 
all the sick ones were quarantined and the disease was kept in that 
district. The case of typhoid fever was imported. 

Members of the board ; A. L. Hall, Secretary ; James Rice, 
Cbairman ; W. P. Lovejoy ; Dr. P. W, Merrill, Health Officer. 

Dictized by Google 


Two drains have been made which efiects a great improTement in 
disposing of the drainage. We have bad i>o cases of infeitions 


Members of the board : J. M. Taylor, Secretary ; B. F. Towne, 
Chairman ; G. L. Leonard ; Dr. J. F. Hill, Health Officer. 

Scarlet fever, two cases, no deaths ; typhoid fever, seven coses 
with one death. 


Members of the board: Dr. C. F. Atwood, Secretary; Joseph 
Carlton, Chairman ; Dr. A. R. Fellows. 
We have had no infections diseases. 


Members of the board : Dr. C. A. Cochrane, Secretary ; C. A. 
Wing, Chairman ; Elliott Wood. 


Members of the board : Dr. C. H. Leverton, Secretary ; John 
Somes, Chairman ; Llewellyn Nute. 


Members of the board : R. W. Wltbee, Secretary ; D. A. Snow- 
man, Chairman ; A. J. Johnson. 

We had one case of typhoid fever and whooping congh was quite 


Members of the board: Dr. C. B. Rankin, Secretary; Isaac 
Andrews, Chairman ; A. L. Rowe. 

One nuisance was removed. Measles was very prevalent in the 
spring. There were more than 1.25 cases within a small radius in 
and about Bryanfs Poud village. The disease was mild and no 
deaths occurred from it. Otherwise we have had no infectious 

Members of the bijard : R. Harding, Secretary ; C. T. Grant, 
Chairman ; Dr. W. W. Thomas. 

Dictized by Google 


Two nuisances were removed. We have bad one case each of 
diphtheria, scarlet fever, and typhoid fever, all ending in recovery. 
Whooping congh has prevailed. 


Members of the board : Dr. W. L. Hawkes, Secretary ; G. W. 
S. Putnam, Chairman; A. D. Walker. 

Three nuisances were reported, all of wUich were removed without 
expense to the town. We had seven caaes of scarlet fever with one 
death, and one case of typhoid fever. The little outbreak of.scarlet 
fever was traced direct to a woman who made a visit to Portland. 
She slept in a room and on the same bed where her brother had 
been ill with scarlet fever some six weeks before. The room and 
bedding had been fumigated by direction of the board of health. 
She returned and gave the disease to her children and all the neigh- 
bors where she called. By close watching no new cases occurred. 
in town. 

Dictized by Google 

D,i.,.db, Google 

School Hygiene^ and School-Houses. 

7 A. G. i'ouNG, U. D., Secretary ot the Board. 

Prefetory. — Whatever argument there may be for the right of the 
individaal to be tdu^ated at the expense of the commonwealth, sclf- 
preservatioD is the underlj ing principle ot Ibe State's policy of public 
educHtioD. To ensare their own stability ami prosperity, the State 
and the Republic must have honest, nsefal, and intelligent eitizens. 

'■We have no standard by which to measure the diuaater that may 
be brought upon U3 by ian ir:ince and vice in the citizen, when joiued 
to corruption and fraud in the suffrage. The voters of the Union 
who make and unmake constitutions, and upon whose will hangs the 
destinies of our governments, can transmit their supreme authority 
to DO snccessors save the coming generation of voters, who are the 
sole heirs of sovereign power. If that generation comes to its 
inheritance blinded by ignorance and corrupted by vice, the fall of 
the Repnblic will be certain and remediless."* 

That the truth lying 'n these words of one of our martyred |'re?i- 
dents was perceived at the earliest dawn of our New Eagland civi- 
lization is apparent in the story of the school-houses which followed 
80 soon the first rude dwellings of the Pilgrim fathers ; that it has 
dwelt with us as a living truth is atte8t«d by our ever-growing 
exertions to provide the facilities for the adequate cullivation of the 
intellectual of our young people, and by legislative enact- 
ments which compel the prospective citizen to go to school whether 
he will or not. The right of the State, then, to surmund itself with 
aafegnards against ignorance and all its disastrous cms^qnences 
forms the basis ofour school laws and onr system of public edii-ai'in. 

Laws of another class find their justification in the unsunendered 
rights of the citizen. Modern hygiene and modern public heHlth 

■InaailDrBl addrsH oF Preddent James A. G&riteld, \ 

Dictized by Google 


laws are foandedou the belief that it is the birth:ight of ever; humao 
being -to eojoy Bound, or at least fairlj good phyeicBl health, that it 
is the moial duty of each iadividual oi oar race to preserve and, if 
possible, to improve such portion of bis heritage of bodily health a& 
has been tranamitted to him by hie ancestry ; that it is the inalien- 
able right of each person to he permitted to retain and enjoy this 

It follows, therefore, that while it is the right of the State to 
insist upon universal compulsory education, it is the duty of the 
State to assnre itself that its system of public Instruction exposes 
its proteges to no dangers of physical injury, or at least that these 
dangers shall be reduced to their lonest practicable limit. And just 
in this direction the Commonwealth itself should feel an interest not 
in the least less intense than that which it has in the intellectual 
education of [he people, for, if its schools build well, tbeir super- 
structure of mental culture must have a sound physical basis. If 
there is danger in having the Ship of State under the guidance of 
ignorant hands, the history of nations holds up marty a warning to 
us against the danger of physical degeneracy. "It is not a coinci- 
dence," says one of the world's foremost workers in the cause of 
public health, "this fact that meets us everywhere in the history of 
human culture, that just those nations that hav; exercised a power- 
ful and elevating influence in the world have always been mindful 
of the value of health." 

It is scarcely more than fifty years ago since the first practical 
and rational applicatious of modern science to the preservation and 
improvement of the health of the people were made and their worth 
demonstrated. So indubitable was the evidence presented that grad- 
ually nation after nation came to discover that the care of the public 
health is the preservation of national wealth, and the strengthening 
of the military resources of the nation. A movement of this kind 
powerful enough to make its influence felt in governmental policie» 
could not fail to include independent and earnest investigators prob- 
ing time honored institutions and customs in search of truth, and 
zealous propagandists urging the. need of reform. 

That schools and educational methods should escape these reform- 
ers was hardly to be expected. Indeed, early in the childhood of 
modern hygiene, there were those who noted injuries of the physical 
health of school children which they ascribed to unbealthful condi- 
tions to which ihe scholars were subjected iu the educational pro- 

Dictized by Google 


ceBses then in vogae. Some of the educational faults were so flagrant 
iu tboee daye, and their results were so disastrous that fiction 
founded upon a subtratum of fact was brought to bear upon public 
reason by appealing to publ e sentiment. 

Since those earlier days, marked improvements have been made 
in tbe schools and school systems of all the more enlightened peoples, 
jet the warfare still goes on between those who stilt insist that much 
in the prevalent methods is harmful and should be changed, and 
those who deny the existence of physical injuries, or seek to shift 
their responsibilities in whole or in part on tbe faulty conditions and 
influences ot home and social life. 

la the following pages we shall give some testimony both ai to 
matters oi opinion and matters of fact which show that the necessity 
of trying to improve tbe sanitary conditions of our schools is not yet 
gone. This will inolude tbe results of some of tbe inquiries which 
have been made of late years at home and abroad into the influence 
of school life upon the health of school children. We shall also 
biieQy, or more at length as the subject seems to demand, refer to 
those iudividual diseases and deformities which are, or may be, 
caused or intensifled by school life, and which, for this reason, 
have come to be called "school diseases." Finally, we shall 
spenk of those measures which scientific enquiry and enlightened 
experienced have suggested for the prevention or relief of these 
school diseases. These measures will include points in tbe hygiene 
of inetrnclion, and rules for the construction and furnishing of school 
buildings from the hygienic point of view, meanwhile not ignoring 
pedagogic necessities and conTeniencea. 

Sanitary Oonditions of some Schools in Maine and 
Blsewhere- — Soon after the oi^anizatiou of the State Board of 
Health, the Secretary sent a circular to all the physicians in the 
State eoijuiring, among other things, as to the sanitary condition of 
the schools. The qnestions relating to the schools were sent also 
to a rather small number of teachers and school oHlcers. Tbe 
answers received from the physicians are given in the first annual 
report published by tbe board, and the examination of those relating 
to the schools will be of interest in connection with our present 
enquiry. The evidence given by some of them is very clear that 
the health conditions ol our public schools are faulty. Opening 
that report at random, which happens to be pi^e 184 we qnote con- 

Dictized by Google 


secutively & few of the commanicatioDB from physicians relating to 
school- hoDses. 

"The most common faults in the Bchool-bouBes are low ceilings, 
ill- ventilated and badly heated rooms. The most frequent school- 
room diseases are catarrh, headache, and sore eyes." 

"School-bouses have do means of ventilation except by doors and 
windows, Seats are arranged so that tbe sun falls directly in front 
of tbe pupils, instead of upon their books, making it hard for their 

"Bad ventilation, bad seats, and bad heating facilities in our 
school- ho Daea. Headache is frequent." 

"Our sobools are badly ventilated, badly heated, badly seated, 
and have a detestable privy arrangement. Most of the leacbera and 
scholars suffer from catarrhal troubleg daring the winter months. 
Probably, at least twenty-five per cent, are absent during some part 
of the term on account of sickness. Headache is a very frequent 
complaint with the scholars." 

''If a stranger should travel through our town he would say, 'yon 
have nice comfortable echool-honses. ' Let him enter these school- 
bousee to study the modern improvements in veDtilation. He would 
say, 'Why, where are your ventilatori?' 'Don't you see them, 
these doors and windows?' 'Yes, I see them, but do yon not make 
the scholars sick by opening windows over their heads while io 
a state of perspiration from an overheated room ?' 'Welt, I think 
I see now why our children come home from school coughing and 
wheezing, with headache, and having to stay ont of school several 
days to get well.' A few years ago the teacher in district No. 7 
was taken ill, carried home, and died in a few days. Bad ventila- 
tion and overwork played an important part in this case. Headache 
is a frequent complaint in our schoola." 

These few returns from the physicians quoted in the orcte^ in which 
they occur we think may be taken as fairly representing the opinion 
of the medical profession of the Siate in regard to the sanitary con- 
dition of our school-houses five years ago. If any one doubts it, let 
him examine the report for himself. 

We occupy space here to quote only one of the letters which we 
received from teachers and school olDcers, this one from a gentleman 
for many years a teacher of the high school, and, at the date of 
writing, tbe superintendent of all the public schools in one of our 
principal cities. He says : 

Dictized by Google 


Lack of proper veatilatioD is ooe of the most serioQS faults in our 
school-honses. Not a siogle room has excellent Teotilation, although 
four are much better than the re^t. I have do doubt that, at the 
lowest calculation, in every room, in winter time, juel before recess 
\a the morning and afternoon, there will be found over twelve parts 
in 10.000 of carbonic dioxide. One room the past year I do not 
heailate to say had at times Dearly thirty. The teacher has been 
retired in this room, aDd another SDbstituted. This room contaiaed 
8,070 cubic feet of space, and bad over sevcDty pupils all the time 
— seventy-eight I think. 

The teacher in that room had a haggard look, and many childreo 
had frequent headache. Some were children of physicians who 
complained justly Alany had to sit either by an open window or 
very near a coal stove, that had to be hot enough to warm the whole 
room. Hence frequent colds. Not a furnace in any building, save 
one with four rooms. Paralysis of bladder was caused in one child, 
reported through the physician, caused by the teacher not allowing 
tiie children to leave the room during the school session. My drat 
order as supervisor was one calling tor a recess for the liltle ones in 
the afternoon. Do wake up the common sense of teachers in this 
respect, if you print more orders ; and do hit hard. 

There is not a single acbool-room in the city lighted properly. 
Frequent cases of myopia are the result, and I detected three cases 
of astigmatism, saw the parents and had suitable lenses applied and 
worn. I tanght the pupils to examine and watch their eyes. 1 am 
OODVioced that every city, at least, in the state ought to order an 
examioatioD of tbe eyes of all the pupils and make a report, coupled 
with the mode in which the rooms of said city are bghted. The 
pupils are not overworked and where the mote intelligent teachers 
are, considerable care of the health of the pupils is taken. Some 
teachers do all they can, others forget that "a cold blast of air slay- 
eth like a sword" and think as long as it is cold, it must be pure, so 
let it in. I would give particulars of the death of one teacher, and 
the insanity of another, (one or both taught ia the room of seventy 
pupils mentioned atiove) bnt I have not them in mind. Tbe teachers 
as a rule, do not overwork their pupils. The pupils often learn 
music, instrumental and vocal, outside of the school work, and in 
addition thereto. 

Two years later, or during the fall and winter of 1887-88, the 
Secretary of this Board personally visited and inspected eigbty-four 
school buildings in twenty-three of the cities and larger villi^es of 
the State. The object was to examine a large enough number of 
the scbool-houses in different parts of the State so that the results 
might be considered as fairly representative of the school-houses of 
t^e State generally with a like location in cities and villages. The 
time spent upon each school building ranged from a few minutes for 
a hasty survey, to half a day, or a whole day diligently spent in 
examining, measuring and testing, and in making notes. The reaalts 

Dictized by Google 


were published in fall in the Third Auniiiil Report of the Board. 
The eighty-four buildings examined varied in size from one-room 
school-houses to twelve and even twenty-foar-room butldtngs, and 
they contained an aggregate of 384 rooms, excluding recitation rooms. 
As regards the lighting and ventilation of these rooms the following 
shows the conditions found : 

Lighting of rooms satisfactory 67 

Lighting una atis factor j 217 

Ventilation satisfactory 16 

Ventilation none or inaufllcient 268 

It should be said regarding this classification of results that some 
of the rooms in which the lighting is classed as satisfactory would 
not be called so if judged in accordance with very exacting rules, 
and that hardly any, and perhaps none, of the sixteen school-rooms 
put down as well ventilated came up to the ideal standard. 

While the window surface of scho jl-rooms should be at least one- 
Sfth as great as the floor surface, the ratio actually found was often 
only one-eighth, one-tenth, one-twelfth, or even, in a few cases, 
one-sixteenth or one- seventeenth, — degrees of lighting so insufficient 
that they cannot fail to be injurions to the eyes of the scholars. A 
very serious fault found in some school- houses was the location of 
some of the windows directly before the eyes of the scholars as they 
sat at their studies. Even in one $20,000 school-house, passing as 
au arcbitectnrally fiue building, there were found six Ui^e windows 
with a western outlook directly in front of the scholars. The efiects 
upon the eyes of the pupils had been so disastrous that the school 
officers were seeking to obviate the difficulty and they have done so 
in part by a new arrangement of the seats. 

As regards the ventilation, the best results were found in the 
main room of the Cony high school building at Augusta. Determined 
by Wolperl's air tester, there were found only 8 and 3-10 parts of 
carbonic acid in ten thousand parts of air. In this room a large 
part of the scholars are absent from their seats most of the time in 
the .three recitation rooms. On the other hand, in many other 
school-rooms, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 parts in ten thousand parts of 
air were found. In one city high school, 39 parts of carbonic acid 
were found ; in another city high school 22 parts ; in one fine new 
building, reached just as the school was dismissed at uoon, 18 and 
20 parts of carbonic acid respectively were found in two ol the rooms 
one hour after the scholars had left the building, the doors and win- 

Dictized by Google 


dows beiDg closed, bat the veDtilating arrangement in operation 
meanwhile. In some of the rooma no artificial methods of air test- 
ing were needed, for upon entering them the close, stuffy and dis- 
agreeable smell of polluted air was very unpleasantly perceptible to 
the sense of smell. 

Enumerating but a few of the more serious faults found in these 
school buildings, one other must be mentioned, one which is preva- 
lent to a shameful extent. Much more frequently than not the 
privies or water-closets were found in a condition unfavorable to 
the moral welfare of the children, but what more particularly con- 
cerns us now, is a condition bad for the physical health of the 
inmates of the echool-room. 

Altogether loo frequently the privies were found situated so near 
the school-room that their smell was unpleasantly preceptible in the 
rooms themselves, and water-closets, urinals and drains in the base- 
ment of the school building were often found to be in a dangerously 
leaky condition. The following example, quoted from the Third 
Annual Report, will suCQce to illustrate the character of some of 
these sanitary fanlts and their evil results, though fairness to the 
schools of the 8late generally, requires ue to say that this was about 
the worse case of the kind found : 

This is quite an old, two-story structure, the tower floor of which 
is used as a wood-house and furnace room, the second floor for the 
school-room, which is 36^x27^ feet on the floor with a good height 
of ceiling. There has always been much difficulty in the warming 
of the room, and, about a year ago, a new furnace was put in on 
the lower floor; and, though the furnace might be judged to be of 
ample size, there is still complaint that the healing of the one room 
above is not satisfactory. An inspection of the arrangement of the 
furnace in the basement shows that the fresh-air box or duot, which 
takes air from a window, is only 10x7 inches in size, and this is 
expected to furnish air for the two large warm-air pipes, twelve or 
fourteen inches in diameter, which go to the registers above. 

There are no arrangements for the removal of foul air from the 
room, excepting its accidental escape through cracliH and crevices. 
The average daily attendance is sixty-four, and, during the session 
of school, the air must be vitiated by the products of respiration 
alone ; but, in addition to this source oi air pollution, which is found 
in all school-rooms, there is another very serious one in this. The 
privies are built against the back end of the building, and the loose 
door, which is no safeguard against the gases from the vault, per- 
mits the r free escape into the furnace room. The vaults have been 
in a very bad condition, and have hitherto been cared for only- at 
infrequent intervals ; but the local board of health has now taken 
the matter in charge, and will insist upon removal at stated but 

Dictized by Google 


rftther too loQg intervak. [a the Turnaoe room the privy smell ia 
overpowering ; and the faroace, iasufflcteDtly supplied with fresh 
air, is drawing ia the danf^eroas gases at every jnJDt, aad through 
the loDg seama of the fresh-air duct, which ia made ot inch boards. 
Further than this, some of the boards of the boarded up window, 
from which the Tresb-air duct takes its origin, were knocked off, 
letting the vile air of the furnace room out where it can be sucked 
directly into the fresh-air inlet. The smell from this furnace-room 
comes up the stairway so strongly that the door has to be kept 
closed. Tne pupils complain much of the odor in the achool-room , 
and the principal haa tried to have a difierent order of things, but 

Such QUhy condiLioos could not fall to affect the school injuriously, 
and there appears to be sufficient evidence that it haa been quite a 
prolific source of sickness. The principal has noticed that, at the 
opening of a new term of school, he feels very well during the first 
two weeks, or nearly that length of time, and then he almost invari- 
ably has a feeling of general weakness, which reminds him of the 
premonitory symptomi which he felt in the early stage of typhoid 
fever, nine years ago; and, about two weeks after beginning the 
last two terms, he has had a crop of hills on the back of his neck, 
with the usual feeling of general debility. Many of the students 
have been similarly affected, and tbe record of the absentees on the 
teacher's register is quite an interesting study. I had the privilege 
of examining that part of it which goes back over the past four 
yearc, and, taking the absentation as some indication of the amount 
of sickness, it ia very noticeable that during the first two weeks of 
each term, ttiere has been but very little illness, and then there is a 
sudden increase in the number of absentees, shown by the tines of 
black marks opposite the names. Some of these lines were of great 
length, showing that the pupil, against whose name they were placed, 
has not returned to the school for several weeks. I was told tbat 
many of these scholars had had fever, and that, besides the number 
whose sickness was serious euougb to cause their withdrawal from 
school, there was a larger nnmber who still persisted in their attend- 
ance, while sick or half sick, for the reason that absence reduced 
the rank to zero. Further statements of the prinuipal were, tbat 
lour years ago, during the spring term, some were abaen'. on account 
of typhoid fever. Two years ago, during the term, several 
studenta bad typhoid fever, beginning about two weeks after the 
opening of the school. Laat sprin<; nineteen became sick at one 
time, their sickness beginning about two weeks after the opening of 
the school, and eleven of these were sick for a considerable time> 
The teacher has noticed thai there is a marked difference in the ease 
with which he and the scholars can work in tbe morning and later 

Just how much illness and debility results from the faulty condi- 
tions to which our school children are subjected there is no means 
of determining accurately. Meanwhile we turn to some investiga- 



tioQs that have been mode elsewhere as to the amount of illness 
prevalent among school children and its caaaes. 

Id 1881, Dr. Axel Hertel of Copenhagen, published the results of 
an examination of 3,141 boya and 1,2L 1 girls, better class pupils of 
the high Bchools in that citj. His resulta shoved that, among the 
boys 31 per cent., and among the girls, 39 per cent., suffered from 
chronic debilitating diseases. The acute diseases were not taken 
into account at all. 

In 1882 a royal commissioD vras appointed iu Denmark for the 
purpose of extending the examioation of the school children, and, 
as shown by Hertel," their inquiries gave very valuable and inter 
esling results, indeed. In the iaveatigations of this commission 
17,595 bo}^ and 11,646 girls were examined, in part pupils of the 
higher. schools, and partly out of the people's schools. Their work 
covered, not only the schools in Copenhagen, but those in the 
provinces and in the country. 

The method of carrying out the investigation was as follows : In 
the higher schools each scholar received a printed form with a list of 
questions as to : name, age, class, the number of hours of school 
work, and the time spent at home in preparing it ; whether the pupils 
had any help out of school ; whether the pupil had any trouble in 
learning his lessons ; the hour of going to bed, number of hours of 
sleep, health of pupil (answered by the physician), height, weight 
(these two determined In the school), remarks of the school 
direcior, etc. 

In the public schools, however, every child was examined by 
physicians appointed for the purpose. The diseases of which 
information was sought were scrofula, anaemia (want of blood), 
"nervousness," headache, nose-bleed, chronic digestive troubles, 
chronic diseases of the heart and lungs, deformities of the apioal 
column, etc. Myopia was the subject of a special investigation. 

Examining the results, we find that, of the whole number of boya 
examined, 29 per cent are classed as unwell, nearly a third of the 
whole. Upon their first entrance into the schools at the age of five 
or seven, nearly 20 per cent, were sick. Then, as Hertel shows 
graphically, there ia a quick and sharp rise in the curve, and a show- 
ing of 28 per cent, of sickness in the second year of school life. In 
the twelfth year of age, or the sixth of school life, the highest point 
is reached, with a aickueaa rate of 31 per cent. 

*Zeit9cluiftIiir8chnlKeiaDdlieltspfiegeI. I6T. 

Dictized by Google 


TarniDg to the giria' achoolB we find a still greater percentage of 
chronic ill-health. For all the schools, and for pupils of all ages, 
41 percent, were found to be Buffering from some form of illness. On 
entering the school at six years of age, 25 per cent, of the girls were 
sick ; and, as witli the boja, entrance npon school life waa followed 
with a marked riae in the sickness rate, until at ten years or age, 43 
per cent, of the girls were ill. Tne highest poiat was reached at the 
thirteenth year of age with a percentage of 51 per cent, suffering from 
disease. That at the ages from ten to twelve, fnst before the advent 
of puberty, there should be more than 40 per cent, of the pupils ill, 
is regarded by Hertel as a melancholy fact. 

Aa regards the prevalence of difl^erent forms of disease, scrofula, 
aniemia (bloodlessnesa), and habitual headache were more frequent 
thau any others, in fact they instituted tbree-rourChs of all the 

Almost simultaneously with the work of the Danish commission a 
similar one was engaged in investigating the health conditions of the 
schools of Sweden, and I am indebted to the work of Dr. Axel Key,* 
one of the commiasionere, for the information which I am enable to 
give of the results of their work. 

Hertel's preliminary examination of the schools of Copenhagen 
served as a model and a guide to be followed by both the Daoisb 
and the Swedish commission as to the proper methods of carrying 
out investigations of this kind. 

Before giving the results of the Swedish enquiry, it should be said 
that the rule was adopted of alwaya recording the child as sound 
when there waa any donbt as to how he should be claaaed. 

In the higher common schools examined, there were 11,227 pupib, 
and, of these, trustworthy returns were obtained as to the facts 
required in all but seventeen. Of the remaining 11,210 pupils 44.8 
per cent, were found to be sickly. The highest rate of sickness 
prevailed among the Latin division, 50.2 per cent. Thus, half of 
these pupils presented aymptoma of chronic disease of one kind or 
another: In the technological division (Reallinie), and among the 
younger pnpila who attended the lower or mixed closaes, the alckness 
rate was considerably lower. 39.6 per cent, for the former, and 40.9 
per cent, for the latter. 

The percentages of particular complaints were : Headache, 13.5 
per cent.; aniemta, 12.7: nosebleed, 6 2; loaa of appetite, 3.2; 

•Aiel Key's ScbulbygtenLadicUDtenuchuiigfu. Tranalited inio Oeniuii b;Di. Buigeiuela 

D,i.,.db, Google 


Bcroful&i 2.7; nervoaanesa, 2.0; curvatare of spine, 1.5; oear- 
sightedneas, 15 2 ; and unspecified, 9.9 per cent. 

Aa indicating that the average percentage of illnesa fouod is Dot 
a normal or inevitable percentage, it is only necesaary, as Dr. Axel 
Key aaya, to adduce the fact that, while tbe average for all the 
schools is 44.8 percent., in eighteen schools with an aggregate of 
5,800 scholars, the illness was below the average. In twelve of 
these schools only from 30 to 40 per cent, of the scholars were 
aickty, while in aevenieen other schools from 50 to 70 per cent, were 
sickly, and tbeae schoola all in the same country, among tbe same 
people, with the same climate, children from tbe same classes of 
society, living under tbe same social conditiona, and subjected to 
the same methods of investigation. 

Tbe influence of school life is shown unmistakably in the record of 
the health conditions of tbe primary (vorbereitenden) schools of 
Stockholm. On entering these schoola at an average age of seven 
and eight-tenths years, 19.8 per ctnt. of tbe children were sickly. 
Id tbe second year of school life the amount of chronic illness had 
increased to 38. 1 per cent. In the third year there was a alight 
lowering, but in the fourth year again a rise to 43.6 of sickly pupils. 

During the four years apent in these loweet schools, antemia 
increased trom 7.7 to 19.8 per cent.; noaebleed from 1.1 to 5.9; 
nervousneas from 2.2 to 3.0; headache from 2.2 to 11.0; near-sigbt- 
ednesa from 3.3 to G.9 ; and scrofula from 1.1 to 3.9 per cent. 

The foregoing results obtained in tbe Swedish schools refer to 
schools for boys only. A similar investigation was carried on as 
to tbe conditions in the higher schools for girls. Tbe number 
examined was 3,072. Of this number there were 65.7 per cent, 
which the commission was obliged to class aa suffering from more 
or less serious chronic diseases, or deviations from health. 

As regards special complaints, 36.6 per cent, suffered from 
anfcmia ; 6.8 per cent, from nosebleed ; 6,5 from nervousness ; 12.0 
from deRcient appetite ; 36 1 from headache ; 11.5 from sbortsigbted- 
nesB ; 10.8 from spinal curvature ; 5.0 from scrofula ; etc. 

We kuow of no other inveatigationa so extensive and exact as 
these which were made in Denmark and Sweden, but add beie a few 
observations less comprehensive tba- have been made elsewhere, 
tt^ether with some expressions of opinion as to the health of scholars 
or the inflaeuce of school life on health. 

Dictized by Google 



A few yemn ago so inrestigatioD was mails into tbe health of the 
pnpils and Kradnates of tbe high scfaoola of tbe cii; of Cleveland by 
a committee appcHnted by the Board of Edacation of that city.' 

The examination was trade, qaoting tbe words of the churmao 
of the committee, '-with a view of learning, first, why so many 
acholars who entei for this coarse drop oat before it is finished, and, 
aeoond, why so many, and especially the girls, hare apparently 
SDffered in health beyond the asnal ills of life daring their high school 
dajs. I am led to Ihb coarse by a long period of observation of 
tbe pale cheeks, dull eyes, aloop-shooldered forms, aod worn and 
wearied looks of many of the pupils in the Central High, at an age 
when we expect to see bright faces, rosy cheeks, and erect forms." 

We reproduce here only a minor part of the resolts so graphically 
brought oat by the paper from whidi we quote. 

Health record of forty boys who left the high school, 1880-81. 

HMltb CoiditioD). 

Whao tDtend. 


Aflar luring. 


S!ip.rM>t .. 


I.S patMDt. 



While in school the health of 5U per cent, of tbe boys, was not SO 
good; 23 per cent, lost appetite ; 10 per cent, lost sleep; 45 per 
cent, had headache ; 23 per cent, had weak eyes ; 23 per cent, left 
wholly or in part on aoconnt of ill health. 

•B«taa Med. mnd SortE. Jr., ToL CT, p. ISa. 

Dictizsdbv Google 


Health record of eighty-flve giria who left the high school in 
1880-81, and eleven who left in 1879-80 ; ninety-six in all. 

Hnlth OondttloDi. 

Wh.D eatsrad. 

At nbool. 

After luring 

6p.r«»i.l ... 

llparaapt ... 
T peroeDt.... 

12p.r«n( .. 

18 par cant .. 

g& pal oant, 
11 par cant 
IS peT cant 
1 par oant, 
7 par oeal. 

Very poor 

The missing two per cent, in the last and next to the last columns 
in the foregoing; was due to two deaths. While at school, the 
health of 80 per cent, of the girls was not so good ; 46 per cent, 
lost appetite : 27 per cent, suffered from sleeplessness ; 72 per cent.> 
had headache ; 52 per cent, had backache or eideache ; 44 per cent, 
bad nervous troubles ; 75 per cent, left wholly or in part on aacount 
of ill health ; 52 per cent, complained of stair climbing ; 36 per cent. 
were troubled with weak eyes. 

Tne grade of health in which each pupil ia classed was determined 
partly by the number, and partly by the severity of the abnormal 
symptoms developed during attendance at school. If a pupil devel- 
oped the single symptom, for example, headache or loss of appetite, 
etc., he was classed as "fair." Headache and loss o'. appetite and 
the like would class him as "rather poor " Where all, or nearly 
all, abnormal symptoms co-existed the case was dossed "very poor." 

Other diagrams and tabulations develop the fact that ill health 
among the scholars increases directly as the amount of time spent 
in study beyond school hours, and inversely as the amount of recre- 
ation taken. 

Dr. G. E. Corbin* of Michigan gires so striking a history of the 
results of school life under unhealthful conditions that we cannot 
forbear quoting from his paper at considerable length. The school- 
rooms of which he writes were overcrowded and not well ventilated. 
He says : 

"Numerous bole, ruddy little pupils of five, six, seven and eight 
years of age have entered here with much ambition for their first 

•Elgbt A.Dti>u] Report S: 

\e Bouil of HeHlCb of MlflUgiiD, p. 1ST. 

Dictized by Google 


school iD&tructi<»i. Aa t have had one of my own cbildren among 
them, and others to treat, I have watched the eSect of their ooodi- 
tioD and anrronndtngB. and know whereof I affirm. In this room, 
on a small scale, I have seen Darwin'a theory of the "survival of 
the fittest" (physically) tested, and its correctness demonstrated. 
Year by year this room is constantly crowded far beyond its healthfnl 
capacity, notwithstanding the weaker ones are continually compelled 
to drop from the ranks and remain at home to recruit their exhausted 
enei^ies. I have a little boy whose only school advantages during a 
period of four years ware confined to this room. During this period 
he did DOt accomplish more than be could easily have done in two 
years, with snitable and healthful accommodations. 

Appreciating the vile condition of the atmosphere, I permitted 
bim to remain only an hour and a half in the forenoon, and an hour 
and a half in the afternoon. Under such circumstances, even, there 
was never a time during the whole four years when he was able to 
attend steadily for more than two months in aucceasion. At the 
expiration of this time, or less, he would become too ill to attend. 
From two to four weeksof unrestrained recreitiooand exercise in the 
open air would so recruit his strength and energies as to cause his 
* return to school. In every instance, for foai years, he failed rapidly 
when confined for only three hours per day in the vUe atmosphere of 
this room; and in eoery instance he improved rapidly when trans- 
ferred from U to the open air. The history of this child is substan- 
tially the history of many ol his compaQions aud schoolmates. It 
is a fact, I urant, that not all were injured to the same extent. 
8ome are endowed with far greater powers of endurance and resis- 
tance than others. These bear up longer, and crowd out the weaker 
onen ; but all are injured to a greater or less extent. At the close 
of last year my little boy completed the prescribed course in this 
room. In advancing him to the next department (bis age and 
strength now permitting), I sent him a long way out of bis own dis- 
trict, that he might have the advantage of a larger room containing 
fewer scholars. He entered a light, airy room, twelve feet hi^h, 
containing 1,075 square feet of floor space, and fifty pupils. Up to 
the present time, embracing fully two-thirds of the school year, he 
has attended aleadily. He haa constantly improved in physical 
health, and has accomplished much more in his studies than ever 
before during the same length of time. This record would be far 
too incomplete were I to omit the history of the teachers. 

The history of the teachers in charge of the room first described, 
is as follows: Six years ago Miss C, from Pontiac, took charge 
of this room. At that time she was large, well developed, well 
nourished, strong. In brief she was as "perfect a picture of robust 
health" as I ever saw. She endurtd her first year's lalwrs here very 
well. Her second year's labor in the room "told upon her" very 
percep ibly. During her third year, she loat much in weight, com- 
plained greatly of lassitude — general languor — and went home pale, 
thin, and haggard, in comparison with her former self. 

The above history of Miss C. is almost precisely the history of 
Miss W., who haa been dischaiging like duties in the same room for 



the last three years. She tells me that, since she attained ber 
growth, she never weigbed so little as at the present time. To my 
certain koonledge, she needs, and ia daily taking tonics — bracing 
remedies — that she may keep upon her feet at all. In contrast with 
tbia, I desire to state tbat Miss Q , engaged in the service of tbis 
school dietrict at the same time Miss C. did. For three years they 
sat at the same table, and occupied the same sitting-room and sleep- 
ing-apartment. Their evenings were almost invariably spent to- 
gether, whether in tbeir room, at a public entertainment, or elsewhere. 
In brief, tbeir habits were as nearly alike as is possible. In 
stamina, in real powers of endurance. Miss C had the advantage. 
Each was assigned to a primary department. Each was active, 
ambitious, succesnful. Miss Q. is still at work in the same room 
where she baa, without loss of time, given good satisfaction for the 
last six years. Her health, strength, energies, vitality, are appar- 
ently unimpaired. She has changed no more than is common with 
ns all, in the same length of time. . Why? I will stale a few more 
facts, and my readers can all draw their own inference. The first 
year's services of these two young ladies in this school terminated 
with the school year in June, 1875. 

Miss G. occupied a room with no possible facilities for ventilation, 
excepting through open doors and windows. Misa Q.'s room was 
tolerably well ventilated, being heated by a furnace in the basement 
and possessing a treated shaft for the exit of foul air. Besides this 
large advantage, numbers also favored Miss Q.'s room. Had it 
been properly ventilated. Miss C.'a room, with 750 square feet of 
floor-space, would have healthfully accommodated thirty pnpils only ; 
whereas, the average daily attendance during the whole year was 
sixty-four. Miss Q.'s room being tolerably well ventilated and con- 
taining 1,075 square feet of floor-space, adorded healthful accommo- 
dations for foVty-three pupils ; and the average daily attendance for 
the whole year 1875, was only forty-five. 

Here we have two rooms in comparison. The one presenting just 
about the conditions stipulated for by the State Board of Health of 
Michigan, and the other packed with more than double its justiflitble 
capacity. The results of these conditions for a period of six years, 
have been briefly but accurately recorded. It is true that during 
six years, fluctuations in numbers, and other changes, have occurred ; 
but in the main, the relative condition of these two rooms has not 
been materially altered. The average daily attendance in Miss 
Q.'s room has increased from year to year, and was sixty-Qve in 
January last. Though the gradual changes in Miss Q.'s room have 
been detrimental, the results in the two rooms have been extremely 

Two of our ten teachers are employed as assistants — one for the 
high school, and one for the grammar school. These teachers are 
assigned to recitation -rooms, where different classes go to recit-:. 
These recitation -rooms are exactly lOJ bv 12 feetj so that if well 
ventilated, each would accommodate Jive persons only. These 
rooms, no larger ttaan a small bed-room, have been thus used for 

Dictzsdbv Google 


tvelve or flfleea yeara. Kome of llie claBses are ao large that 
tweoty-five or thirty peraons at a time have been daily compreesed 
into oue of these rooms to recite. Under Buch drcamstances, the 
only possible way to avoid suflocation is to keep constaat communi- 
cation with the outer atmuaphere through open windows, whatever 
the aeaaon of the year — whatever the temperature. E have neither 
time, space, nor inclination to record all of the detrimental efiecta of 
this inexcusable condition, falling under my personal observation. 
I wilt briefly relate one which is well authenticated, though tbe 
resuUa did not fall under my professional observation. During our 
Bchool year which terminated in June, 1876, Miss R., oi Ypailanti, 
aa assistant in our ''high-acbool," had charge of the classes reciting 
in one of tbe^e small rooms. Miss R. is now so deaf that she baa 
been compelled to abandon tbe profession of teaching. Prof. F,, 
of Michigan University, traces her deafness to the effects of chronic 
catarrhal inSammation Miss U. traces tbe catarrh to espoaures 
received in this room Many are the pupils, who, though not deaf, 
are afflicted with troubleaome catarrh contracted in Ihese small 
rooms. Many times have the facts been clearly set before the 
voters in this school district, in years past, without obtainiug the 
relief sought, which the pupils and teachers so much need. Tbe 
masses of people seem to have no conception of tbe extent of ner- 
vouB prostration, enfeebled conatitutiona, and actual disea'e engen- 
dered by, and directly traceable to, tbe vitiated atmosphere of over- 
crowded acbool-rooms. Tbe effects are ao gradual, so insidious, 
that they escape tbe attention, for a time at leaat, of careless and 
casual observers. Even when tbe eSecta have become painfully 
obvious, most parenta are unable to trace them to their true origin. 
To them the cause and effect are so remote, tbat tbey fail to see tbe 
connection. In this case, here at home, I can escuse tbeir apathy 
OD DO other basis of explai 

We presume that most of oar readers, who have been accuatoraed 
to observing^mucb the effects of school life on children, have not 
failed to note the fact that the physical health of some of tbe pupils 
suffers, as the result, apparently, of school attendance. Many of 
these pupila. to the eye of the iDesperienced or injudicious teacher, 
do not appear to be suffering fk>m impaired health; bat to tbe 
observingjparent, or to the physician, there are evidences that all ia 
not well witb^tbem. At home it will be observed that gradually, as 
tbe school term advances, the child loses hia natural, ruddy color, 
that there is a diminution of tbe normal appetite of childhood, that 
there ia complaint of headache, that the child awakens earlier in tbe 
morning than he ahould, or that his sleep is disturbed by dreams or 

Dictized by Google 


otherwise, ir, with the notiag of these evidences that the child is 
"ailing," the rule and the scale be called into requisition to deter- 
mine the rate of the increasing height and weight, it will undoubtedly 
often be found that a temporary check in the development of the 
child has occurred, or at least that there is a diminutiou in the 
ordinary rate of growth. These eymptoms, when persistent or 
frequently recurring, shouM be ree;arded as indicative that something 
is threatening to undermine eerionaly the health of the pupil, — in 
fact, that there is danger ahead.. 

The pathological pit^iure presented by the ailments of the ^:hLld is 
very often not distinct enough to fit well into the physician's nomen- 
clature, as a distinct form of disease, yet, under these circumstancea, 
oontinued and uninterrupted subjection to the regime of the school- 
house and the school master would eventuate iu diseases not hard 
to name, and entailing permanent injury lo health. But vacation 
comes With no change in bis home life, and with no other change 
than the cessation of school restraint^, and school duties, there is a 
marked gain in the pbyaical well being of the child. 

In connection with his examination of the state of health of the 
school children ot Copenhagen, Dr. Heitel refere as follows to tbis 
class of pupils, sickly, uevdrtheless able to attend school : 

It is essential that 1 should explain what I mean by sickly chil 
dren. Many head masters have tried to prove to me from the 
school sick lists that the state of health in their schools is excellent ; 
but the sick lists are ot no value on this point, for ihey merely show 
the number of children who are absent owing to teonporary illness. 
It is not to such cases ot temporary illness that 1 reler when I speak 
of sickly children. By '■sickly" I mean unsound children, who suf- 
fer from chronic complaints, but who are, nevertheless, able lo attend 
school regular ty ; in short, children whose state of health is abnormal, 
and who require special care, both at home and at school, during 
their growth and developnifnl. It is only such cases that have been 
collected here and designated as sickly ; properly speaking, they 
ought to be called cases of unsound or abnormal health. 

There can hardly be a doubt that the faulty sanitary conditions 
of [many school buildings and unwise methods of teachinx have 
much to do with laying tlie foundation of future disease. 

Digestive diseases, initiated in the school, often render ihe indi- 
vidual an invalid or a semi-invalid through life. The combinaiiuti 
of such influences as bad air, over-beating, stooped position and 
pressure upon the abdominal organs, and mental straiu, are entirely 
capable of introducing these troubles. 

id by Google 


The diBtarbancea of the general DatrilJon by the canses jast 
ennmerated, by proloaged sitting still, aod by breathing and 
rebre&thing the eame air, particularly if it holds infective duat ia 
BQBpeDsion, may start in the system that slowly developiDg train of 
symptoms that later in life will be pronoanced consamption. 

Prolonged sitting at unsuitable desks during the developmental 
stage forces the child to aasnme faulty positions that eventuate in 

Faulty desks, insufficient or unfavorable light, and too prolonged 
reading or writing, lead to troubles of the eye that may become 
diseases of more serious import when the competitive straggle for a 
competency or position in life comes. 

Myopia. — Among the impairments of vision found in theacbool- 
r x>m, myopia, or neartightedness, has claimed a larger share of the 
attention of physicians and school hygienists than any otber. 
Twenty-Bve years asio or a little more, the attention of the medical 
profession was strongly attracted by the investigations of Dr. Her- 
mann Coho of Breslau, Germany, into the causes of myopia in the 
schools of that cou.^trj. He examined the eyes of 10,060 school 
cbtldrun and included in his enquiry the character of the school- 
house lighting, the kind of desks, the age of each scholar, the 
number of years he had attended school, etc. He found myopia in 
the f llowing percentages of scholars examined in schools of different 
chai acters : 

Village schools. 1.4 per cent. 

Elementary schools 6.7 " 

Girls' schools 7,7 " 

Secondary schools 10.3 " 

Technological schools 19.7 " 

Gymnasia 26.2 " • 

Thus it is seen that, in the village schools, the percentage of 
myopia was low. while in the city schools it was much higher. In 
the city primary schools the percentage of myopia was four or five 
times greater than in those of the villages. 

It was discovered by Cohn that the prevalence of myopia increased 
in all the schools from the lower to the higher classes, and increased 
also with the length of time the children had been in school. Thus, 
in the village schools children who had been in school six months or 
less showed no myopia. On the other hand 1.6 per cent, of the 

*Real.Bti«rclopeBilie der Geaam. Hell. XI, 249. 

Dictized by Google 


children who were in their fifth and sixth school years were myopiCi 
and in the city 8.2 per cent, of the pupils in the elementary schools 
were' nearsighted, and 11.9 per cent, of those in the secondary 

Furthermore it was found that the grade of myopia increased 
from class to class in all the schools. 

Since Cohn'p earlier work, investigations of the same kind have 
been made in every civilized country. The following gives the 
results of some of the more recent work in this direction abroad, 
and the results reported by & few American investigators. 

At the request of the Prussian Minister of Instruction the eyes of 
the scholars of the gymnasia and real-gymnasia of Frankfort, 
Wiesbaden, and several other Gorman towns were examined by Dr. 
Schmidt-Bimpler relative to their refractive condition. The schools 
were examined twice, the first time after the Easter holidays in 1885 
and the second time in August and September, 1838. At the first 
examination 1,7S5 scholars came under his observation, and the 
second time 2,002. As other investigators have found, the percent- 
ile of nearsight increased from the lowest to the highest classes, 
and as the year and age increased. The investigator was able to 
sbow that myopia, contrary to some assertions, arises even after the 
ages of fifteen or sixteen. He confirmed the fact also that nearsight 
was more prevalent among the studious scholars. Some authors 
have souglit an explanation of the increase of myopia in the higher 
schools in the assumption that there is a larger percentage of near- 
sight in the pupils who remain than in those who leave the school. 
The results of Schmidt- Rimpjer decidedly negative this idea.* 

Before the Paris Hygienic Congress of 1889, Dr. Motais expressed 
t^e opinion that mjopia in France is about 33 per cent, less preva- 
lent than in Germany, nevertheless, his examination of the eyes of 
6,680 children in the primary and secondary schools gave an aver- 
age of from 34 to 37 per cent, in the higher classes of the secondary 
schools. In certain colleges the percentage of nearsighted scholars 
was as high even as 80 per cent.f 

Among the 15,000 boys and 3,067 girls examined under the direc- 
tion of the Swedish commission^ the percentage of mj'opia increased, 
betwien the ages of eleven and nineteen, in the following progres- 

■Hjgienltc'hi^niiiidtiihBiiI, TO. 1391. 

t Rerae VHygieoe, XI, 038. 1SS9. 

t Aiel Key's BchulliyKlaniichfl Untenuchnngen, p. Si. 

Dictized by Google 


siOD : For those who took the Latin course, 6.1, 6.4, 9.6, 9.8, 17.3, 
23.4,24.6,32.5,37.3. From the age of ,(urteen to mneteeo, for 
those who took the technological coarse, oearaightetlaess increased 
as follows: 8.9, 13.6, 19 6. 16 7, 26.3, 21. 

la the schools of Upsala, Dr. Schuliz extended hie examinations 
of the eyes of the pupils over a period of six years and foond myopia 
to increase from the lower to the higher classes as follows : 19.5, 
20.1, 29.1, 23.6, 41.2, 47.8, and 54.8. 

Dr. Lawrentjew tested the eyes of 1,920 scholars in the schools of 
Russia, and found 35 per cent, of nearsighted scholars. In the 
lower schools there were 28.5 per cent. ; in iheintei mediate schools, 
38 2 per cent ; and in the higher schools, 40.8 per cent. The grade 
of nearsighted [^e S3 increased f om the lower classes of the lower 
schools to the npper classes o( the higher schools." 

In the same country Dr. Medem investigated the condition of the 
eyes of 2,412 Kussian scboiare ranging in age from ten to eighteen 
years. 46.49 per cent, of nearsighted scholars were found. Accord- 
ing to age the percentage varied from 26.75 to 60. 

In Groningen, Holland, 31.8 per cent, of the students of the 
university were myopic, the average for different departments vary- 
ing from 25 per cent, among the medical, to 57 percent, among the 
theological students. In Utrecht and Leyden the percentage was 
found to be 27 per cent, and 2tt per cent, respectively. t 

Among 1,(100 pupils in the public and private schools of Cincin- 
nati, a little over three hundred were myopic according to Dr. 
Dowling-t Almost entire absence of nearsight was found in chil- 
dreu below the age of nine. 

In this State the eyes of the pupils of the Lewiston schools were 
examined by Dr. C. E. Nortong in 1882 and again in 1890. The 
percentile results relating to myopia were as follows : 

•Zeic. tiir ScLulgcBundbeltepfleKe, II, 834. IS»». 

t D&elmBDD'i SupplcmeDt ttr 1H«6, p. 230. 

J The Time. »ad BegiMpr XXIII, fll. 

jRpt. of Ibe EiamiiuUon of the ej« of the FupLli la the ei:hoolg of Lewiston, p. i. 1S90. 

Dictzed by Google 


Primary Schools, 
Intermediate Schools, 

First Class 
Secon<) Class 

Fiiai " 

Grammar School, 





Fniirlh '* 
Third " 
" Second " 

" First •' 

High School. Fourth " 

" Third " 

" Second " 8.8 8.8 

Fir^t ■■ 8.0 15.4 

Definitions.— The 
normal (emmetropic) 
Bje is nearly spherical 
in shape and in it rays 
or light frim a distance, 
or parallel rays, are 
focused pxactly on the 
retina; consequently 
when the eye is at rest, 
distant objects are dis- 
tinctly seen. (See Fig. 

In the nearsighted 
(myopic) eye, the eye- 
ball is elongated and 
parallel rays of light 
focus before they reach 
the retina. Vieion for 
distant objects is there- 
fore not clear. (See 

fig 1, CO 

In the long-sighted 
(hypermetropic) fye the globe is more flattened than in the normal 
eje and. when the eye is at rest, parallel rays of light are not 
focused when thpy reach the retina, but, if prolonged, would be 
focused behind it. Di^linut vision, even of distant objects, requires 
an effort of the eye. (See Fig. 1. B.) 

Inconveniences of Myopia. — Myopia is undesirable for 
two reasons : It is inconvenient and it is dangerous. Unless hie 

Fig. 1. 

Dictized by Google 


neareight is of a very slight grade, the myope ie at a dieadvaDt^e 
and is well aware that much is lost to him in distaot vision. Even 
with glasses the visioo of the nearsighted eye is never the equal of 
normal visioa ; aod the trouble of being tied to glasses all through 
life, of forgetting them sometimes, and the danger of breakage — 
these are some of the minor ilia, and the last is sometimes a calam- 
itous one. Combatting a popular misapprehension of the troth, Dr. 
Loring says: "In no possible way, either mental or physical, is a 
defect of vision a benefit or advantage to the individual who suffers 
from it." 

But there is perhaps no way of showing more clearly the disad- 
vantages of being nearsighted than to quote the words of a myope, 
Francisque Sarcey,* the distinguished critic of the Parisian news- 
paper Le Temps. 

One day, prompted by the spirit of mischief. I got hold of the 
big silver spectacles which my father always wore, and clapped 
them on. 

Fifty years have passed since then, but the sensation I experienced 
is keen and thrilling to this day. I gave a crv of astonishment and 
joy. Up to that moment I had seen the leafy dome above me only as a 
thick, green cloth through which no ray of sunli<!bt ever fell. Now, 
oh, wonder and delight, I saw that in this dome were many little 
brilliant chinks ; that it was made of myriad separate and distinct 
leaves through whose interstices the sunshine sifted, imparting to 
their greenery a thousand tones of light and shade But what 
amazed me most, what so enchanted me that I cannot speak of it to 
this day without emotion, was that 1 saw suddenly between the 
leaves and far, far away beyond them, little glimpses of the bright 
blue eky. I clapped my hand i in ecstacy. I was mad with admira- 
tion and delight. 

I gave them no peace until they gave me spectacles ; then I 
enjojedavery debauch of seeing. All objects which up to this 
time I had im^ined to be without definite outlines or sharp angles, 
now put on a new and singular appearance. Vistas stretched away 
before me and opened up a constant source of discoveries and sur- 
prises for many things that 1 had always seen confused and jumbled 
seemed now to stand boldly out and to be actually coming towards me. 

1 recollect an amusement to which at this time I was completely 
given over. I would lie down in some field and amuse myself by 
taking off and putting on my glasses. When I raised them the 
meadow stretched green and unbroken tt^iore me like a big billiard 
table. When 1 droppd them before my eyes again, I could see the 
thousand grass blades trembling in the breeze and changing color 
with the light and shade, while numberless little flowers showed 

NDnr.Sighled Uaa (o hli Felloiv Sufftrsrg 
)l£Ud hy Hcnrr Dickeoi 

Dictized by Google 


ttieir tiny heads of blue or white. 'Twaa a sight of which I coold 
never get enough. 

These recollections are so clear and distinct that I cannot doubt 
that they were real ; no illusions, but eensatioaB and emotions which 
I once experienced. Thus all my life I have been going from one 
surprise to another. 

Will you believe, kind reader, that when about fifteen or sixteen 
I was much worried in reading a work of Touseenel's, I believe, on 
the habits of birds, to understand how the author could have become 
acquainted with such details: For, said I to myself, nobody ever 
saw a bird ; we know that aucfa things exist because we hear them 
singing, but no one ever saw a bird in a tree. Which was the truth 
as far as I was concerned, for I had never seen a bird except aa a 
-dark streak darting across some clear expanaa of sky. But birds in 
trees nestled among the foliage, their plumage scarce visible against 
the dark bark ! Anyone who pretezided to have seen them, to have 
watcbed the little creatures in tbeir homes, at their play, their work, 
their love-making, must be romancing merely. 

Dangers from Myopia. — There is a serious error in the 
popular idea that near-sighted eyes are stronger than others, founded 
upon the facts that the myopic eye has a greater magnifying power 
when used on small objects at a close range, and that tbe nearsight 
tends to neutralize tbe advancing long-sight of middle and later age, 
thus deferring or making needless tbe use of convex glasses. But 
no account is taken of tbe fact that the near-sighted eye has a 
tendency to become more near-sighted when overworked, that with 
tbe progressive myopia, there is danger of serious changes in tbe 
«ye, and finally, in a considerable proportion of cases, still more 
«xteQsive complications arise. 

Dr. Williams,* referring to the danger of overworking myopic 
«yes says : 

Tbe ophthalmoscope reveals great and progressive cbacges. pre- 
viously unsuspected, in the most important structures of the e3*e, 
which are solely caused by continnous accommodation of the sight 
for small objects, and which, unless arrested, lend to deterioration 
and even loss of vision. Unfortunately, children who have become 
nrar-sighted generally find their chief pleasure in books, and are 
disinclined to the sports of other children, because they do not see 
objects around them so well as their tellows. The parents and 
teachers of such children, pleased with their precocious diligence, 
are but too ready to encourage excessive application to study and 
efforts to gain a high rank at school ; especially, as for the time no 
complaint is made of the eyes. It is only when the myopia has 
reached a degree which will in the future render them incompetent 
for many pursuits, and especially for those requiring constant use of 

Dictized by Google 


the ejes, to which they had hoped to devote themselves, and when 
perhaps, mach nse of the eyes already begins to cause pain, that it 
ia discovered, too lat«, what a mistake has been made. 

A very important point in the myopic process, says Dr. Priestley 
tjinith,* is the tendencv which it has to reaut upon itself. Exces- 
sive convergence increases the myopia, and the increase of the 
myopia compels a still greater convergence. The more the boy 
stoops over his book the more short-sighted he becomes, and ihe 
iDore short-sighted he becomes the mrre he is compelled to stoop. 
In this vicioDs circle the eyes not infrequently go oa from bad to 
worse until, by reason of the altered shape or tbe globe and the 
extreme nearness of the farthest point of distinct vision, convergence 
for this point becomes impossible and the effort to obtain binocular 
vision in reading is instinctively given up. 

CohD considers every case of myopia essentially a disease of the 
eye. On the other hand, agreeing with the views of Tscheruing 
and Stilling, Dr. von Uippelt claims : 

Tbe danger from school myopia has been decidedly overestimated 
by Cohn and his followers, although it ia not denied Uiat it exists 
to a certain extent. According to his experience, the near sight 
acquired entirely by near work, in the great majority of oases, 
increases slowly, reaches, as a rule, only a low or middle grade, and 
becomes stationary with the complete development of the body. It 
is, as he believes Stilling is right in saying, the result of an abnormal 
growth of the youthful eye under the inflaence of muscular pressure, 
but is not to be regarded as a real disease, and it generally does not 
impair tbe capability of the eye for work ; it is troublesome only in 
that it requires the use of glasses for distant vision. 

Distinctly separated from thia form of myopia, is another which 
ia most cases is present already in tbe earlier years "f life, is almost 
always rapid in its progress independently of the occupation of the 
individual, among the students of the higher institutions of learning 
it is not present more frequently than among the uneducated classes. 
Sooner or later it leads to partial or complete blindness. 

To this Dr. Cohn answers as follows : — 

1. As the percentage of myopia in Von Hippel'x school ranged 
from 6 per cent in tbe lowest to 50 per cent in the highest class, 
and as the "pernicious" form of myopia (the second form mentioned 
by Von Hippel) constitutes only one-fourth of one per cent, of all 
cases, the number of cases of this severe form under Von Hippel's 
observation could not have been worth mentioning. The reasona- 
bleness of this assumption Dr. Cohn shows from Von Hippel's own 

Dictzsdbv Google 


In his own observations twenty-five jears ago on 10,060 school 
children not a single case of pernicious myopia was iouod. Since 
pernicioaa, congenital myopia is fortunately so rare, and the oases 
of it observed among students are so few, the law as to the origin 
and pn^ress of myopia, won from the examiaation of hundreds of 
thoasand of pupils, is not aflected in the least by them, and Cohn 
tbinka it about time that this legend advanced by Ihe enemies of 
school reform were put out of the world. 

2. As to the assertion that myopia acquired in the school 
"reaches only a low or a middle grade and becomes stationary with 
the complete development of tue body," Cohn writes : 

Fortunately it is true that many cases of school myopia of medium 
grade remain stationary in after life ; but they do not all do so. I 
bope at a not too distant day to bave ready a tabulation of a great 
number of cases that 1 have followed tor twenty or twenty-flve 
years, in which a slight degree of myopia was noted during school 
life, which in later life, I have verified with the ophthnlmo^couc and 
with test-types, and in which I have observed very dirtturbing spots 
before the eyes (mouches volanies), clouding of the vitreous, 
amblyopia, ioflamuaation of the choroid, and particularly trouble- 
seme insuflScience of the internal recti muscks. In spite of a care- 
ful study of these cases, and in spite of twenty-five years experience 
as an ophthalmic surgeon, 1 will not allow myself in any case to give 
a judgment whether a case of mild or medium myopia in the lower 
schools will remain as myopia of a moderate grade, or whether it 
will progress, especially if one of the learned professions be chosen, 
so that at the age of forty or fiftv years pernicious results will show 

Homer says with truth that, ''the mortal danger for the near- 
sighted eye begins with ttie fiftieth year of life.' I can only wish 
for von Uippel, as 1 have already done for Tscherning, a long life 
and ample strength for work, that he may be able again to examine 
his cases of myopia twenty or thirty years from now. If he then 
can show that all of these cases bave suffered neither increase of 
myopia, nor other serious results, he will be jusiified in declaring 
that the myopia of school life is a disease devoid of danger. 

Causes of Myopia. — The chief factor in the production of 
nearsightedness is prolonged use of the eyes for near work, but the 
interest and importance of the subject has brought into the discus- 
sion several conditions which have been shown, or assumed, to have 
a part in the causation of the trouble. Among them are the fol* 
lowing : 

Relation of Myopia to Age. — It is generally believed that 
the eye is far less able to withstand overwork or other unfavorable 
conditions during the period of rapid bodily development. Assum- 

Dictized by Google 


iDg that school work has much to do with the prodaction of myopia, 
the obvious reason why the eyes ot yoaag children, or those io the 
primary classes, show only a low percentage of this abaormality is 
that they have as yet been but little exposed to injarious influences. 
As has already been shown in the observations of Cobn and others, 
myopia increases in the schools from class to class, — that is, with 
the length of time the jnvenile eyes have been busied with reading 
and writiDg or other near irork. 

That the eyes of pupils may be injured daring the years of their 
primary instruction is made evident by Hersing who fonnd only 
three per cent, of the ten-year-old children of country primary schools 
myopic, while 21.5 per cent, of the pupils of the same age in city 
primary schools were myopic. 

Nationality and its Relation to Myopia.— It has been 
quite a prevalent assumption that some races or peoples acquire 
myopia much more easily than others. The investigations into the 
conditioae of the eyes of the students of various countries make it 
very probable that this is an error. With like habits of studiousness, 
and subjected to *be same conditions of work, it is very likely that 
the difierences between the cultured races are but slight. (See pi^es 
101 and 102.) On the other hand, among races that have never been 
educated, near-sight is unknown. 

Heredity and Myopia, — Some writers have shown a disposition 
to throw almost the whole load of blame for near-sightedness on 
heredity. Various studies have been made to determine bow large 
a part in the causation of myopia should be referred to inheritance. 
For obvious reasons, such enquiries are rather difflcult, and the 
results obtained can be considered as only an approximation to the 

The investigationn of Pfluger* have convinced him that not more 
than ten per cent, of all cases of myopia can be referred to inheri- 
tance from parents. 

Schmidt-Rimplerf found, in 13^5, that fifty-six per cent, of the 
cases of myopia in the schools under his care, and in 1688, fifly-oae 
per cent, of them, had a father, a mother, or both father and mother 
near-sight«d, while the percentage obtained by Von Hippel^ was 
49.5 per cent., and by Kirchner 49.9 per cent, 

*Zeil. r. SchulgceuddhellspAegE I,12S. ISSS. 

tDl« SchDikiiTzalchliglieit uod Ibrer BekampfuDir, p. 8S. IBW. 

tUeber deu EidHuhs HjgleDlschev M^sregela die Scbalmjopie, p. 46. 1S39. 

Dictized by Google 


In the seven German towns under the care of Schmidt- Rim pier 
the percentage of cases of miopia with a hereditary history showed 
no correspondence whatever with tbat of the total myopia. For 
instance, in the Frankfort GymnaBiDtn, where 65 per cent, of the 
myopic scholars gave a history indicating inheritance, the |)ercent- 
age of myopia for the school was only 24 per cent. ; while in the 
Fulda Gymnasium, with 34 per cent, of inheritance, tbe percentile 
of myopia was 32 per cent. 

He therefore believes that there are other potent influences which 
account for the fact ibat, though the burden of heredity is heavy, 
tbe total miopia in one school may be moderate, while Id another, 
with a smaller percentage of hereditary cases, the total may be well 
up to the average. He believes that these influences may be fonnd 
in the differences in the bygienic conditions which prevail in different 
Bcfaools. For instance again, the Frankfurt school was supplied with 
good desks and tbe hygienic conditions were olberwise good, while the 
school at Fulda was in an old building not well lighted, had miser- 
able desks, and tbe hygienic conditions were neglected in other 

School Work and Myopia. — Nearsight, as it occurs in the 
schools, is usually the result of a combination of causes acting on 
eyes undergoing tbe developmental changes of cbildbood and youtb, 
some of which are predisposed to miopia by hereditary tendencies. 
Enumerating and examining tbe most potent of tbese scliool-room 
influences, we have first : 

Prolonged Eye Strain. — Some investigators give this the first 
place m tbe production of myopia. In looking at distant objects 
tbe normal eye is at rest, but when turned to small and near objects, as 
in reading, muscular action Is required to adapt it to tbe near work. 
One set of muscles acts upun the lens to change its sbape ; another 
set converges the optic axes more or less strongly according to the , 
degree of nearness of small objects to tbe eye. Tbe eye can con- 
tinue this work for a reasonable length of time without effort, 
but, prolonged hour after hour wilbout sufficient intervals of rest, 
these muscles become tired and tbe eye becomes congested. 

A further result ie increased intraocular pressure, or eye tension, 
partly from muscular pressure, partly indirectly from the increased 
flow of blood to the eye, and then comes the tendency of the tunics 
of tbe globe to give way and bulge at their weakest point, the poste- 
rior part of the eyeball, as actually occurs in myopia. 

Dictized by Google 


Tbe action of ptolongert or pxcessire atndj- is well illustrated by an 
example given by ErieoiaQD.' Four tbonsaud ihree hundred and 
fifty-eight scbolare being io the habit or studjtDg out of the regul&r 
school hours, he f»und 

Of those studying two extra hours 17 per cent, were nearsighted. 

or those studying four extra hours 29 per cent, were nearsighted. 

Of those BiudyJDg six extra hours 40 per cent, were nearsighted. 

Faulty Lighting. — Next to eye strain by too prolonged work 
as a cause of myopia should be placed the increasing of this straiu 
by doing the reading and writing under conditions of lighting that 
are unfavorable to tbe eye. 

XTnsuitaUe Desks and Myopia. — The part which unsuitable school 
detks and seats play in bringing on myopia is an important one. 
They '.orce pupils to assume postures that favor congestion of the 
head and eyes, and place the child and bis writing or reading work 
in a relation to each other that is unfavorable to easy and distinct 

Some Recent Investigations- — To refer all cases of the 

higher grade of myopia to tne evil influences of the school-room is 
an exaggeration, and, on the other hand, to maintain (asTscherning 
does) that tbe high grades of myopia in the schools, develop wilh- 
ont reference to tbe sanitary arrangements of the ecbools, is going 
too far. > 

That the length of time spent in school has an influence in determ- 
ining tbe number of scholars that are affected with myopia of a high 
grade is shown by the graphical curveaof Schimdt-Rimpler.t He has, 
moreover, studied tbe farther history of forty-one cases of advanced 
myopia. In twenty-three of these it was pretty certain that there 
was direct inheritance or congenital anomalies that would have led 
to a high grade of myopia without the influence of the schools ; that 
the same was true in five others it was not improbable; but in 
thirteen cases, or 13 per cent., the detrimental influence of the 
schools was nnmietakable. 

Sthmidt-Rimpler has shown that the studious papit, as opposed 
to tbe idle, is oftener the eabject of myopia. Among 702 pupils, 
the refractive eonditioD of whose eyes was determined a second time 
after the lapse of three years and a half, there were 426 who had 
advanced regularly with their classes. Of these, 3t.2 per cent. 

Dictized by Google 


showed a'J increase of refracLiODi while among the 276 other pupils 
who, presamably on account of idleneas, bad been put back io their 
clansea, there had been aa iacreaae in 26.8 per cent. In the higher 
classes the figures were 34 per cent, for the diligent, and 27 per 
cent, for the lazj'. Siill in another group of children who were put 
back a whole year on account of "idleness," only 13 per cent, were 

An intereating hygienic study oi the gymnasium of Dorpat was 
made by Dr. Strohmberg* a few years ago. This gymnasium is in 
a building, some of the rooms of which are very badly lighted. The 
examination of the eyes of the 47S scholars showed an average of 
25.84 per cent, of nearsigbted pupil*. The percentage of near- 
flight rises with the classes fiom the lowest lo ilie highest, though 
not in a regular progression From olass to class there are sharp 
risings and fallings of the per cent, line of myopia, due mainly to 
the amount of light in the different rooms, but in part to local causes ; 
and the relation of cause and effect is so clearly shown that we will 
try in words to show what the author has better shown graphically. 
Stiobmberg deems 1:5 to be the normal ratio of glass lo floor 

For the sake of greater intelligibility, we number the classes and 
their rooms from the least advanced to the farthest advanced class, 
instead of giving the German naming. 

Class 1, the lowest class in the gymnasium, begins with U., 
(Myopia) ten per cent. ; room on first floor ; ratio of glass surface 
to floor surface, 1 ; 8.5. 

From class 1 to clans 3, M. rises from 10 percent, lo 17.74 percent. 
The ratio of glass to floor in class 3 is 1 :T ; in class 3, 1 ;d. These 
three rooms are lighted from the northnest, what we may term the 
darkest quarter of che sky, moreover the street on this side is very 
narrow and the houses on the opposite side are too near. 

From class 3 to 4 there was a drop in the M. rate from 17.74 to 
14 8 per cent. The room for class 4 has only a slightly better ratio 
of glass, 1:8.8; this room, however, is in the southeast corner of 
the building, and the direct light from the sky is not shut off by 

From class 4 to class 8 there is a sharp rise from 14.8 to 37.^8 per 
cent, of nearsighted pupils. The ratios of window to floor in rooms 
5, 6, 7 and 8 are respectively only 1:20.5, 1:14, 1:20 5, and 

•Dss DarpslGi QyiDtuiliim, p. B4. DorpM, 1881. 

Dictized by Google 


1 : 18.5. Boom 6, with 1 : 14 of glass, has a lofty church wall oppo- 
site its windows only fifteen feet diat&Dt. These rooms are all on 
the first floor. 

From class 8 to class 10 there was a drop in the myopia from 
37.88 to 19 64 per cent. Boom 9 is lighted from the northwest, 
and it has the church before its windows, but there is a better ratio 
of window suriace (1 : 12) than in the foni precedint; rooms, and 
being on the second floor it ia lifted aomewhat out of the shadow of 
the church. Room 10 is on the northeast corner and has a window 
ratio of 1 :8.3. 

From class 10 to 12 there is again a rise from 19.64 to 87.28 per 
cent, of nearsighted pupils. Room 11 has 1 : 10 of window surface 
but is opposite the church, only fifteen feet away. The riae in the 
M. curve started in Ihia room persista in room 12 which has rela- 
tively the same amount of glass but is not opposite the church. 

From class 12 to 13 there is a sudden descent from 37.28 to 22.5 
per cent. Room 13 has only 1 : 15 of window surface directed to 
the northwest, and ia opposite the churcb. The results here appear 
to form an exception to the general rule ; Dr. Strobml'ei^ Qnds an 
esplaoatioD, however, in the movements of some of the classes which 
we cannot reproduce here. 

In class 14 the myopia curve reaches its highest paint, 44.8 per 
cent. In the highest class, 15, there is a descent to 39.15 per cent. 
Rooms 14 and Id have the same ratio of window to floor surface, 
but No. 14 is on the northwest side of the building, while No. 15 is 
in the southeast corner. The school work, moreover, of class 15 
was not so strenuous as in class 14. 

Dr. StrohmberK thinks it very probable that, in this school, acci- 
dental circumstances had some share in determining the percentage 
of nearsighted pupils in some of the classes, nevertheless he believes 
that tlie relation between the quantity and character of the lighting 
and the percentage of myopia is clearly shown in most of the rooms. 

In the examination of the Cincinnati schools recently made by 
Dr. Francis Dowling, marked differences were found in the various 
schools. In two of the new school buildings with the best lighting, 
the percentage of myopia ranged from six to forty-two per cent, 
according to age and nationality. The ages were from nine to 

In two of the old, badly lighted and worse ventilatfed schools, 
where, in addition to the poor light, the deska were so badly arranged 

Dictzsdbv Google 


in many of the rooms that tbe cbildreu were fonnd trying to write in 
Uieir copy-books in the shadow thrown by ihe hand that held the 
pen, from twenty-four to seventy-two per cent, of the pupils were 
nearsighted. Tbe latter figure is enormous for a percentage of 
myopia, and is a striking illustration of the resnlts of an outrageous 
manicipal treatment of the eyes of its school children. 

Dr. de Metz tested the eyes of 7,040 children from seven to foaf* 
teen years of age in the schools of Antwerp, and found only two 
per cent of myopia. Moat of the cases of nearsigbt were found in 
badly lighted schools. There were present in 

3 badly lighted girls' schools 4.83 per cent of nearsight. 

