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Full text of "Report"

Maryland Koom 

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STATE OF MARYLAND 
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 



FIFTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 



^, 



OF THE 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 



SHOWING CONDITION 



OF THE 



Public Schools of Maryland 



FOR THE 



YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1918 




BALTIMORE CITY 

PRINTING AND BINDING 

COMPANY 



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12 



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LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

State of Makvlano 

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

McCoy Hall, Baltimoke. 

Office of the State Board of Education, 

NOVEMUER 1, 1918. 

To His Excellency^ Emerson C. Harrington, 

Governor of Maryland: 

Sir — I have the honor to transmit to you the Annual Report of 
the State Board of Education for the fiscal and scholastic year ending 
July 31, 1918, with accompanying documents, as required by law. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

M. Bates Stephens, 

Secretary. 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Foreword 4 

Tables of School Statistics 19 

How School Boards Expend Their Money 40 

Adult Illiteracy 44 

Summer Schools 46 

School Meetings . 46 

War Activities in the Public Schools 49 

Examinations for Teachers' Certificates 49 

The New Edition of the School Laws 52 

The Teachers' Bonus 53 

The School Census 56 

Teachers' Retired List 58 

Admission to Professional Schools 59 

Vocational Education 62 

War Training Classes 62 

State Plans . 67 

Supervision of High Schools 91 

Supervision of Rural Schools 106 

Supervision of Colored Schools 134 

Maryland State Normal School, Towson — Report of Principal 155 

Frostburg State Normal School — Report of Principal 172 

Maryland Normal and Industrial School, Bowie — Report of Principal.. 175 

Johns Hopkins University Summer Courses, 1918 ..••.. 178 

Public Athletic League — Report of Director 184 

State Board of Education — Financial Statements 192 

Summary of Statements 192 

Pension Account 193 

Appropriation for Expenses — State Board 193 

State Department of Education 194 

Maryland State Normal School, Towson 194 

Frostburg State Normal School 196 

Maryland Normal and Industrial School 197 

Baltimore City Schools — Financial Report 198 

Directory of School Officials and Teachers 206 



FOREWORD 

These introductory remarks to the fifty-first annual report of the 
State Board of Education have no other purpose than to summarize 
the larger issues involved in the administration of our state school 
system the past year, and to indulge a reasonable expectation of such 
necessary readjustments in our educational theory and practice as shall 
meet in a satisfactory way the changing conditions of the world's 
civilized life incident to the period of reconstruction growing out of 
the world-wide war. 

The dawn of such an era at this time, when the present system of 
public education in Maryland is entering upon its second half century 
of existence, has more than ordinary significance and establishes most 
firmly a landmark of possible divergence in extent and kind of edu- 
cational aim and method which have heretofore characterized school 
policies. The new problems confronting us need and must have our 
best thought. There is no time nor occasion for hysteria among 
educators. The tasks before us invite fair discussion and sober judg- 
ment to the end that whatever changes and modifications may result 
shall be for the betterment of social and civic life and not merely to 
air an idea because it is new. 

Maryland's record of loyalty to and support of our National Gov- 
ernment in the crisis, out of which we are emerging, is one of which 
we are all proud, and that same sense of patriotism and of service 
which marked our conduct in facing the issues of war must again 
distinguish the citizens of our state in dealing with those issues on 
which lasting peace is to be established. There are many factors 
which will be influential in laying the foundation on which will be 
built a broader sympathy, a larger freedom, a bigger brotherhood, a 
safe democracy and a permanent peace for the nations of the world, 
but of all these, public education will likely be the most important 
and influential. 

A New Appreciation 

The events of the past four years have brought about a keener 
public appreciation of educational values than did all the argument ad- 
vanced in favor of the subject in the one hundred years preceding 1914. 
The revelations of Draft Boards both as to the mental and physical 
fitness of draftees for effective military service were disappointing. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 5 

A very large percentage of young men, from 21 to 31 years of age 
in this country could not go into training either because they possessed 
serious physical defects or were illiterate; and this number was so 
large as to reflect most adversely on those agencies whose business 
it is to promote health and intelligence. 

The first year of the conflict Germany voted an additional $2,000,000 
to support its schools. Before the end of the third year of the war 
England and France, with all their burdens, and when their people 
were practicing every phase of economy, began to plan for an exten- 
sion of educational facilities v/hich will involve a much larger expen- 
diture for popular education. In Italy teachers followed so closely 
behind advancing military forces that frequently the schoolmaster 
conducted his classes so near the battle line that it was necessary to 
hold such classes in bomb proof shelters. Before the signing of the 
Armistice that country practically decided that hereafter the com- 
pulsory attendance age shall be raised to 18 years, every school to have 
a public library and public education extended to every community. 

Federal Aid to Public Schools 

To those who have been observant the past few years it is clear 
there is a growing conviction in America that public education is not 
alone a function of the state but the Federal Government as well. 
The exhibits of the past year and a half have strengthened, to a 
remarkable degree, public opinion in favor of the question. The 
first expression of this feeling was the enactment into law by Con"-'-^'^"=: 
two years ago of the Smith-Hughes bill providing for a Federal 
Vocational Education Board and making a substnntial appropriation 
to encourage vocational education in the various states. Our recent 
experiences in trying to maintain an efficient American public school 
system through state support are most convincing that to have an 
American system of education worthy of the name the Federal Gov- 
ernment must get behind it with its dollars. If we are to have a 
national educational system we must have a country-wide appreciation 
of educational values and of teaching standards which are possible 
only with Federal direction and financial aid. In no other way can 
uniformity of character and equality of values in educational policies 
be assured than by harmonious participation of both Federal and 
state governments in the formation of a national policy, and by the 
joint bearing of just proportions of the immense cost. The citizenship 
of a free country is the greatest of all its assets, and the citizenship 
of each of the states should be made, as nearly as possible, equal in 



Annual Report of the State Board oi- Education 



opportunity for attainment. The illiterate whites of the mountain 
regions in the southern states, with their sterling primitive virtues of 
truthfulness, honesty, courage, and love of country, would resjxjnd 
splendidly to an efficient system of public education, and in a single 
generation would amply repay all the cost, by arousing a thirst for 
useful knowledge and by the consequent material development of the 
regions in which they live. 

It is not surprising that early in October a bill was introduced in 
the United States Senate to create a Department of Education with 
its secretary a member of the President's Cabinet and providing an 
annual appropriation of $100,000,000 to be expended in the following 
fields, viz: "(a) illiteracy; (b) immigrant education; (c) public school 
education, and especially rural education; (d) public health educa- 
tion and recreation and (e) the preparation and supply of competent 
teachers for the public schools." It does seem inconsistent at this 
time when Congress acts in terms of billions that this appropriation 
could not be at least a quarter of a billion when we consider its pur- 
poses. 

The exodus of teachers from the ranks the past two years has 
brought about little less than a disruption of state school systems. 
This fact, possibly, is more apparent to those who are charged with 
administering public school interests than to others. Unless steps 
are taken to restore the quality of teaching by getting back into the 
school rooms those successful teachers who have gone into more lucra- 
tive employment and by giving assurance of adequate salaries for the 
future, public education in this country will become ineffective to meet 
the demands of useful and intelligent citizenship. 

Adequate Salaries 

We should not relax our efforts to provide good school houses and 
other necessary adjuncts to make the school plant complete. But such 
an expenditure is nullified if there is an incapable person to act as 
teacher. The live wire or most vitalizing element in any school sys- 
tem is the teacher. We claim to believe this maxim but act as if we 
did not. There is an abundance of evidence that wages in the indus- 
trial world will not drop back to pre-w^ar times. Cost of living will 
decrease very slowly ; so we are confronted with what is a fair assump- 
tion that persons with the education and training we require of teachers 
will not return to their chosen field of work nor will others prepare 
for it unless the compensation is commensurate with the character of 
the work they are required to do. Measured by that standard it is a 



Annual Report of the Stater Board of Education 7 

modest claim that first grade first class elementary school teachers 
should receive a minimum salary of $1,000. The State will not likely 
rise suddenly to meet such an obligation as there is no precedent for 
such action. The local tax rate would be seriously disturbed and mem- 
bers of tax-levying bodies would become ineligible for reelection. To 
save the official heads of such persons and right an obvious wrong 
which has been perpetrated at the expense of the public school teacher 
for decades, we must look to our Federal Government to supplement 
what the states are now doing, through Federal aid, to pay adequate 
salaries to those who are America's school teachers. It is not a diffi- 
cult thing to persuade state legislatures to raise teachers' salaries but 
it has been a hopeless task to have salaries raised to the point where 
they are adequate. It is this temporizing with just demands for a 
living wage that has disappointed, discouraged, and demoralized our 
teaching force. Disintegration of public school forces has set in and 
nothing, perhaps, but prompt, courageous, and wise action on the mri 
of our Federal Congress will stop it. 

What to Teach 

With a wider discussion of the lawful scope of education and the 
processes of teaching the course of study will become a subject for 
close scrutiny and possible revision. Education must bring to the 
individual some grasp of the several phases of the world's knowledge 
so that he may work and live therein with much success and little 
friction. A sense of mastery cannot result until one has acquired 
the secret of finding these hidden treasures. While he must know 
much about his particular sphere it is most important that he know 
something of all other phases of world life. A grouping of the 
world's facts makes up a list of subjects for study and investigation 
many of which are taught in the school. We may teach natural phe- 
nomena as "every day knowledge," "science of common things" or as 
physics, chemistry, astronomy, zoology, botany, etc., etc. These facts 
must be studied if we are to know the world and gain power to work 
therein with success. Any revision of the course of study will likely 
emphasize the need of increasing rather than lessening our general 
knowledge. 

How to use and apply knowledge so as to increase mental power, 
and develop power to do things and skill in doing them, will probably 
take precedence over any question involving what to teach. Concrete- 
teaching, and providing proper means of expression of knowledge so^ 
that the theory may find its demonstration in some concrete object open; 



8 Annual Report of the State Board op Education 

up a field for educational research and experiment but poorly explored 
at this time. 

Vocational Education 

For years school work is being much more closely related to the 
affairs of life. The public school is becoming more and more a com- 
munity experiment station where book facts are studied in the light 
of community problems. The home project work of the school boy 
has some direct bearing on what he studies in school and vice versa. 
The extension of agriculture, manual and industrial education, and 
home economics, is having a vitalizing effect on the work of the school 
room. 

The matching of dollars by the Federal and state governments under 
provisions of the Smith-Hughes Act to encourage vocational educa- 
tion has been in operation in Alaryland for a year, and is but another 
evidence that school work should hold some close relationship to the 
productive industries of the world which employ 85% of our people. 
A report on this fund, contained herein, shows the startling information 
that our state has availed itself of but a small part of the money 
appropriated to Maryland. The criticism is made that the provisions 
for getting this money are too severe and too much "government red 
tape" attends its expenditure. In spite of those handicaps several 
agricultural and industrial classes have been started in our high schools 
where students give one half of their time to the special and related 
subjects. Much may be said in favor of muscular readiness for life's 
work as an enemy of idleness and its attendant evils. The compulsory 
work law in this State which has forced idlers and slackers into em- 
ployment may have much to do with the fact that several county jails 
are without prisoners. Education can scarcely dignify labor to an 
unreasonable degree, and school work should give manual dexterity 
as well as mental alertness. 

New School Legislation 

The General Assembly of 1918 made only a few changes in the 
school law. The minimum salaries paid to elementary teachers were 
raised one hundred dollars, and a bonus by the State of fifty dollars 
for each regularly employed teacher was given for the school year 
1917-18. 

State aid, not to exceed $15,000 was set apart for the establishment 
of a third group of high schools with a minimum enrollment of 25 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education I) 

pupils above the elementary grades. This new list as approved by the 
Board appears in this report. 

The general appropriation for the public schools was increased from 
$1,750,000 to $2,000,000 annually. 

Physical Education 
The law requiring physical education keeps our schools abreast of 
the needs so severely emphasized by the numbers of young men re- 
jected in the first draft because physically defective. The legislature 
wisely determined upon a sane system which should physically train 
the pupils for life — for war if need be, and for all other demands sure 
to arise. The bill provided for robust, healthy, and intelligent children, 
and decided that military training ought to follow later in life when 
the foundation of strength and vigor has been laid in high schools 
by a modern type of physical education. It even foresaw that the 
discipline that comes from choice rather than from drill makes better 
soldiers as well as better citizens. 

Our army in spite of the fears of many was as well disciplined and 
should have more initiative than some others because our young men 
chose to obey rather than be forced to be subservient. So, our youth 
from its games and athletics are choosing to obey where mistakes are 
not costly, and are acquiring character and responsibility therein when 
playing representatives of their classes and schools. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas H. Lewis, Pres-ident, 
M. Bates Stephens, Secretary. 
Thomas H. Bock, 
William T. Warburton, 
Clayton Purnell, 
James Alfred Pearce, 
Sterling Galt. 



10 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



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Annual Report of the State: Board of Education 



15 



TABLE F— ATTENDANCE PER TEACHER.* 
SHOWING THE AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE, THE NUMBER OF 
TEACHERS, AND THE AVERAGE DAILY ATTENDANCE PER 
TEACHER IN ALL SCHOOLS, IN WHITE ONE-TEACHER 
SCHOOLS, IN COLORED ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS, AS COM- 
PILED AND COMPUTED FROM THE REPORTS OF THE SEV- 
ERAL COUNTY BOARDS OF EDUCATION FOR THE YEAR 
ENDING JULY 31, 1918. 



counties 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel. - 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester .... 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery ... 
Prince George's. 
Queen Anne's. 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Total Average Daily At- 
tendance In 



170 
519 
055 
415 
934 
886 
743 
845 
173 
136 
094 
588 
844 
,1 

660 
113 
197 
946 
,531 
,766 
060 
,307 
,230 



One-Teacher 
Schools 



Number of Teachers 
Employed In 



XI 




V 








o 


CO 






* 


O 


U 


H 



822 

737 

886 

553 

771 

2,199 

1,096 

787 

985 

2,256 

1,799 

1,167 

505 

352 

883 

915 

720 

938 

541 

522 

1,467 

933 

544 



30 
810 
473 
488 
417 
237 
202 
797 
700 
404 



237 
514 
684 
576 
431 
553 
671 
505 
98 
290 
382 



Total I 102,4011 22,3781 9,788 



852 
1,547 
1,359 
1,041 
1,188 
2,436 
1,298 
1,584 
1,685 
2,660 
1,799 
1,456 

742 

866 
1,567 
1,491 
1,151 
1,491 
1,212 
1,027 
1,565 
1,223 

926 



32,166 



One-Teacher I 
Schools 



304 
237 
601 

63 
122 
212 
154 

94 
199 
311 
180 
167 

88 
121 
187 
226 
115 

94 
142 
121 
311 
180 
172 



4,401 



51 
46 
45 
31 
37 
99 
64 
45 
62 
104 
120 
62 
27 
27 
44 
48 
39 
46 
28 
32 
87 
43 
37 



1,224 



429 



53 
77 
69 
48 
54 
111 
76 
79 
94 
123 
120 
77 
40 
49 
74 
76 
59 
73 
48 
SO 
94 
54 
55 



1.653 



Av'ge Daily Attend- 
ance per Teacher In 



One-Teacher 
Schools 



16.1 
16.0 
19.7 
17.8 
20.8 
22.2 
17.1 
17.5 
15.9 
22.0 
15.0 
18.8 
18.7 
13.0 
20.1 
19.0 
18.5 
20.4 
19.3 
16.3 
17.0 
21.7 
14.7 



23.3116.8 



22.8 



16.0 
20.1 
19.7 
21.7 
22.0 
22.0 
17.0 
20.0 
18.0 
21.6 
15.0 
18.9 
18. S 
17.7 
21.2 



16.8 



19.5 



•There is a local demand for a school near each patron's home, but a general feeling that 
rural school districts should be large enough to justify the employment of good teachers. 
With a given per pupil expenditure, a county can operate a number of small one-teacher 
schools with corresponding small salaries for the teachers, or reduce the number of schools 
(enlarging those that remain) so that higher salaries may be paid and better teachers em- 
ployed. Table G shows the number of one-teacher schools of different size in each county. 



IG 



Annual Ri:i'(jrt ok the Static Boari> of Education 



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Annual Report of the State Board oe Education 



17 



TABLE H— RECEIPTS— ALL SCHOOLS. 
RECEIPTS FROM ALL SOURCES, AS REPORTED BY THE SEVERAL COUN 
BOARDS OF EDUCATION FOR THE YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 1918. 





Balance .\ugust 1, 1917 






RECEIVED FROM THE STATE 






COUNTIES 


< 

c 
a 


-a 
'< 

"o 
o 

1 

60 


c 

3 

o 
o 

ca 

o 
l- 


o 

m 
o 

o 
c/j 


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u 

_3 
C 

-c 

_o 
"o 
U 


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c 

"o 
o 

u 


5 
a: 

u 
u 

"o 
n 

V 

H 




Allegany 

Anne Arundel. . . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 


$16,631.05 

865.78 

7,207.17 

66.19 

263.19 

1,111.05 

5,284.82 

2,385.74 

1,030.49 

425.15 

.75 

7,230.22 

1,817.71 

4,320.70 

5,008.61 

4,285.36 

1,217.10 

501.13 

913.36 

1.098.16 

6,524.57 

2,415.30 


$65,617.14 
37,964.26 

119,088.07 
12,650.14 
20,686.51 
32,221.82 
22,212.52 
18,859.91 
30,137.36 
51,797.36 
26,603.07 
26,762.35 
15,616.47 
16,867.34 
30,321.53 
38,528.36 
17,368.63 
19,953.39 
26,871.45 
19,709.66 
51,144.66 
27,583.30 
23,550.00 


$10,100.00 

2,500.00 

11,100.00 


$9,965.20 
6,409.78 

20,206.20 
2,046.80 
4,181.84 
6,206.10 
3,624.40 
3,045.54 
4,914.36 
9,135.30 
4,205.06 
4,540.96 
2,539.92 
2,918.68 
5,319.04 
7,002.94 
2,730.20 
2,955.32 
4,417.68 
3,169.72 
9,514.06 
5,429.80 
4,411.42 


$2,650.00 
2,200.00 
3,100.00 
1,200.00 
1,700.00 
1,950.00 
1,900.00 
1,250.00 
1,800.00 
2,400.00 
1,900.00 
1,850.00 
1,525.00 
1,800.00 
1.900.0U 
2,200.00 
2,250.00 
1,300.00 
1,250.00 
2,250.00 
2,610.00 
1,850.00 
1,600.00 


$750.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 


$526.60 
724.68 
868.86 
225.69 
568.50 
743.10 
491.50 
225.69 
739.46 

1,272.39 
300.92 
518.34 
455.69 
508.75 

l,089.2t 
661.42 
556.91 
400.95 
484.60 
691.87 
761.87 
560.72 
513.72 


$10,455.55 
7,451.85 

10,697.95 
1,890.85 
3,992.60 
7,939.60 
5,409.00 
2,261.15 
5,557.00 

10,718.82 
4,273.55 
5,258.25 
2,299.20 
3,847.90 
3,741.40 
5,188.85 
3,355.55 
2,744.55 
4,423.80 
3,842.45 

11,342.30 
6,083.75 
5,038.85 

$127,814.77 


$116 

5S 

173 

IS 


Caroline 

Carroll 

Ceeil 


7,000.00 
5,100.00 
6,500.00 


1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 


3? 
56 
46 




29 


Dorchester 

I'rederick 

Garrett 


3,900.00 
11,000.00 
3,700.00 
7,900.00 
2,300.00 
3,700.00 
5,100.00 
8,000.00 
6,100.00 


4S 
88 
40 


Harford 




54 






26 




1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 


35 


Montgomery .... 
Prince George's. 
Queen Anne. . . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 


S3 
67 

35 
27 


3,700.00 
5,700.00 
9,000.00 
6,700.00 
7,600.00 


1,500.00 
1,500.00 
730.00 
1,500.00 
1,500.00 


43 
37 


Washington .... 
Wicomico 


91 
52 
44 








Total 


$70,603.60 


$752,115.30 


$126,700.00 


$128,890.32 


$44,435.00 


$25,500.00 


$13,891.30 


$1,289 
534 








1 












Total 






1 










$1,824 



















This table continued on follow ing page. 



Annual Ki.I'okt oi- the wSta'ii, I'oakd of Eui'catkjn 



TABLE n— CONTINUED. 



COUNTIES 



U 



KKCEIVED FROM OTMER SOURCES 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel . 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester . . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne . . . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester 



Total 

Baltimore City 



Total . 



$207 

124, 

499, 

14 

45 

89 

69 

13 

56 

137, 

46, 

76 

J4, 

45 

111 

101 

14 

27, 

49 

158 

62, 

55 



,822 
240 
769, 
,500 
000 
,736, 
,500. 
,085, 
,000, 
SOS. 
666. 
500. 
964. 
000. 
328. 
209. 
958. 
51. 
000. 
500 
811 
246. 
000 



,542.20 
223.25 
956.33 



$201.50 
429.00 
189.00 



$49.83 



57.00 
539.91 
,426.69 



750.00 

2,711.22 

15.00 



125.00 
387.02 



146.30 
923.27 
,394.28 
,320.01 
94.05 



144.50 

9.00 

552.00 

423.75 

10.00 

240.00 

1,185.62 



378.60 



685.18 



160.95 

43.50 

864.42 



$2,089,595.80 
2,044.479.39 



$12,820.49 



$8,308.06 



$4,134,075.19 



269.38 



357.91 



205.06 



1.07 
635.67 



2,156.67 

624.88 

35.34 



$784.04 

502.08 

10,069.66 



668.69 



65.00 
1,480.00 
2,506.00 

24.19 
7,572.75 



50.00 
109.85 

50.00 
284.25 



267.58 
202.53 



466.22 
255.75 



297.31 

30,369.59 

156.94 

976.88 

219.38 

23,944.74 

5,308.10 

1,099.20 

1,036.20 

3,214.04 

17,595.84 

38,236.15 

629.98 

2,521.10 

18,399.60 

6,918.80 

309.25 

355.41 

3,563.92 



$1,518.92|$16,819.70|$166,508.21| $3,585,521.4 



46,269.79 



$212,778.00 



$6,211,131.70 



'Includes Total on preceding page. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



19 









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38 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



TABLE v.— COMPTROLLER'S SUMMARY. 

SUMMARY OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OE THE STATE 

SCHOOL FUND FOR THE YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30, 

1918, AS REPORTED BY THE COMPTROLLER. 

Balance applicable to School Year commencing October 1, 1917: 

Public School Tax $704,546.70 

Free School Fund 3,572.50 

Schools in Sundry Counties 245.00 

$708,364.20 

Receipts from Public School Tax $1,921,114.84 

Receipts from Free School Fund 13,785.18 

Bv Chapter 206 of 1918 150.000.00 

$2,084,900.02 

Total Receipts and Balance from 1917 $2,793,264.22 

Total Disbursements of Public School Tax $1,750,000.00 

Total Disbursements of Free School Fund 15,997.68 

Additional Pav for Teachers, 206 of 1918 150.000.00 

$1,915,997.68 

Balance account Public School Tax $877,266-54 

Amount reverting to State 171,114.84 

Balance applicable to School Year commencing October 1, 

1918 $706,151.70 

This balance of $706,151.70 made up as follows: 

Public School Tax $704,546.70 

Free School Fund 1,360.00 

Schools in Sundry Counties 245.00 

$706,151.70 

Of this balance of $706,151.70, there was distributed on October 1, 

1918, the following: 

Approved High Schools $34,675.00 

Teachers' Retirement Fund 8,500.00 

Maryland State Normal School 12,500.00 

State Normal School No. 3 2,500.00 

State Normal School No. 2 3,125.00 

State Department of Education, Expenses of 6,250.0ft 

Text-Books for Public Schools 50,000.00 

Manual Training and Industrial Schools 6,562.50 

Superintendents, Supervisors, etc 12,156.25 

Public School Tax 350,000.00 

Vocational Education 1,250.00 

Third Group High Schools 1,015.62 

Making an aggregate of $488,435.37 

Balance on hand to equalize future distribution $217,716.33 

This balance of $217,716.33 made up as follows: 

Public School Tax $216,111.33 

Free School Fund 1,360.00 

Schools in Sundry Counties 245.00 

— $217,716.33 



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X— CENSUS.* 
E NUMBER O 
ENSUS. AND 


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Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



35 



ID 

C/} 

W 

U 

I 

X 

w 

pq 
< 



6-14 years by 
1910 Census. 








1 




•^^ 
•^ 






00 

o_ 






o 






eg 

o' 


Total. 


00 "T cv) 

tN ^^ 


sd a^m 




CsUI rt O Cv OS 
^I Th r^ fN Ov vO 

vo o CO rq oi in 


<~0 


01 VOOO 
Ov X tN 


inino 

m^ 00 

Ov Ov OC 


•-1 

VO 
VO 

_ 


O OVO 
OO^tNVO^ 


ClOOC 

vocno 

OvCvCT>_ 


'1 


•* VO O ' eg VO CO 
rOCl VO fN<^0 
l~0 — Tf ■<i- in o 


X 
VO 
-r 

ov' 


14 years. 1 
1 




T^ ^^ m 




t^oom 


O 00 00 


'^ 
'^1 


CvO CJv 

O Ov Cv 


fomoo 

OOVCv 




CTvinTi- 

Cl — Tf 
ClOrJ- 


t-^rno 

CI O "^ 


VO 


-Hin VO 
VOtT o 

^ T^c^ 


1-CJv '■''I 

Ti-mo 


Ov 

c 
c 






CO '^i O 

~0] Tf 




« i/lvO 
GO tNUO 


in r^.OO 
f. "-. VO 


t 


tN vOr.-} 


— — r^ 

— — CI 


■^ 


Ov .-H O 
GvCJ W 
— CI -"l- 


mvo — 
OOvO 

—. eg 


VO 


CMtN.Ov 

CMn^r 
■^Tj-ov 


vom — 


O 
VO 

c 


12 years. 


t^ 00u-> 

rv] rv, vo 


MO ri 
M Ol Tf 


1^ 

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lOTl-CV 

Cv Ov OD 
^ — fO 


".00 — 




rN<M ov 


MCOvo 
O — Cl 

— — CI 


C) 

CI 


r^in CO 

CM^ VO 

— o c 
CO vOin 


coo 

C CI — 


fN 


f^CTvCl 
U-. ^ O 

— o — 
c 1- n- 
inrr ov 


VO JN.Tt 
in X r^. 


c 
•1- 


11 years. 


1-0 f 




ON 
tN 


f>j r^ in 

Ov COi^ 


in 1-cv 
ci '^ in 




OvCVl — ' 
CTvCv Cv 


u 
aj 
V 
>> 
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fOm 00 
ro ^1 \0 


Ol " r-5 




OV" O 

c^ ^ ov 


r/^Cvl VO 




■U-OJ VO 
^ O '-' 


in I^ cj 

f^ — m 
— — CI 


CO 
VO 


o — — 
'^1 ro in 
'-ICI-T 


-rxci 

.^. CtT 
— — ci 

r>,«in 

Ov ov O 


VO 

o 

VO 


— —CM 

in ov rr 
in rr c 


in c. X 
vO VO C) 

xcvio 
TTino 


c 
r^ 

c 
■<1- 

o_ 




1^ ^1 VO 






oot--vo 


CVl VOOO 
r^*^ VO 


C^l 

rf 


\0 ^ r^ 

COO 
— — ' (M 


vo"^ '-' 

C>-^ — 
— CJ 




f, ir, 00 

Ov— O 
— CI ^ 


tN r^. o 
VO t^ ^ 

Tt "^ O 






-V) « n 


<N1 
VO 
VO 


iov£>« 

oooo 
f\J ^ f^ 


— vot^ 
f^ci in 


CO 
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1- 


VO 00 -^ 
O — CI 
— — CI 


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CJ — ^ 


in IOC 


VO 

VO 
m 


O ocg 
Cv — o 
t)-ino_ 


Tj- CM VO 
TJ-tx — 


X 
X 

o_ 


7 years. 


On ^ vr> 
C-l O (^ 


rv — '00 

« — 'Ol 


VO 
VO 


U-. Ou-, 
fN Cv vO 


Cn VO fO 

rvj CM in 


t^OI^ 

COOOO 


VOC VO 

CO — Ov 

— CI en 


Ov O O 
•-' CI 


vomCM 
TT "a-Ov 


Tj- CI VO 

inmO 




OOO 


— OOCv 
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O 


CM O (M 
CO WOv 
--. •- CVI 


— •-'CM 
CM-T VO 


1- 


VO '-«rN 
c7\rN VO 


VO ^ CI 

f^CO VO 


o 


O vO vO 
oooovo 
— — m 


— O — 


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O. OVOO 


t^voro 

rrr X 


Ov 

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Sex and Color. 

1 


m m ° 
1 


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36 Annual Report of the Statk Board of Education 



u 



u 

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6-14 years by 
1910 Census. 




- 




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10 years. 1 1 years. 


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O', sO m 


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8 years. 9 years. 


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^1 O - 1 
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r^ OS NO 
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un U-, 

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oocoi^ 


r^ t^ -r so 
v/-. m ^ 1 X 


X OCNO 
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"1 '1 T 


r., On^ 


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Se.\ and Color. | 6 years. | 7 years. 

1 1 


^U1 — . 




o\ 


t^ — 00 

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■^1 — Tl- 




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Osoo 

—1 rs) 


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00 eoV. 


5 


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300^ 


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o._ 
33 'J 


o 


I '.'a 

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75 
S 


1 


5 


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1 







Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



37 



u 



CO 

w 
u 

I 

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W 

pq 
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32 


















(M 










X 










x_ 

PpT 


1 Total. 


=c t^ 

00 3s t^ 


r^-r CO 


c^ 
T 


Cn 
00^ 


^'x CTs 
LO -3- O^ 




OS vo 10 W ir^ ^1 r^ 

— ' -r ■* cA 
r^j ^ r^ CA X so 


nOX-"}- lOOio 
I/-, 10 — r^ r^ 

-1- -^CTS C?s X t^ 


On 
X 
NO_ 


■•j-oi- 
— C_ c^l^ 


ppjnOOn 
— inso 
Xt^tn 


X 
P-5 


^1 cq lo 


-H — 01 


QO 


""" 


" — CS) 


— 1^ 


14 years. 


"1 Old 
'^1 On — . 
r^ ^ VO 


r*^ -^ r^ 

\0 -M 




X Ox 


Tl- -1- X 
U-, "~. 


^ 
f*^ 


<M .-1 ro 


r^ulCM 

CTs — ■ — 
— CM 


OS 

-a- 

■9- 


Os X t^ CM t^) -a- 
^'^ NO CM X ^^ On 


rsi 


Tj- — ir> 

— —V) 


p'. X — 

ON 

— CM 


NO 





OOOM 
ON OOt^ 
^J r^q in 


^0"^ -H 


Ok 

00 


— — rsi 




X 
X 
c-5 


"-. X r.2 

CO CM SO 

«-HCSJ 


NO — t>, 
000 
— — <M 



■<}• 


^Tj-x 
lOt)-C3N 
— — CM 


— On — 

— CNJ 


5 


On Tt p*^ 
lOCMX 
- — CM 


r^ NO pp5 

ox ON 


NO 


12 years. 




— — 

OOOgc 






000 

— • "Tsj 


SO " r^ 
inso — 


CO 


CM r^ Cs -^ "^1 VO 
^ ^ ir-j C> CN X 


f 
•r 


<Mt^ON 

t->- t^ Tl- 


t^uiCM 

— ON — 

— C^l 


NO 


— X<> 


u-. r^ CM 
xr-.\o 




X 
On 




I~^ '^ 
rv] On 
«^ 00 SO 


0>0\0 
so t^ '^ 

.-. i-* PV^ 


OS 

c 


ox ^ 

— — CS) 


X'M C 

urr 


'J- 


(MOS.-. 
— CM M- 
-^ "CM 


so rsix 
(Js OsX 





Tl- nOO 

t^XNO 

— — ro 


CNO 


NO 


NJS NO 


(M CM 
ON CN X 


a 



vO-1 M 
U-. t^ ^1 


so "-ii^l 


X 




^ sOiO 

— -^ OJ 


Xl^in 





SO f^ OS 
r--^CM 


OS — 
— C7> — 


so 


ON ^ p^^ 

C>, sC NO 


ii-> .-• so 
— — 00 


CJN 

X 

On 


On ON 

— CN] P^-J 

— — r-i 


"^ fO 


CNJ 


8 years. 9 years. 1 


tT — 


so ^ ^1 
vO r^ 


-1- 


.- cs) r^. 


OSC3S 


"5 


CM ON .— NOlO 
—■ — CM -- 


so 


X t^in 

— — r^ 


— ", Tf 

000 

— — rs) 


Ol X c 
p^ p^ (^ 


X t^in 


CM 
■<5- 


Tt^— • 


t>* 'N OS 

w-1 -ros 




X •*■ 

^1 ^ly-j 

— -^ c-.] 


-q- 


SO 


) 

-a- -T X CNCs 


1- 


NOrix 
-I- SCO 
— — f-i 


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ro 


CSI C PN) 

1J-; — NO 
— — CM 


C Tf tT so 
ON t^ N£) <^] 


1 
Sex and Color. | 6 years. | 7 years. 


CT> 00 
^] r^ \0 


sC^lX 

-H ^1 r-i 
« — CM 


X 


~:i X — 

— "M 
— — c~q 


U-, u-l 


SO 
rs) 


CMCM 1- 
OCMiri 
— "CM 


t^XNO 


in 


I/-, -rc3N 

— — CN] 


CN Xr^ 





On pp^ fN] 

— 0<M 

— — CM 


X On t^ 

SO Xu^ 


ON 
PO 


00 = 
— "> ■>!■ 
•^J ^ •:!■ 


\0 t^ ^ 


X 


so r^ 


ox X 
SOTT 


OS 


oc\o\ 

'OO^CM 
— CM 


— xo 

XI-^"1 


X 
X 


X CM^ 

— — CM 


10 CN] r^ 

NO NO CM 


X 


t^ — X 
Tf cnjnO 


t^P-50 

OnXX 


X 

1 

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c 

r! 
U 


pqo 


'. '■'5 
.^ ,^ 

-0 

«J 

u 
_o 

^0 




C-l 

■a 

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CO 




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-■ ,; 



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a 


0.- 


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pqu 

-a 

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38 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



c 
o 



CO 

CO 

W 

u 

x; 
w 

m 
< 



1 

16-14 years by 
1 1910 Census. 
1 












■'■ 








CO 


o 


• ■ \o 

■ ■ 0\^ 


• • 00 

• • «^ 




^ -- o 
^ *^ i^ 

O C> CO 

oi ^ 'o 


<^)00O 
-T 00"1 


c 
c/; 


\q vo ■-[ 


l^ — oc 
yj c<Ii~ 




1 1 1 

1 1 1 
12years.| 13 years. 14 years. 




• ■ 00 

■ 'S' 

■ • 00 

■ • (M 


o 

00 


ooo 

-H 0^ O 

ri " ■* 


OO— •0\ 


0\ 


00 C 00 

o- o- cc 


■-iccc 


1^ 


r-^ f^l "^ 
rj C^l Tf 




C^l 

o 


— — ro 


ocj. c>. 


■V 






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oq "M ■* 1 ^ 
1 


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0< 00 00 
— . ro 


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11 years. 


■ ■ r-) 


■ •'1- 

; '. 


0\ W'-i 
(M>n00 






r^ CC ^3 


VO — t^ 

o- o a\ 


M 

^ 


10 years. 


! 'o 


• -o 

. ■ ro 
'. •■* 


o 

r-5 


<N CM -^ 


t^oco 




« ooo 

— • 00 C3-: 
00 oo VO 


Ov — O 
f CCOJ 

— c< — 

— Ol 


VO 

o 

VO 
00 

oo 


>. 

u 
n 

>, 

03 


'. !o 

. .00 


O.) CM -i- 


00 00 1^ 

t^— <00 
c:^ 00 t^ 


. . (T) 


0\ f^0<-0 


r^ 00 Lo 

oo 00 t^ 


OvOCTv 
00 INC 


Sex and Color, j 6 years. | 7 years. 


'. io 

. .CM_ 


; i- 


0\ ,(M "^ r^ 

oo :oo o 

(M_ J (M CM -T 
1 


O ON o 




O 00 OO 


o> o^ c^ 
— c — 


o 


■ ■ 1- 


1 
CVj^ ^ ^ r-5 


ro O rv3 

00 00 t^ 


o 


—. . oa 


• • O 

fflO 


-a 

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u 


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H 

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c 


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u 


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Annual Report of the State Board of Education 39 

COMPARATIVE SUMMARY. 

COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ITEMS FOR THE YEAR ENDING JULY 31, 

1918. WITH THE SAME ITEMS FOR THE YEAR 

ENDING JULY 31, 1917. 

Items. 1917. 1918. Increase. 

Number of schools in counties 2,493 2,359 *134 

Number of schools in Baltimore City 112 108 "4 

Total for State 2,605 2,467 'laS 

Number of teachers in counties 4,421 4,401 "29 

Number of teachers in Baltimore City 2,139 2,124 *1S 

Total for State 6,560 6,525 *35 

Number of different pupils, counties 166,446 153,939 *12,S07 

Number of different pupils, city 79,599 81,329 1,730 

Total 246,045 235,268 '10,777 

Average number in daily attendance, counties.... 114,282 102,404 *11,878 

Average number in daily attendance, city 57,307 59,369 2,062 

Total 171,589 161,773 *9,816 

Receipts from all sources, counties $3,469,893.78 $3,585,521.47 $115,627.69 

Receipts from all sources, city 4,171,452.24 2,625,610.23 "1,545,842.01 

Total $7,641,346.02 $6,211,131.70 *$1,430,214.32 

Amount received from State by counties and city .$1,524,303.07 $1,824,811.33 $300,508.26 

Amount received from county and city local tax... 4,838,052.05 4,134,075.18 *703, 976.87 

Total $6,362,355.12 $5,958,886.51 *$403, 468.61 

Total expenses for public school purposes, counties. $3,417,354.73 $3,473,579.49 $56,224.76 

Total expenses for public school purposes, city... 2,403,579.35 2.510,482.58 106,903.23 

Total $5,820,934.08 $5,984,062.07 $163,127.99 

Amount of teachers' salaries, counties $2,079,547.17 $2,334,126.50 $254,579.33 

Amount of teachers' salaries, city 1,742,368.48 1,712,419.86 *29,948.62 

Total $3,821,915.65 $4,046,546.36 $224,630.71 

Amount paid for building, repairing and furnishing 

school-houses, counties $434,491.05 $338,743.93 *$95,747.12 

Amount paid for building, repairing and furnishing 

school-houses, city 46,741.68 218,227.45 171,485.77 

Total $481,232.73 $556,971.38 $75,738.65 

Per capita cost (on enrollment) $23.70 $25.40 $1.70 

Per capita cost (on attendance) 33.85 37.00 3.15 

•Indicates decrease. 



40 Annual Rei'okt of the State Board of Education 



HOW SCHOOL BOARDS EXPENDED TIIIUR MONEY 

It has long been considered as important for a board of education 
properly to proportion its expenditures for the several purposes 
necessary in the proper support of the schools as it is to secure the 
money for education. It is necessary not only to have money to 
keep schools open and ready for the reception and instruction of the 
children, but also to use this money to the greatest advantage. It 
is necessary that the funds should be spent for those things most 
essential to the best school conditions. In the best school systems, 
for example, it has been found that from sixty-five to seventy per cent 
of the current expense should be invested in teachers' salaries. To put 
all of the money in teachers' salaries and nothing in the materials 
and supplies of instruction, in the housing of the children and in the 
care of the buildings, would be imitating the policy of the hunter who 
put all his money in a gun and had nothing left with which to buy 
powder. Likewise, it is necessary to have a proper direction of the 
school system, in order that the teachers may work at a maximum 
of efficiency. In the following table the per cent of the running 
expenses for the different purposes* are given for each county and 
for the City of Baltimore for the last school year. 



*A1I payments are classified according to the purpose for which the money was spent. 

General Control. — Includes overhead cost or expenses of regulative and executive 
service. It involves all expenditures for adtr.inistering the entire school system. 

Instructional Service. — Includes all items concerned directly in actual teaching, or 
aiding in the teaching of children, or improving the quality of teaching. Consequently there 
will be included salaries and expenses or supervision, teachers' salaries, text-books, stationery, 
and other materials of instruction. Payments to assistant superintendents who devote part 
of their time to supervision and part to administration is pro-rated between Instructional 
Service and General Control. 

Operation of School Plant. — Includes expenditures for keeping the buildings open and 
ready for use, exclusive of up-keep and "capital outlay." 

Maintenance of School Plant. — Includes all payments made in the restoration of any 
piece of property to its original condition of completeness or efficiency. It is synonymous with 
up-keep and repair work. It excludes operation and capital outlay. 

Auxiliary Agencies. — Includess payments for all work carried on by the school system 
or under the auspices of the Bo^rd of Education, other than regular instruction and the 
regulative and proprietary service incident to such instruction. 

Fixed Charges. — Includes insurance, pensions, contributions to charitable societies, to 
educational institutions, for celebrations, school exhibits and entertainments, and for mem- 
bership dues of school department employes in associations; and contingencies, payments due 
to accident, and payments resulting from theft. 

Capital outlay, or payments for new buildings and grounds are not included as part of 
the "Running Expense." 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



41 



ALL SCHOOLS: TOTAL CURRENT EXPENDITURES AND THE PRO- 
PORTION OF SUCH MONEYS USED FOR EACH PURPOSE SPECI- 
FIED. REPORTED. 3Y THE SECRETARIES OF THE SEVERAL 
COUNTY BOARDS OF EDUCATION FOR THE YEAR ENDING 
JULY 31. 1918. 



counties 



— c. 



Per Cent of Current Expense for 
Each Purpose 



U 



= < 



Allegany 

Anne Arundel.. 

Baltimore 

Calvert 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Cecil 

Charles 

Dorchester . . . . 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Harford 

Howard 

Kent 

Montgomery . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's. . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . . 

Wicomico 

Worcester .... 

Total 

Baltimore City. 

Total 



$289,959.84 

165,774.41 

636,327.67 

32,147.89 

82,226.30 

159,644.15 

105,685.70 

42,590.96 

106,412.16 

234,280.27 

79,773.99 

118,977.53 

55,884.77 

77,438.52 

149,416.75 

150,047.39 

78,475.82 

45,603.87 

79,123.46 

78,131.85 

221,381.38 

108,615.91 

100.721.86 



4.2 
4.6 
3.2 
13.2 
5.5 
5. 
4. 
9.7 
5.2 
2.8 
6.5 
4.7 
8.2 
5.2 
4.6 
4.9 
6.5 
9. 
5. 
7.2 
3.3 
4.3 
4.7 



$3,198,642.45 
2,421,816.63 



$5, 620, 461. C 



4.6 
2.7 



3.8 



79.3 

82.3 

80.3 

80.2 

78.6 

77.0 

85. 

82.7 

83. 

82.5 

80.9 

82.3 

79. 

79.7 

78.7 

81.9 

82. 

84.7 

82.2 

79.9 

81.4 

81.3 

83.6 



9.3 
9.8 
9.3 
3.6 
8.4 

10.5 
7.6 
4. 
9.1 
9.1 
7.1 
9. 
7.1 

10. 
8.3 

10.7 
7.6 
3.9 
8.4 
8.2 

10. 
8.6 
8.5 



81. I 8.9 
76.5 I 12.2 



79. 



4.9 
2.4 
4.8 
2.8 
3.5 
6. 
2.4 
2.2 
2. 
2.7 
5.2 
2.6 
3.7 
3.2 
3.3 
.9 
3.06 
1.87 
2.58 
2.2 
4.45 
3.4 
2.4 



3.6 

5.4 



I 10.3 I 4.4 



1.1 

.6 
2.2 

.1 
4. 
1.3 

.5 

.70 

.1 
2.4 

.1 
1. 
2. 
1.4 
4.2 
1.6 

.84 

.19 
1.35 
2.1 

.59 
1.4 

.5 



1.5 
.7 



1.2 



1.2 
.3 

.2 
.1 
.19 
.15 
.5 
I. 
.6 
.4 
.16 
.3 
.4 
.4 
.9 
.03 
.24 

.38 
.22 
.35 
.9 



.4 
2.6 



Note: The amounts from which these per cents were computed will be found in Table I. 



It is only natural that tlie overhead cost or general control should 
be a larger per cent in a small county than in a large one, as it is 
necessary to maintain almost as large an office force for a county 
with seventy-five teachers as for one with 150 teachers. But in the 
per cent of the current expenses devoted to the operation and main- 
tenance of school buildings there should be less variation. If each 
county is spending enough on its buildings to keep them up to their 
present condition, all counties would devote similar per cents of their 
current expenditures to this item. It is evident from the table that 



42 Annual Report of the State Board ov Education 

some counlies durinf^ the past year devoted very little of their funds 
to the upkeep of their buildinj^s. A further division of these expen- 
ditures, expressed both in dollars and also in per cents, will be found 
elsewhere in this report. 

PER PUPIL EXPEXDITURES 

The best single measure of financial effort is the amount of current 
expenditure for school purposes for each pupil in average daily 
attendance. This figure indicates how many dollars a county is in- 
vesting in the education of a child attending its schools. 

RUNNING EXPENSES PER PUPIL IN AVERAGE DAILY 
ATTENDANCE. 

1. jVIontgomery $40.80 13. Prince George's 29.40 

2. Cecil 38.60 14. Talbot 28.10 

3. Baltimore 37.30 15. Caroline 28.00 

4. Queen Anne's 35.70 16. Washington 27.50 

5. Kent 35.30 17. Garrett 25.80 

6. Harford 33.10 18. Dorchester 25.50 

7. Frederick 32.90 19. Wicomico 25.10 

8. Carroll 32.70 20. St. Mary's 23.40 

9. Allegany 31.60 21. Charles 23.20 

10. Worcester 31.20 22. Calvert 22.70 

11. Anne Arundel 30.40 23. Somerset 22.40 

12. Howard 30.30 

The above table includes all .schools, both white and colored. A 
statement of cost per pupil for certain items in high schools, white 
elementary schools, and colored schools, shown separately, is in a 
table elsewhere in this report. 

THE COUNTY SCHOOL TAX 

The county commissioners usually make in a lump sum tlieir appro- 
priation for the county's share of the school expenses. Beginning 
with the budget made in the spring of 1018, the county boards of 
education have itemized their requests on a form prescribed and fur- 
nished by the State Board of Education, and the county commissioners 
are required to indicate what item or items are not allowed, together 
with the reasons therefor. Each county is required to supplement 
the State appropriation and receipts from other sources with an 
amount equal to thirty-four cents levied and collected, but it is not 
necessary for counties which have been appropriating less than the 



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CHILDREN IN A.ND OUT OF 3CU00L 



I IOWA 

3 ^AAINC 

4 TENNESSEE. 

5 WYOMING 
fa/*\ICHlGAN 
7 MARYLAND 

6 UTAH 

9 NEW HAMPSHIRE 

10 MISSOURI 

I I NEBRASKA 

\Z MASSACHUSETTS 
13MORTH CAROUNA 
IH ARIZONA 
I5ICAHO 

16 VERMONT 

17 KANSAS 
la INDIANA 
laiU-INOlS 
20 COLORADO 
Z I MINNESOTA 
WOMIO 

23 NEW JERSEY 

« ARKANSAS 

i5 OREGON 

Z6 KENTUCKY 

17 NEW YORK 

ZS FLORIDA 

£9 WEST VIRGINIA 

30 PENN5Y UVANI A 

31 MISSISSIPPI 

32 0KLAMO^^A 

S3 50UTM CAROUNA 

y» RHODE ISLAND 

35NtVADA 

36WISCONSIN 

37 WASHlNCVrON 

36 VIRGINIA 

39 TEXAS 

HONORTH DAKOTA 

HI GEORGIA 

IJZ SOUTH DAKOTA 

«<3ALABAA«\A 

»»HNEW MEXICO 

•tSUOUISlANA 

UNITED 5TATE5 

PUBUC SCHOOLS 



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PRIVATE 5CMOOL.3 t^/'/'//'-l NOT IN SCHOOL. 



PER CENT OF 5CUOOl_ POPUi-ATlON ENROLLED 
IN PRIVATE 3CHOOU5 AND NOT IN ANY 



IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 
SCHOOL IN 1915-lfa. 



.CALIFORNIA > 
•CONNECTICUTl REPORT 
MONTANA J 



ENROUUMENT IN EXCtiS OF CENSUS 



The portion of the chart in black indicates the per cent of school population not in school at tondaneo. 
For the United States as a whole, 75.8 per cenf of all children of school age are in public stliools, o.s per 
cent are in private schools, and 17.4 per cent are in no school whatever 



COUNTY uuo LOCAL TAX 




PER CE.NT qf 3CM0OU FUND DERiVtD FRO/^ EACM iOURCEl. 
U S. BUREAU o^ EDUCATION REPORT 190 



1915-1916 



>-^^ 



This chart shows graphically the several sources of school revenue in the United States: Unfortunately 
it is impossible, with the data at hand, to separate county and other local taxes. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 43 

required minimum to increase their school tax rate more than two 
cents a year. It is within the authority of the county commissioners, 
however, to make for school purposes any appropriation that they 
desire. The school tax rate, therefore, is a rough measure of the 
county's interest in education. The rate at which each county taxes 
itself for schools indicates the effort it is putting forward to provide 
educational opportunities for its boys and girls. In the table given 
below the county appropriation has been divided by the assessed val- 
uation, in order to determine the tax rate necessary to furnish the 
school money the county raised by taxation. Since the assessed val- 
uation on which county taxes were levied for the year ending July 
31, 1918, is not available at this time, the valuation for the preceding 
year has been used in this computation. As the valuation* in each case 
for 191S would equal or exceed the valuation for tlie preceding year, 
the tax rate found by using the old valuation v/ould indicate the full 
effort of the county. 

County School Tax County School Tax 

1. Allegany 57.7 13. Garrett 40.2 

2. Prince George's 54.7 14. Caroline 39.9 

3. Worcester 51.8 15. Harford 39.1 

4. Montgomery 50.1 16. Dorchester 38.3 

5. Anne Arundel 47.2 17. Talbot 38.3 

6. Calvert 47.2 18. Carroll 36.2 

7. Wicomico 45.7 19. Baltimore 35.2 

8. Queen Anne's 44.8 20. Somerset 31.2 

9. Cecil 43.5 21. Howard 28.3 

10. Frederick 43.4 22. St. Mary's 28.3 

11. Washington 42.8 23. Charles 22.5 

12. Kent 42.6 

LENGTH OF TERM 

In most of the counties a few small schools drop in attendance 
below the number required for keeping open and are closed before 
the usual time. Also, from epidemics and other causes, some schools 
are frequently closed for a time during the regular school year. The 
average attendance for these short-term schools is added to the average 
attendance of all other schools, to make up the average attendance for 
the entire county. By dividing the total daily attendance into the 

*The county appropriations are given in Table H. For 1917 valuations see p. 29 of the 
1917 Report. Some counties levy the school tax only on the real and personal property. In 
makine this computation, the full 1917 valuation on which the school tax might have been 
collected was used. The rate given in this table is the rate' which, if collected on the 1917 
valuation, would produce the county's 1918 appropriation. 



44 Annual Report of the vState Board of Education 

total ag^rep^ate days' attendance, one can determine the average num- 
ber of days for which the schools were kept open in any covmty. The 
following table shows the average number of days during which the 
white schools were kept open in the several counties and in the city 
of Baltimore, arranged in the order in which the schools were open 
longest. 

AVERAGE NUMBER OF DAYS WHITE SCHOOLS WERE KEPT OPEN 

1. Queen Anne's 183 13. Dorchester 170.5 

2. Harford 179.6 14. Wicomico 170.4 

3. Baltimore Co 179 15. Calvert 169.7 

4. Baltimore City 177.3 16. Caroline 166.6 

5. Washington 176.3 17. Worcester 166 3 

6. Frederick 174.6 18. Anne Arundel 164.9 

7. Cecil 174.1 19. Howard 164.4 

8. Kent 173.7 20. Carroll 164.3 

9. St. Mary's 172.6 21. Somerset 163.9 

10. Talbot 172.4 22. Charles 163.5 

11. Alontgomery 171.7 23. Prince George's 162.5 

12. Allegany 171.3 24. Garrett 149.3 

ADULT ILLITERACY 

In view of the revelation.s of the draft with regard to the number 
of selected men who were unfit for ser\ice because they could not 
read and write, it is important to note the number of illiterates in the 
several counties of Maryland, as given by the L'nited States Census 
of 1910. In the table below, the counties are arranged in the order of 
the per cent of their population over 10 years of age who, according 
to the Federal census of 1910, could not read and write. 







1 



z 

Z .n Q 



VI 1 



^1° 
- - I 



. < < r 

-I . X > _J z 
Ss:z<qs;>k>ok 

Q — £J <0 T ^ •J 
en CO (O o^ *n (n ^ 



SCHOOL KNROLLMENT AND LKNGTH OF TERM. 

