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^ \ 









ANN ARBOR, APRIL 2, 3 AND 4, 1913 










To Hon, WoodbrUlge X. Ferris^ Governor of the *S7afe of Michigan: 

Sir — I have the honor to submit herewith the Fifteenth Annual Report 

of the Michigan Academy of Science for publication, in accordance with 

Section 14 of Act No. 44 of the Public Acts of the Legislature of 1899. 


Richard de Zeeuw^ 

East Lansiiig, Michigan, May, 1913. 




Title page 1 

Letter of Transmittal 3 

Table of Contents 5 

Officers for 1913-1914 7 

Membership List 9 

Minutes of the meetings 15 

Report of the Treasurer 18 

General Pro-am rendered at the meeting 20 

Papers jpublished in this Report 26 

The Origin of Continental Forms, IV., Howard B. Baker 26 

Studies m Structure and Stratigraphy in the Saginaw Valley in Relation to Oc- 

curances of Oil and Gas, R. A. Smith 33 

A Geographic Study of the Growth and Distribution of Population in Michigan, 

O. W. Freeman 39 

Gold Deposits of the Porcupine District of Ontario, R. E. Hore 54 

Ripple Marked Huronian Quartzite at Nipissing Mine, Cobalt, Ontario, R. E. Hore 59 

The Nature of Enzyme Action, J. G. Gumming 60 

A Bacterial Disease of the Larvae of the June Bug (Lachnosterna sp.), Zae North- 

rup 64 

The Environment of Soil Bacteria, F. H. Hesselink van Suchtelen — 65 

The Influence of Bacterium Lactis Acidi on the Changes Caused in Milk by Some 

of the Conamon Milk Organisms, C. W. Brown 71 

Ozone as a Means of Water Purification, R. W. Pryer 74 

Farm Organization as a Factor in Rural Economics, W. O. Hedrick 80 

Secret Remedies, Nostrums and Fakes, W. S. Hubbard 78 

Psychological Antithesis of Socialism, H. A. Miller 87 

The Taxation of Local Public Utility Corporations in Michigan, E. H. Ryder ... 95 

The Breeding Habits of the Log Perch (Percina caprodes), Jacob Reigharid 104 

An Adult Diemyctylus with Bifurcated Tail, B. G. Smith 105 

A Sarcoptid Mite in the Cat, Harold Cummins 106 

The Origin of Continental Forms, III, Howard B. Baker 107 

Notes on the Mortality of the Young of Wild Birds Under Natural Nesting Con- 
ditions and Under Artificial or Protected States, Jefferson Butler 114 

The Factors that Determine the Distribution of Boleosoma Nigrum in Douglas 

Lake, Cheboygan County, Michigan, H. V. Heimburger 120 

The Oxygen Content of the Waters of Douglas Lake, Cheoovgan County, Michi- 
gan, D. A. Tucker .*^ 121 

Some Observations on Intestinal Villi, O M. Cope 129 

The Antitoxic Action of Chloral Hydrate upon Copper Sulphate for Pea Seed- 
lings, R. P. Hibbard 130 

Improved Methods for the Quantitative Determination of Dilute Solutions of 

Electrolytes, R. P. Hibbard 138 

Some Notes on the Black Knot of Plums, J. A. McClintock 142 

The Pine Hills at Lowell, Michigan, B. E. Quick 145 

The Flora of Parkedale Farm, Rochester, Michigan, O. A. Farwell 150 

Some Interesting Plants from the Vicinity of Douglas Lake, Henry Allan Gleason 147 

Car- window Notes on the Vegetation of the Upper Peninsula, R. M. Harper. . . . 193 

Permanent Vegetation Quadrats at Douglas Lake, AdaK. Dietz 199 

Role of Vegetation of a Mill Pond, F. A. Loew 201 

Key to the Species and Varieties of Solidago in Michigan, C. H. Otis 203 

An Easy Formula for Obtaining Alcohol of any Strength, Richard de Zeeuw. . . . 209 
Report on the Progress of the Biological Work of the Michigan Geological Survey 

during the year 1Q12-1913, Alexander G. Ruthven '. 210 

Check-list of Michigan Lepidoptera. II. Sphingidae (Hawk Moths), W. W. New- 
comb 213 

Results of the Shiras Expedition to Whitefish Point, Michigan, Reptiles and 

Amphibians, Crystal Thompson and Helen Thompson 215 

The Flowering Plants, Ferns and Their Allies of Mackinac Island, C. K. Dodge. . 218 

Report of the Librarian for 1912-1913 238 

Index 1^\. 

OFFICERS FOR 1913-1914. 

President, Alexander G. Ruthven^ Ann Arbor. 
Secretary-Treasurer, Richard db Zeeuw^ East Lansing. 
Librarian, Alexander G. Ruthvbn^ Ann Arbor. 


Agriculture, F. A. Spragg, East Lansing. 

Geography and Geology, Walter P. Hunt^ Ann Arbor. 

Zoology, Bertram G. Smith, Ypsilanti. 

Sanitary and Medical Science, Robert L. Dixon, Lansing. 

Botany, Ernst Athearn Bessey, East Lansing. 

Economics, Frank T. Carlton, Albion. 

PAST presidents. 

Dr. W. J. Beal, Amherst, Mass. 
Professor W. H. Sherzer, Ypsilanti. 
Bryant Walker, Esq., Detroit. 
Professor Y. M. Spaulding, Tucson, Ariz. 
Dr. Henry B. Baker, Holland, Mich. 
Professor Jacob Reighard, Ann Arbor. 
Professor Chas. E. Barr, Albion. 
Professor Y. C. Yaughan, Ann Arbor. 
Professor F. C. Xewco:mbe, Ann Arbor. 
Dr. a. C. Lane, Tufts College, Mass. 
Professor W. B. Barrows, East Lansing. 
Dr. J. B. Pollock, Ann Arbor. 
Professor M. S. W. Jefferson, Ypsilanti. 
Dr. Chas. E. Marshall, East T^ansing. 
Professor Frank Leverett, Ann Arbor. 
Dr. F. G. Novy, Ann Arbor. 
Professor Wm. E. Praeger, Kalamazoo. 
Dr. E. C. Case, Ann Arbor. 


The Council consists of the above-named officers and all Resident 


MAY, 1912. 

(Charter members are marked witli an asterisk.) 

This list do^ not contain the names of those who have not paid 
any dues for two years or more. Failure to pay dues is taken as an 
indication that it is desired to have the membership lapse. See Chap. 
I, Sec. 3 of the By-laws of the Michigan Academy of Science. 


Adams, H. C, Ann Arbor. 

Alexander, S., 706 Seventeenth St., Detroit. 

Allen, R. C, Lansing. 

Allen, Ruth F., East Lansing. 

Anderson, A. Crosby, East Lansing. 

Andrews, A. W., 186 Lathrop Ave., Detroit. 


Baker, H. Burrington, Museum, Ann Arbor. 

Baker, Howard B., 281 Warren Ave., W. Detroit. 
*Barr, Chas. E., Albion. 
*Barrows, Walter B., East Lansing. 

Bean, Fred A., 659 ToT^Tisend Ave., Detroit. 

Behrens, C. A., 620 Church St., Ann Arbor. 

Bennett, 0. W., 58 Hanchett St., Coldwater. 

Bennett, Ella, 541 Elizabeth St., Ann Arbor. 

Bessey, Ernst A., East Lansing. 

Bigelow, S. Lawrence, Ann Arbor. 

Bissell, John Henry, 525 Bank Chambers, Detroit. 

Blain, Dr. Alexander W., 1105 Jefferson Ave. E., Detroit. 

Bouj'oucos, Geo. J., East Lansing. 

Brenton, S., 121 Alexandrine Ave., Detroit. 

Bricker, J. L, Saginaw, W. Side. 

Brotherton, Wilfred A., Rochester. 

Brown, Chas. W., East Lansing. 

Burnbam, Ernst, 500 S. Rose St., Kalamazoo. 

Burt, Frederick, East Lansing. 

Butler, Jefferson, 1117 Ford Bldg., Detroit. 


Cahn, Mary, 443 Stanton Ave., Detroit. 

Campbell, Edward de Mille, 1555 Washtenaw Ave., Ann Av'b^yt 

Carlton, Frank T., Albion. 


Carnev, Frank, Ann Arbor. 

Case, E. C, Ann Arbor. 

Christian, E. A., Pontiae. 

(Mark, R. W., 944 Greenwood Ave., Ann Arbor. 

Clark, L. T., c|o Parke Davis & Co., Detroit. 

Cole, Harry N., 702 Forest Ave., Ann Arbor. 

Collin, Re\\ Henry P., 98 E Chicago St., Coldwater. 

Conover, L. Tjenore, 114 Mai'ston Court, Detroit. 

Cook, Chas. W., Ann Arbor. 

Coole;>', Chas. H., Ann Arbor. 

C4>ons, G. H., East Lansing. 

Cope, O. M., 1327 Wilmot St., Ann Arbor. 

Cummins, Harold, 701 Trimble Ave., Kalamazoo. 


Davies, Murig L., Bay City. 
Davis, C. A., Washington, D. C. 
Denton, Wni., 31 E. Elizabeth St., Detroit, 
de Zeeuw, Richard, East Lansing. 
Dietz, Ada K., 651 Champlain St., Detroit. 
Dillon, Florence G., 432 Cadillac Ave., Detroit. 
*Dodge, C. K., Port Huron. 
Dunbar, Finances J., 610 So. Ingalls St., Ann Arbor. 

Edwards, S. Fred, Guelph, Ontario. 


*Farwell, Oliver A., 449 McClellan Ave., Detroit. 
Ferry, Newell S., 430 Montclair Ave., Detroit. 
Freeman, O. W.^ Ann Arbor. 
Frey, Chas. N., South Haven, Mich. 
Fridav, David, Ann Arbor. 
Frostic, F. W., St. Charles. 


Gates, Frank C, 524 Elm St., Ann Arbor. 
Gilchrist, Maude. East T>ansing. 
Giltner, Ward, East Lansing. 
Glaser, O. C, Ann Arbor. 
Gleason, H. A., Ann Arbor. 
Goddard, Mary A., Ypsilanti. 


Hallman, E. T., East Lansing. 

Hamilton, O. R., I^ansing. 

Hamilton, S. M., 1513 So. University Ave., Ann Arbor. 

Hamilton, Walton H., Ann Arbor. 

Harvey, Caroline C, 51 Winder St., Detroit. 


Harvey, L. H., Kalamazoo. 

Harvey, N. A., Ypsilanti. ' 

Haug, Bemice L., 3Q1 W Forest Ave., Detroit. 

Hedrick, Wilbur O., East Lansing. 

Hegner, K. W., Ann Arbor. 

Hibbard, R. P., East Lansing. 

Hill, C. L., 327 E. Huron St., Ann Arbor. 

Hobbs, Wm. H., Ann Arbor. 

Hollister, Wesley O., 650 Clinton Ave., Detroit. 

Hood, G. W., East Ijansing. 

Hope, R. E., Houghton. 

Houghton, E. Mark, 130 Longfellow Ave., Detroit. 

Hubbard, Lucius L., Houghton. 

Huber, G. Karl, 1330 Hill St., Ann Arbor. 

Hunt, Walter F., Ann Arbor. 

Hus, Henri, Ann Arbor. 

Itano, Arao, P]ast Lansing. 

Jeffery, J. A., East Lansing, 
Jefferson, M. S. W., Ypsilanti. 
Jodidi, Samuel L., Ames, Iowa. 
Jones, Edward D., Ann Arbor. 


Kauffman, C. H., Ann Arbor. 

Kera, Kate, Bay City. 

King, Mrs. Francis, Orchard House, Alma. 

King, Frances, Alma. 

Kleinstiick, Carl G., Saxonia Farm, Kalamazoo. 

Koch, Catherine, Kalamazoo. 

Kraus, E. H., Ann Arbor. 

Lancashire, Mrs. J. H., Manchester, Mass. 

Lane, Alfred C, Tufts College, Mass. 

LaRue, Geo. R., Ann Arbor. 

Ledyard, Edgar M., Los Banos, P. T. 

T^verett, Frank, Ann Arbor. 

7x)mbard, Warren P., 805 Oxford Road, Ann Arbor. 

Lyons, A. B., 102 Alger Ave., Detroit. 


McCain, Frederick E., 828 Ford Bldg., Detroit. 
McCracken, Wm., Kalamazoo. 
Mac(5urdy, Hansford, Alma. 
McDaniel, Eugenia, East Lansing. 


MacKay, Sarah D., Ann Arbor. 
MacMiilan, J. A., 666 Woodward Ave., Detroit. 
McNall, Jessie, Hastings. 
Magers, S. D., Ypsilanti. 
Mains, E. B., 1430 Hill St., Ann Arbor. 
♦Manton, W. P., 32 Adams Ave. W., Detroit. 
Marshall, Ohas. E., East Lansing. 
Marti, Wra., East Lansing. 
Martin, Helen M., 66 North Ave., Battle Creek. 
Merrill, C. H., 349 Chene St., Detroit. 
Miller, E. C. L., 66 Rosedale Court, Detroit. 
Miller, Herbert A., Olivet. 
Mitchell, James E., Alma. 
Musselman, Harry, East Lansing. 
Myers, Jesse J., East Lansing. 


Nattress, Thos., Amherstburg, Ont. 

Nelson, Chas. D., South Haven. 
*Newcombe, F. C, Ann Arbor. 

Newcomb, Wm. W., 34 Mt. Vernon Ave., Detroit. 

Northrop, Zae, East Lansing. 
*Novy, Frederick G., Ann Arbor. 


Obee, Chas. W., Adrian. 

Okkelberg, Peter O., 1216 So. University Ave., Ann Arbor. 

Parkins, A. E., Ypsilanti. 

Parry, Carl E., Ann Arbor. 

Patten, A. J., East Lansing. 

Pearse, A. S., Madison, Wis. 

Perkins, W. K, 228 So. Thayer St., Ann Arbor. 

Pettee, Edith E., 83 Harper Ave., Detroit. 

Pettit, R. H., East Lansing. 

Phelps, eTessie, Ypsilanti. 

Philbrick, Edwin D., 171 Kirby Ave. N., Detroit. 

Pieters, Adrian J., 506 E. Jefferson St., Ann Arbor. 

Pollock, J. B., Ann Arbor. 

Povah, Alfred H., 341 E. Jefferson St., Ann Arbor. 

Praeger, Wra. E., 421 Douglas Ave., Kalamazoo. 


Quick, Bert E., Ann Arbor. 


Reeves, Cora D., Manistee. 
^Reighard, Jacob, Ann Arbor. 


Robinson, C. S., East Lansing. 
Roth, Filibert, Ann Arbor. 
Ruthven, A. G., Ann Arbor. 
Ryder, Edward H., East Lansing. 


Scott, D. R., 1814 Wilmot St., Ann Arbor. 

Scott, I. D., Ann Arbor. 

Seaman, A. E., Houghton. 

Shafer, Geo. D., East Lansing. 

Shaw, Robert S., East Lansing. 
*Sherzer, W. H., Ypsilanti. 

Shoesmith, V. M., East Lansing. 

Shull, A. F., 935 Greenwood Ave., Ann Arbor. 

Smalley, H. S., Ann Arbor. 

Smith, Bertram G., Ypsilanti. 

Smith, Richard A., Lansing. 

Sperr, F. W., Houghton. 

Spragg, F. A., East Lansing. 

Sprague, R. F., Greenville. 

Spurway, Chas. H., East Lansing. 

Staley, Ethel M., 525 Walnut St., Ann Arbor. 
*Stearns, France®, 43 Terrace Ave., Grand Rapids. 

Stewart, Walter W., 1345 Wilmot St., Ann Arbor. 
* Strong, E. A., Ypsilanti. 

Sutton, John M., 100 Englewood Ave., Detroit. 

Swales, B. H., Grosse Isle. 


Tavemer, P. A., 55 Elmhurst Ave., Detroit. 

Taylor, Frank JB., 548 Home Ave., Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Taylor, Fred M., Ann Arbor. 

Taylor, Rose M., East Lansing. 

Temple, C. E., Ann Arbor. 

Thompson, Bertha E., East Lansing. 

Thompson, Crystal, Ann Arbor. 

Thompson, Elizabeth L., 520 E. Jefferson St., Ann Arbor. 

Thompson, Helen B., Ann Arbor. 

Turner, R. A., 8 West St., Hillsdale. 


Vestal, A. G., Boulder, Colo. 

Yohland, M. L., 637 So. Thayer St., Ann Arbor. 


Waeger, Max Christian, 365 Pine St., Detroit. 
♦Walker, Bryant, 205 Moffat Bldg., Detroit. 
Walsworth, Adelbert M., Corunna. 
Wentworth, W. A., East Lansing. 
Wenzel, Orrin J., 636 So. Thayer St., Ann Arbor. 


Wetmore, Mary, Allegan. 
♦Wheeler, E. S., 76 Delaware Ave., Detroit. 

White, O. K., East Lansing. 

Whitney, W. L., 108 Owen St., Saginaw. 

Williams, C. B., 214 Stewart Ave., Kalamazoo. 

Williams, G. S., Ann Arbor. 
•Willson, Mortimer, Port Huron. 

Wood, N. A., Ann Arbor. 

Wood, L. H., Kalamazoo. 


Barlow, Bronson, 207 Ninth St., S. W. Washington, 1). (\ 

Cooper, Wm. S., North Yakima, Wash. 
*Davis, Chas. A., 1733 Columbia Road, Washington, D. i\ 

Edwards, S. F., Guelph, Ont., Canada. 

Grose, Harlow D., 302 Osgood St., Joliet, 111. 

Holt, W. P., 1004 Jetferson Ave., Toledo, Ohio. 

Jodidi, Samuel L., Ames, Iowa. 

Kempster, Harry, Columbia, Missouri. 
*Lane, Alfred C, Tufts College, Mass. 

Lancashire, Mrs. J. H., Manchester, Mass. 

Loew, F. A., Obee P. O., Huntington, Ind. 

Nattress, Thomas, Amherstburg, Ontario. 

Pearse, A. S., Madison, Wis. 

Taylor, Frank B., Fort Wayne, Ind. 

Thomas, Leo, Troy, Ohio. 

Winter, Orrin B., Geneva, N. Y. 

Wuist, Elizabeth, Fifth and Garfield Sts., Dayton, Ohio. 



Dec. 20, 1912. 

The meeting was called to order by President Case. 

The members present were : Newcombe, Barrows, Case, Walker, Bessey, 
Allen and the Secretary. 
A motion was made by Professor Newcombe that the secretary, Pro- 
fessor Barrows and Professor Bessey be appointed as a committee to 
select a new binding for the Annual Report of the Academy. Seconded. 

The committee that was appointed to look into the possibility of 
forming a new physics-chemistry section had nothing to report officially. 
However, President Case had investigated the matter personally. Pro- 
fessor Newcombe made a motion that President Case's unofficial report 
be substituted for that of the committee. Seconded. Carried. 

Professor Case reported that the physics people were in favor of form- 
ing a new section but that the chemists held back, since the only people 
who would belong to the new section were already members of the local 
section of the American Chemical Association. 

A motion was made that the Council recommend that anyone publish- 
ing in the Academy Report be not given any rebate for reprints. 
Seconded. Carried. 

A motion was made by Dr. Bessey that the secretary be given an 
allowance of $75.00 in consideration of such expenses as he may incur 
in paying stenographer, clerical help, proof-reader and such other help 
as may be needed. Seconded. Carried. 

Professor Bessev made a motion that the Committee on Policv be 
requested to get its report relative to the summer session of the Acad- 
emy in shape for the first Council Meeting at the Annual Meeting of 
the Academy. Seconded. Carried. 

A motion was made by Mr. Walker to leave the time of the Spring 
Meeting to the T^ocal Committee. Seconded. Carried. 

Professor Newcombe made a motion that the president and* the local 
committee be empowered to determine on a possible public speaker and 
the time when a public address, if any, is to be given. Seconded. 

A motion was made to adjourn. 

Richard de Zeet'w, 



April 2, 1913, 1:00 p. m. 

The meeting was called to order by President Case. 
Members present were: Sherzer, Newcombe, Ruthven, Case, Walker, 
Reighard, Barr and the Secretary. 


The minutes of the meeting of Council on the 20th of Dec. 1012, were 
read and approved. 

Professor Newcombe reported for the committee that had \yeen ap- 
pointed to confer in regard to the advisability of having a summer 
meeting of the Academy. The committee did not feel justified in ret^mi- 
mending it. However, any body of members desiring to meet during 
the summer are recommended for recognition by the Academy as a 

A motion was made that Case, Sherzer and Leverett l>e the official del- 
egates of the Academy to the Xllth International Congress of Geologv'. 
Seconded. Carried. 

Professor Newcombe made a motion that Dr. Jos. Zawodny be noti- 
fied that there is no vacancy as corresponding member of the Michigan 
Academy of Science. Seconded. Carried. 

Moved that the following be recommended as members of the Academy : 
Mary CaJin, Edwin D. Philbrick, Adelbert M. Walsworth, Max Christian 
Waeger, William A. Perkins and William Denton. 

A motion was made to adjourn. 

Richard de Zeeuw, 



April 2, 1913, 2 :00 p. m. 

The meeting was called to order by President Case. 
Professor Leverett moved that the people recommended by the coun- 
cil as members be accepted as named. Seconded. Carried. 

Professor Newcombe made a motion that the suggestion of Dr. Ruthven 
in regard to the change in the method of publication of the Annual 
Report of the Academy be put over to the next meeting of council. 
Seconded. Carried. 

Richard de Zeeuw, 


COUNCIL meeting. 

April 3, 1913, 8:00 a. m. 

The meeting was called to ordei* by President Case. 

The members present were: Case, Ruthven, Newcombe, Sherzer, 
Walker, Barr, Leverett, Okkelberg and the Secretary. 

There was an informal discussion on the matter of publication. 

A motion was made by Professor Sherzer that Dr. Ruthven and Dr. 
Newcombe be appointed as an investigating committee. Seconded. Car- 

A motion was made to adjourn. 

Richard de Zeeuw^ 




April 4, 1913, 8:00 a. m. 

The meeting was called to order by President Case. 

The members present were: Leverett, Newcombe, Allen, Barr, Okkel- 
berg, Case, Taylor and the Secretary. 

A motion was made by Professor Newcombe that the Academy pay 
Professor Chamberlain J15.00 to pay his expenses incident to his coming 
to Ann Arbor to give an address at the meeting of the Academy of 
Science. Seconded. Carried. 

The Academy Council nominated the following as officers for the 
ensuing year: 

President Alexander G Ruthven. 

Vice Presidents: — 

Section of Sanitary and Medical Science R. L. Dixon. 

Section of Botany E. A. Bessey. 

Section of Zoology B. G. Smith. 

Section of Geology and Geography Walter P. Hunt. 

Section of Economics F. T. Carlton. 

Secretary-Treasurer Richard de ZBEinv. 

A motion was made by Professor Barr to recommend the following 
members of the Academy of Science: D. A. Tucker, O. M. Cope, W. A. 
Roth, B. G. Smith, B. A. Barber, B. E. Quick, M. L. Vohland, E. B. 
Mains, A. Vestal, F. Carney, F. Gaige, E. T. Hallman, L. R. Himmel- 
berger and O. W. Freeman. 

There was an informal discussion as to the time of meeting of the 
Academy. Professor Barr moved that the time of meeting of the 
Academy be changed to the Friday and Saturday after Thanksgiving. 
Seconded. Carried. 

Professor Newcombe made a motion that the Council ask permission 
of the Academy that the matter in regard to changing the character 
of the Academy publication and financing the same be referred to it 
with power to act. Seconded. Carried. 

Professor Newcombe moved that the Secretary be requested to notify 
every Vice President by Nov. 1 to correspond with such people as are 
desirable to participate in their sectional meetings. Seconded. Carried. 

Professor Newcombe moved that the President and the Secretary be 
given power to make such arrangements as are necessary for meeting 
contrary to the constitution. Seconded. Carried. 

A motion was made to adjourn. 

Richard de Zeeuw, 



April 4, 1913, 9:00 a. m. 

The meeting was called to order by President Case. 
Professor Barr moved that the Academy accept the report of the 


Council ill i*€gard to the reimbiirsenieiit of Professor Clias. G. Cham- 
berlain. Seconded. Carried. 

Professor Barr moved that the oflBcers as nominated by the Council 
be elected to office. Seconded. Carried. 

Mr. Butler moved that all names of the people recommended for 
membership to the Academy by the Council be accepted as read. Sec- 
onded. Carried. 

The name of W. Denton was added bv the Academv. 

A motion was made by Dr. Ruthven that the recommendation of 
the Council in regard to the change of time of meeting of the Academy 
be adopted. Seconded. Carried. 

Mr. Butler moved that the Council be granted the power asked for in 
regard to the matter of publication. Seconded. 

Professor Kraus moved as an amendment that no increase in dues be 
made. And, in case such an increase should be necessary, that it be 
referred to the Academy. 

Professor Barr moved to substitute that the matter be carried through 
in case no increase in dues is necessary. Seconded. Carried. 

The Librarian read his report for the year. 

Professor Reighard made a motion that the report of the Librarian be 
accepted. Seconded. Carried. 

The treasurer read his report. 

Professor Kraus moved that Mr. Scott and Mr. Butler be appointed 
as Auditing Committee. Seconded. Carried. 

Because the Auditing Committee was unable to report at the time, 
Professor Reighard moved that the Auditing Committee be continued in 
office and report at the next Annual Meeting. Seconded. Carried. 

Richard de Zeeuw^ 





Expenditures since Dec. 22, 1011 : 
1912 : 

Jan. 9.— Postage I 2.00 

Feb. 12. — Mailing PreliniinaiT Reports 3.20 

Feb. 16. — Lawrence & Van Bui-en Ptg. Co 4.00 

Feb. 17.— Drayage (B. F. Churchill) , 50 

Mar. 2.— Dravage (B. F. Churchill) 20 

Mar. 19.— R. M. Roland 2.25 

Mar. 23.— Lawrence & Van Buren Ptg Co 21.00 

Mar. 23. — Assistance in mailing programs 1.00 

Mar. 23. — Postage 1.05 

Apr. 1.— Drayage (B. F. (Miurchill) 30 

Apr. 4. — Postage 0.40 


Apr. 4. — A. A. Michelson (Honorarium.) $25.00 

Apr. 20.— Postage 4.26 

Apr. 27.— Postage 2.00 

May 3.— Drayaj^e (B. F. Churchill) .20 

May 4.-3000 Letterheads 12.55 

May 17.— Drayage (B. F. Churchill) 10 

Apr. 21. — Dr. Ruthven (for window cards, signs 

and janitor) • 6.85 

May 31. — Postage > 50 

Sept. 18. — Express 25 

Oct. 23.— Postage 18 

Oct. 26.— Postage 25 

Nov. 22.— Postage 2.29 


Jan. 20.— Postage 6.26 

Mar. 5. — Postage 05 

Mar. 10.— Postage 03 

Feb. 28.— Reprints 31.50 

Mar. 12.— R. M. Roland . .• 3.00 

Mar. 18.— Postage 4.52 

Mar. 19.— R. M. Roland 75 

Total Expenditures fl37.36 

Receipts since Dec. 22, 1911 : 

Dues from members 1178.00 

For back Reports 3.50 

For Reprints 27.56 

Total $209.06 

Received from Former Treasurer 68.29 

Totak Receipts 1277.35 

Expenditures . 137.36 

Balance, April 1, 1913 $139.99 



Wednesday^ April 2. 

1:00 p. m., Council Meeting, Geological I^aboratory, First Floor of 


The Committee on General Policy is urged to be 
present at this meeting. 

2:00 p. m., First Meeting of the Academy, Museum Lecture Room. 

2:30 p. m., General Session of the Academy. The general public is 

cordially invited to attend this meeting. Presidential Ad- 
dress, by Professor E. C. Case, West Lecture Room, 
Physics Building. Title: The Geological History of 
Michigan. Reports on the work of the Michigan Geologi- 
cal and Biological Survey, by R. C. Allen, Director, and 
A. G. Ruthven, Chief Naturalist. 


Eugenics — By Professor Victor C. Yaughan, Department 

of Medicine, University of Michigan, 30 minutes. 
The Biological Aspect of i^ugenics — By Professor A. 
Franklin Shull, Department of Zoology, University of 
Michigan, 30 minutes. 
8:00 p. m.. Public Address, in West Lecture Room, Physics Building, 

"Travels in Mexico," by Professor Charles J. Chamber- 
lain, Department of Botany, University of Chicago. The 
general public is cordially invited. 
:00 p. m.. The Research Club of the University of Michigan will give 

a smoker to the members of the academy in the rooms of 
the University Club, Memorial Building, immediately 
after the public address. 

Thursday, April S, 

8:00 a. m.. Council Meeting, Geological Laboratorv% First Floor of 


9:00 a. m.. Meetings of Sections. (For places of meeting see programs 

of Sections.) 
12:30 p. m.. The Women's Research Club, of the University of Michigan, 

will entertain the visiting women at an informal lunch- 
eon. Members and the wives of members are cordially 
invited to attend this luncheon. 

1 :30 p. m., Meetings of Sections for the reading of papers and election 

of Vice-presidents. 

Friday, April 4. 

8:00 a. m., Coimcil Meeting, Geological Laboratory, First Floor of 



9 :00 a. m., General Business Meeting and Election of OflBcers, Museum 

Lecture Room. 
10 :00 a. m., Sections which have not completed the reading of papers 

may meet again at this time. 
12:00 m.. Luncheon for Biologists, Botanical Laboratories. 




Thursday, April 3rd, 9:00 a. m, 

1. Dr. Howard B. Baker. Origin of Continental Forms, IV. 20 


2. Mr. R. A. Smith. Studies in Structui'e and Stratigraphy in the 

Saginaw Valley in Relation to Occurrences of Oil and Gas. 15 

3. Prof. E. C. Case. Climatic Variation in Permian Time as Recorded 

in Red Beds of Texas. 20 minutes. 

4. Prof. W. H. Sherzer. The Discovery of Illinoian Till in the Detroit 

River Region. 15 minutes. 

5. Mr. Frank B. Taylor. The History of Lake Erie in Post-Glacial 

Time. 20 minutes. 
G. Prof. E. H. Kraus. Further Studies on the Variation of the Angle 
of the Optic Axes, with Temperature. 30 minutes. 

2:00 p. m. 

7. Prof. W. F. Hunt. Vanadiferous Pyroxenes from Libby, Montana. 

15 minutes. 

8. Prof. Frank Carney. Some Pro Glacial Lake Shore Lines of the 

Bellevue Quadrangle, Ohio. 15 minutes. 
0. Mr. R. C. Allen. Some Problems in Stratigraphy and Correlation 
of the Pre-Cambrian Rocks of Michigan. 25 minutes. 

10. Mr. Frank Leverett. (a) Results of Levelling alonig the Algonquin 

Beach in the Northern Peninsula in 1912. 10 minutes. 

(b) Order of Development of Glacial Lakes in the Great 

Lakes R^ion. 20 minutes. 

(c) Centers of Dispersion and Probable Extent of the Kansan 

and Pre-Kansan Drifts. 15 minutes. 
O. W. Freeman. A Geographic Study of the Growth and Distri- 
bution of Population in Michigan. 10 minutes. 

11. Prof. E. H. Kraus and Mr. J. P. Goldsberry. The Chemical Com- 

position of Bomite. 15 minutes. 

12. Mr. R. E. Hore. The Porcupine Gold Deposits of Ontario. 15 


13. Ripple Marked Huronian Quartzite at Nipissing Mine, Cobalt, 

Ontario, R. E. Hore. 



April Srcl, 1913—1:30 p, m. 

Ferments. Dr. J. (i. Cuininiiijj:. 

A Bacterial Disease of the Larva of the June Bug (Laehnosterna. sp. ) 

Miss Zae Northru]). 

Duration of Tr. Ganibiense Infection in Rats and Guinea-pigs 

J. F. Morgan. 

The Environment of Soil Bacteria.. . .Dr. F. H. Hesselink van Suchtelen. 
The Influence of Bacterium Lactis Acidi on the Changes Caused in 

Milk by Some of the Commo^i Milk Microorganisms. . .C. W. Brown. 
The Fse of Chlorinated Lime for the Disinfection of Drinking Water. . . 

Dr. M. L. Holm and E. R. Chambei-s. 

Ozone as a Means of Water Purification R. W. Prver. 


Toxic Bases in the Urine of Para thyroidectomized Dogs. . .W. F. Koch. 
Serum Tests in the Diagnosis of Infectious Abortion of Cattle 

Dr. E. T. Hallman. 

The Increase of Hog Cholera Virus bv Intraperitoneal Injections of 

Salt Solution ' W. S. Bobbins. 

Studies in Avian Tuberculosis L. R. Himmelberger. 

The Sensitizing Group in the Protein Molecule Dr. V. 0. Vaughan. 

Immunization Agjiinst Tr. Brucei with Cultures Dr. F. G. Novy. 

Determination of Minimum Lethal Dose of Tr. Brucei. . . .C. A. Behrens. 

Cultivation of Spirilla P. H. de Kruif. 

Secret Remedies, Nostrums and Fakes Dr. W. S. Hubbard. 


Thursday, 10:00 a. m, and 2:30 p, m. Friday, 9:00 a. ///. 


1. The London Dock Strike of 1912; Carl E. PariT, of the University 

of Michigan. 
Discussion opened by W. H. Hamilton, of the University of Michi- 

2. Fai*m Organization as a Factor in Rural Economics. Wilbur O. 

Hedrick, of Michigan Agricultural Collie. 
Discussion opened by Edward D. Jones, of the University of Michi- 

3. The Sphere of Pecuniary Valuation. C. H. Cooley, of the University 

of Michigan. 
Discussion opened by Frank T. Carlton, of Albion College. 

4. Psychological Antithesis of Socialism. H. A. Miller, of Olivet 


5. The Teaching of Economics in the High School. 

Discussion opened by J. PI Mitchell, of Alma College, and F. M. 
Taylor, of the University of Michigan. 


6. The Taxation of Local Public Utilities in Michigan. E. H. Ryder, 
of Michigan Agricultural College. 

Public Utility Accounting in Michigan. David Friday, of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. 

Discussion opened by H. C. Adams, of the University of Michigan. 


Thursday, 9:00 a, jn. and J:30 p. m. 


1. Factors Governing Local Distribution of the Thysanoptera. A. F. 


2. Results of the Mershon Expedition to the Charity Islands, Lake 

Huron Coleoptera. A. W. Andrews. 

3. Types of Learning in Animals. J. F. Sliepard. 

4. The T^pidoptera of the Douglas Lake Region, Cheboygan County^ 

Michigan. Paul S. Welch. ^ 

5. Check-list of Michigan Lepidoptera. II. Sphingidae (Hawk MothJ^). 

W. W. Newcomb. 

6. On the Breeding Habits of the Log, Perch. Jacob Reighard. > 

7. A list of the Fish of Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Mich., with 

notes on their Ecological Relations. Jacob Reighard. 

8. May the Remains of Adult I^epidoptera be Identified in the Stomach 

Contents of Birds? F. C. Gates. 

9. The Mitochondria. R. W. Hegner. 

10. The Unione Fauna of the Great Lakes. Bryant Walker. 

11. Notes on the Genus Edaphosaurus Cope. (20 minutest E. C. Case. 

12. Methods of Preparing Teleost Embryos for Cla^s Use. (Demonstra- 

tions). B. G. Smith. 

13. An Adult Diemyctylus wilh Bifurcated Tail. B. G. Smith. 

14. Notes on the Mollusks of Kalamazoo Cour.fv, Mich. Harold 


15. Sarcoptid Mites in the Cat. Harold Cummins. 

16. The Origin of Continental Forms, III. Howard Baker. 

17. An Ecological Study of the Birds of Manchester, Mich. F. Gaige. 

18. Notes on Crustacea Recently Acquired by the Museum of Natural ' 

History of the University of Michigan. A. S. Pearse. 

19. Distribution of Multiple Embrsos on the Blastoderm. O. C. Glaser. 

20. Nesting of Our Wild Birds. Jefferson Butler. 

21. The Factors that Determine the Distribution of Boleosoma Nigrum 

in Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Mich. H. Y. Heimburger. 

22. Structure of the Olfactory Organs. E. W. Roberts. 

23. A Method of Producing Cell-like Structures by Artificial Means. E. 

W. Roberts. 

24. Some Notes on Rhizopods from Michigan. E. W. Roberts. 

25. An Interesting Form of Protozoa. E. W. Roberts. 

26. Oxygen and Carbonic Acid Contents of Douglas Lake, Cheboygan 

County, Mich. p. A. Tucker. 

27. Some Obsenations on Asplanchna Amphora. D. A. Tucker. 

28. Some Effects of Sunlight on the Starfish. H. M. MacCurdv. 


29. Some Abnormalities Obvsened in Proteocephalid Cestodes. G. La- 


30. Note on a Cestode Fomid in a Garter Snake. G. LaRne. 

31. Some Observations on Intestinal Villi. O. M. Co])e. 

32. Some Physiological Changes in the Lamprev Egg after Fertilization. 

P. Okkelberg. 

33. A Collection of Fish from Houghton County, Mich. T. L. Hankin- 


34. The Lagoons and Ponds of Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, 

Mich. H. B. Baker. 

35. The Shiras Expeditions to Whiteftsh Point, Mich. 

1. Birds. N. A. Wood. 

2. Mammals. N. A. Wood. 

3. Amphibians and Reptiles. Crystal Thompson and Helen Thomp- 

3G. Notes on the Ornithology of Clay and Palo Alto Counties, Iowa. 
A. D. Tinker. 

37. A Check-list of Michigan Mammals. N. A. Wood. 

38. The Variations in the Number of Vertebrae and Ventral Scutes in 

the Genus Cegina. Crystal Thompson. 

39. An Artificially Produced Increase in the Proportion of Male Pro- 

ducers in Hydatina Senta. A. F. Shull. 

40. Seminiferous Tubules of Mammals. G. M. Curtis. 

41. Piiedogenetic Larvae of Insects. R. W. Hegner. 

Fifteen minutes will be allowed for each paper unless otherwise 
specified. The time may be extended by vote of the members present. 

l*a])ers presented by persons not present <at the meeting will be 
i*ead by title only. 


Thursday, 9:00 a, vk and 1:30 p. vi, 

Biometric Studies in Oaks. 10 minutes. (Witli lantern). Carl Oberlin. 

Biometric Studies in Oaks. 10 minutes. (With lantern). J. H. Ehlers. 

The Origin of Capsella Arachnoidea. 40 minutes. (With lantern) 

Henri Hus. 

Tlie Antitoxic Action of Chloral Hydrate upon Copper Sulphate for Pen 
Seedlings. 15 minutes R. P. Hibbard. 

Improved Methods for the Quantitative Determination of Dilute Solu- 
tions of Electrolytes. 10 minutes .R. P. Hibbard. 

Effect of Illumination on the TS^ining of Plants. 12 minutes 

F. C. Newcomb. 

Conditions for the Diageotropism of Asparagus Plumosus. 10 minutes. 
Margaretta Packard. 

A Heteroprophic Mycorhiza. 10 minutes. (With lantern) 

*. Walter B. McDougall. 

Some Notes on the Black Knot of Plimis. 10 minutes. .J. A. McClintock. 

Some Further Observations on Sclerotinia. 10 minutes. . . . J. B. Pollock. 

A Sand-binding Fungus. 8 minutes J. B. Pollock. 

Tte Relic Dunes of Little Point Sable. 8 minutes. (With lantern) . . . 

W. E. Praeger. 

... J. J. 


The Pine Hills at Lowell, Mich. 10 minutes. (With lantern) 

Bert E. Quick. 

Plants Observed on Mackinac Island in 1912. 5 minutes.. .0. K. Dodge. 
The Flora of Parkedale Fann. Rochester, Mich. 10 minutes 

O. A. Fai-weU. 

The Early Extent of Prairies in Southern Michigan. 6 minutes...... 

H. A. Gleason. 

Notes on a Few IMants from the Vicinitv of Ann Arbor. 5 minutes 

* . — H. A. Gleason. 

Car-window Notes on the Vegetation of the Upper Peninsula. 8 minutes. 

Read bv H. A. Gleason R. M. Harper. 

Peimanent Vegetation Quadrats at Douglas Lake. 10 minutes 

Ada K. Dietz. . 

Role of Vegetation of a Mill Pond. 8 minutes. (With lantern) 

....". F. A. Ijoew. 

Key to the Species and Varieties of Solidago in Michigan. 5 minutes. 

C. H. Otis. 

An Easy Formula for Obtaining Alcohols of any Strength. 3 minutes. 

Richard de Zeeuw. 

Lipolytic Action in a Rust. 5 minutes G. H. Coons. 

Soft Rot of the Hyacinth. 10 minuter ^G. H. Coons. 

^ome Interesting Plants from the Vicinity of Douglas Lake 

H. A. Gleason. 




There are at least five main theoiies of the origin of continental 
forms : 

1. Unequal radial contraction of a cooling earth. 

2. Prof. Ohamberlin's theory of the leaching ont of basic materials 
from exposed land and their deposition in the sea. 

3. Prof. Suess' theory of the foundering of portions of the earth's 
ciiist into the interior of the planet. 

4. Mr. Taylor's theor>^ of crustal creep. 

5. The theory of the terrestrial loss of mass, developed from the sug- 
gestions of Rev. Osmund Fisher, which I have heretofore pi'esented in 
outline before this section. 

There are certain leading facts which any satisfactoiy theory must 
take into consideration. For example the following: 

1. The present forms of the continents and the low density of their 

2. That the margins of the continents exhibit fracture. 

3. That many of the fractured borders may be matched together so 
as to produce a consistent pattern. 

4. That when they are so matched together the surface geology in 
several significant places also forms a consistent pattern. 

5. That the Pacific border structures are set in a radial or rotating 

6. That the Atlantic fractures date from the end of Mesozoic time. 
These facts I hold to be fatal to the first three theories mentioned, viz. : 

contraction, leaching and foundering, and, for the present, their dis- 
cussion will be postponed in order to take up the theory of crustal creep. 
Not that unequal contraction and leaching are wholly excluded as pos- 
sible factors, but they have not been dominant factors. 

In 1908, Mr. F. B. Taylor presented in abstract before the Geological 
Society of America a paper on the "Bearing of the Tertiary Mountain 
Belt on the Origin of the Earth's Plan." It was published in full in 
the bulletin of the society in 1910. Briefiy summarized, this paper pre- 
sents the theory that during Tertiary time, possibly in part earlier, 
the continental sheets of North and South America, Eurasia and 
Australia experienced slow lateral motion which Mr. Taylor calls 
"crustal creep." This movement resulted in mountain building along 
the anterior borders of the moving sheets, thus explaining the peculiar 
distribution of the Tertiary mountains. North America is thought to 
have moved southwest away from Greenland, Eurasia southeast from 
Greenland but for the most part south. South America mainly north- 
west, and Australia northeast. Africa is thought to have moved east- 
ward but only slight folding and slight elevation toward the eastward 
are cited. The author believes in crustal creep away from both poles, 
and is inclined to look for the explanation in some form of tidal force. 


Compared with the theory of terrestiial loss of mass as I have de- 
veloped it, following Fisher and Pickering, Mr. Taylor's theory pre- 
sents some resemblances and some contrasts. Both recognize certain 
coastal affinities between the opposite sides of the Atlantic oceans. Both 
explain these affinities on the basis of former continuity and fracture 
wit^ separation. Under both, the Atlantic ocean is thus a widened 
crack, rent, or rift in the earth's superficial materials. 

Then come the contrasts. Mr. Taylors motion is slow, that of the 
rival theor}^ rapid. Mr. Taylor's is mainly Tertiary in time, my de- 
velopment of the other theory makes the principal motion determine the 
division between Mesozoic and Tertiary time. Mr. Taylor's theory goes 
a long way toward explaining the formation of the Atlantic and Arctic 
oceans, the other would explain the formation of all the oceans. Mr. 
Taylor's theory harmonizes with current geological sentiment, its rival 
is a startling and doubtless an unwelcome, I'eversion to catastrophic 

Mr. Taylor s theory has many elements of strength, resting as it does 
upon analysis of observed facts. Granting the Tertiary age of the moun- 
tain belts which border the Americas and, though less regularly, the 
mass of Eurasia, and granting, what seems clear, that these ranges 
have been produced by lateral movement due to pressure, we have ex- 
ceedingly strong grounds for belief in widespread crustal creep of the 
general nature claimed. Granting further, that the folding is toward 
the oceans, and that coastal affinities exist, as claimed, on the borders 
which are not folded, the conclusion seems reasonable that there was 
crustal creep in the continental sheets away from Greenland and toward 
the folded margins. The mountains w^ere doubtless slowly, probably 
intermittently formed, so the creep must have been timed accordingly 
and not all accomplished in one comparatively brief action. 

In the Tertiary mountain belt, two peculiar features are pointed out 
which strongly support Mr. Taylor's conclusions, — two ^'mountain 
knots," one in Alaska, the other in Peru, where convergences of crustal 
creep are advanced in explanation of excessive and tumultuous mountain 
building. These seem to be excellent evidence. Also, in addition to 
mountain ranges, he is able to point to numerous overthrusts, a few of 
considerable extent, the most notable example being one of a hundred 
kilometers in Scandinavia. 

TMiile the theory rests upon Prof. Suess' views of mountain structure, 
to which some may not give unqualified approval, still on the whole 
this is probably much more an element of strength than one of weakness. 

Lines of rifting and parting to the east and west of Greenland are' 
indicated by the coastal contours, less upon the east side, Mr. Taylor's 
illustration of those on the west of Greenland, his figures 4 and 5, being 
especially striking. 

I cannot admit that the coasts of Africa and South America fit into 
the outlines of the mid- Atlantic ridge, as he claims, but as I have pre- 
viously demonstrated, these two borders M into each other in a most 
surprising manner if we can bring ourselves to disregard that ridge, 
and a line of parting is indicated which argues as strongly for Mr. 
Taylor's theory as do the para-Greenland rifts. As I understand it, 
the mid-Atlantic ridge is not an essential part of his theory, he merely 
tries to accommodate it. 


Among the "many bonds of union*' which, as Mr. Taylor says, show- 
that Africa and South America were formerly united, is the faunal and 
floral evidence in favor of a former land connection between Africa 
and Europe and northern South America, along some such lines as 
have been proposed by von Ihering, Oitmann, Scharff and others. While 
tliis instance is only one of several, it is particularly applicable in the 
piesent discussion and I have developed this phase of the subject in a 
separate paper. 

But Mr. Tavlor's theorv is unsatisfactorv in several wavs. 

• • • t 

For instance, I cannot see that there is any place in it for coastal 
matching together between Africa and North America. As I have 
demonstrated, and it is easy to verify, the convex northwestern coast of 
Africa fits into the concave southeastern coast of Xortli America in a 
manner not less significant than the matching together that is possible 
between North America and Greenland on the one hand and Africa and 
South America on the other. There are no mountain structures available 
to take care of crustal creep in this particular instance. We may pass 
over related difficulties on small scale in Madagascar, Borneo and other 
islands, confining our attention to the major features. 

In the Atlantic, if we could ovei'look the above objection, the general 
evidences of separation might be held to favor his theory almost as much 
as they do that of loss of mass, but, on a broader view, a seemingly 
insurmountable difficulty arises in the peculiarly i*eciprocal conditions 
in the Atlantic and Pacific. In the latter, we find the coastal evidences 
of movement set in a radial or rotating arrangement with the Austra- 
lian focus as a centre and e\'ei*>'thing indicates converging crustal move- 
ment toward that centre as contrasted with the separations, the widening 
of the Atlantic rift, which lie opposite to it upon the globe. Mr. Taylor 
believes that, associated with a change in the earth's oblateness, there 
was outflow of mass from high latitudes toward low the world around, 
but the lines of motion that he figures, if depicted upon the globe would 
do about as well for convergence toward the Australian focus as my 
own. The fiow of mass was not alone away from the Greenland horst 
and from the south polar regions toward the north, it was away from 
the whole Atlantic ocean north and south and toward the focus men- 
tioned. His theory makes no provision for this peculiar distribution 
of deforming force and it does not seem as if anything can explain it so 
efficiently as does the loss of mass in the region toward which the 
continental sheets moved. If there is nothing more involved than what 
he says, all of those peculiar features which I have pointed out in the 
Pacific hemisphere in this connection have to be disregarded. 

There still remains the broad objection that crustal corrugations and 
overthrusts are inadequate to account for the amount of crustal move- 
ment indicated on the globe. 

Suppose we take the case which is easiest for the theory, the 560 
miles of separation between Greenland and I>abrador. Draw a repre- 
sentative line southwest from Greenland, on a great circle, in the di- 
rection of the crustal creep of North America. Prolonged, this line 
strikes the Australian focus. It might be claimed that we have the 
whole distance from Labrador to the Australian coast in which to 
account for the 560 miles of creep. Reference to Mr. Taylor's figure 7, 
howe^^er, discloses the fact that he concedes that the foldings from the 


Australian coast to the Solomon Islands are attributable to pressure 
from that continent instead of toward it. As to the mid-Pacific ridges he 
is in doubt but leans toward a southwesterly, that is an Australian, 
source for the corrugating pressure. That \^'X)uld restrict us to the space 
between Labrador and the mid-Pacific islands. Now, since the central 
portion of North America is known to have remained free from major 
deformation through Mesozoic and Tertiarv time, the Pacific border of 
this continent is about all there is left to fall back upon. Let us see 
what measure of crustal shortening may reasonably be assigned to that 

The amount of crustal shortening in the Laramide range of the 
Canadian noi*thwest was given by McConnell in 1887 as 25 miles in 50. 
That is, 50 miles of surface had been gathered into 25. This includes a 
thrust of Cambrian over Cretaceous of about 7 miles. Taking this inta 
consideration, Dana, 1896, assigns to the Pacific border of North, "Lara- 
mide and other systems later than the Archaean, not over 75 miles." 

In the Appalachians, Claypole, 1885, found 153 miles (in Pennsyl- 
vania) shortened to 65, a difference of 88 miles. 

Willis, 1893, in Tennessee, found 72 miles shortened to 54, difference 
18, which measure he considers "accordant" with Claypole's results in 

For the Alps, Heim, 1874, found 74 miles of shortening, about the 
same as that given for our Pacific border. 

In regard to overthrusts more particularly, although many are in- 
cluded in the above measurements, a few examples may serve to ac- 
quaint us with the general run of values ; such are, one in the Laramide 
range (McConnell) 7 miles; one in Utah, 4 miles and more (Black- 
welder) ; in Montana one of 5 to 7 miles (Willis) ; Georgia, 11 miles 
(Hayes) ; in F'cotland, one of 10 miles (Peach) ; numeroi-s snic^ll ones 
in Europe and one in Scandinavia of 621/^ miles (Suess). The last is 
exceptionally large. Overthrusts are abundant in various regions but 
they are generally small. 

To be liberal with the theory, let us grant that there is much more 
shortening hidden in the Pacific border of Noiiih America than has hith- 
erto been supposed. Let us say that we will concede for that one region, 
in addition to Dana's allowance of 75 miles, Claypole's 88 for the Ap- 
palachians and Heim's 74 for the Alps. We secure a total of 237 miles, 
which is a fraction over 42% of the 560 miles of crustal creep of North 
America which we have to account for. More than half, 323 miles, is 
still missing, so to take care of that we have still to introduce somewhere 
between Labrador and the Solomon Islands the shortening equivalent 
of four such mountain regions as the average, (79 miles) of the Alps, 
Appalachians, and Pacific Border of North America. Recourse must 
doubtless be had to enonnous theoretical thinists, of the existence of 
which we have no knowledge whatsoever. I have selected this particular 
case, because it seems more favorable to the theory than any other. 
Between the Labrador coast and the Solomon Islands, we have some- 
thing like 9000 miles in which to find 560 miles of crustal puckering. 
We do not find it. 

If we take the case of western Eurasia, we have not over 2500 miles 
in which to take care of oVer 1000 miles of crustal creep. Reference to 
Mr. Taylor's figure 7 shows how few^ mountain ranges there are between 


the British Isles and Africa -Arabia, even including those which run in 
the line of creep and which were formed by pressures at right angles 
to it. The great Scandinavian overthrust is not available for western 
Europe and the Alps are the main reliance. To get upwards of 1000 
miles of crustal shortening in between Scotland and Africa-Arabia, or 
more properly between the English Channel and those southern limits, 
since England has no Tertiary mountains, certainly seems more than 
can be reasonably granted. 

Take South America and Africa. The evidence is that their coasts 
match together and the infei^nce is that they have moved apart at 
least 2500 miles between Guinea and Brazil and upwards of 1000 miles 
more than that further south. Mr. Taylor thinks they only parted from 
the mid-Atlantic ridge, which would give each an excursion of about 
1000 miles. Now the case of South America is radically different from 
that of North America in that the Pacific ridges are not even a little 
available in explanation of the creep, and he is, I belie^-e, compelled to 
rely to an undue extent upon the deformation of the western border of 
the continent. The width of the sheet diminishes toward the south so 
that the conditions become increasingly difficult. Whereas just below^ 
the equator, there is something like 2500 miles in w hich to place 1000 
miles of shortening, further south there is only half that width. Unless 
the eastern Pacific bottom, and the ocean is very deep for a long dis- 
tance off the coast of South America, can come to the rescue with an 
improbable amount of crustal overthrust, we must be prepared to con- 
cede to South America as much puckering as that assigned to the 
Pacific border of North America, 75 miles, the Appalachian 88, the Alps 
74, all added together and the total multiplied by 4 ! 

For Africa, it s^ems necessary to grant also 1000 miles of crustal 
creep (toward the east) and the whole can be accounted for only by 
very great foldings and tlmists which have not yet been found in the 
African land. It is true that exploration is not yet complete enough 
to settle such a point, but the great resistance offered by the Indo- African 
mass against the southward pressure of Eurasia, which resistance would 
T>e necessary to ])roduce the observed Tertiary foldings along the south- 
ern border of the creeping sheet, this great resistance of itself presup- 
poses that same great stability and rigidity that is indicated by what 
is known of Indo-African geology. Such a rigidity is to be reconciled 
with an undue amount of hypothetical thrusting and shortening, if it 
is to be granted that Africa crept slowly away from the mid-Atlantic 
ridge in Tertiary time. In fact, Mr. Taylor does not claim that. He 
liopes to avoid the difficulty by placing the (eastward) diifting of 
Africa, before the Mesozoic. How to show the untenability of that posi- 
tion in few w^ords would be very difficult, but it becomes perfectly clear 
wiien these crustal movements are regarded broadly in the light of 
all the facts that I have heretofore presented, that Africa's principal 
excursion had to be simultaneous with those of all the other continents. 
I must refer to all the evidence I have compiled and reaffirm that the 
crustal sheet wiiich is now Africa was up to the end of Mesozoic time 
structurally continuous with both the Americas whose coast-lines match 
with it like fragments of broken slate. The general stratigraphical ar- 
rangement of its borders corresponds, the surface geologj' corresponds. 


and the plants and animals, in o^neral, correspond, (albeit roughly) up 
to the end of Mesozoic time. 

So, as a conclusion from the foregoing investigation, Mr. Taylor-s 
theory that the Tertiary mountain belt and crustal overthrusts explain 
the crustal movement indicated upon the globe may be said to be quan- 
titatively inadequate. Just how inadequate it is, we have seen in a gen- 
eral way; known foldings and thrusts and probable foldings and thrusts 
(such as those that may be thought to be submerged in the sea and those 
that are yet undiscovered on the land) such foldings and thrusts are 
capable of accounting for only a small fraction of the separation that 
is indicated by coastal parallelisms. But it is no less important to note 
that the theory is adequate for that small fraction. 

I conclude (1) that taken broadly Mr. Taylor's theory is a most 
valuable contribution to the study of the origin of continental forms. 

(2) That it is true that slow crustal creep occurred in Tertiary time 
and resulted in mountain building substantially as described. 

(3) That Mr. Taylor's theory is qualitatively insuflScient to accom- 
modate lateral cnistal mo^-ement as shown by certain coastal parallel- 
isms and by the Pacific convergences. 

(4) That it is quantitatively insufficient to account for more than 
a small fraction of the lateral crustal movement which can be shown to 
Tiave occurred. 

(5) That Mr. Taylor's theory, far from being an argument against 
or a substitute for the theory of separation of mass from the earth 
at the end of Mesozoic time, forms a most acceptable extension of it. 

What he really shows is how, throughout Tertiary time, the earth's 
superficial structures went on slowly completing an adjustment, ap- 
proaching a new equilibrium after the destruction of the old; how the 
earth literally healed itself, filling in and closing up to a wonderful de- 
gree the huge Pacific depression. 

See how his story corroborates the other! and see how loss of mass, 
in turn, supplies him with one adequate first cause which his facts 
demand ! 

The various crustal sheets moved, crept, toward the Australian 
focus, and, if this was due to the existence of a depression there, then 
clearly, terrestrial gravitation was at the bottom of the matter. Never- 
theless there must have been other forces at work too, agitating or re- 
leasing forces which became intermittently active through Tertiary time. 
For mountain building seems not to have been a uniformly continuous 
process; it was intermittent. Tt took force to break the continental 
sheets loose and set them free to move as he shows that they did move; 
new rifts with separation had to accompany and permit Mr. Taylor's 
crustal creep; and these events were intermittent, with periods of com- 
parative quiet between. In explanation of this aspect of the problem, I 
can quote with full approval the closing words of his paper and say 
that "one is inclined to reject all internal causes and to look to some 
form of tidal force as the only possible agency." 

Just as I have argued that the Tertiarv age was ushered in by the 
removal of mass from the earth and that this separation of mass was 
caused by extraterrestrial gravitation, to be, for the present, no more 
explicit, so in the end, Mr. Taylor's crustal creep works out to the 


same result, infraterrestrial gravitation plus "some form of tidal force'* 
as he puts it, which is to say, plus crfraterrestrial jrravitation. 

Mr. Taylor has taken a most sij!:nificant step in daring thus to give 
expression to a belief that geology must look to extraterrestrial force 
for the explanation of one of its major jiroblems. 

What matters it at this time in what pi^ecise form we may severally 
picture to ourselves this deformation? The gi'and conception is stated 
that the greatest deformation of the earth mass since the close of 
Mesozoic time, the corrugation of the earth's surface with the Tertiary 
mountain belt, was produced through the action of extramundane force T 
Even if it be shown, as I believe it can be, that the Tertiary events re- 
sulted from the (pre-Tertiary) removal of earth mass, this merely trans- 
fers a part of the cause backward in point of time, it does not eliminate 
it, and so, after all, the conception loses none of its suggestiveness. 





Some years ago Dr. A. C. Lane, then State Geologist of Michigan, 
wrote an article upon the oil and gas prospects in Saginaw Valley. This 
article appeared in the Michigan Miner of Saginaw, and created not a 
little stir in the state at the time, especially at Saginaw. Nothing came 
of it, however, and the article was forgotten until a reprint of the 
article fell into the hands of some Saginaw business men in the winter 
of 1912. They became very much interested in the oil and gas possi- 
bilities of Saginaw Valley as portrayed by Dr. T^ne and soon interested 
other business men of Saginaw to the extent that a company, the Sag- 
inaw Development t^ompany, was oi-ganized for the purpose of putting 
down three wells, two of which were to be sunk down to the Berea gi'it, 
and a third to a depth of 3500 feet or more, unless oil or gas should be 
struck in quantity before that depth was reached. 

Representatives of the company came to Lansing to confer with the 
Geological Survey concerning all of the available infonnatiim relating to 
oil and gas, or other mineral prospects in and around Saginaw. At 
their request, a compilation and interpretation of the evidence was made, 
which, though not at all conclusive, was deemed sufficient to wan**ant a 
thorough test of the Saginaw territory. ^lost of the evidence, indicating 
favorable structural conditions for the occurrence of oil and gas in 
quantity in the underlying rocks of the region, wlas derived fn)m the 
numerous and comparatively shallow drillings for salt along Saginaw 
river. More or less indirect evidence was also furnished by drillings at 
Midland, Alcona, Caseville, Blackmar, Flint, Owosso, St. Charles, etc. 
The two deep wells at Bay City, especially that of the North Amencan 
Chemical Co., were of great value in giving a general idea of the probable* 
natui'e and thickness of the deeper lying formations. 

The rock sti'ata of Michigan lie one upon the other like a pile of very 
shallow warped basins, each successively higher basin being smaller than 
the one immediatelv below. This basin like structure is known as the 
Michigan Basin. Obviously it follows that in general the rock layers 
should dip gently toward the center of the basin which apy)ejirs to lie 
somewhere in ^lidland and Isal>ella counties. Saginaw and Bay City 
are to the east of the center, therefore, one should expect the strata 
on the Avhole to dip westward. As the general dip in the eastern part of 
the basin is about 20 feet per mile to the west, corresponding strata at 
Saginaw should be considerably dee])er than at Bay City. 