9 well " " " 1.74 " " •' 

2 badly " boys' " 2.67 " " •' 

9 well " '* " 1,69 

In one particularly badly lighted girls' school tbe percentage of 
nearsight increased from class to class in tbe following pn^ression : 
0, 6, 6, 24, 30, per cent. For tbe whole of this school there was 
9.21 per cent, of myopia," 

Home Influences. — From the foregoing it will be apparent 
that schools that are badly lighted, furnished with unsuitable desks, 
and requiring prolonged eye work without suGBciently frequent pauses 
for rest, are likely to furnish their full quota to the army of myopes. 
It matters not just what part is played by heredity, tbe unfavorable 
conditions for eye work in many schools is all-sufficient to injure 
tbe eyes of many children whether their parents were nearsighted 
or not. If the ancestors of the present generation were myopic 
they became so as the result of undue eye strain, and tbe sooner we 
make pedagogical methods and ihe coustruction and furnishing of 
school-rooms conform to hygienic requirements, the sooner we shall 
see a prospect of avoiding the fulfilment of Eriemann's gloomy pre- 
diction of a whole civilized world of myopes. 

But the censure for the prevalence ot myopia should not rest 
wholly with the schools. Eye work done under unfavorable condi- 
tions at home is none the less harmful than when done in tbe schools, 
and many parents give but little thought to the conditions under 
which their children read or write at home ; whether the light Is 
ample or it is the gloom ot twilight ; whether they face the source 
of light, or receive it from some less trying direction ; whether the 

*Dffelmiu]D'* Supplement Tor ISSe, psRa Sia. 

D,i.,.db, Google 


t3ipe is suitable, or small and tadisIiDct, as mncb of that gathered 
b; cbildrea in their literary foraging is ; whether the posture of the 
young reader or writer is what it ought to be, or the book or writing 
or drawing is on the floor and the bead of the child atooped low over 
the work. 

Nevertheless if children's eyes are harmed at home, it is no excuse 
for adding heaped up injuries in the schools ; moreover some parents 
are mindful of tbeir duty in this respect and have a right to demand 
the absence from the schools of conditiODS that endanger the eye- 
eight of tbeir children. 

Is Prevention Practicable?— Two years ago Dr. Von 
Hippel* published the results of his otieervations as to the influence 
of hygienic measures on school myopia. The eyes of the pupils of 
the Giessen gymnasium were examined by bim yearly for nine years. 
Until 1879 the gymnasium bad occupied a building which was not 
well lighted, and which, on account of its insufiicieDt size, was over- 
crowded. Moreover, the seats and desks weie antiquated and of a 
shape not adapted to favoring the preservation of the eyesight. In 
January of thai year the school was moved into a new buildiog 
built in accordance with the requirements of modern school hygiene. 
It was well lighted, well warmed and ventilated, and its seats and 
desks were adjustable to the sizes of the scholars. From 1883 one 
session only of five hours daily has been held, beginning in the sum- 
mer at seven and in winter at eight o'clock. Pauses of ten or fifteen 
minutes are made at the end of each hour, the scholars meanwhile 
leaving the school rooms and tumbling on the playground or in the 
"turnhalle." Gymnastics, walks with the teacher, and school 
excursions of from one to three days form a part of the pedagogic 
plan. More than ninety per cent, of the scholars swim and skate. 
A limited amount only of school work is taken home to do. Von 
Hippel therefore thinks that the question of everpressure in this 
school can now be left out of consideration. 

The examinations of the eyes was begun in 1881, two years after 
the school moved into the new building. The eyes of the scholars in 
the higher classes had, therefore, been exposed to the evil influences 
of the old school-rooms, but before the close of the examinations in 
1889, none of the scholars present bad been in the old building. 

In 1881 , the average percentage of myopia for all tbe classes was 
27.6 per cent. In 1889 it was 17 per cent. In the classes above 

*DebeT den EinQuH Hjgienlieber Uu>r*geln But die Bebnlmj'DpU. GiMKD, 1S9CI. 

D,i.,.db, Google 


the lowest in the gymna-^iara, the percentage of myopia had 
diminished as followa : 3.4, 6, 2.3, 14.7, 21.6, 15.3, 14.8, and 50.1 
per ceat. 

Dr. von Hippel ascribes the marked diminution in tlie prevalence 
of myopia in the gymnasium partly to the new school bnilding, but 
more to the new school regulations against over-pressure. 

Schmidt- Rimplur* believes that the nnfavorable conditions of 
school life and heredity' threaten future geneiations with a perma- 
nent progression of myopia, but this danger may be avoided by 
proper hygieniuand pedagogic regulations. 

Cohnf mentioiis two scbooU in Kobur^ in which, after removal to 
good school -houses, their myopia prevalence lell from 12 and 14 to 
4 and 7 respectively. 

Prophylaxis- — The more important measures that are called for 
in the prevention of myopia may be inferred from what has already 
been said. Thpy relate partly to the hygiene of the school-room, 
and partly to the methods of teaching. The rules for the prevention 
of school myopia may be summarized as follows: 

1. The school-room should have an abundance of light in every 
part. The principal source ot light )<hould ba at tlie pupil's left, 
and should be from a suitable point of the compass. (See"LightiDg.") 

2. The periods of eye woric should not be too prolonged; they 
should alternate with frequent recesses for the resting of both the 
eye and the brain. (See "Pauses and Recesses.") 

3. A large pari of the ins ruction should be communicated orally 
during school hours, and the eye-straining and time robbing prepara- 
tion of written lessons should be reduced to the lowest possible 

4. The school work to be done at home should be limited to a 
very small amount, and, in the younger classes, to none. 

5. The desks and seats should be of a suitable pattern, their 
sizes should be adjusted to the sizes of the scholars, and <he rela- 
tion of sea' to desk should be determined intelligently: otherwise 
stooping or other postures favoring congestion of the eye aud tbe 
production of myopia will be assumed by the pupil. <S e "Desks 
and Seats.") 

6. Tbe demand for written work should be moderate. U'hen 
writing the child should sit with his shoulders parallel with the <l<'slc 

Dictzsdbv Google 


and tba direclioa of the dowDstrokea of his writing ebonld be sucb 
as not to incline him to take bad positions. (See "Writing.") 

7. The type of all school and other books for children should be 
large and distinct. (See "Beading.") 

8. Reading charts with large and distinct type, which can be 
hung up at a distance from the little ones, should be used in primary 

9. Blackboards should be of a dead black, not glossy. Tbey 
should be placed wbere they will be well ligbted. (See "Black- 

10. Care should be taken that pupils who need glasses shall be 
fitted with suitable ones. Cohu found S7 per cent, of the scholars 
in the scbools examined by him wearing unsuitable glasses, and 
only 34.7 per cent, of the myopic eyes found by Von Hippel were 
furnisfaed with suitable ones; 47.3 per cent, of those who were 
advised to get correcting glasses wore none; and in 38 percent. 
the pupils wore glasees directly the opposite of what was needed. 
Among American children fitted with glasses by peddlers and 
apothecaries, undoubtedly aa bad a state of affairs would be found. 

11. Where it is practicable schools should be under competent 
medical inspection. The eyes of all pupils should be examined 
periodically and the parents should be advised regarding the eyes of 
their children when that is found needful. "This" says Priestly 
Smith*, "is important because a judicious regulation of the use of the 
eyes, more or less strict as the course of the case demands, will check 
the advance of the myopia if ii does not arrest it, and will check the 
development of the congestive and atrophic changes which often 
accompany the advance." 

12. In schools not uuder medical supervision, the intelligent 
teacher should and can test the eyes of his pupils in such a way aa 
to tell him with a near approach to ceitainty whether there is any 
serious defect of eyesight, and, if myopia is present, to enable bim 
roughly to estimate its grade. This examination by the teacher will 
be of the greatest value lo some pupils who. without it, would have 
struggled along for years in a handicapped competition with their 
Bchoolmatea and would finally have suffered irreparable injury to the 
sight, that might have been avoided if the eye trouble had been 
detected early. 

•Biiliah Medical Joaroal, September £1, tSM. 

Dictized by Google 


Spasm of the Accominodatioii. — When the eye accom- 
modales itself to work on small and Dear objects, the shape of the 
crvatalliae lena becomes more convex by the eloogatioD of its 
aotero- posterior diameter. This cbaage is due to mascular action. 
When the demands upon the eje are excessive, the action of the 
muscles of accommodation aometimea assume a permanently spas- 
modic character, so that even when looliin); into the distance the 
spasm pereists and the eye does not resume its passive or resting 
state. The effect, on the refractive condition of the eye, of this 
elongation of the optical axis of the lens is the same as that of the 
elongatioD of the optical axis of the globe. The visual condition ol 
the eye affected with accommodative spasm is then similar to that 
of the true myopic eye, and, what is significant from a hygienic 
point of view, continuous muscular myopia, as this condition may be 
called, may lead directly to real myopia. 

The eventuation of spasm of the accommodation is well illustrated 
in a ease that Dr. Hasket Derby* told about some years ago : 

I examined the eyes of a student at Amherst College, at the com- 
mancement of his freshman year, in November, 1875, He presented 
himself toward the close of the day ; the aiternoon was a dark one, 
and he had just been reciting. There was a slight degree of near- 
sight in each eye. In October of the next year I examined bim 
i^ain, and found his nearsight entirely gone. He had been labor- 
ing under accommodative spasm. But in June, 1879, at the com- 
pletion of his college course, trae nearsight, to a considerable 
amount, had made its appearance, and the ophthalmoscope, showed 
it to be real, and not due to spasm. 

When looked for. this trouble is rather frequently found in over- 
worked eyes : Thus, in the school under Von Hippel's care, where 
he believes overwork hardly existed, spasm of the aci^om mods lion 
increased from the lowest to the highest classes as follows: 0,2, 
1, i, 4, C, 8, S, 11 per cent., and Schmidt- Rim pier found it forty- 
four Umes in the eyes of 380 myopes. 

When accommodative spasm exists it is highly important that it 
should be treated intelligently, else there is great danger that an 
acquired myopia will follow, or if myopia already exists, that it will 
rapidly advance. 

Hypermetropia. — By referring again to page 103 it will be per- 
ceived that hypermetropia, or long sight, is the result of an abnormal 
flittening ui the eye, the opposite of the condition characterizing 
myopia, an abnormal lengthening of the eyeball. We cannot throw 

* Boston Uedlul and Surglesl Joniiul, CU, SU. 

Dictized by Google 


the blame for the cansatioa of hypermetropia at the feet of the school 
authorities, as we justly may a large part of that for the iocrease of 
myopia, but a pretty large percentage of the eyes of school childreo 
have this defect, and, nhea tt exists in more than a slight or moder- 
ate degree, the eyes that are afiected by it are hard-trorked eyes 
when employed on small objects. The reason of this is that the 
hypermetropic eye, when focusing itself for near objects, is called 
upon liO do not only the work required of a normal (emmetropic) 
eye, but, if possible, an additional amount of work compensatory 
of the defect. It is therefore not strange that many of these eyes 
break down, or rather tire out, of which something will be said under 

We wi 1 let Hartridge* describe the symptoms of hypermetropia : 

The patient sees well at a distance, but has difflcnlty in maintain- 
ing a clear vision for near objects ; and since the hypermetropia can 
be more or less corrected by accommodation, if the error be of a 
low degree, no ill-eflects may for some time be noticed; at lengih, 
however, a point is reached when the aecommodation is not eqni^ to 
reading and near work, and accommodative asthenopia is the resalt. 
This is especially liable to show itself after illness, or if the patient's 
health has deteriorated from over-work, anxiety, or other canses. 
He then complains ihat after working or reading for some time, 
especially during the evenings, the type becomes indistinct, and the 
letters run together ; after resting awhile the work can be resumed, 
to be again shortly laid aside from a repetition of the dimness ; the 
eyes ache, feel weak, water, etc., frequently headache supervenes; 
there is a feeling of weight about the eyelids and difficulty of open- 
ing them in the morning. 

Hypermetropia of more than a slight degree, should be corrected 
by proper glasses for reading, writing and other near work. 

Astigmatism.— We have seen that hypermetropia is almost 
always dne to the eyeball being too short, and myopia ia caused by 
its being too long. There Is another frequent detect in the refrac- 
tive condition of eyes, that is designated "asiigmatism." It is 
dne to an asymmetry in the cnrvature of the cornea, or front 
ot the globe of the eye. For insiance, (he curve of the horizontal 
meridian may be greater than that of the perpendicnlar meridian. 
The result is that the optical imi^e on the retina is indistinct, and 
the eye exerts itself in vain to focus all the rays that come to it in a 
given cone of light. This trouble is sometimes combined with myopia, 
but is much oftener an accompaniment of hypermetropia. 

Dictized by Google 


If voung, and tfae astigmatism hypermetropic and of low degree^ 
few avmptoms may be preseot ; usually, however, the patient com- 
plains of defective vision with asthenopia, especially it his work be 
such Ibat bis accommodation is in constant use ; sometimes headache 
14 a very marked symptom, either trontal or occipital ; be has proba- 
bly tried all sorts of spectacles and can find none to sail him. On 
trying him at the distant type, his acutenest of vision is always 
below the normal * 

Dr. Lewis Dixoa of Boston, gives the following advice to teachers 
relative to the tbree abnormal refractive conditioas, myopia, hyper- 
metropia and astigmatism : 

Warn children and parents that in myopia the tendency i^ t wards 
the increase of the trouble, and that cire in regulating the amount 
ot near work will do much to check the progress, and the wearing 
of glasses. If myopia is really present will stop the progress. Advise 
gainst branches or courses of study involving much close work, 
anless tbe pupil is willing to wear correcting glasses. 

Warn parents and children that in bypermetropia headaches, 
nervous symptoms of various kinds, and even ill health may result 
from this coodlLion, even where no complaint is ever ma<le' of eyes 
or sight, and work and vision may be perfect. 

Moderation in close work will usually relieve the condition ; the 
use of proper glasses for close work will always relieve and enable 
the eyes to do full work without fatigue or other trouble. 

In astigmatism, warn them that headaches, nervous difficulties, 
and ill health may be caused entirely by this condition, which must 
remaia permanent unless relieved by tHe proper optical means. t 

Asthenopia. — Eyes working under the disadvantageous refrac- 
tive conditions imposed by bypermetropia, astigmatism, or myopia 
often show symptoms indicative of fatigue of tbe eye muscles, and 
to designate this group of symptoms the term "asthenopia," or 
weak sight, is used. 

This trouble requires, before anything else, the correction of the 
bypermetropia, astigmatism, or myopia, one or more of which con- 
ditions are almost always the cause of the weak sight, with glasses 
chosen by a competent oculist. For the want of this help more than 
one promising career has been cut short. 

Spinal Curvature. — Abnormal curvature of tbe spinal column 
is a deformity of quite common occurrence among children of the 
school-going ages, and, though there has not been a unanimity 
among suigical writers and others as to the most frequently opera- 
tive causes, the fact appears to be pretty clearly established that 
the beginning of tbe irouble falls, in the great majority of cases, 

Dictized by Google 


vFithiu ibose years durlag which the child \e engaged in his school 
work. Abnormal spinal curvature is almost never congeoital. 
Among 23,293 children born in the Paris Maternite, only one was 
affected with this deformit^r, and thie a rachitic case. 

Dr. Ketch* analyzed the records of 229 cases of lateral curvature 
of tbe spine observed in the New York Orthopaedic Dispensary. 
Of these cases, 120 occurred between birth and the age of twelve ; 
ninety-four between the ages of twelve and eighteen ; and nine only 
after tbe age of eighteen. The history of six cases was doubtful. 
Thus 93 per cent, of these cases began before the age of eighteen. 

Eulenbergt gives tbe loUowing statistics of the age at which 
lateral curvature of the spine originated in 1,000 cases covered by 
his researches. 

Ct.K>. Percfot. 

Before the second year 5 — 0.50 

Between the second and third years 21 =- 3.10 

" third and fourth years 9 = 0.90 

" foarth and fifth years 10 = 1.00 

" fifth and sixth years 33 = 3.80 

*' sixth and seventh years 216 = 21.60 

*' seventh and tenth years 561 ^ ^ 56.40 

*' tenth and fourteenth years 107 = 10.70 

" fourteenth and twentieth years 28 — 2.80 

" twenUeth and thii-tieth years 7 ^ 0.70 

We see from this that 95.8 per cent, of the 1,000 cases of lateral 
curvature of the apine originated between the ages of four and 
twenty, and 92 per cent, between tbe ages of five and fourteen. 

After age, sex deserves to be ranked as tbe most prominent of 
tbe conditions predisposing to lateral deviations of tbe spinal column. 
In the 229 cases studied by Dr. Ketch, 189 occurred in females, 
and only 40 in males. 

Round Shoulders. — Or posterior curvature of the spine, Is 
one of the forms of spinal derormity acquired by remaining in faulty 
positions, such as school children often assume in stooping forward 
to a loo distant desk, or bending over their books, or in sliding 
forward on an improper y shaped school seat so that the spinal 
column sagt between the two points of support, the one at tbe 
upper, the other at the lower part of this flexible column. As to 
the nndesirability of this de ormity, otherwise than detracting from 

Tbe Ued. KKord, XXIX, 471, 19«e. 
tB«al-£Dc;cloi>Hedie dei gceammteu Bellkaade, XI, 5«l. 

Dictized by Google 


persoDBl Appearance, we are assured that the eflecte of posterior 
curvature on the respiration and other fuactions is unfortunate : 

In consequence of the bending forward of Ibe body, the abdominal 
muscles are relaxed, and their power of action is consequently 
lessened or entii ely lost. 

This depreciates or removes the power of abdominal respiration, 
and at the same time weakens the action of that most important 
respiratory muscle, the diaphragm. 

The attitude prevents the proper action of the ribs, and so lessens 
thoracic respiration, and thus posterior curvature impedes lo a seri- 
ous extent the powers of breatbinc of the individual This lessened 
power of respiration not only affects the very vital process of oration 
-of the blood, hut also interferes with the due performance of many 
of the functions of the abdominal viscera, for our power of acting 
upon tbe latter organs in the processes of expulsion depends upon 
our ability to fix the diaphragm in the first instance. A round back 
involves the production of a flattened chest, and a constricted space 

for the Inngs, heart and stomach It is a matter of 

general observation among medical men, that in people with round 
backs, tbe vital capacity is very much lessened, and tt seems prob- 
able that individuals thus afflicted are more liable to become con- 
finmptive than others, and have less power to resist an attack of 
ordinary lung disease. We, therefore, have excellent reasons for 
doing all we can to prevent tbe development of round backs, and all 
we can to remove them when once produced. I have ound that by 
improving the posture an increase in the circumference of the chest 
in expaoBion of from one to two inches has taken place in a few 

Lateral Curvature. — This is by far the most Sequent form 
of spinal deformity seen in school children. It is sometimes the 
result of the loss, shortening, or lameness of one leg, but is, in the 
great majoiity of cases, due to the persistence in faulty iiostures 
either in standing or sitting, anything in fact that throws tht* pelvis, 
the spinal column's basis of support, out of level. For instance, in 
working at the blackboard for too long a time, fatigue often leads 
the pupil to throw his weight on one foot. Barwell,t a distinguished 
English authority on curvature of the spine, has the following to say 
about this matter : — 

Another cause of sloping pelvis, I have named "habitual pelvic 
obliquity-'* It is the result of a trick, hence frequently varies, 
although it is sufficiently constant often to produce decided lumber 
curve:. Many girls acquire the bad habit of standing constanti;*, or 
at least very frequently, on one and tbe same leg, generally the right, 
and of bringing the other thigh and knee in front of the supporting 
limb with very considerable adduction and some inward rotation. 

Dictized by Google 


The &ttitQd« IB, as I bave said, very freqaeat wiih j^irls from the 
age of Ihirteeo or fourteen upwards to twenty-three or tnenty-five. 
As a rule the girl Ptands always or nearly always on the same leg — 
the mode and pattern of the female dress concealing the fault, which 
the male youth in troasers or knickerbockare would be laughed oot 
of iu a, week or so. 

"More and more," says Baginaky,* "does the opinion gain ground, 
particnlaily among surgeons as the result of their anatomical and 
physiological studies and practical observations, that the origin of 
the most serious of all curvatures of the spine, the lateral curve, is 
due, in the great majority of cases to the influences of school life on 
the youthful organism." 

Are the Schools to Blame?— Dr. Agnew.t speaking on thia 
subject in his presidental address before the American Surgical 
Association said : — 

Again, iu farther illastrtition of our general text, take as aa 
example a child who, for one long or two short sessions for six days 
of the week, sits over the study-desk, compelled to assume a posi- 
tion in which, from the inclination of the body, the shoulders fall 
forward, the head being supported most probably on the elbows and 
hands. To all this must be added the vtry important factor of four 
to six hours in the school-room and two hours, at least, of home 
preparation for the following day's recitations, during 4hich time the 
respiratory function*, having been reduced to a minimum of activity^ 
the muscles of the chest are comparatively passive, and teration of 
the blood tardy. Certainly, no combination of conditions could be 
better devised for forming contracted chests and round slioulders. 
It is not long before the watchful eye of the mother detects the 
change in the figure of her child. She will probably discover this 
and take alarm, even when the pale face, the languid air, and the 
capricious appetite ot the child cause no anxiety ; and then comes 
the sfcond act in the drama of physical deterioration ; ramely, a 
report to shoulder- braces and stays in onler to aceomplish that 
which the muscles should be taught to do without restraint or 

While it is true that lateral ouivatures of the spine depend upon 
causes Ix>th central and peripheral, yet in no small number the 
deformity is clearly attributable to influences of a social nature. 
The young column, bv reason of the non-union of the epipbysiH and 
diapbysis, and the supple character of the ligaments, is extremely 
flexible. Whatever, therefore, destroys the muscular equipose, how- 
ever inconsiderable the force, if persistently repeated, changes the 
centre of gravity, and develops primary and compensating cnrves. 
For six months in the year, any fine morning, groups of young 
children may be seen plodding along our streets with a miniature 
library of books suspended from one shoulder. To the already pre- 

Dictzsdbv Google 


ponderatiog scale of tbe balance add tbe addUioaal facior, a prob- 
ably badly arraDged ligbt, compelling these little savants to assume 
a lateral iDclinatiOD of tbe body in order to obtaio tbe necessary 
Illumination of tbe subjects ot the study, and you have all of the 
conditiona necessary for perpetuating the lateral deformity. 

Dr. Noble Smith tells us :* 

It is not merely exercise that children require, but also recreatlon- 
losufflcient ouoof-door recreation acts as a predisposiag cause of 
curvature of the spine, and errors of position, which school children 
are made to assame, act as exciting causes. ■ • « Xhe 
twisted and curved position of the spine caused by writing is doubt- 
leas a very potent factor in the production uf lateral curvature, and^ 
as tbe modern system of tuition involves a great dtal of writing, it 
is probable that this deformity will soon be found to be upou tbe 

Fahrnert says that 90 per oent. of the cases of curvature of the 
spine have their origin in the acboaU. Guellaume found amjng 350 
boys, 62, or 18 per cent., and among 361 girU, 156, or 41 per cent., 
with lateral curvature of the spine. Of the girls examined by 
Kolpscb, 80 per cent, bad this trouble. Koorr found 60 girls, among 
72, deformed. 

How the Schools Produce Deformity— Dr. Barwellj; 

tells us about some ways in which deformity is brought on in the 
schools : — 

We have yet to consider, another, and prehaps as potent a causa- 
tion, which influences tbe spine during sitting, more especially during 
the many hours of study to which nowadays both girU and boys are 
auhjecled. A very large part ot the present education is carried on 
by writing ; the student writes out bis grammar, conjugations, his- 
tory, geography, mathematical problems, &c, &c. An industrious 
pupil is, therefore, often at tbe desk Ave or six hours a day, for Ave 
or five and a halt days in the week ; and more often than not in an 
injuiious posture — especially so if she be at all short-sighted, or if 
her table be in an ill-lit part of the room. Several faulty posture* 
aod several degrees of tbe same fault are by different scholars 
assumed. One of the more cummon is to sit chiefly on tbe left 
buttock and to place the paper close to the edge of tbe table just b; 
the right side ot the chest, often to twist tbe right foot round the 
leg of the chair, and then, leaning upon tbe left hand aod arm^ 
brought close to the paper, to bend and screw the upper part of the 
figure over to tbe right with that side of the ctiest in front of the 
other, thus producing again, by muscular acts, a twist and curve of 
the lumbar spine, which after a certain time becomes flxed as a 
morbid cnrve. • • • 

•CDCTaUrearUieSplDe, p. 71. Tbitd £d. LoDdna,lgS9. 

tOuier. UelMTd. GeiandbtUspaegFder ScbUler, p 3J. Wieebaden, leei. 

tOp. dt. pp. 8S,S4, 105. 

Dictized by Google 


Tbus we come to the oonclusioo that lateral uurvatnre, primarily 
lumbar, is the result of c«>rtaia relative positions of pelvis and truok 
produced by various causes. The question naturally arises whether 
these conditions account for all the caaea. I believe not for quite all ; 
yet, except for a small percentage, origiaating in circumstances 
ahortly to be given, I have very rarely failed to detect, when the 
pelvis has been straight and meaial, certain bad habits of writing, 
certain awkward tricks in standing and sitting, which sufflcienlly 
accounted for the curve. • * - 

While writing, the light forearm and hand, which wields the pen, 
lies entirely on the table, while only the left hand at most, some- 
times merely the Sngers, rest upon it. The right shoulder is inclined 
forward, the left one thrown back. The anterior surface of the 
thorax lies oblique to the edge of the table ; but iu this position the 
right shoulder Ilea rather higher than the left. The dorsal apine 
bends rather strongly to the right and the more strongly, the greater 
foe the weight which the pupil throws on the writing arm. 

Another very common position that children assume is compounded 
of a forward stoop and a twist of the body, together with a serpen- 
tine bending of the apine. In such pcatures which, however, are 
not quite as frequently assumed as the previous on«, the right 
shoulder is thrust upward aod backward, the left is lower and more 
forward ; but the shoulders vary their position a good deal, accord- 
ing as the child is writing at the top or bottom of the paper. A 
third, and the most injurious, is to ait with the right side of the 
pelvis nearer the table than the left, to plant the feet fairly and 
. «venly on the ground, to pla<« the left forearm entirely on the table, 
but to bend the upper part of the trunk down, to twist it to the left, 
to stoop the head considerably forwards till it almost reata on the left 
wrist, as though to look between the paper and the writing fingers. 

For assuming these awkward postures it is not ao much the fault 
of the pupil as of school authoritiea for putting desks and seats into 
school- rooms ill adapted to the form and size of pupils, and the 
teaching of atyles of writing that may be said to force pupils into 
faulty attitndea and thus to lay "an architectural foundation for 
OTOokedneas. " (.See "Writing" and "Deaka and Seats.") 

Will the Pupil Outgrow the Deformity?— "It ia a 
deformi<y, then, during achool life and ita tendency, after the 
inirlal stages are past, is to become permanent, fixing upon the child 
an almost irremediable deformity."* 

Doubtless some alight cases do get better without treatment, or 
rather from treatment of the g< neral health alone, hut the very lai^e 
number of severe 6as°s that exist must have had a commeucement, 
and therefore it is evident that the majority of slight cases do not get 
well by themselves. * ■ • • As to the possibility of a 
case getting well by irself, auch a result is ao unlikely that it can 
hardly be otherwise than dangerous to trust to it.f 

Dc. C L Scu 



6, 1891. 

tHDble 8mll 

, Op. dl. 


D,i.i.db, Google 


Prevention. — The maio poitila are : 

1. Farniab the pupil with a deak of proper height, bat aot so 
high that the right arm and shoulder must be raiaed io writing. 
Place the deak close enough to the pnpil that he ma; oot he com- 
pelled to lean forward in using it. Let the pupil's seat be of the 
proper height and ahape and the back-reat support the spine where 
Bopport is most needed. (See "Desks aud Seats.") 

2. Eveu if seated properly, the child iu the school-room is sub- 
jected to an artificial restraint that is irksome and is coupled witb 
danger of physical injury if unduly prolonged. Frequent pauses 
are therefore called for, not only to rest the eye and brain, but by 
active play to enable the muaaalar ays^em to rectify any tendency 
to deformity. 

3. A faulty slope of the characters in the child's copy-book and 
faulty positions of the book itself, lead the papil to twist biraself 
into vicious postures. See, therefore, "Writing" for instruction on 
this point. 

4. Children should not be kept standing too long at a time, as 
at blackboard work, for fatigue leads them to assume faulty posi- 
tions which have a tendency to produce curvature of the spine. 

Ohorea- — Or St. Vitus' dance, ia a disease of the nervous system 
to which school children especially are liable. It often arises 
apparently as a result of unhygienic school conditions and exactions. 
Id a paper on "School-Made Chorea,"* after detailing a aeriea of 
twenty-three cases, nine of which, at least, had a school cause, Dr. 
Sturges, phyaiciau to one of the London hospitals for sick children, 
writes ; — 

Speaking from the evidence, not only of the cases I am now 
quoting, but of very many others precisely similar, it is perfectly 
certain that for a large proportion of chorea, a proportion tha' would 
be under- estimated at one-fourth, achool is responsible; and the 
mode of injury may be classified pretty mucli as follows : (1) Over- 
schooling, where the houra are too long or the lessons (especially 
sums) too hani ^ (2) escitemeut in schooling, especially at enamina- 
tion ; (3) home lessons where there is no home to speak of, or no 
home leisure ; (4) "osning" and other modes of punishment, partic- 
ularly when unmerited. 

The welfare of the school demands that aevere cases shall be 
excluded. When patienia thus affected have continued to attend 
school, the disease has sometimes extended to other pnpils, through 
voluntary or involuntary imitation, resulting in the so-called 

"Lancet,!, 1S9T, p. lis. 

Dictized by Google 


epidemics of St. Vitus' dance. Id mild cases it will decidedly favor 
the recovery of tbe child to remove him from the school for a season 
and give bim tbe freedom of outdoor life. 

Diseases of the Nervous System.— The disturbances of 
the nervous system observed in school children which tbe continued 
work and confinement ot the achool may reasonably be assumed to 
cause, or at least to aggravate, are classified under the general term 
□eurastheia (nervous exhaustiou) . It shows itself by such symptoms 
as exalted seositiveness or irritability, changes of disposition, bead- 
ache, various peripheral neuralgias, palpitation of the heart, sleep- 
lessness and increase inclination to talk in sleep. 

The increase of these trouhiee as pupils advance from class to 
class was fuund in a marked degree by Dr. Nesterofl* in his four 
years' observation of a classical gymnasium tor boys in Moscow. 
Id the preparatory class. 8 per cent, of the pupils were afflicted with 
symptoms referable [o the nervous system. In the eight classes in 
the gymnasium proper the percentage ranged 15, 22, 28, 44, 27. 
68, 64, 69. 

Tbe great increase from tbe lox eat, and especially from the pre- 
paratory class, to the higher classes, is, we may presume, indicative 
of an unfavorable influence of the school life. 

Speaking to the teachers of Massachusetts a few years ago about 
the pupils in the public schools. Dr. C. F. Folaom said: 

Pale faces, languid work, poor appetite, disturbed sleep, bead- 
ache, and what is vaguely called nervousness, are more common 
among them than they should be among children of their ages. I 
doubt whether there is an exaggerated prevalence of manifest or 
well-marked diseases of the nervous system among them. If due lo 
the school drill, my imprei^eioD is that they come for the most part 
later in life, after the children have left school, and because of con- 
etituttons weakened during the school years, instead of strengthened, 
as they should be. The causes of this serious evil lie partly in 
matters which can be, and should be, corrected in the schools, but 
fully as much, if not more, in conditions for which the home and tbe 
parents are responsible. 

Tbe definite defects of evils in our school system seem to me 
chiefly due lo, first, over-pressure beyond the age or strength of the 
pupil ; secondly, to bad air ; and thirdly, to lack of physical exercise. 

But just what part in the production of these troubles in American 
schools is to be charged to injudicious methods in teaching and tbe 
insanitary conditions of school-rooms, and what part to tbe social 
life of the pupils and to heredity does not admit of accurate determi- 
nation and this is hardly needed since we are so often assured that 

Dictized by Google 


the last siraw breaks tb; earners baek. We have to do with a race 
of children more proDe to oervoua disorders tbaa are the childreQ of 
almost any other country, aod this fact should be taken into account 
in determioing bow mach forcing their minds will bear witbotit 

We are told by Daniel Clark, M. D.," SaperinteDdent of one of 
the insatie hospitals of the Froviuce of Quebec that : 

At DO time in the history of the world has education been more 
diffused amotiK the common people, and at no pi'riod have nervous- 
ness, excitability, brain esbaustion, and insanity been ao prevalent. 

It is well to consider, if tiiere exists any connection, and if so. 
faow mucb, between national nervousness and forced pdncation, 
between juvenile brain tension and adult brain debility. It may be 
we are disconntiog the future by forcing mental growth in the young 
beyond the natural capacitj'. 

The nervous, over-strunp;, over-tense brain in one generation 
means low mentality or ill-balanced minds in the next. This is 
Dacure's inexorable law. Tbe only hope there is, lies in the fact 
that the weakest goes to the wall. ''The survival of the fittest" is 
DO Utopian dream, nor acientiats' unfounded dogma. 

Headache. — From a paper on the headaches of children read 
before the International Medical Congress at Washington by Dr. 
W. H. Day of London, the following extracts are made : 

Headaches in the young are of greater significance than in 
adults, and should receive the utmost care in investigating their 
nature and origin. All cases of nervous headache in school children 
cannot be traced to mental strain. If the brain be normal, and the 
general health good, no danger will result from carrying out the 
educational code ; but in weakly and sensitive children the founda- 
tion of serious illness may be laid by enforcirg a degree of intellec- 
tual exertion which a healthy child could bear with impunity. 

Headache is one of the first symptoms that arises. As soon as it 
declares itself the whole aspect of the child is altered, and be is 
engrossed with his own sufferings. Melancholy takes the place of 
cheerfulness. He is kept at work, because his ailment is not 
noticed by his teachers or by hie parents With this state of things, 
the child soon becomes anEemic, loses bis appetite, and the head- 
ache, which at first was occasional, becomes babitual. Dr. Treicbler 
states that one-third of the pupils at Darmstadt, Paris, and Nurem- 
berg sufier rrom t. He considers the cause to be over-intellectnal 
exertion entailing work at night, and taking up a varietj' of subjects. 

The antemia produced in these cases sets up disturbance in the 
ganglion cells of the cortex of the cerebrum, the quality and quantity 
of tiie blood become changed, and the brain loses energy and activity. 
The mind is consequently enfeebled, and the mental faculties are 
clouded. When this is once brought about, children become emo- 
tional and excitable : hence the cerebral vessels become too suddenly 

'Edueallao In RebUoQ to Health, Toronto, p. B. 

Dictized by Google 


filled with blood to bear it with impunity, and this dilatation of the- 
Teasels (local fayperffiinia) , through vasomotor disturbance, is another 
common cause of this form of headache ; the reaeels of the brain 
are partially paralyzed, and the ganglion cells too exhausted to 
grasp new ideas, aa Dr. Treichler observes. 

Of 7,478 boya and girls examined by Prof. Byatroff, in the St. 
- Feterslurft schools, during &ve years, ending ia the spring of 1886, 
he foQDd headache in 868, or in 11.6 per cent. The percentile 
increased with the ages of the children acd with the number of hours 
occupied in study ; thus, it occurred in only five per cent, in children 
eight years of age, while from fourteen to eighteen it Attacked from 
28 to 40 per cent. The author attributes these obstinate beadachea 
in school children to excessive mental labor. 

Similar experience is recorded by Dr. Hertel. He found head- 
aches iniirease as the oldest classes were reached. In the lower 
mixed classes it was 5 per cent. In the two highest classes it rose 
to 38 per cent. This class is the most exposed to headache and 
bleeding at the nose — proofs, as he justly states, that mental work 
favors congestion of the brain, and 1 would add constipation and 
ihe troubles resulling Irora a sluggishness of the bodily functions. 
I am frequently meeting with boys and girls in whom headaches, 
nose bleedings, and muscular twitcbings have followed studious 
application to books. The same holds good with respect to the 
frequency of nervousness and anssmia. 

I am sure that defective ventilation of school-rooms is a most fertile 
cause of headache. If the air of these rooma, or any inhabited 
apartrntn*-, is impure, in consequence of too many persons being 
crowded together, so that the products of respiration or unoleanli'* 
ness from any cause contaminate the almospliere they breathe, it is 
injurious to the health, and the nervous system is sure to suffer. 
• • * It seems to me headache is as often the result of a 
polluted atmosphere as of the lessons imposed upon the pupils." 

Defects of Hearing.— It is now generally rec(^nized that 
normal sharpness of hearing is one of the essential requirements In 
the intellectual development of school children, and this is a suffi- 
cient reason for intereat in any work done with a view to determining 
to what degree hardness of hearing is prevalent in schools. 

Sexton of New York examined S75 school children, of which 13 
per cent were hard of hearing ; W. von Reichard, testing with the 
watch 1,055 pupils of the gymnasium of Riga, found 22.2 per cent. 
with defective hearing. Weil of Stuttgart tested the sense of hear- 
ing in 5,905 scholars of various kinds of schools and found it below 
the normal in from 10 to 30 per cent, of the children, according to 
their social condition. Moure, of Bordeaux, found 17 per cent., 
Gell^ of Paris, 22 to 25 per cent. ; Bezold of Munich, 25.8 per cent. ; 
of pupils with hardness of hearing. 

*TranB. Kintb latemat. Med. QoufOeas, in, 496. 

Dictized by Google 


Tbas it has been ahovn that in the echoola of various countries a 
considerable percentage of the acholars are endeavoring to maintain 
their rank in their claBses under the disadvantage or an impairment 
of the ability to understand the words of the teacher. Many a child^ 
that, on account of a greater or leas degree of hardness of hearing, 
understanda the inBlrnction of the teacher with diiBculty, suffers the 
additional injuatice of being regarded by the teacher as dull and 
inattentive. That thia ia so is shown by the enquiries of Scbmiege- 
low* of Copenh^en, who, among 79 papils regarded by the teachers 
as menUlly not well endowed, found 65 per cent, of them with 
defbctive hearing. 

A degree of bardnese of hearing, interfering more or leas with the 
progress of the pupil may exist without lieing sospected by parents, 
teachers, or by the pnpil himself. Among the 575 pupils examined 
by Sextont there were 13 per cent. o( them hard of bearing, but 
only 3 per cent, were themselves aware of any defect, and only one 
of them was known to be deaf by the teachers. 

Sexton citea instaucea where children defective in hearing, bad 
made great efforts, both at school and at home, to prepare them- 
selves for promotion, only to be put back on examination because 
the principal of the school waa not aware of the child's imperfection, 
and therefore had not given bis questions distinctly enough to be 
heard. Other deaf children, from neglect to classify them, were 
seateil too far away from the teacher's desti to hear his voice, and 
in conseqnencc of the inability to reply correctly were frequently 
punished for inattention and dulneas. The rudeness often prac- 
ticed toward these unfortunate pupils by unthinking or nnsympo- 
thetic teachers was discouraging, and some pupils in consequence 
had left school altogether. 

The disease causing hardness of heaiing in some of these school 
children ia referable to a previous attack of scarlet fever or measles ; 
some of them are probably dependent upon a scrofulous diathesis. 
Bezold demonstrated the presence of the tubercle bacillus in the 
discharge from the ears of some of his caaea. The impairment of 
hearing in these cases is usually permanent and in many of them 
ttiere is a chrouic ear discharge. Other cases of hardness of hearing 
have been brought on by repeated attacks of inflammation of the 

luu Eipoiltloa, Part n, p. 2B2. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


middle ear, oBhsred In with earache and sometimes reenlting in per* 
foration of the drnm bead and a temporary discharge. Many of 
these cases are referable to disease of the naso- pharyngeal carity as 
a standing cause. Draughts from open windows or elsewhere are 
nndoabtedly sometimes chargeable with exciting the attacks. 

Among 450 cases of children's deafness selected by Sexton as 
illnstiative cases, there were ten cases where the ear had been 
severely boxed or pulled, causing rupture or strain of the drnm head, 
and consequent deafness ; thirty-three cases where cold sea-water 
bad passed from tlie mouth np into the dram through the Eustachian 
. tube while the child was bathing in the ocean ; t^ree where water 
was introduced into the drum while snifflng it np into the nose, or 
in using the nasal donche. In thirty-one cases the cause was attrib- 
uted to scarlet fever, in seventeen to measles, in five to diphtheria, 
in four to whooping cough, in one to mumps, and in one to syphilis. 

A medical inspection of school children is very desirable for many 
reasons, and one of the duties of the school physician, where he 
exists, is the determination of the Bharpness of bearing of every 
pupil and the notification of the parents, when cases are found 
requiring treatment. Many of the scholars with moderate degrees 
of hardness of hearing in the absence of timely treatment become 
very deaf later in life. Another indication for the physician or 
teacher is to place the deaf pupil in the most favorable place for 
understanding the words of the teacher, — that is near the teacher, 
and if one ear only hears imperfectly, the sound ear should be 
directed toward the teacher. The testing of the hearing of any 
scholar who appears dull and inattentive, should never l>e omitted. 

Gelle* gives a practical method whereby the teacher may teat the 
acnteness of hearing of the scholars : 

The pupil is placed at one end of the school-room with his back 
turned toward the teacher who dictates in a clear, but not loud voice, 
while the scholar writes. The teacher should begin by standmg first 
at the farther end of the room. If, at that distance, the pupil has 
any difficulty in hearing, the teacher gradually approaches until the 
pupil understands perfectly, which will be shown by his writiug the 
dictated matter correctly and without hesitation. According to the 
distance at which the scholar understands readily, he is ranked and 
placed in the school-room. If. for instance, he hears at a distance 
of fifteen feet only, be is placed within that distance from the 
teacher's desk. 

To insure the distinct and easy nnderstanding of the words of the 
teacher, the number of pupils to one teacher, or In other terms, the 

'OaTiit D'HfSteoa, VII, 010. 

Dictized by Google 


size of the scbool-room should be within reaaooable limits. Dr. 
Barr of Glasgow fixes the largest permissible Dumber of pupils at 
fiftj. Some teacbere. iajudicioua diactpIiDaiians in some lespecte 
as the; are, speak ia too low toaes for the purpose of compelling the 
pupils to be OQ tbe alert for every word, or take the conseqaences. 
This is ODJUBt to the healthy pupil and p.isiiively crnel to the bard 
bearing one, who, under the most favorable circum stances, hears 
with difficulty and only by maintaining a state of mental tension 
almost painful. Distinct enunciation is due from tbe teacher as well 
as from the pupil. To avoid increasing greatly the difficulty of 
bearing, of both pupils and teacber, scbojl buildiags sbould not be 
located on noisy streets 

Nasal and Throat Troubles.— At a meeting of the G-erman 
naturalists and phjsiciana two or three years ago Dr. Bresgen of 
Frankfort-on-the-Maiu, after speaking of tbe unfavorable influence 
of nasal disease in cbildren upon tbe general physical condition, and 
on tbe development of tbe lun^s in particular, gives the following 
sketch of tbe effect of nasal obstruction on the mental aspect of some 
cbildren : 

Tnere are not a few cbildren who apparently have good natural 
abilities, yei, in tbii'ir studies, remain bebiud otber pupiU lesa gifted, 
be it tbal, on account of a feeling of continual pressure in tbe fore- 
head, pain in the tyu' nben studyicgoroft recurring severe headacbe, 
tbey are not able to give sustained attention to the matter to be 
learned, or be it that tlieir memory is affected by their nervous 
troubles. Such cbildren are usually tbe victims of an injustice for 
they are reproached for laziness and inattention which tbey neces- 
sarily feel to be undeserved. At &rst tbey strive again and again to 
make up tbe deficiency, but their affliction prevents IbecQ from 
carrying out tbeir good intentions. It tbey complain of their trouble, 
they receive but iitlle sympatby ; it ia only aanufBng! Even tbe 
pbysician too often attacbes bat little importance to a chronic ; 
catarrh. But the cure of this "snutting" often works wonders. 
The formerly apparently lazy and inattentive cbildren are changed 
ae with a magic stroke, and, if the help is timely and tbey ire other- 
wise well, they quickly recover tbeir lost ground.* 

Guye, of Amsterdam, gives the history of four marked cases ol 
tbe kind to which Dr. Bresgen baa referred. Three of tbeae cases 
were students ; one was obliged to go over three or four limes what 
be read Id oider to understand it ; another would forget in two 
weeks everything he bad learned in preparing for examinaii 

Dictized by Google 


another when eoteriDg a room IVoni the street could not for & con- 
siderable time understand the simplest thing told him.* 


It IB an nudeniable fact that the schoolB often serve as the medium 
for spreading communicable diseases, and, still further, it may be 
said that many school epidemicsofia'ectious diseases are the result 
of parental heedlessness. To permit a child to attend school while 
there is any reason to believe or suspect that be is in a condition 
to communicate infection to his fellow pupils, is a serious mis- 
demeanor. What is the loss of a fen days of schooling to a single 
child as compared with the Berious conaequences which sometimes 
follow the continued school attendaace of a child with a "diphtheritic 
sore throat," or the return to school at too early a date, of one who 
has had an attack of scarlet fever? 

We believe that a clear comprehension of when a child may 
reasonably be thought or suspected to be infectious, would, with 
almoBt all parents, be all that would be required to influence them 
to observe suitable precautions against spreading infection. With 
even a small minority, it is a shame to say, that the penalty which 
the law provides for the followiug sections of Chapter 123, Laws 
of 1887 is required to quicken their sense of moral responsibility. 

Sect. IS. No parent, guardian, or other person, shall carelessly 
carry about children or others, affected with intectious diseases, or 
knowingly or wilfully introduce infectioua persons into other persons' 
houses, or permit such children under bis care, to attend any school, 
theatre, church or any public place. 

It should here be obBerved that it is not always necessary that a 
child shall himself have an infectious disease to become "infectious." 
Not having bad the disease himself he may, nevertheless, be the 
carrier of infection if he comes from a house containing cases of 
infectious diseases. 

Sect. 10. Whenever any householder knows or has reason to 
believe that any person within his family or household has small-pox, 
diphtheria, scarlet fever, cholera, typhus or typhoid fever, he shall 
within twenty-four hours give notice thereof to the health officer of 
tfae town in which he resideB. and such notice shall be given either 
at the office of the health officer or by a communication addressed 
to him and duly mailed within the time above specified, and in case 
there is no health officer, to the secretary of the local board of 
health either at hia office or by communicatiou as aforesaid. 



Sect. 13. Whenever any pbyeician kuows or has reason to 
believe that uny person irhom be is called upon to visit is infected 
with small-pos, scarlet fever, diphtheria, typhus or typhoid fever, 
or cholera, such physician shall frithin t<venty-four hours give notice 
thereof to the secretary of the local board of health, or the health 
officer of the town in which such person lives. 

Sections 19 and 20 make important provisions for the public safety 
by prescribing certain duties of the local board of health and of the 

Sect. 19. Whenever small-pox, diphtheria, scarlet fever or other 
contagious disease shall appear in a town or a school district it shall 
be the duty of the local board of health immediately to notify the 
teachers of the public schools in the neighborhood, of the fact, and 
it shall be the duty of all teachers and school ofHcers when thus 
notified, or when otherwise they shall know or have good reason to 
believe that any such disease exists in any house id the neighbor- 
hood, to exclude from the school-house al! children and other persons 
living in such infected houses or who have called or visited at such 
houses, until snch time as the local board of health (or attending 
physician) shall certify that such children or other persons may 
safely be readmitted. 

Sect. 20. When pentons from houses or places which are infected 
with any of the diseases specified in section nineteen have entered 
any school-room, or when, from any other cause, the schoot-room 
has probably become infected, it shall be the teacher's duty to dis- 
miss the school, and notify the school officers and local board of 
health, and no school shall be again held in such school-room until 
the room bas been disinfected to tbe satisfaction of the local board 
of health, and it shall be the duty of the school ofBcers and board 
of health to have the room disinfected as soon as possible. 

It will be tbe purpose of the following paragraphs to indicate those 
diseases which, in the school-room, should be considered infectious 
or contagious, to give a few of their more prominent characteristics, 
from a prophylactic point of view, and very briefly to suggest pre- 
cautionary measures. (See Circular of State Board of Health, 
"Form 53, Characteristics of the Infectious Diseases" for the use of 
teachers, school offlcera and other persona.) 

Diphtheria. — If school epidemics of this disease are not usually 
characterized by sweeping so rapidly through the school population 
as some other diseases, measles for instance, it fully makes up in 
seiiousness by its "staying" qualities. School-rooms and children's 
clothing, once infected, do not spontaneously lose their infectiousness 
so readily as they do when ihe infection is of some other kinds, 
heuoe it is a part of the history of many school epidemics of this 
disease that cases appear again and again after it has been eonfi- 

Dictized by Google 


dently hoped th&t the last of the oatbreak h&d been seen. The 
exclusioB from the school-rooni should be fthsolate. not only of 
persons with do matter how slight a form of the disease, but as the 
infection ia transportable in clothing or on other articlea, all persons 
and things that have been exposed to the Infection should be rigor- 
ously excluded. After children have had the disease, trustworthy 
assurances should be bad that efficient diaiufection and other needful 
precautionary measures have been taken before they are readmitted. 
In no disease are half-way methods of disiulection more frequently 
disastrous thau with diphtheria. The disinfection should be thorough, 
done with agents of whose efllciency there is no doubt, and the desks 
aud seata at which it is known or suspected that infectious pupils 
have sat should be well scrubbed with a liqaid disinfectant. (Sec 
Circular of State Board of Health "Form 44, Diphtheria.") 

Scarlet Fever. — A medical name for it ia scarlatina, and pop- 
ularly it is called "scarlet rash," "canker rash," and "rash." All 
should be understood as indicating one and the same iufectious 
diseasp, ihoQgh some cases may be'extremely mild and others very 
severe; though the three must striking symptoms, fever, eruption, 
and throat symptoms, may one or more be hardly perceptible, or 
absent, or all may be prominent. These mild cases of scarlet fever 
are a greater menace to the schools than the severe ones, because 
their true character is often unrecognized by parents and teachers, 
or the idea prevails that the disease is so mild that it ia needless to 
keep it from other children, a sentiment that the Prince of Mischief 
must heariily approve. When scarlet fever or diphtheria ia abroad, 
every trace of sore throat should be regarded with suspicion. 

The infection from the mildest cases ofteu reproduces the disease 
in others in its malignant form. The averf^e high death ra^e from 
this diaease is not the whole extent of its mischief, for many of its 
little victims are left as only feeble mementoes of their former selves. 
The ear especially is likely to suffer injury. 

In seventeen cases of acquired deaf mutism examined by Dr. 
Clarence J. Blake,* thirteen were traceable to scarlet fever or 
measles and eleven to scarlet fever alone. There is therefore every 
reason for carefully guarding the fchoots from this disease, and an 
added one may be found in the fact that, with every added year of 
bis life, the pupil loses somewhat both of his susceptibility to the 

•Boston Medlul and Surgloot Joanna, LXXXni, p. 401. 

Dictized by Google 


disease and the danger of being severely injured b; it if he should 
take it. (See "Form 45, Scarlet Fever.") 

Measles- — Tbia disease is intensely infections and its rapid 
spread in schools is greatly aided by the fact that it is infections 
three or four days before the eruption appears, during which time 
the patient appears to have only acommoD ootd in the head. Hence 
tbe necessity of keeping all persons from the school of whom there 
is a suspicion that he is abont to come down with measles. Persons 
irom Infected honses should be excluded because the infection is 
transportable in clothing. Local boards of health, school ofBce.-s, 
and teachers have ample anthority under our law to take such pre- 
cautionary measures as may be needed against tbe spread of this 
disease. (See "Form 50, Contagious Diseases and Contagion.") 

Whooping Oougrh.— This is too generally regarded as an 
insignificant disease hardly calling for care on the part of parenU or 
precautionary measures OQ the part of local boards of health and 
teachers. It is not an insignificant disease. The death rate some- 
times attending it should be sufficient to awaken the public to their 
error if it were not so hard to lift tbe popular train of thought out 
of a rut. 

According to the statistics of the Austrian department of public 
health 33,975 children died of whooping congh in 1883. Similar 
statistical data were given by Prof. Hagenbach for Grermany at one 
of the late congresses for internal medicine. According to him, 
there are abont 250,000 cases of whooping cough yearlyi which, 
with a mortality of 7.6 per cent., as given by Biermer, makes 19.000 
deaths from this disease. In our own State physicians have found 
the disease serious enough in many outbreaks to make them regret the 
epaihy of the public as regards this disease, and to hope carelessness 
with it may not always prevail. Children with this diaease should be 
kept from school, and those with any Lough as well, until it is known 
whether the coughing is a percursor of whooping cough. 

Botheln, or Qerman Measles, has no relationship to 
measles, and an attack of one disease affords no proiectioa against 
tbe other. The eruption of riitheln slightly resembles that of 
measles, but it is not characterized by sympioms of a cold in the 
bead. (See Circular No. 53, "Characteristics of the Infectious 
Diseases ") 

Ohicken-Pox occupies a place of interest not all its own from 
the fact that cases of varioloid, or modified small-pox, sometimes so 

Dictized by Google 


closel^r resemble cbicken-pox, that the eerious character of the icfec- 
tion is entirely unsuspected. 

Mumps U a. disease serious enough to be escluded from the 

Tuberculosis.— Since it was satisfactorily shown a few years 
ago that tubercular infection in the great majority of cases, comes 
about by breathing in the infectioo of tuberculous sputum that has 
become dried and dusted into the air, s large number of school 
authorities of Europe have established rules like these : — 

1. Neither teachers nor scholars shall spit upon the floor, but, 
when necessary, must spit into properly shaped and placed spit- 
toons, or into Dettweiler flasks. 

2. Care shall be taken against raising a dust Id the school-room. 
Floors shall be swept aud furniture dusted in the moist way. 

3. The teacher shall see that scholars coughing much shall observe 
rule one. 

4. Scholars with lung diseases shall stay away from school, both 
to avoid endangeriag their schoolmates and to hasten their own 
recovery . 

The tubercle bacillus may be plentifully present in the expectora- 
tioD before there are otherwise clear signs of a case ol consumption, 
and Dr. Deitweiler* reminds us that sometimes in the schools, 
especially in the higher grades, consumptive pupils sit at their desks 
among other pupils for months and even for years unconscious of 
wrong or of danger to others, nevertheless, constituting a focus of 
infection for their fellow pupils. The investigations of Cornet show 
how free from danger to others is the presence of the consumptive 
patient when the sputum is properly disposed of, and bow dangerous 
a source of infectioa he becomes when he coughs and spits upon the 
floor or in his pocket handkerchief. He strongly recommends, 
therefore, that schools be furnished with spittoons of proper shape, 
and that it be the law of the school that there be no spitting on the 
floors of the school-rooms and corridors, nor on the stairs. 

In the International Congress of Hygiene held in Paris in 1889 
Dr. Landouzy said, in the course of the discussion on tuberculosis 
in schools, that it must be decided whether the tuberculous child or 
the school which it attends is to he protected. All suspicious chil- 
dren must be examined by a physician. The duration of the trouble 
and the localization of the tuberculous disease should be taken into 


iNFEcrrous wseases. 137 

consideration. Only tuberculosis of the lungs makes the exduaion 
from school imperative." 

Infectious Eye Diseases. — Infectious diseases of the eye 
may spread from person to person in the familj-, or from pupil lo 
pupil in the schools, eventuating sometimes in troublesome epidemics. 
Outbreaks of this kind sometimes occur in our own schools but are 
heard of more Ireqoently in foreign schools. For insiance, a few 
years ago an epidemic spread over the schools of Turin and drove 
many of the school children Irom the city to escape it, and many of 
the remainder were under medical treatment for months. In Modena, 
another Italian town, the disease nearly broke up the schools and 
extended out into the country. 

In the winter of 1890-91, an epidemic of inflammation of the eyes 
{follicular conjunctivitis) reigned in Dresden, which affected 10,000 
school children, seriously interrupted school work several months, 
and cost the city 27,000 marks. It began with a few cases in a 
single school, and spread rapidly to other schools. Dr. Krugf 
physician to the public schools, gives the following explanation of 
the ways in which the disease was spread : — 

Several factors may have worked together in the causation of the 
epidemic. It may be assumed that the school-room air and the 
over strained condition of the scholars' eyes may have served to 
create a predisposition to the disease. Supposing, then, that the 
infection was brought into the school by a few children, it was soon 
communicated to their neighbors. It is probable that the tears, 
which, in the beginning of the disease were plentiful, contained the 
infeciioD, at anj' rate this was true of the mucous discharges from 
the eye. The infectious discharges coming upon the fingers, the 
clothing, the books, the school desks, pocket handkerchiefs, dried 
and became pulverized. 

Thus the school-bouse was filled with the infectious dust whether 
the infection itself was in the form of Michel's diplococcus or not. 
The infection, furthermore, was carried into private bouses, and 
finally into thickly inhabited quarters, so that the whole lociility was 
seeded down and the miasmatic element is present. Thus only can 
we explain why a school across the fields, at a distance of more than 
half a mile, and with no communication with the infected ones in 
the other schools, became infected soon after the disease bad reached 
its highest point in the other schools. 

All children who have an inflammation of the eye (conjunctivitis) 
with any discharge, whether mucous or purulent, should be regarded 
with suspicion. Children who suffer with this disease and their 

Dictized by Google 


gaardiaiis shonld be waroed of its contagions oatare, and tlie children 
should be instructed not to come in contact or to play with Other 
children. They sbould wash their hands carefully with soap and 
water as soon as possible after they have touched their own eyes, 
and should not nse the same towels that are used by others, bat 
have one of their own. Children affected with this disease ebonld 
be excluded from the schools. 

In the school-room good ventilation opposes the spread of the 
infection and the want of Tentilation favors its spread. Cleanliness 
of the schocl-room and its fumitnre, and especially the absence of 
dust, are important. 

If there appears to be danger of an epidemic prevalence, the 
schools should be closed, and the schoolrooms should be disinfected 
before the schools are again opened. 

Period of Incubation. — With the infectious diseases gen- 
erally, a period of time elapses between the reception of the infection 
in the system and the beginnin'g of the train of symptoms which is 
characteristic of the disease. This we call the period of incubation. 
The period of incubation varies greatly in different diseases, and to 
some extent in difierent cases of the same disease; nevertbeleas a 
knowledge of its usual duration is often of great use in helping to 
determine the nature of a given case or outbreak. For instance, an 
outbreak of "some kind of a rash" was lately reported in a school. 
The first case unfortunately exposed the school to infection. Within 
seven days six other cases occarred as the result of this exposure. 
The period of incubation of scarlet fever is comparatively short, 
rarely longer than five or six days ; while that of measles is about 
eight days and that of German measles is about two weeks or more. 
As one could expect, the outbreak was decided to be scarlet fever. 
The most usual periods of incubation are shown in the following, 
though it should be borne in mind that rather rarely the time given 
for each disease may be shorter or may be longer than here given : 

Diphtheria, from two to seven days. 

Scarlet fever, ftom two to five days. 

Measles, alx>ut eight days. 

German measles, from fourteen to twenty days. 

Small-pox, from ten to twelve days. 

Ch cken-pox, from thirteen to fourteen days. 

Whooping cough, about six days. 

Mumps, ftom fourteen to iwenty-one days. 

Dictized by Google 


It shonld be remembered th&t the period of iacubation is reckoned 
to the first Bymptoms of the disease, not to tbe appearance of the 
rash in the eruptive diseases, doc to the characteriattc coagh in 
whooping Goagh. 

Period of Invasion. — Another stage in the emptive diseases 
is the period of invasion, extending from the earliest symtoma to the 
appearanc-e of the eruption. Aa this also varies nith different diseases, 
its duration, in a given case of dieeaae, is often significant. The fact 
that in scarlet fever it ie shorter than in measles, in G-erman measles 
shorter than in measles, and in chicken-pox shorter than in small- 
pos, is an important bJlp in distinguishing these diseases, the one 
from ihe other. The usual periods of invasion of the eruptive dis- 
eases are as follows : 

Scarlet fever, from one to two days. 
Measles, about four days. 
German measles often not more than one day. 
Small' pox, from two to three days. 
Chicken-pox, a few hours. 
Period of Infectiousness with DieinflBction.— Provided 
satisfactory disinfection has attended and foiiowed the case, the 
length of time during which a child who has had an infeciions disease 
should be considered dangerous to other children and during which 
he should therefore be excluded from bis school may be stated as 
follows for the various diseases : 

Diphtheria. The child should not re-enter the school before three 
or four weeks, even after mild cases. 

Scarlet fever is infections at least as early as the eruption appears 
and continuous so as long as there remains the slightest evidence of 
scnrfinees, or desquamation. The last traces of this process are 
QBually found on the hands and feet. In ordinary cases it is not 
safe to re-admit the child into the school until six or eight weeks 
have passed. Id some cases desquamation is more prolonged than this. 
Measles. From two to four weeks. 

German measles. Should not return to the school earlier than 
two weeks from the appearance of the rash. 

Small-pox. Infectious until the last trace of crust has been cleared 
from the skin and hair. 
Chicken-pox. Infectious until all scabs have disappeared. 
Mumps. Infection lasts for at least three weeks after the swell- 
ing of the glands. 

Dictized by Google 


Biogworm. Shoald not Telurn to school antil some time arter all 
signs of active growth have ceased. 

Period of InfectiouBness without DiBinfection.— 
When disinfection has been omilted or has been unsatisfactory to 
the local board of health, the period of infectiousness is much pro- 
longeil, — with diphtheria, scarlet fever, and small-pox, the danger 
period is indeSaitelj' prolonged. In such cases, the periods of 
isolation recommended b; the Academj of Medicine of Paris would 
be at least short enough, to wit : For small-pox, scarlet fever, and 
diphtheria, forty days. 

iBOlation. — The length of time during which a child who has had 
an infecliouB disease should be kept from others who are liable to 
take the disease, and especially should be excluded from the schools, 
should depend upon the length of the period of infectiousness for 
the particular disease. If, however, subsequent cases occur in the 
same bouse, the first case cannot be safely readmitted until the 
period of infeciiousness for the later cases has passed and the final 
disinfection has l>eeD done. 

If the question of isolation relates to a child who has been exposed 
to infection and who is likely to come down with the disease, it is 
needful to exclude him from the schools a little longer than the 
period of incubation for the disease in question, counting from the 
time of last exposure, say eight days if the disease ia scarlet fever. 
If he then remains well be may re-enter the school, observing the 
necessary precantions against wearing infected clothing. 

Disinfection. — In the disinfection of school-rooms, sick-rooms, 
. and clothing, it ia unwise to trust wholly to fumigation with sulphur, 
for, when we do, there are good reasons to doubt whether the disin- 
fection has been thorough. If, however, clothing has been boiled 
half an hour or more, there is no doubt of the efficacy of its disinfec- 
tion, and in the school-room the fumigation should be supplemented 
by scrubbing infected furnitnre and floors with a liquid disinfectant. 
(See circulars of State Board of Health.) 

It is a faulty practice, however, to defer all disicfeciion nntil the 
termination of the illness. Disinfection should go hand in hand 
with the other work ot the nurse as a part of the daily sick room 
duties. Every piece of bed or body clothing taken off should be put 
into a disinfecting solution, or wrapped in a wet sheet and boiled 
half an hour at least. No article should leave the room escaping 
disinfection ; then tlje final job of disinfection will be comparatively 
light and there will be a great gain in precision of results. 

:v Google 


For the disinfectioo of books do trustworthy method has ;et been 
BU^GBted that will not spoil the books. It 's andoubtedty a wiaer 
ecoDomy for the town to born the few books that have been used by 
infectious pupils, than to have them used agaia without disinfectioa 
or with doubtful disinfectioD. 

The Olosure of Schools. — The closure of schools as one of 
the Qrst measureH to be thought of against the spread of outbreaks 
of the infectious diseases generally is unnecessary and not to be 
recommended. Rather the provisions of the l^w, as given on page 
— , should be carefully carried out. As regards measles, however, 
a reasonable excuse for closing the schools occurs, perhaps, more 
frequently than with any other disease. Its infecti( usness long 
before the appearance of the eruption, and while pupils present ouly 
the symptoms of an ordinary cold, make it more difficult to discover 
and exclude infections scholars in season to avoid the spread of the 
disease to othera. Many of the English health officers have expressed 
the opinion that it is impractloabte to check the spread of this dis- 
ease in the schools without the temporary closure of them ; for 
iastance, Dr. Walford,* medical officer of health of Cardifl, encount- 
ered an extensive epidemic of measles in his district. The schools 
were doted from the tenth of December until the seventh of Janu- 
ary. During the three weeks previous to the closure of the schools 
seventy-aix cases occurred, and during the three weeks following 
tbe reopening of the schools but three cases occurred and from that 
time to the end of March there were no fresh cases 

Dr. Walford says : I am aware that it is frequently stated that, 
on the closure of the schools, childreo will play together in the 
streets, and meet in houses, and that the epidemic will thus spread 
still more. Doubtless under these circumstances there is a prob- 
ability of some infected children coming in contact with healthy 
ones, but the danger of spreading the infection must be inflnitely 
greater when a large number of children are congregated together 
for hours in over-crowded and badly -ventilated school-rooms. 

Danger to the Oonvalescent from too Barly Return 
to School. — Fareots should be iiistructed as to tbe dangers to the 
child bimself when he is returned to school too early after illness. 
The brain work involved in close application to studies is as exhaus- 
tive as any other work. After even a mild attack of scarlet fever 
or diphtheria, there is a decided liability to dangerous failure of 
vital processes. Sudden deaths often occur some weeks after con- 
valescence from these diseases, — deaths that in most of the cases 

< SBBlMTf B«uonl, X, lU. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


might have been avoided by meaos ol a longer period of ccoSaemeat 
to the bed or to the home. Afterscarlet fever, meaalea or diphtheria, 
the eyea often giv^ ont, as the resolt of a prematnre return to books, 
and sometimes reqaire months or years of rest to restore them. 
Strabismus or sqnint is a well known aeqnel of diphtheria, favored 
by too early return to school work. 

After snch febrile states as plague this commuDity in the form of 
measles, suarlatiaa, diphtheria, typhoid, and others, the whole body, 
and especially the nervous system, is left in a state of "irritable 
weakness," a state which maj' be prolonged, nay, even much exag- 
gerated, by the evil referred to. The child may appear healthy and 
well very shortly after the fever has gone, and education is resumed, 
ending often in a relapsed and weakened condition of the unlucky 
child. In some cases, indeed, the intelligence may gradually dis- 
appear, and leave but the ".ormless ruin of oblivion." The one 
great fact to bear in mind for the avoidance of such disastrous resnlts 
in these cases is the due observance of suffleient rest after con- 


Cleanliness.— There should be a firm inaiatence on the cleanli- 
ness of the child and his clothing, for, as in our public schools, all 
are for the time being, at least, supposed to be on terms of social 
equality, it is unjust to the cleanly child to be forced to associate 
with those whose clothing yields unpleasant emanations. In some 
schools much of the vitiation of the air is due to uncleanly clothing 
and the want of the bath for the whole body. In Circular 76 of the 
New Jersey State Board of Health, Dr. Hunt tells ne : — 

A plain talk on "Mouth Cleansing and a Sweet Breath" is 
seasonable in an opening term. The same is true as to all spittle. 
It is probable that not only diphtheria but other forms of aore throat 
are communicated by dried particles tliereirom. The same is true 
aa to most of the eraptive diseases and as to whooping cough. It is 
now claimed that consumption and even pneumonia may be com- 
municated to susceptible persons in this way. School children 
should be forbidden to spit on the door. G-irls do live without it, 
and boys ought to. One or two spittoons with water in should be 
allowed in each school room, to which those should be allowed to go 
who have to spit. They must be cleansed each day. 

Food. — To enable school children to apply themselves to their 
school tasks with credit to their parents and with future profit to 
themselves, an abundance of good nutritious food is required. The 

Dictized by Google 


child is the embocliment of activity, — mascaiar and nervous energy 
are expended with a prodi)i;ality that would be rninoas were it not 
for the fact that the vegetative functione are correspondingly active. 
In addition to the consumption of nntritive material necessary to the 
evolutioD of moBCular and brain force, growth and development nlust 
go on. The child, therefore, must have a proportionally larger 
supply of food ihan is needed by the adult. From the digestive 
organs the food enters, what may cot inaptly be termed an witomati* 
cally regulated irrigation system which, when normally working, 
supplies every oi^an of the body and every tissue with the newly 
received nutritive material in such qaantities and at such times as 
are required, and, moreover, takes up and transports material worn 
out by the activity of these organs and tissues. 

This self regulating supply if nutritive material to the tissues of 
the child may be the subject of unfavorable disturbances due to the 
-voluntary acts of the child himself, or to activities or restraints 
imposed by others. Some of the conditions essential to the best 
nutrition of the child, we now note together with some of the causes 
of disturbance. 

The food of school children should be abundant. As to Just the 
quantity needed, the desire of the child is a safe guide so long as 
the dishes are plain. During school mQnths there is probably more 
frequently need of coaxing the appetite of school children than of 
restraining it. 

Many children show a dislike for certain kinds of fatty foods. 
The fats and oils are a very essential part of the food supply, both 
of adults and of children, and they should be supplied in such forms 
as are relished. Butter, cream, and milk rich in cream, are good 
sources of fatty foods, but need not exclude others that are accept- 
able to the palate. It is a mistaken and pernicious notion held by 
some persons that fatty food is harmful to children. 

Tea, Gotlee, beer, and other stimulants, should be wholly excluded 
from the dietary of young children. 

Relish is a guarantee to a certain extent that the food in question 
is adapted to the wants of the system and that it will be readily 
digested, or perhaps, a safer statement of this truth is, that food 
eaten without pleasure is not so likely to be beneficial to the system. 

Food should not be restricted to a purely vegetable diet, but 
meats and other animal products should be given in moderation 
together with the cereals, vegetables and fruits. 