The aoconipanyinf]; tal)l<i niul graph show tho avoraf^o numhor of 
(lays that public sdiools were kojjt open, the avcraf^ci number of 
days attondod by each pupil enrolled, and tho averagci ])('r cmi of 
attendance in each State for the school year 1915-10. 



LCNCTM OF TtRfA AND ATTCNOANCt. 




The light line indicate, the total numl^ci of days the schools were in operation. The heavy lino 
Indicates the average attendance. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



45 



PER CENT OF ILLITERATES, TEN YEARS OF AGE AND OVER, IN 
THE SEVERAL COUNTIES OF MARYLAND AND IN BALTIMORE 
CITY, ACCORDING TO THE UNITED STATES CENSUS OF 1910. 



COUNTIES 


Total 
Per Cent 

of 
Illiterates ' 


Proportions 
Foreign-Bc 
lation 


of the Native White, the 
rn, and the Negro Popu- 
Who Are Illiterate. 




Native White 


Foreign-Born | Negro 


Washington 

Carroll 


3.4 

4.0 

4.3 

4.4 

5.1 

5.7 

6.1 

6.3 

6^ 

7.5 

9.4 

11.6 

12.5 

13.3 

13.5 

13.8 

13.8 

14.2 

lU 

16.7 

18.9 

19.9 

23.5 

23.6 


2.7 
2.7 
3.1 
0.6 
2.0 
3.5 
5.3 
1.9 
2.3 
2.6 
2.5 
3.6 
7.3 
3.3 
3.6 
3.3 
9.5 
8.1 
5.6 
7.3 
6.7 

10.9 
5.9 

10.3 


14.0 
17.1 
12.8 
12.0 
11.2 

9.2 
18.5 

9.9 
15.1 

6.2 

4.4 

3.0 
12.2 
13.6 

4.8 
16.2 
12.3 

5.4 
13.9 

3.6 


14.9 

20.8 


AUeganv 


18.7 


Baltimore Cit}' 

Baltimore 

Frederick 


13.2 
21.7 
24.8 


Garrett 

Harford 


24.5 


Cecil 


28.7 


Howard 


23.8 


Montgomery 

Prince George's. . . 
Caroline 


27.5 
30.5 
28.8 


Kent 

Talbot 

Anne Arundel 

Wicomico 

Dorchester 

Queen Anne's 

Somerset 


31.1 
33.3 
29.7 
28.6 
27.4 
36.4 
34.6 


Calvert 

Worcester 

Charles 


1 32.6 

12.1 40.6 

2.9 1 41.0 


St. Mary's 


13.9 


42.0 



Ranking the counties in the order in which they had the smallest per 
cent of illiterates among' the native white population, they are as 
follows : 



County 



Per Cent 



County 



Per Cent 



Baltimore City 0.6 

Harford 1.9 

Baltimore 2.0 

Cecil 2.3 

Montgomery 2.5 

Howard 2.6 

Carroll 2.7 

Washington 2.7 

Allegany 3.1 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



Kent 3.3 

Anne Arundel 3.3 

Frederick 3.5 

Prince George's 3.6 

Talbot 3.6 

Garrett 5.3 

Queen Anne's 5.6 

Charles 5.9 

Calvert 6.7 



46 Annual Rrvi-oirr or the Static Board of Education 

19 Caroline 7.3 22 Wicomico 9.5 

20 Somerset 1 .1 23 St. Mary's 10.3 

21 Dorchester 8.1 24 Worcester 10.9 

SUMMER SCHOOLS 

As reported elsewhere in this vohime, the State Board of Education 
conducted summer schools for elementary teachers at the Maryland 
State Normal School, at Frostburg State Normal School, at Ocean City 
and at Bowie. Since the State makes six weeks' additional preparation 
compulsory for the renewal of second and third grade certificates, 
it was felt that the State should provide such educational opportunties 
at a minimum cost to the teachers, and provision was made at tliese 
schools for boarding teachers at the lowest possible rate, in order that 
the twenty-five dollars appropriated by the county boards of education 
towards the expense of each teacher would, a= nearly as possible, 
defray their necessary expenses. Board, tuition, and books at the 
Maryland State Normal School cost thirty dollars. At the summer 
school for colored teachers at Bowie, the rate was twenty dollars. 
About 900 white teachers and 200 colored teachers of Maryland were 
in summer schools in 1918. 

SCHOOL MEETINGS 

The chief school meeting of the year was the session of the Mary- 
land State Teachers' Association which convened in Baltimore on 
November 26-28. The schools of several counties adjourned for the 
meeting and teachers from other counties who desired were also 
permitted to attend. The Association enrolled approximately 3,000 
members. The various sessions and departmental meetings were well 
attended and the program was considered of unusual merit. The 
resolutions of the Association are quoted below : 

1. Whereas this association has heard with deep sorrow of the death of three of 
its former members, Prof. F. A. Soper, former superintendent of schools of Baltimore 
city and ex-president of this association; Prof. John E. McCahan, of Baltimore, who for 
ten years served as treasurer of our association, and Prof. N. Price Turner, of Salisbury, 
for a long time secretary of the Department of Secondary Education of the State; and 
whereas their lives were spent in the cause which we represent: Therefore be it 

Resolved, That we record our appreciation of their faithful services in the interest 
of public education and our deep feeling of loss in their demise. 

2. Whereas it is a matter for congratulation that our State legislature passed at 
its last session what is generally conceded by the leading educators of this country to be 
one of the best public-school laws in the Union; and whereas the seventeen months of its 
operation under the wise direction of our State superintendent has proven it to be not 
only workable but most beneficial in raising the standard of our schools: Therefore be it 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education -i? 

Resoh-ed, That this association, composed of the teachers and school officials of 
Maryland, herein register our most hearty commendation of this law in its every provision. 

3. We desire to urge the necessity of increasing the salaries of the teachers. The 
war, with its demands for educated people, together with the high cost of living, forces 
immediate action. 

4. We believe a thorough and comprehensive plan of physical training should be 
provided and made compulsory upon all boys and girls of all ages attending the schools. 

, We are opposed to the introduction of military training and military drill or any form of 

instruction which is distinctly or specifically military into the elementary or secondary 
schools. 

5. We are sure that medical inspection is necessary to school progress, as the 
recent draft showed even the rural citizen was not as physically fit as his urban neighbor. 

6. We approve most heartily State-wide athletics, as conducted by the Public 
Athletic League. We thank it for its services in making school athletics popular with 
our people as well as pupils, not alone for its own merits, but also as holding pupils in 
school, more especially in high-school grades. 

7. We are glad the government has recognized the schools by calling upon them 
for help in the national crisis in the selling of Liberty Bonds and in the conservation 
of foods. 

8. We urge that the schools do all in their power to encourage the pupils to help in 
this work, realizing that in so doing they are not only teaching a lesson of patriotism 
but also inculcating in our rising generation the much-needed spirit of thrift. 

8 (a) A vote of thanks is extended to the municipality of Baltimore for the gift of 
1,000 copies of the "Baltimore Book," which have been distributed among the teachers 
of Maryland. 

9. Whereas this meeting has been by far the most largely attended of any in the 
history of our association; and whereas our program has been one of the most varied 
and fruitful ever presented to us. Be it 

Resolved, That we express our sincere thanks and appreciation to all who were in 
any way instrumental both in its making and execution. 

Especially v.-ould we mention in this particular the organizations of Baltimore that 
furnished the luncheon, those who furnished music, the teachers and pupils of the 
Normal School and city schools for the pageant, gymnastics, and folk dances; for tiie use 
of the Lyric, high schools, and churches; and the Baltimore city school officials for their 
courtesies and hospitality. Finally, we would not be unmindful of our obligation to 
the Executive Committee and to our retiring President, Prof. Sydney S. Handy, for 
their untiring efforts in making this one of the most successful meetings in the history 
of our association. 

JAMES B. NOBLE, Chairman. 
A. C. HUMPHREYS. 
WILLIAM BURDICK, M. D. 

The county school superintendents and the elementary school super- 
visors were called in a conference by the State Superintendent on May 
3-4 to discuss certain problems pertaining to their work. Below is 
given the programs of these two conferences, the programs being 
carried out as planned. 

PROGRAM 

COUNTY SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS' CONFERENCE, M.\Y 3, AND M.\Y 4, 1918 

Friday Morning — 10 O'Clock 

Meeting to be held at Maryland State Normal School. 

Topics to be introduced by those whose names are opposite, and a general 

discussion to follow. 

1. What can be done to reduce the cost of school administration without impairing the 
efficiency of the system ? Mr. Fox 

2. Presentation of new school legislation Mr. Re.wts 

3. Plan for taking the school census in my county Mr. Webb 

Luncheon at 1 o'clock in Dormitory Building 



48 Annual Rki-okt of the Statk Homu) of Education 



Friday Afternoon 
2:30 — Attendance upon session of the supervisors' meeting and also lliat of the 
Managers of Maryland State Reading (,'ircle. 

Saturday Morning — 9 O'Clock 
MeetiiiK tii he held at office of State lioard of Education, McCoy Hall. 

4. The place of Summer Schools in prejiaring teachers. 

What is a fair allowance the County Hoard of Education should make to teachers for 
attending summer schools? Mr. Dryden 

5. The most effective scheme for practice teaching in our Norinal Schools. . . .Mr. Wright 

6. How may we increase the supply of qualified teachers? Mr. E. M. Noble 

7. The place of supervision in preparing teachers Mr. Cook 

General Discussion 

PROGRAM 

MEETING OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SUPERVISORS, MAY 3 AND 4, 1918 

MARYLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

Friday Morning — 10 O'Clock 

Topic: Course of study for elementary schools 

(a) How can teachers be used in reorganizing a course of study? Miss Tall 

(b) Determining the essentials of a course of study Misses Kelly and Hanckel 

(c) To what extent is uniformity in the use of a course of study 

desirable? Misses Simpson and Pusey 

Luncheon at 1 o'clock in Dormitory Building 
Friday Afternoon — 2:30 O'Clock 

1. Standards for judging the worth of text-books — (60 minutes) 

(a) History — Misses Pusey, Jones, Williamson 

(b) Geography — Misses Miller, Crewe, and Mr. Robinson 

(c) Arithmetic — Misses Clark, Kieffer, and Smith 

General Discussion (30 minutes) 

2. Some criticisms supervision received and how to meet them — 

(30 minutes) Mrs. Mosteller, Miss Gray 

General Discussion (15 minutes) 

3. How can the National Council of Primary Education help Maryland 

Teachers? (15 minutes) Miss Tall, Mr. Holloway 

Saturday Morning — 9 O'Clock 
Joint meeting with County Superintendents at McCoy Hall 

In addition to these meetings the State Superintendent called one 
meeting of the attendance officers; a meeting of the elementary school 
supervisors of Western Maryland, at Hagerstown ; a meeting of the 
elementary school supervisors of Eastern Maryland, at Elkton ; and a 
conference of the county supervisors of colored schools, at Baltimore. 

CONFERENCE OF BOOKKEEPERS 

At the meeting of the county superintendents held in Baltimore in 
November, a request was made that the State Superintendent call a 
conference of the bookkeepers of the county boards of education, in 
order to discuss and explain the functional classification of accounts 
which was adopted the year before, and according to which the counties 
began keeping their books in August. 

Accordingly the State Superintendent called the bookkeepers 
together at the office of the State Department of Education for a two • 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 49 

day meeting. Superintendent Nicholas Orem, who acted as chairman 
of the committee on the revision of the accounting system, co-operated 
with the Department in conducting- the conference, and the sessions 
proved of much interest. It is beHeved that, as a result of the meeting, 
there will be much more uniformity in the classification of the accounts, 
and that the data from the different counties may be more easily com- 
pared, so that conclusions drawn from an analysis of their disburse- 
ments will be more significant. 

The cost accounting system, as worked out by the committee of 
Maryland superintendents and adopted for use in all of the counties, 
was very favorably mentioned by a leading speaker at the meeting of 
the National Education Association in Atlantic City in February. 
While most states are able to secure reports in proper form from city 
school boards and can secure comparable cost records for most of their 
schools, Maryland, chiefly on account of its system of county organiza- 
tion, is the only State that is able to secure costs for all schools by the 
adopted classification. 

WAR ACTIVITIES IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS 

During the year the county school officials and teachers gave con- 
siderable attention to the various campaigns for patriotic and govern- 
mental purposes. Among the activities fostered by the schools were: 
War Saving Stamps. Junior Red Cross, School Garden Army, and the 
Liberty Loans. The schools responded readily to the requests of the 
Food Administration, and the literature prepared for the schools on the 
conservation of food was used regularly in the classes. Committees 
of teachers in the several counties aided the draft boards by making 
card indexes of the selected men awaiting call to service. The teachers 
and pupils also cooperated with the Federal Government in a survey 
of Maryland farms and their products, in order to get information of 
essential value in estimating production. The survey was made under 
the general direction of Mr. Symons, of the Maryland State College. 

EXAMINATIONS FOR TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES 

During the year two examinations were held for elementary school 
teachers' certificates, one the first week of June and the other the last 
week of July, 1918. There v/ere approximately 500 applicants in 
these two examinations, of whom 75% received teachers' certificates. 
A number of these applicants had taught a part of the preceding 
term on provisional certificates, and took the examination and attended 



50 Annual Report of the Statk Hoaf<I) of Education 



summer school to complete in the regular way the legal requirement 
for certificates. The examinations were conducted on the same gen- 
eral plan as those of the precedinc^ year as descrihed in the 1017 report 
of the State Board of Education. Below is given a list of elementary 
school subjects in which the applicants for second and third grade 
certificates were tested, in the order in whicli the subject came in the 
examination. 

Thursday Forenoon 

Music 9:00- 9:45 

Reading 9:45-10:45 

Arithmetic 10:45-12:15 

Afternoon 

English 1:15- 2:30 

Geograi)hy 2:30- 3:45 

History 3:45- 5 :00 

Friday Forenoon 

Drawing 9 :00- 9:45 

Spelling 9:45-10:15 

Civics 10:15-11:15 

H ygiene 11:15-12:15 

.A.fternoon 

Agriculture 1:15- 2:30 

Teaching 2 :30- 4 :00 

Handwork 4:00- 4:45 

NEW LEGISLATION 

As the 1916 session of the Legislature completely revised the school 
laws along the lines of the recommendations made by the Maryland 
Educational Survey Commission, and as it was generally felt that the 
new school code should have at least another two years to run before 
any material changes were made in it, little new educational legislation 
was expected in the 1918 session. However, several bills were added 
to the school laws without seriously modifying the leading provisions 
of the comprehensive code enacted in 1916. 

The following is a summary of the bills which became laws: 

Summary of Educational Legislation Enacted by the 1918 Session of the 
General Assembly of Maryland, and Approved by the Governor. 
House Bills: 

H. B. 98. Increasing the minimum salaries for high school teachers to 
$600 for beginners, and to $675, $750 and $800 for first-class 
teachers of 3, 5, and 8 years' high school teaching experience 
respectively. 

H. B. 99. Increasing the minimum salaries for beginning white elementary 
teachers and principals, and for first-class teachers and principals 
of 3, 5, and 8 years' experience as follows : 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 51 





Grade of 


1 Beginrring 


1 3 years' 


5 years' 


8 years' 


Certificate 


Teachers 


Experience 


Experience 


Experience 




Prin 


$550 


$575 


$600 


$650 




First 


500 


525 


550 


600 




Second 


450 


475 


500 


525 




Third 


400 


425 


450 


475 



H. B. 100. Provides that third grade colored teachers must be paid at least 
$30 a month; second grade. $35; and first grade, $40; also that 
the average annual salary paid colored teachers in any county 
shall be not less than $250 for a term of seven months. 

H. B. 160. Requires the county board of education to keep the school money 
in the bank that will pay the highest rate of interest, which in no 
case shall be less than 2 per cent. 

H. B. 494. Provides that the State Board of Education, in its discretion, 
may excuse any county from employing an attendance officer and 
may designate the county superintendent, supervisor, or the statis- 
tical clerk to perform these duties, in which case the proportional 
part allowed each county for the salary for such work shall be 
paid to the county for general school purposes. 

H. B. 502. Provides for the creation of a third group of high schools with 
$15,000 available State aid and a maximum of $900 to any one 
school. Third group high schools shall meet the following 
minimum requirements : 

a. An enrollment of not less than 25 pupils and an average 
daily attendance of 20 or more. 

b. At least two full-time high school teachers. 

c. And in other respects meet the minimum requirements for 
second group high schools, except the requirement under 
subdivision "e" of Section 126. 

H. B. 550. Gives the district board of school trustees the right to refuse by 
unanimous vote the original assignment of a teacher to the school, 
but provides that the county superintendent shall not be required 
to make more than three assignments to any one position. The 
district board of school trustees is given authority to select the 
janitor, but has no control over his salary. 

H. B. 681. Authorizes the State Superintendent to furnish pictorial and 
other illustrative material to be used in instruction in schools, 
institutions, and organizations under the general supervision of 
the State Board of Education, but does not provide any funds 
for such purposes. 
Senate BUls: 

S. B. 49. Accepts the benefits of the Smith-Hughes Act providing Federal 
aid for vocational education and designates the State Board of 
Education to administer this fund in Maryland. 



52 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

S. B. 54. Requires that the flag shall be displayed on every public school 
building while the school is in session, and that the school pro- 
gram shall include a salute of the flag. 

S. B. 236. Amends the section which prescribes the qualifications required 
for the State Superintendent by striking out the phrase "or the 
equivalent." 

S. B. 211. Provides for the distribution of the $150,000 placed in the Gov- 
ernor's budget to increase teachers' salaries for the current year. 

S. B. 457. Authorizes (but does not require) the county superintendent to 
open school buildings upon the request of three respectable citi- 
zens, for farmers' meetings, public speakings, lectures, enter- 
tainments, church festivals, Red Cross meetings, Y. M. C. A. 
meetings, and any other purposes which are for the civic welfare. 

S. B. 555. Provides that a part of every day (at least 15 minutes) in the 
elementary schools shall be devoted to physical education and 
training, with at least one hour of directed play each week outside 
of regular classroom work ; in high schools at least one hour 
each school week is devoted to physical training with at least two 
hours of direct play or athletics for all pupils outside of reg- 
ular classroom work. The State Board of Education is directed 
to appoint a Supervisor of Physical Education and take such 
steps as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this x\ct, 
but no funds were provided in the budget for this work during 
the next two years. 

THE NEW EDITION OF THE SCHOOL LAWS 

Following the 1918 session of the Legislature the State Board of 
Education published the revised school laws and by-laws, so that the 
volume might be brought down to date and made available for all 
interested citizens. 

It has been the policy of the legislature to make the school laws 
general, leaving the details, so far as necessary, to be prescribed by the 
State Board of Education in by-laws and regulations. The by-laws 
had been printed either separately or as an appendix to the school 
laws ; but in printing the new edition of the law they were distributed 
throughout tlie volume, so that the several by-laws follow immediately 
after the sections to which they apply. In this way all the law and 
regulations on a given point are found in one place. 

The various sections of the laws and by-laws were carefully indexed 
for ready reference, so that one does not need to be a lawyer in order 
to find the provision governing any point in which he is interested. 

Among other things, the by-laws specify minimum requirements 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 53 

for hygienic rural school buildings. They require that the county 
superintendent shall devote at least ninety full days of the 180 days that 
the schools are in session to visiting the schools of his county, and that 
when only one supervisor of the elementary schools is employed in a 
county, such supervisor should be assigned to the one-teacher rural 
schools. They require the office of the county superintendent to be 
kept open every day, except Sundays and holidays, from 9 A. M. to 
5 P. M., with option of closing on Saturdays at one o'clock. A new 
form of teacher's contract is specified, which gives the teacher a more 
permanent tenure after the beginning of her third year of services 
and at the same time makes it difficult for the teacher to desert her 
post during the school year. The by-laws provide a rational scheme 
by which teachers may advance the grade of their certificates by study- 
ing professional books, by earning school credits, or by examination. 
While corporal punishment is not prohibited, the by-laws limit the 
conditions under which it may be inflicted. 

HIGH SCHOOL COMMENCEMENTS 

At the meeting of the State Board of Education in February, a 
committee was appointed, with Mr. W. T. Warburton as chairman, 
to draft regulations looking toward simplifying the high school com- 
mencements and their cost to the parents of the graduates. At the 
meeting in March, the following report of the committee was adopted 
and sent to the county superintendents and high school principals. 
These regulations received hearty endorsement and were generally fol- 
lowed throughout the State in all of the 1918 high school commence- 
ments. 

1. If there is a depa'rtment of Domestic Art in the high school, the graduates 
should make their dresses, and same not to exceed in cost over $8.00. 

2. The invitations to the graduating exercises should be printed and not 
engraved. 

3. The music at graduation exercises should be furnished by the talent of 
the school. 

4. Caps and gowns should not be worn, nor should the word "Baccalaureate" 
be used in connection with the sermon preached to the graduates. 

5. Class Day Exercises should be separate from graduation exercises. 

THE TEACHERS' BONUS. 

At the meeting of the State Teachers' Association in Baltimore, 
November, 1917, the shortage of teachers was discussed, and ways and 
means of holding teachers already in the service were considered. 



M Annual Report ok the State Board of Education 

County superintendents reported that teachers were leaving rapidly to 
enter more lucrative positions, and it was felt that, with the increasing 
high cost of living, immediate steps must be taken to secure additional 
compensation for teachers. 

As a result, a committee was appointed, which compiled data in 
regard to the salaries paid teachers in the several counties and made 
a special request of the Governor to include in his budget an item for 
teachers' salaries, so that the allowance would l)e available at the end 
of the school year. 

The Governor gave the committee and others interested in educa- 
tion a hearing at Annapolis, and included in his budget an allowance 
of $150,000, which was to be distributed on the basis of the number of 
teachers employed who received less than $700. The Legislature 
passed a bill providing that, beginning with the teachers on the lowest 
salaries, $50 should be paid to each white teacher who had been in 
service for the full year, and $25.00 to each colored teacher, with the 
obligation resting on the county to match the amount. Teachers who 
had not been in the service for the full year were to receive a propor- 
tionate allowance. The State Superintendent of Schools was directed 
to tabulate the reports and certify to the Comptroller the amount that 
each county should receive. 

The following directions were sent to the counties for reporting 
teachers entitled to the special allowance : 

Directions for Reporting Teachers Entitled to the Special Allowance from 
the State as Provided by Senate Bill No. 418, 1918, and the Executive Budget. 

1. List in the manner indicated below white and colored teachers separately, 
sending two copies of each list. 

2. Include all teachers regularly employed who are paid at the rate of $700 
a year or less. A teacher is considered "regularly employed" when she 
has qualified for a certificate in the usual way. This does not include 
those teaching on provisional certificates, substitutes, or any teachers for 
whom no certificate has as yet been obtained. 

3. A teacher temporarily absent on account of illness, who is still regularly 
employed at the end of the year, should be included for the number of 
days she has been in actual service during the year, plus one half of the 
first 20 days lost on account of sickness. 

4. Make up the report on June 1, counting the teachers in service on that 
date present for the remainder of the term. In computing the number 
of days each teacher has been in the service during the year, you should 
include the 5 days of attendance at the institute, if one were held ; the 
3 days for the State Teachers' Association, if such teacher attended; and 
you should not deduct for any afternoons the teacher was called from 
her work for conferences and teachers' meetings. Include the one 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



55 



half of the first 20 days lost on account of sickness. Time lost for any 
other reason should not be counted. 

Please have this report in the hands of the State Superintendent by June 
5, in order that he may report to the Comptroller in time for the appor- 
tionment to be made on June 15, when the other school moneys are 
distributed. 



Name of teachers regularly 
employed at end of the 
school year 



School 
in which 
employed 



Total days 
in service 
1917-1918 



Present 

annual 

salary 



I hereby certify that the teachers listed above were in the service of the 

Board of Education of County 

during the year 1917-1918 for the days specified, and at the rate of annual 
salary indicated after each name. All of the teachers listed above have 
qualified for a teacher's certificate in the regular way and are in service at 
this date. 

Date Signed 



County Superintendent. 



On June 18, 1918, the State Superintendent sent to the county 
superintendents the following report of the distribution of the teachers' 
bonus : 

The amount due each county and the city of Baltimore, from the special 
allowance of $150,000 in the Governor's budget for an increase in teachers' 
salaries for the current year, was certified to the Comptroller on June Uth. 

The duplicate copy of your list of teachers reported eligible for the special 
allowance was returned June 13th, with the amount due each teacher indicated 
opposite her name. The fund was sufficient to include all teachers on an annual 
salary of less than $700.00. White teachers in the service all the year, and on 
$600.00 or less, receive the full State allowance of $50.00. Those above $600.00 
receive half the difference between their salaries and $700.00, or an amount which, 
matched by the county, will bring the salary up to $700.00 The amount due the 
colored teachers was computed on the same basis, except that $25.00 is the full 
State allowance for them. The amount in each case was computed to the nearest 
half month, counting 20 school days a month, and nine months a school year. 
Allowances for colored teachers were pro-rated on the basis of 'seven months' 
being a full year. 



Allegany County $10,455.55 

Anne Arundel County 7,451.85 

Baltimore County 10,697.95 

Calvert County 1,890.85 

Caroline County 3,992.60 



Carroll County 7.939.60 

Cecil County 5,409.00 

Charles County 2,261.15 

Dorchester County 5,557.00 

Frederick County 10,718.82 



56 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

CJarrett County 4,273.55 St. Mary's County 2,744.55 

Harford County 5,258.25 Somerset County 4,423.80 

Howard County 2.299.20 Talbot County 3,842.45 

Kent County 3,847.90 Washington County 11,342.30 

Montgomery County 3,741.40 Wicomico County 6,083.75 

Prince George'.s County 5,188.85 Worcester County 5,038.85 

Queen Annc'.s County 3,3S5.5i Baltimore City 22,185,23 

THE SCHOOL CENSUS 

The school law provides that a census of all children between six 
and eighteen years of age shall be taken under the direction of the 
State Superintendent of Schools in 1918 and each two years thereafter. 

Plans for taking a census were discussed in a meeting of county 
superintendents in the fall of 1917, and in March, 191H, the State 
Superintendent sent a suggested card record and the following direc- 
tions for taking the census : 

DIRECTIOXS FOR TAKING SCHOOL CENSUS. 

The form on the inclosed card has been prepared for taking the school census. 
It may be filled out at the school by the teacher, or by the pupils under her direc- 
tion, and sent home to be verified and signed by the parent or guardian. It is 
then to be returned to the teacher who countersigns and forwards it to the office 
of the county superintendent. 

In addition to the pupils enrolled in the school, the teacher or other person 
taking the census will also have a card filled out for all pupils from 6 to 18 years 
inclusive, who live in the district on May 15, 1918. In several cases it will be 
necessary for the teacher to visit the home of such pupils in order to obtain 
accurate information and get the cards signed. 

Great care should be exercised to see that no pupils are reported twice, and 
it is equally important that every child within the prescribed ages be counted, as 
two-thirds of the general school fund is distributed upon the school census. 

For the rural schools I suggest that you take a map of the county and cut it 
into school attendance districts, paste each district on a sheet of paper and send 
the area-map thus allotted to each teacher in order that she may know definitely 
the exact territory from which she is to furnish the names. In counties and 
towns a map might be used in the same manner if several different persons are 
employed in taking the census. 

A different colored card with the same form should be used for colored 
pupils, and in order to take the census of colored children before the schools 
close the date has been set for April 15, 1918. 

Six years of age means that the child has reached or passed the sixth birthday, 
therefore five years and eleven months would not be counted six years of age, 
but six years old and any additional months up to the day the child becomes 
seven would be counted as six years of age. In the same way children should be 
counted eighteen years of age from the day they become eighteen up until the 
day they become nineteen. 

While the census for colored children is taken on April 15, and for white 
children on May 15, the ages are reported as of September 1. 1918. All children 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



57 



will be reported as six years old who are six but less than seven on September 1, 
1918. All will be counted eighteen years old who will be eighteen years old but 
less than nineteen on September 1, 1918. A child who is eighteen years old at 
the time of taking the census, and who will become nineteen years of age before 
September 1, would not be included in the census, but a child five years of age 
who will be six years old on or before September 1, will be included as a child 
six years of age. 

The teacher or other reporting officer should summarize the report to you in 
some form similar to this. The grand total given in this summary should equal 
the number of cards turned in by the same reporting officer. 

Summary of School Census from School No Dist. No 



Age 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 |10ill|12|13|14|15|16|17|18| Total 


Boys 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Girls 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 




Total 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



Reported by 



Teache'r or other reporting officer. 



These summaries and the cards should be kept on file to verify the census 
should any question arise in regard to the count. 

Your report of the census to this office should be tabulated as follows : 



Summary of School Census 



County 




Age |6 7 |8 |9|10jll|12 13 14 15 16 17|18| Total 


White Bovs 1 1 1 1 1 1 III 




White Girls [ | ill 


Total White 1 III III 




Colored Boys 1 1 1 1 III 


Colored Girls [ 1 1 1 1 1 III 


Total Colored } | 1 


Grand Total | I I I 1 III 



Signed. 



County Stiperintendent. 



The cards certifying ttie ages of the children, when signed by the 
parents, become a permanent record of age and are filed in the office 
of the county superintendent where they are available for reference 
to establish the age in prosecutions of failure to comply with the 
compulsory school attendance law. 

A justice's court in Carroll County, and later the Attorney General, 
ruled that the word of the teacher and the teacher's register are not 



58 Annual Refout of the Statk Boako of Education' 

admissible in court as evidence of a child's aj^e when action is brought 
against a parent for the non-attendance of his children at school. As 
suggested by the Attorney General in the ruling referred to (see page 
37 of the 1917 Annual Report), the census card was designed so as to 
secure a signed statement of each child's age from the parent, which 
could later be used when needed in enforcing the attendance law and 
authorizing employment permits. 

By comparing the actual school attendance by the school census, 
each county can determine the number of children of each age out of 
school, this, of course, becomes an unreliable comparison when the 
census is six or eight years old. And again one-third of the general 
State school fund being distributed on the school census makes it 
important that the count be kept as nearly up to date as possible, so 
that the amount of money going to each county will vary as the number 
of children to be educated varies. 

As one would expect, counties having rapidly growing urban cen- 
ters such as Allegany and Baltimore Counties, show increases over 
the Federal census of 1910, but rural counties show slow or little 
growth. In several cases there is a perceptible decrease from the 1910 
census, and it may be that the canvas was not carefully and thoroughly 
made in a few counties. The census by sex, age, and color is given 
in table X of this report. 

TEACHERS' RETIRED LIST 

The Legislature makes an appropriation of $34,000 annually to 
provide a retirement fund for teachers who have served twenty-five 
years, reached the age of sixty, are no longer able to continue their 
duties in the schoolroom, and have no other comfortable means of 
support. 

The names of all teachers on the retired list a year ago will be 
found in the 1917 report of the State Board of Education. During tlie 
school year ending July 31, 1918, the following names were dropped 
from the list on account of death : 

John F, Neff Cumberland. 

Horace Tell Bristol. 

Rosalie Barrett Ellicott City. 

John W. Collins Galestown. 

J. Lewis Lutz Middletown. 

William H. Pace Washington Grove. 

Franklin L. King Williamsport 

Laura Sherwood Baltimore City. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 59 

Eleanor W. Pindell Washington, D. C. 

Mollie A. Delanty Baltimore City. 

Sallie C. Weedon Baltimore City. 

Isaac L. English Mardela Springs. 

Mary E. Ray Baltimore City. 

Emma H. Schillinger Baltimore City. 

Catherine B. Holden Baltimore City. 

Sarah Ann Stoner Baltimore City. 

Annie N. Frederick Baltimore City. 

Charles F. Riendollar Linwood. 

William Martin Wells Baltimore City. 

During the same time the following teachers were added to the 
Teachers' retired list : 

Emma M. Lewis Baltimore City. 

Mary L. Maxwell Baltimore City. 

William L. Watkins Mitchellville. 

Benjamin F. Hildebrand Woodsboro. 

Margaret E. Crass Westminster. 

Mary I. Burch Oakley. 

Catherine S. Millar Baltimore City. 

Clara R. Alford Baltimore City. 

Alice V. Grimes Baltimore City. 

Dora Noble Federalsburg. 

Elizabeth V. Abey Baltimore City. 

ADMISSION TO PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS 
By Isaac L. Otis 

A brief review of the situation leading to the taking over by the 
State Department of Education of the work of examining and certifying 
candidates for admission to professional schools. 



I respectfully submit the following report of the work of adminis- 
tering education requirements preliminary to the professions. 

This work was undertaken by the State Department of Education 
June 6, 1918, because an accumulation of the needs of the professional 
schools of the State in the administering of entrance requirements was 
brought to a climax last spring by the situation of the dental schools. 
Their national body, The National Dental Educational Council of 
America, had just completed a rating of the dental schools of the nation, 
including those of Maryland. One of the results was a clear indication 
of the need to have entrance requirements administered according to 
modern scientific methods by a division of the State Department of 
Education. 



60 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

Six years ago a similar situation arose with regard to the medical 
schools of the State. At that time the Hoard of Medical Examiners of 
Maryland, at the request of these schools, undertook the work. They 
appointed the writer as entrance examiner, adopted the standard of 
the Association of American Medical Colleges, entered into reciprocal 
relations with the State Department of Education of New York, and 
adopted methods of certifying based upon those developed by the New 
York Department and the Ohio State Medical Board. At the request 
of the New York Department, the Medical Board agreed to allow the 
use of its entrance examiner for certification by such dental schools as 
were willing to abide by its methods and enter into the same relation- 
ship with it as had the medical schools. The Dental Department of 
the University of Maryland accepted, and its entrants were certified 
until July, 1915. Owing to a situation that could be cured only by the 
performance of this w^ork for all professional schools by the State 
Department of Education, the Dental Department of the University of 
Maryland then withdrew, thus emphasizing, even then, the need for the 
State Department of Education to organize the machinery to care for 
such work. 

Even when administering only for medical schools, the Medical 
Board found that the experience of its entrance examiner continually 
showed the necessity of having this work administered by the general 
central administrative machinery of the State represented in the Stat<», 
Department of Education. Among a number of things that might 
be cited to show this, one of the most significant, perhaps, is the fact 
that The New York State Department of Education, under tlie terms 
of the original agreement, habitually referred to the entrance examiner 
of the Medical Board the question of the validity of any preliminary 
education gained in ^Maryland for all professions. Obviously, this is a 
matter to be administered, not by the board of one of the professions, 
but by the State's central educational authority. Again, while New 
York willingly made reciprocal arrangements with the Medical Board, 
other states hesitated, because of preference for having this done by 
general state authority backed by explicit legal requirements. 

When, therefore, the situation above referred to arose in the spring 
of 1918, the natural thing seemed to be to take over the machinery and 
records developed by six gears' experience and honored tacitly by 
other states, if not by agreement, and by national professional associa- 
tions ; and to develop this work into a division of this Department. 
With the work came also the writer, whose name had been associated 
with it since its inception in July, 1912. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 61 

Since June 6, 235 applications for certificates preliminary to ac- 
countancy, dentistry, medicine, osteopathy, and pharmacy have been 
received. Of these, 68 have been certified in dentistry ; 40 in medicine ; 
and 19 in pharmacy. Forty-four are still under investigation, while 
the rest have been placed either in the credit file, with a certain amount 
of credit towards the desired certificate, or in the no-credit file. 

A very important part of this work is the service it can be to the 
ten different State licensing boards in the professions. There is also 
a definite logical relationship that should exist between these boards 
and the Department of Education in the matter of preliminary educa- 
tion. Most of the professions now have definite legal preliminary re- 
quirements necessary for the examination for license to practice. The 
rest of the professions will probably soon have legal preliminary 
requirements. These are in general education, not professional, and 
call for administration by those trained in general education problems 
rather than in only the special training of the particular profession. 
Their administration by each board for itself means as many different 
standards of high school or college work, or both, as there are boards. 
The evil of this is too patent to need explanation. 

In view of this situation the State Superintendent in a letter dated 
August 1 last, sent to these State boards, called their attention to the 
establishment of this supervisorship, and oft'ered them its services. 
The board of examiners in osteopathy has entered into definite relations 
and has already referred a case for adjudication. Two other boards, 
optometry and pharmacy, have had the supervisor or a representative 
call to explain matters to them, and are about ready to enter into this 
relation. This sen-ice of the supervisorship promises to develop 
rapidly, if properly handled in accordance with the needs of the 
situation. 

The value of the records is constantly being attested by requests for 
certified copies, for which the reasonable fee of $1.00 is willingly paid. 
These records ought not to be exposed to the hazard of fire, but should 
have fire-proof filing cabinets provided as quickly as possible. The 
fee has, by action of the Board, been recently placed at $2.00 for investi- 
gation, with no additional charge for certification. This puts the 
burden of the cost equally upon all those who have had the services of 
the office, and at the same time decreases the cost of the certificate. 



62 Annual Report of the State Board op Education 



VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 

In December 1917, the Governor designated the State i'oard of 
Education as the agency to represent Maryland in dealing with the 
Federal Board for Vocational Education in the administration of Fed- 
eral aid for vocational education in the State. President Woods, of the 
Maryland State College of Agriculture, and the State Board of Agri- 
culture assigned Mr. Harold F. Cotterman. of the College staff, to the 
State Department of Education for half-time service as Supervisor of 
Vocational Agriculture ; and, toward the close of the school year, Mr. 
L. A. Emerson was employed on the same half-time arrangement as 
Supervisor of Industrial Education, and IMiss Agnes L. Saunders, 
likewise, for Home Economics. 

As the schools of the several counties and of the City of Baltimore 
were organized and in operation on their usual plan, it was not found 
practicable for many of them to shift before the end of the year to the 
type of organization required to share in the Federal appropriation. 
As a result, only a small part of the Federal aid for the year was used, 
as will be seen from the following table : 



Purpose of apropriation and expenditure 

For salaries of teachers, supervisors, or directors 
of agricultural subjects 

For salaries of teachers of trade, home econom- 
ics, and industrial subjects 

For preparing teachers, supervisors, and directors 
of agricultural subjects, and teachers of trade 
and home economics subjects 

Total 

WAR TRAINING CLASSES 

Responding to a request of the War Department, the Federal Board 
for Vocational Education called upon state boards of education to pre- 
pare men for skilled occupations in the army. Out of every ten men 
in the army, it was found that four were needed for skilled service of 
some kind, the greatest need being for gas engine repair men and 
radio operators. 

The Federal Board ruled that a part of the funds available under 
the Smith-Hughes Act might be used for part payment of salaries of 
teachers for this work, and when the matter was presented to the 
Maryland State Council of Defense, it placed an additional thousand 



TotaJ Federal 


Expenditures from 


allotment for 


Federal allotment 


Maryland 1917-18 


for 1917-18 


$6,455.61 


$2,219.06 


7,781.46 


1,071.50 


7,067.49 


371.79 


$21,304.56 


$3,662.35 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 63 

dollars at the disposal of the State Board of Education for War- 
Training Classes. Classes in gas engine repair and radio were 
organized in Cumberland, Hagerstown, Frederick, Salisbury, and 
Baltimore City. 

These classes were under the general direction of Mr. L. A. Emer- 
son, Supervisor of Industrial Education. The following explanation 
of the need and suggested plan of procedure was issued to assist local 
directors in the work. 

WAR TRAINING CLASSES FOR SELECTED MEN AWAITING 
CALL TO SERVICE. 

The great increase in the size of our army has demanded additional activities 
of the War Department. One of these is the providing of a sufficient number of 
mechanics and technicians adequately to care for the needs of such an army. The 
War Department urges that the schools of the country give their energy to the 
training of the thousands of conscripted men now awaiting call, so' that these 
men may fit into special occupations when they are called into service. To guar- 
antee that this training in army occupations will be recognized, orders have been 
issued to the personnel officers at the cantonments to honor the certificates issued 
to these men by the State Board of Education, by placing the holders of such 
certificates in lines of work for which they have fitted themselves. 

The Federal Board for Vocational Education is charged with the organiza- 
tion of these War Training Classes, and is operating through the various state 
boards in getting the work thoroughly under way. Information on army needs 
has been obtained, courses have been outlined, and in some states hundreds of 
men are already in training. 

To carry on successfully a work of this sort requires much time and energy; 
but it is a service not less important than promoting Liberty Loan campaigns, 
Red Cross drives, and similar war activities. This is a war of machines as well 
as men, and our army must have the personnel that can handle these machines. 
The War Department is now training thousands of men for special service, but 
thousands more are needed. These will be supplied only when the schools of 
America come forward and fully do their utmost. 

The army is asking for men skilled in any one of almost a hundred Hues 
of work. Those needed particularly are automobile drivers and repairmen, sheet 
metal workers, machinists, radio operators, electricians, and men from allied 
occupations. The steps necessary for the organization of classes in these lines 
of work are given in the attached outline. 

The first requisite is the services of some man as local director who has a 
desire to be of larger service to his country and who is willing to give some of 
his time and energy in a work of this sort. It is preferable that he be a school 
man, for this is an educational proposition. It may be necessary to get the 
assistance of some man outside the school system, who will co-operate with the 
school head in carrying out the work. 

A brief but accurate survey should be made of the facilities of the community 
for carrying on this training. This survey should include the financial side as 
Avell as that of physical equipment of schools and shops. It will take money to 



64 Annual Repokt of the Statk Board of Education 

run these classes. The Federal Board has allowed a part of the Federal funds 
available under the Smith-Hughes law to be used for this training. The State 
Council of Defense al.s<j has appropriated some money for the promotion of this 
work. This money will be apportioned among tlic several cities in which classes 
will be started; but tlie amount of money available will not be sufficient to carry 
out successfully any large amount of training. This means that the local com 
munity will have to do something toward financing this work, if it is to do a 
service really worth while. In some communities funds have been secured by 
an appropriation from the school budget ; in other communities financial aid has 
been given through the Chaml>er of Commerce or some similar organization. 

The survey of the community should look into the available places where 
classes can be held, taking both school and commercial shops into consideration. 
It is well to keep in mind that a few very successful classes will give greater 
results and will be less expensive to maintain than many smaller classes with poor 
equipment and irregular attendance. Too many lines of work should not be 
attempted, the best results being obtained by concentrating the effort on not more 
than two or three lines. The greatest need in the army today in the matter of 
trained men in mechanical occupations is for automobile drivers and repairmen. 
Fortunately this is a line of training which is easily given and for which equip- 
ment can be readily secured. One or more classes in automobile repairing should 
certainly be started in each community where war training is undertaken. 

Automobile classes will require the use of a garage or repair shop, and the 
services of a good automobile mechanic as instructor. This instructor can usually 
be obtained from the shop in which the instruction is given. Unless he has had 
teaching experience he probably will need some help in organizing the material he 
will be required to teach and some instruction in methods of handling a class of 
this type. Experience has shown that a high grade shop man can render satis- 
factory service with a very little assistance from a professional teacher. 

Classes in other lines of work may be organized in much the same manner as 
these in automobile work. Machine shop practice, sheet metal work, and pos- 
sibly electrical work can often be taught satisfactorily in school shops, utilizing 
in many cases the regular school instructor, if he has had the necessary trade 
experience. Some of the instruction should be given in the classroom, although 
most of it will necessarily be given in the shops. 

It may be necessary to do extensive advertising in order to bring these classes 
to the attention of the men who will be interested. It must be pointed out thai 
satisfactory work will lead to placement in special army service, and the con- 
scripted man must be made to feel that the classes are being operated solely for 
his benefit. There are of course many ways of getting information to the con- 
scripted men. One of the most effective ways is by means of newspaper pub- 
licity; and most of the papers will gladly co-operate in a work of this sort. Then 
there is, the medium of the picture show slide which may be effective in some 
communities. Posters might be printed advertising the opportunities of the 
classes. Circular letters may also be used to advantage on a mailing list of 
conscripted men. 

After the preliminary work has been done and all necessary arrangements 
are completed, the best way to actually get the men enrolled in classes is to call a 
mass meeting of all the men that might be interested in taking up the training 
and to present the proposition to them from the platform. The whole plan is 




WAR TRAINING FOR SELECTED MEN 

RADIO CLASS AT CUM IIKKI.AXD 




WAR TRAINING FOR SELECTED MEN 

AUTOMOBILE CLASS AT CUMBERLAND 



Annual Report of the Stat-e Board of Education 65 

explained and the men who desire to enter the classes are asked to fill out appli- 
cation blanks. These blanks provide for the securing of a considerable amount 
of data relative to the man's qualifications and his desires along the line of war 
training. These applications are looked over after the meeting has adjourned, 
and from them it is decided what classes should be offered. Notices are then 
mailed to the applicants telling them where and when to report for work. 

necessary steps in organizing war training classes 

1. Securing the proper person to "put over the job" in the community. 
Requisites: 

(a) A vision of the responsibilities and the possibilities of this work. 

(b) A knowledge of and hold on the community. 

(c) Adequate time that may be devoted to the work. 

(d) Practical ideas on training of this sort. 

(e) A sincere desire to be of service to the country. 

2. A brief yet accurate survey of the facilities of the community available for this kind 
of work. 

(a) Financial support. 

(b) School shops. 

(c) Commercial shops. 

(d) Advertising facilities. 

3. A selection of the courses to be offered. 

(a) Needs of the army. 

(b) Facilities available. 

4. The securing of shop and classroom facilities. 

(a) School equipment. 

(b) Commercial shops. 

5. The securing of qualified teachers. 

(a) Industrial teachers from the schools, 
(h) Shoo foremen or mechanics. 

6. Advertising the courses. 

(a) Newspaper publicity. 

(b) Picture show slides. 

(c) Posters. 

(d) Personal solicitation. 

(e) Circular letters. 

7. Organization of the classes. 

(a) Holding of a general meeting where the proposition is explained to the men. 

(b) Signing of application blanks by the men. 

(c) Classification of the applications in determining what courses should be offered. 

(d) Starting of class work. 

(e) Making the necessary reports to the state board. 

STATE PLANS FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 
Since the Federal Government contributes considerable money to 
the states for the encouragement of vocational education under the 
Smith-Hughes Act, the Government must exercise some supervision 
of the funds thus expended and ascertain if they are used for the 
purposes for which they are contributed. To do this with some 
degree of definiteness and dispatch, the Federal Board created by 
the Act requires any state expecting to co-operate in this work to 
submit a plan for developing the work within its borders. Federal 
moneys are not available to a state for any year until the plan of that 
year is approved and accepted by the Federal Board. 

In Maryland, as in other states, the plans agreed upon with the 
Federal Board attempt to meet the needs of all communities in the 
State. As vocational problems are sensed and analyzed, it is hoped 
that the plans may be expanded and adequately adjusted to the needs 
of the State as a whole. While the submission of state plans to the 
Federal Board for Vocational Education is, in the last analysis, in- 



66 Annual Report of the Statk Board of Education 

cumbent upon the State Board of Education, the rapidity and thor- 
oughness of this adjustment will depend to a large extent upon the 
zeal of those interested in educational development. Patrons, as 
well as vocational teachers, principals, and superintendents, should 
study the plans and the needs of their respective communities and 
suggest such changes as will make for the most desirable develop- 
ment of vocational education in their sections of the state. The plans 
chiefly repeat with detailed and local application the general provi- 
sions and implications of the Federal statute. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 67 



STATE PLANS* FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF 
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN MARYLAND 

I. ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION: 

1. By an act of the General Assembly, approved by the Governor on April 10, 
1918, a copy of which is on file in the records of the Federal Board for 
Vocational Education, Maryland accepted all the provisions of the Smith- 
Hughes Act. The State Board of Education, of which M. Bates Stephens, 
State Superintendent of Schools, McCoy Hall, Baltimore, is the executive 
officer, was designated to administer vocational education and to represent 
the State in dealing with the Federal Board for Vocational Education. 

2. The supervision of agricultural education shall be under the direction of 
the State Board of Education, through the State Superintendent of Schools, 
who shall have a professional assistant devoting at least half of his time to 
this work. 

3. Industrial education shall be under the supervision of the State Board of 
Education, through the State Superintendent of Schools, who shall have a 
professional assistant devoting at least half of his time to this work. 

4. Home economics shall be under the supervision of the State Board of 
Education, through the State Superintendent of Schools, who shall have a 
professional assistant devoting at least half of her time to tliis work. 

5. Teacher training in agriculture, trades and industries, and home economics, 
shall be conducted by the Maryland State College of Agriculture and shall 
be under the supervision of the State Board of Education, through the State 
Superintendent of Schools. 

II. GENERAL CONDITIONS: 

1. All classes aided by Federal funds shall be under public supervision or 
control. 

2. The controlling purpose of all instruction shall be to fit for useful employment. 

3. All instruction shall be of less than college grade. 

4. The instruction shall be designed to meet the needs of persons over 14 years 
of age. 

5. Every dollar of Federal funds shall be matched by a dollar of State or of 
local money, or of both jointly. 

6. Federal money shall be expended only for: 

A. Salaries of teachers, supervisors, and directors of agriculture. 

B. Salaries of teachers and supervisors of trade, home economics, and 
industrial subjects. 



• Each state is required by the Federal law to draw up plans for the administration of 
vocational education and have them approved by the Federal Board. These plans re-iterate 
the main features of the Federal law (see page 53), with some indication of how the Federal 
regulations are applied to Maryland conditions. 



68 Annual Report of Tiir: Statk Hoard oi' Education 

C. Maintenance of teacher-training for vocational teachers. Maintenance 
not to include items (buildings, etc.) prohibited under Section 17 of the 
Act. 

III. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION: 

1. Kinds of Schools. 

a. Instruction in vocational agriculture shall be given in departments of 
vocational agriculture attached to high schools. 

b. These schools shall be day schools, having a term of at least nine months 
per year. In four-year high schools, sixteen units shall be required for 
graduation. A unit shall represent a year's study in one subject receiving 
approximately one fourth of the student's time for the year of 36 weeks. 
The agricultural work shall receive first consideration. 

c. When conditions permit, short courses in vocational agriculture may be 
offered to persons beyond the usual school age, if a sufficient number of 
such students can be interested in the work. 

2. Plant and Equipment. 

a. Departments of vocational agriculture shall have at least one room set 
aside for the work as an agricultural laboratory and shop. 

b. The required equipment for a vocational department aided by Federal 
funds shall have a value of at least $150, the amount depending upon 
the work proposed and other equipment already available for this work. 

c. Schools aided by Federal funds shall be encouraged to maintain small 
plots of land to be used as out-door laboratories, 

3. Minimum for Maintenance. 

I a. Each school shall provide approximately five dollars per pupil as a 
minimum sum for supplies and materials of instruction, in no case less 
than a total of $50. 

b. Each school shall provide a properly qualified teacher of agriculture 
employed for twelve months per year. The Board of Education shall 
make satisfactory arrangements with the teacher of agriculture for his 
transportation while inspecting project work or supervised practical work 
of the pupils. During the year he may be allowed a vacation of one month 
and part-time for professional improvement during certain of the other 
months. 

4. Courses of Study. 

Departments of vocational agriculture shall offer one-, two-, or four-year 
courses. One half of the pupil's time shall be devoted to instruction in 
agriculture, the other half may be devoted to liberal training. This liberal 
training may vary, but shall be similar to the following type courses in 
vocational agriculture : 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 69 



MARYLAND TYPE COURSE* IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE— No. 1 

(Part- or Full-Time Teacher of Vocational Agriculture) 
(A student taking this course will devote one-fourth of his time at school to vocational 
ppriculture.) 

Subjects First Year Time Days 

Units Per Day Per Week 
AGRICULTURE 1 1 90 S 

Poultry production and the raising of pigs, calves, colts, and 

lambs. 
SfJENCE Approx. ^ 90 2-3 

General Science, or Biolo?y, or Physiology of Farm Animals. 
. .'OODWORK .' Approx. Yz 90 2-3 

Manual Training and Drawing, or Farm Shop and Drawing. 

ENGLISH 1 1 90 S 

MATHEMATICS 1 1 90 5 

Second Year 
AGRICULTURE II. 1 90 5 

Farm crops, gardening, soils, project and related study. 
SCIENCE Approx. Yz 90 2-3 

General Science, or Botany, or Crop Physiology. 
WOODWORK. Approx. ^ 90 2-3 

Manual Training and Drawing, or Farm Shop and Drawing. 

ENGLISH II 1 90 5 

MATHEMATICS II 1 90 5 

Third Year 
AGRICULTURE III 1 90 5 

Community specialties, svich as dairying, animal production, 

commercial gardening, etc.; farm management; project study 

and related study. 
SCIENCE 1 90 5 

General Chemistry, or Agricultural C'lemistry. 

ENGLISH III 1 90 S 

HISTORY 1 1 90 5 

Fourth Year 
AGRICULTURE IV 1 90 5 

Community specialties, farm management, project work and 

related study. 
SCIENCE 1 90 5 

General Physics, or Agricultural Physics. 

ENGLISH IV 1 90 5 

UNITED STATES HISTORY AND CIVICS 1 90 5 

MARYLAND TYPE COURSE IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE— No. 2 

(Full-Time Teacher of Vocational Agriculture) 
(A student taking this course will devote approximately one half of his time at school to 
vocational agriculture and related agricultural study.) 