Upon platting the salt wells, it was seen at on(*^e that the salt honzons 
of the Napoleon, instead of being deeper at Saginaw, ai-e fully 200-300 
feet higher than at Bay City. In section, the top of the brine horizon 
of the Napoleon sandstone is seen to rise gradually from a depth of 
840-900 feet or more in Bay City to about (HO feet in the Wylie well 
near Bristol St. Bridge in Saginaw, where they again deepen rapidly 
to the southwest and west being found at 800-000 feet at St. Charles 


and more than 1200 feet at Midland. Southeast of Saginaw the Marshall 
and the Berea also appeared to be much higher. To the north of Sag- 
inaw, there is a pronounced upward fold in the Coal Measures as ob- 
served in the Ralston well (Sec. 4, T. 13 N., R. 4 E.). The Marshall and 
the Coldwater also appear to be somewhat higher in the Page Oil and 
Gas Co. well (Sec. 26, T. 14 N., R. 4 E.) than thev are farther east 

> Sir 

along Saginaw river. At Kawkawlin, the brine horizons occur between 
700-800 feet or considerablv shallower than in Bav Citv. From the 
foregoing evidence, it seemed fairly certain that a pronounced anticlinal 
fold existed in the rock strata dowTi to the Marshall at least, and pre- 
sumably much deeper. Appai*ently this fold should run slightly west 
of north through Saginaw near Bristol St. Bridge to a point two or 
thi-ee miles west of Kawkawlin. To the southeast of Saginaw at Black- 
mar, the Marshall and Berea were apparently struck at 360 and 1545 feet 
and at Flint, 170 and 1200 feet respectively. As this is considerably 
higher than at points to the east or west of these places, the anticline 
appears to turn more to the southeast toward Blackmar and Flint, but 
the evidence is not definite or conclusive, as the records of the drillings 
at these places are very imperfect. As the Marshall appeared to be 
only al>out 360 feet deep at Blackmar, 610 feet at Saginaw and about 
700 feet at Kawkawlin, the structure apparently pitched gently to the 
north. On the whole, the evidence was fairly conclusive that an an- 
ticlinal structure existed, but its exact position and direction were not 
s<» clearly indicated. 

The first well was put do\m by the Saginaw Development Companv 
near the SE. Cor. of the NW. V^ of NW. 14 of Sec. 27, T. 13 N., R. 
5 E., Buena Yista township, Saginaw county, although from the evi- 
dence then at hand, this location appeared to be considerably to the 
east of the supposed anticlinal. In this well, known as the Mundy- 
Fifield, the Marshall was found at 780 feet or 40 feet higher than in 
the South Bay City well (Sec. 5, T. 13 N., R. 5 E.) but fully 170 feet 
lower than the supposed depth to the Napoleon near the Old Wylie well 
on Niagara St. about 800 feet north of Bristol St. Bridge. The Berea 
was struck at 2070 feet or 30 feet higher than in the South Bay City 
well. All of the underlying formations were correspondingly higher 
than the respective ones in the Bay City wells and much lower than at 
Saginaw, as was afterwards shown by later drillings. From the first 
it was obvious that the weM was located well down the east limb of the 
anticline. The Berea yielded some brine and a little gas, but no show 
of oil. At the depth of 2246 feet the drilling was abandoned, but after- 
wards it was deepened to the Traverse oil horizon, which was struck 
at 2520 feet or 90 feet higher than at Bay City and 200 feet lower than 
at Saginaw. There was about 20 feet of the **sand-- but no oil or gas. 
The well is now being drilled to the Dimdee but the chances for finding 
oil and gas do not seem at all favorable. The well is located too far 
from the anticline. 

Another well was started near the site of the old ^yylie Bi'os. well 
on what is known as the Gaivy-Casamer lease. Here the Upi>er Marshall 
or Napoleon was found at 510 feet or 170 feet higher than in the Mundy- 
Fifield well and 210 feet higher than in the South Bay City. The Berea 
was encountered at 1835 feet or 235 feet higher than in the Mundy- 
Fifield and 265 feet higher than at Bay City. These drillings not only 


conclusively proved the supposition that an anticlinal undoubtedly exists 
in the rocks down to the Berea but also that it even becomes moi'e 
pronounced with depth. Of course, due allowance must be made for 
thickening of some of the formations. 

Here, as in the Mundy-Pifield well, the Berea proved to be a small 
yielder of brine, perhaps 25 or 30 barrels per day, and of gas. Drilling 
was continued with the idea of going on down to the Dundee, supposed 
to be 90Q-1000 feet below. At 2305 feet the Traverse limestone was 
entered and oil of the finest grade was struck at 2317 feet in a sandy or 
cherty limestone. The so-called "sand," since called the "Saginaw 
Sand/' was very thin, being probably not much more than two feet. 

The well made two flows of some 40 to 50 barrels of oil altogether. 
The indications were that a 25 to 30 barrel well had been struck. The 
well was shot with 100 quarts of nitroglycerin. As soon as pumping 
began, however, it was found that the casing was leaking, and after the 
first 75-80 barrels, the production of oil fell off rapidly imtil the well 
made only about three or four barrels of oil per day with about 25 
barrels of water. After many attempts the water was finally shut off 
through the use of rubber packers, but the production was not materially 
increased. Finally the well was reshot with 20 quarts of nitro, but the 
casing was loosened, so that water was again troublesome. The well 
can hardly be said to have had a fair chance to develop its possibilities. 

The next well, No. 3, was drilled on the Jackson-Church property 
near the west end of Bristol Street Bridge on the west side of Niagara 
Street and about 600 feet west of south from the Garey-Casamer well. 
The IMarshall, Berea, and the Traverse were approximately at the same 
depth as in the latter well, but there was no porous sandy limestone or 
oil ^^sand'' in the top of the Traverse. The "Saginaw Sand," as the oil 
horizon in the Garey-Casamer well had been called, appeared to have 
pinched out, and there was not the slightest show of oil or gas at this 

The well was drilled down to the Dundee which was found at about 
2900 feet. At 2935 feet there was a show of oil which did not show much 
inci*ease until at 2045 feet where the greatest showing was made up to 
2955 feet. The drilling was stopped at 3080 feet where some brine was 
struck. This was plugged off and the well shot with 120 quarts of nitro- 
glycerine. The first pumping is said to have yielded some 50 barrels of 
very good oil and then the production rapidly fell off to about 2 to 3 
barrels per day. 

A fourth well, about 1200 feet south of east from the Garey-Casamer, 
was sunk to the Dundee just at the east end of Bristol Street Bridge on 
the Cresswell property. The formations in all three of these wells in 
Saginaw were at approximately the same height. In the Cresswell well, 
a showing of oil was struck in the '^Saginaw Sand,'' another about 100 
feet lower in the Traverse, and a third toward the base of the forma- 
tion. The oils in the second and third horizons were dark and heavy, 
and of much lower grade. None of these showings were deemed to be 
worth testing and the well was deepened to 3060 feet, the Dundee being 
struck at 2886 feet and a showing of oil found down to 2942 feet. The 
oil was high grade, being similar to that foound in the Jackson-Church 

Although the well has been drilled in for some time, rt has not been 


shot owing to some difficulty over the responsibility for the public safety. 
The appearances seem to indicate a small pumper similar to the Jackson- 

Well No. 5, 3068 feet deep, was drilled on the Watscm fann near the 
^E. Cor. of the SW. i/i of SE. i^ of Sec. 17, T. 12 X., R. 5 E., 
Buena Yista township, just about a half mile ea^t of the city close to 
the intersection of the highway and the new^ electric railway from Sag- 
inaw to Bay City. There was a small show of gas in the Berea, but no 
showing of either oil or gas was reported in the Ti"averse. Oil was 
struck in the Dundee, but in such small quantity, that after standing 
six days, there was only a few gallons of oil in the well and about 180 
feet of water. The well which was at once abandoned without shooting 
was plugged to protect the Marshall brines from contamination and also 
to prevent leakage of gas which was made in considerable though not 
commercially important qUjantity from tjhe Berea. The latter also 
yielded some very strong brine, perhaps 25 to 30 barrels, per day. The 
brine constantly flowed over the top of the casing in a small stream. 

The Upper Marshall or Napoleon was struck at 600 feet or slightly 
higher than near the Bristol Street Bridge drillings. The Berea was 
struck at 1835 feet or practically the same depth, but the Dundee was 
2928 feet or about 28 feet deeper. The structure appears to be that of 
a stnictural bench or terrace for the upper formations and that of an 
asymmetrical anticline for the lower. In the latter case, the western 
limb is very much steeper than the eastern which dips but 28 feet 
from the Jackson-Church to the Watson well, a distance of 2i/2 miles. 
From the Watson east to the C. G. McClure well, recently put down 
to about 3000 feet near Gera in Sec. 8, Frankenmuth township, the 
rocks seem to be nearly flat, as the formations are reported to be at 
practically the same depth. Farther east the rocks must begin to rise 
up the side of the basin, as, at Reese, Tuscola County, the Napoleon is 
probably lei^s than 500 feet from the surface. The broad flat depression 
in the Bei^a to the east of Saginaw evidently dips toward the north 
and becomes much more pronounced as the top of the Berea drops from 
1850 feet in the Watson to 2035 feet in the Mundy-Fifield. The syncline 
in the Dundee becomes still more pronounced in the same direction. 

Well No. G or the Green Point well was located on the Globe-Blaisdell 
farm nearly opposite from the East Saginaw waterT^-orks plant. This 
well is situated a little south of west from the Garey-Casamer and 
about 2Vi miles distant. The formations were reported to be 100-150 
feet deeper than in Saginaw and there was not the slightest show of 
oil at any of the horizons, even though the well was apparently drilled 
nearly to the base of the Dundee, where much water waK encountered. 

Well No. 7 Avas located near Lawndale some four miles northwest of 
the No. 2 well in the NE. Cor. of Sec. 5, T. 12 N., R. 4 E. This well 
was also located at considerable distance to the west of the supposed 
crest of the anticlinal and as drilling progressed, this proved to be the 
fact for all of the fonnations were reporied to be practically' at the 
same depths as in the Mundy-Fifield. The Berea, Saginaw sand, and 
the Dundee would therefore be found respectively at about 2070, 2520 
and 31.50 feet. 



From the data assembled before drilling began, it appeared that the 
Kerea was the most promising horizon to test for oil and gas. At Bay 
City, there were strong signs just above the horizon and also, in the 
Blackmar well, considerable gas was yielded from this formation. A 
favorable strneture seemed to be the only thing lacking for an accumula- 
tion of commercial size. It was a keen disappointment when the Berea 
in most of the wells yielded only a small quantity of gas, which, howevei-, 
increased considerably with time. In some wells, the gas was not noticed 
for some time after the Berea brine was cased off. The latter, though 
apparently very strong was also deficient in quantity, — there never being 
a flow of much more than about 30 barrels per day. For some time, 
it was a puzzle why this formation did not yield a greater abundance 
of brine, as it was so thick and well represented. An examination of 
the samples showed that the Berea is a very fine and close gi*ained gray 
to white sandstone. In some phases, the sand grains are too fine to be 
readily distinguished by the naked e^e. It is this fine to exceedingly 
fine grain of the rock which not only limits the flow of brine but also 
that of the gas. A heavy charge of nitro-glycerine might j)ossibly loosen 
up the rock enough so that a considerable flow of gas could be obtained 
from the Watson well or from some of the other wells. The head of 
brine might overpower it, however. 

The so-called "Saginaw Sand-' appears to be a sandy or cherty lime- 
stone. There seems to be some doubt as to the exact nature of the oil 
horiz(m, but all of the samples examined by the writer have proved to be 
true limestones though often cherty or sandy, effenescing vei^' vigorously 
and leaving a comparatively small residue of sand and chert. At any 
rate, the "sand'' is thin and pinches out wholly to the southwest in the 
Jackson-Church well. In the Cresswell or No. 4 well, the sand was 
rei)resented by two sands, — that is, two cherty limestones separated by a 
shalv laver. In the Watson well, there was a chertv or sandv pvritous 
limestone filled with black micaceous particles from 2325 to 3469 feet. 

The Dundee oil horizon appears to be some 35 feet below the top of the 
formation and is a light gray to buff and brown granular limestone 
effervescing violently with dilute hydrochloric acid. A fragment of the 
limestone shot out of the Jackson-Church well was a gray granular 
porous limestone, the pores being readily seen by the naked eye. The 
oil horizon appears to be free from water, but, lowei* down at no great 
depth, there is an abundance as shown in the Jackson-Church, the Wat- 
S(m, and the Green Point wells. 


Of the eight wells now completed in the Saginaw field, including Mr. 
C. McClure's Gera well, only three (Nos. 2, 3 and 4) appear to be on 
the anticline and these three, perhaps significantly, yield oil and gas in 
considerable even if not commercially important quantities at two differ- 
ent horizons. The Cresswell hole showed four oil producing horizons. 
The other wells were all located from about half to three or four miles 
distant from the apparent crest of the anticline and made little or 
no showing of either oil or gas. The Watson or No. 5 perhaps may be 
excepted as this well yielded considerable gas at the Berea horizon. This 


well, however, is very close to the anticline, — so close that apparently 
it ought to have made better showings of oil than it did. 

The three wells yielding the most oil are within a radius of 1200 
feet, near the Bristol Street Bridge. The indicated anticline is 25 to 
30 miles long so that the three drillings near its crest in no way have 
tested the possibilities of the structure. Since the drillings at some dis- 
tance from the anticline have been so barren of any encouraging re- 
sults, it seems most logical that future prospecting should be along the 
supposed axis of the structure. Oil may not be found in quantity along 
its crest but, most certainly, the chances are pi*esumably gi'eater in its 
immediate vicinity than elsewhere. 

r^ansing, Mich. 





The history of a nation or state is largely the result of its own and 
its environment's geography. A study of Michigan's history, and of 
the reasons for the distribution of its population at different times, 
shows that certain geographical factors have influenced the history and 
settlement of Michigan far more than any designs or purposes of man. 
This paper is devoted to a brief discussion of the factors which influenced 
the distribution of population in our state. 

Michigan was the first of the North Central States to be explored and 
to have permanent settlements established. These early settlements 
were mere missions or trading posts, whose location was determined by 
the presence of the abundant waterways of the state, which served for 
cheap and easy transit of trading goods and furs, and accounted for 
the founding of Detroit, St. Ignace, Sault Sainte Marie, and Fort Miami 
on the St. Joseph River near what is now Niles. 

Although explored so early, there was no influx of an agricultural 
population until after about 1818. There were several causes for this, 
chief among them being (1) Michigan's earliest settlers were fur trad- 
ers; fur trade and agriculture never go together; (2) The rich easily 
broken lands along: the tributaries of the Ohio would attract farmers 
first; (3) Erroneous reports were abroad to the effect that Michigan's 
surface was largely swamps and pine barrens, and, until more careful 
surveys were made about 1820, this idea, fostered perhaps by the fur 
companies, may have helped to turn settlers elsewhere; (4) Distance to 
markets made farming unprofitable. These geographical factors then 
proved suflScient to prevent any increase in Michigan's population for 
over a century after the founding of Detroit. In 1820 almost the entire 
population of Michigan was restricted to a narrow belt close to Detroit 
and Lake Erie. In 1825 the Erie Canal was opened; this formed a 
water route to markets. By 1830 the districts around Detroit became 
more densely populated, and settlements spread toward the North and 
West. For a few years, the Kankakee-St. Joseph river route served to 
encourage the settlement of the extreme Southwestern part of the state 
and some adjacent portions of Indiana, although the ar^a about them 
was an unexplored wilderness. An early fort near Niles, in addition 
to prairies of a few miles in extent, may have helped to decide settlers 
to locate there. At first then, the distribution of population was con- 
trolled by trade routes, and these outlets to market were simply natural 
waterways except the Erie Canal. 

Michigan became a state in 1837 and her boundaries definitely fixed. 
By 1840 settlers had ceased to go North along Lake Huron, being little 
attracted by the marshes of the Thumb, but instead had spread west 
mostly south of a line connecting Port Huron and Grand Rapids. A 


new means for the transit of p:()ods, the railroad, now began to help 
affect the distribution of population so that inland i-egions, if they 
possessed good soil, could support a dense fanning population, as a 
route to market liad now been provided. Thi-ee railroads were projected, 
to be built by the state. Since water routes to market had hitherto 
been so important in the settlement of ^lichigan, it is natural that no 
north and south lines were planned, but only east and west ones to 
connect cpiickly with lake ports. These roads were to c(mnect Detroit 
and St. Joseph. Monroe and New Buffalo, and Port Huron and Grand 

The next ten years were simply a story of steadily incre^ising iH)pula- 
tion supported by agriculture in the southern four tiers of counties, and 
a c<miparatively slight migration to the North. 

rp to 1S5(), soil suitable for farming and routes to market had chiefly 
controlled the distribution of Michigan's ]M)pulation. After 18()0, how- 
ever, the distribution of ])opulati(m l)ecame more irregular through the 
influence of certain other geographical factoi-s, the results of which 
were not very evident until then. Among these are (1) Effect of 
topography and climate: (2) Effect of natural resources, i. e. soil, 
forests and ores; (3) Relationship to other geographical provinces. 

We know that the great ice sheets by the fonnation of the Great 
Lakes have profoundly influenced the climate of much of Michigan, and, 
besides serving as a source for fish, have caused by their use as trade 
routes the building and the growth of many cities, as Port Huron and 
Detroit. The ice sheet also was the cause for the state's s^wamps, hills, 
lakes, wafer power, and sandy plains, while, indirectly, it determined 
the locati<m of clay, marl and pe-at deposits. The ice sheet also was very 
important in determining the character of the forest gi'owth and the 
areas for farming, lumbering, shipping and manufacturing. 

The "Soo'- canal was finished in 1855, and we naturallv find bv 1860 
a considerable population in the Hcmghton and Marquette mining dis- 
tricts. The settled districts of the southern peninsula spread noi*th, 
most rapidly along the shores of Lake Michigan and Saginaw Bay. 
Certain sandy areas, for example, in western Allegan and A'an Buren 
Counties were thinlv settled. The same was true of the extensive marshes 
in the Thumb. Of late years, the favorable climate along Lake ^lichi- 
gan ])ermits of fruit raising on these sandy areas, while the Thumb 
marshes after draining prove very valuable for the growing of sugar 
beets. Other swamps in Kalamazoo, Van Buren, Ottawa, and Kent 
counties are now equally valuable for the raising of celery and pe])per- 
mint, and permit Michigan to lead in their production. The draining 
of marsh land, however, was not undertaken until after the supi)ly of 
other lands more easily prepared for cultivation was exhausted, so that, 
ui> to alxmt 1890, the population of such areas wa.s rather small. 

By 1870, the lumber industry, which l)efore 1860 was of no importance, 
had grown until Michigan was the chief luml)ering state, a preeminence 
which it maintained well into the nineties. In general, the best white 
pine was north of Saginaw and Grand Rapids and south of Alpena, 
therefore, in addition to these cities, others in between, as Muskegon 
and Manistee, sprang up directly dependent on the lumber industry. 
The population of these luml)er sawing districts was chiefly located about 
the mouths of rivers, affording means of running the logs to the mills 


and a harbor for shipping the product on the Great Tjakes. The salt 
industry naturally went with the lumber sawing, as the waste from 
the latter could be used to evaporate the salt. In the mean time, other 
cities were gi*owing up in the state, there being in 1870 no less than 
fifteen in the southern peninsuhi compared with five in 1860. 

Railroad building in ]Michigan is easy, there being no very gi'eat differ- 
ences in topography, We find by 1880 many roads completed and others 
under construction. These opened up the interior regions by furnishing 
routes to market. This is especially noticeable along the line of the 
Grand Rapids and Indiana Railway, where the population along its 
line is very much denser than back from it. A study of a railroad map 
of Michigan shows that three out of the five northern built roads bend 
decidedly toward the west. This is true in the case of the Michigan 
Central, Detroit and Mackinaw, and Ann Arbor, but is not evident in 
the case of the Pere Marquette and the Grand Rapids and Indiana, as 
they were already built so close to the west coast that there was no 
room to bend. Is it not probable that the bending resulted from the 
presence of the rich iron and copper ore of the upper peninsula, and the 
desii-e to exploit it? 

At this time, only Oscoda and Mcmtmorency Counties in the southern 
peninsula were unpopulated. In the northern peninsula, the discovery 
of new iron ore districts along the Wisconsin border encouraged the 
settlement of these regions. Ten years later in 1890, the whole of the 
southern and most of the northern peninsulas were settled, and the num- 
l>er of cities had greatly increased, there now being eight in the northern 
and twenty -three in the southern ]>eninsula. Two of these cities. Big 
Rapids and Au Sable-Oscoda (classing the last two towns as one), which 
were foimded on the lumber industry, are no longer cities of over 5000 
population since, after the exhaustion of the lumber, other industries did 
not follow. 

Since 1880, especially throughout the southern four tiers of counties, 
there has been a steady decrease in the rural population, accompanied 
by an increase in tire urban po])ulation. The first regions to suffer were 
the hilly districts, for example in Barry Co. The lake region of north- 
west Washtenaw and the adjoining part of Livingston county have 
also never supported a dense population for the same reason. 

The chief changes by 10(M) were an increase in the rural population 
of the northern part of the state, and a cori'esponding decrease in the 
southern, while all over the state the urban population steadily in- 
creased. This increase of the urban at the expense of the rural popula- 
tion continued, there being in 1010 forty-nine cities of over 5000 in 
Michigan compared to forty-one in 1000. These new cities, moreover, 
except two in the upper j)eninsula mining districts, Avere all located 
where the rural population was on the decrease. Where i*ailroad com- 
munication is poor, and the soil mediocre, as in Oscoda, Crawford, and 
Lake coimties, the population is likewise small. The largest cities, in 
general, during the last ten years became much larger, but many of 
the smaller ones, as Tort Huron, Manistee, Cold water, and Ishpeming, 
lost in population. 

Forty counties in ^lichigan have lost in rural population. (See Map 45 
K) Allegan county, if the manufacturing villages of Otsego and Allegan, 
which increased 2500 in the last ten years, are excluded, would also be in- 


eluded in this list, as the true rural districts lost considerably in popula-^ 
tion. Including Allegan county just one-half of the eighty-two counties^ 
in the state have decreased in rural i)opulation, this decrease dating in 
the case of the southern four tiers of counties usually as far back as 1880. 
Should the urban population include all people living in towns of over 
2500, as the census often does, this loss is still more evident, and would 
include Alger, Allegan, Charlevoix, Houghton, Isabella, and Presque 
Isle counties in addition, or all but thirty-seven counties in the state. 
Ottawa and Wayne counties only would show a gain. It will be noted 
that many of these counties show a considerable increase in total popu- 
lation, and the urban must be subtracted before it becomes evident 
that the rural districts have lost. 

The cause of this loss in population of the rural districts, besides the 
younger generation leaving for the cities, seems to be due to a decrease 
in the average size and number of fanner families. In several counties, 
the number of acres per farm is increasing, while the number of farm- 
ers is decreasing. Since the rural population of Michigan increased 
only 21/2% in the last ten years, while the urban increase was vastly^ 
greater, I think it highly probable that by 1920 Michigan's rural popu- 
lation will show a decrease as Ohio and Indiana already have done. 
The northern peninsula and the Northeastern part of the southern, and 
immediately around Detroit and Grand Rapids will probably show an 
increase; the rest, with some possible exceptions on the lake shore, will 
probably lose. The largest cities will grow still larger, but several of 
the smaller ones will undoubtedly lose in population. 

I find then that the distribution of Michigan's population has been 
determined by routes to market, climate, topography, and relationship to 
other neighboring provinces. Cities have been built and their location 
determined by the presence of natural resources, as Marquette and Sag- 
inaw ; aided by water power, as at Grand Raf^ids. Others like Escanaba 
and the "Soo" are places of transfer of goodj^ from rail to water routesi 
The size of Detroit is due to its location on great trade routes, es- 
pecially by water, while Jackson and the other inland cities depend 
entirely on railroads for their location as manufacturing centers. 

While the cities have increased greatly in population, many of the 
rural districts have decreased. The decrease has progressed from the 
oldest settled regions to the newer, and it appears probable for some 
years at least that this readjustment of population will continue. 

Ann Arbor, Mich. 















In the fall of 1909, important discoveries of gold were made in the 
Porcupine district, Ontario, about 100 miles northwest of Cobalt and 
360 miles north of Toronto. Development work has proven some of 
the deposits to be large and of very profitable grade. Two mines, Dome 
and Hollinger are now producing on a large scale and several are con- 
tributing smaller amounts. About |2,000,000 was produced in 1912 and 
a much larger output is expected for 1913. 

The ore is native gold in pyritic quartz. The quarta occurs^ (1) as 
single fissure fillings or veins; (2) a series of fissure fillings running 
nearly parallel — ^vein system; (3) quartz-ferrodolomite lodes in which 
quartz veins penetrate bands of ferrodolomite or iron-calcium-magnesium 
carbonate; (4) quartz masses of irregular form, chinmeys, kidneys, etc., 
and soirie more or less parallel, thick, lenticular masses. 

The quartz is partly coarse grained, but much of it is very fine grained 
and has evidently been crushed. Granulation is indicated by the ap- 
pearance of thin sections and strain phenomena are common. Some of 
the quartz shows a ribboned structure with banding in direction of the 
strike of the veins. 

The gold is mostly in fine particles, but much also is in coarse grains 
and in the ore is frequently visible to the naked eye. Most of the visible 
gold is in parts of the quartzi near the wall rock or masses of enclosed 
rock, and assays indicate a similar distribution for the invisible gold. 
Pyrite is almost always present in both quartz and wall rock and is 
more abundant in the latter. The gold is intimately associated with 
the pyrite and sometimes intergro^n with it. Mtich of the visible gold 
near pyrite, however, is not actually in contact with it. There is some 
calcite in the ore, but it is not present in large quantity. Tourmaline, 
generally in aggregates of small crystals, is often found in the quartz. 
Scheelite has been found in a few veins. 


The examination of numerous thin sections shows that there are cer- 
tain differences in the ore from the several deposits, but these seem to 
be of a minor nature and the following description of gold-quartz from 
the Dome Mine may be taken as fairly typical of the Porcupine Mines. 

The quartz is not uniform in grain and one may distinguish readily 
between the part that is coarse and the part that is fine. The coarser 
grains are commonly 0.5mm. to 1.0 mm. in diameter, while the finer are 
about 0.05mm. The coarse has numerous small cavities partially filled 
with liquid inclusions, and shows marked strain shadows; the fine has 
fewer inclusions and strain effects are not so marked. Fine grained 

^Descriptions of four typical deposits were given in Canadian Mining Journal, Nov. 1, 1910, pp. 


quartz forms streaks running through the coarse grained. In some 
cases, two coarse grains are separated by a row of fine grains, which 
have apparently been derived from the former by crushing. In one 
specimen an area, 1.0 nun. in diameter, of fine grained quartz encloses 
an isolated coarse grain 0.2x0.4 mm. in diameter. The finely crystalline 
has apparently been formed largely by granulation of the larger grains. 
The small particles are firmly cemented together and there was evi- 
dently some solution and recrystallization though the cement is not 
distinguishable under the microscope. 

In the fine grained portions there is a notable absence of large fluid 
inclusions and evidently some such fluid was able to move among the 
fine quartz particles. The presence of fluid inclusions in the quartz in- 
dicates that it was not when solidifying. The granulation of the quartz 
indicates that it was comparatively cold when crushed. 


1. Gold completely enclosed in one grain of coarsely crystalline 
quartz, e.g. One grain of quartzi 0.5x0.8 mm. in the plane of the sec- 
tion completely encloses three isolated grains of gold. The small size 
of these gold grains makes it appear unlikely that they were not com- 
pletely enveloped in the quartz, though there is a possibility that they 
were not. Another quartz grain 1.0 mm. in diameter enclosed three 
ragged grains of gold about 0.04 mm. in diameter and several gold par- 
ticles 0.01 mm. or less in diameter. 

2. Gold in spaces between grains of coarsely crystalline quartz, e.g. 
One U shaped area of gold 2 mm. long and 0.02 to 0.06 mm. wide forms 
^ ragged band between coarse quartz gi'ains. It forms a border for 
two-thirds the periphery of one quartz grain — hence the shape. In sev- 
eral sections, there is gold showing similar relation to coarse quartz 

3. Gold in crystals and grains of pyrite, e.g. One area of pyrite 0.5 
mm.xl.O mm. encloses several irregular patches of gold, most of which 
are less than 0.1 mm. in diameter. Four of these gold grains are com- 
pletely within the pyrite, while a much greater number are partially 
enclosed by the pyrite and partially by quartz. A second and rectangular 
area of pyrite 0.5 mm.x0.1 mm. has along its middle portion five areas 
of gold. The string of gold particles continues from either end of the 
pyrite into clear quartz. Another specimen shows an area of gold 0.6x0.1 
mm. which is four-fifths enclosed by pyrite, while the end projects into 
colorless minerals. The part of the gold not enclosed by pyrite is on 
one side in contact with calcite and on the other with a grain of quartz. 

4. Gold grains in calcite, completely or partially enclosed. A 
twinned individual of calcite 1 mm.xO.5 mm. is enclosed chiefiy by fine 
grained quartz, and one end is in contact with an area of pyrite 1 mm. in 
diameter. Around the edge of the calcite and in immediate contact 
with it, are nine distinct particles of gold. Within the calcite and ar- 
ranged in a string roughly following.a cleavage direction, are six grains 
of gold 0.02 to 0.03 mm. in diameter. 

A second si)ecimen shows an area of calcite 0.1 mm. x 1.0 mm., enclos- 
ing a number of small gold grains. This calcite is partially enclosed in 
fine quartz, but it also fills a fracture in one large quartz grain. This 
same specimen shows gold in quartz with no calcite in contact. 


Another specimen shows a grain of calcite 0.5 mm. in diameter, which 
wholly or partially enclosed twenty ragged grains of gold. The gold is 
irregularly scattered through the calcite, but it is mostly at the edges. 
The calcite is surrounded by fine quartz 0.05 mm. in diameter. 

5. Gold among grains of finely crystalline quartz, e.g. One very 
irregular area of gold, 1 mm. long and varying in width from 0.02 to 
0.1 mm. is almost completely enclosed by fine grained quartz, the par- 
ticles of which average 0.03 mm. in diameter. That part of the gold, 
not enclosed by quartz, is in contact with calcite. It is noteworthy that 
most sections, showing gold, show also fine (probably granulated) 
quartz and small amounts of calcite. 


The gold quartz occurs in rocks of the Keewatin and Huronian series. 
The Keewatin is composed largely of igneous with some sedimentary 
rocks. The Huronian is largely sedimentary. Most of the deposits are 
in altered quartz porphyry, others in more basic rocks — porphyrites, 
basalts, etc. — conveniently called greenstones. Some are in conglomerate 
and greywacke-slate. 

Mr. A. G. Burrows, who has mapped the area for the Ontario Bureau 
of Mines, gives the following succession of formations for the district: 
^^Pleistocene. — Post Glacial — stratified clay, sand and peat. 

Glacial — boulder clay. 
Pre-Camhrian, — Later Intrusives — quartz-diabase, olivine, diabase, etc. 
Igneous contact: 

Cobalt Series — conglomerate. 
Unconformity : 
Temiskaming Series — conglomerate, greywacke, quartzite, slate or deli- 
cately banded greywacke. 
Unconformity : 
Laurentian — A complex of granites older than the Cobalt series. It 

intrudes the Keewatin, but its relationship to the 

Temiskaming is not definitely known ; it may be in part 

older and in part younger than the Temiskaming series. 

Igneous contact: 

Keewatin — The series consists chiefly of basic to acid volcanics, much 

decomposed, and generally schistose; amygdaloid basalts, 
serpentine, diabase, quartz or feldspar porphyry, felsite, 
iron formation, rusty weathering carbonates, and other 
rocks have been recognized." 
The Cobalt and Temiskaming Series referred to by Mr. Burrows are 
divisions of the Huronian corresponding to those made by Dr. W. G. 
Miller at Cobalt and bv Mr. Robert Harvie^ in the area east of Lake 
Temiskaming. Mr. Harvie calls the lower sediments "the Pabre series." 
The gold is found in quartz occurring in the several types of rock com- 
prising the Keewatin and Temiskaming series, but it is noteworthy that 
the wall rocks of all the ore bodies, while probably originally quite 
different, have remarkably similar composition. This similarity is due 
to alteration, by which the minerals have been replaced by sericite, car- 

*Geology of a portion of Fabre Township, Quebec Mines Branch, 1911. 


bonates, quartz and chlorite. The light colored wall rocks^ are largely 
made up of the first three minerals. In the darker ones, there is much 
chlorite. Pyrite occurs abundantly and is commonly well crystalized. 
The wall rocks are commonly not highly auriferous except where pen- 
etrated by quartz stringers. Where thus silicified, the rocks sometimes 
contain payable quantities of gold. 


We have in the Porcupine district pyritic gold quartz; dei^osits en- 
closed in rocks characterized by an abundance of ferrodolomite, sericite 
and pyrite. The nature of the ore and the wall rocks surest that 
the gold was introduced into the fissures along with the chief consti- 
tuents of the minerals mentioned. The solution,* which contained the 
gold, probably contained also in some form, iron, sulphur, silica, potas- 
sium, and carbon dioxide. From the solution, practically all the potas- 
sium and carbon dioxide escaped into the wall rocks and aided in the 
formation of sericite and ferrodolomite. Part of the iron and sulphur 
also escaped into the wall rocks and there formed pyrite crystals and 
contributed iron to the formation of ferrodolomite. Part of the iron 
and sulphur and nearly all of the gold and silica was deposited in the 
fissures themselves. It appears that the walls were more readily pene- 
trated by some constituents than by the others,* and in this way much of 
the CO2, S, and Fe escaped. In proportion as these constituents escaped, 
the solubility of the gold in the remaining solution would be decreased 
and the deposition therefore aided by removal of solvent as well as by 
lowering of temperature. The pyrite, first formed in the veins, was 
comparatively poorly crystallized and was probably formed quickly. The 
pyrite in the wall rocks and some pyrite in the veins, that is probably 
of secondary origin, is in well formed crystals and evidently formed 
slower, or at least, under some more favorable conditions than did the 
original auriferous pyrite of the quartz veins. The gold and pyrite Miere 
not evenly distributed originally. Evidently in the first crystallization, 
they tended to segregate here and there, and the especially favorable 
place for deposition was near the walls or around masses of enclosed 

After the filling of the fissures with quartz, gold and pyrite, the veins 
were shattered and the quartz granules strained or crushed. In the 
crushed zones, a secondary set of minerals including sericite, chlorite, 
calcite, ferrodolomite and pyrite and some gold were deposited. These 
probably originated in the vein and wall rocks. The gold thus formed 
is in coarse grains which probably grew by slow accretion of small 
particles by a process continued over a long period. It is probable that 
this coarse gold grew at the expense of the fine gold contained in the 
quartz in its immediate neighborhood, thus leaving much very low 
grade quartz in the vicinity of the spectacular specimens. The coarse 
gold, to which a secondary origin is here attributed, while showy, is 

•Microscopic description of several of the rocks Is ffiven by C. W. Knight and A. G. Burrows in the 
Bureau of Mines report, 1911. Mr. John Stansfleld described rocks and ores from Vipond Mine in 
Canadian Mining Journal, Feb. 15, 1911. The wall rocks of Dome, Hollinger and Rea mines were 
described by the writer in Trans Cen. Min. Inst., 1911, pp. 173-178. 

*For discussion of transport of gold in solutions containing such constituents see Macaren Gold, 
pp. 105-107. 

*Ct. Lindgren, Characteristic features of Califomia gold quartz veins. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 1895. 


usually quite subordinate in amount to the fine gold, much of which may 
well be still in the form in which it was first deposited with the pyrite 
and quartz. Some fine gold, however, is probably secondary, and there 
are cases in which the amount of secondary gold is greater than the 
amount of primary. 

There is nothing to indicate that the character of the deposits has 
been changed to any considerable d^i'ee since the glaciei-s cleaned away 
the surface rocks, and there is therefore no reason for believing that 
the ore will show any appreciable dependence on the present surface. 
The secondary changes which have taken place are not surface altera- 




(With six plates). 


At the Nipissing Mine, an unusual method of surface prospecting has 
presented remarkably well exposed areas of Huronian and Keewatin 
rocks. In examining these areas recently, the writer found the well 
developed ripple marks shown in the accompanying photographs. Being 
very well preserved, the marks are of interest in themselves. As they 
occur in a series of rocks supposed to be lai^ely of glacial origin, they 
have added interest. 

Of the Huronian rocks at Cobalt, the most characteristic type is a 
coarse conglomerate, sometimes called the Cobalt conglomerate. The 
unusual characters of this rock were pointed out by Dr. A. P. Coleman, 
who showed^ that the material w^s probably of glacial origin. In a 
subsequent paper in the Journal^ the present writer gave additional in- 
formation in support of Dr. Coleman's view. It was stated that, with 
the conglomerate, there is well stratified material, and to this was as- 
cribed a glacio-fluvial origin. At the time of writing that paper, the 
writer had not seen an}^ ripple marks ; but the evidence of deposition of 
some of the material by water was regarded as quite conclusive. More 
recently ripple marks have been found in the rocks broken in mining 
the silver ore; but until the hydraulic work was done at the Nipissing, 
it was not possible to present photographs showing the marks on rock 
in place. In prospecting the surface at the Nipissing Mine, a powerful 
stream of water, 480O gallons per minute from a 31/2 iiich nozzle, is 
directed against the glacial debris and the rocks washed bare. The 
photographs show Huronian rocks thus exposed. Fig. No. 1 shows an 
end view of the quartzite bed which has the rippled upper surface. Fig. 
No. 2 shows a thin layer of shaly mud rock lying on the ripple-marked 
quartzite. Fig. No. 3 shows a large boulder in the fine mud rock lying 
on the quartzite. Evidently, there were remarkable changes in local 
conditions, for these large boulders encased in fine mud rock, or shaly 
greywacke, lie immediately on top of the bed of uniformly grained 
quartzite. Fig. No. 4 shows, at the left, blocks of the mud-rock which 
overlies the quartzite. Figs. No. 5 and No. 6 show closer views of the 

»A. P. Coleman. Lower Huronian Ice Age. Jour. Geol. VoL XVI, No. 2, pp. 149-158. 1908. 
sGlacial Origin of Huronian Rocks of Nipissing. Jour. Geol. Vol. XVIII No. 6, pp. 459-467. 1910. 





One of the most striking characteristics of the living cell is the ease 
with which its products of metabolism split bodies of a highly stable 
nature. Soluble starch, for example, is hydrolyzed to the simple sugars 
by ptyalin. Egg-white is split into comparatively simple compounds 
by pepsin hydrochloric acid. Under ordinary laboratory conditions, on 
the other hand, powerful reagents and high temperature are required 
to accomplish these decompositions. The digestion of the food-stuffs 
is recognized as a process of fermentation or enzyme action. The enzymes 
have not as yet been isolated in pure form; consequently we have no 
definite knowledge concerning their chemical constitution, nor the exact 
character of their action. 

In seeking an explanation of ferment action one naturally turns to 
certain simple chemical reactions which are apparently similar in their 
essentials. These are termed catalytic reactions and were recognized as 
early as 1834 by Mitscherlich. He stated that the formation of ethyl 
ether and water from ethyl alcohol in the presence of sulphuric acid 
did not depend upon the dehydrating power of the acid nor upon the 
formation of an intermediate product, ethyl sulphuric acid, but that 
the acid facilitated the reaction by its mere presence without entering 
into it. He called this "contact action" a designation which is in every 
wav as appropriate as catalysis, which term was suggested by Berzelius 
in 'l835. 

Let us consider briefly this phenomenon, contact action or catalysis. 
It is found that oxygen and hydrogen at ordinary temperatures com- 
bine so slowly that the production of water cannot be detected. But 
the presence of finely divided platinum is sufficient to cause combination 
to take place rapidly. Again,, the oxidation effected by hydrogen perox- 
ide proceeds in many cases at a very slow rate, but this can be en- 
ormously accelerated by traces of iron or manganese. The oxidation of 
sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide occurs but slowly. In the presence 
of oxides of nitrogen the velocity of the reaction is greatly accelerated. 
The contact process for the manufacture of sulphuric acid depends upon 
finely divided platinum or iron oxide as catalytic agents. The manu- 
facture of glucose from starch depends upon dilute acids as catalyzers, 
and in the Deacon process copper chloride hastens the combination of 
hydrogen and chlorine to hydrochloric acid. 

Although the work accomplished by these catalysts is strikingly simi- 
lar to that of the ferments, yet it is not analogous in every respect. 
Exact proportions are not required between catalyst and substrate nor 
between enzyme and substrate. In extremely high dilutions of either 
catalyst or enzyme the reaction proceeds even though the rate may be 
slower than in more concentrated solutions. In these t^^o respects they 
are similar. 


The catalyst does not initiate a reaction, but merely increases the 
rate of one already in progress. On the other hand, ferments will 
initiate reaction which are not already in progress. Soluble starch, 
under suitable conditions, can be kept without appreciable cleavage, yet 
when treated with saliva a part of it is immediately split into the 
simple sugars. In this respect the catalysts and the enzymes are not 
alike, for the enzyme does not necessarily enter into a reaction already 
in progress, but actually initiates one. 

Again, the catalyst does not enter into the reaction, but facilitates 
the final result by its presence. This would not appear to be so in 
regard to the starch splitting ferment of the saliva, for, in normal saliva 
we find about 5 parts of free ammonia per million. If, however, 10 cc. 
of saliva is treated with 25 cc. of a 1 per cent soluble starch solution 
the ammonia is increased by about 20 part per million. The experiment 
bearing on these findings consisted in the estimation of the ammonia 
content in 5 treated and 5 untreated specimens of saliva. In those un- 
treated there were from 3 to 9 parts of free ammonia per million, while 
in those treated there were from 20 to 27. This increase in ammonia 
unquestionably has its origin from the protein molecule. As a further 
evidence of protein cleavage in the process of splitting starch, wie find 
that untreated saliva does not readily conduct an electric current, while 
the treated saliva gives but little resistance; this is, of course, due to 
the increased ionic content. From these experiments it would seem 
that the cleavage of starch by ptyalin is not due to the mere presence of 
the ferment, but that there is an actual chemical reaction more than 
catalytic in nature. It is, possible, however, to account for the protein 
cleavage if we consider the starch splitting process one of autocatalysis. 
In applying this hypothesis it is necessary to assume that the active 
ferment — as such — does not exist in the untreated saliva, but is present 
as a component of the protein molecule in the proferment stage. To 
activate the ferment the soluble starch may act as a catalyzer. As a re- 
sult of this catalytic action, the ferment is split from the protein of 
the saliva, and as other products of the reaction there is formed free 
ammonia, neutral salts, etc. Now, the free ferment being a product 
of this catalytic process, reacts autocatalytically as a starch splitting 
ferment. The double reaction may be represented as follows: 

Ferment + Cleavage products 


Soluble starch Protein molecule (proferment) 

(Salivary protein) 

Simple sugar 

Cell ferments, in contradistinction to inorganic catalysts, are in gen- 
eral supposed to be destroyed by heat. Our experiments with saliva, 
however, show that the ferment is not destroyed by short exposures to 
high temperatures, although it is rendered inactive. If saliva is 
boiled for a short time, then dialyzed in distilled water, and at intervals 
a portion is removed and tested, it is found that it is reactivated in 


about two hours. The results of our experiment with heated saliva are 
as follows. Three specimens were each boiled for one minute; 2 of 
these were reactivated in 1 hour and 40 minutes; the third remained 
inactive. Four specimens were boiled for 2 minutes ; two of these were 
reactivated in 1 hour and 20 minutes; one in 2 hours; and the fourth 
not at all. Five specimens were boiled for 4 minutes ; one of these was 
partially reactivated in 2 hours and 30 minutes; none of the remaining 
four became active. Of five specimens boiled for five minutes none were 
reactivated by dialysis. 

This inactivation by heat is not to be considered entirely as an actual 
destruction of the ferment, but rather due to the products of cleavage 
of the other components of the complex colloidal system of which the 
ferment forms only a part. Heat applied to a protein solution causes 
a cleavage of the protein molecule with the liberation of neutral salts, 
free alkali, and amino-acids. The addition of these products to any 
bio-chemical system markedly retards or entirely prevents its progress. 
If, however, they are removed by dialysis the system can in a few in- 
stances be reactivated. 

It sometimes happens that one of the products of the reaction acts 
catalytically on the reaction. This is known as autocatalysis. It is 
common to metals which dissolve in acids. For instance, the action is 
slow when copper is added to pure nitric acid. Nitrous acid is a 
product of the reaction, and this acting catalytically greatly increases 
the velocity. Thus, this reaction increases in velocity as it proceeds. 
The characteristic course of a reaction involving autocatalysis is a 
velocity, small at first, ascending to a maximum, then descending. What 
we at first thought to be a typical example of autocatalysis is outlined 
in the following experiment. Cubes of egg-white and pepsin hydro-chloric 
acid were placed within a collodion sac, outside of the sac were hydro- 
chloric acid of the same strength and egg-white cubes. This was set aside 
for a time at 38^C. There was almost complete digestion within the 
sac after an incubation of 35 hours, and the egg-white in the outside 
fluid was partially digested. Assuming that the pepsin could not 
pass through the sac we explained the digestion of the outside egg-white 
by the assumption that the dialyzed products of digestion exerted typical 
autocatalysis. Control experiments, however, showed that the pepsin 
was dialyzable through the membrane. The same findings were dupli- 
cated with ptyalin and starch, also with rennet and milk. These fer- 
ments are, then, diff usable through colodion sacs, in fact almost a6 
readily so as are their products of cleavage. 

That the associated components in a ferment mixture influence the 
dialysis of a ferment is shown in the following experiment: We find 
that if saliva is placed within a collodion sac and this surrounded by a 
soluble starch solution, glucose does not appear in the starch solution 
for at least 45 minutes after the beginning of the experiment. If, first, 
the saliva is filtered through Kieselguhr or a Berkefeld filter, which 
process if repeated several times does not appreciably, lessen the ferment 
content, the enzyme dialyaes very quickly into the starch solution; the 
simple sugars appeared within 5 minutes in three experiments out of 
seven. Why should the ferment of the filtered saliva dialyze more 
rapidly than that of the unfiltered? All colloids are more or less ad- 
sorbed by surfaces, and in these experiments the membrane must become 


saturated before the ferment passes to the exterior. Inasmuch as the 
ferment of the filtered saliva dialyzes much more rapidly than that of 
the unfiltered we may conclude that the ferment itself is not so strongly 
colloidal in nature as are the other constituents of the saliva which 
are removed by filtration. This experiment though not at all proving the 
crystalloidaJ nature of the starch splitting fennent of the saliva, at 
least tends to show that after removal by filtration of certain salivary 
constituents the ferment more nearly resembles a crystalloidal com- 
pound than heretofore recognized. 

Pepsin also may pass through a thin collodion sac. This fact may 
be proved by the following experiment: A solution of pepsin hydro- 
chloric acid is placed inside a collodion sac; this is surrounded by a 
hydrochloric acid solution of the same strength. Cubes of boiled egg- 
white are then added to the outside solution. As control, egg-white 
cubes are placed in the same percentage of hydrochloric acid in a 
s^arate container. That the pepsin diffuses to the exterior is shown 
by the digestion of the ^g-white in from 30 to 40 hours. The egg-white 
in the control remains intact. From the results of similar experiments 
Barendrecht advances the theory that enzymes are radio-active bodies, 
the chemical action being due to radiation. By a series of experiments, 
however, it is shown that the ferment penetrates the membrane. 

The inorganic catalysts have the property of continuing a reaction to 
its completion. In contradistinction to this the ferments are active in 
their cleavage process, at least in vitro, only to a partial extent. Here 
we have a distinct difference between catalyst and enzyme. The one 
completes the process; the other does so only partially. 

Another characteristic of ferments not manifested by catalysts is 
their property of causing a reversible action. For instance, although 
emulsin splits amygdalin, a plant glucoside, into benzaldehyde, hydrocy- 
anic acid, and glucose, it is also capable, to a certain extent, of synthe- 
sizing these separate components into amygdalin. In eitnher case — 
analytic or synthetic — it is a question of approaching an equilibrium. 

The action of fermentation may be explained by the supposition that 
the ferment solution is a specialized ionic arrangement which induces 
rapid autolysis of a complex molecule. The specific ionic content of 
the ferment solution may be responsible for an instantaneous break 
in the equilibrium of the complex molecule acted upon. As the char- 
acter of the red blood cell is immediately lost — the hemoglobin going 
into solution — ^when treated with distilled water ; and as the complexity 
of the protein molecule is partially lost — the neutral salt, alkali, and 
amino-acids splitting off — ^\viien small quantities of blood-serum, for 
instance, are treated with several times their volume of distilled water; 
so also can we assume that there is a similar relation — though far miore 
complex in nature — between ferment and substrate? 

May not, however, the real solution of this problem depend upon the 
isolation and thorough study of the ferment complex, if such exists. 





During the summer of 1912, the larvae of the June beetle, Lachnos- 
terna sp. committed serious depredations to crops. Specimens sent 
in to the Entomological Department by the farmers were found to be 
diseased and were turned over to the bacteriological laboratory for the 
determination of the etiology of the infection, and, if practicable, to use 
the living parasite as a remedial measure. 

This disease which is characterized by a blackening of the affected 
parts was found to be a micrococcus, which was found microscopically in 
smears and in sections from diseased tissue. This organism was isolated 
from the affected tissues of a living grub and liquid cultures were used 
for the inoculation of soil in which healthy larvae were then placed. 
Oftentimes infection occurred within a short time; the most marked 
infection occurred when an incision was made in the integument, a 
characteristic lesion developing within twenty-four hours. 

It was discovered that an excessive amount of water in such inoculated 
soil favored the rapid progress of the disease. This seems to be one of 
the most important factors in determining the fatality of the infection. 

This disease may be transmitted characteristically to larvae of the 
Southern U. S. June beetle, Allorhina nitida and to the American cock- 
roach, Periplaneta americana but is non-pathogenic to rabbits and 

The black pigment characterizing the disease is probably produced 
directly or indirectly by the activity of the bacterial cells within the 
larvae tissue; the cocci and the integument cells in which they are im- 
bedded do not take the ordinary or the Gram stain but remain a dark 
brown in color. 

It has not yet been possible to try out this organism as a remedial 
measure for the destruction of the white grub. 




In physiology we recognize the influence of environment on the single 
cell. Not only if we take the high water content of the living sub- 
stance into consideration, but also if we consider metabolism as the 
phenomena of life, the importance of water in the life process is made 
clear. Without water there is no life. By adding to or diminishing the 
water of the living substance within certain limits, we increase, di- 
minish, and limit the intensity of life processes. The environment of 
bacteria is water, and soil bacteria form no exception. There, where 
there is little or no water at their disposal, the metabolic processes are 
rieduced to a minimum. Spores, cysts, and other defensive organs are the 
results of the dryness of the medium. In a former publication,* the 
author has tried to make a numerical comparison between the water 
content of the soil and the activity of the soil bacteria. As an indicator 
the carbon dioxide production in soils was chosen, a metabolic product 
that is formed in nearly all life processes in comparatively large quan- 
tities, and in easily detected form. Without going into detail with 
these experiments, I will say that if the soil contained only 4.4% of 
water, the soil bacteria would be unable to attack the easilv broken 
down dextrose which was added to the soil. T take this as an example 
illustrating the overwhelming importance of the water content for 
the biochemical action in soils. 

From the forgoing it is clear that water is the medium of soil hav- 
teria. Although one cannot make in proxi a shari) distinction between 
the quantity and the nature of the water, I should like to cite the ex- 
periments of Beyerinckf as evidence of the influence of the nature of 
the water, on the microorganisms. His experiments deal chiefly with 
unicellular organisms, and let us say here that the Oecological Method 
proved to be of especial value, in the case of the lower organisms, be- 
cause they are unicellular and expose in comparison with their con- 
tent such an enormous surface, <m which the medium can act. 

In his classical investigations Beyerinck showed the dominating in- 
fluence of the nature of the water environment on the behavior of the 
microorganisms. How uniform was the material with which he started 
must be noted, for it was in many cases the mud of the canal in Delft. 
By influencing intelligently the life conditions of bacteria, such as oxygen 
and food supply, temperature and many other factors, he was able to 
predict and to obtain with mathematical surety the })i-edominating 

In such experiments as this on the nature of the water. Soil Bac- 
teriological Science finds its greatest promise. 

If we ask ourselves, "what is the ultimate aim of the ap])lied science 

♦F. Hesselink van Suchtelen: Centr. Bl. f. Bakl. II Abt. Bd. 28 S. 45. 
tF. Stockhausen: Oekologie AuhaQfungen nach Beyerinck. 



of Soil Bacteriology/' the answer must be : The aim of Soil Bacteriology 
(aside from the purely scientific interest) is to put the action of the 
soil bacteria in the service of Agriculture, to suppress the detrimental 
species and their action, and to encourage the beneficial bacteria like 
those which accumulate nitrogen, and such as make available those 
compounds of the soil, which are in a state not available for plant 

To accomplish this, or, in other words, to influence the microorganisms 
in the soils intelligently, presupposes the necessary knowledge of the 
environment of the bacteria, of those factors which are at our command, 
that can be varied as we desire, such as oxygen supply, water, reaction, 

Let us now consider the soil and let us treat it from the point of view 
of a medium for the micro-flora. Soil is composed of three states of 
material, solid material, water, and air; and these three states have a 
marked influence on each other. The soil bacteria are living in the soil 
water; but this soil water is influenced very markedly by the solid 
material and by the air. It is this that makes the soil a difiQx;uIt 
medium to investigate. I might say here that I know of no medium that 
is so variable and complex as soil. If w^e consider milk in this respect, 
the air, and the solid substances, play only a very small role. It can 
also be said that the milk of different cows does not differ materially as 
a medium for the bacteria. On the other hand, we know how large 
are the differences in soils which must necessarily influence their micro- 

We encounter still another difficulty if we remember the fact that 
our medium (the soil) is very difficult to sterilize. Only by the action 
of powerful agents are we able to sterilize the soil, in fact, the changes, 
•v^-'hich are necessarily brought about by this sterilization process, are 
so marked that we doubt even if ^Ye may call this sterilized medium, 

This means that in the case of soils we are practically deprived of 
the opportunity of recording the action of single species of microorgan- 
isms. Further soil is especially characterized by enormous surfaces. 
To give an idea how great the soil surface is, I should like to cite the 
work of Alfred Mitscherlich* who came to the conclusion that the 
outer surface of one gram of quartz sand was 1.38 square meters and 
that of one gram of clay was 966.7 square meters. These enormous 
surfaces give us an idea of how closely the soil water can be in contact 
with the solid soil substance. 

In regard to the permeability, I i*egret to say that we have but very 
little trustworthy data. The reason for this is evident, namely, that 
the many values obtained with air dried soil do not permit any con- 
clusions for field conditions. We may say, however, that the permea- 
bilit}' of the different soils is extremely variable. 

From the foregoing, it is clear that, even in fine tertiary quartz sand, 
which has so gi'eat a surface, there is great possibility for action be- 
tween the soil water and the absorbed substances on the soil grains. 

On the question of, "What is the nature of these reactions between 
the soil water and the soil particles,'' the answer cannot be very satis- 
factory. Permit me, however, to draw your attention to some experi- 

*A. Mitscherlich: Bodenkunde fOr Land und Forstwirte, 1905 p. 49-73. 


ments which give us the right to suppose that these reactions are diflfer- 
ent from the reactions that occur in a beaker and test tube. 

Aside from the phenomenon of selective absorption which we know 
takes place in soils, we have at our command a number of experiments 
performed by the most distinguished chemists showing that the amount 
and kind of surface possesses marked influence on the reactions. I cite 
here the work of van't Hoff who concludes that both the nature and the 
amount of surface exposed have an influence. The inversion of sugar 
is affected by the nature of the walls of the containing vessel, and its 
reduction by Pehling's solution is effected by the walls and the amount 
of cuprous oxide formed in the reaction. In the case of soils where we 
have so large a surface and such thin films, absorption, surface ten- 
sion, and other not-well-defined molecular forces may and will play their 

It follows then that the addition of an excessive amount of water 
to soils (drainage) changes the conditions, i. e. salts that were not in 
solution in the soil solution will be found to be dissolved in the drainage 
water, and we have therefore, the right to suppose that the drainage 
water is different, in a qualitative and quantitive respect, from the film 
water which surrounds the soil particles. It is, therefore impossible to 
make any conclusion, from the analysis of drainage water on the soil 
solution as it exists in the soil, because the dissolving process is probably 
not proportional to the amount of water added. 

On account of the importance of the environment of the soil bacteria, 
a knowledge of the solution as it exists in the soil becomes most urgent. 
And here we may add that this subject does not only concern the lower 
forms of life, but in the case of higher plants also, the study of the soil 
solution promises fruitful results. 

So I have directed my study towards this theme and have been seek- 
ing a method which would furnish me some soil solution. Here, again, 
we meet with some difficulties which I should like to mention briefly. 

It is absolutely impossible to obtain a comparison between the soil 
solution obtained and the total soil solution, because every method 
for securing the soil solution can give only a percentage of the total 
solution, as the last traces of soil water are held back tenaciously by 
great forces. 

The method finally adopted consists of the displacement of the soil 
solution by means of paraffine oil. There is something depressing in 
the impossibility of being able to verify our obtained results with the 

With the kind assistance of Mr. Itano some experiments have been 
made. Sulphuric acid of known strength was added to carefully washed, 
dry quartz sand. After this paraffine oil was poured on the sand and 
by means of a suction pump the acid was regained. The titration 
showed that the so-obtained acid did not differ from the acid which 
was used in the experiment. I am perfectly aware of the fact that 
this experiment has practically little bearing on soil conditions. The 
fact, however, that our regained solution had the same composition as 
the original employed solution does not mean that our method is not 

There must be considered, then, the nature of the medium with which 

♦ F. K. Cameron, The Soil Solution. 


we displace the soil solution. We may congratulate ourselves on the 
choice of paraflSne oil as a medium. With the most refined instruments 
that were at our service, we were unable to detect any change in the 
solution when it was brought into intimate contact with the paraffine 
oil. We found then, that the inactive paraffine oil did not change the 
electrical conductivity of the soil solution, while the chemical analysis 
also showed that there \i'«u» no change brought about by the action of 
the paraffine. 

The third method which we employed was the measuring of the surface 
tension. We might expect that when only slight traces of the paraffine 
oil were dissoh^ed in the soil solution, this would have its marked effect 
on the surface tension of this liquid. However, we were unable to detect 
any change in the surface tension of the liquid after it had stood for 
a long time covered with the paraffine oil. So far, the results obtained 
have demonstrated the permissibility of the use of the method employed. 

In regard to the amount of the soil solution that can be extracted 
by the application of our method, I must say in advance that even slight 
modifications even of the apparent details of our process caused large 
variations in the amount of water obtained. 

If we record onlv the values obtained, bv the use of those conditions 
which we knew to be most satisfactory-, then we must record the amount 
of solution obtained as a percentage of the total water capacity. 

But, at present, there exists in a few fields of soil physics such con- 
fiicting interpretations of the meaning of the term "water capacity." 
In the different text and laboratorv books, we find the most diverse 
definitions and the most confiicting methods for the determination of 
this total water capacity. Because we suspected that this value lii-ould 
vary quite markedly with the application of the differently devised 
methods, we undertook some experiments which proved that our suppo- 
sition -was correct. The total water capacities of the same soil as de- 
termined by the different methods varied over thirty per cent. From 
the soils containing the maximum water capacity wfe were able to ex- 
tract over seventy per cent of the total water. As an example, I will 
cite in this connection the data of an average extraction. 

From eight kilograms of soil (clay) which contained 14.3% water 
(figured on the basis of dry soil) was obtaned 330 cc. of soil solution. 
It is evident that such results can not be obtained by the use of a 
simple suction pump where the maximum difference of pressure is neces- 
sarily less than one atmosphere. 

However, we have secured larger diffei^ences in pressure by using 
several hundred pounds of pressure by means of a hydraulic press. 

We now have the soil solution and will analyze it. There are two 
ways in which we may investigate such a solution which require a 
short explanation. 

I. The chemical analysis. 

II. The physiological analysis. 

A chemical analysis seeks through its results a determination of soil 
fertility. However one can not claim that this method has been suc- 
cessful The only thing which we can say with surety about its results 
is that if a certain nutritive element is found to be not pres- 
ent in the soil, then it is lacking for the nutrition of the plant. The 


difficult problem between the relation of chemical analysis and avail- 
ability still awaits solution. 

The physiological analysis draws its conclusions from the vegetation 
itself. In other words, it is an attempt to put direct observation in 
the place of theoretical deduction. Since no definite results from the 
analysis of the soil solution have been so far obtained, and since one 
must recognize that the latter has no scientific value as a determination 
of soil fertility, the author has applied not only chemical analysis to 
the solution but in connection with this also a physico-chemical analysis. 

We may suppose from analog^' that the physico-chemical analysis of 
such a liquid may be of exceptional value. However, I must emphasize 
that in spite of all the various determinations I do not feel myself 
called upon to draw any definite conclusions from these analyses with 
reference to the exceedingly complex question of soil fertility. So far as 
chemical analysis is concerned wfe must keep before ourselves the all 
important fact, "corpora non agunt nisi soluta," in other words that 
only which is present in the soil solution can be taken up as a nutritive 
substance, but not every thing present need be taken up. 

There still remain a few things which I should like to say. I will 
state the facts that were revealed by the application of our method. 
Complete results will appear in a publication of the near future. 

This is not the place to discuss the details of the different analyses. 

In manv cases there was found in the soil solution a slime. This 


must be r^arded as the first experimental proof of the presence of this 
substance in soil, and it is not impossible that much of the irregular 
behavior of the life in soil could be explained to some extent with a 
knowledge of this slime. If I may be permitted, I should like to call 
your attention to the possible effects of this substance on dessication, 
diffusion, and other processes. 

(2) The specific gravity of the soil solution which influences the 
movement of the soil water was found to be higher than that of water. 

(3) As to the viscosity of the soil solution -which governs to a cer- 
tain extent the rate of adjustment of soil water in the soil, we can 
say that it is relatively high. 

(4) The surface tension, a property of liquids which is associated 
with adsorption and has an influence on the degree of capillarity, was 
found to be low in the case of the soil solution. 

(5) In reference to the osmotic pressure of the soil solution, which 
on one hand is the indicator of the state of solubility, and has a bear- 
ing on the adjustment of the water in the soil, and on the other hand 
markedly influences the life in the soil, we can say that this pressure is 
low, a result which was to be exj)ected from the comparatively high 
resistance of the liquid. 

(6) Another thing noticed is the acid and basic binding capacity. 
This was found by the electrotitrimetric method. In general we may 
say that the neutrality was obtained by adding very small quantities of 
a normal 1000° alkali or acid. 