Dictized by Google 


A moderate supply of aweet things is useful ia the economy of 
the child, bat it is better taken in forms other than that of 

Dr. Fothergill* asys : "There is, however, much reason to iiope 
that^round cereals and milk will again become Ihe favorite food for 
children, and that the taste for fate will be revived. When that 
day arrives, the death-rat« from tubercle especially among the young, 
will be materially lowered." 

Variety in food is no mere Insury. During the school months, 
especially, the appetite of many school children must be pampered 
and tempted or they will not thrive. 

It is untorlunatety the habit of some young ladies to eat only 
about half as much as sound health and decent school work require. 
Dr. Groflf once observed that the young ladies in a female seminary 
made very little progress in their studies, when the answer came 
quickly, "What more could yon expect, remembering what they have 
to eat? I suspect this evil is a general one in homes and schools. 
Bread and coffee is not enough to start the day upon if much work 
is to be done." 

If under fed children are overburdened with school tasks it wilt 
be at the risk of stunting bodily growth. 

Ill fed children are not always the children ot the poor. Sensible 
and thrifty persons, the owners of horses and oiher animals, are 
careful to supply that kind of feed the most readily convertible in 
the desired returns, whether speed, draught or butcher's meat. It 
is doubtful whether these classes have equally correct views in 
regard to the feeding of children. Rich pastry, cakes and pickles 
is not the bind of food from which to expect sound physical health, 
healthy growth, and normal mental action. 

Active digestion and uard study are antagonistic. A diversion of 
the blood supply to the brain daring school work interferes with the 
digestion of a meal partaken immediately before the undertaking of 
the work, and, vice versa, a hearty meal eaten just befcre the begin- 
ning of scliool work naturally Inclines to drowsiness instead of to 
mental activity. 

The same antagonistic working exists between active digestion and 
active muscular exercise. 

There exist, therefore, sound physiological reasons against too 
brief noonings. An hour and a half is better as a noon intermission 

Dictized by Google 


between the forenooo and afternoon aessionB than one hour, bnt two 
hoars ia still belter. 

Clothing for School Ohildren.— The normal temperature 
of the body ia about 98' F. and within the limits of health the body 
heat cao vary hardiv more than one degree. Although the heat of 
the body U, within certain boonds. automaticaUj regulated, clothing 
is needed as an auxiliary equalizer of temperature,— that ia, at times 
the body must be insured against the too rapid loss of heat, and at 
other times against the too vigorous action of external heat. While 
Bubserviog these purpoees the clothing must be permeable so aa not 
to interfere too much with the transpiration through it of those 
exhalations which are given off by the skin and which are prejudicial 
to health if retained. As aAawering all these requirements more 
completely than any other, woolen ia the best material for clothing. 
For underwear it is the preferable material not only in winter bnt 
in summer as well. In cold weather wool retains the bodily heat 
much better than cotton or linen, and in hot weather a light, porous- 
flannel conducts the perspiration from the skin mo e rapidly, and 
thas does not become so saturated with water and so impermeable 
as cotton or woolen. In making the changes, therefore, from 
winter to aummer wear, it ia better lo make a change simply in 
weight and thickness of goods and not f^om woolen to cotton or 

In our climate it is perilous to make the permanent change from 
cold weather clothing to warm weatber clothing early in the spring. 
Serious sickness Is very often the result of ao doing. Further 
requisites in the clothing of scholars are uon -restriction of the free- 
dom of movement, absence of pressure, the least possible weight 
compatible with necessary warmth, and equal distribution over the 

The clothing should not be supported by bauds abont the waist. 
Unless its weight is borne by the shoulders, it should fall on the 
hips themselves and not be suspended from bands, cords, or belts 
around the body just above the hips. 

Impermeable clothing, such as waterproofs, rubbers and rubber 
boots, should be worn as little as possible, and teachers should not 
permit children to sit in school with these articles of clothing on, 
nor with mufflers or wraps about the neck. No pupil should be 
allowed to sit in school with wet clothing or wet feet. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


The great need of remoring all iiDpeiliments to the sncceBeluI 
caltlvatioD of the phyeical powers of oar school girls ati well as of 
onr boja is an apol gy for the two next paragraphs. 

The story of the evils of corset wearing has been told so oftea 
with sncb a meager showing of good results that it might well be 
deemed fntile to retell it were it not for the enconroging fact that 
health and that true style of beauty which is aa exponenl of health, 
is becoming f ashiooable among onr girls. The well-wisher of his race 
notes with satisfaction that the young woman of the present day is tak- 
ing more to outdoor life and to exercise in the fresh air. She enjoys, 
and it is becoming the fashion for her to enjoy riding, walking, 
rowing, bicycliog, lawn tennis, and school games and gymnastics, 
and not to be handicapped in the competition with her brother, she 
learns that there is an absolnte necessity for the adoption of rational 
styles of clothing. Her own experience in games and spoils reqair- 
iug physical exercise, has a tendency to teach her that one of the 
first requirements in rational clothing is the QOD-interfereDce with 
the free movements of the body. The limbs must be unimpeded in 
their action, and those vital organs, the lungs, the heart, and the 
blood vessels, must have free play, for upon this depends the success 
and the safe endurance of sharp competitive exercises, or of pro- 
longed physical exertion. 

The comparative weakness and breathlessoess of the girl as com- 
pared with the boy is not so much an intrinsic difference of sex, 
as it is a diRerenti&tion imposed by defective physical culture and 
by irrational styles of dress that interfere with physical exercise. 
Of all articles of dress, to be banished from the wardrobe of the 
school girl, the corset should be first. It interferes not only with 
the full action of heart and luogs, but also with the free use of the 
muscles of the abdomen, back, chest and arms. Some of the modern 
stylish, and nevertheless hygienic substitutes should be adopted. 

A German medical nutborlty shows that the corset restricts the 
breathing capacity from tweniy to thirty-four per cent., or in twelve 
honrs]robs the wearer of the equivalent of 1,152 inspirations. An 
American physician has shown that the lung capacity of the corset 
wearer is lessened by 200 ccm. Physical culture among our school 
girls will be lai^ely a failure until they adopt the cry, "/oi-t mit dem 
Korsett," as has been done in some of our high schools and colleges 
for young women, thanks to the good advice of their gymnasium direc- 
tors and the sound sense of the students themselves. It is told of 



the late eminent sarKeon Mr. Cline. a teacher of Sir Astley Cooper, 
that when be was ixiDsulted by a ladj on the question bow she 
sbonld prevent a girl from groiring up misshapen, he replied, "Let 
her have no stays, and let her run about like the boys," and Dr. 
Richardson who quotes the above adds, ■-! gladly rcecbo the wise 
advice of the great surgeon." 

Sleep. — The amoant of sleep needed by children is in inverse 
proportion to their ages, and in direct proportion-to tbeir mental and 
muscular activity. Tbua, the younger the scholar is, and the more 
actively be exercises mind and t)ody, the more sleep he requires. 
During the whole period of growth the child needs a longer night's 
sleep than does the adult. Many parents appear to be entirely 
anmindful of this fact, and the requirements of some schools which 
necessitate or encourage much home study equally disregard one of 
the prime requirements for the present and future welfare of the 

Newsholme* states *hat the average amount of sleep required by 
school children at : 

4 years old is \2 hour^. 
7 '• 11 " 

9 " 10 " 

12-14 " 9-10 •' 

14-21 " 9 

He remarks tbat "the regulation of children's sleep is a matter 
which chiefly lies with parents, and tbey may greaily help the school 
teacher by attention to it. It is unfortunate tbat growing boys and 
girls are, especially in winter, so frpquently taken to concerts or 
other evening meetings. No wonder that they appear next morning 
at school with dark rings about tbeir eyes, and generally incapac- 
itated for mental application," 

An investigation made by the Swedish Commission in ten schools 
in various parts of the kingdom, showed that those scholars whose 
period of sleep was sboiter than the average for the whole school 
had 2.5 per cent, more sicliness than those who had oiorp than the 
average amount of sleep. This same Commission cl o<n-< for boys 
often years, from ten to eleven hours of bleep and lot iboseof 
eighteen, eight and a half hours. For girls it calls for from • It vc a 
to twelve hours sleep in their earlier school year?, and from nine to 
ten hours for those seventeen and eighteen years of age. 

'SchooJ Efgietle, p. »2. LondoB, U9T. 

Dictized by Google 


It appears to be eetsblished that more sleep is needed in winter 
than in sununer, and that the children of northerly climes need more 
sleep than those of warmer conntries. 

The general symptoms which indicate the wearing influence of 
deficient Bleep vary with the age of the sleeper. In the child too 
little sleep induces symptoms of restlessneae, peevishness, weariness 
at play, emaciation, indigestion, and great pallor of the face and 
surface of the body. The enjoyments of the waking hours are cur- 
tailed, and a dulness which, by thoughtless persons, is commonly 
mistaken for actual stupidity, marks every effort at lesson or at 
play. These symptoms are Followed by an inability to go to steep 
at the natural time and by the occurrence of an unnatural, startled, 
dreamy sleep when the eyes are, at length, closed. The activity of 
the brain is thus maintained in the dream and another cause of nerv- 
ous exhaustion is hereby supplied. The man who dreams does but 
half sleep ; the child who dreams hardly sleeps at all. 

I have said that no distinct name can be given to the indefinite 
clabs of fiymploms which are encouraged and sustained by sleepless- 
neas ; but, indefinite as they are, every watchful mother knows their 
import in the child. They are the beginnings of a restless, fever- 
ish, easily impressiouable, easily exhausted life. 

In adolescents, even if they be, naiurnlly, of sound constitution 
and firm build, deficient e!e&p is a persistent source of mental and 
bodily eshaustion. It induces pallor, muscular debility, i estl'essness 
and irritability. It interferes with that natural growth and nutrition 
of the body to which sound sleep so beneficently ministers, and it 
makes the work and the pleasure of the wakeful day unduly heavy 
and laborious. 

These remarks apply to members of both the sexes, but tbey 
specially apply to girls. The anaemia, bloodlessness, weakness, 
and hysterical excitability that characterize the j'oung lady of mod- 
ern life, who is neither well nor ill, are due, mainly, to her bad habit 
of taking too limited a supply of sleep at irregular hours.* 

ScllOOl BSitllS. — "Of the lessons that may be taught in the 
schools," says Sir Edwin Chadwick, "the practice of cleanliness is 
of the highest order." Again and again this practical worker for 
the sanitary welfare of the Eaglish masses teaches the value of 
cleanliness and the desirability and practicability of fitting up baths 
for the scholars in connection with city schools. In summing up 
the progress of sanitation within the year 1388 he again refers to 
this subject : 

A French colonel ascertained that he could wash his men with 
tepid water for a centime or a tenth of a penny per head, soap 
included. The man nndressea, steps into a tray of tepid water, 
soaps himself, when a jet from a two-handed pump plays upon him 
tepid water, and he dries and dresses himself in five minutes, against 

Dictized by Google 


twenty mioates in the bath, and with five gallons ot water against 
some seventy in the usual batb. In Germany tbey have an arrange- 
ment devised by Mr. Grove, too long to describe, under which halt 
a million of eoldiers are now regularly washed, no doubt with the 
result by this important sanitary factor of the reduction of their 
army death-rate beyond any in Europe. I have obtained the aid of 
Mr. (now Sir) Henry Doulton to direct inveations for some apparatus 
especially applicable to schools ; and he has got some in which it is 
proved that a child may be completely washed in three minutes. I 
have long put forth the fact of the economy of cleanliness, that a 
pig that is washed puts on a fifih more of Sesh with the same amount 
of food over a pig that is unwashed ; and I have had abundant 
evidence that the holy doctrine of "wash and be clean" is even more 
economical for children and men. Look at the comparative sanitary 
result of the washed children, of a whole school, as against the 
common one of the fouled air and badly washed children. Look at 
the service to the poor mother who has no means of washing her 
children at home.* 

Still i^ain he says ■.■f If a great epidemic were to occur again, I 
would proclaim and enforce the active application of soap and 
water as a preventive. I have had freqnentopportunities of observ- 
ing this plan as a factor of sanitation. I may state that I have 
received accounts of it, showing its efficacy, sucb as this : la one 
orphan institution, where the death-rate was twelve in the thousand, 
ibe cleansing ot the place, the removal of cess-pits and foul drains 
before the cleansing, effected in the death-rate a reduction to eight 
in a thousand. Next, a cleansing of the person was effected by a 
constant ablution with tepid water, and then a reduction by another 
third, or to four in a thousand, was achieved. Other experiments 
tend to establish the value of personal cleanliness as a preventive 
factor at one-third. 

The good old age to which Sir Kdwin lived enabled him to see 
the realization of his wishes in many of the English and Continental 
schools, and with the happiest results. 

The advantages of the school bathn observed in European schools 
are bodily cleanliness of the child, greater care on the part of the 
parents in keeping the clothes of the school children neat and dean, 
improvement of the condition of the school-room air, ^ain in the 
physical health of the pupil and an increase in the mental freshness 
and activity. There results, therefore, a physical, a moral, and an 
intellectual gain. Moreover, from more than one of the towns where 
school baths have been opened, comes the testimony that a good 
rpQex moral influence has been exerted upon the parents and fam- 
ilies of the jiupils. 


3. W. Rielurdtoii, It, 21S. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


The fall bath and the swimming bath on account of their first 
cost and anbsequeat running expenses is altogether unavailable to 
many §choola, whereas an oatfit for the warm donch or spraj'-bath 
entails a comparatively ligbt outlay at first and subsequently ooste 
but liitle to run it. The airaogements for the spray-bath necessitate 
an available room for tbe baths themselves and another in which tbe 
scholars can undress and dress themselves, or. in tbe absence of 
tbe second room, a portion of the single room may be divided off 
with screens. Both rooms, of course, are warmed, and the dressing 
room is .urnished with seats. Tbe bathing room has Its beater for 
tbe water which circulates in the pipes and which supply the spray. 
The child stands within a little stall, or in the open bathing room 
beneath the waroi spray and scrubs himself. About ten quarts of 
water are used for each bath. 

In Gottingen, Grermany, three sprinkling baths were arranged, 
together with a dressing room, the cost of all of which was 780 
marks ($195). For bathing seven hundred scholars, twenty cubic 
meters (5,311 gallons) of water are used. From six to nine pupils 
leave the school-room at once, and by systematically arranging for 
a steady succession of threes to occupy the baths, a whole room full 
of scholars is bathed with much less disturbance of instruction than 
was apprehended. 

At first tbe scbolais and parents did not look upon the new idea 
with favor, but within two months, with the encouragement of the 
teai^hers, ,')00 out of 700 pupils took the batbs regularly, and a little 
later all. Each pupil brings bis own towel." 

The Gottingen outfit for school bathing has served as a model for 
many other German schools. 

In Weimar batbs are furnished in the basement of a twenty-four- 
room school building, twelve i-ooms for boys and twelve for girls. 
Tbe bathing room contains a water heater and seven spray baths 
under each of which there stands a zinc pan three feet in diameter, 
and in which three children usually staad at tbe same time while 
bathing. Aa twenty-one children bathe ai the same time, it needs 
less than an hour for the bathing of all the scholars in a room. 
Near the bathing room there is a warm room for undressing and 
dressing. Mr. Hasf, municipal architect of Giessen, from whom 
we have the description of the bathing arrangements in Weimar, 

Dictized by Google 


Bays that "it is a plesaare to see tbe enjoyment of the children as 
the; take their bath," and he adds that -'vrith a clean skin the; 
retnra to their school-room work, refreshed in body and mind and 
thankful for the good which they have received.*' 

In Karlsruhe the warm water for the sprinkling baths is heated 
with gas. The cost of a bath for one child is only one pfennig 
{one-quarter cent)- The advantages observed in that town are an 
improvement in the quality of school-room air, and a reflex moral 
influence on tbe parents and families in regard to cleanUneas.*' 

In Baele, tSwitzerlaad, the cost of the apparatus for bathing ten 
children at the same lime was 1,600 francs (320 dollars). f 

The manifest advantages that have come from the establishment 
of school baths in the old countries render it very evident that their 
introduction into some of our own city schools is an experiment 
worth trying. 


Points in the Physiology of Brain Work.— The braio 
of the euperior races is ot a decidedly greater average size and 
weight than that of the inferior races, and some antbropologiste tell 
us that tbe diflerence amounts to as much as 10 per cent. 

Tbe investigations of Broca teach us that the mean cranial capacity 
ot tbe well to do and intelligent classes is distinctly greater than that 
of tbe poor and ignorant classes. He has shown us, also, that the 
mean capacity of the skulls of those persons who have followed one 
of tbe liberal professions, is much greater than that of those of 
persons who have moved in the humbler walks of life. 

The skull of the inferior races of mankind gets its growth as early 
as the twentieth year of life, but the crania of intelligent and 
educated persons of the superior laces do not cease to increase in 
volujie until much later than this. 

As with the cranium, the cultured brain continues to increase in 
size and weight to a much later age than that of the inactive and 
uneducated brain, tbe late growth being particularly marked in the 
frontal, or intellectual lobe. 

The lelt hemisphere of the brain presides over the functions of the 
right half of the body, and investigations have shown that the left 

Dictzed by Google 


aide of the head is Beosibl; warmer thao the right aide. Still greater 
differences exist in the teiuperattire of the different lobes of the brain, 
that of the frontal lobe being the highest, that of the occipital 
lobe the lowest, and that of the temporal region intermediate in 

la ' 'Points in the Physiology of Uuscnlar Exercise" we shall note 
that beat is liberated in the muscles during their activitj. The 
same is true of the brain when under the influence of mental work. 
Various investigators have demonstrated by means of delicately 
constructed electro-thermal apparatus that there is a decided rise in 
the temperature of the head as the subjects of the experiments pass 
from a state of mental repose to hard brain work, as, for instance, 
the solving of difficult mathematical problems. 

The increased afBux of blood to the brain while active mental 
work is going on is at the expense of a diminished blood supply in 
other organs of the body. 

The same fact was brought out objectively by the Italian physi* 
ologist Mosao, by encasing the arm of a young man in a manomom- 
eter-like apparatus. When the young man remained calm, thinking 
of nothing, the column of liquid in the tube connected with the 
apparatus remained stationary, but when he engaged in reading a 
difficult book, or in solving a hard mathematical problem, the liquid 
column fell, showing that there had been a diminution in the quan- 
tity of blood circulating in the arm. 

Muscular exercise increases the size and strength of the mnscles 
and the precision and nicety of their movements. Likewise the 
brain is increased in size by Judicious mental training, and its 
powers are greatly improved. 

Muscular exercise too severe or too prolonged on the contrary 
takes from the size and efficiency of the muscular aystem. Similarly, 
mental work too difficult or too prolonged or ill adapted to the 
child'a ati^e of brain development, works an injury rather than a 

Mental work is produced largely at the expense of the "wear and 
tear" of brain tissue ; moreover the brain is left surcharged with 
waste matter. There is a close anal<^y between brain fatigue and 
muscular fatigue, in that both are the result, partly of molecular dis- 
integration of tissue, and partly of the paralyzing presence of the 
resulting waste products. 

Dictized by Google 


If the qnactity of carbooic acid excreted during sleep be repre- 
eented by the figure 1, the qaantity excreted while awake, but ia 
absolute repose, ia shown by 2, and that during hard and prolonced 
brain work, by from 3.6 to 5.* 

During active brain worlc tbe nitrogenous and pbosphorized waste 
is much greater than when resting, and considerably greater than 
during active muscular work. 

Brain work being a stimulant to the circulation of blood through 
the brain, may act either favorably or unfavorably upon the growth 
and development of the brain. Favorably when the periods of work 
are not immoderately prolonged, and are followed by periods of rest 
from mental application sufflciently long for reparation of brain 
tissue and for the removal of waste products ; unfavorably when 
reparation and epuration of brain tissue are incomplete, and the 
increased afflux of blood to the head does not speedily cease with 
cessation of brain work, but a congestive condition of the cerebral 
structure is left. 

School Agfe. — In Maine the child has a legal admission to the 
public schools when he reaches tbe age of four years. Only four 
other states have the minimum school E^e placed so low, while, 
including territories and tbe District of Columbia) tbe school age 
begins at five years in fifteen, at six in twenty-two, at seven in 
three, and at eight in one of the states. Why admission to the pub- 
lic schools should not begin at an age so close to babyhood as the 
age of four, there are far weightier reasons than that oar State 
stands with a small minority. At the age of four the brain of the 
child is in no condition to engage in study, nor to receive continuous 
instruction for more than very short intervals of time even when 
conducted in accordance with a rational system of teaching. But 
anfortunately these children of four or five, sent to the ungraded 
country schools, are generaUy subjected to methods neither rational 
nor hygienic Many of these schools are taught by teachers who 
know but little of the noble profession of teaching, and less of the 
physiological necessities of early cbildtiood ; consequently the 
pathetic spectacle is often presented of children at very early ages 
shut up in their school prisons for three hours In the fo'-euoon and 
(he same length of time in the afternooD witb but little commutation 
from tbe full daily sentence on account of infantile yean. 

•nnyot-Daubts. Pbyiiologle et HTRiene dn Cenna p. 22', Pirli, ISW. 

•Dictzed by Google 


To these little ones muscalar activity is a necessity, and quietude 
enforced for more thaa a short period at a time is harmful and cruel. 
The only ratioaal systeru of teichiua; applicibte to them is one ia 
which short sessions of instrnction are alternated with frequent 
intervals of play, or in which the teacher leads them in instrnction' 
which has to them the semblance of play, as in the kindergarten 
method, wholly unavailable in nearly all of the schools of the Slate. 

As to what age children should be sent to school. Dr. A. N. Bell* 
remarks ; 

To fix upon the age at which school life may be commenced' 
involves the consideration of the kind of school life as well as the 
adaption of the child. The first and centra* fact to be constantly 
kept in view in conducting school-life is the plastic property of ihe- 
child's mind. This fact being; always uppermost, healthy children 
at the age of about seven years may safely begin to learn the' 
alphabet, spelling and Ggures on the kindergarten system, giving 
them not more thun two or three hours' application daily, with not 
less than half of the time, at equal intervals, tor play; provided, 
always, the sanitary conditions of the school-room are duly regarded.. 

In proportion as the sum of the sensations is increased by the 
progressive development ot the brain, with increasing age, the- 
organic functions are strengthened, Ibe sensations and motions which 
were at the Srst confused and uncertain acquire increased accuracy 
and direction, and at the age of about ten years, systematic educa- 
tion may he commenced. But up to the age of puberty the school 
time should not be more than six hours daily, and no child should 
be required to devote more than half of the time of school hours to 
study, or more than forty minutes at a time to close application; 
and QO recitation or blackboard exercise, which imposes the greatest 
exertion of the mind, should be longer than Sfteen minutes. 

Dr. D. F. Lincoln,! another eminent American anthority oi> 
school hygiene gives the following answer to this question : 

The kindergarten does not injure a child of four years unless- 
carried to the point of over-excitement, which, I believe, is not often 
done. The common primary schcoi, however, is decidedly objeciion- 
able It takes very young children (six years of age), and compels 
them to remain in twice as long as is good for them. By great 
ingenuity and vicacity, a teacher can keep them going upon varioos 
Rtndiea for three hours. This is all that is reasonably possible, yet 
the children are expected to come back for a second session in the 
afternoon. A school conducted by set lessons and recitations — a 
mimic grammar-school, in fact — should not receive children under 
seven or eight year^ of age. 

The foregoing is intended as an argument gainst subjecting 
children of early years to educational processes ill adapted to their 

Dictzsdbv Google 


stage of brain developmeat; not ag&insi beginning instruction &t 
AQ early age if the teaching can be given in accordance witti a 
rational pldD. Tbat children of lender years may be langbt , even 
from books, without physical ill has been shown in many instances, 
one of wbicb the following seems to be : 

My tittle girl is five j'ears and ten months old, forty-nine inches 
in height, weighs sixty poutida, has never been ill enough to spend 
a single daj' of ber life in bed, and very seldom has even a cold. 
She g03s out in all weather and on pleasant days spends from four 
to sis hours in the open air. She sleeps ten to eleven bourn, digests 
perfectly, and is noticed by every one for hi;r rosy, healthy appear- 

She reads fluently in both Eogli h and French, can write a good 
letter or dictation in either language, knows the multiplication table 
perfectly, and can work examples in the first four rules of arithme- 
tic, knows lime and money, the elements of grammar and geography, 
and has read about half of an easy history of E igland, and a simi- 
lar one ol France written in French She can also s'-w neatly. 

The alphabet was learned from blocks in ber second year, and 
kept up as a play, with added knoivledge ot spelling simple words 
during the third ytar. At three and a hall, reading lessons were 
begun — at first very short, and gradually increasing as the power of 
allention improved. When a little over four, French wa* begun 
both orally and from books ; in the same year writing and arithmeiic 
were taught ; and since her fifth birthday two hours a day have been 
given to lessons, and the othtr subj-icts mentioned have been studied. 
She also reada for her own amuaemeni in short intervals of lime 
between meal times and the outings. 

All this work has been done without straining the powers of the 
mind. The child le well and happy, never fretful or nervous, and 
eojojs playing with other children in the ordinary way,* 

Amount of Study .—In England a commission was appointed 
in 1833 to examine into the condition of children employed in 
factories. It was found that, generally, the children were worked 
far beyond a reasonable time, eleven, twelve or more hours daily, 
and the commission condemned this practice as being economically 
as wasteful as it would be, on a farm, to work young colts to the 
same extent as adult hor-es. This condition of long time labor 
practically excluded the children from school. To mitigate the 
physical, intellectual and moral evils of such a system, the corn* 
mission commended a bill which became a law. It proviied that 
these children shall be sent to school three houis every day, and as 
this was one-half of the usual school day at that time, these scholars 
were called half-school timers. Years after tliis half-time system 

- Babjhood, VII, 188. 

Dictized by Google 


h&d become operative, Mr., l&ter Sir, Edwin Chadwick, wbo had 
beeo a member of tliis commissioD, gave tbe reasons for its sugges- 
tion and deacribed the results attained by it, in the following words, 
the interest of which should be a sufficient apology for quotation at 
some length : 

It is a psychological law that the capacity of attention grows 
with tbe body, and that at all stages of bodily growth the capacity 
is increased by the skilful teacher's cultivation. Very young 
ohildrcn can only receive lessons of one or two miuutes' length. 
With increasing growth and cultivation, their capacity of attention 
is increased to five miuntes ; then to ten, and at from five to seven 
years of age, to fifteen minutes. With growth and cultivation, by 
the tenth year a bright voluntary attention may be got to a lesson 
of twenty minutes ; at about twelve 3 ears of age to twenty-five 
minutes; and from thence to fifteen years of age, about half an 
hour: that is to say, of lessons requiring meutsl effort, as arith- 
metic, not carried beyond the point at which the mind is fatigued, 
with the average of children and with good teaching. By very 
skilful teachers and with very interesting lessons, the attention 
may be sustained for longer periods ; but it is declai-ed by skilled 
observers that prolonged attention b'-yond average limits is gener- 
ally at the expense of succeeding lessons. 

.The preponderant testimony which has been received in the 
course of some enquiries into educational subjects, is that with 
children of about the average age of ten, or eleven, or a litUe 
more, tbe capacity of bright voluntary attention, which is the only 
profitable attention, is exhausted by four varied lessons to subjects 
and exercises requiring mental effort of half an hour each in tbe 
forenoon, even with intervals of relief. After the mid-day meal 
the capacity of voluntary attention is generally reduced by one- 
half, and not more than two half-hour lessons requiring mental 
effort tan be given with profit. 

The capacity of attention is found to be greater in cold weather 
than in hot, in winter than in summer. 

Experienced teachers have testified to me that they can and do 
«xhaust the capacity of attention, to lessons requiring mental effort, 
of the great average of children attending the primary schools in 
England, in less than three hours of daily book instruction, namely, 
two hours in the morning, and one hour after the mid-day meal. 

Infanta are kept in school, and the teacher is occupied in amus- 
ing and instructing them, for five or six hours, but the duration of 
mental effort in the aggregate beara only a short proportion to the 
whole time duiing which they are kept together. So in schools for 
ohildren of more advanced ages. Kven the smallest amount of 
mental effort in infant schools is extremely subject to dangerous 
excess. I am assured by a teacher in the first infant school estab- 
lished iu ."Scotland, that he did not know a pre-eminently sharp 
«hild who had in after life been mentally distinguished. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


In commoD echools, oo the email scale, the children will fi-e- 
qaently be not more than one-half the time under actual tuition ; 
and in schook deemed good, often one-third of their time is wasted 
in changes of lessons, writing, and operations which do not exer- 
cise, bnt rather impair the receptive faculty. 

It may be stated generally that the pyBohol(%ical limits of the 
capacity of attenti' m and of profitable mental labour is about one- 
half the common school time of children, and that beyond that limit 
instruction is profitless. 

This I establish in this way. Under the Factories Act, whilst 
much of the instruction is of an inferior character and efitect, from 
the frustration of the provisions of the original bill, there are now 
numerous voluntary schools, in which the instruction is efHcient. 
The limit of the time of instruction required by the statute in these 
half-time schools for factory children ia three hours of daily scboot 
teaching, the common average being six in summer and five in 
winter. There are also pauper disti'ict industrial schools, where the 
same hours, three daily, or eighteen in the weelt, or the tialf-time 
instruction, are prescribed ; tvhich regulation is, in some instances, 
carried out on alternate days of school teaching and on alternate 
days of industrial occupation. Throughout the country there are 
now mixed schools, where the girls are employed a part of the day 
in needleworli, and part of the day in book instruction. 

The testimony of school inspectors and of school teachers alike 
indicates that the girls fully equal in book attainments the boys 
who are occupied during the whole day in book instruction. The 
preponderant testimony is that in the same schools, where the half- 
lime factory pupils are instructed with the full-time day scholars, 
the book attainments of the half-time scholars are fully equal to 
those of the full-time scholars, i. e., the three hours are as produc- 
tive as the six hours mental labor daily. The like results are 
obtained in the district pauper schools. 

In one large establishment, containing about six hundred children, 
half girls and half boys, the means of industrial occupation were 
gained for the girls befoie any were obtained for the boys. The 
girls were, therefore, put upon half-time tuition, that is to say, their 
time of book instruction was reduced from thirty-sis hours to 
eighteen hours per week, given on the three alternate days of their 
indusirial occupation, the Itoys remaining at full school time of 
thirty-six hours per week — the teaching being the same, on the same 
system and by the same teachers, with the same school attendance 
in weeks and years, in both cases. 

On the periodical examination of this school, surprise was 
expressed by the inspectors at finding how much more alert, men- 
tally, the girls were than the boys, and how much advanced in 
book attainments. Subsequently industrial occupation was found 
for the boys, when their time of book instruction was reduced from 
thirty-six bonrs a week to eighteen ; and after a while the boys 
were proved upon examination to have obtained their previous rela- 
tive position, which was in advance of the girls. The chief circum- 

Dictzsdbv Google 


fitaDcea effecting this result, as respects the boys, were the introduc- 
tion of active bodily exeicises, the naval and the military drill and 
the reduction of the duration of the school teaching to within what 
appears to me to be the physiological limits of the capacity of 
voluntary attention. 

When book instinctiuD is given nnder circumsiances combining 
bodily with mental exercises, not only are the book attainments of 
the half-time scholars proved to be more than equal to those of the 
full-time scholars, but their aptitudes for applying ihem are superior, 
and they are preferred by employers for their superior alertness 
and efficiency. 

In the common course of book instruction, and in the average of 
small but well managed long-time schools, children, after leaving 
an infant school, are occupied on the average six j-ears in learning 
to read and write and spell fairly, and iu acquiring proficiency in 
arithmetic up to decimal fractions. In the larger half-time schools, 
with a sub-division of educatioDat Labour, the same elementary 
branches of instruction are taught better in three years, and at 
about half the annual expense for superior educational power. 

The general results stated have been collected from the experi- 
ence during a period of from twelve to fifteen years of schools 
comprising altogether between ten and twelve thousand pupils. 
From such experience it appears liiat the general average school 
time is in excess full double of Che psychological limits of the 
capacities of the average of children for lessons requiring mental 

I have not hitherto been enabled to carry my inquiries to any 
sufficient extent for a. statement of particular results, to the schools 
for children or youth of the higher ages, but I believe it will be 
found that the school and collegiate requirements are everywhere 
more or less in excess of psychological limits. I gather that the 
average study, in continuous mental labor, of successful prizemen 
at the universities is from five hours and a half to little more than 
six hours of close mental study or exertion from day to day. An 
able Oxford examiner informs me, that if he ever hears that some 
one is coming up for examination who has been reading twelve or 
thirteen hours a day, he is accustomed to exclaim, "That man will 
be plucked," and during his experience of thirteen years as an 
examiner at Oxfoid, he has never known an instance to the con- 
trary. In respect to the mental labor of adults, it is observed by 
Sir Benjamin Brodie, in his Psychological Inquiries : "A man in a 
profession may be engaged in professional matters for twelve or 
thirteen hours daily, and suffer no very great inconvenience beyond 
that which may be traced to bodily fatigue. The greater part of 
what he had to do (at least it is so after a certain amount of experi- 
ence) is nearly the same as that which he has done many times 
before, and becomes almost matter of course. He uses not only 
his previous knowledge of facts, or his simple experience, but bis 
previous thoughts, and the conclusions at which he bad arrived 
formerly ; and it is only at intervals that he is called upon to make 

Dictzsdbv Google 


■any considerable meDtal exertion. Bat at every step in the compo- 
sitiOD of his philosophical works Lord Baoon had to think, and no 
one can be enf^oged in that which requires a sustained effort of 
thought for more than a very limited portion of the tweatj-four 

Bat great things &ve accomplished more frequently by moderate 
efforts parsevered in with intervals of relaxation during a very long 
period. I have been informed that Cuvier was usually engaged for 
seven hours daily iu his scientific researches ; but these were not of 
a nature to require continuous thought. Sir Walter Scott, if my 
recollection be accurate, describes himself as having devoted about 
six hours daily to literary composition, and his mind was then in a 
state to enjoy some lighter pursuit afterwards. After his misfor- 
tunes, however, he allowed him-elf no relaxation, and there can be 
little doubt that this over-exertion contributed as much as the 
moral suffering which he endured to the production of the disease 
of tbe biain, which ultimately caused bis death. Sir David Wilkie 
found that he was exhausted, if employed in his peculiar line of art 
for more than four or five hours daily ; and it is probable that it 
was to relieve himself from the efllects of too great labour that he 
turned to the easier occupation of portrait painting. In fact, even 
among the higher grades of mind there are but a few that are 
capable of sustained thought, repeated day after day, for a much 
longer peiiod than this. 

Sir Benjamin Brodie once stated to me that he subsequently 
ascertained that in the above passage he had rather exceeded the 
limits of the mental labour of Sir Walter Scott, who, in a conversa- 
tion on the topic, in the presence of Sir Charles Lyell and Mr. 
Lockbart, had declared that he worked tor three hours wiih plea- 
sure, but that beyond about four hours he worked with pain. Sir 
Benjamin stated to me that he was of opinion "that for young chil- 
dren three or four hours' occupation in school must be even more 
than sufficient, and that they would be found in tiie end to have 
made greater progress, if their exertions were thus limited than if 
they continued for a longer period. 

In large public establishments in which I have had an executive 
direction, I have not found it practicable to sustain, on the average, 
for longer than six hours per diem, from day to day, continuous 
and steady mental labour ou the part of adults. 

I find ground far belief that as more and more of mental effort 
and skill is required in the exercise of the manual arts, the hours of 
work must be more and more reduced for the attainments of tbe 
best economical results without waste of tbe bodily power." 

In this country it has also been shown that the half-time system 
for primary schools is not incompatible with satisfactory progress. 
Tbe following is the experience of a citizen of Massachusetts, with 
eborter daily sessions of school : 

•Health of Xatioii>, Edited by Dr. B. W. Blcburdion, I, ITT. 

Dictized by Google 


I know nothing personally of the "hair-time" Bystem, technically 
BO-caUed, but I have had with my own children practical experi- 
ence of what may be accomplished in from two to Tour hoars' daily 
seBiiona, under judicious management of studies. 

My oldest daugliter, now Jast over thirteen, has attended the 
attme private school since she was five years old. She began with 
but one honr a day, and this was gradually Increased to three, and 
then four, and for two years ji&at she has had an hour's study out 
of school ; before that, none. The school was small, vaiying from 
six to twenty pupils, and under the charge of a highly educated 
lady. My daughter, at thirteen, stands, witli regard to her school 
acquirements, as follows : In arithmetic, the great standard in our 
public schools, she has done but tittle, having only a perfectly intel- 
ligent and practical knowledge of the subject, through fractione, 
vulgar and decimal. In geography she has au excellent general 
knowledge, physical and political, though there are many topo- 
graphical details that she has never learned, and therefore never 
forgotten. English grammar she has studied but little, and could 
probably not "parse" to the Batisfaction of any examining commit- 
tee, but she understands the construction of sentences, and can 
"write and apeak the English language" with as great correctness 
as is desirable in a child of her age. In spelling she would 
undoubtedly fail in a "match" from the spelling-book, but she 
rarely makes a mistake in words in ordinary use, and can write 
pages of composition with scarcely an error. In history she is 
well grounded in the elements of Greek and Roman. French and 
English history, and knows something of that of the United States 
(more difficult than either). She has a good general knowledge of 
English literature, aa far as a girl of her age is competent to under- 
stand it, having taken it at school in connection with English his- 
tory. In science she has made no great attainment, but she has 
learned the practical parts of physiology, and has studied enough 
of botany and natural history to form an intelligent basis for more 
She draws well enough for her age, having practised from objects, 
casts and busts, as well as from the flat. She has a good knowl- 
edge of the Latin grammar, and has read in Latin through several 
books of Ovid's Metamorphoses. She translates readily from any 
ordinary French book, knows the grammar very well through the 
third part of Otto's, pronounces well, and speaks and understands 
the language as well as can be expected from one who has never 
beard it talked. This is uot any remarkable standard for a girl of 
thirteen to reach, but such as it is, it has been reached with the 
very few hours' daily work above mentioned, and wholly without 
arti£cial stimulus of any kind, and absolutely without worry or 
anxiety. I may add that she has learned at school to read music, 
so as to sing readily at sight. 

My other children, eight and ten years old, are following the 
same course of a few hours' school, and no excitement but such as 
an interest in their studies may give ; and with the result, so far, 
that they are both decidedly in advance of children of their ages in 



the pablic echoola, who go to school five hours a day. They study 
agreater variety of subjecta. having French and history, besides 
the ordinary school -studies ; they have more writing exercises and 
more natural science. I know that the diSerence is partly due to 
the smaller size of the school, but more, I believe, to a judicious 
selection of the essential parts of the subjects taught, and the 
omission of many useless and burdensome details and of the sort 
of drill '-necessary to prepare for public examinatious !"• 

According to Dr. Lincoln :t "In high schools during the period 
of rapid growth and sexual development, it seems certain that five 
houre, or, nnder the most favorable circumstances, six, are- all that 
should be required. The ages usually range from twelve to seven- 
teen. Below the age of twelve years, four hours are probably 
sufficient ; below ten years, three or three and a half ; below seven 
years, two and a half or three hours." 

Circular 26 of the Pennsylvania State Board of Health says : 
"The number of hours spent in school daily should vai^ with the 
i^e of the pupil, five hours being the maximum." 

The New York Medico-Legal Society haa expressed the opinion 
that three hours a day of study is enough in primary schools. 

What he considers the appropriate daily number ©f hours of 
school work including home tasks, for children from the seventh to 
the eighteenth years of life, Axel KeyJ gives in the following tabu- 
lation : 

•Ftllb Addh 

1 Heport of the Bosrd of HeOth of U 

IScbool imd 



<che Untat.uchnneeD, tr. by Bureerati 

D,i.,.db, Google 





YsAm or Abb. 







































"I am cODStantly told by teachers when coDversing on this sub- 
ject," says Dr. J. C. .Reeve,* "that cbildren of this age do not study 
during all the six hours tbey are in school. I as constantly reply 
that the fact that they are there is enough ; the confinement to t^e 
school-room six hours a day is too much for any child under Uelve 
years of age." 

Whenever the scholars appear tired and are restless and inattentive, 
the fresh air and the play-ground are better places for them than the 
Bchool-room. Pupils should be encouraged and habituated to do 
their tasks in the shortest possible time, to work while tbey work 
and play while they play. 

"A great master has said, concerning the education of little boys, 
'Great care is taken that no boy shall, at any moment of tbe day, 
be obliged to sit ir idleness, under any pretext whatever ; when the 
stated quantity of labor is performed be goes to play ; but while he 

em In tbeir E«liit1oDS to Teaebiug inil Lnnlag, p. 13. 



remaiDs in the school-room he has do right to be an instant uaemployed. 
The reward of indostry, a short cessation from labour, is immediate ; 
so that a lively boy is not doomed to "count the slow clock, and 
play at noon." Oa the contrary, instead of watching with feverish 
impatieDce to see both the hands culminate, be employs himself 
ardently at his task ; the instant he has accomplished it, constraint 
ceases, and he breaths empyreal air.' " ■ 

In drawing up a rational programme of schooUroom study, con- 
siderations of how much mental work can be accomplished in the 
Bcbool-room during the pupil's school course should not alone pre- 
vail. This complicated social life of ours has, even upon children, 
multifarious claims. The laws of health claim inexorably abundant 
time for sleep, for taking food, and for free play and rest. The 
intelligeni school ofQcer will feel that be is absolutely prohibited from 
encroauhing here. Then again, the claims of home and social life 
are almost as imperious. Mu^ic, and other private instruction, house- 
hold work, nervousness or f'retfulaess of the mother, visits, danciag 
lessons, Sunday school, all these add to the strain. In this direction 
the educator has to decide how far a compromise can be affected 
betwten ibe school and the iamily, — how far thi excessive demands 
of the home may be brought to give way to those of the school. 
Upon the answer to this question will depend to some extent the 
number of hours of school work daily or weekly that may be imposed 
upoD children without incurring the danger of strain. The condi- 
tions in many homes will undoubtedly suggest the desirability of 
bringing educational influences to bear upon the parents. 

Home Study.— Dr. Crighton Brown, in his reportof inspection 
of tbe elementary schools uf Ltndon, 1884, is especially caustic in 
his condemnation of home studies for yonng children. He says the 
principle is bad. Even when tbe labor is small in quantity, it stirs 
Dp and irritates an exhausted and feeble brain, and interferes with 
sleep. It worries and torments the child, and prevents the relaxa- 
tion and entire diver-ion of the current of tbought which ought to 
follow the dismission from school. He saya it is resorted to nine 
timea io ten because the year's work cannot be done by the scholars 
in the regular school hours. f 

Arrangement of Work. — It is upon the condition of the 
gray nerve-cells of the brain that efficiency of mental processes 
depends. Like other organs, tbe gray nerve matter is ex misled 
by continued activity, and needs rest in order to r;cuperat" lis vital- 

Dictized by Google 


ity. "The brain, and consequeDtly the mind, Is fresh and vigoroua 
AflcT the Dight'a repose ; the damagea have been all repaired, and 
the debrU cleared away. It is « matter eveti of common obaerra- 
tiou that at no other time is the mind so sharp, clear, and strong, 
as in the morning. For this reason," says Dr. P. J. Higgins,* "the 
abstruse studies shoald be taken up dnring the forenoon session aa 
the faculties of the mind are then in the most favorable condition to 
grapple with their di Realties. 

"Of all school studies mathematics requires the strongest grasp of 
mind and the closest exarcise of the reasoning powers and the judg- 
ment. In abstruseness and difficulty of comprehension geometry, 
algebra, and arithmetic, raok in the order enumerated. Rhetoric, 
including grammar and composition, comes next. Is every school 
and college, therefore, these subjects should be taken up during the 
morniag session. • • * ♦ xhe lighter or concrete 
subjects — reading, history, geography, writing, drawing, masie — 
should occupy the afternoon session." 

Aaotbcr point is that the studies and recitations should be so 
arranged as to aSord the greatest possible rest to the mind from the 
meie change in passing from one study or recitation to another. 
Tht:refore one study demanding hard brain work should not immedi- 
ately follow another of the same character ; nor should drawing and 
writing, both inclining to faulty postures, closely follow one another ; 
nor should singing and reading come close together, unless the indi- 
vidual exertion in the latter exercise is of the nsual insignificant 

The writing lesson should be taken in that part of the day when 
the light is the clearest. 

It is not advisable to require or permit children to do only the 
lightest, or the least amount of intellectual work iu the evening or 
after the evening meal. Tasks which require concentration of the 
mind, or those which fret the child should be entirely banished 
duiing these hours, or the danger of banishing refreshing and suf- 
ficient sleep will be incurred. 

One or Two Daily Sessions ?— Some years ago Dr. Win- 
sort sent a circular to many of the physicians, educators, and school 
officers in Massachusetts making, among others, the enquiry, "Is a 
single long session different in its hygienic influence from shorter 

>f Heallh ot MuuchaielU, p. 111). 



aeaaions?" "Worse" was the answer irom 89 ; "worse, except for 
upper classea of Uigh schools" from 1; "better" from 7; "uncer- 
tain" from 42. One of these correspondents gives the foliowiag 
reasons against the long session ; 

I wish I could adequately express my sense of the importance of 
the issue which this inquiry presents. Everywhere the tide is set- 
ting more and more strongly against twu sessions. Upon this mat- 
ter parents, pupils, and it is to be feared, a large majoriiy of teach- 
ers, are in unison. The decision of the point in question is gener- 
ally affected by the loss of simpler habits of living, bj- changed 
hours of eating, and by the growth of large cities and towns. And 
yet a single five hour session violates every principle of school 
hygiene. During the last two hours of such a morning, teachers 
and scholars, jaded by the labor an'l confiaemeat of time that has 
gone before, are incapable of the best worlf. When the time is at 
last ended the impulse of all is to escape from the place of imprison- 
ment with the least possible delay. Qaestions that bave come up, 
and the answers to them, must wait lilt tomorrow. A growing child 
needs a meal at midday. A teacher's need of such a meal is 
scarcely less than the child's. The interval between the child's 
light breakfast and his dinner cannot safely be made much more 
than five hours. When the single long session is established, this 
interval can rarely be less than^eveii hours, and must often extend 
beyond that time. The luncheon carried, or the pies and tarts 
devoured at the nearest shop, only«ggravate the injury. We ought 
cfaeerfblly to aci:ept the fact, that for our children, school duties are 
the appointed and the all-important work of each week day. Time 
enough can be found for all needed exercise and fun without crowd- 
ing all study into one half of that day. In deciding this question, 
fathers and mothers should weigh nothing else than the welfare of 
their children ; and it may be well added, that the interest of the 
children, in a matter of such moment, cannot fail to be also that of 
the whole household. The plan of getting rid of all school before 
dinner deserves to take r^nk with "French in four easy lessons," 
and all kindred absurdities. The difficulty felt by a small minority 
of scholars in getting home during the interval, in the case of schools 
supplying unusually extended district , is the one valid objection 
which has here been urged ; but in the few instances of this class, it 
would be far better that the school should furnish pupils thus placed, 
dinners at cost, as the Boston Inatitate of Technology has lately 
proposed to do, than to attempt one long session to the positive 
injury of all concerned. 

Another correspondent writes : 

After an experience of sixteen years* service as one of the board 
of school committee of this town, during which time the one long 
session and the two short sessions have been faiily tried, I think 
that comparing the first hour and a half with the fifth or last of long 
sessions I invariably find that the pupils are wide awake, ready to 
take hold of a new subject and understand it, appetites sharp for 

Dictized by Google 


new ideas, boiiies apright, cheeks with a healthy glow cinring Cbe 
first hour. During the last hour, the fifth, there are lan;;Did postures, 
drooping ejee, pallid faces, tired looks, absence of all vivacit; aod 
a painful expression of impatience on the countenance of nearly all. 
No good study is dobe after the third hour ; the last two hours are 
spent generally in dreary listlassness or paintul atiempt to goad the 
brain on to work. 

Dr. Winsor quotes from the ''Massacbuselta Teacher" the follow- 
ing additional reasons why the single session is undesirable : 

Much of the best material in our high schools comes from the 
families of laboring men, who take breakfast early and dinner at 
twelve o'clock. Until the children are admitted to the high school 
ihe family can all be together at dinner. After that time there are, 
every day, vacant seats at the table. The son or daDghter, accus- 
tomed to take dinner at noon, comes home at one or two o'clock, 
after a fast of six hours or more. The heallhy appetite has passed 
away ; the Bociai dinner table has been set and cleared ; the high 
school pupil takes bis dinner, and, like a dog, eats it alone. Taking 
it Dpon a stomach that partakes of the languor and lassitude of the 
whole system, he fails to enjoy it while eating, or to digest it after- 
wards. There could not well be found a surer case of dyspepsia ; 
besides, there is the bad effect of taking a child from the family 
dinner table f( r three of the most impressible years of his life. A 
dinner taken under these ciroumatances, when the brain is weary 
and the digestion unfit to wait on appetite, must prevent good study 
in the afiernoou. 

Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi.* in speaking of the infractions of health 
by both pupils and teachers, says : 

This is conspicuously true of the habit, which widely prevails 
among both, of passing nearly the entire day without food, or with 
a lunch at once unsubstantial and indigestible. The apparent in- 
ability of the female sex to comprehend any fixed relation between 
food and work is the cause of many of iis woes. The habit of work- 
ing without eating is first oontracled at school, and in thousands of 
cases initiates the dyspepsia and frontal headache which are so 
readily attributed to excessive mental exertion. The old New Eng- 
land custom of keeping school from nine to twelve, and again from 
two to four, is certainly much more favorable to health than a single 
prolonged session from nine to three, with half an hour's intermission 
for the double purpose of lunch and exercise. Short periods of 
work, alternating with periods of recreation, are equally essential to 
children and to the women who teach them. No one can enter an 
afternoon school-room nithout noticing the flushed faces and listless 
attitude of the pupils, and wondering on what principle, or for what 
reason, these yonng things are still chained to their desks. 

Where local conditions make it appear to be preferable to have 
but a single session, say from eight A. M. to one P. M., it should 

'Norlh American RcTiew, XXXVI, 2m 

Dictizsdbv Google 


be broken by paases or recesses of ten, or preferably, fifteen 
minutes at the end of each school hoar, during which every pupil 
should drop, for the time beiog, every thought of school tasks and 
seek refreshment of the mind in out-door sports. 

The Evils of Sitting Still.— Burgerstein* refers to the evil 
results of enforced bodily inactivity in the school-room as follows: 

Dangers of injury arise from too long continued sitting still. The 
lessening of the respiratory movements has a tendency to produce 
weakness of the muscles which elevate the upper thoracic segment, 
and this result has an intimate relation to the beginning of tubercu- 
losis of the apex of the lungs. Bearing in mind the posture of our 
school population as it sits bent over more or less at its work, the 
lack of muscular movement, the tension of the mind, the diminiahed 
action of the heart and lungs, and remembering, also, that these 
same conditions are almost exactly repeated in the school work done 
at home, we can believe that we have here a serious cause in the 
forwarding of a tendency to lung tuberculosis in our school children, 
particularly in those who have spent on the school benches the whole 
period of their growth, uutil the age of eighteen or more. The evil 
results of sedentary occupations are well known even to the laity, 
and it is more probable that the Qrst unfavorable Impulse is given 
by the schools. 

As evil results of too long continued sitting sti 1, may be men- 
tioned congestion of the brain, which is particularly favored by the 
bowed position of the pupil's bead, compression of the abdominal 
region, and diminished action of the respiratory movements. Cere- 
bral congestion thus produced is often accompained by sluggish 
action of the mental faculties, — an unfortunate result for successful 
instruction. Dangerous consequences may result from a continuation 
of these unfavorable conditions. From their action we may have an 
active congestion, — an accelerated movement of the blood to the 
overtaxed brain. These congestions may again be the cause of 
headache and uosebleed. 

Becesses and Pauses.— At the meeting of the National 
Edueational Association in 1884, a paper was read by the Hon. W. 
T. Harris, at present Commissioner of Education, on the qnestion 
of recess or no recess, a part of which is here reproduced. He makes 
a strong plea for the retention of the time honored and rational 
custom : 

Abolish recess and within a few years the medical profession would 
trace to their sourc* in the school-room many disorders in the func- 
tions of the glandular system. The reaction produced against this 
ill considered reform in recesses would be swept away in a hurricane 
of popular indignation. But we are told that the physical require- 
ments are well looked after in this proposed reform. 

•Die GetundheiUpBege In dei UlllelsdinU, p. 18. VIeDiu, 1»S7. 

Dictized by Google 


The periodicty in the fuuctioDs of the secretory gl&nds is to be 
provided for by a general regulatioo allowing the pupils to 
leave the room whenever Ihey wish to. This the advocates of 
the abolition of receas, concede to be necesaary. Here comes the 
difficulty. In practise, the teacher finds more evil to resalt from 
this iodiscriminate permission to go out daring the school time than 
from all other eouices combiaed. Every teacher of experience will 
support my testimony on this point with his own. It is a constant 
temptation to the frivolous pupil and demoralizing to a high degree. 
He will find it convenient to leave the room whenever he wishes to 
avoid a recitation or any unpleasant duty. But we are told that this 
evil need not be tolerated ; the children need not be allowed to go 
out indiscriminately. If, however, the teacher la to be constantly 
interrupted in the course of other work, with the problem of deciding 
what cases are necessitous and what ones are not, then all other 
work will BuSer, and even yet many serious mistakes occur. The 
least impatience at interruption will have the eSect of a general 
restriction. A cross word in response to the child's request, deters 
him from asking again on another occasion, and he prefers self 
denial. The restrietion placed on free going out, adopted to prevent 
the abuse of the privilege by the rt^uish or vicious, result in holding 
back the timid, modest, retiring pupils who are eagerly intent on 
winning the teacher's good will. Such will suffer excruciating tor- 
ment rather than draw attention to themselves by leaving the room, 
or by asking permiasion to do so. Even a look of inquiry from the 
teacher is too much for auch pupils to bear. Hence, not knowing 
the serious evil* resulting, the most exemplary pupils will lay a 
foundation for life-long physical weaknesses already hinted at. 

All this would result from changing a custom which long usage 
has sanctioned. By the recess as it exists, necessities are provided 
for, without questioning the pnpil, without discriminating as to bis 
wants. A general recess provides for all cases of which all will take 
advantage. Abolish general recess, and it must be compensated 
for by an indiscriminate permission to leave the school-room at 
pleasure, or else by a discrimination which is both indelicate and a 
sure cause of physiological evil. There is enough in this phase of 
the pbysiolt^ical qnestion to condemn the new theory." 

Some other objections to the recess are so admirably met by an 
American writer'f that we cannot refrain from quoting him- 

Not only do the out-door recesses have the advantage of air and 
sunshine in good weather, but in bad weather they have the advan- 
tage of exposure also; and, contrary to the commonly accepted 
theories, exposure to inclement weather, in a reasonable degree and 
with proper care, is of very great advantage. 

Chddren need the rough-and-tumble of an oat-door recess to 
toughen the sinews of the body. Many at home arc so tenderly 
cared for that, what with cushioned chairs, stufiTed sofas, and spring- 

Dictized by Google 


seats to the very carriages in which they ride to school, they are 
in danger of becoming too tender for even this usase ; and. if thej' 
are ever to sccomptiah anything ia this world, they must somewhere 
acquire the physical power to endure many hard knocks in various 
ways and stations of life. They oannot always be held in their 
nurse's arms. They will meet with accidents which, if they are 
accustomed lo the games of the playground, will not aSect them at 
all, but which, if they are not, will lay them up with a lame side, a 
sprained ankle, or a dislocated joint. Falls and tumbles occur daily 
opon the playground, with no injurious effects whatever, which 
would put some of the tenderly nurtured in bed for a week. The 
playgroand is the only place connected with the schools where 
children can become hardy ; and this element of hardiness has been 
very strongly marked in all successful men. It is not the carpet- 
knights who to-day rule in politics or in business — no, nor in science 
or religioD— but the men who have grit and toughness, men who 
fear neither ridicule nor a crowd of rowdies. 

Take the boy who has a few companions to play with bim upon 
his own lawn, and who, like himself, are carefully kept from the 
society of the rougher aad more world-wise boys of the street, and 
how is he to get any knowledge of the methods or the power by 
which these others are to be controlled in afterlile? Yet this boy 
and his class are those who in many respects ought to have a con- 
trolling influence on the destiny of bis neighborhood, bat, because 
he has no acquaintance with the other class, because he does not 
&now what are their ruling motives, he is powerless for good among 
them. By means of this knowledge those agitators among the 
people, like Moody and Dennis Kearny, the leading politician in 
each town and ward, and the organizers of strikes, have such power - 
among the masses; and their lack of this knowledge is the main 
-cause of failure of our citizens' social-reform societies and kindred 
organizations which attempt some very laudable reforms. As the 
boy is father to the man, so the playground ia the antecedent of the 
future society of the town or ward, and upon the playground, more 
than in the school-room, the leaders of the future are made ; there 
the boy roust learn, if he ever learn it, how to ead, control, and 
master the others — boys to-day, but men to-morrow. The school- 
room is an autocracy, with the teacher for autocrat and the pupils 
for subjects, but the playground is a pure democracy ; there each, 
in proportion to his strength, dexterity, and skill, is equal to any 
other ; there the egotist learns his insignificance, the rude bo; gets 
his first lessons in common courtesy, and there the bully learns that 
his ways are not approved. 

But the ruhng sentiment of the playground must not be allowed 
to form itself by accident. Children must not be left to themselves 
at these times. 

An oDt-door recess n^eds the controlling presence ot the teacher 
quite as much as an io-door one, and more than the ordinary exer- 
cise ot the Bcliool-room, and because this has been neglected is the 
reason why some people have objected to it. Several hundred 



children, after experiencing the restraiut of the school-room, shonld 
not be released upon the playground without supervision competent 
to Bappreas whateveT may appear that is perniciouB. There is no 
oiher time in all the day when competent guidance can do so much 
to make boys manly and girls womanly as when they are at their 
games. It is not enough to leave the playground to the janitor oi 
to Bome inferior authority ; it is the place where the principal teacher 
and nearly all the others are most needed — not to direct the games, 
or to meddle in any way with the sports, but to he ready with a 
cheery voice and an eaxy grace to suggest to any one aboat to 
engage in anything improper that be has forgotten himBelf. 
Ruffianism will soon disappear, timid children will learn to assert 
themselves, and an esprit du corps of the playground can soon be 
formed which will bave a wonderful influenoe on the characters as 
well as the actions of the papils. Nor is the benefit to the pupils 
all that is derived from this plan ; the teacher needs such a recess 
quite as much as, &nA in many cases more than, her pupils. Fifteen 
minutes of each ninety in the open air away from the sights aud 
thoughts of the lessons, will remove Che nervous, tired, irritable, and 
almost despondent feeling experienced by many teachers, and give 
them renewed strength and cheerfulness and mental elasticity for the 
remainder of the Bession. 

To the foregoing able arguments may be added that there are still 
other weighty reasons why recesses are needed. 

They are needed aB one of the most important measures in guard- 
ing against the ever increasing danger of myopia. The eye foeussed 
for near work is an eye under tension, and the longer the intervals 
without resting the eye muscles, the more difficult to maintain the 
required degree of accommodation, the greater the Btrain, and the 
greater the danger. Dr. Poeller of Munich has recently published 
the results of his tests made at very short intervals of the acuteness 
of vision of eyes foeussed od small objects, as in reading. He rep- 
reaenta graphically by means of curves the results, and a dimiQutiOD 
of the power of focussing for small objects is evident, even after 
only thirty to forty-five minutes work, and this decline in the power 
of vision becomes the more rapid the longer the eye work is main- 
tained. On these resnlts he bases the hygienic rule that the eye 
shall not be kept under the strain of near vision longer than from 
three quarters to one hour without rest, and that, when the school 
session lasts several hours, the eye shall be worked, at the most, not 
longer than (orty-five minutes, to be followed by a pause of dfteen 
minutes for rest.* 

The temporary rest and change given by the recess is needed by 
the brain and nervous system to obviate the dangers of over-pres- 

•Atoblv fur Hygiene, XIII, aas. Munich. 1891. 

:, Google 


sure, by tho spinal colama to counteract the tendency to abnormal 
curvaturea, by the trboU child th&t the exercise of bia muscle?, and 
the expansion of his lunga may quicken and equalize the circulation, 
and to counteract the acbool-room tendency to local congestions. 
Tbe recess is greatly needed in most acbool-rooms in the interest of 

When the weather is suitable all tb« pupila should be required to 
leave the room and go into the open air. Then the windoirs, unless 
tbe acbool-room ventilation is unquestionably good, should be thrown 
wide open, at leaat during the first part of the interval for recess. 

During recess no scholar should be allowed to study. Tbe time 
is for play and study should then be as much against tbe rule as is 
play in study hours. 

The grudging allotment of time for recesses in the school programme 
is an unintelligent policy. There are eminent educators who believe 
that a liberal supply of time taken from the daily school hours for 
recesses is time well used, and does not cecesaarily result in a smaller 
amount of school work, but that it may help to more work and 
better work. 

In many of our schools, recesses are too few and too short. In 
the primaiy schools, short periods of instruction not to exceed half 
an hour should alternate with pauses and recesses for play and rest. 
In tbe grammar grades, two recesses in a half day's session of three 
hours would be better than one. In tbe model school of Brussels, 
three-quarter hour lessons and one-quarter hour recesses have leen 
adopted. The system in use in many of the best European schools 
is similar. In 1884 tbe Prussian Minister of Instruction ordered a 
recess to be given at tbe end of every hour whether the daily school 
work is divided into a forenoon and an sAetnoon session, or there is 
only a forenoon session of five hours. 

As to tbe noon intermission when there are two daily sessions, I 
agree fully with Dr. Lincoln* when he says that, "nothing could be 
more injudicous than a programme which allows only one hour for 
dinner, following a forenoon of study and JoUowed by an afternoon 
ot study. If it be thought desirable for young adults to make the day 
as full as possible, it will be much better to have an intermission of 
two hours at noon-tim»." 

Absolutely no school work should be assigned for the noon pause 
and none should be permitted. This whole lime is needed for 

■gcbMl IDd iDduaOUl HrgliD*, p. 30. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


recreation ftod for a favorable beginning of the digestion of the aeon 

Jd leaviDg an importaDt topic io the hygiene of instruction it may 
be said that work, as hard and intense work as the best teachers can 
get out of pupils, will not harm them if the work is done under right 
conditions, and one of ilie moat important conditions is compara- 
tively short periods of work followed by pauses for relaxing the ten- 
sion of mind and body. 

School Excursions- — One of the pleasant sighte which draws 
the attention of the American in Europe, is that of the troops of 
school children marching at the heels of their teachers, — city schools 
enjoying a day's or a few days' outing in the country, or rural 
schools seeing the sights of the ci'y under the guidance of their 
teachers. It is a temporary change In the rontine of instructioo, the 
translation of the pupils from the dust of the school-room and the 
study of books, to the free air of the outer world and the study of 
things. They are out for the day to learn something of the world. 
Whether the way lays through city streets or through woods and 
fields, their leader leaches what to look lor and how to see it. The 
advaniages of these short outings are, when well planned, as they 
usually are, a brief respite from the mental application ol the school- 
room, and the gathering, by means of direct observation, of a large 
mass of material tor subsequen' use and illustration in the school- 

Vacations and Holidays. — There is even some reason for 
discovering similarities between the condition of many of our school 
children when they are finally dismissed for the long summer vaca- 
tion and the condition of the beneQciaries of the "fresh air fund" of 
our large cities. The poor, sick cily children who are sent to the 
country, for a two weeks* outing have become pale, thin, weakly, 
and diseased for the lack of good food, pure air, and other congenial 

These unfortuuate little ones from the city are described as "suf- 
fering more or lees with some chronic disease, born of neglect, 
privation, filth, and foul air. Prominent among the diseases repre- 
sented were scrofula, consamptlon, chronic bronchitis, asthma, hip- 
joint, and spinal troubles. Among them were confirmed cripples, 
as well as those in the incipient stage of more or less incurable 
diseases ; while others were simply in bad health, delicate, or sickly, 
the result of impure air or insufilcient or improper food." 

Dictized by Google 


Of the effects of tbe trips it is said tbat *'appetite9 improved, 
coogha ceased to be troublesome, ulcers healed, gromng deformities 
were arrested, cheeks filled out and grev ruddy, spirits became 
baoyant, the step elastic and childlike, while the sickly smile gave 
place to the hearty laugh of childhood ; or, as very happily expressed 
by a friend, 'they went out meu and women — they came back little 
children.' " 

The late Dr. White of Brooklyn, whose language we have been 
quoting, says of the children sent out in 1S77, the first year of tbe 

The whole number selected under my own supervision was sixty. 
As to diseases, they were classified as follows : 

General debility, 31 ; deformities,?; hip-joint disease. 5 ; spinal 
disease, 2; knee-joint disease, 1 ; consumption, 5; bronchitis, 4; 
chorea, 3 ; chronic ulcers, 2 , total, 60. 

All those whose health was being slowly undermined by living in 
the impure air of crowded and badly ventilated apartments, or ^m 
insufficient and improper food, aa well a^ those enfeebled by a 
previous attack of some acute disease were classed under the bead 
of general debility, without reference to tbe cause of their physical 
condition. Nearly all of this class returned home completely restored 
to health. All others were greatly benefited by the trip, and, if not 
cured, in many cases with disease arrested for the time being at 
least. All the cases of consumption improved." 

In a subsequent year ''The chairmaQ of tbe local committee in 
one villi^e community weighed every child in tbe party on arrival, 
and again after fourteen days in tbe country. The average age was 
ten years. Tbe least gain was shown in a four-year-old boy, who 
added only one pound to his weight, Tbe greatest by an eleven- 
year-old girl, who gained nine pounds. Tbe average gain for tbe 
entire party was four and nine-tentbs pounds."- 

Kow, if the foregoing woeful picture of tbe results of foul air, 
insufficient ventilation, and other unhygienic conditions of city child 
life among the poor, is to be taken as a reflection of tbe results of 
school attendance, it is, of c >urse, to be understood as a very exag- 
gerated one. There is, nevertheless, a similarity of results. It will 
be noticed that thirty-one of the sixty children sent out in 1977, 
went on account of "general debility," tbat state of ill health which 
we have already described as a rather characteristic school disease. 
It is a condition tbat serves as a pathologi.ial basis for a host of 
other diseases. Our school children, many of them, with an ahnnd* 
ance of food, lose their hearty relish f r it during their confinement 

Dictized by Google 


to the foul air of the scbool-rooma, and hi enforced mascukr id&c- 
tivity apoD the school ee&ts. Many ot these children at the end of 
each school year are greatlj Id need of tbe change which the vacation 
brings ; sod, vhelber the change consists merely in tbe escape from 
the school-room atmosphere and sehool-room restraints to a free rnn 
in tbe fields and woods aboat their home, or a visit to some other 
locality, the Improvement in appetite, color, weight, and all other 
evidences of returning health, is asaally striking. 

The long snmmer racaiion, with the existing educational methods 
and conditions appears to be a necessity, but the question is worthy 
of serious thought whether it would not be an advantage in more 
ways than one to hive a portion of tbe long vacation distributed 
through th ; school year in longer recesses and in half day vacations, 
especially when the weather is fair and favorable to out door sports 
and games. With a modification in this direction the need of the 
long vacation would not be so urgent. In this connection a sugges- 
tion of Dr. Winsor* is worth consideration. He says: 

It will appear on reflection that the system is now adapted to the 
wishes of tbe teachers and of the wealthier families whose children 
are at school. But a very large maj irity of the children in the large 
towns and cities cannot go away into the country and enjoy its 
summer delights for weeks together, but must swelter. through the 
long hours in tbe streets, — now in mischief, now in obvious danger, 
DOW listless, always in worse sanitary circumstances Iban if they 
were in decent school-rooms with moderate lessons. Our dnty is to 
provide vacation schools of some sort for tbe children on whom these 
evils fall most heavily, placing over them teachers who have not 
taught through the preceding term. 

And there seems abundant reason for making these vaca'ion 
schooh industrial ou tbe half-time system, since it woald not inter- 
fere with the present system carried on in term time. Such schools, 
together with half-time schools tor factory children, under a strin- 
gent law, would do incalculable good, and would furnish reliable 
data for determining the propriety of applying the principle lo the 
present public schools. 

Some Becent Studies. — Dr. Wretlind, of Gothenburg, carried 
out for several years, in tbe school with which he was connected, 
systematic weighings of tbe pupils nnder bis charge, determining the 
weight of each pupil at the beginning of tbe school year, and again 
at (be cloee. The school year included nine months, leaving a 
summer holiday of three months. 

By means of these weighings, "Wretlind determined that the growth 
of these children was proportionally more rapid during the vacation 

• Finh Bspsrt 8l«le Boatd ot Ueilth ot Unsiaohnsetta, p. MO. 

Dictized by Google 


than io any other three montliB daring the year, and draws the con- 
clusion that school work has a tendeocy to retard physical growth. 
He says, that, before the age of nine, the school has ao perceptible 
effect in checking the normal rate of growth, but in the following 
years the physical development is retarded daring the school months 
and this retardation becomes greater with the advancing age of the 
pupH, with the exception of the fourteenth year of life, in which the 
restraining inflnence of school life is less apparent than in (he next 
jounger and next older years. 

In this connection aa he remarks, we have a qaestion of the 
highest importance, whether the normal rate of growth during the 
different seasons of the year is uniform. 

In addition to the investigations of Wretlind, Dr. Key refers to 
those of Vahl wbo for a period of nine years determined the weight 
of the pupils in a Danisb school semi-annually, on April 1st and 
October 1st. His results show that the increasing weight for the 
pupils of all ages from four to fourteen was more rapid during the 
summer half year than during the winter half, averaging about one- 
third more. 

Investigations of this kind, says Axel Key,* are of great import- 
ance in considering the vacation question. If the winter and spring 
months exert, of tbemaslves, a retarding influence over development; 
the length of the sammer vacation is of more signiflcance than in 
places where the winter is shorter. If, on the contrary, the retarda- 
tion of growth during the winter months is not referable to natural 
causes, but to the fact that we lead a less active life in the polluted 
air of our rooms, etc., then there is the greater need for us to cor- 
rect these unfavorable conditions as far as possible ; then, also, tbe 
need for a long sammer vacatioa would be more urgert than in more 
southern lands. 