Subjects First Year Time Days 

Units Per Day Per We-ek 

AGRICULTURE I 1 90 S 

Study of poultry production and the raising of pigs, calves, 
colts, and lambs. 

PHYSIOLOGY OF FARM ANIMALS Approx. ^ 90 2-3 

FARM SHOP AND DRAWING Approx. Y^ 90 2-3 

ENGLISH 1 1 90 5 

MATHEMATICS 1 1 90 5 

Second Year 

AGRICULTURE II 1 90 5 

Farm crops, gardening, soils. 

FARM BOTANY, OR CROP PHYSIOLOGY Approx. Y, 90 2-3 

FARM SHOP AND DRAWING Approx. Y2 90 2-3 

ENGLISH II 1 90 5 

MATHEMATICS II 1 90 5 



* Courses may be worked out in many different combinations. The courses given here are 
printed merely for purposes of illustration. Each course should include at least three units 
of English, two units of mathematics, two units of science, and one of history, and the 
remainder of the sixteen units required for graduation may be selected by the school. A 
school may offer one, two, or four years of the vocational work. Proposed organization of 
courses may be sent to the State Department of Education for suggestions and criticism. 



70 Annual RtroRT or the Statk Board of Kducation 

Third Year 
AGklCULTURK III • • • 1 90 5 

Comiiuiiiity specialties, such as (lairyiiiR, animal iirodtiction, 

commercial RardcniriK; f'<rm management; and related work. 

AGRIClIl.TUKAL CHICMISTRY 1 90 5 

ENC.LISH III 1 90 S 

MATHEMATICS III 1 90 5 

I'ouRTii Year 
AGRICUI-TIIRE IV 1 90 5 

Community specialties, farm managemtnt, project study, antl 

project work. 

AGRICULTURAL rilYSICS 1 90 5 

KNGLISH IV 1 90 5 

UNITED STATES HISTORY AND CIVICS 1 90 S 

5. Methods of Instruction. 

Instruction in vocational agriculture shall consist of supervised study, reci- 
tation, laboratory, and practical work, which shall be given when the nature 
of the work requires these various methods of instruction. No rigid 
schedule with regard to the day of the week should be followed. 

6. Qualifications of Teachers. 

Federal funds shall be used in part payment of salaries of teachers of 
agriculture, who shall have the following qualifications : 

a. Must have been reared on a farm or have had at least two years' farm 
experience after reaching the 14th birthday. 

b. Must have the equivalent of a high school education. 

c. Must be a graduate of a standard college, with at least two years' con- 
tinuous college work in agriculture, and at least 200 recitation hours in 
education, as required by the Maryland law. (Note — As the State Board 
of Education realizes that it may be impossible, under present conditions, 
to secure a sufficient number of teachers with these qualifications, and 
though it does not wish to lower such standards, it reserves the right to 
accept the equivalent or the near equivalent training in cases where it is 
impossible to secure teachers with full qualifications.) 

7. Qualifications of SupervisoY. 

Federal funds shall be used in part payment of the salary of a supervisor of 
agriculture, who shall have the following qualifications : 

a. Must have been reared on a farm or have had at least two years of farm 
experience after reaching the 14th birthday. 

b. Must have completed the full four-year course in a standard college of 
agriculture. 

c. Must have had the equivalent of a year's graduate work in professional 
education. 

d. Must have had at least one year's experience as a teacher of vocational 
agriculture. 

8. Supervised Practical Work. 

An essential part of the instruction in vocational agriculture shall be the 
home project work, which shall be required of every boy enrolled in the 
vocational department. Project work shall be arranged to extend over a 
period of at least six months. When projects need attention during the 
time the school is regularly in session, pupils shall be relieved from other 



Annual Report of the Stats Board of Education 71 



class work; so that, with the work done on the project in summer, an average 
of 90 minutes per day for the school term will be devoted to supervised 
practical work. 

9. Plan of Supervision. 

The duties of the state supervisor of agriculture shall be as follows : 

a. The supervision of agriculture in all schools receiving Federal money for 
the salaries of teachers, supervisors, or directors of agricultural subjects. 

b. The supervision of agriculture in all other schools in the State meeting 
the standards set up by the State Board and approved by the Federal 
Board, even though such schools do not receive Federal aid. 

c. Studying the agricultural conditions of the State and the school facilities 
of particular communities which seem best suited to the establishment of 
vocational departments or schools of agriculture. 

d. The preparation, from time to time, of bulletins of information concern- 
ing the teaching of agriculture in schools or departments in a state, and 
the setting forth of the possibilities of such instruction. 

e. The preparation of reports for the State Board of Education concerning 
agricultural instruction in the State. 

f. Holding conferences of teachers engaged in the teaching of agricultural 
subjects. 

g. Promoting in other ways vocational agricultural education in the State. 
h. Assisting teachers of agriculture to improve their methods of instruction. 

This improvement shall be done by personal consultation, by correspond- 
ence, and by publications. 

IV. TRADE, HOME ECONOMICS, AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION: 

1. Budget. 

The tentative budget of the Federal funds available for trade, home eco- 
nomics, and industrial education for the year ending June 30, 1919, are as 
follows : 

A. Evening schools or classes $3,947.02 

B. Part-time schools or classes {2i 1/3) 3,890.73 

C. Unit-trade schools or classes 1,500.00 

D. Home economics schools or classes 2,334.44 



$11,672.19 



2. Trade and Industrial Education. 
A. Kinds of Schools. 

It is planned to aid with Federal funds the following kinds of schools or 
classes, or as many of these as conditions may justify: 

a. Evening industrial classes. 

b. Part-time schools or classes. 

1. Trade-extension classes. 

2. Trade-preparatory classes. 

3. General continuation classes. 

c. Unit-trade day schools or classes. 



72 Annual Report of the vState Board of Education 

B. Evening Industrial Schools or Classes. 

a. Controlling Purpose. 

The aim of all evening school instruction shall be to give the person 
already entered upon employment opportunity to acquire greater skill 
in, or knowledge of, the occupation in which he is engaged; so that he 
may do his work in the best and easiest way and that he may be better 
fitted for promotion. 

b. Entrance Age Requirement. 

Enrollment in evening classes shall be limited to persons over sixteen 
years of age who have already entered upon employment. 

c. Plant and Equipment. 

The plant and equipment shall be adequate to carry out successfully the 
courses proposed, and shall not be considered as satisfactory until it has 
been inspected and approved by the State Superintendent of Schools or 
his authorized agent. 

d. Minimum for Maintenance. 

The amount expended for maintenance shall be sufficient to insure satis- 
factory standards of work. 

e. Course of Study. 

Courses of study shall be arranged on the short-unit bases. Whenever 
possible, the courses shall be arranged so that the short units may be 
combined to form well-rounded, longer general courses. A typical 
course of study is given below: 

GENERAL COURSE IN AUTOMOBILE REPAIRING. 

Unit Courses 

1. Chassis repairing. 

2. Axles. 

3. Transmissions. 

4. Engines. 

5. Carburetion. 

6. Ignition. 

7. Starting and lighting systems. 

8. Storage batteries. 

Type-Unit Course 

Unit No. 8 — Storage Batteries 

(Classroom Instruction) 

1. History and manufacture of batteries. 

2. Chemistry of the lead battery. 

3. Electrical characteristics. 

4. Operating characteristics. 

5. Care of batteries. 

6. Repair shop equipment. 

7. Methods of repairing. 

8. Battery troubles and remedies. 

9. Relation of the battery to the starting and lighting system of the car. 
10. The commercial or business side of battery repairing. 

f. Character of the School Work. 

The instruction given in evening classes shall be supplemental to the 
daily employment of the student. 

g. Methods of Instruction. 

The instruction given in evening classes shall include shop and class- 
room work. All shop work shall be on the individual instruction basis 
as far as possible. Classroom instruction should be supplemented by 
lantern slides and industrial films when these are available. All shop 
work should be on a productive basis in so far as this is possible. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 73 



h. Qualifications of Teachers. 

The qualifications of teachers of evening classes shall be as follows: 

1. Shop teachers. 

Shop teachers shall be persons who have a high degree of skill in the 
subjects to be taught, and who have ability to instruct others. In all 
cases shop teachers shall have had at least two years' trade experience 
above the apprenticeship stage. 

2. Teachers of related subjects. 

Teachers of related subjects shall have a good elementary school 
education and special ability in the subjects to be taught. Persons 
qualified to teach related subjects in unit-trade day schools will also 
be permitted to teach these subjects in evening classes. 

Each teacher of shop or related subjects shall hold the proper cer- 
tificate issued by the State Superintendent of Schools on the evidence 
that the applicant meets the prescribed requirements. 

C. Part-Time Schools or Classes. 

a. Trade-Extension Part-Time Schools or Classes. 

1. Controlling purpose. 

The aim of all trade-extension classes shall be to increase the skill 
or knowledge of the worker in his present occupation, thereby helping 
him^ to perform his present work better, and assisting him to pro- 
motion. 

2. Age of pupils. 

Enrollment in trade-extension classes shall be limited to persons over 
fourteen years of age who have already entered upon employment 
in the trades or industries. 

3. Plant and equipment. 

The plant and equipment shall be adequate to carry out successfully 
the courses proposed, and shall not be considered as satisfactory 
until it has been inspected and approved by the State Superintendent 
of Schools or his authorized agent. 

4. Minimum for maintenance. 

The amount expended for maintenance shall be sufficient to insure 
satisfactory standards of work. 

5. Course of study. 

Courses of study shall include only such subjects as will directly 
extend the trade or technical knowledge or the trade skill of the 
students. A typical two-year course for railroad machine shop 
apprentices, based on the minimum of 144 hours per year with a class 
meeting twice each week for a two-hour period, is given below : 

First Year 
Drawing: 72 hours. 

Working drawings from sketches. 

Working drawings from models. (Lettering and a study of drafting conven- 

T:Ail stuSs'^orL^r "°^'- ^'^ ''°'''' -'' '^ '^^'^^ fr^Ve°"rp 



74 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

67io/> Mathematics: 36 hours. 

Tliis will iiicluilc applicil arithmetic, thiouK'i sfjuari- root, oiiiittiriK those por- 
tions not useful to a niacliinist. All problems shall apply to the machinist's 
work. 

S'icp Science: 36 hours. 

A detailed study of the various shop machines such as tlic lathe, shaper, 
grinder, slotter and similar e(|uiiinient, including a study of the working cliar- 
actcristics, care of the machine, operating speed, size of cuts, and best operating 
methods. 

A study of iron, steel, and the alloys, including the manufacture, properties, 
and uses of each. 

General machine shop knowledge, such as belting, shafting, and motor drives. 

Second Year 
Drawing: 72 hours. 

Advanced problems such as locomotive valve and airbrake equipment. 

A small amount of tracing and blue-printing is included. 
Siiof) Mathematics: 36 hours. 

This includes those parts of algebra, plane geometry, and trigonometry which 

are applicable to the machinist's trade. 
Shop Science: 36 hours. 

This includes the working characteristics of special machines in the shop, and 

the general principles underlying the action of the locomotive. A study of 

locomotive valve gears and air-brake equipment should be included. 

6. Methods of Instruction. 

The methods used shall include classroom instruction by lecture or 
recitation; drawing or sketching; inspection trips to shops doing the 
kind of work for which the student is being trained; and the use of 
models, charts, slides, and films, when these are available. Instruc- 
tion shall be largely on the individual basis. 

7. Length of Term. 

Instruction shall continue for not less than 144 hours per year. A 
term of 36 weeks, with four hours of instruction per week, is recom- 
mended for most part-time classes. The four-hour weekly period 
shall preferably be divided into two two-hour periods. Classes operat- 
ing under "the two-boy" plan shall arrange to spend alternate weeks 
in the shop and school where this is possible. 

8. Qualifications of Teachers. 

a. The minimum qualifications for shop teachers are a good elemen- 
tary school education and high grade ability in the trade to be 
taught, obtained either by an apprenticeship or in an approved 
trade school, either of these having been supplemented by at least 
two years' work as a journeyman in the trade. 

b. The minimum qualifications of teachers of related subjects shall 
be graduation from a standard high school, or its equivalent, and 
two years' experience in a trade; or two years of technical train- 
ing in an institution of college grade, and sufficient contact with 
trades to understand their problems. 

h. Trade-Preparatory Part-Time Classes. 

1. Controlling Purpose. 

The controlling purpose of trade-preparatory part-time classes or 
schools shall be to prepare boys and girls who are now working in 
occupations which are not suited to them, or which are s®-called 
"blind alley" jobs, to secure employment in work which is to their 
liking and in which they have opportunity for advancement. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 75 

2. Age of Pupils. 

Enrollment in trade-preparatory classes shall be limited to persons 
over fourteen years of age who have entered upon employment. 

3. Plant and Equipment. 

The plant and equipment shall be acceptable to the State Superinten- 
dent of Schools as adequate to carry out with efficiency the courses 
offered. 

Any space used for school shop purposes must conform to the 
factory laws of the State as to heat, light, ventilation, and safety 
appliances. 

The plant and equipment proposed for use shall not be considered 
satisfactory until it has been inspected and approved by the State 
Superintendent of Schools or his authorized agent. 

4. Minimum for Maintenance. 

The amount expended for maintenance shall be sufficient to insure 
satisfactory standards of work. 

5. Course of Study. 

Courses of study shall contain only the subject-matter necessary to 
give the student the fundamentals of the occupation, the larger part 
of the related study being given later in trade-extension classes. For 
example, pupils of a trade-preparatory class in lathe work would be 
taught the operation of the lathe, working usually on productive 
work. The related subject-matter that a lathe operator should know 
would be given in trade-extension classes after the student had been 
placed on a job. 

6. Methods of Instruction. 

Instruction in trade-preparatory part-time classes should be limited 
to such methods as will give direct intensive training in one or more 
shop processes, with the idea of placing the student on an earning 
basis in industry as soon as practicable. 

7. Length of Term. 

The minimum length of term shall not be less than 144 hours per 
year and 8 hours per week. 

8. Qualifications of Teachers. 

a. Shop Teachers. 

Shop teachers shall have the following minimum qualifications: 
A sound elementary school education and high grade ability in 
the trade to be taught, obtained either by an apprenticeship or in 
an approved trade school, either of these having been supplemented 
by at least two years' work as a journeyman in the trade. 

b. Teachers of Related Subjects. 

The minimum qualifications for teachers of related subjects shall 
be graduation from a standard technical high school, or its equiva- 
lent, and two years' experience in a trade. 

c. General Continuation Part-Time Schools or Classes. 
1. Controlling Purpose. 

The controlling purpose of general continuation schools and classes 
shall be to increase the civic or vocational intelligence of boys and 



76 Annual Report of the State Board oi- Education 

girls who have entered upon employment. 

2. Af^e of I'upils. 

Enrollment in these classes shall be limited to persons over 14 years 
of age. 

3. Plant and Equipment. 

The plant and equipment shall be adequate to carry out successfully 
the courses proposed, and shall not be considered as satisfactory until 
it has been inspected and approved by the State Superintendent of 
Schools or his authorized agent. 

4. Minimum for Maintenance. 

The amount expended for maintenance shall be sufficient to insure 
satisfactory standards of vi-ork. 

5. Courses of Study. 

Character and content of courses of study shall be determined entirely 
by the needs and capacities of the students. Courses may include 
such grammar school subjects as reading, writing, spelling, and 
arithmetic; such high school subjects as chemistry and physics; and 
such special subjects as mechanical drawing and industrial history. 

TYPE COURSE 
Arithmetic 

1. Review of Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Division. 

2. Fractions. 

3. Decimal Fractions. 

4. Percentage. 

5. Denominate Numbers. 

6. Equations. 

7. Mensuration. 

8. Powers and Roots. 

6. Methods of Instruction. 

As the instruction in general continuation classes will vary greatly, 
no particular methods can be specified. In general, all the methods 
used in the various other types of industrial classes and in the 
common school will find a place in general continuation work. 

7. Length of Term. 

The minimum length of term is 144 hours per year, or four hours per 
week for 36 weeks. 

8. Qualifications of Teachers. 

Qualifications of teachers of general continuation subjects shall be 
the same as are required for teachers of similar subjects in the public 
schools of Maryland. 

D. Unit-Trade Day Sclwols. 

a. Controlling Purpose. 

The controlling purpose of unit-trade day schools shall be to prepare 
boys and girls for entrance into a definite trade or industry. 

b. Age of Pupils. 

Enrollment shall be limited to persons 14 years of age and over, except 
that persons 13 years of age may be admitted if they are capable of 
doing the work regularly given to 14-year old students. 

c. Plant and Equipment. 

The plant and equipment shall be adequate to carry out with efficiency 
the courses oflfered. 



Annual Report of the State Board op Education 7? 



1. Any space for school shop purposes shall conform to the factory 
laws of the State as to heat, light, ventilation, and safety appliances. 

2. The plant and equipment proposed for use shall not be considered 
satisfactory until it has been inspected and approved by the State 
Superintendent of Schools or his authorized agent. 

d. Minivium for Maintenance. 

The amount expended for maintenance shall be sufficient to insure 
satisfactory standards of work. 

e. Course of Study. 

1. Courses of study shall be not less than one or more than four years 
in length. 

2. All courses shall include English and citizenship; and it is recom- 
mended that general trade science and physical education be also 
included. Approximately 15% of the student's time should be given 
to subjects of this character. 

3. All courses shall provide for trade science and trade mathematics, 
and also for trade drawing in all trades where this is necessary. 
Approximately 35% of the student's time should be given to these 
subjects. 

4. In the selection of courses to be offered, consideration shall be given 
to local industrial needs, and courses arranged, if possible, in accord- 
ance with those needs. 

5. A limited amount of practical experimental laboratory work shall be 
provided for such courses as electrical construction and baking, which 

require such laboratory work to thoroughly teach the trade. 

TYPE COURSE 
Electrical Construction 

First Year 
Shop IVork: 15 hours per week. 

Wiring of bells and annunciators; open wiring; conduit work; small motor 

installation; etc. 
Trade Science: 4 hours per week. 

Theory of electric circuit; electrical machinery, code rules; etc. 
Mathematics: 3 hours per week. 

Arithmetic. 
Laboratory Work: 2 hours per week. 

Testing circuits and equipment. 
Drawing: i hours per week. 

Electrical installation. 
English and Ci'ics : i hours per week. 

Second Year 

Shop U ork : IS hours per week. 

Installation of motors, D. C. and A. C. ; switchboards; power wiring- etc Re- 
pairing of batteries, machinery, etc. 

Trade Science: 4 hours per week. 

Theory of electrical machines, particularly A. C. ; measurements of power- etc 

Mathematics: Z hours per week. 

Arithmetic; equations and formulae of algebra; and the trigonometric functions. 

Laboratory Work: 3 hours per week. 
Advanced tests. 

Drazving: 2 hours per week. 
Switchboards, etc. 

Industrial History: 2 hours per week. 

Trade Hygiene: 1 hour per week. 

f. Methods of Instruction. 

1. Shop classes shall be so conducted that the student will do his work 
in an atmosphere as nearly like that of a high grade commercial shop 
as is practicable under school conditions. 



78 Annual Report of the State Board oi-' Education 

2. In shop work and drawing, particular attention shall be given to the 
needs of the individual pupils, and the instruction shall be suited as 
nearly as possible to those needs. 

3. Instruction shall include enough of the business side of the trade 
taught to familiarize the student with approximate costs of material 
and labor for the work he does in the shop. 

4. Provision shall be made for inspection trips to commercial shops or 
to construction jobs which will give the student first hand knowledge 
of the trade or industry he is studying. 

g. Amount of Time for Shop Work. 

At least fifty per cent, of the student's time in school shall be devoted 
to practical work on a useful or productive basis. In all shops where 
a commercial product can be produced, this should largely be the work 
to which the student's shop time is given. In those lines of work in 
which it is impossible to produce a commercial product, the work given 
the students shall approach commercial standards as nearly as possible. 

h. Length of Term. 

The school year shall be at least nine months in length. 

i. Hours per Week. 

The school week shall consist of at least thirty hours. 

j. Qualifications of Teachers. 

1. The minimum qualifications of shop teachers are a good elementary 
school education, and high grade ability in the trade to be taught, 
obtained either through an apprenticeship or by a course in an 
approved trade school, either of these having been supplemented by 
at least two years' work as a journeyman in the trade. 

2. The minimum qualifications for teachers of related subjects shall be 
graduation from a standard high school and two years' experience in 
a trade; or two years of technical training in an institution doing 
work of college grade, and sufficient contact with trades to under- 
stand their problems ; or four years of general teaching experience, 
six months' trade experience, and a real interest in industrial 
education. 

3. The minimum qualifications for teachers of non-vocational subjects 
shall be the ability represented by the equivalent of a Maryland 
second-grade certificate, which is a standard high school educatioTi 
with at least six weeks of professional training, and a general knowl- 
edge of the trades taught in the school. 

4. No person shall be qualified as a vocational teacher until licensed 
for such teaching by the State Superintendent of Schools, and no 
certificate shall be issued until the State Superintendent has evidence 
that the applicant meets the requirements. 

5. Certificates shall be issued for one year, subject to renewal on evi- 
dence of successful experience and professional spirit. Certificates 
shall show the period for which they are valid and the lines of work 
the holder is permitted to teach. 



Annual Report of the State Board oe Education 79 

k. Qualifications of Supervisor. 

Federal funds shall be used for part payment of the salary of a super- 
visor of trade and industrial education, who shall have the follow- 
ing qualifications: 

1. Must have had two years of trade experience. 

2. Must have a technical education of college grade. 

3. Must have had at least one year's experience in teaching or super- 
vising industrial classes. 

f. Duties of Supervisor. 

The duties of the State Supervisor of Trade and Industrial Education 

shall be as follows : 

1. To promote the establishing of evening, part-time, and all-day indus- 
trial schools and classes which will meet the requirements of the Smith- 
Hughes law. 

2. To supervise all industrial classes receiving Federal aid under this law. 

3. To assist teachers of industrial subjects tow^ard better methods and 
greater results. 

3. Home Economics Education. 

A. Kinds of Schools. 

The Federal funds shall be used for home economics instruction in the 
following kinds of schools: 

a. Evening home economics schools or classes. 

b. Part-time home economics schools or classes. 

c. Day schools or classes. 

B. Evening Home Economics Schools and Classes. 

a. Age Requirements. 

All girls and women over 16 years of age who are engaged in the per- 
formance of household duties or who are able to profit by the work 
offered, shall be admitted to the course. 

b. Plant and Equipment. 

The plant and equipment may be that used in day schools, provided its 
double use in no way interferes with the efficiency of the evening schools 
or classes. 

c. Minimum for Maintenance. 

The minimum expenditure for the maintenance of such schools shall be 
sufficient for the employment of efficient teachers and to insure provision 
for adequate equipment and supplies. 

d. Courses of Study. 

The courses shall be organized on a short-unit basis, each complete in 
itself, arranged in such sequence as to give long, general courses when 
needed. 

general course in home economics 

General Type Course 

1. Marketing. 

2. Preparing and serving meals. 

3. Simple entertaining. 

4. Selection and buying furniture and house furnishings. 

5. Proper division of income. 

6. Clothing and household textiles. 

7. Dressmaking. 

8. Millinery. 

9. Child rearing and training. 



80 Annual Report of the State Board oi- Education 

Type-Unit Course 

A. CkilJ Nutrition. 

1. Artiticml fettling. 

2. l'"ood for (Jiflercnt aRcs. 

a. A two-year old child. 

b. Children from 3 to 4 years. 

c. Chihlrcn from 5 to 7 years. 

d. Children from 8 to 12 years. 

B. Hygiene of Childhood. 

1. liathinK. 

2. Clothing. 

3. Amount of sleep exercise, pure air. 

4. Regularity of habit. 

5. Absolute cleanliness of the individual. 

6. Sex problems. 

7. Environment. 

C. Infant Diseases and Emergencies. 

1. Croup. 

2. Colic. 

3. Infectious diseases. 

D. Selection, Making, and Care of Clothing. 

E. Child Psychology. 

F. Child Literature. 

1. Different classes of children's books, 
a. Interests and value of each class. 

2. The art of story-telling. 

3. The art of leading the child from a certain interest in reading to related 
reading. 

4. The tests of a wholesome book for children of varying ages. 

e. Character of the Work. 

The needs and capacities of the students and the needs and character of 
the community shall govern the selection of subject-matter and the 
method of presentation. 

f. Methods of Instruction. 

The instruction given shall be such that the skill attained or knowledge 
acquired helps the worker in her present or future home-making. 

g. Qualifications of Teachers. 
Qualifications of teachers shall be as follows : 

1. Having had at least a high school education. 

2. Having had training of college grade in the subjects taught. 

3. Having well-established skill in handling household problems. 

C. Part-Time Home Economics Classes. 

a. Age Requirements. 

All women and girls over 14 years of age shall be eligible for admission 
to these courses. 

b. Plant and Equipment. 
Same as for evening schools. 

c. Minimum for Maintenance. 
Same as for evening schools. 

d. Course of Study. 

The courses shall be organized on the short-unit basis. 

General Type Course 

1. Theory of marketing and fireless cooking. 

2. Marketing for practical cooking. 

3. Dietetics for practical menus. 

4. Salads and deserts. 

5. Bread and rolls. 

6. Household routine. 

7. Health lessons for women. 

8. Care of the child. 

9. Appropriate dress for children. 
10. The domestic servant problem. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



Type-Unit Course 

The Domestic Servant Problem 

A. Necessity of discussion. 

1. Providing efficient help in the house. 

2. Social and economic questions involved. 

B. Dislike of domestic service. 

1. Greater opportunities for women outside the home. 

2. The social stigma attached to position of "servant." 

3. Long and irregular hours. 

4. Lack of sympatlietic consideration. 

C. Making household service attractive. 

1. Fair and just agreements. 

2. Standards of work and wages. 

3. Time for rest, recreation, and culture. 

4. Definite hours fixed. 

5. Lessening of drudgery. (Labor-saving devices.) 

6. Work done outside the home. 

a. Laundry. 

b. Cooking. 

D. Co-operative housekeeping. 
\. Community laundry. 

2. Community kitchens. 

e. Methods of Instruction. 

The instruction shall be supplementary to their day employment. Part 
of the day employment of every woman will, however, be assumed to 
be the work of the home. The method of instruction shall be to take 
the workers in the stage of preparation in which they are found, and 
instruct them in matters supplementary to their experience in their 
callings. 

f. Length of Term. 

The length of term shall be two periods of two hours each week for 
thirty-six weeks. 

g. Qualifications of teachers. 
Same as for evening schools. 

D. Day Schools in Cities of More Than 25,000. 

a. Age Requirement. 

All girls over 14 years of age shall be eligible for admission to these 
courses. 

b. Plant and Equipment. 

The minimum for plant and equipment for home economics instruction 
shall consist of a cooking laboratory and other rooms, depending on the 
size of the school. The minimum value for the equipment of these 
rooms shall vary in cost from $150 up. 

c. Minimum for Maintenance. 

The minimum for expenditure for the maintenance of such schools 
shall be sufficient for the employment of efficient teachers and to insure 
provision for adequate equipment and supplies. 

d. Course of Study. 

The home economics courses, whenever possible, shall be four years in 
length. The following tentative organization of courses is suggested. 
The content of the courses and arrangement of topics shall be subject 
to approval in advance by the supervisor of home economics. 



82 Annual Retokt of the Statk IVjard ov Kducation 

type course 

First Year 
First Semester. 

Foods and Cookery Time per Week 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutei 

Applied (iencral Science 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

English 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Mathematics 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Physical Training 
Second Semester. 

Garment Making and Elementary Dressmaking 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

Applied Drawing, Design, and Color 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

Civics 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

English 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Mathematics 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Physical Training 

Second Year 
First Semester. 

Marketing, planning and serving of meals, housekeeping 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

Physiology and Hygiene 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

English 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

General European History 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Physical Trainini; 
Second Semester. 

Costume design and dressmaking 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

Home nursing and care of infants 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

English 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

General European History 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Physical Training 

Third Year 
First Semester. 

House planning, home sanitation and house furnishing 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

Household Chemistry 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

English 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Elementary Economics and Sociology 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Second Semester. 

Textiles 

Classroom 1 period 45 minutes 

Laboratory 1 double period 90 minutes 

Cookery 

Classroom 2 periods 90 minutes 

Laboratory 1 double period 90 minutes 

Household Chemistry 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

English 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Household Mathematics 

Classroom S periods 225 minutes 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 83 



Fourth Yeah 
First Semester 

Elementary dietetics and invalid cookery 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

Home Management 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

Household Physics 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

United States History 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Second Semester. 

ilillinery and advanced dressmaking 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

Household Physics 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

Home Management 

Classroom 3 periods 135 minutes 

Laboratory 2 double periods 180 minutes 

United States History 

Classroom 5 periods 225 minutes 

Note: The time given to laboratory work in Home Management should be the 
equivalent to the time specified in the above outline. 

e. Methods of Instruction. 

Home economics instruction shall consist of recitations, laboratory, and 
practical work, given with methods tending to promote the use of these 
methods in the home. 

f. Length of Term. 

The term shall be at least nine months. 

g. Hours of Instruction per Week. 

The school week shall consist of at least thirty hours, 
h. Qualifications of Teachers. 

The Federal funds shall be used in part payment of the salaries of 
home economics teachers who have completed, in addition to the 
equivalent of a high school education, a course in home economics in 
a state training school or an approved college or school which gives at 
least a two-year course in home economics, and who present satisfactory 
evidence of at least two years' practical experience including a con- 
siderable period of actual management of a home, and who have had 
successful practice teaching as a part of their preparation, or have had 
successful teaching experience. 

E. Day Schools in Cities and Toivns of Less Than 25,000. 

a. Age Requirement. 

All girls over 14 years of age shall be eligible for admission to these 
courses. 

b. Plant and Equipment. 

The minimum for plant and equipment for home economics instruction 
shall consist of a cooking laboratory and other rooms, depending on the 
size of the school. The minimum value for the equipment of these 
rooms shall vary in cost from $150 up. 

c. Minimum for Maintenance. 

The amount expended for maintenance shall be not less than $5 per 
pupil per school year. 



84 Annual Report of the .Statk Board oi- l*"of cation 



d. Course of Study. 

If a two-year course be offered, the following tentative organizations 
is suggested : 

First Year 

Time per Day 
in Minutes. 

Cieneral principles of cookery 90 

AjipMcd general science 90 

(larment making, elementary dressmaking, textiles 90 

Applied drawing, design and color 90 

English 90 

Civics 90 

Physical Training 90 

Second Year 

Dressmaking, house planning and furnishing 90 

Home management and household accounting 90 

Sanitation and hygiene 90 

English 90 

Industrial History and Physical Training 90 

e. Methods of Instruction. 

Home economics instruction shall consist of recitations, laboratory and 
practical work, given with methods tending to promote the use of these 
methods in the home. 

f. Length of School Year. 

The length of time for instruction in these departments shall be not 
less than two years of nine months each. At least one half of the 
pupil's school day shall be given to practical work on a useful and 
productive basis. 

g. Hours of Instruction per Week. 

The number of hours of instruction in these schools shall be thirty 
hours per week. 

h. Qualifications of Teachers. 

The teachers of these courses shall have had a four-years' high school 
course, or the equivalent, and have had two years of additional work 
of college grade, approximately one third of which was in general 
academic subjects and approximately two thirds in home economics; 
and as a part of their preparation not less than two hundred recitation 
hours in the theory of education and in the art of teaching home 
economics. 

j. Qualifications of Supervisor. 

Federal funds shall be used in part payment of the salary of a 
supervisor of home economics, who shall have the following qualifica- 
tions : 

1. Must have had experience in managing a home. 

2. Must have completed the equivalent of a four-year course in a 
standard college of home economics. 

3. Must have had the equivalent of a year's graduate work in pro- 
fessional education. 

4. Must have had the equivalent of at least one year's experience as a 
teacher of home economics. 

k. Plan of Supervision. 

The duties of the state supervisor of home economics shall be as follows : 
1. The supervision of all schools receiving Federal money for the 
salaries of teachers of home economics. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 85 

2. The supervision of all other schools or departments of home eco- 
nomics in the State meeting the standards set up by the State Board 
and approved by the Federal Board, even though such schools are 
not to receive Federal aid. 

3. Studying the conditions of the State and the school facilities of 
particular communities which seem best suited to the establishment 
of vocational departments or schools of home economics. 

4. The preparation, from time to time, of bulletins of information con- 
cerning the teaching of home economics in schools or departments 
in a state, and the setting forth of the possibilities of such instruction. 

5. The preparation of reports for the Slate Board concerning home 
economics instruction in the State. 

6. Holding conferences of teachers engaged in the teaching of home 
economics subjects. 

7. Promoting in other ways vocational home economics education in the 
State. 

8. Assisting teachers of hom.e economics to improve their methods of 
instruction by personal consultation, by correspondence, and by 
publications. 

'. TEACHER-TRAINING. 

1. Budget. 

Tentative budget of teacher-training funds is as follows: 

A. Agricultural subjects 25% 

B. Trade and Industrial subjects 25% 

C. Home economics subj ects 25% 

D. Supervision of agricultural, home economics, trade and industrial 
subjects 25% 

(Not more than 15% of the total teacher-training fund shall be used for 
supervision in any one line.) 

2. Agriculture. 

A. Kinds of Schools. 

Vocational teachers of agriculture shall be trained in the Maryland State 
College of Agriculture, College Park. Special day and summer school 
classes shall be arranged under the direction of the Department of Agri- 
cultural Education in the division of Vocational Education. These 
special classes shall be formed for the benefit of those who are preparing 
themselves for teaching positions in departments of vocational agriculture. 

B. Length of Te'rm. 

The day course shall be four years in length, embracing a total of 204 
term hours exclusive of military drill. Summer courses shall be arranged 
to meet the needs of teachers in service and others preparing to teach in 
vocational departments of agriculture. 

C. Entrance Requirements. 

Entrance requirements shall be graduation from a standard four-year 
high school, or its equivalent, and adequate farm experience acquired 
after reaching the age of 14. 

D. Course of Study. 

The course of study shall be so arranged that students may spend at 



86 Annual Report of thi-: STy\'rK Board op Education 

least 40% of their time on technical agricultural subjects; approximately 

25% on related agricultural science; approximately 20% on subjects of 
a general educational character; and approximately 15% on subjects in 

professional education. (See Agricultural Education Curriculum of the 
Maryland State College of Agriculture, submitted herewith.) 

AGRICULTURAL KDUCATION CURRICULUM OF THE MARYLAND 
STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

Fbeshman Year 
Subject Term 

English 3 3 3 

Public Speaking 1 1 1 

Cieneral Chemistry 4 4 — 

The Metals and Qualitative Analysis — — 4 

General Zoology 3 3 — 

(General Botany — — 3 

X^Qcational Guidance 2 2 2 

Indu.strial History, or | 

Mathematics, or /- 4 4 4 

Language ) 

Military Instruction — Basic Course 2 2 2 

Sophomore Year 

Cereal Crops 4 — — 

Soils — 4 — 

Geology — — 4 

Principles of Pomology 4 — — 

Plant Physiology — 4 4 

Animal Husbandry 4 3 — 

Principles of Vegetable Gardening — — 4 

Elective 5 6 S 

Military Instruction — Basic Course 2 2 2 

Junior Year 

English 2 2 2 

Principles of Economics 3 3 — 

Soils 3 — — 

Poultry — 3 — 

Forage Crops — — 3 

Principles of Teaching and Educational Psychology 3 3 — 

Observation and Methods 2 2 — 

Methods in Vocational Agriculture — — 3 

Observation and Methods — — 2 

Elective 4 4 6 

Military Instruction — Advanced Course R R R 

Senior Year 

Farm Accounting 4 — — 

Farm Management — 4 4 

Community -Study 2 2 2 

Methods in \'ocational Agriculture 2 2 — 

Supervised Teaching and Observation 5 2 2 

Problems in Secondary Education — — 2 

Elective 4 7 7 

Military Instruction — Advanced Course R R R 

E. Observation and Practice Teaching. 

Provisions for observation and practice teaching shall be arranged with 
high schools near the Maryland State College of Agriculture. When- 
ever possible, this observation work shall be done in an approved Federal 
department of vocational agriculture. 

F. Graduation Requirements. 

Graduation shall require the successful completion of the agricultural 

education curriculum, as laid down, or its equivalent, and two years of 
farm experience acquired after reaching the age of 14. 

G. Certification. 

Graduates from the above-mentioned teacher-training classes shall be 
entitled to certification for vocational work without examination. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 87 

H. Special Courses. 

It is planned that summer schools shall be conducted, when experience 
shows the need of such work. 
3. Trades and Industries. 

A. Kinds of Schools and Classes. 

The trade and industrial schools to be established in Maryland within 
the next two or three years will be able to absorb only a limited number 
of teachers. In line with a policy which aims to produce no more teachers 
than can be utilized, the teacher-training plan for the year 1918-1919 is 
not an extensive one. It is planned rather to start with a few necessary 
forms of training and later expand these as the needs of the State become 
greater. It is recognized that, for the present, at least, shop teachers 
must come from the trades and industries, if they are to have adequate 
trade or industrial experience. The teacher-training proposition thus 
resolves itself into giving more of the professional side of the work than 
of the technical content. Shop teachers will be recruited from industry 
and given the required professional training in evening classes. Some 
teachers of related subjects will be obtained from the graduates of 
technical schools. In order to provide the professional training necessary, 
a limited amount of this work will be offered to students in the Mechanical 
Engineering Department of the Maryland State College of Agriculture; 
so that the graduates in mechanical engineering may qualify as teachers 
of related subjects as soon as they have obtained the necessary trade 
experience. In addition, a summer session is planned, which will offer 
both technical and professional work to present and prospective teachers 
of industrial subjects. The teacher-training classes in Maryland, or- 
ganized under the Smith-Hughes Law, will be under the direction of the 
Maryland State College of Agriculture, College Park. The evening classes 
for shop teachers will be held in Baltimore and in other centers where it 
seems advisable. 

B. Work of Institutions. 

Details of the work to be given in these classes are as follows: 
a. Shop Teachers. 

Shop teachers will be recruited from the trade and trained in evening 
classes. The number of persons provided for in the class will be 
limited to the number that may be utilized in trade arid industrial classes 
in Maryland during the next two or three years. 

1. Entrance Requirements. 

Enrollment in evening classes for the training of shop teachers shall 
be limited to persons who have completed the elementary school and 
who have had at least one year of shop experience beyond the appren- 
ticeship stage. 

2. Length of Course. 

a. Courses shall be one or two years in length. 

b. The hours of instruction shall be at least 100 hours per j'ear. 

3. Course of Study. 

The course of study will include trade mathematics and trade draw- 
ing, as well as the principles and methods of teaching. Instruction 
will be largely by discussion, and will include such subjects as analysi.s 



88 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

of tlie trade for teaching purposes, preparation and discussion of 
lesson plans, a study of general and special methods for industrial 
classes, and a limited amount of industrial history. 

4. Obsen'ation and Practice Teaching. 

Provision shall be made for observation and practice teaching in the 
regular evening industrial classes, with a specially recruited class, if 
necessary. 

5. Graduation Requirements. 

Graduation shall require successful completion of the work outlined, 
including an adequate amount of practice teaching. No person shall 
be graduated from this course who has had less than two years of 
shop or trade experience beyond the apprenticeship stage, and who is 
not able to perform all the mechanical processes commonly required 
of journeymen in the trade or branch of industry to be taught. 

6. Certification. 

Upon fulfilling the requirements for graduation from this course, a 
certificate shall be granted for the particular subject or subjects for 
which the applicant has qualified. This certificate shall be valid for 
one year, and renewable on evidence of successful experience and 
professional spirit. 
b. Teachers of Related Subjects. 

Teachers of related subjects will be trained in technical courses in the 
Maryland State College of Agriculture, and in evening classes in Balti- 
more and other centers. The following tentative course is proposed : 
FOUR-YEAR COURSE, MARYLAND STATE COLLEGE 

1. Entrance Requirements. 

Requirements for admission to this course shall be the same as those 
for the engineering courses of the College. 

2. Length of Term. 

The length of course shall be four years. 

3. Course of Study. 

The course of study proposed is substantially the mechanical engi- 
neering course with addition of the follow-ing work in industrial 
education : 

Subject Term Hours 

Industrial Shop Mathematics 3 

Industrial History 3 

Principles of Industrial Education 3 

Methods of teaching related industrial .subjects 3 

Practice Teaching 6 

The course contains: 

Mathematics 36 

English and related subjects 27 

Chemistry 20 

Physics 21 

Drawing 55 

Shop work (woodwork, machine shop practice, forge and foundry) . . 42 

Mechanical Engineering subjects 68 

Electrical Engineering subjects 10 

Military instruction 18 

Economics 6 

Contracts 3 

4. Observation and Practice Teaching. 

Provision will be made for observation and practice teaching in the 
industrial classes of the College and in nearby schools. 



Annual Report of the State; Board of Education 89 

5. Graduation. 

Graduation shall require the completion of the full course outlined 
above. 

6. Certification. 

On satisfactory completion of graduation requirements and evidence 
of satisfactory trade contact, a certificate shall be issued permitting 
the holder to teach related subjects for one year, renewable on evi- 
dence of successful experience and professional spirit. 

c. General Continuation Teachers. 

No special classes will be started for training teachers of this type, as 
they will be supplied through the regular normal and other teacher- 
training agencies of the State. 

d. Training of Teachers in Service. 

As it may be impossible to secure sufficient teachers for the year 1918- 
1919 who satisfy the professional as well as the trade requirements, a 
considerable amount of training in service must be done. This will be 
done largely by the state supervisor, who shall devote such time to this 
work as conditions require. 

Home Economics. 

A. Kinds of Schools. 

The courses for the training of teachers in home economics shall be given 
in the Maryland State College of Agriculture. 

B. Entrance Requirements. 

Admission to such courses will be restricted to persons who have been 
graduated from a recognized four-year high school course or its equiva- 
lent. 

C. Length of Course. 

The course of study shall cover a period of four years, embracing a total 
of 204 term hours. 

D. Course of Study. 

HOME ECONOMICS EDUCATION 

Freshman Year 

Subject 

English 3 

Public Speaking 1 

Chemistry 3 

Biology 2 

Freshman Lectures 1 

Drawing and Design 4 

Textiles and Sewing — 

Physical Training 1 

Sophomore Year 

Organic Chemistry 4 — 

Physiology 4 

Bacteriology and Public Health — 4 4 

Elements of Community Study 2 2 2 

Food Study and Cookery 4 4 

Dressmaking — 4 

Dietetics 4 

Physical Training 1 i j 

Elective 3 3 7 



Term 




3 


— 


1 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


1 


1 


4 





1 


t 



90 Annual Report of the Statr Board op Education 



Ji'NiOR Year 

English 2 2 2 

Advanced Design 2 2 — 

Home Care of the Sick 2 — — 

Nutrition — 5 5 

Principles of Teaching 3 — — 

Educational Psychology — 3 — 

Observation and Methods in Schools of Nearby Cities and Towns 1 1 — 

General Methods in Home Economics — — 3 

Elective 6 3 5 

Senior Year 

Economics 3 3 — 

Clothing — 3 3 

Home Equipment 3 3 — 

Home Management — — 5 

Methods in Home Economics Education 6 — 6 

Supervised Teaching and Observation 5 1 1 

Problems in Secondary Education — — 2 

Elective 4 4 5 

E. Observation and Practice Teaching. 

Provision for observation and supervised teaching shall be made with 
any convenient high school. 
One credit hour to be given for two hours practice teaching. 

F. Graduation. 

Graduation from four-year teacher-training courses will involve the 

completion of the prescribed course; supervised practice teaching; and 

practical experience derived in a home, whether before admission to such 
courses or during the teacher-training period; and supervised home man- 
agement for two or three weeks during the course. 

G. Certification. 

Those graduating from four-year teacher-training courses will be en- 
titled to a State teacher's certificate. 
H. Special Courses. 

A summer school may be conducted in 1919 offering such courses as may 
be shown by the experience of the year to be needed. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 91 

SUPERVISION OF HIGH SCHOOLS 

By Samuel M. North, Supervisor of High Schools 

Progress 1917-1918 

Three objectives for the supervision of high schools during 1917-1918 
were set forth in my report to the State Superintendent on June 4, 
1917; viz., (1) More apparatus, text-books, materials of instruction, 
and library equipment; (3) Rearrangement and better readjustment 
of the programs of the high schools to the State Course of Study; 
and (3) More and better teachers. Satisfactory progress has been 
made during the year towards better equipment, and an increasing 
sensitiveness on this head would seem to guarantee still further im- 
provement. All our schools are now living strictly up to the require- 
ments of the State Course of Study, the irregularities antedating 1916- 
1917 having been adjusted. As regards the need for more and better 
prepared teachers, however, progress has not been so marked, the in- 
ducements offered by positions in governmental and in commercial 
employ having caused a large turn-over in our teaching force by Feb- 
ruary, 1918, a turn-over which constantly increased until the end of 
the year and which constitutes the most difficult high school problem 
that we are facing for 191S-1919. From present indications it seems 
probable that we shall be able to provide staffs for all our approved 
schools, though this will, in a considerable number of cases, be possible 
only through the employment of provisionally certificated teachers. 

Status of Schools, 1918-1919 

The following is a tabulation showing some facts regarding the 
operation of the approved high schools during 1917-1918. and certain 
of these facts will be useful in determining the status of these schools 
for 1918-1919: 

1. Approved high schools, by groups. 

2. State aid extended each school. 

3. Number of teachers of regular subjects, including principals, in each 
school. 

4. Number of teachers of special subjects in each school. 

5. Enrollment of each school. 

6. Average daily attendance of each school. 

7. First Group schools entitled to apply for more state aid than in 
1917-1918. 



98 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

8. I-'irst Group schools entitled to less state aid than in 1917-1918. 

9. I-irst Group schools falling into the Second Group. 

10. Second Group schools entitled to apply for admission into the First 
Group. 

11. Second Group schools which have fallen below the requirements for 
a place in the Second Group. 

Attention is invited to tiie following comparisons. During^ the year 
1917-1918, the total enrolhncnt of the approved high schools increased 
over the 1916-1917 enrollment by 369 pupils; but the Second Group 
schools fell off by 147, whereas the First Group schools increased 
by 516. Last year the Second Group schools showed a gain of only 
5 pupils; this year these schools show a loss of 147. Only 8 of the 
31 First Group schools enrolled fewer pupils than last year; but lo 
of the 39 Second Group schools fell below last year's enrollment. 
Twenty-two schools of the First Group and 26 of the Second Group 
had gains in enrollment ; but the net gain, 369, was made possible by 
the First Group schools, which as a group, enrolled an increase of 516 
pupils, whereas the Second Group schools, as a group, show a loss of 
147 pupils.* 

Teaching Force, 1916-1917 and 1917-1918 

The composition of our high school teaching force is interesting, 
as showing the first changes brought about by the war — more women, 
fewer men in the schools : 

1916-1917 1917-1918 
Total number of regular teachers, including principals.. 275 289 

I'otal number of special teachers 143 145 

Total men, regular teachers 108 99 

Total: women, regular teachers 167 198 

Total men, special teachers 47 

Total women, special teachers 88 90 

Totals 83S 868 

It is but reasonable to expect that next year will show a much 
greater number and proportion of women teachers in the high schools. 

Third Group High Schools 

In the course of my work in the First and Second Group schools this 
spring, at the suggestion of the State Superintendent I inspected a 
number of schools for which application had been made for admission 



♦Number of graduates, all schools, 1916-1917 1,032 

Number of graduates, all schools, 1917-1918 974 



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Annual Report of the State Board of Education 95 

to the Third Group created by the Legislature of 1918. My findings 
and suggestions regarding the schools seen have been laid before him. 

Supervisor's Work^ 1917-1918 

The general plan of work followed was the same as tliat of last 
year. Owing to the dislocation of travel incident to the War, it was 
much more difficult to reach the schools ; and, shortly after the Christ- 
mas holiday, teachers began to leave the service in large numbers. 
Every one of the seventy approved schools was visited once ; half of 
them were seen twice; and some, three times. In every case, actual 
classroom work was seen by the Supervisor; in most cases, individual 
conferences with teachers were held ; principals were consulted with 
and advised regarding questions of organization, administration, and 
actual teaching; and, in many cases, faculty meetings were held, at 
which questions of local and of general import in secondary education 
were discussed. It is a matter of regret to have to report that our 
program for regional high school meetings could not be carried out, 
owing to the shortage of teachers in some schools and the large number 
of substitutes in others. 

Plans for 1918-1919 

The work for 1918-1919, however, will again include these regional 
meetings as one of its two principal features, the other being the devel- 
opment of professional opinion regarding the revision of the State 
Course of Study through discussions at teachers' meetings, through 
correspondence, and through committee work. Tentatively, it is planned 
to hold several of these meetings next year, the forenoon on each occa- 
sion to be devoted to a demonstration lesson and a critique, the after- 
noon to the course of study. 

Changes in Secondary Education 

It happens that our high schools were not formally organized or 
reorganized as secondary schools by the State until 1910. They simply 
grew out of the elementary school, and therefore carried up into the 
secondary grade the organization, administration, and, in most cases, 
the methods of teaching appropriate to the elementary school. Hence 
we have, in our first (present) Course of Study, the promotion by class 
(the so-called "lockstep") ; the graduation by years; and the prescrip- 
tion by the State of the subjects to be studied in each year, with little 
or no flexibility as regards the individual diflferences of pupils, schools, 
or teachers, or the needs of individual communities. Our high school 



y6 Annual Ri:i'(H<t ok tiii-: Statk Ii(Mi<i> oi- ICiji:cation 

pupils in Worcester and Garrett counties must needs take the same 
subjects as those in lialtimore and Allegany; and the urban child in 
Frederick City must largely pursue tlie same studies as the village 
child in A/Tarlboro, Sharptovvn, or Stevensville. This would certainly 
f.eem to call for reflection as regards the wisdom of prescribing a 
uniform — almost identical — curriculum or program of studies for every 
<tne of our seventy-odd schools; and such a curriculum aiJi)ears hard 
i.o justify unless we have definitively decided to turn all our high school 
graduates, of what aptitudes or from what communities soever, out 
of the same mold, and that mold one that fits best for college entrance. 
But only one-third of the children who enter the first year of the 
elementary school ever reach the high school, and only one ninth of 
these children graduate. Even of those who enter the seventh school 
year, but a few more than one half reach the first year of the four- 
year high school. Moreover, of those who do enter the four-year 
high school one third drop out before entering the second year, one 
half have gone before the beginning of the third year, and fewer than 
one third are graduated. 

Further, the outstanding fact in the history of American public 
education is the phenomenal growth in secondary education and the 
change in the character of the secondary school population. The 
number of high school pupils has increased from one for everv 210 
of total population in 1890 to one for every 75 of estimated population 
in 1915 — nearly 300% in 25 years, an increase much greater than that 

of the population of the country during the same period, the latter 
increase being only 60% ; more significant than the increase in numbers, 
however, is the change of character of the high school population. 
Up to 1890, the public high schools, the academies, etc., educated in 
the main those who intended to enter, by way of college, one of the 
professions ; but the high school now enrolls large numbers of pupils 
of widely varying hereditary, social, economic, and cultural levels, and 
of the greatest range and divergence in individual capacities, apti- 
tudes, tastes, abilities, and destinies in life. Moreover, many of the 
pupils who enter high school do not expect to complete the full course ; 
and others, on account of economic stress, can not. 

On the side of educational theory, too, certain considerations involv- 
ing both the course of study and actual teaching practice are no longer 
negligible. Chief among these is recognition of the indisputable indi- 
vidual dififerences in capacities and aptitudes among secondary school 
pupils, which, though they were ignored when the high school was a 
relatively small factor in our educational scheme and trained a selected 



Annual Report of the State Board oe Education 97 



group of people through a fixed traditional curriculum for well-recog- 
nized and conspicuous positions in life, can no longer be safely neg- 
lected, if the huge mass of children of every origin and level applying 
in increasing numbers at our high schools every year are to be best 
served and are thus to be helped to their best citizenship. 

Another and scarcely less important point for those whose duties 
include the making of courses of study, is the lessened dependence, 
resulting from scientific studies, placed upon the belief in "formal 
discipline," "general discipline," or "general transfer." No longer 
can either mathematics or Latin hold its place in the high school because 
of a belief — traditional and unfounded — that proficiency in it guaran- 
tees "education," "culture," "intelligence," or success in life. There 
is no proof that a subject is educative solely because it has nothing to 
recommend it but difficulty of learning it, or its remoteness from the 
common pursuits of daily life. 

Revision of High School Course of Study 

Our State Course of Study has now been in use for five years, a 
period during which we have had ample time to discover its strong 
points and its weak ones. In the main, it has served us well, but only 
as a unifying factor. In view of the considerations touched upon 
above, which are accentuated by our duty to bestir ourselves in the 
attempt to meet more adequately for our boys and girls the inevitable 
changes in American civilization incident to and resulting from the 
World War, the lack of flexibility of our State Course of Study has 
become more irksome. Fortunately, its list of subjects for study is 
ample ; it can be readily adapted to the several forms of vocational 
work (Smith-Hughes) that the State has recently undertaken. Its 
only need, flexibility can be attained by administrative changes. 