(7) In regard to chemical analysis you will not be surprised to hear 
that all nutritive substances could be found in our soil solution to a 
certain degree. An astonishing fact, however, is the relatix^ly large 
quantity of nitrites in some samples. With reference to the value of 


the chemical analysis of the soil solution, I refer to that which I have 
already said. 

Our work can by no means be looked npon as complete, but I dare 
say that the results are promising, and that I feel happy to be able to 
present to the reader the preliminary results which have been obtained 
by the application of the methods of Mr. Itano and myself. 







We know that in fresh milk bacteria of the Bdct. lactis acidi type are 
usually greatly in minority: and, too, that in milk standing for 24 
to 36 hours under the usuaV temperature environment common to most 
market milks the Bact. lactis acidi type gains majority. It can not be 
said that this transition is due entirely to their ability to multiply more 
rapidly than any of the other types, because it is not uncommon to 
find in milk other types which when transplanted to sterile milk will 
multiply at temperatures between 15° to 20°C. more rapidly than will 
Bact. lactis acidi. 

The growth of Ba^t. lactis acidi may be stimulated or retarded by as- 
sociation with other microorganisms. Stimulation both in rapidity 
and duration occurs if in the medium is present some acid destroying 
or acid retaining compounds, as insoluble carbonates, casein, etc. For 
example, upon a plate made from a milk agar shake (25% sterile milk 
added to a tube of melted agar and shaken to mix) to which some sterile 
powdered calcium carbonate is added before pouring into the Petri 
dish and inoculated with a stroke on the surface will develop a super- 
abundant growth, while upon a similar plate without the calcium car- 
bonate will occur a very meager growth. The casein in a milk culture 
when compared with a whey culture, acts in a like manner. 

A number of the types of microorganisms commonly met in milk pro- 
duce, in pure milk cultures, compounds which react alkaline to litmus 
and phenolphthalin : and the lactic in association with any of thes^ 
types usually manifests a stimulated growth. A visible stimulation may 
be seen upon a plate made from a milk agar shake heavily seeded with 
one of these types and inoculated with the lactic by stroking the surface. 

Several yeasts isolated from milk and butter and inoculated into 
flasks of whey made 2^2% acid by the addition of commercial lactic 
acid reduced the acidity in time to about 0.2% to 0.3% , thus showing 
that a number of microorganisms found in milk are in reality acid con- 
sumers. The growth and life of the lactic in association with these 
is greatly prolonged. Along this line considerable work has lieen done 
by Miss Zae Northrup of East Lansing. 

A factor which may stimulate the growth of Bact. lactis acidi when 
growing in association with liquefying organisms is an increased supply 
of food made available by the proteolytic changes. Dr. Rahn now 
of the University of Illinois has formed experiments which conclude 
that the addition of peptone to a pure milk culture stimulates the 
growth of some of the strains of Bact. lactis acidi. 

The metabolic products of many of the common milk organisms when 
growing in association with a lactic is not without an effect. Those 


organisms which have a stimulating effect upon the growth of the lactic 
may also greatly inhibit or prevent its growth. A milk agar shake 
of these organisms if stroked with Bact. lactis acidi immediately or 
within 20 to 30 hours generally gives a stimulated growth of the lactic ; 
but, if 3 to 5 days pass before stroking the surface with the lactic, the 
growth is retarded or prevented. A number of microorganisms will be 
retarded from the first. 

The growth of most of the organisms commonly found in milk may 
be stimulated or retarded by association with Bact. lactis acidL At 
the beginning certain types of organisms grossing in milk in associa- 
tion with a lactic exhibit a stimulated growth; while later, when the 
acid produced by the lactic has caused a rise of about 0.1% in the 
acidity of the milk, their growth is arrested. The greater rapidity of 
growth which manifests itself at first may occur because the first traces 
of acid or some metabolic products of the lactic act as a weak poison 
and stimulant. This action may be illustrated as follows: make a 
plate from a milk agar shake of the organism and inoculate the surface 
with a stroke of the lactic. The picture which presents itself is a 
normal or stimulated growth of the lactic surrounded by a narrow zone of 
apparent!}' no growth and surrounding this a copious growth of the 
organism. Another factor which may cause or aid in causing this stim- 
ulated growth of the organism is a stimulated proteolysis, giving a 
more abundant supply of available food. 

In association with a lactic the growth of many organisms is retarded. 
A retardation which likely is due to their inability to tolerate the in- 
creasing amounts of acid. Yet the growth of a number of organisms 
is inhibited and even prevented before the acid produced by the lactic 
is measurable by our present chemical methods. Prom this it seems 
that the metabolic products of the lactic even in small amounts have 
an inhibiting action. 

The lactic in association with a few organisms, especially some of 
the torula and yeasts, is not able through either the accumulation of 
its metabolic products or its maximum acid production to exert to any 
marked degree a retarding: effect. 

The changes caused in milk by many microorganisms in pure culture 
are greatly retarded or prevented if at the beginning an equal number 
of Bact. lactis acidi is introduced : the organism alone producing its 
characteristic changes while in the association the changes pi'oduced 
are those characteristic of the lactic alone. If, however, the organism 
is given a lead before the lactic is introduced, it is able, usually, to 
make its changes detectable. A number of organisms known to be able 
to liquefy casein rapidly, when growing in association with a lactic are 
unable to make manifest their changes. And, too, a number of or- 
ganisms regarded as non-liquefiers of casein because they will grow in 
milk in pure cultures for three to four weeks or longer without causing 
any visible proteolytic changes may become u])on association with a 
lactic a rather rapid liquefier. It is safe to say that nearly every if 
not every microorganism during its life produces some type of proteoly- 
tic enzyme. If this ty])e, however, be that resembling ti7])sin, then 
the presence of acid j)roduced either by itself or by a lactic in associa- 
tion will prevent a visible manifestation of a ])roteolytic action. But 
if the enzyme resembles ])epsin, the presence of a limited amount of 


acid will act as a catalyzer. An organism which produces a trypsin- 
like enzyme and at the same time forms acid in milk may be classified^ 
as a non-liquefier ; but if a milk culture of such an organism be made 
neutral or slightly alkaline marked proteolytic changes occur. Again^ 
an organism which produces a pepsin-like enzyme and during its growth 
in milk forms alkaline compounds may be unable to cause proteolytic 
changes. This organism in association ^ith a lactic becomes a liquefier. 
Within the cell of organisms are entracellular enzymes which are not 
diffusable. Entracellular proteolytic enzymes of dead cells in old cul- 
tures are liberated through autolysis. And their behavior is similar to 
that of an extracellular enzyme of like nature. 

Changes occurring in milk as a result of the associative growth of a 
lactic with another organism are influenced by the change in reaction, 
the accumulation of metabolic products of both the organism and the 
lactic, the temperature of grow^th, the accessible supply of oxygen, etc. 
However, the hindrance or encouragement in the production of enzymes 
offered by the lactic through its metabolic products to other organisms 
growing in association is a factor that cannot be overlooked. 

Michigan Agricultural College, 
East Lansing, Michigan. 




At the present day a safe water supply for a city is considered an 
absolute necessity, rather than a luxury as some people seem to think, 
and many schemes have been brought for^'ard to purify a contaminated 
supply and place it above suspicion. 

It is unnecessary in a paper of this kind, which is merely a review 
of the literature on the subject of ozone purification, to go into any of 
the other methods in use except merely for comparison purposes. 

In the year 1891 ozone began to be used in Germany as a means of 
water purification and there are probably at the present time more 
of these plants in that country than in any other except France. One 
of the first plants of any considerable size to be installed and put into 
successful operation was that at St. Maur a dependency of Paris, France. 

The contract was first taken by Tyndal in 1896 but the results ob- 
tained were mediocre and it was not until several years later (about 
1905 I believe) when De Frise took up the contract and modified the 
plant in various ways that the system was considered as a success. The 
success of this plant and of those installed in Germany led to the in- 
stallation of other plants and while I realize that this list is far from 
being complete it will serve to give one somewhat of an idea of the 
number of these plants that have been installed. France undoubtedly 
leads iu the number of cities that have or have had all or part of their 
water supply purified in this way. Paris, Lille, Nice, Marseille®, Chartres 
and a few small towns make up the list for France. In Germany 
Paderborn, Wiesbaden, Munich and some smaller towns are using this 
system of water purification. Other cities that have all or part of 
their \^^ter supply purified in this way are Ginnekin, Holland, and St. 
Petersburg, Russia. The United States probably has a fewer number 
of these plants than any other country, unless it be England. Phila- 
delphia, Penn., had at one time an ozone plant for treating part of the 
water supply but I am not sure whether this plant is in actual success- 
ful operation at the present time. Baltimore Co., Maryland, has a 
small plant which is said to be a success and there is a small plant at 
Great Falls, South Carolina, that is reported to be doing good work. 
In regard to the plant at Ann Arbor I wish to say that I have been 
testing this for some time but that my final report will not be ready 
for publication for a few weeks yet. 

Mr. R. M. Leggett of the National Air and Water Purifying Company, 
Ann Arbor, Mich., in an address before the Central States Water 
Works Association in Detroit Sept. 24, 1912, made several statements 
with which I cannot agree. His address was published in "Water and 
Gas Review," Oct. and Nov. numbers and one of the points with which 
I wish to take exception is as follows : Mr. Leggett is quoted as saying, 
"There is also a plant at Ann Arbor, Mich., with a capacity of three 
million gallons of water daily. This plant was started in Dec, 1910, 


and has been in continual operation since that tima Tests of the tap 
water are made every week by the University of Michigan and have been 
declared safe every time. Previous to the installation of this plant 
notices were posted in the University buildings and in the daily paper 
to boil the water aB it was contaminated." In looking back through 
the records I find that in July, 1911, and March, April and May of 
1912, notices were posted on the campus advising the boiling of the 
water as it was contaminated. 

There are other statements in Mr. Leggetts article with which I can- 
not agree but I will go into these later. However, there is one thing 
which while not connected in any way with this article of Mr. L^getts 
I wish to bring up at this point. The report has reached me from 
several sources that Mr. Leggett has made the statement that I thorough- 
ly approved of and had heartily indorsed the Model Machine that he 
has devised for water purification. This machine is in the offices of 
the National Air and Water Purifying Company here in Ann Arbor 
and is used for demonstration purposes. The following report speaks 
for itself and is a word for word copy of the one I gave the company 
at the time of the test. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., 
Jan. 11, 1913. 
Mr. R. M. Leggett, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Dear Sir: — I hereby submit my report on the action of ozone on tlie 
Colon Bacillus as tested bv me in vour model ozonizing machine on 
Jan. 3d, 1913. 

The growth on two twenty-four hour agar slant cultures of our labora- 
tory stock culture of B.Coli was washed off with tap water and sus- 
pended in water in the first ^'ell of your ozonizing machine and the well 
filled with water from the overhead filter the other three wells being 
empty. Tap water from the filter was then turned into this first well 
and ozonized air turned through. As soon as water began flowing into 
Uie second well ozonized air was turned on here. Similarily when water 
began flowing into the third and fourth wells ozonized air was turned 
on in them. 

Time period between turning ozonized air and water into the first 
well and purified water coming from the fourth well was four minutes. 

One-tenth C.C. of water from the first well before turning on ozone, 
plated on Conradi-Drigalski media showed at the end of 48 hours in the 
incubator, acid reaction of the entire plate and colonies too numerous 
to count. 

Thirty seconds after water began flowing from the fourth well or 
four and one-half minutes after starting ozone and water through the 
first well, one C.C. on media as above showed no growth. One C.C. 
samples plated at the end of one minute and seven minutes gave identical 

I do not know the volume of water that will pass through this ma- 
chine in a given time, neither do I know the volume of ozonized air 
used nor the ozone content of the same. The amount of organic matter 
used in this test was probably comparatively low as the water is said to 


come from the West Washington Street Station of the Ann Arbor 
Water Company. 

Yours trulv, 
(Signed) R. W.'PRYER, 
Assistant in Hygiene, University of Mich. 


There are several ways for the production of ozone but the only one 
of commercial importance is by means of an electric discharge. The 
production of an appreciable amount of ozone requires the use of from 
eight to ten thousand volts at the least and most plants operate at a 
much higher voltage. The essential principal is the same in all types 
of ozonizers, that is, one pole is grounded while the other is connected 
directly to the step up transformer. Between these two poles is a dielec- 
tric or nonconductor of air, glass, shellac, mica or some similar sub- 
stance. Wlien a high tension alternating current is turned through 
such an apparatus as I have roughly described the discharge takes place 
l)etween these poles and through the dielectric and is usually referred 
to as the silent or brush discharge although just what this really is 
would be very hard to define. This discharge is characterized by a 
peculiar bluish-violet radiation and it is said that the production of 
ozone from the oxygen of the air, which passes between the poles and 
the dielectric, is due to the presence in this discharge of ultra-violet 

It has been found by careful investigation that there are several 
factors that greatly influence the economical production of ozone. 

1st. The concentration of ozone should not be carried too high be- 
cause it takes more current proportionally to increase the concentra- 
tion beyond three than it does to operate on a larger volume of air 
and to have a lower concentration of ozone. By concentration is meant 
the weight in gramms of actual ozone in a cubic meter of air. 

2d. The air to be ozoniaed should be dry otherwise there will be 
some peroxide of hydrogen formed which would remain in the water 
and also the output of ozone for a given expenditure of electric energy 
is lowered. 

3d. The temperature should be low in order to obtain maximum con- 
centration with minimum current. 

Ozone is practically insoluble in water and this fact makes it a 
good agent for purification because of the ease of removal but a poor 
one on account of the difficulties of obtaining a good mixture. Many 
schemes have been devised to secure a good mixture or emulsion among, 
them being the De Frise sterilizing towers which are divided into sec- 
tions by baffling plates with very small (1-140 of an inch) holes. In 
these towers the water usually comes in at the top and moves downward 
while the ozonized air comes in at the bottom and moves upward. In 
another system the towers are filled with small pebbles and the water 
is sprayed over the top while the ozonized air comes in at the bottom. 

Another system, which I do not think has met with much success, 
depends upon an as])irater or water pump and sucks the ozonized air 
through by the aid of the water which is to be purified. Still another 



system depends on several treatments with ozonized air of a low con- 

While there is no longer any doubt of the ability of ozone to purify 
water if conditions are right there is one factor that stands in the way 
of its very wide adoption at the present time. That is the considera- 
tion of the cost of operation. While an ozone plant could probably be 
installed as cheap if not somewhat cheaper than slow sand filters the 
cost of operation is many times higher and needless to say depreciation 
much greater. 

The following table shows approximate maximum and minimum costs 
of installation and operation of the four leading types of water puri- 
fication devices. The unit of quantity being one million gallons per 
day in each case. 

Slow sand filters. 

Mechanical filters. 




















Operation (not includ- 
ing interest) 

$1 40 

$3 00 

$2 00 

$4 00 

$7 00 

$15 00 

$0 20 

$0 70 

Supposing Detroit which until recently at least had no system of 
water purification should adopt one of these methods what would be 
the effect on the meter rate. The meter rate as given a few months ago 
being |30.80 per million gallons — 11.75 for the first thirty thousand gal- 
lons and then three cents per thousand. 

Without allowing for interest the rates would be something like this: 

glow Sand.— Minimum ($32.20) Maximum ($33.80) Per million. 

Mechanical. — Minimum .... ( 32.80) Maximum ( 34.80) Per million. 

Ozone. — Minimum ( 37.80) Maximum ( 45.80) Per million. 

Hypochlorite. — Minimum . . ( 31.00) Maximum ( 31.20) Per million. 

I do not doubt but that if some cheaper way, either chemical or 
electrical, for the production of ozone should be discovered that the 
process would find extensive application as a means of water purifica- 
tion. However, at the present time we have other methods that are 
very efficient and which are much more economical. 




We hear a great deal these days of the high cost of living and the 
cause. I think we will all agree that there are a number of causes. 
I wish to point out one to you which you may not have thought of 
in that light before. 

Those of you who read in your daily papers such articles as : "How I 
Made My Hair Grow;" "The"^ Model's Secret (A Story for Fat Folks) ;" 
"Don't Diet for Fat;" "The Doctor's Answers on Health and Beauty 
Questions;" "Beauty Hints;" "No More Wrinkles;" "Scranton Woman 
Makes Remarkable Discovery That Proves to be a Great Aid to Beauty." 
"Broad Minded and Liberal, she offers to give Particulars to all Who 
Write Absolutely Free." (Notice you write absolutely free.) And if 
you should write this woman you would obtain what to all appearance 
was a prescription from a specialist or perhaps a home remedy, but 
when you go to the drug store to obtain the ingredi^its you will find 
that one of them costs you at least five times and more than likely ten 
times more than any of the other ingredients. Take for instance "The 
Models Secret;" "The cloak Models Association has raised their calling 
to the status of a fine art." "The development and retention of a i)er- 
fect figure is made the study of their lives, etc." Instead of dieting 
and exercise being their reliance the following mixture is asked to do 
the work of keeping these ladies professionally fit: % ounce Marmola, 
i/^> ounce Fluid-extract Cascara Aromatic and 3i/<> ounces of Peppermint 
water. To most people there is nothing wrong in the above and it is 
surprising how many people, mostly stout ones of course, are taken in 
by this and spend their good money for it. You will find when you buy 
the Marmola that it costs you $.75, the Oascara f.05 and the pepper- 
mint water not more than J.05. ^farmola was one of- the first of these 
placed on the market and made its appearance about twelve years ago, 
and bv the way is made in Detroit, the citv which makes more of this of articles than any other city. Mannola is a mixture of phenol- 
phtalein, dried thyroid gland, salt, bladder wrack and oil of peppermint. 

Eppotone, "Discovered by a Parisian Specialist," sold as a skin food 
is nothing more than Epsom salts colored pink with carmine, four ounces 
sells for J.50 and you never think of paying more than |.10 a pound for 
epsom salts when you take them internally. This preparation is also 
made or I should say, put up, in Detroit. Spurmax is the same thing 
except that it is put up by a firm in Chicago. 

A supposed remedy for locomotor ataxia is "Bioplasm" and upon 
analysis proves to be notliing more than milk sugar with a fancy price. 

One which contains 98% sugar flavored with some balsams, two ounces 
of which sells for f 5.00, is known as "Hydrocine." This, if one believed 
the literature, will cure tuberculosis. One of the worst fakes on the 
market is made at Jackson and known as "Lung Germine." It is 
composed of alcohol 44%, sulphuric acid 4% and water 52%. Price, 


f 5.00 for two ounces. This, too, is sold to cure tuberculosis in the last 

The ones I have already spoken of have been on the market for some 
time, but there is a beauty preparation which has been at its heighth 
the past year known as "Mercolized Wax." I am told that here in Ann 
Arbor there are as many of the men students using it as there are 
Co-eds. Some of the reading notices say in speaking of powder and 
paint, "How foolish to seek artificial beauty of this sort, obnoxious from 
artistic and moral standpoint, when it is so easy to obtain a truly 
natural complexion by the use of ordinary mercolized wax." The only 
real way to improve a bad complexion is to actually remove it and let 
the young, fresh, beautiful skin beneath have a chance." This prepara- 
tion proves to be an ointment containing 11% zinc oxide and 8.5% am- 
moniated mercury and sells for f .75 an ounce. The cost of manufacture 
is not more than f .75 per pound. Ammoniated mercury is considered 
as a rather dangerous and irritating drug if left in contact with the 
skin very long or applied very frequently. It is often used in skin 
diseases such as "Barber Itch," eczema, etc. Most of these prepara- 
tions are harmless, except in price, however, "Mercolized Wax" can not 
be classed with the harmless. Another of the harmful kind is "Othine," 
two and % ounces of which sells for $2.00. This preparation is guaran- 
teed to remove freckles or money refunded and it will do it too, but it 
does it by taking the skin along and of course the freckles return too. 
This preparation we have found to be ammoniated mercury and bismuth. 

There is in Ann Arbor at the present time an agent for Robt. Blumers 
Egg Saver. It is a quarter pound package selling for |.25 and is 
claimed to be the equivalent of four dozen eggs. We have examined 
this and several other so-called ^^egg savers." Some are corn starch 
colored with an aniline dye, to give the yellow appearance, others are 
baking powder, containing of course starch, and one or two have been 
found which contain casein, an attempt you see to furnish something to 
supply the albumin. Why you can go down here anywhere and buy 
ten ounces of baking powder for ten cents and sour milk is not very 

I wish to call your attention to just one more compound on the 
market Sal-Vet. You may have seen the large add in the evening paper 
lately. It gives the endorsement of many Michigan farmers. It is a 
stock conditioner and worm destroyer and as they say, '^will destroy 
stomach and intestinal parasites and prevents infection from all para- 
sites that enter the stomach." Sal-Vet they say is a wonderful medi- 
cated salt and they tell you to feed no salt. A very good reason for 
that for Sal-Vet is 93.5% common, ordinary salt with small amounts 
of iron sulphate and charcoal with indeterminable amounts of gentian, 
quassia and sulphur or in other words about enough to cover its iden- 
tity. It sells for $5.00 a hundred pounds, rather expensive it seems to 
me for common salt and especially for stock. If we can believe it to 
be used as extensively as they claim, then is there any wonder the price 
of meat is high? 

Ann Arbor, Michigan. 






Agriculture has shared but slightly in the great development which her 
sister occupations have enjoyed through the benefits of organization 
efficiencies. The fact of immovability on the part of the farm is named 
by Alfred Marshall as one of the reasons why farming can never benefit 
from the specialization and int^ration processes of which organization 
everywhere is the product. "The characteristic of manufacturing in- 
dustries," says Professor Marshall, "which makes them offer generally 
the best illustrations of the advantages of production on a large scale — 
organization characteristics — is their power of choosing freely the lo- 
cality in which they will do their work, as contrasted with agriculture 
and other extractive industries (mining, quarrying, fishing, etc.), the 
geographical distribution of which is determined by nature." 

Agriculture's greatest disability, however, from the standpoint of or- 
ganizational possibility arises from its limited opportunities for the use 
of capital. Most of the characteristics which make the use of 
capital so profitable in manufacturing seem absent from, agriculture. 
No such a mass of capital could conceivably be used with profit for 
example in cultivating the soil enclosed within the ai'ea of a factory as 
is employed profitably within the factory itself since the quick limits 
within which the cultivation of the soil is profitable owing to its physi- 
cal and chemical composition closely restricts the amount of capital 
which can be applied to any given area. But in addition to the early 
failure in agriculture of profits on account of the natural limitations of 
the soil, a large use of capital in this industry seems impracticable 
from other reasons. In comparison with the factory agricultural pro- 
cesses are not closely enough connected nor continuous enough to uti- 
lize much of a division of labor or machinery. Quoting from Professor 
^Marshall again, "In agriculture there is not much division of labor for 
a so-called large farm does not employ the tenth part of the labor which 
is collected in a factory of moderate dimensions. This is largely due to 
natural causes, to the changes of the seasons, and to the difficulties of 
concentrating a large amount of labor in any one place." Almost con- 
tinuous employment, in fact, seems necessary in a factory to develop 
employment, in fact, seems necessary in a factory to develope profits 
from an exi)ensive machine, but a machine is used only in its proper 
season on a farm so that wide as is the revolution in agriculture which 
machinery has wrought true capitalistic production by this agency seems 
scarcely to be attainable. Underlying every possibility of using large 
capital in agriculture is the inability to successfully employ steam or 
other high class motor powers. As remarked by Professor Emerick, 
"The wealth concentrating power of steam is due to the fact that it 
has admitted in only a limited degree of direct application to agricul- 


tural production; the aj?e of steam has given ns a new niban life bnt 
has not directly transformed the country. Nothing indeed resembling 
the use made of high grade motive forces in manufacturing or trans- 
portation has yet been found for agriculture nor is it clear that they 
may ever be largely employed. • 

Widely different views concerning the merits of large scale farming 
seem to have been held two decades ago from those which have since 
become current. David A. Wells, writing in the early eighties com- 
ments interestingly on the great revolution in the business of agricul- 
ture which is yef to be effecte<l by the cultivation of land in large tracts 
with the full use of machinerv and under the factorv svstem as a mat- 
ter which onlv the future can reveal, but it cannot be doubted, he held, 
that the shiftlei?s, wasteful method of agi*iculture now in practice over 
enormous areas of the earth's surface are altogether too barbarous to 
be much longer tolerated. IVofessor Lil>erty l^ailey has given these 
views sympathetic endorsement — observing frequently, especially in re- 
cent addresses that the absence of entailment of large estates and the 
presence of popular suffrage in this country may be expected to be 
permanent safeguards against landlordism and he would be glad of the 
time when capital and skill should direct large niral enterprises at 
least in the remoter parts of the country. Indeed the basis for the be- 
lief that agriculture is to take on in the future thorough going business 
characteristics such a*s specialized laborers, ])ower machinery, efficiency 
management, etc, etc., rest largely upon this assumption that farms are 
inevitably to become larger. Overhead organization, in fact, as it is 
called in industry can find out little place in agriculture until the farms 
have become of suitable size. 

The transformation of agi-iculture into a business in this country is 
mentioned by Bogart as one of the many economic effects of the civil 
war and the chief characteristic of this transf(n*tned occupation is the 
production of commodities for the general market. The earlier ty|)e of 
agriculture, as everybody knows, was largely of the domef«?tic sort but the 
agriculture of our own day does not in the least aim at independence 
and self sufficiency but quite as unreservedly as other industrieK, offers 
its out-put upon the market. It is this new point of view from which 
the activities of the farm are directed, this purveying of the farmer to 
the market, which undoubtedly gives to agriculture its fullest identifi- 
cation with the contemporary world of industry. 

It is to emphasize this business point of view, to magnify it and to 
make it the supreme consideration in the carrying on of the farm which 
gives the study of farm organization its chief justification as a disci- 
pline in an agricultural college. On the other hand it is doubtless the 
desire for the economies which are to be found in organization and 
management, which the contemporary flourishing ccmdition of agricul- 
ture has made worth while, that has given significance to the fann 
oi^anization movement among practical working farmers and ])rompts 
the description from us which now follows. 

The variable nature of agnculture which results from the fact which 
Marshall described, namely, that farms are strictly localized by climate, 
soil and other n.itural conditions presents a pnmounced hindrance to 
the easy analysis of farm operations. There is no uniformity of product, 
indeed, from the farm so that no one can proceed from function to 


process in his analysis of farm management as would be done in other 
industries. The meaning of the term farming itself has not received the 
identical definitions from equally good authorities. To some this un- 
dertaking is a thing from which rather highly finished products should 
be put upon the market and the whole trend of the pursuit should be 
in the direction of perfecting this manufacturing aspect and away from 
the production of raw materials. Com|)eting with this definition is a 
moi'e commonly accepted one that farming has for its purposes the 
j>roduction of grains, forages, fibres and roots, and all other farm en- 
terprises not identified with these are only significant to the extent that 
they preserve the soil and restore its fertility. Amid such diverse views 
in regai-d functions nothing can be established with regard to products 
except the rule that as many supplementary enterprises as possible 
should be conducted upon the farm and among the enterprises which 
are not supplementary to each other but which compete for the farmers' 
time, those always which are most profitable should have the preference 

This principle of the competitive and supplementary enterprises is 
largely the determinative one also in the establishment of the proper 
cropping or rotation systems. The chosen orders in which crops suc- 
ceed each other from period to period and which constitute the device 
of crop rotation are multitudeness in number and, merits of almost 
every conceivable sort have been assigned to favored ones by their ardent 
supporters. But, similarly to the use of an established order in a differ- 
ent art from agriculture, the use of the sequence in either whist or 
farming is chiefly defensable on the grounds that in the long run it 
pays. The nature of the sequence in agriculture then is governed from 
the same standpoint as governs the choice of farm enterprises, namely, 
the selection of the products which in the long run will afford the 
greatest profits. 

The student of agricultural development in the United States finds 
no other phase more interesting than the one in which the operation 
of this principle of profitableness or unprofitableness in determinin^i: 
the succession of different types of agriculture in different localities of 
the country is shown. A selective efficacy closely resembling in fact 
that of the Darwinian struggle for existence has determined the enter- 
])rises which shall survive in different localities and the misfits which 
sliall go under. A somew'hat superficial description of this situation 
asserts that within small areas the markets determine the type of agri- 
culture which will be followed. Over large areas or natural divisions 
of the globe climatic and other natural conditions are in the main 

The farm establishment itself as contrasted with the farm enterprises 
affords the real opportunity for organization. Here are found in their 
most elemental state, the land, labor and capital agents of our economic 
trinity, the varying divisions and combinations of which constitute the 
essentials of all economic organization. The tyranny with which its 
products controls the fate of human kind — the function of land as the 
limiting factor upon human development — or, in the words of Professor 
Bailey, as the spring source from which raw materials flow, has made 
the disposition and management of land resources supremely important 
to society from the start. The age long controversies over intensive 
or extensive, over tenant or proprietorship and over large or small 


farming, are similarly evidences of this great human dependency upon 
the proper use of land in connection with labor and machinery. 

No other single principle is so widely useful in the organization of a 
farm as is the redirected law of diminishing returns which is beginning 
to be known as the law of proportionality. I refer here to that inter- 
pretation of the law of diminishing returns which has to do with the 
mal-proportionality of the factors toward each other rather than with 
the phase of the law which deals with limits. As commonly stated "a 
time arrives in the application of labor to land when a further applica- 
tion of labor will not yield proportionate results." In other words the 
two factors are wrongly adjusted to each other for the best returns, 
which is simply another way of describing that common phenomenon in 
a world of mis-fits, a mal-proportion. Avoiding the error of applying 
factors to each other in lorong proportions, which the law of diminish- 
ing returns so perfectly describes, and we exercise the law of propor- 
tionality — a law which Professor Fetter asserts is the "central and 
essential thought in Political Economy since it is the expression of the 
fundamental axiomatic truth that there is a test or proper adjustment 
throughout the world of means and ends." It is this law of propor- 
tionality therefore which draws the essential elements and processes 
of a farm into a proper system and furnishes us with the suitable basis 
for farm organization. 

This order producing efficacy of proportionality, which we have pic- 
tured, needs little more than merelv to be mentioned and our memories 
immediately furnish us with proofs innumerable from many fields of 
its ubiquity and potency. 

Technologically there is no product which comes from the various 
crafts or trades or industries which is not indebted to this law of right 
proportioning. In art and music and literature propoi-tion reigns 
supreme. In nature it is the balancing of the forces and elements, or 
their proper proportionality toward each other, which prevents chaos 
while in the moral world the ethical ideals of symmetry and harmony 
are under obligations to the law of proportions since they are said to 
be related to a wise observance of the "golden mean." A common book 
of recipes will give many thousands of formulae for combining things in 
their right proportions. The apothecaries art and that of the culinary 
expert is a matter of putting things together in their right proportions 
while the science of chemistry is so largely concenied with this subject 
that an entire variety of associative ratios goes by the name of chemi- 
cal proportions. 

A principle of such universal employment could scarcely fail of ap- 
plicability to farming but it is the essentialness with which it applies 
to every aspect of this art which gives to it the prime importance as a 
law of agricultural organization. Upon this principle of proportionality, 
for example, rests the determination of the farm area — in what pro- 
portions it will be profitable to use land with a given amount of labor 
and capital and in what proportion it will not be profitable. The ques- 
tion too of intensive or extensive cultivation is the reverse side of the 
same problem and consequently is a problem in proportionality. The 
class significance of the suitable proportioning of land and labor which 
is involved in this question of big farms or little farms, is also of al- 
most incalculable importance to the farmers. Is it the American ideal 


of what shall prevail that large returns shall be secured to the human 
farmer, or is it to he the ideal that large returns shall l>e secured for 
the acre of land, is the way in which this problem is usually offered. 
Other things being equal, intensive farming implies a reduced return 
per man to the cultivators of the soil; extensive fanning, the i^everse. 
Shall not Ihe vision of the American public policy look rather to the 
large returns to the individual fanner as is the case from the broad 
acres of the English type of agriculture rather than to the large re- 
turns from the individual acre as is the case in the peasant type of 
agriculture as practiced in Belgium and elsewhere on the continent of 

The law of ])roportionality is also applicable to almost all of the 
operati(ms carried on upon the farm. The original allotment o differ- 
ent parts of the land to different purposes for example, requires a 
proportional distribution between the farmstead on one hand and those 
areas on the other which become the fields and the avenues of communi- 
cation. It is also detenninative, as is the case in every other business, 
of the relations which shall subsist between, fixed capital and the 
amounts which shall be used for nmning expenses and also of the gen- 
eral problem of the gross amounts and the particular kinds of machines, 
auxiliary faiin enterprises, stock and other equipments which shall 

Tn no other sphere of farm oi*ganization does a l>etter opportunity 
exist for the ])roi)er ])roportioning of things than is the case in the 
establishment of the relations of motive power to the different vehicles 
with which it is to be employed. A vital point in the rivalry, which is 
now taking ])la(e, between tractor power and animal power for domin- 
ancy upon the farm, is said to be the compai'ative facility of each in 
being readily serviceable in a great variety of proportions for use by 
the fanner. The multiples and divisions of hoi*se power which can be 
obtained upon the farm by combining or separating teams is said not 
to be practicable when motor tractors are used, and an almost insuper- 
able obstacle in this way is intei^posed to the serviceableness of the 
latter. The arrangement and number of farm buildings can scarcely be 
satisfactorily accomplished either without a reference to this law of 
proportionality and in the miner aspects of the agricultural art, such 
as the compounding of fertilizers and the arrangement of feeding ra- 
tions and the providing of general farm conveniences, the law of pro- 
portionality is everywhere supreme. From these illustrations, of which 
the economy of the farm would present an almost infinite number did 
not space forbid, it may be readily seen how largely the strategy of 
this occupation involves the law of ])roportionality and how concisely 
all of the operations of this undertaking may be organized and admin- 
istered from this standpoint. 

From a pedigogical standpoint, this principle of proportionality is 
meritorious through the many problems of proportioning drawn from 
agricultural life which it furnishes for solution. The supix)rter of the 
problem method of teaching economics finds here an exhaustless field 
of problems, drawn from actual life, from which he may illustrate 
equally well numerous economic principles and also excellent farm 
practices. The doctrine of proportionality, since it implies coordination, 
develops admirably the notion of the business standpoint as applied 


to the operation of farms especially to the extent that this necessitates 
the unifying of farm operations. Agricultural education is now given 
on each of its sides by a series of many specialists and it should be 
the function of some discipline in the school corriculum to correlate 
these various sides and trace the way by which a profit can be made 
from the general handling of the whole farm. The fact that propor- 
tionality may be developed from different standpoints furnishes an 
admirable means for teaching this lesson and your time-worn patience 
is solicited while this last usefulness of this great law is explained. 

A mere glance at the matter of proportioning things shows at once 
that this may be done from the standpoint of the technological per- 
fection which shall result, or from the standpoint of the cheapest way 
in which the factors may be put together to secure results. This last 
may be called economic proportionality, while the former may be desig- 
nated as the technological. Nothing indeed seems more certain than 
the fact that a natural or ideal adjustment of factors to each other is a 
practicable truth with regard to every product which is the result of 
combination and upon this basis rests the notion just described of a 
technological proportionality. 

In chemistry, for example, the proportions according to which ele- 
ments will join together are indeed unalterable and two units of hydro- 
gen must be united with one of oxygen to procure any results what 
so ever. In almost all other fields of combination, however, the re- 
lations of the different factors to each other are not so immutable, 
and we have a possibility in these fields, if different prices prevail for 
different factors, of making choices which Avill give acceptable results 
though at a much reduced cost for the whole. This, in fact, is the 
field in which the great principle of substitutions with which we are 
all familiar, has its most efficient opportunity. 

The two standpoints from which the proportioning of things upon the 
farm may be carried out are now easy to perceive. Farm agents and 
farm processes may be proportioned from the standpoint of technologi- 
cal excellency — that is from a standpoint which may be wholly dis- 
advantageous to the development of any profits. These results in many 
instances in the so-called model farms. On the other hand the principles 
which control the proportioning of farm agents and processes from an 
economical standpoint differ pronouncedly from those used in propor- 
tionings of the other sort. The principle of applying one factor to an- 
other until the returns though not ideally proportional are never the 
less profitable, may be brought into use to govern farm organization from 
the economical standpoint while this principle would not be made use 
of to the slightest extent if a farm organization were to be conducted 
from a model farm and technologically perfect standpoint. Remarkable 
as it may seem, the distinction which is here made as to the standpoints 
from which a farm mav be organized is not whollv an academic one. 
A somewhat extended reading of agricultural authorities during the 
past year or two has shown not infrequently such statements as the 
following: "Many farmers are producing much larger crops than they 
can afford to produce." "The average farmer pursues certain tradi- 
tions as to what constitutes agricultural excellence whether he finds it 
profitable or not;" and "there is reason to believe that the majority of 
farmers are really living on the interest of their investments rather 


than on the profits of their farms.-' Kacli and all of these statements 
are coiToborative of the fact that the economic standpoint is not the 
one from which the law of proportioning in these cases was applied and 
each is a justification of the study which we have described for the pur- 
pose of giving the proper point of view. We may say in conclusion that 
the Avlioie scheme of farm organization as well as that of any other 
business organization recpiires a system of costs keeping and accoimting 
by which its details will be kept track of and its deficiencies I'epaired. 




My first socialist was a fellow student in college something like 
fifteen years ago. He was not one of those fully assured, rampant pro- 
pangandist socialists students such as one often meets now, but for 
a New England college he was a good deal of a curiosity. I was most 
interested when he told me about government ownership of railroad^*, 
for I had a goodly portion of Wanderlust at that time and I was eager 
for any system that promised free rides over the world, and of coui-se 
the more international the area of socialism, the wider would be my 
travels. One of the most awe inspiring facts about solialism as^^ 
it has been developing in these later years has been its international 
character. Soon after my introduction to the subject, the psychological 
rather than the economic difficulties began to present themselves to 
me. And they still present themselves, for the practical problem of 
socialism is psychological; the economic is quite simple. In the many 
books that one may read about socialism, however, one rarelv finds 

t- 7 7,. 

any space given to the psychological intricacies involved. Whenever a 
definition of socialism is attempted it fails to be universally satisfying 
because there is still the most important question lurking in the back- 
ground. At a recent meeting of the American Economic Association, 
after a half day's discussion, it Avas almost unanimously agreed by the 
membei's that thev did not know what it was, and thev were almost 
willing to deny that there was such, a thing. Metaphysically I do not 
take kindly to pragmatism, but practically the proof of socialism may be 
discovered in the shaking of the orthodox economic and political ordei*. 
Socialism proposes both a radical change in the distribution of wealth 
and the relationship of men. It sounds well to all of us, but the ques- 
tion constantly recurs as to how people Avill take it. AVe know how 
they act under existing conditions, but when we make the conditions 
quite diffei'ent we have no criterion to judge what will happen. We 
might wait and prove the y)udding in the eating, but we have a good deal 
of material that might be wasted. AYe may, however, catch some signs 
along the way which indicate how masses of people will react to whole 
social situations. In those ancient days of social ideas — fifteen years 
ago — I was told that socialism would overthrow individuality, and I 
had to balance this catastroy)hy against free rides and I confess that 
the attractions of travel diminished. If we were all to have an equal 
share in the world's goods at the expense of total subordination to 
the political organization there would not be much fun in living. It 
was as hard to come out of my courses in sociology and economics with 
any concession to socialism as it is for a student of economics to 
believe in a high tariff. Time has gone on, and socialism has grown 
from a mere idea to be tremendous factor in world politics, but it has had 
to concede that man shall be allowed some private symbols of indi- 


vidiiality, such as the privacy- of his house, and the choice of his wife, 
though eugenics is on the high road to deny him this privilege. 

It seemed perfectly obvious to me that the rapid spread of the con- 
sciousness of common interests aci'oss national boundaries would make 
socialism the ultimate direct means of eliminating war. Their creed 
teaches the artificiality of boundaries, and that producers of different 
nations are much closer together than the diverse interests within a 
nation. The people at large have not realized the spread of this move- 
ment as it has not had the sympathy of the "capitalist press,'- but along 
with half a dozen other movements claiming the same thing it has been 
the most remarkable fact of the last decade. Just as I was beginning 
to make my disarmament speeches moi^ violent through my convic- 
tion of the inevitableness of this socialistic eventuation, I happened to 
run across another movement arising from almost the same revolt that 
has caused socialism, and as great in area and psychological force. It 
has come so rapidly that it lias hardly been recognized as one of the 
most potent of the present states of social consciousness. For want of 
a better name we call it Naticmal Feeling. It is class consciousness for 
a common language or traditions. It does not correspond to present na- 
tional boundaries, but rather to historical or e\^en inaaginary boundaries. 
It is really a struggle to get national individuality. Just as socialism 
has been a revolt from the coercive control of men by wealth or arbitrary 
government, so this national feeling is a revolt against the control of a 
people by any power which tended to diminish its race consciousness. 
The people are doing on a large scale what persons do on a small scale 
when they fear the deindividualitzing effect of socialism. We know 
that whatever social changes may take place they must prove to be 
harmonious with the spirit, and the growth of national feeling seems to 
me to be a development of the spirit that is quite antithetical to so- 
cialism. The socialist motto, "\>'orkingraen of the world unite," has a 
powerful purpose in it, but I think there are definite limits beyond which 
it cannot at present be carried. 

Socialism began to make T>rogress about fifty years ago, but has made 
its marvelous advance within the last decade. The development of 
national feeling has been almost contemporaneous in both respects. 
Labor has been oppressed since war first made slaves, and nations have 
been oppressed since war first made some groups conquerors and others 
subjects, and until very recent times no one thought anything else pos- 
sible. The policy of Europe has been the control of various areas and 
]>eoples by several great powers. Of late years there has been relatively 
much less war, and much strengthening through internal organization. 
Thus the Cierman eniDire wns consolidated rather peaceably. Austria 
has established its domination over it heterogeneous aggregation of 
Germans, Poles, Bohemians, Slovaks, Slovenes, Croations, Bosnians, Dal- 
mations and Italians. Kussia has increased its control over Finland 
and Poland. Italy has become strong through the union of small king- 
doms. But I venture to assert that there was never a time when there 
was so little assimilation. I do not know Germany so well as Austria 
and Bussia, but I am sure that Bavaria and Saxony love Prussia no 
better than before they became int^rral parts of the Gei-man empire. 
I anticipate that the time is not far distant when disintegrations and 
i-elignments will l>ecome general. They are likely to be made peaeeably 


if it becomes evident that tliey are psyehologicalh^ inevitable, and it 
seems to me that the indications are so clear that he who runs may 
read, even though he be the Czar of all the Rnssias. 

The beginning has already been made in Sweden and Norway. Here 
were two countries with similar people, language, traditions and 
geography, but Norway felt a restraint on its individuality and in 1905 
thei'e was a peaceable disunion. ^ly Swedish cousin had not visited 
Norw^ay before this time, and she expresses an attitude commonly held 
when she assumes that she can never go now Jind retain her self respect. 
These two countries are both very democratic with a very large socialist 
vote, but a Swede is a Swede, and a Norwegian is a Norwegian first. 

The case of Finland is rather more complex. For six and a half cen- 
turies the Finns were subjects of Sweden, but in 1809 their country be- 
came a possession of Russia, and the efforts at nissification have been 
continuous. The population is eighty-five per cent Finnish and twelve 
per cent Swedish. The cultui'e has been continuously Swedish. I 
found last summer that at the University of Helsingfors where twenty- 
five years ago all the work was done in Swedish, now more that half 
of it is in Finnish, and the Finnish spirit is increasing by leaps and 
boimds. Seven and a half centuries of Swedish culture with no Finnish 
education has had no effect except to stimulate the growth of Finnish 
national feeling. The two people live amicable together. The Swedes 
and Russians conduct most of the business and have the social standing, 
both Finns and Swedes are Lutheran and in the officiaj church the ser- 
vices alternate in the two langu<ages. Finland is yevy democratic — 
equal suffrage has prevailed for some time. Socialism has been very 
strong among them. In Chicago they have the largest proportional 
membership in the party of any of the foreignei*s. But in Finland the 
socialist votes are l>egiuning to diminish slightly. The children in school 
must study Swedish, Finnish and Russian, and the government is 
thoroughly Russian, but there are absolutely no signs of assimilation. 
Helsingfors, and the other Finnish cities I visited are much more like 
Deti*oit than like St. Petersburg, though Russia has been working a full 
century upon them. 

It is very near a ])aradox that this movement towards national in- 
dividualism, and the socialistic movement should arise from almost 
the same motive. Whatever may l>e our fears alxmt the loss of indi- 
viduality in a socialistic state, there is no doubt but that many people 
embrace it as a revolt against having their individuality swallowed up 
by the oppression of those who hold the power through more or less un- 
just economic conditions. They feel the artificiality of the conditions. 
In like manner this national feeling is a revolt against an oppression. 
.And since one's individuality is so largely social in its source the nearest 
and dearest thing to the heart of a man is that social group in which 
he identifies his spiritual reality. Both movements are conspicuously 
unselfish, and the devotion to them is distinctly religious in its char- 
acter. But they become antagonistic — one puts up boundaries which 
the other tries to pull down. Nationalism tends to look backward and 
socialism forward. Both movements thrive in the same country and are 
beginning to be recognized as more or less hostile to each other. We 
have had nothing conspicuous of the kind in this country because it has 
not had a chance to develop. But in those countries in Europe where 


there are the strongest iiittueiices against it socialism thrives best, while 
in America it is relatively unnecessary as onr democracy is fairly free, 
but in those same countries nationalism is strongest. To make thi» 
more clear I shall give several further illustrations. 

Poland was never particularly conspicuous in art literature or govern- 
ment, but something over a hundred years ago it was -an independent 
country. Now Germany, Austria and Russia have divided it up and with 
absolute ignorance of sociological principles are trying to absorb it, 
but if there was ever a case of imperial indigestion, Poland is causing 
three chronic attacks. Bismark's jiolicy of forbidding the Polish lan- 
guage, and forcing (ierman in its ])lace, and Russia's similar policy 
with Russian has made the preservation of the language a religion, and 
martyrdom for it a glorification. At the present time undoubtedly 
Poland has the hardest attack of nationalism, unless it be Ireland, but 
its revolutiouarv work has been closelv connected with socialism. Social- 
ist papers are smuggled from Cracow to Wai'saw daily. The strong^ 
hold of the catholic church u])on the Poles makes it hard for socialism 
to make much headway, but while the Poles think that their love of 
the church is piety, they are really good catholics because their real 
religion is Poland, and Catholicism is a Polish protest against Russia. 
It has seemed to me, when walking with a Pole that after passing a 
Russian church he would increase his zeal in crossing himself when we 
passed a catholic church. Every sign of Russia says, "be a devout 
catholic." As I shall try to make clear later, any particular religious 
form is never so strong as the spirit of nationalism, of which it may 
often be merely a symbol. One may safely say of the Pole that his 
backward look becomes more intense every day, and psychologically if 
not temporally the day of ultimate socialism is farther off the nearer 
we approach it. 

In the midst of l^oland is the Lithuanian movement. Several cen- 
turies ago a prince and princess of the two countries married each other 
and the government became one, with the culture Polish. There was 
no Lithuanian literature of education. The language was preseiTed by 
the peasants as was the case among the Finns and Hungarians. Poles 
and Germans were the landholders and the Lithuanians almost alto- 
gether the laborers or serfs. Within the last decade the Lithuanian 
consciousness has burst into a conflagration. A man fully Polish in 
interests and culture possessing a little Lithuanian blood becomes en- 
tirely Lithuanian in spirit learning the language from the peasants, 
and chooses them for associates rather than the cultured Pole with 
whom he was identified ten years ago. After the revolution of 1905 
the privilege was granted to the students in the gymnasia to adopt 
Russian, Polish or Lithuanian for religious instruction, whereas pre- 
viouslv onlv Russian was allowed. In a gymnasium in Vilna where 
there had been thirty in a class who spoke Polish only three chose 
Lithuanian. Now out of the same number at least twenty will take 
Lithuanian, and that increase about indicates the growth of the move- 
ment among the people. I have had two Lithuanian students who speak 
Polish as a mother tongue, and Lithuanian with relative difficulty. One 
is half Polish in blood, and has learned to read Lithuanian since com- 
ing to America three years ago, though he is a graduate of the gym- 
nasium. In 1905 he chose Polish as his language, but his fourteen year 


old* brother in the gj^mnasium speaks nothing but Lithuanian 
when possible, though his mother does not know it at all, and his father 
only slightly. When the older brother came to America he allied him- 
self with Lithuanians although there are very few of his class here and 
the Poles would have welcomed him gladly. Although an aristocrat 
in training, he feels closer to the Lithuanian peasant than to the Pole of 
his own social position with whom he has .associated all his life. We 
see in this case, and that of the other student is similar, that national 
consciousness has broken down class lines exactly as socialism seeks 
to do, but entirely within the nation, and thus raises a barrier to one 
of the purposes of socialism. The wall is raise<l between people of 
the same class across the Iwrders. An interesting thing about both the 
Lithuanians and Fii;ins is that they are primarily revolting against cul- 
ture authority rather than the political authority of Russia. This is 
because in both cases the nationalizing people feel their individuality 
to be the more swamped by the culture group than by the political 
group. A union between the working classes of Poles and Lithuanians, 
Swedes and Finns must overccmie a much greater resistance today than 
would have been necessary ten years ago, although both movements 
represent a similar revolt. In Chicago the nationalists and socialists 
ifire divided into two nearly equal camps, and practically all Lithuanians 
belong to one or the other. The nationalists resist Americanization. 
Within the Russian border, Swede, Finn, Pole, Lithuanian and Russian 
are farther apart than they ever were before. 

It seems with any particular nation that its peculiar reasons are 
sufficient to accoimt for its development of national feeling, but this 
really is practically a world movement, and whether it develops be- 
cause conditions allow it or simply through imitation I cannot say, 
but it certainly is general in its force though peculiar in its manifes- 

Let us consider the Bohemians as a furtl\er example, forgetting, how- 
ever, the popular notion of Bohemian w^hich has nothing whatever to 
do with the people of Bohemia. The Bohemians, as the Poles, are mem- 
bers of the great Slavic division of the human race. In 1415 John Hus, 
a Bohemian protestant leader, a century before Luther, was burned 
at the stake. He became the personificati(m of the Bohemian spirit, 
but in 1620 the Thirty Years War began the extermination of protes- 
tantism in Bohemia, and for more than a hundred and fifty years Jews 
were the only exceptions to catliolicism within the boundaries of Austria. 
The language became officially and practically German, and the official 
church has continued catholic. About fifty years ago several Bohemian 
writers were bold enough to write in the Bohemian language and the 
Bohemian spirit began to grow, and the hostility to German became 
a passion though somewhat difl'erent in form from the Polish move- 
ment. The Bohemians present several contrasts to the Poles. The rank 
and file of Poles are entirely uneducated, while the Bohemians have 
fewer illiterates than the Germans. This is also in part at least a 
manifestation of the same national feeling, for the other Bohemian 
hero beside Hus was the great educator Commenius. A large propor- 
tion of the Bohemians are skilled workmen. They are just the sort of 
people to furnish a large portion of socialists. To be sure there are in 
Bohemia a great many members of the socialist party. They have nine- 


teen papers including three d.ailies; 1500 locals with 130,000 members 
and at the last election 400,000 votes were cast. Thev are socialists be- 
cause that is against the government and the church, but when they get 
to this countrv thev do not stick verv well. And there are in Bohemia, 
and some other countries already two socialist parties — nationalists 
and internationalists and the nationalists are growing rapidly. A gen- 
eration ago there were almost no schools in Bohemia except German and 
all business was done in German. Now where there is a majority of Bo- 
hemians in a district there are Bohemian schools supported at public ex- 
])ense, but in minority towns only German schools are provided. To meet 
this there is a great educational organization for collecting money and 
maintaining private Bohemian schools in all minority towns and vil- 
lages. On our ship going to Bohemia we took two collections for this 
organization. In the restaurants in Prague the head waiter or pro- 
])rietor has a collection box which he passes to the patrons for this 
^'mother of schools" as it is called. The result of all these activities 
is that German is gradually being driven out of the country. One 
rarely hears Bohemian on the streets of Prague whereas it is said that 
ten years ago one heard little else. Fathers were raised to speak German 
but teach their children Bohemian instead. I heard of one business 
man last summer who expressed great pride in the fact that he had 
been a successful business man and did not know any German, thus 
])roving the change that had taken place. A German cannot get food in 
a Bohemian restaurant unless he speaks Bohemian, though all the 
waiters know German. All older people speak German equally as well 
as Bohemian, but the younger very little, and even at the University of 
Prague where until 1882 the work was all German, now the graduates 
do not know German well, and the Bohemian part of the University is 
more than twice as large as the (xerman. It is unquestionably a dis- 
advatitage for a country of less than seven millions to cut itself off 
from the advantages of German literature and science, but those who 
appreciate the disadvantage are as hostile to German as the more emo- 
tional, and deliberately assume the cost for the freedom of the spirit. 
When we remember that the prestige is on the side of the German we 
see in this movement the same indifference to personal success and 
devotion that characterizes the socialist. While Bohemians make good 
American citizens, they bring their traditions with them. No child 
would dare to answer its parents in anything but Bohemian. I have 
found this to be universally the case. With German children much 
more English is used. Perhaps the most striking development in 
America is the organized propaganda of freethinking. Ninety-seven 
per cent of the Bohemians are n<miinal catholics when they arrive, but 
at least sixty-six per cent of those in the country are militant free- 
thinkers. Their attitude towards religion, especially the catholic church 
is very similar to that of the socialists, but that does not make them 
any more sympathetic with each other. A year ago I was invited to 
give a lecture in Chicago on Commenius in a Presbyterian church. I 
was very widely advertised, but neither the freethinker daily nor the 
socialist daily would give any notice of it, because it was to be in a 
church, though I knew the editors of both personally, and the freethinker, 
who is a graduate of the University of Michigan attended the lecture. 
I repeated the lecture in a public school hall and both advertised me. 


Bohemian freethinkinj? is altogether too general to be philosophical, 
but is an expression of the historical protest apiinst catholic Austria, 
and as such differs in no res|)ect from catholic Poland and Orthodox 
Russia, or catholic Ireland and protestant England. Just as the sight 
of a Russian church makes a Pole pious so the sight of any church 
makes a Bohemian a freethinker. In the city of Chicago a year ago 
there were 27,000 Bohemians who made a quarterly payment for the 
support of schools on Saturday and Sunday to teacli the Bohemian 
language and freethought. 

A larger and more comprehensiye moyement than these I haye men- 
tioned is the rapidly developing pan-slayic feeling. Kist summer I at- 
tended an international slayic gymnastic meet in Prague. More than 
twenty thousand persons took part, at one time eleyen thousand men 
speaking several different languagef? were doing calisthenic exercises 
together. With the exception of the Poles who would not compete be- 
cause Russians were invited, there were representatives of all the 
Slavic divisions : Slovaks, Slovenes, Serbs, (^roatians, Bulgarians, Monte- 
negrins, Ruthenians, Moravians, Bohemians and Russians. The key- 
note of every speech was ^'Slavic, Slavic,-- and when it was uttered 
the crowds would go wild. There were quarter of a million visitors in 
the city, and the illustrated reports of the exhibitions went to the ends 
of the Slavic world. I saw scmie of them pasted on the wall of <a 
peasant's factory in the back district of ^Moscow. But the German 
daily which was the only one I could read ignored the meet completely, 
and no self respecting Oennan could attend, just as my cousin cannot 
now visit Nonvav. The streets were exervwhere decorated with flags 
but never did one see the Austrian flag. Those whose judgment I accept 
told me that the meet indicated a very rapid dexelopment of the pan- 
slavic feeling over a very few years ago. 

At the recent outbreak of hostilities in the Balkan states there was 
a pretty general fear that there might be wars, especially between 
Austria and Russia, and Aiistria and Servia. The latter seemed very 
imminent at one time. We were given to understand that diplomacy 
had reached a high plane and held the wars off. We did hear that 
there was a great socialist meeting to protest against making workmen 
of one country fight Avorkmen of other countries. Some of us, I am 
sure, believed that this demonstration helped the diplomats make their 
decisions even though the reports of the socialist proceedings were 
censored in Austria. But I sus])ected that we were not getting all the 
possible news from Vienna, and J inquired from my Bohemian friends. 
I had said that I did not believe it would be possible for Austria to 
make war on Servia as almost two-thirds of the population of Austria 
is Slavic. Mv surmise had l)een correct for I learned that when the 
Bohemians were l>eing entrained from their garrisons for mobilization 
on the Austrian border they were singing the Slavic song which a 
few years ago was forbidden throughout Austria. Any man who might 
be appointed a diplomat Avould know enough to take this fact into 
consideration, as well as the socialist attitude. Much the same feeling 
exists toward Russia, though the average Russian soldier has not yet 
reached the point of feeling anything at all in the nmtter. However, 
the military future of Europe must take all this into account just as 
it must reckon with the brotherhood idea of socialism. When a war 


iliK'ti foino which raiw'S a conflict between these motives, I anticipate 
ili2it the national feelinjr will Ije i>redoniinant. In other words there 
is a very clefinite barrier to socialism wliich cannot be lifted until the 
spirit of national individuality shall have had the opportunity to get 
itself entirely five from any coercion which attempts to crash it. I 
am f-onvinced that any pef>ple that shows this spirit manifests desirable 
elemffnts of character, and the time is not far off when the rulers of 
the world will realize that the way to arouse it is to try to crush it. 
When the ^roup shall find no restraint whatever upon it as a group, 
then the brotherhood idea of socialism stands a good chance of en- 
circling the earth, but in the meantime, the human soul in its common 
life feels that it must be assured of its own identity. 

To these illustrations I have given, enough more could be added to 
prove that it is a world movement. Hungary is just becoming conscious 
of itself. India is teaming with nationalism. The history of Ireland 
has been a continuous struggle for the same thing, and the reciprocity 
treaty was repudiated by Canada for the same reason. My sympathy is 
with socialism, but the coming of the great day must wait upon the 
nature of man. 

Olivet College. 





The purpose of this paper is to discuss the taxation of loeal public 
utility corporations. This excludes from consideration the corporations 
of the utility type now under the authority of the State Board of As- 
sessors, and confines our attention to electric light and power com- 
panies, gas companies, and street railway and interurban companies, 
whose organization and activities are largely local in nature. 

That corporations of this type should receive special treatment from 
taxing authorities is not new to students of taxation. For instance. 
Dr. Adams in his work on Finance says. 

"The fourth class of industries that should receive 
special treatment at the hands of the revenue system 
is composed of municipal monopolies, such as street 
railwavs, gas companies, lighting companies and the 
like." ' 

Adams Finance p. 453. 

An equally pertinent observation to be made in this connection is 
that these economists have not as yet attained any unanimity as to 
the best method of treatment. Consequently, it is no matter of sur- 
prise that legislatures hesitate to attack a problem of such insoluble 

No time will be taken in this pa])er for the discussion of reasons 
for this special treatment of monopolistic utilities. Territory so 
thoroughly explored needs no attention before this body. We shall at 
once approach the subject which is the occasion of this paper, and 
shall treat this matter under three subdivisions — (a) What is the 
present method of taxing this type of property in Michigan ; (b) What 
are other states doing with this problem; (c) What procedure ought 
to be taken in Michigan today. 

(a) Present Michigan Methods: I^cal public utility corporations 
today are subject to the general pro])erty tax of the state as admin- 
istered in the various territorial taxing units which means that they 
are assessed in fractional parts as found in the different taxing areas, 
rather than as industrial units, and. consequently with little or no 
regard for any element of value other than the tangible asset. 

The only effort thus far made toward instituting a change in policy is 
that of the Special Commission of Inquiry whose report is familiar to 
all of us. The only possible agency clotheil with any authority and 
possessing the necessary com])etoncy to effect any change in method is 
the State Tax Commission wliich tlirough its power to review the local 
assessments might fix a valuation comprehending both tangible and 
intangible values. The very limited activities of this body in this par- 


ticular capacity — thus far, three counties liave been reviewed — is scarcely 
sufficient to reveal what their ])oIicy may be: but the accompanying 
tabulation (No. 1) is ])resented for tlie ]nirpose of showin^i: the changes 
made by the (\nnmissi(m in the valuations of local utility corporations 
in three cities of said counties. The fact that these properties are 
located in growing centers where both the valuation of these properties 
and extent of business have been ra])idly expanding, taken totrether with 
the fact that the review has been made at a ])eriod succeeding a very 
marked advance in all values, leads to the conclusion that the com- 
mission has not given a satisfactory estimate to the intangible assets 
of such corporations. A comparison of these figures with similar data 
for n^m-utilily corporations and ])rivate ])roj>erty seems -to justify our 

Are we justified in assuming these corporations to be undertaxed? 
The data from wliich to answer such an inquiry satisfactorily and 
conclusively is not available to the unofficial investigator for the reason 
that the state at the present time has not provided means whereby the 
necessary data can be collected. TIk^ law recpiires every corporation to 
file an annual report with the Secretary of State, but this report is so 
limited in scope and reported under such divei*sitied systems of ac- 
countancy that it is of little value for auswering this inquiry. The only 
other source of information is to be found in tl»e annual reports of street 
and interurban railwavs made to the State Kailroad Commission. These 
rei-orts, so far as they extend, are valuable and reliable. 

Litrht has been shed upon this question by the report of our Special 
Oommissicm of Inquiry. Tn fact, this is the (mly reliable evidence, aside 
from that found in Railway Oommission records, that we possess. This 
body was confronted with this situation, and had it not been for the 
data made available to them bv the Tommissioner of Internal Revenue, 
but not put at the disposal of ])rivate parties, they scarcely could have 
made a report on these matters — at least, not without an investigation 
of the ] private accounts. 