Regarding tbe compensatory growth after a temporary retarding 
cause has passed, an example is given from Vahl. An epidemic 
of whooping cough, in the year 1S80, exerted its influence in a 
marked degree in restraining the rate of growth of the pupils during 
the winter of 1 880-81. The increased rate ofgrowth which followed 
this temporary check made itself apparent even during the following 
winter. The compensatory growth, therefore, required more than 
a year. If the organism requires so long a time to make up the 
loss due to a temporary iofiuence, tbe serious question is suggested, 

*Schulhriilcniache llDte»acbuiig«n> p. US. 

D,i.,.db, Google 


bow long a time may be required for the compeasatory growth of 
children who have been subjected to lesa transieDt conditions which 
eeriouslj retard their devetopment? It saggests how fatetal may 

be the result. 

Vacation Oolonies.— Ano'ber subject allied to the one just 
under coDsideratiou is that of vacation colonies, or camps for sickly 
or ^'ruQ down" school children. This idea, we believe, was first 
put into practical operation by Pastor Bion of Zurich in 1876. Two 
years later Varrentrapp, the sanitarian, started a colony of the same 
kind for the school children of Frankfort, be having, in the mean- 
time, visited and recognized the value of Pastor Bion's novel char- 
ity. From this beginning the work has spread rapidly over Europe, 
and has met with so favorable an appreciation that liberal donations 
have been forthcoming for its support. 

These vacation colonies are somewhat differently managed in dif- 
ferent places. They are usually managed and provided for by a 
benevolent "vacation colony society," and the children ate under 
the immediate care of some suitable person, often a teacher whose 
sympathy iu the cause leads him or her to forego, in part, the free- 
dom of the summer vacation. Sometimes they are found in the 
wooded country, Bometimes amouK the mountains, and again at the 
seashore. From 15 to 20 children only are admitted to some col- 
onies, while in other places as many as lOO go together. In Home 
colonies the children remain in camp three or four weeks, while in 
others twice as bug. An abundance of good rich milk and other 
wholesome food is supplied, aud games and plays are provided that 
the fascination of the children with the new, free life may not cease. 

In 1888 an International Congress in ;he interest of holiday col- 
onies for school children, especially for feeble or sickly children, 
was held in Zurich, Switzerland. It was attended by representa- 
tives from all the leading continental nations, and from countries as 
far distant as Spain, Russia, Finland, and Scandinavia. Prof. 
Wyss, of Zurich, read a paper before this assembly on "The 
Physical Results of Holiday Colonies."* 

When, says he, we compare these children on their return with 
the same crowd that, a few weeks earlier, were setting out to the 
colony, it must be confessed that their appearance is improved. 
The pale and thin features, with the large eyes, the slender arms, 
and the legs that tire with a little walking have given place to brown 
and sunburnt faces, to eyes not so sunken, to rounded cheeks, 

■ VerlmnaioDBeD des Int. Kong. lUr Ferienkolonien, p. 8. 

Dictized by Google 


to roey lipa, to limbs clothed in mnacles of a firmer feel. 
The whole body is ttow covered with a softer and more elastic 
skin. But in addition to these excellent changes, the atten- 
tive mother noticea other alterations in her child. The former dis- 
relish of hearty foods, particularly of milk, nourishing soupa, and 
meats, has disappeared ; black coflee is no longer preferred to the 
proper and real food products, like milk, meat and eggs. The com- 
plaint of nausea, and of pain in the stomach is n < longer made. 
The sleep is quieter — there is no longer talking in sleep, grinding 
the teeth, or sudden awakenings in fright. That the physical 
strength is increased, is noted with certainty by the leader of the 
colony, for these children who, in the first weeks, lagged behind in 
the walks, are no longer tired even by long marches from the camp. 
At the re-opening of the school the teachpr declares that the pupil 
shows more life, and, at the same time, is more attentive and studi- 
ous, and that he is more sprightly, both in mind and body. T^he 
headache with which he was troubled, especially in the last hours of 
the session, has entirely disappeared. 

From the paper read by Prof. Wyss, we gather that the upward 
impulse given to the health of the children is permanent in its 
results, or lasts for a long time after their return to their schools 
and their unhealtbful homes. 

Several physicians have sought, through exact methods of observa.- 
tion, to gain an idea as to whether the physical gain is real. 
Measurements of the height and ot the chest capacity, show, upon 
the whole, improvement. The weight increases from 2 3 to 8.8 
pounds; children in the Swiss colonies gaining least, and those in 
the German most. The increase in weight is dependent very much 
apon food, weather, and other circumstances. In five or six per 
cent, only of the children, there is nO gain in bodily weight. 

Sixteeu girls and fifteen boys from the schools o( Paris were sent 
to the vacation colonies in tbe country. One of the children was 
nine yesrs old, two were thirteen, alt the others were ten, eleven, or 
twelve years of age. Tbe averuge age of the girls was exactly eleven 
years, that of the boys eleven years and four months. 

On their return at the end of a month, tbe boys had gained, on 
an average, almost three pounds, and the girls nearly four pounds 
and a half. 

When they left home they were all, without exception, pale, dull, 
and sickly looking. On their return they had, withoat exception, a 
good color, and tbeir eyes were bright and sparkling. It was a 
veritable transformation. One month after their return, save one 


Dictzed by Google 


ezceptioD, the amelioratioa of tbeir coodition a.aA the increue in 
weigbt persisted.* 

Some of the iDveBtigators have made cx)mparison8 betweeo the 
physical gain of children to colonies and other children of the same 
agea, classes, and conditions in life, enjoying the beneQts of the so- 
called milk cnres, having their freedom daring the vacation, but not 
leaving the city. The gain is distinctly in favor of the colony 
childreD. And this physical betterment is not all. The child brings 
home with bim a soul fall of be&ntiful memories of happy days, of 
new and pleasing sceneR, of discoveries in hitherto unknown flelda. 
As one of the Fteoch delegates expressed it, "The sojourn in the 
colony is a veritable revelation in geography, an incomparable oppor- 
tunity for lessons in things, and what is of not less value, acqaaint- 
ance with persons." 

Five hundred and twenty-two school children of Frankfort who 
were not sent to the holiday colonies gained io weight not quite one- 
half pound on an average, while 166 boys who had four weeks each 
in the colonies gained in weight seven times as much, and 177 girls 
who had the same kind of outing for the same length of time, gained 
eight times as much t 

Discipline. — "If you wish anything to be forgotten, write it on 
the icner side of the study door ; if you want to desecrate the holy, 
hang a table of commandments perpetually before the eyes. Leva- 
tor said, 'Every man has his Devil's moments.' Consequently be 
not lost in surprise il the child also have his Satan's seconds as well 
S8 angel's minutes. "J 

"It is not what you can compel children to do, but what you can 
persuade them to do, that is the test of your ability as a disciplin- 

They should be allowed all the liberty consistent with propriety 
and progress. The question of discipline solves itself when Inter- 
esting occupation has control of the pupils. 

In seeking to suppress all traces of the natural hum of industry 
in the school-room the teacher will be likely to introduce a greater 
disturbance and to suppress iudustry itself. 

Motionless quit^t and sitting with folded arms may well be 
T^e'^rded as a trace of the barbarism of the past. Easy and uncon- 

and the.a6D'HT|iflenBlX,lM7. P»riB, 1987. 

and Snnbch« VleneUihrrichcirt fur SfE. Qeaundu, XIX, SZ^ 

■ -"laL BltoHor-LBvanil, p. 347. 

AapatU, Cit; ot Bibkoc, 1390—91, p. 122. 

Dictized by Google 


atrained positions of the body &re conducive to advaDcement in 
school work. 

Frequent recesses and tbe encouragement of active play at receaa 
is decidedly in tbe interest of discipline. Dr. P. J. Higgins* says 
truly : 

Ttiere is a certain amount of nerve-energy thai is accustomed to 
find outlet in tbe muBclee. and, if unduly repressed, will often break 
through tbe strictest discipline and cause ibe teacher much annoy- 
ance. It must not he forgotten that muHclea were not created to be 
kept still during waking tiuurs, and, wben kept at rest an bour or 
two, a surplus of energy accumulates, which recess gets rid of legiti- 
mately. It also serves anotber purpose admirably. Of all sedatives 
of the nervous system, muscular exercise is tbe moat pfBcient, 
because pby Biological. IC quickens the circulation, and stimulates 
th<- heart and all tbe vegetalive functions. 

Tbe aim should be to enlist enthusiasm and industry in tbe aid of 
discipline. Then much work may be done In the briefest possible 
space of time, and more Irequeni or longer intervals for play may 
follow as well-earned rewards for industry. 

To require pupils lo stand erect and motionless through a whole 
recitation, is a severe imposition on the physical powers of children, 
especially in the heaivd atmosphere of an uoveniilated school-room. 
Under such conditions tbe writer remembers that, when a pupil of a 
district school, the fainting of scholars and carrying them out into 
the open air for recovery was not so very infrequent an occurrence. 
The occasional syncope is only one ot many ills ol such senseless 
schemes cl discipline. Another is tbat it compels tbe children to 
assume vicions postures of fatigue, as for instance, throwing ibe 
weight upon one Coot, thus paving the way for spinal deformity. 

A discipline that seeks to keep tbe eyes of pupils riveted upon 
their hooks too long at a time or which forbids all looking out of 
windows is not commendable. It is in the interest of the hygiene 
of the eyes to raise them occasionally and to look into tbe distance. 

The rule in some schools of closing the doors against tardy 
arrivhls, if carried out in all strictness and in all sort<< of wuatber, 
as it sometimes is, is an outrage against which the b<.-iter impulses 
of the human heart rebel. This rule takes cognizance of no |ioa«i- 
ble adverse circumstances that may have retarded tbe child. It may 
work a severe physical injury lo him, besides defrauding him of 
some of his lessons. 

•PopuUr Science MnnChly, XXIV. Ui. 

Dictized by Google 


Punishments.— "Id the higher moral educ&tioD," says Bain,* 
"the management of the paseion of fear is of the greatest consequence. 
The evils of operating by means of it are so great that it should be 
r«eerTed for the last resort. The waste of energy and the scattering 
of thoughts are ruinous to the interests of mental progress. The 
one certain result is to paralyze and arrest action, or else to coacen- 
trate force in some single point, at the cost of general debility. The 
tyrant, working by terror, disarms rebellionsneis. but fails to pre- 
cure enei^elic service, while engendering hatred and preparing for 
his overthrow," 

From a hygienic point of view hardly one among the whole list of 
school-room punishments is unobjectionable. The model teacher 
avoids the necessity of much of the punishment that appears to the 
less skillful disciplinarian to be called for. As to corporal punish- 
ment, Baginskyf advises the teacher when entering his profession, 
to make it a rule never to inflict it. If, however, he finds this 
impracticable he is counselled to make it an invariable rule, never 
to use his hand as an inatrnment of punishment, never to use any- 
thing but the particular switch or rod kept for the purpose, and 
never to have this at band, bat in the teacher's closet under lock 
and key. Then bpfore the key can be procured, the door unlocked, 
and the rod brought out, the first flush of anger may have passed, 
and the sober secoud thought may have a chance to assert itself. 

Still better would the advice be that the rod shall be kept at the 
teacher's home or boarding place, or that the infliction of corporal 
punishment shall always be deferred a few hours or, at least, until 
the next day. 

In the schools of some of the leading cities in this country, cor- 
poral punishment has been abolished. After trial of this new 
arrangement, some of the school boards have reported that the dis- 
cipline of the school has not snffered, others believe that cases 
occasionally arise in which the school and the individual pupil are 
better for the switch. 

Dr. Dukes. t health officer to Rugby School, thinks that some 
offences, particularly moral offences should be treated with the 
"birch," hut he says : "The days of punishing pupils with the cane 
for not knowing their lessons are, I think, past and gone forever!" 
He would particularly apply the birch to the treatment of the bully. 

■Pop. Scl.Uonthly, XIII, p.SM. 

Dictized by Google 


PuDishmeDt by boxiog the ears should be prohibited ia all schools, 
on account of the daD(;er to hearing. 

Keeping in at recess is decidedly objectionable, for the physical 
needs of the naughty boy are as great as those of tha model ones, 
and sometimes much greater. Mischief is sometimes a symptom of 
pent up euergy that needs letting oS through the muscular system. 

Standing iu the floor for more than a moderate time, should uot 
be practised. Lateral curvature of the spine is otbernise flavored 
too much by school life without this help. 

In the imposition of tasks as school puoishments, care should be 
had that they do not interfere too mud) with needed physical exercise. 

After considering these and other forms of punishment, I am 
inclined to agree with Baginsky that 'there are serious objections to 
any other form of punishment than keeping in after school houis. 
and that to spare the teacher, certain hours of certain days should 
be set apart for this balancing of accounts." 

An experiment in school discipline known as the deportment class, 
well deserving the consideration of ciiy school officers generally, was 
begun in San Francisco some years ago.* 

Individuality. — Fay attention, teachers! to the attention 
manifested by your children, so that you may not, to the injury of 
his whole future life, demand from the genius who astonishes you 
with his power and his brilliancy the very opposite qualities to those 
he possesses : do not expect a paint«r'a eye in a Hadyen, nor a 
poem from an Aristotle. -j* 

Individuality is as much a constitutive fact ot each human being 
as is the trait which he shows in common with bis fellows. This 
individuality, representing his inheritance, bis childhood, his training 
by environment, tnill assert itself. And this means nothing more or 
less than that he, tbe given person, will go out toward certain sub- 
jects and withdraw from others. Force him to study Latin and 
Greek, or mathematics and physics, even through the college course, 
and you may do him irreparable harm. At all events, there is here 
an open question. J 

Public Examinations. — The serious evils of school examlna- 
tions have long been pointed out by physicians, and there are of late 
more signs than hitherto of an awakening among educators to tbe 
disadvantages from a strictly pedagogical point of view of this time- 
htiitored custom. In favor of public examinations it may be admitted : 

That they afiord an opportunity for teachers to show off the 
results uf their wotk. 

•Sm Bsport ot Com. of EdnckUoa (or 1SS1-«S, p. crl. 

tJena Paul Rlcht«r.— Levnoii, p. ii«. 

JW. K. Beiiedkt— OatUne* (rom Uu Sitlarj of EdncRUon. Pop. Bd. Uoathl; XXX, 22t. 

Dictized by Google 


That it is a gratiflcatioD to parents aotl f rieods to have tbe attaiD- 
ments and a<x»inpliihmeDt8 of their cbildrea exhibited, especially if 
these children are apt or precocious. 

Against these public exhibitions, it may be affirmed : 

That in many schools a considerable amount of time is apeut in 
special preparations for tbem as though the public examiaation were 
one of the great ends of school work. 

That they are disliked and dreaded by the great majority of 

That, consequeotlr, in addition to the necessary and legitimate 
expenditure of nervous energy in mastering tbe subjects taugbt, 
there is an unnecessary emotioaal Straia, tbe unfortuuate results of 
which many a physician has had occasion to bitterly deplore. 

Dr. H. I. Bowditch says, "I have seen not a lew patients^schol- 
ars — who, under the violent stimulus put upon them by an approach- 
ing examination or exhibition for rank or tor prizes, have sunk 
Immediately after such extra intellectual labor, wholly prostrated in 
mind and body " 

The lirae spent in the special preparation for show might be more 
profitably devoted to forwarding the pupils in their studies, or in 
fixing permanently their acquisitions by means of less imposing 

If it is urged that the public examinations are needed to enable 
school officers or the public an opportunity to judge of the value of 
the teacher's work and the progress of the pupils, it might be sug- 
gested that much more trustworthy data for this purpose may be 
derived from observations of the r^ular school work. 

Again it may be urged that the interest of tbe parents and that of 
the public generally in the school must be maintained. Most 
assuredly it should be. Let tbem be urged, invited, and reminded 
repeatedly to visit the schools at any time, and in addition, for some- 
thing to gratify the children as well as to interest the parents, we 
would say that "The Distribotion of the Prizes," in DeAmicis* 
"Cuore" is suggestive of something less torturing to sensitive child- 
hood and therefore ro be preferred from a hygienic point of view. 

There is probably no person in America more competent to pro> 
nounce judgment on tbe merits and demerits of public examinations 
than Emorson E. White, LL. D. of Cincinnati. Prom a pamphlet* 

•UlreulM of IntormMlon No. T, IMl. 

Dictized by Google 


prepared by him and published by tbe Cooamissioaer of Education, 
the following is extracted : 

These several uses of examiuaiioa results have been the source of 
bitter jealousies aad rivalries between schools and teachers. They 
have perverted the best efforts of teachers, and uarrowe'l and 
grooved their instruction ; they nave occasioned and made nell-nigb 
imperative the use of mechanical and rote methods of teaching ; they 
have occasioned cramming aod other vicious habits ol study; they 
have caused ntuch of tbe overpressure charged upon tbe schools, 
some of which is real; they have tempted both teachers and pupils 
to dishonesty, and, last but not least, they have permitted a mechan- 
ical method of school supervision. 

What has been said of tbe influence of promotion esaminations 
on teachers applies also to their influence on study, and this is 
specially true in the higher grades. They set up a low and alluring 
end for study^the attainment of exaraiiiation marks — and they dis- 
sipate that natural desire for knowledge which is tbe source and 
inspiration of all true learning and of alt real joy in study. 

Another serious evil attending promotion examinations is the 
physical injury inflicted upon ambitious, sensitive, and over'nervoua 
pupils,— a class sufflcientiy numerous to demand careful considera- 
tion in school administration. This evil is greatest when promotion 
is made to depend chiefly on a flnal examination. Such an examina- 
tion comes at the close of a term or year of effort looking to it, and 
hence at a time when the nervous energy of many pupils has been 
tully taxed, and, in too many instances, overtaxed. A few days of 
excessive study or cramming at snch a time may so exhaust tbe 
brain as to make the added strain of tbe examination perilous. This 
liability to brain exhaustion may be increased by undue solicitude, 
if not actual worry, and this unfavorable nervous condition is often 
^gravated,it not occasioned, liy the unwise stimulation and pressure 
of thoughtless teachers and over- am bilious parents. Many a child 
is made to feel that a failure in an examination is not only a personal 
but a family disgrace. 

To this nervous and mental unfitness for the examination ordeal 
must be added the severe tax of pen or pencil work not unfrequently 
for three to tour hours daily and for several successive days — alwaj's 
an outrage when required ot pupils under fifteen years Qf age, and 
always unwise whatever may be the age of those examined. 

Moreover, experience shows that the more that depends on a final 
examination, the more injurious are its consequences. It is for this 
reason that the use of examination restdts, to compare schools and 
teachers, has proved so objectionable. It gives the teacher a special 
personal interest in the success of every pupil; and in the case of 
over-ambitious and nervous teachers, this occasions unwise appeals, 
stimulations, and criticisms — in a word, undue pressure of variotis 
kinds ; influences that afl^ect most the pupils who do not need stim- 
ulation, but the opposite. Many a school has thus t>een wrought up 
to an examination excitement most injurious to txith teacher and 
pupils. It, is well-nigb a crime for teachers to use a coming exami- 

Dictized by Google 


tion to stimulate and arouse pupils vfao are fully taxing nervous 
enei^ iu meeting regular ecbool require meats. 

Nor is this evit oF overpressure as oecasiouol or exceptional as is 
sometimes claimed. The facte fully warrant the statement that Dot 
an absorbing and exciting promotion examination is conducted in 
any great public school without such injurious results, and this is 
specially true when the examination influence possesses the schools. 
It would open the eyes of some school officers, and not a few teachers, 
if they were to receive full reports of the calls of family physicians 
whicli attend their exhausting final examinations; and certaiuly & 
few teachers, at least, know from personal experience what is meant 
by a general promotion examination at the close of a year of over- 
taxing labor. 

The opportunities of many an American 3'ot]th have been blasted 
by an examination failure, and this, too, often due to nervons 
exhaustion. More young lives have gone out at the bands of the 
examination fiend than our school records show. It seems high time 
that our school policies should recognize the fact that children ace 
not made of putty. 

Another evil connected with promotion examinationa is the waste 
of time and energy which they involve. A final examination in a 
great school or system of schools requires a week or more of precious 
time, and when the number of examinations held each year is 
increased, the amount of time thus wasted is increased, though per- 
haps not proportionately. The writer has known several schools in 
wbich full one month each year, or one-tenth of the school session, 
was spent in what the famous English Protest aptly calls "the drudge 
work of examinations." 

But this does not tell tbe whole story, since much time and energy 
are consumed in preparing for tbe examinations, i. e., in exercises 
and eSorts which are specially devoted to this one purpose. Much 
of the drill and rote work occasioned by these examinations is justi- 
fied by no true end of teaching ; on the contrary, it is subversive of 
true teaching. 

The term "waste" used above is justified by the fact that the 
outlay of time and effort involved in the promotion examination 
makes no compensating return. It is useless as a means of deter- 
mining tbe fitness of pupils for promotion, as will be hereafter shown, 
and yet thfs is its special purpose. There is no teacher, coOipetent 
to read and grade examination papers, who does not know as welt 
before as after examination what pupils in the class deserve pro- 

Number of Pupils to a Teacher. — The crowding of too 

many children into a school-room under tbe care of a single teacher 
is bad from a hygienic point of view because a school-room to be 
built in accordance with sanitary requirements cannot exceed rather 
limited dimenaions. Wide svhool-rooms cannot be lighted satisfac- 
torily in all their parts, and rooms of too great a length put some 
of its occupants in a position favoring eye and ear strain and undue 

Dictized by Google 


tension of the brain tbat atrivea to catch the mess^ea sent through 
theae avenuea. Furthermore, the larger the number of pupils 
crowded together, the greater the difficnlty of avoiding the malodor- 
one school-room atmosphere. 

Too many pupils to a teacher is also a serious ped^ogic error 
that abonld be avoided if in any way practicable. When the teacher 
ie overburdened wiih a large number of pupita, a great part of the 
school time is entirely wasted. Particularly in schools of the lower 
grades, the scholars cannot have tbat individual attention which they 
need. The pupils, yet untrained to self-help in study, quickly fall 
into the vicious achool-room habit of wasting time. An important 
matter, too, in the discussion of this qaeation is the fault that the 
peraonal moral inBuence of the teacher is greatly lessened. When 
circumatancea force such conditions upon school officers and teach- 
ers, the half time system should receive the consideration which it 

In some places a tendency is shown to crowd a lai^e number of 
primary pupils upon a single teacher, while in the grammar grades, 
an effort Is made to restrict the number in a single room. Just the 
reverse of this is more rational from both the instmctional and the 
health point of view. A greater number of the larger scholars can 
be inatructed as a single mind, but with the tittle ones much of the 
teaching mnat be individualized or it will be emphatically a non- 

"It ia incredible," says Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi,* "that any real 
education cau be afforded to the large classes now herded together 
under the care of one teacher. Twenty or thirty children are cer- 
tainly all that a single brain can pretend to teach ; but our public 
school classes habitually contain sixty, eighty, and even more pupils." 

For English schools Dr. Dukes says: ' -Class -rooms should be 
constructed to hold thirty boya and their master. They should 
never hold more, for this number ia as many as any one master can 
control and teach properly." 

For Germany Dr. Cohnf declarea that "it ie in the interest of 
both teachers and acbolars to have not more than from twenty to 
forty children aasigued to one teacher." 

In some of the Swedish schools no teacher is permitted to have 
more than from twenty-eight to thirty-five pupils under ber instruction. 

Dictized by Google 


Be^larity of Attendance. — It is very satisfactory to have 
& low percentage of absenteeiam ; indeed, irregulariiy of atteadaace 
is a serious evil aod should be reduced to a reasonable minimQin. 
There are, however, two ways of secaring a low percentage of 
abseatation. One is by makiag the preservatioa and improvement 
of the health of the school of at least as great a coDsideratioa as the 
intellectual drill, thus reducing the necessary absence frora sickness 
to the lowest possible point. Thu9 secured, an unreasonable mini- 
mum of absentation is hardly conceivable. When, however, regn- 
larity of attendance comes to be the most cherished priuciple of the 
school, it is an error which caa lead to mischief. The absence of & 
pupil from school is sometimes necessary, now in the interest of the 
school, again in the interest of the pupil. A bugbear in the shape 
of a school-room law which drives pupils convalescing from iniec- 
lious diseases back to the school before there is a full assurance- 
that ihey are free from infectiousness, or brings them back to the- 
serioas duties of the school-room before their full recovery from any 
f zhausting disease, brief ( r prolonged, will not meet the approval of 
a thoughtful school management. Further, it should be remembered 
that school life, a^ it generally exists, makes a short rest now and 
then a physical necessity to some pupils. 

Courses of Study. — in these days when life is a rush, there 
is a call from more than one source, for rapidity in the advancement 
of the pupil in his school-room course. The higher institutions of 
learniug, pressed by the demand for the shortening of college 
courses, call upon the lower schools to pass their pupils up before 
they reach that age in which young America feels irresistibly the 
call of the age to be out into the battle of life. There is one reason 
why those who believe that '*the successful man must be a healthy 
animal" ask that the pupil's school years may not be unnecessarily 
long, and that is, that school life is more or less of adownward drag 
upon the physical conditiot of its pupils. Every hour, therefore, 
and every year of needless enclosure within scbool-room walls, is to 
be obviated. Every bit of pedagogic rubbish, they say, ^-everything 
that impedes the progress of the pupil without yieldmg adequate 
compensation in mental discipline or in useful knowledge, — 
should be rigorously pruned away. Haste they do not regard as 
synonymous with hurry; nor shallowness of attainments as the 
necessary result of some shortening of the various school courses. 

Dictized by Google 


The writer is one that believes that «re have not ^et learne<] all 
that the noble art of pedag(%y is capable of teaching us, that the 
methods of instruction of t&e average teacher shall yet, under the 
guidance of the State Educational Department and under normal 
training, be raised toward the practicable ideals of the best instrnct- 
ors, and finally that a broad eclecticism shall prevail and lead school 
officers and teachers to turn to other states and other nations, with 
the enquiry whether any of their methods give results more satisfac- 
tory than those following ours. 

As pedagogic methods have an important bearing on that part of 
school hygiene called the "Hygiene of Instruction," I feel It neces- 
sary to enter a field some parts of which the careless thinker 
might believe to be out from under the banner of Hygiea, but 
wh cb is far from being so. 

To develop the fullest powers of any one part of the child, requires 
that every other part shall, at the same time, undergo a healthy 
development. The more perfect the physical health, the more is the 
mental culture favored ; and, conversely, the happy unfolding of the 
child's intellectual powers, through well ordered mental work, is 
conducive to bodily well being. 

The highest aim. tberelorc, of butb the educator and the sanitarian 
should be to bring abont a harmonious development of the child, to 
do which requires that neither body, senses, nor intellect shall be 
neglected in the scheme of education. 

An important thing to be remembered in making up a course of 
study is that It should be planned, not for the extraordinarily gifted 
child, but for the ordinary ones, and that the amount of work to be 
imposed should not be meted out in accordance with the powers of 
endurance of the perfectly sound child, for the great majority of the 
pupils have, by inheritance or otherwise, a tendency to weakness, 
some in one direction, some in another. 

A Multiplicity of Studies. — A variety of siudies carried 
along simultaneously is as great a necessity as is some variety in 
the food preparations for children, nevertheless, the tendency to 
crowd pupils with too great a number of studies at the same time, 
some for mental training, some for utility, and some because pre- 
ceding generations of children have likewise been burdened wiih 
them, is one potent factor in the production of those ills that result 
from overpressure. In a paper on "Brain- Forcing in Childhood,"* 
Dr. Wm. A. Hamojond, calls attention to this evil in these words : 

•Popular Science MoDtbl; .XXX, 72B. 

D,:„l,;.dtv Google 


Ooe of ihe gre&test mistakes made in our present system of edu- 
cating children is, that tbe; are given too many subjects to study at 
once. Tbe power of disttociatioD — that is, of keeping one subject 
entirely clear of another suhject — is not great in the minds of children . 
Tbey there ore have a mass of contused ideas when they have got 
through mith their daily tasks, which it is always difflcult, and sotue- 
times impossible for them to separate one trooi the other. 

The effort to form and maintain clear and forcible ideas of several 
subjects at once is a difficult matter, even for adults. It has been 
found by experience that it is advantageous to reduce the number of 
branches of medical science which students are required to atndy 
simultaneously. Several of the better class of medical colleges in 
this country a few years ago cut down the list of from eight or ten 
to less than halt the number, and extended the period of study From 
two sessions of fonr months each to three of from six to eight 
months. I speak from personal experience when I say that I ana 
awara of the most lamentable results of the "cramming" process in 
medical students. I have been a teacher in mtdical schools for 
nearly twenty-five years. In the course of my examinations it has 
often happened that I have put a question in one branch of medicine 
to a candidate tor graduation atid have received an answer in aa 
entirely different branch. How much better it would be for the 
future man or woman if the boy or girl, instead of being required to 
learn a dozen difi^ereut subjects at once, as was the poor little victim 
of St. Vitus dance to whom I referred in the beginning of my 
remarks, should have the number reduced to two. or at most three ! 
Geography, for instance, might easily be sufficiently learned in three 
moDths it it were taught exclusively, and so of many other subjects. 

Methods of Instruction ■ — If, says Dr. Loewenthal,* our appre- 
hension is correct that the function of the mind represents an impor- 
tant part of life as a whole, that mental exercise is equivalent to the 
satisfaction of a natural impulse, it follows that we shall find this 
instinct manifest in outward signs ; and, indeed, in the newborn 
babe, the desire for mental food shows itself aa plainly as that for 
bodily food, and in each according to the existing power of diges- 
tioo. The new-born assuredly has no need of pbiloaopbical specula- 
tion, aod just aa little of a richly spread table, or of mountain 
climbing. On the contrary, just as distinct a need as that for the 
mother's breast or for the nursing botUe is shown for the elements 
of all knowledge. sense-impreSBions, such, namely, as are simple 
and yet distinct (massvoll) enough to be appropriated and assimi- 
lated ; mild light, soft tones, agreeable impressions of taste and 
temperature, etc. . * • • The desire to know is there- 
fore as unquestionably present from the first as the desire to eat. 

In the later life of the child there is still less danger of failing to 
perceive that the thirst for knowledge is a natural impulse that must 
oeuessarily be satisfied, although its activity is often termed inquisi- 

•Qmndiuge ^ner Hygiene d» nsUirletUi. Wlnbuden, 1»ST. 

Dictized by Google 


tiveueas, radeaess, or tbe love of destroyiog things. Indeed, all the 
time whea the child is DOt sleepiDg or eatiog, he is applying himself 
to aatiafying this desire which drives him on to learn about things, 
and with such an inteDBenesB that be temporarily targets hanger and 
fatigae. The astonishing results are such that, within a few years 
after birth, he has gaiaed a range of information, the compass of 
which would be stiEl more amazing were it not that each of us has 
also acquired it unconsciously, driven by a natural impulse, just as 
any physioal power is acquired, as the result of continued exercise of 
a function indispensable to health and ceasing only with life. 

Exactly as with the need of bodily food, the desire for food for 
the mind shows itself: through a longing for nutriment such as 
experience indicates corresponds to its ne ds. The physically 
hnngry child will eat; (he mentally hungry will collect impressions 
and compare them, and will bind them all into a knowledge that he 
wilt make his own: to this end he observes, investigates, and 
experiments, aa soon as, through the reception and elaboration of 
impressions ever becoming more various, he is in a position, with 
the help of the experience already gained, to make use of new 

And Just aa satiety for bodily aliment is shown, so is that for 
mental food indicated by tbe refusal to take further nutriment. The 
satisfied nursling presses its lips together, turni its head away, and 
pushes the bottle back, for which a little while ago it was crying, 
and even the sight of which quietvd it. In the same way is satiety 
of the mind shown in tbe child engaged in the work of intellectual 
digestion, by bis disinclination to partake further of mental nourish- 
ment; he becomes distracted, dull, and confused, gives incorrect 
answers, does not understand the meaning of what is said to him, 
seeks by any possible way to turn from tbe subject, yawns, bos a 
headache, cannot read any more, etc. 

Sikouski sought to determine experimentally the degree of brain 
exhaustion by having children write from dictation, first when the 
school was opened in the morning, and again at tbe end of tbe five 
hours' session. During the latter dictation, 38 per cent, more errors 
on an average were made than during the former. I have myself 
made similar experiments with reading and with numbers. Children 
who used figures very well in tbe morning made about twice as many 
mistakes, and much worse ones, in the afternoon ; and when Icon- 
tinned the work in spite of the manifest mental ditioclination, it 
happened, sometimes when tbe adding was pushed only a few min- 
utes, that, for instance, to tbe question : bow much is three and 
four? now five, now eight, and again nIx would be the answer. In 
the afternoon, also, errors in reading were made that the same 
pupils did not make in the morn ng. If the child is very young or 
not very tractable, he withdraws himself in any possible way from 
the torture, there being do need of tbe nutriment, and show^ very 
plainly thereby his eatiaiioo. Very striking is this brought out 
when smaller, and therefore more quickly satiated children are 

Dictized by Google 


mingled with laruer ones, and a story ii told them, or somethiog is 
Fzplained that they a'l wish to hear; after some timp, while the 
larger onea are still very eager to hear and their interest is shown 
by animated questionings, the little ones long for anything that is 
play, or suddenly become bangry, or want to go to sleep — withdraw- 
ing in one way or another from hearing further of the matter. * * 

In ibe same way do we gain all the numberless conceptions and 
ideas that constitute the vast domain of our men' a1 life ; tbey are all 
and every one of them, directly or indirectly, the result of our own 
experience, and from this follows one of the most important funda- 
mental axioms in education, one that is so simple and self evident, 
that for this reason perhaps, it has stubbornly been disregarded. 

It is this : that the need of mental food, like that for bodily food 
can be satisfied only through self -elaboration of the material ; that 
to do the thinking for another is just as impossible as to do his 
digestion tor him. And with reference to the particulars of the 
process, this signifies that the food material for the physical organ- 
ism L'annnt be incorporated into the body as ready-made cells, but 
the meat, for example, must be resolved into its component parts ; 
out of these ibe organism must itself form tissue again which only 
then remains as a vital, acting part of itsdf. In like manner men- 
tal food cannot be inserted into the brain already prepared, but the 
mind must resolve each idea into its parts, the individual observa- 
tions and experiences, and then rearrange and bind the new ideas to 
those already present, whereby it remains a living part of what is 
known. Without this analysis and the sncceeding synthesis as the 
work of the organism itself, there can he do life and development, 
whether of body or of mind. • • ■ 

From the preceding leading points in the physiology of mental 
nutrition — learning— we may deduce the general principles that 
must guide in teaching, if the instruction is to be satisfactory. These 
requirements are : 

1. The prctleied mental food must Qrst of all be digestible by the 
hum^n brain. That is. the observations that constitute tbe founda- 
tion of ideas, must be accessible to our senses. It would, for example, 
be absurd to seek to teach the color of the ulira-violet rayn, of 
whose existence there ia no doubt, but which we cannot see becanse, 
for our eyes, they have no color. Something like this takes place, 
however, in many branches of instruction where we apply tbe 
attributes of the known to things not perceptible to tbe senses. 

2. Tbe nutriment must correspond to the pupil's capacity of 
digestion. The elaboration of the material and the union of it with 
the already present acquisitions of a like kind can take place only 
when the new impression has points of contact with observations 
(anschauungen) already made. Only then can it be classified and 
be used in the building up of new ideas. This requirement is very 
frequently overlooked, indeed everywhere, where a subject is taught, 
the fundamental observations or experiences of which are unknown 
to the child ; for example the grammatical rules of & language yet 

Dictized by Google 


UDlearoed ; get^rapby before the cbild has seen wbat a city, tbe 
coiiDtry, a river, a brook, etc., in. 

3. It must escite tbtj meatal digeation to activity. This is tbe 
O&se only when ibe requirement just mentioned (2) is fal&lled, — 
the connection of the new with what was before known. But, still 
further, the new must be really new, that is, thnugh having poiiits of 
contact with the old, yet It mu^t offer something hitherto not pos- 
sessed, mnst be a widening of what bus hitherto been learned. The 
child, driven by his desire for knowing, repeals an experiment nntil 
he has learned everything from it that, at tbe time, he is capable of 
learning, until tbe new impression is fixed (for instance. Preyer's 
child slammed down tbe cover of a jar sevenly-nine times in sncces- 
sion, or BO long as the relation between movement and noise sur- 
prised him) 1 and then be turns to new observations and impressions. 

4. It must be kept steadily in view that mental digestion, like 
any other lunctioD, temporarily exhausts itself by its own activity. 

As learning is dependent exclusively on the mental activity of 
tbe cbild that learns. — on tbe digeation by himself of observations 
into ideas and knowledge, — it must be perceived that the chief dnty 
of leaching is to present healthful nutritive material (the elements of 
real knowledge) and to binder as little as possible the digestion of 
it ; and, as knowledge — the knowing or the real relation of thmgs — 
can be gained only through personal observation and comprehensi- 
ble explanation of the things observed, teaching is equivalent to 
leading the learner to observe and think for himself. 

The foregoing translation of passages from the valuable work of 
Dr. Loenenthal may serve in a general way to guide in the choice 
of methods in teaching. To it I will only add the following: 

The daily marking of pupils should be abandoned in all public 
schools. It not only limits the freedom and power of the teacher, 
but it dissipates bis energy and wastes precious time. No teacher 
can give bis whole strength to instruction and drill and at tbe same 
lime estimate and record the value of the pupil's work. The two 
things are incompatible. The more attention that is given to mark- 
ing, the less will be given to teaching. We have never seen a 
"marking teacher" give a live and skillful lesson in any grade of 
school. In a few exceptional cases we have seen a vigorous test 
('Xcrcise attended with marking with little apparent loss of power, 
but there are very few teachers capable of such double work, even 
in a lest exercise. Tbe marking of pupils as they recite kills true 
teaching, especially in large classes.* 

Dictation Sxercises. — Too much dictation work is done in 
some schools. The evils are excessive eye-strain, slovenly styles 
of writing, if the pupils are hurried, as they almost always are, and 

■rnmotloiu and EiunlDilioD tn Graded Schpola, Cltcular of luformitlon, ButsBu of 

Dictized by Google 


if they are Dot, the use of much time for the amoaot of work dtme. 
Farther than thia we are told by an eminent edac&tor that. "A keen 
observer need not remain lon^ in schools that OTernse the pen and 
pencil to observe the nervous condition of many pupils when prepar- 
ing written work, and many thoughtful parents have observed with 
Bolicitnde the nervous tension of their children without snapecting 
that it was caused by the excessive use of slate and pencil. It has 
been seriously proposed to exclude the slate and substilute paper in 
all grades and this has already been done in many grammar schools, 
but this is only a partial remedy. The (act ever to be kept in mind 
is that the total energy that can be safely used by a child in pen or 
pencil work is limited.* 

Reading. — Much of the time devoted to school work is spent 
in learning from the printed page, and as everything that expedites 
the educational process is of interest in the hygiene of instruction, 
it is important that pupils acquire as early as possible the art of 
reading easily, and of getting ihe thought readily and easily from the 
printed page. To this end an intelligent choice should be made of 
the best methods of initiating young pupils into the art of reading, 
be this a phonetic system, or be it othernise. The difficulties that 
phonetic methods seek to remove in part are enormous in our 
language. In talking with teachers some years e^o in Germany I 
was surprised to learn in how much shorter time German pupils learn 
to read well than do Americans, and yet the little ones of that 
country have two alphabets to team to our one, or, counting script 
and upper and lower case letters, eight alphabets to four for our 
pupils. But they have a language pronounced much more nearly as 
it is spelled, and this is a great advantage. 

But reading, by whatever method it is taught, and much reading, 
should be done under the guidance of the teacher, — mucb more than 
is done in many schools. And this calls for intelligent discrimina- 
tion in the choice of material and mechanical execution in the 
making of school books. 

The paper for children's books should not be glossy; it should 
have a plain dull surface, a creamy tint being more agreeable to the 
eye than pure white. 

The print of books should be clear and well defined, and large 
enough to be read continuously by the normal eye without appreoia- 

* CinmUr oriolanDAtlaD, Bareiin of EdDCBtlon, No. 1, 18SI, p. M, 

Dictized by Google 


ble BtraiD or difficalty. Books prioted from type smaller than "long 
primer" abonld never be put into the haDds of pupils of aoy grade, 
and those for young children should be printed from "pica" or 
"great primer.*' Fall^faced Roman type is much more soitable than 
the "light-faced" type now so much in favor. 

The dietaoce of the letters from each other should not be too 
slight, and the diflerent words in the same line shoald stand far 
enough apart to enable the eye rapidly and easily to take in the 
picture of each. The distance of line from line shonld not be lesa 
than 2.5 millimeters, disregarding the longer letters, andCohn pre- 
fers 3 millimeters (1-8 inch). When linea are of too great length 
the eye has a difflcalty ia running back to Che beginning of the next 
line. Some authorities state that the length of tine should not 
exceed 100 millimeters (3 7-8 inches, the same as that if this page) ; 
others, as appears to me more wisely for school-books, place tba 
limit at 80 or 90 millimeters (3 1-8 or S 1-2 inches.) 

IfoVFiBZII, ii UMd In aome paperi sod magizlaes (Or cLIldren. but, lo tpue tbs tje; ill 
•Dch (boaliJ, and do. so on Ibe list of forbldileo reading nutuc in ttiiie homo where the danger 
ofauck print in UDderatood. 

UiKiOK Uread bj ihe bealtbjr. Dorintl juaiis Ofo withi.ut apprMiabla diffiaaitf, 
bnt BTen to tba aoaod •;«, tba danger of (train ii ao grant that alJ booka and magi- 
lines for shildren printed from it abonld be biniahed from tba huina and Hbtwl. 

Brkvikr is mnch nnfd in newspaper?, bin U too »mall for miKHzines 
or booka fur yuung folks. 

Bourgeois is much used in magazines, but should be used in only those 
school books to which a brief reference is made. 

Long Priubs is suitable for school readers f r the higher and 
intermediate grades, and for text books generally. 

SuALL Pica is still a more luxurious type, used in the 
North American Review and the Forum. 

Pica is a good type for books for small children. 

Great Primer should be used for the 
first reading book. 

Dictized by Google 


Children are often seot to scbool and Sabbath school with fire or 
twelve cent teBtamenta printed in pearl, agate, or Doopareil type, 
print anflt for anj' eyes, and to give it to children is thoaghUees 
stnpidity on the part ot parenls and teachers when a teetament in 
small pica type costs only thirty cents. 

Ooe of the worst sins against hygienic rules and the eyes of 
children, chargeable to the home more than to the school, is allow- 
ing children the use of Juvrnile literature in type alti^ether unsuit- 
able, and still worse without supervision as to when and bow. the 
reading is done. Children come from school, their eyes having 
already dooe an ample day's work, their play, work, and the even- 
ing meal engage Ihem until twilight or lamplight, and then out 
comes the absorbing story to be read under the worst of conditions 
for tbe health and safety uf the eyea. Some of these papers for 
children and youth are printed In much smaller type than they 
should be. The YoulA's Companion, for example, is printed in 
nonpareil and miuion, type which no parent of prudence and intel- 
ligence on these points wonid admit into the home aa a tempter and 
destroyer of children's eyes. 

Spelling. — The memory of impreBsione made through the sense 
of sight is retained more tenaciously than is that of (hose which come 
through the sense of hearing, and this fact should not be ignored in 
tbe spelling lesson. In some schools the spelling of the words to 
be learned is given orally to tbe pupils, who are required to study 
them from their own bnrried and indistinct scribbling, or the words 
are written upon the blackboard from which they are copied by the 
children. This is wrong. The spelling lesaon should be first learned 
from the clearly printed page preparatory to the oral or written test. 
Thus the sense impression coming through the eye will be fixed in 
the memory. As Dr. Klemm says : ' 'Every word has its physiog- 
nomy, and spelling should therefore be learned by means of the 
sense of sight chiefly." Tbe same author's cure for a had speller 
fs this: 

Feed him on a diet of one, or at best, a few words, for a few days ; 
use easy, common words, such as occur in his own vocabulary, and 
let him see them on the board or paper, in print, in writing, etc. 
Set him to finding them ten times in his reader, and to copying 
them till he is perfectly familiar with tbem. 

Make him analyze, that is, split the words orally, write them from 
dictation, and use them in sentences o( his own. Do this with a 
very limited number of words ; in short, give him babies' diet, till 
Ms form-sense, and memory for word -pictures: are sufficiently strong 


D,i.,.db, Google 


to digest more. At the beginoiag it may be paiafull; weariMme to 
jou and to the boj, bat the Bucceea which is Bare to follow yonr 
endeavors will atreogthea you both. You will find, also, that he 
improTes in reading.' 

Writing. — The misentbte hand writiag of many of the graduates 
of the schools of the present day can uardly be due to the want of 
practice in writiag, but ia rather the result of too much writini; under 
high pressure requirements. In dictation exercises, the same alow, 
careful, and painstaking writing ahould be insisted on as ia required 
in the copy-book, until the pupil's hand U well formed and he can 
hasten without endangering it. The principal htgieaic questions 
relating to writing are : 

T/ie Time for Writiny. — Aa one of the lighter mental tasks, the 
writing lesson is preferably given in the afternoon session, at an 
hour when the light U g'>od. It should not L-otne immediately after 
the noon intermiaaion, or a reuess, neither ahould it succeed the lesson 
ID physical culture, for the reason that after muscular exerciae there 
is for awhile a tremor of the muscles of the band and forearm 
beyond the power of ihe will to control. 

The Deih ohould he piuc'-d near enough to the pupil not lo lequire 
faim to lean forward, and should slope toward him at an angle not 
«-xoetding fifteen d<->^rees. It should not be so high as to compel 
him to elevate one shoulder above another, or to rai^e bis elbow only 
very slightly. (See "School Desks.") 

Position of the PupU. — "Only think," said Bnrgerstein,t "of a 
scholar sitting inclined, his head banging sideways, the abdomen 
pressed together and the breast leaning against the edge of the desk. 
Wbat an ^gregate of evil results for the eye, the bodily posture, 
the chest, and the abdominal region ! Weakness of the eyes, near- 
sightedness, deformity of the spine, and fuQctional disturbances of 
internal organs must resnlt." The fault for all this is not so often 
that of the pupil as that of his desk and seat, their shape and height 
and position in relation to each other, the position of bis copy-hook 
and the style of penmanship tangbt him. 

The proper position of the pnpil in writing is to sit erect, the 
lower ^art of his bock 'still 'supported by the back-rest uf his seat (if 
the construction and relative position of seat aud desk aresuiraMp), 
his sbonlders parallel with the edge of the desk. The elbows should 
be near the sides bat not pressed against the body. Two-thirds the 

'Elemm.SChlpa ttam a Truhet'i Wockihop jfp. 71. BoHod, ISBS. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


length of tbe lower arms, bat Dot the elbows, shonld rest upon the 
desk, he left hand holding the copj-book or sheet, and moving it, 
now nearer to, now fartbei from, tbe pupil, according to whether 
the pen ts on the apper or tbe lower lines. The penstock shonld 
point toward the elbow, not toward the sbonlder. 

PosUicm of the Gopy-Book. — When the pupil ie taoght the orili- 
nary slanting style of writing, place the lower edge of the copy-book 
or sheet of paper, parallel with the edge of the desk, the middle of 
the sheet corresponding to the mesiao line of the body, and then 
incline tbe top of the book to the left enoagb to bring the down 
strokes of tbe pen at a right angle to tbe edge of the desk. 

When the pnpil is tangbt vertical writing, simply place tbe book 
exactly in front of him as before, and let it remain with the lower 
edge parallel to tbe edge of the desk. 

The reason for theie rules la that the lines in writing are more 
oonveniently followed when they are made exactly in front of the 
two eyes and in a direction to and from them, or in other woids, 
wben the strokes of tbe pen are perpendicular to a horizontal line 
ninning from eye to eye. To get the eyes into this normal relatiotv 
to the down strokes of the pen, copying tbe slanting writing, the 
child inscinclively turns bis face somewhat lo the right and carries 
his head to tbe left, the starting point of those varioua postures so 
unfavorable to the welfare of the child. To tbe cbild whose eye 
follows every line carefully and almost painfully, these rnles are 
important, more so than to the rapid writer who can write even with 
his eyes closed. 

Copy-BMks. — It is a question whether many of the copy-books- 
in use are not too complicated in their arrangement of lines to guide 
the pupil. These lines and all otbe * rulings shonld not be too fine, 
— they should be distinct and easily visible. Accustom pupils aa 
early as possible to writing on unruled paper. The lines in copy- 
books for beginners should be very short, not more than four inche» 
in length. The style of writing taught in copy-books is a ^werful 
influence for good or evil in the hygiene of writing, as strange as 
this may seem, and this brings on tbe question of 

Vertical vs. Sloping Writing.— in some parts of Europe 
there has of late years been a strong movement in favor of making 
a cbauge from tbe customary sloping hand writing to the upright 
style. Tbe reasons brought forward to justify this innovation are 
that tbe upright writing is more legible, and, more important, it 

Dictized by Google 


does not force pupils to assume those vicious attitudes so injurious 
to the eyes and the spia&l column. 

As to whether these claims are founded on truth, there has taken 
place, particularly in GermaDj, France, and Englaud, a discuasion 
both extensive and earnest. All admit that the sideward, bent, and 
twisted postures which have been so prominent a feature of the writ- 
ing lesson, are of serious import, and should be avoided if possible. 
Some, p&rtieularlj Drs. Berlin and Rembold, have claimed tbat the 
tendency of pupils to fall into bad positions while writing the 
inclined style may be corrected by a proper position of the copy- 

Two positions only for the copy-book are now recognized, those 
which have already been described, the one for sloping writing, the 
other for vertical. All authorities now unite in condemning the 
placing of the copy-book a little to the right of the pnpil. All are 
tioff agreed tbat the down strokes of the pen should be made at a 
right angle to the edge of the desk. Manifestly this occurs when 
the copy-book is upright and tbe pupil writes the upright style. 
Berlin and Rembold's recommendation in teaching the sloping style 
is to tilt tbe copy-book to the left so that its lower edge forms an 
angle with tbe edge of the desk equal to the departure of the down 
strokes Irom the perpendicntar, usually 30° or 40°. The well known 
sUnding of Drs. Berlin and Rembold, and tbe fact that their report 
made in 1882 was the outcome of an enquiry into the effects of 
handwriting on eyesight and deformity of the spine, re-opened very 
fnlly the issue between the advocates ot the upright and the sloping 
style of writing, has led to new and very carefnl observations to 
determine tbe relative ammnt of divergence from erectness in piipils 
whether writing the one or the other kind of penmanship, and Qnally 
called for comparative tests of classes or school-rooms full of pupils 
«f tbe same age and in the same building, writing in one class the 
upright, and in tbe other tbe inclined, style of penmanship. Dr. 
Paul Schubert," an ophthalmic surgeon of Nuremberg, describes a 
test of this kind. In three neighboring towns the pupils of twelve 
school-rooms were taught the vertical writing, each school-room hav- 
ing a "control" room in which children of the same age wrote the 
fllanting style, and the olserrations that Dr. Schubert had collected 
ai the end uf the year furnished tbe material fur his paper. 

Very iustrnciive, we are told was tbe inspection of the classes in 
Fllitb that wrote the sloping style. The children did not sit so well, S3. ISei. 



as Iboae in the lOom when Ibe aprigbt style vr&e ased, ihoagh their 
positions were not so vei; bad. Our comtuisEJOD. compoaed of three 
teacbers and two pliysictan^, frankly recognized tbie, yet it was eoon 
ebown that tbese classes, as one ol the gentlemen expressed it, were 
''infected with the upright writing bacillus." The strokes of the 
writing, it is true, were not quite vertical, yet they all had only & 
slight inclination lo the right. Kmuluting the good attitnde of their 
neighbors in the upright- writing class, they bad approximately 
equalled tbem, but at the expense of the slope in their downward 

We then sought a class in another building not influenced thus. 
At the command: wriie ! the whole clase fell over to the left as 
though mowed by the harvester, and lay with the left cheek sidewiae 
from the copy-book and but IJitle above the surface of ibe desk- In 
order to fix the diflerence in the attitudes and to make it apparent 
to everybody, I had the teachers take tea children for a writing test 
from each of two rooms in a girls' school in Nuremberg at the end 
of ibeir first school year, in one of which the vertical, in the other 
of wbic*), the sloping hand was written, and while they wrote they 
were photographed. Both divisions leceived throughout the same 
treatment: warnings to sit erect were not given, and the children 
were not influenced in the position of their elates, as during the 
course of the year they bad been instructed by the teachers. With 
each group thr-e trials were made. The results were invariably the 
same : correct positions of tbose taught the upright writing, nod bad 
positions of those writing the sloping stvle.* 

•Through the Undue. 
pJUge, a»,mbaig,Oeno. 
froDL the photofrraphfl t 

D,i.,.db, Google 


Dictized by Google 


In th« group writing the apright hand, all do not sit correctly, 
but the cbildrea wilb faulty positions, are an exception. la this 
group DO child aits bo badly as ia the case with the great majority of 
those writing the sloping siyle. Of the latter groap, only two chil- 
dren can be recognized aa in good positions. The iDstraction, there- 
fore, to incline the copy-book, has helped malteis but little. 

We are further told that in Vienna, as in these other towns, the 
middle, left inclined poei'ion of (he book has not sufficed to make 
the pupils sit erect when writing, and Dr. Schubert quotes the fol- 
lowing from a letter of Prof. E. Fuchs, descriptive of a visit to 
some of the schools in that city, eome of the pupils in which write 
the vertical, while others write the sloping style, the latter, how- 
ever, always with the book exactly in front of them, but tilted to 
the left, the required degree of tilting indicated by an oblique line 
on the desk : 

We were led into a room where all the pupils wrote the upright 
writing, and where they therefore sat faullJessIy erect. We find 
that, as a matter of course, when the teacher baa just warned the 
scholars to sit erect, but bow little such a warniDg is worth we see 
in the next room which we visit. Here also the command is given : 
"Pen ready, sit erect '." But in this room where the children wrote 
the sloping style, scarcely bad they written a line before they bad 
forgotten the straight aliilude ; they turned the upper part of the 
body sidewise and bent mgre and more towards the desk, support- 
ing themselves on the elbow. Hume laid their heads on the left 
arm as though they wished to look under the pen ; others let their 
heads sink so low that they almost put out their eyes with their pen- 
slocks. A renewed caution from the teacher to sit erect had again 
onlv a very fleeting effect. 

The most instructive was the inspection of the mixed classes, 
where a pan uf the children wrote the upright, and a part the elop- 
ing hand. iSlanding behind them and looking over the room, one 
could determine Ir-im the attitudes of the pupils which kind of writ- 
ing they wrote. VVk note the children whose position was bad and 
those in which it was gooii, and then pass through the aisles b) see 
which tljle they wroie. We find that all whose attitudes are bad 
have wiiiten obliqufly. girl only whose writing was upright, 
was an exception, but, on enquiry, she told us that she had begun 
to use the upright writing only Iwp days before. Of those using the 
upright writing, all but <jne sat correctly, while the positions of a 
great part of those whose writing was inclined, were bad. 

The difficulty of teachiug children the common sloping wrilint(, and 
at the same time ot keeping them from falling into laulty postures ia 
set forth by Mr. John Jackson of London, who, as well as Dr. Kotel- 
mannof Hamburg, brought the claims ofnprightwritingto the atten- 
tion of the International Hygienic Congress of last summer. 



After numerous convereatioDs with Individual and large bodies of 
teachers, the one f^reat complaint with them Ib the insuperable difB- 
cnlty in teacbiog sloping writing. First, there is the peculiar 
position of the hod;, sidewaj's to the desk ; neict, there is the posi- 
tion of the arms, one on the desk and the other close in by the side ; 
then the hand must be twisted ontwards, the pen must point toward 
and over the right shoulder ; and when all this ia obtained (when ia 
it obtained? I would ask) the next taak — and it geneiaily proves in 
«ver3' sense a cruel task — is to get the writing arranged, the angle 
determiaed, and the angle observed, [s it not a notorious fact that 
hundreds and tbousandB of children will write verticallj, whether 
their teacher sanction it or no? Is it not true that pupils will tilt up 
their books to an angle sufficient to give verticality (o|itically con- 
sidired) to the down strokes, and will hold the pen as vertical 
writers bold it (pointing outwards), notwithstanding the reiterated 
remonstrances of their teachers? A pupil is restless, and changes 
his posture or angular inclination to the desk, his copy-book records 
the incident where a painfully obvious break in the parallelism 
shocks the teacher's eye ; be tilts his book or straightens it again at 
his own or the teacher's desire, and the obliquity of his writing 
varies most faithfully in consequence. In vertical writing none of 
these difflcnlties and anomalies irritate the teacher ; none of these 
absurdities vex the puny holies and tQe souU of our children. 
There is no posture of the body to inculcate or attain, tor every girl 
and buy will naturally assume the right posture ; there is notbiag to 
do with regard to the pen except to restrain it from falling into a 
wrong direction, certainly there is no care demanded to train it into 
4]uite an awkward and constrained direction. The book lies evenly 
on the desk, the writer sits evenly at the desk, the pen follows the 
direction of the hand and arm that guide it, and the writing alwaya 
observes the one position of the perpendicular, for there is only on4 
vertical to a horizontal, whereas there are hundreds of degrees of 
slope between 0° 90°. The ditflcullies of the teacher and of the 
pnpil are reduced to a minimnm, and, so far as it can be, writing 
And the teaching of writing are pleasant fac ors in the ordinary 
school life.* 

Finally it may be said that Dr. Cohn, who for a while believed 
that the tilling of the copy-book wholly rectified the trouble in Uach- 
ing the sloping writing, does not now think so, and says that "the 
upright writing is the writing of the future ;"t that Dr. Noble Smith,t 
a leading English authority, says, "The more slanting the writing, 
the worse the position, and I would strongly advise that upright 
writing be universally substituted for the slanting;" that Prof. 
USelman of Rostock says, -'I must declare that the upright writing 
is],the correct torm;" that Dr. Toldt, profes«or of anatomy in 

■Uprighl TcriD* Sloplns Writing, p. B. LondDn. 
t Di< Schnle ier Znksoft, p. IS, Himburg, 1S9}. 
tCDrvBtunioltbaBpIne, Sd •<].,?. TS. toadoD, IBtO. 

Dictized by Google 


Vienna, after examining the claims of the vertical writing Trom the- 
anatomical an<) phyaiolt^ical points of view, pronounces in favor of 
it ; that, in Buda Pesth, the board of education has called the atten- 
tion of the Minister of lastrnction to the advantages of the vertical 
writing ; that it has now been introdnced ioto three hundred school- 
rooms in Vienna; that the Austrian Minister of Instruction favors- 
it, and has adopted it for his own children, as have many physiciaos 
for theirs; that in Basle it has been introduced into sixty-one 
school-rooms, and the School Desk Commission have unanimously- 
voted in favor of it; that in Denmark it is coming into favor more 
and more, and Dr. Hertet earnestly advocates it ; that it is favored 
throughout the British Civil Service on acconnC of its superior legi- 

Arithmetic. — The methods hitherto in favor in teaching arith- 
metic have not been the best, and many of our better teachers are 
now aware of this fact. The beginning of their arithmetical course 
with the task of defining arithmetic, and the prefacing of each sepa- 
rate process with learning a formal rule, is terribly dampening to- 
the ardor of the young aspirants for arithmetical honors ; doubly dis- 
couraging because the rules are framed in words as yet entirely- 
above the heads of the little ones. 

The young pupil should be led directly to his work of usiog^ 
numbers, without a single rnle to bother him ; in this way he will the 
most rapidly acquire skill in the use of figures, and only when his 
own experience has put him in a position to understand the rules. 
should there be any thought of teaching them. Then, however, he: 
hardly needs them. 

The arithmetical text-books of somecountries are very insignificant 
little things in comparison witb the bulkiness of American books ia 
the same field, but practical methods in the hands of teachers, every 
one of whom has been trained for bis professional work, forwards- 
the pupils rapidly in their abiityto use numbers. For instance,. 
Dr. Klemm,* relating what he saw in the schools of Munich, says : 
"From a lesson in arithmetic which followed, I gathered the follow- 
ing examples. The reader will please notice that this was the secoock 

43 + 9 + 7= ? 6x8 — 86=. ? 

32 + 27 — ? 46 -i. 7 — ? 

28 + ? = 53. t of 42 — ? 

■ Europeui SdHwIa, p. SH. 



29 how mwiy halves? 65 — 8 — 7 =- ? 

64 — 19 — ? 63 — ? = 37. 

56 — : + 6. 8 = J of nhat number? 

Divide 51 iota three equal numbera. 

How mauy whole ones are 56 quarters ?" 
A teacher in another of the scbooU iu Germany bt-iug asked by 
Dr. Klemm why he refrained from using any techinal terms, the 
teacher said: "No; we don't burden the memotioe of our pupils 
with technical terms such as trapezoid, rhomboid, paiallelogram, 
perallelopipedon, eto We call a rhomboid a tour cornered figure 
aud are done with it. The child in the common school is no hap- 
pier, nor wiser, nor better prepared for life when he has le&rued 
these Latin and Greek terms. If a boy enters a technical or high 
school and studies geometry, the terms will be given him there. 
The common ecbool has no business to burden its course with 

Futther conversation with the faculty of the school revealed the 
fact that they all entertained the same view which General Walker 
in Boston arged lately, namely, that the study of arithmetic had in 
the course of time become overburdened with matter of a nature 
UDSuited to pupils of a common school, and that efforts were being 
made everywhere in Germany to eliminate such things. Said the 
rector of the school, to whom the assistant teachers all looked up 
with great veneration, he being a fine looking, white haired man : 
"We sound the battle-cry, 'Elimination,' all along the line. We 
want to eliminate much from an overcrowded course of study in 
geography, grammar, and arithmetic, and add more literature and 
history so far as to counteract the vicious influences of bad reading 
matter smuggled into the bands of our pupils by. Heaven knows, 
nnscrupulous publishers. We want to do more in manual training, 
more in the so-called accomplishments, drawing, music, etc., intro- 
dnce a little of book-keeping, and thus make the common school 
education what it ought to be — practical. We want lo leach leas for 
oblivion than hitherto." 

The following from a report of the superintendent of scbooU of 
Quincy, Mass., may serve as a counter picture of mind stunting, 
erroneously called mental development : 

While inspecting a B grammar room I saw this problem placed 
upon the board, which the pupils were expected to perform: "A 
grocer's quart measure was too small by half a gill. How much 
did he thus dishonestly make in selling four barrels of cider, aver- 

Dictized by Google 


aginft 34 gaih , 2 qts.. I pt. escb, if tbe cider was worth 24 cents a 
gallon?" Tbis is not an isolated case ; it is only one of the maoy 
problems which teachers continually give and examiaera require 
that are wholly above tbe heads of cbildren and can only be solved 
by an adult with a pretty clear head for reasoning. Such problems 
are not only aseless but are positively pernicious, by putting 
obstacles in their way that it ia impossible for them to over»me, 
thus causing tbem to l}econae discouraged. I confess to having 
seriously misjudged children as to their powers of logical reasoning, 
and sbalL hereafter in my examinations confine myself to those 
topics in arithmetic in their simple form which cbildren should know 
and are able to comprehend." 

To) much time has been wasted on arithmetic, that should be 
saved for other tbiugs worth more to tbe pupils, — say, the mother* 
tongue, sense-cnlture, physical culture, release from drudgery. 

Geography. — As an example of the natural and rational method 
of teaching, Dr. J. M. Ricef tells bow he saw geography taught in 
Elberfeld, Germany, tbe subject of the lesson being tbe river which 
flows past the city : 

"Who can tell me something about this river?" asked tbe teacher, 
fjixty bands were raised ; for all the children had seen it, and were 
glad of an opportunity to speak of it. 

"How many children have seen where it rises?" A few had seen 
the place. 

''How many mote would like to see its origin?" All bands came 
up aijain. 

"We fihall try to flad it this afternoon." 

The children looked happy, for Ibey were to go on an excursion. 
Upon signal they fell into line, and then left tbe building. As they 
walked through the streets two by two, they csoversed quietly. 
After a few minut'^s they arrived at (ha bink of the river which they 
were to study. The teacher then put a few questions to them. 

"Which way shall we go?" asked he. 

"To tbe right," said one of the pupils. 

"How do you know?" 

"Because I have often seen the source." 

Another said that the water always flowi downward, so that the 
origin of the river would be found by following the stream in the 
direction opposite to that in which it flows. 

"What else have you noticed thus far?" asked tbe teacher. One 
child had noiiced the direction of the wind ; another, something in 
regard to new buildings, etc. 

When tbe city limits hid been pas^d, the teacher told the chil- 
dren that they might make a little more noise. A song was sug- 
gested, and tbe little ones sang and were merry. Aft«r a few 
minutes they spoke again, aad said that they were rising more 


Dictized by Google 


nq>iclly than before, that the trees were begiDniag to bud. that the 
grasa waa begiuniag to grow. They likewise painted out a few 
moan tain -streams. Duriogthis walti the children were never allowed 
to loae sifiht of the river, becanse that formed the mi^ia object of the 
lesson. One of Che children said that the river was getting smaller. 
When asked for the reason of this, he remarked that they were 
above the places where it is fed by little streams. When they 
arrived at a railroad bridge, they spoke of the cars, the destinatioa 
of the train?, and something regarding the telegraph. 

After a walk of an hoar and a quarter, the children reached the 
top of the mountain. A view of the earronndingoounlrj was taken, 
special points noticed and spoken of, and then the source of the river 
was looked for in all directions At last a child called oat joyfully 
(bat he had found it. Sare enough, he had found, beneath some 
loose stones, the spring from which the river arises. All the chil- 
dren looked at it, played with the stones, and then ran around id 
the fields. After awhile they gathered doss to the teacher, sang a 
few more songs, and then fell in line for the bomeward march. 
Three hours after leaving, the children retarned to the school-house. 

The Dext morning ihe children discussed in the class-room the 
walk of the previous day. During this lesson their joy and 
enrhnsiaam knew no bounds. la answer lo every qaestion, every 
band was raised. I asked the teacher why he did not keep the children 
seated quietly. He answered, "Why should I destroy their mental 
activity by compelling tbem to direct most of their attentioa towards 
controlling the movements of their muscles ?" 

As the lesson proceeded, I listened with astonishment to the 
enormous amount of things which the children related about their 
walk, and to the words which indicated the vividness of the impres- 
sions which these things had left upon their minds. The walk was 
intended primarily for a geography lesson ; but, besides learning 
something of geography, many other channels of thought had been 
opened to them. The children had seen trees bud ; now they were 
anxious lo see them bloom. They saw the farmer use the river for 
the irrigation of the soil : they were now desirous of observing the 
eSect of this Irrigation upon the crops. 

Upon such walks, and the knowledge gained by means ol them, 
the whole German system of elementary education is founded. 
This ia tme of lai^e as well as of small cities. All the work centres 
npon the ideas gained in these walks, which serve not only as a 
means of Introduction to the study of geography, bat likewise to 
that of history; historical points being visited for this purpose. 
Further, by means of the various things noticed and spoken of upon 
these excursions the children gather information on botany, geology, 
physics, astronomy, zool<^y, and (ther branches of science. 

When the study of geography is begun in this way, with the 
things accessible to the observation of the pupils and restricted to 
learning well a moderate nnmber of facts that can be made interest- 
ing, instead of a mass of general statements of no interest, what is 

Dictzed by Google 


learoed will be remembered, and time will be gained for some other 
purposes. Ao iroprovtment has been made in some schools by 
removing geography from the primary grades, and of considering it 
under the bead of 'Rj&ding and Observation" in the first two years 
in the grammar schools. 

Tbongh much improvement has taken place, the mapj of some 
school geographies and atlases, still strain pupiU' eyes too much in 
the search for the names of towns and other geographical details bid 
securely in small type amid a bewildering conrnsion of tines and 

The Mother-Tongue. — ''What a treasure has the stndent 
whose mother-tongue is English 1 It is the language that was, long 
ago, ample enough in every way to loose the soul of Bnnyan ; it 
hemmed not in the imagination of Milton, and was yet taxed to 
epi ak forth the universal mind of Shakespeare'." 

"I may avow," says President Eliot of Harvard University, ''as 
the result of my reading and observation in the matter of education, 
that I recognize but one mental acquisition as an essential part of 
the education of a lady or gentleman — namely an accurate and 
refined use of the mother- tongue. Greek, Latin, French, G-erman, 
mathematics, natural and physical science, metaphysics, history, 
and scitheticB are all proQtable and delightful, both as training and 
as acquisitions to him who studies them with intelligence and lore, 
but not one of them has the least claim to be called an acquisition 
essential to a liberal education, or an essential part of a sound train- 
ing, "f 

"Onr mother- tongue alone, as the instrument of our thinking, is 
the instrument of our culture. It is hence the thing of all things 
that we should master first and master thoroughly. In this phil- 
osophy and common sense are at one. 

"But the obvions way .to master our mother-tongue is to study 
that, and not the molhe^tongue of somebody else — to study it in 
its own masterpieces, not excluding indeed its adopted ones, whether 
from the Greek or Latin or any other original, but studying these in 
its own idioms, forms, and words, not in theirs. "{ 

'*rhe truth is that the study of other languages than our own, 
whether ancient or modern, may be so pursued as to harm the cause 
of good English, or so pursued as to be of great service to it. Not 

•lladem Lwgoiu^ XoEu, VI. IM. 

tPop. BO. UoaUilr, ZVI, 14S. 

tPmat E. ShlpnuD, PopnUr Sdenee UoDthlT, XVn, p. Itt. 