Objectives of the Revision 

The following objectives are proposed for a revision of the Course 
of Study: 

1. Straight promotion by subject, not by class, as at present. 

2. Graduation by units, not by years, as at present. 

3. Sixteen units for graduation, not seventeen, as at present. 

4. Fixed constants obligatory only for graduation, not for all pupils, as 
at present. 

5. All other subjects (except fixed constants) open in content sequence. 

6. Graduation by the present "courses" — academic or commercial, not 
obligatory, but elective. 



98 Annual Rki'okt ok Tiiii Statk Hoakd ov Kdccation 

Explanatory Commknt on Thkse Objectives 

1. Straight promotion by subject: At present, we practice promotion 
by classes, or rather, l)y groups of subjects ; that is, if a pupil fails in 
one of the four or five subjects he is carrying, say, in the first year, 
our course of study offers no means by which he may go on to the 
second year in the subjects in which he has passed, but assumes that he 
will take the whole first year over, satisfactory as well as unsatisfactory 
subjects. This is, of course, straight elementary school administration, 
and comment on the necessity of change is superfluous. It is true 
that resort is had to reexaminations ; to vacation study ; to private 
tuition — the latter occasionally conducted in our public high school 
buildings by our high school teachers as a private venture; to "trial" 
in the advanced class until Thanksgiving of the next year ; and to other 
more or less devious and unsatisfactory devices lacking the frankness 
and fairness that should characterize the administration of a public 
school. Promotion by subject, on the contrary, permits the student 
who has failed in first-year algebra to go on with, say, his second-year 
Latin, mathematics, and English, while taking again, with a beginning 
class, the algebra in which he failed, or, perhaps, postponing it until 
his third year, when he will certainly be more mature and probably 
more serious. 

2. Graduation by units, not by years: So far as is known, ours are 
the only high schools in the United States demanding seventeen units 
of work for graduation. No college — or but very few — asks more tlian 
fifteen units for admission. The adjustment of our high school work 
to the Smith-Hughes courses adopted by the State Board for our 
schools has been found to be practically impossible if we demand 
more than four units of work each year, or sixteen for graduation. 

But more important than these considerations is the fact, with us, 
graduation is, substantially measured by time rather than by achieve- 
ment, and that we thus make no provision for the strong pupil who 
could normally do the work of a standard high school course in three 
and one half, or even in three years, if our organization were suffi- 
ciently flexible. It is one of the strange things in all American educa- 
tion that, while we have gone to the utmost lengths to provide for the 
normal and subnormal child, we have just begun to see that the super- 
normal child has as strong a demand upon us as his less able brothers. 
In other words, we are, again, face to face with the question of indi- 
vidual differences, which will not down, and which is so vastly more 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 99 

significant in a democracy like ours than in any other form of govern- 
ment. 

3. Sixteen units for graduation: Reasons for this change are set 
forth in the preceding paragraph; it remains only to add that the 
requirement of sixteen units would permit a pupil who found that he 
had pursued for a year a subject for which he had no taste or aptitude, 
or for which he was too immature, or in which the quality of teaching 
had not been up to standard, to let the year's work go, and take some 
other subject in the next year to make up the deficiency. This is 
particularly true of pupils who carry, for one year, a foreign language 
— ancient or modern — in which subject no unit credit can be given 
for less than two consecutive years' work, and who, when they find 
they have failed at the end of the first year, simply leave school and 
thus constitute part of the appalling "June drop" occurring at the 
close of the first high-school year — one third of the total enrollment. 

4. Fixed constants obligatory only for graduation: It frequently 
happens that a pupil enters high school with the knowledge that he 
can spend only one, or at most two years ; to meet his needs, why should 
he not be permitted, say, to take a year or two of commercial work? 
Why should he be obliged to take two years of mathematics (algebra 
and geometry) ? Why should he, in his second year, if he is fond of 
science, have to study biology, for which very few of our schools have 
either adequate equipment or properly prepared teachers, when he 
could be getting a good year's work in chemistry or physics? In short, 
if we must strive to provide the greatest good for the greatest number 
of our pupils, and to keep them in school to the latest possible minute, 
and thus to make them better able to succeed when they leave the 
school, why should we say to a pupil that this or that subject is 
accessible to him only after he has spent such and such a length of 
time in the school? Here we meet again the traditional view that 
the sole purpose of high school education is to graduate the pupil 
by putting him through a rigid course ; he can take it or leave it ; it's 
that or nothing. Can we justify this procedure on the prime basis 
of the public good? On the contrary, is it not more reasonable to 
believe that interest in his school work, growing out of his aptitudes, 
tastes, and abilities in the subjects he is pursuing, will prove the 
strongest factor in constraining him to remain until he graduates? 
VVe know only too well that compulsion fails to keep the American boy 
and girl in high school ; is it not the part of wisdom, then, to try interest ? 
All the weight of experience in every line of activity answers in the 
affirmative. 



100 Annual Report of the State Board ok Education 

For graduation, however, tlie fixed constants should be taken ; but 
even for graduation there seems to be no good reason why they should 
be taken by years, as must now be done. In case of a pupil who has 
not taken, in his first and second years, say, Mathematics I and Math- 
ematics II, but who has done eight units of work in those two years, 
why should he not do Mathematics I and Mathematics II in his thirr! 
and fourth years? 

5. All other subjects (than the fixed constants) open in content 
sequence: The discussion of the preceding topic covers the reasons 
for adopting this plan. 

6. Graduation by the present "courses" (academic and commercial) 
need not be changed: That is to say, pupils who enter high school with 
the intention of staying until graduation in either course will want to 
pursue the curriculums as now laid down, for these currlculums, as 
was indicated above, were designed for graduation. On the other 
hand, there will be pupils to graduate in neither of these courses — 
pupils who will have made sixteen units, including the fixed constants, 
but who may have taken no foreign language and only a year of com- 
mercial work — a course somewhat analogous to the old "general" 
course of former years. 

Conclusions 

In brief, then, our subject-matter is almost adequate to present de- 
mands, and will be quite adequate, for the present, when we add the 
Smith-Hughes vocational courses in agriculture, household economics, 
and industrial activities ; our teachers will find no change in the scope 
of their courses, though the content may, in some cases, have to be 
re-selected and re-organized ; our problem is solely one of administra- 
tion, which wall be handled by the principals as it is elsewhere, easily 
and as a matter of mere routine. As an extreme case, every pupil in a 
school might be carrying a dififerent program ; but as a matter of fact, 
the most difficult problem will be the making of a program for the 
pupil who has failed in one or more subjects. This is universally 
true ; and it is equally true that the smaller the school, the greater the 
difficulty of affording a pupil an opportunity to repeat. Even in this 
case, however, the pupil can, as was pointed out above, drop the un- 
satisfactory subject, proceed with the next year's work and still grad- 
uate; he need not lose a whole year by reason of failure in a single 
subject. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 101 



Suggested Revision of Course of Study 

The following is offered for discussion as a tentative form for the 
Revised Course of Study: 

HIGH SCHOOL COURSE OF STUDY— REVISED 

A. Fixed Constants (to be taken by ez'ery high school pupil in this sequence) : 

1. English I 

2. English II 

3. English III 

4. Enghsh IV 

5. Science I 

6. History IV 

7. Manual Training or Household Economics I and 2 

B. Required for Graduation, Academic Course 

1. English I, II, III, and IV 

2. Mathematics I and II 

3. Science I, and Science II, or HI, or IV 

4. History IV, and History I, or II, or HI 

5. Manual Training or Household Economics I and II 

6. Foreign Language, Latin or French or German I and II 

7. And at least any other three tinits chosen from the Program of Studies 
(see below, F) 

C. Required for Graduation, Commercial Course 

1. English I, II, III, and IV 

2. Mathematics I and II 

3. Science I 

4. History IV 

5. Commercial III and IV (these count, together, as 4 units) 

6. Manual Training or Household Economics I and II 

7. And at least any other three units chosen from the Program of Studies 
(see below, F) 

D. Required for Graduation, Course Unclassified 

1. English I, II, HI, and IV 

2. History IV, and History I, or II, or HI 

3. Science I, and Science II, or III, or IV 

4. Mathematics I and II 

5. Manual Training or Household Economics I and II 

6. And at least any other five units chosen from the Program of Studies 
(see below, F) 

E. Required for Graduation, Vocational (Smith-Hughes) Courses 

1. English I, II, HI, and IV 

2. Science I 

3. History IV 

4. Four (4) units of vocational work. 

5. And at least any other six units chosen from the Program of Studies 
(see below, F) 

F. Program of Studies. (Note: This is a minimum, but not a fixed program; 



102 Annual Kki'okt of the Statk Boaku of Education 



if any school considers itself able to give, as Science II, for instance, a belter 
course in geology or physiography than in biology, it should give geology, first 
procuring the consent of the State Superintendent of Schools. This will 
frequently happen, owing to variation in the preparation of teachers.) 

English I 

English II 

English III See latest Report, Committee on College Entrance Require- 

English IV ments 

History I — The Ancient World 

History II — Modern Western Europe; the Great War 

History III — England 

History IV — American, with Civics 

Science I — General 

Science II — Biology, geology, physiography 
Science III — Chemistry or physics 
Science IV — Physics or chemistry 

Mathematics I — Arithmetic, 1/2 ; algebra, ><, or algebra alone 
Mathematics II — Plane geometry, ^; algebra (completed), H 
Mathematics III— Algebra, ^; plane geomtry, ^ 

Mathematics IV — Solid geometry, 1/3; plane trigonometry, 2/3; or solid 
geometry, Yz ; review mathematics, l/z 

Latin I — Grammar and exercises 
Latin II — Caesar 
Latin III — Virgil or Cicero 
Latin IV — Cicero or Virgil 

French, or German, or Spanish I — Grammar and exercises 
French, or German, or Spanish II —Reading and conversation 
French, or German, or Spanish III — Reading and conversation 
French, or German, or Spanish IV — Reading and conversation 

Commercial I — Penmanship; commercial arithmetic 
Commercial II — Commercial geography, Yz ; typewriting, ^ 
Commercial III — Bookkeeping; shorthand; typewriting 
Commercial IV— Bookkeeping; shorthand; typewriting 

Manual Arts I 

Manual Arts II Manual training or domestic science. Two double 

Manual Arts III periods a week for two years or one double period 

Manual Arts IV a week for four years 

G. Physical training— To be organized under Law of 1918 
H. Music— See Teachers' Year Book, 1918-1919 
L Fine Arts — To be organized 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 103 

Regulations for the Administration of the Revised Course 

OF Study 

See Year Book, 1917-1918 

Change 17 to sixteen units in Regulation 1. 

"The Roman numbers after the subjects indicate not the year of the 
pupil's attendance in the high school, but the order in which the sub- 
jects, fixed constants or electives, are normally to be pursued." 

Example of High School Schedule, 

Shozi'ing Arrangement for Promoting by Subjeet and Graduating by 
Number of Units 

Conditions to be met in making this schedule : 

1. This is a typical second-group school, having two full-time academic 
teachers in addition to the principal. 

2. The program of studies comprises 19 units exclusive of the manual 
arts, which count 1 unit; total, 20 units. 

3. The subjects open to pupils by years are : 

I 

English 
Mathematics 
History • 
Science 
Latin 
Manual Arts 

4. It is understood that this is not an ideal program ; either mathematics 
or Latin could better be omitted from the first year. 

5. In such second group schools as still retain commercial departments, 
the difficulties are obviously fewer than in the example given below, 
for the teacher of commercial subjects is always in the scliool, whereas 
the manual arts teachers come to the school only two da3'S in the week. 

6. The principal teaches Mathematics 1, 2, 3, 4; and Science 3, 4. 
Teacher A teaches English 1, 2, 3, 4; and Latin 1, 2. 
Teacher B teaches History 1, 2, 3, 4; Latin 3, 4; and Science 1. 

Note : Latin 3, 4 may be French 1, 2 ; this latter assignment is not 
an unusual distribution of work in a second-group school. 

7. There are seven periods a day in the school. 

8. Each subject gets four (4) fifty-minute periods a week. 

9. The manual arts teachers come only on Thursdays and Fridays ; but the 
conditions hold good for their coming to this school any two days of 
the week. 

10. In many cases, the third-year and fourth-year classes can be combined 
in science. Latin, and history. 



II 


III 


IV 


English 


English 


English 


Afathematics 


Matiiematics 


Mathematics 


History 


History 


History 


Latin 


Science 


Science 


Manual Arts 


Latin 


Latin 




Manual Arts 


Manual Arts 



104 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

11. Tliis schedule provides: (1) for advancing with the second year a 
number of first-year pupils who have failed in first-year Latin and 
matliematics; (2) for a number of second-year pupils who have failed 
in mathematics, who are advancing in the other subjects with the third 
year; and (3) for a number of third-year pupils who have failed in 
Latin, but who are advancing with the fourth-year in the other sub- 
jects. In each case, the pupil is repeating, with his former class, the 
work in which he failed. 

12. As the first-group schools are larger than those of the second group, 
and, consequently, employ more teachers, there is no need to show 
how a first-group school can manage these adjustments. 

13. It will be seen, after a little study of the structure of this schedule, 
that the "diagonal" assignment is the controlling factor; that is, a given 
subject is assigned, as far as possible, to a different period on the con- 
secutive days of the week. Note, for example, the first-year mathe- 
matics (IM) and third-year history (3H) fall on Monday, at the first 
period ; on Tuesday, at tlie second period ; on Wednesday, at the third 
period ; and on Thursday, at tlie fourth period. 

14. Key : 

The letters M, H, S, E, and L indicate, respectively, mathematics, his- 
tory, science, English, and Latin (or French or Spanish) ; and the 
numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 indicate the sequence of the courses in those 
subjects. 

15. It is strongly urged that daily opening services be very simple and 
extremely brief, and that the time thus saved be devoted to a weekly 
assembly of fifty minutes or an hour. . 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



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106 Annual Report of the Statu Board of Education 



THE SUPERVISION OF RURAL SCHOOLS 

By Wm. J. Holf.oway, 
Supervisor of Rural Schools. 

I entered upon the duties of this position on August 1, 1917. During 
the year I have tried in every way possible to make effective the pro- 
visions of the statute which specifies that the supervisors of rural 
schools "shall devote his energies to helping teachers, superintendents, 
and interested citizens to formulate a program of rural education 
adapted to the specific and general needs of the State, and who shall 
perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the State 
Superintendent of Schools." It is a pleasure to state that I have had 
a cordial welcome from the county superintendents, supervisors, and 
teachers, a fact which speaks loudly in praise of a generous spirit of 
professional loyalty and interest in the plans of the Department. 

In the very beginning of our work it was necessary to assist the 
various counties to determine the field of operations of county super- 
visors, — what kind of schools and what grades should be supervised, 
and what should be the supervisory function of the county superin- 
tendents. It was found that there was no unanimity of practice in 
regard to this throughout the State. The present school law had been 
in force a year before the State Department undertook the direct super- 
vision of the rural schools, and seventeen of the counties had already 
employed elementary school supervisors, as required in the law, and 
had assigned to them such duties as seemed best to meet each local 
situation. The character of work undertaken by the supervisor varied 
from the attempted supervision of 140 teachers in all types of schools 
to the supervision of the 40 teachers of a particular county in its one- 
room schools. Supervision being a new feature in the State, the county 
school authorities in too many instances seemed to feel that all the 
teachers of a county should have the benefit of this expert help, with 
the result that the supervisor was asked to undertake more work than 
it was physically possible to accomplish. It was the task of the State 
Supervisor to counsel with the superintendent and try to secure for 
the super^asor such an assignment of work as would enable her to give 
her help where the need was greatest. 



Annual Report of the State; Board of Education 107 

The supervisors of the majority of the counties are now devoting 
the major part of their time to the strictly rural schools. The superin- 
tendent is himself assuming the duties of the supervision of the larger 
graded schools and the high schools. This plan is feasible, because the 
superintendents are vi^isely required by \^i^^v to possess high professional 
qualifications. There is still a lagging tendency, in some sections of 
the State, to regard the office of county superintendent as a political 
plum, to be awarded without regard to the professional needs of the 
public school system ; but such instances are rare. Through the wise 
administration of the provisions of the school law requiring the certifi- 
cation of county superintendents, there has been a marked change in 
public sentiment in regard to these appointments. Most people think 
the time is now past when the superintendency can be adequately ad- 
ministered as a "side line" by the newspaper editor, the farmer, or the 
lawyer, or should be given as a reward for political service. 

It is recognized more and more that a teaching force can not be 
improved unless the supervising officer is constantly working with his 
teachers, living "in his saddle in the field and on the march." It is 
vital that a superintendent possess the qualifications of the trained 
supervisor. Even though the work of supervision be delegated largely 
to one or more specialists, trained supervisors who devote their whole 
time to the work, much supervision has to be done also by the superin- 
tendent himself. "Success in any occupation depends upon the native 
ability, the initial equipment, and the intensity of the desire for improve- 
ment, existing in the worker." (P. 11, Seventh Year Book.) Again, 
"The work of making good teachers must be carried forward steadily, 
because of the immaturity of teachers on entering the profession, the 
unevenness of their preparation, the singular lack of external stimulus 
connected with the practice of the profession, the complex nature of the 
work that must be entrusted to even the poorest teacher, the profound 
injury that results when the work is badly done, the constant changes 
in methods and curriculum." Superintendent Chancellor says, "In the 
good superintendent skill in supervision is more important than ability 
in administration." 

It might not be amiss to refer to some of the necessary qualifications 
of the successful superintendent. The position of county superin- 
tendent is coming to be recognized as the most important office in the 
scheme of American education. Some years ago, at the meeting of the 
country's educational convention, the Department of Superintendence 
of the N. E. A., it was interesting to note that in the discussion of the 
numerous sections and departments of that body, the term county 



108 Annual Report of the State Board oi- Eijucation 

superintendent, as such, was practically ignored. The city superin- 
tendent was in his glory. The makers of the programs for that great 
meeting seemed not to have sensed the fact that the rural uplift move- 
ment is a great problem today, pressing very hard for solution. The 
most important factor in the problem is the county superintendent. 

The community has a right to expect that its county superintendent 
shall be everything that makes for the social, moral, and economic 
improvement of that community. Progress can come only through 
educating the people, and the county superintendent must be the first to 
see the vision of the Promised Land. He must have those qualifica- 
tions that the Apostle Paul prescribes for bishops : he must be blameless, 
vigilant, sober, of good behavior, apt to teach, not greedy of filthy lucre, 
not covetous, having a good report of them that are without. Unless 
he is morally proficient in these apostolic requirements, there will be no 
conspicuous benefit conferred upon the community through his adminis- 
tration of the public school. The modern school system is dynamic to 
the core, and the superintendent not fully alive to the necessity of care- 
fully and continuously revising and enlarging his point of view is 
doomed to failure. 

Among the many business and professional duties that appertain 
to the office of superintendent, not the least important is his function as 
a supervisor. From the standpoint of growth and efficiency on the 
part of the teaching force, this duty is paramount. He must be one 
who can discern and appreciate the higher elements of teaching power. 
Not only must he be a man of general intelligence, but he must have 
studied the profession of teaching. He must determine whether or 
not the candidate for teaching possesses qualities which, though not 
nominated in the certificate, are essential to his success. The superin- 
tendent must sustain and encourage his teachers. The isolation of the 
teacher places her in peculiar need of such encouragement. Working 
alone as she does, seldom meeting her fellow teachers, she often sinks 
under a weight of sheer loneliness, and fails to do her best simply 
because there is no one to appreciate the best when it is done. The 
weakest teacher, strengthened by assurances of fellowship, goes to her 
work sustained by the strength of all her co-workers. The superin- 
tendent, therefore, must be the link which connects these isolated 
teachers with the electric current of the entire county. 

It is an aphorism that, "As is the teacher, so is the school." It is 
coming more and more to be recognized that as is the superintendent, 
so is the teaching force. Witness the increasing number of superin- 
tendents who have advanced professional training, or are availing 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 109 



themselves of every means of acquiring this training. "As the super- 
intendent is, the professional strength of his teaching force will be. 
Their efficiency is largely the product of his scholarly criticism and 
professional training in the association, institute, and classroom. The 
progressive superintendent, like the Normal School, the "child of the 
reformers," must "make new paths, defend new truths, and, in doing 
this, face the opposition of conservatives." 

The greatest obstacle the superintendent meets in his attempts at 
progress is offered by those parents and citizens who are satisfied with 
the old, and do not want him, as Dr. Gilbert says, "to be continually 
bringing new things into the schools." (The School and Its Life, p. 
186.) But, if the superintendent recognizes that "Education is the 
whole of life," and if he regards "all education as his field," he will, in 
the exercise of his social functions, bring to his aid all the forces in the 
community that make for progress. 

Community Apathy 

In my visits, many instances were found of a woeful apathy on the 
part of the community in regard to its schools. In one county the as- 
sistant teacher in a certain graded school is the daughter of a school 
official. He had gone to the city, leaving his sister-in-law to run his 
store, and had directed that his own daughter remain away from school 
in order to assist in the store. She was absent from school for two 
days. When the people responsible for the administration of the public 
school system of the county feel their own private affairs are more 
important than the welfare of 40 children, what can be expected of the 
average father, who may feel that the gathering of his crop, or the 
planting of a new one, depends upon the services of his own boys and 
girls? Surely there is much wisdom in the provisions of the statute 
that State and county officials "shall attempt in every way to awaken 
public interest and to improve educational conditions." 

At the time of one of my visits, the public schools of a county had 
been in session three months, and none of the schools seen by me that 
day had, up to that time, been "officially" visited by the county superin- 
tendent. Nor did the superintendent know that several of his schools 
were using slates, stating as his belief that there remained not a slate 
in the county. 

In another county the superintendent explained that in rural sections 
the people will do nothing free for the schools and tend to charge 
exorbitant prices for fuel and for work, if the material or work is 
known to be for the county. A man who wanted $8.00 for the hire of 



1 10 Annual Rkvoht of the Statk lioAKD of Education 



a team and consented to accept $6.00, said, when the bill was paid, "I 
would have charged you fellows $12.00 if I had known it was for the 
schools." Again, to report one of several similar instances: A certain 
community was apparently satisfied with the work of a teacher who 
was in her first year of service, though she was found to be a .slave to 
the textbook, yet did not know the contents of the books she was trying 
to teach. She was unskillful and lazy, permitted continual disorder in 
her school, making no provision for seat work, and was altogether 
incompetent. It ought to need no argument to show that a cheap 
teacher is dear, because of the time she loses. 

In one of the richest counties of the State two overflow classes of 
a large graded school at the county seat are taken care of in an aban- 
doned storeroom, which is made into two classrooms by means of a 
single thickness of wood, extending only two-thirds of the way to the 
ceiling. The lighting is entirely inadequate, there is no provision for 
ventilation, and the heating is insufficient. Such are a few of many 
deplorable conditions observed, physical and professional, needing only 
an aroused public consciousness for their eradication. 

Supervision of Country Schools 

The greatest of all duties that are the county superintendent's, the 
one duty to which all others are secondary, is the supervision of the 
country schools, — either directly, as a few superintendents are trying 
to do now, or through the supervisor, which is the better way. The 
city and village schools often have as principals of the graded schools 
men and women who, under the superintendent's direction, are capable 
of doing good work in the way of supervision in their own schools. It 
it a wise provision of a by-law of the State Board of Education that 
"where only one supervisor of the elementary schools is employed in 
any county, such supervisor should be assigned to the one-teacher rural 
schools." It has been the effort of the State Supervisor to bring about 
such a division of duties between the superintendent and the supervisor 
as will allow the supervisor to devote her entire attention to the one 
and two-teacher school. The supervisory officials must keep their 
hearts alive to the interests of the country schools. For the good of 
these schools the supenasors must utilize all the educational forces of 
the county. The little red schoolhouse must be the center of the con- 
flict. Every effort must be made to enlist the people on the farms in 
the work of the schools, to interest the patrons in giving their children 
a better education, and to get the community thoroughly in harmony 
with the aims of the schools. Every opportunity to attend meetings in 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 111 

the country should be accepted by the supervisors, since there they will 
have a chance to give encouragement to educational work by their 
presence and by their words. By commencement exercises in the 
country, box and tie socials, basket suppers, and school entertainments, 
more enthusiasm can be aroused and more people can be made heartily 
interested in the work of the schools than by anything else. Through- 
cut the State such activities have been carried on more generally during 
the past year than ever before. The State Supervisor himself has 
accepted numerous engagements to attend afternoon and evening meet- 
ings of school patrons, as well as granges and clubs where discussions 
of the needs of the rural schools were given a prominent place on the 
program. 

The rural school is the school of the people. From it, in the future, 
as in the past, must come a majority of those who will pursue a scholas- 
tic career in our colleges and institutions of higher learning; and from 
it will come also most of those who are destined by native force of 
character to create the great fortunes, and to wield the potential in- 
fluence of the next generation. If this be not true, then history does 
not repeat itself. Some one has said, "The history of the world has 
been made by men reared in the country and schooled in country 
schools." 

The improvement of the rural school is a question of the greatest 
importance. "No more pressing problem confronts American educa- 
tion than to provide some effective means of supervising the rural 
schools." (Bagley, Classroom Management.) 

It is conceded by all students of education that the conditions in the 
country schools are not today what they should be for the proper prepa- 
ration of country boys and girls for American citizenship. We are 
confronted in Maryland, as elsewhere, by the task of developing more 
efficient schools for country boys and girls, adequate to meet the needs 
of the country people, and better adapted to their life and environment ; 
schools that shall be more closely related to country life, and shall pro- 
vide for country boys and girls such instruction and training as will 
prepare them to make the most out of country things — soil, plant, and 
animal — and to get out of country environment the most of efficiency, 
and health, and strength of character, and beauty, and joy, and comfort, 
and contentment. I am pleased to report that most of our supervisors 
are keenly alive to the needs of the country schools, and are laboring to 
make them intellectual, social, literary, moral, agricultural, and indus- 
trial institutions — in a word, cultural and vocational centers for country 
communities. 



112 Annual Report of the Static Board of Education 

Character of Supervision 

The supervisors generally and the more professionally qualified of 
the county superintendents are no longer content to limit their work 
to mere inspection. It has been held by some authorities that the 
character of the inspection will go far to determine the character of 
the school, and that a rigid inspection of the country schools is an 
indispensable condition to any great improvement. The trouble with 
this view is that it stops short of the true function of the supervisor. 
The whole purpose of supervision work is so to deal with the situation 
which the supervisor finds as to get the maximum results in the way of 
improvement. To criticise, to inspect, is not the aim. Inspection is 
not only not supervision, but may interfere with it. The main purpose 
is to get the teacher beyond where she is ; not primarily to get rid of 
her, but to find out where her strength is and to build it up. While 
doing the true work of the supervisor, the superintendent and the 
supervisor can do their inspecting incidentally, but it should not be 
made prominent. 

The prime objects the superintendent should consider in visiting are, 
first, to observe the "management and instruction, and give suggestions 
for the improvement of the same" (Maryland School Law) ; and 
second, to advise, counsel, and assist. But there are also some other 
important things to observe. The first of these is to find out what the 
pupils know. This is a test of the past work of the teacher or teachers, 
and is shown by the general manner of the pupils in their recitations, 
the promptness with which the pupils reply, the amount of information 
they have, the degree of skill they manifest, or the power of original 
thinking they have developed. This is found out by observation of the 
recitation work, sometimes by the superintendent himself taking a class, 
or by looking over examination papers which are kept on file. 

A second important duty is the inspection of the physical condition 
of the grounds and building. He should note the conditions and, if 
any of them are unsanitary, take steps to bring about a change at once. 
He should note the lighting, seating, ventilation, and temperature of 
the room, and, if any of these essentials to the physical comfort are 
poor, do all within his power to correct them. The school environment 
is a factor that conditions the teaching process, and must be considered 
in connection with the work that the teacher is trying to do. 

The State Supervisor gave careful study during the past year to 
the conditions under which teachers work. It was felt that country 
children are entitled to the right kind of country school, taught by a 



Annual Report of the State: Board of Education 113 

teacher who is in sympathy with all that is richest and best in country 
life, and that only in this way will these children acquire the finer ideals 
and form, eventually, a race of people who will choose to remain in the 
country, and who will find pleasure and profit in doing- so. The diffi- 
culty was in arriving at the definition of the right kind of school. 

The box-car, or the shoe-box type of one-room school prevails ia 
Maryland, as in other parts of the country. Most of these schools were 
built before definite standards for schoolhouse construction were 
deemed necessary. The buildings were designed generally by a local 
carpenter and patterned after the country church, in close proximity to 
which it is often located. The controlling motive in the design seems 
to have been economy of cost, and very little attention was paid to pro- 
viding proper facilities for carrying on approved school work. It is 
encouraging to note that there is a growth of public sentiment in this 
legard. This growth is hastened by a provision of the school law re- 
quiring the approval of schoolhouse plans by the State Superintendent 
of Schools. One county iti particular, where some of the poorest 
country schools in the State may be found, has recently adopted plans 
for the most modern and improved type of rural school building. Com- 
modious and sightly schoolhouses are community assets. Their scien- 
tific construction, convenient arrangement, and sanitary appointment 
make for good health and greater efficiency. Their artistic adornment 
teaches silent but powerful daily lessons in right living, while spacious 
and beautiful grounds add to the joys and multiply the opportunities 
of childhood. Money spent for these things is, therefore, not an 
expense, but an investment. Hitherto the motto seems to have been: 
Spend as little as possible for the country school ; whereas the slogan 
might well be : The best is none too good for the country child. 

I would recommend that steps be taken toward standardizing rural 
schools, and that to this end a pamphlet be issued by the State Board 
of Education setting forth the minimum requirements for a standard 
school. The Department should also issue a booklet on schoolhouse 
architecture, giving plans and specifications for the various types of 
school buildings that will be approved. When these standards are set 
up, it is believed there will be little difficulty in securing the cooperation 
of county boards of education in meeting the requirements. 

Materials of Instruction 

Another index of a good school is the materials of instruction with 
which it is provided. I regret to report that "no maps, no globe, no 
musical instrument, no pictures" occur with discouraging frequency in 



114 Annual Report of the State Board op Education 

my records of visits. It was my constant eflfort to stimulate and en- 
courage the feelinj:^, on the part of school officials and teachers, that 
efificient school instruction is impossible without a certain modicum of 
equipment with which the teacher may work. On the other hand, I 
am pleased to say that many schools were found to have all the facili- 
ties for good work. In a single schoolroom, which itself exhibits most 
of the earmarks of the best type of building, were found adjustable 
single desks, green slate-boards, a bookcase, an oil stove for domestic 
science instruction, a globe, a Maryland map, and a victrola. It is to 
be regretted that some unfavorable conditions at the same school must 
be named : an unjacketed stove, no pictures on the wall, and no books 
for the bookcase. This instance is typical of the equipment in many 
schools, which exhibit some of the best facilities for instruction along 
with an entire lack of some that would seem to be indispensable. On 
the whole, however, the various supervisors are laboring constantly to 
correct, in the schools under their supervision, any deficiencies in 
equipment. 

Need for Supervision 

It would seem that no argument would be needed to show the 
necessity for expert supervision of the rural school ; yet, in many sec- 
tions, there prevails a feeling that the teachers do not need such help, 
or that, if they do, the county superintendent alone is entirely competent 
to give it. I should like to take these conscientious objectors with me 
on a trip to the rural schools of any county in the State, and have my 
companions study with me the conditions under which country boys 
and girls are obliged to work, and the kind of teaching with which 
hundreds of them are inflicted. Such a study would undoubtedly make 
a convert of the ultra-conservative and of the most consistent tight- 
wad tax-payer. A few instances, chosen from one or two fields of 
instruction, noticed in schools in widely separated sections of the State, 
will suffice. One schoolroom visited is entirely surrounded by a grove 
of trees. It has five windows on two sides, and is very dark even when 
the sun shines. It was raining; the teacher had the class read with the 
curtain all the way down, the class standing six feet from the window. 
She was untrained and inexperienced, but was amenable to suggestions 
and anxious to learn. To deny her the opportunity for growth that 
comes from expert supervision is unfair, both to her and to the entire 
community. This county is blessed with one of the best supervisors 
in the State, who is keenly sensitive to such conditions as above de- 
scribed, and is taking the proper steps to remedy them. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 115 



In another room, eleven children were found in the "primer class.'" 
The teacher conducted during our visit eleven different recitations in 
reading in this class. Beginning reading is taught by the teacher's 
pointing to one letter and calling it and having the child repeat the 
letter after her. Primers are put into the hands of the children the 
first day of school, and each child is allov^ed to go on as fast as he can. 
The teacher claims good results with this system and sees no reason 
for changing it. She has been ten years in the same room, and during 
this time not a picture has been provided for the school. Slates arc 
used by the children. In number work beginners are taught first to 
count to 100, then to make figures and learn all the multiplication tables 
up to 12. The beginners are taught number from 9 :15 to 10 o'clock, 
and arithmetic work occupies all the morning. 

In another school of the same county, the assignment in spelling 
was twenty words from the prescribed spelling book. No attempt was 
made to teach the lesson. Every word was pronounced by one of the 
children, many mistakes being made. The class was called on to cor- 
rect mistakes in pronunciation. The concluding direction of the teacher 
was, "Write ten sentences of words you don't understand ; look them up 
in the dictionary." The county board of education declines to employ 
a supervisor in this county. 

In another county, also without a supervisor, a school was visited 
where the teacher's program called for spelling first in the morning; 
because, as the teacher says, it was "too cold in the room to work arith- 
metic first." If a child misses three words in spelling he "stays in" 
and writes each misspelled word ten times. In the assignment some 
little attempt was made to call attention to the points of difficulty as to 
silent letters and pronunciation. 

In a county where there is a good supervisor, with, however, entirely 
too many schools under her charge, a teacher visited was conducting a 
second grade spelling lesson. A lesson had been assigned in a text- 
book, and the children were reciting orally; they made so many mis- 
takes that they were told to study the lesson over again. In the after- 
noon they wrote the words and exchanged papers while the teacher 
spelled the words correctly, the children making many errors. The 
pupils making more than two mistakes were required to see the teacher 
after recess. The assignment was "eleven words on page 21" of the 
spelling book. The teacher pronounced the words and used the sen- 
tences in the book to illustrate the meaning of the words. There was 
no teaching of the spelling. That was left for the child to get as best 
he could. 



116 Annual Report of the State Board oi- Education 

In another county, the superintendent of which was the only super- 
visor, two spelling- lessons were noted — one oral, the other written. 
The assignment in one case was, "Take the next lesson," nothing more. 
In the written recitation the children wrote the words from the teacher's 
dictation, then stood in line while the teacher spelled the words, then 
"cut up" on the basis of the percentage made by each child. 

In still another county, where a good supervisor had recently been 
employed, the spelling lesson consisted of definitions given by the 
teacher, in which, be it said, she made many errors. Sixteen words 
were assigned for the next day ; no effort was made to teach them, and 
the children were told to find the definitions. The only available ref- 
erence was found to be two small dictionaries. 

Many instances were discovered where penmanship was not really 
taught, practically no attention being paid to the child's position, the 
form of letters, movement exercises, and the following of a good copy. 
Another teacher scheduled her writing lessons the first thing in the 
afternoon and used the copy books only. She holds a diploma in 
Palmer penmanship, but she says she has only five minutes for writing 
and cannot use the Palmer method. 

In this county no attempt has been made anywhere to group the 
classes of the one-teacher school. Supervision depends entirely upon 
the superintendent. 

Instances might be multiplied of inexpert teaching by untrained, 
inexperienced teachers in all of the common school branches ; and yet 
these teachers are earnest, honest, and conscientious. Many of them 
recognize their ineflficiency and welcome all the help the supervisor can 
give them. When they ask for bread, shall we give them a stone ? 

Principles of Supervision 

Another objective which I set up on assuming the duties of this 
position was to visit as many schools as possible in company with super- 
visors or superintendents, note conditions of school property, observe 
the teacher at work in the classroom and the supervisor's manner of 
working with the teacher, and advise with the supervisor about ways 
and means of improving classroom instruction. Efforts were made, in 
conferences with supervisors, to agree on principles of supervision and 
on proper modes of procedure to meet the conditions found. Whether 
the visiting supervisor took charge of the class depended on circum- 
stances. As a general rule, if the supervisor does this, she has no 
opportunity to observe the work of the teacher; and some teachers are 
wise enough to get the supervisor to take the class, in order that their 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 11? 

own inefficiency may not be displayed. This objection, however, does 
not always hold. Often, by taking the class, the supervisor can best 
show the teacher how a certain work should be done. It is here that 
one important means of supervision may be exercised. For most 
teachers teaching is an art. They gain control mostly by imitation, and 
for this reason imitation is justified. It will not be possible to get the 
teacher to apprehend the significance of the theory one wishes to pro- 
pound, except through its exemplification in practice. There is needed 
more than a belief in its reasonableness. Teaching is not wholly an 
intellectual process, an intellectual response, or assent to the method 
you propose, nor simply an appreciation of the value of the method. 
Teaching is a matter of personality, habituation, on the basis of imita- 
tion, to a certain thing. Hence, on occasion, the necessity of a demon- 
stration lesson. It should, however, be used sparingly during the school 
visits. The function of the demonstration lesson as part of teachers' 
meetings will be discussed later. 

No teacher should be criticised in the presence of her class. Should 
unsatisfactory work be noted, the defects should be pointed out at a 
private conference. The attitude of the supervisor should not be that 
of a critic, but of a friend who is seeking to extend a helping hand. 
Kindly, but plainly and firmly, the wrong method, the weak discipline, 
the lack of equipment, the failure to grasp the essentials of a subject, the 
want of sympathy, the defect, whatever it is, should be pointed out. 
And the criticisms should be constructive rather than destructive. If 
one tears down he should be sure to erect something upon the ruins, 
suggest a remedy, and assist the teacher in applying it. 

The supervisor visiting the schoolroom should share responsibilities 
yet develop sympathies, measure successes, check failures, and always 
eulogize the best things found, criticising as seldom as possible. One 
matter continually misunderstood is that the rural school with its seven 
grades is at least seven times as complex and hard to classify as a room 
in the city schools, and the classification must be made by the inex- 
perienced, poorly paid, and over-worked teacher. What must be the 
result, unless a broad-minded, sympathetic supervisor is ever near with 
a workable plan and kindly suggestion? 

In addition to destructive-constructive criticisms, two other types 
that always should be employed whenever possible are appreciative and 
suggestive criticisms. Every teacher has some good points. There is 
an element of success in her work somewhere, unless she be of a hope- 
less type for whom the best thing would be kindly, gently, and lovingly 
to lay her on the shelf. It is the business of the supervisor to discover 



118 Annual Report of the Statk Board of Education 

this element of strength, and exercise it as the point of departure in 
new excursions in the search of the Promised Land. He should find 
the respect in which she is succeeding, and show how to apply this 
method to the line in which she is failing. Genuinely appreciative 
criticism will always get at foundation principles. It will tell why 
work is good, why it is good in a certain field, and how such work may 
be applied in another field. 

There is a group of teachers in every system on whom the super- 
visor can always rely to help others. She can always find some teachers 
who are strong in a certain line, who can be used in group meetings, 
and to whose schools weak teachers can be sent to see good teaching in 
progress. These teachers have a strong professional spirit. They are 
progressive, and readily and cheerfully respond to all suggestions of the 
supervisor designed to improve the quality of classroom work. There 
is another group w^ho believe in the thing as it was, who hark back to 
the golden age of the "good old times." Such teachers should not have 
their methods condemned by wholesale. They are apt to say that the 
supervisor does not know what she is asking them to do. The old 
ways were not wholly bad. Having found the good in them and having 
gained the respect and confidence of the teacher, the supervisor may 
show the weaknesses therein with some promise of success. 

Suggestive criticism is like appreciative criticism, but goes beyond 
it. The thing most worth while is to get hold of our men or women 
and persuade them that they have not done all of which they are capable. 
We take too little account not only of a good type of work, but also of 
the possibility of improving the process, or even of performing the work 
in a way which the experience of others indicates may prove more 
satisfactory. Don't stop at the point where everything is felt to be all 
right. 

The visits of the supervisor should not be dreaded. He must win 
the respect and love of the pupils by his interest in the whole body and 
in individuals ; in their lessons and their sports ; in their school and 
home life ; in their troubles and their triumphs ; in their aspirations and 
their life purposes ; in their moral and spiritual, as well as their physical 
and intellectual development; and by his honesty, his fairness, his jus- 
tice, his sympathy, he will win the admiration of the young and inspire 
them to emulate his example. A supervisory officer who possesses 
these characteristics and this spirit can do untold good in the com- 
munity, and his influence, like that of Arnold of Rugby, will be an 
inspiration to noble living and to righteousness. His hold on the 
teachers through their ever-increasing respect for him and their abound- 
ing confidence in him is thus immeasurably strengthened. 



Annual Report of the State: Board of Education 119 

Professional Improvement 

How to improve the efficiency of the teaching force is one of the 
greatest problems that superintendents have to meet. It can not be 
done by cynical criticism. It must be done by stimulating the highest 
powers. There must be developed a professional comradeship, and 
this comradeship will grow eventually into a feeling of perfect confi- 
dence and sympathy until, when superintendent and teacher meet to 
talk over the experiences of the school days, there will be absolute 
freedom. There must be all the time developing in the mind of each 
teacher a growing ideal as to what efficiency consists in, and all else 
must be subordinate to a desire for growth. The fundamental truth in 
school administration is that growth of the pupil can not go on apart 
from the growth of the teacher. Fortunate is the teacher when she 
feels a sense of growth, and experiences one of the greatest rewards that 
a teacher can have, namely, a realization that all the agencies are work- 
ing in harm.ony toward increasing the efficiency of all. 

The whole theory of improving the teacher is based on our ability to 
get spiritual stimulus and professional help out of the ordinary occur- 
rences of everyday life. If there is to be improvement, it is the busi- 
r^ess of the superintendent to project and assist in executing the theory 
of the improvement. 

The very first thing that the superintendent must do in this connec- 
tion is to lead the teacher himself or herself to desire to be a better 
teacher. All those external or outside inducements, such as the ofifer 
of promotion, an increase of salary, a choice of positions, are each 
and all legitimate in their places. But none of them can take the place 
of the desire to increase one's efficiency. It is just as necessary to 
teach the teacher to idealize her work as it is to ask her to realize the 
ideals of teaching. A normal school principal says, "The greatest 
power that culture gives to a human being is the power to look an 
imperfect thing in the face, and see with the mind's eye the perfect 
thing that should be in its place. Soon the interests of the teacher will 
center in the possibly perfect thing." 

Not only must the teacher's initial preparation be the best that the 
State can provide, but there must be continual growth in efficiency, in 
professional zeal, and in student-like habits. The normal and the col- 
lege graduates are too often content to rest upon the laurels already 
won. No such teacher should receive a first-class rating, or be recom- 
mended for promotion, until she has given some evidence of ability by 
at least one year's work in the Reading Circle, by attendance upon 



120 Annual Rki'okt of riiii vStatk Hoaki> ov Education 

summer scliools, or by conspicuous skill in leadersliip in the group in 
which she is working, 

'J'he public exacts equipment and character and devotion on the part 
of the teacher. And the public should rememl)er that one can give his 
best service only when free from worry. A teacher can not live on 
faith alone, nor can ideals supply the necessaries of life. If education 
demands that men and women of the world make a life-work of teach- 
ing, more consideration must be given to proper remuneration for 
service ; otherwise, the best minds will not seek for such employment, 
and education will realize tremendous loss. 

I am very glad to report that superintendents and supervisors of 
this State quite generally realize the necessity for tlie professional 
growth of teachers in the ways indicated, through teachers' institutes, 
county association meetings, Reading Circle clubs, university extension 
courses, and approved summer schools. Splendid growth has been 
made by the teaching corps of the State along professional lines. 
During the past year university extension courses for elementary and 
high school teachers were conducted at Salisbury, and such work was 
done by the thirty teachers in attendance as to win for them renewal of 
their certificates. Similar courses are planned for the coming year for 
the teachers of Cecil and Frederick counties. 

Duririg the past summer nearly a thousand teachers of Maryland 
were in attendance upon summer schools, the majority being enrolled 
at the three schools conducted by the State Board of Education at 
Towson, Frostburg, and Ocean City. This has resulted in practically 
the abandonment of the county institute, a fact which, in itself, means 
a direct step forward in the professional uplifting of the teachers. 
Many of the supervisors are to be commended for having the teachers 
who have attended summer schools make reports at group conferences 
of the good things they gained at the summer schools and thus stimulate 
the rest of the teachers. 

The work of the Maryland State Reading Circle has languislied 
somewhat during the past year, largely because of the many war activi- 
ties undertaken by the public schools, and of the disastrously large 
number of changes in the teaching corps throughout the entire State; 
but I am pleased to note a recurring interest on the part of supervisors 
and teachers in this phase of professional improvement, and I bespealc 
for the Reading Circle courses increased interest during the coming 
year. 




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Annual Report op the State Board op Education 121 

Circular Letters 

In order that the work of supervision may be done thoroughly, it 
will be necessary for the superintendent to keep in constant touch with 
his teachers by teachers' meetings and by circulars. These printed 
circulars will cost the county but little, and will bring valuable returns. 
The teacher who is out in some obscure country school, with no one to 
encourage her, and with surroundings not calculated to fill her with 
inspiration, may be very much delighted to receive these kindly letters 
of instruction from the county superintendent. She Vv^ill read them 
over again and again, and the thought will come unconsciously to her 
mind that she is, after all, a part of the school system, and that the 
county superintendent cares for her. These circulars have almost the 
effect of a personal interview, and should not be neglected. Also. 
copies should be sent to the State Superintendent, so that he and visit- 
ing superintendents may know how each superintendent is letting his 
light shine in his own county. 

Publicity 

Many of the county superintendents recognize the necessity of in- 
forming the people about the various phases of elementary education, 
and from time to time furnish for the press articles on public school 
activities. Local newspapers should be kept informed as to the doings 
of the schools. The country newspaper will always be glad to give 
space, especially if the copy is prepared ready for use, and the public 
interests in school work can be thus kept alive. 

Other effective means of publicity are the school rally or public 
parade, athletic and intellectual contests of school children, of which 
quite general use was made three or four years ago, but which, with the 
exception of a public athletic meet, were held in but few counties during 
the past year. An interesting illustration of how the activities of the 
public schools may be employed to develop public sentiment is shown 
in the literary, historical, and geographical pageant held in Easton last 
spring, of which photographs appear in this volume. 

Teachers' Meetings 

Some of the most effective supervisory work may be done through 
teachers' meetings. "All superintendents may make use of another 
agency for the improvement of teachers, — that of associations, or 
teachers' meetings. . . . Teachers will profit by discussion of 
matters which come into every-day work. Seed-thoughts are sown ; 



122 Annual Rki-ort or the Statk Board or Education 

in some soil they will germinate ; fruit will be abundant or scarce, 
according to the quality of the soil; but some fruit everywhere, or hi 
least a little effort at fruit, though only green stalks and leaves appear. 
These associations, properly conducted, will not make over inefficient 
teachers at once; but they will make all who attend them less inefficient, 
as the quickening of a new thought gives them courage to modify their 
old methods, or to break up the habit of mechanically following the 
methods of others. They may be made to inspire the copyist with the 
determination to put more of himself into his work. They will acquaint 
all with the successes or failures of each, and through known failure 
show the way to success. To all who take part in these meetings there 
comes an earnest purpose to prove their theories of practical application." 
It is in meetings like these that most effective use can be made of 
the demonstration. The function of the demonstration in individual 
cases has already been discussed. It is in the general or group meet- 
ings that the supervisor may best exemplify a new theory or method of 
teaching some subject. It is not enough to state the psychology of the 
subject, point out the principles involved, and then expect teachers to 
go and teach the subject. It will be necessary, if correct results are to 
be economically achieved, to give a model lesson and then discuss the 
underlying principles. As long as there is a doubting Thomas, who 
may recognize the validity of the theory propounded but in his inward 
soul feels that the supervisor himself could not put the theory into 
practice, so long will it be incumbent upon the supervisor to show him. 
The superintendent has got to be the theorist, the middle man, and the 
practitioner, all in one. 

Here again is an opportunity to contrast types of work used by 
supervisors and very strong teachers ; for example, in geography there 
are many types. These should be demonstrated, so that the place of 
the different types in the course may be shown. One teacher may tend 
to drill all the time; another, to develop all the time. Both types of 
v/ork should be presented, and then general discussion invited. 

Finally, an opportunity is afforded to pick out the strongest mem- 
bers of the teaching corps and have them give lessons before weaker or 
less experienced teachers. The stronger ones will thus be enabled to 
search their own experience, to gain confidence, and to help others. If 
the defects of those who give the lessons are slurred over and their 
self-confidence developed, they may be brought to realize that they 
themselves, right out of the group, can demonstrate the theory; and 
thus the idea that someone from the outside has to come in to do it ia 
the right way dissipated. There are teachers of exceptional strength 
found in every group. 



Annual Report of the State Board oe Education 123 

There is afforded also, in teachers' meetings, the best opportunity 
for the study of the principles of teaching, especially by younger mem- 
bers of the corps, by means of questions raised and answers given by 
older teachers. Principles are given vitality if they are exemplified in 
practice. For young teachers they thus become psychologized ; there 
is a craving, a need, a demand for a change of practice, a growth to 
higher stages, and the possibility of better things is recognized. This 
supplies a motive for the learning of pi'inciples. 

Practically every supervisor in the State is making more or less 
successful use of teachers' conferences as a means of supervision. I 
advised with the superintendents and the supervisors about the proper 
grouping of teachers for these meetings, and the proper method of 
conducting observation lessons and critiques. I attended in person 
several meetings in various parts of the State, and in some instances 
participated in the discussions. 

Course of Study 

Another effective means of supervision is the course of study itself. 
Being a prescription "for the child's needs of our most learned doctors 
of pedagogy, it represents the accumulated experience of the best 
teachers of all ages, and it comes to us as a sort of abridged edition 
of the history and philosophy of education. But that history lias no 
life, nor its philosophy any meaning, if we can not hold it up to the 
mind's eye, see it in all its parts, and understand the reasons which led 
to its adoption. Rural school teaching will make distinct gains when 
all teachers know what the course of study is, and v/hat it is meant to 
accomplish." 

It is on this account that the superintendent must encourage the 
•study of educational theory ; and yet, for young teachers, reading upon 
the general history and theory of education is not profitable. Better 
let it bear directly upon their daily work. They are now face to face 
with the problem of learning the art of education, and their reading 
■should bear reference to the acquisition of that art. Standard books on 
methods and the practice of teaching, good educational magazines, well 
edited and not given to the over-elaboration of trivial things or to the 
careful development of the obvious, supply good material. But the 
time comes when all this must be interpreted in the light of sound 
theory, and it is the business of the superintendent to see that such 
reading is undertaken and systematically pursued. The purpose of that 
"^thing we call the curriculum" will then be manifest, and the teacher's 
-work will then begin to attain to the psychological as well as the logical 



124 Annual RiiPoirr of the Statf, Board of Education 

which should be the goal of her efforts. As to the teacher's genera) 
reading, this is for the teacher to determine, remembering that 
thoroughness and discrimination in reading are essential to good results. 

The course of study should be definite as well as elastic. It should 
not be so narrow as to fit only a few of the pupils, and it should be 
concise enough for the teacher to know just '.vhat is wanted. The 
making of the course should involve every person in the system who is 
willing to make a contribution. Teachers cannot teach well if they do 
not believe heartily in what they are doing, and do not understand the 
underlying principles and purpose of it all. This they will not do, 
unless the superintendent enters into agreeable relations with the 
teachers and creates in their minds personal faith in himself. Then 
they will be more sympathetic and responsive when he begins his 
"instruction in the educational principles underlying the course of 
study and in the course itself as exemplifying these principles, and the 
methods of carrying it out so as to produce the best results." "Here 
the superintendent has his finest opportunity. To develop unity of 
plan and to impart the spirit, at least, of his desires and aspirations to 
the whole teaching force without curtailing their freedom or crushing 
out individual initiative, requires the skilled tactician." 

The organization of a tentative course of study to meet the needs of 
rural schools was one of the first problems that I attacked, and one to 
which I have given constant attention for the past year. I have secured 
agreement of all our supervisors to give special attention for the next 
vear to the preparation of a rural school course of study for each 
county in the State. We shall make a special effort to secure contribu- 
tion to this course of study by as many teachers as possible who are 
actually in service. The course of study rests largely with the teacher, 
whatever it is on paper, and an enrichment of the course must come 
principally through enrichment of the teacher. We recognize that we 
have in this State many poorly trained teachers, attempting to teach 
the knowledge contained in the textbooks prescribed for the various 
counties ; and yet, through participation in the preparation of courses 
of study, we expect to bring about a rich knowledge of the principles of 
teaching and a keener desire on the part of teachers for their own pro- 
fessional growth. The course of study and its proper organization is 
the most effective means of rural school improvement. The great task 
is to get rural school children to assimilate, as it were, the environment 
in which they live and the greater environment beyond them. 