Utilizing the little datji available in the state re<-ords, let us examine 
the information at our disposal. Table No. '2 will give items gathered 
from the Railroad Commission's records. Colunms 1, 2, 3 and 5 are 
i-ecords, while 4, G. 7 and 8 are computed from the former. The net 
earnings cai)italized at 7^^ gives a valuation upon which these cor- 
porations pay a tax of aT)Proximately fS.2o per thousand. A com- 
pariscm of the taxes paid with "toss and net earnings shows a per cent 
of 4 and 10.40 respectively. Table No. 8 is taken from the report of 
the Commission of Tncpiiry and shows similar items with reference to 
steam roads. Table No. 4, taken fi*om the same source, shows the rate 
})er thousand tax upon different types ()f property in the state. In- 
s])ection of these tables confirms the belief that the corporations under 
consideration receive income from a value which is not reached under 
the present system of taxation. 

(b) What are other states doing in this field? An authoritative 
compilation of the tax laws for the northern states, published in re- 
cent months by the Commissioner of Corporations, Depai-tment of Com- 
merce, becomes the source of information for this to]>ic. These reports 
authorize the following statements. 

First, There is no uniformity discernible in the method of taxing 


public Utility corporations of any description. This is much more 
marked in the case of local public utility corporations than for the 
more general types. Yet there is clearly evident a tendency in varying 
d^rees to subject these local corporations to a tax other than the 
general property tax, a tendency especially marked in the North At- 
lantic and Middle Western States. 

Second. Among the forms of tax employed, either as supplementary 
to, or in lieu of, the general property tax, the gross earnings tax finds 
place in some extent in eight states — Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania^ 
New Jersey, Maine (street railway), Vermont (street railway), Rhode 
Island (street railway), and Minnesota (street railway). Eight states 
employ a tax upon the corporate excess. These fall into two groups: 
One, composed of western states — Minnesota (exc. st. railways). North 
Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa — attempts to reach a corporate excess 
through local assessors in connection with the general property tax. 
These laws have proved dead letters. Another group — Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, Indiana, Illinois — applies this principle through some 
form of state authority with success.' A small group of states — Ne- 
braska, Kansas, Missouri — ^make use of a special franchise tax. 

Thdrd. There is a noticeable tendency in the states which have 
really made some effective progress in these affairs to inaugurate some 
state authority — ^board or commission — ^to whom is entrusted the as- 
sessment of the property and the administration of the law. At least 
SIX states have active commissions. 

Fourth. The disposition of funds derived from corporate taxation 
offers another instance of the lack of uniformity of policy. Whethei* 
such income shall be used for state purposes, be divided between state 
and locality, or be left to the locality, is no doubt largely determined 
by the policy of each state in respect to other sources of income. 

(c) What policy ought to be adopted in Michigan? First of all, 
and fundamental to any wise, comprehensive plan of dealing with 
these corporations, we need some plan of securing annually reliable 
data concerning corporations of this type. The state authorities ought 
to possess records pertaining to capitalization, earnings, and taxation, 
and many other items, if for no other reason than to know 
whether the various species of property as well as individual interests 
are being dealt with equitably in legislative and administrative pro- 
cedure. For instance, in the present investigation of the Pere Mar- 
quette, a witness has asserted that the two-cent rate is unjust to that 
railroad. The state must be the judge in a contention of this kind, and 
can expect to deal justly only through the possession of complete au- 
thoritative facts. 

This argument is augmented when we note the tendency to enlarge 
the field of activities of our Railroad Commission. The scope of its 
powers -has been materially enlarged by each legislature since the present 
Coinniission was established in 1907, and at present, members of this 
body are favorable to the extension of its powers to the various local 
public utility corporations of the state. This amounts to transforming 
the present commission into a full fledged public utilities commission. 
If this policy is to prevail, then the aforesaid information becomes im- 
perative for such a purpose. The foregoing views do not comprehend 
a system of taxation on the part of the state, but, whatever policy the 
State may see fit to adopt in this connection, the data would be in- 


dispensable to the administration of any adequate system and wonld 
be at the disposal of the authority entrusted with the immediate problem 
of taxation. 

This brings us to the question of taxation. Obviously, there must be 
a choice made from several possible policieB as we find them suggested 
by our financiers. This choice can be made from at least three methods 
— corporate excess, gross earnings or receipts, or the ad valorem prin- 
ciple applied to both kinds of value. Doubtless, we are thoroughly con- 
vinced of the defects of our present plan and are ready to modify it; 
but are we equally of one mind as to what shall be substituted. It 
seems to the writer that the particular policy to be adopted ought to 
be determined somewhat by the taxing systems already in use in the 
state. Too radical departure from existing methods might not only be 
diflScult to bring about through our legislature but might prove dis- 
asti'ous if attained because, if the state subjects different property to 
unlike methods of taxation, there my result more rather than less in- 
equality, a condition sure to produce discontent. Inasmuch, then, as 
we have adopted a definite principle — ^ad valorem for both tangible and 
intangible elements of value — for particular public utility corporations, 
and have created the machinery for its administration, it would seem 
wise to extend this existing machinery of the state to the taxation of 
the corporations in question. As a method of solving this problem, we 
would advocate that a campaign be instituted to persuade our l^sla- 
ture of the wisdom of clothing our state Tax Commission with the 
power to determine the taxable value, both tangible and intangible, of 
our local public utilities. 

Thus far in this suggestion we are following the existing law. At 
this point we would depart from it in that we would advocate having 
the Commission apportion these valuations to the various taxing dis- 
tricts in which the various corporations perform their services. This 
procedure would necessitate some equitable basis of distribution and 
should be done vnth the proviso that the local assessor shall accept 
this valuation for his tax roll and shall apply to it the local rate of 

This feature both creates and solves problems. At once the query 
arises. What shall be the basis of distribution? The previous sugges- 
tion that distribution shall be to the districts where the tangible prop- 
erty is found, would mean that such property shall be considered realty 
and not personalty, and therefore the plan of distribution must be in 
keeping with this view. Without question, this plan of distribution is a 
difficulty, but no one conceives it to be beyond solution. It may neces- 
sitate modifying the special plan for each type of corporation. In some 
cases the relative shares of these valuations may be determined by 
the distribution of the tangible portions of the property. Again, possibly 
the income from service may offer a solution. Surely some method can 
be devised which shall approximate justice to the localities justly laying 
claim .to participate in such distribution. 

On the other hand, the plan being suggested would seem to dispose 
of troubles likely to arise over the average rate. Such a rate can be 
defended for property of wide distribution in the state and whose earn- 
ings are derived from a multitude of widely scattered sources, but for 
property whose owners are local residents, and whose earnings Bte 
chiefly local in origin, it seems much less likely to create disaffection 


to apply the local rate by which, neighboring property is taxed and 
which in some degree is within the control of local residents. 

Again, this plan would escape any objections which might arise over 
the attempt to have the state appropriate the taxes for its own use. 
Unless the state should adopt the policy of segregation of taxes, it 
would doubtless invite trouble from the local tax payers to attempt 
the plan of removing these corporate properties from the local rolls. The 
devotion of this income to the defrayment of state expenditures would 
decrease the state tax on all property, but without segregation it would 
mean reduction at the expense of localities possessing public utility 

Furthermore, leaving the funds to the locality avoids the inevitable 
question of what use the state could make of the income. Present con- 
stitutional limitations would direct the tax to the Primary School Inter- 
est Fund, and the only way to make it available for general purposes 
would be through amendment. The futility of this expedient is apparent 
to all. Granting that our citizens might consent to modify the school 
fund clause of the constitution, the state might then find it necessary 
to segregate its taxes. A few years ago such a prospect would have 
been welcome as a highly acceptable reform in state finance, but today 
we view it with hesitation and are scarcely ready to accept it as a part 
of our financial policy. 

In submitting these proposals, the writer is fully conscious that he 
is not wholly in accord with the modem trend in taxation, which is 
toward a gross earnings form of tax. *Herbert Knox Smith, Commis- 
sioner of Corporations, writes in a governmental report: "There is a 
tendency toward an abandonment of property as a basis of taxation in 
favor of a tax levied upon gross receipts." 

**Allen R. Foote, in an address before the Providence Conference for 
Good City Government, said: "Upon a properly devised and admin- 
istered system of state regulation, the basis of taxation for public ser- 
vice corporations will be shifted from Valuation to earnings." 

These statements are based upon facts which can not be evaded. We 
must acknowledge in the gross earnings tax certain advantageous 
features. For instance, it is easy to apply; it avoids the necessity of 
adjusting the relative values of tangible and intangible property; it is 
presumed to reflect ability to pay upon the part of the tax payer. On 
the other hand, all of us are equally conversant with certain well known 
defects of this tax. It does not measure ability to pay with exactness ; 
it never is the equivalent of the general property tax because the rate 
is arbitrarily fixed and can not be coordinated with other rates. 

As for the only other plan we need note — the corporate- ex- 
cess — it seems that the Michigan plan possesses the one essen- 
tial virtue, of that which is to bring intangible values within the 
domain of effectual taxation. 

Finally, for Michigan to adopt another plan would mean to establish 
within our state two different methods of treating the same type of 
property. This is objectionable. Our hope for the achievement of 
d^irable reforms and the attainment of a satisfactory system lies in 
keeping close to a single policy. Thus do we justify the suggestions 

presented in this paper. 

-' < . ' * • . 

*Buieau of Ck>rpoiations, Reports: Vol. 1, p. 14. : " . : . ' 

♦•Providence Conference for Good City Govt.; 1907; p. 267. '■-' ' 


















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Non-public viilUy corporations in Ingham county — Figures are taken from records of the State 

Tax Commission. 

Board of Review. 

Tax Commission. 
































City residence property in Ingham county — Figures are taken from records of city treasurer, 

Lansing^ Mich. 

Board of review. 

Tax Commission. 
















$37 84 

76 64 

176 86 

227 50 

73 02 

114 32 
146 89 
60 48 
94 51 
220 90 
459 68 



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TABLE NO. 4.* 

The following table gives the rate of taxes per thousand of actual value for farms, hanks, res- 
idences, railroads, manufacturing corporations, public service corporations and mines. It 
also gives a comparison of the valv^ and taxes paid by each of these classes except resi- 

City real estate. 


Banks and Trust Co's . . . . 


Sleeping car, express, car 
loaning, and telephone 
and tdegraph companies 


Mines , 

Electric railway, power, 
heat, light, and gas 






Basis of computation. 

Examination of verified sales, 
38,000 pieces i!i 90 cities. Taxes 
at actual rate for each locaUty. . 

Census reports, also examination 
of over 32,000 descriptions 

Reports to Banking Commissioner 
and Comptroller of Currency. 
Basis, net earnings also capital, 
surplus and undivided . pronts . . . 

State Board of Assessors, 1909 . . . , 

State Board of Assessors, 1909 ... 
Reports to U. S. Commissioner of 
Internal revenue , 

Reports to U. S. Commissioner of 
Int. Revenue and Mich. R. R. 










$14 85 
10 00 

17 00 
20 65 

20 67 

5 3 

7 00 

7 00 

♦Taken from Commission of Inquiry Report — p 15. 





Hitherto the breeding habits of the darters have remained practically 
unknown except in the case of the rainbow darter, Etheostoma coer- 
uleum, which was studied at Ann Arbor by Miss Reeves. 

The log-perch is rarely seen in Douglas Lake and seems to be an inhab- 
itant of the deeper waters, though a few individuals have be«i seen by 
Mr. Heimburger on the bottom in three or four feet of water. During 
the eleven days beginning June 29, the fish were breeding on the pure 
sand bottom near the camp in water from four to twelve inches deep. 
About 150 fish were under observation. Sexes are distinguishable when 
the fish are at liberty by the darker coloration and by the behavior of 
the male, and in captivity by the larger anal fin of the male. 

The breeding males are found in groups of 15 or less. Among these 
are a few females, but most of the females are seen waiting in deeper 
water or about the borders of the group. When a female enters the 
group she is at once pursued by one or more males, usually by many. 
She continues for some time to fiee in a tortuous course back and forth 
through the group in its neighborhood. The female finally settles to 
the bottom and a male takes positiofa over her with his pelvic fins clasp- 
ing her head and his tail at the side of hers. A rapid vibration of the 
tail, pectoral and pelvic fins of both fish then follows and lasts about 
four seconds. This sends backward a whirl of sand and excavates a 
little pit in the sand beneath the fish. During this time, the eggs ,are 
emitted and fertilized and are usually buried in the sand, some in the 
pit, others behind it. Each egg is weighted by a coating of adhering 
sand grains. The spawning pair is usually enveloped by a group of 
su[)ernuraerary males, which are attempting to supplant the pairing, 
male. When the spawning is completed, the spawning fish leave the pit 
or at least the female does so. She repeats the spawning in many 
other pits. When the spawning is finished at a pit the supernumerary 
males (and perhaps the pairing male) at once surround the pit and 
devour such eggs as they can get. The eggs were found in their stomachs. 
The eggs and young receive no care from their parents, but these, when 
the spawning period is ended, go into deeper water and are not again 
seen. The spawning behavior of this darter is m6re generalized than 
that of Etheostoma coeruleam, since each male ranges over the whole 
spawning ground, while in E. coeruleum, each restricts his activities to 
a small part of the ground, from which he excludes the others. 

The spawning behavior is further of interest because it furnishes an 
instance in which sexual dimorphism in color occurs, and yet this differ- 
ence is not the basis on which the fish themselves discriminate between 
the sexes. Young males in full color were often pursued by other males, 
and were apparently distinguished from them only by their failure 
to stop and behave like females. By the experimental substitution of 


a male for a female it was shown that if such a male were moved 
rapidly and then stopped on the bottom it was treated by other males 
as a female. 

University of Michigan. 



(With one plate.) 


From a pond near Ann Arbor, Michigan, the writer captured an 
adult male Diemyctylus viridescens having the tail forked at the ex- 
tremity m a vertical plane, each ramus of the forked portion having a 
distinct ' vertebral column. The general appearance is shown by the 
accompanying photograph (Fig. 1). Perhaps it would be more ac- 
curate to say that the ventral portion branches off from the main axis 
of the tail. 

Sections show that the bifurcation is truly vertical, and that each 
branch possesses well developed vertebrae and a spinal cord. The 
spinal cord of the ventral ramus is not continuous with that of the 
dorsal ramus, but is perhaps connected with it by nerve fibers. 

This is apparently not a case of "spina bifida" in the usual sense, 
for in spina bifida of the type familiar to embryologists the tail is 
divided in a horizontal plane. It seems more likely that the condition 
in this specimen is the result of injury with subsequent regeneration, 
as described in the experiments of Tornier.^ 

Tomier inflicted a double injury in the caudal region of a Aewt (Tri- 
ton). The more posterior of the two injuries was effected by cutting off 
the tip of the tail, either completely or so nearly that it afterwards 
dropped off. The more anterior of the two injuries was just sufficient 
to expose a vertebral process, either dorsal or ventral. The tip of the 
tail was r^enerated, while a second caudal lobe grew from the more 
anterior injury. Tornier characterizes the production of the anterior 
lobe as a process of "super-regeneration,'^ induced by the more pos- 
terior injury. From his account it does not appear that an actual 
vertebral column developed in the regenerated region, but only a car- 
tilaginous or bony axis ; possibly the former might have occurred had 
the experiment been given sufficient time. 

Zoological Laboratory, 

State Normal College, 
Ypsilanti, Michigan. 

*Tomier, Gustav. Uber experimentell erzeugte dreischwanzige Eidechsen und Doppelgliedmassen 
von Molchen. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 20, 1897, pp. 356-362. 





The genus Notoedres is composed of mites parasitic on cats and 
rabbits; it is one of the eight better-known genera in the family Sar- 
coptidae. The disease produced is known as scabies or mange. There 
are relatively few records as to the distribution of these forms, so it 
would seem advisable to report them when found. 

On the first of February of this year (1913) an adult male cat was 
brought to the Zoological laboratory for class work. It was found to 
be heavily infested with mites. These have been identified by Mr. 
Nathan Banks as Notoedres cati Hering. The top and sides of neck 
and shoulders and almost entire head were affected. The hair was 
sparse and contained flakes of loosened epidermis. The surface of the 
skin in these regions was rough and scaly. This condition extended even 
around the eyes; the cat could hardly open them fully, probably on 
account of their stiffened and encrusted lids. 

According to Banks (in letter) this species is "known in Eurppe, and 
several times recorded from America as affecting cats." 

Ann Arbor, 





In previous papers I have outlined the theory that the present con- 
tinents are the fragmentary remains of the crust of the Mesozoic earth. 
I have modified and developed the theory of the loss of earth mass 
first put forward by the Reverend Osmund Fisher and later by Pro- 
fessor Pickering, and have recorded certain conclusions prominent 
among which are the following: 

1. The present geographical plan is the result, primarily, of the 
separation of mass from the earth. 

2. This separation marked the close of the Mesozoic division of geo- 
logical time as determined by the sedimentary series of southern France. 

3. The separation was caused by extraterrestrial gravitation. 
4., It was brief. 

The theory as thus built up rests upon a large mass of geological 
data. General physical considerations, the evidence in favor of the 
former existence of extensive lands now lost, the fractured margins on 
the Atlantic ocean and the fact that opposite fractures may be fitted 
one to another upon the globe, these and many other lines of evidence 
go together to support the . conclusions arrived at. At the same time 
the theory has biological aspects which are scarcely second in im- 
portance, It receives much support from both botany and zoology, and 
in return it offers to supply a new and a comparatively simple basis, 
for pretertiary zoogeography. 


One of the numerous objections which the theory has to meet is the 
biological one that in a world-catastrophy of the nature claimed so 
much heat must needs be liberated that no life could survive. 

In reply to this we may say that the geological evidence is so strongly 
to the effect that the continental sheets separated at the time mentioned 
and we are so sure that life did survive from the Mesozoic into the 
Tertiary that a purely a priori objection has less force than it would 
otherwise have. Moreover, we know that at the end of the Cretaceous 
period there was great and widespread extinction of species of both 
animals and plants. 

To account for the survival of life we may observe that precipitation, 
altitude and atmospheric circulation would all combine to prevent 
uiiduly high temperatures over the lands of the earth. The smaller the 
land area the greater would we expect to be the destruction of life, and 
there is considerable reason for believing that such was the case. 

Upon the first rifting in the old crust, under the tidal distortion of 


the planet, water would pour down upon the hot material below, being 
vaporized at once. This vaporization must have continued throughout 
the action and condensation of the vapor in the upper atmosphere would 
produce rain in abundance and this rain must fall upon the crustal 

The fragments of crust, standing two and a half or three miles high 
above the level of the hot denuded surfaces of the globe which are now 
the ocean bottoms would experience barometric changels whSch are 
difficult to predicate, but it seems clear that such altitude must have 
operated to lower the temperature very much as we observe it to do 

With the denuded areas hot and upward currents being engendered 
in the atmosphere the continental plateaus being meanwhile high and 
cool, it follows that the return currents would descend upon the plateaus 
bringing them rain and cold from the upper atmosphera It is even 
supposable that snow might fall on peaks in the interior of a continental 
plateau notwithstanding the enormous amount of heat actually liberated 
from the denuded earth. So we see that there are three good reasons 
why life might survive. We are quite sure that it did survive and the 
objection would thus seem to be not a fatal one against the theory. 


Land connections where none now exist have long been postulated to 
account for numerous and curious relationships between widely separated 
groups of animals and plants. As long ago as 1853 Dr. Hooker in- 
sisted upon connections of Australia and New Zealand with Africa 
and South America to explain the <iistribution of southern plants and 
from that time on such connections have been largely introduced in 
all parts of the world. Heretofore it has been necessary to postulate 
numerous and extensive vertical movements of the earth's crust often 
without any real geological basis and even in spite of geological opposi- 
tion, and we must concede that such land connections as may have 
linked w^estem Australia to South Africa, or South America to tropical 
Africa, or Spain to America, that these and similar examples are dis- 
tinctly opposed to what is known of isostatic geology. So it becomes 
of interest to inquire what effect this theory of the loss of earth mass 
may have on the conception of lost land connections the world over. 

Since in time the event is sharply localized to the end of the Cretaceous 
and the beginning of the Tertiary periods, and since it resulted in sub- 
stantially the present arrangement of the continents, clearly its prin- 
cipal effect is upon pretertiary geography. It is capable of explaining 
many of the distributional peculiarities of Tertiary and later time, but 
surely prior to that it involves a radical change in the globe upon which 
we may attempt to depict the relations of land and sea. 

So numerous and so difficult properly to weigh are individual in- 
stances of floral and faunal relationship that it seems best for me not 
to attempt to present and discuss any catalogue of such examples, striv- 
ing rather to deal in summaries by comparing current opinions with 
the new basis afforded by the theory to learn to what extent they liiay 
modify each other. 

The mechanical difficulties to be overcome have been found to be 


troublesome and the scheme herewith presented is put forward with some 
misgivings on account of its manifest crudity, but it serves to bring 
out important points and is therefore in use pending the devising 
of a better method or a better carrying out of this one. 

Briefly it is this: Mercator charts being found to be unsatisfactory 
on account of the distortion, and spherical projections being almost im- 
possible to draw, the continents have been moved about upon a globe 
and in the rearrangement photographed. Prom the photograph the 
continental outlines have been traced so that we secure a result some- 
what similar to a spherical projection. Upon this tracing as a basis the 
paleogeographic ideas of any author may be set forth. 

Herewith are presented adaptations on this basis of the views of von 
Ihering and Ortmann, and, as well as I have been able to interpret, of 
Scharff. These maps are submitted without argument, being intended 
to introduce the method and to gain some idea of the general relations 
of land and sea without too great reliance on detail either of time or 
of conformation. The land connections are variously correlated by dif- 
ferent authors. Ortmann would retain some form of connection be- 
tween Europe, Greenland and America throughout Tertiary time. He 
would have South America united, to Antarctica in the lower Tertiary, 
von Ihering would connect Brazil and Airica in the Eocene. Matthew 
terminates all trans-Atlantic conniections before the Tertiary and cuts 
off South America from Antarctica by the middle of the Eocene. 

Hardly a feature of zoogeography or of geology rests upon a lem 
satisfactory basis than intercontinental correlation and until the ele^ 
ment of time can be more positively determined this must remain one 
of the difficulties of the theory, but it is precisely in this matter of 
correlation that the theory offers a new basis and a new hope for the 


— Lower Crelttceous. After Ortmann 11 


Fig. 2.— Upper CretBceous. Ader Ortmann 1902. 


Fig. 3. — Land and &ea, "Eocene' ' time, AHec von Iherlne II 


—Adapting the ideas ol 






For a number of years I have been interested in the study of bird 
life. This study has been confined almost wholly to the living bird 
mainly because of the strong appeal of these creatures to the nature 
lover. Also because the dead bird had had considerable attention and 
the living had, it seemed to me, been in many phases of its life n^- 
lected. The taking of birds for records in geographical distribution 
has probably occupied the attention of more ornithologists than any 
other branch of bird study. Of course much time has been necessarily 
given to the structure in order to properly classify our birds as well 
as to general. habits, nidification and means of identification. 

The study of migration and economic ornithology has but lately re- 
ceived attention and the life history of birds is of comparatively recent 
origin. The question of the balance in nature in regard to bird life is 
due to receive much greater attention than in the past. After 15 years 
of effort in identifying our common birds through the opera glass I 
turned my attention to the question of the bird's struggle with nature. 
1 endeavored to learn the experience of ornithologists in regard to the 
loss of eggs and young of our wild birds without obtaining more than 
very meagre results, but with suflScient to lead me to believe that the 
loss of bird life was* heavy. It may be possible that we shall learn 
after the publication of this article that some other person has done 
this work with such thoroughness as to give us reliable statistics. Re- 
cently I wrote Mr. W. L. McAtee, Assistant Biologist of the U. S. 
Biological Survey, and received the following letter: 

"I regret to inform you that none of our publications contain any 
particular information about the percentage of destruction of the eggs 
or nests of birds. While studying at the University of Indiana, Bloom- 
ington, I kept some statistics on this point one year. I found in all 22 
nests in a certain orchard, and 18 of them were destroyed by various 
agencies, principally cats and boys. In few instances I imagine, is 
the destruction less than 50 per cent and often it is more. I enclose some 
extracts from a paper by Joseph Grinnell bearing on this subject." 

Mr. Grinnell's observation was made in the San Bernardino Moun- 
tains, Cal. He estimated that there was about half a million birds in 
an area of 31^4 square miles. After taking all the accidents and fatali- 
ties during the nesting season into account he places the number of 
young at half a million. He recalls the fact that though some species 
increase in favorable years others decrease and that the population re- 
mains constant. This he says would mean the destruction of half a 
million birds for the year after the young are matured and would mean, 
C presume the loss through accidents in migration and death through 


disease and old age. He does not make an estimate of the loss of 
young during the nesting season. 

When I began to keep a record of nesting birds I gave more or less 
attention to such questions as protective coloration, ruses of the parent 
birds to direct attention to themselves and away from the nest, to the 
question whether the male offered himself as a martyr by assuming a 
conspicuous place in showing his colors and giving his song and the 
physical ability of each species to protect its nest. I shall not attempt 
to give any observations on these matters. The question of protective 
coloration has been in sharp controversy by Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. 
Thayer which shows that the matter is a debatable one. If Mr. Roose- 
velt is correct in maintaining that birds do not depend upK)n protective 
coloration but on the instincts that command silence, hiding and ac- 
tivity when trouble presents itself then the majority of our popular 
books of birds and insects should be revised. 

During the year 1911 I made statistics of the nesting of Song (Melos- 
piza fasciata). Chipping, (Spizella socialis) and Field (Spizella pusilla), 
Sparrows; the Robin (Merula migratoria) and Catbird (Galeoscoptes 
carolinensis) . These were selected because they were more abundant 
in the locality along the Rouge River, north of Dearborn, Mich., where 
I took my tramps, than other species and the nests were more easily 
located than in any other district with which I was acquainted. Though 
other species were under observation yet they did not offer as good 
material for comparison but will be referred to later. 

In 1912 my observations were confined mainly to the Meadowlark 
(Stumella magna). Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Brown Thrasher 
(Toxostoma rufum) and the Yellow Warbler (Dendroica astiva), with 
observations on two nests of the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea). 
I found the nests of the ground builders more difficult to locate than 
those that build in trees. The purpose of my investigations was to 
note the mortality of bird life during the nesting period under natural 
conditions and to later compare them under artificial or protective 
states such as in the use of nesting boxes and with their natural and 
other enemies removed. 

. Of the Song Sparrows' nests found, seven in all, four were in bushes 
averaging from one to four feet, above ground and the other three 
were on the ground. Those nesting on the ground lost the first entire 
set of eggs in each nest. In two of those nests the second set of eggs 
were destroyed, probably by ground animals. The third was successful 
in hatching but the young never lived to fly. In other words there was 
a total loss of 100 per cent for the season as these obsenations were 
carried up to the 20th of June. As I was unable to locate the nests 
of any of this species after that date with eggs I presume they did not 
nest again. These nests had a total of twenty-five eggs, five of which 
hatch^ but none of which lived. 

The four nests in bushes fared better and yet their history does not 
make pleasant reading. One nest was destroyed by a storm, and the 
birds, if they ever built again, selected a new locality. The other three 
pairs fared as follows : one had two young in the nest and an infertile 
eggy the second had three young, and the third four young and an un- 
hatched Cowbird's (Molothrus ater) egg. The two first named got their 
young out in safety, whether they lived to mature I am unable to say. 


One of the young was crowded out of the nest of the last mentioned 
and the other three young were seen in the trees two days after leav- 
ing the nest. The parent birds did not use any of the tree nests again. 
The net results of the seven pair of Song Sparrows were nine young. 
These birds nested on a farm where eats are excluded in every way pos- 
sible, 20 having been taken on the faim that year. 

The nests of four Chipping Sparrows were located. Knowing from 
previous experiences the sensitiveness of this species I was careful not 
to touch the nest or eggs. Two nested in Crataegus and brought their 
young out. One had two young and the other, three. One of the other 
nests was abandoned after two eggs had been laid and the other was 
drenched in a rain stonn and water soaked. One nest was in a willow 
and the other a poplar. These eight birds had a total of 5 young. 

The nests of 5 Field Sparrows were found on the ground near woods. 
A red squirrel devoured the eggs in one nest. Of the other nests one 
had 5 young, another 4 and the third three and an infertile egg. No. 

3 had its young at 4 p. m. one evening but by six-thirty next morning 
they were gone. As they had not feathered I knew they had been de- 
voured. I saw a weasel in the locality and gave him the blame. The 
two largest families escaped, making 9 young for the 10 parents. 

The nests of four Robins were located, one inside a shed, another on 
a porch and two in trees. The one in the shed had a family of 5 which 
were taken away by the parents successfully. Four young at the top 
of the porch were devoured by a cat, one in a tree 8 feet from the 
ground was robbed by boys and the other 20 feet from the ground had 

4 young. The parents, with my help successfully drove away a re<l 
squirrel and later I was informed the squirrel was shot. Howe\^er, I 
found one of these young dead. The total was seven young from the 
eight parents. • 

The nesting of three Catbirds were found. Each had four sets of 
eggs. One egg in each of two nests was broken, how I do not know. 
All these nests were in trees, averaging from eight to twelve feet above 
the ground. The others all hatched successfully, making ten young for 
nine parents. The same year I observed the nest of a Redstart (Seto- 
phaga ruticilla), with three young, one of which died from a fall, making 
two for that nest. A yellow-bill Cuckoo's (Coccyzus Americanus) nest 
with two eggs was abandoned because of frequent visits by humans. 
Two nests of the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla Mustelina) were found each 
with four eggs. Some weeks later, the nests were empty. It may be 
they hatched all the eggs and reared all their young. Though nests of 
the Veery (Hylocichla Fuscescens), Redeyed (Vireo Olivaceus) and 
Warbling Yireo (Vireo Gilvus), the King bird (Tyrannus tyrannus) 
and American Gold Finch (Astralaginus trestis) were found; in all 
there were only a partial set of eggs and the locations were not C(m- 
venient for visits at the proper time. 

During 1912, six nests of the Meadow Lark were found. They were 
all on the ground. Three nests had four (4) eggs each, two five (5) 
each and one with three (3). The eggs in all were taken by a weasel. 
The eggs of another were carried off by some creature. Three brought 
out their young, each of which I hope escaped. I did not see them when 
they left the nest. The six (6) nests covered a large range of territory. 
The nests of these birds have for me been very difficult to locate. To 


follow up work of this character requires considerable time as well as 
patience. The sixth nest had four (4) eggs and I expected to see a 
family. This was on Ford farm, Dearborn, where visitors go for amuse- 
ment and occasionally for bird study. I showed a number visiting one 
day the nest of this, last mentioned Meadow Lark. The grass was 
tramped down, which was probably responsible for what one of the 
men on the farm claimed was a Gopher coming within half AN hour 
and taking the eggs. I saw the marks of the teeth in the last re- 
maining egg. Taking it for granted that the three with young each 
brought the latter to maturity, it would make nine (9) for the twelve 
(12) birds. 

Four nests of the brown Thrasher all in trees averaging from one 
to three feet above ground, two with three (3) young and two with 
four (4) were located. A cat got one of the young of the last men- 
tioned, but so far as I could keep track of them the other youngsters 
survived, which would make thirteen birds for eight (8) parents. • Three 
nests of the yellow Warbler were located, two with four eggs. Sub- 
sequently one of these had four (4) young and the other three (3). I 
found an egg on the ground and presumed it rolled out sometime when 
the 'bird was suddenly flushed. Of the other two (2) nests one had 
three eggs of the Warbler and one egg of the Cowbird. 1 removed the 
latter and subsequently there were three (3) young which left the nest 
successfully. The fourth nest had two young when discovered and they 
left the nest in condition to fight the battle of life. That made twelve 
(12) young for the eight parents. These nests were from four to six 
feet above ground. Two nests were in Crataegus. These two latter both 
brought out the young successfully. The foliage on these trees is very 
dense and the thorns keep out intruders and if eighteen (18) nests of 
small birds found in Crataegus trees not one contained a Cowbird's egg, 
making them the most ideal nesting places found. I have reference to 
the smaller species of Crataegus growing not more than six feet in height. 

Three nests of the Indigo Bunting had a total of thirteen (13) eggs, 
four in two and five in one. They were in trees averaging from four 
to nine feet above ground. They all successfully hatched but the young 
of the top most were destroyed. Two king birds nests were watched, 
one twenty feet and the other thirty above ground. One was destroyed 
by some climbing animal and the other had five young. A Chickadee 
(Parus atricapillus), nesting in a hollow ironwood tree and the White- 
breasted Nuthatch (Sitta Carolinensis) each brought out six and five 
•young respectively. 

Summarizing results I concluded that birds have no infallible pro- 
tective of instincts and that evolution is such a slow process that a 
species is liable to diminish greatly in changing habits to meet new 
conditions, such as the destruction of our forests, naturally impose. 
Many of the young birds do not have a fair start, coming out of the 
nest before they are in condition to wage the fierce battle necessary. 
Undoubtedly many are crowded out of the nest before they can fly and 
fall a prey to rats, mice, snakes and cats. It is my impression that 
many of the nests are too small for the family the bird attempts to 
rear. The dews no doubt kill many that cannot fly. Altogether the 
destruction is appalling to the bird lover. So great is it under natural 


conditions that I hesitate to seek for nests less I make the destruction 

It would look as if the birds nesting in low growing trees, barring 
interference by men, have the better chance to produce young. Those 
in the higher places have climbing animals, strong winds, and predatory 
birds to contend with in larger numbers, though the ground nesters 
have a better scheme of coloration and their nests are more difficult for 
man to locate. Those nesting in trees appear on the whole to have a 
better chance than the ground nesters; and those using holes in trees 
apparently are better off than ones nesting outside. I, however, wish it 
understood that I do not claim the above deductions as indisputable 
facts. My study of the subject is insuflScient- to base a rule. 

Taking it for granted that the deductions are true, what can man 
do to assist our wild birds? In 1912, the purple Martins (Progne subis) 
visited a house erected for them on the Farm, but after staying three 
days dbeserted and nested instead in a hole formerly used by a Red- 
headed Woodpecker in a telegraph, pole. As near as I could learn, they 
had eight (8) young. Three of those were found dead on the ground, 
making just five for the eight pair of birds living in that colony. An- 
other Martin box had sixteen (16) pairs and brought out forty (40) 
young from a scientifically built nesting box. Not one of these young 
were destroyed so far as we could learn. Twenty Bluebird boxes were 
given by the Michigan Audubon Society in 1910 to prize winners in 
various parts of the State, and every one was reported as occupied by 
Bluebirds (Sialia Sialis). Fourteen wrote that these birds were suc- 
cessful in rearing their young and one brood was reported as destroyed 
by a cat. No definite information could be obtained as to the other fiva 

From reports of thirty-two house Wren (Troglodytes JEdon) boxes 
used last year, (1912) twenty-seven successfully reared their young, 
three abandoned their nest, one was found with young dead in the box 
and a cat destroyed the other brood. These reports were from Detroit, 
Grand Rapids, Saginaw and Toledo. Of four boxes taken by Tree 
Swallows (Tridoprocne bicolor) three reared their young and the cat 
got the fourth. I located two House Wrens nesting on Belle Isle in the 
Detroit River last year, but the eggs in both nests were destroyed. It 
stands to reason that the chances of hatching the eggs in a nesting box 
is more certain than in the open where they are a prey to animald, 
wind storms and rain. Therefore it would appear that man, by putting 
out bird houses, and keeping control of the cat, could materially aid in 
increasing at least some of our desirable birds. The study of bird houses 
is also essential. I erected a Martin box above my bam in 1911. That 
year a number of young Martins were killed by falling, because the 
porch outside the nesting hole was too narrow. This was remedied in 
1912 and none perished in this way. Mr. Baskette in his book entitled, 
"The Story of the Birds," says: "Few things are so destructive of 
little birds as their premature escape from the nest." The young birds 
in natural nesting conditions appear to take flight earlier than from 
nesting boxes. Of course many of our wild birds will not nest In 
boxes, but other protective methods can be provided. The United States 
Biological Survey and other agencies studying wild birds keep placing a 
higher estimate on their economic value and if their estimates are cor- 
rect, it would be but patriotic for our citizens to further the protection 
of these friends. 


Occasionally I am introduced to an audience as one who knows all 
about birji boxes. I am obliged to correct this, as the bird box question 
is comparatively new, and the next decade may change many notions 
held in the past. Each year a bird or two is added to the box nesters 
and no one can predict where it may end. It is an experiment well 
worth trying. The United States Biological Survey is collecting data 
on the question which will be published in a bulletin during the coming 

Non. — I have records of the following wild birds nestine in boxes Wood Duck, Sparrow Hawk, 
Screech Owl, Downy Woodpecker, FlickerjCrested Flycatcher, Phoebe, Song Sparrow, Tree Swallow 
House Wren, Chickadee, Tufted Titmouse, white Breasted Nuthatch, Robin and Bluebird. 






This paper is a brief account of a piece of work done during July 
and August, 1912, at the University of Michigan Biological Station. 

By means of a careful survey of the lake, it was found that Boleosoma 
nigrum was confined to water less than thirty inches in depth. Thir- 
teen localities were found, in eight of which both young and adult of 
the species were aboundant. In five habitats only immature specimens 
were found. 

It is known that the breeding habits and the food habits of animals 
play an important part in the determination of the local habitat. The 
breeding habits of Boleosoma nigrum have been described by Hankin- 
son and by Forbes. Tliese authors state that the eggs of Boleosoma 
are attached to stones, mussel shells and sticks which lie loosely on 
the bottom. Spawning occurs in April and May. 

I have found by examination of the contents of twenty-one stomachs 
that the food of adult Boleosoma consists, as was found by Hankinson 
at Walnut Lake, almost wholly of the larvae of Chironomidae ; Chir- 
onomus prevailing. The young Boleosoma subsist very largely upon 
Entomostraca, but eat correspondingly larger proportions of Chironomus 
as they themselves grow larger. 

The larvae of Chironomus and other midges occur plentifully wher- 
ever there is an abundance of decayed vegetable matter on the bottom. 
The eggs of midges are deposited on the floating leaves of such plants 
as Potomageton, Nymphaea, etc., whence the lan^ae find their way to 
the muck of the bottom. 

An analysis of the habitats in Douglas Lake shows them to have the 
following features in common: 

(1) Mussel shells, small stones and sticks on the bottom. 

(2) Quiet water, protected from violent wave action, allowing a 
tiiin deposit of muck to accumulate in patches over the sand. 

(3) Absence of thick muck deposit in the shallow water. There are 
always patches of sand, stones, etc., not covered by the muck. A deep 
deposit of muck is usually found in the deeper water near by. 

(4) Masses of Potomageton or other aquatic plants with floating 
leaves, are found in the immediate vicinity. 

These characters of the habitat are shown to be directly connected 
with the food habits or the spawniing habits of Boleosoma and may 
be I'egarded as physical features that determine the distribution of the 





The analysis of the oxygen and carbon dioxide content of the waters 
of Douglas Lake was undertaken during the summer of 1912 at the 
suggestion of Professor Jacob Reighard. Owing to delays in the 
shipping of chemicals and apparatus the work was somewhat mterfered 
with. The investigation of the oxygen content was much more com- 
plete than that of the carbon dioxide content. 

Douglas Lake is in Cheboygan County, Michigan. It has an area 
approximately of twenty-two square miles, being shaped something like 
a fish with the median longitudinal axis running in a N.W.-S.E. direc- 
tion. Of the various parts of the Lake the deepest portions, as shown 
by the soundings of the engineering students of the University of 
Michigan, are in the so-called South Fishr-Tail Bay — on the shores of 
which the Biological Station is situated. The greater number of samples 
were taken from this Bay. 

The samples of water were obtained by means of a clock-pump from 
the various levels. For the collection Magnesium citrate bottles with a 
capacity of 385 cc. w^ere used. These could be pumped full of water 
and then tightly stoppered. Some difficulty was encountered in getting 
the pump airtight in order to avoid any change of the gaseous con- 
tent while being taken. The pump and hose were always thoroughly 
flushed with water at the given level before the sample from that level 
was taken. It is quite probable that the receiving hose while lowered 
to a definite depth actually carried water up from a stratum of a foot 
thick, or even more on days when the boat was rocked by the wind* 
The temperatures at different depths were recorded by maximum and 
^ninimum thermometers. 

The estimation of the oxygen content was made by an iodometric 
method — the same as used by Birge in similar investigations of the 
waters of Wisconsin Lakes. To each bottle of water 1% cc. of MnClj 
solution was added by means of a pipette which reached the bottom 
of the bottle. An equal quantity of NaOH-KI solution was then added, 
resulting in the precipitation of Mn (OH) 2 which was shortly oxidized 
by the Oxygen dissolved in the water; the process being indicated by 
the change in the color of the precipitate from white to brown. After 
the precipitate had settled to the bottom, 3 cc. of concentrated HCl was 
introduced just above the precipitate, which, acting on the Mn(0H)4 
resulted in the formation of MnCU and the liberation of clorine. 
This latter substance reacting with the KI gave free Iodine. The 
amount of Iodine set free being porportional to the quantity of 
oxygen dissolved in the water. The Iodine was determined by titratioii 
against a standard solution of sodium thiosulphate. 

The following fonnula from Birge was used in the calculation of the 
numerical results f 


(1) Oxygen in cc. per liter = 

0.05825 n X b X 1,000. 55.825 bn 

V X n^ n^v 

In this formula b= the number of -cc. of potassium dichromate 
solution used in standardizing the sodium thiosulphate, i.a 25 cc. ; n^ = 
the number of cc. of thiosulphate used in standardization against the 
dichromate; n= the number of cc. of thiosulphate required for the 
sample of water. 

By means of a table showing the number of cc. of oxygen required to 
saturate one liter of water at various temperatures, the percentage of 
saturation was calculated. 

The strengths of the solutions used are shown as follows : 

MnClg — 200 grs. of the salt, free from iron, dissolved in water and 
diluted to 250 cc. 

NaOH-KI — 180 grs. of NaOH and 75 grs. of KI dissolved in water 
and diluted to 500 cc. 

HCl — Concentrated, chemically pure. 

Sodium thiosulphate — approximately N/100. 

Potassium dichromate — accurately N/100. 

Starch indicator was used in the titration of the iodine. 

The samples were in every case analysed within four hours after 
the collection. The experiments of Birge indicate that no loss of oxygen 
results in this time. 

The results of the analyses for the depths 0, 3, 5, 10, 15 meters and 
the bottom are plotted so that the vertical spaces represent the cc. of 
oxygen per liter and the horizontal .spaces indicate the time at which 
the observations were made. At the beginning of the observations, July 
13, the oxygen content at the surface was a little over 7.2 cc. per liter 
while at three and five meters the quantity was about 6.8 cc. At ten- 
meters 4.6 cc. per liter were found at 15 meters 3.3 cc. per liter, while at 
the bottom there was only 0.9 cc. per liter present. During the next 
three days, 13th to the 16th there was a decrease of about 0.3 cc. per 
liter at the surface and the 3, 5 and 10 meter levels. The quantity at 
15 meters dropped 26 cc. per liter while only a trace was found at the 
bottom. From the 16th to the 18th there was an increase at the surface 
of about 0.45 cc; the oxygen at 3 and 5 meters decreased slightly, be- 
tween 0.2 and 0.3 cc. so that on the 18th the water at these depths con- 
tained the same amount of oxygen, namely about 6.6 cc. per liter. At 
10 meters 4.7 cc. were present while there was little change at the 16 
meter level. From the 18th to the 22nd the surface water lost only a 
fraction of a cubic centimeter, while at 3 and 5 meters there was a de 
crease of some 0.8 cc. But little change took place at 10 meters. At 
15 meters, however, a marked loss of oxygen was found. A trace of 
oxygen was found at the bottom on the 19th but none at all on the 22nd. 
During the two days — 22nd to 24th — ^the surface content was lowered 
one cc; that at 3 and 5 meters onehalf cc, that at 10 meters a frac- 
tion of a cc while at 15 an increase of 0.8 cc. was noted. A trace of 
oxygen was found at the bottom. During the period from the 24th ta 
the 31st the surface content remained quite uniform; an increase in 
oxygen at the three meter level of 0.6 cc. occurred; a decrease of 0.6* 


cc. at 15 meters with no change at the 10 meter level resulted in the 
lower level having a slightly greater quantity of oxygen. The oxygen at 
15 meters fell to 0.3 cc. On the 30th there was no change in the surface 
content but that of the 5 meter level had increased 0.8 cc. bringing it 
up to about 5.3 cc. per liter. However, on the 1st of August the 5 
meter level showed again a little less than 4.5 cc. per liter; and the 
oxygen at 15 meters had become almost negligible and only traces of 
the gas could be found at the bottom after July 24th; most of the 
analyses showing no oxygen at all at the bottom. 

The oxygen in Lake Douglas has a summer distribution similiar to 
that found by Birge in Lake Mendota. The lake is deep enough at 
least in North and South Pish-Tail Bays for the formation of a well 
marked thermocline (see Fig. 3). Since the water below the thermo- 
cline is not in circulation so as to come in contact with the air it has 
no source of oxygen during the summer months unless brought in per- 
haps by springs. The analyses indicate so little oxygen below the 
thermocline as to make improbable the carrying of any large amount 
of oxygen to the lower strata in this manner. It is probable then that 
the oxygen secured by the lower waters at the time of the vernal over- 
turn and before the thermocline is well established constitutes its sum- 
mer supply. There is a constant removal of the oxygen due to the liv- 
ing organisms ; at the same time oxygen is furnished the Water through 
plants, but also oxygen is removed by the decomposition of organic 
matter. The vast number of organisms which sink to the bottom is 
according to Birge the most effective agency in depleting the lower 
waters of oxygen. This depletion is shown to occur progressively as 
the summer passes by the analyses and affects the strata below 12 meters 
to the greatest extent since that depth marks the upper limit of the 
thermocline. Above the thermocline convection and wind currents tend 
to keep the water aereated to such an extent as to prevent anything like 
its complete depletion. 

The excess of oxygen which is shown by the fact that on some days 
and at some levels the water was supersaturated is undoubtedly due in 
large part to the activity of algae and other chlorophyll bearing plants. 
Such an excess is shown in the table for July 23rd. The excess of 
oxygen produced in this manner can only accumulate in calm weather 
and as there was usually quite strong winds blowing over the Lake 
as often as every twenty-four hours there was little opportunity for a 
large excess accumulation. The tendency for the water above the thermo- 
cline become supersaturated decreased so that after the 3rd week in 
July only the surface water was supersaturated. 

Observations were made on the water contained in shallow r^ions 
densely populated with weeds of various kinds and it was found that 
in these places the oxygen content was usually greater at a depth of 
1 to 2 meters and that the oxygen was present in greater quantities than 
at the same level in the deeper water. The analyses for July 24th in- 
dicate these facts. 

Analyses of water taken at 9 a, m. and at 4:30 p. m. on the same 
day showed a slightly increased amount of oxygen at depths 6 or 8 
meters in the samples taken at 4 :30 p. m. SuflScient data were not ac- 
quired on this point to give accurate quantitative results. 


Briefly then the investigation shows that during the summer the sur- 
face oxygen content is between G and 7 cc. per liter ; that at 5 meters is 
5 to 5^ CO. per liter, at 10 meters 3 cc. and at 15 meters the oxygen 
supply which is early in the summer about 3 cc. per liter becomes de- 
pleted so that by the first week in August only traces are found; also 
that the bottom waters which have at the beginning of the summer less 
than a cc. of oxygen, become entirely depleted. 

The data secured regarding the carbon dioxide content are not offered 
for publication at this time as they are incomplete. However, the re- 
sults of the analyses seem to indicate that Lake Douglas is to be classed 
as a hard water lake with a carbon dioxide distribution similar to 
that found by Birge in Lake Mendota. 









degrees C. 

cc. per liter. 


July 13 
































































36.7 . 






































































































August .1 


















. 1.89 









































































August 23 , 











Per cent 


degrees C. 

cc. per liter. 






































28 in. 

































. trace 










































































Birge and Juday. 

The Inland Lakes of Wisconsin — ^The Dissolved Gases of the Water and their Biological 

The Thermocline and its Biological Significance; Trans. Amer. Micros. Soc. Vol. XXV, 1903. 

The Respiration of an Inland Lake; Trans. Amer. Micros. Soc. Vol. XXXVI, 1007. 

The Gases dissolved in the Waters of Wisconsin I^akes; Bulletin U. S. Fisheries, Vol. 
XXVIII. 1910. 




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This research was undertaken as a result of the observation of move- 
ments of individual villi of the intestine when viewed under a low 
power binocular microscope. The rate of this movement was observed 
to be much more rapid than one would naturally expect in un-striped 
muscle. This initial observation having been made while working with 
Prof. W. P. Lombard, he suggested a further stud}' of the movements to 
determine their nature and cause. 

The method of attacking the problem was to anesthetize the animals, 
(dogs and rabbits), with Chloretone, which was given intra-peritoneally 
in hot olive oil solution, and which causes complete anevsthesia in about 
thirty minutes, the anesthesia lasting as long as two weeks, providing 
the animal is properly nourished by artificial means. After anesthetiz- 
ing the animal, it is placed on its back, an opening made into the 
abdominal cavity in the lower posterior portion of the abdomen, a loop 
of the intestine is brought up to the surface, a longitudinal slit about 
2 cm. in length is made in the gut opposite to the attachment of the 
mesentery and the out-rolled mucosa examined with the binocular 
microscope, under a strong reflected light. 

Repeated examinations of the villi in rabbits have so far failed to 
show any movements whatsoe\'er, while in dogs, only a few experiments 
have been satisfactory, owing to the fact that the movements cease 
within a very few minutes after the gut has been exposed to the air, 
while abdominal respiratory movements alter the focal distances so 
much that a clear picture of the villi is impossible. 

To obviate the latter difficulty, an apparatus was constructed to 
support the loop of intestine and prevent the respiratory movements 
from being communicated to it. The apparatus consists of a metal disc 
with a long handle for clamping to a stand. The disc has two flanges, 
one at each edge, to catch the tissuels of the abdominal wall and hold 
them apart to allow the gtlt to be more easily handled and to allow 
the necessary amount of light to be thrown on the villi. The upper 
flange is fitted with several perforations to allow the gut to be caught up 
in several places by fine threads and tied to the apparatus itself. By 
this means, the respiratory movements are entirely done away with. 

Up to the present time, but little has been accomplished in actually 
answering the questions suggested by the problem, but it is thought 
that by a further use of the instrument, more light may be thrown on 
the subject. A fuller discussion of the problem is reserved for a later 

Ann Arbor, Mich., April, 1913. 



(Preliminary contribution.) 
Witli One Figure. 


The problem of balanced solutions is of fundamental importance to 
general physiology, for it is recognized that each cell, plant or animal, 
is bathed by a fluid which may be conceived of as being a physiologically 
balanced soluticm. Moreover, the physiologist must needs use the facts 
of antagcmism in interpreting the role of given elements or nutrients. O. 
Loew, the pioneer in reseai-ches of this nature, goes so far as to postulate 
that calcium in the cell is important largely as an antagonist. Again, 
it is conceivable that the normal tissues produce substances whose func- 
tion it is to inhibit or ameliorate the injurious products that are the 
results of metabolism. As a few of the many examples, one might 
mention the inhibition of a too excessive amount of carln^n dioxide in 
the tissues and the C(mnteraction of the so-called '"fatigue substances" 
in the body. 

The iniDortancc* of antagcmistic action in agriculture is evident when 
one considei-s that the cultivated ])lants are wholly dependent on the 
soil solution which bathes the root hairs, and this soil solution can be 
conceived of as a ]»hysi()logically balanced solution for such plants as 
Ihrive in that jmrticular soil. It might l>e remarked that the bulk of 
experiments in the ap])lication of fertilizers and general agricultural 
practice have failed to c(msider the ])ossible effects of such treatments 
upon the soil solution, and vice vei'sa. 

Ringer was the first to observe antagonism between salts. He drew the 
conclusion that this phenomenon was bashed u])on the fact that each 
salt when ai)])Iied singly acted in the opposite way from that of its 
antag(mist. Since his time, many have added to the sum total of our 
knowledge of balanced soluti(ms. AVe know now of a large numl)er of 
antag<mistic actions and in addition are accpiainted with certain theories 
to acc(mnt for these conditions. The investigations of recent times have 
l>een led by Ixieb. Lillie and Osterhout, the latter a]>proaching the sub- 
ject from the standpoint of the botanist, so few of whom have entered 
this interesting field. 

As one reads the literature, he can not hel[) but draw the conclusion 
that substances which act in an antagcmistic manner may not after all 
be confined to a limited class of (*om])ounds. The great mass of ex- 
]»eriinents have Ix^n done with salts and onlv a few non-elect rolvtes have 
b(H*n tried — such, for exan]])le, as glycerine, urea and alcohol. It has 
been assunied, thei-efore, that salts ahme show antagcmism. We have 
only to refer to the work of Lillie^ to see that (mtside this grouj) of com- 

iLillie, R. S.. Amer. .Tourn. Physiol.. 1011, 21: 372-398. 

1012. 30: 1- 17. 


jjounds are other substances of a different chemical nature showing 
antagonism. Lillie gives us a number of examples of antagonism be- 
tween salts and organic compounds such as make up the conmion anaes- 
thetics. Further, the antagonistic action of calcium on organic poisons 
hns been shown for a number of living organisms by the work of Fuhner,^ 
Ishizaka and Loewi,^ Eisler and Portheim,* and Loening.' 

For the literature on antagonisms between secretions, toxins and 
haemolysins, see T. B. Robertscm^. 

The recent investigations of Schreiner" and his co-workers on 
tlie effects of nitrogeneous and other fertilizer elements on certain or- 
ganic compounds isolated from soils suggests the possibility that the 
ameliorated conditions obtained fall in line with results observed under 
the general head of antagonism. The fact that a culture solution in 
which wheat seedlings have grown is harmful to a second crop of 
wheat, but not injurious to some other species of plants may also be 
another instance of antagonism. 

It must be admitted that many cases of so-called antagonism are 
complicated by certain factors of nutriticm, osmosis, ionization, surface 
tension, etc. So far, ex[)eriments in antagonism have dealt wholly or 
in part with substances used by the plant in the j)rocess of metabolism. 
This has lead to a just criticism, from such authorities as I^)ew and Aso^ 
and it is further generally considered that the nutritive or stimulative 
effects may mask the toxic or antitoxic action. One would be justified 
in assuming that the better growth observed in some cases could be at- 
tributed to the nutritive effects of the substances which in balanced 
solutions according to Osterhout'* enter the plant at a very much reduced 
rate and at what might be in some cases a nutritive ratio. 

Loeb and Lillie have added to the ex])lanation of this phase of the 
])r()blem by using (me solutiofi of tlie known nutrient with another solu- 
tion not normally used in nutrition. For example, T>)eb^'* obtained 
antag<mistic action with NaCl by the use of zinc salts, etc., while Lillie 
obtained his results by noting tlie effect of anaesthetics in various c(m- 
centraticms of nutrient salts. 

In summarizing the ])revi<)us work done on antagonism, one might 
])oint out that the solutions used by Loeb,^^ Osterlumt^- and Lillie 
were concentrated solutions of comparatively high osmotic pres- 
sure. ITow far these concentrated ccmditicms effect i<mization and the 
possible role. of i<mizati(m, has not yet l)een detennined. AA'itliout ques- 
tioning the fact that calcium acts as an antagcmist, many investigators, 
as has been said before, are using this element at a concentraticm which 
produces excellent growth of itself. In the work re])orted here, the 
author has used two known ])ois(ms and has been able to work at 
greater dilutions on account of their exti*eme toxicity, ^^eitlier of these 
substances is normally included in the ])lant metabolism. 

During the summer of 1012, the writer conducted some experiments 

2Fuhner, Arch. Expt. Path. u. Pharmakol 1907, 58:1. 

nshizaka and Loewi. (^eiitralb. f. Physiol. 1905. 19:593. 

^Ei.sler and Portheim. Bioohem. Zeitschr. 1909, 21:59. 

^Loening. Munrhen me<!. Wochensrhr. 1910, No.s. 4 and 5. 

«Ergeb. d. Physiol. 10, 1910. p. 216. 

7Bull. of the Bur. of Soils. U. S. A. 

'^Bul. Col. Agr. Tokyo Imp. Univ. (1907), 7:395. 

oScience N. §.. Vol. 34, No. 867, p. 189. 

">Amer. Jour. Physiol., 1902, 6:411-433. 

nAmer. Jour. Physiol., 1902. 6:411-433. 

'SQsterhout, W. J. V., Bot. Gaz. 1906. 42:127-134 and Bot. Gaz. 1907, 44:259-272. 


to learn what relation exists between two poisonous substances when 
one is a known narcotic. For these experiments, copper sulphate was 
up^d at concentrations varying from M3 x 10-* to M2.5 x 10-° together with 
the non-volatile anaesthetic chloral hydrate in concentrations varying 

from Yg^ to iqJqq- Garden peas of the variety of Little Gem were se- 
lected as indicators, and the increase in length of the roots afforded 
the criterion as to the effects produced by the toxic substances. For 
a criticism of this criterion, see Heald.^^ Five seedlings floating on 
paraffine discs were grown in each dilution so that the roots 
were the only portions of the plants exposed to the solutions. 
While the number of plants used appears small, the work has 
been repeated three times with concordant results. In the 
series, run in duplicate, from which the curve is plotted, copper sul- 
phate M/51000 and chloral hydrate M/165.5 were each diluted by the 
addition of 50, 100, 150 cc, etc., of water to 450, 400, 350 cc, etc., 
respectively, of the original solutions. Then the copper sulphate was 
mixed with chloral hydrate to form another series by the addition of 50, 
100, 150 cc, etc., of CuSO* to 450, 400, 350 cc, etc., respectively, of 
chloral hydrate. 

Obsenations were made at the end of twenty-four and forty-eight 
hours. The average increase in the length of the roots in each dilution 
was chosen and the results plotted. The curve shows clearly the poor 
growth in the solutions where the single substance was used, except 
at the lowest dilutions, and a noticeably better growth where the two 
substances were combined. Antitoxic action of the combined solution is 
especially noticeable in the central part of the curve where the amounts 
of the different solutions are nearly equal. One further statement may 
be made, namely, that according to the accepted dissociation theory, we 
may look upon the compounds in these dilutions as completely dis- 
sociated, and it seems also safe to conclude that since there is an ab- 
sence of reaction between copper sulphate and chloral hydrate at ordi- 
nary and even at high temperatures according to Werner,^* there is no 
chemical reaction between the two compounds as they have been used. 

The results of these experiments with pea seedlings show that w^e are 
dealing with a case of antagonism between a salt and an anaesthetic. 
Chloral hydrate thus exhibits an antitoxic action which though less 
marked may be comparable to the antitoxic influence of calcium over 
magnesium salts. It is interesting to note that the use of anaesthetics 
on plants gives results comparable to some extent to those obtained by 
Lillie with lower animals. 

A number of theories have been brought forward to explain the 
mechanism of antagonistic salt action. Ko detailed account can be at- 
tempted here, but it might not be out of place to outline the avenues of 
attack. First, the effect may come about through reactions in the 
liquid itself. These may be due to chemical reaction or chemical affinity. 
A proper choice of materials, however, eliminates many of these cases 
and under this head we need consider only such effects as do not come 
about in that way. 

The extent of ionization is perhaps the problem which is most im- 
portant in this connection. If we look upon the molecule as compara- 

"HeaJd F. D., Bot. Gaz. 1896, 22:125-153. 
"Werner, E. A., Jour. Chem. Soc, 1904, 85:1376-1381. 


tively inert and the ion the reverse, tlie importance of knowing the 
extent of ionization becomes obvious. But in this problem we deaL not 
with the single salt, but with a combination, and the effect of this com- 
bination on restraining or bringing about ionization must be considered. 
Here also the concentration of each is fundamental. There is a great 
opportunity for a review of the work of antagonism in the light of 
ionization and in the light of the effect of combinations on this ioniza- 

Not to be omitted here is the relation of adsorption phenomena, and 
whether we should include this discussion here or under a later head, is 
a question. We know that adsorption phenomena are well marked be- 
tween colloids and various other classes of compounds. ^loreover, we 
know from the work of Hober R.^^ that the effect of a combination 
of substances is very great on the relative adsor])tion, one substance as 
it were crowding the other away and even crowding it away excessively. 
What role this plays in antitoxic action is as yet in the "suggestion" 
stage. Surely, however, its role is more important in such an experi- 
ment as the one just detailed, than in those where greater concentra- 
tions are employed. Again, in the problem of reactions in the solutions 
and the effects of combined influences we have to deal with molecular 
complexes, the significance of which we are only beginning to observe, 
by thermometer and by spectroscope. What relation one substance has 
in its inhibition role upon another must be carefully considered. 

Secondly, the effect may come about through changes in the plasma 
membrane. It is obvious that these changes must ultimately modify the 
permeability of the limiting layer. In accounting for the phenomenon 
of antagonism, Loeb^® has postulated the "tanning" theory and has shown 
in certain cases that antagonism depends upon a common cooperative 
action of both salts through which action the membrance becomes com- 
pletely or comparatively impermeable to both salts. He further con- 
cludes that each salt in solution by itself is toxic in view of the fact 
that it diffuses rapidly and comes into direct contact with the protoplasm 
of the germ. The change in the membrane which results in a modifica- 
tion of its permeability is explained by him as a process of coagula- 
tion through the action of the electrolytes in the protein colloids. This 
finds substantiation in the field of pure physical chemistry for col- 
loidals are coagulated by electrolytes if the electrolytes are strongly dis- 
sociated into ions and are present in sufficient quantity. 

It is also a possibility that the antagonistic action comes about 
through the effects of the solutions on the lipoids. The various schools 
are divided as to the distribution of the lipoids in the surface layer. 
This brings about a lack of uniformity, in the theories presented, as to 
the role of lipoids. Necessarily, the application of this theory of Over- 
ton has been most elaborate in the study of narcotics and anaesthetics 
since the Ovei*ton theoi'V' deals primarily with the class of substances 
used in anaesthesia. The theories concerning the effect of a combination 
of solutions on the lipoids conceived this effect to be more than a 
mere solvent action and postulate either an increase in the colloidal 
dispersion or else a direct change of the relation of the constituent 
parts of the plasma membrane. 