Dictized by Google 


a few graduates of preparatory achools resemble the youDg man ia 
one of Mr. James Paya's novels, 'whose education bad been clasBical, 
and did not, therefore, ioclade Bpelling.' "* 

For the promotion of real intellectaal traiaing, for its utility, and 
as a means of lightening the burden of mental dindgery, and thus 
leeaeniug the complaints of overpressure, the study of the English 
language for those who claim it as their mot her- tongue should 
occupy a first and a central place from the primary to the college 

Foreign LanguageB.— As the study of the foreign languages, 
and particularly, Greek and Latin, has so often been chaiged with 
a large share ^f the blame for overpressure in the schools, there are 
the best of reasons why those who have the physical wellare of the 
schools at heart should wish that all nnnecessary difficulties in the 
acquisition of these laoguages be cleared away, and ibat every non- 
essential in their study be left out. 

The opinions as To the proper methods of teaching lauguages are 
Tarioiis. Without sufficient reason some authorities would have the 
pupil learn a living language in one way, and a dead language in 
■quite a different way. The mere fact that one is the language of 
a living people and undergoing its perpetual development, and ;he 
other is not, is without eigniGuance. If a giveu method is good in 
one, there is every reason to be assured that it may be made success- 
ful Id the other. 

There is a practical unanimity that the easiest way and the best 
way to acquire a modern language is for the child to get it in the 
natural way in which he learns his motber-spefcfa, — by hearing it 
and imitating what he bears. In this way it is an easy matter for a 
child to learn to understand and to speak several languages. This 
method deserves just as wide an extension in the schools as it is 
practicable to give it in order that the call may be answered for the 
acquisi^on of a knowledge of foreign languages at an age earlier 
than has been customary. 

A second way of learning a foreign language, called a natural 
method because in it the pupil troubles himself little or not at all with 
grammatical forms until he is well along in bis knowledge of words 
and their meanings, alone or standing in the sentence with other 
words. This, the method of Claude Harcel, instead of learning at 
first to naderstandj and to imitate the spoken word, begins with 

Dictized by Google 


reading, and aims at acqairing a good reading knowledge of the 
language in the ahortest poBflible time and in the easiest poaaible 
way. To this end the reading book put into the hands of the papit 
bas tbe foreign text on one page and its translation into the pupil's 
vernacular on tbe opposite page. Tbe time wasting drudgery of 
thumbing the dictionar; or searching vocabuJariea ia thus avoided. 
In this way a pretty good sized collection of books may be read 
through with interest in the time required to go through one in tbe 
usual way. 

Direct readingy says Marcel,* '"that by which the written ezprea- 
aion. as in the native idiom, directly conveys tbe thooghl, is the end 
to be attained. Indirect reading, that by which the idea is appre- 
hended through tbe medium of the mother-tongue, that ia, transla- 
tion, la only an Introduction to direct reading. At an advanced age 
of the study, translation becomes an obstacle to the understanding 
of the language, for it is not always possible. So would spelling, 
which is an auxiliary in learning to read one's own language, prove 
au obstacle to reading if persevered in. 

The proceaa by which a learner is enabled to follow direclly the 
train of an author's ideaa cannot be made too easy. This apontane- 
ous aseociation of the ideas with the worda that represent them 
constitutes the real practice of the foreign language, and tbe ground- 
work on which advancement in all its other departments is based. 
Tranalalion, on the fcontrary, being tbe practice of the national 
idiom, becomea thereby a most efBcieot means of improvement in it. 

But as direct reading can be arrived at only through the medium 
of translation, tbe student must, as a preliminary step toward it, 
attend seriously to the latier. No parsing, no grammatical comment 
on the language : all he requirea is to advance rapidly in the com- 
prehension of the text in hand, that he may become acquainted with 
a large number of words and phrases. Practice is now the object ; 
we will subsequently auggest modes of mental culture. 

Tbe application of these empirical methods to the acquisition of 
tbe dead languages bas been deemed impracticable, but, saya Dr. 
Lowenthal •.■\ , 

Thia has been shown not to be so, not only by I>r. Schliemann, 
who at a ripe age learned Greek from the Greek classics better than 
it is learned by most Hellenials, but by the ten thousand uncultured 
Jewish boys in Galicia, Poland, and other placea, who, year after 
year, learn Hebrew within a abort time. Hebrew ia also a dead 
language, and in its grammatical conetructton, is a very complioated 
tongue, and still worse for the children who learn it, no kind of 
laDgut4!e ia spoken with grammatical correctness in their environ- 
ment, not even from their mother-tongue (mostly an atrociously 
mangled German) do they acquire any knowledge of grammar ; and 

Dictized by Google 


jet these boys frooi niae to thirteen ,veara of age, read and ander- 
stand any Hebrew book, w rite letters in Hebrew correctly, and even 
poems, and later, as meo, read and write Hebrew newspapers, 
translate even Getman classics into Hebrew, and represent William 
Tell or other plays in the Hebrew language to an audience that 
understands it. 

The instruction that yields such results is purely empirical; the 
child begins with the translation of the Old Testament: "Bere- 
achith, in the beginning ; bara, created ; elohim, God ; elh-hasckam- 
ajim, the heaven ; vieeth-haarez, and the earth," In this way he 
goes on. Whether resckitk i* masculine or feminine, that bara is 
a verb in the past teuse. that dohim. and schaniajim are plural, that 
tth is indicative of the accusative, and so on, ibe boy, and usually 
the man, have not the slightest suspicion ; be cannot name the form, 
he does not know Lhe rulf. but he uses both correctly, — he handles 
the tools as they a -ou d be handled. Later, if he has an inclination 
to scientific study, he can very easily, with a little help, or without 
it, gel an insight mio the grammaiical consiruction ot liie language 
which he has really mastered. This is really ihe case with all 
Germ an -Jewish theulogiuos who in iheir childhood, along with the 
customary acbooi and gjinuasial studies, learn Hebrew from the 
Bible, study philosophy in the German universities, aud later take 
up the grammar and ayutas of the language. 

Note, now, the resiiLis ot tiie study of Greek and Latin in our 
gymnasia, in whii:h llie graduates liave just put in more than 4,000 
houiB work, not to si y anyihing of work at home, and can there then 
be any doubt as to ttic wortbleasness of the grammar and dictionary 
methods in ibe learning of the ancient languages? In the Berne 
city gymnasium, and it is about the same everywtiere, the first three 
and a half years ol the eight and a half years, given to the continu- 
ous study of Latin, is squandered in the senseless drill on the gram- 
mar and forms of a language as yet unknown, and then the reading 
ot Corneiius Nepos is begun. Alter eight or nine years of study, 
twenty-four graduates (a,a was the cttse in the final examination in 
one of the Swiss gymnasia) attained in Latin: rank 1 or 2, none; 
rank from 2 to 3^, five ; rank 4 to a, fifteen ; rank 5 to 6, Four, — an 
average oE 4^ for tQe whole class. No. 1 is the highest aud No. 6 is 
the lowest rank. Tnia result of an eight years' study is so Umeui- 
able that it suggests a general intellectual in»bilitv on the part of 
the students, which the examination proves just as little at it does 
mental incapacity in two students whose rank in the ancient la<i£;uages 
was only five, though in all other branches their rank was from one 
to three. 

Such a grade of special inability to learn languages, wbiuh is often 
adduced as an explanation of occurrences of tais kind, d^i -> not 
exist, especially among children aud yuung people, for they leai u in 
the empirical way any language without escepiion, ihiiugu su.iie 
more rapidly and easily than others Let Uir once the studi'nis in 
the gymnasia learn Latin from Cornelius Nepoj, Tadtus and Cffiiar, 

Dictized by Google 


in just as empirical a way as tbe Jewish boys learD Hebrew from 
the Old Teatametit, — of coarse, under teachers who cao read the 
Latin classics nithoat preparation, — and it wonld be a wonderful 
thing if tbe same results were not achieved, the more so as the 
Instruction would be given by cnltured teachers who would know 
how to use tbe empirical method still bet er than the Hebrew teachers 
of the coQDtries mentioned. 

Tbe arguments i^ainat eucb methods of langnage study as have 
been en^ested are well known to ever7 person who has had mach 
interest in subjects of this kind) but the enormous demands that the 
prevailing methods make en tbe time and energies of our students, 
and the fact that so wide a gulf still separates the average college 
graduate from a mastery of Latin, not to say anything of Greek, 
raises tbe question in many minds whether a complete acquisition of 
one or both these languages) so far only as the ability to read readily 
and to understand without the interposition in the mind of the 
approximately corresponding words of the vernacular,' would uot be 
a true gain over the present order of things. Tbe mental training 
that comes from much reading in a foreign language, and the get- 
ting of meaning from context, guessing if you please, is of no mean 
order. And beyond this every lover of the ancient classics assures 
us there is a rich field of intellectual and eesthetic culture, hut, alas, 
a promised land which our students, like Moses, view only afar oS 
fVom the mountain top of their Fisgah. 

Grammar.— By deferring the study of grammar, whether of 
the native language or of others, to tbe proper period in the educa- 
tional coarse, and clearing the text-books of what is not essential, 
another direction is suggested for the gaining of time for physical 
and sense education. There are probably now but few persons used 
to thinking about educational matters that are not ready to acknowl- 
edge the great waste of school time and energy that has gone out 
here. Professing to teach the art of speaking and writing, grammar 
has not taught it. Parsing and the other exercises of formal gram- 
mar have left but little time to imbibe correctness of speech from 
familiarity with good models, for practice in narration and in writ- 
ing, and in friendly school-room criticism of slips in speed). To 
learn to use our mother tongue correctly, we must use it. "By dint 
of forging, one become a blacksmith," says a French proverb. 

Dr. Wm. A. Hammond* would make a sweep but little too radi- 
cal when he says : 

• FopalBT Science Uonthlj, XXX, T2«. 

Dictized by Google 


Ab for grammar, it should be baoished from all schoole, ezctpt 
perhaps from the senior year of a uoiversit; course. No child ever 
learoed to apeak good English from studying grammar. It has 
driven many a poor little wretch into headaches and other nervous 
troubles. It ia the most ingenious device for forcing an immature 
brain into early decrepitude that the cunning of man has yet devised. 

And Clarence King* well «ays : 

The grammar of a language is a rather interesting thing to read 
over when you already know the language. A few months of Eng- 
lish grammar as we learn it several years after we are entiwly 
familiar with Engliah ppeech is a very easy episode of the younger 
school days ; but claeaical grammar, how it has stunted generations 
and prevented them from learoiog any classics ! 

The utter needlessness of so great a waste of time on the grammar 
of any language may be inferred from the late Dr. Youman'a state- 
ment of the case-t 

When it is rememl}ered that the Hebrew language had no graiU' 
mar till a thousand years after Christ; that the masterpieces of 
Greek literature were produced before Aristotle first laid the gram- 
matical foundatioca of that language ; that the Komaas acquired the 
Greek wiibont grammatical aid, by reading and conversation, that 
the moat eminent scholars of the Middle Ages and later, Alfredi 
Abelard, Beanclerc, Roger Bacon, Chaucer, Dante, Petrarch, Lip- 
sina, Buddens, and the Scaligers — Latin scholars, who have never 
since been surpassed, learned this language without the assistance 
of grammar; that Lilly's grammar, in doggerel Latin verse, was 
thrust upon the English schools by royal edict of Henry VIII, 
against the vehement protest of men like Ascham, and that the 
decline of eminent Latinigts in that country was coincident with the 
general establishment of this method of teaching; that Dante, 
Petrarch, and Boccaccio gave to the world their immortal works 
two hundred years before the appearance of the first Italian gram- 
mar; that Shakespeare, Milton, Dryden, Addison, Pope, Touog, 
Thomson, Johnson, Burns, and others, whose names will live as 
long as the English language, had not in their childhood learned any 
English grammar; that Corneille, Moliere, La Fontaine, Pascal, 
Boasuet, Boileau, and Racine, wrote their masterpieces long before 
the publication of any French grammar ; thai men like Collet, Wol- 
sey, Erasmus, Milton, Locke, Gibbon, Condillac, Lemare, Abbe 
Sicard, Basil Hail, Home Tooke, Adam Smith, and a host of oth- 
ers, have emphatically condemned the method of acquiring language 
through the study of grammar ; that the most eminent masters of 
language, Demosthenes, Seneca, Malherbe, Clarendon, Montes- 
quieu, FeneloD. Voltaire, Bonsseau, Montaigne, Boileau, Dante, 
Galileo, Franklin, Gibbon, Robertson, Pope, Burns, Byron, and 
Moore, acknowledge that tbey attained their exeellences of style by 
the study and imitation ot the best models of writing ; and finally, 

•Forma, Xm, Si. 

tCnltare Demuded by Madera Llf«, p. 9. Sev York, 1667. 

D,:„l,;.dtv Google 


that mere grammariaDB are geoeral]; bad writers, wben we recall 
facts lihe these, we can begin to rate at something like their trne 
value the claims of tbe grammatical study of defuoct forma of speech 
for meatal training. That there is a useful discipline in the critical 
stud; of language, as in the critical study of most other things, is 
not denied, but that it has either the transcendent importance 
usually assumed, or that it cannot be substantially acquired by the 
mastery of modern tongues, is what the advocates of the dead lao- 
guages have failed to prove. 

Sense Education.— Education of tbe senses neglected, all 
after- eduCftlioD partakes of a drowsineas, a hazines'. an insufficiency 
which it is impossible to cure." 

It ia aatonishiug to find how greatly the perceptions of children are 
neglected by those who have ihem in charge. I have frequently been 
struck with the fact that even pupils who are considered to he well 
advanced do not know how to use with even moderate ability, their 
sense-organs. I met not long ago with a boy of ten jears who bad 
mastered, to the sat ibf act ion of bis admiring parents, several hrancbes 
of knowledge; and yet, when ahown a picture in a child's book, told to 
look at it closely for a minute, and then to tell what he bad seeu, could 
nameonly aman.ahorseandatree. His little sister, seven years old, 
who did not know bow to read, and who waa regarded by the father 
and mother as being somewhat stupid, saw, under like circumstances, 
a man, a horse, a tree, two little birds on the ground, a cat crawl- 
ing through tbe bushes and about to spring on them, a house, a 
woman standing in the door, and a well at the side of the house 
I bad the satisfaction of telling the parents that at sixteen she would 
know a good deal more than would the boy at that age, provided 
she had an equal chance. Here is the opportunity for those who 
have charge of children during the first ten or twelve years of their 
lives. All nature is before tbem ; tbe woods, the fields, the sea, the 
heavens, animals of all kinds, men and women, the habitations of 
man, factories and the various objects made in them, and a thou- 
sand other things afford tbe means lor educating the child without a 
single book being brought into use.f 

As the ear is most sensitive to sound in childhood, so in early 
years the eye is more freshly alive to color, which is tbe basis ot 
vision. In the first decade scientific observation should be taught 
with all its highest aubtlety, all its richest intricacy. By twelve 
every child should possess a trained sensorium and be an accurate 
scientific observer. College faculties are abundantly familiar with 
the sort of youth who comes to enter the vestibule oi science with a 
sensorium grown hopelessly dull and iuseasitive for tbe want of 
early use.j 

On the Study of Hyg^lene.— As hygiene is one of the 
branches whi,;h the teachers of this State are required to teach, it 

• Nyolas)'— Br^n Growth BOd EdnoaUon, Health Lectnrei for Ihe People, AuitnUui 
Health Soctetj, p. K9. 

tDr. Wm. A. HBmmand— Brala Fordng Id Childhood, Pop, Scl. Monl^hl;, XZX, TZl. 
IClarsUH Elni^The EducaUon atlhe Folore, Fonim,Xia,S3. 



is necessary lo enable tbem to do so, that they themselres have some 
knowledge of hygiene, the more, and the more practical, the better. 

Id the teaching of thin subject, the goddess Hygeia has bfen 
adored more with the service of the lip than with that of the heart. 
That her protection and rich blessings may fall npon her disciples, 
she must not be served with the dry mummery of the words of the 
test-book, but each truth presented on the printed page, should be 
illustrated and put into practical use by the teacher, as far as is 
possible, in his own conduct and in the school and home life of his 

To illustrate, it is possibly worth something to his pupils to read 
and repent in the class, ''It takes bata few minutes for the air in an 
ordinary unventilatrd school-room to become bad, and to k^'ep it 
good we need to change the whole of it several times every hour. 
School-rooms are very rarely so constructed that they can be venti- 
lated well," and then to pass on to the next topic with no recurrence 
in the teaching or in the school-room life to the truth just recited. 
It will be quite another thing in its influence over the lives of the 
children, if the teacher stops right here and invites his pupils to 
make with him a sanitary inspection of the school-room facilities for 
getting fresh air in and foul air out. "Is there any ventilating 
apparatus present, — any fresh air inlets and foul air outlets?" If 
none, "How may we then, under the circumstances, do the beet we 
can to remedy the faults of the room ; for ventilation, in some way, 
must be had: it is indispensable." Then the open window at 
recess, when all are out, and the conscientiously supervised window 
boards form an example that sinks the truth deeper in the life of the 
pupil than wordy precept upon precept. If ventilating apparatus is 
present, foul air flues for instance, then, "Are they artificially 
heated? Are thejr smooth internally? Do they run as straight and 
short as possible? Are they unobstructed? Are they specially 
heated ? Do they lake the air from the lower, or the upper pait of 
the room? From an inner or an outer wall? From the same side 
into which the fresh air enters (if provision Is made for fresh air) or 
from an opposite side ? Is there a perceptible draught through the 
flue : if so, feeble, moderate or strong?" These questions are, all 
of them, important Id Judging as to the effectiveness of the ventilat- 
ing system which the compulsory school laws of the State send us 
to, good or bad, and with a practical turn on the part of the teacher, 
the average pupil may easily be taught to answer them correctly. 

Dictized by Google 


Assuming that they ftre all answered satisfactorily, then. "Apply 
the rule or (ape to tbe fonl air register and give its dimensioas." 
"That equals how many square inches?" Then, "Estimate what 
part of the openiag is obstructed by the fret-work?" "How much 
remains?' "Thumb of rnle fashion, how many square inches needed 
by each person?" Then, "How many square inches of unobstrncted 
opening for the average attendance of the school?" "The actual 
opening of the foul air registers present is sufficient for how many 

If need be, the recitation time of several days in hygiene may 
well be wholly given to this practical investigation, the scholars 
spending some of their study boors in making the simple calcola- 
tions, after the teacher has pointed ont the way. Snch a lesson is 
fruitful, instead of bearing dry leaves only. The pnpil takes pride 
in his acqnsition of something tangible, carries his knowledge into 
bis home, and becomes a yonthful missionary in a field in which the 
harvest is ripe but the laborers are few. A few facts thus learned 
are worth much tnore, whether for discipline, or for life's purposes, 
than pages and pages learned and repeated parrot-like, and fOTgotten 
by the pupil before he leaves the shadow of the school-honse. 

This is bat a single point in the teaching of the laws of health 
after a method that is eminently practical and entirely practicable 
with any teacher who wills to adopt efficient methods in the scbool- 

Every child shoold be impressed as the teacher best can, with the 
idea that tbe most precioas and perfect of mechanisms has beak 
intrusted to his care ; that there are many foolish wars in wtudi 
this structure may be spoiled, that the perfect working of this livii^ 
machine, the chUd's body, gives him one of the richest treasures oT 
life — good health, that first and always like a carefnl ei^ineer we 
mast see that this living mechanism of oars is not destroyed or ma^ 
weak by neglect, or by making it work in ways, or ander conditiotts. 
to which it is not adapted, that here, as everywhere, though it hsj 
be a hundred times easier to do wrong than right, we most do n^L. 

It is wwtfa noting that in the text-books on "Ptaywologr aad 
Hygiene" there is a preponderance of physiology and aaaJtomy ami 
too insignificant a dose of that which should be tbe duef aia. — Oe 
teachii^ of the ways of healthy living, and the avoidanoe of then* 
dangers which threaten life. If time permits, it is highly d 
to build our knowledge of hygiene upon the sound buis of phy; 

Dictized by Google 


chemistry and physiolc^y, but every scholar, whether he goes as far 
as the high school or aot, should be taught in a practical vray, the 
maiu tmths or laws of h;fgiene; and fortunately they are simple 
enough that the average youthful miDd may grasp them when pre- 
sented diredly. Do not defeat the end by too cambereome means. 

Elements of Agriculture. School Q-ardena.— "I" is a 
moat ludicrous misconception of the nature of science to suppose 
that the little manuals and primers which abound for the purpose of 
disseminating information apart from scientific methods, really leach 
anything at all."* 

The teaching of the elements of agriculture, or the elements of 
any science, in a way that is anything more than a farce, implies 
that the pupils are, in (he first place, to be initiated into tbe art of 
seeing things correctly for tbemeelves ; for instance, how plants 
grow from seed to seeding; the differences between the various 
species and varieties of plants ; the influence, favorable or unfavor- 
able, of environments, and other observations by the hundred that 
must form the basis of scientific teaching. In other words tbe study 
of things must precede tbe study of the words about things. 

The idea of school gardens \a a familiar one to the people of many 
European countries. They are valued for heightening the interest 
and lore of the pupils in their school, for furnishing the means of 
teaching practically the elements of botany, the laws of plant life 
and growth, the methods of planting and caring for flowers and 
Other ornamental plants, and of raising fruits and vegetables on a 
small scale. Work and observation in these little gardens, is a 
healthful recreation for both pupih and teacher. It is said to have 
an elevating influence on the intellectual, moral, and economic 
tendencies of, not only the pupils, but of their parents as well. If 
the "elements of agriculture" can be taught in the common schools 
as they are thus in many of those of Sweden, Switzerland, Germany 
and Holland, the innovation will prove a blessing to out children, 
wbetber they are to spend their lives on the farms or not. If, on 
the contrary, this topic is to be forced upon the pupils in tbe form 
of dry and lifeless bock study, under the hands ot non-interested 
and incompetent teachers, it is questionable whether the result will 
be such as t^i please the originators of the movement, or whether it 
will not prove one more adverse influence, rendering the term 
"Agriculture" repellent rather than attractive. 

> Di. Uir; Patiuin Juobl. Frtmirj EdnciUan, p. 88. New York. 1SB9. 

Dictzed by Google 



An educatioDal sjstein that interests itself solely in the trainiog 
of tbe intellect is shamefully one-sided. The roots of mental activ- 
ity pierce deeply our physical liTe and draw sustenance from it, con- 
sequently tbe beet development of the mind ia poaaible only when 
the physical health ia at its best. First, then, in the order of impor- 
tance among the things that the public schools should concern itself 
with, is the health of its pQpils, for this is tbe basis of tbe citizen's 
usefulness to himself and the State; aecond, should be the training 
of the character, for tbe endowment of the citizen with physical 
strength and mental acuteness is hardly desirable if they are to be 
turned against society ; lastly, tbe fullest and broadest intellectual 
culture compatible with sound physical health should be encouraged. 

These were the principles that guided in the evolution of that 
most illustrious of ancient cultures, and these are the views that are 
to-day widely infl'iencing the nations of this busy a£;e of ours as a 
means of self preservation. In the schools of hardly another civil- 
ized nation has so little been done tor the physical training of its 
pupil»i, as in oors. To show Uiis it may be mentioned that, at one 
of the late conferences of the teachers of Vienna, where strenuous exer- 
tions werij making to secure more ample playgrounds tor the school 
children, one ot the teachers gave the results of his enquiries as to 
the provisions for physical culture in various German and Swiss 
cities. Of 20 cities from which he had heard, gymnastic exercises 
were obligatory in the boys' schools in all, and in the girU' schools 
in 14, the time devoted to these exercises ranging from one to five 
hours each week , two hours in most of tbe towns. In addition to 
gymnastics, 12 of these towns have provided special playgrounds 
for the children ; 7 have, by flooding playgrounds in winter, or 
otherwise, provided skating courses for tbe pupils ; 14 -have school 
baths or other facilities for bathing ; and 18 arrange for school 
excursions from one or two yearly to monthly or even weekly excur- 

Points In the Physiology of Muscular Exercise.— 
The will directs and controls the action of the voluntary muscles 
through the intermediate organs, brain, spinal cord, nerves, 

•Zelt. l.gchnlgce. IU,5t2. 1B90. 

Dictized by Google 


That the muscles may do Ibeir various kiads of work easily aod 
welt, educatioD is juit as indispensable as it is that the brain may 
do its woik easily and weir. In either case, the knowing how to do 
IB equivalent to a real gain in power. *'Tbe man who exercises his 
mnsclee is like the general who drills bis troops, in order to have 
them under control on the day of battle.'"* 

Certain parts of the brain, called motor centres, control the move- 
ments of the muscles in the different regions of ttie body. In exer- 
cising this direction of muscnlar movement, these parts of the brain 
are developed and strengthened. 

Just as there is a close connection between mind and body, there 
ie an intimate relation between one part of the body and every other 
part. Exercise of the muscles affects profoundly every other bodily 

Muscular exercise increases the activity of the flow of blood 
through the muscles, and in response to the demand fo more blood, 
the work of the heart is increased. Hence there results a quicken- 
ing of the whole systematic circulation. 

The increased activity of the circulation in the muscles tends to 
accelerate the nutritive processes in them. Ag a result, they 
increase in size, and their power is augmented. As an accessory 
result, the nutritive processes in all the other organs of the body are 
promoted in some degree. 

Id a heat engidh all its energies are derived from the conversion 
of heat into mechanical motion. The human body is such an engine ; 
all its vital activities are due to the conversion of heat into muscular, 
nervous, and other forces. The "flres" of the body burn unceas- 
ingly until death exlinguisbes them. A part only of their heat is 
converted into the forces required for the various vital activities ; of 
tbe remainder, a part is utilized in maintaiding the normal tempera- 
ture. Any excess escapes through the regulating mechanism ot the 

The fuel which supports the combustlve processes of the body, 
through which heat is evolved, are the tissues themselves, but, in 
much larger part, material derived from the food, which may have 
just entered the circnlation and is burned and cast out without ever 
becoming a fixed part of any tissue. 

As the fuel burned In a furnace is turned into carbonic acid and 
other gases and ashes, so the combuative processes going on in the 

*LigimDm. Phf ilolog; ol Bodllr EieKdH, p. 24, New York, ISW. 

Dictized by Google 


bod; leaves wftste products whicb mast be got rid of through the 
excretory organs. 

When muscalar exorcise is taken, it is aScompanied by an iaciease 
in the heat Tormation and an increase in the products to be excreted ; 
and tbe production ot beat and products to be elimiaated are in pro- 
portion to the amouDt of maacular work done. 

One of tbe resulting waste products is carbonic acid- It is 
excreted through the lungs. When the exercise is moderate, it 
passes away as fast as formed and no striking phenomena appear. 
But when the exercise is immoderate, as in running, it accumulates 
in tbe blood and, involuntarily, tbe breathing is quickened and deep- 
ened to meet tbe requirement of a more rapid elimination of carbonic 

If the muscular exercise is still more immoderate, as in a closely 
contested rowing match, tbe evolution of carljonic acid ia more rapid 
than the lungs can eliminate from the blood, and breathlessuess and 
otber evidences of carbonic acid poisoning appear. When tbe 
muscular effort ia carried to tbe extreme, the face assumes a leaden, 
or livid hue, indicative of the beginning of asphyxia, partial uncOD- 
flciousness occurs, and symptoma of vertigo come on. At this stage 
the contestant may fall in a dead faint, which may be fatal unless 
prompt help is given. In the same way the race-borse sometimes 
falls, overpowered by the carbonic acid rapidly liberated by his 
exertions. * 

Another class of waste products of combustion, tbe cttrogenous, 
are excreted chiefly by the kidneys. Tbeir elimination is slow as com- 
pared with that of caibonic acid. When muscular work has been 
excessive, particularly in a person not accustomed to regular work 
of this kind, symptoms of auto-intoxication supervene ; muscular 
stiffness, a febrile moveufent, and ia some ca^es a fever of considera- 
ble intensity lasting some days. Animals that escape the hunting 
bounds sometimes die some days after their run. 

Tbe processes of combustion, ordinarily supported mostly by 
material other than that of the muscular tissues, is earried on more 
largely, or it may be entirely, at the expense of the essential ele- 
ments of the bodily tissues when tbe food is insufficient, or when 
muscular exercise is in excess of the powers of digestion aud assimi- 

Aluscular exercise may, therefore, be a means, either of develop- 
ing and strengthening tbe body, or of Injuring it. It is beneflcial 



when muscular work ia alternated with sufiicieat periods of muscular 
rest, and when the quantity of work is sufflcieot to stimulate and 
arouse all the vital fuDCtions, — respiratory, circulatory, digestive, 
secretory, excretory. It is physically harmful or dangerous when a 
great muscular effort is made h^ musclea, heart, and lungs not hab- 
ituated to sQch strains, as in lifting ; when the exertion is coatinued 
after breathlessness and other symptoms of carbDuic acid poisoning 
are evident, as in running or rowing ; when work is not followed by 
rest sufficient for reparation of tisaues and elimination of waste 
products ; when, ftom insufflcient food, or other cause, work is done 
largely at the expense of the muscular and other tissues ; or when 
too much muscular work is done in addition to hard mental work. 

As regards the influence of physical exercise on the brain and ihe 
mind, there is a prevalent error. We are told that the student is 
endowed with only a certain amount of vital force, that its expendi- 
ture in physical work diminishes by so mucb that part available for 
mental work, and vice versa. We should say, rather, that the 
organism of the student is endowed with the means of evolving vital 
force, and that the quantity available depends much on how he runs 
the machine. The raw material out of which vital force is to be 
manufactured is the food material (fuel) furnished by the digestive 
organs, and the atmospheric oxygen contributed by the lungs. The 
first requisite, then, is ample digestive and brej.thing power. 
Physical exercise properly taken is a stimulant and a help to diges- 
tion and assimitatioo, as it is to all the otbe.r physical functions, and 
is the best means of devel ping lung power. Instead of curtailing 
the amount of vital force, Judicious physical exercise increases the 
sum total of it so as to leave a larger balance for mental work than 
would otherwise be available. A brain which constitutes a part of 
a strong, healthy organism can safely do more work than a brain 
that is associated with a feeble and ill-cared for body. Mnscular 
«xerciBe ia an indispensable means of maintaining health and vigor 
of both body and mind. 

Demonstration of the Physical Advantages.— Mus- 
cular exercise, as we has seen, increases the wear and tear of the 
muscular tissue, loads the tissues and the circulatiDU temporarily 
with waste matter, but at the same time rouses into activity those 
functions whereby the system is rid of needless and noxious material. 
Moreover, it accelerates the nutritive processes that repair tissue 
disintegration and build up and develop che body. How potent a 

Dictized by Google 


meaoe physical training is for the healthful development of the body 
is showD by the experiences related by Maclareu.* It had been 
ordered that gymnastic trainiDg be iatrodaced into the English army 
and MaclareD says : 

The first detachment of Don-commiasioned officers, twelve in 
number, sent to me to qualify as Instructors for the Army trere 
selected from all branches of Ibe service. They ranged between 
nineteen and twenty-nine yeais of age, between five feet five inches 
and six feet in height, between nine atone two pounds and twelve 
stone six pounds in weight, and had seen from two to twelve years 
service- I confess I felt greatly discomfited at the appearance of 
this detachment, so difl^erent in every physical attribute ; I perceived 
the difficulty, the very great difficulty, of working them in the same 
squad at tlie same exercises ; and the unfitness of some of them for 
a duty so special as the instrnctlon of beginners in a new system of 
bodily exercise — a aystem in which I have found it necessary to lay 
down an absolute rule, that every exercise in every lesson shall be 
executed in its perfect form hy the instructor, previous to the attempt 
of the learner ; knowing ftom experience how important is example 
in the acquisition of all physical movements, and how widely the 
exercises might miss of their object if unworthily represented by an 
inferior instructor. But I also saw that the detachment presented 
perhaps as fair a sample of the army as it waa possible to obtain in 
the same number of men, and that if I closely observed the results 
ot the system upon these men, the weak and the strong, the short; 
and the tall, the robust and the delicate, I should be furnished with 
a fair idea of what would be the results of the system upon the army 
at large, I therefore received the detachment just as it stood, and 
following my method of periodic measurements, I carefully ascer- 
tained and registered the developments ot each at the commence- 
ment of his course of instruction and at certain intervals throughout 
its progress. - 

The muscular addition to the arms and shoulders and the expan- 
sion of the chest were so great as to have absolutely a ludicrous and 
embarrassing result, tor before the fourth month several of the men 
could not get into their uniforms, jackets and tunics, without assis- 
tance, and when they had got them on they could not get them to 
meet in the middle by a band's breadth. In a month more they 
could not get into them at all, and new clothing had to be procured^ 
pending the arrival of which the men had to go to and from th« 
gymnasium in their great coats. One of these meji had gained five 
inches in actual girth of chest. Now, who shall tell the value of 
these five inches of chest, five inches of additional space for the 
heart and lungs to work in ? There is no computing its value, no 
power of computing it at all ; and before such an addition as this 
could be made to this part of the body, the whole frame must have 
received a propoi tionate gain. For the exercises of the system are 
addressed to the whole body, and to the whole body eqnally, and 

• Fbjalcal EdaatlOD, p. T2. OifOrd.lBtM. 

Dictized by Google 


before this additioD coald be made to tbe chest every Bpot and point 
of the frame maBt have beea improved alao — every organ iritbin the 
body mast have been proportionately strengthened. 

But I tried another method o( recording the results of the exercises. 
I had these men photographed naked to the waist shortly after the 
beginDiDg of tbe coarse and again at its close ; and the change in all. 
«veD in the small portraits, is very distinct, and most notably so i» 
the youngest, a youth of nineteen, and as I had anticipated in bim, 
not merely in the acquisition of muscle, but iu re-adJustment and 
expaneioD of the osseous framework upon which tbe musclee are 

But there was one change the greatflst of all — and to which all 
the other changes are but means to an end, are but evidences more 
or less distitici that this eml has heen accomplished, a change which 
I could not record, which can never be recorded, but which was to 
me, and to all who had ever seen tbe men, most impressively evi- 
dent ; and iQat was the change io bodil^' activity, dexierity, presence 
of miud, and endurance of fatigue ; a change a hundred fold more 
impressive than anything the tape measure or the weighing chair can 
€ver reveal. 

Tbe men composing this detachment bad been irregularly selected, 
the youngest being 19, tbe elde»t 28, the average 24 ; and after a 
period of eight months training tbe increase in the measurement of 
the men were : 

Weight— Lb*. Chest— In. Foresrni— Id. Uppetatm— In . 

The smallest gain 5 1 1-1 1 

The largest gain 16 5 11-4 13-4 

The average gain 10 2 7-8 3-4 13-4 

A cheerful fact, says Edwin Cbeckley,* is that nobody need con- 
sider himself unfit for training. I was born a weakling. Nobody 
thought 1 was leally worth rearing. To-day I can lift three men, 
each weighing one hundred and Qftv pounds, and trot with them for 
a hundred yards. If I had not been born a weakling my family 
would never have taken the trouble to make me. and I would never 
have taken tbe trouble to make myself, physically what I am. 

Intallectual Advantages of Physical Culture. — Body 
and mind need each other, and the one is ibe most perfect when the 
other Is in best condition. | 

And what if this daily exercise, beside the bodily benefit and 
improvement which ensues, should also bring autually better mental 
work? Unbending the bow for a little while, taking tlie tension 
IVuiD the brain (or a lew minutes, and depleting it by expanding the 
cheat to its fulJesl capacity, and increasing the circulation in limbs 
— . heae, instead of impairing that brain will repair it, will markedly 
imptove its tone and vigor. | 

' A ^"aturBl Method of Phyilul TralDlng, p. U6. 

t KHte O, Bnid, M. D., Prof, of Pbyeical Cultare, Bijn Mairi School, Boat. tl.StS. It., 

cxxii, eo2. 

t WiD. SUlkie— How to Get Stiong, p. M. 

Dictized by Google 


This fatigue of the body, says Dr. Gaotier,* ia a relief to the 
mind, a derivative from the brain, a powerfi]) meana of eliminating 
the wastes of organic life by abundant perspiration and deep breath- 
ing, these factors in overpressure against which the will and energy 
are powerlees. 

Dr. Geo. D. Stabley, from his wide experience while in charge of 
a public inatitutioD for the insane says : 

The Bacredneas of the humaQ body, the incalculable importance 
of healthy physical functions, the dependence of a sound mind on 
normal bodily health, these are truths which have been burned into 
my very life, by a professional experience, which has been as aad 
and as terrible, as it haa been scieniilically in teres ting. -f 

The truth of tbese assertioDB has been proved experimentally at 
the State Reformatory at Elmira, N. Y. In a paper on "The 
Pedagogic Phase of Physical Training,"! D""- Hamilton D. Wey 
refers to the practical nee that ia made of physical training in that 
inetitntion as a means of awaking and developing the mind. 

There ia no greater educational fallacy than the idea that the 
brain is educated at the expense of muscle, and muscle at the 
expense of brain, that excellence in lx>th cannot be attained 

The body deteriorates under exclusive mental cultivation, because 
it is sacrificed through neglect and inertia, and proper hygienic con- 
ditions lout sight of and ignored. It deteriorates because the laws 
of physiology are unheeded and transgressed. 

I would that I could portray with the same distinctness and power 
of definition by pictare of pen, as I can recall it by mental Imagery 
from object lessons furnishe*d by my work in physical training, the 
reciprocity existing between the physical and mental state. Aa 
physical conditions have been improved, the volume and character 
of mental action have been increased ; while conversely, with exclu- 
sive mental cnltivation and corporal neglect, the physical man would 
maintain itself for a time until a certain degree of mental fulness 
had been attained, after which body and mind synchronously would 
decline as if to emphasize the words of Siripture that much study is 
a weariness of the flesh. 

A little more than three years ago the work of physical training 
as a pedagogic measure waa entered upon at the New York State 
Keformatory, at Elmira. This departure in the treatment of youth- 
ful criminals was brought about through a recognition, based upon 
years of observation, of the futility of attempting to treat primarily, 
by mental and moral meansj certain delinqneots who had demon- 
strated by their acts their unfitness and inability to maintain them- 
selves in harmony with society. 

•Le StirmeDiige ScoUlre, p. 11. Psrii, 1S8T. 

fThe Pbyilul Barit of EduuUoD, p. i. 

(Ph^ilcBl TiBlDlng CDDfenace,IB8». p. 102. Boston, 1B90. 

Dictized by Google 


Ail experimeotal class of twelve w&s formed. We took them in 
hand, regalated their diet as to qoantity and kind, washed and 
massaged them, and pnt them daily through free-hand exercises. 
It was a laborious task to teach them precision and rapidity ot 
action in their exercises, bat perseverance demonstrated (heir sus- 
ceptibility and responBiveaess to ibis mode ot stimulation. 

The class was continued for five months, when the men were 
returned to the conditions of prison life they were formerly uuable 
to conform to. For the sncceediag five months tbey were carefully 
watched and noted to see if the improved physical state and result- 
ing increased cerebral power would prove ephemeral aud subside 
apOD withdrawal of the stimulation that produced it, or, continuing, 
be the beginning of a state freed from former embarrassments. 

The latter was the case, aa generally they maintained themselves 
in the performance of their requirements, which previously they 
conid not do, in the threefold lines of behavior, school, and labor, 
averaging collectively seventy -one per cent, as against forty-six per 
cent, for five mouths preceding their being taken in hand. 

From this beginning the work of physical training has gone on, 
until now the physical training class has come to be a school pre* 
paratory to those of letters and the trades for the unformed and 
crude boj, the weak in body, and feeble in mind. 

Q-ymnastlCS. — Objectors to systematic training for the body 
are wont to affirm that school children get sufficient exercise in the 
course of their games and home work. The friends of physical 
culture might almost as well maintain that the systematic mind 
training of the schools is needless, since, with little or almost no 
help from teachers, many a child has grown into a useful manhood 
or womanhood, or even advanced to positions of eminence. They 
might maintain, too, with some degree of plausibility, that this free 
and natural way of getting an education has its advantages in leav* 
ing the child's sense perceptions undntled and fais physical develop- 
ment less interfered with. 

But we have no sympathy with either of these extreme disputants. 
We must maintain, and, as far as may be, increase the efflciency of 
the mental training in our schools ; and, at the same time, in these 
same schools, the physical culture of the scbolffrs should be regarded 
as forming an indispensable foundation for the intellectual education 
ot the child. Just as the guidance and encouragement of the skilled 
teacher is almost indispensable to the average student in tais mental 
growth, so is intelligent guidance jost as much needed by the average 
boy or girl in his or her physical development. The unsystematic 
and haphazard physical training which the child get^ in home work 
and when roaming at his own sweet will is not enongh. The gross 

Dictzsdbv Google 


quantity of exercise may oftea be enough ; but the work is distributed 
to the muecles without reference to their needs, often overburdening 
and over developing a special set of muscles called to do the special 
work, while other groups of muscles are inactive and developed 

A well devised system of gymuastic exercises aims at the har- 
monious trainiug and developing of all the muscles, and the avoidance 
of one-aid edoess, and other tendencies to deformiiy characteristic of 
many ojcupations and some games and sports. 

But (be improvement of the physique is not the whole story of 
gymoaatic results. One of the first eOects is the education of the 
movements. '^Everyone has naticed," says Lagrange, "how rap- 
idly gymnastics diminish the awkwardness aud clitmainesa of the 
man who practices them. The recruit who has been used to rough 
agricultural labors becomes rapidly more polished. Ilis muscles, 
hitherto used to slow obedience, in order to perform their easy move- 
ments with more strength, are obliged to obey with precisiou and 
rapidity. They undergo a discipline to which they are strangers, 
and perform an apprenticeship whiuh makes theii acUon more 
prompt and easy." 

It will be seen farther on that free sports are accorded a place 
second to nothing else in the physical culture of school children, 
nevertheless gymnastic exercises have a value of their own distinct 
enough to merit a place in every school. 

Results. — In Cleveland, the results of the school-room gymnas- 
tic training have been : ''An improved carriage of body in sitting, 
standing and walking, a decrease of round and stoo|)ed shoulders, a 
marked improvement in discipline, and greater ease in governing the 

From an eleven years' observation of the results of gymnastic 
training, Jaeger stales that the difference in absence from school 
between pupils who were under gymnastic training and those who 
were not was 25 per 'cent, in favor of the former. t 

To see a, delicate girl with a hollow chest and stooping shoulders, 
thin arms and a drooping carriage, gain from one to three inches in 
chest girth in four months time, one or two inches in arm measure- 
ments, to find her spine growing more erect and her chest capacity 
increasing twenty-five to fifty cnbic inches, while strength tests show 
that she has doabled the power of back and limbs, is a gratifying 

Dictized by Google 


TeBDit which is not Qncoiniiioii as ibown by the vital atatiatics from 
various quarters.* 

The Place for Gymnastic Exercises.— Wheo the weather 
is suitable, the Bchool should receive its gymoastic tratuiog in the 
opeu air. There the deep inhalations caased by the musoalar work 
may be fed with pure air, an important elemeDt in physical culture. 
If the exercises are done in the achool-room, a pure air supply 
through open windows or otherwise must be provided, and the air 
must not be filled with dust. If the exercises can be done only in a 
dusty atmosphere, it were better to omit tbem and turn the school 
out for free play instead. 

The Dust Question. — We have long known that dusty air is 
not healthful air, bat the significance of a dnsty atmosphere, partic- 
ularly in closed, inhabited rooms, is seen in a new light since we 
have learned that, attached to, or fioating among, the particles of 
dust, is a multitude of micro-organisms, some ot which may be the 
germs ot infections diseases. To show how the raising of a dust 
fills the air with germs, it may be mentioned that Tucker found that 
the air in the wards of the City Hospital, Boston, bad about seventy 
times as many germs after the morning sweeping as it had when all 
was still. The objections and dangers of gymnastic training in a 
dusty atmosphere are well told by Dr. F. A. Schmidt of Bonn-t 

Xow, in quiet breathing, we take in with each inspiration one-third 
or one-half litre (about one pint) of air, while there are already 
three litres of residual air in the lungs, to which each breath is added. 
From the uniform admixture of the old and the fresh air, a quantity 
is expelled at each expiration equal to that talien in with the inspira- 
tion. Remembering now, that we breathe in and out from sixt«en 
to twenty times a minute, this half litre of air with a certain quan- 
tity of dust suspended in it, during the one and one-half 10 two 
seconds, while it is passing into the lungs, sweeps through the 
narr{ w cavities of the nose and the naao-pharynx, through the larynx 
and trachea, and only after it passes through the narrowest Iwigs of 
the air passages does it reach the air cells, — all the way over moist 
mucous membranes. It therefore, appears improbable that, in 
ordinary quiet breathing, in air with only a small or moderate 
quantity of dust suspended in it, the particles of dust penetrate so 
far as the air cells. 

But it is anotber matter when the quantity of dust in the air is 
very great, and when such air must be breathed tor a long time- 
Then, indeed, particles of dust penetrate through the finest divisions 

*UiuT T. Bbwell, M. D« Proc. Am. Ahoq. for tie AdTtmeement at Fbj^Bl EdaoUan, 
1888, p. 13. 

a H^entumen. Leipzig. 1890. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


of the air passages to the air celts, aod the irritation of these parti- 
cles caases the migration of white blood corpuscles from the pal- 
monary blood vessels. These white blood corpuscles surroQud tbe 
dust particles, tending thus to render them harmless, and, mixed 
with the mucus of the lining membrane, are coaghed up as "dust 
cells," or they re-migrate into the tissue of the lung and there 
permanently store up the foreign matter. Thus it results that tbe 
lungs of adults contain a considerable quantity of the insoluble 
particles of dust that give them an appearance very different from 
that of the lungs of the nen-born infant. 

Bat in breathing air loaded with dust, the fullness or depth of 
respiration is of more significance than length of time. Even when 
compelled to breathe deeply through the mouth while exerting our- 
selves in speaking or singing, we lose entirely the protection of the 
nasal passages E^ainst tbe penetration of ditst. for the air is then 
drawn directly into the larynx and trachea and reaches the lungs 
well laden with dust. This is notably the case, also, when tbe depth 
of respiration is increased by physical exercise or work. While 
quiet, in a lying or sitting posture, only a portion of tbe lung takes 
part in the act of breathing — those parts indeed of our lungs that 
are the most fully under the influence of the great muscles of respira- 
tion, and that can therefore, the most easily free themselves from 
foreign matter by the act of coughing. These are tbe middle and 
lower parts of the lungs. 

During active muscular exercise the respiratory range is greatly 
increabed. Then come into play the reserve forces of the lungs, and 
the upper lobe and its apex participate — parts from which harmful 
matter is not so easily expelled after it has once been breathed i.i. 
There the particles remain unhindered in tbeir harmful action upon 
the lungs. 

Rapid walking requires the inspiration of four times as much air 
as when at rest, and running increases the respiratory action about 
seven fold. With tbe increase in the quantity of air breathed dur- 
ing these and similar movements, there is also a corresponding 
increase in the quantity of dust inspired, and not only that but it 
penetrates to the more remote, less movable and less resistant parts 
of the lung. 

Tnere is another reason why the inhalation of a dusty atmosphere 
during gymnastic exercises is undesirable. When ne exert our- 
selves to the utmost in lifting heavy weights, the muscles of respira- 
tion, including the diaphragm, are fixed in a rigid involuntar3' 
Spasm. As a result, breathing is temporarily suspended, and a 
stagnation of UQEerated blood occurs in the pulmonary circulation. 
With the cessation of the exertion, the breatli is drawn in with long 
gasps. Or, if the trainer makes a sprint around the gymuasiucu 
track, at the end of his course he snaps at the air with open mouth, 
breathing it in with the deepest possible inspirations, each of which 
is alternated with only short expirations. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


tn these deep epftsmodic disturbances of the natural breathing, 
the best condttioas possible are present for the deep and plentiful 
inhalation of dust when it is present in the atmosphere. 

There are, therefore, weighty reasons why rooms devoted to 
indoor gymoastic and other physical exercises should be as clear of 
dust as possible, and, as the keeping of the air of f^j-mnasiams 
reasonably free from dust is very difficult, why physical exercises 
should be condacted in the open air when practicable. 

GymiiaStiC Teachers.— To fit up a gymnasium for a school 
and leave the pupils to follow their own inclinations ii indiscreet. 
A gymnasium run in that way is probably capable of doing as much 
harm as good. Gymnastic trainiug with apparatus should be under 
the skilled supervision of a special teacher. In the common schools 
it is highly desirable that gymnasiic instructors be provided to teach 
the teachers. Wh<B :he State begins to realize the value of physical 
culture, an instructor in gymnastics will be provided for each nor- 
mal school in the Sute. 

'■Ik is of more importtnce than is at first apparent," Hays the Eirl 
of Meath, "that ttie gymnastic instructor and echo A teacher should 
be one and the same person :"* 

1, For ri-asons dI fconomy, which should not be overlooked, as 
many districts would be unwilling or unable to pay the salary of an 
additional leacht-r. 

2. For the sake of the teacher himself, who would be benefited 
by heing obliged to devote a certain portion of eacli day to his own 
physical development. 

B. For tUe sake of discipline, which could be much more easily 
maintained by the regular scbool master than by aoy outsider. 

i. Because proficiency in physical exercises would enhance the 
respect of the scholars for their teacher. 

5 Because there would be no danger of divided authority, or of 
one-sidednesa on the part of the school teacher or gymnastic 

School Games and Sports.— Gymnastic training is far 
from being all the means at hand for the promotion of phtsical 
cuUure : it is doubtful whether it is the better part of it. G> lunastic 
exercises may be made interesting to a school to a csrwio degree, 
butjthev are hardly play. In free play or in the school ga i>es to 
which the pupilturns with avidity, he gets the advantages of muscular 
exercise, the deep breatbing of pure air, recreation, and the silutary 
influence of a happy mind. In Gdrmany, the land of gymnastic 

• Nortb Amnion Revlaw, LII, ISBI. (No. B.) 



traiDing, there is at present a etrong movement in favor of re-inlro- 
dacing into their schools the old natioDal games and others from 
abroad as a means of antagonizing the nnfortanate tendencies of the 
present age to make onr children lose too early the love of play and 
to become prematurely old. 

In the German towns, Brunswick, Gortitz, and others, games 
suited to the purpose in view have been introduced into the schools. 
In some of these towns the school authorities require all the scholars 
to take part in the plays and games ; in others, influences of a 
different kind are brought to bear to lead the greatest possible 
number to participate io them. In Hamburg and other places, 
associations have been formed to encourage school games and to 
provide suitable playgrounds. 

Dr. Eitner of Gorlitz was authorized by the Prussian Minister of 
Instruction to form classes for the purpose of instructing teachers 
how to lead their pupils iu school games. The first course was 
given in 1890 and was attended by teachers from all parts of 
Germany.* The next year a similar course was given to teachers 
- in Berlin. The German Emperor, it is said, is enthusiastically in 
favor of this movement and plays football himself with his own sons 
and Prince Henry at the new palace near Potsdam. For this year 
(1893) arrangements have been made for systematic school plays 
in the schools of Prague, and in the Galician province of Austria. 

England has atitl a wide lead in sports. Her example has not 
been without influence in this Continental movement, nor in this 
country ; yet how much more games and sports pervade the whole 
life of the English nation than it does ours, was observed by the 
Earl of Meath, an ard^t friend of physical culture : 

Whereas in England every available field in tSe neighborhood 
of our large cities is snatched up for football or cricket, and thou- 
-ands of clerks, factory hands, and young artisans, especially in the 
norlbem towns, straggle of a Saturday afternoon for room in which 
to play these invigorating national games, in America athletics are 
in a great measure confined to the universilies, the schools, the 
richer classes, and the professionals. f 

A foreign investigator ol the value of the English sports gives the 
following opinion : "I think that, from what I have already said, it 
will be perceived that England posaesses in her games for youth a 

Dictzed by Google. 


great treasure that baa the power to give new streogtb and new life 
to eacb aucceedioggeneratioD."* 

We credit the Bystem of physical culture In the achoolB of Grermany 
with having done macb for tbe well being of her pupils, but an 
observer From that country, writing on tbe influence of tbe English 
school sports on tbe pbyaical condition of English boys says : 

Tbe English yontb makes a much more healthy development, is 
physically more energetic, is finer looking, and, in his modes of life 
and inclinationa, is more youthful Chan the GerinaD lad, and in after 
life retains bis early vigor and liking for active muscular exer- 
cise much longer, in general, than is the case with us — a lasting 
result of a well spent youth. 

Conversely, an English teacher, after visiting and inspecting some 
of the Grerman high schools says : 

Gymnastics baa been suggested as a subetitute for our aports. I 
need not affirm that this eubstitute is an insutBcient one. Tbe very 
first question put to me was whether the boys in England do not 
present a much fresher and freer appearance. This I at first denied, 
bat, after further observation, I was constrained to change my 
opinion. There is no striking difference between the younger pupils 
of tbe two countries, but, as one goes into the higher German 
schools, one notes the absence of freshness and health. The pupils 
of the two or three higher classes appear pale, narrow-chested, and 
overworked, and give the impression that the introduction of the 
English system would prove salutary.f 

After reminding us how excellent a kind oF exercise is got in play- 
ing well chosen school gamea — how the movement of the blood is 
quickened, bow the breathing gains in depth and fullness, ^nd how 
th; appetite is sharpened — Raydt} continues: 

It results that the condition of mild mental tension, with the cheer- 
fulness and Joyousneas which children's games draw out in the 
happiest way, influences tbe whole nervous system in the most 
favorable way. It is not all the same for the health whether one 
walks two miles (4 km.) back and forth on a short track, or walks 
tbe same distance over a charming way in pleasant conversation 
with a cherished friend. Thus is it in children's games, and on 
account of their joyous and refreshing influence, their place cannot 
be filled by any gymnastic exercisea. la tbie connection Dr. Warre, 
director of the school at Eaton, very fittingly remarks : "Gymnaatic 
exercises there are, and military training, and to spare, but these do 
not in any way represent ancient athletics, or tulfil the same office 
an tbe social gamea which are tbe proper pastimes of youth in merrie 

' Bsj-ilt. Db> Jiigeiid>pl«], p. il. HuiOTec, 1891. 
t SudweBldeutache Bcbulbl^tler, VII, 18. 1890. 
t DuJaKendiplel.p.Zi. Hinaver, 1891. 

Dictized by Google 


Time for Play. — "Every spare moment," says Dr. Dakes, 
"Dot already occupied by woTk, meals, or sleep, should be alloted 
to plaj." Rfcesses for this parpoee shoaM not be given gmdgingly. 
Dr. Dukes refers to "one of ihe best private schools in existeace io 
this country" in which the pupils are worked severely, bat in which 
there is an arrangement of play time that be approves, ten distinct 
inlervaU interspersed through the day, amounting to rather more 
than four houiB. The same author recommends strongly a half day 
of freedom every other day alternating with the three days of woik 
all day. 

In tbe BchooU of many continental countries recesses are more 
frequent than we allow, and the pupils have Wednesday and Satur- 
day afternoons ss half holidays ; an arrangement better than ours, 
which works the pupils too much five days in tbe week, and lets them 
play too much on the sixth. 

The Leader of the O-ames. — Shall the teacher, himself 
or herself, be a participant in the games? By all means let him do 
so if he can bring to the play somewhat of the zest and joy of the 
cbild, if his Tobastness and elasticity warrant, and if his aptness and 
skill in the games will raise him above a mean place in the estima- 
tion of his youthful playfellows. 

The teacher should at least have a careful oversight of the play- 
grounds and of the children's games ; the right formaUon of char- 
acter requires this as well as tiie proper developmenl of their bodies. 
Rudenesxf tyranny, and meanness are to be repressed ; acts of gen- 
erosity and truthfulness sboald receive at least a smile of recognition 
from tbe t«acher ; new games should be devised or explained ; and 
the diffident, or for other reasons backward children should be 
encouraged to join in the sport. A wide field of usefuluess on the 
ptavground is open to the teacher, as welt as in the schooUroom, 
and the cultivation of the field of recreation may he made a power- 
ful auxiliary to the field of school-room work. Nowhere else does the 
teacher have so good a chance as on tbe playground to learn tbe 
character of bis pupils, which is usually many sided. In the scbool- 
room it is shown only En part ; on the playground entirely new 
facets ol their individualties are turned toward tbe teacher. By all 
means then let the pupils see that your interest is with them in their 
play, as in their work, and, if joining them, be a leader in tbe games 
or be led, as seems most expedient. But remember that, whatever 
role you play in the school-room, heie you ore no dictator, save 

Dictized by Google 


wheo a question assumeB a moral aspect. The pUyera must have 
their ntmost freedom of will. Play that is not voluntary ceases to 
be play. 

Nothing else tends so strongly as school games to bind the child 
til his school. One of the early leaders in physical culture said: 
"Games are flowery bands by means of which one may draw chil- 
dren to one's self." 

Character of the Games.— The first requirement in a school 
game is that it shall be attractive to the children, and in this is 
included adaptation to age. The nest is that, with the pleasure of 
the play, the scholars get active exercise in It. Some of the games 
should be of a hind that can be dropped abruptly at the end of & 
fifteen minntes' recess without being spoiled. Others should be 
Dnitable for a holiday or half holiday. The outdoor games well 
known to the children of a school shoidd be supplemented by those 
of a suitable character from the juvenile lore of other places cr 
countries. It is hoped that a pamphlet to aid teachers in tbift 
direction may be available before long. 

Playgrounde. — Speaking of the sad lack of play for the child 
o the city, a sympathizing writer aaks : "WUen and where shall 
he, as a student in the intermediate school of the great city, find 
opportunity to satisfy that innate need of exercise that drives him 
on with irreaistible power. Playgrounds are few ; skating, awim- 
ming, riding — these cost money, sometimes much money, and on 
account of distance, often much time ; throwing snowballs, he must 
not i sitting still, — this he must do.''* 

Ample room for playgrounds should be considered an indispensable 
requirement of a school lot ; and it is an excellent idea to give the 
children a good, comfortable play shed with open aides for rainy 
and extremely hot weather. 

Athletics. — Since the "athletic mania" has pervaded onr higher 
institutions of learning and a targe part of the youthful population 
generally, much discussion has taken place on the influence of ath- 
letics over the schools and on the participants mentally and physi- 

Many physicians, observing the physical e9t.cts of athletic con- 
tests, pronounce decidedly against them. They are able to adduce 
some cases in which serious and lasting physical harm has resulted, 

■BurgentclD.— Die QtiDadheltipflCEe in dtx UlttelicliDls. 

Dictized by Google 


or have observed the pitiful extreme of muscular exertion iu aD 
intercollegiate rowing match. One authority describes it as follows : 

To the respiratory distress succeeds a senaation of auguisb gen- 
eralised throughout the orgaaism. The head feels as if bound by an 
iron band. Vertigo is very diBtressiug. All sensations become 
more vague ; the brain is overcome by a kind of drunkenness. The 
subject begins to become unconBcioua of what is passing, his mus- 
cles contiaue to work mechanically for a time, then they stop, and 
the man falls ia a faint. 

Another describes as follows the effects upon the participants in 
rowing contests : 

They almost lose consciousness of time and place, and tbetr 
motions become purely mechanical. It seems impossible to them to 
row a dozen strokes more. Incessant encouragement is necessary 
from the coxswain or from the shouts of the spectators to eaable 
them even to keep their senses long enough to finish the race. 

"A member of the Harvard freshman crew of 1875 gave the fol- 
lowing reason, significant from a sanitary point of view, why the 
race was lost to Colombia : 'Uh, we had the best of them all the 
way, but unfortunately, our strongest man fainted just at the end 
of the third mile.'" * 

The President of Columbia College said in 1890, "Last summer 
our crew, though not victorious, strove so hard for victory that the 
men fainted in their boat." 

Whether the accident of syncope occurs or not in competitive con- 
tests of this kind, the contestants are reduced to an extremity that 
is an invitation to Fate to inflict a physical disaster. 

But if these picked crews invite danger, what may be said of 
those who enter athletic contests with insufficient preparation or 
none at all, who do not know whether their vital organs are sound 
enough and strong enough safely to stand the strain. These are 
the cases that most frequentty throw discredit on athletic exercises. 

A most important principle in exercise, says Maclaren,t and one 
which should ever be borne in mind, is, that it should be regulated 
by individual fitness, for the exercise that scarcely amounts to exer- 
tion in one person will be injurious and dangerous to another. 

The infringement of this principle, that "Exercise should be regu- 
lated by individual fitness, that it should be approached gradually 
and increased only with increasing strength,'' has been the cause of 
much perplexity and suQering. Scarcely a summer passes without 
our attention being drawn to some victim of its transgression — some 

ieot oIFbf a. Ed., ISSB, p. 60. 

Dictized by Google 


-ODe who haa escaped suddeoly from his desk or study, aod without 
preparation, or gradation, or precaution of any kind or <legree, has 
betaken himself to mountaia climbing, shooting, boating, or some 
-Other exciting pursuit, to break down in the effort, or to struggle 
through it and sink down for many a mouth and day after it, bis 
.powers overtasked, hia energies exhausted. Now for the braiD- 
tired, city-worn, basiness weary man, these are the pursuits which 
fae woald do best to follow, and thene are the scenes amoog which 
fae would do most wisely to mingle, did he do so in accordance with 
the dictates o( reason and in obedience to the laws by which health 
■and strength are maintained. 

In answer to the inquiry, what per cent, of college athletes are 
injured in taking the so-called violent exercises. Dr. D. A. Sargent* 
• says: 

During my profeaaional career I have examined over ten thousand 
men of different ages from all classes and conditions of life. Of 
this number over one thousand were athletes, professional and 
^amatenr, who had engaged for several years, and attained some 
prominence, in such severe physical exercises as rowing, ninning, 
'boxing, swimming, jumping, wrestling, football, weight-throwing, 
fencing and walking contests. Out of this number of athletes I have 
not found over one per cent, affected with the slightest cardiac dis- 
turbance, and in only two of these cases did I feel positive that the 
trouble was due to athletics alone. 

It seema to me reasonable to admit that athletes are endowed by 
nature with a stronger heart and lungs and a better organism 
throughout than are possessed by most mortals. The exercises in 
which they excel are the ones that we prescribe for those persons 
whose heart and muscles we wish to strengthen and invigorate. 
Does not the work done or the feat accomplished presuppose an 
organism eqaal to it? This is my conviction, and I have yet to learn 
of a single case where a sound heart in a sound organism has been 
injured from the practice oi athletic exercises under proper conditions 
and capable supervi».ion- 

I am informed that over 50 per cent- of the men who apply for 
admission to the army and navy, and to the police force ot two of 
our large cities, are rejected on the ground of physical incompetency. 
And yet men of much less physical stamiaA than Ihey are qualiQed 
to enter athletic contests. The great mass of these aspirants for 
Athletic honors are weeded out in the preliminary struggles with 
their companions or play-fellows. Those that are successful in 
these local encounters are spurred on by admiring comrades or club- 
■mates to greater efforts. They become fired with an ambition to 
'break a record, win a prize, or gain distinction at any hazard, and 
.they begin to train. 

I shall not at this time undertake to describe the course of train- 
ing as it is pursued by the larger portion of these young aspirants ; 
let it suffice to say that it begins and ends with a continuous series 

•EdUMtloDBl KeTisw, II, 1ST. K». 

Dictized by Google 


of trials and teste id which one part of the orftanistn is forced into 
competition with aootber, until fiDally the weaker part gives way^ 
and the efficiency of the iodividual for any more great eflorts has 
been permaDenlly impaired. These are the men who bring athletics 
into bad repute. It they had been subjected to a pbysical examina- 
tion they would have tieen advised not to compete in violent exer- 
cises, and the pnlmonarj, cardiac, or constituiioiial weakness ihen 
discovered would have been traced to its true cause, and not attvib- 
nted latei to excesses in athletics. Back of most of the cardiac 
disturbances which are ascribed to over-exertion in sport will be 
found an early history of rheumatism, scarlet fever, degenerative 
trouble of the kidneys, or the lingerinj; effects of some other disease. 
Dissipation in early life, excessive use of alcobol and tobacco, 
vitiated air, poor food, sedentary employment, want of regular exer- 
cise, tight clothing, cramped positions, over-study, loss of sleep and 
too rapid growth — all these tend to weaken and derange the heart's 
action and impair its ability foi great efforts. Among college studeDts- 
the great majority fail to come up to the athletic standard because they 
have never had any systematic exercise or physical training. Most 
of Ibem have devoted the period in which the greatest growth and 
development usually take place to study in preparation for college. 
Consequently they enter trained in mind, but not in body, for the 
ordeals of college life. The pitifnl wail of the captain of tbe crew 
or the captain of tbe "eleven" for "better men," is not all a myth, 
but represents a serious want of stamina and brawn in our national 

Admitting that the general practice of athletics by alt classes 
under tbe present highly competitive system is likely to result in 
injary to some, let ue consider briefly a few of tbe precautions that 
are neceasary to observe in order to reduce the ri»k to a minimum. 
Tbe young man who aspires to be an athlete, sbonld have himself 
examined and tested by a good physician before beginning to prac- 
tice athletics, and get bis written opinion as to the advisability of 
entering athletic contests. I say writUn opinion, because I have 
learned from experience that some physicians are very free with 
their spoken opinions where they are not expected to assnme any 
responsibility. The best adviser is likely to he the young man's 
family pbj-sician, for he will be familiar with his history, and consti- 
tutional peculiarities. Second, it is best not to engage in violent 
exercise until one is at least eighteen years of age, and in most cases 
it would be better for him to postpone his athletic attempts until be 
is twenty. Tbe heart and lungs do not get tbeir full development 
until after this age, and if forced in tbeir work before this time, they 
will be bkely to be impaired in tbeir later efficiency and to retard 
the final development o( the whole body. TUe tables prepared by 
Drs. Beneke and Boyd on this subject should be in the hands of 
every practicing physician and schoolmaster, for it is in tbe prepara- 
tory schools, that are now fostering highly competitive exercises 
among growing boys, and not physical training in its best sense that 
tbe evils following ovei-exertion are most likely to occur. 



There are thrp« axioms, sajra President DeWitt, of Botriioiu,* to 
vbicb phjeical education must conform : First, the best exercise is 
that which reaches the largest number and does most for the weak- 
est men ; second, tbe best exercise is that which makes the hardest 
work attractive ; third, the best exercise i^ that wbicb most success- 
fully co-ordinates body, mind, and Kill. Developing giants, lower- 
ing records, winning races and knocking out opponents are doubt- 
less interesting things to do; bat ther are no part of that physical 
education which the college aims to give to its students. 

Students «ho participate in those contests in which the mazimun) 
of muscular development and physical endurance is essential to suc- 
cess are martyrs to the cause oF physical ed'ication. They acquire 
greater physical development than a student needs to carry on his 
college studies to the best advantage, and they form habits which 
oblige tbem to keep up, after graduation, more exercise than is 
consistent with engrossing professional piirgaits. The influence and 
example of sach severe training as a iiniversity crew undergoes are 
valuable in keeping up the athletic lone of an institution and in set- 
ting the pace for the average student to follow. But the greater 
physical benefit comes, cot to the eight who row the great race, but 
to the thirty or forty who train with them, and who only row in clasB 
races or do not race at all. 

Postures. — The teacher should aim to make his pupils overcome 
their bad habits in sitting and standing. Sitting and standing all 
day in faulty postures will do much to counteract tbe good that may 
be derived from exercises for physical culture. The teacher's 
admonition is needed often by some pupils to help them overcome 
these bad habits. 

A frequent lanlty sitting posture is that in which the hips slide 
forward on tbe seat so that the sacal and lumbar portions of the 
spinal column are not supported while the shoulders rest against the 
back of tbe seat. The spinal column is therefore abnormally curved, 
and the chest and abdominal organs crowd each other. This is 
sometimes owing to sheer laziness on the part of the pupil, but is 
more frequently due to a faulty shape of the seat. In some seats it 
is almost impossible to rest against tbe back without this slipping 

Breatbing- — The gradual increase of the respiratory capacity 
should be one of the first concerns of physical cnltare. Long power 
and heart power form I be basis of physical endurance whether in 
athletics or the exigencies of life. In ordinary breathing only a 
portion of the lung is called into action ; a part of its capacity lies 
dormant and undeveloped in the average man or woman. When, 
* FDnim, June, 1891. 

D,i.,.db, Google 


therefore, the middle-aged individiial j'ields to the temptation to 
take a inn for which his lungs and heart hare not been trained, the 
tide of blood thrown npon the lungs is more than they can take care 
of, and then there is danger of a sndden calamity. Dr. Hammond 
has collected seventy cases of death during recent years of men 
running after a street car and dropping dead in the street. 

For developing lung power, complicated apparatus and exercises 
have been devised ; but the essential thing in developing lung power 
is lung work. The simple expedient of standing erect and alter- 
nately expanding the lungs lo their full capacity and emptying them 
as mnch as possible by deep breathing through the nostrils, is an 
efficient school exercise for developing the lungs. For keeping the 
heart, as well as the lungs, in a condition safely to meet the various 
emergencies of life, running, and skipping the rope are among the 
best of exercises. Both, however, are capable of much harm when 
imprudently used. 

The exercise of the muscles of the arms and chest may result 
simply in piling up muscle on the exterior of the chest with bnt little 
real work for the respiratory muscles, and but little increase of lung 

Runniilg. — Under Ihe eye of the teacher, or other intelligent 
supervision, running is one of the best of physical exercises. Hardly 
any other exercise is so well suited to increase heart and lung 
power, and to fit a boy for tests of endurance. The Prussian Min- 
ister of Instruction has deemed it of sufficient importance to issue a 
special circular on this subject. 

Running enlarges and strengthens not only the muscles of the 
legs, but those of the trunk and chest and the muscles of respiration. 
As paradoxical as it may seem, exercises of the legs are worth more 
for developing the Inngs than exercises of the upper extremities. 

The run should at first be made slowly and steadily, the distance 
being lengthened only as lung power and heart power are increased. 

Exercise may either improve a weak heart and weak lungs, or be 
a decided injury to them, according to whether the exercise is taken 
in moderation and regularly, or immoderately and only occasionally. 

Mr. Blaikie* reminds us, in his picturesque way, how far we are 
behind England in cultivating the "staying powers" of our boys: 

Run most American boys of twelve or fourteen six or eight miles, 
or, rather, start them at it — let them all belong to the ball nine if 

* How to get StroDg, p. 2S. 