The rural school presents a problem which makes all other phases of 
elementarv education sink into a comparative insignificance. The 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 125 

course of study should not be an attenuated city school course, but 
should be made up of such subjects as agriculture, principles of hygiene 
and sanitation, domestic economy, and work in manual training, which 
bear upon rural life. A course of study that continually fixes the mind 
of the student on things far away in some other country, or in some 
other hemisphere, or in some other age, to the neglect of affairs nearer 
home, has a tendency to blind him to the opportunity at his door and 
make him dissatisfied with country life. We believe that the only way 
thoroughly to fit a boy for the country is to begin by teaching him the 
facts of his own environment. 

Rural needs are best met by closely relating the country schools to 
the life of the people served by them, and by educating the children for 
country life instead of away from it. People do not flock to the cities 
altogether from economic conditions. A false educational system does 
much towards encouraging the custom. Teachers of the rural schools 
should be required to master fundamental knowledge in the subjects 
that ought to be taught in the rural school, and in some way or other 
bring them into the course of daily instruction. The introduction of 
these subjects into the rural schools with any chance whatever of suc- 
cess waits upon the proper preparation of teachers for this work by 
the normal schools. 

Schedules of Recitations 

On visiting the rural schools in various sections of the State, I found 
almost immediately that there existed in very few counties any guides 
which the rural school teacher could use in making her daily program. 
The result is that in too many cases there is not the proper consolida- 
tion of groups of children ; there are too many recitations ; these recita- 
tions are too brief to be of value ; and many important phases of elemen- 
tary work, such as oral composition, industrial art activities, music, 
etc., as well as the real work of teaching, are crowded out. I thus set 
out to secure a workable schedule of time limits for the daily recitation 
in the rural one-teacher school having seven grades. 

Training of Teachers 

Although there is still much to be desired in the training of teachers, 
some progress was made during the past year in fitting them to work 
in the country. A large part of the teaching body of the State is 
entirely without professional training. The State has theoretically 
adopted the policy of training teachers of the public schools. It has 



126 Annual Rki'okt ok the Static P>(j-\i<i) ov Education 

never, however, adequately carried out this pohcy in practice. If the 
schools are to be anythinj^ but places where the mechanics of education 
are to be maintained, if they are to become really educational schools 
in the proper meaning of that term, teachers must be trained. The 
traditional tools of learning, which have in them so much of race 
heritage, are no longer adequate to meet the pressing demands of today. 
We know that school activities must grow out of life as the child is 
living it, and must eventuate in a training that has prepared the child 
to live his life more happily and more successfully. The teacher must 
have a sort of pedagogy which will enable her to make her pupils good, 
intelligent, and happy; able to utilize the heritage of the race to this 
end, and yet capable of fitting into life now and here with specific work 
in the direction of highest natural endowment. 

It is hard to describe a successful teacher. We need not comfort 
ourselves with the statement that good teachers are born and not made, 
and excuse our shortcomings on the ground that nature failed to do 
her duty in endowing us with those qualities that make for success. 
For most people successful work in the schoolroom is a matter of 
theory exemplified in practice. Happily for the children, the day is 
past when this practice can be had at their expense. 

The State is wise in requiring that teachers must hereafter posses: 
some professional knowledge of tl eir work before going into the school- 
room. They must be introduced to that body of scientific knowledge 
concerning the teaching of children which has been collected and which 
is adequate and easy of access and comprehension. Young and inex- 
perienced teachers guided by this knowledge may proceed definitely and 
accurately. They must have the scientific spirit. "Seek the truth and 
the truth shall make you free." Teaching school calls for no small or 
obscure powers, and those will reveal themselves to him who is bent 
on discovery. 

In our training of teachers, whether in normal school, in county 
training class, or through supervision while in service, we can not lose 
sight of the tremendous importance and obligation of fitting them for 
the best possible rural school work. A great majority of the people 
live in rural districts, and the welfare of the whole country is involved 
in the welfare of the agricultural people, who are the wealtli pro- 
ducers of the country and constitute a large proportion of the whole 
population. The people of the rural districts, if they are to be pros- 
perous and influential in the nation and among the peoples of the earth, 
must be educated. They are dependent upon the rural school for 
education. Hence the sacred duty that rests upon the normal schools, 



Annual Report of the State Board oe Education 127 

first of all, to prepare teachers especially for rural schools. It will not 
do to argue that education is education, no matter who is getting" it; 
that if girls are given a general training for teaching, they can apply 
this to whatever school they may happen to get. It is not the kind of 
discipline that exists in the school, or the methods, devices, or practices 
employed by the teacher, nor even the subjects taught, that are most 
important. The vital thing is the content of all the subjects taught. 
Instead of teaching subjects, the rural schools should teach pupils. 

Until the normal schools make adequate preparation to train teachers 
for rural school work and make a definite, persistent eflFort to create an 
attitude of rural-mindedness, it seems desirable for each county to avail 
itself of the privilege existing under the law of establishing, in connec- 
tion with one approved first-group high school, a teacher-training class. 
Such schools were maintained during the past year in Wicomico and 
Montgomery counties. 

War Work in Rural Schools 

The country schools have been rendering admirable war-time 
service. In practically all the counties rural schools have had enthusi- 
astic and successful membership drives for the Red Cross, many 
counties reporting a hundred per cent enrollment in the Junior Red 
Cross for individual schools ; the country schools have aided materially 
in the sale of Liberty bonds and war savings stamps, and these schools 
have begun to see their possibilities in leading campaigns for food 
conservation. 

In my visits I found in several instances a large percentage of the 
pupils of a rural school owning one or more Liberty bonds, and, with 
very few exceptions, rural school pupils have made commendably large 
per capita purchases of war savings stamps, and have earned the money 
to do so. 

The supervisors have entered whole-heartedly into such campaigns 
and have given unstintedly of their time and talents in assisting rural 
school children to help win the war. All such work is of permanent 
value. The children learn lessons of cooperation and real patriotism. 
They learn the much-needed lessons in thrift, which they will never 
forget. Their Red Cross and food conservation work make them feel 
that they were really helping to win the war. Many teachers have 
organized their whole school into a current events class, which will do 
much to broaden the minds of the future citizens of the State and thus 
make better citizens of them. 



138 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

conferencl's of supervisors 

During the past year I conducted four conferences of the super- 
visors of the State. On November 26, in Baltimore, the following 
program provoked interesting and profitable discussions: 

Supervisors' Meeting, McCoy Hall 

Miss Alice E. Miller, Presiding 

Monday, Novcmljcr 26, 2 to 3.30 P. M. 

Roll-Call, wth Naming of Specific Problems 

"The Supervisors Part in the Professional Growth of Teachers" — Miss Effie 

M. Williamson, Dorchester County 

Discussion led by Miss Annie Grace, Baltimore County 
"Use of Standard Tests as a Means of Supervision" — Miss Hannah A. 
KiefTer, Queen Anne's County 

Discussion led by Miss Kate Kelly, Anne Arundel County 

Tuesday, November 27, 2 to 3.30 P. M. 
"The Supervisor's Part in the Making of a Course of Study" — Miss Marion 
S. Hanckel, Allegany County 

Discussion led by Mr. Louis C. Robinson, Kent County 
"Are Better Results Obtained in Supervision by Directing Energies Mainly 
Toward the Improvement of One Subject Rather Than of Many?" — 
Miss Wil Lou Gray, Montgomery County 

Discussion led by Miss Wilsie M. Smith, Caroline County 

On January 14 a conference of the supervisors of the Western 
Shore vi^as held at Hagerstown. A round-table discussion was con- 
ducted based on these topics : 

1. What is the best procedure in formulating a course of study? 

2. How may group meetings of teachers be used as aids in supervision? 

3. Are better results obtained in supervision by directing energies mainly 
toward the improvement of one subject rather than of many? 

4. What the Supervisors should do in the schoolroom. 

5. What help can Maryland get from the National Council of Primary 
Education? 

6. The advisability of holding another meeting later, and the time, place, 
and program for such conference. 

A meeting of the supervisors of the Eastern Shore was held at 
Elkton on February 18. The following topics were discussed: 

I. Name and describe the desirable qualities in what you have found to be 

the best texts in geography, arithmetic, and history. 
IL Discuss the most constructive piece of work that has been accomplished 
through your group meetings. 
HL How to proceed in formulating a course of study. 

IV. The value to the school and to the community of a closer co-operation 
between the Supervisors and the County Agent. 




SUPERVISED PLAY IN Rl'KAL SCHOOLS 




A SUPERVISOR TRAVELING UNDER DIFFICULTIES 

ANOTHER UNDER MORE FAVORABLE CONDITIONS 
A POOR WOOD-SHED FOR A COUNTRY SCHOOL 

ONE REASON WHY EGGS ARE HIGH IN WINTER 
A GOOD BLACK-BOARD NOT USED BY PUPILS 

A POOR BLACK-BOARD USED UNDER DIFFICULTIES 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 139 

v. What help can Maryland get from the National Council of Primary 
Education? 

On May 3 and 4, at the Maryland State Normal School, another 
conference was held, the program of which is given elsewhere in this 
volume. 

Community Organizations 

I have found that urgent need exists throughout the State for the 
formation in each school district of some kind of organization which 
will give systematic attention to the problem of rural life betterment. 
Through the efforts of the Federation of Women's Clubs and the 
National Congress of Mothers and Parents-Teacher Associations, such 
organizations have been formed in many sections of the State to the 
consequent good of their respective communities. It has been my con- 
stant endeavor to encourage the organization and conduct of these 
bodies, and I have had, for the most part, the cordial cooperation of 
the county school authorities. Yet much remains to be done. 

Pictures of Rural Life 

Having been furnished with a high speed camera, I have made 
several hundred photographs of school buildings, school interiors, school 
activities of various kinds, private houses, lawns, landscapes, etc., illus- 
trative of rural life. These, with other pictorial and graphic illustra- 
tions, will be made available to county superintendents, normal schools, 
granges, community organizations, etc. 

Shortagk of Teachers 

Almost immediately upon undertaking the duties of this position, 
I found that a serious danger confronted the public schools on account 
of shortage of properly qualified teachers. The many new departments 
created by the National Government in the conduct of the war, as well 
as the hundreds of vacancies in Baltimore and the larger towns caused 
by the absence of men in military service, have created an unceasing 
demand for office and other help ; and the liberal salaries offered have 
induced hundreds of Maryland's best teachers to forsake educational 
work. The situation has been particularly acute in counties adjoining 
the larger industrial centers and Washington. 

While living expenses were relatively low, and not so many other 
avenues of employment were open, it was comparatively easy to find 
teachers for all the schools. Today, girls with less than a high school 
education have little difficulty in securing positions in business offices 
and government bureaus at twice the salary their teacher receives. As 



130 Annual Report of the State Board op Education 

a result teachers have left the schools to go into other lines of work, and 
since fewer young men and women are now in colleges and other schools 
preparing for teaching, it is a serious question with school authorities 
how the schools may be kept open and up to the standard. 

The great need of the public schools of Maryland for years has 
been properly qualified teachers, — teachers trained specially for service 
in the one and two-teacher schools, with a desire to live in the country 
To render the best service in country schools, teachers need to be 
specially fitted to meet rural life problems. They must be rural- 
minded, with an interest in the country community and its institutions, 
and must have a good capacity for initiative and leadership ; and while 
this need has never been adequately met, a good beginning has been 
made under the progressive school legislation passed by the last three 
sessions of the General Assembly. Following the report of the Mary- 
land Educational Survey Commission, the Legislature of 1916 passed 
laws providing for many improvements in the State school system, 
which have given Maryland the credit for having the best school legisla- 
tion of any State in the Union. Just as this law is getting into opera- 
tion, there is extreme danger that its high standards, set up in the 
interest of the school children of Maryland, may be nullified through 
the lack of teachers who measure up to former standards. 

In this critical situation it has been a Godsend to the various counties 
that the employment of elementary supervisors had furnished an in- 
valuable means of meeting the emergency. With so many untrained 
teachers entering the service, the schools in many counties would have 
suffered a much higher degree of demoralization than has been the case, 
if there had not been constantly available this expert helping teacher, 
ready at all times to come to the rescue by assisting a beginner in 
organizing her school and by helping her acquire in as brief a time as 
possible an approved method of teaching. This has been the acid test 
of supervision in this State, and I am extremely gratified to report that 
through the untiring aid of these supervisors elementary schools have 
not been allowed to retrograde. 

Additional relief has been afforded through the action of the last 
Legislature in passing the higher minimum salary law. 

The underlying cause for the lack of adequately trained teachers is 
a general apathy towards the needs of the schools and a mistaken 
notion of economy in public school support. Over three thousand 
teachers in the counties of Maryland are paid the minimum salaries 
permitted by law. With the increasing cost of living and the opening to 
teachers of other avenues of employment, more money must be avail- 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 131 

able for teachers' salaries if the schools are to be kept up to former 
standards. In no other way will teachers be able to continue making 
the necessary preparation for their work, and meet the expenses for 
further improvement while teaching. 

Teachers' Institutes 

At the direction of the State Superintendent I attended teachers' 
institutes in Frederick, Harford, Baltimore, Talbot, Wicomico, Somer- 
set, and Worcester counties, and assisted in the work of several of 
them. At his request I counselled with the superintendents as to 
ways and means of making institute instruction function more ef- 
fectually in schoolroom practice by arranging that the institute shall 
partake of the nature of real schools of instruction in subject-matter 
and method. 

Professional Libraries 

I have found that no definite policy exists throughout the State in 
regard to placing professional literature at the disposal of the teachers. 
There should be in the office of each county board of education a library 
of at least 200 volumes of professional books, arranged and classified 
as a circulating library for the use of the teaching body, and definite 
plans should be made by the superintendent and the supervisor to see 
that teachers make use of these means of professional growth. Some- 
thing has been done in this direction by several counties of the State. 
I found all the supervisors keenly alive to the necessity for providing 
such aids to their teachers, and the prospect seems to be good for much 
improvement in this direction. 

Agricultural Instruction 

At the suggestion of the State Superintendent I have endeavored to 
work out a plan of cooperation between the extension department of 
the State College of Agriculture and the State Department of Educa- 
tion, looking to a larger recognition in public school instruction of the 
dominant industry of Maryland, by bringing into closer union the work 
of agricultural extension, under the direction of the College, and of 
vocational training, under the supervision of the State Department of 
Education. There is much unrest among the school people of the 
State because of the manner in which the county agents and home 
demonstrators carry on their work. 

The policy of the extension department of the State College of 
Agriculture, through the field agents, seems to be to organize the 



132 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

various aj^ricullural and home economics clubs without full considera- 
tion of their educational possibilities. In many instances, it is true, 
the schoolhouse is used as the meeting place for these clubs, and the 
county supervisors are requisitioned as guides and advisers ; but no 
concerted effort seems to have been made to relate the clubs' activities 
to the work of the public schools. I feel that the county agent and 
the home economics demonstrator should cease trying to organise clubs 
of boys and girls directly, and that such activities should be undertaken 
by the school teacher, under the direction of the county superintendent. 
The agents of the State College of Agriculture should devote their 
energies to assisting these teachers in planning and carrying out the 
club activities, and should bear a relation to the teachers comparable 
to that of the school supervisor. Until some such arrangement is 
entered into, the various agricultural and home economics clubs will 
fall far short of their full possibilities as agencies in education. 

The Supervisor as an Attendance Officer 

There is a tendency in several quarters to burden the supervisor 
with duties that bear no direct relation to her real function as a helping 
teacher. Not only does the superintendent, in many instances, delegate 
to the supervisor inspectorial and administrative duties which properly 
belong to him alone, but there is a disposition also to require the super- 
visor to assume the duties of an attendance officer. Under provisions 
of the Acts of 1918, providing that "the State Board of Education, in 
its discretion, may excuse a county from employing an attendance 
officer and may designate the county superintendent of schools, the 
primary supervisor, or the statistical clerk to perform the duties of the 
attendance officer," the counties of Caroline, Cecil, Charles, Dorchester, 
Talbot, and Worcester, have been so excused. 

I should consider myself recreant to the interest of the boys and 
girls, if I did not voice a protest against a practice, already instituted 
in some of these counties, of requiring the rural supervisor to assist 
the county superintendent in acting as attendance officer. It is argued 
that, since the supervisor has to go to the school anyway, it would be 
little additional trouble to her to study the attendance record and follow 
up delinquent cases. This sounds all right in theory ; but I have found 
that in actual practice a good deal of the supervisor's time is thereby 
consumed, not only in examining records, but in visiting houses to 
discuss with parents the absences of the children. 

It is assumed that this step is taken to save expense ; but it should 
never be forgotten that for all such services rendered somebody has to 



Annual Report of the State Board oe Education 133 

pay. Nothing really worth while can be had free of cost; and the 
extremely unfortunate feature of the present situation is that the ones 
who will be made to pay for the cost of enforcing the compulsory 
attendance law under this arrangement are the little children themselves. 
The supervisor is trained for teaching ; and her duty, first, last, and all 
the time, is to improve the quality of classroom instruction. The best 
teaching is none too good for the country child, and the supervisor 
should be left free to devote her entire energies to assisting the teacher 
to measure up to the responsibilities of her office. 



134 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



SUPERVISION OF COLORED SCHOOLS 

By J. WALTER HUFFINGTON, 
Supervisor of Colored Schools 



Visits 

During the year I visited approximately 500 schoolrooms of colored 
teachers. I was accompanied by the colored county supervisor in the 
counties where there are such officials. In the other counties, the 
county superintendent or his representative was always courteous in 
taking- me to the schools. In a few of the counties I was in every 
colored school ; in the others, a majority of the schools were visited. 

As this was the first year of the work, my visits were, from necessity, 
almost of an inspectorial character. I did, however, note the following : 

1. Condition of the building and grounds (including toilets). 

2. The interior of the building. 

3. General sanitary conditions. 

4. Personality of the teacher. 

5. Her apparent preparation for the work. 

6. Her manner of conducting a class exercise. 

7. General management of the school. 

8. The school's atmosphere. 

Buildings 

In every county there are some good buildings ; also every county 
has some structures inadequate for school purposes. In many of the 
counties, churches and lodge halls are used for school purposes ; 
although such buildings are, of course, unsuited for the activities of 
the school. From my observation, at least 94 buildings are urgently 
needed in the State, that the work of the colored schools may be done 
even moderately well. 

A modest beginning is being made to improve the building situa- 
tion by the aid extended from Mr. Julius Rosenwald. This fund, 
donated by him, is administered by the Tuskegee Institute. The amount 
assigned to Maryland for the current school year was $5,100, with the 
following conditions for its use : 

"The money given by Mr. Rosenwald is to be used in providing school- 
houses in rural districts, preferably for one- and two-teacher schools, on 
condition that the people shall secure from the public school funds and raise 



mm 





X ■:: 



.5 ^ 

^ S IK 



z f 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 135 

among themselves an amount equivalent to, or larger than, that given by 
Mr. RosenwaJd. 

"It is understood that in no case will the sum exceed $400 for a one- 
teacher school, and $500 for a two-teacher school. By the term 'one-teacher 
school' is meant not necessarily a one-room school building, as these school 
buildings in every instance should be provided with room to do industrial 
work, which means kitchen, library, manual training work, etc. By furnish- 
ing is meant providing the school with the sanitary toilets and equipping the 
building with desks, blackboards, heaters, etc. 

"In no case will the Rosenvvald aid be given until the amount raised by 
the community and that given by Mr. Rosenwald are sufficient to complete 
and furnish the schoolhouse to be built. 

"The kind of building to be erected is to be approved by the Extension 
Department of the Tuskegee Institute and, where required, by the State 
Department of Education." 

The county officials were asked to make an appropriation so as to 
secure the aid extended by Mr. Rosenwald, and an appeal was made to 
the colored people to supplement the appropriation by the officials. The 
response was gratifying. 

On account of labor conditions and shortage of building materials, 
the work in some counties has been delayed, but not permanently so ; 
for in these same counties the appropriations were duly made by the 
County Commissioners, and the colored people raised their assignment. 
To date, checks have passed through my hands and have been for- 
warded for building purposes to the superintendents of Caroline, Fred- 
erick, Somerset, Carroll, and Prince George's counties. These counties 
are constructing their buildings. 

I am expecting another appropriation from the Rosenwald Fund 
for next school year. With the permission of the State Superinten- 
dent, I shall use it as a stimulus both to the county boards of educa- 
tion and to the colored people themselves to continue building opera- 
tions. I believe that within four years, with this as a leverage, we 
should have all over the State comfortable and adequate buildings 
for the colored children. 

Taking the State as a whole, there seems to be a woeful lack of 
community pride or even interest by the colored people in the material 
side of the school. The trustees, in the main, are indifferent. They 
take no special interest in the school. This is true in every county. In 
not more than ten instances in the whole State had any effort been made 
to improve the grounds in any way. In a few cases there was but one 
toilet for the use of both sexes. In nearly all cases the toilets were 
unsanitary and uncomfortable. But little attention had been given to 
the improvement of the interior of the building. 



136 Annual Rki-okt ok the Static Bcjard ov Education 

Equipment 

The equipment, including blackboard, maps, globes, illustrative 
material, library, and the like, is fair in some counties ; extremely poor 
in others. In general, the blackboard space is too limited. A few 
schools have no board at all. A few counties (among them, St. Mary's) 
have provided all their colored schools with a case of maps. A limited 
number of the schools have globes. In the entire State there are 
but 25 colored schoolrooms with a library. Most of the counties fur- 
nish text-books in sufficient numbers and in good condition. Others 
provide texts only of a dilapidated character. 

Teachers 

I am glad to report that I found some very good teaching. In 
several counties a fair percentage of the teachers have been specially 
trained for their work and seem to appreciate rural conditions. This 
i; notably true in Caroline county. 

In the counties there are quite a number of teachers whose pro- 
fessional preparation is good, who seem to be indifferent to rural con- 
ditions, and try to do the school work as it is supposed to be done in a 
town or city system. 

My conclusion is that we are in great need not only of trained 
teachers, but teachers trained for the rural work, — teachers who are 
rural-minded, who are willing to go into the negro communities and 
endure the privations, yet gradually lead their people to a higher plane 
of living. The Normal School at Bowie should train this type of 
teachers. The products of the city normal schools are not what we 
need in the rural districts. 

Institutes 

During the year I participated in the following teachers' insti- 
tutes : The Tri-County Institute of Somerset, Worcester, Wicomico, 
held at Pocomoke City; and in the institutes of Dorchester, Caroline, 
Talbot, Kent, Harford, Carroll, Frederick, Howard, St. Mary's and 
Charles counties. The session in Caroline and Kent counties was a 
week in length. All the others were of three-day length, save Carroll, 
where the meeting w^as in the nature of a two-day conference. 

Several counties held no institute for the colored teachers; because 
either one-fourth of the teachers attended a summer school or the 
teachers assembled in monthly meetings, in which the equivalent of 
institute work was done. The program included work in primary 
reading and number work, history, geography, and handwork. The 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 137 

institutes were productive of some good. They did very much good 
in the counties where the colored supervisors followed up the work with 
the teachers in the schoolrooms. 

In practically all the counties, the superintendents were present to 
direct the work of the institute. The institute at Frederick was hon- 
ored by a visit from Mr. Jackson Davis, Field Agent of the General 
Education Board. His recital of what the negroes in the South are 
doing to further their own progress was encouraging and stimulating 
to the colored people of Frederick County, 

The Reading Circle Work 

The colored teachers have taken little interest in the work of the 
State Reading Circle. An effort was made this year to get many of 
them to do the studying and to write themes as an evidence of com- 
pletion of the work. 

The studying was regularly done in Caroline, Cecil, Wicomico, Kent, 
Frederick and Dorchester counties. Several other counties attempted 
the work after a spasmodic fashion that will result in little good. The 
teachers in some of the counties did not undertake it at all. 

Interest in the provision for teacher improvement, I found, de- 
pended almost entirely upon the attitude of the county supervisor 
toward it. One supervisor, to excuse himself at the end of the year 
for not urging his teachers to avail themselves of this method of self 
improvement, pretended to believe the work was only for white 
teachers ; although he was present at our November conference when 
the Reading Circle topic was discussed. 

Summer Schools 

I am glad to report that 185 of our 723 colored teachers attended 
summer schools during the summer of 1918. By far the largest group 
was in attendance at Hampton Institute in Virginia. There were 47 in 
the State Normal and Industrial School at Bowie ; about 40 at Cheyney 
Institute in Pennsylvania. The others were at Dover College, Man- 
assas Institute, Princess Anne Academy, and Temple University. 

With 723 colored teachers in Maryland, outside of the city of Balti- 
more, it seems to me that 185 at summer schools represents a fair per- 
centage of the teaching body. 

S^^PERVISORr 

Sixteen counties take advantage of the State appropriation for a 
colored supervisor of county schools and the industrial work in their 



138 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

several school?. These counties are: Worcester, Somerset, Wicomico, 
Dorchester, Talbot, Caroline, Queen Anne, Kent, Cecil, Baltimore, 
Carroll, Frederick, Montgomery, Prince George, Anne Arundel, and 
Charles. 

The counties of Calvert and St. Mary's have colored supervisors, 
but their salaries are paid from the Jeanes Fund, vt'hich is administered 
by Dr. James H. Dillard, of Charlottesville, Va. 

The counties of Allegany and Washington (the former has 7, the 
latter 12 colored teachers) draw but $750 from the State's funds and 
maintain in return a Central Industrial School at Cumberland and 
Hagerstown, respectively. 

Two counties, Howard and St. Mary's, will ask for the year 1918- 
1919 the full amount of $l,oOO. Each of these counties will employ 
a colored supervisor and establish a central industrial school. 

Colored Supervisors 

The importance of good colored supervisors can hardly be over- 
estimated. They know and understand their own race and are able to 
bring about certain results that the white person can hardly eflfecl. 
However, they themselves are in need of direction. Some of them are 
poorly prepared for their specific work. Their visits to the schools 
are often too much of an inspectorial character. 

I am glad that the State Board of Education has fixed a definite 
standard of preparation for them, as well as having made confirmation 
by the State Superintendent of Schools a requirement for the validity 
of their selection. 

Circular Letters 

Several of our colored supervisors are making effective use of 
circular letters to their teachers as a means of supervision. While 
such communications can not wholly take the place of personal visits 
to the classroom, yet they afford an opportunity, of which all the 
county superintendents and colored supervisors might well take advan- 
tage, to keep in closer touch with the teaching staff. 

Typical letters follow : 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS (COLORED), 
Montgomery County, Maryland. 

RocKviLLE, Maryland, September 30, 1918. 
Dear Teacher : 

By this time I presume that you have your school well organized, and that 
your work is tending towards the definite aim of good citizenship. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 139 

I suggest that you use every possible means to get in closer touch with the 
people of the community, conducting such meetings, entertainments or socials 
that will enlighten them along the lines of National Cooperation, Race Pride, 
Patriotism, Thrift, Conservation and Sanitation. 

Make some part of your daily program of a Patriotic nature. Take time 
and explain sensibly the present-day activities, for as county officials, it is part of 
your duty. Show the people of the community the value of a good record, 
(Future demands require this.) 

Don't be dogmatic in your presentations, neither encourage racial antagonism, 
but encourage the true principles of manhood. Lay aside petty prejudices and 
make the Teachers' Reading Club a worth-while organization. 

Keep schoolrooms, grounds, and records in the very best possible o'-der. 

Let the supervisor know how he can best help you in your work, yet remember 
that there are thirty or more teachers to be helped. 

I sincerely trust for you a successful year, and I v/ill be to see you as soon 
as possible. 

Best wishes. 

Very truly yours, 

ANDREW D. OWENS, 
Supervisor of Colored Schools 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS (COLORED), 
Montgomery County, Maryland. 

Office of Supervisor of Colored Schools, 

RocKviLLE, Maryland, September 30, 1918. 
Dear Teacher : 

Your school is allotted out of the County Industrial Fund the amount of 

dollars with which to carry on some useful form 

of industrial work in your school. 

Relative to sewing, I would suggest that you make some of such articles 
as would be of use to the soldiers in hospitals and camps. This calls for absolute 
cleanliness, accuracy and attention. This is only a request, and you and your 
school will get due credit for the work or offering made. 

Purchase all materials to the best advantage, and send all duplicate store 
order bills or account slips to me for approval. In this way bills will be paid or 
you will be reimbursed for expenditures made. Keep record of the same. 

If there be any assistance I can render you I will be only to pleased to do it. 
Best wishes. 

Very truly yours, 

ANDREW D. OWENS, 
Supervisor of Colored Schools. 

Conferences of Supervisors 

During the year two conferences were held with the supervisors, — 
one in November, the other in February. 

The following topics were discussed at the November conference: 



HO Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

1. How tlic supervisors can assist in the development of the Maryland 
Normal and Industrial School. 

2. The quality of teachers the supervisors have a right to expect from 
the Maryland Normal and Industrial School. 

3. What a supervisor should look for on visiting a school-room. 

4. The use of native materials in industrial work. 

5. How the colored people can be directed to improve their school 
equipment. 

6. How to encourage the teachers to do the Reading Circle work. 

7. Domestic art and science in the rural school. 

8. How to plan for a county association. 

9. A good schedule for a rural scliool. 

The topics considered at the February conference were : 

1. The schools and a clean-up week in the community. 

2. Buying pigs and chickens and raising them. 

3. Gardening, marketing and preserving foodstuffs. 

4. War Saving Stamps and cooperation in the Red Cross work. 

5. Minimum requirements for colored supervisors. 

6. Suggestions for a program of studies for the colored rural schools. 

By way of assistance to the supervisors, suggestions to improve 
their methods of supervision were made, and the following outline to 
assist them in judging a teacher was placed in their hands : 

/. Physical and Hygienic Surroundings: 

1. The building. 

2. The toilet. 

3. The grounds. 

4. Interior of building. 

5. Ventilation. 

6. Light. 

7. Disposition of waste water. 

8. Individual drinking cups used. 

//. Schedule: 

1. Course of study, including industrial work, provided for. 

2. Distribution of time. 

3. Arrangement of subjects. 

4. Frequent or infrequent class exercises of primary grades. 

///. Discipline and Management: 

1. Spirit of the room. 

2. School dead or at work. 

3. ^Movement of classes. 

4. What the pupils are doing at the desks. 

5. Pupils often or rarely leaving the room. 

6. How interruptions are handled. 

7. What the teacher does at recesses. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 141 

IV. The Class Exercise: 

1. The aim. 

2. Is it being realized? 

3. Questions. 

4. Type of lesson. 

5. Procedure in accordance with the type. 

6. Assignment. 

7. Teacher talking too much or too little. 

8. Class participation. 

VI. The Teacher in the Community: 

1. Her standing in the community. 

2. Interest in community life. 

3. Improvement in the homes in the community under the teacher's 
leadership. 

4. Giving work which in character and in method function in the 
community. 

VII. Business Phase of the Teacher's Work: 

1. Ready cooperation with the county superintendent and the county 
supervisor. 

2. Exactness and promptness with reports and other data needed by the 
officials. 

3. On time at school. 

4. Judgment in grading pupils. 

5. Organization and progress of a community league. 

VIII. Professional: 

1. Active interest in institutes and associations. 

2. Doing the Reading Circle work. 

3. Attending a summer school. 

4. Individual effort at improvement ; e. g., home study, reading teachers' 
magazines. 

In addition to the above, the appended outline, prepared by one of 
the county supervisors of colored schools, was given to the supervisors. 
We felt that it would assist them to check up the teachers on some 
phases of the work. 

(Fill Out Conscientiously and Mail to the County Supervisor) 

School Teacher 

1. Write on the other side of this sheet a copy of your schedule. 

2. How many teachers' meetings attended during term? 

3. What have you done to improve the appearance of your building and 
grounds ? 

4. How many community league meetings have you held? 

5. What was the value of these meetings to the school? 



143 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

6. What definite piece of work has your league undertaken? 

7. How can the supervisor help you most ? 

8. What professional reading are you doing? 

9. Have you made a survey of your community? 

(a) Pupils of scliool age not in school. 

(b) Pupils of school age in school. 

(c) Means of livelihood of the parents. 

(d) Sanitary conditions of the homes. 

10. What have you done to get children in school? 

11. What have you done to improve the sanitary conditions of your com- 
munity? 

12. What industrial work are you doing? 

13. Do your pupils attend regularly and punctually? 

14. Do you get to school every morning at 8:45 as the law requires? 

15. Do you expect to attend a summer school next summer? 

16. Do you feel that teaching is your calling? 

Summer Work for the County Supervisors 

The General Education Board generously agreed to donate $1000 
to assist in payment of county supervisors to direct work in canning, 
drying, chicken and pig raising, sanitation, and the like, during the 
summer months. This money was paid out only on condition that the 
county provided in each case an equal amount. 

The following counties met the condition for parts of the fund : 
Somerset, Caroline, Talbot, Kent, Carroll, Frederick, Montgomery, 
Anne Arundel, St. Mary's, Charles, Washington. 

The following instructions were given to the supervisors of these 
counties early in the spring: 

Suggestions to Counties that Receive Some Financial Aid for the 
Employment of Colored Supervisors During the Summer. 

1. The supervisor shall organize garden, pig, and chicken clubs among the 
pupils in the several colored schools of the county. He shall assist these 
pupils in the selection of seed; cultivation, marketing, and preservation of 
their products. He shall aid the pupils as far as possible to secure pigs. 
and advise about their attention; also direct the students in the hatching 
of eggs and care of chickens. 

2 He shall organize in every community a food club to stimulate the 
seeding, cultivation and preservation of food stuffs. It shall be his duty 
to visit these clubs often and give direction in the growing and preser- 
vation of the food. 

3. He shall disseminate literature (which can be secured from the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington ; Maryland State College of Agri- 
culture, College Park; Hampton Institute, Hampton, Va.) that will 
furnish direct help in gardening, drying, canning, pig and poultry raising. 

4. His work must have, in addition, a sanitary aspect; that is, he shall 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 143 

stimulate the several communities to keep clean homes and premises, 
prevent the accumulation of waste material, keep down the flies by not 
permitting their usual breeding places, give care to the well screening of 
the home, keep the toilet sanitary, use whitewash and dry lime — all to the 
end that the people will be healthier and more comfortable. 

5. He shall encourage industry and thrift among the communities by urging 
through his organization the necessity for every man, woman and child 
to be at some work six days of the w-eek ; to respond to the call for labor 
on the farms, but not to work three days and lay off three. (Every boy 
can easily earn enough to raise a pig and have money to spare). Encour- 
age thrift by having the folks buy War Saving Stamps or deposit money 
in savings banks. He shall impress his people with the idea that there is 
no excuse for poverty among them now. 

6. Let the slogan be all over the county, "We must seed, cultivate, preserve 
foodstuffs, grow hogs and chickens, keep sanitary homes, be industrious, 
and save our earnings." 

7. A record for report shall be kept of work done under the supervisor's 
direction, which will include : 

(a) Foodstuffs (named) raised. 

(b) Foodstuffs (named) marketed. 

(c) Foodstuffs (named) preserved, with approximate value. 

(d) Pigs and chickens raised, with value. 

(e) Number of individual homes improved. 

(f) Number of communities improved. 

(g) Industry or lack of it among people. 

(h) Attitude of people toward assistance offered. 

It was my privilege to visit during the summer some of the counties 
where this work was being carried on, and to assist, as far as practi- 
cable, the supervisors. The supervisors have reported their activities 
according to the following form : 

September 11, 1918. 
To the Summer Supervisor: 

I advised you in the spring a report of work done under your direction would 
be called for. Before we can secure the appropriation for this work, a report on 
the following will be necessary : 

1. Number of clubs organized. 

2. Enrollment — Girls, Mothers, Boys. 

3. Number of canning demonstrations held. 

4. Number of homes visited. 

5. Fruits (quarts) canned for home use. 

6. Vegetables (quarts) canned for home use. 

7. Fruits (quarts) canned and sold. 

8. Vegetables (quarts) canned and sold. 

9. Estimated value of fruit and vegetables canned. 

10. Fruit (gallons) dried. 

11. Vegetables (gallons) dried. 

12. Estimated value of fruit and vegetables dried. 



144 Annual Report of the Statk Board of Education 

13. Estimated value of chickens raised. 

14. Estimated value of pigs raised. 

15. Number of individual homes and communities improved. 

16. Estimated cost of the home-improvement. 

17. Number of gardens with average size. 

18. Approximate value of foodstuffs grown, whether marketed or used in 
the home. 

19. Did the people show a spirit of co-operation or indifference to the work? 

20. How many days did you give to the work during the vacation season? 
A supplementary report will be asked for later. 

Very truly yours, 

J. WALTER HUFFINGTON, 

Superz'isor of Colored Schools. 

A summary of the leading items reported is appended : 

SUMMARIZED STATEMENT OF SUMMER WORK FOR 1918 IN THE 
STATE OF MARYLAND 



Names of 
Counties 



Names of 
Supervisors 



dO 

2; 



Enrollment 






*0 tn 

2 



Anne Arundel. 

Caroline 

Carroll 

Charles 

Frederick . . . . 

Kent 

Montgomery . 

St. Mary's 

Somerset 

Talbot 

Washington . . 



E. Snowden 

Janie Jackson. . . 

Ada Fulton 

Mary Smith 

J. W. Bruner. . . . 

E. L. Miller 

A. D. Owens 

Carrie Anderson. 
H. S. Wilson.... 
Nellie Turner. . . 
N. L. Williams.. 



Total. 



18 


100 


25 


125 


11 


53 


8 


42 


20 


216 


24 


67 


20 


282 


49 


180 


23 


195 


8 




22 


73 


228 


1333 



50 
56 
22 
10 

112 
60 

151 

384 
22 

106 
91 

1064 



34 

50 

18 

6 

120 
52 

216 
80 
60 

39 



184 
231 
93 
58 
448 
179 
649 
644 
277 
106 
203 



20 



30 

100 

40 

34 

226 

130 

376 

175 

80 

92 

109 



675 3072 



237 1392 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



145 



Ceunties 


XI o 

D O u 
■^ 3 


> rt 

=« C 1;; 
4- C 2 

fa 


Estimated Value of 
Fruit and Veget- 
ables Canned — isc 
Per Quart 


3 „ 

o o 
to—* 

fa 


•a 13 

C V 

u 
> 


aj P) rt 

w 


Additional Amount 
Raised for School 
and Home Im- 
provement 


Anne Arundel 

Caroline 


800 

1,000 

5,361 

1,330 

11,176 

1,500 

4,810 

14,807 

800 

500 

6,605 


•••••'• 


$120.00 
150.00 

804.15 

199.50 
1,676.40 

225.00 
■ 721.50 
2,221.05 

120.00 
75.00 

990.75 


100 
75 

105 
50 

568 
50 

818 

6,320 

36 

70 

120 


$60.00 
45.00 
63.00 
30.00 

340.80 
30.00 

490.80 

3,792.00 

21.60 

42.00 

72.00 


$1,625.00 

300.00 

49.00 

174.00 

2,200.00 

3,384.00 

5,488.00 

2,534.00 

767.00 

75.00 

3,894.00 


$200.00 
75.00 


Carroll 


5.00 


Charles 


15.00 


Frederick 


1,275.00 


Kent 


1,740.00 


Montgomery 

St. Mary's 


500.00 
785.00 


Somerset 


300.00 


Talbot 




Washington 


250.00 


Total 


48,689 


$7,303.35 


8,312 


$4,987.20 


$20,490.00 


$5,145.00 







From the preceding report it would seem that, considering the 
small sum of approximately $150 per county, or $1,650 for the eleven 
counties participating, this v/ork is indeed worth while. Aside from 
the value of foodstuffs conserved under the direction of our educa- 
tional authorities, the supervisors have had an opportunity to help the 
sanitary conditions in their several communities ; to keep the community 
leagues alive during the summer months, to learn the people through 
their homes, and from this knowledge to direct a type of school work 
that will function in the experience of the pupils 



Punctuality and Regular Attendance 

In every county there is lacking punctual and regular attendance by 
the pupils. The colored people do not seem to have as yet appreciated 
this social demand. When I have remonstrated with the teachers about 
this condition, there has been a tendency to excuse on the basis of a race 
inheritance, and to condemn the attendance officer for lax enforcement 
of the compulsory attendance law. 

My feeling is that the teachers must be made to realize that society 
demands punctuality, and that their classroom work is far from being 
well done unless they have instilled into the minds of the pupils the 
realization that their being negroes is- no excuse for habitual tardiness 
and continual irregularity. Such platitudes as, "You know our people 
haven't learned to be. on time," should cease to be used, so far as the 



146 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

experiences of the colored people are concerned. This practice is at 
least partially resjxmsible for much of the retardation prevalent in the 
colored schools of the State. If this be true, it is expensive from a 
financial point of view. 

Clean-up Week 

As noted elsewhere in this report, plans were discussed for the 
observation of a community "clean-up" week under the direction of 
the school. The supervisors were urged to enlist the cooperation of 
ministers and all the leading colored people in their several counties 
in this movement. This was undertaken only in those counties where 
there is a colored supervisor. 

As the hygienic condition of a community is a social as well as an 
individual matter, we felt that by making even a beginning toward the 
improvement of the colored sections of the several communities in 
Maryland, the State would be improved to that extent. 

The supervisors' reports have been most encouraging concerning 
the result of this eflfort. We have approximately 500 colored com- 
munities in Maryland outside the city of Baltimore. In the several 
counties having colored supervisors, 225 communities observed the 
period for hygienic improvement of their home surroundings. Rubbish 
and trash were removed ; white-washing was done ; yards were im- 
proved; provision was made to pen the pigs and thus keep them out of 
the yards ; windows were washed ; floors were scrubbed, etc. 

The fine spirit of a community in St. Mary's county was reported to 
me. The Community League bought a barrel of lime and dealt it out, 
for white-washing purposes, to every home in the section. That com- 
munity is a real model, in this respect, for the whole State. 

Mass-Meetings 

During the year we held mass-meetings of the colored folks in the 
following counties : Worcester, Somerset, Wicomico, Dorchester, Caro- 
line, Queen Anne, Kent, Cecil, Frederick, Montgomery, Anne Arundel, 
Charles, St. Mary's. Attendance at all these gatherings was large ; in 
most cases the building Avhere the meeting was held was crowded. We 
made an effort to get out trustees, patrons, and all other colored citizens 
of the counties. 

I tried to show the trustees that they had some duties to discharge 
in the State's system, that the patrons had much responsibility. In 
order to clinch the effect of the meeting, we organized a county league, 
officered by the representative colored men and women of the respective 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 14v 

counties. This league, according to reports sent me, is stimulating 
the further organization of communit}' leagues in the several school 
districts of the county. In several of the counties named above, every 
district has now an active league, — one that is actually doing something 
to improve school conditions in its particular district. Many of the 
county leagues have raised money (and are still at work) to assist a 
weak section of the county that is trying to get a new building by aid 
from the Rosenwald Fund. This is true of Frederick, Cecil, Caroline, 
Kent, \Vicomico, Charles, St. Mary's, Somerset, Anne Arundel. The 
League in Frederick will pay one half the cost of two students from 
the county to the Bowie Normal School next session. 

Community Leagues 

An effort was made in the counties to effect the organization of 
community leagues. Definite pieces of work were suggested for the 
leagues to undertake after their organization. In a few of the counties 
every colored community perfected an organization and did accomplish 
something in the way of school and neighborhood improvements. In 
the other counties at least a few leagues were organized and did some 
work. The number of leagues in the entire State totals 300. 

Associations 

All the counties held one-day associations for their colored teachers. 
It was my privilege to attend these in most of the counties. 

The programs included some phase of teaching; direct instruction in 
some subject; round table discussions; directions from the county 
superintendent. The county superintendents, or their representatives, 
were present at all these associations. The colored teachers seem to 
appreciate the opportunity to assemble in an association and participate 
in the discussions of the work relative to their own classrooms. 

Prolonged School Year 
While the people were encouraged to raise money to increase their 
school year, this was done, I am advised, in but twelve school districts 
of the State. 

Since the law fixes a minimum year of seven months for the colored 
schools, there does not appear the necessity to the colored people for 
the sacrifice that they formerly made. 

Self-Help 
Much of my energy during the year was directed toward stimulating 
the colored people to raise money among themselves to provide better 



148 Annual Rkpokt of the Static Board ov Education 

school equipment for their children. In some counties the response 
was excellent. In others, the supervisor not being in sympathy with 
the people's aiding themselves, little was raised. In still others, some 
of the colored ministers secretly advised the people against self-help, 
apparently fearing that their own support would be somewhat curtailed. 

The sum total raised by colored people for school improvement, 
according to the supervisors' reports, was $6,806.83. 

The two counties that stand out most prominently in this respect 
are Charles and St. Mary's: Charles raised $1,200 and St. Mary's $800. 

Teaching Thrift 

Early in the fall of 1917, before the War Saving Stamp plan had 
been perfected, the teachers in the several counties were urged to 
encourage their pupils to bring to school pennies, nickels, dimes, that 
would otherwise be spent with no permanent returns. The teachers 
were to hold these small amounts until a dollar had been accumulated ; 
then these were to start a savings account for the children who had 
saved the dollar. The children were to be encouraged to repeat the 
accumulation until another dollar had been saved, and so on. 

After the plan for the War Saving Stamps had been perfected, the 
children were urged to save to the amount of 25 cents and purchase a 
stamp. Much was saved by the savings bank plan. ^.lany teachers 
have reported that they have deposited large sums to the credit of their 
pupils. One teacher in Charles county reported that her pupils had 
more than $100 to their credit. Many stamps were bought by the 
pupils upon the solicitation of the teachers. The total amount saved 
by the pupils from these sources is $5,367.06. 

Food Conservation 

During the fall of 1917, the teachers in a few of the counties, par- 
ticularly Frederick, directed the pupils in canning and drj-ing fruits and 
vegetables. Approximately 500 jars were canned, and 25 bushels dried, 
as a means of conservation. 

The drying was done, in the main, at the school. The canning, on 
account of the lack of school equipment for this purpose, was carried on 
at the homes of the pupils under the direction of the teachers. This 
phase of school work, it seems to me, is one to be further emphasized 
and encouraged. 




SAMPLES OF COLORED INDUSTRL\L WORK 

Corn Husks Can Be Successfully Used fur Mats, Frames, and Other OI)jtcts, as Shown in Above Illustration. 




SAMPLES OF COLORED INDUSTRIAL WORK 

Fiaskelry Can Le Successfully Taught from Inexpensive Native Materials. The Two at the Right Were 
Made of Honeysuckle, the Two at the Left of Pine Needles. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 149 

Industrial Work 

We tried to give a type of industrial work that would be effective in 
the social life of the individual. In addition, we emphasized the use 
of native materials, in order that the pupils might be taught to appre- 
ciate uses to which these materials could be put, as well as being taught 
the constructions of useful articles. 

Therefore, baskets were made from splits, honeysuckle, pine needles 
and willow ; mats from shucks and rags ; chair bottoms, from shucks and 
cane ; soap, from waste fats. 

The pupils were taught plain sewing and cooking, as far as the 
school equipment would permit. They were encouraged to bring to 
the school stockings to be darned and clothing to be patched. This 
work constituted an industrial period, and was one means of linking 
the school up with the home. It furnished, also, an opportunity to 
teach the pupils to take care of their personal clothing and hence improve 
their appearance in dress. 

In most of the counties there are several teachers who are enthusi- 
astic about this phase of work. They appreciate it as an instrument 
for education. In many counties there are teachers whose knowledge 
of education is very limited ; hence they feel that nothing helps to edu- 
cate save the traditional subjects. This spirit is accentuated by one or 
two county supervisors. These officials do not realize, though they 
have been so advised, that the basis for their employment, according 
to law, is that they are to see that industrial work is made a part of the 
program of every school in the county. 

I think, perhaps, the attitude is improving ; but much is to be done 
yet to get the teachers to realize that the industrial work is not foisted 
on the colored people, but is placed in the program as one effective 
instrument for their training. 

Courses of Study 
Pursuant to your instruction, a program of studies for the elemen- 
tary colored schools has been prepared. While I compiled it, the pro- 
gram was made up after suggestions had been gathered from the colored 
teachers and supervisors of the State. The courses were then criti- 
cised, and, after slight revision, were unanimously approved by them. 

Colored High Schools 

I am very sure that the colored people of Maryland are deeply 
grateful to the State Board of Education for having established high 
schools for their children in different sections of the State. I believe 



150 Annual Rei-okt or the State Board or Education 

these schools will prove a wonderful stimulus to the colored people 
to improve themselves further by means of public education. They 
will also have a direct bearing on the improvement of the colored 
teachers in the State, since many more of them will be able now to 
secure near home, before becoming teachers, at least the training 
offered by a high school. At present the scholarship of the greater 
number of our colored teachers is far below the equivalent of high 
school work. 

The Maryland Normal and Industrial School 

The Maryland Normal and Industrial School, for colored student- 
at Bowie, is not receiving from the colored people of the State the 
support which the School merits. Their patronage is limited, their 
criticisms, though veiled, arc plentiful and usually destructive. They 
offer few constructive suggestions, so far as I have been able to learn. 
When asked if the trouble be the faculty, the character of work, tlie 
equipment, most of them are silent. 

The School graduated its first class in 1912. Including this class 
and the graduates of 1918, there are but 51 as a sum total. This 
number is a small return for the cost to the State during this period, 
the colored people of Maryland, which we do not now have, I would 
recommend the following: 

1. An increased appropriation from the State. 

2. Provision for better equipment. 

3. Employm.ent of a faculty sufficiently strong to give adequate train- 
ing for teaching. 

4. The providing of some scheme for added self-help on the part of 
the students. 

5. Establishment of a trade school in connection with the Normal. 

Plans for 1918-1919 
I am taking the liberty of appending some plans for the year 1918-19 : 
Improvement of Supervision 

I shall endeavor to improve the work of the county supervisors. 
In my visits with them I hope to observe what they include in super- 
vision ; what they include in inspection ; how they deal with teachers ; 
what steps they take to improve a situation, in order to make their visit 
worth while. I shall discuss their method, as observed by me, and 
point out what may seem to me to be a better way of handling similar 

If we could have the assurance of patronage and cooperation from 
situations. 




SAMPLES OF COLORED INDUSTRL-VL WORK 

Sewing Is Successfully Taught in Many Colored Schools. 




SAMPLES OF COLORED INDUSTRL\L WORK 

Some Teachers Succeed with Broom-making. The Picture Frame in the Center Is Made of Pine Cones, 

the Beads Above of Paper. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 151 

That the supervisors may secure a more modern point of view, I 
vi^ant them to study two texts during the school year. At our confer- 
ences, we shall discuss the material in both of these books. The two 
selected for 1918-19 are "Education for the Needs of Life," by Miller; 
and "Tlie Rural Teacher and Kis Work," by Foght. 

I want to have at least three conferences v/ith the supervisors 
during the year — one before the scliools open, one before Christmas, 
and one during February. 

I hope so to direct the supervisors in the holding of Saturday con- 
ferences with their teachers as to make tliese conferences efficient means 
of improving supervision. Above all, I am hoping to secure a better 
attitude on the part of these supervisors toward the work of educa- 
tion. Many of them liave the proper attitude now, but a fev/ have not. 

With the permission of the State Superintendent I shall insist that 
they take summer school work often, in order to advance their scholar- 
ship as v/ell as to improve themselves as supervisors. As the State 
pays tlieir salaries, it should receive a genuine service in return. Hence 
it seems to me we shall be justified in recommending that the confirm- 
ation of their appointment be v/ithheld, if they fail to improve them- 
selves and to correct an erroneous attitude that only one or two now 
have. 

I have enough confidence in those selected for next year to believe 
that all of them will respond to every effort made in their behalf. I 
should respectfully recommend that the supervisors be selected for 
twelve months instead of for the time the schools are open. The sum 
of money allowed by the State, plus the help so kindly extended by 
the General Education Board, would permit a fair salary for the 
supervisor for twelve months. At present some of the counties are 
not using the full $750 appropriated by the State for the supervisor's 
salary and traveling expenses. With a twelve-months' period they 
v/ould be justified in paying the full amount. 

llie summer work of the supervisor could well include: the direc- 
tion of gardening, canning, drying; improvement of community life 
from a sanitary standpoint ; keeping at v/ork the community leagues ; 
etc. 

Traini}ig Schools 
By the assistance of Dr. James H. Dillard, the administrator of 
the Jeanes and the Slater Funds, who will give us $500 for three suc- 
cessive years to help pay teachers' salaries, and by the aid of the General 
Education Board, which will assist us in securing equipment, we are 



153 Annual Ri:roKT or the State Board of Education 

hoping to establish two training schools in the State, where prospective 
teachers may receive some preparation for their work. The centers 
selected are Dorchester and Charles counties. Superintendent J. B. 
Noble, of Dorchester, is cooperating splendidly; hence, of the success 
of the School in his county I have no doubt. Sufficient intere-t has 
not yet been manifested in Charles County to encourage the belief 
that a good training school can be maintained this year. I am con- 
vinced that, if these two schools be encouraged, the counties will, 
within three years, be fully supplied with teachers more adequately 
equipped for the work than are the teachers now available. 