" Physik. Cherale der Zelle u. Gewebe. 3. Aufl, p 278. 
"Biochem. Ztschr. Bd. 36. 275. 


Tt lias not yet been determined just what relation surface tension 
has. to the mass of data on antagonism, l^erhaps with our present 
knowledge this relaticm is immeasurable, but it is tiiie that surface 
tension plays a fundamental role in osmosis if we are to accept the 
work of B. Moore.^^ Recently, surface tensi(m phenomena have 
been used to explain the coagulation of colloids. Since it is 
also true that the surface tension changes with the electrical 
potential, the application of Lillie, of certain relations of elec- 
trical charge to permeability in which he assumed that the contact 
of an ion of a given charge changed the nature of the charge in the 
membrane and the assumption that the anaet^thetics played their role in 
antagonism by i^estricting the effects of this change of potential, may be 
extended and the whole i)henomenon nuiy be viewed from the stand- 
jM)int of the effect of this contact on surface tension. .Thei*e are those 
also who view the T)lasma membrane as a dii-ect reaction to the surface 
tension of the bathing fluid. Hence the impoi*tance of the intenjre- 
tati(m of this class of phenomena in the light of the views on sui-face 
tension. But in view of our present knowledge of surface tension, we 
can not as yet formulate a definite hypothe*i;is dealing with the relation 
of surface tension to antagonism. 

Thirdly, the effect may come about through changes in the cell itself. 
Hei-e we enter a comparatively new field. It is easier to conceive that 
the effects of antagonism are bnmght about by producing profound 
changes in metabolism, such as the formation of compounds with the 
proteins,^** precipitation even of these bodies or by effects on oxidation,^^ 
enzymatic action^^ and the like, it is easier, I repeat, to conceive of such 
action than it is to eliminate other factors and prove the case. Finally 
we may be dealing with a combination of any of these general groups. 

With this mass of theones and this outline of possible causes of 
antagonistic action, little can be concluded to apply to the case in point. 
T have not believed the acticm in the case of chloral hydrate and copper 
sulphate to come to any great extent under the head of reactions within 
the solution. Tt is true that in dilute soluti(ms cei-tain reactions occur 
which are not apparent in concentrated solution. ^loreover, I have made 
no attempt to conclude anything al)Out the effect cm different ions, al- 
though from previous work in this line and a knowledge of the reactions 
of chloral and chloral hydrate such ccmclusions might be ])ermitted. It 
is now believed that the dissociation of copi)er sulphate does not in- 
clude the formation of complex hydroxides, since recent work (m c(>])j)er 
sulphate and other common copj)er compounds in a great variety of 
soluti(ms have failed to bring to light these mythical compounds. The 
formation of com])lex ^*hydrates'' in water by copper and the lessening of 
such effects by such substances as chloral hydrate has not as yet assumed 
tangible form. 

Nor have I seen fit to intei-pret my results as refuting or confirming 
the Ovei-ton theory, although Lillie draws conclusions from his experi- 
ments to substantiate this theory, and Ijoeh and Osterhout use their 
experiments in the opposite direction. We must remember that 

17 Phil. Mag. 1894, (5) 38:279. 

18 Moore and Roaf. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 1904, B. 73:382. 

19 Loeb. J., Amer. Jour. Phys. 1911, 28. 213. 

20 B. Moore in Recent Advances in Physiology and Biochemistry, 1906, by L. Hill, London, Pub- 
lisher, E. Arnold. 


the Overton theory, while giving the most extensive study of 
permeability yet deduced, was developed before the general ap- 
plication of physical chemistry. If, therefore, we hold to the 
belief that the plasma membrane is colloidal or part colloidal in its 
nature, we are not permitted to transfer facts of mere solubility in 
the realm of pure solutions, into this domain of colloidal chemistry. In 
the application of this ingenious theor3% chemical facts dealing with 
another class of compounds are carried over to too great an extent to 
make this theory a safe one on which to build. 

As to the "tanning" theory of I^oeb, one nmst be cautious. This is 
perhaps the most ingenious of all theories in permeability, but one 
which so far is not of universal application. Until the antitoxic action 
between a wide range of compounds can be given for colloids apart from 
the cell, we shall need to suspect other factors at work besides the mere 
coagulation of the cellular limiting membrane, or at least look upon 
such coagulation only as a result of some other process* 

Explanations based on the third class are as yet too general to enable 
us to advance far. For the special case under consideration, the hypo- 
thesis about to be advanced may properly fall in part under this head. 
In the case of the antitoxic action of chloral hydrate and coppe'r sul- 
phate, the >\'Titer would like to call attention to the catalytic power of 
small amounts of copper. It is a well known fact through the worI( 
of Ostwald, Bigelow and others,-^ that a mere trace of Cu ions 
causes a rapid decomposition of NaHSO^ and tlijat subsitances 
such as glycerine, mannite and a number of others inhibit strongly 
this catalytic action of copper. Experiments performed with a 
dilute solution of copper and a number of organic compounds 
which will be reported more fully later lead to the belief that chloral 
hydrate may affect the action of copper in some anti-catalytic way. Be 
this a mei*e **pois<ming'- in the solution, such as carbon monoxide or 
KCN are known to exert upon catalyzei-s or not, the inhibition ex- 
hibited by the chloral hydrate must stand in s(mie relation to the plant, 
either to the plasma membrane or to the cell. Experiments are in 
course of prepai'ation in the attempt to answer some of these puMling 
questiims thus brought to light. It has l)een thought worth while to 
focus attention on this feasible but neglected possibility. 

In summarizing, the author has tried to give more than the mere 
record of an exjH^iiment. He has reviewed very briefly the classic ex- 
periments on antagcmism and has arranged these as it were into three 
groups, and has attemi)ted to show that the experimenrs he perfonued 
dealt with different conditions from any brought forward so far. The 
relaticm of this problem to general physiology and to agriculture \vas 
mentioned. One typical cur\^e from the ex])eriments was chosen for 
this ])reliminary ])aper. Before developing a theory for the explanation 
of the results obtained, he has reviewed briefly some of the possible 
causes for antagonistic action. It is conceived that the results may 
come about from effects within the solution itself, in the plasma mem- 
brane, or within the cell, or there may be combinations of these effects^ 
Since the theories suggested were not entirely positive, another theory 
was advanced, namely, that in the particular case studied the action of 

21 Zeitschr. f. Phyaik. Chem. Bd. 26, 1898, p. 493. 




= CoSO^ 


chloral hydrate in antagonizing copper sulphate might come about 
through the anticatalytic action of the organic substance. How far this 
explanation can be applied to other cases of antagonism is not de- 
termined, but it may be applicable in some analogous way. 

Antagonism as it now stands is a phenomenon of wide scope one which 
is judged merely from the effects produced by combinations of chemi- 
cals. Until refinement of definition based on physiological differences in 
the reactions, is possible, it is at least permissible to class the antitoxic 
action obtained above through the means of chloral hydrate, (with the 
reported observations). If the results obtained are strictly comparable, a 
considerable increase in the scope of antagonistic action is thus given. 
In the experiments reported above very dilute solutions of copper sul- 
phate and chloral hydrate were used and neither of these are known to 
be of nutritive value in anv concentration. When we find antitoxic 
action in such dilutions and between such bodies, vre necessarily widen 
the field of inquirv and eliminate many irrelevant factors. 

Experiment Station, 
Michigan Agricultural College. 



(Preliiuinary contribution) . 


The use of a Wheatstone slide wire bridge or Kohlrausch'S improve- 
ment of the same in botanical investigations is relatively new. To those 
of you who may not be familiar with its uses in plant physiological 
studies, let me state that among the many, it affords perhaps the most 
accurate method for deteiinining the c<mcentrati(m of solutions. The 
c<mcentration of a dilute solution is an index of the number of ions in 
that solution, and in the same way the electrical i-esistance is dependent 
on the number of ions. The greatei* the number of i(ms, the less the 
resistance to the ])assage of an electric current, and the less the num- 
ber of ions the gi'eater the resistance to the passage of an electric cur- 
rent. So by calculating the specific resistance and inserting the values 
in certain fonnulae, the concentration of the solution can be determined. 

Recent work has shown that for i)urj)<)ses of gi*eater accuracy and 
si)eed, it ha8 l)een necessary now to make some modifications in the 
pi'esent form of the apparatus. With the changes suggested in the fol- 
lowing pages, one can obtain a high degi*ee of pi*ecisi(m with greater 
rapidity and with much less strain on the nenes. The correct bridge 
setting is determined by the aid of the eye instead of the ear, which is a 
feature of some advantage. It seems probable that electrolytic con- 
ductivity methods will l)e of considerable value towards a better under- 
standing of many of the fundamental problems in the life of plants and 
animals. In this connection T mii»:ht call A'our attenticm to the work 
of Hober on blood I'Cjictions, Hugai'sky and Tangl <m serum, and the 
work of many zoologists and pathologists. Of the American inves- 
tigators who have used the method recently, perhaps the work of W.x 
J. Y. Osterhout^ has attracted the most attention. True & Bai-tlett- have 
also made use of the Wheatstone Bridge in their investigations cm "Con- 
centraticm Relaticms of Dilute Solutions of Calcium and Magnesium 
Nitrates to Pea Roots.'' Bayliss' has jmblished an extensive series of 
observaticms on the hydrolysis of vai'ious proteids by the action of tryp- 
sin. The method used was that of measuring the increase in electrical 
conductivity due to the reacti(m of the enzyme. 

No further enumerati(m of the literature is necessary to show" one 
the evident value of conductivitv methods. A studv of the articles 
mentioned above will convince one also of the necessity of eliminating 
errors, many of which are ca])able of correction. The work was l)egun in 
the summer of 1912, when I was making a study of "Adsorption'^ and 
its relation to biology. I first used the ordinaiy slide wire or meter 

Science N. S. Vol. XXXV NO. 890, p. 112 (1912). 

2 U. S. Dept. of Agri. Bur. Plant Ind., Bui. No. 231 (1912). 

« Arch, des Sciences Biologique: Vol. XI Suppl. p. 261, St. Petersburg, (1904). 


bridge, and soon discarded this for the electneal bridge perfected by 
the JBui^au of Soils. With neither of these could I obtain any good 
results, and data found at different times, using the same materials, 
were not comparable. This was due to several factors the mention of 
which is at present unnecessary. The work has been interrupted moi-e 
or less for lack of time and the usual delays in getting apparatus. As 
a result of the work so far, we feel safe in saying that the present 
method attains at least ten times the precision obtained by the ordinary 
Kohlrausch method. Before the completion of the work, there came to 
my notice in the February number of the Jounial of the American Chem- 
ical Society, an. article by Washburn and Bell on **An Improved Ap- 
paratus for Measuring the Ocmductivity of Electix)lytes.-- The proposed 
method does not differ much from that used bv these authors, and we 
have attained at least the same degree of precision. We used the Al- 
ternating Current Galvanometer, while Washburn and Bell still use 
the telephone which they have much improved, however. A description 
of the apparatus I have used follows, the changes made were based 
on the following consideration. 

(1) The ordinary resistances are not fi-ee from inductance or ca- 
pacity. Since most of the solutions to be studied were dilute and for 
that reason high resistances were necessin*y, envoi's due to inductance 
and capacitv are quite appreciable. The special resistances for dilute 
solutions are those perfected by I)i'. Curtiss of the Bureau of Standards 
of Washington, I). C. Based upon a new method of winding, it has 
been found that these resistances are quite pure as to capacity and 
inductance and have no temperature coefficient. 

(2) The induction coil is not a suitable source for alternating cur- 
I'ent. The E. M. F. in one direction is always greater than that in the 
other direction. When used \vii\i a teleplione, the induction coil is 
not free from overtones. Such features are a source of error. The 
induction coil was therefore abandoned and the current taken from 
a 110 volt fJQ-cycle rotary converter. The alternating current gal- 
vanometer was substituted for the telephone. The "extended" bndge 
wire though not used in the present study will be for all later work. 


The alternating current was derived from a OO-cyde rotary converter' 
situated in a room some distance from the i(>om in which the con- 
ductivitv measurements Avere made. The current was led to a switch- 
board in the conductivity room. It was then reduced to 12 volts by 
an ordinarv transformer. 

The galvanometer used was one jnit out by the Tweeds and Northrop 
Company and is of the dynamometer tyi)e, a modification of the one 
perfected by the late Professor Rowland of Johns Hopkins. While it 
was suggested early in its inception as available in such work, it has 
usually been held that the telephone is good enough. When the gal- 
vanometer is used with the bridge to measure resistances of electrolyte, 
the exciting current is passed thi\)ugh the stationary coil in senes 
with the bridge, while the swinging coil is connected across the bridge, 
identical to the connections with the telephcme in the Kohi'ausch 
method. The resistance of the fixed coil is about. 38 ohms and the 



maximum allowable current to be used is one-fifth of ampere for ten 
second periods. An ordinary resistance box can he introduced between 
the transformer and the fixed coil of the galvanometer, so that a total 
resistance of 60 ohms can be had, thus reducing the exciting current 
from the 12 volt transformer to one-fifth of an ampere. The resistance 
of the swinging coil is 10 ohms and the maximum allowable current to 
be used is 1/10 of an ampere for ten second periods. By introducing 
a transformer of variable voltage from to 9 volts, stepping up by 
increments of % volts, a maximmn sensibility can be obtain^ providing 
the proper conductivity cells or cups are used. The switch on this 
transformer can be used to make and break the cuiT^nt for the time 

The bridge employed in these experiments is also a product of the 
Leeds and Northrop Company. It is the roller type supplied with a 
rheostat coil in the base. For very accurate work requiring at least 
and precision of .05 per cent, it is necessary to use the '^extended'' 
wire attachment. The smallest scale division on the bridge is 3 mm. 
wide, and in all but the dilute solution, the movement of the scale, in 
some cases scarcely the thickness of a line, caused a deflection in the 
galvanometer. For convenience, each scale division is divided into 
tenths, such divisions being easy to estimate with the eye. All measure- 
ments were made as near the middle of the bridge as possible and for 
this reason, a variable resistance was put in series with the known 
resistance so that a maximum sensibility could be reached. The Otto 
Wolf high grade standard manganin resistances were used in the pre- 
liminary experiments. The purer resistances as perfected by Dr. 
Curtiss ("Resistant Coils for Alternating Current Work, Bui. No. 3 
Vol. 8 Reprint 177, Bureau of Standards) to whose work we have 
already referred will be used in the final test. 

For the purpose of showing the degree of precision that has been 
attained, I mention below a few preliminary experiments. The cells 
used were the ordinary Kohlrausch type and will be referred to as 
cell No. 1 and No. 2. With the aid of a cathetometer, the electrodes were 
measured. These were platinized according to the usual method, the 
cell constants determined and from this data the specific conductance 
of the various solutions calculated. During the measurements, the 


Dilution of K CI. 

Resistance in ohms. 

Dead point. 


. — 














.5 scale division 




9 scale divisions 





Dilution of K CI. 

Resistance in ohms. 

Dead point. 
















1 flTJilp division 


• X a\*OtiVi ui V &oa\/j« 



8.5 scale divisions 


cells were i)laced in a water bath at a constant temperature of 18° C. 
The "dead point" means that no movement of the galvanometer scale 
took place at one point, and that movement appeared if the contact 
was changed one-tenth of a scale didivion on either side of the "dead 
point." The test solutions used were solutions of K C L in the follow- 
ing dilution: N/10, N/100, N/1000, N/10000. In addition conductivity 
water having a specific conductance of 1.9 x 10-6 ohms was also tested. 


In this preliminary paper I have suggested some changes in the usual 
form of the apparatus commonly employed for determining the con- 
ductivity of electrolyte®. These changes are in some respects similar 
to those made by Washburn & Miller whose paper came out before 
I had completed my work. In one respect I have introduced a more 
radical change in the apparatus since I make use of an alternating cur- 
rent galvanometer instead of the ordinary telephone. In regard to 
the use of the galvanometer this must be said: The zero indication 
(no deflection) will be largely dependent on the phase difference be- 
tween the two circuits. Now when the currents in both systems (swing- 
ing and fixed coils) are in quadrature no deflection will be produced 
in the galvanometer although there is considerable current present. 
A condition of this sort would lead to false readings on the bridge. In 
our work so far this condition has not arisen since we have always 
obtained a deflection. 

A glance at the table will show that a high d^ree of precision has 
been obtained and that only in the more dilute solutions does the bridge 
setting extend over more than 9 scale divisions. From a study of the 
paper published by the authors noted above we are assured that these 
results could be improved should we use tlie "extended" bridge wire, 
electrolytic cells ^yiih electrodes closer than 10 mm., and some form of 
resistances that are free from capacity and inductance. In regard to this 
latter item we expect to use in all our future work the new Curtiss 
Resistance Coils, which we are told are practically free from inductance 
and capacity and possess no temperature coefficient. The changes sug- 
gested in this paper give an easier and quicker method and one which 
at least attains a high degree of precision. 

Michigan Agricultural CJoll^e, 
Experiment Station. 




Tnvestijj^atious were begun on the life history of Ploirrightia morhosa 
in the fall of 1011. The first stej) was to determine at what time the 
ascospores appeared. The«<e observations have shown that the time 
of year when ascospores develop varies somewhat. For example, in 
11)11, well developed spores were f(mnd November IG; while in 1912, 
knots from the same ti'ee failed to develop these s])ores until early 
in December, or alK)ut fifteen days later than in 1911. 

During the seas<m of 1911 and 1912 constant attempts were made 
to germinate ascospoi-es in dro]>-cnltiires, using a great vai'iety of 
media. Late in A])ril some of the spores in (me cultui-e, with tap- 
Avater as a medium, did send out short germ tul>es, but never pro- 
duced mvcelium. With this exception all the attempts were unsuccess- 

To avoid the constant bacterial contamination which occuri"ed when 
perithecia were mashed up and ])ut directly into drop cultui'e, at- 
tempts were made this winter to get the ascos})ores fi*ee from con- 
tamination at the start. After several unsuccessful attempts a prac- 
tical method was devised as follows: A glass ring was sealed to a 
Klide; then a small block of pith was cemented to the slide in the 
center of the ring and moistened with tap water. On toj) of this 
block was ])Iaccd a small mass of perithecia directly from a knot; 
then a sterile cover glass was sealed down over the to]) of the ring. 
The moisture from the ])ith block so<m j)assed up as vapor and con- 
densed on the diy, sterile cover glass in small dro])S. Such a culture 
was then set away in a warm j)lace over night, and the next moniing 
when examined under a micr(«^co])e the droi)s of water on the cover 
glass were found to be abundantly stocked with ascospores, thus 
showing that mider warm, moist conditions the asci are able to shoot 
their s])ores. 

Ky varying the distance from the i)erithecia to the cover glass it 
was found that s(mie spores were shot more than (me centimeter directly 
upward from the asci ; but a far greater number were found on the 
cov(»r glass Avhen it was one-half centimeter or less from the surface 
of the perithecia. 

Spores collected in this way germinated within forty-eight hours; 
the germ tubes being ])ushe(l out either fnmi the tip of the larger cell 
or from the side of this cell near the septum. Tn no case were germ 
tubes pushed out fnmi the smaller cell of the spore. 

On failure in 1911 to *^et cultures by germinating ascos])oi'es, at- 
tempts were made to get cultures from the diseased wood by the fol- 
lowing method: Small blocks of diseas(^d wood were cut from plum 
twigs, just below the ])oiut where the knots had formed. These blocks 
were disinfected externally in 95% alcohol and IlgCL. Then the bark 
was removed with sterile tools and some of the blocks ])laced in tubes 


of liquid gelatin, otliein^ in tubes of liquid agar, both of which were 
allowed to solidify so that a portion of each block was above the 
surface. In about five days white mycelium began to appear on the 
surface of the media. A few days later a portion of this myceliiun 
was transferred to sterile bean ])ods, where it gre\N' quite rapidly and 
in less than one week developed black pustules over the surface of 
the pods. Some of these pustules were mashed in water and examined 
under a microscope and found to be full of elliptical, hyaline, one- 
celled spores. These black ])ustules and spores resembled the pycno- 
spores descril>ed by Hum])hrey in ISOl as developing from ascospores 
growing on culture media. These sj)ores germinate I'eadily in water 
or other media, and on agar they produce colonies of white mycelium 
in a few days. 

Hundreds of inoculations have been made in i)lum and cherrv trees 

• • • 

with these pycnospores and also with the white mycelium growing 
on l)ean pods, but in no case have the cliaracteristic symptoms of 
black knot resulted. 

To determine whether mycelium of Ploirri</htia inorhosa would pass 
down from a diseased twig into healthy wood, several scions of dis- 
eased wood bearing knots were whi]) grafted onto healthy j)lum trees 
May 10, 1912. In no case did the mycelium ])ass down from the dis- 
eased scion and infect the healthv stock; but manv new knots did 
develop on other limbs of these ti'ees. As these trees were not near 
diseased ones and it was too earlv in the season for conidia to be 


])resent the infections must have resulted from the ascospores shot out 
from the knots on the diseased scions used for grafting. 

In the vicinity of Lansing new knots a])]»eared alxmt the first of ^fay 
and by Juh' abundant conidia AN-ere lx>ing i)roduced. Attemi)ts to 
germinate the conidia in drop cultui'es were unsuccessful. 

During the month of July, 11)12, two liundred and ^fiy inocula- 
tions were made with ccmidia in some young plum trees. Up to the 
present time these show no signs of infection; but it is possible that 
the disease may develop during the s])riug. 

To determine the accuracy of the statement that diseased twigs 
throw^n on the ground sene as centers of infection, over one hundred 
diseased twigs were collected here and there throughout an orchard 
of about six hundred plum trees on November 8, 1912. The next 
day samples were taken to the laboratory, sectioned and examined 
with a microscope to determine whether asci and sjjores had developed 
in the perithecia. In no case was either found. 

The twigs were then tied in a bundle and ])Iaced on the ground in 
an exposed position, the same as if they had been cut fi-om the ti'ees 
and dropped on the ground in the orchard. 

December 25, after lying on the ground for almost two months, these 
twigs were again taken to the laboratory, sectioned and examined. 
S<mie fewi of the ])erithecia were still free from s])Oi*es; but most of 
them were full of asci containing spores that wei'e well developed, 
thus showing that the fungus continues to grow and sj)ores are pro- 
duced after the twigs have been cut from the trees. 

This bundle of twigs was then placed on the ground and left until 
March 12, 1018, when some of the twigs were taken to the laboratory, 
where masses of perithecia werw ])laced on pith blocks \\\ V\vv^. '^n.h^. 


previously described, to see if tliej' would shoot their spores. The 
next morning many spores Avere found in the drops of water con- 
densed on the cover glass; demonstrating that after being removed 
from the trees and left lying on the ground for five months such dis- 
eased twigs are a possible source of infection. Therefore it should 
be recommended that diseased twigs cut from the trees be immediately 

Michigan Agricultural College. 




The southern portion of Kent County lies near the southera border 
of the North-eastern Conifer I*rovinee, typified on dry ground by forests 
dominated by the white pine, Pinus Strobus. The pine hei'e, today, is 
not abundant, and such isolated areas as now occur in this region 
should be studied and described before they have all vanished. 

The town of Lowell is located on Grand River, about a mile from 
where it enters Kent County on the east, and at a point where a 
tributary, the Flat River, joins the Grand from the north. The hills 
which border Flat River are part of one of the largest moraines left 
by the Saginaw lobe of the ice-sheet in its reti-eat at the end of the 
glacial period. A few of these hills about a mile north of the town 
are always i^eferred ^o locally as "the Pine-hills." 

Looking at these hills from a distance, one would scarcely recognize 
them by this name. The hills seem wooded almost exclusively with 
deciduous trees, and only in the winter do the few pines stand out 
conspicuously. They lie close to the river, and suffer considerably from 
cutting by the cuiTents, so the sides rise somewhat precipitously. The 
soil is dry and sandy, showing as yellow scars where a portion of the 
hillside has fallen into the nver. 

Proceeding northward from the town, the first of these hills shows 
but little tree growth. The pines are scattered, a few small ones here 
and there occur, but the majority of the smaller growth is deciduous. 
The large pines still left are all dead, apparently because of the caving 
of the soil from al>out their roots. The arbor-vitae is conspicuous 
here, and small junipers border the caved places, and are i)erched on 
the more solid portions of soil in the cuts themselves. The following 
list embraces the most common plants here: 

Pinus Strobus Chimaphila umbellata 

Thuja occidentals Rhus toxicodendron 

Juniperus virginiana Solidago caesia, var. axillaris 
Equisetim hiemale, var. robustum Solidago canadensis 

Salix sp. Antennaria plantaginifolia 

Quercus rubra Rudbeckia hirta 

Anemone cylindrica Achillaea millefolium 

Pyrola asarifolia Hieracium sp. 

The second hill has its nvei'ward face rather sharply divided into 
two parts. The southern half is covered with* oak and hickory, while 
the northern half has almost no vegetation except pines of moderate 
size. The smaller pines were less than a foot high, the larger ones up 
to thirty feet. Even the smallest are not young; the smallest indi- 
vidual found showed an age of twenty-five years. Other ])lants in lesa 
exposed situations showed a growth of five feet for only thirty years. 


On the third hill the pines are reduced to scattered individuals in 
a dense growth of deciduous trees. This hill is less steep and there 
is no caving of the hillsides. The deciduous trees are well-established 
and have accumulated a noticeable amount of humus. At the edge 
of the river there is a marshy strip about ten feet wide. The differences 
in soil and moisture conditions are also seen in the flora. The follow- 
ing plants occur here: 

Pinus strobus Quercus alba Vitis sp. 

Juniperus virginiana Quercus rubra Comus stolonifera 

Smilax hispida Quercus velutina Chimaphila umbellata 

Carya ovata . Anemone cylindrica Prunella vulgaris 

Corylus americana Hamamelis virginiana Gerardia grandifolia 

Ostrya virginiana Rosa sp. Rudbeckia hirta 

Fagus grandifolia Rhus glabra Helianthus sp. 

Besides the above, Alnus incana occurs with Cornus along the marshy 

The fourth and fifth hills have no pines left, their former presence 
being attested only by the large stumps which remain from the lumber- 
ing of the past. A sharp ravine separates these hills to quite a dis- 
tance from the river. The ground here is wet, almost swampy, and 
hence springs the small brook which has cut the ravine. The ordinary 
oak and hickory of tlie riverward face of the hills is hei'e varied by 
the admixture of a little burr-oak and wihite ash and quite a lot of 
red maple. In and bordering this wetter ground are three plants of 
special significance: Epigaea repens, Gaultheria procumbens, and Vac- 
cinium canadense. These three plants, especially Epigaea, can always 
be taken as signs of the pine association in this region, even when the 
pines have left no signs of themselves. Gaultheria and Vaccinium 
are too easily bird-distributed to be safe criteria of themselves, but 
when associated with Epigaea they may be always so regarded. 

From the preceding it is seen that pines are at present quite scarce 
on these hills, {persisting on but a few of them, anji then only on the 
sides toward the river. They have been left here on • the more inac- 
cessible places by the lumbermen, and have persisted because the de- 
ciduous trees can not use the sterile and rather unstable soil where 
they are perched. The deciduous trees do not seem as well able to 
stand the caving of the soil as do the younger pines, nor do they es- 
tablish themselves as well on the denuded areas. The pines are not 
reproducing themselves to any extent; no cones were present on the 
trees, and only one fallen cone was found. These pines may fruit 
cmly at long intervals, most of them are too young to fruit. With a 
fair seed-production the pines might |)ersist here for a long time, but 
seed-production has been nearly entirely stopped, probably l>ecause of 
the death of the older trees where the soil has caved from about their 

Tniversity of Michigan, April, 1913. 





During the first t^'^o years of botanical work at tlie Biological Sta- 
tion of the University of Michigan, locjited at Douglas Lake in Che- 
boygan County, 294 species of flowering plants and ferns were listed. 
During the third season. Dr. Frank C. Gates, in the employ of the 
State Biological Survey, conducted an ecological survey of the Douglas 
Lake region, and increased the list to 468 species. This number in- 
cludes not only those seen personally by Dr. Gates, but also others 
collected by members of the Station during the same year or previously. 
During 1912, the fourth season of the Biological Station, a more thorough 
study of the flora was made by Miss Maud Robertson, who collected 
specimens of approximately 560 species of flowering plants and ferns, 
of which 166 species had not previously been reported from the vicinity 
of the Station. The continued thoroughness and industry with which 
Miss Robertson prosecuted this work is worthy of special mention. 

About 70 species reported in Dr. Gates' list were not found by Miss 
Robertson, so that the reported flora of the Biological Station includes 
at the present time 634 species. The official flora, however, includes 
only those species which are represented by specimens in the Station 
herbarium, approximately 560 in number. The term approximately is 
used because the study of the grasses and sedges is not yet completed, 
and because of a few doubtful species mentioned below. 

Among these 560 species are several which are of sufficient interest 
to deserve mention here. These will be grouped in four classes. 

A. Species whose occurrence at Douglas Lake marks a con>spicuous 
addition to their known distribution, as reported in BeaPs Michigan 

1. Botrychium simplex E. Hitchcock. The only station hitherio re- 
ported from the Lower Peninsula is at Oscoda. 

2. Viola Rafinesquii Greene. This violet is usually considered es- 
sentially southern in its distribution. * It is reported by Beal from Cros- 
well and Detroit, in the southeastern part of the state, and by Gates 
from the extreme southwestern portion. 

3. Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Although reported from Black 
Lake in BeaPs Michigan Flora, the red ash is rightly regarded as charac- 
teristic of the southern part of the Ix)wer Peninsula. Authentic fruit- 
ing specimens were collected by Miss Robertson frpm a tree at the ex- 
treme north end of Burt Lake. 

4. Scrophularia leporella Bicknell. The plant grows thriftily in 
the w^et, frequently burned woods along Maple river, near its source in 
Douglas Lake, and reaches a height of eight feet. 

5. Hieracium panic^ilatum L. The species is credited by Be>Ql \?^ 
the central and southern portions of the Lower P^w\w^v\^. ^v x"^ \^5csxVj 


eoiiiinon at Douglas Lake in the dry sands of tlie aspen association, 
where it gi'ows in eom])any with Hieraciuni vcnosum. 

B. Species of considerable rarity in the State. 

1. Strcptopus loufjipen Feniald. The species was recently described 
from Marqnette County, in the Upper Peninsnla, but is common at 
Douglas T>ake in the deep shade of the hardwood forests. Here it 
grows in company with Streptopus roscus, biit the two are at once dis- 
tinguished by the three-angled l)erries of N'. longipes^ as was indicated by 
Dr. Gates. 

2. Arccutliobium piisiUum Peck. Although the plant has frequently 
been reported from the State, its diminutive size makes it very incon- 
spicuous, and its rediscovery is always a matter of interest. At Douglas 
Lake it has been observed only on the short-leaved bog form of Plcea 
mavimui. The specimens collected never exceed 7 nun. in height. 

3. Ranunculus Flammula L., var. reptans (L.) ^ley. Rai'e, in wet 
ground near the shore of Douglas Lake. 

4. CJiri/sospleniuni amcricanum Schwein. A very dwarf form, with 
a tendency to minute pubescence, gi'ows in wet sand at the north end 
of Burt Lake. 

5. Rihes hudsonianum Richards. The collection by Dr. Gates, Ye- 
feri*ed to this species, has not been examined, but specimens collected 
by Miss Robertson in the deep shade of wet cedar bogs have been verified 
by comparison with authentic maleiial in the herbarium of the New 
York Botanical Garden. So far as known, this is the second station 
for the species in the eastern States. The ripe red berries are minutely 
black glandular and very fetid, and both of these charactei's disappear 
in pressing. 

C. Species not listed in BeaFs Michigan Flora, and not collected by 
Dr. Gates. They are therefore apparently new to the state. 

1. Hahenaria macrophylJa Goldie. In damp thickets on the north 
shore of Douglas Lake. It is distinguished at once from the commoner 
Hahenaria orhiculata by the spur, which is nearly twice as long. The 
species is credited to Michigan in Gray's New Manual. 

2. Rumcx clongatns Guss. An introduce<l species, growing along 
logging roads in the vicinity of Douglas Lake, which has been confused 
with Rumor erispus. 

3. Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. The typical form, with pubescent 

4. Ruhus idaeus L. In the sp^imens collected, the sepals are softly 
and closely velvety, entirely lacking the hispid pubescence or prickles 
of the commoner variety aculcatissimus. 

5. Oenothera muricaia L. The species is at once distinguished from 
Oenothera biennis by the i-ed hairs with conspicuously enlarged bases. 
It is common in the aspen association, especially near the shore of the 

6. Circaea intermedia Ehrh. In deep moist woods, such as the sides 
of the "gorge." 

7. Tencrium occidentale Gray, var. boreale (Bicknell) Femald. In 
gravelly soil under thickets near the noi*thwe«t end of Burt Lake. The 
general character of the pubescence is strongly suggestive of T. 
ca'tmd4?nse. but the two are distinguished by the shape of the calyx 


8. Mature ja Aclnos (L.) Selieele. Introduced or escaped near 

9. Aster macrophi/llus L., var. sejunctus B\u*ges8. With the species, 
in rather dry, shaded places. 

10. Aster lateriffioriis (L.) Britton, var. hirsuticaulis (Lindl.) Porter. 

11. Hierachun aurantiacum L. Introduced and growing along road- 
sides about four miles west of I>evering, in Emmet County. 

D. Plants of doubtful identity. 

1.. Ranunculus sp. With the general habit of EanuncuJns ahortivm, 
but the achenes with an elongated beak. 

2. Apios f tul)erosa Moench. The solitary tuber, 3 cnj. in diameter, 
suggests Apios Priceana, but the flowers necessary' for complete identifi- 
cation were not collected. The typical form with moniliform elongated 
tubers grows with it on the sandy shores of both Burt and Douglas 

3. Aster f laevis L. Common in the dry sands of the aspen associa- 
tion, and differing from the typical form of southern ^lichigan in the 
narrowly attenuate involucral scales. 

4. Senecio sp. A form with bright-green foliage, leafy stems, large 
heads, and floccose pubescence chiefly confined to the bases of the deeply 
lobed leayes grows in damp woods at Grapevine Point, on the shore of 
Douglas Lake. It has hitherto been called S. Balsamitaey but is amply 
different from the typical form of the latter species as it grows in the 
aspen association. 



NO. 9. 



Stony Creek is a tributary of the Clinton River and derives its name 
from the large numbers of boulders and stones which make up the bed 
of the river; it takes its rise in the northeastern comer of Oakland 
County and flows southeast into Macomb County, then south, southwest 
and west into Oakland County again, thence south into the Clinton 
River about a mile east of Rochester and not far from the east central 
boundary' of the county. 

Oakland County is in the southeastern secti'on of Michigan, being the 
2nd county in the 3rd tier. It is thirtv miles square and lies approxi- 
mately between 42° 26' and 42° 52' north latitude and 83° 5' and 83° 42' 
west longitude. The surface of the county is very diversified but of 
moderate relief, being from 100 to 600 feet above the surface of the 
Michigan-Huron basin; it abounds in small lakes, streams, marshes and 
sand hills. The county lies entirely within Dr. Merriam's Alleghanian 
life area, but close to its southern boundary. The flora is characteris- 
tically transitional, the southern and northern meeting and well repre- 

The topograi)hy is rolling, the highest points on either side of the 
stream are about I/2 a mile apart and reach an elevation of 820 feet or 
120 above Stony Creek river. The section of the valley collected over lies 
between the first ranges of hills on either side and is about % of a mile 
in length in a north and south direction, by Vi of a mile wide. The 
first range of hills on the east side is rather steep and varies from 20 
feet to 80 above the river, and, like those on the west, are either under 
pasturage or cultivation ; the range on the west side, for the most part, 
is a gradually rising slope. This section of the valley is on the north- 
east corner of Parkedale Farm, the stock-farm of Parke, Davis & Com- 
pany of Detroit. 

The hills are composed of gravel and sand. The low lands between 
the ranges and the river are mostly of a rich black muck and those 
parts of the soil saturated by the overflow from the numerous cold 
springs become mud holes which it is well to avoid; the water from 
these mud holes finally reaches the river by seepage, as there is no 
direct channel running into it. The fiood plain of the river up to where 
the slopes begin is a flat stretch of land varying in width from 2 to 50 
rods. It is sparsely covered with trees, is free from undershrubs, and 


constitutes a "park"-like growth with a good grass floor; this "park" 
covers the greater part of the flood plain and at the south end is merged 
into the woods of the low lands on the east side; it consists of Quercus 
macrocarpa and Ulmus Americana; associated with these are Pyrus 
Malus, Prunus serotina, Tilia Americana and Juniperus Virgiuiana. To 
the north of the "park" is a Crataegus-Viburnum-Cornus thicket and a 
reed swamp. To the south there is an Elm-Aspen-Crataegus-Carpinus 
thicket. At various places along the western edge of the plain are cold 
springs which keep the ground well saturated and this condition, prob- 
ably, is the reason why there is no shrubby growth in the "park." 

On the east side of the river, the southern part is nearly taken up by 
a low spur of the range running east and west. This is flat-topped, about 
35 feet above the river, and supports a sparse growth of juniper. To 
the north is a lower spur which is well covered with oaks, maples, beech 
and ironwood, with a dense undergrowth of blackberries, witch-hazel, 
crataegi, etc. Between these is a shallow ravine with a small stream 
partly natural, partly artificial, to carry away the drainage water. This 
narrow ravine is filled up with a dense growth of Impatiens biflora to 
the exclusion almost of everything else; on either side of it is a profuse 
growth of Panicularia nervata. On the hillside on the south was found 
the only ericaceous plant iu the valley, the Monotropa uniflora. To 
the north of this is the tamarack swamp now cleared or trees and well 
drained. It stretches clear across the valley from the river to the range, 
a distance of about 1/6 of a mile by half as wide. The northeast 
quarter of the field is crossed by a marl bed which extends some quarter 
of a mile up the valley beyond our limits. The southern half of this 
marl bed is on a gently rising slope, and in general outline very, much 
resembles that of a shoe. This part lies over a number of cold springs 
and at one time was so saturated with water from this source that, by 
jumping up and down upon the surface, short but distinct waves could 
be made to appear on the surface. This section, which is about 220 
yards long on its longest axis and half as wide on its widest, is now 
thoroughly tiled and has a hard and dry surface. The northern half 
is much steeper and lies across the nearly vertical base of the range 
which here reaches a height of about 80 feet above the stream; it was 
always dry and is covered by a dense gi»owth of Potentilla fruticosn. 
Since the tiling was put in and the bog has become dry, the Potentilla 
has been spreading and has nearly surrounded the latter part; probably 
some day it will over-run it. 

Between the river and the marl bed, the flood plain is mostly a level 
stretch, but not so wide as on the west side. Not being saturated by 
the overflow from cold springs, it is covered with a dense growth of 
shrubs and small trees, among which the following may be mentioned : 
Corylus Americana, Cornus Amomum, Populus tremuloides, Salix lucida, 
Quercus macrocarpa, Fraxinus viridis, P. nigra, Larix Americana, etc. 

The ranges have been, for the most part, cleared of their forest growth 
and are now used as pasturage or have been brought under cultivation. 
Those parts that are used as pasturage show a typical upland flora, 
such as Anemone cylindrica, Arenaria Michauxii, Houstonia longifolia, 
Arabis laevigata, Carex alopecoidea and Solidago nemoralis. 

The invasion of this field by man and animal, i. e., the extetisive drain- 
ing and pasturing, is producing a change in the character of the €^cs'5^^ 


some plants like Potentilla fniticosa, Salix Candida and Betula pumila 
are spreading, others like Pyrola, wiiich was once frequent in the 
tamarack swamp, is no longer seen, while the flowering season of some 
has been retarded, and other plants have been dwarfed. The floral con- 
ditiims here are of snch interest that it seems desirable to place on 
i^ecord as complete a list as possible of the flora before it has become 
radically changed or partially exterminated. The list is by no means 
complete as collecting was begun late in May and during August I 
was away on my annual vacation. 

The valley may be divided into two natural areas. The Wooded Area 
and The Cleared Area. 

The Wooded Area may be sub-divided into the Upland Series, The 
I^^wland ^'eries and The Bottomland or Flood Plain Series. 

The Cleared Area may be sub-divided info the Edaphic Series and 
the Aquatic Series. 

The Edaphic Series may be again sub-divided into the Upland Pas- 
tui'es, The Tamarack Swamp, The ^lud or Reed Swamp and the Marl 


The range of hills has been, for the mo^t part, cleared of its forest 
growth, so that the series is but poorlv represented. 
June 9th, 1912. 

Carex Pennsylvanica. 

Waldsteinia fragarioides. 
June 23rd. 
^Carpinus Caroliniana. 

Also on lowland and plain. 

Ostrya Virginiana. 

Rhus Canadensis. 
June 30th. 

Amelanchier florida. 

Amelanchier sanguinea. 
July 28th. 

Equisetum arvense. 
- Also on the plain. 

Festuca nutans. , 

Monotropa uniflora. 
October 27th. _ 

Populus grandidentata. 

Corvlus Americana. 
Also on the plain. 

Quercus alba. 

Also on the lowlands. 

Quercus ellipsoidalis. 

Quercus velutina. 

Euosmus Sassafras. 

Crataegus opulans. 

Rhus glabra. 

Rhus hirta, A'ar. typhina. 

Tilia Americana. 
Also on the plain. 



The lowlands are the lower knolls and the intervening vallevs. The 
:Soil here is mostly gravel and sand, bnt is overlaid with vegetable mould 
and holds more or less moisture through the season so that there is a 
thin forest growth with abundant shnibs and undershrubs. It gradually 
merges into the flood plain. 
May 19th, 1912. 

Arisaema triphyllum. 

eTuncoides campestre, Yar. multiflorum. 

Juncoides saltuense. 

Vagnera stellata. 

Tinllium grandiflorum. 

Salix discolor. 

Salix rostra ta. 

Salix sericea. 

The last two species also on the plain. 
Fagus grandifolia, Var. Caroliniana. 
Claytonia Virginica. 
Cerastium vulgatum. 

Also on the upland pasture. 
Anemone quinquefolia. 
Eanunculus abortivus. 
Ranunculus septentrionalis. 
Podophyllum peltatum. 

Also on the plain. 
IBursa Bursa-pastoris. 

Also on the upland pasture. 
Cardamitie bulbosa. 
Tiarella cordifolia. 
Prunus Virginiana. 
Zanthoxylum Americanum. 

Also on the plain. 
Viola papilionacea. 
A'iola scabriuscula. 
Viola sororia. 
Phlox divaricata. 
Veronica arvensis. 
Also on the upland pasture. 
-June 2nd. 

Adopogon Virginicum. 
Senecio aureus. 
June 9th. 

Carex leptalea. 
Asparagus officinalis. 

Also on the tamarack swamp and on the plain. 
Fragaria Americana. 
Coraus stolonifera. 

This is found also in the tamarack swamp and on the plain. 
June 11th. 

Carex cephalophora. 
Carex granulans. 


This is rather plentiful and is found in the tamarack swamp also. 

Carex laxiflora, var. blanda. 

Carex laxiflora, var. varians. 

Carex pubeseens. 

Carex rosea. 

Bubus occidentalis. 

Found in the tamarack swamp also, as is the next. 

Geranium maculatum. 

Taenidia integerrima. 

Galium Aparine. 
June 23rd. 

Botrj'chium Virginiatium. 

Allium Canadense. 

Heuchera hirsuticaulis. 
June 30th. 

Carex cristata. 

Carex mirabilis. 
July 4th. 

Filix spinulosa. 
July 14th. 

Dioscorea villosa. 

Rubus Andrewsianus. 

Acalypha Virginica. 

Circaea Canadensis. 

Uraspermum Claytoni. 
Found also on the plain. 

Uraspermum aristatum. 

Nummularia ciliatum. 

Sambucus Canadensis. 
Found also on the plain and in the tamarack swamp. 
July 28th. 

Urticastrum divaricatum. 

Boehmeria cylindrica. 
Also on the plain. 

Agrimonia gryposepala. 

Also on the plain and in the tamarack swamp. 

Euonymus obovatus. 
Also on the plain. 

Deringa Canadensis. 

Fraxinus Americana. 

Fraxinus nigra. 
Also on the plain. 

Apocynum cannabinum, Var. glabenimum. 

Lappula Virginiana. 

Verbena urticaefolia. 
August 4th. 

Phegopteris hexagonoptera. 

Athvrium Filix-femina. 

Athvrium Filix-femina, Var. angustum. 

Adiantum pedatum. 

Oakesia sessili folia. 

Vagnera racemosa. 


Smilax hispida. 

Bubus hispidus. 

Rosa Carolina. 

Glycine Apios. 

Lycopus u^iflorus. 
Also found in the tamarack swamp. 

Galium triflorum. 

Mitchella repens. 
September 2nd. 

Acer nigrum. 

Aster laevis, Var. amplifolius. 
October 27th. 

Smilax rotundifolia, Var. quadrangularis. 

Hamamelis Virginiana. 

Ehus radicans. 

Acer rubrum. 

Scrophularia leporella, 

Solidago serotina, Var. gigantea. 


The flood plain is a nearly level flat through the center of which the 
river winds its crooked way. It is about 60 rods wide at its widest 
part. On both sides of the river, at the upper end of the valley, the plain 
is covered with a large "park-like" growth of oak and elm, but the 
greater part of the east side is covered with a dense thicket of hazel, 
willows and other shrubs. The surface is too or three feet above the 
water level and is often flooded by spring freshets. The soil is a rich 
muck mixed with sand washings from the ranges, and in places is con- 
verted into mud swamps by the overflow from cold springs. It is 
covered with a good grass-sod. 
May 19th, 1912. 

Populus balsamifera. 

Quercus macrocarpa. 

Ulmus Americana. 

Cardamine pratensis. 

Fragaria Virginiana. 

Vitis vulpjna. 
June 2nd. 

Ranunculus recurvatus. 
June 9th. 

Populus deltoidea. 

Ranunculus hispidus. 

Vicia Americana. 

Lonicera Tartarica, Var. alba. 

Viburnum pubescens. 
June 11th. 

Carex stipata. 

Iris versicolor. 

Iris versicolor, Var. Virginica, 

Ranunculus sceleratus. 


June 23rd. 

Opulaster opulifolius. 
June 30th. 

Carex viilpinoidea. 

Rumex crispns. 

Thalictrum dasycarpiim. 

Barbarea Barbarea. 

Barbarea Barbarea, Yar. longjisiliquosa. 

Geum Canadense. 

Geum strietiim. 

The last two also in the tamarack swamp. 

Geum Virgin] anum. 

Ijobelia leptostaehys, Var. hirtella. 

Erigeron annuus. 

Erigeron Philadelphicus. 

The last two also in the tamarack swamp. 

Achillea occidentalis. 
July 4th. 

Oxalis corniculata (O. cvmosa). 

Leonurus Cardiaca. 
July 14th. 

Ascelepias Syriaca. 

Prunella vulgaris. 
July 28th. 

Anemone Virginiana. 

Clematis Virginiana. 

Spiraea alba. 

Agrimonia pubescens. 

Trifolium hvbridum. 

Trifolium pratense. 

Trifolium repens. 

Oenothera muricata. 

Verbena hastata. 

Btachys tenuifolia, Var. aspera. 

Monarda mollis. 

Mentha Canadensis. 

Galium asprellum. 

Heliopsis scabra. 

Cirsium lanceolatum. 
August 4th. 

Setaria glauca. 

Poa annua. 

Trichophyllum palustris. 

Scirpus atrovirens. 

Scirpus atrovirens, Var. pycnocephalus. 

Juncus Dudlevi. 

Salix cordata, Var. augustata. 

Salix longifolia. 

Rumex obtusifolius. 

Polygonum Persicaria. 

Saponaria officinalis. 

Ranunculus Pennsvlvanicus. 


Pyrus Malus. 
Melilotus alba. 
Lathyrus myrtifolius. 
Hypericum corvnibosuni. 
Daucus Carota. 
Scutellaria lateriflora. 
Monarda fistulosa. 
Lycopus Americana. 

Also in the tamarack swamp. 
Solanum nigrum. 

Plantago lanceolata, Var. imgua. 
Plantago major. 
Plantago Rugelii. 
Tx)belia syphilitica. 
Gnaphalium polycephalum. 

The last two also in the tamarack swamp. 
September 2nd. 
Prunella vulgaris, Yar. albiflora. 
Lycopus rubellus. 
Helianthus giganteus. 

Also in the tamarack swamp. 
Helenium autumnale. 

Also in the marl bed. 
October 27th. 
Juniperus Virginiana. 
Smilax herbacea. Var. pulverulenta. 
Smilax rotundifolia. 
Salix amygdaloides. 
Salix lucida. 
Populus tremuloides. 
Prunus Americana. 
Prunus serotina. 
Crataegus attenuata. 
Crataegus punctata. 
Crataegus structilis. 
Cornus Amomum. 
Fraxinus lanceolata. 
Aster cardifolius. 
Aster Novae-Angliae. 
Aster paniculatus. 


Here we have a rolling suriace, the native forest flora of wiiich has 
long since disappeared. The soil is sand and gravel, vevy porous and 
consequently very dry. It has long been under cultivation and pasturage. 
Various gi*asses constitute the chief herbage and these form a thin or 
broken sod. The flora is now campestrial. 

May 19th, 1912. 


This low spreading and decumbent shiiib is aJso found in the tam- 
arack swamp and on the plain; in the latter situation it is being rai^ldl^ 
stamped out of existence bj' the stock whiclv \«> ^^'^Vwj:^^ \». N^^sfe x^^SN-^^^ 


Arenaria serpyllifolia. 

Antennaria mesochora. 

Taraxacum Taraxacum. 
June 2nd. 

Senecio Sp. 
June 9th. 

Arenaria stricta. 

Ranunculus fascicularis. 

Arabia laevigatus. 

Houstonia longifolia. 
June 11th. 

Sisyrinchium albidum. 

Stellaria media. 

Potentilla argentea. 

Oxalis stricta. 

Lithospermum arvense. 

Lithospermum canescens. 

Pentstemon hirsutus. 
June 30th. 

Danthonia spicata. 

Helianthemum majus. 

Cynoglossum officinale. 

Plantago lanceolata. 

Campanula intercedens. 

Julv 11th. 

Silene dichotoma. 

This is new to the state, at least it is not included in BeaPs Michigan 
Flora. Another species of Silene, not included in the work just men- 
tioned, and collected by me at Detroit, is S. Gallica. It was observed 
at Galesburg also, but not collected at that station. 

Julv 14th. 

Bromus secalinus. 

Erigeron ramosus. 
July 28th. 

Polygonum tenue. 

Anemone cylindrica. 

Verbascum Thapsus. 

Solidago juncea, Yar. scabrella. 

Lactuca hirsuta. 

This species is common on the dry uplands and is also found but 
much less frequently in the lowland and on the flood plain. 
August 4th. 

Eragrostis multiflora. 

Carex alopecoidea. 
September 2nd. 

Solidago nemoralis. 

Aster azureus. 

Aster laevis. 

Aster lateriflorus. 

Aster lateriflorus, Var. glomerellus. 

Aster sagittaefolius. 


October 27th. 
Lechea villosa. 
Triosteum aurantiacum. 


This section lies between the lowland on the south and the marl bog 
on the north and a few years ago was a typical tamarack swamp. The 
trees have been cut off, the land has been thoroughly tiled, like the 
rest of the wet sections of the valley, and is now a dry field. It is a 
nearly level stretch, slightly rising towiard the east end where it merges 
into the lowland. The vegetation is still characteristically that of 
the tamarack swamp. 

May 19th, 1912. 

Savastana odorata. 

Salix Candida. 

Also in the marl bog. 

Betula pumila. 

Ribes Americanum. 

Kibes Cynosbati. 

Ribes Cynosbati, Var. glabrata. 

Rubes oxyacanthoides. 

Rhamnus alnifolius. 

Viola rostrata. 

Sambucus pubens. 
June 2nd. 

Eriophonim viridi-carinatum. 

Cypripedium bulbosum, Var. flavessens. 

Aquilegia Canadensis. 
June 9th. 

Carex flava. 
Also in the marl section. 

Carex stellulata. 

Also in the marl section. 

Galium Clavtoni. 
June 11th. 

Carex hystericina. 

Saxifraga Pennsylvanica. 

Geum rival e. 

Zizia aurea. 

Lonicera glaucescens, Var. dasygj^na. 
June 23rd. 

Rhus Vemix. 

Viola conspersa. 

Cornus foemina. 

Solanum Dulcamara. 

Galium boreale. 
June 30th. 

Cypripedium reginae. 
July 4th. 

Sphenopholis pallens. 

Potentilla Monspeliensis. 

Rubus triflorus. 

Also in the marl bog. 


Julv 14tll. 


Agrostis stolonifera (A. vulgaris). 

Broimis ciliatus. 

BronuLS piirgans. 

Asclepias incarnata. 

Koellia Virginiana. 

Campanula aparinoides. 

Rudbeckia liirta. 

July 28 th. 

Larix laricina. 

A few scattering trees are still standing in the original swamp and 
on the flood plain near the river banks. Young trees are beginning- 
to spring uj) in the potentilla moor. 

Chenopodium hybridum. 
Cicuta maculata. 
Veronica Yirginica. 
Lonicera glaucescens. 
Liatris spicata. 

'Also through the marl section. 
Aster junceus. 
Rudbeckia hirta, Var. pulcherrinia. 

Also in the marl bed. 
August 4th. 

Filix Thelypteris. 

Also in the reed swamp. 
Alisma Plantago-aquatica, Yar. trivialis. 

With the last. 
Cornus altemifolia. 
September 2nd. 
Rumex Britannica. 
Epilobium coloratum. 
Conioselinum Ohinense. 
Gentiana crinita. 

Also through the marl section. 
Chelone glabra. 
Eupatorium maculatum. 
Eupatorium perfoliatum. 
Solidago altissima. 
Solidago aspera. 
Solidago aspera, Yar. axillaris. 
Solidago Ohioensis. 
Solidago Ridellii. 
Solidago uliginosa. 
Aster paniculatus, Yar. bellidifolius. 
Aster puniceus. 
Erechtites hieracifolia. 
Prenanthes alba. 
October Gth. 

Aster Novae-Belgii. 

Aster paniculatus, Yar. simplex. 


October 27th. 
Salix fragilis. 
Salix petiolaris. 
Solidago patula. 


A rather extensive marl bed crosses the base of the range in the 
northeast quarter of this section of the valley and extends up the 
valley for a quarter of a mile or so beyond our limits, where it spreads 
out and forms a broad low-lying swamp. There are two distinct sec- 
tions, differing quite noticeably in their flora. First, the marl bog or 
that part which was fed with cold springs; Second, the part which 
always has been dry and which is characterized by a dense growth of 
Potentilla fruticosa. 


May 19th, 1912. 

Polygala paucifolia. 

Viola vagula. 
June 2nd. 

Carex conoidea. 

Triglochin maritima. 

Valeriana edulis. 

Valeriana uliginosa. 
June 9th. 

Carex tetanica. 

Hypoxis hirsuta. 

Geum vernum. 

Senecio Balsamitae. 
June 11th. 

Selaginella apus. 

Carex diandra, Var. ramosa. 

Sarracenia purpurea. 
June 23rd. 

Carex granulans, Var. Haleana. 

Pogonia ophioglossoides. 

Limodorum tuberosum. 

Lathyrus palustris. 
July 4th. 

Lilium umbellatum. 
July 14th. 

Panicum implicatum. 

Tofielda glutinosa. 

Nummularia quadriflorum. 
July 28th. 

Zygadenus chloranthus. 

Lobelia Kalmii. 
August 4th. 

Aletris farinosa. 

Parnassus Caroliniana. 

Aster lateriflorus, Var. horizontalis. 

Aster lateriflorus, Var. pendulus. 



June 23rd. 

8alix serissima. 

Potentilla fruticosa. 

Convolvulus Americanus. 
July 14th. 

Trichophvllum rostellatum. 

Bcirpus Ammcanus. 

Triodon capillaeea. 

Aster concinnus (?). 
July 28tli. 

Equisetum variegatum, Var. Jesupi. 

Agropyron repens. 

8cirpus occidentalism 

Triodon glomerata. 

Silene noctiflora. 

Meibomia Canadensis. 
August 4th. 

Scirpus validus. 

Euphorbia maculata. 

Aster laevis, Var. laevigatus. 


In many places on the flood plain and lowland, the overflow from 
springs, finding no outlet to the river, accumulates and converts the 
rich muck soil into reed or mud swamps. A characteristic flora ap- 
pears in these places. 


May 19th. 

Spathyema foetidus. 

Caltha palustris. 

Viola cucullata. 
June 11th. 

Equisetum fluviatile, Var. limosum. 
June 30th. 

Panicularia nervata. 

Radicula Kasturtium-Aquaticum. 

Galium tinctorium. 
July 4th. 

Bparganium eurycarpum. 

Panicularia grandis. 

Acorus Calamus. 
July 28th. 

Impatiens biflora. 

Heracleum lanatum. 
August 4th. 

Osmunda cinnamomea. 

Onoclea sensibilis. 

Sagittaria latifolia. 

Sagittaria latifolia, Var. hastata. 


Cinna amndinacea. 
Arundo Phragmites. 
Panicularia septentrionalis. 
Juncus brachycephalus. 
Juncus nodosus. 
Penthorum sedoides. 
Mimulus ringens. 
Rudbeckia laciniata. 
September 2nd. 
Mentha piperita. 


The current of the stream is so strong that there is little vegetation 
represented, but one plant was observed, the Elodea Canadensis. In a 
stagnant pool, not connected with the river, another plant, the Spirodela 
polyrhiza, was also found. 

The following catalogue constitutes as complete a list of the plants 
of Parkedale Farm as I have been able to gather. The farm consists 
of about 330 acres of very rolling upland pasture with here and there 
a small swamp area and some flood plain region. 

Division I. Cryptogamae. Spore-bearing or Flowerless plants. 
Order I. Filicales. 

Family 1. Ophioglossaceae. 
1. Botrychium Virginianum (Lin.) Swz. Grape-Fern. 
Rich Woods. Scarce. 

Familv 2. Osmundaceae. 
% Osmunda cinnamomea Lin. Cinnamon Fern. 
Swamps. Scarce. 

Family 3. Polypodiaceae. 

3. Onoclea sensibilis. Lin. Sensitive Fern. 

Swamps. Scarce. 

4. Filix spinulosa (O. F. Miiller). Shield Fern. 

Polypodium spinulosum, O. F. Miiller. Flora Fridrichsdalina 

136, 1767. 
In rich woods. Frequent. 

5. Filix Thelypteris (Lin.) Farwell. Marsh Fern. 

Swampy grounds. Common. 

6. Athyrium Filix-femina (Tjin.) Roth. Female Fern. 

Rich woods. Common. 

7. Athyrium Filix-femina (Lin.) Roth., Var. angustum (Willd.) 


Borders of woods. Scarce. 

8. Adiantum pedatum, Lin. Maiden-hair Fern. 

Rich woods. Scarce. 

9. Pteris aquilina, Lin. Common brake. 

Borders of woods. Frequent. 
10. Phegopteris hexagonoptera (Mx.) Fee. Beech Fern. 
Rich woods. Frequent. 
Order IT. Equisetales. 

Family 4. Equisetaceae. 


11. Equisetum arvense Lin. Horsetail. 

Sandy grounds. Common. 

12. Equisetum fluviatile, Lin., Horsetail. 

Dry sandy places. Frequent. 

13. Equisetum fluviatile, Lin., Var. limosum. (Lin.) Gilbert. Horsetail. 

In shallow water. Frequent. 

14. Equisetum robustum, A. Br. Scouring Eusli. 

Sand Banks. Common. 

15. Equisetum variegatum, Schleich, Yar., Jesupi, A. A. Eaton. Horse- 


In marl beds. ' Frequent. 

Order III. Lycopodiales. 

Family 5. Selaginellaceae. 

16. Selaginella apus (Lin.) Spring. Swamp Club Moss. 

In marl bogs. Conunon. 

No. 1 and No. 16 are reputed to be good remedies in the treat- 
ment of snake bites. Nos. 2 to 7, inclusive, and Kos. 9 and 10 
arJB reputed worm remedies. No. 8 is used in the treatment of con- 
sumption, bronchitis and other pulmonary troubles. The Equise 
tums are used as diuretics in the treatment of dropsy, kidney 
troubles, etc. No. 8 and No. 11 are commercial drugs. 
Division II. Phanerogamae. 

Subdivision I. Polvcotvledones. 
Order IV. Coniferales. 
Family 6. Pinaceae. 

17. Pinus Austriaca, Link. Austrian Pine. 

Cultivated as a shade tree. 

18. Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch. Tamarack. 

Swamps. Now scarce. 

19. Picea Abies (Lin.) Karst. Norway spruce. 

A shade tree. 

20. Juniperus communis, Lin., Var. depressa Ph. Common Juniper. 

Barren Hills. Frequent. 

21. Juniperus Virginiana, Lin. Red Cedar. 

With the last. Common. 

No. 17 yields Austrian turpentine and No. 19 Strassbourg 

No. 18 yields a bark that is used in treatment of bronchitis, 
diarrhoea and dysentery. It is a commercial drug. 

No. 20. eluniper berries are used as a diuretic in the treatment 
of dropsical complaints. Gin is also distilled from them. 

No. 21. The twigs, like Savin, are used against abortion and 
in menorrhagia. The wood casing for graphite pencils is made 
from the wood of this species. 

Subdivision 11. Monocotyledones. 

Order V. Pandanales. ^ 

Family 7. Sparganiaceae. 