Dictized by Google 


jou wilt, too — and how many woDld cover half the distance, even at 
any pace worth calliag a ran ? The Eaglish are, and long have 
been, ahead of as in this direction. To most readers the above dis- 
tance seems far too long to let any boy of that age run. But, had 
he beeo always naed to running — not, fast, bat steady running— it 
would not seem so. Tom Brown of Rugby, in the hares-and-hoands 
game, of which he gives ua so graphic an account, makes both the 
bares and bounds cover a distance of nine miles without being much 
the worse for it, asd yet they were simply school boys, of all ages 
from twelve to eighteen. 

Let him who thinks that the average American boy of the same 
age would have fared as well, go down to the public. bath-house, and 
look carefully at a huodred or two of them as they tumble about in 
the water. He will see more big heads and slim necks, more poor 
legs and skinny armx, and lanky, half-built bodies than he would 
have ever imagined the whole neighborhood could produce. 

Running is unsuitable for pupils with disease of the heart or lungs. 
After it is ended the participants should not stand about, and still 
worse throw themselves upon the ground. They should keep in 
gentle motion until well cooled and clothing has dried ; still much 
better is a change of underwear. 

Manual Traiaing, — Dorothy Tennant Stanley has lately drawn 
for us with her facile pen and pencil the characteristics of a some- 
what picturesque class ot juvenile humanity, not by any means con- 
fined to London. Failure In large measure has been the result when 
the ordinary methods of instruction have been applied to these boys ; 
in fact we fear that the general verdict would be that these "Street 
Arabs" are incorrigible. But not so thought certain business men 
of New York. They believed that it is possible to reach these boys 
and favorably to mould their characters, intellectually and morally, 
by means of a well devised system of combined manual and mental 
training. Accordingly a so-called Wotkingman's School for them 
was opened in the city. Something of the methods pursued, and of 
the results achieved were given by Franklin Haven North in 1S85 : 

But the theory of the foandera of the institution is that children 
are not naturally vicious, but are rendered so by surroundings or 
influence ; and hence, if they failed in successfully dealing with them, 
they would be compelled to fall back upon the assertion that bright 
and well-behaved children may be made into expert artisans — a 
proposition which no one has ever denied. 

Fortunately for them and fortunately for those whom thev especially 
set out to aid, not one child out of that multitude which has applied 
for admission has been found to be beyond the reach of intelligent 
treatment ; not one has been found where evil propensities were 
more than skin-deep. 

Dictized by Google 


SLrange to say, the lad who upon entry proved the most stupid, 
most etubboro, and ill-mannered, rose by rapid stages, until, flaally, 
he reached tUe head of his class. This lad, upon bis flrst appear- 
ance, was found to be not only dirty and ragged, but bo obstinate 
that he would only answer questions when it pleased him to do bo. 
His eyes were half closed, he rarely looked up, and altogether be 
seemed, i( the description of those who saw him may be relied upon, 
more fitted for the career of a cow-boy or that of a bandit than for 
such peaceiul occupations as those of the mechanic and decorator. 
The mana)ier uf the school called up the offlcial physician and asked 
bim wba< ailed the lad. The physician made a oarefal examination, 
and then report«-d that, besides being natarally vicious, the lad was 
weak-minded. But this was by no means satisfactory to the man- 
agiT. He examined the lad himself, and made an altogether differ- 
ent diagnosis of the case. In his opinion the lad's behavior and 
appearance were due to a long course of iil-treatment and neglect. 
He had him thoroughly washed, fed. and clothed, and prescribed 
good treatment. 

At first he was dull, very dull ; his mind seemed never to have 
been called into action, but little by little be began to wake np ; day 
by day bis eyes opened wider and wider ; the cloud that seem<)d to 
have settled over his face was gradually dispelled ; and finally one 
day, when something more interesting than nsnal was afoot, he so 
far forgot himself as to smile. Henceforward he gave i O further 
tronrle. His teachers say he made rapid progress, and they finally 
discovered that, instead of being mentally weak, as the physician 
had said, he possessed a mind unusually acute.* 

Last June, a year ago, says the Superintendent of Schools of 
Toledo: a pale-faced boy was promoted to the High School. He 
was a you'h of slight physical frame, of the sort that physicians 
sometimes recommend to be taken from school for the benefit of 
their health. At the beginning of the year he entered the class in 
manual training, and with some curiosity I watched the physical 
effects upon the lad. After some months I began to detect rounded 
lines in arms and legs where before there was a painful straightnesa. 
Walking home with him one day I enquired about the training 
school and Us efiects upon his health. "Well," he said, "I do not 
know that my health is better than it ever was ; it has always been 
good, but then I am a good deal stronger than ever before." The 
Manual Training School not only educates the hand, but it pnts legs 
and arms on the boys instead of the miserable caricatures we some- 
times find instead. It puts down under the life a good physical 

The value of manual training as a means of physical culture 
depends upon the character of the work at which the pupils are set. 
When the kind of work is judiciously selected, the alternatioD from 
pure intellectual work to the hand work and its attendant mental 

Dictized by Google 


traiaiog is a grateful relief aad a benefit to body and mind ; but 
when the manual work is floe wood-carving or other work that tries 
the eyes, or when it keeps the pupils in stooped postures long at a 
time it is not to be recommended from a sanitary point of view. 

Physical Culture for Girls.— He wholookaupon active physi- 
cal exercise and outdoor games aa nosuitable and unbecoming to girls 
must be ignorant of the worth of sound health for the future woman, 
whether in her sacred home duties, or in ber more public life. 

There ia furthermore in the practice oi gymnaslics au seUhetic 
side. Not otly is beauty o form enhanced by physical culture, but 
the fulness of grace and beauty of motion conies ouly after couiinued 
schooling of the muscles, the servants of motion. True grace and 
precision of motion is not an' inborn accomplishment: it must be 
acquired, aur< no other influence is so potent to give it as a well 
planned and systematic course of physical training and outdoor 
games in girlhood. 

One year of good exercise will do more for a woman's beauty thin 
all the lotions and pomadts that were ever invented. Interesting 
as are the changes produced in a man by proper physical training 
the change in a womau is more striking aud BigaiSc^ut. Exercise 
seems to have a particularly immediate e9ect on a woman's com- 
pifsion. I have witnessed simply marvellous cban^ei in the com- 
plexion, form and disposition of women under light training. I have 
in mind one well-buill girl who carried herself poorly, breathed liadly 
and had an unsatlsfaciory complexion. She joined a gymnasium, 
taking the lighter exercises, and began walking a good deal. In a 
few months a remarkable change bad been produced. The nnani- 
mated pose had disappeared, the breathing was better (though still 
not what it should be, no special training having been directed to 
the lungs), and the complexion was so clear that one eonld scarcely 
credit the change. Under my own training I have watched most 
interesting changes as a result of breathing exercises alone, and the 
extent to which locally directed exercises have improved forms that 
were considered hojjeless would not bi believed save by observation.* 
But do not stop with your encouragement of sports for boys. Do 
yet more for the girls. Tbere is a reason why the girls of sixteen 
in America are taller and more robust than their mothers. We can 
trace it directly to more iatelligent ideas of dress and open air exer- 
cise, to horseback riding and to lawn tennis. Increase these oppor- 
tunities and let the girls play hockey and cricket — as indeed, they 
are already doing in the English schools — let them fencd and shoot 
and swim, but ab.ive alt give them gymnasiums in every city and 
town in the Und.f ■ 

•Cheekier— A Kkinml Hetbod or Pb;iiul Tnlutng, p. 142. 

tJoliD S. White, LI.. D., New YorL, [n Prac. Am. Aatoo. lor the AdTancemeDt of Fhy. Sd., 
1888, p. 51. 

Dictized by Google 


Gaining Time for Physical Culture.— How shall ve- 
gain time in our schools for physical culture? An examination of 
wliat has been written under "The Hygiene of Instraction" will 
Biiggeat more than one way in which time may be eared for thi» 
purpose. If the question is physical culture or no time for physical 
culture, we eh&l) do well to put the pruning knife to mathematics, 
geography, history, mJBuse of dictation t-xerciees, grammar, lan- 
guages, and simplify the teacher's marking drudgery. But the 
first thing required is an intelligent appreciation of the great worth 
of phvBical culture. Where there is a will there is a way. 

As to the fear that might be expressed by some teachers that so 
much time taken from the daily session would retard the pupil's 
iotellectual advancement, Von Hippel says that, according to his 
experience, this is not the case in the Giessen Gymnasium. (See 
page 114 ) The graduates of this school enter the nniversity as 
well fitted for their position as Ihe graduates of any other institU' 
tions, and many of them take a high place in future years. 


Site. — It is desirable to hare the school-house placed as near as 
possible to the centre of population of the school district, yet this 
idea should not lead to the choice of a lot otherwise unsuitable. 
A moderate increase in the length of the walk to and from the 
school is a much less serious evil than a place unsafe by reason of 
unhcalthful surroundings or liability to accidents. 

The ground chosen for the school-hoase should be naturally dry, 
or it must be made so. Clayey soil, or one beneath which, and at- 
no great depth, there is an impermeable stratum of clay is undesir- 

If the ground-water stands at any time of the year near the 
surface, it should be lowered, and consequently the soil made drier, 
by laying unglazed drain tiles deep enough below the surface to- 
lower the pround-water well below the bottom of the cellar, or at- 
least four or five feet below the surface if there is no basement. 
If drainage is needed and no suitable outlet can be got for the sub- 
soil drains, some other site should be sought. 

The soil should be free from decaying organic matter, especially" 
excrementitious matter of animal origin. 

Dictized by Google 


The enrfaice of the school lot should not be a hollow, or a Bag, 
but its surface should be gently rounded naturall;, or made so arti- 
ficially, particularly at the spot occupied by the school building. 

To escape bleak winds and hill-climbing, the school-house should 
not be placed on a high hill. If everything desirable in a lot is 
attainable, it should be in a sheltered and sunny locality. 

A consideration which should always have much weight in the 
choice of a lot is, which way are the echooUroom windows to look, 
and on which side are the playgrounds to be F The rule shonld be : 
School-rooms so placed that the direct sunlight shall shine into 
them as little as possible during school hours, and playyards so 
located that they may be on the snnny aide and be sheltered from 
cold north and west winds by the school-building or otherwise. 
{See Lighting.) 

There should be no trees near enough to the school-house to 
intercept the light in the least, nor to throw their shade upon any 
part of the building. The same precaution should be obserred 
against the obstruction of the school-room light by neighboring 
buildings, and, furthermore, the school-house should not be built 
where there will be a possibility of the erection in the future of 
buildings that will interfere with the school-room lighting, or other- 
wise be a nuisance. 

The advantages of a quiet neighborhood for the school lot are 
not generally valued as they should be. The disadvantages of a 
location in the manufacturing or business centre of a city or village 
are, from the moral side, the subjection of the pupils to undesirable 
influences, and from the physical side, pollution of the air by dust 
and otherwise. 

There is, however, in the interest of instruction, a side of this 
question that should have much weight. In a school-house located 
in a noisy place, the attention of the school is too often distracted, 
but still worse than the results of unusual sounds is the continuous 
rattle of wheels, or the whir and din of machinery near at hand. 
Under such conditions the work of the school-room is carried on at 
a disadvantage. The words of teacher and of pupils are heard 
with difficulty. All are, in the drowning noise, sunk to a level in 
hearing'power with the slightly or moderately deaf, and at what a 
great disadvantage the only slightly hard of hearing pupil often is, 
under the^most favorable conditions for hearing, is" well known. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


The nervous and mental fitrain of Bchool work is severe enough for 
pupila and teacher without unneceesarilj iocreasiiig the teneion by 
an unwise selection of a school lot. 

Area of Q-rounds.— In the eonntry the school lot should 
never be less than half an acre. One acre is still better. "With 
an acre of land," saya Prof. Whitford, "the preferable form for 
the site is rectangular, having sixteen rods front and ten rods 
deep ; and with a half acre, eight rode in front and ten rods deep." 

Arrangement of Q-rounds. — The lot should be large enough 
to give ample room for playgronnds, for outbuildings, for division 
of the rear of the lot into two yards, one for the boys and one for 
the girls. Theu both sexes may have recess at the same time, con- 
sequently a longer play time can be secured for all. 

It would be very desirable, also, to provide ground for a school 
garden, if we could get our teachers to take an interest in such a 
matter and give it an intelligent oversight. 

"No school grounds," says Gardner,* "are complete without a 
sheltering porch or pavilion, under which the scholars can ait when 
the sun or rain prevents their being actually out from under cover 
and on the ground. Porches attached to the main building serve 
something the same purpose, but cannot always be had witboat 
obstructing the light of the school-rooms or causing other incon- 

The playground should never be paved nor covered with coarse 
gravel. A part of the playground should be covered with sand. 

The school-house should be set well back, away from noise and 

* Tonn snd Conolr}- Scboal Bulldloga, p. 126. 

Dictized by Google 



Orientation.— The placing of the building in relation to the 
points of the compass is a matter of importance to be considered 
before a school-house is planned and even before the lot for it is 
chosen. The two main points to be thought of are, from which 
direction are the school-rooms to receive their tight, and where shall 
the playyard be located? (See '-Lighting" and "Playgrounds.") 
We do not want the direct sunshine coming into the school-rooms 
during school hours, but we do want it in the playyard. The 
rooms may therefore be placed so as to receive their light from the 
northwest to the southeast, but preferably from north to east, and 
the sides of the building on which the plHygrouud lays should be 
from northeast to southwest, preferably east to south. 

When the building is to have several i-ooms. it is a bad plan to 
have them on every side of the building, for then some of them must 
neceEsarily receive an unfavorable light. It is much better to put 
the school-rooms on the one or two sides that will furnish the most 
favorable light, and on the other sides place the entrance, corridors. 
wardrobes, stair-cases, halls, library, and teachers' rooms. 

There should be no hesitation in placing the building out of line 
with the street, if otherwise the sunshine cannot be ke^ft out of the 
rooms where it is not wanted, and cannot be secured where it is 

Foundations. — The foundation walls must be so constructed 
as to prevent dampness rising through them. To prevent this, a 
damp-proof course of asphalt, perforated glazed tiles, or other 
effective material should be laid. 

Buildings set on posts are unsuitable as winter school-houses in 
this climate. Banking up for cold weather imperfectly protects the 
floor from cold and makes the lungs of the pupils the recipients of 
whatever nosious emanations the artificial beating may draw from 
the ground. A good dry cellar is very desirable under even the 
most unpretentious school- bouse. 

Basement. — The bottom of the basement should be at least 
three or four feet above the average level of the ground-HiiUr. 
Tbe construction of this part of the building should be of the best, 
for it is interposed between the school-rooms and influences that 
are harmful to health. It should be of good height and well lighted. 

Dictized by Google 


All danger of emaaationa from the soil, and of dampness should 
be gaarded against. To this end, the floors should be laid with 
from four to six inches^of good coaorete. thoroughly rammed and 
grouted with hot coal tar and asphalt. There are so many facili- 
ties for cheating in work of this kind that the basement pavement 
shonld never be laid by contract. The best of material should be 
provided and it should be laid by day labor. 

Height of School-HouseB.--Of late years many writers 
have called attention to the ill results upon the health of pupils, 
especially of girls, of being compelled to climb the stairs in too lofty 
city school buildings. There are undoubtedly good grounds for 
complaints of this kind, and for more reasons than one, it is not 
desirable to have the pnpils climb more than one flight of stairs to 
any echool-room. 

The climbing several times daily of a single flight of properly 
constructed stairs, can have no iujurious inflnence upon the health 
of sound scholars ; but our system of public education is applied to 
the mind almost excluaively and does not particularly concern itself 
with the preservation and improvement of physical capability. It 
could hardly be expected to be otherwise than that a pretty large 
percentage of the Bcholars in the public schools should suffer loc^ly 
or generally from this lack of systematic physical culture. We are, 
in fact, obliged to build, not for pupils who are all robust, but for 
pnpils, many of whom would suffer an injurions strain by the hasty 
climbing of long flights of stairs. 

As t« the liability of injury in climbing school-honse stairs, it 
does not all threaten from the mere fact of the climb. Mountain 
climbing is an ezhilerating pastime, and one conducive to health 
under proper regulations as to persons and methods. Physicians 
have even prescribed mountain climbing with the happiest results 
in certain kinds of diseases of the heart and cardiac weakness. 
Stair climbing, too, may be for the generality of pupils, a means 
of physical improvement, or it may cause a serious strain, accord- 
ing to how it is done If the school girl, deficient in muscular 
strength makes the ascent on the run, as is often the case, breath- 
lessness, undue acceleration of the heart's action, and other symp- 
toms of local physical strain, are the results. The injunction to go 
up stairs at a moderate pace would be a wise premonition if there 
were any likelihood that it wonld be heeded In view of the oft- 
enunciated fact that youth is indiscreet, long ascents to school- 

Dictized by Google 


rooms should be excluded from school-house plans, that the average 
pupil may not be injured by improper methods of climbing, and 
that the feeble ones may not be hurt by the climb, at whatever pace 
it tnay be made. 

I believe, therefore, that I am entirely in accord with the best 
authorities, in laying down the rule that school-rooms are better 
for any grade of school on the ground floor, and that no school- 
room be located higher than the second floor. 

Oonstruction. — Warren R. Brigge* regrets that money enough 
is not usually appropriated to make it possible to adopt a fireproof 
construction for school- houses. '-My own preference," says he, 
"would be to reduce the exterior effect of the building to the verge 
of barrenness, in order to obtain funds enough to render the struc- 
ture fireproof — not only in the floor, but in all other portions as 

Ellterior Finish.— A pleasing exterior is desirable, but 
exterior decoration should be entirely subservient to that which is 
essential within the building. Well lighted rooms, good ventila- 
tion, and other sanitary necessities will be assured as the first 
things by an intelligent building committee, and then the architect's 
fancy for external ornamentation may be gratified, if there is any- 
thing left for it. 

Projecting roofs, verandas, or anything else that would inter- 
cept any of the light that belongs to the school-rooms should not be 

The Entrance. — If the entrance can be placed on the sunnj' 
and sheltered side of the house, it wilt make it pleasant and more 
comfortable for the children. 

If there are more than three steps leading to the entrance there 
should be a railing on each side ; if not more than three steps, they 
may lead to the platform from all three sides. 

Sheltering porches are more than ornamental ; they protect from 
rain and hot sunshine and tempt the children to come into the outer 
air more than they otherwise would. The outer door should be of 
ample width, and with all other school-bouse doors should swing 
outward as the law provides. 

Halls and Oorridors — The halls and corridors should 
invariably be warmed. When the children pass from the well- 
warmed Fchool-rooms into a hall or corridor whose temperature is 

Dictzed by Google 


down to the freezing point or lower, and put on tbeir chilly wrapB 
for the homeward tramp it is both unpleasant and uncondncive to 

The warming of the halls and corridors may be by direct radia- 
tion, unless they are to be used as wardrobes, in which case it is 
better to plan ventilation for them. 

A proper width for the corridors of ratiier small school- buildings 
is seven or eight feet ; but the corridors of large city school-build- 
ings should not be narrower than ten or twelve feet. The corridors 
should be of ample size to permit all the pupils to move about in 
them at recess when the weather prevents them from going out, 
especially if no covered playroom is provided. A well planned 
school-building has the corridors running along one of its sides 
instead of in its center. Corridors and halls should bfe well sup- 
plied with windows for lighting and for window ventilation. 

Wardrobes. — The arrangements for the accommodation of the 
pupils' outer garments are various, some commendable and others 
not so good 

1. Arrangements may be made for hanging them up or other- 
wise storing tliem in the school-rooms. 

2. Hanging the clothing in the halh and corridors. 

3. One large i-oom as a wardrobe for the whole school, or one 
for each sex. 

4. One for each school-room. 

5. Two for each room. 

6. One for each floor. 

7. Two for each floor. 

8. Board partition wardrobes in the corridors. 

The outer garments should never be stored in the school-room. 
The hygroscopic qualities of clothing are very marked ; it therefore 
absorbs the perspiration and its decomposing constitaent?, and 
readily becomes impregnated with gases. On the other hand, 
when warmed to the temperature of the school-room air, clothing 
readily gives up again to the air the offensive material it has 

Furthermore, on account of its porosity, clothing is very likely 
to transport any particulate matter which it receives from its sur- 
roundings. Matter of this kind, dangerous in the school-room, is 
the infection of many diseases. The history of epidemics is full 
of instances in which the clothing of school children has served as 

Dictized by Google 


the medium for oonvejiDg infection from one child to another, and 
from one home to another. 

One or two large rooms as the wardrobe for a building of more 
than one floor is not a good arrangement. 

The utilization of open halls and corridors is not the best way, 
but in allowable when the school-house appropriation permits 
nothiug better. 

One wardrobe for each school-room does very well, but one for 
each sex is preferable. 

A good and economical arrangement is two wardrobes, one for 
each sex, on each floor, particularly on floors with not more than 
four or five rooms eaoh. 

When arranged in this way, lig))ting, ventilation and economy are 
favored by having the two wardrobes finished up in the same room, 
and divided by a matched hard wood partition only seven feet high. 

An excellent way to make the wardrobes is to have the corridors 
of ample width and take the wardrobes from them by means of this 
same kind of matched board partitions running only a little more 
than half way to the ceiling. Made in this way, they are light and 
airy, and the coat of construction is but slight. The whole upper 
part of the corridor is unobstructed, and the wind has full sweep 
when it is wished to flush out these rooms with fresh air. 

Mr. Warren R. Briggs advises leaving wardrobes of this kind 
open at the bottom, as well as at the top, running the corner posts 
only down to the floor. He says : 

I have used rooms of this description in all grades of buildings 
with m trked success. Ueually they have been oonstmcted of 
matched and beaded hard wood in narrow strips, but if it is desired, 
they can be made more pleasing to the eye by the use of panel 
work. Their great advantage lies in their perfect ventilation, con- 
venience, and the comparatively small amount of space that they 

The wardrobes whtrever located should be warmed and ventilated. 

Staircases. — stairways should not be planned in the center of 
the school building : they should be placed ajjuinst an outer wall or 
in wings designed expressly for them, where they can be well 
lighted. All staircases should be built with one or two landings so 
as to break the flight into two or more runs 

In all large school buildings the stairs and their enclosing walls 
should be flrepraof. Box-stairs are the best and safest in school- 
bouses. With them balusters are entirely unnecessary, and only 

Dictized by Google 


brass or iron haad rails are needed, bolted to the side walls with 
metal braokets. Mr. Briggs says be has bad good success in mak- 
ing these rails of two iuch wrought-iron pipe, on each end of which 
are screwed neat cast-iron caps. 

The width of the stairs should never be less than four and a half 
feet in any echool-bonse, and in large buildings they should be from 
six to eight feet wide. 

A proper height for the risers is from sis to seven laches, while 
for small children five or five and » half inches is better. The 
treads should not be less than eleven inches, and twelve inches is 
still a better depth. 

Winders, or circular stairs, are wholly inadmissable. 

In most plans for large school buildings it is desirable to have 
two fiigbta of stairs, one in either end of the building. This is to 
be recommended to ensure a greater degree of safety in case of 
fires, and to lessen the tramping and noise before the doors of the 
rooms on the lower floor. 


Its Shape. — The best shape for the school-room is that of an 
oblong, the width being to the length about as three to fonr. The 
teacher's desk should be at one end of the room. This shape is 
recommended by authorities, generally, because it is the one that 
admits of the moet satisfactory lighting, renders less diftloult the 
supervision of the children's work and deportment, and the acoustic 
qualities of rooms of this shape are said to be less troublesome than 
those of square rooms. 

When only a small number of pupils are to occupy the school- 
room, its shape may more nearly approach the square with the 
principal lighting still from one of the longer sides. 

Length. — The length of a well-planned school-room is limited 
by the distance at which writing on the teacher's blackboard can be 
distinctly seen at the rear row of desks, by the distance at which 
the teacher's words are easily understood, and by considerations 
of facilitating the government of the school. 

Large, clear writing on the blackboard can be read easUy by tbe 
normal eye at a distance of about thirty feet. Some late authorities 
say about tweniy-seven feet. The teacher's writing is, however, 

id by Google 


very often iadiBtioct, and the eyes of maoy pupilB are abnonnal. 
Thirty feet is as far aa the teacher can apeak to pupils without too 
much exertion, and as fai as the average child can distinctly hear 
the nords of the teacher. The nearer the pupils are to the teacher, 
the more easily is the discipline of the school maintained. 

The authorities on school hygiene agree very nearly on this ques- 
tion. Dr. Lincoln" says the achool-room may be from thirty to 
thirty-three feet long ; Eiitenberg and Bach,t that it shall not be 
more than thirty-one feet; JankeJ from twenty-nine to thirty-two 
and one-half feet; the German imperial regulations of 1880 and 
those of the Frussian government correspond essentially with 
Janke's rule ; the school-rooms in the Boston High and Latin school 
building are thirty-two feet long and twenty-four feet wide, typify- 
ing the ideas of Dr. Philbriok's wide experience. 

Width. — School-rooms of more than a moderate width cannot 
be lighted properly in all their parts, and they make difficult the super- 
vision of the pupils' work and conduct. Aa the teacher cannot 
keep the whole school under his eye at once, be is obliged to turn 
his head from aide to aide rather continuously. 

The laws of optics applied to the lighting of school-rooms teach 
that the amount of light received at any desk diminishes rapidly as 
its distanoe from the windows increaaea. The principal light should 
come from windows at the left of the scholars. The distance into 
a school-room at which we may depend on windows to burnish a 
satisfactory lighting ia not great. This distance has usually been 
stated in this country to be one and one-half times the height of the 
window top above the floor. This is in conformity with the French 
regulation of 1880. It indicatea that windowa whoae tops are 
twelve feet above the floor will give a fairly good light eighteen 
feet from them. 

Assuming one-aided lighting, and that the windows are properly 
distributed and are of sufficient size, other authorities limit the 
width of the school-room to two and one-half times the height of 
the window tops above the topa of the desks. Eulenbei^ and Bach 
would not have the width of the room more than twice this height, 
and the opinion of Prof. Forater§ of Amaterdam coincidea with 

' •Bihaol and Indnitriml Sjgitm p. 1g, FhiUd. ISBO. 
tBiiba1g««oiidbeItapfl«g« p. IN. Berlin, IBM. 
IGniDdilu del Sfihalhrgleiif ■ p. 34.. Himbnrg, ISM. 
iDi!iittMaVlert.f.SEtea(. 6«UDdh. XVI, 44. ISM. 

Dictized by Google 


The width of the school-room, then, is limited by the height to 
which it is practicable and expedient to extend the eohool-rosm 
windows. Dr Lincoln eaye ihat the width should never exceed 
twenty-four feet. The later German aathorities range from nine- 
teen to twenty-four fei;t, the maximam being usually put at twenty- 
three feet. Tliese widths include the width of the aisle beyond the 
last row of desks. 

Height of School-Itoom — That a school-room may be well 
lighted, and may be ventilated without troublesome draughts, it 
must have a height of at least twelve feet, and practical considera- 
tions relating to the cost of construction, to the acoustic qualities 
of the room, and, on the lower floors of more than one-story build- 
ings, to the expenditure of energy in stair climbing, makes it unde- 
sirable that the ceiling shall be more than thirteen feet in rooms of 
ordinary size. But the absolute need of good lighting necessitates 
an increase in this height within certain narrow limits as the width 
of the room is extended. 

It has been assumed that echoes are likely to be troublesome in 
rooms more than twelve or thirteen feet high, but Eulenberg and 
Bach express doubts as to the danger of acoustic difficulties in 
rooms of good height ; in certain schools of Berlin the ceiling is 
6.6 m. high (14 ft. — 9 in.) and they have heard of no complaints 
from the teachers that their voices are not distinctly heard. They 
therefore consider a height of from 4.3 m , 4.6 m. (14 ft. — 1 in. to 
14 ft. — 9 in.) unobjectionable. 

In planning school- houses, architects should hold to the funda- 
mental rule not to make them too long nor too wide. They will 
often And building committees strongly inclined to impose impos- 
sible tasks upon them, to wit : the planning of a faultless lighting 
for rooms too wide to admit of it. Though the architect has aa 
eye for business, he is at liberty to urge his views as to what is 
practicable and advisable in the class of buildings under considera- 
tion, and an intelligent understanding of the peculiar requirements 
of school buildings should lead him to try how far" the erroneous 
notions of hia clients may be overcome. 

Floor Space. — The whole floor surface, divided by the num- 
ber of pupils to be accommodated, should give at least 20 square 
feet to each pupil. 

Cubic Air Space. — With 20 square feet of floor space, and 
ceilings twelve feet high at the least, each pupil will have not less than 

Dictized by Google 


240 cubic feet of air apace. To make good ventilation practicable, 
the cubic air space should never be smaller than this. 

Teacher's Platform. — Located at one end of the school-room, 
this Bhoold be five feet wide and eight or ten feet long. It should 
be raised but a single step above the general floor level. 

Aisles. — That the distance between the windows and the last 
row of desks may be reduced as much as possible, the aisle between 
the window side of the school-room and the first row of desks should 
not be more than two feet, or two feet and a half. 

If single desks are used, eighteen inches will do very well for the 
aisles between the desks, or if double desks, two feet will be the 
proper width. 

The aisle between the last row of desks and the wall at the right 
of the pupils shoald be of good width. This is the main black- 
board wall, and the entrance is usually on this side. This aisle 
should be four feet or four and a half feet wide. 

Counting from the teacher to the rear of the room, his platform 
will take five feet at least, the distance from the platform to the 
first desks should be four feet and a half, each desk and seat will 
need two and a half feet, and the rear aisle should be fonr feet 
wide, especially if the local heating apparatus is at the rear. 

On Planning a School-Boom. — The proper way to plan a 
school-room is first to determine the number of scholars to be 
accommodated, then to make a schematic arrangement of their 
desks, to lay off the central, rear, and side aisles, and to calculate 
space in front of the teacher's platform for the movements of 
classes. Having, meanwhile, borne in mind tbat the width of the 
school-room should be to the length about as three to four, we have 
merely to draw a line at each margin of the assigned space to 
represent the walls and we have our plan to be tested critically by 
the rules for lighting school-rooms, by that for floor space, and to 
be furnished with the necessary details. 

Dictized by Google 


As an illQBtratioD we wish to plan for thirty-five pnpile to be 
seated at siagle desks. (See Fig. 3) . 



Pia. 3. 


Aisle on window side .. 2* 6" 

Five rows of single desks 10 

Four central aisles 6 

AiBle on blackboard aside 4 6 

23' 0" 

Teacher's platform 5' 0" 

Front aisle 4 G 

Seven rows of single desks 17 6 

Itear aisle 4 

81' 0" 

Dictized by Google 



In Bnch a room, 23 feet vide sdcI 31 feet loDg, the farther side of 
the last row of desks is ISJ feet from the windows, each of the 
thirty-five pupils has a little more than 20 square feet of floor sar- 
face, aod slightly more than 240 cubic feet of air apace. The room 
is also in good proportion as regards the relation of width to length. 


Fig. 4. 

Fig.- 4. shows the arrangement of desks for forty papils in a room 
23X33. The farthest edge of the last row of desks is eighteen and 
ODe-half feet from the windowB at the left. With'the same width of 
aisles as in Fig. 3 each pupil has almost hineteeD square feet of floor 
space on an average. To increase this to twenty square feet each, 
the room could be made slightly longer. 

Dictized by Google 


FlQ. 6. 

Fig. 6 preaentB ao arrangement of forty-two desks in six rows. 
Thia room does cot so ncarl; approach the ideal shape as Fig. 3. 
Tbe last row of seats is a little too far from the windows at the left 
for satisfactory one-aided lighting,— twenty -two feet to the farthest 
edge. The whole width of the room is twenty-six and one-half feet, 
and its length thirty-one feet. 

Dictized by Google 



1 - - - 

- - - 

Fio. e. 

Fig. 6 sbowB fortT-eight deska in a room 26^X33^ feet wbicb is 
well np to the extreme for both leD(;tb aod width, aod, at the 
same lime, the average of floor space per pupil is not quite up to 
twenty square feet. 

Interior Finish. — The less projecting ffhieh there is to catch 
the dust, the better. To facilitate the deansiug of the rooms, all 
woodwork should be plain and smooth. Of our native woods oak, 
ash, maple, or birch, ia eKcellent for the inside woodwork, flnished 
in the natural wood. A heavy coat of a good filler and two coats of 
varniah, each well rubbed down, should be used. Whitewood and 
white pine are too eaailj' marred. 

The walla should be smooth and it is highly desirable to have them 
finished so as to permit washing when necessary. 

Impermeability of walla ia desirable rather than otherwise. It is 
absurd to depend npon the "natural veDtilation" through the walla 

Dictized by Google 


for aoy part of tbe &ir anppl; for a room fall of chHdren. It is more 
ID line with sanitaty requirementa to provide for cleanliness of walls 
by making them washable and incapable of straining oat and storing 
up dirt and bacteria. There is, therefore, no sanitary objection to 
painted walls. 

Wainscoting. — The walls of the school-room should be wain- 
scoted in wood to the window sills on the window sides, and to the 
blackboards on tbe blackboard sides of the room. A poor snbsti- 
tute for this is to paint tbe walla in oil to the height of live or six 
feet and, if necessity compels, to leave the upper part of tbe walls in 
the lime finish, 

Warren R. Briggs makes a plea for enameled bricks for tbe walls 
of the belter class of scbool-rooms. "Of course," he admits, "side 
walls built of these bricks are more expensive, to start with, than 
tbose constructed in the ordinary manner ; but where their durability 
is taken into account, and tbe benefits derived from a sanitary point 
of view are considered, I believe it safe to say that, in tbe long run, 
it would be economy to introduce them into all our public school- 

"A compromise might be made by introducing these bricks for a 
dado or wainscot innning up under the blackboards and windows 
only, above the blackboards nsing Portland cement applied directly 
to tbe biick walls as described for ceilings. This wonld make a 
durable and pleasing wall without much, if any, additional expense.* 

Oolor of Walls and Oelling.— The tint ot the walls and 
ceiling has an inflaence on the amount of light in the room worth 
enlisting on tbe right side. Dark walls rob the room ot needed 
light, white walls are too dazzling and irritating to tbe eyes. 

Schmidt- Rim pier says that be has often seen spasm of tbe accom- 
modation arise as tbe resnit of looking at dazzling surfaces in tbe 
school- room. 

The walls should be of a very light neutral tint, a light gray, light 
bluish-gray, or light greenish -gray. 

The ceiling, on tbe contrary, should be left white that it may be 
as effective an overhead reflector of light as possible. 

In some parts of Europe there is a custom worth noting of paint- 
iug a long arrow on the ceiling, indicating north and south. 

Blackboards. — The blackboards must receive a good light. 
Tbe only proper place for the main blackboard surface is on that 

•Tbe Pluming mid ConBtraclioa ol 3cbool-Hoi]»>, BdUiUds, V, 113. New Tork, ISSe, 

Dictized by Google 


wall which is at the right of the pupils and opposite the windows 
that are at their left. It will be noticed in the plans giren in this 
paper, that this wall has been reserved as much as possible for this 
special purpose. The wall at the teacher's end of the room may 
also be used for blackboard surface, wholly or in part as the plan 
admits. Placed as is here advised, there will be the least danger of 
dazzling reflections from, the blacklwards and of indistinctness of 
the writing on them. 

The interdiction of blackboards between or near windows is as 
absolute as that of windows tiefore the eyes of the pupils. 

Area. — I agree entirely with a teacher who says that, "there is 
too much use made of the blackboard in teaching." The modern 
school room runs to blackboards too much. The available space on 
the two walls is ample, if the room ia properly planned. 

Height. — The height of the blackboard and its width should be 
proportional to the sizes of the pupils in the room. The most 
frequent error is to place them too high lor small pupils. 

If primary pupils are to be sent to the board, its lower edge 
should be as low as 24 or even 20 inehes. For older pupils the 
lower edge should be from 24 to 80 inches high. Iq mixed and 
advanced schools the blackboard should extend to a height ol about 
seven feet, that its upper part may l>e used for drawings or other 
work that is to l>e left undisturbed. 

Beneath the blackboard, the upper part of the wainscoting should 
support a trough-shapedjmoulding to catch the crayon dust and to 
hold the crayons. 

Material. — The very (best material for blackboards is natural 
slate. At the present prices its cost should be no bar lo its use in 
ail of the better class of school- houses. Next in desirability to the 
natural slate are some of the artiBcial slating, or liquid blackboard 
preparations. Many of these preparations, however, are injured by 
the application of wet erasers, — a serious fault it chalk dust is to be 
avoided in the school-room atmosphere. Blackboard surfaces should 
be of a dull black, not shiuy. 

Ohalk Dust.— Another source of dntt that may, under a care- 
leas teacher, l>e an injurious nuisance is the chalk whisked into the 
air by a row Df|pupils at tbe]^black board, one hand holding the 
crayon and the other the brush laden with dust. Here it is not a 
question of infection, but the records in works on industrial hygiene 

Dictized by Google 


are replete with evidence of the harmfiilnesa of breatbiDg mioeni^ 
duat. Thia evil needs ooly a little care for ita tnitigatioo. In the 
first place it is the question of the expeaditure of a little more money 
for daatless crayons instead of the common kind. With commoD 
chalk, a damp eraser should be nsed, and not a brush loaded with 
dry chalk dust. 

Floors- — The construction of the floor is of impDrtance with 
reference to the healthfulnesa of the room. Rough or loose fioors, 
or floors full of cracks, are difficult lo keep clean and favor dustiness 
of the school-room air. 

The cracks in floors and spaces beneath the floor boards, all filled 
with dirt, have been assumed to be favorable places for the lodg- 
ment and development of disease germs. Some observations, nota- 
bly those of Emmerich of Munich apparbUtly confirm this opinion. 

Cold floors are a prevalent nuisance in cheaply constructed school- 
houses. They cause the children much suffering during the winter 
term!, and sitting with cold feet is a prolific cause of catarrhal 

In country school-houses with no basements, extra care should be 
taken to ensure warmth of floors. The floors should be double with 
an intfirveniog air space. 

Floors should be made as non-absorbent as possible. They should 
be of hard wood, in boards not more than four or five inches wide, 
well laid. They should be oiled at least twiue a year. 

A method of constructing floors for school and other public build- 
ings, that has come into use in France and Germany is to imbed 
parquet sections or narrow boards ol well-aeaaoned oak or other 
hard wood in a layer of asphalt. Floors of this kind have proved 
highly satisfactory, for they remain firm and free from cracks, are 
warm and easily kept clean, and in every way are said to answer 
sanitary requirements. It is further claimed that they are not 

Floors of this kind are speciSed in the regulations issued by the 
French Minister of Instruction relative to the construction of schooU 

OleanlineBS of School-BoomB. — Cleanliness and neatness 
should be the standing order of the day in every sohool-room. 
There should be no paper, bread crumbs, or nut shells on the fioor- 
There should be mats and scrapers at the entrance, and the pupila 

Dictized by Google 


Bhoald be trained to use Ibem in carefully remoTiog diit from their 
shoes before entenng. 

The reason for this care, which oonoerDa aa now, ta that dust and 
dirt in the echool-room is a serious aanitarj evil. Of what does this 
scbool-room dust consist? Of the whole flood of dried and pulver- 
ized wastes fr6^m human and animal Bources, of wastes from the 
pupils' homes, and from the street brought by the wind, but brought 
much more plentifully on the ehoe^ of the pupils. 

Dust of itself is an irritant to the eyes and the air passages. 
Dust is known to be a bearer of disease germs. Consumption is 
certainly transmitted thus, and it is very probable that many other 
infectious diseases are spread in the same way. An infectious 
inflammation of the eye, granular conjunctivitis, is sometimes very 
prevalent iu schools, aud it is believed that the germs of this dis- 
ease are spread by means of the dnst in school-rooms as well as in 
other ways. 

To mitigate this dust evil as far as possible, school-rooms should 
have l>etter care than many school-rooms get. They should be 
swept daily at the close of the afternoon session after all the pupils 
have left them. The windows should be wide open. Dost that settles 
on desks and other farniture should afterward be removed with a 

Before sweeping it is preferable to strew the floor with damp 

Hardwood floors properly prepared by oiling may be kept clean 
by wiping with a damp cloth. 

The damp way of cleansing floors is far better than the diy way, for, 
in the latter, much of the dust is simply displaced and settles in the 
schoolroom again. 

Floors and walls must be washed carefully at much more frequent 
intervals than they are In most school-rooms, if decency is a princi- 
ple Id the school management. 

Spitting upon the floor is a filthy habit, and circumstances may 
make it a dangerous one. Tbe pupils should be taught not to doit. 

School-Boom Doors. — There Is some advantage in having 
the school-room door placed near the teacher's desk ; the turning of 
tbe pupils' beads to see who comes is thereby avoided, and the 
teacher has entering or departing pupils more closely under his control. 

All school-room doors should have transom windows of good 
height over them bnng at the base and adjustable from the floor. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


They are of great advantaf^e io wiDdow ventilatioa, especiallv ia 
wann weather. 

With traDBoma over them there ie no need of great height of doors. 


The qaeatioD of lightiDg school-rooms cannot be decided as in 
lighting dwelling houses, from the point of view of rejoicing the 
inmates with floods of sunshine, for the problem relates to rooms 
whose many inmates are to be fixed in their positions, — they cannot, 
at their convenience, carry their work nearer to, or farther from the 
windows, or move away from dazzling reflections or direct sun >hine 
when troublesome. These inmates are to be children eng^ed in 
the acquisition of learning and mental culture, and this acquisition 
comes largely through strenuous eye-work. The eye aud what will 
render the conditions under which it works the most favorable, are 
therefore the first consideration. 

Though the proper lighting of school-rooms is one of the most 
important problems in school hygiene, most of our school-rooms are 
not well lighted. (See page 88) . 

Direction of Light.— A. With Regard to the Points 
of the Oompass- — It has already been said that school -buildings 
should be so placed as to exclude the direct rays ot sunshine from 
the school-rooms during school hours, and that the preferable light 
is therefore from the E., N. E., or N. This is the emphatic recom- 
mendation of the State Board of Health's Committee on School 

Direct sunshine in the school-room is cheerful, and we are told 
that it sets in motion and leviviBee the air. But in school work, 
the organ the most severely taxed is the eye. Of no other school 
diseases do we hear so much as of eye troubles. The eye, there- 
fore, is entitled to our first consideration in planning school-rooms. 
It is dazzled, irritated and imperilled by work on small objects 
illuminated directly by the sun. It is also seriously endangered 
when the direct sunshine falls upon the desk, or upon the floor, or 
on the wall not far from the field of vision. One of the first impor- 
tant rules in lighting is to exclude the direct rays of the sun from 
the school-room during school hours. 

Dictized by Google 


Further, we do not want to tiast aoy theoretical notions aa to the 
revivifying power of the sun. Air once breathed can never, in 
closed roomH, be made fit to breathe again. We want to be rid of 
it, and to get fresh air from out of doora to take its place. For this 
purpose pure air "revivified" out-doors by the suDshine and supplied 
by an efficient ventilating system, and play in the o^'en air, are what 
we may trust to preserve the health and vivacity of child life. 

While at work on this paper and at other times the present writer 
has had ample opportunity to compare the north light with that from 
other quarters of the heavens. With eyes rather overworked, but 
not diseased, the position has most of the time been between two 
windows, one looking to the east, tbe other to the south, In this 
room, in snnshiay weather, with outside blinds and inside shades, it 
has been found most of the time impossible to secnre a light that is 
not trying to the eyes. Ohanges have often been made to another 
room lighted only from the north. Here, at all times, in clear or in 
cloudy weather, the light has been satisfactory. The change in 
bright weather has made the mildness of the lighting and the entire 
absence of dazzling reflections from window casings, walls, floor 
and work table very noticeable. 

Strangely many authorities recommend a southerly lighting, hot 
most of the leaders in this opinion live at a higher latitude than ours , 
and in places where there is more cloud, fog, and smoke than we 
have, and where the late liours of the afternoon session are darkened 
in winter by the early setting of the sun. For us, with our geograph- 
ical conditions, the southern lighting should be positively rejected. 

In our climate the days are many in which clouds pass rapidly 
over the face of the sun, giving rapid alternations of light and shade. 
As the scoommodation of the eye according to tbe amount of light 
is not an instantaneous process, these rapid changes in the intensity 
of light, when the lighting is southerly, are extremely trying to the 
eyes, and no protection can be given by curtains. 

Other authorities strongly support the view held in this paper, 
that other than a southern exposure of school-rooms is desirable. 
Prof. Forster* of Breslau, says : 

Many of the advocates of the southern exposure of school-rooms 
pass over this point lightly with the remark that, "Protection from 
the direct rays of the sun may easily be had by the use of curtains I" 
But this *'easily" I must dispute. The curtains are not yet invented 
that will keep back the direct rays of the sun and at the same time 

' DenWobe Vlert. (. off, Gwnndb. XVI, 422. 

Dictized by Google 


let the diffused light of the dear sky pass through. The inTentor 
of such a curtain would be regarded as a benefactor of the bnmaD 
race. As such a protectioD some have recommended thick, white 
liueu, but this is too dazzling. Then ground glass has been recom- 
mended, bat this is also too blinding in direct eunshioe and in cloudy 
days Intercepts the light too much. Again, all green, gray, or blue 
eurtaina, if thick, absorb too much light aud make the deaka most 
distant from the window, too dark, while if thin, they let through 
too many of the heat rays. Venetiau and other blinds darken the 
room altt^ether too much and are wholly unsuitable. If the cur- 
tains are brought across the upper part of the « indow, they obscure 
Just that part of the window opening that is the most valuable for 
lighting the school-room. 

The loss of light when school-room curtains are drawn was deter- 
mined by Cohn with Weber's photometer to be very great. Accord- 
ing to the kind of curtains present it varied from 75 to 89 per cent., 
and blinds with adjustable slats abut off from 57 per cent, to 91 per 
cent, of the light according to the position of the slats.* 

Windows to the north furnish a light that is more uniform, soft, 
and agreeable to the eye than that from any other point. It is pre- 
ferred by microecopists and others whose work is trying to the eyes. 
Windows on this side need no blinds. 

Windows to the eaM let the sunshine stream into the room in the 
morning, but it is soon gone after the opening of the forenoon 

School-room windows to the soutk should be avoided for the 
reasons stated. 

Windows to the west admit the long level sunbeams that are so 
troublesome in the latt«r pan of the afternoon session. Light from 
this direction is not objectionable in schools with no afternoon ses- 
sion. West windows have the disadvantage in some localities of 
admitting much dust in summer. 

B. With Regard to the Pupil. — All authorities nnite in 
condemning windows placed before the eyes of the pupils. They 
do not throw their light on the work of the pupil, but they do dazzle 
his eyes with their glare. 

Windows at the pupil's right, throw troublesome shadows over 
his work when he is writing. 

Windows at the rear throw the shadow of the pupil's head and 
shoulders upon his work, and cause him to twist his body to avoid 
this trouble. 

• DiutaBhe Tlert. (.off. GMnndh. XVII, 102. 

Dictized by Google 

Windows at the left, admit the light rrom a direction the moat fav- 
orable to the pQpil for all kinds of vork, and the chief source of 
light should be from windows od this aide. 

Windows both right and left of the pupil are objectionable by 
reason of troublesome cross lights and shadows that are very unfav- 
orable to the health of the eye ; bat windows may be placed over the 
blackboard at the right for ventilation in warm weathei and, when 
the school-house is only one room wide, for sunoing the room at 
noon and at other times while the children are out. While they are 
&t their studies, however, the blinds of these windows must be kept 
tightly closed. 

Windows at the rear, in addition to those at the left, are hardly 
objectionable if the left light is in great preponderance, except for 
the fact that they trouble the teacher who is entitled to considera- 
tion. If the rear windows will admit the direct sunlight any lime 
during school hours, the left windows should be of ample size to 
light the room without them when the blinds of the rear windows are 

One-sided lighting with windows looking east, north-east, or 
north, is the ideal method if the rooms are not too wide. 

Quality of Light. — The kind of light wanted in school-rooms 
is the soft, diffused light from the open sky, and to ensure abundant 
light a good-sized patch of sky should be visible from every desk in 
the room. Direct sunlight and dazzling, rejected lights, whether 
from outside objects, as neighboring buildings, or from improperly 
tinted school-room walla, are harmful during school hours. 

Quantity of Light. — '-The eye, like the etomach," as a 
European surgeon has said, "suffers from too much, and it suffers 
from too little." In the school-room the too mnsh light for the eye 
is out ol the question, provided it is only diffused light and not direct 
sunshine or objectionable reflected light. 

The total window-openiag should equal at least one-Qlth of the 
floor surface, and this rule will hold only within certain widths ot 
room, and when no buildings, trees, or other external objects inter- 
cept a part of the light. 

With Weber's photometer, Cohn determined the amount of light 
in 133 school-rooms in Breelau, some old and miserably lighted, 
«[ime new and well lighted. The degree of lighting in the lightest 
places near the windows ranged from 61 to 1410 in clear weathai 
and fr-'m 32.6 to 1050 in cloudy weather. At the darkest desks, 

Dictized by Google 


the light varied from 1.7 to 160 in clear weather, to from X to 
69 in cloudy weather.* 

Compare these figures with those obtained by the same author in 
testing outrdoors the light of the open sky, — 305 for the lowest and 
11,480 for the highest. 

The quantity of light found at the darkest desk should, according 
to Cohnf and others, equal at the very least that of ten meter 

Schmidt-Rimpler^ tests the lighting of school-rooms by laying a 
small test-type upon the desk and comparing the distance at which 
it can be read with the distance at which it is legible near the window. 

Height of Window Sills. — The window sills should not be 
less than three and one-half feet above the floor. Dr. Lincoln says 
fonr feet. The Darmstadt commission requires them to be ae high 
at least aa the heads of the pupils. 

The reason why school-room window sills should be pretty high 
is that light admitted low illuminates the pupil's work but very little, 
but dazzles his eyes instead. 

Height of Window Tops.— The most favorable light for 
study eaters the room at a point somewhat above the student's head. 
The higher the point at which light enters, the farther it penetrates 
into the room. When the ceiling is left pure white and the light ia 
well admitted to it, it becomes a useful auxilliary ia lighting the 
school-room. If, therefore, a given amount of glass is to be used in 
lighting a school-room, it will best light it if it is placed as high in 
the school-room wall as practicable. 

The required height of the ceiling has already been given (See 
"The School- Room.") The space left between the top of the win- 
dow and the ceiliug should not be more than one foot. Six inches 
is still better. Even in brick or stone buildings, by using iron gird- 
ers, tbe tops of the windows may be less tbaa a foot from the ceiling. 

Shape and Size of WindowB.— The light givm by the 
uppermost part of a window is of too great value to have any of it 
sacrificed for architectural effect. Windows of arched and Gothic 
shapes should, therefore, never be used for lighting school-rooms. 

If the walls of the bnildioe are thick, space worth saving for tbe 
passage of light may be gained by splaying the inner openings of the 

•D.Vlert.r.SCGM XVII,20l 
|DleSchDl«d«rZulninIt, p. T. BBmbnit, 1890. 
]I>ie 8cbulknrz>1chtlgke1l, p. T9. 

Dictized by Google 


Ab the sashes should be lif;ht and ruo easily, it is Dot desirable to 
have them more than three feet wide. 

When the ceiliag is to be twelve feet high, and there are to be 
twelve lights to a wiadow, (three wide and tour high) a light of suit- 
able size is one 12x22 iDches. If there are to be odI; four lights to 
a window, 18x44 inches may he chosen. 

If the ceiling is to have a height of 13 feet, for a twelve-light 
window, we may take a 12x26 inch, or, for a fonr-light window, 
18x50 inch pane. 

A Model Window Wall. — To light from one side only a 
school-room 23X31 feet, with ceiling 12 or 13 feet high, the following 
arrangement is given as a gnide : 

Lengthofroom 31-0" 

From front comer to first window 6-0 

Six windows, each 3 it. wide , . . . 18-0 

Five epaces between windows, 1 ft. each 5-0 

From last window to rear corner 3-0 

Height of ceiling. ... 12'-0" 

From floor to window sill 3'-6" 

Window opening* (4 lights, each 22 in.) 7-4 

Space above windows 1-2 

With this arrangement we have a ratio of 1:5.4 between glass 
surface and floor surface, slightly below the desirable ratio of 1 : 5. 
As the tops of the windows ar<^ 10 feet and 10 inches high, the dis- 
tance from them at which the lighting will cease to be ample is 16 
feet and 3 inches. (See '-The School-Etoom-Width.") 

Height of ceiling 13'-0" 

From floor to window sill 3-6 

Window opening (4 lights, each 26 in.) ... 8-8 

Space above windows 0-10 


•The term "wtndov opening" la ben cictaiiTe ol aiwce occapled I17 the ush. That U pre- 
ferftbJy taken from (he "tpaee nbere wind-)wa." 

D,i.,.db, Google 


Tbia arrangement givea a ratio between glass and floor of 1 :4.5 
which is ample. The height of ceiling permits windows whose light- 
ing may be deemed ample at ihe distance of 18 feet and S iachea. 

Therefore, in school-rooms in which unilateral lighting is to be 
used, and in which the ia^t row of desks will be IS feet from the 
windows, the ceilmes should not he less than 13 feet, nor the topa 
of the windows less than 12 feet liigli'. 

To light from left and rear, a 3(;hool-r0')m 23x31 feet should have 
five windows, at least, at the left of the scholars. 

Windows Grouped or Distributed? — There is not mnch 
of this question left if a proper quantity of light is to be admitted 
from the left of the pupils. 11 we ai-e pleased to call it grouping, 
there should be but one group extending the whole length of the left 
hand wall with a comparatively narrow space of unoccupied wall at 
front and rear, and narrow and equal spaces between the windows. 

This is really an even distribution of ibe windows along the wall 
as they should be arranged The space between the windows should 
not be more than 16 tDcbea, and when the lighting is from the left 
only, still narrower spaces are better. 

Sashes and Their Hanging.— The sashes should be light, 
both to save light and to maka their motions easy. They should be 
hung on pulleys with friction rollers, so as to move at a touch. The 
quantity oi light derived from a four-light window is somewhat 
greater than from a twelve-ligbb window, especially when double 
windows are on. The four-light window is therefore preferable if 
the somewhat greater cost does not interdict it. 

Eyes shonld be fixed to the upper sashes so they may be opened 
or shut with a pole, or still ttetter is an arrangement ol pulleys and 
cords by means of which the sashes may be raised or lowered at 

Blinds and Shades.— Curtains or shades, needed at times to 
shut out injurious light, are often a nuisance when, through negli. 
gence, tbey are left down after the need of iheir protection has 
passed. For instance, Schmidt-Eimpler found vision 27-35 at the 
farthest desk in a room where two curtains were unnecessarily 
drawn, but it rose to 35-.35 after the curtain was raised. Two things 
snggest themselves ; first, that teachers should carefully supervise 
the nee of shades when they are present, and, second, the advantage 
of obviating the need of them by taking the principal light of the 
room from those quarters of the heavens whence direct sunlight does- 
not come during school hours. 

Dictzsdbv Google 

The beet of maleri&l for school-room shades is a light grey linen. 
When il ia drawn, this permits some difiusioo of light through its 
texture while intercepting the direct sunshine. Dark-colored acd 
painted shades arc: not suitable for the Bchool-Toom. 

School-room shades should be hung so that, at will, the upper 
half of the window, the lower half, or both, may be covered. There 
are at least two kinds of fistares that permit ihis. 

Double Windows. — The discomfort arising from sitting near 
a window is due in large part to the downward flow of the air that 
has been chilled by coming in contact with the cold window, and in 
a much smaller part to the inward leakage of cold air. This 
draughty condition near windows is prevented by double windows, 
and they are thos called for in all school-rooms during winter in the 
interest of the health and comfort of the children, as well as with a 
view to saving fuel. Their cost. Dr. Marble* urges, will be saved 
in two winters. 

It has been affirmed, as an objection to them, that double windows 
diminish the amount of' light that would otherwise enter the room. 
In our climate in winter this is not true. By preventing the frosting 
of the panes they save more light than Ibey obstruct. They should, 
however, be of a kind to interfere with the light as little as possible. 
In some quarters, two thicknesses of glass set about half an inch 
apart in the same sash are preferred. 

Neighboring Buildings, etc.— All the foregoing directions 
for lighting school-rooms may be followed and the end, — satisfactory 
lighting, — may be defeated by the environment. The very proper 
rule has been laid down that a school building should not be lighted 
from a street the width of which is less than twice the height of the 
opposite houses. Buildings nearer than this diminish too much the 
patch of sby visible from the farther desks, or shut the sky entirely 
out of view. Dr. Forsl«rt of Breslau has exhibited very clearly in 
Fig. 7, the result of the uoq -observance of this rule. It represents 
a tall school building with buildings of equal height on the opposite 
side of a narrow street A series of lines a c drawn from the roof 
of the opposite buildings to the tops of the windows, and then pro- 
jected across the rooms, divide each into two regions of different 
illumination. Below the plane thus formed, the light comes directly 
from the ; a'wve it, the only source of light is refleelion from the 

■Sanllur}' condlllou!! for tcbool-liauMS. p. SI. WaHblDglon, isei. 
rD.VierL. Oeiunah. XVI. 417. 

Dictized by Google 


Opposite buildiogs, trom the Borface of walls, floors, desks, etc-r 
and, except poesibly id the brightest of summer, it is iosuffident for 
easy reading and writing. It will he observed thai in the upper- 
most room tLis plane strike^) the farther wall high up and the region 
of relative darkness is far above the tops of the dr^ska. On the 
ground floor, it fails so near the window that practicailj' the whole 
room is dark. The intermediate rooms are partly light and partly 
dark. The light in those purtione of the rooms above the line a c is 
utterly unSt for work ; but whether that below this line is sditable or 
not, depends, in the flrst place, on what Forster calls thtj aw/Ie of 
aperture, and, in the second place, on the degrees of obliquity of the 
rays of light, or the angle of incidence, at a given point m the- 
school- room. 

The angle ol aperture, in Fig- 7, is enclosed between the lines 
e g and e /. The line e 9 is drawn Irom the point ia question to the 
top of the window opening ; the line e f fiom the same point to the 
summit of the opposite building. The size of this angle is deter- 
mined by the arc of sky visible at the point e. It will be observed 
that Ibis angle would become wider by moving the point e nearer 
the window, or smaller by iiioving it in the opposite direction ; and 
that it is progressively smaller from the nppermost room to the 
lowest room where it vanishes altogether. 

Dictzsdbv Google 

The fixing of the lowest permiBsible limit for this angle is DOt 
«asv. Forster tbiDks it should be at least 5° at the top of everj 
desk in the schooUioom. Dr. Willoughbj* wonld have it not less 
than 10°. 

The angle of incidence is shown in Fig. 8. Let o stand for a 
luminous point from which equal pencils of light, o a, o b. o c, o d, 
and o e. emanate at equal distances from one another and to fall on 
a horizontal surface, ml It will be found that the successive sec- 
tions of this surface, fg, g k, fi i, i k, and k I, illuminated by these 
pencils of light, increase progressively in width, and that conse- 
quently the intensity of the illumination of each diminishes progres- 
sively inversely as the square of their relative widths, or the tangents 
to the angles they subtead. Thus if the width of the sections is 
represented by 1, 2 and 3| th" intensity of the light in the several 
spaces will be as 1, 1-4 and 1-12. Thus, applied to school-rooms, 
with the highest available point of illamination limited by what is 
practicable in the height of windows, it may be seen that the dis- 
tance from a group of windows at which a desk may be well lighted 
should be borne in mind in planning the lighting of school-rooms. 

Forster believes that the obliquity of the light, or the angle of 
incidence of the highest rays of light striking any desk, should never 
be less than 25°. 

*T™d«. of tha 8oo. of Mediaal Offlcen of Hfslth tor l»8e-8J.p. 17, London. 




Tbe faulty positions of school chtldrea vrhile at tbeir deeka. is. as 
has already been explained, a prolific caase of deformity and of eye 
disease. As desks and seats of improper shape and proportion 
loflueDce papilti almost irresistibly to assnme these faulty positions, 
the consideration of the r quirements in good school furniture, is 
one of the most important missions of school hygiene. 

The Seat. — The seat should be Just high enough so that the 
whole sole of the pupil's foot may easily and squarely rest upon the 
floor nhen the lower leg and thigh are at a right angle. Id other words, 
the he ght of ihe seat above the floor should equal two-serenths of 
tbe total height of the child. 

Tbe seat should be wide (deep) enough to support the nates and 
four-fifths oF tbe length of the tbighs, or one-fifth of the height of tbe 
body may be taken as tbe required width. It should be sloped 
gently backward, so the pupil will not slide forward when he rests 
i^ainst tbe back, its front edge should be slightly rounded down- 
ward, and it should be hollowed out eo that the weight shall be 
distributed over the whole surface of tbe glutei muscles, thus avoid- 
ing painful pressure. 

The Back-Best. — Even in Germany, where so much has been 
written in advocacy of the exact erect position of children while at 
their school desks, the truth ia dawning that the powers of tbe 
muscles, whose function it is to keep the spinal column erect, are 
soon exhausted when called upon to maintain the same position 
long ; that the tiresomeness of such a position long maintained causes 
tbem to permit tbe body to lapse into various postures of fatigue 
that have ao injurious tendency upon eyes, spinal colamn, lungs, 
abdominal organs, and general bealtb ; and that to avoid this the 
seat and back-rest must hold the pupil in a restf^il position. 

The back-rest slionld extend upward to tbe shoulder blades at 
least, and it must support the pupil in a position so that the center 
of gravity of the upper portion of the body shall fall a little back- 
ward of the tuberosities that support him on the seat. 

With reference to tbe pupil, the most important points of support 
are the sacral and lumbar regions, — tbe lower part of the spinal 
column and tbe "small of tbe back." 

Dictized by Google 


American school ee&tB may be classed uuder two leading forms: 
in one the baeli rises upwaid from the seat nearly perpendicularly 
and gmdtially curves hachnard as it riies, as is shown in Fig. 9. 

Fig. 9- 
Aa this gives a Qrm aapport lo the aacral region, it is a much better 
shape thao the other which we may call the S form, which presents 
a concavity to the lower part of the pupil's trunk, and a convexity 
to the upper dorsal region. (See Fig. 10.) 

Dictized by Google 


It fails to give support to the spinal colamn at just those poiDta 
where support is most needed. In some seats with backs thus 
shaped, the lower curve is doC great, but just so far as it exists it is 

No American seat, so far as I know, follows the carve of the 
pupil's back just above the sacrum thus giving a salutary snpport 
to the "small of the back." In some English desks the attain- 
meut ot this has been sought with pads fixed to the back-rest or 
adjustable to the size of the pupil. ' 

In the German speaking cotiutries the question of the correct 
shape of the back-rest has been the subject o' many fnvestJgatioDS 
the latest of which known to the writer being that of the VienDa 
Bobool desk commission of 1889. This commission leported that 
the school seat should have a baok-rest conforming to the normal 
curves of the spinal column. This support should be a combination 
of the peculiarities of the customary perpendicular support for the 
sacrum and loins and of the high sloping shoulder rest. The lower 
part should rise perpendicularly to the center of the curve at the 
small of the back where it should be provided with a lumbar pad. 
The upper part of the support, reaching at least to the shoulder 
blades must start from the most prominent part of the lumbar pad 
and slope backward at an angle of 10° or 16° as it extends upward. 
This gives a combined sacral, lumbar, and shoulder rest.* Jankef 

• Zelt. (. Schalgu, U, ua. 1SB9. 
tQniiidrlHdBrSchaUijglene,p.4S. 1890. 



recommeade tbe same form of back-rest and gives oDe'Sizteenth of 
the total stature of the pupil as the proper height of the perpen- 
dicular part, and one-eighth of it as the proper height of tbe most 
prominent part of the lumbar support. 

Desks. — ^Tbe height of the desk is osaally too great ; it should 
reqnire the pupil to raise bis elbow but rery slightly when carrying 
it a little fornard and outward into tbe position for writing. It 
ehoald equal, as some direct, the height of the bent elbows when 
hanging at tbe sides of the pupil. If the height of the nearer edge 
of the desk exceeds this, it should not more tban one inch. 

For writing, the surface of the desk, except the narrow upper 
level strip, should slope 15° from tbe horizontal ; for reading, the 
most convenient inclination is from 40° to oO". In our desks gen- 
erally no provision is made for this change of slope, bat from 15° to 
20° does fairly well for all purposes. 

The desk and seat are finished preferably In natural wood, but if 
the upper surface of t^ie de^k is of a color and fiiisb that will not 
strongely reQect the light, it will be grateful to tb<; pupils' eyes. 
Janke reco[nmend^ painting the top of the desk blaok, bjt it might 
be feared that th<^ result would be too sombre. 

Relation of Desk and Seat. — The elevation of the edge of 
the desk above the seat is technically known as "difierence." 
Authorities are not in accord as to the normal ratio between "differ- 
ence" and the height of tbe pupil, — their estimates range from one- 
eighth to one-sixtb of tbe pupil's stature. 

The measurement of a small number of children and young adults, 
— 91 in all,— inclines me to the belief that, with American children, 
one-seventh of the total height represents very nearly the mean 
height of elbow above the seat, and that tbe ratio between "differ- 
ence" and tbe total height should be very nearlyas 1 to 6.5. 

Or, as givi:)g practically the same results, to one-seVenth of the 
pupil's height add from one-half to three-fourth inch for the required 
"difierence", — one-half inch for smaller children, three-fourths inch 
for older ones, particularly girls. The shelf for books should be high 
enough to make this rule practicable. 

Another word relating to school desks is "distance," used to 
designate the horlsontal space between desk and seat. When a 
vertical line, falling from the edge of the desk jnst grazes the front 
edge of thejseat, we spaak of null distance ; when thia line falls 

Dictized by Google 


forward of the edge of the seat it is jdua distance ; whea it falls upon 
the seat il is minus di^ance. 

For writing, the edge of the desk should overhaog the seat, — that 
ia, distance should bj minas. 

A Massachusetts physician* made the following statement which 
is of interest Id this coDuection : 

My attention has been directed for several years to the efiect of 
position in schools upon the spinal column. I was first induced to 
notice it in our high school girls, from the fact that they could be 
pointed ont from grammar school girls of the same age by their 
awkward, stooping attitude and swinging step, and I was led to 
trace it to some cause satisfactory with theory. 1 found in the high 
school that the desk was placed so far from the seat, in order that 
they might have room between seat and desk to stand during recita- 
tion, that they could not rest their books upon the desk withoot 
leaning forward to study, which fully accounted for the stooping and 
rounding of the spine and shoulders in six mr-nths after leaving the 
grammar school, — which they did on the average at the age of twelve 
and a half years. 

After a contention of a year against the objections of teacher anct 
some of ibe committee, I succeeded in having the desk placed near 
enough to the seat to allow the pupil to rest the book with ease 
while sitting erect. And in another six months the effect was 
apparent in all the classes, as one could select by difference of form 
those who were admitted before and afier the change. 

In setting up desks, plus distance should always be rejected and 
care should be taken to have the desk overlap the seat one or two 
inches : this will enable the pupil, if the seat is. of the proper width, 
to write sitting erect, with the lower part of the spine supported by 
the back-rest. A nearer approach of seat and desk than two inches 
minus distance is not desirable, fur the reason that it would restrict 
the movements of the pupils too much. When thus placed the pupil 
cannot stand erect at bis desk, but, with our desks for one, or at 
most two pupils each, this is but a very slight inconvenience, neces- 
sitating a sideward movement of the feet into the aisle before rising. 
Too great a '^distance" of desk is a common error found in school- 
rooms, and its tendency is to induce deformity. 

Sizas of Desks. — An important element in the prevention of 
school-room diseases and deformities is the fitting of every pupil 
with a seal and desk corresponding to his size. In some places, 
but not in our own State, the rational policy has been adopted of 
measuring the pupils in their schools once or twice yearly, and giving 
every one, as nearly aa possible, a desk and seat adapted to bis size. 

*eU) Aaoati B«port Mua. Bl. Bd. al H«IUi, p. 401. 

Dictized by Google 


The takiog of tbe measuremeDts cad be rapidly done, the only meaa- 
arement reqaired being the pupil's height as Spiess has coDvinced 
himself by the measarement of 1079 scholars ; that ia, of the total 
height of the child take : 

For the height of seat, 2-7. 

For the depth of seat, 1-5. 

For the "difference," 1-7. 

Spiess* believes with Koller, Cohn and others that there shoald be 
a separate size of desk for every ten ceatimeters difference in the 
height of pupils. |Ie measured 15,000 pupils in the schools of 
Frankfort, Germany, and 

2 per cent, were shorter than 110 cm. 

97.6 per cent, were between 110 and 179 cm. 

0.4 per cent, had a height of 180 cm. or more. 

Spiess, therefore, provides seven sizes of desks for the 97.6 per 
cent, of pupils, and he recommends a minimal size desk for the 
abnormally small 2 per cent., and a maximal size for the unusually 
tall one-fourth per cent. It will be observed in the following that 
he ingeniously makes the central figure of the numbers which include 
the height of tbe pupil correspond to Lhe number of the desk suited 
to him, thus: 

Height from 100 to 109 cm., desk No. 

" 110 " 119 " " 1 

120 " 129 " " 2 

150 " 159 " " 5 

" 160 " 169 " " 6 

" 170 " 179 " " 7 

180 " 18» " " 8 

The Dnmbering of the desks in Ibis country is indicative of 
nothing: certain numbers or sizes are assigned by their manufac- 
turers to pupils between certain years of age, but children of the 
same ages differ so much in size that this practice is altogether 
irrational. Size only should be the guide. 

Adjustable Desks. — The advantages of using in the school' 
room seats and desks readily adjustable to the sizes of the pupils 
are acknowledged by authorities in school hygiene to be veiy distinct, 
bat it costs more to manufactnre such furniture than it does the old 

•DantKlie Tiart. of. oB- GuDDdli. XVII, ZSS. 18SS. 