In fact, I should very much like to see a training department in 
connection with the three high schools approved by the State Board of 
Education. In detail, it seems to me the training school work should 
include the following : study of texts on rural schools, management, 
methods, observation of teaching, followed by critiques, and some 
practice teaching. This work should have an academic background 
of at least nine grades, and be given in conjunction with some academic 
work of the tenth grade. 

I have no desire to supplant the regular normal school training; 
but the situation, with respect to securing prepared teachers, is so acute 
that it seems to me we are justified in taking this short cut to improve, 
even if slightly, the colored teaching force of the State. 

Supervisors for All the Counties 

I am hoping that by the summer of 1919 the counties of Harford 
and Calvert will each have been able to provide suitable buildings for 
a central industrial school, and that as a result, since each has more 
than ten schools, they may secure the services of colored supervisors. 

The counties of Howard and St. Mary's are making provision for 
such buildings for 1918-19. 

I believe the work among the colored schools will be greatly im- 
proved by such a supervisor to direct and supervise closely the work 
of the colored teachers of these counties. 

Associations and Conferences 
I shall endeavor to plan with the county supervisor, with the approval 
of the county superintendent, associations and conferences of teachers, 
to the end that these meetings may be worth while. We want to make 
them real elements of helpfulness for the teachers. 

My aim shall be to have real instruction given by means of a class 
taught by a skilled teacher, and followed by a critique ; discussion of 
the teaching of some subject; some Reading Circle work; the report- 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 153 

ing by the teachers of any material improvement to their schools. This 
will, perhaps, stimulate other teachers to improve the surroundings of 
their schools. 

Libraries 

I shall, through the supervisors and the associations of teachers 
and trustees, try to induce the colored communities to qualify for school 
libraries ; i. e., to raise ten dollars for this purpose. The schools are 
deficient in libraries. They are of real service to the whole community. 
I am hoping that by May, 1919, we shall have in the State at least 150 
such libraries. 

The Grade of Certificate 
Since the General Assembly of 1918 bases the minimum pay of a 
colored teacher on the grade of certificate she holds, the grade now 
becomes of financial importance to her. The grade, in theory at least, 
represents a part of the qualification of a teacher. Hence it is well 
that some difference be made in the salary paid to the holders of 
different grades of certificates. Because I believe that the teacher who 
secures a first grade certificate is capable of rendering better service 
in her profession than if she qualified for a lower grade, 1 shall urge 
all teachers who hold the two lower grades to make an effort to advance 
to a higher grade. The increased salary will prove a potent influence 
in causing the teachers to make the effort to raise the grade of their 
certificates. 

Increasing the Efficiency of Teachers 

I believe the Reading Circle work to be one of the most important 
factors in improving the teachers' usefulness. Therefore, I shall use 
every means I have to get the teachers to do this work. I shall discuss 
it with them in the associations ; try to imbue the county supervisors 
v/ith the idea of its importance ; hold it up as an aid in raising the grade 
of certificate. This work alone should serve to make of the colored 
teachers a more professional and a more scholarly body of individuals. 

That the teachers may be further improved, they will be encouraged 
and urged to make the financial sacrifice of attending summer schools 
frequently. A fair beginning was made during the summer of 1918. 

Organisation 

I shall urge again and assist in the organization of the colored com- 
munities for general improvement. I hope by the end of the 1918-19 
session to report an active league in every school district in the counties 
where there is a colored supervisor. 

That the trustees may be stimulated to some activity in their posi- 



154 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

tions, an effort will be made to bring these officials together, from time 
to time, into a county body. Their duties and opportunities to assist 
in the cause of education will be discussed with them at these meetings. 
The needs of the colored schools, it seems to me, may be sum- 
marized as follows : 

1. Better buildings and equipment. 

2. Improvement of the teaching body. 

3. Improvement of the supervisors. 

All of the efforts put forth by your supervisor will focalize in the 
above. Of course, with the limited school year of seven months, the 
work can not be as comprehensive as if the period were longer. 
Riglits vs. Obligations 

Tl:ere seems to be a deep-rooted conviction among certain colored 
people th.at they are deprived of their rights. There seems to be little 
thought that colored people have some obligations as well as rights. 
They lose sight of the fact that they must assume some obligations in 
society before they can hope to have the rights which they claim as 
their due. Throughout all ages society has demanded part payment 
before it would confer the rights demanded by any of its groups. 
Hence, altliough a longer school year is thought of as a right, in many 
counties the colored people will not send their children to school regu- 
larly and punctually even the seven months now guaranteed to them. 
In the m.atter of hygiene, the colored people do not seem to realize 
that tliey have some obligation to society to keep premises clean; yet 
they protest against segregation as a denial of a right. In some way 
or another they must be shov.-n that rights bring obligations, and that 
thev must assume the obligation before they secure all the rights. 

To me. the task is by no means a hopeless one, however slow may 
be its fulfillment. I believe the salvation of the race and the means 
for its being made of great service to the State are found in the public 
schools. Hence, as \xq improve the public schools for the colored 
people, I feel sure that we are improving the people themselves as 
members of a race whose advantages have, until recently, been meagre, 
and that we are adding to the State's assets. 

Because I believe thoroughly that it is worth while to train the 
colored people, I am grateful for the opportunity to participate in this 
particular pie:e of educational work in the State. Ihe suggestions 
and direction of the State Superintendent, as well as his encouragement 
and sympathy, have been a real bulwark to me. I am hoping that in 
the schools for tlie colored people some progress may be made that 
-will justify tlie confidence he has so generously placed in me. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 155 

EEPCRT OF MASYLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

By HENRY S. WEST, Principal 



A review of the most significant occurrences in The Maryland 
State Normal School during the year 1917-1918 indicates that it has 
been a year of distinct progress in the face of obstacles quite unprece- 
dented in the experience of the school. This progress was due chiefly 
to the reorganization of the business and the instructional activities of 
the school that could be efifected by the aid of the new assistants added 
to the stafif at the beginning of the school year. 

Changes in Personnel 

After the new principal was installed in office, Miss Sarah E. 
Richmond, relieved of the principalship, was made dean. In this 
capacity she received comparatively light teaching assignment, and was 
given certain recording and disciplinary duties that she very gladly 
undertook. Her assistance in these directions has been of great service 
to tb.e school. 

Air. John L. Dunkle v.as appointed head of the department of 
pedagogy to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. H. H. 
Murphy. Air. Dunkle's training and experience, covering a wide range 
of school teaching and organization, including considerable work in 
the rural field, fitted him well for the departmental duties assigned to 
him. 

Miss Jean D. Amberson was appointed teacher of home economics, 
succeeding Miss Pearl A. Bernhardt, who resigned at the end of the 
year 1916-1917. Miss Amberson came highly recommended, and she 
has applied herself very conscientiously to the development of the home 
economics instruction offered in the school. In addition to her work 
of instruction, she v/as given the management of the school cafeteria; 
and here she both directed and worked daily, with the result that the 
lunches served to Normal day students and Practice School pupils were 
very materially improved in comparison with the same service as ren- 
dered in the preceding year independently of any supervision from the 
teacher of home economics. 

Aliss Katharine G. Grasty was appointed school librarian. She 
entered upon her duties in a library without catalogue, without proper 



156 Annual Report of the State Board of Ei>ucation 

classification and arrangement of the books, and with a great deal of 
dead stock lumberin^^ the shelves. All this she has transformed, so 
that now the library presents a scientific and thoroughly serviceabl'j 
appearance. 

Mr. C. E. VVootten was appointed to the position of business manager 
to the school. Besides taking full charge of the accounts, he was 
assigned the work of looking after repairs, purchasing supplies and 
equipment for the dormitory and other departments, and handling the 
details of other business matters, after getting in every case the prin- 
cipal's decision as to the action to be taken. In all these directions 
Mr. Wootten's services have been exceedingly valuable. Indeed in this 
abnormal war year, when everything in the direction of supplies and 
help was extraordinarily difficult to secure and required unprecedented 
personal attention, it is almost certain that on several occasions the 
school, and in particular the dormitory dining service, would have been 
reduced to a desperate condition without Mr. Wootten's assistance. 

Enrollment 
It is most regrettable that a distinct decrease in enrollment for 
the academic year has to be reported — although, as will be shown 
later in this report, the falling off in the regular academic year was 
more than made up by the very good enrollment in the summer 
session. This decrease in the Normal School membership has been 
going on since 1914, as can be seen from the following table of 
enrollment figures for the past eleven years. 

Year 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908 

Senior Class 99 110 12 79 76 73 63 73 64 64 64 

Junior Class 76 93 113 l(y 87 68 70 61 76 11 12> 
Second Year 

Class .... 25 48 66 11 12 74 43 63 57 42 42 
First Year 

Class .... 20 45 69 99 108 102 136 95 &4 87 89 

Normal 

Total .... 220 296 320 331 343 317 312 292 281 266 268 
Practice 

School... 141 123 107 54 62 64 64 65 12, n 11 

Grand Total 361 419 427 385 405 381 376 357 354 339 341 
From 1908 to 1914 the roll of Normal students steadily increased, 
but since 1914 the trend has been downward. It is interesting to 
note, on the contrary, that the practice school enrollment has more 
than doubled since 1914. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 157 

Some quite definite causes for the falling Normal enrollment can 
be stated. It has been a declared State policy in recent years to 
build up the county high schools and discourage students from going 
to the Normal to complete their academic course; and the effect of 
this policy is plainly seen in the big drop in first and second year 
rolls as compared with the much smaller decreases in the rolls of 
the tv/o professional years. Another certain cause of diminished 
Normal enrollment is the popularity of the commercial course in the 
high schools, combined with the tremendous attractions of the many 
commercial calls that invite students into paying positions imme- 
diately upon high school graduation. Again, for more than a year, the 
urgent solicitation of the National Government has drawn into war 
work of one sort or another both actual teachers from the schoolroom 
itself and prospective Normal students, who were, at least for the time 
being, turned away from preparation for the teaching profession. 
Finally, the question of the teacher's salary has of late become a very 
acute consideration with many young people : for the steadily rising 
cost of not only luxuries and comforts, but of the bare necessities of 
life has caused persons, naturally inclined to teaching, to pass by the 
school, where salary advances have been deplorably slow, and enter one 
of the vocations in which the pay envelope has kept pace more or 
less, with the living costs. 

This salary question was very emphatically mentioned by the State 
Board of Education in the report of 1917 (p. 5) in the following pas- 
sage: "People are educated slowly by argument but quickly by events. 
New opportunities for employment in other spheres of service where 
wages which are in keeping with the increased cost of living are paid, 
are taking many of our best teachers out of the elementary schools, not 
because they would rather identify themselves with different employ- 
ment, but for the reason that they cannot afford to remain in the teach- 
ing profession at the prevailing salaries. . . . Herein lies the 
opportunity of our next Legislature ; and 'living salaries for elementary 
teachers' should become the slogan to be used by all true friends of 
public education." The Legislature did act, and has established the 
new $500 minimum salary; and doubtless this was as far as actual 
legislation could go at the present time. But many people, including 
prospective teachers, know that in not a few school districts of any 
state the legal minimum salary is likely to become in practice the most 
common, if not the maximum, salary ; and to many an alert high school 
senior a five-hundred-dollar teaching position at the end of a two-year 
Normal course looks small and uninviting beside the higher salaries 



158 Annual Rkpokt of tjii-: State Board of Education 

extended immediately from other positions. With certainty, therefore, 
in these trying times, connection can be tracefl between low salaries for 
teach.ers and low enrollment in Normal Schools. 

Rr.ORGANIZATION A\D NkVV CURRICULUM 

In the new jirincipal's org'anization of the school for the year 1917- 
1918, worked out in the weeks immediately preceding the opening in 
September, a thorough-going reorganization of the work of the school 
was begun. The Practice School was defmitely organized as a four- 
room school with a critic teacher constantly in charge of each room. 
This was made possible by assigning to full-time instruction in the 
Elementary School one of the teachers who had previously carried an 
exceptionally light assignment divided between elementary class work 
and academic instruction of Normal students. Other changes of 
teachers' assignments were also made with the object of distributing 
the work of instruction as evenly as possible and putting, at the same 
time, each subject into the hands of the instructor best qualified to 
present that subject. And the standing committees of the faculty were 
reorganized in a way that promised more effective committee work, and 
certain desirable changes were made in the duties of these committees. 

As the year proceeded, steps were taken, in faculty conferences and 
in other ways, to have the instruction given in the two professional 
years modified, so as to lessen the too distinctly academic character it 
had in certain rooms ; and thus the work of the Normal classes proper 
could become more strictly professional. Moreover, appreciable prog- 
ress was made in securing better cooperation between the theory 
teachers of the Normal stafif and the critic teachers of the Elementary 
School, so as to bring theory and practice more intimately together. 
To the new head of the department of pedagogy was specially assigned 
the supervision of the seniors' practice teaching in the classes of the 
Elementary School ; and he gave to this continuous and careful atten- 
tion, observing daily in the practice rooms, holding regular conferences 
with the critic teachers and the practicing seniors, and assisting gen- 
erally in the conduct of the practice work. The seniors w^ere also led 
to take special interest in the playground activities of the Elementary 
pupils ; and this interest culminated, in the latter part of the year, in a 
lively Elementary School Field Day, which was marked by some very 
animated and instructive contests. 

In addition to the foregoing steps of reorganization and develop- 
ment, a thorough revision of the Normal curriculum was undertaken. 
The principal made a comparative study of the curricula of a consider- 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 159 

able number of state normal schools, secured from the members of 
the faculty all the recommendations they had to offer, and formulated 
a new curriculum, which was critically discussed in faculty conference 
and finally submitted to the State Board of Education. Two of the 
distinctive features of this new curriculum are : The division of the 
school year into three terms of twelve weeks each and the organization 
of all the instruction in twelve-week units ; and the concentration of the 
senior practice teaching into a single term, the whole senior class be- 
ing divided into three sections, with provision for one section after 
another to have a term of practice. In contrast with the former plan 
of practice, whereby the senior vv^as assigned to the Elementary School 
through the whole academic year, but for only one period a day, the new 
plan, by concentrating the practice of each group of seniors in one 
term, will liold the senior in practice for half the day (at least three 
fifty-minute periods) every day of the practice term ; so that for this 
third of the year the practice constitutes decidedly the major part of 
tlie senior's v/hole assignment. Under these conditions, it is believed 
that both the student's study of grade procedure, especially in the rooms 
of more than one grade, and also her own instruction of classes will be 
more effective than this study and practice have been when the student 
could ordinarily spend but one period at a time in the elementary school. 
Furthermore, it is expected that making the practice work the senior's 
main business throughout a term will serve to keep the Practice School 
as the center of interest through all the senior year. 

Departments Supplemental to Instruction 

Concerning the departments supplemental to instruction — the jani- 
torial, the dormitory, the farm and garden, the laundry, and the power- 
house departments — there must be reported a great deal of trouble and 
the utter impossibility of maintaining satisfactory conditions through 
the year, and accomplishing all the material development of the insti- 
tution that was intended. This was due to the prevailing unrest under 
war conditions, and also to the relatively low wages allowed at the 
school for certain work. The location of the school, near Baltimore 
and the Government proving grounds and Camp Meade, keeps the 
school help constantly in disturbing proximity to many places of em- 
ployment where urgent war work is offered under conditions of maxi- 
mum wages and minimum hours. Consequently, except in the persons 
of the chief engineer and the first assistant engineer, changes have 
occurred in almost every position on the place. During the latter part 
of the year, for days at a time, the dormitory force was reduced to only 



160 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

one or two helpers ; and the dining room service would have collapsed 
entirely but for the aid rendered by volunteer student assistants. In 
the matter of having rej)air work done, also, continual difficulty and 
delay were experienced, and extravagant charges had to be met. Even 
in the case of new work, definitely contracted for, as in the making of 
the School tennis courts, an unreasonably long time elapsed between 
the beginning and the satisfactory completion of the job; and various 
excuses about the scarcity of labor and materials had to be accepted 
Through all these troubles the presence on the staff of the new business 
manager was of great advantage to the School ; for it was fortunate 
indeed that he was available to give the time and personal attention 
required to solve the recurring problems of securing help, having 
necessary repairs made, and purchasing supplies at the least inflated 
prices. 

In one branch of the School service, the farm and garden depart- 
ment, the change of employees that occurred proved to be of immediate 
and marked advantage, for the new head gardener and his assistant 
secured in the spring, have shown themselves to be far more competent 
than their predecessors. It is quite certain also that, when the time 
comes for a summing up of the value of the trucking produce of the 
year, a statement can be made very creditable to the new gardeners 
even in this first season of their work for the School. 

Health of Dormitory Students 

During the year the preceptress of Newell Hall kept an exact record 
of all cases of sickness, and from this she made up a summarizing 
report at the close of school. Definite medical attention of one sort or 
another was rendered in 103 instances. Fully tw^o-thirds of these cases 
of sickness required actual nursing, which was accomplished wnth the 
assistance of fellow-students, except in contagious diseases, of which 
there were 13 cases. Whenever contagion was present, the nursing 
was done by the preceptress herself, assisted sometimes by the mother 
or older sister of the sick student. The list of maladies specified is as 
follows : grippe, 31 cases ; throat trouble, 8 cases ; tonsilitis, 2 cases ; 
indigestion, 15 cases ; intestinal trouble, 2 cases ; appendicitis, 1 case ; 
ear trouble, 3 cases; conjunctivitis, 1 case; retina disease, 1 case; 
neuritis, 1 case ; sprains, 2 cases ; chronic disease, 2 cases ; poison ivy, 3 
cases ; eruptive trouble, 4 cases ; chicken pox, 5 cases ; measles, 8 cases. 
A regular physician had to be called in attendance nineteen times. 

Though this statement reports more sickness than one w^ould like 
to acknowledge, it is certainly gratifying to note that the measles was 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 161 



prevented from spreading into the broadcast school epidemic, which this 
disease became during the winter in many boarding schools. This sick- 
ness report also shows the advantage the school enjoys in having in 
the preceptress a person of considerable medical and nursing experi- 
ence. Moreover, if the preceptress's work should become any more 
burdensome, requiring as it does long hours of service for the welfare 
of the boarding students and a wide variety of personal and disci- 
plinary attention, a just claim can be made for an assistant in this 
department. 

War Work and Community Cooperation 

As this was the first complete school year conducted with the 
country engaged in the World War, repeated attention was devoted, 
both in classroom and in school assembly, to informing the student 
body concerning the War and to stimulating such participation in war 
work as students in school could contribute. In the pre-Christmas Red 
Cross drive one hundred and fifty new memberships from the school 
were turned in ; a State Normal Circle of the Red Cross was organized ; 
the Pestalozzi Literary Society devoted the proceeds of their dramatic 
entertainment to the Red Cross ; and through the year groups of stu- 
dents made very creditable contributions to the Red Cross — sewing 
and surgical dressings. Considerable purchases of thrift stamps and 
war savings stamps were accumulated ; some Liberty bonds were 
bought by students or for them ; and from a good number of homes 
satisfactory reports were made on bond investments. Finally, in the 
great Baltimore Red Cross parade, the State Normal School was well 
represented by a company, composed of students and faculty members, 
who attracted very favorable comment on account of their excellent 
appearance and fine spirit. 

In these forms of war work, and in all other ways possible, a dispo- 
sition was cultivated to have the Normal School cooperate cordially 
with the local community in any worthy enterprise. The School was 
freely offered for Towson or Baltimore County meetings ; and such 
meetings were held from time to time for various patriotic purposes. 
The Towson community observance of Christmas was held in the 
Normal School auditorium, and an inspiring song program was ren- 
dered. On some of these occasions Normal students participated in 
the exercises ; and at every meeting of a public character the Normal 
School was well represented in the audience. The purpose of all this 
Normal cooperation with the community was frankly two-fold : it was 
meant to be of genuine aid to the community; and, at the same time, it 



162 Annual Report of the State Board of EuL'CA'noN 

served to give the Normal students actual experience in some of the 
forms of community work that tliey, as teachers, would afterwards in 
their own communities have occasion to direct or support. 

Commencement of 1918 

The commencement exercises of 1918, the fifty-third annual com- 
mencement of the School, were held on Thursday evening, June 13, 
in the School auditorium. A large audience, made up of relatives and 
friends of the graduates, friends of the school from Towson and 
vicinity, and especially invited guests, and representatives of almost 
the whole of the State, filled the hall. The program was so arranged, 
the exercises were so directed, and the choruses of the students were 
so rendered, as to maintain the tradition of the School for beautiful 
and well-managed commencements. The address of the evening, a 
very suggestive and stimulating talk to the graduates, was given by 
Air. B. Howell Griswold, Jr., who was chairman of the Maryland 
Educational Survey Commission, and who, on various occasions and iri 
various ways, has worked for the improvement of public education in 
Maryland. Regret was expressed that the Governor, announced on 
the program to deliver the diplomas to the graduates, was unable to 
attend ; but this ceremony was very happily performed by Dr. John O, 
Spencer, ex-member of the State Board of Education. It was also a 
matter of special regret to the new principal that, on this occasion of 
his first State Normal School commencement, neither the President of 
the State Board nor the State Superintendent of Schools could be 
present. 

The roll of graduates numbered eighty-seven ; and since the date 
of commencement two additional students, by successful work in the 
summer session, have completed the requirements for diploma ; so that 
the Class of 1918 wn'll consist of eighty-nine graduates. This is the 
largest graduating class, except the Class of 1917, since the year 1900; 
as can be seen from the following memorandum : the graduates of 1901 
were 86; of 1902, 85; of 1903, 81; of 1904, 73; of 1905, 63; of 1906, 
50 ; of 1907, 79 ; of 1908, 76 ; of 1909, 63 ; of 1910, 64 ; of 1911, 73 ; of 
1912, 57 ; of 1913, 72 ; of 1914, 75 ; of 1915, 79 ; of 1916, 72 ; of 1917, 107 

In accordance with the new State School Law, each graduate re- 
ceived with the Normal diploma the State teacher's certificate of the first 
grade. Announcement was also made of the names of the eight grad- 
uates who formed the class honor roll by having attained the highest 
graduating averages ; and to Miss Olive E. Bowlus, of Frederick 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 163 

County, was awarded the Baltimore County Bank prize of ten dollars, 
to be offered each year to the graduate who leads the class. (See data 
supplemental to this report.) 

First Summer Session 

The first summer session of the Maryland State Normal School, con- 
stituting the chief one of the four summer schools, conducted in 
1918 under the direction of the State Board of Education, was held 
during the six weeks from June 24 to August 2 inclusive. This sum- 
mer session was thoroughly successful, whether considered from the 
point of view of enrollment, of quality of work accomplished, or of 
the expressed satisfaction of the teachers who were in attendance. 
Twenty-two courses were offered, covering theory and practice, psy- 
chology, school management, and the principal subjects of the elemen- 
tary school curriculum ; and a two-room demonstration school of six 
grades was conducted. The total enrollment was 245 ; but two teachers 
who were admitted late withdrew in a few days on account of not being 
able to make up the work covered before their arrival, and another 
teacher withdrew before the end of the six-week period on account of 
sickness. Thus 242 completed the courses for which they registered; 
and all but a very few of these did all the required work, took suc- 
cessfully the final examinations, and received the official summer school 
certificate that was issued. The main purposes of these summer school 
students were to gain renewal of their teachers' certificates, to raise 
the grade of their certificates, or to secure certificates, in the first 
instance ; and their status in reference to the possession of certificates 
is shown as follows : holding first grade certificates, 10 ; holding second 
grade certificates. 94 ; holding third grade certificates, 47 ; holding pro- 
visional certificates, 27 ; candidates for certificates, 58 ; Normal School 
students making up deficiencies, 5 ; special student, not candidate for 
credit, 1. After the summer school closed and all the instructors' 
marks were received and recorded, many cases of high grades appeared ; 
and an honor roll was prepared of the twenty-four students who se- 
cured a grade of ninety per cent, or better in each of the three subjects 
required to be taken to constitute a full summer course. (See data 
supplemental to this report.) 

Of the twenty-two courses offered in the summer school announce- 
ment, courses 14 and 15, entitled "War-time Cookery and Food Preser- 
vation," attracted too few persons to justify the giving of these courses, 
and they were abandoned at the end of the first week. Course 20. en- 



164 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

titled "School and Community Singing," consisted of chorus work on 
patriotic and community songs, was conducted for two weeks only, 
and (lid not count for credit. The interesting distribution of enroll- 
ment in the remaining nineteen courses is indicated in the following 
table : 

Course 1 — Theory of Teaching 106 

Course 22 — Practice of Teaching (Observation and Critique Dis- 
cussions in the Demonstration School) 117 

Course 2 — School Management and School Law 41 

Course 3 — Educational Psychology 46 

Course 4 — Sel f Instruction in English 25 

Course 5 — Elementary School English 96 

Course 6 — English A 9 

Course 7 — English B 12 

Course 8— Elementary School Mathematics 42 

Course 9 — Elementary School Geography 49 

Course 10 — Nature Study 14 

Course 11— Elementary School History and Civics 24 

Course 12 — United States History 26 

Course 13 — Modern European History 28 

Course 16 — Drawing, Color, and Design 25 

Course 17 — Art in Elementary Schools 58 

Course 18 — Elements of Vocal Music 28 

Course 19— Music in Elementary Schools 24 

Course 21 — Education and Recreation 34 

Immediately after the classes were formed, it was seen that Courses 
1, 22, and 5, should be conducted in two sections ; and Courses 1 and 
22 were promptly so arranged ; but the effort to find any other hour 
for a second section of Course 5 disclosed so many instances of conflict 
with other courses which the teachers in 5 were taking, that sectioning 
of Courst 5 had to be abandoned, and this over-large company continued 
to meet as a single class in one of the lecture rooms of the school. 

The listing of the summer session students according to the locali- 
ties from which they came showed a greater or less representation from 
Baltimore City and from all the counties of the State except Allegany 
and Charles. The distribution was as follows : Anne Arundel, 10 
Baltimore, 5; Baltimore City, 4; Calvert, 6; Caroline, 15; Carroll, 16 
Cecil, 5; Dorchester, 30; Frederick, 23; Garrett, 13; Harford, 25 
Howard, 7 ; Kent, 6 ; Montgomery, 13 ; Prince George's, 7 ; Queen 
Anne's, 1; St. Mary's, 7; Somerset, 8; Talbot, 12; Washington, 2; 
Wicomico, 19 ; Worcester, 11. 

Some time before the opening of the summer session it was foreseen 
that the whole number of teachers coming could by no means be 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 165 

accommodated in the school dormitory, Newell Hall ; and the people of 
Tovvson and vicinity were asked to open their homes to the teachers 
who could not be housed at the School. The community response to 
this call was very satisfactory. After 180 were lodged in Newell Hall, 
65 found accommodations outside ; but in cases where the neighbors of 
the School could take in summer students for rooms only, but not for 
board, table board in Newell Hall was offered, and twenty-five came 
daily for full table board, and two took luncheon in the dormitory. 

In order to furnish some weekly social and recreative diversion for 
the teachers, each week after the first week, a literary and musical 
entertainment was given. The first two of these entertainments were 
furnished by professional entertainers. The third was a "Win the 
War" community meeting, in which the summer students and people 
of the Towson community joined in presenting a program of patriotic 
and folk songs under the leadership of the summer school class in 
community singing; and Professor John H. Latane, of Johns Hopkins 
University, delivered a most illuminating address on "America's Rela- 
tion to the World War." The remaining two social evenings were con- 
ducted by the Eastern Shore and the Western Shore students as an 
"Eastern Shore Evening" and a ''W^estern Shore Evening." respec- 
tively. On these two very enjoyable occasions, first the one and then 
the other group of students acted as hostesses in presenting in the audi- 
torium a highly creditable entertainment, followed by a social gathering, 
with refreshments in the cafeteria dining room. A surplus of twenty- 
five dollars from the contributions of the Western Shore teachers, was 
donated to the ischool for the purchase of a Maryland flag; and the 
presentation of this purse by Assistant State Superintendent G. H. 
Reavis formed the culminating incident of the Western Shore evening. 

Saturday excursions for the summer school were also arranged for, 
and were much enjoyed. These included visits to Annapolis, to Wash- 
ington and Mt. Vernon, and to Gettysburg, the last being an all-day 
automobile trip. 

Only in certain features of the dormitory life was any difficulty 
whatever experienced in the management of the summer session. The 
difficulty here arose from the restrictions upon individual liberty that 
must necessarily be imposed when a large number of people are crowded 
into the single building. Some of the teachers found it hard at times 
to practice the self-restraint required to keep the rooms and halls from 
being so noisy as to interfere with study. Annoyance was also caused 
by those who wanted to remain out late at night and come in at hours 
long after the retiring time which should be observed in a school dor- 



166 Annual Rei'ort of the State Board of Educatioim 

mitory. The problem of attending- properly to the door of Newell 
Hall at night can be solved, not merely for the summer session, but 
also for the safeguarding of }x)arding students through the academic 
year, only by the appointment of a reliable person for night duty, in- 
cluding answering the door-bell. 

Recommendations 

A survey of the year's experiences, coupled with a consideration of 
some of the counties' educational needs that the State Normal School 
could help to meet, suggests that this report may fittingly conclude 
with certain recommendations for developments that should be under- 
taken as soon as conditions in the school permit. 

1. Beside the regular two-year course for the Normal diploma and 
first grade certificate, there could be oflfered, at least during the present 
period of educational emergency, a one-year course leading to the State 
elementary second grade certificate, in accordance with the ^vlaryland 
Public School Laws, Chapter 8, Section 55 (9). Such a course would 
meet the popular and urgent demand for the completion in less f'me 
than two years beyond high school graduation, of a certain standard of 
preparation for teaching; and yet this course would, at the same time, 
because conducted with all the resources of a full academic year at the 
Normal School, prove far more beneficial to the second grade teacher 
than hurried and superficial preparation for teaching on the legal mini- 
mum conditions of a six-week professional course and examinations 
in the fourteen specified subjects. Such a Normal School one-year 
course could also be easily superior to the local high school training 
courses advocated in certain counties, since the latter must necessarily 
be given with very limited teaching force, equipment, and other facili- 
ties. Moreover, if it seemed advisable, the one-year Normal course 
might specialize towards teaching in rural districts. 

2. Whenever the conditions to be met by the Normal graduates 
appear to require specialized preparation for primary teaching versus 
upper-grade teaching and vice versa, the standard two-year course can 
be differentiated into two or more parallel courses, each emphasizing 
particular fields of graded-school teaching. At present, however, in 
Mar}dand, when the Normal graduate presents herself to her county 
superintendent, he wants to feel free to assign her to any sort of 
position standing vacant ; and to meet this situation a general course 
is required, providing for a surv'ey of the whole elementary curriculum 
and some teaching experience in all the grades. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 167 

3. The discontinuance of the "first year" class, leaving only one 
class in the academic or sub-professional department, the "second year" 
class, opens the way for a special development of this class instead of 
abandoning it at the close of the next school year. If the dormitory 
were filled with high school graduates pursuing the work of the pro- 
fessional junior and senior years, the school might justifiably cease to 
assume any responsibility towards students below the level of high 
school graduation ; but during none of the three years of school life at 
Towson, have the high school graduates in attendance occupied all the 
rooms in Newell Hall, and the indications at the present writing are that 
again in 1918-1919 there will be ample room in the dormitory for the 
boarding students of the academic class. As long as this state of affairs 
continues, the presence of the academic class would, as a business propo- 
sition, help to bring the boarding student roll more nearly up to the 
desirable full quota ; and the School might offer an additional profes- 
sional opportunity by a special development of this class. This devel- 
opment would consist of making the academic class not only a good 
place for completing the equivalent of a high school course open to 
students from districts without any standard high school, but also a 
one-year course that should include completion of the requirements for 
the elementary third grade certificate according to the School Law, 
Section 55 (10). Here again it may be said, as was said above con- 
cerning the proposed one-year course for the second grade certificate, 
that the candidate for teaching who has less than full high school pre- 
paration should be far better fitted for the classroom after a year at the 
Normal than after fulfilling the legal minimum of a six-week pro- 
fessional course and examinations in the specified eleven subjects. 

4. Another curriculum development that might, with advantage, 
be undertaken immediately, is the opening of a two-year domestic 
science course leading to the teachers' special certificate in this branch, 
in accordance with the requirements of the School Law, Section 55 (6). 
The well-equipped domestic science department and full cafeteria ac- 
commodations also in operation at the school offer an opportunity that 
should not be neglected in training teachers of domestic science in the 
State Normal. The faculty is well qualified to give not only the required 
professional training in education and domestic science and art, but also 
the additional work in general academic subjects of college grade. 
Through the year just ended several junior students were permitted 
to work on special schedules that gave them as much instruction and 
practice as possible in the domestic science rooms and the cafeteria ; 



168 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

and the experience gained with these students points out the feasibility 
of introducing a standard domestic science and art curriculum. 

5. The work done in the first summer session of the Maryland 
State Normal School demonstrated beyond a doubt that many of the 
persons in attendance, particularly those working to secure a certificate 
for the first time, and those working to raise their certificates from 
third to second grade, need academic instruction as well as instruction 
in the principles of education and the practice of teaching. On the 
other hand, many frankly acknowledged their deficiencies and ex- 
pressed their desire to come to summer school again and again until 
their equipment is brought up to standard. It can therefore be recom- 
mended that the courses offered in successive summers be so arranged 
as to make easy the accumulation of summer courses into the equiva- 
lent of the standard normal course in accordance with State Board 
By-law 32, and also that the annual group of summer courses shall 
always include, as complete as possible, an offering of the academic 
work in English, mathematics, science, and history, specified in State 
Board By-law 33 as constituting the fundamentals of the standard 
academic equipment of a teacher. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Henry S. West, 

Principal. 

THE MARYLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOL DATA 

SUPPLEMENTAL TO PRINCIPAL'S ANNUAL 

REPORT OF 1918. 

FACULTY OF 1917-1918 

HENRY S. WEST, A.B., Ph.D., Principal 

NORMAL STAFF 

SARAH E. RICHMOND, A.M., Dean 

School Management and Law 

JOHN L. DUNKLE, A.M. 

Pedagogy 

WILLIS H. V/ILCOX, Ph.M. 

English 

ERNEST E. RACE, A.M., Ph.B. 

Science 

MARY H. SCARBOROUGH, A.B. 

Mathematics and Pedagogy 

LENA C. VAN BIBBER, B".S. 

History and Civics 

FLORENCE A. SNYDER 

Art and Craftzvork 

CAMILLA J. HENKLE 

Mathematics and Science 

LILLIAN LEE CLARK 

Expression and Physical Training 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 169 



ROBERT LEROY HASLUP 

Music 

L. MABEL NIMS, A.B. 

Latin and History 

ANITA S. DOWELL, A.B. 

Biology and English 

JEAN D. AMBERSON, B.S. 

Household Economics 

KATHARINE G. GRASTY 

Librarian 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STAFF 

MARY THERESA WIEDEFELD, Principal 

First and Second Grades 

MINNIE LEE DAVIS 

Sez'enth Grade 

ELSIE IRENE HICHEW 

Fifth and Sixth Grades 

CLARA MASON 

Third and Fourth Grades 

MARION J. WOODFORD 

Music 

OFFICERS OF NEWELL HALL 

HELEN ROOT LILLY 

Matron 

JUDITH R. PAGE 

Preceptress 

MATTIE E. OWENS 

Assistant 

OFFICE STAFF 

CHARLES E. WOOTTEN 

Accountant and Business Manager' 

MARY H. TAYLOR 

Secretary 

GRADUATES OF THE CLASS OF 1918 

ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY Myrtle Sedonia Groshans 

Elizabeth White Clark Mary Catherine Hanley 

Carrie Bertha Gischel Caroline Drayton Henderson 

Madge Lowery Eleanor Anne Matthews 

Alice Helen Rice Sophia Jeannette Mays* 

Edith Rachel Powell 

BALTIMORE CITY Mary Katherine Stanfield 

Flora Lucille Engle* f^.^^ie Pearl Stevens 

Mary Louise Malone \f'\^ Melissa Whittington 

Angela Addison Wilson a r >9^'^,^,'r-^''^.°'' 

Alice May Winand 

BALTIMORE COUNTY CALVERT COUNTY 

May Elizabeth Appel Helen Birckhead 

Mary Martha Bing Ida Mary Bowen 

Emory Bennett Bowen Grace Elizabeth Howes 
Adele Leah Bryan 

Frances Elizabeth Button CAROLINE COUNTY 

Helen Eugenia Carr Elva Rebecca Cheezum 

Ellen Marie Doyle Lillian Leonore Cox 

*Miss Engle completed the requirements for graduation in the Summer 
*Miss Mays completed the requirements for graduation in September. 
Session. 



170 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



Florence Vernon Funk MONTGOMERY COUNTY 

Margaret Irene Merrikin p,^^^^^ Elizabeth Darby 

M.r.am Matilda Wrightson Kli/.abeth Waters Griffith 

Julia Louise Griffith 

CARROLL COUNTY Margaret Eleanor Hughes 

Myrl Belle Miller L'^"^" Marguerite Waters 
Fannie Elizabeth Shower PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY 

r.r^r,/-uI^c'rT^T5 «-rMTVTTv Edna Majel Connick 

DORCHESTER COUNTY - . ,., , 

Edna May Luers 

Alice Lillian Carter ^"^""^ Marguerite Luers 

Estelle Belle Carter QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY 

Louise Telitha Denson 

Jean Farquharson Ethel Lillian Carter 

Evelyn Elizabeth Johnson Adelaide Crane Clough 

Lillian May McBride Mary Elizabeth Goldsborough 

Blanche Vincent Blanche Naomi Johnson 

FREDERICK COUNTY ^ SOMERSET COUNTY 

Emma Louise Lnt 
Olive Elizabeth Bowlus Mildred May Hickman 

Margaret Estelle Duvall MARY'S COUNTY 

Nora Elizabeth Grabill 

Flora Clarke Gross Mary Olivia Raley 

Clara Katharine Van Pelt rr»TTVTV 

Edith Olivia Wenner TALBOT COUNTY 

Margaretta Stevenson Reese 
HARFORD COUNTY Mary Margaret Shortall 

Alice Isabel Harkins WASHINGTON COUNTY 

Mary Belle Harkins j^ Eth^, pitto 

Clara Cloud Hoopes 

Mary Oliver Smith WICOMICO COUNTY 

Agnes Mildred Wheeler Mamie Alice Campbell 

Marian Amanda Gilliss 

HOWARD COUNTY Gladys Laura Hearne 

Tj T> 1- TvT- u 1 Elsie Marie Hughes 

Ida Barbara Nichols g^^j^ ^j^y j^gl^y 

Ida Sommers Jester 
KENT COUNTY j^^^y Rebecca Larmore 

lona Apsley WORCESTER COUNTY 

Lois Ashley ,,„ . ... . . „ . 

Lucy Lofft Griffith Wmme Virginia Cutler 

Alinda Margaret Sheats Mabel Emily Dunlap 

Jean Cyrille Stokes Hazel Rae Hall 

Pauline Elizabeth Willis Bertie Ellen Jones 

HONOR ROLL OF THE CLASS OF 1918 

1-Olive Elizabeth Bowlus Frederick County 

2— Fannie Elizabeth Shower Carroll County 

3-MARy Olivia Raley St. Mary's County 

4-Emma Louise Ent Somerset County 

5— Miriam Matilda Wrightson Caroline County 

6-Margaret Estelle Duvall Frederick County 

7-LiLLiAN Marguerite Waters Montgomery County 

8-Elva Rebecca Cheezum Caroline County 













JH 



S^ 



=^^ 
2 




1918 GRADUATING CLASS 

Frostburg State Normal School. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 171 

AWARDED THE BALTIMORE COUNTY BANK PRIZE 
Olive Elizabeth Bowlus 

Honor Roll of Summer Session of 1918. 

Students who received ninety per cent, or over in each of the three 
subjects required to be taken to make a full summer course : 

Lillian Brosenne Howard County 

Nannie Corner Dorchester County 

Blanche Braddock Cramer Montgomery County 

Nannie Cromwell Montgomery County 

Harry Ecker Carroll County 

May Forwood Harford County 

Verda Graham Caroline County 

Eleanor Houck Montgomery County 

Nellie Kooken Garrett County 

Blanche Laird Caroline County 

Mary Laird Caroline County 

Ella M. Lee Carroll County 

Nellie M. Lee Carroll County 

L. M. LooMis Prince George's County 

Elizabeth McCann Harford County 

Hilda Martz Frederick County 

Mollie Lillian Parker Wicomico County 

Pearl Phillips Wicomico County 

A. May Reddish Wicomico County 

A. Lida Smith Talbot County 

Nancy Hooper Smith Wicomico County 

Minnie Warren Worcester County 

Lillie C. Whelpley Prince George's County 

Helen Wolfe Frederick County 

Summary of Enrollment 1917-1918. 

Students in Senior Class 99 

Students in Junior Class 76 

Students in Second Year Class 25 

Students in First Year Class 20 

Total in Normal Department 220 

Pupils in Elementary School 140 

Total in Both Departments 360 

Students in Summer Session 245 

Pupils in Summer Demonstration School 55 

Total in Summer School 300 

Total Number Enrolled During the Year 1917-1918 660 



172 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

FROSTBURG STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 

By PATRICK O'ROURKE, Pkinxipal 



During the year we had thirty-nine seniors and forty-five juniors, 
making- a total of eight-four students for the year. Of this number 
thirty-nine were graduated. These graduates are engaged in teaching 
in Garrett, Allegany, Washington, Frederick, Carroll, Howard, Balti- 
more, and Cecil counties. The superintendents of these counties gladly 
seek our students and report very favorably on their efficiency. 

For the first time in the history of the Normal School there were no 
freshman and sophomore classes, the State Board having seen fit to 
discontinue these courses, beginning with the session of 1917-1918. 
Therefore the Model School is no longer a feeder of the Normal, a fact 
which is very detrimental to the enrollment in the Normal course. The 
Normal course consists now of the junior and senior classes. This fact, 
it will be seen, causes the students from the eighth grade in the Model 
School to continue their course in some high school. This practice, in 
turn, leads them to abandon the idea of entering the Normal School, and 
thus induces them to enter other fields instead of that of teaching. 
The result is a great loss to the profession of teaching. At the same 
time this new arrangement means no financial gain to the State except 
in the dropping of one teacher from the Normal faculty, a step taken 
at the beginning of the year. 

On January 1 there came "a sudden change in the principalship. 
Dr. C. L. Staples, principal, having accepted a position in Washington 
with the Government, Patrick O'Rourke, vice-principal, was appointed 
principal for the remainder of the year, and Francis E. Pray was 
appointed vice-principal. 

At the beginning of the year a domestic science course was intro- 
duced. This consisted of cooking and of the cutting and making of 
dress patterns by students who had not had such work in their high 
school course. The cooking provided a lunch for the students ; but 
by the middle of the year this feature was found unprofitable and 
was abandoned. Also, the whole domestic science course proved to 
interfere with the work of the students and was discontinued. 

At the beginning of the year, also, a rural school, consisting of 
sixteen pupils from the first to the seventh grade, inclusive, was estab- 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 173 

lished. This school was taught for periods of two weeks, by two 
seniors at the same time. This necessitated their losing two weeks 
of study, however, and the fact that the students had had no previous 
experience in teaching made the plan a failure. It was therefore not 
continued. The sixteen weeks of observation and practice teaching 
in the Model School should be sufficient for the seniors ; and any 
rural school established in the Normal would be of little value, since 
the real situation of a rural school can not be reproduced. If stu- 
dents have a good grasp of subject matter, know method well, have 
a good technique and the right attitude, they are sufficiently equipped 
for teaching a rural school and for meeting its conditions. 

The Legislature of 1916 made an appropriation of $26,000 for a 
dormitory for the Frostburg Normal School. It is a three-story 
building and is capable of accommodating thirty students. Although 
it was begun in the spring of 1917, it is not yet completed, owing to 
the difficulty in getting material, but will be readv for occupancy in 
1919. 

Once a week Dr. R. H. Riley, of the State Board of Health, lec- 
tured to the seniors on school hygiene, and added much to their 
equipment for practical work. 

The work done at the Normal during the year just ending was very 
profitable to the State and to the students. The faculty and the stu- 
dents were conscientious in carrying out in full measure the intent and 
spirit of the law. 

Frostburg State Normal Faculty — 1917-1918 

Principal — Patrick O'Rourke, B.S. 
Principles of Education, Management and History of Education. 

Psychology and Maihctnaiics— Francis E. Pray, M.S.C. 

Music and U. S. History— Gertkvde T. Morgan (M.S.N.S. ; Columbia, and 
Peabody Conservatorj' of Music). 

Science and Agriculture— Eusa M. Marshall (M.S.N.S.; Md. State College 

and Johns Hopkins). 

English — Elizabeth G. Balderston, B.A. 

Domestic Science — Helen Br.\dley. 

Hygiene— Dr. R. H. Riley, State Board of Health. 

Grades 1, 2— Gr.\ce H. Dando, Principal, Model School. 
Grades 3, 4 — Mabel Hitchins. 
Grades 5, 6 — L. Marie Smith. 
Grades 7, 8 — Ina K. Spitznas. 



174 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



The Graduates of 1918 

Abbott, Lilias C Lonaconing 

Brown. Anna E Frostbiirg 

Cook, Gertrude G Frostburg 

Collins, Margaret C Luke 

Davis, Nannie C Barton 

Drury, Eleanor Anne Annapolis 

Eichhorn, Helen V Frostburg 

Edwards, Christine M Lonaconing 

Frenzel, Elizabeth B Barton 

Fuller, Alice M F^rostburg 

Finzel, Marie F Frostburg 

Grant, S. Edward Midland 

Footen, Kathleen V Frostburg 

Haller, Mary E Cumberland 

Hohing, Margaret M Lonaconing 

Inskcep, Margaret M Barton 

Kroll, Anna S Lonaconing 

McGann, Anna M Frostburg 

Manley, Anna Midland 

Manley, Mary Midland 

Mullan, Mary E Westernport 

McGuire, Ursula Midland 

Nicht, Anna M Frostburg 

O'Donnell, Marguerite Cumberland 

Pumell, Dorothy Frostburg 

Park, John • Frostburg 

Pollock, Gladys Frostburg 

Piper, Olive P Spring Gap 

Rankin, Aurora J Westernport 

Rafferty, Regina Frostburg 

Ranck, r>evona G Cumberland 

Reese, Anna Frostburg 

Richardson, Elizabeth P Lonaconing 

Roach, Eva R Frostburg 

Shavinski, Veronica C Frostburg 

Stakem, Rosalene E Midland 

Schramm, Wilhelmenia Barton 

Smith, Josephine Midlothian 

Walker, Caroline Elizabeth Kitzmiller 




VITALIZING CLASSROOM IXSTRUCTIOxX 




SUMMER SCHOOL AT BOWIE NORMAL 

A GROUP OF PRACTICE SCHOOL PUPILS 
GROUP OK FACULTY AND STUDENTS 



CORNER OF THE DINING ROOM 
FACULTY 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 175 

MARYLAND NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL 

By D. S. S. GOODLOE, Principal 



The enrollment for the year ending July 31, 1918, was as follows: 
first year, Normal Department, 17 ; second year, Normal Department, 
12 ; third year, Normal Department, 9 ; Model School, 15 ; total, 53. 

The course of study for the year 1917-1918 was changed somewhat 
by the introduction of household chemistry, farm physics, practice 
school work ; and very much more stress was placed upon the teaching 
of methods to the senior class. These changes were designed to meet 
the special needs of the rural school teachers, whom it is the function 
of this school to train. 

Considerable laboratory equipment was supplied and will be used 
more and more effectively as our conveniences increase. 

We were able to begin our industrial work with encouraging re- 
sults in the domestic science and arts. We expect to begin raising- 
broom corn this spring and to add the making of brooms to our other 
industrial features. Mr. Noble, of our faculty, is beginning to intro- 
duce wood-working and farm repairing. 

A summer school was held here during the past summer with an 
enrollment of 4-7. The work done by the rural teachers appeared to 
be good and to have more than justified this extension of the School's 
activities. 

I have to report a sharp decrease in attendance. This decrease is, 
I think, due to several reasons, to which I beg permission to call 
attention. We have lacked facilities, equipment, and specialists for 
teaching the industries. 

Our farm is in poor condition as regards the soil, practically with- 
out fences, barns, and other modern farm appurtenances. Frequently 
our students come from farms so equipped as to be handled in miuch 
more modern fashion than we can possibly operate ours under the 
circumstances. 

We do not have a course which justifies the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction in issuing to our graduates a first-class certificate. 

War conditions and the prevailing influenza epidemic have, of 
course, played their part in keeping down the enrollment. The rise 
in the cost of living since the European war began, and the fact that 



176 Annual Rkpokt of tiii; State Board of Education 

wages did not appreciably keep pace with this increased cost until 
after our entry into the war, have made it more and more difficult for 
negroes to pay their children's way in school. This statement will 
become entirely clear, when it is remembered that they earn their 
livings largely through the occupations which pay the least. 

There is increasing dissatisfaction on the part of the negroes of 
Maryland with the accommodations of the School. It is surrounded 
with schools which have far superior physical conveniences and oppor- 
tunities, and are far more attractive. The girls of the school must 
live together in one large, unheated attic room, without pretense of 
privacy. They must live in this unheated room even in zero weather. 
The boys are still using a made-over barn, with few of the con- 
veniences which the modern school now offers to its students, black 
or white. These conditions have become widely known ; and the hope 
of the first few years that successive legislatures, through a sentiment 
of fair play and consideration for the negro people, would provide 
fairly for this school has changed gradually to discouragement. 

I have made these somewhat extended statements, that they may 
interpret for me the suggestions I beg to oflfer. 

I herewith recommend : that our facilities and equipment, in some 
measure, at least, be kept up to the standard of modern normal schools ; 
and that in the future teachers be selected who have had a thorough 
and special training for the posts they are chosen to fill. I think our 
science equipment sufficient for the time, but we need at least the 
skeleton equipment of a wood-working and carpentry shop. A modest 
laundry equipment, consisting of a few stationary- tubs, wringers and 
two washing machines, ought to be added. 

I suggest that some progressive and practical farmer be secured by 
the State Board of Education to visit the school farm, in company with 
State Board's representative, and advise with that representative and 
the principal of the school as to what is possible and what is practicable 
in undertaking further to develop and make the farm useful, in an 
educative way, to the negro students here. I also suggest the employ- 
ment of a scientific farmer as a member of the faculty. I think we 
ought to be careful, however, not to employ one who is too scientific 
to be practical. 

I suggest, if it be in line with the policy of the Board, the establish- 
ment of a standardized normal course here for the few students who 
might be prepared to take it; so that upon graduation they might 
receive a first-class certificate. We might add also a special teachers' 
aid course for those who are deficient from the standpoint of the de- 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 177 



mands of the State Superintendent, but who are teaching provisionally. 

A few half scholarships would be of great benefit. They could 
be established in part by the State and in part by the people themselves. 
The principal of the school is now working towards the latter end in 
the counties. 

I recommend that a modern cottage or home for girls be erected 
upon the school grounds as soon as it is possible. 

Finally, I most respectfully venture to predict that until most of 
the causes so obviously operating against the greater success of the 
School are removed, all the criticisms, however just, all the help and 
supervision, however high, all the efforts of the faculty, however 
earnest, will amount to almost precisely nothing, and that when these 
causes are removed, this school will become one of the most useful 
of its type in the South, and to negroes, at least, a source of unfailing 
pride. 

Since writing the above, the State Board of Education has removed, 
in a large measure, the objections to accommodations by ordering the 
erection of a dormitory to be ready for use by the fall of 1919. As a 
representative of the negroes of Maryland, I wish to thank the State 
Board of Education, the State Superintendent, and Mr. J. W. Huffing- 
ton for this splendid and encouraging news. I shall make it my glad 
duty to carry and send this good news to my people throughout the 
State. I believe it means for this school the beginning of the new 
day for which some of us have worked and for which we have all hoped. 

Graduating Class, 1918 

Glascoe, Dorothy Smith, Catherine 

Griffin, Victor C Stevens, Florence 

Jackson, Mary E. Warren, Edna 

Johnson, Gertrude Yeagher, Helen 

Faculty. 

Principal— D. S. S. Goodloe, A.B. (Psychology, Pedagogy and 
School Management.) 

Music — Mrs. D. S. S. Goodloe, A.B., Matron. 
Mathematics-Vicc-Principal — J. Thomas Williams. 
Science and English — Dennis Noble, A.B. 
Model School — Edna Prout^ A.B, 
Boarding Department — Eva Branson. 



178 Annual Report of Tiiii State Boakd of Education 



THE 1918 SUMMER COURSES OF THE JOHNS 
HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 

Dr. Edward F. Buchner, Director. 