22. Sparganium eurycarpum, Engelman. Bur-reed. 

Muddy places. Scarce. 
Order VI. Najadales. 

Family 8. Juncaginaceae. 


23. Triglochin maritima, Lin. Arrow-grass. 

Marl bogs. Frequent. 

Family 9. Alismaceae. 

24. Alisma Plantago-aquatica, Lin., Var. trivialis (Ph.) Farwell. 

Water Plantain. 
Muddy places. Scarce. 

25. Sagittaria latifolia, Willd. Arrow-head. 

Muddy places. Scarce. 

26. Sagittaria latifolia, Willd., forma hastata (Ph.) Robinson. Arrow- 


Muddy places. Scarce. 

Family 10. Hydrocharitaceae. 

27. Elodea Canadensis, Mx. Water Weed. 

Slow flowing water. Rare. 
Order VII. Graminales. 

Family II. Graminaceae. The Grasses. 

28. Andropogon furcatus, Muhl. Beard Grass. 

Sandy Hills. Common. 

29. Sorgastrum nutans (Lin.) Nash. Indian Grass. 

Sandy waste places. Scarce. 

30. Panicum implicatum, Scribn. Panic Grass. 

Marl bogs. Common. 

31. Setaria glauca (Lin.) Beauv. Foxtail Grass. 

Waste places. Common. 

32. Setaria Italica (Lin.) Beauv. Hungarian Millet. 

Waste places. Common. 

33. Cenchrus Carolinianus, Walt. Bur Grass. 

Waste places. Common. 

34. Savastana odorota (Lin.) Scribn. Vanilla Grass. 

Swamps. Scarce. 

35. Phleum pratense, Lin. Timothy. 

Fields and pastures. Common. 

36. Cinna arundinacea, Lin. Reed Grass. 

Rich woods. Common. 

37. Agrostis stolonifera, Lin. Red Top. 

A vulgaris Withering. 

Pastures and swamps. Common. 

38. Calamagrostis Canadensis (Mx.) Beauv. Blue joint grass. 

Swamps. Rare. 

39. Danthonia spicata (Lin.) Beauv. Oat Grass. 

Sandv Hills. Rare. 

40. Arundo Phragmites, Lin. Reed Grass. 

Mud swamps. Occasional. 

41. Eragrostis multiflora (Forsk.) Aschers. Stink Grass. 

Waste places. Scarce. 

42. Shenopholis pallens (Spreng.) Scribn. 

Swamps. Common. 

43. Poa annua, Lin. Spear Grass. 

Low grounds. Common. 

44. Poa compressa, Lin. Wire Grass. 

Pastures. Frequent. 

45. Poa pratensis, Lin. Kentucky Blue Grass. 

Pastures. Common. 


46. Panicularia grandis (Wats.) Manna Grass. 

Glyceria grandis S. Wats, in A. Gray, Man. Ed. 6, 667, 1890. 
Swamps. Frequent. 

47. Panicularia septentrionalis (Hitchc). Manna Grass. 

Glyceria septentrionalis y Hitchc. : Gray's New Manuel of Botany, 

7th Edition, 159, f. 171, 1908. 
Swamps. Common. 

48. Panicularia nervata (Willd.) O. K. Manna Grass. 

Swamps. Conmion. 

49. Festuca nutans, Willd. Fescue Grass. 

Woods. Common. 

50. Bromus ciliatus, Lin. Brome Grass. 

Swamps. Common. 

51. Bromus purgans, Lin. Brome Grass. 

Swamps. Common. 

52. Bromus secalinus Lin. Chess. 

Waste places and barren soil. Common. 

53. Bromus tectorum, Lin. Brome Grass. 

Waste places. There are two forms of this growing side by 
side, one bright green and the other purplish, which afford a very 
striking contrast. 

54. Agropyron repens (Lin.) Beauv. Quack Grass. 

Marl bed. Rare. 

55. Agropyron repens (Lin.) Beauv., Var. piloeum, Scribn. 

Pastures. Common. 

Agropyron repens and its varieties are very troublesome weeds 
if allowed to gain a foot-hold in agricultural lands. The rhizomes 
are official under the name Tritioiimy which is used in medicine? 
as a diuretic, demulcent, and emollient in the treatment of cystitis 
and other bladder troubles. Other names for this species are Dog 
Grass and Couch Grass. 

Family 12. Cyperaceae. Sedges. 

56. Cyperus filiculmis, Yahl., Var. macilentus, Femald. Galingale. 

Waste grounds. Frequent. 

57. Trichophyllum palustris (Lin.) Spike Rush. 

Scirpus palustris, Lin. Sp. PI. 47, 1753. Ehrhart's Tricho- 
phyllum is the oldest name for the genus. 
Borders of streams, etc. Common. 

58. Trichophyllum rostellatum (Torr.) Spike Rush. 

Eleocharis rostellata Torr. Fl. N. Y. II, 347, 1843. 
Marl bed. Common. 

59. Scirpus Americanus, Pers. Bull Rush. 

Marl bed. Common. 

60. Scirpus atrovirens, Muhl. Bull Rush. 

Low wet grounds. Frequent. 

61. Scirpus atrovirens, Muhl., Var. pycnocephalus, Fernald. 

Low wet grounds. Scarce. 

62. Scirpus validus, Vahl. Bull Rush. 

Marl bed. Frequent. 

63. Scirpus occidentalis (Wats.) Chase. Bull Rush. 

Marl bed. Scarce. 


64. Eriophorum viridi-carinatum (EngelnL) Fernald. Cotton Grass. 

Swamps. Frequent. 

65. Triodon capillacea (Torr.) Beaked Hush. 

Rhynchospora capilldcea Torr. Fl. U. S. I. 55, 1824. 
Richard's name, Triodon, is the earliest for the genus. 
Marl bed. Frequent. 

66. Triodon glomerata (Lin.) Beaked Bush. 

SohoeniLS glomeratuSy Lin. Sp. PI. 44, 1753. 
Marl bed. Frequent. 

67. Carex alopecoidea, Tuckei*m. Sedge. 

Open woods. Rare. 

68. Carex cephalophora, Muhl. Sedge. 

Open woods. Common. 

69. Carex conoidea, Schk. Sedge. 

Marl bed. Rare. 

70. Carex cristata, Schw. Sedge. 

Swales. Frequent. 

71. Carex diandra, Schrank, Var. ramosa, (Boott.) Fernald. Sedge. 

Marl bog. Common. 

72. Carex ebumea, Boott. Sedge. 

This plant is not found on Parkedale Farm, btit there is a lo- 
cality on a hillside in Stony Creek Valley just north of it where 
a few plants are found in rich mould, under evergreens. 

73. Carex flava, Lin. Sedge. 

Marl bed and swamps. Common. 

74. Carex granularis, Muhl. Sedge. 

Open woods and swamps. Common. 

75. Carex granularis, Muhl., Var. Haleana (Olney) Porter. 

Marl bed. Frequent. 

76. Carex hystericina, Muhl. Sedge. 

Swamps. Frequent. 

77. Carex laxiflora. Lam., Var. blanda (Dew.) Boott. Sedge. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

78. Carex laxiflora, Tyam., Var. varians, Bailey. Sedge. 

Open woods. Rare. 

79. Carex leptalea, Wahl. Sedge. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

80. Carex mirabilis, Dew. Sedge. 

Swales. Frequent. 

81. Carex Muhlenbergii, Schk. Sedge. 

Upland pastures. Frequent. 

82. Carex Pennsylvaniea, I>am. Sedge. 

Dry woods. Rare. 

83. Carex pubescens, Muhl. Sedge. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

84. Carex rosea, Schk. Sedge. 

Open woods. Common. 

85. Carex siccata, Dew. Sedge. 

Barren soil. Frequent. 

86. Carex stellulata. Good. Sedge. 

Marl bed and swamps. Common. 


87. Carex stipata, Miihl. Sedge. 

Banks of streams, etc. Common. 

88. Carex tetanica, Schk. Sedge. 

Marl bed. Common. 

89. Carex vulpinoidea, Mx. Sedge. 

Banks of streams, etc. Common. 
Order VIII. Arales. 

Family 13. Araceae. 

90. Arisaema triphyllum (Lin.) Torr. Indian Turnip. 

Rich woods. Frequent. 

This plant has a turnip-shaped, starchy corm with an intensely 
acrid juice. The corm is a commercial article and is used in 
medicine as an expectorant and diaphoretic, in the treatment of 
croup, whooping cough, asthma, bronchitis, etc. 

91. Spathyema foetida (Lin.) Raf. Skunk Cabbage. 

Boggy swamps. Frequent. 

The heavy, thick root-stock is an article of commerce and is 
a stimulant, antispasmodic, and narcotic. In treatment of pul- 
monary troubles like the preceding; also in hysteria and in con- 
vulsive affections. All parts of the plant, when bruised emit the 
odor of a skunk. Whence the common name. 

92. Acorus Calamus, Lin. Sweet Flag. 

Borders of streams, etc. Frequent. 

The rhizome j)eeled or unpeeled, is an article of commerce and 
is used as a carminative and tonic in flatulent colic and dyspepsia; 
also externally in indolent ulcers. The unpeeled rhizome is official 
under the name of Calamus. 

Family 14. Lemnaceae. 

93. Spirodela polyrhiza, (Lin). Schleid. Duckweed. 

Floating on stagnant water. Frequent. 
Order IX. Liliales, 

Familv 15. Juncaceae. 

94. Juncus brachycephalus (Engelni.) Buch. Bog Rush. 

Boggy grounds. Frequent. 

95. Juncus budleyi, Wi^. Bog Rush. 

Moist sand. Frequent. 

96. Juncus nodosus, Lin. Bog Rush. 

Reed swamps. Frequent. 

97. Juncoides campestre (Lin.) Coville, Var. multiflorum (Ehrh.) 

Juncus multiflorus Ehrh. Calam. Exsicc. 1791. 
Open woods. Wood Rush. Common. 

98. Juncoides saltuense (Fernald.) Heller. Wood Rush. 

Open woods. Rare. 

Family 16. Liliaceae. 

99. Tofieldia glutinosa (Mx.) Ters. False Asphodel. 

Marl bed. Rare. 

100. Zygadenus chloranthus, Richards. 

Marl bogs. Common. 

101. Oakesia s^ssilifolia (Lin.) Wats. Bellwort. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

102. Allium Canadense, Kalm. Wild Garlic. 

Open woods. Common. 


103. Allium rubrum, Osterhout (?). 

In dry grassy pastures there is a species of allium of the A. 
Canadense group, which is strikingly different in appearance, from 
that species. It is very glaucous, which is not the case in the 
ordinary form, and has shorter and broader perianth segments. 

104. Lilium Canadense, Lin., Yar. rubrum, Waugh. The common wild 

red lily. 

From two to six feet in height; the perianth segments deep 
orange red, with brown spots, from rotate to strongly revolute 
forming a complete circle with the apices again pointing upward 
in the normal direction. Whole plant about twice as large as 
the common yellow flowered species of the Atlantic sea-board. 
Perhaps a distinct species. 

Swamps. Common. 

105. Lilium umbellatum, Pursh. Red Lily. 

Marl bog. Rare. 

106. Asparagus officinalis, Lin. Asparagus. 

The young shoots or "turions" of the cultivated plant is a 
well known culinary product. The rhizomes and roots, also the 
seeds, are used in medicine as diuretics. 

Open woods, etc. Frequent. 

107. Vagnera racemosa (Lin.) Morong. Solomon's Seal. 

The rhizome of this is a commercial article and is used in medi- 
cine as a tonic and astringent in treatment of leucorrhoea and 
menorrhagia; in intestinal irritation, piles and erysipelas; and 
in skin eruptions from poison oak. 

Open woods. Common. 

108. Ya^era stellata (Lin.) Morong. Solomon's Seal. 

Open woods. Common. 

109. Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. Solomon's Seal. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

110. Trillium grandiflorum (Mx.) Salisb. Birthroot, Beth Root. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

The corms of the trilliums are a commercial article under the 
name of Beth Root. In medicine they are used as astringents and 
tonics in treatment of haemoptysis and bronchorrhoea. 

111. Aletris farinosa, Lin. Star Grass. Unicom Root. 

Marl bog. Frequent. 

The root of this species is a commercial article under the names 
of Star Grass or Unicorn Root. It is a tonic, diuretic and vermi- 
fuge. Used in treatment of diseases of the reproductive organs 
especially of the uterus. 

112. Smilax herbacea. Lin., Val\ pulverulenta (Mx.) A. Gr. Carrion 

Flower. Jacob's Ladder. 
Banks of streams. Rare. 

A popular domestic remedy in the treatment of scrofulous dis- 
eases and as a general blood purifier. 

113. Smilax hispida, Muhl. Green Brier. 

Thickets. Frequent. 

114. Smilax rotundifolia, Lin. Hoi'se Brier. 

Thickets. Rare. 


115. Smilax, rotundifolia, Lin., Yar. quadrangnlaris (Miihl.) 

Wood. Thickets. Rare. 

Family 17. Narcissaceae. 

116. Hypoxis hirsuta (Lin.) Coville. Yellow Star Grass. 

Marl bed. Common. 

Family 18. Dioscoriaceae. 

117. Dioscorea villosa, Lin. Wild Yam. 

Thickets. Rare. 

The rhizome is a commercial article. Used in medicine as an 
expectorant, diaphoretic and antispasmodic. Useful in bilious 
colic, cramps of the stomach, uterine diseases, etc. 
Family 19. Iridaceae. 

118. Iris versicolor, Lin. Blue Flag. 

Low wet grounds. Frequent. 

119. Iris versicolor, Lin., Var. Virginica (Lin.) Baker. Blue Flag. 

Low, wet grounds. Frequent. 

There are two very pronounced forms of the Blue Flag both a» 
to color and shape of the sepals. 

In the type the sepals are spatulate, the blade being rotund and 
abruptly rounded into the claw, light blue, variegated with white,, 
yellow and green. In the variety the sepals are oblong-obovate^ 
dark purple, variegated as in the type, but not so pronouncedly so. 

The rhizomes are a commercial product under the name Blue 
Flag, and were official under the name of Iris, They are used 
as a cathartic, cholagogue and alterative. In treatment of dis- 
orders of the liver. 

120. Sisvrinchium albidum, Raf. Blue-e^ed Grass. 

Barren Soil. Rare. 

Order X. Orchidales. 

Family 20. Orchidaceae. 

121. Cypripedium bulbosum, Mill., Var. parviflorum (Salisb.) 

O, parviflorum, Salisb. Trans. Lin. Soc. 1 :77 pi. 2. Fig. 2. 1791. 
Ladies Slipi)er. 

Lip medium sized, yellow, vertically compressed. Rich woods*^ 

122. Cypripedium bulbosum, Mill., Tar. flavescens (D. C.) Ladies: 


G. flavescem D. C. Redoute, Lil. I: pi. 20, 1802. 
Smaller, lip laterally compressed. 
Tamarack swamps. Rare. 

123. Cypripedium reginae, Walt. Ladies Slipper. 

Tamarack swamps. Frequent. 

The root system of species of Cypripedium is a commercial 
article under the name of Ladies Slipper, and a pharmacopoeial 
drug, under the title of Cypripedium. Used as a tonic and an- 
tispasmodic in nervous excitability, hysteria, nervous headache^ 

124. Pogonia ophioglossoides (Lin.) Ker. Snake Mouth, 

Marl bogs. Ck>mmon. 


125. Limodorum tuberosum, Lin. Grass Pink. 

Marl bogs. Common. 

Class II. Dicotyledones. 

Subclass I. Polypetalae. 
Order XI. Salicales. 

Family 21. Salicaceae. 

126. Populns balsamifera, Lin. Balsam Poplar. 

Wet grounds. Common. 

127. Populus deltoides, Bartram. Cottonwood. 

Wet grounds. A large tree with smooth branches. Frequent. 

128. Populus grandidentata, Mx. Aspen. 

Woods and thickets. Frequent. 

129. Populus tremuloides, Mx. Poplar, White Poplar. 

Thickets. Common. 

The bark is a commercial article ; it is used as a tonic, febrifuge, 
and diuretic; chiefly in intermittent fevers. 

130. Salix alba, Lin. Willow. 

Banks of streams. Rare. 

131. Salix alba, Lin., Var., vitellina (Lin.) Koch. Willow. 

An escape. Frequent. 

132. Salix amygdaloides, Anders, Willow. 

Borders of streams, etc. Frequent. 

133. Salix Candida, Fleugge. 

Bogs and swamps. Common. 

134. Salix cordata, MuhL, Var. angust&ta (Ph.) Anders. Willow. 

Thickets. Common. 

135. Salix discolor, Muhl. Willow. 

Open woods and thickets. Frequent. 

136. Salix fragilis, Lin. Willow. 

Low grounds. Slowly spreading. 

Probably was planted originally to form a wind break or hedge. 

137. Salix longifolia, Muhl. Willow.^ 

Wet banks. Rare. 

138. Salix lucida, Muhl. Willow. 

Thickets on low grounds. Rare. 

139. Salix peptiolaris, Sm. Willow. 

Thickets. Common. 

140. Salix rostrata, Richards. Willow. 

Thickets. Common. 

141. Salix sericea, Marshall. Willow. 

Thickets. Common. 

142. Salix serissima (Bailey) Fernald. Willow. 

Bogs and swamps. Rare. 

143. Salix Wheeleri (Rowlee) Rydb. Willow. 

Wet banks. Rare. 

Order XII. Fagales. 

Family 22. Corylaceae. 

144. Carpiuns Carolinian a, Walt. Iron wood. 

Thickets. Common. 

145. Ostrya Virginiana (Mill.) Koch. Ironwood. 

Thickets. Rare. 


146. Corylus Americana, Walt. Hazelnut. 

Thickets. Common. 

There are two forms of this species; the common form from 
four to eight feet in height with the involucre open and spreading; 
and another, about 17 feet in height, with the involucral bracts 
erect or closed; the latter form was found on the edge of the 
upland woods with a sunny, southern exposure. I found the same 
thing at Algonac, but at this place it was in a dense, wet alder 
thicket. The leaves appear to be less leathery. 
Familv 23. Betulaceae. 


147. Betula pumila, Lin. 

Tamarack swamps. Common. 

Familly 24. Castaneaceae. 

148. Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh., Var. Caroliniana (Loud.) Femald and 

Rheder. Beech. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

149. Quercus alba, Lin. White Oak. 

Woods. Common. 

The bark of this, as well as of other species, is a commercial 
article and is used in medicine as an astringent in treatment of 
diarrhoea, etc. It is official as Qtiercus. 

150. Quercus ellipsoidalis, E. J. Hill. Black Oak. 

Upland woods. Rare. 

151. Quercus macrocarpa, Mx. Bur Oak. 

Low groimds. Common. 

152. Quercus velutina. Lam. Black Oak. 

Woods. Frequent. 

Order XIII. Urtical^s. 
Familv 25. Ulmaceae. 


153. Ulmus Americana. Elm. 

Low grounds. Common. 

Family 26. Urticaceae. 

154. Urtica dioica, Lin. Nettle. 

Waste places. Frequent. 

The leaves and roots are commercial arMfles and are used in 
medicine as diuretics in cystitis, nephritis, etc. 

155. Urtica gracilis, Ait. Nettle. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

156. Urticastrum divaricatum (L) O. K. Wood Nettle. 

Low grounds in open wx>ods. Common. 

157. Boehmeria cylindrica (Lin.) Swz. False Nettle. 

Low grounds. Common. 

Order XIV. Polygonales. 

Family 27. Persicariaceae. 

158. Rumex Acetosella, Lin. Sorrel, Sheep Sorrel. 

Sterile grounds. Common. 

Contains oxalic acid. It is a commercial article under the 
name of Sheep Sorrel and is used as a refrigerant and diuretic in 
treatment of inflammatory disease. 

159. Rumex Britannica, Lin. Water Dock. 

Swamps. Rare. 


160. Rumex crispus, Lin. Curled Dock. 

Fields. Common. 

The root under the name of Yellow Dock is a conmiereial article 
and was official as Rumex. It is used as an alterative and tonic 
in treatment of skin diseases. 

161. Rumex obtusifolius, Lin, Dock. 

Fields. Common. 

162. Polygonum aviculare, Lin. Knot Grass. 

Waste places. Common. 

163. Polygonum Convolvulus, Lin. Bindweed. 

Waste places. Conmion. 

164. Polygonum Persicaria, Lin. Lady's Thumb. 

Waste places. Common. 

165. Polygonum tenue, Mx. Sterile grounds. Frequent. 

Order XV. Chenopodiales. 
Family 28. Blitaceae. 

166. Chenopodium hybridum, Lin. Goosefoot. 

Waste places. Common. 

167. Salsola Kali, Lin. Var., tenuifolia, G. F. W. Meyer. Russian 


Waste places. Common. 

Family 29. Amaranthaceae. 

168. Amaranthus graecizans, Lin. Tumble Weed. 

Waste grounds. Common. 

Order XVI. Caryophyllales. 
Family 30. Alsinaceae. 

169. Silene antirrhina, Lin. Catchfly. 

Waste grounds. Frequent. 

170. Silene dichotoma Ehrh. Catchflv. 

Fields. Rare. 

Not mentioned in BeaPs Michigan Flora. 

171. Silene noctiflora, Lin. Catchfly. 

Waste places. Frequent. 

172. Saponaria officinalis, Lin. Bouncing Bet. 

Waste places. Frequent. 

173. Stellaria media (Lin.) Cyr. Chickweed. 

Waste places. Common. 

A commercial drug. Used mostly as a poultice. 

174. Cerastium vulgatum, Lin. duckweed. 

Waste places. Frequent. 

175. Arenaria serpyllifolia, Lin. Sandwort. 

Waste places. Conmion. 

176. Arenaria stricta. Mx. Sandwort. 

Sterile grounds. Rare. 

Family 31. Portulacaceae. 

177. Claytonia Virginica, Lin. Spring Beauty. 

Open woods in moist situations. Common. 
Order XVII. Ranunculales. 

Familv 32. Ranunculaceae. 

178. Caltha })alustris, Lin. Cowslip. 

Swamps. Frequent. 


179. Aquilegia Canadensis, Lin. Columbine. 

Swamps. Common. 

180. Anemone Canadensis, Lin. Windflower. 

Banks. Frequent. 

181. Anemone cylindrica, A. Gray. Windflower. 

Sterile grounds. Frequent. 

182. Anemona quinquefolia, Lin. Windflower. 

Bordei*s of woods. Frequent. 

183. Anemone Virginiana, Lin. Windflower. 

Banks. Frequent. 
1^4. Clematis Virginiana, Lin. Virgin's Bower. 

Low, moist groimds. Rare. 
185. Ranunculus abortivus, Lin. 

Low grounds and shady places. Common. 

The species of this genus are called Crowfoots or Buttercups. 
180. Ranunculus aquatilis, Lin., Var. capillaceus, D. C. 

Streams. Common. 

187. Ranunculus aquatilis, Lin., Var. caespitosus, D. C. 

Rooting in mud. Frequent. 

188. Ranunculus fascicularis, Muhl. 

Sandy hills. Frequent. 

189. Ranunculus hispidus, Mx. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

190. Ranunculus Pennsylvanicus, Lin. f. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

191. Ranunculus recun^atus, Poir. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

192. Ranunculus sceleratus, Lin. 

Low grounds. Common. 

193. Ranunculus septentrionalis, Poir. 

Swampy grounds. Common. 

194. Thalictrum dasycarpum, Fisch & 1^11. Meadow Rue. 

Banks of streams. Common. 

Family 33. Berberidaceae. 

195. Podophyllum peltatum, Lin. May Apple, Mandrake. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

The rhizome is an official drug under the name of Podophyllum. 
It is used chiefly as a laxative or purgative in torpidity of the 

Family 34. I^uraceae. 

196. Euosmus Sassafras (Lin.) Nutt. Sassafras. 

Upland wx>ods. Rare. 

A commercial drug. The bark of the root is used as a flavoring 
aromatic. Official under the name of Sassafras. 
Order XVIII. Papaverales. 

Familv 35. Cruciaceae. 


197. Sisymbrium altissimum, Lin. Tumble Mustard. 

Waste grounds. Common. 

198. Sisymbrium officinale (Lin.) Scop. Hedge Mustard. 

Waste places. Frequent. 

This form which has canescent or tomentose siliqu'es is rather 


199. Sisymbrium officinale (Lin.) Scop., Yar. leiocarpum, D. C. Hedge 

Mustard. Smooth siliques. 

The common form and very plentiful everywhere in waste 

200. Brassica arvensis (Lin.) B. S. P. Charlock. 

A weed in waste grounds. 
=201. Brassica anensis (Lin.) B. S. P. Var. orientalis, (Lin.) Sinapsis 

orientalis, Lin. Cent. Plant I. 53, Am. Ac. IV, 280, 1759. 

Differs from the species in having the siliques pedicles and the 
plant more or less retrose hispid. 

Not so common, but in similar situations. 
202. Barbarea Barbarea (Lin.) INLicM. Yellow Cress. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 
20e*^. Barbarea Barbarea (Lin.) MacM., Var. longisiliquosa (Carion). 

Barharea inilgaris. Tar. longisiliquosa Carion, 1859 according 
to Fernald in Rliodora XI, 139, 1909. 

Differs in having the siliques appre««5sed to the rachis. 

Low grounds. Common. 

201. Cochlearia Armoracia, Lin. Horseradish. 

IjOw grounds. Frecjuent. 

A commercial drug. The root is a well known condiment. In 
medicine it is used in chronic atony of the digestive apparatus, 
and externally as a rubefacient. 
205. Radicula Xasturtimu-aquaticum (I^n.) Britten and Rendle. 

Water Cress. In streams. Common. 
20G. Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb.) B. S. P. Bitter Cress. 
Open wet woods. Frequent. 

207. Cardamine pratensis, Lin. Cuckoo-flower. 

Low wet grounds. Rare. 

208. Bursa Bursa-pastoris (Lin.) Britton. Shepherd's Purse. 

Waste grounds. Common. 

A commercial drug and employed as an astringent in diarrhoea, 

209. Camelina microcarpa, Andrz. False Flax. 

Waste grounds. Common. 

210. Camelina sativa (Lin.) Crantz. False Flax. 

Waste gi»ounds. Frequent. 

211. Arabis laevigata (Muhl.) Poir. Rock Cress. 

Sterile grounds. Rare. 

212. Alvssum alvssoides, Lin. Yellow Alvssum. 

Waste grounds. Common. 

Order XIX. Sarraceniales. 

Familv 36. Sarraceniaceae. 

213. Sarracenia purpurea, Lin. Pitcher Plant. 

Marl bogs. Common. 

A commercial drug. The rhizome is used as a stimulant tonic 
in diarrhoea, dyspepsia, etc. 
Order XX. Resales. 

Family 37. Sedaceae. 

214. Penthorum sedoides, Lin. Ditch Stonecrop. 

Ditches. Frequent. 

A commercial dinig under the name of Virginia Stonecrop. 


Used as an astringent and demulcent in diseases of the mucous 

Family 38. Saxifragaceae. 
215. Saxifraga Pennsylvanica, Lin. iS\Yamp Saxifrage. 

Swamps. Common. 
210. Tiarella cordifolia, Lin. False Mitrewort. 
Open woods. Common. 

217. Heuehera hirsuticaulis (Wlieelk.) Rydb. Alum Root. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

218. Parnassia Caroliniana, Lin. 

Marl bogs. Common. 

219. Ribes Americanum, Mill. Black Currant, 

Swamps. Frequent. 

220. Ribes Cynosbati, Lin. Gooseberry. 

Swamps. Common. 

221. Ribes Cynosbati, Lin. Var., glabratum, Fernald. Gooseberry, 

Swamps. Frequent. 

222. Ribes oxyacanthoides, Lin. Gooseberry-. 

Swamps. Common. 

Family 39. Hamamelidaceae. 

223. Hamamelis Virginiana, Lin. Witch Hazel. 

Open woods. Common. 

The bark and leaves are official under the titles, Hamamelidis 
Cortex and HamameUdis Folia, Tonic and astringent; employed 
in treatment of hemorrhoids, hemorrhages, diarrhoea, dysentery,, 
etc. Externally in sprains, biniises, etc. 
Family 40. Rosaceae. 

224. Opulaster opulifolius (Lin.) O. K. Ninebark. 

Banks of streams. Rare. 

225. Spiraea alba, Du Roi, Meadow Sweet. 

Swami)S. Frequent. 

226. Rubus Andrewsianus, Blanchard, Blackberry. 

Open woods and thickets. Common. 

The bark of the rhizome is official under the title, RtibiiS. The 
rhizomes, also, are used. The commercial names are Blackberry 
Root and Blackberry Root Bai'k. Well known astringent and 
tonic employed in diarrhoea and other bowel complaints. 

227. Rubus Enslenii, Tratt. Dewberrj'. 

Sterile fields. Frequent. 

228. Rubus hispidus, Lin. Swamp Dewberry. 

Low grounds. Common. 

229. Rubus occidentalis, Lin. Black Raspberry. 

Swamps and thickets. Common. 

The raspberry fruits were at one time official under the title 
Rubus Idaeus, The leaf is a commercial article and is employed 
in medicine similarly to Blackberry. 

230. Rubus pubescens, Raf. Dwarf Raspberry. 

R. triflorus, Richard. 
Swamps. Frequent. 

231. Rubus villosus, Ait. Dewberrj-. 

R. procumhens Muhl. 
Sterile grounds. Common. 


232. Potentilla agrimonioides (Ph.) Farwell. Cinquefoil. 

Potentilla arguta Ph. 

233. Potentilla argentea, Lin. Silvery Cinquefoil. 

Sterile grounds. Common. 

234. Potentilla fruticosa, Lin. Shrubby Cinquefoil. 

Wet or dry grounds. Common. 

235. Potentilla Monspeliensis, Lin. Cinquefoil. 

Swamps. Frequent. 

236. Fragaria Americana (Porter) Britton. Strawberry. 

Open woods. Rare. 

237. Fragaria vesca, Lin. Strawbern\ 

Roadsides. Rare. 

The leaf is a commercial drug used in medicine as an astringent 
and diuretic. 

238. Fragaria Virginiana, Duchesne, Strawberry. 

Fields. Common. 

239. Waldsteinia fragarioides (Mx.) Tratt. Barren Strawberry. 

Open upland woods. Rare. 

240. Geum Canadense, Jacq. Avens. 

Swamps and low grounds. Common. 

241. Geum rivale, Lin. Water Avens. 

Swamps. Common. 

A commercial drug. The rhizome and roots are used as an 
astringent and tonic in diari'hoea, etc. 

242. Geum strictum, "Ait. Avens. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

243. Geum vemum (Raf.) T. & G. Spring Avens. 

Marl bogs. Common. 

244. Geum Virginianum, Lin. Avens. 

Low grounds. Common. 

245. Agrimonia gryposepala, Wallr. Agrimony. 

Thickets. Common. 

246. Agrimonia pubescens, Wallr. Agrimony. 

A. mollis (T. & G.) Britton. 
Thickets. Frequent. 

247. Rosa Carolina, Lin. Swamp Rose. 

Swamps. Frequent. 

248. Rosa humilis, Marsh. Rose. 

Dry fields. Common. 

249. Pyrus Mains, Lin. Wild Apple. 

Thickets. Occasional. 

The tree bark is a commercial drug employed as a febrifuge in 
treatment of fevers. 

250. Amelanchier florida, Lindl. Shadberry. 

Hillsides. Frequent. 

251. Amelanchier sanguinea (Ph.) D. C. Shadberry. 

Hillsides. Common. 

252. Amelanchier stolonifera, Wiegand. Shadberry. 

Sandy grounds. Frequent. 

253. Crataegus attenuata, Ashe. Thomapple. 

Low grounds. Common. 



254. Cmtaegus opulans, Sargent. Tliornapple. 

Upland thickets. Rare. 

255. Crataegus punctata, Jacq- Thornapple. 

Low grounds. Common. 

256. Crataegus punctata, Jacq., Var. aurea, Ait. Thornapple. 

Wet thickets. Rare. 

257. Crataegus structilis, Ashe. Thornapple. 

Low grounds. Common. 

258. Crataegus subvillosa, Schrad. Thornapple. 

Hillsides. Frequent. 

259. Pnmus Americana, Marsh. Plum. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 
200. Prunus serotina, Ehrh. Black Cherry. 
Low grounds. Frequent. 

The bark is official under the title Prunus Virginiana, Com- 
mercially known as Wild Cherry. Employed as a bitter tonic 
and stomachic in gastric atony and general debility. 
2G1. Pnmus Virginiana, Lin. Choke Cherry. 
Open woods and thickets. Frequent. 
262. Amygdalus Persica, Lin. Peach. 

An occasional escape. Fruit small and hard. 
The leaves are a commercial article employed in medicine as 
a laxative, sedative, diuretic and anthelmintic. Used in treat- 
ment of Calculi, pertussis, inflammation of stomach and bowels, 

Family 41. Leguminaceae. 
203. Medicago lupulina, Lin. Black Medic. 
Low grounds. Common. 

264. Medicago sativa, Lin. Lucerne. 

Waste places. Occasional. 

265. Melilotus alba, Medic. White Melilot. 

Common on roadsides, etc. 

This and other species of the genus are known commercially 
as Sweet Clover. They contain cumarin and develop when drying 
the wiell knoTNTi vanilla like odor characteristic of this product. 
Employed as an antisj)asmodic in whooping cough. 

266. Trifolium hybridum, Lin. Alsike Clover. 

267. Trifolium pratense, Lin. Red Clover. 
^()S, Trifolium repens, Lin. White Clover. 

These species are all common in fields and meadows. The flow- 
ering heads of the last two named species are employed in medi- 
cine like Sweet Clover (White Melilot). 

269. Meibomia Canadensis (Lin.) O. K. Tick Trefoil. 

Open grounds. Common. 

270. Vicia Americana, Muhl. A^etch. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

271. Lathyrus myrtifolius, Sluhl. Pea. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

272. Lathyrus palustris, Lin. Pea. 

Low groimds. Common. 


273. Glycine Apios, Lin. Ground Nut. 

Thickets. Occasional. 

Order XXI. Geraniales. 
Family 42. Linaceae. 

274. Linum humile, Mill. Flax. 

Koadsides. Frequent. 

Family 43. Oxalidaceae. 

275. Oxalis stricta, Lin. Wood Sorrel. 

Fields. Common. 

276. Oxalis comiculata, Lin. Wood Sorrel. 

0. oymosay Small. 

Low grounds and borders of woods. Common. 
* Family 44. Geraniaceae. 

277. Geranium maculatum, Lin. Cranesbill. 

Swamps and open woods. Common. 

Official under the name of Geranium. A powerful astringent 
employed in diarrhoea, dysentery, etc. 
Family 45. Rutaceae. 

278. Xauthoxylum Americanum, Mill. Prickly Ash. 

Low grounds. Common. 

The bark is official under the name of Xanthoxylum, The berries 
also constitute a commercial article. Employed as a stimulant, 
tonic and alterative, in chronic rheumatism, flatulent colic, 
syphilitic, and hepatic affections. 

Family 46. Poly gal aceae. 

279. Polygala paucifolia, Willd. Flowering Wintergreen. 

Bogs. Rare. 

Family 47. Tithymalaceae. 

280. Acalypha Virginica, Lin. Mercury. 

rx)w groimdp. Common. 

281. Euphorbia corollata, Lin. Flowering Spurge. 

Fields and roadsides. Common. 

The root is a commercial drug employed in throat and lung 

282. Euphorbia Cyparissias, Lin. Scotch Heath. 

Roadsides. Common. 

283. Euphorbia glyptosperma, Engelm. Spurge. 

Railroad track. Frequent. 

284. Euphorbia maculata, Lin. Spurge. 

Fields. Conmaon. 

285. Euphorbia nutans. Lag. 

Waste places. Common. 

Order XXII. Sapindales. 
Family 48. Pistaciaceae. 

286. Rhus Canadensis, Marshall. Sweet Sumach. 

Hillsides. Occasional. 

The bark of the root is a commercial drug; in medicine it is 
employed as an astringent in diarrhoea, dysentery, etc. 

287. Rhus glabra, Lin. Smooth Sumach. 

Hillsides. Frequent. 

The bark, leaves, and* fruit .are commercial drugs, the latter 
being official under the title of l^hus Glahra\ Employe<\ ^^^ ^s^ 
astringent in diarrhoea, dysentery, etc. 


288. Ehufi hirta (Lin.) Sudw., Var. typhina (Lin.) Staghom Sumach. 

B, typhina Lin. Cent. PI. II, 139, in Amen. Acad. IV, p. 311, 

The ordinary form with pinnate leaves. The typical form with 
more or less continent leaflets is common at Algonac. 

289. Ehus radicans, Lin. Poison Ivy. Poison OaJj. 

High climbing on trees, often 40 to 60 feet. Common. 

The leaves are a commercial drug, and were official under the 
title of Rhus Toxicodendron. A stimulant narcotic employed in 
some skin diseases, dropsy, chronic rheumatism, etc. To some 
people poisonous to the touch, producing a skin eruption. Others 
are immune. 

290. Ehus Vemix, Lin. Poison Sumach, Poison Elder. 

Swam,ps. Common. 

Family 49. Celastraceae. 

291. Euonymus obovatus, Nutt. Strawberry Bush. 

Open woods. Common. 

292. Celastrus scandens, Lin. False Bittersweet. 

Thickets. Occasional. 

The bark of the root is a commercial drug; in medicine it is 
.employed as an alterative and diuretic in tuberculosis, syphilis, 
hepatic, rheumatic and cutaneous affections. « 
Family 50. Aceraceae. 

293. Acerum nigrum, Mx. Black Maple. 

Woods. Common. 

294. Acer rubrum, Lin. Eed, Swamp or Soft Maple. 

Woods. Common. 

The bark is a commercial drug and is employed in medicine as 
a mild astringent. 

Family 51. Balsaminaceae. 

295. Impatiens biflora, Walt. Touch-me-not. 

Low wet grounds. Common. 

The leaves are a commercial drug under the name of Jewel 
weed, or Wild Celandine, and are employed in medicine as an 
astringent and diuretic in Ehus poisoning, scrofula and rheuma- 


Order XXIII. Ehamnales. 
Family 52. Zyzyphaceae. 

296. Ehamnus alnifolius, L'Her. Buckth6rn. 

Swamps. Common. 

Familv 53. Vitaceae. 

297. Vitis vulpina, Lin. Grape. 

Banks. Common. 

298. Psedera vitacea (Knerr) Greene. Virginia Creeper. 

Thickets. Occasional. 

The bark of the root is a commercial drug under the name of 
American Ivy; alterative and expectorant; employed in dropsy 
and lung troubles. 

Order XXIY. Malvales. 
Familv 54. Tiliareae. 


^99. Tilia Americana, Lin. Bass Wood. 
Woods. Common. 

Order XXV. Violales. 

Family 55. Hypericaeeae. 

300. Hypericum corymbosum, Muhl. St. Johnswort. 

how grounds. Rare. 

Family 56. Cistaceae. 

301. Helianthemum Canadense (Lin.) Mx. Frostwort. 

Sterile grounds. R^ire. 

302. Helianthemum majus (Lin.) B. S. P. Frostwort. 

Sterile grounds. Frequent. 

These species are also known as Frostweed and Rock Rose. 
The herb is a commercial drug under the name of Frostwort and 
is employed in medicine as an astringent, tonic, and alterative, 
chiefly in scrofulous diseases. 

303. Lechea villosa, Ell. Pinweed. 

Hillsides. Frequent. 

Family 57. Violaceae. 

304. Tiola conspersaj Reichb. Dog Violet. 

Swamps. Common. 

In summer the stems are elongated and creeping, bearing peta- 
liferous flowers all through the summer and fall until covered by 

305. Viola cucullata, Ait. Marsh Violet. 

Reed and mud swamps. Common. 
30G. Viola papilionacea, Ph. Blue Violet. 
Open woodlands. Common. 

307. Viola rostrata, Pursh. Ix)ng spurred Violet. 

Swamps. Common. 

308. Viola scabriuscula, (T. & G.) Schw. Yellow Violet. 

Woodlands. Common. 

309. Viola sororia, Willd. Violet. 

Woodlands. Common. 

310. Viola vagula, Greene. Violet. 

^Nlarl bogs. Frequent. 

Order XXVI. Myrtales. 

Family 58. Oenotheraceae. 

311. Epilobium coloratum, Muhl. Willow Herb. 

Swamp>s. Oonmion. 

312. Oenothera muricata, Lin. Evening Primrose. 

Fields and waste places. Common. 

A commercial drug and is employed as a nerve sedative or 
antispasmodic in whooping cough, hiccough and spasmodic asthma. 

313. Cireaea Canadensis (Lin.) Muhl. Enchanter's Nightshade.* 

Woods. Common. 

The American plant appears to be readily distinguished from 
the European as follows: Calyx tube not over 1 mm. long; in 
the European it is about twice as long; calyx lobes broadly ovate, 
obtusish or acutish,, two to three mm. long; in the European nar- 
rowly ovate or ovate lanceolate and acuminate, three to four mm. 
long; the fruit is about % larger and proportionately rounder, 
than in the European; stamens and style about equaling the petals; 



in the European long exserted; the American plant, generally, 
has white flowers, while those of the European are pale rose or 

Order XXVJI. Umbellales. 
Family 59. Umbel laceae. 

314. Daucus Carota, Lin. Carrot. 

Waste grounds. Common. 

315. Conioselinum Chinense (Lin.) B. S. P. Hemlock Parsley. 

Swamps. Common. 

316. Heracleum lanatum, Mx. Cow Parsnip. 

Swamps. Common. 

The root is a commercial drug under the name of Masterwort 
and is employed as a stimulant and antispasmodic in dyspepsia^ 
epilepsy, asthma, palsy, etc. 

317. Taenidia int^errima (Lin.) Drude. Pimpernel. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

318. Uraspermum Claytoni (Mx.) Nutt. Sweet Cicely. 

Uraspermum aristattom (Thunb.) O. K. Kev. Gen. PI. 270, 1891, 
but not the Chaerophyllum aristatum, Thunb. which is the next. 

Open woods and thickets. Common. 

The root is a commercial drug employed chiefly as an exx)ector- 
ant and stomachic in coughs and stomach troubles. 

319. Uraspermum aristatum (Thunb.). Sweet Cicely. 

CJiaerophylhim aristatum, Thunb. Fl. Jap. 119, 1784. 

Myrrhis longistylis, Torr. Fl. U. S. 310, 1824. 

Thunberg's description calls for a plant with a smooth and 
glabrous stem, villous leaves, divaricate styles, and biaristate fruit. 
This can be no other than Torrey's M. longistyles. 

Open woods. Scarce. 

320. Zizia aurea (Lin.) Koch. Meadow Parsnip. 

Swamps. Common. 

321. Cicuta maculata, Lin. Water Hemlock. 

Swamps. Common. 

Poison. The leaf is a commercial drug and is often substituted 
for Conium, the Poison Hemlock. It is employed chiefly in nen^ous 
and sick headache. The root is tuberous and is often eaten by 
children for wild parsnip, with fatal effect. 

322. «Deringa Canadensis (Lin.) O. K. Hornwort. 

Open woods. Common. 

Family 60. Comaceae. 

323. Cornus alternifolia, Lin. f. Cornell, Dogwood. 

Swamps. Common. 

324. Cornus Amomum, Mill. Kinnikinnik. 

Thickets. Occasional. 

325. Cornus foemina, Mill. Dogw^ood. 

C. candddissima. Marsh. 
Low grounds. Common. 

326. Cornus stolonifera, Mx. Red Osier Dogwood. 

Low grounds. Common. 

The bark is a commercial drug and employed as a tonic and 
astringent in dropsy, ulcers and fevers. 


Subclass II. Monopetalae. 
Order XXVIII. Ericales. 
Family 61. Vacciniaceae. 

327. Monotropa unifiora, Lin. Indian Pipe. 

Hillsides. Frequent. 

Order XXIX. Primulales. 

Family 62. Anagallidaceae. 

328. Nummularia ciliata (Lin.) O. K. Loosestrife. 

Swamps. Common. 

329. Nummularia quadriflora (Sims.) Loosestrife. 

LysimacMa quadriflora Sims., Bot. Mag. T. 660, 1803. 
Marl bogs. Common. 

Order XXX. Gentianales. 
Family 63. Jasminaceae. 

330. Fraxinus Americana, Lin. White Ash. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

The inner bark is a commercial drug and is employed as a 
stimulant to the vaso motor system. 

331. Fraxinus lanceolata, Borck. Green Ash. 

Low grounds. Scarce. 

332. Fraxinus nigra, Marsh. Black Ash. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

The bark is a commercial drug and is employed as an astringent 
and tonic. 

333. Fraxinus Pennsvlvanica, Marsh. Red Ash. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

Family 64. Gentianaceae. 

334. Gentiana crinita, Froel. Fringed Gentian. 

Swamps. Common. 

Family 65. Apocynaceae. 

335. Apocynum cannabinum, Lin., Yar. glaberrimum, D. C. Canadian 


Open woods and thickets. Frequent. 

The rhizomes of this species constitute a commercial drug, which 
is oflScial under the name of Apocynum, Emetic, cathartic, and 
diuretic. Used in* dropsical affections, Bright's Disease, etc. 

336. Apocynum medium Greene. Dogbane. 

Dry, sandy grounds. Common. 

Family 66. Asclepiadaceae. 

337. Asclepias incarnata, Lin. Swamp Milkweed. 

Swamps. Common. 

The rhizome and root is a commercial drug under the nam^ of 
White Indian Hemp, and is employed as an anthelmintic and 
alterative in rheumatism, syphilis, etc. 

338. Asclepias Syriaca, Lin. Silkweed. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

The rhizome is a commercial drug and is employed as a tonic, 
alterative, expei'torant, and diuretic in scrofula, asthma and bron- 
chial troubles, dropsies, and rheumatism. 


339. Asclepias tuberosa, Lin. Pleurisy Root. 
Fields. Frequent. 

The root is a commercial drug and was official under the name 
of Asclepias. As the name indicates, it is used in pleurisy, also in 
other troubles of the respiratory organs. 
Order XXXI. Polemoniales. 
Family 67. Convolvulaceae. 
310. Convolvulus Americanus (Sims) Greene. Bindweed. 
Marl bogs. Occasional. 

Familv 68. Polemoniaceae. 


341. Phlox divaricata, Un. Phlox. 

Rich woods. Common. 

Family 69. Boraginaceae. 

342. Cynoglossum officinale, Lin. Hounds Tongue. 

Dry grounds. Frequent. 

The leaf is a commercial drug and is employed as an anodyne, 
demulcent, and astringent in disorders of the mucous membranes. 

343. Lappula Virginiana (Lin.) Greene. Strickseed. 

Oi>en woods. Common. 

344. Lithospermum ai-vense, Lin. Com Gromwell. 

Waste places. C/ommon. 

345. Lithospermum canescens (Mx.) Lehm. Puccoon. 

Hillsides. Frequent. 

Family 70. Verbenaceae. 
-346. Verbena hastata, Lin. Blue Vervain. 
Fields. Common. 

A commercial drug. Both root and leaves are used as a tonic, 
emetic, expectorant, and sudorific in colds, and other similar 

347. Verbena urticifolia, Lin. White Vervain. 

Fields, etc. Common. 

The root is a commercial drug and is employed in intermittent 
' and remittent fevers. 

Family 71. Labiaceae. 

348. Scutellaria lateriflora, Lin. Skullcap. 

Low groimds. Occasional. 

The hei*b is a commercial drug and is official as Scutellaria. 
Generally used as a tonic, nervine, and antispasmodic in chorea, 
convulsions, tremors and nerve affections generaJly. 

349. Prunella vulgaris, Lin. Heal All. 

T>ow gi*ounds. Common. 

350. Pnmella vulgaris, Lin., Var. albiflora (Bogenhard). 

Flowers pure white. 

Wet grounds. Occasional. 

351. Tjeonurus Cardiaca, Lin. Motherwort. 

Waste grounds. Common. 

The herb is a commercial drug and is employed as an emmena- 
gogue and nervine in suppressed secretions. 

352. Stachvs tenuifolia, Willd., Var. aspera (Mx.) Femald. Hedge 


Wet grounds. Frequent. 


353. Monarda fistulosa, Lin. Wild Bergamat. 

Dry grounds. Frequent. 

The leaf is a commercial drug, and is employed as a substitute 
for quinine. 
354* Monarda mollis, Lin. Wild Bergamot. 

Dry grounds. Frequent. 

355. Monarda punctata, Lin. Horsemint. 

Dry fields. Frequent. 

The leaf is a commercial dinig and is employed as a diaphoretic, 
diuretic, carminative and emmenagogue mostly in colds and affec- 
tions arising therefrom. 

356. Hedeoma hispida, Ph. Pennyroyal. 

Dry fields. Frequent and rapidly spreading. 

357. Koellia Virginiana (Lin.) MacM. Mountain Mint. 

Swamps. Conunon. 
858. Lycopus Americanus, Muhl. Bugleweed. 
Swamps. Common. 

359. Lycopus imifioms, Mx. Bugleweed. 

Swamps. Common. 

360. Lycopus rubellus, Moench. Bugleweed. 

Low grounds. Common. 

361. Mentha Canadensis, IJn. Wild Mint. 

Swamps. Common. 

362. Mentha piperita, Lin. Peppermint. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

A commercial drug and official as Mentha Piperita, Antispas- 
modic. Used in colic, nausea and vomiting. 
Family 72. Solanaceae. 

363. Physalis heterophylla, Nees. Ground Cherry. 

Sandy Fields. Common. 

364. Physalis heterophylla, Nees. Yar. ambigua (A. Gr.) Rydb. Ground 


Sandy fields. Frequent. 

365. Solanum Dulcamara, Lin. Bittersweet. 

Swamps. Common. 

The leaves and cut twigs are commercial drugs and the latter 
were official as Dulcamara, Poison. Chiefly used as a diuretic 
and alterative in scaly skin eruptions, catarrh and rheumatism. 

366. Solanum nigrum, Lin. Black Nightshade. 

Moist fields. Common. 

367. Lycium halimifolium. Mill. Matrimony Vine. 

Roadsides. Occasional. 

Family 73. Scrophulariaceae. 

368. Verbascum Thapsus, Lin. Mullein. 

Pastures and barren grounds. Common. 

The leaf is a commercial article and is used as a demulcent, 
diuretic and antispasmodic in coughs, catarrhs, cystitis, diarrhoea, 

369. Linaria Linaria (Lin.) Karst. Butter and Eggs. 

Waste places. Common. 


370. Scrophularia leporella, Bicknell. Figjwort. Carpenter's Square. 

Open woods. Occasional. 

The leaves of this and other species of the genus are known in 
commerce as Carpenter's Square and are employed as a diuretic 
and alterative in diseases of the skin and liver and in dropsy. 

371. Chelone glabra, Lin. Balmony. 

Swamps. Frequent. 

The leaf is a commercial drug and is employed as a tonic and 
cathartic in jaundice, liver troubles, and disorders of the digestive 
organs. * 

372. Pentstemon hirsutus (Lin.) Willd, Beard Tongue. 

Dry grounds. Common. 

373. Pentstemon hirsutus (Lin.) Willd. forma albiflorus. 

Flowers pure white. 

With the species. Occasional. 

374. Mimulus ringens, Lin. Monkey Flower. 

Swamps. Common. 

375. Veronica arvensis, Lin. Com Speedwell. 

Dry grounds. Common. 

376. Veronica A'irginica, Lin. Culvers Root. 

Open woods and swamps. Common. 

The rhizome and root is a commercial drug and is official as 
Leptcmdra. Employed as a cathartic and to prevent the return of 
intermittent fever after having been broken up by quinine. 
Order XXXII. Plantaginales. 
Family 74. Plantaginaceae. 

377. Plantago aristata, Mx. Plantain. 

Dry barren grounds. Common. 

378. Plantago lanceolata, Lin. English Plantain, Rib Grass. 

Whole plant strongly hirsute. 
Fields and pastures. Common. 

379. Plantago lanceolata Lin. Var. irrigua, D. C. 

A form of the species that is glabrate or only sparsely hirsute* 
Waste places. Common. 

380. Plantago major, Lin. Plantain. 

381. Plantago Rugeli, Dene. Plantain. 

Waste places and low grounds. Common. 
The leaves of P. major and P. Rugeli constitute a commercial 
drug, which is employed as an alterative, diuretic, and haemostatic 
in diarrhoea, haematuria, etc. 

Order XXXIII. Rubiales. 
family 75. Aparinaceae. 

382. Houstonia longifolia, Gaertn. Bluets. 

Dry fields. Frequent. 

383. Mitchella repens, Lin. Partridge Berry. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

The plant is a commercial drug under the name of Squaw 
Vine, and is employed as a diuretic and astringent in dropsy^ 
diarrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, etc. 

384. Galium Aparine, Line. Cleavers. 

Open woods, etc. Frequent. 

A commercial drug and employed as a diuretic in dropsy^ 
jaundice, and scrofula. 


Often adulterated with G, triflorum. 

385. Galium asprellum, Mx. Bedstraw. 

Wet thickets. Common. 

386. Galium boreale, Lin. Bedstraw. 

Swamps. Common. 

387. Galium Claytoni, Mx. Bedstraw. 

Swamps. Bare. 

388. Galium tinctorium, Lin. Bedstraw. 

Low wet grounds. Common. 

389. Galium triflorum, Mx. Sweet Bedstraw. 

Bich woods. Frequent. 

Family 76. Caprifoliaceae. 

390. Sambucus Canadensis, Lin. Elder. 

Swamps and thickets. Common. 

The flowers and bark are commercial drugs and the former Avas 
oflBcial as Sambucus. The bark is a hydragogue cathartic em- 
ployed in dropsy; the flowers are stimulant, diaphoretic, and 
diuretic and employed in fomentations to erysipelas, glandular 
engorgements, etc. 

391. Sambucus pubens, Mx. Bed-berried Elder. 

Swamps. Bare. 

392. Viburnum pubescens (Ait.) Ph. Arrow-root. 

Banks. Bare. 

393. Triosteum aurantiacum, Bicknell. Horse Gentian. 

Sandy hillsides. Bare. 

394. Lonicera glaucescens, Bydb. Honeysuckle. 

Swamps. Common. 

395. Lonicera glaucescens, Bydb., Yar. dasygyna, Behder, Honeysuckle. 

Swamps. Bare. 

396. Lonicera Tartarica, Lin. Honerysuckle. 

Banks of streams. Occasional. 

397. Lonicera Tartarica, Lin., Var. alba, Begel, Hone3'SUckle. 

Banks of streams. Occasional. 

Family 77. Valerian aceae. 

398. Valeriana edulis, Nutt. Valerian. 

399. Valeriana uliginosa (T. & G.) Bydb. Valerian. 

These two species are xevy common in the marl bog and in 1912 
had a second flowering season beginning in October and continu- 
ing into December, until frozen by a sudden cold snap. 
Order XXXIV. Campanulales. 
Family 78. Brvoniaceae. 

400. Citrullus Citrullus (Lin.) Karst. Watermelon. 

Escaped. Occasional. 

Family 79. Campanulaceae. 

401. Campanula aparinoides. Ph. Marsh Bellflower. 

Swamps. Common. 

402. Campanula intercedens, Witasek. Bluebell. 

Sandy hills, etc. Common. 

Family 80. Lobeliaceae. 

403. Lobelia Kalmii, Lin. Tx)belia. 

Marl bogs. Bare. 


404. Lobelia leptostachys, A. D. C, Yar. hirtella (A. Gr.) Lobelia. 

Lolelia spicata Lam. Var. hirtella A. Gr. Syn. Fl. II, Pt. 1, 6, 

The rough pubescence, strongly callous denticulate leaves and 
bracts, leafy-bracted spikes, and minutely auricled calyx lobes 
places the plant with this species rather than with L. spicata. 

Low grounds. Common. 

405. Ix)belia syphilitica, Lin. Blue Cardinal Flower. 

Low grounds. Common. 

The leaves are a commercial drug and employed as a cathartic 
and emetic chiefly in dropsy. 

Family 81. Composaceae. 

406. Eupatorium maculatum, Lin. Queen -of -the-meadow. 

Swamps. Common. 

The leaves and roots are commercial drugs and employed as 
diuretics in gravel, strangurv, etc. 

407. Eupatorium perfoliatum, Lin. Boneset. 

Low grounds. Common. 

The leaves are a commercial drug and are official under the 
name of Eupatorimn, Employed as a tonic, diaphoretic and laxa- 
tive in colds, etc. 

408. I>acinaria cylindracea (Mx.) O. K. Button Snake Root. 

Hillsides. Frequent. 

409. Lacinaria scariosa (Lin.) Hill. Button Snake Root. 

Lacinaria scanosa (Lin.) Hill. Var. corymhulosay Sheldon, 
Minn. Bot. Studies, I. Pt. 2, 77, pi. 6, 1894. 

The Linnean type, is the form with the flower heads on elongated 
lateral peducles. Rough-pubescent. Involucral scales scabrous 
and ciliate, greenish to dark purple. 

Dry or moist grounds. Frequent. 

410. Lacinaria scariosa (Lin.) Hill., Var aspera (Mx.) 

lAatris aspera Mx. Fl. Bor. Am. II, 91, 1803. 
Foliage very rough. Involucral scales usually pinkish obtuse 
and squarrose.. Heads sessile. 
Fields. Frequent. 

411. Lacinaria scariosa (Lin.) Hill., Yar. spheroidea (Mx.) 

lAatris spheroidea Mx. 1, c. 

Leaves smooth; spikes of few to many lai^e spherical or 
obconic heads, sessile or more or less stipitate; involucral scales, 
smooth, not ciliate, squarrose, obtuse, very pallid. 

Fields. Common. 

412. Lacinaria spicata (Lin.) O. K. Button Snake Root. 

Swamps and bogs. Common. 

The tuberous rhizomes of this and of some other species of the 
genus is the commercial drug known as Button Snake Root. 
Used as a diuretic and emmenagogue in gonorrhoea, dysmenor- 
rhoea, amenorrhoea, Bright's Disease, etc. 

413. Solidago altissima Lin. Goldenrod. 

Low grounds. Common. 

414. Solidago asj^ra. Ait. Goldenrod. 

Drv fields and woods. Common. 

415. Solidago aspera, Ait., Var. axillaris, N. Var. 

Panicle elongated; most of the subtending leaves equalling or 


exceeding their racemes. Bears the same relation to the species 
as the Var. villosa does to B. rugosa. 

416. Solidago juncea, Ait.> Var. scabrella (T. & Gr.) A. Gr. Goldenrod, 

Sandy grounds. Conmion. 

417. Solidago nemoralis, Ait. Goldenrod. 

Sandy fields. Commop. 

418. Solidago Ohioensis, EiddelL Goldenrod. 

Swamps. Common. 

419. Solidago patula, Muhl. Goldenrod. 

Swamps. Common. 

420. Solidago rigida, Lin. Goldenrod. 

Sandy hills. Common. 

421. Solidago Riddellii, Frank. Goldenrod. 

Swamps. Common. 

422. Solidago rugosa, MilL Goldenrod. 

Wet grounds. Common. 

423. Solidago rugosa, Mill., Var. villosa (Ph.) Femald. Goldenrod. 

Wet grounds. Frequent. 

424. Solidago serotina, Ait. Goldenrod. 

Thickets. Frequent. 

425. Solidago serotina. Ait., Var. gigantea (Ait.) A. Gr. Goldenrod. 

Low grounds. Occasional. 

426. Solidago speciosa, Nutt. Goldenrod. 

Dry fields. Frequent. 

427. Solidago uliginosa, Nutt. Goldenrod. 

Swamps. Common. 

428. Aster azureas, Lindl. Aster. 

Dry, sandy soil. Common. 

429. Aster concinnus, Willd. (?) Aster. 

Marl bogs. Frequent. 

430. Aster cordifolius, Lin. Aster. 

Thickets and open iwoods. Common. 

431. Aster junceus. Ait. Aster. 

Swamps. Common. 

432. Aster laevis, Lin. Aster. 

Dry, sandy places. Common. 

433. Aster laevis, Lin., Var. amplifolius. Porter. Aster. 

Open woods. Frequent. 

434. Aster laevis Lin., Var. laevigatus (Hk.) A. Gr. Aster. 

Moist places. Common. 

435. Aster lateriflorus (Lin.) Britton. Aster. 

Dry fields and hills. Common. 

436. Aster lateriflorus (Lin.) Britton, Var. glomerellus (T. & G.) 

Burgess. Aster. 
Dry hills. Frequent. 

437. Aster lateriflorus (Lin.) Britton, Var. horizontalis (Desf.) Bur- 

gess. Aster. 

Marl bogs. Common. 

438. Aster lateriflorus (Lin.) Britton, Var. pendulus (Ait.) Burgess. 


Marl bogs. Common. 

439. Aster Novae-Angliae, Lin. Aster. 

Tx>w grounds. Frequent. 


440. Aster No vae-Belgii (Lin.) (?) Aster. 

Swamps. Frequent. 

441. Aster paniculatus, Lam. Aster. 

Swamps. Common. 

442. Aster paniculatus, Lam., Var. bellidifolius, (Willd.) Burgess. 


Swamps. Frequent. 

443. Aster paniculatus. Lam., Var. simplex (Willd) Burgess. Aster. 

Swamps. Occasional. 

444. Aster puniceus, Lin. Aster. 

Swamps. Common. 

445. Aster sagittifolius, Willd. Aster. 

Dry, sandy hills. Frequent. 

446. Erigeron annuus (Lin.) Pers. Fleabane. 

Low grounds. Common. 

447. Erigeron Canadensis, Lin. Fleabane. 

Sandy fields. Common. 

The leaf is a commercial drug and is employed as a diuretic 
and astringent in dropsy, diarrhoea, etc. 

448. Erigeron Philadelphicus, Lin. Fleabane. 

Low grounds. Common. 

449. Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B. S. P. Fleabane. 

Dry grounds. Common. 

450. Antennaria ambigons (Greene) Fernald.. Everlasting. 

Fields. Common. 