Dictized by Google 


kinds andi — the cbildren are sold to the lowest bidder. After the 
papils are meaBiired, it is a simple matter to fit each wiih a anitable 
desk, if those of a good adjaetable pattern are used. Without 
adjustable desks there is considerable difflcnlt; in properly seating 
a school. With the combined desks and seats the sizes in mixed 
schools cannot be graded from the back to the front seats : all that 
can be done is to have the sizes grade from one side of the school- 
room to the other. In nsing the Boston school desk or other patterns 
in which the seats are distinct from the desk, Ibe trouble is not so 
great, but even then with a good assortment of sizes, it is very 
difficult to seat all the pupils as they should be seated and to place 
them OS the well-informed teacher would like to have them placed. 
Several adjustable desks are on tbe market, one of which, the 
Basic City Desk, formerly called the Rnshville Desk, was exhibited 
in connection with the Brooklyn meeting of the American Public 
Health Association and was highly commended by the members. 
In this pattern tbe seat and desk can be raised or lowered indepeo- 
dently of each Other, and fised at any height indicated by the meas- 
urement of tbe pupil. It will also be noticed that the shape of the 
back is in conformity with that recommended under "The Back- Rest", 
in that it has the single curve. See Fig. 11. 

^dbv Google 


The adjustable deak of G. A. Bobrick, C. E., sbowe & very care- 
fnl study of tbe chief requiremeDts in a school desk. The seat and 
desk are adJuBtable to aoy desired height, and, in addttiOD, tbe 
depth of seat can be adapted to the length of the popil's thigh. 
This desk is furnished, at the pleasure of purchasers, with either 
chairs or seats adjustable or not, to the leng'.h of the pupil's thigh. 
See Figures 12, 13, 14 and 15. 



Another adjueUble dtsk, for the sale of which Carroll W. Clark 
& Co.. Boston, act as ageDts, is shown in Fig. 16. The desk is 

Dictized by Google 


raised or lowered by moving the set nut B up or down the screw 
thread od Ihe rod A. The desk is held in po^itioo by a key which 

Fig. 16. 
fits into a key-way in the pedestal and the rod A. When the proper 
position is obtaint'd tbe set sctews C are lurtied down upon the key 
«nd all the parts are firmly fafilpned. Tbe set nut B cannot be 
moved byihe8<:lv)iar and ibe pisiiion of the desks cannot be changed 
without tbe wrench which turns ihe «*■! tcrtws at C, The chair is 
adjusted in the Baiie wai . It will be noticed that the shape of the 
back-rest of Ibe seat conforma to that lecommended in this paper, — 
that of the single curve. 

Some Other Patterns. — Various foreign patterns of school 
desks are so constructed as to admit changes in the distance between 
seat and desk, giving plus or null distance for rf'ading and study, 
and minus distance for writing. In some of tbese desks, the slope 
of their tops can be adjusted from 15° or 20° for writing to 40° or 
45° fur readin)f. These features are not found in many American 
desk^, but a pntiern may be seen in tbe Chauncy Hall School, Boston, 
Mass., that ia worth tbe study of manufacturers of school desks. The 
one idea in the planning and construction of tbe desks for that school 

Dictized by Google 


was to have them as neaily faultlesa as possible from a hjgienic point 
of view. To tbis e. <i, halt a clozeo or more or Bustoo's physicians 
and si]rgeont>, well known names in American medicine) some 
of whom were leaders in all that relates to the treatmeot or 
prevention of diseases of tie eje and of spinal and other deformities, 
were aeked to plao ibedt^k. Thej carried cut ihewcrk entrusted to 
them with great care. Figures 17 and 18 show the results. It will 

id by Google 


be observed tbat the back-rest has the single curve, that that portion 
of the top of the desli nearest to the pupil, tamed dofrn gives minas 
distance for writing, permitting the pupil to ait erect and have the 
sapport of the back-rest, and turned up enables the pupil to place 
tiie book from which he studies at the proper distance from the eye 
and to have it supported at the proper angle. 

Fig. 19 shows the so-called Boston school desk and chair. As the 
seats are entirely independent of the desks, with a sufflcientlj targe 

Fig. 19. 
number of sizes (three or four in a graded room and a larger number 
in a mixed school) the problem of satisfactorily seating all the 
pupils in the room is not so difficult, as with combination desks. 
There is, however, an opportunity for somebody to plan a chair to 
go with this desk that will support the pupil in a proper position 
more successfully than any thai has hitherto been in use. By diDt 
of careful study, it should be no difficult matter to make the improve' 
ment.* The particular chair shown in the engraving, has the 
advantage of a broader and firmer snpport than is usual in chairs of 
this kind. 

Id Fig. 20, as well as in Pig. 9, we have one ot the few school 
desks of the combination style whose back-rest has the approved 
single curve. 

sboira Id Fig' IS. and Sad tbstita back 

Dictized by Google 


If, when the pupil is properly seated, the position of the book- 
ehelf. or other structural features of acy desk makes it impossible to 

have the difTerence betweeD the height of the seat and that of the 
desft so small as one-seventh of the pupil's height while standiog, 
the desk should be rejected as unsuitable. 

Single or Double Desks. — ^irrespective of the question of 
cost, single seats and desks are in every way preferable to double 
ones. With single seats and desks the teacher can control the 
school much more easily, the pupil can do better work, there is less 
liability to the spread of infections diseases, and in some degree a 
safeguard against over-crowding is ensured. 

Correct Sitting. — "To sit in the seat properly, the soles of 
both feet should rest squarely on the floor not far apart, and the 
whole width of the seat should be utilized so that the body may be 
supported as much as possible by resting against the normally con- 
structed back. In this connection it should be observed that the 
sacrum and the small of tbe back should rest firmly against the 
lower part of tbe back-rest, while the upper part of the spine finds a 
eutflcient support against the slightly backward inclining upper part 
of the back-rest. In this position the chest is free in its movements, 
the abdominal organs are not subjected to pressure, and tbe move- 
ments of the arms are unhindered.'" 

'Jaake— Oraudriaa der SctaullygieDa, p. 91. 

J, Google 



"Good ventilation, lighting, and warming of a echool-room," sa^s 

Sir Edwin Cbadwick. "will augment the capacity of attention of the 

pupils b; at least one-fiftb, as compared with that of the children 

taught in school-rooms of the common construction." 

The principal of a school formerly without ventilation, but now 
with fairly good proviaioca for renewing the air, makes the following 
statement of the beneficial results observed: "In point of health 
there has been a decided gain. Both pupils and teachers are doing 
more and better work on account of the purity of the air ; there havQ 
been no complaints of headache and ennui, formerly so frequent ; 
the children have been in no way exposed to draughts from open 
doors and lowered windows, consequently have been entirely free 
from coughs, colds, and catarrhal affections."' 

Yet so important as good ventilation is, moat of the ao-called 
arrangements for ventilation found in school buildings are barefaced 
sbams. They have been put in with no intelligent understanding 
of the rudiments of the principles involved in the question. For 
instance, the foul air ducta have almost invariably been found much 
too amall, or they are leaky, or they are long and tortuous, or they 
are not constructed with a flue to carry the foul air outside the 
building, or the flue is unheated, or there is some other serious 
blunder. Tested with the air meter, the air in the fresh air and the 
foul air ducts, shows, in many iustances, absolu ely do movement. 
If there is any movement, it is almost always too feeble to approxi- 
mate a fair ventilation, taking the size of the duct into consideration. 
I have been more than astonished to fiud the number of so-called 
"experts" in the heatiug of school buildings scattered through the 
country, unknown men, of course, but nevertheless so impressed by 
their own importance and ao convinced that they have grasped and 
digested in one supreme mental effort, without any practical investi- 
gation or study, all that there is to know about the heating and 
ventilation of buildings, that it is as useless to attempt to reason 
with them as it would be to expect the Egyptiau Sphinx to answer 
questions. These atupid oracles of school boards and committees 
cause more trouble and inconvenience and do more to prevent the 
introduction of good eystema than any other one thing that I know 
of. They ao hamper and disgust men of sound sense and judgment 
who, rather than enter into any controversy, let them have their 

ary Engineer, XV, 676. 

Dictized by Google 


wa; to the detritneDt of the building and the discomfort of its 
occiipaats. I have foand such cases as this repeatedly, and I 
believe all others in my profession are troubled in the same w&y.* 

Results of Breathing Impure Air.— It is a fact that 
modern science brings to our notice repeatedly that the functional 
activity of organic life engenders products that are detrimental to 
the organisms that produce them ; thus, the vital activity of the 
yeaat plant is gradually brought to a standstill by the accumulation of 
the product of its functional activity, — alcohol,— and its activity can 
be started again only by re-establishirg the conditions favorable to its 
coctinued growth ; to wit, the remova! or dilution of the alcohol in 
its Qeid of growth. With the bacteriologist it is an every day obser- 
vation that bacteria, grown in his culture media, thrive luxuriantly 
for awhile, then, if not transferred to fresh culture media, pass 
through a stage of lessened activity, and finally perish, poisoned by 
their own excretions, or remain dormant. 

These organisms, reduced to the utmost simplicity of structure^ 
consist of a single cell. Man and the higher animals are components 
of a vast accumulation of cells, each one of which, by virtue of its 
functional activity is likewise excreting products that ore so poisonous 
to it and the system generally that accnmuJation beyond certain 
limits results in death. 

An illustration of the truth of this that has many times pointed a 
sanitary moral since the sad oecurreuce, is the history of the Black 
Hole of Calcutta. 

In school experience the speedy loss of life from the re-inhalatioD 
of "Pettenkofer's man-poison," as Da Bois-Reymond calls it, is out 
of Ibe question, but cases of slow poisoning from moderate quantities 
of the same poisonous i^ent are unf( rtunately very commou. 

In an unventilated school, or other room occupied for some time 
by many persons, a disagreeable, stuffy odor is perceptible on enter- 
ing it. Those occupants of the room who are accustomed to noticing 
the difference between pure air and polluted air, feel that the air of 
the room is unsuitable for breathing; respiration is not tree and 
easy and the air breathed does not satisfy the wants of the system. 
Sustained work, whether muscular or mental, is carried on witb 
difficulty, and witb persons somewhat sensitive to air pollution, there 
follow flushing of the face, throbbing of the temples, ringing in the 
ears, and headache ; while work day after day in an atmosphere 

•BilggI— Tbs PlBDDlig Uld ComtTDctlon of Bcbool-HouMi, BaUdlng, T, p. 126. 

Dictized by Google 


polluted by'] repeated breathing, has a teodencj toward Iobs of 
appetite, impoTeriehment of the blood, and gecteral debility. In 
this coQDectioD the reader is again referred to page 96 of this report. 

The bad effects apon oar domestic animals of breathing a polluted 
atmosphere, have many times been noted. We are told by Parkes :" 

Formerly, In the French army, the mortality among the horses was 
eDormona. Bossignol states that, previona to 1836, the moitality 
of the French cavalry horses varied from 180 to 197 per 1,000 per 
annum. The enlargement of the stables, and the "increased qnan- 
tity of the ratioo of air," reduced the loss in the next ten years to 
68 per 1.000. In 1862 66 the rate of death was reduced to 27) per 
1,000, and offif«rs' horses (the property of thu State) to 20. 

The admission for lung diseases were, in l8i9-52, 105, and in 
1862 66, 36; for glanders, 1847-52, 23; 1852-66, 7). In the 
Italian war of 1859, M. Moulin, the chief veterinary surgeon, kept 
10,000 horses many months in barracks open to the external air in 
place of closed stables. Scarcely any horses were sick, and only 
one case of glanders occurred. 

In the English cavalry (and in English racing stables) the same 
facts are well known. Wilkinson informs us that the annual mor- 
tality of cavalry horses (which was formerly great) is now reduced 
to 20 per 1,000, of which one-half is from accidents and incurable , 
diseases. Glanders and farcy have almost disappeared, and if a 
case occurs, it is considered evidence of neglect. 

Without further enlargement on this subject it should be perceived 
that the failure to furnish the school-room with adequate supplies of 
fresh air is false economy, when viewed as an economic question, iu 
that it wastes the school money by subjecting the pupils to condi- 
tions under which they cannot do their best, and in that it is condn- 
cive of ill health which may be lasting. 

Better for mind and body one hour of sharp close study In a pure 
atmosphere, than two hours spent iu languid, listless work in the 
polluted air of the unventilated school-room. Better, if this must 
be the price of securing pure air, to economize by shortening daily 
sessions, or in almost any way so be it the physical basis of mental 
action is not undermined while mental activity is still spurred on. 

"We would consider parents crazy," says Dr. Bell,+ "who gave 
their children a moderate dose of opiam, tobacco, or some other 
stupefying drug before setting them at their studies ; but these 
narcotics would be no less weakening and paralyzing in their effects, 
DOT any less poisonous in their permanent effects, than the air of 
most of the school-rooms to whicn we send our children year after 

Dictized by Google 


Some of the Poisonous Principles of Polluted Air. 
— It was tormerlj taught that the unpleasant edFects from rebreathed 
air are due to the gaa, carbouic acid. The following facia served 
as the basis of this belief. One of the most marked changes uuder- 
gone by air in serring the process of respiration is a great increase 
in its quantity of this gas. While the free air of the outer world 
has from three to four parts oE carbonic acid in 10.000, the air of 
expiration contains more than 100 times as much of this gas. Car- 
bonic acid is uusuited for supporting the process of respiration. A 
lighted taper plunged into it ia suddenly extinguished. 

Animal life is almost as suddenly extinguished when enveloped in 
it. Mixtures of this gas with common air in varying proportions, 
canse death more slowly, or may give rise to various symptoms 
indicative of insufflcienl oxidation of the blood and of the animal 

Later observations, however, have shown that, witti a given per- 
centage of carbonic acid in the air breathed by man or animals it 
makes a great diffeience whether the excess of carbonic acid has 
been derived from pure chemical sources, or from the longs of living 
beings For instance, the air of a school-room that contains twenty 
parts of carbonic acid in 10,000 of air, ia found to be disagreeable 
and harmful to breathe ; while the air of an experimental chamber 
charged by chemical processes with twenty parts of carbonic acidt 
or with even more, is breathed with no disagreeable results. Obser- 
vations of this kind easily lead to the assumption that the air 
expelled from the lungs contains some sul)staDce other than carbonic 
acid deleterious to animal life. 

Organic Nitrogenous Poison. — Entering a crowded and 
iil-veotilated school-room we have an anpleasant consciousness of a 
malodorous something which is characteristic of a stagnant, re- 
breathed air. Such air has an excess of carbonic acid, but carbonic 
acid ia odorless. This disagreeable something excreted from the 
lungs has the power of clinging to a room rather tenaciously, for, if 
the veutilation of a school-room is neglected for awhile, it takes 
some time to rid the room of the foul odor, even with ventilation 
through wide open windows. 

Chemical tests show that this ill smelling something is an organic 
nitrogenous substance. From experiments on animals in which the 
carbonic acid and watery vapor were removed, and the organic 
matter left, it has been found that the organic matter is very poison-^ 

Dictized by Google 


one. A few yean ago Brown-Sequard aod Arsooval made known 
the reaalts of their extended researches into the nature of this poison. 
They coodenBed the exhalations from the lungs of men and dogs and 
obtained thereby a liqaid with an alkaline reaction. From two to four 
cubic centimeters of this, injected i <to the veins of animals, caused 
diUlaiion of the pnpits, Blowing of the respiration, great muscnlar weak- 
ness, paiticularly of the hinder extremities, and a very rapid pulse. 
But when from ten to twelve cubic centimeters were used, the death 
of the animals followed speedily, even when the fluid had been 

Other investigatoFB who have repeat.ed the experiments of these 
sdentiBts have not interpreted their results as indicative of an ex- 
piratory poison . Another series of experiments made by Brow n- 
Sequaid is confirmatory of the conclusioa that the poison of expired 
air is not a myth. He arranged eight eloaed air-tight cages so ton- 
uected with glass tubes pasBing from one to anolbur that, by means 
of an aspirator, air could be made to traverse the cages snccessively. 
With a rabbit placed in each cage, the first received only pure air ; 
the second, air polluted by the first animal ; the third, that polluted 
snccesBiveiy by two rabbits, etc. Special arrargements wire present 
for the removal of excrement. The eighth rabbit died in two days, 
the seventh in ihree days and so on until the death of the third one 
in eight daya. The first and second rabbit remained alive. Quan- 
titative determinations of the carbonic aoid content of the air of 
the several cages showed that it could not have caused the death of 
the animals. When bits of pumice st«ne impregnated with sulpharic 
acid were placed in the glass tube between the sixth and seventh 
cages the rabbits in the seventh and eighth cages remained well, — a 
resnlt indicative of the destruction or nentralization of the peculiar 
poison by the acid. 

Dr. Merkel has lately, in the Hygienic Institute of Munich, re- 
peated the experiments of Brown-Seguard with great care and, 
obtaining like results, comes (o the following conclnsiona : That the 
expired air of healthy men and animals contains volatile oi^anic 
substances in very Bmall quantity ; that in these oi^anic substances 
we, in all probability, have to do with a base that, in Its free state, 
is poisonous.* 

A series of experiments made by Claude Bernard seem to show 
that the system may gradually acquire in some degree a tolerance of 

•Archil iUr Sjg\tiu>, XV. 1— ISW. 

Dictized by Google 


the poisonous priaciplea in rebreathed air. la one of them a sparrow 
was enclosed in a glass globe. For an hour he hopped abont as 
activelj as nenal, and then gradually showed signs of saffering from 
breathing the air poisoned by bis own longs. At the end of the 
second honr another sparrow was placed in the globe. It fell 
asphyxiated by the foal air and died in a few moments. At the 
end of the third honr the first sparrow became nnconscious. Taken 
out and carried into the open air, it soon recovered ; theOi replaced 
ia the globe, it died almost instantly. 

These observations are simply confirmatory of a well known fact, 
that the bamau breath contains a poison that should be removed 
from inhabited rooms by ventilation and should not be rebreathed. 

Oarbonlc Acid. — When carbonic acid gae, either pure or 
mixed in rather lai^e proportion with air, is breathed, asphyxia and 
death may resnlt. When breathed habilually in such proportions as 
are found ia badly ventilated school-rooms, there is reason to believe 
that the free excbange of oxygen and carbonic acid in tbe lungs is 
in some degree interfered with.* Nevertheless this gas is not 
regarded poisonous in tbe sense in which we know some of tbe other 
components of polluted air to be. 

In the quantity in which it is found in school-rooms our chief 
interest in it is that we can use it as an index of the total pollution 
of the atmosphere. As cbemistry presents no convenient and trust- 
worthy method of estimating directly the degree of organic pollu- 
tion, we solve tbe problem indirectly by a determination of the 
proportion of carbonic acid. Experience and observation have 
made it very certain that the organic nitrogenous pollution corre- 
sponds very closely with the carbonic acid content of an atmosphere 
fouled by respiration. 

, The experiments of Fettenkofer, Parke, and others have deter- 
mined for us pretty clearly that air containing more than a very few 
parts of carbonic acid, presumably derived from hnman lungs, is 
lacking in that degree of pnrity neceasary to ensure the health of 
the pupils. 

Fettenkofer oonsiders air containing ten parte of carbonic acid to 
10,000 bad and unfit to breathe. He fixes the limit of allowable 
carbonic acid at seven parts, and would have five parts, or two 
parts over the ont door normal, as the ideal to be aimed at. 

•GMhnnl. Le« PirfwBi deL'Alr,P»rii,lMO. 

Dictized by Google 


Parkes takes two parts io 10,000 as the maximani degree of 
respiratory impurity admissible in a properly ventilated air space, 
or six parts as the whole amoaDt of carbonic acid, assamiDg the 
normal as fonr parts per 10,000. This standard of parity of air is 
the one that is now very generally accepted. 

Carbonic Oxide Gas.— When the draft in school-room 
heaters is insufficient, and consequently when combustion is incom- 
plete, full ozidatioD of the carbon of the fuel does not take 
place and carbonic oxide is formed. The escape of this gas into the 
school-room is a much more seriona matter than an admixture of 
carbonic acid. 

The poisonous qualities of carbonic oxide are intense and positive. 
It seizes strongly upon tbe b^emaglobin, and, as its affinity for this 
coloring matter of tbe blood is greater than (hat of oxygen, it is 
destructive of tbe oxygen-carrying function of the red corpuscles of 
the blood. Persons who are profoundly narcotized with carbonic 
acid may speedily be restored to life and health by prompt removal 
to tbe fresh air, or, when breathing is extinct, by artiScial respira- 
tion. Not so with carbonic oxide. Poisoning with this gas is a 
much more serious matter. Owing to the close chemical union of 
it with the red blqod corpuscles, the admission of fresh air 
into the lungs, or even of pure oxygen gas, is almost powerless to 
make the poisonous gas lose its hold, and death will follow in many 
cases in spite of the most skillful treatment. 

According • to Dr. Gautier," the eminent French chemist, the 
smallest quantities of the oxide of carbon in the air might prove 
dangerous. With one part in 10,000 of air there is destruction of 
the eighth ol the total quantity of the blood. There is every reason 
therefore for solicitude to exclude every trace of carbonic oxide gas 
from tbe ecbool-room. 

Much has been said of late years about the power of diffusion of 
carbonic oxide through the castings of stoves and furnaces when, 
tbey are too highly heated. To avoid the danger of this is only one 
of several weighty reasons for patting in scbool-room heaters whose 
radiating surface is so ample as never to become very hot. Dampers 
and other draught-checks between Che fire and the smoke flues 
endanger the leak^e of this gas. 

Carbonic oxide is doubly dangerous for being, like carbonic acid, 
entirely devoid of smell. 

*LNWet, Vol. I, ISSS, p. 357. 

Dictized by Google 


Hydrogen Sulphide. — This gas too is ver; poisonous, and 
even when mixed in smal) quantities with air is dangeroas to breathe. 
Breathed into the lunge, it robs the blood corpuscles of their oxygen 
and destroys them. As is the case with carbonic oxide, when 
hydrogen sulphide is habitually breathed in small quantity, chronic 
poisoning results, it impoverisheB the blood and leads to pallor and 
feebleness. This gas is given off from mauy organic substances 
when undergoing decomposition, and from these sources it some- 
times gains admittance to school-rooms. It annonucea itself plainly 
by its smell which is usually described as like that of rotten eggs. 

Sewer and Privy Vault Q-ases- — The sanitary an-ange- 
mentB of the 8cbool-bOQ«e shonld be such as to preclude the possi- 
bility of the entrance into the school-room of the gases of putrefaction, 
derived from privies, sewers and nrioals. A large component of 
these gases is hydrogen sulphide, mingled with ill-smelling ammonia- 
cal products and other gases. The great mass of medical and 
sanitary experience indicates that the prolonged breathing of air 
tainted with but a small admixture of these gases has a debiliiating 
edect and predisposes strongly to other diseases : Anfemia, scrofula, 
consumption, diarrhcea, dysentery, diphtheria, typhoid fever, etc. 
Children especially ate more susceptible than older persons to the 
noxious influences of privy and sewer emanations. Breathed in 
concentrated doses, even adults are often overcome with pain in the 
etomacb and the Joints, headache, nausea, and vomiting, muscular 
weakness, asphyxia and sometimeg death. 

Poisonous Principles Other than G-aseous-— The reader 
U referred to "The Dust Question" and "Cleanliness of the School- 
room," pages 225 and 258. 

Humidity of the Air. — We have been taught by most writers 
on the subject that the air of artiScially heated rooms should have a 
considerable degree of humidity and that special provisions shonld 
exist in connection with the heating apparatus for the evaporation of 
water. It is very likely, however, that many of the unpleasant re- 
salts ascribed to dryness of air are referable to conditions, the re- 
moval or mitigation of which, is more rational than the evaporation 
of water. They are due undoubtedly in some cases to the leakage 
Into the air of harmful gases from the stove or furnace. Generally 
the trouble is in connection with heaters that are allogether 
unsuitable for use in school buildings. Their heating surfaces are 
B3 small that tbey must be heated highly to keep the rooms at a 

Dictized by Google 



oomforUble temperature. CooBequentl; the air comiDg into the 
rooms Irom the apparatus is overheated, its snepeuded organic mat- 
ter has been scorched and has thereby liberated traces of hannfiil 
gases, and the air has perhaps received an additional coataminalion 
b; difiusion through the unduly heated radiating surfaces, or through 
their joints. 

In school honses supplied with heaters that furnish an ample 
quantity of fresh air only moderately warmed, there is rarely com- 
plaint of dryness of the atmosphere. 

The evaporation of water for the special purpose of moistening 
the atmosphere, is an expensive process : it calls lor the burning of 
an additional portion of fuel, the heat from which is expended, not 
in warming the rooms, but in converting water into steam. The 
expenditure of the money in warming lai^er volumes of tiesh air, 
and tbns, in securing better ventilation, would be a more judicioas 

Amount of Air-Supply .—We have the trnstwortby authority 
of Parkes for the statement that the amount of fresh air that should 
be supplied to persona in health and during repose is : 

For adult males, 3,500 cubic feet per bead per hour. 

" " females, 3,000 " " ** 

" children, 2,000 " " " 

" a mixed community, 3,000 " " " 

The Committee on School Hygiene of the State Board of Health 
has fixed upon 2,000 cubic feet per hour ae a quantity of air that it 
is practicable to furnish to pupils while in their school-rooms, and 
advises that the plans for ventilation should aim at no smaller supply. 

Testing the Air— Measurement of Air-Supply.— To 

eBtimate^the^cfflciency of the ventilating arrangements in the school- . 
room, various methods may be used. An ever-ready way of testing 
the quality of the air in enclosed spaces is an intelligent use of the 
sense of smell. The air of a school-room that is imperfectly ven- 
tilated is characterized by a peculiarly unpleasant smsU, variously 
described as close, stufiy, musty, fetid, etc. To appreciate moderate 
or slight degrees of foulness of air, the test should be made immedi- 
ately alter entering the room from the freeh air. Alter one has 
been in a foul atmosphere a little while, the sense of smell becui' ei 
habituated to it and blunted in its power to detect its offensiventss. 
The school-room should be free from disagreeable odoc ; if it is 

Dictized by Google 



f M 

Fig 21, 

habitually pervaded by the characteristic emell of foul air, ite ven- 
tilation is deBcient. 

OA handy method of air-testiog which gives results 
approsioiately correct) is by means of Wolpert's air tester. 
It consiata of a test-tube, on the bottom of which is a 
black mark. The test-tube is to be filled with lime water 
to a mark about an inch and a qnaiter from the bottom. 
By means of a rubber bulb and its attached glass tube^ 
the air to be tested is pumped through the lime water 
until the resulting milkiness renders the black mark 
invisible when beld over a sheet of white paper and the 
eye looks down through the test-tube. By reference to 
a table on a card that accompanies the instrument, the 
number ot bulbfuls of air used shews the number of parts 
per 10,000 of carbonic acid. The cost of the instrument 
i6 very moderate. It is shown in Fig. 21. It may be 
obtained from Codman & Sburtlefi. Boston. 

By means of the air meter, the qnantity of fresh air 
entering the room through the inlets, or leaving it through 
the outlets may be determined. The linear dischai^e for 
a given time, usually one minute, is shown by the dial. The multipli- 
cation of this linear discharge by the sectional area of the duct 
expressed in feet and fractions of a foot, gives the cubic discharge. 
This multiplied by sixty shows the quantity of air in cubic feet which 
enters or leave this particular opening in the hour. Divided by the 
figure erpressing the^number of persons in the room, and we have 
the quantity of air per hour for each. 

Various Makeshifts. — When, unfortunately, the teacher flnda 
that his Bchool-room is destitute of means for its proper venlilation^ 
there are various expedients to which he may resort to prevent in 
part Ihe evils of the lack of ventilation. The room should then be 
supplied with "window boards." These consist of pieces of board 
four or five inches wide and of a length slightly shorter than the 
sash is wide. Then, raising the lower sashes, these boards are 
placed under them. The result is a space between the two sashes 
where they overlap, through which the air enters in an upward 
direction, obviating thus much of the danger from draughts on the 
children's heads. Carefully supervised, these window boards are- 
worth considerable, though they are a sorry substitute for a good. 
system of ventilation. 

Dictized by Google 


As an efflcient temporary auxiliary to tbe window board ventila- 
tion, the school-room windows should be widely opened as often aa 
possible, — at recess, at noon, and after the closure of the afternoon 
session, — that tbe full sweep of the winds may efiect a complete 
renewal of the air. 


In any system of school-honse ventilation worthy of respect, the 
beating of the rooms and their ventilation are so intimately connected, 
that it would be difficult to consider them separately, and it is not 
desirable to do so. To ventilate a school-room properly, tbe 
incoming air must be warmed artificially before it is discharged into 
a room ; and to warm a achool-room in all its parts with an approx- 
imation lo uniformity of temperature, the current of incoming warm 
air is needed to prevent stagnation and stratification of the school- 
room air. 

Some Definitions. — Heating is said to be by direct radiation 
when the heater is placed in the room lo be heated. 

A room is heated by indirect radiation when its beater is not 
placed directly in it. but is enclosed within a space through wbicb 
fresh air is warmed, as it passes on its way to the room. 

Natural venlilation is that kind of change of air secured when 
doors and windows are allowed to remain open. An efficient 
ventilation of this kind is of course entirely impracticable the gretiter 
part of the year. 

Artificial, or forced ventilation is obtained by the employ- 
ment of some artificial means for moving tbe air. The forces the 
most frequently used for this purpose are the rarefying power of beat 
applied to air in flues and mechanical power applied through tbe 
medium of fans. 

When the force is applied in forcing air into a ropm we speak of 
the plenum method. 

When exerted in moving air from a, room the term extraction, or 
vacuum method is used to designate it. 

Temperature of Rooms. — There is a marked difference in 
tht- advice of American and European authorities as to the proper 
temperature for the school-room. For instance, at a rather recent 
meeting of a teachers' association in England, it was stated that 

Dictized by Google 


from 55° to 60° Fahrenheit is the proper temperature.* HabitnatioD 
to rooms too highly heated, and perhaps other conjoint causes, have 
rendered our school popolations unable to bear comfortably or safely 
temperatnres so low as these. It is desirable, however, to keep the 
school-room air at as low a temperature as is compatible with com- 
fort. For our pupils the temperature should be kept between 65° 
and 68° Fahrenheit. Provided the pupils' clothinf; is dry and the 
' school-joom air is fresh and pure, dpgrees of temperature between 
these extremes will be comfortablt: aud mure conducive tu health than 
higher degrees. 

Uniformity of temperature in all parts of the room U greatly to be 
desired. It can be obtained in a well ventilated room ; it cannot be 
had in a room in which a proper rotation ( t ihe mass ot the air is 
not provided for by the ventilating arrangementi'. The difference 
in temperature nea ' the floor and near the Cfiling should be but a 
very few degrees. 

When the incoming warmed air is only moderately heated a 
uniformity of temperature at diSerent lev<U is mnctr more easily 
m^ntained. There are also other important reasons why the heater 
sbonld deliver the air at a very moderate temperature, — a tempera- 
ture that we are told by Rietschelt should not exceed 30° C. (86° 
F.), and that in some of the best work In this country does not 
exceed this. 

Location of Inlets. — Though an ample quantity of fresh 
warmed air enters the school-room and a correspondingly large 
quantity is withdrawn from it hourly, a faulty location of inlets and 
outlets m&y defeat the attempt to secure adequate ventilation. 

The inlt-t should be placed on tlie inner wall of the school-room 
because in most cases it is less expensive to so place it, and, as will 
be seen farther on, because this location is the most favorable to an 
equable distrihaiion of the incoming air. 

The inlet should not be placed iu ihe floor, because, when thus 
placed, dirt and dust fall through it and are returned by the cnrrent 
of warm air that should be pure air, but which becomes, by this 
arrangement, flUhy air. 

The inlet should not be placed at or below the level of the heads 
of the pupils lest disagreeable draughts be felt by the nearer pupils. 

•Soidury Rseord X, 617. LoDtiOD, ISS8-SB. 

fLQltuIiE niid HelEDDg von BchaleD, p. 6«. Berlin, IBM. 

Dictized by Google 


No matter at what height the narm air is iDtroduced, its immediate 
deatination is the ceiling. To get it there at oacs with no Idcod- 
venieDce to ttie occupaDts of the room, and preserve its purity, 
the warm air duct shoald carry it to the inlet placed at a height of 
aeven or eight feet at least. 

Location of Outlets.— The outlet for the foul air ahuuld be 
placed Id the eatne inner wall with the inlet, benea b, or nearly 
beneath i', and close to the floor. Thus located we get the best* 
possible distribntion of air in the room, we draw fropi Ibe lower, 
dusty, and impure portion of air next to the floor, we secure the 
greatest economy of heat by removing the cooler lower portion, we 
have a better draaght in the ventilating flues by having them in the 
wartner inner walls, and we simplify ihe construction of the ven- 
tilating arrangements. 

Outlets near the ceiling are eitravagantly wasteful of fuel by let- 
ting the warmed air escape immediately, before it has come down 
to the breathing level of the pupils. 

Outlets in the wall opposite to the inlets permit the air to escape 
before it has made a complete revolution : a more or less stagnant 
air space fills the central and lower part of the room. 

With the inlet and outlet both located in the inner wall opposite 
the outer window wall, as has been advised, we secure the most 
favorable conditions for a complete circulation of the whole mass of 
air in the room. The warm air as it enters the room has an upward 
Impnlse due to its lighter specific gravity than that of the air of the 
room generally. Reaching the ceiling it gradually flows outward 
to the cooler walls and, falling si )wly, it acquires an accelerated 
downward momentum as it passes the colder windows. We thus on 
the inner side of the room have an upward, and on the outer side a 
downwaid force exerting themselves to rotate the whole mass of air 
in the room. This rotary mixing up of the air ensures the least 
possible difference between the temperature of the air at the ceiling 
and that at the floor, and brings the fresher air of the room down- 
ward and then backward across the breathing line where the pupils 
can use it. 

Size of Inlet and Outlet. — The flues for supplying fresh air 
to a school-room should, stated roughly, have a cross section, 
undiminished at any point by register faces or otherwise, equal to 
about twenty square inches to each occupant. The dischai^e 
ducts should be somewhat la^er for the reason that the air in them 

Dictized by Google 


will be cooler and therefore its movemeat will be te^s rapid than 
that of the sappl;- From an examination of the "Flans for Ventila- 
tioa" given farther on, a more authoritative presentation may be 
gathered on this aod other points. 

Open Fireplaces. — Open fireplaces are hardly thought of 

Dow-B-days as the sole dependence in heatiog school-rooms. As 

, only from ten to twenty per cent, of the heat generated in tbem is 

utilized in warming the room, they are very waetefal of fuel, and 

their value as ventilators for the school-room is often over- rated. 

Stoves. — A naked, unjacketed stove which heats the room 
by direct radiation is altogether unfit for use in school-rooms. 
In connection with it there is no adequate provision for the supply 
of fresh air, it fails to set the air of the room in motion sufificiently 
to equalize the temperature at different parts of iti consequently the 
pupils farthest removed from the stove are often freeziug while those 
nearest to it are suffering with the heat. 

Jacketed Stoves. — In a ventilating jacketed stove, the local 
heater is surrounded with a casing or jacket, betweeu which and the 
heating surface there is a apace opening into the room at the top 
and commnnicating at the base with the outer air by means of a 
fresh air duct. By means of this arrangement the fresh air is 
warmed as it passes upward into the room between the stove and its 
jacket, and a steady stream of fresh warmed air flows into the 
room. Moreover, this ascending stream of fresh warm air sets the 
general mass of air in motion and lends strongly to equalize the 
temperature of the room. 

The results attained with jacketed stoves have sometimes been 
unsatisfactory for the reason that the requirements of local beaters 
of this kind have been imperfectly understood, — the capacity of the 
stove to pass air through it has been too limited, the Iresh air inlet 
has been of too contracted proportions, or some other error in con- 
struction, has rendered the apparatus incapable of delivering the 
required quantity of fresh warm air to the room, or of othetwise 
doing satisfactory work. 

So far as I know the first systematic attempt to determine the 
conditions under which jacketed stoves may be expected to supply 
the large quantity of air needed in school-rooms and to warm it to a 
degree of comfort was made in Lynn, Mass., under the supervision 
of Dr. J. G. PInkham. The following text and illustrations taken 
from a paper by Dr. Pinkham entitled "The Ventilation of School 

Dictized by Google 


Booms by Stoves,"* describe the arrangements nsed by him and 
show the results in veatilating work : 

"Red Rook Street School-House.— This is a brick building 
of good constTDCtion and in a healthy locality. The ventilating 
apparatus was put into it daring the summer of 1*^86, and the 
-description which follows is from the report of the committee on 
sanitation for that year : 

There are in each room two large stoves (Barstow's 'Puritan', 
No. 18), one on each side of the room near the fi-ont. Each stove 
is encased in a galvanized iron jacket about six and one-half feet 
high, with a spreading base. Air is admitted to the space between 
the stove and its jacket by an sir-box running through the side wall, 
the opening for each stove having a sectional area of four and one- 
balf sqnare feet, being large enough for the whole air supply of the 
room. Iq cool weather one stove in each room is used ; in cold 
weather both stoves. 

There are two extraction flues, built in one stack, at the rear of 
the building, one with a sectional area of 6.2 sqnare feet for the 
upper room, and one with a sectional area of 4.1 square feet for the 
lower room. They are of brick, and in an inner corner of each is a 
fire-clay smoke pipe connecting with the stove pipes. These smoke 
pipes end at the level of the chimney top, and the wbole is covered 
with an irou cap, like an Emerson ventilator, but rectangular. For 
heating the flues one of D. W. Cushing's "Ring Cylinder" stoves is 
set into the with, or partition between the flues, projecting Into each. 
The flues are enlarged opposite the stove to compensate for the 
-obstruction of its bulk. As the cellar does not extend under the 
rear of the building the flues end at the floor level of the loner room. 
The openings from the rooms into the extraction flues are made at 
this level, from the lower room directly through the wall, and from 
the upper room by means of a thirty-inch tin pipe, running down 
beside the stack, from the upper floor. The flue-heating stove is 
set about three feet above the low^ floor, and access to it is had 
through an iron door opening into the school-room. Most of the air 
withdrawn from the rooms goes through lai^e openings close to the 
atack i tbe remainder (15 or 30 per cent.) is drawn through ducts 
under the back platform, and thence into tbe extraction flues. The 
total area of outlet openings from each room is about equal to tbe 
seetionat area of its extraction flue. All outlet openings are covered 
with wire netting of about one inch mesh. Inlets ou outside of 
building are protected by boxing and fine netting. 

Tbe illustrations which follow will make this description plain. 
All dimensions are given in the floor-plan and sections. The 
-capacity of the lower room is 10,700 cubic feet, that of the upper 
12,040 cubic feet, allowance being made for chimney, platforms, 
atoves and jackets, but none for lurniture or persons. The air space 
per scholar, using the average attendance during the winter term of 
1886 as the basis of * calculation, is for the lower room one hundred 

'Mnaleeiilh Aooakl Sepoit ol the Bute Bonnl ol Heitltb of MnwuhnieCU. IBS7. 

Dictized by Google 



and Dinety-fotir cabio feet, for the apper room tvo hDDdred and 
forty cubic feet. The actnal air space eojoyed by eacih popil in any 
school varies, of coarse, from time to time with the number in 
attendance. The average age of the papits in the lower room is 
seven years, nine months ; in the upper room nine years, six months. 

uJ 5 


o s 

D,i.,.db, Google 


The resolts at this scbool-bouse h&ve been most excellent, as shown 
by cbarts A and B, and the accompanying tables. There was no 
difflcnlty in managing the apparatus after iu woiking was fully 

Visitors to the school note the seeming purity of the air, and the 
teachers bear simitar testimony. 

Dictized by Google 






Dictized by Google 


MeBsarements of the outflowlog ftir have been made at various 
times. These show an average for the lower room of 103,510 cubic 
feet per hour, or about 2,100 cubic feet to each pupil ; for tlie apper 
room 84,664 cubic feet, or about 1 ,900 cubic feet to each pupil. In 
making these estimates tbe cubic cont«nte of the rooms were added 
to the outflow, and the average attendance of the pupils employed 
as a factor. 

It is probable that in mild weather these figures would be some- 
what reduced. The; might be considerably reduced, and still leave 
quite a liberal supply for pupils of the ages specified if the commonly 
received views as to the amount required are correct. It is intended 
that tbe fire shall be kept burning in the flue-heating stove at all 
times, except in warm weather. In this way the air supply may be 
kept up when tbe jacketed stoves are not iu use." 

March 7, 1887, with fifty-eight persous present, the weather clear 
and the temperature out of doors ranging from 80° to 34° Fahren- 
heit, the discbarge of air from the lower room varied from 94,000 to 
122,000 cubic feet. Samples of air taken at various times during 
the forenoon session showed 4.71, 5.20, 4,26 and 4.82 parts respec- 
tively of carbonic acid per 10,000 parts dl air. The resulu in 
the upper room with fifty-two persons present, were not quite so 

Baltimore Street School-House. — This is an old wooden 

building with thiu walls, and of rather loose construction. The 
looma are so arranged as to make it inconvenient to place tbe stoves 
in the front part. They were, therefore, placed in the back part, 
OS shown in the illuatralions. Those in the lower room are enclosed 
in a double jacket, and placed directly in front of the chimney. The 
fresh air is admitted to a chamber underneath the platform, and from 
thence is conducted to the jack>;i, traversing both stoves before its 
escape into tbe rix>m- !□ the upper roam the stoves are surrounded 
by cylindrical Jackets and placed one on each aide of the chimney. 
The smoke pipes open directly into the flues. The foal air from 
both rooms is carried down to the bottom of the chimney by tin ducts, 
as at the Chase Avenue school-bouse. On account of the character 
of the building it was not thought best to attempt to supply so much 
air as at tbe Red Rock Street school-bouse. Hence the extraction 
flues and inlets were made somewhat smaller. Tbe diagram shows 
a section through the chimney, the stoves in tbe upper room, tbe 
foul-air ducts, etc. The view is from the front, and the stoves in 
tbe lower room are shown in dotted lines. The arrangement in this 
building has an advantage over the others in that the apparatus 
occupies but little space and is out of the way. It was put in daring 
the summer of 1887, and has hardly been in operation long enough 
to determine fully its merits or defects. Tbe observations thus far 
made, as exhibited in charts D and E and the tables, prove that the 
air of the rooms is generally pure. But they show at the qame tjme 
that there is occasionally a failure of tbe respired air to diffuse itself 

id by Google 


rapidly or to pass away from the hreathiog zone ; a fact which may 
perhaps, be accoanted for by the entrance of cold air by other chaa- 
neU than those which lead to the store jackets. Sacb an event 

Dictized by Google 



would DOt only keep the floor cold, but vould cause the air id the 
middle of the room to remain more or leu staf!;naDt at times, — in 
fact, to give ne the results showQ bj certain of the air analyses. 
That this is true, a brief consideration of the physical laws which 
control the movementa of air under such ctrcumatances will make 
apparent. Samples of air taken at different altitudes from near the 
middle of the lower room, December 31st, gave the following 
results : — 

Just before recess, at floor, 8.29 parts of carbonic acid to ten 
thousand volumes of air; atthe breathing line of pupils, 13.66 parts; 



Dictized by Google 


at the ceiling, 6.16 parts. Near the dose of the BeesioD, at floort 
4.16 parts; at the breatbiag line, 6.51 parts; at the ceiling, 7.64 
parte. The daj was an extremel; cold one, and as the fires had not 
received proper attentioD in the morning the room did not get fairly 
warmed until after ten o'clock. The upper ventilator in the chimnej 
had also been left open during the earl; part of the seasion, allowing 
the pure, warm air to escape in the moat direct way pt^aible. 
When the room is well warmed, as on February 23d, the date of the 
observations shown in the chart, the air is thoroughly diffused. 
This appears to be pVoved by the constant purity of the air at the 
breathing line, a fact which ihf analyses of tbat date show- 
Advantages of the System. — The advantages of this 
system of beating and veniilatiag school-rooms may be briefly sam- 
marjzed as oUows : — 

1. It is extremely simple, and can be easily applied to that large 
class of school buildings which it is conveDieut or practicable to heat 
by atoves only. 

2. Wben the conditions of success are observed, it is possible to 
secure perfect, or nearly perfect, ventilation by this method. 

3. The position of the Btovf>s in the school-room prevents any 
waste of heat. When arranged as at the Red Bock IStreet scbool- 
honse ibe whole apparatus is under immediate supervision of the 
teacher, who can attend to U without leaving the room. 

4. The beating of the rooms is more satislactory than with the 
UDJacketed stove, or the hot-air furnace. The disadvantf^es of the 
stove, as commonly u?ed, are well known. No provision is made 
for a supply of fresh air, uud the temperature is very unequal in 
dillerent parts of the room. The ordinary furnace supplies a small 
amount of highly heated air. When tbe heat becomes too great, 
registers are dosed, and tbe fresh air supply, what there is of it, is 
thus sbnt off. By the jacketed sioves, as used in Lynn, a large 
amount of moderately heated air is furnished, and there is little 
danger o! over-heating. The jackets around the stoves protect 
thoK sitting near from the direct or radiant beat. 

Expense of the System. — This includes the cost of oon- 
struction and of maintenance. The cost of the improvements at tbe 
Red Rock Street school-house was £567.77 ; of those at ibe Balti- 
more Street school-bouse, $554.56. At the Chase Avenue school- 
bouse $418.16 wa>< originally expended, but subsequent changes 
considerably increased the cost. Quite a large part of tbe first cost 
came from the necessary tearing down and building up again. It is 
notoiiously espeneive to make changes in completed buildings. The 
schonl-house mechanic, who hasbad a general oversight i>r ilie work 
of makine these improvements, estimates that if put in duiing tbe 
process of construction the apparatus in a two-room building would 
not cost more than 835i' ; m a one-room building, $225. Tbe 
changes could probably be made in an old one-room building for 
9350. When the arrangements form part of the original plan of a 
school-house, they are likely to be much more satisfactory than when 
added afterwards. 

Dictized by Google 


The cost of maiatenaace involves «n increased oultay for janitor 
service and for fuel. In country districts where the fires are cared 
for hy the voluntary service of tuacher and pupils the former item ie 
not lo he reckoned. In Lynn an extra allowance ot fifty cents per week 
for each additional stove is made during tbe season when ibe fires 
are in operation. This amounts to something near $iO per year for 
each building of two rooms. 

From our experience thus far it is difficult to form an exact esti- 
mate of the increased cost of fuel. Tde coal and woiid ate supplied 
to the city on contract, the bins beinij; Slled up when necessary. It 
is certain tbat the consumption of fuel increases somewhat in propor- 
tion to the amount of fresh air sup[)lied. At the Chase Avenue 
school-house, as nearly as cin be ascertained, from five to six tons 
more of coal have been burned each year since the ventilatiDg 
apparatus was put in than before. It would be n.E far from the 
trath if we should reckon ths increased uou of fuel tor the building 
at $30 per year, or 815 for each room. This added to the increased 
outlay for janitor service makes $35 pjr room, — surely not an 
es'Tavagant sum to pay for anything so necessary to health as 
^ure air. 

The Conditions of Success.— l. The first point to be 
mentiuDed under ttiis bead is that the building should be of good 
construction. It is not uncommon for school-houses to admit air 
freely, not only around doors and windows, but even directly througb 
the walls. Much a defect in structute is a serious obstacle to the 
success ol this plan of heating and ventilating Hrick is abetter 
material for walls ihan wood, because it is not so good a conductor 
of heat. In the case of wooden buildings a laier of tarred paper 
under the clapboards and back- plastering ihe walh are suggested as 
expedients for keeping air out and heat in. Double windows, or 
windows with double frames, miubt be used. Floors should be 
double and well laid. The underpinning should be tight, and there 
should be no dampness under the building. When an old school- 
house is to be ventilated in this wny, a few hundred dollars mighty 
in many instances, be profitably spent in the direction indicated 

i. The extraction flues should be of a size proportionate to the 
amount of air to be removed. Those at the Eed Rock Street school- 
house are suggested as models. In order to produce a saii.'ifactoiy 
draught in them it is necessary that ihey receive a larger amount of 
heat than that derived from the smoke pipes. If a stove be used 
for this purpose, as in Lynn, it should be set into the partition 
between the flues in such a way as to supply an equal amount of 
beat to each. The partition between the flues should be made tight 
around the stove. When the fire is in operation the duor into the 
chimney should be kept shut. Other methods of beating the flues 
might be used, — a gas-jet, for instance. The experiment of using 
kerosene- burners at the Chase Avenue sobool-bouae was abandoned 
on account of the disagreeable smell produced. 

Dictized by Google 


3. Tbe foul air should be discharged into the flue at ibe bottom, 
or at any rate below tbe space where ibe flue-beatiug stove or burner 
is placed. The attempt at tbe Chase Avenue sehool-houae to pro- 
dace a dralt by applying heat at tbe bottom of the flues, while the 
foul air w&i let into them at tbe floor level of the rooms did not 
prove salisfactory. Indeed, a theoretical study of the problem 
might have shown that this was likely to be the ease ; for aueb an 
arraogement would necessitate an ascending and a descending cur- 
rent of air, with more or less of irregular movement and conflict, in 
the lower part ot the flues. 

4. The combined area of the outlets from the rooms into the 
flues, making allowance for registers, wire netting and other means 
of obstruction, should be somewhat greater than that of the extrac- 
tion flue on cross section. They should open as directly as possible 
into tbe due, or into ibe duit hading toi'. To take the foul air 
from numerous openings, or from different parts of the room, 
materially impedes the outflow, while it does not appear to aid in 
the distribution of tbe pure air. 

5. The stoves should be situated near the sides of tbe building, 
in order that it may not be necessary to convey tbe cold air for » 
long distance under the floor. To do this would he to produce more 
or leas coldness of the floor, an evil to be avoided. 

6. The inlets should each he large enough for the total air supply 
of the room, so as to be sufflcieut when only one stove is in use. 
The space within the jacket, around tbe base of the stove should be 
equal to the inlet. No air-duct can be considered larger than its 
smallest part. 

7. Lastly, teacher and janitors should be thoroughly instructed 
in regard to the working of the apparatus. Any scheme of ventila- 
tion will prove a failure if not intelligently managed. 

The Puritan Jacketed Stoves.— Once at the office of the 
Barstow Stove Company, Boston, and just on tbe point of going to 
Lynn, tbe writer suggested to that flrm the need of a ventilating 
school-room beater with a capacity of warming moderately an ample 
supply of fresh air. Tbe stoves used by Dr. Pinkham were men- 
tioned incidenially. Tbe firm appears to have been interested in 
tbe idea as is made apparent by tbe fact that a representative of it 
reached Lynn as soon as I did to examine the stoves in tbe Bed 
Rock Street and other school- bouse a. Tbe result was a "Puritan 

Dictized by Google 


Jacketed Stove," asing coal as fuel, Fig. 28, and later a wood- 
btuniDg etove with the same namet shown in Fig. '£^. 

These stoves are, bo far as I kcow, the best ventilaCing stoves on 
the market, tbougb, in the coal burner, the free area for the move- 
ment of air between the etove and its jacket is rather loo small, a 
fault which I have understood the proprietors are about to remedy. 

Furnaces. —"A school-honse or auditorium furnace," says 
Prof. Woodbridge,' "shoutd be suited to the movement of large 
volumes of air through it, and furnished with ready means for chang- 
ing at wilt the temperature of tha' air without altering the volume 
of flow ; and it should at the same time be economical in the use of 
fuel, and effecUve in heating. For ecouomy in fuel the furnace 
must be one in which combustion is as complete as possible, and 
also the transference of heat from the combustion gases to the air 
to be heated ; ite fire-box should not admit of too deep a fire ; the 
combustioD chamber should be of such character and furnished with 

•A.Htthod ot Waimiag and TtatUiUng Small Seh 



flDch reqaired meaoB for the combustiOD of anbUi oed gases escapiog 
fVom the coals as to effect their complete buroiDg ; the furnace shell 
between the hot gases and the air to be heated should be of such 

Fig. 30. 
form on both sides as to insure the iQtJmacy of contact between the 
hot gaaes and a low- temperature shell on one aide, and between it 
and the air to be heated on the other. 

"The essentials for obtaining these desiderata are a fairly shallow 
fire'box; good grates and simple means for effective stoking; a 
large combaetioD chamber, and an adequate supply of heated air 
within it for the burning of the co-nbuslible gaaes; large area of 
furnace shell, both for absorbing the heat from the hot gases and 
for yielding the same to the air. 

"For purposes of ventilation, the free area for air movement through 
the heating chamber of the furnace should be targe, and the whole 
body of air should be uniformly warmed by contact with a large and 
moderately heated surface, rather than by the mingling of highly 
heated air with other volumes of cold air, and so finally imparting 

Dictized by Google 


to the whole volume the temperature deaired. To meet these 
requiremeutB the f uruace must have a large horizontal and relatively 
small vertical extension ; its fire-box must be well protected, and 
the temperature of its shell tnnst be low. 

"The ordinary houae furnace is not well adapted to the work under 
consideration. Its shell surface is but from twenty to fifty times 
the area of its grate, whereas the ratio should be more nearly that 
between the radiating surface of a well-prop rtioned aUam system 
and its K^ate. or from one hundred and fifty to one, to three hundred 
to one." 

Gold's Hygidiail Heater. — "The general form of it is similar 
to that of a locomotive boiler. The body of the furnace is in box 
form with arch top, and contains a fairly shallow fire-box and large 
combnetioD chamber The cylindrical part of this furnace may be 
extended almost indefinitely by meaus of rings attached to the body 
of the furnace, and to each other by bolts. We have in this furnace 
a horizontal, rather than a vertical extension of surface. Beyond 
this, we have upon the body of the furnace itself and upon the ex- 
tension rings, rigidly attached to them as one piece with them, cast 
iron flanges, and attached to these flanges are spurs, or pins, which 
greatly extend ihe surface of the heater. The heating surface is, 
therefore, so large in proportion to that of the grate that it cannot 
have a very high temperature. I should say, also, that the fire pot 
is lined with brick, so that that part of the furnace cannot be highly 
healed, or it cannot be heated to anything like a red heat. 

"The external surface is abont eight times the internal, and the . 
area of the exterior surface, in such a form as this before you is 
about 100 times the area of the grate. This ratio may be made 
much larger by extending the cylindrical part of the furnace. The 
rings making up this part are very carefully put together sleeving 
closely one into the other ; and they are drawn and held together 
tightly by short bolts, so that it is practically a very tight furnace, 
and it is not especially liable to breakage by warping. 

"For completeness of combustion, which is always desirable, the 
furnace has a large combustion chamber, and the gases in rising 
from the coal, from one part carbonic oxide gas and from another 
part air, have a chance to mingle and to complete the combustion 
before coming into contact with the cool surfaces of the furnace. 
There is, furthermore, a very finely perforated plate in front admit- 
ting air, which, on striking upon and passing over the fire, becomes 
heated, so that it is quite common to see, in the rear and upper part Google 


of the furnace, the blue flame characteristic of the burning of car- 
bolic oxide gas,"* 

This heater is adapted to the burning of either wood or coal. 
Fig 31 ahowa the Hygienic Heater before its b^i(^k waits are laid, 
and Fig. 32, the same heater set in brickwoili, ihe bnt^k-work 
removed from one side to show the api>aratus. 

'Prof 8. U. Woo 

Dictzsdbv Google 


The Smith Air Warmer.— To B farcac-e iBBhown in Fig. 3$. 
Tbe m&Diifaciurer» are noir making some chaagea in the apparams 
tbat ibey claim will still more improve it as a school-room beater. 

Dictized by Google 


The Mabony Warm Air Furnace, —The manufacturers 
claims are that this furnace bas the advantage of an extensive radia- 
tiDg Burface, the proportion of heating surface to grate enrface being 
t» 80 to 1, and tbat its flues are so constructed as to distribute the 
heat equally to all parts of the heating surface. See Fig. 34. 

Dictized by Google 


The Hess "Pure Air" Furnace- — This furnace, maDufac- 
tured in Cbicago, has gained aome notoriety in the West, The 
illustratioQ, aa aeen in Fig, 35, gives the impression that the furnace 
has a large radiating surface and that it may he well adapted to 
Bchool-hotise requirements. 

Dictized by Google 


Arranged for the Board by Prof. S. H. Woodbridoe. 

The systema of warming and ventilation shown in the accompany- 
ing figures have been adapted to building plans designed wittiout 
special regard to arrangements best adapted to effective veDtilating 
«ork and simplici'y of arrangements therefor. 

The methods of ventilation shown in the plans are limited to what 
may be termed the natural as distinct from the mechanical, or 
forced, and for the reasons: 1st, That many school committees 
oppose carrying a eleam pressure in boilers within school buildings 
sufficient to run an engine, and 2d, that the services of an attendant 
capable of rnnning and properly caring for an engine and fan 
mechanism would demand higher wages than school committees 
feel justified in paying for janitorial services in small buildings, and 
^d, that water power can be advantageously substituted for steam 
only when the pressure in the supply main is high, and the water 
rates are low. When water is sapplied through reservoirs into which 
it is pumped by steam, its price may be anywhere from fifteen to 
thirty cents per thousaod gallons. At twenty-five cenls a thousand it 
costs as much per cubic foot as illuminating gas at $1.87 per thou* 
sand cubic feet. 

A fair average for work done on every cubic foot of air moved 
through an easy working mechanical system of ventilation is ten 
foot pounds. For supplying a school of 200 scholars with a per 
capita air quantity of 2000 cubic feet per hour, the power expendi- 
ture would at that rate of work be 66,666 foot pounds per minute. 
If the water pressure were 40 pounds, and the efficiency of the 
motor were 70 pei*eent., the volume of water required per minute 
would be 16.5 cubic feet or 990 cubic feet per hour. If the water 
pressure were 80 pounds, 8.25 or 495 cubic feet of water per hour. 

Thus, while water power maj' be reasonably chosen on the score 
of safety and lower cost of attendance, its use is, under the stated 
conditions, much more costly than that of steam, especially when 
tbe steam escaping from the engine running a fan can be used for 
beating purposes. If only so low a proportion of the "live steam's" 

Dictized by Google 


heat as 90 per cent. Is available in the exhaust ateam for heating 
purposes, and if four pounds of coal per hour are required to gener- 
ate the steam necessary to develop one horse power of work delivered 
through the engine to the fan, then 8 pounds of coal per hour 
represents the cost of fuel required for power as agsiast the 990 or 
the 495 cubic feet oi irater. 

The cost of electric service for motor work varies with localities 
and the work done. Ten cents per hour per horse power is a fair 
price for small work. The cost for such work as that above men- 
tioned would, at this rate, be twenty cents per hour, as against the 
cost of lO'iO or 500 cubic feet of water or 0.80 of one pound of coal. 

The greater Buret; and equableness in ventilating work attainable by- 
mechanical power, because of its comparative freedom from the dia- 
turbing actioo of winds ; the readiness of control of the volume and 
the direction of air movements made possible by its use ; the rela- 
tively small size of Sues required and the adf ptability of a fixed size 
of flues for all weathers and other variable conditions, give to forced 
ventilation such advantages that its use should be abandoned only 
when considerations of safety or economy can be clearly shown to 
outweigh those in its favor. 

In the working out of the accompanying plans it has been aaanmed 
that the cousideration of mechanical ventilation could not be enter- 
tained in connection with the buildings for which ventilating designs 
have been asked. The aim of this study has been to embody such 
features in all the plans aa seem essential to effective, reliable 
and economical work under the given conditions. These are : — 

First — Generous inlet areas, so located as to reduce to a practical 
minimum all interference of wind with the ventilating work. To 
this end the inlet windows should be so placed as to be exposed to 
wind action from whatever quarter it may blow. Their aggregate 
area should be such that in quiet weather the air entering all the 
windows with moderate velocity will furnish a« abundant supply 
for the building. The area of each windward exposure should be 
such that nnder the pressure of wind a full supply of air can enter 
on that side alone. 

Second — The use of check valves, so arranged as to admit the air 
freely on the windward side of the buildings, and to prevent ita 
escape on the leeward side. These valves may be made of the 
lightest gossamer rubber cloth, which because of lightness and 
smoothness and imperviousness, is well suited to the purpose. Ita 

Dictzsdbv Google 


lightDesa offers tittle reeistauce to the moTeaient of air ; its smooth- 
Deas prevents the accumulatioa of dust ; and its impervioasness pre* 
vents Uie leakt^e of air. If arranged as shown in Fig. 38, Group I, 
their action will be found noiseless. For use in places where the 
cnrrents are strong enongh to produce Dapping and noise, closely 
wovep and light weight woolen stuff may be used rather than rubber 

Third — Lai^e and direct air conduits from inlet windows to the 
heaters at the base of the warm air ducts supplying air to rooms. 
So far as practicable these conduits should be large chambers rather 
than "cold -air- boxes." Inlet and conduit areas should be so large 
as to virtually place the whole out of door atmosphere at the dis- 
posal of the beating and ventilaiiog apparatus. The quantities of 
air moved upward lo the rooms from the beaters should be controlled 
by valves between the heaters and the rooms, raiher than by damp- 
ers between the healer and outer air. 

Fourth — The placing of the furnace and its smoke flue and other 
hot pipes within the cold air chamber. The heat yielded from the 
walls of a boiler or a ftirnace casing is by this means given to the air 
moving to the rooms, as is also that yielded by so much of the smoke 
pipe as can be brought within ihe chamber, hi the case of steam 
heating, the steam mains are ran as far as practicable within the 
chamber, and are not covered. 

Pifik — Such area of warm air flues as to allow a sufficient flow of 
air for the ventilation of the rooms when the outside air is at or near 
50° F. 

A ventilating apparatus should be planned for the mioimum 
inside and outside temperature difference, and the heating appara- 
tus for the maximum temperature difference under which the sys- 
tems are to be depended upon for ventilation and for warming. 
Means must therefore be provided for the effective and easy regu- 
lation of air flow and of temperature, according to conditions of 

When the outside temperature reaches the upper limit, the ven- 
tilating ducts must have their maximum carryln'g capacity, or area 
of cross section, and the heating system must be working at its 
minimum capacity. In cold weather these conditions must be re- 
versed. The effective or working area of the flues should therefore 
be variable within a range corresponding to inside and outside 
temperatnre differences. 

Dictized by Google 


Id the plans presented such variation of flue area is made po3- 
sible by simple means. The flues are given a size adapted to venti- 
lating work when the motive pressure, due to the dieference between 
inside and outside -temperature, is least. In the coldest weather 
the switch dampers at the bottom of the flues can be so placed as 
to cause all the air entering the flues to pass through the heater, 
whether steam pipes or furnace- The size of the area for that flow 
is made such that under the most favorable conditions for strong 
draught the volume of air moved will be that required for venwla- 
tioQ. When, on the other hand, the outside temperature reaches 
the upper limit, the opening of the switch valve enlarges the area 
for the entrance of air into the flues to the full capacity of those 
flues, warm air flowing slowly through the heater, and cool air 
through the freer area of the flue bottom- 
When the outside temperature is above 50° or 55° it is not advisa- 
ble to rely on artificial ventilation alone, unless such ventilation ia 
mechanical, that is by means of fans, or artificial motive power. 
Artificial ventilation is at best but a far off imitation of and a poor 
substitute forthe natural ventilation of summer, when windows and 
doors may be open to entering breezes and escaping volumes of air 
ten or a hundred fold larger than could be moved and distributed 
through a building by any practicable system of artificial ventilation. 
The windows of a school-house, as of any other building requiring 
free ventilation, should be provided with transoms hinged at the 
bottom and mounted to swing inward, when necessary, and furnished 
with protecting side pieces to prevent the lateral discharge of air. 
So far as practicable such windows should be opened only on the 
windward side of rooms. When these are open the entering air will 
be given an upwai-d direction and will mingle with the warmer ceil- 
ing air before setting floorward, and will reach the occupants with 
the least possible draught effect. The steam apparatus, or the 
furnace would at such times furnish heat for warming the air passed 
in partly through window tops rather than entirely through the cold 
air chamber, the mixing of cold and warm air being effected within 
the rooms rather th^n within the flues. 

Sixth — The use of diffusers at the point of inlet to the rooms. 
The purpose of this device is to prevent the movement of the air 
in contracted and continuous current across a room. Such a current 
is not favorable t<) a uniform distribution of the air supplied, and 
tends, strongly to draught production, and the more so as the tem- 
perature of the air supplied is low. 

Dictized by Google 


The aim of the diffuser is to divide the entering air current into 
half a dozen or more part^, and to give to each part an independent 
direction, so causing the air to more immediately reach different 
and widely separated parts of the room, and, by sending but & 
fractional part of the air in anyone direction, to reduce the liability 
to drauf^lit effects. 

Seventh — The provision for warming the building preparatory to 
use by the rotation of contained air, rather than by the heating of 
cold air taken from outside. By this means the warmth of night 
fires, banked or slowly mulling, may be made effective toward 
maintaining the building's warmth, and the morning heating may 
be mnch more rapidly effected than by supplying out of door and 
cold air to the heaters, and also with a much less consumption of 

To make such rotation rapid the air movement must be free, con- 
duits large, and frictionai reei-^tance low. An inspection of the 
plans will make it appear that the channels for the air's return to 
the heaters are as large as halls, stairways anil doors will admit wf. 

Eighth — Large discharge lines furnished with dampers tor the 
regulation of air flow, or for closing the flues when ventilation is 
not required. 

When llie motive power producing air flow is chiefly in the supply 
branch of the system, larger flues must ordinarily be provided for 
discharge than for supply. The temperature of the discharge flue 
Is lower than that of the supply, and the velocity of air flow is 
correspondingly less, and areas must be inversely as velocities. 
Furthermore, the effect of successive enlargement and contraction 
of channel from the supply flue to the discharge flue should be 
offset by reducing the work required to reimpart motion to the air 
at the entrance to the dischai^e flue. 

If the flues are not made sufBciently large, they must be heated 
to the point necessary to produce the velocity required to move the 
desired volume of air. When the contraction of a vent flue is due 
to the presence of a smoke pipe within it, the imparted heat may 
compensate for diminished area and inei-eaeed friction unless they 
are disproportionate or the pipe and the flue temperature are not in 
effective adjustment. It is not, in these plana, considered effective 
beyond compensating for its own presence. 

No general provision is made for the further heating of the dis- 
charge flues, since they are proportioned for doing the required 

Dictized by Google 


veDtUating work when the outside temperatare ia not higher than 
50." Bat one ex&mple of vent flue beatii^ ia shown. 

ifiniA— Provision for warming feet and drying clothing. On 
economic and hygienic grounds it is best, for purposes of ordinary 
school-room ventilation, to locate the inlet for fresh air in the upper 
half of the room. One r< ason for this arrangement ia the avoidance 
of dranghte produced by a strong and continuous inflow of air. 
The more free the ventilation the cooler the air supply must be, and 
the cooler the air the greater the necessity for elevating the currents 
above the occupied part of the room as well as for diffusing it aa 
thoroughly as possible. If heating rather than ventilation i? 
desired, the warm air should, for ibe best results, be entered iiori- 
zoQtall; at the floor. The hallways require thorough warming 
rather than free ventilation, and in them therefore, the register 
should be located at the floor. An additional reason for placing 
the hall registers at the floor is ihat the occupants should be able 
to warm feet and dry clothing by a more rapid process than is pos- 
Bit)le in the still air of a room however comfortable its temperature. 

Tenth— The use, whenever practicable, of successive ventilation. 
Separate supply and dischaige ventilation might be furnished for 
the halls, the school-rooms, the wardrobes, the play-rooms and the 
water-closets. By such a method of ventilation the air supplied 
to the balls would for the most part escape unused, whereas if it 
were passed on to the school -rooms, it could be made to serve the 
double purpose of ball and r om ventilation. The air within a 
well-ventilated school-room is abundantly pure for the ventilation 
of a wardrobe. If suitable for breathing, it must be equally so for 
airing clothes. The school-room air may, for this purpose, be in 
part vented through the wardrobe. So also in case of the play- 
rooms, — if the basement rooms are used for that purpose, — they 
may in cold weather take their supply from the halls, and the water- 
closets may in turn be supplied from the play-rooms. The succes- 
sive movements must always be, as described, from the better 
toward the worse, — as from hall, through school-room, via wardrobe 
to vent, — or from hall through play-room via water-cloaet to vent. 

By a well planned application of the successive method effective 
ventilation of several apartments may be secured by the use of a 
smaller volume of air and at a cost considerably lower than would 
be possible were the apartments equally well ventilated by inde- 
pendent means. 

-Dictzsdbv Google 


Eleventh — The heating is made entirely indirect, so making the 
warming of the rooms dependent on and inseparable from ventilation. 

A combination of direct and indirect heating has its chief advan- 
tage in the effective means it furnishes for warming rooms on the 
windward side of buildings, so making the equable warming of a 
building less subject to the interfering effect of wind action, an 
action which of ten seriously affects the flow of air through flues, and 
the distribution of its contained warmth throughout a building. 
The objection to the use of direct heat is, chiefly, the liability to 
its abuse. False notions of economy on the part of school com- 
mittees, the willingness of janitors to win favor with school boards 
by reducing fuel consumptiou to a minimum, their temptation to 
lighten labor by heating with the least tolerable ventilation, — 
since free ventilation of Bchool-houses requires more active fires, 
fifty per cent, more fuel combustion and closer attention to and 
work upon flres than does the heating of a box-tight building — all 
tend to ihe misuse of direct heating. The sole purpose of direct 
heating in combination with a ventilating system should be to 
furnish heat for warming air forced by wind pressure through walls 
and windows — or to warm the rooms where wind action interferes 
with the flow of warm air to the windward rooms through the supply 

The aim in the arrangement of the ventilating furnishment for 
the buildings whose plans have been submitted for the incorpora- 
tion of such systems has been to reduce the adverse effect of wind 
to a minimum, and to make its action as far as possible co-operative 
with ventilating work. 

Were forced ventilation employed, and also automatic means for 
controlling the admission of steam to radiators, and so the temper- 
ature of rooms, the method to be recommended would be that of 
passing air to all rooms at the lowest temperatni'e required for the 
proper warming of the rooms most easOy warmed, and of adding 
the heat needed in other rooms by direct radiators within them and 
nnder automatic control. 