The eighth summer session of the Johns Hopkins University was 
held at liomewood, IJaUimore, beginning Tuesday, July 9, and closinf^; 
Friday, August 16, 1918. Owing to the disturbed social and educa- 
tional conditions incident to America's participation in the great war. 
and also in view of the three summer schools for white teachers main- 
tained by the State Department of Education without cost to students 
for tuition and material of instruction, the scope of the work offered 
at the University's session was considerably modified in comparison 
with the very large program that was offered in the preceding year. 
It included graduate and collegiate courses designed to meet, in par- 
ticular, the needs of administrative and supervisory officers of both 
elementary and secondary schools, in addition to the academic needs 
of teachers of various subjects. There was an entire omission of all 
instruction of secondary grade, which has been offered in a few sub- 
jects in former years in order to meet the particular needs of some 
teachers. The program, accordingly, included instruction which was 
serviceable to both matriculated and graduate students, respectively, 
who were thus permitted to advance their credits by attendance on 
the session. 

Courses Given 

The extent of the work accomplished, and particularly the various 
programs of study which teachers could, by individual election, pro- 
vide for themselves, are be'st indicated by this list of the courses which 
were given. It included : general biology, zoology, the teaching of 
botany in secondary schools ; organic chemistry, introduction to general 
chemistry ; economic history of the United States, money and banking, 
elements of economics ; experimental education, educational psychol- 
ogy, educational administration, secondary school organization and 
classroom management, the teaching of literature in secondar}^ schools, 
the teaching of English composition in secondary schools, the teaching 
of history in secondary schools, the teaching of Latin in secondary 
schools, the teaching of algebra in secondary schools, the teaching of 
geometry in secondary schools, elementary demonstration school, ele- 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 179 

mentary school supervision, school management and school law, gram- 
mar grade methods, primary grade methods, the teaching of English 
in the elementary school, story telling, the teaching of arithmetic and 
geography in the elementary school, rural school problems ; the short 
story, description and narration, usage, structure and style ; recent 
English literature, the Elizabethan drama, history of English literature, 
1600-1775; portrait painting, landscape and still-life in oil painting, 
principles of design, theory and practice of teaching art, elementary 
school color work, drawing; modern French drama, practical French, 
elementary French ; advanced prose composition and practical exercises, 
readings in German, elementary German ; American history since 1865, 
Latin-American history and diplomacy, contemporary European his- 
tory, Greek history ; nutrition and war-time cookery, household econom- 
ics and management, textiles and clothing; Latin literature, from 
earliest beginnings to the end of the second century, A. D. ; bench 
work in wood and mechanical drawing, elementary manual training, 
the theory and practice of teaching manual arts; analytic geometry, 
trigonometry ; the theory of ethics, philosophy of religion ; problems '"< 
international law, the American electorate; psychology; recreational 
leadership for girls ; elementary Hebrew, history of the Ancient East ; 
Spanish literature, practical Spanish, elementary Spanish ; the teach- 
ing of vocational agriculture, special problems in agriculture. The 
department of vocational education was conducted through the cooper- 
ation of the Maryland State College of Agriculture, which has sus- 
pended its summer school to continue war training activities. The 
institutional cooperation of other summers was continued in the sup- 
port of several other departments. 

All the facilities of the University, including laboratories, libraries, 
and museums, were made available as far as necessary in the conduct 
of these courses, and under the plans of intensive study and personal 
conferences which have been features of all previous sessions. It was 
interesting to observe that the eighth session was educationally the 
best of all the sessions that the University has conducted. This was 
apparent in the more extended and higher grade of previous prepara- 
tion, as well as teaching experience and maturity, of those register- 
ing as students. It was also evidenced in the larger amount of work 
which was, comparatively speaking, completed in the majority of the 
courses than in former years. Both students and faculty thus co- 
operated in realizing some of the University's most cherished ideals 
with reference to the importance of serious intensive concentration 
in the art of studying. 



180 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

The Demonstration School 

In the summer sessions from 191:5 to 1917, inclusive, there was con- 
ducted a special demonstration school as an educational lalxjratory for 
the application of principles most fundamental in the improvement of 
instruction in rural elementary schools. When this addition was first 
undertaken, the University pioneered in the effort to maintain a rural 
demonstration school. Owing to other provision being- made in the 
State for rural teachers, the University did not continue this as a 
part of its 1918 program. 

A graded demonstration school, including the fourth, fifth, sixth, 
seventh, and eighth grades, was conducted in Gilman Hall, in con- 
junction with the work in the department of education. This school 
was made possible by the generous cooperation of the Board of School 
Commissioners of Baltimore, who designated and maintained this as 
one of the three city vacation schools for white children. Although 
it was conducted under the regulation vacation school rules during a 
period of eight weeks, it was adjusted so as to facilitate the observa- 
tional, demonstrational, and experimental needs of summer students, 
particularly interested in these phases of educational study and pro- 
cesses. The school enrolled ninety-'six boys and eighty-five girls, a 
total of one hundred and eighty-one pupils. Had the capacity of the 
rooms made it possible, the enrollment would have been larger, as the 
popularity of vacation school work under the environs of Homewood, 
literally offering a city school in the country, was very marked. 

As an aid to the more thorough organization of the observational 
work in connection with the demonstration school, there was con- 
ducted, as in 1917, a series of special conferences, beginning July 16 
and ending August 15, as follows: 

Miss Williamson, arithmetic; Miss Bamberger, spelling; Miss Brochhausen, 
reading; Dr. Johnson, tests; Miss Williamson, home geography; Miss Broch- 
hausen, story telling; Miss Bamberger, how to study; Mr. Smith, algebra; Miss 
Williamson, oral composition; Miss Brochhausen, written composition-. Miss 
Simons, English; Mr. Isanogle, history; Miss Bamberger, project-problem 
method; Mr. Isanogle, nature study; Miss Brochhausen, civics; Miss Bamberger, 
general assembly; Miss Shaffer, domestic science; Mr. Gaither, manual training; 
Mr. Pond, drawing; Miss Bamberger, geography; Miss Brochhausen, dramatiza- 
tion ; Miss Williamson, class management. 

Conference on Administration 

As an aid in the further adoption of sound educational principles 
in the administrative practices of our State schools and thus to assure 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 181 

further progress, as indicated in certain features of the 1916 school 
law, a special series of conferences was conducted, through the co- 
operation of the State Board of Education, by Assistant Superintendent 
George H. Reavis, during the week of August 5th. The topics con- 
sidered in this series included : What does an administrator need to 
know about scientific method in the classification, organization, and 
interpretation of school facts? What can we learn of a school system 
from an age-grade table of its pupils? How can we determine the 
proficiency with which teachers rate their pupils ? What problems are 
involved in and what principles govern the classification and promo- 
tion of pupils? As these conferences were incorporated as a regular 
part of the course on Educational Administration, the treatment of 
these topics included special material which was collected from especial- 
ly prepared bibliography, thus bringing the considerations into closest 
touch with the latest development in this field of educational work. 

The Faculty 

The instruction of the session was conducted by a faculty of forty 
instructors and assistants, sixteen of whom were women. The visit- 
ing members were: Miss Anna Brochhausen, Supervising Principal, 
Indianapolis Public Schools; Mr. Harold F. Cotterman, Professor of 
Agricultural Education and Dean of the Division of Vocational Edu- 
cation, Maryland State College of Agriculture; Dr. Daniel da Cruz, 
Assistant Professor of Romance Languages, Miami University; Miss 
Jessie M. Ebaugh, Instructor, Franklin High School, Reisterstown, 
Maryland ; Dr. Herman L. Ebeling, Associate Professor of Greek and 
Instructor in Latin, Goucher College; Miss Sarah Elkin, Assistant 
Instructor in Biology, Purdue University; Dr. Howard E. Enders, 
Professor of Zoology and Head of General Biology, Purdue Univer- 
sity; Mr. George M. Gaither, Supervisor of Manual Training, Balti- 
more Public Schools; Dr. George R. Havens, Instructor in Romance 
Languages, Indiana University; Miss Katharine L. Healy, Teacher, 
Baltimore City School; Mr. Alvey M. Isanogle, Instructor, Thurmont 
High School, Maryland; Dr. Buford J. Johnson, Bureau of Educa- 
tional Experiments, New York; Miss Helen V. McHale, Teacher, 
Baltimore City School ; Mr. Theodore H. Pond, Instructor, IVIIaryland 
Institute of Art; Dr. Robert L. Ramsay, Associate Professor of 
English, University of Missouri ; Mr. George H. Reavis, Assistant 
State Superintendent of Schools, Maryland; Mr. Henry A. Roben, 
Instructor, Maryland Institute of [Art; Miss Blanche E. Shaflfer, 
Instructor in Marketing, and Assistant in Household Chemistry, 



HKi Annual Report of tiih; Stati-: Boakd or Imhjcation 

Teachers College, Columbia University; Mr. J. Hiram Shamberger, 
Principal, Baltimore City School; Miss Emma O. Sharp, Teacher, 
Baltimore City School ; Miss Sarah E. Simons, Head of Department of 
English, High Schools, the District of Columbia; Mr. Eugene R. 
Smith, Headmaster of the Park School, Baltimore; Miss Edith H. 
Stewart, Instructor, Maryland Institute of Art; Miss Lida E. Watki-ns, 
Teacher, Baltimore City School ; Dr. David E. Weglein, Instructor in 
Education, and Principal of Western High School, Baltimore; Mis-* 
Effie M. Williamson, Primary Supervisor, Dorchester County, Mary- 
land, The members of the University faculty included : Miss Florence 
E. Bamberger, Dr. Edward F. Buchner, Dr. Frank R. Blake, Dr. 
Theresa Cohen, Dr. J. Elliott Gilpin, Mr. Clare E. Griffin, Mr. Wil- 
liam S. Hoffman, Miss Dorris S. Hough, Dr. John H. Latane, Dr. 
Arthur C. Millspaugh, Dr. Robert B. Roulston, Dr. Henry Slonimsky, 
Miss Winifred Sturdevant, Mr. John E. Uhler. 

The Students 

The enrollment of University students was three hundred and 
twenty-six, a decrease of one hundred and ninety-two from the attend- 
ance in 1917. One hundred and three, or over thirty-one per cent 
were men, and two hundred and twenty-three, or nearly sixty-nine 
per cent were women. It is interesting to note that the percentage of 
men increased over that of preceding years in spite of war conditions. 
Twenty-three per cent were graduate students, over eighteen per cent 
were students in colleges, normal schools and other institutions, and 
over sixty-seven per cent of the students included those who held ad- 
ministrative, supervisory, and teaching positions in colleges, normal 
schools, and public and private secondary and elementary schools. 
Ten other occupations were represented by nearly seven per cent of 
the students, while over seven per cent represented no occupation. 
The activities of the students is indicated by a total course registra- 
tion of seven hundred and forty-seven, or an average of two and three- 
tenths courses taken per person, distributed as follows : One course 
was taken by fifty-nine students; two courses, by one hundred and 
twenty-two; three courses, by one hundred and thirty-six; and four 
courses, by nine each. Eighty-three per cent of the students undertook 
the completion of the courses by taking final examinations, among 
whom there were nine persons failing, each failing in one course. 

Incident to the war situation and the increase of summer school 
facilities within the State, the geographical representations among the 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 183 

student body were considerably shifted from those of former sessions. 
At the same time, it is noticeable that the student body brought together 
representatives of school systems of different types, scattered over a 
pretty wide area. In both the intellectual and social atmosphere thus 
created, the members of the student body found additional stimulus 
for the pursuit of their goals during the session. Two hundred and 
seventy-five, or over eighty-four per cent, were representatives of 
Maryland. Of these, one hundred and thirty-two, or over forty per 
cent, represented the counties, and one hundred and forty-three, or 
nearly forty-four per cent were representatives of Baltimore. It is 
interesting to observe that the efforts made by the University to meet 
Maryland needs continues to be serviceable in other parts of the 
country. Over fifteen per cent of the students represented twenty-one 
other states, the District of Columbia, China and Japan. The attend- 
ance from Maryland counties was distributed as follows. 

Allegany 4 Harford 3 

Anne Arundel 15 Howard 7 

Baltimore 12 Kent 1 

Calvert 4 Montgomery 1 

Caroline 11 Prince George's 4 

Carroll 30 Queen Anne's 5 

Cecil 2 Somerset 5 

Charles 2 Talbot 4 

Dorchester 3 Washington 4 

Frederick 4 Wicomico 3 

Garrett 3 Worcester 1 

Social Features 

In addition to the several receptions extended to faculties and 
students, and Saturday excursions to Annapolis, Washington, and 
Gettysburg, the following special program of public lectures, recitals, 
and art exhibits was carried out : 

July 12 — Mr. J. C. Van Hulsteyn, Violinist, and Miss Vivienne Cordero, 
Violinist, of the Conservatory: Recital. July 14 — Mr. Frederick R. Huber, 
Organist, of the Conservatory : Organ Recital. July 17 — Exhibition of Students' 
Work of the Maryland Institute. July 19— Mr. W. Carson Ryan, Jr., Collector 
and Compiler of Statistics, United States Bureau of Education : "National Edu- 
cation During the War." July 21 — Miss Margaret P. Ingle, Organist : Organ 
Recital. July 26 — Mr. George F. Boyle, Pianist, of the Conservatory- : Recital. 
July 28 — Mr. John H. Elterman, Organist : Organ Recital. July 31 — Exhibition 
from the George A. Lucas Art Collection. August 2 — Mr. Harold D. Phillips, 
F. R. C. O., Organist, of the Conservatory: Recital. August 4 — Miss Ethel 
Davis, Organist ; Organ Recital. August 9 — Professor John H. Latane of the 
University: "The War Aims of the United States." August 11 — Mr. J. Norris 
Hering, Organist : Organ Recital. 



184 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 
THE PUBLIC ATHLETIC LEAGUE 

Baltimore, November 1, 1918. 
Dr. M. Bates Stephens, 

State Superintendent of Public Schools, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

Dear Sir: — The Public Athletic League herewith reports its activi- 
ties in connection with State-wide athletics during the school year 
1917-1918. 

Maryland showed wisdom in furthering physical education through 
her 1918 Legislature. Though tempted to change her arrangements 
for developing healthy boys and girls for a system of military train- 
ing, she kept to the plans started in 1914 by increasing the appropria- 
tion of the Public Athletic League to $10,000 per year. Of far greater 
importance was the passage of a law for compulsory physical education. 
Though simple in its provisions, it recognizes that the mental progress 
of the children is based upon a healthy, vigorous body. It pre-supposes 
hereafter a wise mixture of play, exercise, and athletics, that will 
result in happy, healthy children and, consequently, more enthusiastic 
teachers. It assumes that Dewey was right when he stated : "It is 
the part of wisdom in selecting the work for any group of children, to 
take it from that group of things in the children's environment which 
is arousing their curiosity and interest at that time." These activities 
are of this nature and can be made not only the basis of growth, but 
also the means of forming character. Watson even says : "Behavior 
is the central problem. Thought can be safely left to take care of 
itself when safe methods of regulating behavior can be obtained. 
What a man thinks is only a reflection of what he does. This seems 
like a rather radical statement, but you will admit with me that society's 
estimate of character is based upon objective factors ; namely, upon 
what deeds the individual does during the brief span of his life." 

Athletics, indeed, in its history may furnish help to general educa- 
tion in its new problems of supervised study, for it has experienced 
the difficulties discussed by Hall-Quest. The physical educator may 
even from his mistakes suggest how to avoid pitfalls ahead. Reading 
the suggestions for a scheme of supervised study seems like noting the 
things a teacher of athletics has been stressing, if he should substitute 
the word athletics for study, such as "need of attending to technique 
of training for athletics ; assignments — work for each day ; difficulties 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 185 



of supervision: the social appeal," etc. The biological cause for 
supervised study is suggested to be fewer older children in the families 
to help teach at home. So the physical life of children has suffered 
in that there are no traditional games. It is depressing to see how 
few games the children throughout Maryland know. It was because 
of this that colleges and schools organized the direction of exercise, 
play and athletics. Small houses have lessened the opportunity for 
home work, and make study halls necessary. In the same way, 
crowded streets, small yards, and dangers from swift automobiles have 
required the athletic field, where the group games may be taught 
under supervision and in safety. As our industrial life has lessened, 
the division of labor at home and elsewhere, so that the old inter- 
dependence of the family is lost, so now study must be helped by the 
teacher. This interdependence must be taught, and nowhere is this 
so easily accomplished as in games, where each child has a responsi- 
bility. Each pupil must learn as " a living organism is superior to a 
mere aggregate of organs, tissues and cells, so that a community is 
greater than the sum of its parts." There is complaint that the social 
life of children interferes with outside lessons — that, rather, outside 
recreation takes up too much time. Should not this be true? Ought 
not the preparation of our boys and girls for a constructive citizen- 
ship be the school's best business? Indeed, athletics are the best anti- 
dote to foolish waste of time. They have proven so in college life. 
They will become so in all of our schools, if considered as the places 
where boys and girls can make their social mistakes. It is so much 
better to be unfair in a game and therein learn from your peers that 
you may not be dishonest, than to pay the heavier penalty that comes 
in the more serious business of life. 

Educators now know that individual diflferences reqnire help in 
the preparation of lessons ; teachers of athletics have recognized this 
for thirty years. They have spent so much time helping the best per- 
formers in different branches of sport that they neglected the average 
student. There is danger lest group life and the stimulation that 
comes from it may be lost by too specialized study. In athletics, it 
has become so serious a problem that the big universities are empha- 
sizing intra-mural sports now rather than teams that may win victories. 

The committee of county school superintendents of Maryland 
(Messrs. Caldwell, Cook, Grimes, Holloway, Phillips, Unger, and the 
Director) recommended the same events for the track and field cham- 
pionships and badge tests for boys. It recommended a third test for 
the girls who had received their bronze and silver pins. The gold pin 



186 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

was given to those who had done the volley hall serve and trunk 
raising at school and who threw the basket ball 15 feet. 

Dodge Ball was played by both boys and girls and has proven a 
happy selection, for it is a popular game all over the State. It is inter- 
esting to note the appearance of uniforms, cheers, and team spirit. 
Actually 980 boys played on 98 teams, and 1,380 girls played on 138 
teams in our county meets. 

The following were the entrants and entries from each county — 
an entrant being allowed to make entry in two events, one running 
and one field : 

County Entrants Entries 

Allegany County 555 816 

Anne Arundel Comity 151 196 

Baltimore City 938 1,392 

Baltimore County 864 1,366 

Caroline County 255 439 

Carroll County 261 353 

Cecil County 133 208 

Charles County 39 73 

Dorchester County 162 297 

Frederick County 151 190 

Garrett County 142 218 

Harford County 248 434 

Howard County 186 278 

Kent County 147 200 

Montgomery County 260 393 

Prince George's County 219 336 

Queen Anne's County 124 190 

St. Mary's County 79 87 

Talbot County 212 348 

Washington County 234 333 

Wicomico County 190 278 

5,550 8.425 

Maryland State Meet 721 748 

6,271 9,173 

The helpfulness of all the school people surpassed expectations. 
Twenty counties have allowed u's to present our plans to their teachers, 
and we are continually being asked to help the communities in their 
problems of physical education. In spite of the dearth of teachers- 
all except two married ones have gone into war activities — we have 
been able to continue our work. Soccer was taught in ten counties, 
and within five years we believe it will take the place of the more 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 187 



dangerous and less valuable (for high school boys, at least) rugby 
football. Calvert County is developing athletics rapidly and making 
it a part of its social affairs. 

The gold badge test for girls who had passed the silver and bronze 
resulted in 93 girls being successful. Apparently the standard is not 
as high as in the boys' test, for only 58 boys v^^on their gold button. 
Eleven hundred and seventy-two girls won bronze pins, while 86G 
boys passed their initial test. Two hundred and sixty-six girls suc- 
ceeded in the second grade test, and 252 boys. 

The State Meet at Homewood Athletic Field, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, ran very smoothly, — thanks to the athletic officials who volun- 
teered so willingly. Records were made in athletics equal to the best 
in the country, showing already the results of practice. The visits to 
the city of the county champions is a type of education along social 
lines that k bound to react in a better common understanding when 
the boys mature as citizens. If war conditions allow, the League plans 
to examine the high school pupils during the next school year. It 
desires to establish medical inspection as the basis of the physical 
education of the children. It hopes that the schools will make use of 
its experience. 

The Leagfue desires again to express its appreciation of being 
associated in the education of the children. It hopes it may continue 
to merit the help it is continually receiving from the county school 
superintendents, commissioners, teachers and pupils. It is confident 
that with their experience and your support, there will develop a 
healthy physical life of children and such character and loyalty as 
games engender, so that Maryland will be proud of the direction she 
has given to the training of her children. 

William Burdick, M.D., 

Director. 

Baltimore^ November 1, 1918. 
Dr. M. Bates Stephens, 

State Superintendent of Public Schools, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 
Dear Sir: — All contestants competing in the athletic events held 
under the direction of the Public Athletic League at State meets were 
examined by our Medical Department. 

This examination is primarily to detect any diseased condition of 
the heart or circulatory apparatus ; secondly, to determine if a hernia 
(rupture) is present; and, thirdly, to discover as many minor i defects 



188 Annual Report of tiik State Board of Education 

that are detrimental to the boy's health and activity as time will pennit. 
If a diseased heart or rupture is found, the contestant is ruled out. 
Thirty-five boys were thus affected, ten (10) with defective hearts and 
twenty-five (25) with hernias. 

There were three thousand and nineteen (3,019) boys examined. 

A systematic examination of the schools was carried out, twenty- 
three hundred and forty-one (2,341) boys and twenty-three hundred 
and forty-one (2,341) girls being examined. In Baltimore city seven- 
teen hundred and seventy-four (1,774) boys and three hundred and four 
(304) girls received the examination. 

In county and city twenty-four hundred and twelve (2,412) health 
buttons (denoting no remediable defects) were given; four thousand 
three hundred and fifteen (4,315) were found defective, showing seven 
thousand and sixty-seven (7,067) defects. Two thousand nine hundred 
and eighty-four (2,984) had notification letters sent their parents. 

The Instructive Visiting Nurse Association co-operated by "follow- 
ing up" our notified cases, securing treatment for two thousand five 
hundred and sixty-three (2,563) defects in one thousand nineteen hun- 
dred and eighty-six (1,986) children, to secure which required four 
thousand one hundred and sixty-three (4,163) visits. 
Respectfully submitted, 

G. L. Timanus, M.D., 

Medical Supervisor. 

The summary, by counties, given on the following page, is the 
result of our examinations made throughout the State. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



189 



IC^OX 



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190 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



Sronze Gir/s 
Boy:* 

Si/^er Gir/s 
Boyi 

Go/d C/r/i 
0oyi 




/l//e^a/l/ Cou/7fy 



0ror7z.c Gir/3 
• Boys 

Si/ycr G/r/3 
Boys 

Go/d Gir/s 
" Boys 



m 



n 



A/ine /Jrur/c/e/ Counfy 



3ror7ze G/r/s 


1 


'■ ■ Boys 


1 


5i/yer G/r/s 






" Boys 


1 li lllllii!l!III 


da/f//77ore Coun/y 


Gold Boys 


:^ 



3ror>ze G/r/s 

* Boys 

5 1 Iyer- Boys 



GT 



Ca/i/'erf- Counfy 



Bronxe Gir/s 


1 


. * Boy^ 


1 


Sl/ver G/r/s 






" Boys 
Go/d Gir/s 
• Boys 


lillli:illli 




W 


CaroJ/riG Counfy 



Sronze G/r/s 

Boys 

5//yer G/r/s 

" Boys 

Go/d G/r/s 

" Boys 



Carro/I Courrfy 



Gronzje G/r/s 


1 


• Boys 


! 


5i/yer G/r/s 
Boys 

Go/d G/r/s 
Boys 





Sronze G/r/s 
Boys 
Boys 



5'i/rcr 



P 



Cec/f Cou^fy 



Char/es Coun^ 



Bror7ze G/r/s 
. - Boys 
5//yer G/r/s 
Boys 



I 



Dorchester Couniy 



[TjjIP 



Frec/e ri'ck Co unfy 



Brorjze G/r/s 
Boys 
S//yer G/r/s 
_ " Boys 

i^o/d G/r/s 
Boys 

This chart shows the number of badges won by the individual 
pupils in each county during 1917. A pupil must pass the bronze badge 
test before he may try for the silver, just as one must pass arithmetic 
before studying algebra. These tests are different for boys and girls, 
and require all-around physical skill. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



191 



3ror7ze G/r/s 
K 3oys 

Sily&r Gir/s 
Boys 



a 



GorreH County 



Bronze G/r/s 
' Boys 

Sifi'Gr G/r/s 
' 3oy^ 

Go/d G/r/s 
" Boys 



Z3 



/-/orford Coun/y 



3rcr}ze G/r/s 
Silver 



Go/c/ 




Hoivord Couyyty 



Bro/^ze G/r/s 
' 3oys 

Silver Girls 
" Boys 

Gold G/rls 
Boys 



^ 



Kent County 



Sronzs G/r/s 
' ^oys 

5//rsr G/r/^ 
" Boys 

Go/c/ G/'r/s 
" Boys 



Momfgomery County 



Brorjze G/r/s 

* Bays 

Si/yer G/r/s 

" Boys 

Go/d Boys 



Prince George's County 



Broryze G/rls 

. '/ Boys 

5/'/yer Girls 

" Boys 

Gold G/r/s 

" Boys 



3ronze Girls 

1 Boys 

S/lyer Boys 




f> 



Queen Anne's County 



St. fi4ory 's County 



3ronze G/r/s 
> Boys 

S/'lrer G/rls 
' Boys 

Gold G/rls 
" Boys 



Totbot County 



Bronze G/r/s 
* Boys 

Si/rer G/r/s 
f Boys 

Gold G/'r/s 



1 



lVo3h/ngton Counfy 



3ronz/e G/r/s 
' Boys 

Silver G/r/s 
" 3oyi> 

Go/d G/'r/s 
'< Boys 



fV/corn/co Coufjfy 



192 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 
STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. 

STATEMENT OF CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE 
YEAR ENDED JULY 31, 1918. 

Receipts 

Pension Fund $34,(X)0.00 

Appropriation for Expenses 3,500.00 

Appropriation State Normal School (Towson) 61,225.49 

Appropriation State Normal School (Frostburg) 10,059.55 

Appropriation State Department of Education 22,251.65 

Appropriation Maryland Normal and Industrial School 

(Bowie) 10,439.50 

Total Receipts $141,476.19 

Disbursements 

Pension Fund $33,127.85 

State Appropriation for Expenses 1,124.15 

Maryland State Normal School (Towson) 55,854.83 

Maryland State Normal School (Frostburg) 10,794.10 

Maryland State Norpial School (Frostburg), Dormitory 

Account 22,107.22 

Appropriation State Department of Education 23,149.29 

Maryland Normal and Industrial School 7,068.16 

Total Disbursements $153,225.60 

Excess of Disbursements over Receipts $11,749.41 

Balance August 1, 1917 89,130.91 

Balance July 31, 1918 $77,381.50 

Made up as follows : 

Cash in Hand $.41 

Farmers National Bank, Annapolis 1,416.99 

Denton National Bank, Denton 72,041.11 

First National Bank, Frostburg 583.38 

First National Bank, Cumberland 3,339.61 

$77,381.50 

Credited to the following Accounts : 

Pension Fund $1,416.99 

Appropriation for Expenses 4,752.99 

Maryland State Normal School (Towson) 50,899.88 

Maryland State Normal School (Frostburg) 583.38 

Maryland State Normal School (Frostburg), Dormitory 

Account 3,339.61 

Maryland Normal and Industrial School 5,146.78 

State Department of Education 11,241.87 

$77,381.50 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 193 

PENSION ACCOUNT. 

STATEMENT OF CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE 
YEAR ENDED JULY 31, 1918. 
Receipts 
From State Treasurer : 

October 10, 1917 $8,300.00 

December 20, 1917 8,500.00 

March 30, 1918 8,500.00 

June 28, 1918 8,500.00 

Total Receipts $34,000.00 

Disbursements 

Quarter ended October 1, 1917 $8,444.70 

Quarter ended January 1, 1918 8,179.50 

Quarter ended April 1. 1918 8,375.60 

Quarter ended July 1, 1918 8,128.05 

Total Disbursements $33,127.85 

Excess of Receipts $872.15 

Balance August 1, 1917 544.84 

Balance July 31, 1918 $1,416.99 



APPROPRIATION FOR EXPENSES STATE ROARD 

STATEMENT OF CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE 
YEAR ENDED JULY 31, 1918. 
Receipts 

State Appropriation $3,500.00 

Disbursements 

Expenses — Board Meetings $465.80 

Board Members — Traveling Expenses 360.20 

Contribution — Maryland State Teachers' Association 25.00 

Meals — Maryland State Teachers' Association 135.00 

Furniture 81.00 

M. B. Stephens — Expenses to Department of Superintend- 
ence, National Educational Association 40.00 

J. O. Spencer — Expenses to Meeting of National Soc. for 

Pro. Ind. Education 17.15 

Total Disbursement? $1,124.15 

Excess of Receipts $2,375.85 

Balance August 1, 1917 2,377.14 

Balance July 31, 1918 $4,752.99 



194 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 
STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION. 

STATEMENT OF CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE 
YEAR ENDED JULY 31, 1918. 
Receipts 

State Appropriation $18,750.00 

General Education Board : 

For Negro Agents' Salary 2,500.00 

For Negro Agents' Expenses 1 ,000.00 

Sundry Items 1 .65 

Total Receipts $22,251.65 

Disbursements 

Traveling Expenses $3,192.11 

Salaries 15,637.22 

Rent 600.00 

Postage 591.00 

Office Supplies and Expenses 371.05 

Office Repairs 156.00 

Office Furniture and Equipment 258.95 

Printing and Stationery 783.65 

Contingent Fund 68.22 

Telephone 205.83 

Printing Year Books 523.15 

Examinations : 

Advertising 56.99 

Grading Papers 303.50 

Books and Periodicals 91.20 

Educational Societies 67.72 

Bond of Treasurer 50.00 

Clerical Labor 78.38 

Express 2.82 

Camera and Books 111.50 

Total Disbursements $23,149.29 

Excess of Disbursements $897.64 

Balance August 1, 1917 12,139.51 

Balance July 31, 1918 $11,241.87 

MARYLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, TOWSON, MD. 

STATEMENT OF CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE 
YEAR ENDED JULY 31, 1918. 
Receipts 

State Appropriation $60,000.00 

Practice School Teacher's Salary 950.00 

Rent— Jas. B. Richardson 200.00 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 195 

Interest 75.00 

Sundry — Telegram .49 

Total Receipts $61,225.49 

Disbursements 
Administration and Instruction : 

Salaries $26,431.47 

Summer School: 

Expenses $83.51 

Salaries 3,381.00 

3,464.51 

Telephone 289.92 

Traveling Expense 50.36 

Contingent Account 483.45 

Printing and Engraving 466.55 

Office Supplies 478.95 

Stationery and School Supplies 931.35 

Laboratory Supplies 637.05 

Drawing and Manual Training Supplies 97.36 

Library Supplies 192.82 

Books 1,360.92 

Furniture 132.50 

Dues, Educational Association. 5.00 

Educational Association and Meetings 60.52 

Commencement 39.50 

Postage 36.00 

Addressing Envelopes 8.88 

Screens 868.05 

Entertainment 26.42 

Sundry Expense 68.19 

Total Disbursements $36,129.77 

Maintenance : 

Fuel $8,430.62 

Light 1,172.07 

Water '. 770.85 

Plant Salaries 3,704.65 

Engine Room Supplies 426.54 

Janitor's Supplies 380.16 

Additions 2,971.38 

Repairs 840.53 

Farm and Garden Supplies 1,028.24 

$19,725.06 

$55,854.83 

Excess of Receipts $5,370.66 

Balance August 1, 1917 45,529.22 

Balance July 31, 1918 $50,899.88 



196 Annual Report ok thk Statk BfJARo of I^dixatiox 

MARYLAND STATE NORMAL SCHOOL No. 2, 
FROSTIUJRG, MI). 

STATEMENT OF CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE 
YEAR ENDED" JULY 31, 1918. 

Receipts 

State Appropriation $10,000.00 

Sale of Chemicals 59.55 

Total Receipts $10,059.55 

Disbursements 
Administration and Instruction : 

Salaries $6,295.38 

Salaries — Summer School 1,283.00 

Clerical Work 27.70 

Printing 110.45 

Books and Periodicals 729.21 

Telephone 39.50 

Commencement Expenses 55.10 

Contingent Account 115.07 

Furniture 33.67 

Rent 6.50 

Office Supplies 37.16 

School Supplies 5.55 

Laboratory Supplies 5.22 

Photo. Supplies and Photos 34.20 

Kindergarten Materials 25.46 

Laws 10.19 

$8,813.36 
Maintenance : 

Plant Salaries $1,170.00 

Fuel 448.75 

Light 83.75 

Repairs 42.86 

Household Supplies 199.30 

Garden Supplies 9.38 

Plumbing 19.45 

Labor 7.25 

$1,980.74 

Total Disbursements $10,794.10 

Excess of Disbursements $734.55 

Balance August 1, 1917 1,317.93 

Balance July 31, 1918 $583.38 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 197 

MARYLAND NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL 

(ROWIE). 

STATEMENT OF CASH RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS FOR THE 
YEAR ENDED JULY 31, 1918. 

Receipts 

State Appropriation $10,000.00 

Refund — Student Subsistence 359.50 

Sale of Cow 80.00 

Total Receipts $10,439.50 

Disbursements 
Administration and Instruction : 

Salaries $2,981.71 

Salaries — Summer School 501.66 

Telephone 53.60 

Printing and Engraving 70.38 

Books 160.86 

Laboratory Supplies 66.53 

Furniture 37.20 

Oil Stoves 13.30 

Contingent Fund and Advances 188.67 

$4,073.91 

Maintenance : 

Salary— Farm Overseer $360.00 

Building Repairs 135.34 

Farm Machinery Repairs 29.00 

Farm Supplies and Expenses 596.92 

Household Supplies 319.95 

Student Labor 702.00 

Fuel 181.50 

Freight 5.48 

Light 95.00 

Gasoline 29.11 

Veterinary Services 8.00 

Farm Labor 234.95 

Salary— Cook 297.00 

$2,994.25 

Total Disbursements $7,068.16 

Excess of Receipts $3,371.34 

Balance August 1, 1917 1,775.44 

Balance July 31, 1918 $5,146.78 



198 



Annual Rkpokt of the State Board of Education 



BALTIMORE CITY SCHOOLS. 



appropriations ry tiik board of estimates for the year ending 

december 31, 1917. 

expenses of instruction (71). 

general adiministration (71). 

Salaries, appropriation $9,200 00 

KXI'ENDITURES. 

Secretary, John H. Roche $2,400 00 . 

First Assistant Secretary 1,800 00 

Second Assistant Secretary 1.620 00 

Clerk, David D. Kennedy 687 00 

Supervisor of School Buildings 2,000 00 

Janitor, James Clatchev 660 00 

■ 9,167 09 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $32 91 

Expenses, appropriation $4,200 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Stationery and office supplies $276 01 

Postage 91 50 

Car fare 59 78 

Fuel 317 00 

Expenses of Commissioners 2,27S 00 

Ice 56 90 

Expenses of municipal parade 437 13 

Janitors' supplies 30 55 

Repairs and replacements 206 43 

Subscription to newspapers 19 50 

City directories 16 00 

Typewriter totalizers 130 50 

Cleaning and storing carpets 18 55 

Printing minutes 47 45 

Bonds of secretary and superintendents 70 50 

Sundries 98 69 

4,151 49 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $48 51 

DAY SCHOOLS (71). 

Salaries, appropriation $1,773,040 00 

Refunds 171 00 

$1,773,211 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Superintendent, Charles J. Koch $5,000 00 

5 Assistant Superintendents 15,899 70 

Supervisor of Manual Training 2,096 50 

Supervisor of Music 1,500 00 

5 Assistant Supervisors of Music 4,265 21 

Supervisor of Drawing 1,200 00 

8 Assistant Supervisors of Drawing 6,345 56 

Supervisor of Sewing 891 75 

38 Teachers of Sewing 23,566 61 

Supervisor of Physical Culture 1,500 00 

4 Assistant Supervisors of Physical Culture 2,142 53 

Physical Culture Substitutes 718 00 

Statistician 1,200 00 

4 Clerks in Superintendent's Office 2,675 66 

Chief Attendance Office 900 00 

Clerk in Attendance Department 630 66 

12 Assistant Attendance Officers 9,034 15 

Regular and Occasional Substitutes 67,427 60 

Amounts carried forward $146,993 93 $1,773,211 00 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 199 

Amounts brought forward $146,993 93 $1,773,22100 

Baltimore City College: 

Principal $2,995 00 

Vice Principal 2.200 00 

34 Teachers 55,682 35 

Librarian 700 00 

Clerk 720 00 

Substitutes 1,950 00 

$64,247 35 

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute: 

Principal $2,579 92 

Mce Principal 2,200 00 

55 Teachers 81,989 91 

Clerk 720 00 

Substitutes 637 50 

88,127 33 

Eastern High School : 

Principal $2,600 00 

*\'ice Principal, Katharine M. Lewis 924 70 

*Vice Principal, Leonora E. Carpenter 324 99 

38 Teachers 41,949 33 

Librarian 452 50 

Clerk 499 96 

Substitutes 573 00 

47,324 48 

Part of a year. 

Western High School: 

Principal $2,582 68 

Vice Principal 1,300 00 

53 Teachers 57,980 62 

Librarian 442 50 

Clerk 500 00 

Substitutes 514 50 

63,320 30 

Colored High School: 

Principal $2,400 00 

*nce Principal, Dwight O. W. Holmes 647 96 

*Vice Principal, Carrington L. Davis 1,053 31 

30 Teachers 27,435 50 

Clerk 588 00 

Substitutes 1,406 00 

33,530 n 

'Part of a year. 

Teachers' Training School: 

Principal $3,000 00 

8 Teachers 9,01 7 36 

Clerk 499 92 

Librarian 499 92 

13,017 20 

Colored Training School: 

Principal $2,374 00 

3 Teachers 2,088 67 

Clerk 415 50 

4,878 17 

Elementary Schools: 

2035 Teachers, including principals and vice 

^ principals $1,290,997 98 

Normal Extension work 692 85 

1,291,690 83 

1,753,130 36 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $20,080 64 

Stationery, appropriation $40,000 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Stationery and class room supplies %n ,m 62 

Manual training supplies 784 63 

Postage 249 00 

Sundries 977 83 

39,549 08 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $450 92 



200 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

free text books (71). 

Appropriation (estimated to be received from the State of Maryland) $71,250 69 

Credit Balance brought forward from 1916 221 82 

Refund 90 

$71,473 41 

EXPENDITURES. 

Text books and supplies 71,154 55 

Credit Balance carried forward to 1918 $1,318 86 

FIELD DAY (WHITE AND COLORED) (71). 

Appropriation $300 00 

Expenditures 29145 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $8 55 

STATE HIGH SCHOOL FUND FOR LABORATORY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT 

(71). 

Appropriation (estimated to be received from State of Maryland) $10,000 00 

Expenditures 9,794 1 1 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $205 89 

COMMENCEMENTS (71). 

Appropriation $1,200 00 

Expenditures 1,200 00 

ADVERTISING (71). 
Appropriation $500 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Advertising in the daily papers 408 61 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $91 39 

COOKING SUPPLIES (71). 

Appropriation $4,000 00 

EXPENDITURES. 



Groceries and provisions $3,625 02 

Utensils 159 01 



3,784 03 



Balance to Surplus, 1917 $215 97 

MANUAL TRAINING SUPPLIES (71). 
Appropriation $4,000 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Lumber $1,631 81 

Iron 79 55 

Paints and oils 223 87 

Tools, nails and screws 2,064 11 



4,000 00 



NIGHT SCHOOLS (71). 
Balarlei, appropriation $24,105 00 

EXPENDIWRES. 

14 Principals $3,075 00 

104 Teachers 15,678 00 

4 Teachers in cooking classes 393 00 

34 Janitors, ianitresses. firemen, etc 1,722 30 

20,868 30 



Balance to Surplus, 1917 $3,236 70 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 201 



SUMMER schools (71). 
(Vacation Classes.) 

Appropriation $8 000 OC 

EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries $7,173 SO 

Provisions 54 01 

Paper 82 55 

Printing supplies 52 01 

7,362 07 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $637 93 

parental school (71). 

Appropriation $10,000 00 

Expenditures 8,520 1 8 

Credit Balance carried forward to 1918 $1,479 82 

supply warehouse (71). 

Appropriation $5,000 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries $3,188 10 

Hauling 1,425 33 

Car fare 34 56 

Postage 6 00 

Twine 21 80 

Bond of stock clerk 5 00 

Towel service 12 00 

Sundries 23 99 

4.716 78 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $283 22 

EXPENSES OF OPERATION OF SCHOOL PLANTS (71). 

WAGES OF EMPLOYEES. ENGINEERS, ETC. (71). 

Appropriation $162,365 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

397 Engineers, janitors, firemen and janitresses 158,803 15 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $3,561 85 

JANITORS' SUPPLIES, GAS. ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER (71). 

Appropriation $19,000 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Janitors' supplies $7,976 54 

Light aad power 9,942 66 

Flags 105 SO 

Removing snow from school pavements 44 40 

Telephone rental charges 369 65 

Hauling 202 27 

Sundries 154 34 

18,795 36 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $204 64 

FUEL (71). 

Appropriation $71,900 DO' 

Refund 2 10' 

$71,902 10> 

EXPENDITURES. 

Coal $92,092 71 

Wood _. 1,974 41 

Engineers' supplies ". 409 44 

94,476 56 

Debit Balance to Surplus, 1917 $22,574 46 



202 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



EXPENSES or maintenance of school plants (71). 
repairs and replacements of EQUIITklENT (71). 



Appropriation 
Receipts 



EXPENDITURES. 

Additional equipment, commercial courses, high schools 

Desks and furniture 

Manual training apparatus and equipment 

Millinery equipment, girls' high schools 

New blackboards 

Open air classes, schools Nos. 6 and 22 

Plumbing and gas fitting 

Heating apparatus 

Lunches for crippled children 

Window shades 

Pianos 

Repairs and replacements of clocks 

Tuning and repairing pianos 

Electric bells 

Drinking fountains 

Paints and oils 

Postage 

Salaries 

Repairs and replacements in general 

Cooking equipment 

Sundry expenses of principals 

Fire extinguishers 

Linoleum 

Hauling 

Telephone 

Typewriter 

Car fare 

Lumber 

Screws 

Chair seats 

Hardware 

Domestic science supplies 



$2,567 54 

6.164 89 

820 30 

132 92 

598 75 

2,456 18 

2,779 93 

1,914 69 

709 24 

1,918 72 

415 00 

417 54 

106 50 

988 86 

75 11 

1,264 51 

336 80 

10,397 00 

2,089 89 

144 44 

632 15 

72 00 

299 38 

248 96 

173 34 

50 00 

57 55 

111 00 

336 78 

690 96 

190 08 

478 99 



$39,550 00 
90 00 

$39,640 00 



39,640 00 



MOVING PORTABLE SCHOOLS (71). 
Appropriation 

EXPENDITURES. 

Wages of mechanics 

INTESTATE ESTATES (71). 

Credit Balance brought forward from 1916 

Received during the year 

EXPENDITURES. 

State of New Jersey, inheritance tax 

Credit Balance carried forward to 1918 



$2,000 00 



2,000 00 



$7,998 43 
3,978 08 



$11,976 53 



261 91 



$11,714 62 



INSPECTOR OF BUILDINGS (71). 

REPAIRS, SCHOOLS (71). 

Appropriation 

From contingencies 

Expenditures 



$75,000 00 
8,260 51 

$83,260 51 

83,260 5 J 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 203 



ALTERATIONS FOR SCHOOL BOARD (71). 

Appropriation $10,000 00 

Expenditures 3,632 IS 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $6,367 85 

CHANGING AUTOMATIC TANKS IN SCHOOLS (71). 

Appropriation $20,000 00 

Expenditures 12,600 62 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $7,399 38 

HEATING PUBLIC SCHOOLS (71). 

Appropriation $10,000 00 

Expenditures 1,730 88 

Balance to Surplus. 1917 $8,269 12 

CONNECTING UP SCHOOL BUILDINGS WITH SANITARY SEWKUS (71). 

Appropriation $10,000 00 

Expenditures 709 68 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $9,290 32 

IMPROVEMENTS TO CARROLL MANSION (71). 
Credit Balance brought forward $14,845 82 

EXPENDITURES. 

Blue prints $46 04 

Advertising 25 28 

71 32 

Credit Balance carried forward to 1918 $14,774 50 

PUTTING UP ADDITIONAL ROOMS, POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE (71) 

Credit Balance brought forward from 1916 100 00 

Contingencies 32 40 

$132 40 

EXPENDITURES. 

J. P. Cushen, contract to close 132 40 

GRADING AND IMPROVING GROUNDS NO. 6 SCHOOL (71). 

Credit Balance brought forward from 1916 $963 74 

'Contingencies 21 43 

$985 17 

EXPENDITURES. 

Highways Engineer 985 17 

BOARD OF SCHOOL COMMISSIONERS (71). 

EQUIPPING SCHOOL BUILDING REAR OF SCHOOL NO. 47 (71). 

Appropriation $8,000 00 

Credit Balance carried forward to 1918 8,000 00 

ADDITIONAL YARD SPACE SCHOOL NO. 106 (71). 

-Credit Balance brought forward from 1916 $6,000 00 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 6,000 00 



204 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

misckllaneous kxpenses (71). 

MAKVI.ANI) institute (71). 

▲pppopxiatlon $12,000 00 

Paid Maryland Institute 12,000 OO 

FOR WIDER USE OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS (71). 

Appropriation (unexpended) $500 00 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 500 OO 

LABOR. FUEL, LKaiTING, ETC.. CARROLL MANSION (7\). 

Credit Balance brought forward from 1916 $1,000 OO 

Credit Balance carried forward to 1918 1,000 00 

CADET CORPS (71). 

Appropriation $1,000 00 

Expenditures 819 22 

Credit Balance carried forward to 1918 $180 78 

RENT (71). 

Appropriation $12,000 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Twenty buildings and lots 10,928 SO 

Credit Balance carried forward to 1918 $1,071 50 

OTHER EXPENSES (71). 

Appropriation $6,900 00 

Refund 25 

$6,900 25 

Expenditures 6,862 07 

Balance to Surpltis, 1917 $38 18 

TEACHERS' TRAINING SCHOOL (71). 

Appropriation $8,700 00 

Expenditures ' 8,683 73 

Balance to Surplus, 1917 $16 27 

EQUIPPING CARROLL MANSION (71). 

Credit Balance brought forward from 1916 $3,000 00 

Appropriation 5,500 00 

$8,500 00 

Credit Balance carried forward to 1918 8,500 00 

XiIBBA&IX:S A — VZ (73). 

ENOCH PRATT FREE LIBRARY, EQUIPMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF BRANCH 
LIBRARIES ALREADY ESTABLISHED (73). 

Appropriation $49,000 00 

Paid Enoch Pratt Free Library 49,000 -00 

ENOCH PRATT FREE LIBRARY DEFICIENCY OF INCOME (73). 

Appropriation $2,501 41 

Paid Enoch Pratt Free Library 2,501 41 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 205 

ACQUISITION of LOT IN VICINITY OF BRANCH LIBRARY NO. 11 {7}). 
Appropriation $10,000 00 

EXPENDITURES. 

Trustees of Enoch Pratt Free Library for purchase of lot 10,000 00 

MTTSZC A — ^VI (72). 

BALTIMORE SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA (72). 

Credit Balance from 1916 $269 71 

Appropriation for 1917 6,000 00 

$6,269 71 

RECEIPTS. 