451. Antennaria bifrons, Greene. Everlasting. 

Fields. Common. 

452. Antennaria mesochora, Greene. Everlasting. 

Fields. Common. 

453. Gnaphalium obtusifolium, Lin. Life-everlasting. 

Swamps. Common. 

A commercial drug and employed as a tonic, diaphoretic and 
astringent in fevers, diarrhoea, etc. 

454. Ambrosia elatior, Lin. Ragweed. 

All the leaves bipinnatified. 

455. Ambrosia elatior Lin., Var. artemisiifolia, (Lin.) Ragweed. 

A. artemisiifolia Lin, Sp. PL, 988, 1753. 

The uppermost leaves of branches and stems undivided, other- 
wise as in the type. 

456. Ambrosia elatior, Lin., Var. heterophvlla (Muhl.) Ragweed. 

A. heterophylla Muhl., Willd. Sp. PI. IV. 378, 1805. 

The lower leaves pinnatified, the upper undivided or with one 
or two lobes near the base. This form is more inclined to have 
the staminate inflorescence abnormally converted into a pistillate 
inflorescence. All the fonns are more or less common in waste 
and cultivated flelds. 

The leaves and staminate flowers of this species are commer- 
cial drugs; the former is an astringent employed as an applica- 
tion to sores, wounds, etc. ; the latter is employed in the treatment 
of hay-fever. 

457. Heliopsis scabra. Dun. Ox-eye. 

Swamps. Common. 


458. Eudbeckia hirta, Lin. Yellow Daisv. 

Dry fields. Common. 

There is a gigantic form in swampy grounds with large, ovate 
lower leaves and involucral scales as long, or nearly so, as the 

459. Rudbeckea hirta, Lin., Var. pulcherrima, Farwell. Yellow Daisy. 

Swamps. Occasional. 

This form ha*s the lower half of the rhys a beautiful brownish 

460. Rudbeckia laciniata, Lin. Cone Flower. 

Low grounds. Rare. 

461. Helianthus divaricatus, Lin. Sunflower. 

Dry woods. Frequent. 

462. Helianthus giganteus, Lin. Sunflower. 

Swamps. Frequent. 

463. Helenium autumnale, Lin. Sneezeweed. 

Low grounds. Frequent. 

464. Achillea occidentalis, Raf. Yarrow. 

Fields and open woods. Common. 

This plant is a commercial drug and is employed as a tonic, 
stimulant and astringent in disorders of the pelvic organs. 

465. Anthemis arvensis, Lin., Yar. agrestis (Wallr.) D. C. Com 

Fields. Common. 

466. Anthemis Cotula, D. C. IMayweed. 

Waste places. Frequent. 

A commercial drug and employed as a sudorific and antispas- 

467. Erechtites hieracifolia (Lin.) Raf. Fireweed. 

Swamps. Frequent. 

The leaf is a commercial drug and is employed as <a tonic and 
astringent in disorders of the mucous membranes. 

468. Senecio aureus, Lin. Life-Root. 

Swamps. Common. 

The leaves of this species is a commercial drug, which is em- 
ployed in female complaints. 

469. Senecio Balsamitae, Muhl. Ragwort. 

Marl bogs. Common. 
This is a glabrous form. 

470. Senecio Sp. Floccose wooly throughout at flowering time; stem 

leaves few and reduced, lyrate, pinnatified or the uppermost 
entire; lower stem leaves and radical from orbicular to ovate, 
% to 3 Cm. long by Vo to 2 wide; petioles equalling or slightly 
longer than the blades. Dry or moist grounds. Rochester, 
Orion, Detroit. 

471. Arctium minus (Hill.) Benih. Burdock. 

Waste places. Common. 

The leaves, seed, and young root are commercial drugs, and are 
used as alteratives and diuretics in rheumatism, syphilis, leprosy, 
etc. The root of the first year is official as Lappa. 

472. Carduus arvensis (Lin.) Robs. Canada Thistle. 

Waste places. Common. 

The rhizome is a commercial drug and \^ ^yk^cs^^^ ^^^ ^>^sv ^s^- 
tringent in diarrhoea, etc. 


473. Carduus lanceolatus, Lin. Bull Thistle. 

Fields. Common. 

474. Adopogon Virginicum (Lin.) O. K. Dwarf DnDdelioD. 

Moist grouDds. Frequent. 

475. Tragopogon pratensis, Un. Goat's Beard. 

Waste grounds. Common. 

476. Taraxacum Taraxacum (Lin.) Karst. Dandelion. 

Fields. Common. 

The herb and the root are commercial dnigs employed as altera- 
tives, diuretics and laxatives iu hepatic derangements and their 
sequelae. The root is ofBcial as Taraxacunt. 

477. I^actuca Canadensis, JAn. Wild Lettuce. 

Borders of thickets in damp soil. Rare. 

The leaf is a commercial drug and is employed as a mild 

478. Lactuca hirsuta, Muhl. Wild Lettuce. 

Dry grounds. Common. 

479. Prenanthes alba, Liu, Bnttlesunke Boot, 

Swamps, Frequent. 





In the summer of 1912, while occiipjing the position of research as- 
sistant in botany at the Biological Station of the University of Michi- 
gan, in Cheboygan County, I took a few days off for a trip across the 
upper peninsula, in order to make some comparisons between thie v^eta- 
tion fiftv or more miles north of the station with that to the southward 
which I had already seen. 

Landing at St. Ignace on the morning of August 3d, I went across to 
Sault Ste. Marie by the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Ry., turning 
an acute angle at Soo Junction, 43 miles from St. Ignace and 47 from 
"the Soo." Three days later I came back by the Minneapolis, St. Paul 
and Sault Ste. Marie Ry. to Trout Ii<ake, a distance of 45 miles, and 
from there (after dark) by the same route as before to St. Ignace and 
the Lower Peninsula. This gave me a view of 135 miles of the Upper 
Peninsula, all in Mackinac and Chippewa Counties except a mile or 
two on either side of Soo elunction, which is in Luce. Very little botani- 
cal work seems to have been done in these counties, if one may judge 
from the infrequency with which they are mentioned in Real's Michigan 
Flora (1904). 

The vegetation types of the r^ion traversed are shown with remark-, 
able accuracy, though necessarily somewhat generalized on account of 
the small scale used, on the map of the Upper Peninsula in Dr. Charles 
A. Davis's report on peat (Rep. Geol. Surv. Mich. 1906, pi. 17. 1907), 
which is one of the best vegetation maps for an area of that size ever 
published. The surface geology of the same area is shown in an equally 
satisfactory- manner on a colored map by Frank Leverett, drawn in 1911 
and distributed in July, 1912.* Consequently it is imnecessary to give 
more than a brief and superficial description of the country here. 

Between St. Ignace and Trout I^ke, especially in the first few miles, 
outcrops of limestone are not infrequent; but they seem to have very 
little effect on the vegetation.f Elsewhere on the route the rocks are 
covered deeply by sand and clay mixed in various proportions, and in 
many places peat. Bogs, swamps and marshes abound, especially in the 
neighborhood of Soo Junction, indicating that the ground- water stands 
within a few feet of the surface, and does not fluctuate much y^iih the 

The country is comparatively level all the way, or at least not. at all 

♦This map does not seem to have yet been included in any printed report, but it is *a 
companion to the map of the Lower Peninsula by the same author In Publication 9 
(Geological Series 7) of the Michigan Geological and Biological Survey, 1912. 

t Nearly all the correlations between vegetation and mineral constituents of the soil — 
particularly limestone, which is one of the most widely distributed and easily identified — 
which have been published have be<^n made in temperate and moderately humid climates, 
in this country especially in Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi. In cold, hot 
and arid climates such correlations are either less obvious or at least have been made 
much less frequently. 



mountainous. Small areas of undulating sandy moraines are frequent. 
About 25 miles west of Sault Ste. Marie the D. S. S. & A. Ry. passes 
for several miles through one such area which is woodedi almost ex- 
clusively with jack pine, a most interesting sight to the phytogeographer, 
however uninviting it may be to the agriculturist. (The government has 
taken advantage of the uninhabited condition of this area in creating 
there the "Marquette National Forest," the southern border of which is 
skirted by the railroad.) 

Most of the distance between Sault Ste. Marie and Trout I>ake the 
surface is formed by a thick deposit of lake clay,. in which the ground- 
water level lies deeper than it does on other parts of the route, as in- 
dicated by the fewer bogs and deeper stream valleys. Farms are rather 
common there, and the country much more densely populated than that 
traversed on the eastward journey. 

Even where there are no farms in sight the lumbermen have been 
active in years gone by, as they have nearly everywhere else in Michi- 
gan, and have doubtless removed most of the white pine and a good deal 
of the other timber which made up the original forests. However, there 
is still enough native vegetation left to keep an observer busy writing 
I)lant names every moment while the train is in motion, which cannot 
be said of some places farther south. 

The following list contains the names of all the plants identified more 
than once from the train on the whole journey of 135 miles. Of course 
it does not do justice to the herbs, but it ought to be reasonably com- 
jilete for the trees, which are the most important part of the vegetation, 
not only from an economic and esthetic standpoint, but also ecologically, 
for they are subject to a greater variety of environmental conditions 
than the herbs ai*e, on account of their larger size and longer life. (For 
example, the absolute minimum temperature may determine the north- 
em limits of some trees, for they are exposed to all the weather there 
is; but it is probably immaterial to the herbs which are dormant be- 
neath the, ground and often also covered by snow when the minimum 
temperature occurs.) 

The numbers prefixed to the names of the species indicate the number 
of times each was obsen^ed, between different mile-posts, except that 
where a species was noted as very abundant I have counted it twice in 
tabulating the returns. This method of quantitative analysis of vege- 
tation is of course very crude, but it is much better than a mere quali- 
tative list of the usual type; and it would probably take a person cover- 
ing the same ground on foot at least a week to get more accurate re- 
sults than I did in a few hours. 

It is difficult enough to distinguish our two common species of Picea 
on close inspection (much more so for example than in the case of the 
two southeastern species of Taxodium, which many dendrologists still 
refuse to regard as distinct), and almost impossible to do so from a 
moving train, where one has to look pretty sharp even to distinguish 
Picea from Ahies. I have therefore combined the figures for the two 
Picea^, and assumed that they both belong between 41 and 29. 

The names of evergreens are j)rinted in bold-face type, for reasons 
which will appear presently, and those of weeds are put in parentheses. 
The nomenclature used is mainly that of Robinson and Fernald's Manual 
(the so-called seventh edition of Gray's), 1908. 



Larix laricina 

Betula papyrifera 

Finns Banksiana 

Popnlus tremuloides 

Thnya occidentalis 

Abies balsamea 

Ficea Canadensis 

Ficea Mariana 

Pniiiiis Pennsylvanica 
26 Finns Strobns 
23 Populns balsamifera 
IS S^orbiis Americana 
17 Acer nibnim 
17 Fraxinus ni^ra 
15 Finns resinosa 
7 Tsnga Canadensis 
7 Acer Sacchanim 

4 Populus grandidentata 

3 Fagns grandifolia 
2 Betula lenta? 

2 Ulmus Americana 


58 Alnus incana 

26 Cbamaedaphne calycnlata 

19 Salix sp. 

(probably more than one). 
IT Salix hicida 

5 Diervilla Lonicera 

4 Betula pumila 

3 Comptonia peregrina 
3 Myrica Gale 

3 Sambucus racemosa 

3 Lednm Groenlandicnm 

3 Andromeda glancophylla 

2 Taxus Canadensis 

2 Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum 

2 (Sambucus Canadensis) 

2 Shepherdia Canadensis 


81 Pteridiuni anuilinum 

28 Typha latifolia 

22 Solidago Canadensis? 

17 Epilobium angustifoliuin 

17 (Anaphalis margaritacea) 

13 (Achillea Millefolium) 

10 (Poa prat en sis) 

10 Scirpus cypeiinus pelius? 


f) Calamagrostis Canadensis 

Eiipatoriiim purpiireum 

8 Carex filiformis 

8 Dantlionia spicata 

fJ (Yerbascum Thapsus) 

5 (Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum pinnatifidum) 

5 Iris versicolor 

5 Eriophorum viridiearinatum 

4 (Trifolium pratense) 

4 Scirpns atrovirens? 

4 Valeriana uliginosa 

3 (Trifolium hybridum) 

3 (Arctium minus) 

3 (Hypericum perforatum) 

3 Thalictrum dasycarpum 

3 Aster macrophyllus 

3 Solidago sp. 

2 Juncus effusus 

2 (Carduus arvensis) 

2 Osmunda cinnamomea 

2 Sium cicutaefolium 

2 Calla palustris 


The number of native herbs identified in this manner is rather large 
for such a well-wooded country, and compares favorably with the num- 
ber that might be seen in traveling a similar distance through the pine- 
barrens of the southeastern states. In the hardwood country between 
the boreal and the southeastern coniferous forests the traveler by rail 
sees few herbs other than weeds, as I have pointed out elsewhere.* 

Another noteworthy character of the flora of this region is the wide dis- 
tribution of the species. All but one or two of those listed grow also in 
northern New England, about 800 miles farther east, and nearly as many 
are reported also from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Many are 
also represented in northern Eurasia by identical or closely allied species. 
Most of them also range several hundred miles farther north. (In the 
interior hardwood region of the eastern United States, and still more in 
the coastal plain, the species of plants are much more localized.) 

More interesting still is the proportion of evergreens. Assuming that 
the figures given represent the relative abundance of the species in 
the ijrimeval forests — a rather faulty assumption, to be sure, but one 
that will not be very misleading when comparisons are made between 
different sets of figures obtained in the same way — just about 46% of 
the trees, or 40^% of all the woody plants listed (i. e., individuals, not 
species) are evergreen. 

The opinion seems to be prevalent among those ecologists tvho have 
given any thought to the matter that the proportion of evergreens in 
a given flora is detei^mined primarily by some one or more climatic fac- 
tors. But the fact that different habitats so close together that their 
climate must be essentially the same in all particulars often differ 
widely in the proportion of evergreens shows that it cannot be explained 
without reference to edaphic factors. 

*Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37:411-412, 423, 1910. 


Evergreen trees, whether coniferous or broad-leaved (they happen to 
be all conifers in Michigan) seem to be just as characteristic of poor 
soil* as of any particular kind of climate. Certainly the parts of the 
eastern United States where agriculture had its greatest development 
before the days of commercial fertilizers had far fewer evergreens in 
their original forests than have those parts which are still thinly 
settled. In traveling across such predominantly agricultural states as 
Ohio or Illinois one sees almost no evergreens at all. 

The relation of evergreens to soils is illustrated pretty well by some 
statistics obtained from my notes of this very trip. By dividing the 
itinerary into three nearly equal parts and calculating the percentage of 
evergreen trees for each I find that between St. Ignace and Soo Junction, 
where there are many limestone outcrops and a few farms, the percentage 
is 44. Between Soo Junction and Sault Ste. Marie, where the country 
is almost uninhabited, it rises to 56, while between Sault Ste. Marie 
and Trout Lake, wliere farms are most numerous, the evergreens con- 
stitute only 38%. As these statistics were all obtained in the same man- 
ner, and within a few days of each other, we are apparently justified 
in concluding that in this region, as farther south, the desirability of 
land for agricultural purposes is roughly inversely proportional to the 
percentage of evergreens in the forests. 

Of course the objection might be raised that all that these figures 
indicate is that in the more populous areas more of the white pine has 
been cut out, leaving a larger proportion of the relatively worthless 
birch and aspen. But lumbering can be carried on just as well in a 
wilderness as in a populous region, topographic conditions being equal ; 
and furthermore, Pinus Strobus was actually seen oftener in the third 
stage of the journey than in the second. The farmers have doubtless 
cleared the hardwood forests first, here as elsewhere, and yet the forests 
still standing in the more clayey soils contain proportionately more hard- 
wood than do those a few miles farther north, where most of the pine 
has been removed by lumbermen. 

The following trees and shrubs which are more or less common in 
the Lower Peninsula were conspicuous by their absence between St. 
Ignace and Sault Ste. Marie. (Where no specific name is mentioned it 
means that no species of that genus was seen.) 

Juniperus Virgin i ana 




Populus deltoides 

Salix nigra 



Quercus alba 

Quercus macrocarpa 

Quercus coccinea 

Quercus velutina 

•By a poor soil is meant one which Is deficient in one or more of the elements needed by 
growing crops, or in which some physical or toxic condition makes some of the essential 
elements relatively unavailable. Just what the soil constituent is that favors the growth of 
deciduous trees is not yet obvious, but it is probably either phosphorus or potassium. 


Ulmiis fulva 









Pninus serotina 

Rhus copallina 

Rhus Vernjx 



Acer saccharinum 

Acer Negundo 

Comus florida 



The usual explanatiou of the absence or scarcity of these plants in 
the Upper Peninsula would probably be that the climate, especially the 
minimum temperature, is simply too cold. This may be correct in some 
eases, but it would not be safe to make a sweeping assertion to that 
effect without experimental proof, for many species of trees can be 
cultivated successfully several hundred miles farther north than they 
grow naturally. And the extremely irregular boundary between the 
boreal conifer forests and the temperate hardwood forests, in New Eng- 
land for example, can hardly be explained by temperature alone. Many 
if not most of the species and genera just listed prefer rather rich 
soils, and perhaps the soils of the Upper Peninsula are simply deficient 
in some element that they need. A series of soil analyses would be a 
great help in the further study of the problem. 




The following work was carried on during the summer of 1912 at 
the University of Michigan Biological Station at Douglas Lake, Michi- 
gan. In the season of 1911 the areas ai'ound the Station were studied 
in a supei*ficial manner. The different associations were noted, fre-^ 
quency and abundance counts were made, but it was not until the follow- 
ing year that the permanent quadrats were laid out. 

The method of placing the quadrats was as follows: First, a general 
survey of the area was taken, listing all species as to frequency and 
abundance. A typical spot was then located and a quadrat marked off, 
four iron pipes being driven into the corners and wire stretched around 
them to mark off accurately the space from the neighboring area. 

The sun exposure and the physical condition of the soil, to a depth 
of four inches, were noted. All the plants in the quadrat were accurately 
measured and their location marked on cross-section paper. In order to 
facilitate this measuring, cord was used to divide the quadrat into six- 
teen smaller squares. 

The symbol used to represent a plant on the paper was a small circle, 
and beside this was placed the first letter of the genus and species. 
When the plant formed a mat, an outline was drawn around the circle 
to show its size. If small trees were present, their height was measured 
and indicated in the table of symbols. 

In most cases two-meter quadrats were laid out. This size was taken 
in preference to the one-meter quadrat of Clements, as it was considered 
that a more accurate and typical plot could be had. If a different size 
was taken it will be stated when describing the individual quadrats. 

After the work was finished two 4x5 pictures, at right angles to each 
other, were taken of each quadrat. 

The first quadrat was staked out in the Aspen Association. This 
association is most common in the vicinity of Dougas Lake. Fires have 
swept through many times, laying bare the gi'ound, and the aspens are 
the first trees to come in. Here there are many species of the old pine 
vegetation as well as those of the incoming aspens. The first quadrat 
was placed in an unsheltered part, having direct sunlight all day. The 
soil was sandy and very di-y, with no underbrush. PteHs aquilina was 
the most common species present, with Vaccinium next. 

The second quadrat was likewise placed among the aspens but in a 
more sheltered part. It was laid out on a hillside where there were a 
great number of dead branches and underbrush. The soil contained more 
humus and there was more shade. There were many young aspens in 
the surrounding area, some being present in the quadrat. Besides the 
aspens, pine, birch, and oak trees were frequent near the quadrat. 

Still a third quadrat was marked off in this association. The sur- 
rounding area contained a great number of birch trees and the quadrat 
was placed in the dense shade of one of them. The ground was mostly 


humus, though sand was present. Pteris i\ias not the predominating 
si>ecies, but rather Melampyrum, 

The quadrat laid out in the peat bog was made but one-half meter 
square. This size was taken owing to the great density and similarity 
of the vegetation. The quadrat was placed near the bog lake and in 
direct sunlight. Chamaedaphne and Andromeda were dominant, with 
Yaccinmm, Sarracenia^ Chiogenes, and many others as secondary species. 

Two quadrats were staked out in a climax beech-maple hardwood, one 
in dense shade, the other on a hillside in moderate shade. The former 
quadrat contained little else besides the seedling of the trees, but the 
latter contained more species. The soil in both was very rich and had 
a thick covering of leaves. These woods are to be cut before the next sea- * 
son and the incoming plants of a cut climax hardwood will be closely 
tabulated. Unfortunately there are no hardwoods where the species of a 
climax association can be observed, for thev are all to be cut . this 

Two quadrats were placed in a burned over cedar bog. This bog was 
burned Jul}' 12, 1911, and many plants had come in during the one 
year; some of the old association, whose rootstocks had not been in- 
jured, and others of the new association. Both quadrats were in the 
direct sunlight. The ground was very wet and contained a great num- 
ber of decaying logs. Marchantia and Funaria were very common. 

In an association similar to the burned area, before the lire swept 
through it, was placed a seventh quadrat. This quadrat was made one 
meter square, every inch of ground containing a plant. The substratum 
was made up entirely of Sphagnum; cedar and tamarack trees kept the 
quadrat in dense shade. Many of the secondary species were the same 
as those of the burned area. 

The last quadrat was placed on a slowly moving sand dune near the 
shore of Douglas Lake. It wtas marked out so that one side was on 
the clear sand, while the other had a great deal of Scirpus and other 
species. During the winter the water and ice are apt to cover this 
quadrat, but no marked ice action is had. 

This work is simply the beginning. The same quadrats will be studied 
for many consecutive years in an attempt to learn the steps of succession 
in the different areas. 

The region around the camp is especially fitted for such a study as it 
is rich in having many diverse types of vegetation. The fires have given 
an excellent chance for comparing burned with non-burned areas. 

Xext summer these same quadrats will be plotted, the results com- 
pared with those of last season, and cfmclusions will be drawn. 


ROLE OF vp:getation of a mill-pond. 


The data for this article were taken from an old mill-pond located in 
Salem township, Allegan County, Michigan. The dam which forms 
this pond was built about 46 years ago. The stream furnishing the 
water is small, not more than 10 or 15 feet wide and only from 8 to 
12 inches deep, with the characteristic deep holes which are found in 
streams of this character in the glacial drift of Michigan. This stream 
is called the Little Rabbit river ; one of the tributaries of the Kalamazoo 
river system. 

The Little Rabbit river drains a large bog in the eastern part of Salem 
and western part of Dorr townships. This bog is of the high moor 
type; the water coming from springs, seepage and surface drainage. 
The swamp is sufficiently dry to permit of a good stand of soft maple, 
black ash and American elm. The stream flows from the northeast; 
the water entering it from the north and west comes from a district 
of loam soil 50 to 75 feet above the river bottom. The water coming 
from the south and east drains a sandy district. The flora of the 
•mill-pond has probably been derived from swamps or ponds along this 

The flood plain where the dam is located is about 700 feet wide. The 
dam raised the water sufficiently to form a pond one mile long with 
an average width of about 700 feet and a depth of 6 feet at the dam. 
The pond is bordered by a bank from 10 to 15 feet high in places. The 
shore line is irregular. The channel which had an original depth of 6 
to 10 feet is located near the middle of the pond. The original depth 
of the pond for nearly half its length above the dam was about 5 feet. 

This whole area was covered with trees at the time it was flooded. 
Later these trees were cut leaving the stumps and refuse logs in the , 
pond. (Fig. 1.) 

As above stated the channel of the original stream extends the entire 
length of the pond in a winding course with a depth of from 3 to 8 
feet. Also along the east side of the pond there are a few holes in 
which the water is from 7 to 10 feet deep. These holes are due to 
irregularities of the flood plain which have been formed by the old water 
course of the stream. 

The current in the channel is very sluggish. In all paris of the pond 
where the water is over four feet deep there are only a few growing 
l)lants; a few plants of Ceratophyllum were found by dredging. 

The present condition of this pond makes it possible to divide it 

into four different plant associations which are as follows: Potamogeton 

» — Chara association; Typha — Sparganium association; Gramineae — 

Carex association and that association of plants growing on stumps 

and logs. 

The Potamogeton — Ohara (Pond-weed — Stonewort) association ex- 
tends norih froifi the dam to about the middle of the pond, coveriixs^ 


its entire width with the exceptions of the channel and a few areas of 
deep water in other pads of the pond. 

The average depth of that part of the pond covered by this association 
is 4 feet; the deepest places being near the east shore where the depth 
is abont 8 feet; the shallowest places are not over 2 feet deep. 

Measurements of the accumulated sediment showed a deposit of a foot 
or more near the middle portion of the association. This accumulated 
material no doubt is decayed remains of the dominant plant such as 
Potamogeton natans on the surface; (Fig. 2) P. pectinatus and Ceroto- 
phyllum demersum were found growing about 16 inches below the sur- 
face and Chara sp. was found in abundance growing with its tips sub- 
merged only a few" inches. In places the Chara is very near the surface 
and in extremelv dense masses from 2 to 3 feet thick. 

The following is a list of species in this association : Cerotophyllum 
demersum, Potamogeton lucens, P. natans, P. pectinatus, Nymphaea 
advena, Castalia odorata, Ranunculus aquatilis. 

Continuing from the upper end of the Potamogeton — Chara association 
for about 2000 feet and extending across the pond from shore to shore- 
is the Sparganium — Typha (Burr-seed — Cat-tail) association. 

The water covering this area is much shallower than that of the 
former association. The depth from the surface of the water to the 
surface of the loose and partial liquid sediment of plant material ranges 
from 2 to 8 inches; the depth of the sediment ranges from 12 to 24 
inches. The sediment is not solid but a loose mushy mass of decaying^ 
plant material. 

The dominant species of this association grow in clumps resembling 
islands and probably in time iwlll form islands by the accumulation of 
debris; these plants having already accumulated sufficient material at 
places to raise the soil surface nearly out of the water. The most 
abundant species is Sparganium eurycarpum, which becomes more and 
more scattered and in smaller groups towards the dam showing that 
it is migrating towards deeper water. Other species growing in the 
same manner are: Typha americana, Sagitteria latifolia, Polygonum 
hydropiperoides, Scirpus validus and Rumex verticellata. Between these- 
clumps are abundant growths of Potamogeton natans, Cerotophyllum 
demersum and Elodea canadensis besides a number of other scattered 
species. (Fig. 3.) 

Sparganium, the dominant species of this association, has complete 
possession of the areas in which it started and is now growing so dense 
that all other species are kept out. The same is true of the other clumps 
mentioned but they are fewer in number. The conspicuous feature of 
this association is the exclusive grouping of the species. 

The whole upper end of the pond for a distance of about 1200 feet with 
the exception of the stream feeding it is covered with the Gramineae 

Carex (Grass — Sedge) association. Within the memory of the writer 
this area was open water; but now during the summer it is used for 
pasture. Besides the grasses and- sedges there are willows and other 
swamp plants growing quite abundantly. 

Another association of plants in this pond is located in a very ab- 
normal situation. The stumps and logs which were left in the pond 
furnishes this abnormal place for plants to accumulate. As the logs: 


and stumps decay the seeds and fruits which lodge on them gain a 
foot-hold and soon show a flora of its own. 

The conditions for plant growth in this location are extreme and 
severe, for during the winter they are subjected to the severe winds and 
frosts without protection and in summer, unless their roots reach into 
the water, they suffer xerophytic conditions. These adverse conditions 
oppose the normal developement of the species growing there. Most 
of these plants are small and not time to type. Some of these stumps 
and logs are becoming very densely covered with plants so that they 
are l)eginnings of small islands. (Fig. 1.) 

The following is a list of plants with the kind of fruit they produce 
found growing on the stumps and logs in the pond : 

Latin Name English Name Kind of Fruit 

Poa compressa (Canada lilue (irass . Caryopsis 

Carex sp Sedge Achene 

Carex sp Sedge Achene 

Salix glaucophylla Willow Hairy seed 

Pilea pumula Clear Weed Achene 

Polygonum convolvulus . Black Bindweed .... Achene 

Ribes floridum Wild Black Currant . Berry 

Amelanchier Canadensis . Juneberry Pome (fleshy) 

Fragaria virginiana Wild Strawberry . . . Achene on 

fleshy receptacle 

Rubus occidentalis Black RaspbeiTy .... Aggregate (fleshy) 

Prunus pennsylvanicum . . Pin Cherry Drupe (fleshy) 

Epilobium angustifolium Fire-weed Hairy seed 

Cornus stolonifera Red-Osier Drupe (fleshy) 

Vaccinium pennsylvanicum Low Blueberry Berry (fleshy) 

Asclepias incarnata Swamp Milkweed . . . Hairy seed 

Lycopus virginicus Water Hoarhound . . Nutlet 

Chelone glabra Turtle Head ("apsule 

Mimulus ringens Monkey Flower Capsule 

Solanum dulcamara Bittersweet Berry (fleshy) 

Galium trifida Bedstraw Busslike fruit 

Solidago canadensis Golden Rod Achene (hairy) 

Erigeron canadensis Mare's Tail Achene (hairy) 

Bidens connata Spanish Needles .... Achene (barbed) 

Bidens trichosperma .... Tiekseed Sunflower . Achene (barbed) 

Of the above 24 species the seeds of 19 might have been carried by 
birds, 5 by wind. 


1. Most of the filling material which is being deposited at present is 

plant remains. 

2. Cerotophyllum, Potamogetons and Chara are the most active plant 

agents in filling this pond. 

3. Sparganium eurycarpum is the most active species in gaining pos- 

session of the shallow Water. 

4. The channel of the original stream and those places in the pond 

over 4 feet deep are poor in plant life. 


5. No doubt 75% of the plant species found on the stumps and logs 

were started from seeds carried bv birds. 

6. Potamogeton and Cerotophyllum are the least abundant near the 

dam but increase in abundance towards the upper end of the 
pond, becoming most abundant where the Sparganium becomes 

7. Sparganium is migrating towards the dam and has reached the 

middle of the pond. 

8. In the Potamogeton — Chara association the sediment is one foot 

deep. In the Sparganium — Tjpha association it is two feet deep. 
The present indications are that at the rate this pond is and has been 
filling the last 30 years, another period of equal length will entirely fill 
it with plant remains and sediment. 





The following key is based upon a study of several hundred speci- 
men sheets, principally from the University of Michigan and Michigan 
Agricultural College herbariums, supplemented by field work with grow- 
ing specimens. The key is a result of some wiork along certain sys- 
tematic lines directly under the supervision of Prof. H. A. Gleason. 

'Those who have had occasion to use the keys for identification of 
Solidago found in the manuals in common use must have been annoyed 
by the "unusableness" of such keys. The genus Solidago isi not an 
easy one at best, there being so many gradations between one species 
or variety and another. While it is realized that the present key, in 
common with any other kev, no matter how carefully it has been 
worked out, will not serve to identify absolutely any and every indi- 
vidual which may be found in the state, it is thought that it will quickly 
and easily distinguish the vast majority of specimens in the field. No 
explanation of the manner of using the key seems necessary, except to 
state that it is dichotomous throughout and that there are only three 
large types recognized. The first is characterized by clusters of flower 
heads in the axils of ordinary foliage leaves, the second by rounded or 
flat-topped inflorescences and the third by cylindrical or pyramidal in- 
florescences. These three types can be easily recognized with a little 
practice, when the minor divisions of the key can be handled with little 
difficulty. The habitat notes in parenthesis have been added solely to 
aid in the determinations and are not strictly a part of the key. The 
scientific names follow the usage of Gratfs Scny Manual of Botany, 
seventh edition. 

a. Heads chiefly in clusters or short racemes in the axils of ordinary 
foliage leaves, or the upper compacted into a leafy thyrse termi- 
nating the stem. (Compare with the thyrsoid type in 66 under 
b. Stem and both sides of the leaves essentially glabrous, 
c. Basal leaves abruptly narrowed to winged petioles, 
d. Involucre 2-5 mm. long, its bracts broadly ovate, obtuse; 

rays 3-4 ; achenes very pubescent, (moist woods) 

/Sf. latifolia. 

dd. Involucre 8-12 mm. long, its bracts linear, acute; rays 8-10; 

achenes glabrous, (shore of Lake Sui>erior) 

S, macrophylla. 

cc. Basal leaves not abniptly narrowed to winged petioles. 

d. Ix>wer leaves lanceolate, acuminate, thin, sharply serrate; 
achenes pubescent, 
e. Stem usually simple; heads few, in very small clusters, 
(rich woods) S, caesia^ r. axillaris. 


ee. Stem usually diffuse-branched; heads rather moi'e numer- 
ous, in larger clusters, (rich woods) S, caesia 

dd. Lower leaves broadlj^ oval, obtuse, thickish, crenate; achenes 

glabrous, (dry soil) *Sf. erecta. 

bb. Stem and both sides of the leaves more or less pubescent, or 
sometimes glabrous. 

c. Rays white, (dry soil ) S. bicolor 

cc. Rays yellow, (dry soil) &. hispida 

aa. Heads not in clusters or short racemes in the axils of ordinary 
foliage leaves; not thyrsoid. 
b. Heads crowded at or near the ends of the branches at about 
the same distance from the base of the panicle, forming a 
rounded or flat-topped inflorescence, 
c. Lower leaves ovate, oblong or oval, pinnately veined. 

d. Stem and both sides of the leaves rough-pubescent, {dry, 

sandy soil) S. rigida 

dd. Stem and both sides of the leaves glabrous, (bogs and 

swamps) /S^. ohioensis 

cc. Tx)wer leaves linear-lanceolate, 3-5-ribbed. 

d. Heads few, in a small, corymbose cyme; leaves few, scat- 
tered, (lake shores) S. Houghtonii 

dd. Heads many, in a large, dense, corymbose cyme; stem very 
e. Leaves glabrous both sides, 
f. Leaves folded, 8-20 mm. wide; basal leaves long-petioled. 

(swamps) >8f. Riddellii 

ff. Leaves flat, 1-8 mm. wide; basal leaves not long-petioled. 
g. leaves 4-8 mm. wide, distinctly 3-5-ribbed. (moist 

soil) 8, graminifolia 

gg. leaves 1-4 mm. wide, usually with prominent midrib 

only, (dry, sandy soil) 8, tetiuifolia 

ee. Leaves hairy both sides, (damp soil) 

.8. graminifolia, v. Nuttallii 

bb. Heads more or less uniformly distributed' along the length of the 
branches, forming a cylindrical or pyramidal inflorescence, 
never flat-topped, 
c. Cauline leaves 2-5 below the inflorescence, (highest elevat'oup 

of the Upper Peninsula) R Cuilerl 

cc. Cauline leaves 5-many below the inflorescence. 

d. Basal leaves much exceeding the greatly reduced upper ones, 
e. Racemes or branches of the panicle either short and ar- 
ranged along a more or less elongated central axis, or 
elongated and ascending, scarcely recurved, forming a 
narrow, more or less elongated panicle (cylindrical or 
thyrsoid type), (compare with a), 
f. Leaves mostly entire, the uppermost usually without 

axillary fascicles, (dry, open woods) S. speciosa 

ff. Leaves mostly serrate, at least the basal ones, the upper- 
most usually with axillarv fascicles, 
g. Heads on pedicels 5-15 mm. long; achenes pubescent; 
stems usually clustered. 


li. Basal leaves 7-12 cm. long, more or le&s crenate- 
serrate above the middle; thyrse rarely branched. 

(sand hills) ;S^. racemosa 

hh. Basal leaves 15-30 cm. long, coarsely and sharply 
serrate the entire length; thyrse paniciilately 
branched, (sand hills and rocks along shore of Lake 

Michigan) S, racemosa ^ v. GUlmannii 

g^. Heads on pe<licels not over 5 mm. long; achenes glab- 
rous or nearly so; stems usually solitary, 
h. Leaves pinnately veined, (swamps) . . . .S. uUglnosa 

hh. Leaves 3-5-ribbed. (swamps) S. neglecta 

^e. Racemes or branches of the panicle usually elongated, 
spreading outwards, usually recurved, forming a widened 
panicle (pyramidal type), 
f. Both sides of the leaves pubescent or scabrous, 
g. Stem and both sides of the leaves covered with a 

close, hoarv, soft pubescence, (dry, sandy soil) 

S, nemoraUs 

gg. Stem glabrous throughout; leaves more or less scab- 
rous on both sides, (dry or rockj^ soil) 

S. jtawea, i\ scahrella 

ff. Both sides of the leaves not pubescent or scabrous. 

g. Leaves very rough above, very smooth beneath; stem 

strongly angled, (swamps and bogs) S. patiila 

gg. Leaves smooth both sides; stem terete. 

h. Branches of the panicle spreading, recurved, 
secund, with heads the whole length, (dry or rocky 

soil) aS^. juncea 

hh. Branches of the panicle upright, hardly recurved, 
only slightly secund, with heads in short, terminal 
racemes, (dry or rocky soil) . .S, juncea, r. ramosa 
(id. Leaves essentiallv uniform from base to summit of stem, 
e. Stem more or less pubescent or hair}' throughout. 

f. Involucre 2-2.8 mm. long, (thickets and rich, open fields; 

roadsides) *. S. canadensis 

ii. Involucre 3-5 mm, long. 

g. Leaves pinnately veined, scabrous above, rather long- 
hairy beneath; more or less rugose-veined, (dry soil, 

or sometimes on borders of marshes) 

. : *S^. rugosa 

gg. I^eaves 3-5-ribl)ed, pubescent (but not scabrous) above, 
short-haiiy beneatli; not rugose-veined, 
h. Stem and lower surface of leaves short-pilose; 
racemes strongly recurved, (rich, open ground) . . 

S. altissima 

hh. Stem and lower surface of leaves hairv with dis- 
tinct, loose, soft hairs; racemes scarcely I'ecun'ed. 
(sliores of Lake Superior) . . *Sf. althsima, v, proccra 
ee. Stem glabrous, at least l)elow the inflorescence. 

f. Involucre 2-2.8 mm. long (thickets and rich, open fields, 
roadsides) ^, canadensis 


ff. Iiivohicre 3-6 mm. long. 

g. Racemes or branches of the panicle either short and 
arranged along a mom or less elongated central axis, 
or elongated and ascending, scarcely recurved, form- 
ing a narrow, more or less elongated panicle (cylin- 
drical or thyrsoid type), (compare with a.) ; leaves 

entire or nearly so. (di-^s', oi)en groimd) 

8, spedosa, v. angustata 

g<^. Racemes or branches of the panicle usually elongated,. 

spreading outwards, usually recurv^ed, forming a 

widened panicle (pyramidal type) ; leaves distinctly 


h. Leaves pinnately veined, (diy woods) ,8. ulmifolia 

hh. Leaves 3-5-nbl>ed. 

i. I^eaves glabrous both sides, (moist, rich soil) 

: .S, serotina 

ii. Leaves slightly pubescent l)eneath. (low ground) 
;S^. serotina^ v. gigantea 





For those who may have worked out a somewhat similar scheme, the 
following discussion may not have any particular interest. But I have 
not run across it anywhere in the literature. For that reason I thought 
it desirable to make a note of it here so that others might be enabled 
to make use of this convenient formula. 

Let X = the alcohol to be used. 

Let y = the alcohol to be made up. 

Let z = any common divisor of both x and y. 


= parts of water needed. 


— = parts of X alcohol needed in making y alcohol. 


X — V y 

1 = y (the alcohol desired). 

z z 

Example : 

95% — 70% 



= 5 (parts of water). 

= 14 (parts of 95% alcohol). 

The advantage of this formula is that one can take any strength of 
alcohol that may happen to be at hand and dilute it to any other (lower) 
alcohol. Of course only alcohols of a lower x)ercentage than the one 
used in making up another can be obtained. 

Usually 95% alcohol is used to make the weaker alcohols. This is 
figured on a basis of 19 units. Each unit is equal to 5% alcohol in 
the weaker alcohol. Thus, as a short cut we may take as many parts 
of 95% alcohol as the result of the desired alcohol divided by 5. Thea 
add enough water to make 19 parts. 

East Lansing, Mich. 



DURING THE YEAR 1912-1913. 


Mr, PresUlent and Memhers of the Academy: 

The biological work of the Micliigan Geological and Biological Sur- 
vey during the past year has been along the lines described in my previous 
reports to the Academy. Every effort has been made to obtain exact 
data on the distribution, habitat and habits of the Michigan plants and 
animals, and to organize this data into monographs on the groups and 
reports upon the conditions in ]>articular regions. 

The field wiork of 1912 was in part carried on by the University 
Museum of Zoology and in part by the Survey, under the plan 
of cooperation that exists between tlie two institutions. The work done 
entirelv bv the Survev consisted of a botanical studv of the shore of 

• 1. ft 9' 

Lake Huron between Saginaw Bay and the Straits of Mackinac by C. 
K. Dodge. The aim of this study was to obtain a more detailed knowl- 
edge of the distribution of the species represented in that region. Mr. 
Dodge spent three weeks in the field and has submitted a preliminary re- 
])ort which shows that specimens representing about 700 species were 
collected and identified, and a large amount of notes on the distribution 
of the different forms was secured. The amount accomplished by Mr. 
Dodge in the time at his disposal is vei*y creditable. 

Tlie field work done under the direction of the Museum was made 
possible by a gift from Hon. George Shiras 3d., Washington, D. C. Mr. 
Shiras assumed a part of the expenses of a preliminary investigation 
of the Whitefisli Point region, in Chippewa County. The work was 
assigned to Norman A. Wood, Curator of Birds, and he spent the time 
between July G and August 14 in an examination of the vertebrate ani- 
mals of the point. In addition to detailed notes on the fauna, Mr. Wood 
secured data on 32 species of mammals, lOG species of birds, 7 species 
of reptiles, and 6 species of amphibians, and this data has been pre- 
pared for publication. Some material of other groups was also obtained, 
and this will be published upon as soon as it has been sufficiently sup- 
plemented. The museum plans to continue this work by a study of the 
other groups of animals and the plants. 

The manuscript reports that are completed and awaiting publication 
are as follows : C. K. Dodge on the flora of Mackinaw Island, and I^amb- 
ton County and Point Pelee, Ontario, (three reports). Crystal Thompson 
and Helen Thompson on the ampliibians and reptiles of the Whitefish 
Point region, N. A. Wood on the birds and mammals of the Whitefish 
Point region (two reports), A. W. Andrews on the beetles of the 
Charity Islands, W. W. Ne?wcomb on a checklist of Michigan moths of 
the family Sphingidae, Bryant Walker on the molluscs of the Charity 
Islands, T. L. Ilankinson on a collection of fish from Houghton County, 
and N. A. Wood on a check-list of Michigan mammals. 


The uncompleted work to be published by the Survey is as follows : A 
report on botanical studies in southwestern Michigan in 1910, by C. H. 
Kauffman andL. H. Pennington; a monograph of the Agarics of Mich- 
igan, by C. H. Kauffman; a synopsis of the classification of the fresh 
water mollusca, by Bryant Walker; a report upon the beetle fauna of 
Wayne County, by A. W. Andrews ; a report on the biological survey in 
Dickinson County in 1909; a report upon the flora of the east coast of 
Michigan, by C. K. Dodge; a catalog of Michigan mammals, by N. A. 
Wood ; a synopsis of the larvae of Michigan amphibians, by Helen Thomp- 
son ; reports upon the Mallophaga of the various surveys, by Charles A. 
Shull and E. P. Durrant; a synopsis of the Michigan fish, by Crystal 
Thompson; the lepidoptera of the Charity Islands, by W. W. Newcomb; 
and the ants of the Charity Islands, by Frederick Gaige. 

The papers on the fauna and flora of the Charity Islands will be 
published in one report, w^hich should be ready for the press next year. 

The biological publications of the sur\'ey during the year are as fol- 
lows : 

The Herpetology of Michigan, by Alexander G. Ruthven, Crystal 
Thompson and Helen Thompson. Pub. 10, Biol. Ser. 3, Mich. Geol. and 
Biol. Surv., pp. 1-166, 20 plates and 55 maps. 

^femoranda toward a Bibliography of the Archaeology of Michigan, 
by Harlan I. Smith. Pub. 10, Biol. Ser., 3, Mich. Geol. and Biol. Surv., 
PI). 167-180. 

The White-tailed Deer of Michigan, bv Alexander G. Ruthven and N. 
A. Wood. Science, N. S., XXXV, pp. 863-864. 

The Breeding Birds of the Charity Islands, with Additional Notes 
on the Migrants, bv Norman A. Wood. 14th. Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad. 
Science, 178-188. 

Results of the Mershon Expedition to the Charity Islands, Lake 
Huron : 

The Reptiles and Amphibians of Charity Island, by Crystal Thompson 
and Helen Thompson. Ibid., 156-158. 

Oherklist of Michigan Butterflies, Rhopalocera, bv W. W. Newcomb. 
Ibid., 226-230. 

Notes on the Mammals of Osceola Countv, Michigan, by O. J. Wenzel, 
Ibid., 198-205. 

The Flora of the Douglas Lake Region, Cheboygan Countv, Michigan, 
by F. C. Gates, Ibid., 46-103. 

The field work planned for the summer of 1913 is as follows: C. K. 
Dodge will continue his study of the flora of the east coast of the state 
north of Saginaw Bay, H. Hus and C. H. Otis will study the oaks of 
the southern part of the lower peninsula, Thomas Hankinson will in- 
vestigate the fish fauna of the Whitefish Point region, A. W. Andrews 
will study the beetles of Whitefish Point, and Crystal Thompson and 
Helen Thompson will work on the herpetology of Monroe County. 

The study of the fish and beetles of Whitefish Point will be carried on 
by the Museum. Mr. Shiras has again volunteered to support the work, 
and the results will contribute to the exhaustive survey of the area that 
we intend to make. 

In past reports I have dwelt at some length on the advantages of 
cooperation between the survey and the private workers, schools, col- 
leges, and museums in the state. Permit me to point out that there 


is a yearly increasing amount of such cooperation, and that the results 
are gratifying from every point of view. The University Museum is 
devoting to the work some of its appropriations and a considerable part 
of the time of its staff, the collections of the Agricultural College are 
at the disposal of the survey, at least five local naturalists are giving 
their best efforts to the work, and, what is by no means least important, 
we are receiving data and specimens from an increasing number of 
persons. In return, the surv^ey is doing all it can, on the limited appro- 
priations, to be of service to the people of the state, by publishing re- 
ports, by furaishing information on biological subjects, by loaning speci- 
mens, and by identifying material. 




The species of hawk-moths listed below are probably all which 
naturally occur in the state, either as breeders or rather common visi- 
tors. There are doubtless a few others which occasionally stray across 
our borders from the south, but such species cannot be regarded as 
regularly breeding here, even though they may do so at times. It is 
largely in these "southern strays" that additions to our list may be 

The writer has personally observed and collected all of the species 
listed. Three forms are known only in single examples, two of which 
belong to the "southern strays," — one, Cocytius cluentius, occurring in 
Mexico, and the other, Theretra tersa, common in the southern states. 
The occuiTence of Cocytius chienthis in southern Michigan is remarkable, 
only one other instance of its presence in the United States having been 
recorded, and well illustrates the extraordinary powers of flight of 
some members of the sphinx family. The third species known only in 
a single individual, Deidamia inscriptum, undoubtedly breeds here, as 
its food-plants, grape and Virginia Creeper, are common. Among the 
rarer species of Michigan Sphingidae, should be noted particularly 
Sphecodina ahhottii and Cressonia juglandis. 

Hoy- in his "Catalogue of Wisconsin I^epidoptera" gives the names of 
at least seven species of hawk-moths which have not yet been recorded 
from ^Michigan. Of these, four belong to the "southern strays." As 
the southern border of Michigan is some fifty or sixty miles farther 
south than the southern border of Wisconsin, it might be supposed that 
we should have as many of these "southern strays" as Wisconsin, but 
it should be noted, as Hoy says, that the territory which lies to the 
\\iest of the Great Ijakes enjoys much warmer summers than the ter- 
ritory in the same latitude which lies to the east of them. 

One species which almost certainly occurs in the state, but for which 
there is no definite record as yet, is the tobacco sphinx, Phlegethontius 
Carolina. Possible other additions to our list include Lepisesia 
ffavofasciata Wlk., Sphinx luscitiosa Clem, and S. pleheia Fabr., Lapara 
homhycoides Wlk. and L, coniferarmn S. & A. To these might be 
added the names of five or six southern species which occasionally find 
their way to the northern states, but this would not, in the writer's 
opinion, be justified. 

'Prepared for the Michigan Geological and Biological Survey and published with the per- 
mission of the Chief Naturalist. 

=1*. R. Hoy, A Catalogue of Wisconsin Lepidoptera, Geological Survey of Wisconsin, Vol. 
3, p. 408. 


Our knowledge of the Spliingidae in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan 
is exceedingly meager. The writer observed only three species, namely, 
Hemaris difflnis^ H. thy8l)c and SmerintMs gemhiatus in Dickinson 
County in 1909. No other species are known from the Upper Peninsula, 
but when this part of the state is thoroughly explored, probably a con- 
siderable number of those which occur in the Lower Peninsula will be 
found there. 



102.* Hemaris diffinis Bdv. tenuis Grt. 

diffinis Bdv. 
axillaris G & E. 

103. thysbe Fabr. ruficaudis Kirby. 

thysbe Fabr. 

104. Amphion nessus Cram. 

105. Sphecodina abbottii Swains. 

106. Deidamia inscriptum Harr. 

107. Beilephila gallii Rott. chamoenerii Harr. 

108. lineata Fabr. 

109. Theretra tersa Linn. 

110. Pholus pandorus Hbn. 

111. achemon Dru. 

112. Ampelophaga choerilus Cram. 

113. myron Cram. 

114. versicolor Harr. 

115. Cocytius cluentius Cr. 

116. Phlegethontius quinquemaculata Haw. 

117. cingulata Fabr. 

118. Sphinx kalmiae S. & A. 

119. drupiferarum S. & A. 

120. gordins Cram. 

121. chersis Hbn. 

122. eremitns Hbn. 

123. Dolba hylaeus Dru. 

124. Ceratomia amyntor Geyer. 

125. undulosa Wlk. 

126. lilariimba modesta Harr. 

127. Smerinthus jamaicensis Dru. geminatus Say. 

128. Faonias excaecatus S. & A. 

129. myops S. & A. 

130. Cressonia juglandis S. & A. 

♦The numbers in this list are continued from the first part of the CheckUst (covering the 
palocera), which was published last year in the 14th Annual Report of the Academy. 





Crystal Thompson and Helen Thompson. 
Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 

During the summer of 1912, the ^luseum of Zoology was enabled, 
through the generosity of Hon. George Shiras 3d., to send Mr. N. A. 
Wood, Curator of Birds, to Whitefish Point, Chippewa County, Michi- 
gan, for the purpose of beginning a biological exploration of the region. 
Principal attention was given by Mr. Wood to the birds and mammals, 
but the amphibians and reptiles were studied in considerable detail, and 
a collection of seventy-nine specimens with detailed data was secured. 
We are indebted to Mr. Wood for the use of his notes, some of which are 
incorporated in this report. 

A general account of the topography, climate and habitats of the 
region will be sufficient. The point is considered to extend from a line 
drawn from the Luce-Chippewa County line at Lake Superior to the 
Shelldrake River and down this river to its mouth. Generally speaking, 
it is made up of sandy ridges running parallel with the shore-line; and 
these ridges are more or less forested and are separated by wooded or 
grassy marshes, and ponds of varying extent. The vegetation of the 
ridges varies from an open jack pine forest near the end of the point 
to a dense birch-pine forest on the older ridges near the base; and in 
the older areas there are balsam-spruce forests and tamarack and cedar 
bogs in the low places. Small, swiftly-flowing streams usually connect 
the ponds with Lake Superior; and the Shelldrake River, a stream that 
varies from a width of about ten to fifteen feet near Vermilion to about 
one hundred feet at the mouth, is included in the region. It will be 
seen from this brief description and the latitude that the region is not 
a favorable one for the existence of reptiles and amphibians, and the 
thirteen species obtained are probably very nearly all that live in the 

The data on the reptile-amphibian fauna of the Whitefish Point region 
is of interest for several reasons. Practically nothing has been known 
of the distribution of the two groups in the eastern half of the Upper 
Peninsula, and, while the territory worked was very restricted, the eco- 
logical conditions are so varied that the fauna is probably representative 
of much of the general region. There is in the general fauna of the 
western part of the northern peninsula a decided western element, but 
little is known of the eastera limit of these forms. So far the only known 
western form in these groups is Chrysemys hellii, the known range of 
which is now extended entirely across northern Michigan. It is also 
of interest to know whether any of the more southern forms that are 
known to exist in the northern part of the southern peninsula ocewx 
in this region. The work on Whitefish Point \v^^ ^^^^vft^^^X-TV-^ ^K.-^e.^^'^' 


and HcmidactyUum sciitatum to the fauna of northern Michigan and 
has extended the known range of lAopeltis vernalis, previously known 
in this part only from Mackinac County, to Lake Superior. Finally the 
occurrence of the distinctly northern Rana septentrionalis at Whiteflsh 
Point indicates that it is probably generally distributed in northern 
Michigan, a point that has been in doubt. 



1. Plethodon erythronotus (Green). Red-backed Salamander. — Seven 
specimens of the red-backed salamander were taken from decayed logs 
in damp woods near the Whiteflsh Point postoffice, and one was col- 
lected in the birch-spruce forest. 

2. Hemidactylium scutatum (Schlegel). Four-toed Salamander. — A 
single specimen of tliis (in Michigan) rare salamander was collected by 
Mr. Wood on Aug. 2. It was found under a moss-covered log in a 
dried-up water hole in the dense forest at the base of the point. 

This record is very interesting in view of the uncertain distribution of 
the species in the state. The only Michigan records^ are five specimens 
taken in Eaton County and five collected during the past three years in 
a woods six miles south of Ann Arbor. Moreover, as far as the writers 
have been able to determine, this is decidedly the northernmost record 
for the species. H. scutatum is fairly common in the east from as far 
south as Georgia. The most northern record has apparently been a speci- 
jnen in the National Museum from St. Catherine's, Canada, collected by 
T)r. Beadle, and recorded by Cope.^ We are informed by Dr. Leonhard 
Stejneger that there is no data 'With the specimen to show that it is 
St. Catherine's Ontario, rather than St. Catherine's, Quebec, that is re- 
feri-ed to, but in the report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1861 
(p. 64) it is stated that D. W. Beadle donated some specimens from 
^^Canada West;" and Mr. C. W. Nash, Provincial Museum, Toronto, in- 
forms us that he knew Dr.. Beadle, and that there can be little doubt that 
the specimen came from St. Catherine's, Ontario. Nash accepts this 
localitv in his manual.* 

3. Bnfo americanus Le Conte. American Toad. — Four adult toads 
were found in a clearing, and recently transformed specimens were com- 
mon in a shallow pond near the end of Beaver Lake. These are the 
only records secured. 

4. Eana pipiens Schreber. I^eopard Frog. — This form was found com- 
monly around Beaver Lake, and al>out the transient ponds, and two 
specimens were taken in a hay field near Vermilion. 

5. Rana clamitans Ijatreille. Green Frog. — Four green frogs were 
taken in the outlet to Beaver I^ake. 

6. Rana cantabrigensis Baird. Wood Frog. — This species was com- 
mon about the edges of the grassy marshes and the small ponds which 
occupied the depressions between the sand ridges. One specimen was 
collected in the dense forest at the base of the point. 

7. Rana septentrionalis Baird. Mink Frog. — Two specimens were 
collected from Clark's Brook at Vermilion. 

2Tbomns(»n. «'. and TI., The Amphibians of Michigan, Mich. Geol. and Biol. Siirv., Pub. 
10. Biol. Sor. n, pp. .'U-36. 

»Cope, Batiachia of North America, Bull. TJ. S. Nat. Mus.. No. 34, 1889, p. 132. 
*^'*»8h, r. W„ Manual of Vertebrates of Ontario, Batr. and Kept., 1908, 0. 



8. Storeria occipitomacnlata (Storer). Red-bellied Snake. — Five speci- 
mens of the red-bellied snake were collected, — one under a board walk in 
a clearing near the end of the point, three others under logs and boards 
near the marsh and near Beaver Lake, and one was taken from the 
stomach of a sparrow hawk. 

9. Natrix sipedon (Linn.). Water Snake. — But one water snake was 
taken. It was found on the edge of the outlet to Beaver T^ke. This is 
apparently the first record of the species for the noi*thern peninsula. 

10. Liopeltis vemalis (DeKay). Green Snake. — This was apparently 
the most common snake of the region, since a large series (sixteen speci- 
mens) was collected. They were found under boards on the sand 

11. Thamnophis sirtalis (Linn.). Garter Snake. — Seven garter snakes 
were taken about the edges of transient ponds and marshes. 

12. Chelydra serpentina (Linn.). Snapping Turtle. — The shell of a 
large snapping turtle, foimd in one of the small ponds in the marsh near 
Vermilion, has been presented to the museum by John Clark. 

13. Chrysemys bellii Gray. Bell's Turtle. — The only place where this 
turtle was found was a pond near the postoffice.. The individuals ob- 
served were exceedingly shy, dropping from logs into water at the 
slightest disturbance. It should be stated that the two specimens ex- 
amined are not typical. The plastral blotch is smaller than usual, and 
the color of the carapace is so dark as to obscure the light markings on 
the marginals, costals and vertebrals, except that a few of the costals 
have faint irregular yellowish marginal bands. Also the prominent light 
markings on the ventral face of the marginals do not extend outward to 
enclose the (in (7. helUi) characteristic spots of black with pale centers. 
On the other hand, the large size (carapace length 165.7 mm. and 163.7 
mm., width 124.9 mm. and 112.4 mm.) indicate that the specimens are 
i:o be referred to C. hellii, as does the absence of bright markings on the 
marginals. i % 





Mackinac Island is situated near the northern end of Lake Huron, in 
the Straits of Mackinac. It is about 3 miles from the shore of the 
northern peninsula and 7 or 8 miles from the shore of the southern pen- 
insula. It is one of the historical places in Michigan, as it was visited 
by most of the early voyageurs and was the site of a federal fort from 
1780 until ceded by the federal government to the State of Michigan^ 
in 1895, for a park. It is now under the control of a state commission,, 
and about one-half is used for park purposes, the other half being^ 
privately owned. 

Little work has been done upon the fauna and flora of the island. A 
few species of plants have been recorded by travelers, but no attempt 
has apparently been made to list the flora as a whole. In the summer 
of 1912, the writer visited the island in the course of his work upon the 
flora of the east coast of Michigan, for the Michigan Geological and 
Biological Survey, and made as careful study of the plants as time per- 
mitted. Five days were spent on the island, from June 30 to July 2 in- 
clusive, and Sept. 30 and Oct. 1, 1912. 


The island is roughly quadrangular in shape, about 3 miles long in a 
north and south direction and 2 miles wide, and contains 2221 acres.. 
Generally speaking the land rises from the beach to a high rocky area 
in the center that is much broken up by ravines. The highest point is 
317 feet above the lake. Around most of the island the cliffs rise abruptly 
from a narrow beach ; but on the north side the elevation is not abrupt 
and on the south side a succession of terraces leads from the bay to* 
the bluff. 

The underlying rock is limestone, which is in general covered by a 
thin layer of morainic material. One small area near the northwest 
shore is covered with a considerable deposit of morainic material, and 
the terraces at the south end are made up of recent lake deposits. 


Notwithstanding the long inhabitation of the island, Mackinac Island 
is still in a quite primitive condition as far as the flora is concerned. 
The original forests still remain substantially intact, except on the 
northern part where most of the large timber has been removed and a 
few pieces of land cleared and cultivated. In the dense forests of the 

♦Published with the permission of Alexander G. Ruthven, Chief Naturalist, Mlcbigani 
Geological and Biological Survey. 


interior the red oak, beech and sugar maple are often abundant and 
intermingled and in places the balsam, white spruce, and white cedar are 
abundant and usually associated. A large area of yellow birch stands 
by itself on high ground toward the east side. Canoe birch is scattering, 
and the white pine and red pine are not prominent. 

Over 400 species have been noticed on the island and it is not probable 
that more than 100 species more grow there. Of the 415 reported in the 
present paper at least 60 are introduced plants, usually known as weeds, 
leaving 355 observed native species, so it appears that 450 is probably a 
close approximation of the number of native species and varieties on 
the island. 


I am much indebted to Agnes Chase, Scientific Assistant in Systematic 
Agrostology, Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, for examining the various species of grasses, and to Kenneth 
Mackenzie, of New York City, for inspecting all species of Cyperaceae, 
Junci, and many other plants. 



Phegopteris dryopteris (L.) Fee. Oak Fern. Plentiful in rich shaded 

Adiantum pedatuin L. Maidenhair. Often abundant in rich shaded 

Pteris aqnilina L. Conmaon Brake. Occasional in shaded or open 

Asplenium filix-femina (L.) Bemh. Lady Fern. Frequent in rich 
shaded ground. 

Aspidium thelypteris (L.) Sw. Marsh Shield Fern. Common in damp 
shaded or open ground. 

Aspidium marginale (L.) Sw. Eivergreen Wood Fern. In rich shaded 
ground apparently rare. 

Aspidium spinulosum (O. F. Miiller) Sw. Spinulose Shield Fern. Occa- 
sional in shaded ground. 

Aspidium spinulosum intermedium (Muhl.) D. C. Eaton. Spinulose 
Shield Fern. Frequent in rich shaded ground. 

Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bemh. Bulblet cystopteris. Abundant on 
rocky shaded ground. 

Onoclea sensibilis L, Sensitive Fern. In damp open or shaded ground. 


Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. Rattlesnake Fern. Common in rich 
shaded ground. 


Equisetum arvense L. Common Horsetail. Frequent on the sandy 
beach and in damp open or shaded ground. 


Equisetum sylvaticum L. Wood Horsetail. Frequent and often abun- 
dant in damp shaded ground. 

Equisetnm fluviatile L. Swamp Horsetail. In wet marshy open ground 
on the east side. 