Dictized by Google 


Fig. 96 shows basement plan for an eight room bailding. 
■pace included betweeo the oorridor walla ie appropriated to 
porposes of heating and ventilation. It should have a dear hel 
of at least twelve feet. Its floor shonld be of good oonorete ^ 
facing of Portland cement. Its ceiling shonld be wire lathed 
plastered. Within this space are shown two thirty horse power 
pressnre boilers, the fire-room and the coal-hold. The air inl 
provided with check valves, are shown at A, A, A, and C, 0. 
ceilings of the ooal-hold and of the fire-toom should be two 
lower than the ceiling of the air chamber, so that a passage of li 
area ma; be provided for air movement between the front and 
rear parts of the chamber. The st&irwaya to the playrooms 
separated from the air chamber by the partitions shown, and i^ 
placed in those partitions are available for use in warmiog 
bnilding by the rotation method. 

The heating surfaces at the bottom of the flues should be so n 
np as to provide an effective free area for air movement equa 
one-tbird that of the flue with which it is connected. Tbe ac 
free area may be larger than that prescribed, if its character is i 
as to reduce the freedom of air flow through it. 

The form of coil best suited to the condltioas of apace and v 
here found is one made np of 100 one-inch pipes five feet li 
arranged ten pipes broad and ten pipes deep, the lower end bt 
connected with steam chests, and the other in pairs by return bei 
Nason tubes should not be used for this work. 

These coils may be made in three sections, the two lower onei 
four pipes each, and the uppermost of two pipes, and each Beet 
having its own supply valve and independent discharge. 

The area of opening between the top of tbe upper steam ci 
and the bottom of the flne wall should be made equal to one-tl 
the area of the ci'osb section of the fine under which the coi 
placed. See Fig. 37. 


D,i.,.db, Google 



Fig. 37. 

The water-closets are shown yented through indepeadent pipes 
extending to and through the roof, and connected with the seats for 
the parpose of effecting a stror^ local ventilation. See Group ii, 
Fig 45. At the bottom of these pipes ahoald be placed a gas burner 
of twelve cubio^feet capacity. See Group ii, Fig, 42 Gas is 
recommended rather than steam, because ventilation of the room is 
most needed when steam is least required for heating the building. 

If the basement rooms are to be used for recreation purposes, 
they may be ventilated during recess time by connectins them with 
the vent shafts used by the rooms immediately above them. These 
four discbai^ [flues may, by means of proper connections and 
switch valves, be made to ventilate the playroom during recess and 
the school-rooms during school sessions. The supply air at such 

Dictized by Google 


times could in cold weather, be obtaioed from the halls through tl 
elairwajB, and in mild weather fiom- out of doors tbrongh|tl 


Fig. 38. 

Fig. 39. For the movement of air from the halls into the school- 
rooms, the doors should be furnished with transoms. 

To allow the air to pass into the wardrobes from the school- 
rooms, the lower panels of the doors should be open elat work or 
coarse wire netting. 

To effect successive ventilation and to prevent the too direct 
escape of ball air, the doors from the halls into the wardrobes 
B boo Id be self-closing. 

If it is not desired to provide means for shutting air off from some 
rooms while not in use tbe diffusers at tbe inlets may be backed by 
coarse wire netting, not finer than one-fourth inch mesb, [instead of 
registers witb valves. For the setting of diffusArs and gratings, 
wooden frames of at least one Inch stock and suitable width should 
be set into the brick work. The gratings which carry check valves 
should be held in place by screws for easy removal when adjustment 
or repair of the checks may be required. 





Fig. 41. On this plan is sliown an arrangement of vent duct 
(lipiBg in^the attic. 

Fig. 40— DiffusorB. 
Tlie four vent flaea m'ght be carried out through the roof sepa- 
' rately. In that case their tope should be built up above the ridge 
I of the roof, and the central tower, shown on the furnished plans, 
I abould not be built, as its presence would en<1anger the action of 
I the flues in windy weathei-. If the flues are carried directly out, 
dampers should be placed in each of them. 

The damper or dampers should be made controllable by chains 
from the floor below, and should be provided with suitable arrange- 
ments for adjuBting and holding them in any desired position. 
I The principal use of such dampers is to control the rate of flow of 
1 air from the rooms. They also serve the purpose of preventing 
i excessive chilling of the flues when the ventilation is not in progress, 
I as at night. If dampers are not used, check valves placed on the 
! vent gratings will prevent the reversal of flow and consequent chill- 
; ing of rooms. They cannot regulate air flow. 

Dictized by Google 


Fig. 42. The same gener&l &nangementa appear in this plan u 
in Fig. 36 of Group i. The fresh air inlets are upon two sides of 
the building, and the fresh air chamber extends through the build- 
ing, occupying the middle part of the basement. The boilers and the 
smoke and steam pipes are within this chamber, as also the Sre-room, 
the ceiling of which is dropped two feet below the air chamber ceil- 
ing to form a oounectiaiZ duct between the front and the rear parts 
of the chamber. The doited lines show the position of the fire- 
room walls, these being carried to the air chamber ceiling, as also 
the two ends of the transverse wall which are outside the limits of 
the air dnct. These partitions ma; be made of one and one-half 
inch boards tinned on the flre-room side. 

For the rotation of air, for warming the building before it is 
occupied for school vorh, doors ai'e placed at the entrance to the 
playrooms, which in the plan are shown to contain the closets. 
The playrooms are in tliis ca»e piacticiilly sanitary rooms, and, 
even for purposes of warming the building, it is not desirable that 
the circulating air should be allowed an entrance iuto them and an 
after return to the building The two doors at the foot of the stairs 
should be closed at such times, but at all other t'mes they may be 
swung back against the closet partitions, to which they are hinged. 
these particular partitions extending to the ceiling for the purpoae 
of making a tight dividing wall between the sanitary rooms and the 
other parts of the building. 

Fig. 43 ^hows four floor registers in the hallway and the arrange- 
ment is sketched as offering an alternative plan with that described 
under Group i. for ball warming. Exposed hot radiators in a 
passageway, liable at any time to be crowded, are not advisable. 
On the score of personal safety, unobstincted floor space and 
effectiveness in warming and drying clothing, it is better to place 
such ra<liators under the floors and connect them with registers as 
shown in Fig. 44 

Fig. 45 represents the method recommended for the ventilation of 
the water-cloaets. The aim is lo secure a continuous downward 
flow of air in large volume through the seat. The air vents with 
which the basins or '(losets" are furnished are generally quite 
inadequate, their area being seldom more than from two to three 
square inches. The figure shows the basin under a hinged cover. 

Dictized by Google 


D,i.,.db, Google 

D,i.,.db, Google 

„ Google 


C/con Oi//- 

OcO/7 <?<//- 

Fio. 44. 

Fig. 45. 
or seat, which extends from irall to wall of the closet. The riser 
is also hinged at the bottom. B; raising the seat and dropping the 
riser, the basin and its fittings can be as much exposed as if the 
basin were adjusted for use without such covering. The clear 
space between the under surface of the seat and the top of the 
basin should be at least ooe-balf incb wide. As a closet, the 
Boston short hopper is recommended rather than the type Aown, a 
cut of which is not available at tbe moment for the sketch. The 
floors should be asphalted ; the bottom of partitions and of doora 
should not reach the floor by from four to six inches, and doors 
should swing inward and be held open by a spring except when la 

Dictized by Google 


Fig. 46 shows the metbod of attaching the goBsamer check valves 
to the vent gratings. They should be made ol the lightest rubber 


Fig. 46. 
gossamer. The strips should not be more than six inches in width, 
secured at the top to a light piece of wood one-fourth inch thick 
and one-half inch wide, or to a small and straight wire. The strip 
should be so hung that the bottom of one laps over the top of the 
one next below by one-half inch, and the ends of the strips should 
be so secured that when in use the gossamer shall not draw away 
from the ends and gather in the middle. The wooden strips or 
wire rods carrying the gossamer cloth may be wired to the face, 
which shonld be secured by screws into a wooden frame set for the 
purpose. Should the draught prove strong enough to cause noise 
by the flapping of the check valves, coarse wire netting may be 
placed behind the register face and valves, as shown in the figure. 

Dictized by Google 

D,i.i.db, Google 


Fig. 48 shows tbe basenient plan of a four roomed scbool-bouBe. 
The air chamber occupies the central part of the baeemeiit, and the 

Seeit on €C 

Fig. 48. 
air enters it from both sides of the building through valved inlets. 
The air is warmed by a battery of two Gold's Hygienic Heater^ 
placed between the main walls of the corridor. The walls of the 
air chamber are so run as to convey air to both sides of the battery, 
into which it enters through a series of openings ranged along the 

It Iha left abODld have 

n placed st tbe veot 

Dictized by Google 


baee of jtbe tfro battery walls next the air chamber. See Figures 49 
and 50. The top of the batter; bousing ia two feet lower than the 


. r f y 



f > < r ' X- 


ceiliDg of the air chamber, and the space between the top of the 
battery and the ceiling is open to the fresh air chamber at the rear 
of the battery, the fire doora of the battery beiDg at the end toward 
the foel room F. The smoke pipes from the furnaces are shown 
extended into the playrooms and arranged in trombone form along 


the walls of those rooms ftdjaoent to the battery. See Fig. 49. If 
these rooms are Dot used as playrooms, or if they do not require 
heating, these extended pipes should be placed in the air chamber. 
For heating by rotation of air, doors connecting the playrooms with 
the air chamber may be opened, as also those connecting the upper 
rooms of the building with the basement. 




id by Google 


For the wariniiig of the wardrobes, whioh ure in this osee so 
fleparated from the sohool-cooms as to be inaccessible for ventila- 
tion from the school-roomB by the auccessiTe method, a special 
. etOTC is provided, as shown in detail in Fig. 48. It takes 
air from the aii chamber, and pasaea it to the aapply duct 
shown in Fig. 51, or la case of severe weather, when the beat is 
ineuffloient for ventilation of the entire building the warmed air 
may be passed in whole or in part into the aii chamber, the quanti- 
ties moving either way being det< rmined by the position given the 
valves shown in the figure. 

If sanitary conveniences are to be placed in the basement, they 
may be vented through ducts run through the main shafts and heated 
by gas flames. The closets should then be so arranged as to admit 
of successive ventilation by taking warmed air from the playrooms, 
to which fresh air may be admitted either through windows or from 
the furnace and air chamber as circumstances may require or condi- 
tions favor. 

. Figures 49 and 50. In these figures are shown the arrangements of 
dampers for mixing the hot air of the furnace chamber with the 
cool, or cold air of the air chamber, and of flues for the supply of 
fresh air to and the discharge of vitiated air from the rooms, and 
of tlie smoke pipes within the air shafts and of the dampers near 
the top of the vent shaft. 

The area of the aperture through which the warm air escapes to 
the supply flue with which it connects should be equal to one-third 
that of the flue, and the damper should be of such size as to com- 
pletely close, (when fully open), the aperture between the cold 
air chamber and the flue. 

The areas of the several fines are shown in Figures 52 and 53. The 
diffusers are shown in better foim in another group in connection 
with whioh their construction is described and their function stated.* 

The smoke pipes from tbe furnace should be eight inches in 
diameter up to the point of their union, from which point upward the 
diameter should be ten inches. Doors should be provided at the base 
of the larger pipe for the purpose of cleaning both it and the branch 

The dampers should be arranged for easy manipulation from 
some convenient place either on the first or the second floor of the 

*B.-epsgnSI8uid nR.4a. 

Dictized by Google 



For effective wtion in all weathers the vent shaft must be can-ied 
above the ridge of the roof and the aurmonnting louvres shoald 
have a total free area equal to at least twice the area of the ohaf t. 

Fig. 51 shows the method proposed fur the ventilation of the 
wardrobes. The warm air enters at the floor level where wanted 
for the warming of feet and the drying of clothes. The air is dis- 
charged through a grating at the same level and located either 
beneath a bench with solid front and open back riser, or on the other 
side of the shaft. Connection between the wardrobe vent shaft and 
the main shaft is made by means of a pipe fifteen inches in diameter 
between the two. To insure a movementof supply air to the lower 
room throttling and baffling plates are placed in the shaft as shown 
in Section aa. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


Figures 52 and 53 indicate the arrangemeat of rooms on the first 
and second floors of the building. 

Dictzsdbv Google 





Fig. 54 BhowBabaBementarrangementfor a one-story, ttro-roomed 
Bchool-honse. The air chamber is reached by a supply duct from each 
side of the house. At & convenient point these dnots are enlarged to 
receive tlie check valves, as shown in Fig. 5. (Included in Fig. 54) . 
The beating is done by a Gold Hygienic Heater, a furnace to be recom- 
mended for ventilating work among those obtainable in open market. 
Figures 55 and 56 show details in the arrangement of the setting for 

Fig. 68. 
these furnaces. The furnace should have a grate area of at least Ave 
square feet for use in the colder parts of the State, for which the 

DKi.lizcJtv Google 


beating power of all the apparatus shown or described in this paper 
has been proportioned. The furnace shell may be extended as 
required by the addition of sections. Inside of the furnace the 
maker should place & guard to prevent the throwing of coal into and 
the accumulation of ashes within the drum of the furnace. There 
should also be placed within the furnace a plate of aacb form and 
size as to cause the hot gases to reach and beat the lower part of 
the drum through its entire length. Also, to insure a better contact 
of cold air with the furnace shell, it would be well to partially 
surround the shell and its flanges with sheet iron, separating 
it from the outer edge of the flanges by a couple of inches, 
as shown in the Bgare. To cause air of nearly equal temperature 
to be delivered through the ducts, one in the front and one in the 
rear parts of the furnace, the sheet iron jacket on that side of the 
furnace next the front duct may be carried up to the ceiling of the 
furnace housing, so compelling the air isBuing from about the front 
and hot part of the furnace to travel well toward the back end of 
the hot air chamber before it can reach the front flue. The air 
. should be admitted to the furnace through the whole extent of the 
furnace wall. The openings for the escape of warm air from the 
furnace should have an area of one-tbird that of the flue with which 
it connects. The extension of the smoke pipe within the air 
chamber is for the purpose of effecting as complete a transfer of 
heat as possible from the combustion gases to the air. By means 
of the switch valve or damper, the draught can be made direct 
whenever desirc^d, an essential to all similar arrangements described. 
For the warming of the halls and the drying of clothing, connec- 
tion is made as shown, with the furnace. The slight ascensive 
force of the warm air in so short a rise, and the resistance to flow 
through BO long and comparatively small a duct endangers the desired 
direction of air flow. A separate fire in a small jacketed stove 
beneath the register, and the connection of the lower part of the 
jacketed chamber witt the hallway by means of a 10-inch pipe 
would insure a flow of warm air into the hall. This method is to 
be recommended in all oases in which ventilation of halls or ward- 
robes is not desired. In severe weather, the stove could be used as 
an auxiliary to the furnace. The discharge flues from the rooms 
should be carried above the highest part of the roof by at least one 
or two feet, and generally higher. 

Dictized by Google 


The figures in thie group iUastrato a method of TentUftdng a two- 
storied, two-roomed school-house. The interaal arrfuigemeDte are 
such that the apparatus must be located at the rear of the building 
and of the school-rooms. The end of the basement is partitioned off 
by a wall and the enclosure ie made the air chamber. In this cham- 
ber the furnace is placed, the two parts of the chamber being con- 
nected by the space between the rear of the fnrnace and the wall of 
the building, and that between the lop of the furnace hoaaing and the 
air chamber ceiling. These connecting spaces are clearly shown in 
Fig. 63. The heated air is conducted to the flues by means of a 
curved and flatiron pipe, the sectional areaof which is one-third that 
of the flues with which it connects. SeeFig.5I. Dampers are placed 
in the branches of these ducts to effect the desired division in the 
air quantity flowing to the flues. They are shown in the two inner 
branches only, bat the other branches require them equally, for the 
reason that the outer fluea receive the hotter air escaping from the 
front part of the furnace, while the inner fines being the taller, have 
the stronger draught. The varying conditions cannot be met as 
surely by a siugle adjustment made once for all, as by trial and 
occasional readjustment as conditions require. The general 
arrangement of mixing dampers, trombone extension of the smoke- 
pipe, valved inlet windows, doors to air chamber for warming by 
rotation, are shown in Figures 58, 60 and 63. 

Dictized by Google 



Second ^ioor 

Dictized by Google 


I I I II I lll-TT 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 









I'M. II j i a 



miM m 

^ i^majig ^^jj ,L*^£^ 

Fig. 61. 

id by Google 


Figures 59, 60 and 61 show the arrangement of flues for the ventila- 
tion of the two roome, an arrangement determined in part by the 
presence of a central chimney of lirick. The irhole Byatem is 
planned to furnish means for copious ventilation. The area of the 
dual dacts to each room is, therefore, large, as is the inlet window 
area, and the capacity of the vent shaft. In the side of the supply 
flue to the second floor there is not room to place a single register 
or grating having a discharge capacity equal to the carrying capacity 
of the flue ; hence the placing of two registers in each flue, with dif- 
fusers shaped with reference to their location and the equable distri- 
bution of air through the room. 

In Figures 58 , 59 , 6 1 and 63, there is shown a 1 inch pipe connected 
with the furnace chamber and opening into the vent shaft, and far- 
nished with a damper for the control of air movement throngh the 
pipe. The purpose of this pipe is the warming of the vent flue in 
weather when the heat is not wanted for the warming of the school- 
rooms, and the flow through the vent flue is slu^is'h, conditions 
which are simultaneous. The objection to warming a vent flue by 
this method is that the entrance of the hot air, by which the wann- 
ing is done, prevents the entrance of an equal body of vitiated air 
which would be moved from the room rather than through the fur- 
nace were the vent flue equally heated by some other means than 
by the admission of heated and fresh air. Under the conditions 
named, however, and illustrated in the figure, the method is one to 
be recommended. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


Partial ^ec/ion, 
ihre' Top ^ Vent Shaft 



Fig. 62 shows a vent flue outboard termiDal adapted to accelerate 
the flow of air within the fine in windy weather, or to maintain the 
drangbt when the terminal has of necessity an nnfayorable position 
due to surroundings. The four openings, one on each side of the 
vent duct) liave an aggregate area equal to twice the area of the 
flue . These openings are covered by a frame over which is stretched 
copper wire gauze of about J" mesh. Withiu is another frame fixed 
in a position about 10° out of the vertical, inclining outward at the 
top. This frame carries a wire netting of coarse mesh, and upon 
it check valves are so bung as to allow the air to move outward 
from the shaft, and to prevent its inward movement. When there 
is no wind, the valves, hanging free from the frame, allow the air 
to move outward on all sides. When the wind moves with higher 
velocity than the outward flow rate, those valves on the windward 
side close, and the partial vacuum formed on the leeward side 
causes a correspondingly rapid flow of air from the shaft on that 
side. Tlie method is admirably adapted to overcoming the adverse 
action of wind currents about flue tops having bad exposures, as 
when below the ridge of a building, or when surrounded by higher 
buUdinge or when in the neighborhood of roof or other surfaces 
which produce disturbing eddies. The action of such a vent flue 
terminal is often so energetic as to cause a very rapid discharge 
movement of the air through the shaft. Hence the greater neces- 
sity of throttling dampers in such a flue, and an intelligent use of 
them, for it not infrequently happens that the cause of a cold room 
is its too free ventilation, a ventilation such as to exceed the heat- 
ing capacity of the boilers or furnaces. The material of which the 
valves are made should be light so that they may be easily lifted 
by the outflowing air, soft, so that their flapping may not be noisy^ 
and strong, that they may not be destroyed by their own action in 
windy weather. 

Dictzsdbv Google 



,cih, Google 



Fte 64 lo this pl.n 1. .ho™ a method for wurmtag and ventU.- 
tinj I oM-roonied;«hool-boo.e. The supply air r.aohe. a jacketed 
sto'e through r dnot beneath the «oor, the duct having three connec- 
tions with outsidelair, thtlthird being made advisable because of 
the Interfering effect of the porch, if closed in. The duct is con- 
nected with bons on the outside of the building, the boxes having 
open tops, except as tbej are capped as shorn, in the plan, and 
also In Fig 65, to protect them from rain and the check valves from 

c/>ec/r t'o/yes. 

meddling boys. The check valves are placed on the inside of wire 
gauze frames fixed to the three sides of the upper end of each box. 

D,i.,.db, Google 


In the cold air dact and near the stove U a hinge damper swnng 
from the lop of the box and manipnlated by a cord and pulley on 
the corridor wall. Fig. 66. 

In the school-room floor is a large register connected with a Inge 
sized dnot leading to the air box beneath Hie stove by means of 
which the air may be rotated for warming the room. It mnat be 
closed when the duct damper is open. 

A snfficient snrfaoe of the front and lower part of the stove 
should be left ancovered by the Jacket to furnish direct heat (or 
drying and warming clothing. 

The vent shaft is made Urge because it must be low, and the 
register face is large to reduce the velocity of flow and the liability 
of exposing the nearest seat to draught. It is imperative in this 
instance, as in all cases in which the chimney size is adapted to the 
mildest weather in which artificial ventilation is wanted, that the 
flow should be regulated by means of a damper, as shown in Fig. 67. 
The furnace pipe enters above the damper and may be given an 
extended form in tbe recess space above the stove. 

The stove shonld have a grate surface of at least two and one- 
half square feet, and blether with tbe pipe, a radiating surface of 

Dictzsdbv Google 


125 square feet, proportions not generally obtainable in the market. 
Fig. 67 is not designed to show such a stove, but only the arrange- 


^ /hon ry'i/^e o/roof. 


Fig. 67. 
menta of sapply duct, damper, reg ister connections , and j acket 
suitable for this method of ventilation. 

ictzed by Google 



The methods of excreta dieposBl adopted b; a school and the Cftre 
or careleeeness with which the necesBar; convenienceB are supervised, 
have an important bearing upon both the moral and pbyaical health 
of pupils. In no other way can bo vivid an impreBsion of the 
"ImpendiDg Faganism ia New EDglaDd" be bad as to become an 
improvised health officer and make a round of inspection of some of 
the adjancts of the schools in some of our towns. "These miserable 
sbaDties," says one New Englander who has had the welfare of 
the school population at heart, "devoid of the simplest comforts, 
besmeared with naatinesa, adorned with obscene scrawb, cannot but 
be injurious to the morals of children. No parents, could they see 
these places, would wish to have a carefully reared child frequent 
them, but there is no alternative. Ho matter how repugnant to 
delicate sensibilities these teeming monumeats of Qltb may be, chil- 
dren are forced to use them day after day, and it is do wonder that 
their finer instincts are blunted, their modesty corrupted and the seeda 
of seDsnality and vulgarity are sown." 

With a view to guarding the health of the pupils from danger, the 
method of disposal ehonld be such as to preclude the entrance into 
the school-rooms ol the gases from privies or other fixtures. 

The investigations of Erismann on the eSect that the decompo- 
sition of ezcrementitious matter has on the air led to results quite 
remarkable and worthy of being remembered. In this process of 
decomposition, oxygen is absorbed and variona gases, mostly ill- 
smelling and poisonous, are given out. He found that a privy vault 
holding eighteen cnbic meters of excreta not only absorbs a large 
quantity of oxygen, but pours forth into the surrounding atmosphere 
gases, the combined volume of which is, every twftiity-four hours, 
18,792.7 litres, or about the same number of quarts. With refer- 
ence to the character of these gases and the result of breathing them, 
the reader is reminded of what has been said in the chapter on 
"Ventilation" about "Hydrc^en Sulphide" and "Sewer and Privy 
Vault Gases." 

The school-room at least can be spared the infliction of a nuisance 
ot this kind by placing tbe outbuildings at & considerable distance ; 
or quite a degree of proximity is allowable provided some of the 
imprcved forms of conservancy are employed and that there ia & 

Dictized by Google 


reasoDabte assaraace that the; will receive auob constant manage- 
ment and care as they will require. 

Still better in every vay, when circumstances make it practicable, 
is the use of some of those modern appliances which have made it 
safe to hrinf; the conveniences into the school building itself, or into 
an annex closely conneo'^d with it. Then the inconTeniences and 
discomforts of visitti to distant outbuildings in inclement weather 
will be avoided, together with the danger of those diseases that are 
brought on by delayiag as long a^ possible to obey the calls of 

Privies. — Where nothing belter is practicable la a district a 
school ptivy is allowable provided it is properly located and con- 
structed. It should be pluced at a safe ciistance, but it is preferable 
to have it under the teacher's observation. The accommodations 
for the two sezfs should be entirely distinct, and with separate 
approaches. If in the same building, the isolation between the two 
rooms should be more Secure than that afforded by a single board 
partition. It is far preferable to have the two privies in separate 
buildings, or in the same building with a room fot fuel or other use 
interposed between the two. 

The privy vault should be entirely above the surface of the ground ; 
no excavation whatever should be made for it. This shallow catch- 
basin may be laid in cement with a foundation extending downward 
below the reach of frost, or if parsimony or necessity prevails, the 
catcbbasin may be a tight, plank box, sixteen or eighteen inches 
deep, two feet wide and of the required length, whole (v in sections. 
Before use it should receive a thorough application of hot coal tar. 

Provisions should be made lor the storage of dry earth, — common 
field or garden loam, — or sifled coal ashes, and arrangeidents should 
be made with some person to sprinkle into the catcbbasin daily a 
small quantity of this material,- — enough to ensure dryness and in- 
oSensivenesB of the collection. Arrangements should also be made 
to have this compost hauled away to a field or garden at intervals of 
ftom one to fonr weeks during term time of school. 

Sarth OlOBetS. — What has been described may well be termed 
an earth closet, — nothing less commendable should be tolerated. 
Under this beading the arrangement shown in Fignrea 68 and 69 will 
be described. In Fig. 68, a double covered walk, separated by a 
double partition, leads to the porch of the boys' earth closets on one 

Dictized by Google 


aide, and to tbat of the cIobpIs for the girls od tbe other. The size 
of each main closet room is seen at a (rl&nce, as well as the several 
dimenBioDS of the compartment'). The closet rooms ehoald be lathed 


FiQ. 68. 
aDd plastered, or siill^beiter. walls and ceiliag finished with smooth 
matched txtards. The vault, resting oa a frost-proof fonodation, is 

Dictized by Google 



bnilt ot brick laid in cemeot and oemented and asphalted on the 
inside. At the back end ot the vault there is an entrance for the 
janitor who is to keep this door securely locked. Near this door is 
a bin for dry earth. 

It will be seen by the section shown in Fig. 69 that the vault 
extends under the seat on each side and six inches beyond, and that 

'Je<T/o/f-ATA-0' ■• 

Fio. 6!>. 

Dictized by Google 


tbe boarding baclc of the seat is carried down to the floor level. 
Tbe inside of tbe riser of tbe seat should be covered with tin or zinc 
to prevent saiuration of the nood-work. The vault is open to 
the ventilator on tbe roof. Tbe closet rooms and tbe vanlt shonltt 
be of tight coDSlructioQ so that the circulation of air « ill be froiD 
tbe seat downward tbroneb tbe vault to tbe ventilator above. 

A shovel should be kept in tbe vault bv means of which the janitor 
scatters daily a small quantity of dry earth over the deposits, — ^just 
enough to keep the compost dry and inofiensive. 

Assuming the necessity of providing one seat for every twenty-five 
boys and one for every fifteen girls, this building will suffice for a 
four-room school-house with from forty to fifty pupils in eachroom. 
For smaller school buildings the length of the vaults can be 
diminished but the proportions from left to right should not be 
changed. No provisions are here shown for the boys' urinal. That 
should be placed outside of the closet building and if of the simplest 
construction with tbe admission of the action of wind and sunshine, 
and with a load of loam removed periodically and replaced with 
fresh, there will be less danger of Dui«BDce than with drain * and no 
constant water supple to flash them. 

Ventilating Drying Closets. — Fire Closets. — The 
arrangements already described are recommended for schools to 
which a constant and plentiful water supply Is not available. For 
schools under these conditions, a class of patented fixtures which, io 
some of their forms are commendable, have come into use of late 

Id some of these drying closets, the foul air from the school-rooms^ 
on its way to the foul air shaft, is made to traverse the cloxet vaults, 
thus completely drying tbe excreta, so that, by pouring kerosene oil 
upon the mass everything may be burned at rather long intervals. 

Some antLorities have objected to this direct connection of the 
closet ventilation with that of school-rooms on the grounds of danger 
of a reversal of tbe current, particularly in tbe warm season when 
tbe fnmace fires are not burning. To meet this objection, it has 
become customary to put a special heater into tbe base of tbe foul 
air shaft, to ensure an upward movement of the air at all times. 

In the work of some firms who put in closets of this class, tbe 
closets have a special flue for drawing air through ihe vaults, — a 
system of ventilation distinct from that of tbe school-rooms. 

Water Carriage. — In all places in which an abundant water 
supply is at band, water carriage is preferable to any other system 


of excreta dtspoBal io coaoectioQ with schools. Separate closets of 
f;ood form ma; be used, or slill better are some of tbe best forms 
of "trough" closet, or wnter elo»et ranges. 

Separate Closets-— if it is decided to use separate dosets, a 
flushing rim short hopper of a desirable shape will not be expensive 
and will be preferable for use in scliools to any other form. 

Trough Water Closets— One ot these, the Parsons' Trough 
Water Closel, mnnufactured hy the Meyer-yniflen ('ompany, is 
shonn in Fig. TO. Its flush is automatic and cau be set to act at 

longer or shorter intervals of time, or cau be adjusted lo the demands 
of the bout. During tbe time outside of the school hours, the 
water cau be shut ofi. This apparatus is eimplt! in coDstniction, is 
durable, and bas proved satisfactory. 

Another style of trough closet, or water-closet range, is seen in 
Fig. 71. This also has an automatic flush. Either of these styles 
of closet can be obtained in sections so as to make a range adapted 
to the number of persons to be accommodated. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


FlO. 71. 

Ventilated Water-Closet Ranges —To another clasa of 

school water- cloaete, or water-closet raoges, the vault, or eatchbasin, 
Is connected with a epecial vent flue, just the same as in the ventilated 
drying closets, so that the draft is downward through the seat and 

Dictized by Google 


np the flae when the cover is raised. Siicb a one is aeen in Fii; 72. 
It has a elatfl vaair, with provisions for filling it with water and for 
fliishiDi! as required. 

Dictized by Google 


Dictized by Google 


Fig. 73 shows tbe carrying out of this idea Id a diSereot form. 
The raalt coneiete of large salt-glazed tiles, which material is ohjec* 
tiooable oti account of the danger of leakage from cracks. A solid 
iron pipe would iosure greater safety in this direction. The manu- 
facturers have made an improvement in tbe shape of the bowl, not 
shown in the cut, to ensure its cleanliness. As this part has no water 
flush it is an important consideration whether the bowl will in prac- 
tice remain ordorless. 

Urinals- — The individual porcelain urinals are altogether unsuita- 
ble for school use. Much better is a trough of smooth slate witii a 
back of the same material, but the best arraugement is an upright 
surface of oikd slate with that part of the floor next to it of non- 
absorbent material and sloping slightly toward the urinal. At the 
foot of the upright surface there should be a gutter from which a 
properly trapped soil pipe leads to the aener. 

Several business firms now put in urinals with a narrow open 
space between the gutter and the slightly overhanging floor, which 
connects with a heated flue by means of an intervening duct. There 
is secured thereby a strong downward draft that removes all odor, 
A ventilated urinal with some of the details of construction differ- 
ently arranged is shown in Fig. 74. 

Supervision. — Whatever kind of sanitary appliances are put iu 
for the accommodation of a school, constant supervision is indis- 
pensable to keep them in an unobjectionable condition. But it 
matters not whether earth closets or water-closets are provided, there 
should be no excuse whatever for the person who has charge of them 
if they become a source of nuisance. With earth closets an ordorless 
condition must be maintained with a careful use of the absorbent 
material ; with water-closets and urinals the janitor should not be 
sparing of soap and water applied with the scrubbing brush when 
necessary, and the teacher should see that this part of the jani- 
tor's work is well nnderstood and honestly done. 

Dictized by Google 


id by Google 



Some of the plans for school buildings shoirti on the following 
p^ee were contributed by srchitects in this State or elsewhere, 
some are modiOcations of plans from various sources, but the greater 
part of them have been prepared expressly for this paper, and very 
closely in accordance with what, after long and careful study, appear 
to be the most important reqairemcnta in school buildings. 

One-Room School-Houses- — A plan for a one-room country 
school-house ie shown in Fig. 15, suitable for the accommodation of 




Pig. 76. 
thirty-five pnpils withont crowding. The lighting is entirely fVom 
the left, giving, in a room of this width, the best possible lighting, 
provided the windows are large and high, the light is taken from a 
point between northwest and east, and that neither trees nor other 
bnildings are too near. A porch andentrance for eachsex are provided, 
t(^ether with a wardrobe for each, that for the gtrls being at the 
teacher's end of the room, that for the boys, at the end where the 
heater is placed. The heater, represented by the double circle. Is 
placed at the rear at what will be the coldest corner, provided the 
windows look to the north or east. A small fuel room is shown near 
the stove. The wall opposit« the windows is reserved for the black- 
board. Over the blackboard are three windows, not for lighting. 

Dictzsdbv Google 



but for summer venUUtion. The blinds of these windows should be 
keptclosed when the school is in session. Inthe wardrobes, W. W., 
also, the windows are placed high, above the hooka for the clothing 
of the pupils. 

Fig. 76 shows a plan rery nearly like the preceding one, with the 
exceptions that both porches (P. P.), entrances, and wardrobes, are 

Fig. 76. 
at the teacher's end of the building, aad that the heater and fnel 
room are placed at the rear and right-hand aide of the pnpils. As 
the length of this room is thirty-three feet, another low of desks could 
be placed across the back part of it, thus making the room do for 
forty pupils. 

The plan in Fig. 77 is the only one shown with the lighting from 
the two sides of the room. It will be seen that there is in it no 
advantageous place for the blackboard. It has a room for either 
thirty-five or forty pupils, has an entry, wardrobes, fuel room and a 
closet in one of the rear corners. 

Dictized by Google 


^ ■■■it r -i 





S-'k II' 

■ Tx7' r 

D,i.i.db, Google 



Fig. 78 ahowa a plan for a am&ll coontry aohool-boaae when tha 
neceaaity of atrict* ecoDomy calls for a buildiog of very simple god- 
atruction. The one good-aized entry and wardrobe should be pro- 
vided with hooka lor clothing for the pupils of both sexes. It 
provides for a good fuel room near the stove. The jacketed stove 
is placed in a recess, or alcove takea ont of the entry. By aa over- 
aigbt of the draftsman, the ventilatJDg flue aod amoke pipe are Dot 
shown in the angle between stove and fuel room. 

Fig. 79 is another plan for a cheap one-room schocl-house. Its 
main features are the economical way in which wardrobe space is pro- 
vided and the abundant lighting. If the six windows a[ the left of 



3.1 x3l' 


J T'l r L 

£'x l/'C 

I I I I I 

i 1 

FiQ. 76. 

the paptle are as lai^ and aa high as are advised on psgea 264 and 
265 the light would be ample witbont the two wlndowa back of the 
seats. A corner closest for the school ia ahown at C. 

DictizedbyGOQl^lC . 


Fig. 80 r«>prese.it8 the plan ot a country scbool-bouae io the town 
of G-reeofrood in this Staie. Its general EUTaDgement abows an 

Fig. 80. 
intelligent studj of what is desirable in school-bonses of Its class. 
It has a sheltering porch, P., an entrance ball, H., two wardrobes 
separated by a matched board partition about seven feetbigh^ a fuel- 
room, F , and two closets back of the teacher's platform. An 
erior was committed by the workmen in making the fresh air duct 
to the jacketed etove much too small. If its intake of fresh air had 
been from more than one side of the building it would have been better. 

Dictized by Google 


The plan sbown in Fig. 81 was dr&nn for a corner lot, though ib 
ma; be used for lots tjlng ov one etreet only, particalarl; on streets 
DOt ruDniag with the cardinal points of the compass. Its one room 

Fig. 81. 
is 23s33 feet. There are a storm porch, an entrance ball, two ward- 
robes through which the papila pass ia entering or leaving the school- 
room, a closet at the right-hand side of the teacher for school mate- 
rial, and a fuel room. The fuel room was located with reference to 
a position of the heater near it. The heating and ventilation here 
shown were arranged by Mr. J. B. Badger, Viee-FreHident of the 
Smead Warming and Ventilating Company, Boston. The jacketed 
stove IB set in the hall where it receives its uare by the janitor, but 
discfaai^es its warmed air into the room well above the heads ol the 
pupils and opposite the walls in which the windows are placed. The 
ventilating shaft is heated by an iron smoke pipe set in one comer, 
and takes the air from the floor at the end of the teacher's desk. 
With this arrangement the entrance to the fnel room ahcnld be 
through the boys' wardrobe. There is perhaps a anperabuDdance 
of window surface. One window at the left of the pupils conld be 
omitted, or preferably, a diminution of the window surface back of 
the scholars might be mad£. 

Dictized by Google 


Fig. 64 shows the same plan with the heating and ventilation 
differently arranged. 

Two-Room School-HouseB.— In Fig. 82 we have a two- 
room bnildiDg with the idea of a corner entrance again carried oat. 

The room, D, and its corresponding room on the second floor may 
be assigned to various uses, — fuel room, recitation room, or school 
library and cabinet. If not wanted. It can be omitted from the 
plan, in which case it would be better to place the window to light 
the staircase so that from the landing it would throw its li^ht both 
directly up and down the stairs. This would also male it advisable 
to build the ventilating flues in the corner of one of the wardrobes, 
or as shown in Fig. S\, bat not al the right of the teacher, li. «' uld 
be an improvement to beat this building and some others with a 
furnace in the basement instead of with Jacketed stoves as shown in 
the plans. 

Dictized by Google 


In Fig. 83 ft plan is ahowu for a oae-story, two-room building. It 
has a good entrance ball and wardrobes. The placing of the ventUa- 


is x3 





' y 

f iiiiiii r 

ting flues in one stack between the two rooms is in the interest of 

Fig. 57 (heating and ventilation arranged by Prof. Woodbridge) 
is of a plan for a twc-room school-bouse, roomy entrance hall, stair- 
way to basement, closet in one room, and two wardrobes, all on one 
floor. The wardrobes can be assigned, one to each sex, or one to 
each room. One minor advantage of this plan is that the teachers 
from their desks command a view of the hall and onter doorway. 

Dictized by Google 


Tbe plan for the new Gas Honse Hill school- boase, built in AuKDsta 
a few years ago, is shown in Fig. 84. The plan is essentially the same 



Fig. 84. 
on each flour. There is a hall, two wardrobes, a school^rooni exceed- 
ing slightly what may be deemed the normal dimensions of a school- 
room, and a closet. There is a separate ventilating^flae for^each 
room with a cast iron smoke pipe between them. The heating on 
one floor is done with a Bmall furnace with its casing open at the 
top ; on the other, with a ventilatiDg stove which supplies an 
inadequate quantity of fresb air. 

Dictized by Google 


Fig, 85 is the plan for a bailding in which there is a difference in 
the size of the two rooms. It is arranged with reference to economy 

Fio. 86. 
of construction. The windows in the wardrobes are placed high so 
as to economize space for tha children's clothing. 

Dictized by Google 


In Fig. 86 we have the plan for a one-stoiy school buildiDg with 
an entrance hall, two schooUrooniB, one wardrobe for each room, « 




Fia. 86. 
closet in each room, and an exit Ihrongh doors at the rear to covered 
walks leading to the privies or earth closets. A good feature of this 
plan is that, with a well chosen orientation of the buildio);, both 
rooms may receive their light from the same favorable point. The 
windows alrave the blackboard are tor ventilation onl;. One ward- 
robe is for the bojs in both rooms and the other for the girls. The 
board partition between them extends but little more than half way 
to the ceiling. 

Dictized by Google 


FlO. 87. 

D,:„l,;.dtv Google 



Three-itoom School-Houses.— The diBftdvaDtage stated on 
page 243 of having school-rooms on opposite sides of a baildiog is 
o1;)viat«d in the plan shown in Fig. 87. Here the achool-rooms are 
all placed on one side of the building where they may be amply lighted 
from the scholars' left, while the entrance ball of ample size, ward- 
robes, and stairways to the basement are gronped on the Other side. 

Figures 42, 43, and 47, show a two-story building similarly 

Pour-Room School-Houses. — The school-house shown in 
Fig. 88 has on each floor an ample hall, two school-rooms and one ward- 
robe for each room. The staircase is easy, well lighted, and has a 

wide landing half-way up. The heating apparatus is in the basement 
to which access is had by means of stairs beneath the flight to the 
second floor. In this plan the rule is observed of taking the principal 
light for the rooms from not more than two sides of the building. 

Figures 48, 52, and 53 give the plan of basement, first floor and 
second floor of a new school-bouse in Augusta built from plans drawn 
by E. E. Lewis, Architect, Gardiner. It has two entrances and two 
roomy wardrobes. The stairs, broken by two landings are easy and 
well lighted. The open flreplace in each room is a feature of this 

D,i.,.db, Google 


The plan shown in Fig. 89 WM drawn by Dr. J. 0. WebBtet for 
the reconstruction of an old building. With the left-hand light taken 

I I I 






FlQ. 89. 
from two aides only of ihe building, with easy stain well located for 
ample lighting, and with ite wardrobe for each room, this is a good 

Dictzsdbv Google 


Six-Boom School-Houses.— The plan shown in Fig. 90 
s for a two-atoty bailding with three Bchool-roomB, a large hall, and 


5 C 

1 1 

1 ;; 

1 -i 


Tig. 90. 
one wardrobe for the boys and one for the girls on each floor. The 
stairs are wide, easy, and well lighted. The two wardrobes are 
flniehed as one room, and then divided by a matched board partition 
as described on page 347. 

The plan shown in Figs. 42, 43, and 47, like that given in Fig. 
90, is arranged with the view of taking the light for the rooma from a 
point of the compass from which the moat favorable light may be 
obtained and putting entrances, balls, wardrobes, and staircases on 

Dictized by Google 



the opposite side or sides. Id this piM two of the looma might have 
one or more windows at the rear of the papils, bat the six windows 
in each room will f^ve an ample anppl; of light if of the size and 
arrangement recommended on pages 264 and 265. 

Fig. 91 is a modification of a plan drawn by C. A. Dnnham, Burl- 
ington, Iowa. Its one fault is that one of the rooms at least mast 

Fig. 91. 
take its principal light from a side of the building through which 
direct sunshine will stream during school hours. 

Buildings With More Than Six Booms.— Fig. 92, the 
ground plan, and Fig. 93, the second floor, show a new school- 
house built in Houlton under the direction of W. E. Mansur, 
Architect, Bangor, Maine. Each of the four rooms on the first fioor 
is 24x34 feet. Tbe principal light is invariably from the scholars' 
left. On tbe aeoonid floor tbe large room, 34x58 feet, imposed a 

Dictized by Google 


Dictized by Google 


Fia. 83. 
difiScDlt task npoQ the architect. He met the difficulty of properly 
lighting the room as well as he could by carrying the ceiliog and the 
window-tops to an annsnal height. The wardrolws are divided by 
matched board partitione only eight feet high. 

Dictized by Google 


The plan shown in Fig. 94 is a good one of its kind. The building 
has two entrancea and a safe, eas; and well lighted atiurwa; at either 

Fig. 94. 
end. The stairways are, furthermore, so located that the pupils from 
the eecond floor can pass directly out without crowding the hall on 
the first floor, thus favoring quietude as far as possible. The ward- 
robes are taken ont of the hall with matched partitions seven or eight 
feet high. The width of the rooms makes the ample lighting of 
them from one side practicable. The one serious fault with the 
plan is that some of the rooms must have the trouble of direct enn- 

D,:„i,;cdtv Google 



shine in them dnring school hours or the anaTOid&ble darkaess when 
window shades are drawn. 

ThroDgb the kindness of Mr. J. A. Schweinfnrth, Architect, 
Boston, the plans shown in Fignres 95 and 96 are presented. 

Dictzsdbv Google 


:v Google 


Dictzsdbv Google 


In Fiji;. 95^the idea, dov bo much id favor, of making BChooI 
buildinga the width only of a school-room and an ample corridor ie 
CJirried oat with a slight modificatioD. This form, more than any 
other, favorB an ample lighting of school-rooms and corridors, and in 
warm weather,*wiQdow ventilation. The wardrobes in this plan are 
included in the wide corridor, and separated from them with matched 
board partitions, as described on page 247. 

Fig. 96 shows the floor plan of a school-house built by Mr. 
Schweinfurth in Auburn, N. Y. Its many good features commend it. 

The plan shown In Fig. 97 is given as representative of the better 
class of school-houses now bnildiog in Europe. It was drawn by 
Alexander Koch, now of London, but formerly of Zurich, Switzer- 
land, and through his kindness I am enabled to present it, together 
with the front elevation, seen in Fig. 93. The large window surface 
shows how ample light may be eet^ured with unilate al lighting. 

Dictized by Google 

Id b, Google 


A«eidciit with k«roiain ST 

from aiploiioQ of Ikmp S4 

Agnsw, Dr., on (pinal anrvktuto 131 

itgrkalture, elemanO of J16 

Air, bumiditjot (he 190 

Impnce, t«inlt> ot brMitblag IBl 

meWr, maof lh« 391 

rabnalhcd, poliou at *. ISS 

TDlition, wirmlog of rooma by 338 

supply, imount of 7,391 

meuniamaot of 191 

torter, Wolpert' 391 

tutlag th : 391 

Alil 3(1 

ArM of (ataool gToaoda ■ ■ St3 

Arithmetl 3D1 

Ainngement of work 1S3 

Atthanoplk 119 

AtbUtioi »1 

AitlgmaUim . . . ; US 

Attaadinoe, tagnlKrlv of. 1B6 

BMk-rut, doDbla ODTTa 373 

Bkgioakf , on Mbool lift u ■ saa*e of iptnkl 

puollhmaiitl 181 

B*ltimgrs itiaat gahool-hoDaa S03 

Birwall, Dr.,OD0ur»(nrsof thaiplna 131, 11) 

Bule, ia«t of aohool btthiln Itl 

Ball, Dr. A. M., on Impara sahool >lr 38C 

•oboolmga. lai 

Borlin knd Rambold, Dn , affeati of writing on eja light uid dotomilt; 197 

fiorurd, OUnda, on tolennoaof rMplntoff potion 188 

Bnoldon defaoti of baaring in Nbooll 118 

BUokboHdi 3SS 

height of 161 

Dictized by Google 

Blukboardf, mitortal tot l&T 

•rwiof 1S7 

BUke, Dt. C. J.,it%t mntliiii at a remit of ictrlat f*Tar ISl 

Bowdlteb, Dr. U. I., od th« rMolti ot publia aiimtiistioDi ID) 

Brain foraluf Id child hood, Dr. Hammond on IST 

Bretthicg 136 

Brsigsn, Dr., on dmiI and throat troublai 131 

Briggi, W. K., on •obool-bonie wardrobsi 347 

BiowD, Dr. Crigbton, on borne itad; 163 

BTawD.Ssqii>rd and ArwnTal, on tbc poliOD otaiplred all 1S7 

ex pari ma nti with rabraatbad air 18T 

Brodia, Hir Benj., on amoant ot brain work 158, 1G9 

Bmaieit, arrangement of aohool work in ITl 

Barsarttaln on raiulU of fanltj polition in writing 195 

tbe eTili of liUIng itiii 167 

Caibonioasid 3SB 

oiida 189 

Chadwlak, Sir Bdvln, on balhi and aleaDlineii llg 

half lime Id lohaola.. .., 1S6 

Chalk dDit »7 

Cbaek valvea 116,3)9 

Chlokan po» 136 

Cbildren'i booki, aharaotar of tha print of. IBi 

Chorw ISS 

Ciranlar No. 6( 6 

Clark, Dr. Daniel, OD naiToni dlnaiaa 13T 

Cleanllnati 1^1 

of lobool-roam ISA 

CloTeUnd, lahoot dliaaaai In 91 

Cloiora ot tshooli, the Ill 

Clotblng tor nhool ahlldren US 

pro<rlaIon far drirtng - SID 

Oohn, Dr., on iDjapIa 100, 106, IIS 

Dnmber of paplli to a toaohar 1S5 

tha loM of light whan aarlaln* are drawn S6t 

Taitloal writing 301 

Calonlei, vaoation. 176 

Oolnmblaa Bzpoaltlon, rapreaanlatlon at l 

Oongraai af Hyglane and Damofraph; 1 

Connrnotlon ot Nbool-bouiaa lU 

Oopjbooka 196 

Corraat rittlng J8» 

Ooraal, raatriotion of the braathlog aapaolt; bj IIT 

Ooniiaiof atndj ...'. 186 

Onbla air ipaoa......... .... tSO 

Danger to tha oonralaioant from too aarlj return to Mboal.. 

Daj, Dr. W. H., od tha beadaahaa of ohlldron 

Defeetaot hearing 

Dictzsdbv Google 

CihiiU of hviHng, Biniu of. .\ tan, IN 

ranlU on sdiioMiDii IM 

DaBnltlana, Mm» MS 

Dafaniilt;, how tbe Nhoolt prod bm. I]S 

Danmtrk, Rojkl Sgbool Commliiioii Id tl 

•Obool diMklMiD SI 

Derby, Dr. Hiakatt, on •pum ot tha MCDnimodktloD IIT 

Daikandieat, reUtlanof 37) 

Biiio City STB 

BoatoD pattarn .. SBl 

Cbkoaee; Hall Sahool S76 

HawFeuleu S91 

ofG. A. Bobilak »T 

Daik* J7J 

■dJnaUbU «6 

and acata — 3TI> 

haightof. ... J73 

faaltj, andaplnal aurntur« - 114 

alngle or doabia SSI 

iiiaaof m 

nuanitabla and mjapla 110 

Dattwellor, Dr.,OB tnbarBBloii* in Mhooli ISfl 

DaWlIt. Pre>ldaDt,oiiatMetIai. lit 

DloUtfoD eisiataaa 191 

"Diltataiiae" 17> 

DlffQwri SS6 

naaof. 318 

Diphtheria ISS 

DiMipUna 178 

Dlieaiea of the aerrDDi lytUm IK 

Dlilnfaotlon 140 

"DtaUno*" «J 

niion. Dr. Levla. adrlae to teaohera 118 

Doipat, myopta In the gyDnaainm of. HI 

Doable wladowa 36T 

Dowltng, Bi., on myopia in Cinoinnatl 101, 111 

Dreadon, Infaationt eye dlaeaaei in Ill 

Dakei, Dr., on nnmbar of papUi to a taaabar IBS 

the oaa of tho "blreb" ISO 

Dnit qneitlon, tha 116 

Earth aloaeta S&I 

rainar. Dr., Inatniotlon by. In *abool fan* 318 

Blanientcof ■grlanltnte 115 

Sllot. Pruidont, on tho atndj of tha Bother tongu 308 

BmnetropU, dofloltion of lOS 

Briaamann on the gaaea of deaompoaitlon SSI 

Bnlanberg and Baeh on tbo length of nhool-rooma 349 

width of Mhool^ooma 148 

on lateral SBrTatara of tha aptna 130 

Dictzsdbv Google 

Srlli of iltltnf ntll ig7 

BxftBinktioDt, pnblto.. 18t 

EttosraloiU, MhooL. Ill 

Bitnlia, mswulkr, M id ltd to dbwlpltn* 119 

E^edlMMM, inlMtiaol 1ST 

EjMtnln, proloDgcd, tod myopift 109 

ITiliiiwr OD ipio*! SBiTRtara ISl 

rir«.alauta 356 

Ploorj 35S 

Floor ipiu ItO 

Pood UI 

Foliom, Dr., on dttiMaaot th* norroai g/itam IH 

Forvipi Ungiugei iOI 

Forater, Prot., on thidirMllon of aohool lighting HI 

■Dgl* of looldcno* ind apartare .... 3S8 

width of whoal-roomi tit 

Fothorglll, Dr., on food tor ohlldran lU 

FoBDdfttioai US 

ronr-room aohool-honaoB, FigBrei IB, Bl, tS, 8S, S» 

fnchi, Or. E., on tho idTantassa of rardiwl writing 100 

Fomlgatlan, pan for 78 

Fumaaea T, SOB 

for aohool balldloga, tho aaiaDtlkla for SOS 

Gold'i Hjgaiap 110 

(hoHaaa Pore Air. SU 

Hahonj warm air SIS 

Gmith air warmer 311 

(JimN, oharMter of the 131 

the leader of the ISO 

Oardoni, aohool IIS 

Qtrdnar on the adTaotagea of porohea UI 

SaQtier, Dr., on the beneflti of mnaonlar azerolaa ttl 

danger from traoea of Mrbonie oxide 189 

Oelle, method of tsBtlog hearing 130 

on d<f»t> of hearing In aohool) 118 

Oeographj a> tanght in Slberfeld, Qenaan; 104 

Oarman maaalei ISt 

ragnlatlona for length of aohool-nmmi 31S 

6irla, phjaloal oul tare tor US 

Soaumer ehaek Talrea Stt 

Qottingan, aohool bathe in l&O 

GTBrnmar 310 

Greek and Latin, amplrloal uathoda in the «tad7 of 308 

Qioff. Dr., on food uid Mhool work 114 

Qnye on naeat and throat troublee. 131 

GrrnDBitto eiereiaea, tha plaeefoi 316 

Ojmnaitiea SIS 

Oymnutie leaoher 31T 

D,:„l,;cdtv Google 

Hftsaabuh, Prof, on whooplag congb in Germaii; ISG 

lUtf-tlme ijatam, tbt, in tehooli Is6, IS) 

Hlllitnd oorrtdon Hi 

Hammond, Dr. W. A,, on brain forsing in oblldhood IST 

on grammar in whooli Ill 

Hkrris, Hon. W. T., th* rmeu quaition .. ICT 

Hartrldga on h;parmetropii IIB 

Haaduha 187 

fiaarlng, datMM or IIS 

Baattng and Tantllaling Mhool-honna, pUni for SIB 

Eaatlug and T«DtlUUi>D T, 3SS 

tba oonditiona of inoaen SOS 

with jiekatad atoToi 30S 

■dranUgai of . SOE 

IndlMOt.... Stl 

Babraw, bo* Isarnad In Qtllola, PuUnd, oto .... SOB 

Ualgbt of lobooLTDOma S60 

Hcfsdlij and injopi* 108, 109 

Hartol, Di. Alei., iuiaitlgitioaa of 91 

on nrliMl wHtlng SOI 

Blgglna, Dr. A J , on mnaonlar aieroiaa and diulplino 17T 

Uolidifi, TtMttana and 173 

Borne Inflnanaaa and mjopia lis 

atadj les 

Humldit; of tbo air 300 

Bfdrogan aolpbida 390 

Hrglena of Inttnotioii, tbs l&l 

on tbe atody of .-, 313 

praotfoil motbodt of taaoblngt Sli 

Hjporinetropia 117 

dsfioUlonof 103 

Impara air, rsiulta of braathing 87, 96 

Inonbati on, period of. I3S 

lodlTidaallty . 181 

lafeatloDi diieiiea 131 

Infeationa eye dlseiiai 1S7 

in Dreadea 137 

in Modena 137 

in Turin IS7 

InfaetloBineaa wllb d lain f«ot ion, period of 139 

without diainfeotion. period of 110 

Inleta, fioab air 31S 

looatlonof 391 

poaltlon of ; 3 

iiieoC B,W 

InltniMlon, motbodiof. 188 

iQTiaion, pailoioE ISO 

iNlatton 110 

Dictized by Google 

JukeWd itOTti. 386 

in Lrun, Hu IBS 

theParitan.. JOT 

Jiakion, Hr. Jobn, on tbe •dTkoUgei of Tsitiul wrltlog 100 

Jaoobl, Dr. Harj Putnam, on nambsr of pgplli to a taatbar IBS 

Janka on tha laagth of Mhool-ioomi 119 

EartirDhe, nhool batbi ip ISl 

Karoiens looidaut ST 

Eatab, Dr., on Jaleral anrratora HO 

£•;, Axel, amageaieDt of ttiaa io wbools isi 

OD Cba growtb of cbildran darlag Tioatlon ITJ 

Elaam, Dr., on taiebing apalliog 194 

on tba laiobing of arltbmatle iD HaaUb 101 

Slug, Olaransa od cbs atudj of grammar Ill 

Kotalmana, lir-, oa rertioal irrlUDg 100 

Enig, I>r.,<iDlafaotionga;adli<aaaali)Dre>dan 1ST 

Lagrange, on tba banafili of gfrnaaitlo eultnra 124 

Lamp, aooldaat from aiploaion of SI 

Laadonaj, Dr , od tabareuloali Id loboola US 

Langnagea, foralgu 101 

Lateral eo Train ra HI 

Lmd poiaoning, oaia of &0 

Langtb of aobool-rooma ng 

Llbrar;, addition! to tbe... ■ — is 

Light, obanstar of eaat Itil 

north Ifil 

direction of 160, IGl 

tar aehool-rooma, diraetion of. Ill, ill 

qnalltjof IBS 

qaantit7of ,. let 

LigbtlDg 1, mo 

avgle of apartir* 168 

angln of inoidanee 168 

balV, and mjopia 110, 111, ID, US 

anilateral. FlBoraa 13, 13, IT, TS, 76. BT. 

Linoola, Dr. D. F., on tbe noon inCermiaaion ITI 

on tbe length of aohool.roomi..... us 

on the width of aobool-rooma ItO 

onamonntotatadj 161 

on iohool age 161 

Local boardi of haaltb, reporta tram 33 

Loawantbal, Dr., on inathods of inatraation 188 

on the atndj of langnagea 108 

Long power, doTelopmaDt of. .... 3)6 

Haalaren on injuriaa from atbletlea 3tt 

OD moaaalar deveiapmant from phjaleal onttnra 130 

D,i.,.db, Google 

Haksahitti, Twlon 393 

HulDkl triioinf 33T 

HM)D*t tnlDinguft oMiuiaf phjaieal tnltar* ISS 

Hknel, CUada, OD taMbing UQgaBiM 107, lOB 

HmiIu IM 

MHth, B»il of, on SnglUb rporti 3t8 

ongyiDiiMUa ttaebsri 131 

UMb^Dloil Tnttllftilan. aoat of. Sit 

Mtrbel, Dr., azpsrimaato with nbrwtbtd air 181 

Uelbodi of init raotioD ISS 

Mall, Dr. da, od m;apl> lo Antwarp IIS 

HizlnsTalvai 8, SIS 

Uodaiw, infMtloniaja dlMuaaio ISI 

Mouo, aiparimenU of, In teiiipal*tnre of bntn lEl 

HeUlt, Dr.onmjopU Ill 

Motbar toagne, (he lOS 

MyopU :...; 100 

■DdbaU; Ugbllng 110, 111, lit. 111 

eiQiaiof lOT 

diaganfrom 105,100 

daflnitiongf lOS 

Dr. Oehmldt-Klmpler on 101 

Dr, SehaltioD 103 

from homa IsflaeDMa II) 

gUua) for pnplte with 116 

baradltyasd 108, 109 

in ClnoiDDiti »1, 113 

inoODTonianoBi at 101, 104 

In Holland 101 

inLawiitoD 103 

in Buula lOJ 

ii piarentioB of, praolioablo , .... 114 

InTMtiptloni of Dr Oohn 100 

Dr. HotBliin 101 

natlonallt? In tU TalltiOB to lOS 

piaphyUiU lis 

relatloa of, to ife 107 

nnilti of tha Swediib Oommtidoii 101 

nhool work and lOt 

*ama nsaut In'aitigatlona In 110 

aninilable deik) and 110 

Hnlliplidtjot itndlaa IBT 

HnolK IIS 

HnMDiar azorolw, poind In ph^olog; of HA 

TsnilU of aitTona »> 

Niulind throat tronblai HI 

•ffaati of, on adnoaUon Ul 

Nalgbbarlng bnlldingi M7 

MetTona ijittm, ditMiai of, in Mhooli IIO- 

D,i.,.db, Google 

Kflwiholms oa th* kmoBnt Of ilMp for Nhool ahtldnn 

NdIhdss Dear NitloDftl 8«ldl«ri' Horns 

Number of popUi to > tsMh«r 

-One or two diilj nHlonat 

ODB-rooni Hhool-hoaiu. Fienrw lb, 7e, 77. 78, 19, 80, SI, ud 61. 

Open HrepUoei 

OrKtoie nItnigsaoM polfon . 

OrientBtion of Nbool bnlldiDgi , 

-Ontlati, ItwRtlan of 

Psriodof luaabttlon 13S 

iDfmtioofEWH with dlriafaation ,...i. lit 

wlthont dliinrMtion IW 

torwlaD 1S9 

ParMiiil byglana of the pupil, (ba Ul 

Wopron mjDplm 188 

Pbyiloil Bultore S16 

dsmooatrktian of th« idTtntagM of 310 

for girlj M9 

gaining time tor 140 

Intallactul BdriDtkgoa of Ill 

muai of, to fonign iobool , 116 

roanltiof SU 

IhB psdigoglo*! phaae of 131 

Fb;iiotog7 of biala work, point! In the Ul 

maHnlar sxsTolaa, polnta Id th 316 

FiDkbim, Dr. J. Q., oa tha uio of Jiaketed itona IBS 

PUantng a MhooUroom 1*1 

Plantation, diphth a rta In > 11 

Flajgronnd* 311 

Plaj, tlma tor ISO 

Fteller, Dr.on laanlU of prolongad ■; • work ITO 

Pointi ta the pbjalologj of bralo work ISl 

Poiioatng, OBua of S7 

from lead EiO 

Potlutad air, aome polionons ptloolplsi of 366 

Poaltlonot tb» ga^7-book in writing 198 

pQplllD writing 195 

PoHoraa, fiultj Us 

PrtTiea S5J 

■"■% water-aloiata and arinalt 6, ISl 

Fabllo examinations 181 

Fnnlihmonti. ISO 

Poplla, DOmber of, to a taasber 181 

Qua ra ntine ragnlation* at Portland tS 

Rijdt, on iobool gamaa 1!) 

Reading 191 

Dictzsdbv Google 

Bm«iHi Mid piDMI ■ 167 

Red Rook itreot ubool-faouM 197 

Be«T«, Dr. J. 0., amonnt of atnd; in uhool IfiS 

Regnlkrltjof kttoDdanao IBS 

ReporU from Inoil boxrdi of hwlth IS 

Eioe, Dr. J H., on the teaabing of goognpbj. 101 

Rtttma. tempantnre of 19S 

Rolbtln.... IS& 

RoDnd abcinldon 110 

RuDaiag 136 

BaalUrj oonrsntlan In FortUnd ■ 1 

SkrMj, Freaob arltio, od mfopli 104 

SMEont, Dr. D. A., on Injortoi from ■thlotiai 3S3 

Soarlet f«T«r lai 

Sohmldb, Dr. F. A., objutiona to gjiDiiaatieazaroiHi in dait; air lib 

Sohmidt-Rimplar on mjopl* 101, IDS, 110, IIS 

taitingtbe tight in aahoal-room ISi 

Sahool aga 163 

baths KB 

soat of, in BMia ISl 

iDOottiogen ISO 

in Earlaraha 151 

in Weimar 160 

building. 110 

baiHnenU for lit 

aiimination d( 8T 

fanndatloD of 113 

in ganeral 313 

orlantation of 113 

InJMalna, lighting and rentllaUon of SS 

lite for 110 

diaadTantafoa of a noiiy Ill 

obiidran, amonnt of alaap for IIT 

elothlng for Ua 

aiautnaUaD of, in Copaohigen ■ 91 

Denmarh 91 

food for Ill 

diaaaeai '. 91, 9B, 98, 09 

InClavaland 91 

SXamlnatloDS 181 

•unriiona 173 

games and aporti .... 317 

gardena 3IS 

ground!, area of 313 

boniaa, eonitiDotloD of ■ 

diudviDtagaa of blgh . . 

D,i.,.db, Google 

S«bocl>haai«i, eitcrior Bulib of Uft 

height or Sit 

on bnlldtaf 6 

with four roami. Ftgnni 4S, »1, &3, SB, SR. 

■■ore than ili rooma. Fltnru IS, S9, SI. U, B4, 96, M, U7. 

01U noM. Fignrei fit, Tfi. IS, 17, TS. T0, BO, Bl. 

■Iz roomi. Ftgnni 41, «3, iT, 90, »l. 

thias roomi. Fis- BI. 

tvo raouii. Eigant M, £7, 83, 81, 81, B6, 86, 

hjgleaa md lohool-hauiai B( 

room doon 3S9 

toon »8 

th« 118 

tbs, belgbt of e, 160 

tho, Iti ih>p« e, 118 

tba, langth d( US 

tha, width of 119 

on planning ■ UI 


olunlinaia of. US 

oolor of Willi and gailinga US 

enbioalr ipiaa 9, Itff 

floortpaoa t, lift 

Intarior Balib ol tG( 

Satooli, hoT thejr prodaoe doformlt; Ill 

In Haine and eltewhara, unitary aonditionaof aom* 8& 

elraular of inqnlrj. 8i> 

nwdiail Inapootlonof 118 

tbaoloanrasf Ill 

Bahool work and myopia 10» 

Eahobert, Dr. Paul, on tha adnnUgM of *orUeal wrlUng 1B7 

8«al, tha , 1"» 

the height of 1TI> 

Baparata oloaati SS7 

Sawar and prtr; ranlt gaasi HIK 

Ballon on dataoti of hearing Il», 11» 

lihapB of ash Dol -roomi. 3t3 

Sblpman, PasI E., on the itady of tha mothar tongna tUft 

BlkoatkioalaitlDgrapldlt;ofbraiseibaaatiaa ... IBV 

Slngla aaallon, objeationa to .. 16&, liS 

Sii-Boom iohool.honjai. Flgnrsi 11, U, IT, W, 91, 

Slaep UT 

Small-pox In Qnebaa i 

Smith, Nobla, on aarvatara of the (pine 131. m 

vartioal writing 101 

Soma raeant atndiaa 1T4 

Bpaim at the aeeommodatioD Ill 

Spelling IM 

Dictized by Google 

IHDEX. 897 

Spinal DDiTstara l|g 

»( tboMluKila to blimt fw Ijj 

B>(laikroD 11) 

bow tba Mbooli prodnot 13] 

pranDtlDD of. ■ 115 

rani J ooDg*Dil>l 110 

will th> popil oolgroirT .' 114 

Sportl, Engltih IJa 

6Uhl*7, Dr. Q-ao. D., on tha ii««d sf phfileil anltara stj 

StoirsHU liT 

StaDdtDgaoiDiiilUaM.... 1 

*'Str««t Artba" 1ST 

Btrahmbvrg, Dr., od niTopU io Darpat gjmDuiDiii , m 

stfm ise 

Jiakatad T, 198 

StndiM, a mnltiplloUr ol ^ 1ST 

■Dma rrsant 1T4 

Btody, imonnt uf lit 

oonr»M of ISS 

BaperTlilan of witar-olonu ifll 

Svadan, nombar of popila to ■ taaobar la ISt 

nhool oommluioD 91 

nbool diaeuai Id , 91 

Swedfab Oommiation on ilaep for Mb 00 1 ohlldran IIT 

Taaaber'i plittorm ISt 

Thraa-rDom aabool-bonn*. Fig. BT. 

Toldl, Dr., on Tortloil irritiD( Ml 

Trongli iratar.aloiata 3ST 

Taokor, aiiminatloD of tba atr in Bofton Cltj Hoapltal 116 

TBTln.infaBUDgiejadlaBaaailn .... I3T 

Tobaraaloali 136 

pTBTantion of. In wbooU 136 

T*D room tehool-boaMt. Fitarai tl, 6T, Bl, 8S, U, 8S, 86. 

Tjpa, ilia of, In ohildran'a bouk< 193 

■amplMof. IBS 

T^pbold (aTar, tram pollBtad watar asppi; SB 

tn Browar IB 

■nppoaad dlreot infeaUon from <1 

Dffelmann, Prof., on vartioal uridng 101 

DollaUnl ligbtini Fi|Brai 11, 13, IT, TS, Te, ST. 

Diinali Stl 

Taoatlon eolonlaa ITt 

bontfltiof 1T< 

(rowtb ofobildran daring. Ill 

Ta«itloM and bolMaTi ITl 

Tahl OB aonpaDaalorj growtb aflar nbooplng aoagb IT3 

Tnrloii makaablft*. tBl 

Dictized by Google 

VeDtilatsd witar-aloist nofea 


tftnltr, rUDtt* o( .... 

good, tdT^nUgciof 


VsDtililed drjlcif aloMM 

Tartloal ti, ilopinf wrillDg * 

writliiK. ■dTftntogei uf. 197, 300, 

VonHipp»l,,Dr., onmyopU 108, 1U8. 114. 

■pum of tba ksoommodMlon 

WalanotlDg ■ ■ 

Wilkar, Qen., on tba itodj of ■rlthmetio 


warmlngof 3Ji, 33&, 

Wster MBljiil 

airrUga '. 

oiotat nngei 

clontf, *«parata 

TCDlllttiOD of. 

Weil on detcot* of h*ulng 

Weimar, Mhool bsCba In 

We;, Rr. H. D., on tba banaBU of pbjilokl tnlning. . 
Wbite, Dr., on tba baoeSolarlei ot tba traab «tr fund.. ■ 

publio eimninalioni 

Wboopiiig eoDgb 

Willongbbj, on lb* *Dg1o of ■paritnre 

WfnBur, Dr , dd vtuiitioni 

Wldlb of ■obool-roomi 

Window bllnda and ibadM 

(or TPDtilalioD lolelj, FigarM Tfi, TG, 86. 

Wlndowa, doable 

gronpad or dlitribatad 


Window wibea and tbeir banglnga 

Windowa, ibapeand ilia of 

Window ailla, boigbt of 

topi, beigbt of 

wall, • nodal 

Woodbridia, Prof. 8. H., pUo* for haating ■nd^TenllliUng nbool.hoawi .. 

OD nbool.bODie (arnaeaa..... 

Work, arrangomenl of. , 

"dlatanw" for. 

poaitionof oop;-bo<kalD.. 

tba dsib for ... . 

tba poaltioD of paplta in , . 
tba time (or 

D,i.i.db, Google 

TosmiBi, Dr., on tha ttodj of gnmmtr. . 
ZBrioh, ooBgreii Tor holldij aolDnlaa 

D,i.,.db, Google 

D,i.i.db, Google 

D,i.,.db, Google