Equisetum hyemale L. Scouring Rush. Occasional in dry open or 
shaded ground. 

Equisetum scirpoides Michx. Sedge-like equisetum. Common in moist 
shaded ground. 


Lycopodium lucidulum Michx. Shining Club Moss. In rich ground 
under evergreens. 

Lycopodium complanatum L. Trailing Christmas-green. • Occasional in 
dry shaded ground. 


Selaginella apus (L.) Spring. Creeping Selaginella. Occasional on 
damp open ground. 


Taxus canadensis Marsh. American Yew. Common under evergreens 
especially on the west side under balsams and cedars. 


Pinus strobus L. White Pine. Common but not large. 

Pinus resinosa Ait. Eed Pine. Common and many large trees. 

Larix laricina (DuRoi) Koch. Tamarack. Frequent in swampy 
gr(mnd, but trees small. 

Picea canadensis (Mill.) BSP. White Spruce. Abundant in spots 
especially in rich ground on the west side and at the south end. 

Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. Balsam. Abundant in spots associated with 
white cedar, especially on the west side. 

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Hemlocjv. Frequent but trees usually 

Thuja occidentals L. White Cedar. Abundant in si)ots and associated 
with balsam. 

Juniperus communis depressa Pursh. Low Juniper. Abundant under 
large trees especially on the east side. 

Juniperus horizontalis Moencli. Shrubby Red Cedar. Along and near 
the beach on the east side. Apparently rare. 


Typha latifolia L. Common Cat -tail. Noticed in a few marshy places. 


Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. Broad-fruited Bur-reed. In low wet 



Triglochin maritima L. Seaside Arrow Grass. Occasional in marshy 
places and in damp sand. 

Triglochin palustris L. Marsh Arrow Grass. In marshy places on the 
east side. 


Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Broad-leaved Arrow-head. Occasional in 
marshy places. 

Alisma plantago-aquatica L. water plantain. Common in wet and 
muddy places. 


Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Crab Grass. About the village of 
Mackinac Island and on cultivated grounds. 

Fanicum capillare L. Old-witch Grass. Noticed about the village and 
on cultivated grounds. 

Echinochloa cmsgalli (L.) Beauv. Barnyard Grass. Occasional about 
the village. 

Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. Foxtail. About the village and on culti- 
vated grounds. 

Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Green Foxtail. Occasional about the vil- 
lage and on cultivated grounds. 

Cenchrus carolinianus Walt. Sandbur. Noticed about the village. 

Fhalaris arundinacea L. Keed Canary Grass. In wet marshy places 
on the east side. 

HierocMoe odorata (L.) Wahlenb. Holy Grass. In damp meadow-like 
places on the east side. 

Milium effnsum L. Millet Grass. In rich woods. 

Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. White-grained Mountain Rice. Frequent 
in dryish woods. 

Muhlenbergia racemosa (Michx.) BSP. Marsh Muhlenbergia. Borders 
of wet open places on the east side. 

Fhletun pratense L. Timothy. In the village and throughout the island. 

Agrostis alba L. Red Top. Bordering damp open places. 

Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. Blue-joint Grass. In marshy 
places on the east side. 

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Common Wild-oat Grass. Frequent in 
dry open or slightly shaded places. 

Dactylis glomerata L. Orchard Grass. More or less throughout the is- 

Poa annua L. Low Spear Grass. In streets and lawns of the village. 

Poa compressa L. Canada Blue Grass. In dry open or slightly shaded 
places throughout. 

Poa triflora Gilib. False Red Top. In wet open ground on the east 

Poa pratensis L. June Grass. In open or slightly shaded ground 

Poa debilis Torr. Weak Spear Grass. Occasional in open woods. 

Glyceria nervata (Willd.) Trin. Fowl Meadow Grass. In wet meadow- 
like open or slightly shaded places. 


Festuca occidentalis Hook, \yestem Fescue Grass. Frequent in dry 
oi)en woods. 

Festuca ovina L. Sheep's Fescue. Common in dry open or slightly 
shaded ground. 

Bromns ciliatns L. Fringed Brome Grass. In damp shaded places on 
the east side. 

Bromus kalmii Gray. Wild Chess. In dry open ground on the east 

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. Quack Grass. About the village and in 
cultivated grounds. 

Agropyron caninum (L.) Beauv. Awned Wheat Grass. In dry open 

Elymus canadensis L. Nodding Wild -rye. Occasional on and near the 
sandv beach. 


Eleocharis palustris (L.) R. & S. Creeping Spike Rush. In very wet 
marshy ground. 

Eleocharis tenuis (Willd.) Schultes. Slender Spike Rush. In damp 
meadow-like ground on the east side. 

Eleocharis rostellata Torr. Beaked Spike Rush. Plentiful in wet 
marshy spots on the east side. 

Scirpns americanns Pers. Three-square. In wet places and in wet sand 
fringing the beach. 

Scirpus occidentalis (Wats.) Chase — Western Bulrush. In wet marshy 
places on the east side. 

Scirpns atrovirens Muhl. Dark Green Bulnish. In wet marshy ground 
and in damp sand. 

Eriophorum viridi-carinatum (Engelm.) Fernald. Tall Cotton Grass. 
In wet shaded places on the west side. 

Eynchospora capillacea Torr. Capillary Beaked Rush. In boggy places 
on the east side. 

Cladium mariscoides CMulil.) Torr. TrN'ig Rush. In wet meadow-like 
ground on tlie east side. 

Carex scoparia Schkulir. Painted Broom Sedge. Occasional in damp 


Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. Blunt Broom Sedge. Damp rich open 
ground on Ihe east side. 

Carex crawfordii Fernald. Crawford's Sedge. In open ground. F. W. 
Hunnewell 2nd. 

Carex sterilis Willd. Little Prickly Sedge. In wet open places. 

Carex scirpoides Schkuhr. Inland Sedge. In damp open ground. 

Carex deweyana Schwein. Dewey's Sedge. Common in open woods. 

Carex trisperma Dewey. Three-fruited Sedge. In shaded boggy ground 
on the west side. 

Carex tenella Schkuhr. Stellate Sedge. Common in open dry woods. 

Carex rosea Schkuhr. Soft-leaved Sedge. In swampy shaded ground 
on the west side. 

Carex vulpinoidea :Michx. Fox Sedge. In damp open or slightly shaded 

Carex stipata ^Muhl. Awl-fruited Sedge. In very wet open or shaded 



Carex aquatilis Wahlenb. Water Sedge. In very wet places on the 
^ast side. 

Carex stricta Lam. Tussack Sedge. In yevy wet open ground on the 
east side. 

Carex aurea Nutt. Golden-Fruited Sedge. Frequent in open or slightly 
shaded ground. 

Carex leptadea Wahlenb. Bristle-stalked Sedge. In swampy open or 
shaded ground. 

Carex polygama Schkuhr. Brown Sedge. In wet marshy open ground 
on the east side. 

Carex gracillima Schwein. Graceful Sedge. Frequent in open woods. 

Carex albicans Willd. Northern Sedge. Frequent in open woods. 

Carex communis Bailey. Fibrous-rooted Sedge. In open woods. F. W. 
Hunnewell 2nd. 

Carex pennsylvanica Lam. Pennsylvania Sedge. Dry open or slightly 
shaded ground. 

Carex tetanica Schkuhr. Wood's Sedge. In wet open ground on the 
east side. 

Carex eburnea Boott. Bristle-leaved Sedge. Often abundant in rocky 
shaded ground especially on bluffs. 

Carex laxiflora varians Bailey. Loose flowered Sedge. Beach-maple 

Carex laxiflora blanda (Dewey) Boott. Loose-flowered Sedge. Rich 
shaded ground. 

Carex grisea Walilenb. Gray Sedge. Beach-maple woods. F. W. Hun- 
newell 2nd. 

Carex granulans haleana (Ohiey) Porter. Shrivei*'s Sedge. Open 

Carex flava L. Yellow Sedge. In veiw wet open ground on the east 

Carex oederi pumila (Cosson & Germain) Fernald. Green Sedge. In 
damp sand along or near beach. 

Carex capillaris L. Hair-like Sedge. In damp slightly shaded ground 
oil the west side. 

Carex capillaris elongata Olney. Hair-like Sedge. In slightly shaded 
ground. F. W. Hunnewell 2nd. 

Carex arctata Boott. Drooping Wood Sedge. In open dryish woods. 

Carex filiformis L. In very wet marshy places on the east side. 

■Carex hystericina Muhl. Porcupine Sedge. In wet open places. 


Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott. Jack-in-the-Pulpit. Frequent in rich 
shaded groimd. 


Juncus tenuis Willd. Slender Rush. About the village and along the 

Juncus dudleyi Wiegand. Dudley's Rush. In wet open ground near 
the beach on the west side. 

Juncus balticus littoralis Engelni. Baltic Rush. On and near the 


Juncus alpinus insignia Fries. Kichardson's Rush. In damp sand along: 


Zygadenus cUoranthus Richards. Glaucous Zygadenus. In damp sandy 
ground near beach on the west side. 

Lilium philadelphicum andinum (Nutt.) Ker. Western Red Lily^ 
Abundant especially at north end. One stem noticed with nine flowers- 

Erythronium americanum Ker. Yellow Adder's-tongue. In rich shaded. 

Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. Yellow Clintonia. In damp rich shaded 

Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. False Spikenard. Common in open, 

Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. Star-flowered Solomon's Seal. In rich- 
shaded or open dry sandy ground. 

Smilacina trifolia (L.) Desf. Three-leaved Solomon's Seal. In very 
wet shaded ground on the west side. 

Maianthemnm canadense Desf. False Lily-of-the-Valley. Common in 
open woods. 

Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. Clasping-leaved Twisted-stalk. In 
moist shaded ground on west side. F. W. Hunnewell 2nd. 

Streptopus roseus Michx. Sessile-leaved Twisted-stalk. In rich shaded 

Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. Small Solomon's Seal. Common in 
rich shaded ground. 

Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. Large-flowered Wake Robin. 
Frequent in rich woods. 


Iris versicolor L. Larger Blue Flag. Occasional in damp open ground, 
not far from the beach. 

Iris lacustris Nutt. Lake dwarf Iris. Reported bv W. D. Whitney. 
Not noticed in 1912. 

Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. Painted Blue-eyed Grass. In a 
marshy place at north end. 


Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. Smaller Yellow Lady's Slipper. In 
damp rich ground and on shaded bluffs. 

Cypripedium parviflorum pubescens (Willd.) Knight. Larger Yellow 
Lady's Slipper. On rich shaded ground. 

Cypripedium hirsutum IVEill. Showy Lady's Slipper. In damp shaded 
ground. Apparently rare. 

Habenaria bracteata (Willd.) R. Br. Long-bra cted Orchis. Frequent 
in beech-maple woods. 

Habenaria flava (L.) Gray. Small Pale-green Orchis. In rich wet 
shaded ground on the west side. 

Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br. Tall Leafy Green Oi'chis. In boggy 
shaded ground on the west side. 


Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Gray. Tall White Bog Orchis. In wet 
shaded ground on west side. 

Habenaria obtusata (Pursh) Richards. Small Northern Bog Orchis. In 
rich shaded ground on the west side. 

Habenaria hookah Torr. Hooker's Orchis. In rich shaded ground on 
the west side. 

Habenaria orbiculata (Pursh) Torr. T^rge Round-leaved Orchis. In 
rich shaded ground on the east side. Apparently fare, only one speci- 
men being noticed. 

Habenaria liicera (Michx.) R. Br. Ragged Orchis. In open woods on 
the east side. Apparently rare. 

Epipactis tesselata (Lodd.) A. A. Eaton. Checkered Rattlesnake Plan- 
tain. In rich shaded ground on the west side. 

Epipactis decipiens (Hook.) Ames. Menzies* Rattlesnake Plantain. 
Frequent in rich woods especially on the west side. 

Listera convallarioides (Sw.) Ton*. Broad-lipped Twayblade. In rich 
moist woods on the west side. 

Gorallorrhiza trifida Chatelain. Early Coral Root. Common in open 

Gorallorrhiza maculata Raf. Large Coral Root. Common in open woods. 

Gorallorrhiza striata Lindl. Striped Coral Root. Frequent in rich 
shaded gi'ound. 

Liparis loeselii (L.) Richard. Loesel's Twayblade. In damp sand on or 
not far from sandy beach. 

Galypso bulbosa (L.) Oakes. Calyi)so. Reported by W. D. Whitney. 
Not noticed in 1912. 


Salix amygfdaloides Anders. Peach-leaved willow. Noticed by Frank A. 
Kengay, superintendent of park. Not common. 

Salix lucida Muhl. Shining Willow. Frequent in .wet open ground. 

Salix glaucophylla Bebb. Broad-leaved Willow. On and near the 
sandy beach. 

Salix syrticola Femald, Furry Willow. Occasional near the sandy 

Salix discolor Muhl. Glaucous Willow. Frequent along edge of rocky 

Salix rostrata Richards. Bebb'S Willow. Occasional on dryish open 
ground at north end. 

Salix Candida Fliigge. Sage Willow. About and in wet i)laces on the 
east side. 

Fopulus tremuloides Michx. American Aspen. Occasional but no- 
where abundant. 

Populus grandidentata Michx. Large-toothed Aspen. Frequent through- 
out the island. 

Populus balsamifera L. Balsam l^oplar. Common especially on edge 
of woods near shore. A few large trees noticed. 


Myrica gale L. Sweet Gale. Abundant in spots on east side of island 
about and in wet places. 



Corylus rostrata Ait. Beaked Ilazeliiiit. Common tlirougliout the is- 

Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch. Ironwood Plentiful, growing 
with birch and maple. 

Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Blue Beech. Noticed by Frank A. Kenyan, 
superintendent of park. 

Betnla lutea Michx.f. Yellow Birch. Abundant and large on the east 
8ide of the high part of the island, and scattering throughout. 

Betula alba papyrifera (Marsh) Spach. Canoe Birch. Trees often 
large and growing with other trees throughout the island. 

Alnus incana (L.) Moench. Speckled Alder. Frequent in wet spots 


Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Common Beech. Abundant and trees large 
on the highest part of the island. 

Quercus rubra L. Red Oak. Abundant and fair sized trees growing 
with beech and maples on the highest paints of the island. 


TJlmus americana L. American Elm. In streets and yards of the vil- 
lage. Frank A. Kenyan, superintendent of park. 

TJrtica gracilis Ait. Slender Nettle. Frequent in damp open or shaded 


Gomandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Bastard Toad-flax. Frequent in dry 
open or shaded ground. Perhaps this is doubtful and may be referred 
to next species. 

Comandra richardsiana Fernald. Richards' Toad-flax. Plentiful on the 
east side in dry open or slightly shaded ground. 


Rumex crispus L. Yellow Dock. In the village and on cultivated 

Rumex obtusifolius L. Bitter Dock. About the village and occasional 
in oi)en woods. 

Rumex acetosella L. Field Sorrel. Occasional on dry ground in and 
near the village. 

Polygonum aviculare L. Knotgrass. About the village and in culti- 
vated grounds. 

Polygonum acre HBK. W^ter Sniartweed. Michigan Flora. Not 
noticed in 1912. 

Polygonum persicaria L. Lady-s Thumb. Occasional about the village 
and in cultivated grounds. 

Polygonum convolvulus L. Black Bindweed. About Ihe village and on 
cultivated gi-ounds. 



Chenopodium hybridum L. Maple-leaved Goosefoot. About the village 
and OQ cultivated grounds. 

Ghenopodium album L. Common Pigweed. About the village and on 
cultivated grounds. 

Atriplex patula hastata (L.) Gray. Halberd- leaved Orache. In waste 
places about the village. 


Amaranthus retroflexus L.. Amaranth Pigweed. About the village and 
on cultivated grounds. 


Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Thyme-leaved Sandwort. As an occasional 
weed about the village. 

Stellaria media (L.) Cyrill. Common Chickweed. Only as an occa- 
sional weed about the village. 

Cerastium arvense L. Field Mouse-ear Chickweed. Reported by G. 
H. Hicks. Not noticed in 1912. 

Cerastium vulgatum L. Common Mouse-ear Chickweed. As a weed 
about the village and in cultivated grounds. 


Claytonia virginica L. Spring Beauty. Reported by W. D. Whitney. 
Not noticed in 1912. 

Claytonia caroliniana Michx. Carolina Spring Beauty. In rich shaded 

Portulaca oleracea L. Common Purslane. Occasional as a weed about 
the village. 


Ranunculus sceleratus L. Cursed Crowfoot. Frequent in wet places. 

Ranunculus abortivus L. Small-flowered Crowfoot. Common in rich 
open or shaded ground. 

Ranunculus- recurvatus Poir. Hooked Crowfoot. Frequent in open or 
slightly shaded ground. 

Ranunculus acris L. Tall Crowfoot. A weed al>out the village, and 
growing in open woods like a native plant. 

Hepatica triloba Chaix. Round-leaved Liverleaf. Frequent in open 

Hepatica acutiloba DC. Sharp-lobed Liverleaf. Common in beech-maple 

Anemone multifida Poir. Red Wind Flower. In dry open ground on 
the west side. 

Anemone virginiana L. Tall Anemone. Common in open or slightly 
shaded ground. 

Anemone canadensis L. (\anada Anemone. Occasional in damp open 

Anemone quinquef olia L. Wood Anemone. In open woods av\^ •'^x'^^'^. 


Caltha palustris L. Marsh Marigold. In wet places and along small 
ci'eeks on the west side. 

Aquilegia canadensis L. Wild Columbine. In shaded places on rocky 
bluffs and in dry open ground. 

Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. Red Baneberry. In rich shaded ground. 

Actaea alba (L.) Mill. AYhite Baneberry, Frequent in rich open woods. 


Sanguinaria canadensis L. Bloodroot. Reported by W. D. Whitney. 
Kot noticed in 1912. 


Adlumia fungosa (Ait.) Greene. Climbing Fumitory. Abundant on 
the shaded rocky bluff, east side. 


Draba arabisans Michx. Twisted Whitlow Grass. Shaded rocky bluffs 
on east side. 

Lepidium virginicum L. Wild Peppergrass. As a weed about the vil- 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. About the village and on culti- 
vated grounds. 

Brassica arvensis (L.) Ktze. Common Mustard. Occasional about the 

Sisymbrium officinale leiocarpum DC. Hedge Mustard. Occasional as a 
weed about the village. 

Braya humilis (C. A. Mav) Robinson. Low Rock-cress. Reported bv 
G. H. Hicks. Not noticed 'in 1912. 

Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Worm-seed Mustard. As a weed in the 
village and on cultivated grounds. 

Badicula nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Britton & Ren die. True Water 
Cress. Established in small brooks. 

Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb. Yellow Rocket. Abundant near the beach 
east of the village and occasional in other places. See Rhodora XI-140. 

Dentaria diphylla Michx. Two-leaved Toothwort. In damp shaded 

Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. Hairy Rock Cress. Noticed by F. W. Hunne- 
well 2nd. 


Drosera rotundifolia L. Round-leaved Sundew. In wet mossy open 
ground on the east side. 


Sedum acre L. Mossy Stonecrop. Occasional in dry open ground. 
Sedum purpureum Tausch. Live-forever. Occasional in open or shaded 



Mitella diphylla L. Two-leaved Bishop's Cap. In rich woods. 

Mitella nuda L. Naked Bishop's Cap. In damp rich shaded ground. 

Famassia parviflora I). C. Small-flowered Grass-of-Parnassns. In wet 
marshy gmund at the north end. F. W. Hunnewell 2nd. 

Pamassia caroliniana Michx. Carolina Grass-of-Paraassus. Plentiful 
in marshy open gi*ound. 

Ribes cynosbati L. Prickly Gooseberry. In drjish shaded ground. 

Ribes huronense Kydb. Lake Huron Gooseberry. In rich woods. 

Ribes oxyacanthoides L. Smooth Gooseberr}. Frequent in shaded or 
open ground. 

Ribes oxyacanthoides calcicala Fernald. Smooth Gooseberry. Common 
in rich wood^. F. W. Hunnewell 2nd. 

Ribes floridum L'Her. Wild Black Currant. Common in rich damp 
open or shaded ground. 

Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poir. Swamp Black Currant. In rich damp 
woods and common on shaded rocky bluff, east side. 

Ribes prostratum L'Her. Skunk Currant. Occasional on shaded rocky 


Hamamelis virginiana L. Witch-hazel. Frequent on the east side. 


Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim. Nine-bark. In damp open ground 
on the east side. 

Spiraea salicifolia L. Meadow-sweet. Frequent in damp open ground. 

Pyrus malus L. Common Apple. Frequent throughout the island. 

Pyrus americana (Marsh.) DC. American Mountain Ash. Quite a 
number of trees fringing the woods on the east side. 

Pyrus sitchensis (Roem.) Piper. Westeni Mountain Ash. H. Mann 
in Michigan Flora. 

Amelanchier sanguinea (Pursh) DC. Round-leaved eTunel)erry. Fre- 
quent in open woods. See Rhodora XIV-138. 

Amelanchier laevis Wiegand. Early Juneberry. In open or slightly 
shaded ground throughout. 

Crataegus punctata Jacq. Large-fniited Thoni. Frequent throughout 
the island in open or slightly shaded ground. A number of unidentified 
thorns Avere noticed. 

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne. Common Strawberry. Common 
throughout the island. 

Fragaria vesca americana Porter. American Wood Strawberry. Com- 
uum in open or shaded ground. 

Waldsteinia fragarioides (Michx.) Trattinick. Barren StraAvberry. In 
beech-maple woods. 

Potentilla monspeliensis L. Rough Cinquefoil. Occasional as a weed 
about the village and in cultivated grounds. 

Potentilla fruticosa L. Shrubby Cinquefoil. In damp meadow-like 
ground on the east side. 

Potentilla anserina L. Silver Weed. Common near the beach. 

Geum canadense Jacq. White Avens. Frequent in open woods. 


Geum virginianum L. Kough Avens. On border of woods. 

Geum strictum Ait. Yellow Avens. In damp meadow-like ground on 
east side. 

Geum rivale L. Water Avens. In wet open or slightly shaded places.- 

Eubus idaens canadensis Richardson. Wild Red Raspberry. Common 
in dry open places. See Rhodora XI-236. 

Eubus parviflorus Nntt. Salmon Berry. Frequent throughout the 
island; usually in shaded ground. 

Bubus triflorus Richards. Dwarf Raspberry. In damp rich shaded 

Eubus allegheniensis Porter. High-bush Blackberry. Frequent in dry 
open or slightly shaded ground. 

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. Tall Hairy Agrimony. Frequent in 
open woods. 

Eosa acicularis Lindl. Prickly Rose. Common in dry open or shaded 
ground, and growing with R. blanda. 

Eosa blanda Ait. Meadow Rose. In dry open or slightly shaded 

Eosa canina L. Dog Rose. O. A. Farwell in Michigan Flora. 

Eosa rubiginosa L. Sweetbrier. In open ground especially near the 

Eosa Carolina L. Swamp Rose. Reported by W. D. Whitney. 

Prunus virginiana L. Choke Cherry. Common throughout the island. 

Prunus pennsylvanica L. f. Wild Red Cherry. Common throughout 
the island. 

Prunus pumila L. Sand Cherry. Frequent on and near the beach. 


Trifolium pratense L. Red Clover. Occasional about the village and 
in open or shaded ground throughout the island. 

Trifolium repens L. White Clover. Frequent in tlie village and open 

Trifolium hybridum L. Alsike Clover. In and near the village. 

Medicago lupulina L. Black Medick. Frequent and often abundant 
in spots. 

Vicia cracca L. Tufted Vetch. Occasional in dry ground on borders of 

Lathyrus maritimus (L.) Bigel. Beach Pea. Along the sandy beach. 

Lathyrus palustris L. Marsh Vetchling. In damp meadow-like ground 
throughout the island. 

Lathyrus palustris pilosus (Cham.) Ledeb. Marsh Vetchling. Noticed 
by F. W. Hunnewell 2nd. 


Geranium maculatum L. Wild Cranesbill. Common in open woods. 
Geranium robertianum L. Herb Robert. . Fringing the beach in the 
village, and on the rocky bluff, east side. 


Polygala paucifolia Willd. Fringed Polygala. In dry shaded ground. 



Euphorbia hirsuta (Torr.) Wiegand. Hairy Spurge. O. A. Farwell in 
Michigan Flora. 

Euphorbia helioscopia L. Wartweed. Plentiful in one spot on the bluff 
above the village. 


Ehus typhina L. Staghom Sumach. Common throughout the island. 
Rhus toxicodendron L. Poison Ivy. Abundant throughout the island. 


Celastrus scandens L. Bittersweet. Common in woods and thickets. 


Acer pennsylvanicum L. Striped Maple. In rich ground with other 
trees, especially on the west side. 

Acer spicatum Lam. Mountain Maple. Abundant in rich ground with 
other trees. 

Acer saccharum Marsh. Sugar Maple. Abundant on the highest part 
of the island with red oak, beech and yellow birch. 



Impatiens biflora Walt. Spotted Touch-me-not. Abundant in shaded 
moist places and often in open damp ground. 


Psedera vitacea (Knerr) Greene. American Woodbine. Common in 
woods and thickets. 


Tilia americana L. Basswood. Occasional in rich ground with other 


Malva rotundifolia L. Common Mallow. As a weed about the village. 


Hypericum perforatum L. Common St. John'swort. About the village 
and in open ground. 

Hypericum kalmianum L. Kalm's St. John'swort. In meadow-like 
ground on the east side. 


Viola nephrophylla Greene. Small Mottled Blue Violet. In a wet 
marshy place at the north end. 

Viola renifolia brainerdii Fernald. Brainerd's Violet. Plentiful in 
rich shaded ground on the west side. 


Viola pubescens Ail. Haiiy Yellow Violet. In dry shaded ground on 
tlie high parts of the island. 

Viola scabriuscula Schwein. Smooth Yellow A'iolet. In rich shaded 

Viola canadensis L. Canada Violet. Plentiful in rich shaded ground. 

Viola conspersa Eeichenb. American Dog Violet. Common in rich 
shaded ground. 


Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Xutt. Canadian Buffalo Berry. Frequent 
in dry open or shaded ground. 


Epilobium angustifolium L. Great Willow-herb. Common in open or 
slightly shaded ground. 

Epilobium adenocaulon Haussk. Northern Willow-herb. Frequent in 
damp open ground. 

Oenothera biennis L. Common Evening Primrose. Common on and 
near the sandy beach. 

Circaea alpina L. Smaller Enchanter's Nightshade. Frequent in rich 
shaded gi'ound. 


Aralia racemosa L. Spikenard. Frequent in rich woods. 
Aralia nudicaulis L. Wild Sarsaparilla. Common in rich shaded 


Sanicula marilandica L. Black Snakeroot. Common in rich shaded 

Osmorrhiza claytoni (Michx.) Clarke. Woolly Sweet Cicely. Common 
in nch shaded ground. 

Osmorrhiza divaricata Nutt. AVcstern Sweet Cicely. Rich woods. F. 
W. llunnewell 2nd. 

Conium maculatum L. Poison Hemlock. About the village in waste 

Garum carvi L. Caj^away. As a weed about the village. 

Taenidia integerrima (L.) Drude. Yellow Pim])eriiel. In dry open or 
shaded ground. 

Pastinaca sativa L. l^arsnip. Frequent in and near the village. 

Heracleum lanatum Michx. Cow Parsni]). Frequent in rich shaded 
ground, especially on Ihe east side. 


Cornus canadensis L. Dwarf Cornel. In damp rich woods. 

Comus circinata Teller. Round-leavt^l Cornel. Common in dry ground 
and on rocky bluffs. 

Cornus baileyi Coult. & Evans. Bailey's Cornel. OccasioiirJ in dry 
0]>en gi'ound and on or near the beach. 

Cornus stolonifera Michx. Bed-osier Dogwood. Tn dani]) open or 
shaded ground and often in damp sand. 


Comus paniculata L'Hcr. Panicled Cornel. Border of v/oods and in 

Comus altemifolia L. f. Alternate-leaved Cornel. Frequent in open 


Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt. Prince's Pine. Frequent in dry 

Pyrola secunda L. One-sided Wintergreen. Common in rich woods. 

Pyrola chlorantha Sw. Greenish-flowered Wintergreen. In dry open 
woods. Apparently rare. 

Pyrola elliptica Nutt. Shin Leaf. In dry woods. Apparently rare. 

Pyrola asarifolia Michx. Liver-leaf Wintergreen. In damp shaded 
ground. F. W. Hunnewell 2nd. 

Pyrola asarifolia incarnata (Fisch.) Fernald. Bog Wintergreen. Fre- 
quent in wet shaded places. 

Monotropa uniflora L. Indian Pipe. Frequent in rich woods. 

Ledum groenlandicum Cedar. Labrador Tea. In wet, boggy places on 
the east side. 

Epigaea repens L. Trailing Arbutus. Under pines; apparently not 

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. Bearberiy. Occasional on rocky 

Chiogenes hispidula (L.) T. & G. Moxie Plum. In boggy shaded ground 
on the west side. 


Primula mistassinica Michx. Dwarf Canadian Primrose. Abundant in 
spots in wet open places on the east side. 

Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. Tufted Loosestrife. In swampy open places. 

Trientalis americana (Pers.) Pursh. Star Flower. Frequent in rich 
shaded ground. 


Grentiana procera Holm. Smaller Fringed Gentian. Abundant in 
marshy open ground on the east side. 

Halenia deflexa (Sm.) Griseb. Spurred Gentian. Common in rich 
shaded ground. 


Vinca minor L. Common Periwinkle. In and about the cemetery north 
of the fort. 

Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Spreading Dogbane. In dry open woods 
and open ground on the west side. 


Asclepias syriaca L. Common ^rilkweed. In dry open ground but 
apparently rare. 



CynoglossTiin officinale L. Common Hound's Tongue. Frequent in waste 
places in the village and throughout the island. 

Cynoglossum boreale Femald. Noi-thern Comfrey. Frequent in dryish 
open woods. F. W. Hunnew^ell 2nd. 

Lappula virginiana (L.) Greene. Beggar's Lice. In rich woods and 

Lappnla echinata Gilibert. European Stickseed. Occasional in the 
village and cultivated grounds. 

Myosotis virg^nica (L.) BSP. Spring Scorpion Grass. Occasional in 
dry open woods. F. W. Hunnewell 2nd. 

Lithospermum officinale L. Common Gromwell. Common about the 
village and occasional throughout the island. 

Echium vulgare L. Blue Weed. Occasional about the village. 


Fmnella vulgaris L. Heal-all. Frequent in open or slightly shaded 

Galeopsis tetrahit L. Common Hemp Nettle. WinchelPs Catalogue as 
reported by Michigan Flora. Not noticed in 1912. 

Hedeoma hispida Pursh. Rough Pennyroyal. In prairie-like ground 
on the east side. 

Satureja vulgaris (L.) Fritsch. Wild Basil. In dry open or slightly 
shaded places throughout the island. 

Lycopns virginicns L. Bugle Weed. Occasional in rich moist open 


Hyoscyamns niger L. Black Henbane. About the village. 


Linaria vulgaris Hill. Butter and Eggs. About the village as a weed, 

Fentstemon hirsntns (L.) Willd. Hairy- Beard-tongue. In dry open 

Mimulns glabratus jamesii (T. & G.) Gray. James' Mimulus. In springy 
places and along small brooks, growing in water. 

Veronica americana Schwein. American Brooklime. In ditches and 
along small brooks. 

Veronica serpyllifolia L. Thyme-leaved Speedwell. In dryish open or 
shaded grassy ground. 

Gerardia paupercula (Gray) Britton. Small-flowered Gerardia. Ke- 
ported by W. D. Whitney. 

Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. Scarlet Painted Cup. In low open 
ground, especially on the east side. 

Pedicularis canadensis L. Wood Betony. In dryish shaded ground. 


Utricularia intermedia Hayne. Flat-leaved Bladderwort. In a wet 
mossy place on the east side. 



Epifagus virginiana (L.) Bart. Beech-drops. Common under beech 

Conopholis americana (L. f.) Wallr. Squaw-root. In dry woods. Ap- 
parently rare. 

Orobanche uniflora L. One-flowered Cancer-root. In damp open or 
slightly shaded ground. Abundant in spots. 


Flantago major L. Common Plantain. Occasional about the village. 
Flantago lanceolata L. English Plantain. About the village and in 
cultivated grounds. 


Oalium aparine L. Cleavers. Occasional in rich shaded ground. 

Oalium lanceolatnm Torr. Wild Liquorice. In dry woods. Apparently 
not common. 

Galium trifidum L. Small Bedstraw. In wet open places on the east 

Galium triflorum Michx. Sweet-scented Bedstraw. In rich woods. 

Mitchella repens L. Partridge Berry. Common in dry woods. 


Diervilla lonicera Mill. Bush Honeysuckle. Plentiful in dry open or 
shaded ground. 

Lonicera canadensis Marsh. American Fly-honeysuckle. Frequent in 
open woods. 

Lonicera Mrsnta Eat. Hairy Honeysuckle. Frequent in damp open or 
shaded ground. 

Lonicera glaucescens Rydb. Douglas' Honeysuckle. Occasional in dry 
open or slightly shaded ground. 

Lonicera dioica L. Glaucous Honeysuckle. Common on rocky bluffs. 

Symphoricarpos racemosus Michx. Snowberry. In dry open or shaded 

Linnaea borealis americana (Forbes) Rehder. Twin-flower. Very abun- 
dant on and at the foot of rocky bluffs. 

Viburnum opulus americanum (Mill.) Ait. Cranberry -tree. Occasional 
in and on borders of woods. 

Sambncns racemosa L. Red-berried Elder. Common in rich woods. 


Campanula rotundifoKa L. Harebell. Frequent on and near the beach, 
and on rocky bluffs. 


Lobelia kalmii L. Brook Lobelia. In wet open spots on the east side. 



Solidago latifolia L. Broad-leaved Goldeurod. Common on shaded rocky 
bluffs and in damp open w-^oods. 

Solidago hispida ^Inhl. Hairy Goldenrod. Common in dry or slightly 
shaded gronnd. 

Solidago jnncea Ait. Early Goldenrod. Frequent in dry open ground. 

Solidago altissima L. Tall Goldenrod. In rich open or slightly shaded 

Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb. In damp open ground, especially in 
damp sand on and near the beach. 

Aster macropliyllus L. Large-leaved Aster. Very abundant in shaded 

Aster cordifolius L. Common Blue-wood Aster. Occasional in rich 
open or slightly shaded ground and on rocky bluffs. 

Aster sagittifolius Wedemeyer. Arrow-leaved Aster. In dryish open 
or slightly shaded places and on rocky bluffs. 

Aster lindleyaniis T. & G. Lindley's Aster. Common in open or slightly 
shaded places. 

Aster tradescanti L. Tradescant'S Aster. In damp open places, es- 
pecially in damp sand on and near the beach. 

Aster paniculatus Lam. Tall White Aster. Common in damp sand on 
and near the beach. 

Erigeron philadelphicus L. Philadelphia Fleabane. Occasional through- 
out the island in open or slightly shaded places. 

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Sweet Scabious. In dryish open or shaded 

Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) BSP. Daisy Fleabane. Occasional about 
the village and in cultivated ground. 

Erigeron canadensis L. Horse-weed. As a weed in the village and waste 

Antennaria canadensis Greene. Canadian Cat's-foot. Frequent in dry 
open or slightly shaded ground. 

Antennaria fallax Greene. Tall Cats-foot. In rich open or slightly 
shaded ground. 

Antennaria neodioica Greene. Smaller Cat's-foot. Occasional in dryish 
open woods. 

Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) B. & H. Pearly Everlasting. Common in 
dr^' open places. 

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Common Kagweed. As a weed in the vil- 
lage and cultivated grounds. 

Eudbeckia hirta L. Yellow Daisy. Occasional in drs' open woods. 

Coreopsis lanceolata L. Lance-leaved Tickseed. In dry open ground on 
the west side of the island. Aj)})arently rare. 

Achillea millefolium L. Common Yarrow. Occasional about the village 
and in cultivated grounds. 

Anthemis cotula L. ^Mayweed. Only as a weed about the village. 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum pinnatifidum Lecoq. & I>amotte. Ox eye 
Daisy. Ccmmion throughout the island even in open woods like a 
native plant. 

Artemisia caudata Michx. Tall Wormwood. On and near the sandy 


To the Mackinaw Island list of plants on page 218, the following 
observations, corrections, and additions should be made. 

Equisetum pratense Ehrh. Thicket horsetail. Abundant at foot of 
rocky cliffs. 

Lycopodium annotintun L. Occasional in woods. 

Caxex crawfordii Femald, should be omitted and the following in- 

Carex bebbii Olney. Bebb's sedge. Occasional in damp open ground. 

Allium tricoccum Ait. Wild leek. In rich woods. Apparently in- 

Ulmus americana L. Three large native trees and a number of small 
ones noticed at the foot of the bluff near the Marquette monument. 

Rumex mexicanus Meisn. Willow-leaved dock. In damp sand on and 
near the lake shore. Apparently infrequent. 

Salsola kali tenuifolia G. P. W. Mey. Russian thistle. As a weed in 
the village. 

Amaranthus graecizans L. Tumble weed, .fflta weed in gardens and 
about the streets of the village. 

Amaranthus blitoides Wats. Prostrate amaranth. Streets of the vil- 

Stellaria longipes Goldie. (?). Long-stalked stitehwort. Thickly 
matted in one place on the east side of the island. 

Claytonia virginica L. Noticed as frequent in 1913. 

Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Lall. Purplish meadow rue. Occa- 
sional on borders of woods. 

Aquilegia vulgaris L. Garden columbine. Double-flowered form grow- 
ing wild on and near the lake shore. 

Sanguinaria canadensis L. Noticed as occasional in 1913. 

Lepidium apetalum Willd. Apetalous peppergrass. About the village. 

Brassica oleracea L. Cabbage. Apparently growing wild near the 
water works. 

Sisymbrium altissimum L. Tumble mustard. As a weed about the 

Radicula armoracia (L.) Robinson. Horseradish. Noticed as an 
escape in several places. 

Tiarella cordifolia. False miterwort. Occasional in rich woods on the 
west side. 

Ribes oxyacanthoides L. is probably not on the island. 

Pyrus americana (Marsh.) DC. is apparently not growing wild on the 
island, but there are perhaps 25 or more trees of P. sitchensis (Roem.) 
Piper, and this was noticed as far south as Alpena. 

Melilotus ofScinalis (L.) Lam. Yellow melilot. Occasional as a weed. 

Melilotus alba Desr. Sweet clover. Noticed along the streets of the 

Medicago sativa L. Alfalfa. Occasional as an escape. It is being 
successfully cultivated on the island. 

Bobinia pseudo-acacia L. Common locust. Occasional as an escape. 

LathyruB peJustris linearifolius Ser. Marsh vetchling. Bordering' 
edge of bluffs. Plentiful. 

Vida angnstifolia (L.) Reichard. Common vetch. Occasional in the 

Linum nsitatis simum L. Common flax. Occasional about the village. 

Oxalis comiculata L. Lady's sorrel. In streets and gardens as a weed. 

Malva moschata L. Musk mallow. Occasional as an escape. 

Osmorrhiza longistylis (Torr.) DC. Smoother sweet cicely. Frequent 
in rich woods. 

Gaultheria procumbens L. Winter green. Often abundant in dry 
shaded ground. 

Vaccinium pennsylvanicum Lam. Low sweet blueberry. In dry open 
or slightly shaded ground. 

Verbena hastata L. Blue vervain. Occasional along the roads. 

Nepeta cataria L. Catnip. About the village. 

Nepeta hederacea (L.) Trevisan. Ground ivy. In patches throughout 
the island. 

Oaleopsis tetrahit L. Abundant in spots on rocky bluffs. 

Leonurus cardiaca L. Common motherwort. Occasional in and about 

Hedeoma hispida Pursh, probably does not exist on the island. 

Satureja glabra (Nutt.) Femald, low calamint is plentiful in damp 
ground on the east side. 

Mentha ffpicata L. Spearmint. Occasional in the Village. 

Mentha piperita L. Peppermint. Frequent in damp ground border- 
ing the bluffs. 

Verbascum thapsus L. Common mullein. Throughout the island. 

Veronica officinalis L Common speedwell. Near the Indian settlement. 

Plantago rugelii Dene. Rugel^s plantain. Frequent throughout the 

Campanula rapunculoides L. Creeping bellflower. Escaping to the 
streets of the village. 

Aster cordifolius is probably not on the island. 

Ambrosia psilostachya DC. Western ragweed. Established in the 
village as a weed. 

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Spiny leaved sow thistle. A weed in gardens. 

Prenanthes altissima L. Tall white lettuce. Occasional in woods at 
the north end. 

Hieracium scabrum Michx. Rough hawkweed. Occasional in dry 
open or slightly shaded ground. 

Hieracium gronovii L. Gronovius' hawkweed. In dry open ground. 

Hieracium umbellatum L. Narrow-leaved hawkweed. Frequent in 
open or slightly shaded ground. 


Fetasites palmatus (Ait.) Gray. Palmate-leaf Sweet Coltsfoot. In 
damp woods, especially on the west side. 

Senecio vulgfaris L. Common Groundsel. About the village. F. W. 
Hunnewell 2nd. 

Senecio aureus L. Golden Ragwort. In wet shaded places, especially 
on the west side. 

Senecio aureus gracilis (Pursh) Britton. Slender RagAvort. Occasional 
in damp ground. F. W. Hunnewell 2nd. 

Senecio balsamitae Muhl. Bals<im Groundsel. In dry open or slightly 
shaded ground. 

Arctium minus Bemh. Common Burdock. Frequent and often abun- 
dant in open or shaded ground. 

Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) Hill. Common Thistle. Occasional in open 
and cultivated ground. 

Cirsium pitcheri (Torr.) T. & G. Pitcher's Thistle. Occasional along 
the sandy beach on the east side. 

Cirsium discolor (Muhl.) Spreng. Field Thistle. In dryish open or 
slightly shaded ground. 

Cirsium arvense (L). Scop. Canada Thistle. Xoticed throughout the 
island in open or slightly shaded ground. In spots abundant. 

Lapsana communis L. Nipple-woi*t. Plentiful on the bluff west of the 
fort and near the waterworks building on the east side. 

Tragopogon porrifolius L. Oyster-plant. An escape about the village. 

Tragopogon pratensis L. Goat's Beard. Occasional as a weed about the 

Taraxacum officinale Weber. Common Dandelion. About the village 
and in cultivated grounds. 

Sonchus oleraceus L. Common Sow Thistle. As an occasional weed 
about the village. 

Lactuca canadensis L. Wild Lettuce. In rich open or slightly shaded 

Lactuca spicata (Lam.) Hitchc. Tall Blue lettuce. In open woods 
throughout the island. 

Prenanthes alba L. White Lettuce. Occasional in rich open woods. 

Hieracium aurantiacum L. Orange Hawkweed. Occasional in open 
woods like a native plant. 




y ♦ 


The work of the librarian during the fiscal year has consisted prin- 
cipally of the routine duties of his position. Considerable time has been 
expended in the correspondence with exchanges and the sending out 
of reports purchased by members and others, but the results are satis- 
factory. Seventeen exchanges have been added to the list as against 
thirteen dropped. A number of reports have been sold, and several per- 
sons have applied for membership in order to receive the reports. 
The annual report for last year (1911-1912) could not be sent out, 
as it is still in the hands of the printer. 

The first report of the Academy (1894-1899) is now practically ex- 
hausted. There are but six copies in our possession, and these have 
been set aside that the Academy may not be without a few complete 
sets of the reports. 

The present list of exchanges is appended: 


Aberdeen Natural History Society, Aberdeen, Scotland. 

Aberdeen Universitv Librarv, Aberdeen, Scotland. 

Academia de Ciencias, Mexico City, Mexico. 

Academia de Ciencias, Mddicasy Fisicas, Havana, Cuba. 

Academia de Ciencias Naturales, Lima, Peru. 

Academia Nacional de Ciencias, Cordoba, South America. 

Academia Polytechnica, Oporto, Poi-tugal. 

Academia Real das Sciences, Lisbon, Portugal. 

Academic de Metz, Metz, Lorraine, Germany. 

Acad<^mie des Belles-Tx^ttres, Sciences, La Rochelle, France. 

Acad(^mie des Sciences, Art et Bellos-Lettres, Dijon, France. 

Acad^mie des Sciences, Belles-Lettres, Lyon, France. 

Acad<^mie des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts, Rouen, France. 

Acad(5mie des Sciences et letters, Montpellier, France. 

Acadc^mie des Sciences Inscriptions et Bellos-Letti*es, Toulouse, France 

Acaddmie Nationale des Sciences, Caen, France. 

Academv of Science, New Orleans, Louisiana. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, St. Paul, Minn. 

Accademia delles Scienze delP Istituto, Bologna, Italy. 

Accademia delle Scienze, Letlere ed AHi, Genoa, Italy. 

Adrian Scientific Society, Adrian, Michigan. 

Aix Universitv Librarv, A ix-en -Provence, Bouches du Rhone, France. 

♦Address: Museum of Natural History, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
U. S. A. 

t Address all exclianp's "care of the Librarv of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 
Michigan, U. S. A." 


Akademija Umiejetnosci, Krakaii, Austria-Hungary. 

Alabama Geological Survey, University, Alabama. 

Albion College, Library, Albion, Michigan. 

Alma College, Library, Alma, Michigan. 

Alpena Public Library, Alpena, Michigan. 

American Academy of Ai*ts and Sciences, Boston, Mass. 

American Academy of Medicine, Easton, Pennsylvania. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, 
D. C. 

American Entomological Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

American Geographical Society, New York City, New York. 

American Geologist, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

American Gynecological Society, New York City, New York. 

American T^ryngological Association, New York City, New Y(u];. 

American Midland Naturalist, Notre Dame, Indiana. 

American Musemn of Natural History, New York City, New i'ork. 

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Archives des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles, Geneva, Switzerland. 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, India. 

Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, California. 

American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Greece. 

Atlanta University, Library, Atlanta, Georgia. 

Baverische Botanische Gesellschaft, Munich, German v. 

Baylor University, Library, Waco, Texas. 

Beloit College, Library, Beloit, Wisconsin. 

Berliner Entomologischer Verein, Berlin, Geraiany. 

Besancon University, Library, Besancon, France. 

Bibliotheca Nacional, Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic. 

Bibliotheca da Faculdade de Direito da Universidade, Pernambuco, 

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, France. 

Bibliotheca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 

Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence, Italy. 

Biologiska Foerening,. Stockholm, Sweden. 

Binningham School Board, Birmingham, England. 

Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, Oxford, England. 

Boston Medical Library, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Boston Scientific Society, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Botanischer Verein, Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Germany. 

Botanischer Verein, Koenigsberg, Prussia, Germany. 

Botanischer Verein, Landshut, Germany. 

Botanischer Verein, Provinz Brandenburg, Berlin, Germany. 

Bowdoin College, Library, Brunswick, Maine. 

Bradford Scientific Association, Bradford, England. 

Bristol Naturalists' Society, Bristol, England. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science, London, England. 

British Museum, London, England. 

Brooklyn Institute of Aiiis and Sciences, Brooklyn, New York. 

BroTNTi University, Libra n*. Providence, Rhode Island. 

Bryn Mawr College, Library, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. 


The Bryologist, Brooklyn, Xew York. 

Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, Buffalo, New York. 

Calcutta University, Library, Calcutta, India. 

California Academy of Sciences, Sfin Francisco, California. 

California University, Library, Berkeley, California. 

Caluraet Public Library-, Calumet, Micliif?an. 

Cambridge Philosophical Society, Cambridge, England. 

Cambridge University, Libraiy, Cambridge, England. 

Canadian Institute, Toronto, Canada. 

Catholic University, Library, AVashington, D. C. 

Central State Normal School, Library, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan. 

Charleston Museum, Charleston, South Carolina. 

Chicago Academy of Science, Lincoln Park, Chicago, Illinois. . 

Chicago University, Library, Chicago, Illinois. 

Cincinnati Society of Natural History, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Cincinnati University, Library, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

City of London Entomological and Natural History Society, London, 

College of Physicians, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Colorado College, Library, Colorado Springs, Colorado. 

Colorado School of Mines, Library, (Golden, Coloi-ado. 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver, Colorado. 

Colorado LTniversity, Library, Boulder, Colorado. 

Columbia University, Library, New York City, New York. 

Commerz-Biblothek, Hamburg, Germany. 

Commissao Geographic e Geologica, San Paulo, Brazil. 

Commissioneu for Ledelsen of Geolosiske og Geographiske, Copen- 
hagen, Denmark. 

Concilium Bibliographicum, Zurich, Switzerland. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, Yale Station, New Haven, 

Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Connecticut. 

Ooiiiell University, Librar\', Ithaca, Ncav York. 

Dalhousie College, Library, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. 

Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, Daven])ort, Iowa. 

Delaware Countv Institute of Science, ^Fedia, Pennsvlvania. 

Denison Universitv, Scientific Laboratories, (iranville, Ohio. 

Denver University, Library, Denver.Colorado. 

Department of ^^lines and Agriculture, Sidney, New South Wales. 

Department of the Interior, Canadian Archives, Ottawa, Canada. 

Detroit Public Library, Detroit, ^lichigan. 

Deutsche Botanische Gesc^llschaft, Berlin, Gennany. 

Deutsche Geologisclie Gesellschaft, l^erlin, (lennany. 

Deutscher u. Oesterreichischer Al})en-Yei-ein, Munich, Germany. 

Deutscher Wissenschaftlicher \^erein, Santiago, Chili. 

Deutsches Entomologisclies Natural-^Iuseum, Berlin, Germany. 

Division of Entomology, Dept. of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. 

Ecole Normale Supc^rieure, Paris, France. 

Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorlnmne, Paris, France. 

Edinburgh Field Naturalists and Microscopical Society, Edinburgh. 

Edinburgh Geological Society, Edinburgh, Scotland. 


Edinburgh University, Library, Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Elgin Scientific Society, Elgin, Illinois. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 

Elliott Society of Scrience and Arts, Charleston, South Carolina. 

Elphinstone College, Library, Bombay, India. 

Entomological Society, Cavendish Square, W. I»ndon, England. 

Entomological Society of Canada, Quebec, Canada. 

Entomological Society of Ontario, Guelph, Canada. 

Entomologischer Verein, Stettin, Germany. 

Etitomologiska Foerening, Stockholm, Sweden. 

Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois. 

Finska Vetenskap Societet, Helsingfors, Finland. 

Folia Bibliographica, Berlin, Germany. 

Franklin & Marshall College, Library, I^ancaster, Pennsylvania. 

Geographical Society of Australia, Queensland Branch, Brisbane, 

Geographical Society of California, San Francisco, California. 

Geographical Society of Finland, Helsingfors, Finland. 

Geographical Society of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Geographical Society of Quebec, Quebec, Canada. 

Geographische Ge^ellschaft, Bremen, Germany. 

Geographische Gesellschaft, Greifswald, Germany. 

Geographische Gesellschaft fuer Thueringen, Jena, Germany. 

Geological Society of South Africa, Johannisburg, South Africa. 

Geological Sui^ey, Department of Mines and Agriculture, Sidney, 
New South Wales. 

Geological Survey of Missouri. Jefferson City, Missouri. 

Geological Survey of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Newfoundland. 

Geological Survey of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

Geological Survey of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand. 

Geological Survey of Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

Geologische Gesellschaft fuer Ungai*n, Budapest, Hungary. 

Geologiska Commissionen i Finland, Helsingfors, Finland. 

Georg-Augusts I'niversitaet, Goettingen, Germany. 

Georgia University, Library, Athens, Georgia. 

Glasgow Geolojfical Society, Glasgow, Scotland. 

Glasgow School Board, Glasgow, Scotland. 

Glasgow University, Library, Glasgow, Scotland. 

Government Botanist, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 

Government Fisheries Station, Tuticorin. India. 

Grand Rapids Public Library, Grand Kapids, Michigan. 

Grossherz Bad. Albert-Ludwigs Universitaet, Bibliothek, Fmburg, 


Grossherz Hessische Ludwig-Universitaet, Bibliothek, Giessen, Hessen, 

Grossherz Ruprecht-Karls I'niversitaet. Heidelberg, Germany. 

Grossherz Saechsische Gesant Universitaet, Bibliothek, Jena, Germany. 

Gulf Biological Station, Baton Rouge, I»uisiana. 

Hackley Public Library, Muskegon, Michigan. 

Hall Fowler Memorial Library, Lonia, Michigan. 

Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 



Harvard University, Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Havana University, Library, Havana, Cuba. 

Hillsdale College, Library, Hillsdale, Michigan. 

Hrvatsko Prirodosloyno Drustvo, Agram, Croatia, Austria-Hungary. 

Hull Literary and Philosophical Society, Hull, England. 

Idaho University, Library, Moscow, Idaho. 

Illinois Geological Survey, Urbana, Illinois. 

Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, Urbana, Illinois. 

Illinois State Museum of Natural History, Springfield, Illinois. 

Illinois University, Library, University Station, Urbana, Illinois. 

Imperial Charkovskii Universitet, Bibliothek, Charkow, Russia. 

Imperial Varsavskij Universitet, Bibliothek, Warsaw, Russia. 

Imperial Institute of the United Kingdom, Ix>ndon, England. 

Imperial lurjeyskij Universitet, Bibliothek, Dorpat, Russia. 

Imperial Moskovskij Universitet, Moskow, Russia. 

Imperial Moskofskoie Obshchestvo lestestvo-Ispytatelei. Moskow, 

Imperial Sankt-Petersburgskoie Mineralogicheskoie Obshchestvo, St. 
Petersburg, Russia. 

Imperial University of Tokyo, Library, Tokyo, Japan. 

Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana, 

Indiana Geological Survey, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Indiana University, Library, Bloomington, Indiana. 

Inspectorate General of Customs, Statistical Department, Shanghai, 

Institute de France, Paris, Prance. 

Institute des Mines, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Institute Luxembourgeois, Section des Sciences Naturelles, Luxem- 
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Institute of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica. 

Istituto Historico, Geographico y Ethynogi'aphico, Rio de Janeiro, 

Institution of Civil Engineers, Great George St., T»ndon, England. 

Iowa Academy of Sciences, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Iowa Geological Sun^ey, Des Moines, Iowa. 

Iowa Universitv-, Library, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Iron Mountain Carae^ie Librarv, Iron Mountain, Michigan. 

Istituto Geografico Militare, Florence, Italy. 

Istituto Scientifico della R. ITriiversita, Rome, Italy. 

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Jagellonische Universitaet, Bibliothek, Karkau, Austria-Hungary. 

Jardin Botanique de TEtat, Bruxelles, Belgium. 

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John Crerar Library, Chicago, Illinois. 

Johns Hopkins Univei'sity, Baltimore, Maryland. 

K. Bayerische Botanische Gesellschaft, Regensberg, Germany. 

K. Boehmische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaft, Prag, Austria-Hungary. 

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K. K. Geographische Gesellschaft, Wien, Austria-Hungary. 

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K. K. I^eopold-Franzens Universitaet, Bibliothek, Innsbruck, Tyrol!, 

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K. K. Zoologische-Botanische Gesellschaft, Wien, Austria-Hungary. 

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Laudwirtschaftliche Versuchstation, Freudenthal, Selesia, Austria. 

Laval University, Library, Quebec, Canada. 

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Linnean Scientific and Historical Society, Lancaster, Pennsylvania. 

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Soci^t^ Entomologique de Belgique, Bruxelles, Belgium. 

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Soci^t^ Zoologique de France, Paris, France. 

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Torrey Botanical Club, Columbia Univei*sity, New York, New York. 

Trinity College, Library, Dublin, Ireland. 

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Univei*sit^ de Bordeaux, Biblioth^que, Bordeaux, France. 

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Universit(^ de Liege, Biblioth(5que, Liege, Belgium. 

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Zentral-Bibliothek, Munich, Germany. 

Zoological Society, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Zoologischer Anzeiger, I^eipzig, Germany. 

Zurich University, Library, Zurich, Switzerland. 





A ge(^raphical study of the growth and distribution of population in Michigan, O. W. Freeman 39 

Agricultural Economics, farm organization as a factor in, W. O. Hedrick 80 

Alcohol of any strength, an easy formula for obtaining, Richard de Zeeuw 209 

Antitoxic action of chloral hydrate upon copper sulphate for Pisum sativum, Rufus Percival 

Hibbard 130 


Bacterial disease of the larvae of the June Beetle, Lachnosterna, sp., Zae Northrup 64 

Baker, Howard B 2d-107 

Black knot of plums and cherries, some notes on the. J. A. McClintock 142 

Breeding habits of the Log-Perch (Percina Caprodes), Jac. Reighard 104 

Brown. C. W 71 

Butler, Jefferson 114 


Carwindow notes on the vegetation of the Upper Peninsula, Roland M. Harper 193 

Check-list of the Michigan Lepidoptera, II Sphingidae (Hawk moths), W. W. Newcomb 213 

Chloral hydrate upon copper sulphate for Pisium sativum, the antitoxic action of, Rufus Percival 

Hibbard 130 

Contents, Table of 5 

Continental forms. III, origin of, Howard B. Baker 107 

Continental forms, IV, origin of, Howard B. Baker 26 

Contributions to the botany of Michigan. No. 9, Oliver A. Farwell 150 

Cope, Otis M 129 

Cumming, James Gordon 60 

Cummins, Harold 106 


Diemyctylus viridescens with bifurcated tail, an adult, Bertram G. Smith 105 

Dietz, Ada K 199 

Dodge, C. K 218 


Environment of soil bacteria, F. H. Hesselink van Suchtelen 65 

Enzyme action, the nature of, James Gordon Cumming 60 


Factors that determine the distribution of Boleosoma nigrum in Douglas Lake, Cheboygan 

County, Michigan, H. V. Heimburger 120 

Farm organization as a factor in agricultural economics, W. O. Hedrick 80 

Farwell, Oliver A 150 

Flowering plants, ferns and their allies of Mackinac Island, C. K. Dodge 218 

Formula for obtaining alcohol of any strength, Richard de Zeeuw 209 

Freeman, O. W 39 


Gleason, Henry Allen 147 

Gold deposits of the Porcupine District, Ontario, R. E. Hore 54 

Growth and distribution of population in Michigan, a geographic study of the, O. W. Freeman. . 39 

254 INDEX. 

H. Page 

Harper, Roland M 193 

Hedrick, W. O 80 

Hamburger, H. V 120 

Hibbard, Rufus Percival 130, 138 

Hore. R. E 54 ,59 

Hubbard, W. 8 78 

Huronian quartzite at Nipissing Mine, Cobalt, Ontario, ripple marked, R. E. Hore 59 


Index 251 

Improved methods for the quantitative determination of dilute solutions of electrolytes, Rufus 

Percival Hibbard 138 

Influence of Bact .-lactic acidi upon the changes caused in milk by some of the common milk 

organisms, C. W. Brown 71 


Key to the species and varieties of Solidago in Michigan. Chas. H. Otis 205 


Letter of transmittal 3 

Loew, Fred A 201 


McClintock, J. A 142 

Membership of the Michigan Academy of Science 9 

Miller, Herbert Adolphus 87 

Minutes of the meetings 15 


Newcomb, W. W 213 

Northrup, Zae 64 

Notes on the mortaUty of young of wild birds under natural nesting conditions and imder artificial 

or protected states, Jefferson Butler 114 


Officers for 1913-1914 7 

Origin of continental forms. III, Howard B. Baker 107 

Origin of continental forms, IV, Howard B. Baker 26 

Otis, Chas. H 205 

Oxygen content of the waters of Douglas Lake, Michigan, David A. Tucker, Jr 121 

Ozone as a means for water purification, R. W. Fryer 74 


Permanent vegetation quadrats at Douglas Lake, Ada K. Dietz 199 

Pine Hills at Lowell, Michigan, Bert E. Quick 146 

Population in Michigan, a geographic study of the growth and distribution, O. W. Freeman. ... 39 

Program, general 20 

Pryer, R. W 74 

Psychological antithesis of socialism, H. A. Miller 87 

Public utility corporations in Michigan, the taxation of local, Edward H. Ryder 95 


Quick, Bert E 145 

INDEX. 255 

R. Page 

Reighard, Jacob 104 

Report of the librarian 238 

Report of the treasurer 18 

Report upon the progress of the biological work of the Michigan Geological and Biological Survey 

during the year 1912-1913, Alexander G. Ruthven 210 

Results of the Shiras Expedition to Whiteftsh Point, Michigan, Crystal Thompson and Helen 

Thompson 215 

Ripple marked Huronian quartzite at Nipissing Mine, Cobalt, Ontario, R. E. Hore 59 

Role of vegetation of a mill pond, Fred A. Loew 201 

Ruthven, Alexander G 210 , 238 

Ryder, Edward H - 95 


Saginaw oil field, R. A. Smith 33 

Sarcoptid mite in the cat, Harold Cummins 106 

Secret remedies, nostrums and fakes, W. S. Hubbard 78 

Smith, Bertram G 105 

Smith, R. A 33 

Solidago in Michigan, key to the species and varieties of, Chas. H. Otis 205 

Some interesting plants from the vicinity of Douglas Lake, Henry Allen Gleason 147 

Some notes on the black knot of plums and cherries, J. A. McClintock 142 

Some observations on intestinal villi, Otis M. Cope 129 

Sphingidae (Hawk Moths), check list of Michigan Lepidoptera, II, W. W. Newcomb 213 


Table of contents 5 

Taxation of local public utility corporations in Michigan, Edward H. Ryder 95 

The nature of enzyme action, James Gordon Cumming 60 

Thompson, Crystal 215 

Thompson, Helen 215 

Treasurer, report of the 18 

Tucker. David A., Jr 121 


van Suchtelen, F. H. Hesselink 65 


Water purification, ozone as a means of, R. W. Pryer 74 


de Zeeuw, Richard 209 


Fig. 3. Nlplssing Mine. 

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FIjr. 1. DIomyotyhis with bifuratod tail. Life slzo. 


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pl.tnla forming: pninll IslnndR. 

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