Albaugh's Ticket Office, sale of tickets $8,090 00 

Frederick R. Ruber 1 73 

Frederick R. Huber, check payable to Lyric for rent, superseded 

by new check 225 00 

Musical Union 2 00 

8,318 73 

Total credits $14,588 44 

Expenditures 14,441 1 1 

Balance carried forward to 1918 $147 33 



206 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



MARYLAND DIRECTORY 
SCHOOL OFFICIALS AND TEACHERS 



Corrected to October 1, 1918 



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION 



OFFICE, MCCOY HALL, BALTIMORE 

THOMAS H. LF:WIS, President, Westminster 

M. BATES STEPHENS, Secretary, Baltimore 

Name Address Term expires 

THOMAS H. BOCK Princess Anne 1920 

Vacant Vacant 1920 

CLAYTON PURNElL Frostburg 1922 

WILLIAM T. WARBURTON Elkton 1923 

STERLING GALT Emmitsburg 1924 

JAMES ALFRED PEARCE Chestertown 1925 



STATE SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE 

MCCOY HALL, BALTIMORE 

M. BATES STEPHENS State Superintendent of Schools 

G. H. REAN'IS Assistant Superintendent 

SAMUEL M. NORTH Supervisor High Schools 

WM. J. nOLLOWAY Supervisor Rural Schools 

J. W. HUFFINGTON Supervisor Colored Schools 

HAROLD F. COTTERM AN Supervisor Vocational Agriculture 

L. A. EMERSON Supervisor Industrial Education 

AGNES SAUNDERS Supervisor Home Economics 

WILLIAM BURDICK Supervisor Physical Education 

MERLE S. BATEMAN Credential Clerk 

MARY H. TAYLOR Bookkeeper 

R. ALICE BEASLEY Clerk 

GRACE E. STEELE Stenographer 



PRINCIPALS OF STATE NORMAL SCHOOLS 

HENRY S. WEST Maryland State Normal School Towson 

JAMES WIDDOWSON State Normal School No. 2 Frostburg 

D. S. S. GOODLOE Maryland Normal and Industrial School 

(For Colored Students) Bowie 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 207 



BOARDS OF EDUCATION 

ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Name Address Term expires 

WILLIAM L. SPERRY Cumberland 1920 

J. M. PRICE Frostburg 1922 

FERMAN GILBERT PUGH Cumberland 1924 

ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY 

BENJAJv-IIN WATKINS, SR Chesterfield 1920 

FRANK A. MUNROE Annapolis 1922 

GEORGE T. MELVIN Brooklyn 1924 

BALTIMORE CITY 

OFFICE, MADISON AND LAFAYETTE AVENUES 

JAMES W. CHAPMAN, JR 2016 Park Ave 1922 

JAMES M. DELEVETT 621 Columbia Ave 1918 

Vacant 1920 

SIDNEY P. THANHOUSER Coca Cola Building 1922 

CLARENCE DEEMS The Plaza, Park Ave 1918 

A. BARNEVELD BIBBINS 2600 Maryland Ave 1918 

RICHARD J. BIGGS 12 South St 1920 

ALBERT L. FANKHANEL 11 E. Baltimore St 1920 

Vacant 1922 

BALTIMORE COUNTY 

SAMUEL M. SHOEMAKER Eccleston 1920 

JOHN ARTHUR Fork 1920 

EDWIN R. STRINGER Glyndon 1922 

JAMES P. JORDAN White Hall 1922 

ALBERT A. BLAKENEY Ilchester 1924 

JOHN H. GROSS Rossville 1924 

CALVERT COUNTY 

A. S. LEATHERING Lusbys 1920 

WILLIAM H. HELLEN Solomons 1922 

JOHN W. LEITCH Huntingtown 1924 

CAROLINE COUNTY 

JAMES H. NICHOLS Denton 1920 

H. WILSON Denton 1922 

W. M. WRIGHT Preston 1924 

CARROLL COUNTY 

WILLIAM D. HOPKINS Mt. Airy 1920 

J. HERMAN ALLENDER Hampstead 1920 

ARTHUR W. FEESER Silver Run 1922 

J. PEARRE WANTZ Westminster 1922 

JOSHUA F. MAGEE Westminster 1924 

MILTON A. KOONS Taneytown 1924 

CECIL COUNTY 

WILLIAM M. POGUE Rising Sun 1920 

DELMAR SMITHERS Chesapeake City 1922 

WILMER J. FALLS North East 1924 



208 Annual Rki-okt of tiii-: State Board ok Education 

charles county 

Name Address Term expires 

Vacant 1920 

GEORGE L GARDNER Malcolm 1922 

GEORGE W. GRAY Grayton 1924 

DORCHESTER COUNTY 

OLIVER SPEDDEN Cambridge 1918 

EDGAR F. BRADLEY Hurlock 1918 

JOSEPH W. BROOKS, JR Madison 1920 

EDWIN DASHIELL Cambridge 1920 

R. LEE MORRIS Federalsburg 1922 

WILLIAM P. ANDREWS Crapo 1922 

FREDERICK COUNTY 

WILLIAM CRAWFORD JOHNSON Frederick 1920 

OSCAR B. COBLENTZ Braddock Heights 1920 

R. FRANK SAPPINGTON Liberty 1922 

RALPH BROWNING Myersville 1922 

WILLIAM P. MORSELL Frederick 1923 

A. W. NICODEMUS Buckeystown 1924 

GARRETT COUNTY 

R. E. SLIGER Oakland 1920 

THOMAS J. JOHNSON Frostburg 1922 

JOSEPH T. GLOTFELTY Oakland 1924 

HARFORD COUNTY 

W. BEATTY HARLAN Churchville 1920 

CHARLES H. McNAB^B Darlington 1922 

(MRS.) HELENE A. B. LEE Bel Air 1924 

HOWARD COUNTY 

THOMAS CHRISTIAN Ellicott City 1920 

JOHN W. SELBY Ivory 1922 

JOSEPH L. LEISHER, JR Ellicott City 1924 

KENT COUNTY 

JOHN P. AHERN Millington 1920 

C. ROMIE SKIRVEN Worton 1922 

WILLIAM G. SMYTH Chestertown 1924 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY 

CHARLES T. JOHNSON Germantown 1920 

JAMES E. DEETS Clarksburg 1920 

WARREN PRICE Kensington 1922 

ZADOK M. COOK Gaithersburg 1922 

JOSEPH E. JANNEY Brookeville 1923 

LEDOUX E. RIGGS Laytonsville 1924 

PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY 

GEORGE P. McCENEY Laurel 1920 

BRICE BOWIE Riverdale 1922 

GEORGE W. RAWLINGS Duley 1924 

QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY 

JOHN R. BENTON Stevensville 1920 

FOSTER SUDLER Sudlersville 1922 

JAMES M. CORKRAN Centreville 1924 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 309 

ST. MARY'S county 

Name Address Term expires 

ALEXANDER KENNEDY St. Mary's City 1920 

L. J. SOTHORON Mechanicsville 1922 

J. DONELAN hurry Hurry 1924 

SOMERSET COUNTY 

GORDON T. ATKINSON Crisfield 1920 

CHARLES W. WAINWRIGHT Princess Anne 1922 

ALFRED P. DENNIS Princess Anne 1924 

TALBOT COUNTY 

JAMES McK. WILLIS Oxford 1920 

W. D. J. MORRIS St. Michaels 1922 

MARTIN M. WRIGHT Easton 1924 

WASHINGTON COUNTY 

W. B. KING Hagerstown 1920 

JOHN STIGERS Hancock 1920 

CHAS. A. WEAGLEY Beaver Creek 1922 

W. H. MILLER Williamsport 1922 

HARRY K. BEACHLEY Hagerstown 1924 

FRANK E. BUSHEY Cavetown 1924 

WICOMICO COUNTY 

Vacant 

L. W. GUNBY Salisbury 1922 

HARRY L. BREWINGTON Salisbury 1924 

WORCESTER COUNTY 

JAMES H. VINCENT Pocomoke City 1920 

JOHN W. HUMPHREYS Berlin 1922 

ZADOK POWELL Snow Hill 1924 



ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY OFFICERS 

ALLEGANY COUNTY 

CUMBERLAND 

EDWARD F. WEBB Superintendent 

JOHN J. TIPTON Assistant Superintendent 

MARIAN S. HANCKEL Supervisor 

THOMAS H. MORGAN Attendance Officer 

MARY B. WICKARD Clerk 

LOUISE A. DAVIS : Stenographer 

• ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY 

ANNAPOLIS 

GEORGE FOX Superintendent 

KATE KELLY Supervisor 

MARGARET WARE Attendance Officer 

ELIZABETH E. MUNFORD Clerk 



210 Annual Rki'Okt ok thk State Board or Education 

BALTIMORE CITY 

OFFICE, MADISON AND LAFAYETTE AVENUES 

CHARLES J. KOCII Superintendent 

CIIARLKS A. A. J. MILLLR First Assistant Superintendent 

ROBiCKT W. ELLIOTT Second Assistant Superintendent 

JOSEPH C. HANDS Assistant Superintendent 

ROWLAND WATTS Asr.istant Superintendent 

ANDREW J. PIETSCH Assistant Superintendent 

JOHN A. KORFF Assistant Superintendent 

GEORGE M. GAITHER Supervisor Manual Training 

OLIVIA F. KEACH Supervisor Drawing 

LAURA V. DAVIS Supervisor Sewing 

ADOLPH PICKER Supervisor Physical Training 

JOHN DENUES Supervisor Music 

HENRY R. DAVIS Supervisor Buildings 

ROSABEL E. HALL Chief Attendance Officer 

JOHN H. ROCHE Secretary 

FRANK N. CLARIDGE Assistant Secretary 

JOSHUA R. JOLLY Assistant Secretary 

ANNA L. WALKER Clerk 

EDWIN HEBDEN Statistician 

LOIS C. SMITH Clerk 

BERTIE W. COX Clerk 

MARGARET MEYERS Clerk 

MABEL SHOREY Clerk 

BERTHA J. KOLLMEYER Clerk 

BALTIMORE COUNTY 

TOWSON 

ALBERT S. COOK Superintendent 

JOHN T. HERSHNER Assistant Superintendent 

CLARENCE G. COOPER Assistant Superintendent in Charge of Rural Schools 

M. ANNIE GRACE Assistant Supervisor 

AMY C. CREWE Assistant Supervisor 

EVALYN C. COOK Assistant Primary Grades 

JEANNETTE BROWN Chief Clerk 

ANNA MIED WIG Stenographer 

MARY ELIZABETH WARD Stenographer 

CALVERT COUNTY 

PRINCE FREDERICK 

B. C. WILLIAMS Superintendent 

W. H. TALBOTT Attendance Officer 

DAISY P. TURNER Clerk 

CAROLINE COUNTY 

DENTON 

EDWARD M. NOLLE Superintendent 

MRS. WILSIE GIBSON Supervisor 

MRS. AGNES R. CASE Clerk 

JANIE JACKSON Supervisor Colored Schools 

CARROLL COUNTY 

WESTMINSTER 

MAURICE S. H. UNGER Superintendent 

I. JEWELL SIMPSON Supervisor 

G. C. TAYLOR Attendance Officer 

CHARLES REED Oerk 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 211 

CECIL county 

ELKTON 

HUGH W. CALDWELL Superintendent 

ALICE E. MILLER Supervisor 

LUCY G. STAPP Clerk 

CHARLES COUNTY 

LA PLATA 

F. BERNARD GWYNN Superintendent 

W. B. BILLINGSLEY Clerk 

M. ESLANDA SMITH Supervisor Colored Schools 

DORCHESTER COUNTY 

CAMBKIDGB 

JAMES B. NOBLE Superintendent 

JOSEPH B. MEREDITH Assistant Superintendent 

NETTIE A. MAURER Supervisor 

MARY WHERRETTE Clerk 

FREDERICK COUNTY 

FKEDERICK 

G. LLOYD PALMER Superintendent. 

MRS. NAN MILDRED MOSTELLER Rural Supervisor. 

F. D. HARSHMAN Attendance Officer. 

FRANCES R. DOUB Clerk. 

CHARLOTTE M. STOCKMAN Stenographer. 

GARRETT COUNTY 

OAKLAND 

FRANKLIN E. RATHBUN Superintendent 

PHILIP T. PEDDICORD Attendance Officer 

BESS HENDRICKSON Clerk 

HARFORD COUNTY 

BEL AIR 

C. MILTON WRIGHT Superintendent 

FRANK DAVIS Attendance Officer 

W. T. ANDERSON Clerk 

HOWARD COUNTY 

ELLICOTT CITY 

WOODLAND C. PHILLIPS Superintendent 

MRS. S. E. M. POISAL Attendance Officer 

IRENE B. MEADE Clerk 

KENT COUNTY 

CHESTERTOWN 

EDWARD J. CLARKE Superintendent 

M. ADELE FRANCE Attendance Officer 

OWEN C. BLADES Supervisor Manual Training 

MERLE J. WHITE Clerk 

EMMA L. MILLER Supervisor Colored Schools 



212 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

montgomery county 

ROCKVILLE 

EDWIN W. BROOME Superintendent 

SELMA BORCHARDT Acting Supervisor 

MARY MAGRUDER Attendance Officer 

ETHEL L. WATERS Clerk 

A. D. OWENS Supervisor Colored Schools 

PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY 

UPPER MARLBORO 

E. S. BURROUGHS Superintendent 

BLANCHE E. OGLE Supervisor 

E. S. McCENEY Attendance Officer 

JOHN L. RUSSELL Clerk 

MAHALATH WIGGINTON Acting Supervisor Colored Schools 

QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY 

CENTREVILLE 

BYRON J. GRIMES Superintendent 

HANNAH A. KIEFFER Supervisoi 

LEL A A. THOMAS Attendance Officer 

HELEN G. GIBSON Clerk 

AGNES WRIGHT Supervisor Colored Schools 

ST. MARY'S COUNTY 

LEONARDTOWN 

GEORGE W. JOY Superintendent 

ELIZABETH I. MURPHY Supervisor 

MARGARET H. GREENWELL Clerk 

SOMERSET COUNTY 

PRINCESS ANNE 

WILLIAM H. DASHIELL Superintendent 

ADDIE E. BOND Attendance Officer and Clerk 

HERBERT S. WILSON Supervisor Colored Schools 

TALBOT COUNTY 

EASTON 

NICHOLAS OREM Superintendent 

FRANCIS H. CLARK Supervisor 

MAUDE CHAPLAIN Clerk 

DANIEL J. HALL Supervisor Colored Schools. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY 

HAGEKSTOWN 

RAYMOND E. STALEY Acting Superintendent 

HULD AH BRUST Supervisor 

WILLIAM B. HUTZELL Attendance Officer 

E. P. EYLER Clerk 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 213 



WICOMICO county, 

SALISBUKY. 

JAMES M. BENNETT Superintendent 

C. NETTIE HOLLOWAY Supervisor 

E. VAUGHAN JACOBS Attendance Officer 

MARGARET J. HOLLOWAY Stenographei 

P. E. GORD Y Supervisor Colored Schools 

WORCESTER COUNTY 

SNOW HILL 

EDGAR W. McMASTER Superintendent 

MARY B. PUSEY Supervisor 

ANNIE M. STATON Clerk 

STEPHEN H. LONG Supervisor Colored Schools 



PRINCIPALS OF APPROVED HIGH SCHOOLS 

ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Group Principal High School School Address 

1 S. R. GAY Allegany County Cumberland 

1 OLIVER H. BRUCE Westernport Westernport 

2 GILBERT C. COOLING Barton Barton 

1 ARTHUR F. SMITH Central Lonaconing 

1 S. ROSS GOULD Beall Frostburg 

ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY 

1 LOUISE LINTHICUM Annapolis Annapolis 

BALTIMORE COUNTY 

1 MARY O. EBAUGH Catonsville Catonsville 

1 ADDISON J. BEANE .Franklin Reisterstown 

2 WILLIAM B. KEMP Sparks Agricultural Sparks 

1 ARTHUR C. CROMMER .Towson Towson 

1 JOSEPH BLAIR Sparrows Point Sparrows Point 

BALTIMORE CITY 

1 WILBUR F. SMITH .Baltimore City College Baltimore 

1 WILLIAM R. KING Baltimore Polytechnic Institute Baltimore 

1 ERNEST J. BECKER Eastern High School Baltimore 

1 DAVID E. WEGLEIN Western High School Baltimore 

1 MASON A. HAWKINS Colored High School Baltimore 

1 NORMAN W. CAMERON Director Teachers' Training School .. Baltimore 

1 JOSEPH H. LOCKERMAN Colored Training School Baltimore 

CAROLINE COUNTY 

1 (MRS.) ELIZABETH E. PIPPIN. . .Caroline Denton. 

2 THOS. B. McCLOUD Preston Preston 

2 HOWARD D. EVANS Ridgely Ridgely 

2 A. C. B'ROWER Federalsburg Federalsburg 



214 Annual Report of the State Board of Education 

CARROLL county 

Croup Principal High School School Address 

3 J. L. H0NSBP:RGKR Taneytown Taneytown 

1 VVALTKR H. DAVIS Westminster Westminster 

2 J. KELLER SMITH Mt. Airy Mt. Airy 

3 ADDA MAI CUMMINGS Sykcsville SykesviUe 

3 THOMAS A. COLLETT Union Bridge Union Bridge 

CECIL COUNTY 

2 GUY JOHNSON Chesapeake City Chesapeake City 

1 EDWIN B. FOCKLER Cecil County Elkton 

3 MARY E. CLARK Cccilton Cecilton 

2 ALFRED B. McVEY Calvert Agricultural North East 

2 MARSHALL THOMPSON North East North East 

DORCHESTER COUNTY 

1 E. C. SEITZ Cambridge Cambridge 

2 O. PERRY SIMMONS Hurlock Hurlock 

FREDERICK COUNTY 

1 C. H. REMSBURG Frederick Girls' Frederick 

1 JOHN L. SIGMUND Frederick Boys' Frederick 

1 R. E. KIEENY Middletown Middletown 

2 H. D. BEACHLEY Thurmont Thurmont 

1 OSCAR M. FOGLE Brunswick Brunswick 

3 A. M. ISANOGLE Emmitsburg Emmitsburg 

GARRETT COUNTY 

3 E. A. BROWNING Friendsville Friendsville 

1 CHARLES H. KOLB Garrett County Oakland 

HARFORD COUNTY 

2 J. H. BONNEY Aberdeen Aberdeen 

2 WILLIAM K. KLINGAMAN Bel Air Bel Air 

2 CHARLES H. SCHUSTER Jarrettsville Jarrettsville 

1 J. HERBERT OWENS Havre de Grace Havre de Grace 

2 REXFORD B. HARTLE Highland Street 

PIOWARD COUNTY 

1 MARGARET A. PFEIFER Ellicott City Ellicott City 

KENT COUNTY 

1 MARK CREASY .Chestertown Chestertown. 

2 J. FRANK McBEE Rock Hall Rock Hall 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY 

2 JESSIE M. EBAUGH Sherwood Sandy Spring 

2 T. W. TROXELL Gaithersburg Gaithersburg 

1 R. MILTON HALL Montgomery Rockville 

PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY 

2 ROGER X. DAY Upper Marlboro Marlboro 

2 W. R. C. CONNICK Baden Baden 

2 ANNIE MacKAY Surrattsville Clinton 

2 J. ED. FORD Laurel Laurel 

1 K. J. MORRIS Hyattsville Hyattsville 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 215 

queen anne's county. 

Group Principal. High School School Address 

2 ANNA HARRISON Sudlersville Sudlersville 

1 J. FRED STEVENS Centreville Centreville 

2 ELIZABETH TRUNDLE Stevensville Stevensville 

2 (MRS.) MARY COOPER Tri-County Queen Anne 

SOMERSET COUNTY 

2 FRED H. DEWEY Washington Princess Anne 

1 FREDERICK E. GARDNER Crisfield Crisfield 

TALBOT COUNTY 

1 C. A. McBRIDE Easton Easton 

2 HAROLD S. BORDEN-SMITH St. Michaels St. Michaels 

3 H. E. NELSON Trappe Trappe 

3 NELLIE R. STEVENS Oxford Oxford 

W^ASHINGTON COUNTY 

1 JOHN D. ZENTMYER Hagerstown Male Hagerstown 

1 JOHN B. HOUSER Hagerstown Female Hagerstown 

2 GEORGE A. SITES .Clear Spring Clear Spring 

2 RAYMOND E. STALEY Boonsboro Boonsboro 

2 J. E. FLEAGLE Smithsburg Sinithsburg 

2 HARRY E. WOLFE Williamsport Williamsport 

WICOMICO COUNTY 

2 EDWIN K. McINTOSH Sharptown Sharptown 

2 CLARENCE CORDREY Delmar Delmar 

2 C. ALLAN CARLSON Nanticoke Nanticoke 

1 R. LEE CLARK Wicomico County Salisbury 

WORCESTER COUNTY 

1 E. CLARK FONTAINE Pocomoke Pocomoke City 

2 JOHN S. HILL Stockton Stockton 

2 EUGENE W. PRUITT Buckingham Berlin 

1 ARTHUR C. HUMPHREYS Snow Hill Snow Hill 

3 W. A. P. STRANG Girdletree Girdletree 



216 



Annual Rki-ort of thk State Board of Education 



PRINCIPALS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 
Having- Three or More Teachers, Including the Principal 



Name and Address 



Name and Addsess 



ALLEGANY COUNTY 



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O. B. Boughton Cumberland 18 1 

Sue McKnight Cumberland 1 8 2 

F. C. Scott Cumberland 19 1 

Molly Bopst Cumberland 19 3 

(Mrs.) Margaret Upham. .Cumberland 19 4 

Wm. G. Fatkin Luke 20 1 

Kate M. Shriver Frostburg 20 3 

Mary J. Rank Frostburg ' 22 1 

Orgie Hawkins Frostburg 22 2 

J. O. Kefauver Mt. Savage 22 5 

Nellie Powell Lonaconing 24 1 



Bessie McKenna Midland 

John W. Hunt Ocean 

Carrie V. Haberlein Shaft 

Jas. E. Winter Midlothian 

Mary M. Stakem Midland 

Charity Hartley Ellerslie 

Marguerite G. Bowling. . . .Cumberland 

Isabel Ireland Cumberland 

Margaret Richmond Cumberland 

Agnes Carroll Cumberland 

D. A. Boyle Eckhart 



ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY 



William Weber Mayo 

Lillian Baker Annapolis 

Nannie H. Lowman Odenton 

Norman R. Eckard Brooklyn 

Norman R. Eckhard Curtis Bay 



5 10 Effie Murray Fairfield 

5 12 LeRoy Cockran Glen Burnie 

6 G.S. Josephine Riordan Annapolis 

8 1 Ethel Andrews Shady Side 



BALTIMORE COUNTY 



Clinton H. Spurrier Hillsdale 

Margaret A. Harney. .. .Howard Park 

Mary V. Kavanaugh Ellicott City 

Helen M. Thomas Woodlawn 

Marie L. Kemp Catonsville 

Susie C. McClure Randallstown 

Lavinia Roop Garrison 

Emma L. Wilson..... Pikesville 

Howard E. Jackson Arlington 

Roberta Porter Arlington 

Clara E. Smithson Mt. Washington 

Preston H. Shaver Owings Mills 

M. Ellen Logan Warren 

Theodore H. Crommer Cockeysville 

Clara S. Dobbin Guilford 

Marion M. Knight Evergreen 

Harry C. Haile Govans 

(Mrs.) Laura P. Todd Roland Park 

Ella L. Smith Hamilton 

Thomas F. Mallonee Parkville 



1 8 Henrietta Fox Fullerton 

2 1 Robert Andrews Canton 

2 2 Carrie G. Richardson .. .Highlandtown 

2 3 J. Clarence Francis Colgate 

2 5 Townley R. Wolfe Canton 

2 6 Olive L. Smith St. Helena 

3 3 Anna M. Meehan Violetville 

3 4 Monroe Mitchell Mt. Winans 

3 5 Laura McClyment Halethorpe 

3 7 Mary A. Cullen Lansdowne 

3 8 Clay T. Joyce Westport 

3 10 Jennie A. Ruhl Lakeland 

4 1 Georgia T. Hall Orangeville 

4 3 Nicholas H. Hope Gardenville 

4 4 Margaret H. Smith Rosedale 

4 S Stella E. Brown Overka 

5 4 Helena Link Colgate 

5 8 Lillian M. Smith Chase 

5 9 M. Elenora Corbin Rossville 

5 10 Branford C. Gist Rossville 



CALVERT COUNTY 



1 8 M. Susie Magruder. 



Solomons 



CAROLINE COUNTY 



1 1 Maud Hummer Marydel i 3 5 

1 4 Mabel Baker Goldsboro 7 4 

2 3 Laura C. Cochrane Greensboro I 



Laura Melvin Denton 

(Mrs.) S. E. Parsons Ridgely 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



217 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



CARROLL county 



Adda Mai Cummings Sykesville 

Irving L. Buckingham. .Mechanicsville 

Homer Bortner Manchester, Pa. 

Emory O. Ebaugh Westminster 



8 4 Joseph H. Hurst Hampstead 

11 1 Hannah M. Shunk New Windsor 

12 1 Thomas A. Collett Union Bridge 



CECIL COUNTY 



Mary E. Clark Cecilton 

Addie C Ford Elkton 

Mary E. Conner Elkton 



4 S M. Helen Scott Childs 

6 6 (Mrs.) Lillian Jackson Rising Sun 

7 2 Theo. W. Currier Perry ville 



DORCHESTER COUNTY 



1 2 M. L. Dodd Eldorado 

2 1 Georgia Bloxom . . . .East New Market 

2 4 Benjamin W. Holland Secretary 

3 1 J. W. Geoghegan Vienna 



5 4 E. A. Coughlan Crapo 

7 1 (Mrs.) W. A. Martin Cambridge 

7 4 Blanche Matthews Cambridge 

7 7 Nannie LeCompte ... .East Cambridge 



FREDERICK COUNTY 



1 6 Nellie Sigafoose Point of Rocks 

2 3 G.L.Miller Frederick 

2 4 Chester G. Clem Frederick 

6 3 Chas. Leatherman Wolfsville 

8 1 Wallace R. Beall Libertytown 

9 3 Blanche Howard New Market 



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Olive Bowlus Woodsboro 

Margaret Rodrick Jefferson 

E. V. Musser Burkittsville 

Ella V. Krieg East Brunswick 

E. Virginia Wenner. ..West Brunswick 
Bertha Grabill Walkersville 



GARRETT COUNTY 

3 1 A. W. DeWitt Grantsville i 14 1 A. D. Appleton Oakland 

5 1 John W. Hohman Accident | 14 8 Charles B. Callis Crellin 

13 1 Wakefield Ramsdell Kitzmiller j 

HARFORD COUNTY 



2 Marian J. Galbreath Delta, Pa. ■ 5 IS A. F. Galbreath Darlington 

13 Edith G. Cole Street I 



HOWARD COUNTY 



1 1 (Mrs.) Ella J. Connor Elk Ridge j 6 1 Henry C. Hall Savage 

5 2 Byron V. Cecil Clarksville | 



KENT COUNTY 



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Edmund G. Coe Millington 

Lelia N. Ware Massey 

Helen C. Stradley Galena 

Florence M. Jewell Betterton 



5 3 J. Frank McBee Rock Hall 

5 4 Alice D. Wood Rock Hall 

4 1 Fannie E. Stuart Chestertown 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY 



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Mary E. Oliphant Laytonsville ; 10 

James W. White Darnestown 

Ethel G. Van Hoessen Bethesda 

Florence M. Barkesdale. .Chevy Chase 
Louise Harris Germantown 



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Edna E. Hanke Potomac 

John T. Baker Damascus 

(Mrs.) Grace L. Ryan Kensington 

J. Edwin Lodge Gaithersburg 

(Mrs.) Stella Thomas Takoma Park 



218 



Annual Repijkt ok thi-: State Board of Education 



Namf and Address 



Namk and Address 



PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY 



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Antoinette Matzu Laurel 

Emma E. Burton Laurel 

Alice McCullough Laurel 

Roger I. Manning Brandywine 

Edna Connick Bowie 

H. M. Sturgis Hyattsville 



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Nellie Pumphrey Hyattsville 

Mary Nalley Mt. Rainier 

Emma E. Walker Capitol Heights 

Margaret A. Hawkins. . . .Seat Pleasant 
Caroline L. Tighe Laurel 



QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY 



Mary Clough Church Hill 

Gertrude Morgan Centreville 

Leiia M. Walters Chester 



Helen Porter Queenstown 

Gertrude Price Winchester 



ST. MARY'S COUNTY 

3 Lettie M. Dent Oakley 

SOMERSET COUNTY 



3 3 Mary Lucille Tull Marion Station 

6 2 Mary A. Long Upper Fairmount 

7 2 O. B'. Landon Crisfield 



9 1 Ada M. White Chance 

12 1 Beatrice Nelson Crisfield 

14 1 Elizabeth Anderson Deal's Island 



TALBOT COUNTY 



1 1 Carrie B. Smith Easton 

1 G.S. (Mrs.) Annie M. Mason Easton 

2 1 Addie M. Dean St. Michaels 



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3 2 M. Ella Smith Oxford 

4 11 Bessy C. Matthews Cordova 

5 4 Alexandria W. Mullikin Tilghman 



WASHINGTON COUNTY 

1 1 J. W. Eavey Sharpsburg 12 4 G. Harvey Sprecher Fair Play 

Maude Wolfe Mangansville 

Samuel E. Grove Buena Vista 

G. W. McBride Hagerstown 

F. D. Bell Hagerstown 

1 Joseph A. Burkhart Chewsville 

1 D. W. Albin Keedysvillc 

1 Effie I. Long Downsville 



H. L. Rinehart Hagerstown 

Clara Bazell Hagerstown 

Margaret E. Lakin Hancock 

J. H. G. Seigman Greensburg 

J. W. Kemp Rohrersville 

Edward E. Wiegand Leitersburg 

Sarah E. Iseminger Funkstown I 20 



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WICOMICO COUNTY 



1 2 Roseanna Jones Mardela Springs 

4 6 Thomas H. Truilt Pittsville 

5 1 Ella L. Betts Salisbury 

8 7 Pauline Nelson Fruitland 



9 3 L. Cora Gilliss Salisbury 

9 4 Alice Toadvine Salisbury 

13 2 May C. Hill Salisbury 

1 S 1 Gorman Mann Hebron 



WORCESTER COUNTY 



8 Ralph Dennis Ocean City 

2 Mary E. HoUoway Newark I 



Elizabeth Bishop Bishopville 

Elizabeth Dale Whaleyville 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



219 



TEACHERS OF THE COUNTIES 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



ALLEGANY COUNTY 



Eliza Wright Eckhart 

Hannah M. Struckman Oldtown, 

R. F. D. 1. 

James E. Winters Midland 

Margaret Creighton Lonaconing 

Winnie Norton Paw Paw, W.\'a. 

Elizabeth Byrne Midland 

T. T. Mann Belle Grove 

Blanche Brinkman Belle Grove 

Louise Jamison Cum.berland, 

R. F. D. 2. 

Margaret Ewing National 

Maggie M. Twigg Oldtown 

Lola Plummer Frostburg 

Freda Helm Frostburg 

Pearl Everline Corrigansville 

Ada Lucas . . . .Cumberland, R. F. D. 1. 

Florence Skelley Oldtown 

Ruth Engle > Frostburg 

Stella Geis Frostburg 

Julia Hileman ■ Frostburg 

Elsie Hill Cumberland 

Mary M. Manley.i/f Midland 

Catherine Robinette Gilpen 

Harriette Llewellyn Frostburg 

Esther Mullan Westernport 

Alice R. Kenney Midland 

Elizabeth Richardson Lonaconing 

Mary E. Manley. Midland 

O. B'. Boughton Cumberland 

Christine Sellers Cumberland, 

R. F. D. 4, Box 3i. 

Sallie GifFen Cumberland 

Mollie Copeland Cumberland 

Manetta Straub Cumberland, 

R. F. D. 1. 

\'^irginia Neff Frostburg 

Margaret F. Smith Cumberland 

Louise Harrison Cumberland 

Mary Grabenstein Cumberland 

Nellie Cadden Ridgely, W. Va. 

Helen ^L Allee Cumberland 

Dorathea Matthaei Cumberland 

Flossie Skidmore Frostburg 

Helen Parker Frostburg 

Loretto McGeady Midland 

Nell Thomas Cumberland 

A. Maye Hill Frostburg 

Nellie Dreyer Cumberland 

Ada Lewis Frostburg 

Sue McKnight Cumberland 

Mabel Burke Cumberland 



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Hazel K. Davis Cumberland 

Florence Hensey Cumberland 

Marie Walters Frostburg 

Rosalie Storer Cumberland 

F. C. Scott Cumberland 

B. A. Noone Cumberland 

Emma Everstine Cumberland 

Blanche Snyder Cumberland 

Maggie A. Rowe ....Cumberland 

Lydia IL Deneen> Cumberland 

Lela Taylor Cumberland 

Martha Henckel Zihlman 

Molly Bopst Cumberland 

Katharine McNamara ....Cumberland 

Alma Niedballa Cumberland 

Ada Lee Linn Cumberland 

Pearl Stevenson Lonaconing 

Helen Kean Cumberland 

Annie Ruge Frostburg 

(Mrs.) M. J. Fleming Cumberland 

Margaret E. R;illy Frostburg 

Katherine F. Crowe Frostburg 

Margaret S. Upham Cumberland 

Rachel Anthony Cumberland 

Katie M. Lippold Cumberland 

Almira Boucher Cumberland 

Sophia M. Deneen Cumberland 

Phyllis Copeland Cumberland 

Louise Llewellyn Frostburg 

Louise Schlosstein Frostburg 

Dorothy Purnell Frostburg 

Ursula McGuire Midland 

Esther Andrews Barton 

Imogene Caudill Frostburg 

(Mrs.) E. J. Welton... Alaska, W.Va. 

(Mrs.) F. G. Hall Moscow Mills 

Mary Hanna Westernport 

Alberta Saunders Westernport 

Isabel Durst Barton 

Hazel Poland Westernport 

Vera Chapman Midlothian 

Pearl McDonaldson Barton 

Ella Wallace Lonaconing 

Nellie Dowling Westernport 

Margaret Thomas Barton 

Harriett Bradley Frostburg 

Mary Poland Westernport 

Janet Ayers Barton 

William G. Fatkin Luke 

Shirley Biggs Westernport 

(Mrs.) Anna Butler. Piedmont, W.Va. 
Jessie Riggleman Shaft 



220 


Annual Rkpokt ok the Statk lioAKu f;F }<jji;catk)N 


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Marion Picken Lonaconing 15 

Lovern Schombert Midland | IS 

fjilbert C. Cooling Barton 15 

Ilflcn Shaw Mcyersdalc, Pa. ; 15 

Estelle Powell Frostburg 1 5 

Martha McDonaldson Barton ; IS 

Lillic M. Inskccp Barton 15 

B. F. Birmingham Barton 1 5 

Catherine Mowbray Gattens. .. .Barton 15 

Mary Major Barton \ 1 5 

Mary Donahey Pekin 16 

Mary Longridge Barton j 16 

Genevieve K. Cavan Lonaconing 16 

Maud Mowbray Barton 17 

Ethel J. Hyde Moscow Mills | 17 

Agnes Stakem Midland 17 

Janet Anderson Ocean ! 1 7 

Ida M. Eichorn Lonaconing 17 

Emma G. Bradley Lonaconing 18 

Anna Morgan Lonaconing 18 

Mary Walsh Lonaconing 18 

Lizzie Meyers Lonaconing \ 18 

Marie H. Morgan Lonaconing 18 

Nora R. Geary Lonaconing 18 

Cecilia A. Burns Midland ; 18 

Louise W. Bell Lonaconing 18 

Mollie Peel Lonaconing 19 

Francis J. Todd Lonaconing 19 

Margaret P. Orr Lonaconing 19 

John A. Smith Frostburg 19 

Agnes Hannon Frostburg 19 

Katie M. Shri% er Frostburg j 19 

Kathleen Crowe Frostburg ' 19 

Martha E. Downton Zihlman 19 

Mary J. Rank Frostburg i 19 

Lula Seifarth Frostburg i 19 

Lillie Wasmuth Frostburg j 19 

Angela Brady Frostburg 20 

Lillie G. Neff Frostburg 20 

Winifred Green Frostburg t 20 

Bessie Gehauf Frostburg ] 20 

Loretta Hannon Frostburg ; 20 

Lillie Aspinall Frostburg . 20 

Orgie Hawkins Frostburg 21 

Althea B. Hartig Frostburg I 

Anna G. Elias Frostburg : 21 

J. O. Kefauver Mt. Savage i 

Anna Higgins Mt. Savage i 2 1 

Gertrude O'TooIe Mt. Savage ; 21 

Irene Condry Frostburg 22 

Mary T. Witte Mt. Savage ' 22 

Beulah M. Farrady Mt. Savage ', 22 

Nell Fischer Frostburg | 22 

Ruth O'Rourke Frostburg ' 22 

Kathleen McDermitt Mt. Savage j 22 

Agatha Witte Mt. Savage 1 22 

Mabel Myers Frostburg ' 22 

Nellie Powell Frostburg I 22 



Agnes McGinn Lonaconing 

Jessie B. Orr Lonaconing 

Jessie B. Abbott Lonaconing 

Bertha K. Connor Lonaconing 

Jennie V. Dixon Lonaconing 

Marion Richmond Lonaconing 

Julia Quinn Midland 

Elizabeth Love Lonaconing 

Sarah E. Higgins Lonaconing 

Margaret Sloan Lonaconing 

Anna B. Reuschcl Cumberland 

Ethel Joyce Midlothian 

Bertha Lancaster Gilmore 

Tena Barber Vale Summit 

Dolores Scott Vale Summit 

Eva Roach Frostburg 

Loretta .Seifarth Frostburg 

Katie Jack Eckhart 

Bessie McKcnna Midland 

Mary A. Manley Midland 

Bessie L. Stakem Midland 

Agatha V. Dorsey . . - Midland 

John W. Hunt Frostburg 

Annie A. Reilly Midland 

Margaret Powers Frostburg 

Esther Burns Midland 

Carrie V. Haberlein Frostburg 

Nellie R. Powell Frostburg 

Estelle D. Williams Frostburg 

Agnes Harvey Shaft 

Mary E. Dougherty Frostburg 

James E. Winter Midlothian 

Edith Brain Midlothian 

Agnes Ryan Ocean 

Mary M. Stakem Midland 

Elizabeth Adams Carlos 

Anna Joyce Carlos 

Charity I. Hartley Cumberland 

Dora E. Richard Ellerslie 

Elizabeth Miley Mont Alto, Pa. 

Catherine D. Barncord. .Corrigansville 

Pearl Pressman Frostburg 

Nellie Ryan Frostburg 

Thomas T. Johnson Cumberland 

R. F. D. 2. 

Nellie R. Miller Cumberland, 

R. F. D. 2. 

Margaret Hohing Lonaconing 

Anna McGann Frostburg 

Isabel Ireland Cumberland 

Laura M. Young Cumberland 

Rose Schmutz Cumberland 

Mary I. Murphy Cumberland 

Margaret Carroll Cumberland 

Althea Fuller Cumberland 

Belle L. Wilson Cumberland 

Williet Houck Cumberland 

Jessie F. Wliitc Cumberland 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



221 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



22 1 Cora E. Albright Cumberland 

22 1 Marjr E. McMichael Cumberland 

22 1 Alice Ward Cumberland 

22 1 Isabel Kinnison Frostburg 

22 2 Margaret I. Richmond. .. .Lonaconing 

22 2 Margaret Hudson Cumberland 

22 2 Catherine Flynn Cumberland 

22 2 Ina Morgan Cumberland 

22 2 Mary Laffey Cumberland 

22 3 William B. Dicken Flintstone 

22 4 Anna B. Manley Midland 

22 S Agnes Carroll Cumberland 

22 5 B'eulah Kelso Cumberland 

22 5 Mildred Willison Cumberland 

22 S Hazel Crupper Cumberland 

23 1 Dorothy Hannon Frostburg 

24 1 D. A. Boyle Eckhart 

24 1 Kate Bannatyne Eckhart 

24 1 Mattie Stap'eton Frostburg 

24 1 Effie B. Thomas Frostburg 

24 1 Mary Cronly Frostburg 

24 1 Clara C. Blank Eckhart 

24 2 Edith Kirby Price Frostburg 

25 1 Ella C. Martin Pekin 

27 1 Bee V. Reilly Midland 

27 1 Jean Russell Midland 

28 1 Kathleen Wolfe Frostburg 

28 1 Aggie T. Davis Frostburg 

28 1 C. T. Pendleton Frostburg 

28 1 Nan Jeffries Frostburg 

28 1 Alpha Garrett Frostburg 

28 1 Nellie Raley Frostburg 

28 1 Olive A. DeWitt Frostburg 

28 1 Cordelia Williams Frostburg 

28 1 Stella Hosken Frostburg 

28 1 May Simons Frostburg 

28 1 Nan McCulloh Frostburg 

?8 1 L. Marie Smith Frostburg 

28 1 Mabel Hitchi..s Frostburg 

28 1 Grace H. Dando Frostburg 

28 1 Ina K. Spitznas Frostburg 

29 1 Marguerite G. Bowling. .. .Cumberland 

29 1 Bertha G. Mathews Cumberland 

29 1 Henrietta S. Pur. .ell Frostburg 

ALLEGANY COUNTY HIGH SCHOOLS. 

6 4 S. R. Gay Cumberland 

6 4 Anne M. Luman Cumberland 



6 4 Anna M. T. Webster Cumberland 

6 4 Ethelyn Selby Cumberland 

6 4 Ruth Maxwell Palmer. .. .Cumberland 

6 4 P. B. Ruch Cumberland 

6 4 Kathryn H. Walker Cumberland, 

R. F. D. 1, Box 44 D. 

6 4 Mary G. Walsh Cumberland 

6 4 Margaret E. Morris Cumberland 

6 4 Esther Foster Cumberland 

6 4 Virginia W. Dixon Cumberland 

6 4 Miriam Grossman Cumberland 

6 4 Vera R. Parker Frostburg 

6 4 Ervin J. Welton Alaska, W. Va. 

WESTERNPORT. 

8 1 O. H. B'ruce Westernport 

8 1 Carrie Hepburn .... Piedmont, W. Va. 

8 1 Anne Wagner Westernport 

8 1 Florence McAlpine Lonaconing 

8 1 Rev. S. H. Jewell Barton 

BARTON. 

9 1 Gilbert C. Cooling Barton 

9 1 Helen Shaw Meyersdale, Pa. 

9 1 Estelle Powell Frostburg 

CENTRAL. 

10 1 Arthur F. Smith Lonaconing 

10 I Elizabeth Sonierville Lonaconing 

10 1 Daisy Cline Lonaconing 

10 1 Margaret Bell Lonaconing 

10 1 W.S.Morris Lonaconing 

10 1 Rhea Morgan Lonaconing 

FROSTBURG. 

28 1 S. Ross Gould Frostburg 

28 1 Margaret Ewald Mt. Savage 

28 1 S. M. Kanady Frostburg 

28 1 M. Louise VanDyke Frostburg 

28 1 Helen L. Griffith Frostburg 

28 1 Katharine A. Porter Frostburg 

28 1 M. Alice Kearsing Frostburg 

28 1 Leslie W. Orr Lonaconing 

28 1 Gertrude Kiley Hitchins. .. .Frostburg 

28 1 Martha J. Thomas Frostburg 

28 1 Rev. J. Luther Martin Frostburg 



ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY 



1 Lula W. Hunt Galloways 

1 

2 Mary Biscoe West River 

2 Mary Owens West River 

3 

4 R. Bradley Jones Davidsonville 

4 Leah Fellows Davidsonville 

5 M. Luckctt Iglehart Birdsville 



6 Blanche Parrott South River 

7 William Weber Mayo 

7 Mildred Kolb Mayo 

7 Corinne Alveey Mayo 

8 R. Merle Leatherbury Edgewater 

9 Elsie Meade Riverview 

10 Elizabeth King Davidsonville 

1 Emily Rawlings Annapolis 



222 



Annual Rkpokt of thk Statk I'oakd op" EiiUCATioN 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


4 


2 


5 


2 


6 


2 


7 


2 


8 


2 


9 


2 


9 


2 


9 


2 


9 


2 


9 


2 


9 


2 


9 


2 


10 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


11 


2 


12 


2 


13 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


4 


3 


5 


3 


6 


3 


7 


3 


7 


3 


8 


3 


9 


3 


10 


3 


11 


3 


12 


3 


13 


3 


14 


3 


15 


4 


1 


4 


1 


4 


2 


4 


5 


4 


6 


4 


7 


4 


8 


4 


9 


4 


9 


4 


10 


4 


10 


4 


10 


4 


11 


4 


12 


4 


13 


4 


14 


4 


15 


5 


1 


5 


2 


3 


2 


5 


3 


5 


4 



Mabel Cott Annapolis 

Lillian Worthington Annapolis 

Amy Hopkins Gambrills 

Nannie Linthicuin Gambrills 

Nancy Hopkins Gambrills 

Mahala Wilson Waterbury 

Rebecca Parsons Millersville 

Lillian Baker Annapolis 

Mary Dorscy Annapolis 

Agnes Lewis Lee Annapolis 

Marie Gantt Annapolis 

Ethel McCarty Annapolis 

Audrey D. Shipley Annapolis 

Elizabeth Harmon Annapolis 

R. Magdalen Worthington. .Annapolis 

Alice L. Carter West Anna 

Estelle B'. Carter West Anna 

jNIargaret B. Moss Annapolis 

Emma Phipps Edgewater 

(Mrs.) R. L. Merrick Annapolis 

Carolyn Cawthorne Landsdov/ne 

Sara Phelps Solley 

Estelle Arnold Pasadena 

Rhoda Hamilton Pasadena 

Alice Disney Pasadena 

Margaret Hamilton Pasadena 

Jessie B. Suitt Boone 

Madeline Overton Annapolis 

Sadie H. Rice Arnolds 



Florence Owens St. Margarets 

Esther McCusker Annapolis 



Anna A. Kolfa Arundel Cove 



Elizabeth Vansant Annapolis 

Anne Cloein Jessup 

Elizabeth Clark Severn 

Marie Biggs Annapolis Junction 

Lillian Nowell Landsdowne 

Adele Joyce Gambrills 

Emil M. Weber Severn 



Gertrude Hobach . . , 

Daisy Shipley 

Nannie Lowman . . . . 
Temperance Higgins 

Helen Jones 

Marguerite Turner .. 
Margaret Reive 



. .Odenton 
. .Hanover 
. .Odenton 
.Gambrills 
.Annapolis 
.Gambrills 
. .Odenton 



Iva Jacobs Miller. 
Lillian Donaldson 



. .Odenton 
.Annapolis 



Myrtle D. Shackley. 

(Mrs.) Lance 

Edna Arnold 



. . .Dorsey 
. . .Dorsey 
. Pasadena 



5 5 Norman R. Eckard Brooklyn 

5 5 Irma Cromwell Brooklyn 

5 5 Naomi Hawkins Brooklyn 

5 5 Elizabeth Hawkins Brooklyn 

5 5 Clara McPherson Brooklyn 

5 5 Sadie .Marshall Brooklyn 

5 5 Mildred Ray Celia Brooklyn 

5 5 Margaret Shipley Brooklyn 

5 5 Ellen Tipton Brooklyn 

5 5 Marguerite Price Brooklyn 

5 5 Katherine Webster Brooklyn 

5 5 Madge i.owrcy Brooklyn 

5 7 Helen Harman Hanover 

5 8 Jennie Hodges Curtis Bay 

5 8 Wm. N. Crisp Curtis Bay 

5 8 Helen Schimpf Curtis Bay 

5 8 Genevieve Bohland Curtis Bay 

5 8 Francis O'Connor Curtis Bay 

5 8 Elizabeth Skalski Curtis Bay 

5 8 Mattie Snyder Curtis Bay 

5 8 Mignon Lerp Curtis Bay 

5 8 Elizabeth Lehr Curtis Bay 

5 8 Alma Bourke Curtis Bay 

5 8 Mary Carr Curtis Bay 

5 8 Delia Sutton Curtis Bay 

5 8 Marjorie Merrick Curtis Bay 

5 8 M. Bealle Merrick Curtis Bay 

5 8 Carrie Gishel Curtis Bay 

5 9 Sara Hodges 633 N. Calhoun St. 

5 9 Ruth Hook 1327 N. Eden St. 

5 10 Effie Murray.. 5001 Park Heights Ave. 

5 10 Etta Benson Brooklyn 

5 10 (Mrs.) H. L. Kelly, 217 E. Lafayette 
Ave. 

5 10 

5 11 Georgetta Dawson Harmans 

5 12 R. L. Cockran Glen Burnie 

5 12 Ruth M. Bauer Glen Burnie 

5 12 Ruth Parker Glen Burnie 

5 12 Ida Van Fossen Glen Burnie 

5 13 Maud Roberts 1608 Bo'ton St. 

5 13 Ethel Cole Hanover 

5 13 Zenia Slacum...530 N. Arlington Ave. 

ANNAPOLIS GRAMMAR SCHOOL 

6 G.S. Josephine Riordan Annapolis 

6 G.S. Edith Childs Annapolis 

6 G.S. Minnie Childs Annapolis 

6 G.S. Miriam D. Snyder Annapolis 

6 G.S. Ruth Feldmeyer Annapolis 

6 G.S. Stella Callaghan Annapolis 

6 G.S. Irene Harrington Annapolis 

6 G.S. Helen Hunter Annapolis 

6 G.S. Lucy Redmond Annapolis 

6 G.S. Frances Rolnick Annapolis 

6 G.S. Edith Woodward Annapolis 

6 G.S. Dorothea Brewer Annapolis 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



233 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



6 


G.S. 


6 G.S. 


6 


G.S. 


6 


G.S. 


6 


G.S. 


6 


G.S. 


6 


G.S. 


6 


G.S. 


6 


G.S. 


8 


1 


8 


1 


S 


1 


8 


2 


8 


2 


8 





8 


4 


8 


5 


8 


5 


8 


6 




C.H. 




C.II. 




C.H. 




C.H 




C.H 




C.H 




C.H 




C.H 




C.H 




C.H 




3 




3 




4 




S 




6 




6 




6 




6 




7 




7 




7 




7 




7 




7 




7 




7 




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7 




8 




9 




9 




9 



Caroline Heintz Annapolis 

Nellie M. Stevens Annapolis 

Virginia Duke Annapolis 

Nancy Ridout Annapolis 

Marie Linthicum Annapolis 

Mary Arnold Annapolis 

Letitia Farrell Annapolis 

Marion Duvall Annapolis 

Katlierine Rockhold Annapolis 

Ethel N. Andrews Shady Side 

Mamie L. C. Bass Shady Side 

Helen Dawson Shady Side 

Frances Bennett Churchton 

Maggie Glover Sudley 

Mary Hawkins Nutwell 

Mary Rockhold Friendship 

Lina Proutt Friendship 

Harriett Estep McKendree 



8 Margaret Sherbert Greenock 

9 Lenora Owens Greenock 

10 Maggie Woodfield Bristol 

11 Genevieve Jenkins Dea!e 

11 Fannie O. Jenkins Deale 

12 Rebecca Sansbury Fair Haven 

ANNAPOLIS HIGH SCHOOL 

H.S. Louise Linthicum Annapolis 

H.S. Agnes Himmelheber Annapolis 

H.S. Emily Hopkins Ananpolis 

H.S. Clara B. Kent Annapolis 

H.S. Anna K. Redmond Annapolis 

H.S. Sarah Mason 2306 Guilford Ave. 

H.S. Eleanor Ridout Annapolis, 

R. F. D. Route A. 
H.S. Helen M. Scheller Annapolis 



BALTIMORE COUNTY 



Minnie P. Gerwig Catonsville 

L. May Smith Catonsville 

Anna E. Schotta Catonsville 

Maggie R. Molesworth Catonsville 

Margaret E. Hoffman Catonsville, 

Maud Sherwood 118 E. 24th St. I 

Agnes J. Selby West Friendship ; 

Dorothy B'endewald 12 N. Monroe I 

Caroline R. Gambrill Ellicott City | 

Laura B. Insley Bivalve 

Florence E. Peddicord. . . .Ellicott City 
Lillian Lafferty Ellicott City 

Bessie G. Reinhold Woodlawn 

Clinton H. Spurrier Hillsdale 

(Mrs.) Emma Myers Read, 5412 Park 

Heights Ave. 

Helen M. Dalton Texas 

Edith R. Powell Govans 

Margaret A. Harney.. 3308 Elgin Ave. 

Eva C. Bowen 3912 Alto Ave. 

M. Gertrude Rhodes, 4809 Liberty 

Heights Ave, 

Josie M. Shea 2012 Barclay St. 

Helen C. Thompson Towson 

Margaret S. Gore Glyndon 

Elaine Buxton, 4809 Liberty Heights 

Ave. 
Jean L. Yater...S19 Ravenswood Ave. 
Miriam Clark, 4809 Liberty Heights 

Ave. 

Ora Burgess Howard Park 

S. Augusta Brohawn, 1717 Harlem Ave. 

Mary V. Kavanaugh Ellicott City 

Leila Cairnes Catonsville 

Anna E. Linsley Oella 



1 


11 


1 


12 


1 


12 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


4 


2 


5 


2 


5 


2 


5 


2 


5 


2 


5 


2 


6 


2 


7 


2 


7 


2 


9 


2 


10 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 



Julia W. Jones Catonsville 

Helen M. Thomas Woodlawn 

M. Katherine Stanfield Roslyn 

Dorothy E. Hemp Woodlawn 



Marie L. Kemp Catonsville 

Ruth E. Hemp Woodlawn 

M. Thomasine Atherton Granite 

Beulah Davis Roslyn 

Susie C. McClure...4S Hay ward Ave. 

Ethel A. Roop Westminster 

Kitty G. Fite Roslyn 

Ethel K. Atherton Granite 

Clarissa M. Muth. .9 E. Lafayette Ave. 

L. Beryl Owings Pikesville 

Elizabeth Ogelsby. .4405 Belview Ave. 
Alice M. Winand...lll8 N. Eutaw St. 

Lillian M. Widerman Granite 

A. Lue O'Dell Owings Mills 

Lavinia C. Roop Westminster 

Elsie Hanna Garrison 

E. Florence Mallonee Pikesville 

Emma L. Willson, 1517 Mt. Royal Ave. 

Florence R. Hall Arlington 

Charlotte S. Church.. 2004 St. Paul St. 
Blanche J. McCubbin. .. .Owings Mills 

Elkn H. Gray Reisterstown 

Howard E. Jackson Arlington 

Mary E. Holland 1608 Bolton St. 

Rosa R. Wooters 251 Robert St. 

Esther J. Shamberger, 2642 N. Calvert 

Street. 
Olive F. Boyd 132 W. 2Sth St. 



22i 



Annual Rkport of the State Board of Education 



Name and Address 



Name and Addkess 



3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


S 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


S 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


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4 F.H, 
4 F.H. 
4 F.H, 

4 F.H. 
4 F.H. 
4 F.H, 
4 F.H, 

4 7 
4 7 
4 7 



(Mrs.) (irace Boycr Johnson, 701 N. 

Carey St. 

Ellen M. Doyle Arlington 

May li. Appel. . . .20 E. Hayward Ave. 

Roberta Porter 1603 McCulloh St. 

Camille Chenoweth. . 1210 Linden Ave. 
Gertrude E. Buckley. .Mt. Washington 

Olivia O. Osborne Arlington 

Leah C. Watts Pikcsville 

Margaret M. Everist, 1016 N. Gilmor 

Street. 

Daisy L. Bbtts 1514 W. Fayette St. 

Ellen M. Simmons Owings Mills 

Edith M. Lippy Hampstead 

N. Grace Clark, 200 E. Lafayette Ave. 
J. Grace Shamberger, 2642 N. Calvert 

Street. 
Ruth E. Buckley Mt. Washington 

E. Frances Kane Texas 

Emily Ann Barnes Hamilton 

Eleanor Shank, 5332 Park Heights Ave. 
Grace M. Shank, 5332 Park Heights 

Avenue. 

Helen M. White 113 Wylie Ave. 

Catherine J ickson. . . .717 Roland Ave. 

Elaine C. Brown 1313 John St. 

Edna L. Zink Lutherville 

S. Jeannette Mays Glencoe 

Mary V. Hendrickson.Mt. Washington 
(Mrs.) Gertrude G. Mulheron, 2448 

Maryland Ave. 
Clara E. Smithson, 1333 W. Lafayette 

Avenue. 
Eleanor H. Thorpe, 2103 N. Charles St. 

May G. Fallon 2030 Maryland Ave. 

Anna Huffington, 511 N. Arlington 

Avenue. 
Florence L. Cassidy. . .Mt. Washington 

Ella C. Lindsay Texas 

Loulie T. Clarkson, 3045 Walbrook 

Avenue. 

F. Dorsey Ensor Fowblesburg 

Grace L. Ingham Hampstead 

Maude E. Fuss Reisterstown 

Mattie E. Hipsley Owings Mills 

Elizabeth Diggs Raspeburg 

Emma K. Hanna Garrison 

Myrtle S. Eckhardt Glyndon 

(Mrs.) Louise Bland Goodwin. .Reis-. 

terstown. 

E. Pauline Smith .- . . . .Glyndon 

Nellie M. Gorsuch Owings Mills 

Etha M. Frantz Reisterstown 

Etta I. Marshall Owings Mills 

Preston H. Shaver Owings Mills 

Edith A. Roach Reisterstown 

(Mrs.) Hallie H. Carpenter. .. .Owings 

Mills. 



4 8 Joshua G. Boslcy, Jr Cockeysvillc 

4 9 Edith Mercicr Glyndon 

4 9 Emily G. Fowble Reisterstown 

5 1 A. Pearl Ebaugh Uppcrco 

5 2 Carroll H. Gorsuch Upperco 

5 2 Grace A. Merryman Hampstead 

5 3 E. Bennett Bowen Owings Mills 

5 3 Edna M. Tracey Uppcrco 

5 4 (Mrs.) Florence Donaldson Gorsuch, 

Glencoe. 

5 6 N. Frank Cofiell Upperco 

5 7 Robert L. Davidson Upperco 

5 8 Mabel D. Stifler Parkton 

5 9 Mattie R. Shearer Millers 

S 10 Eva A. Akehurst filencoe 

5 11 (Mrs.) Nellie Saffell Hale Parkton 

6 1 Claudia Bull Freeland 

6 2 John H. Lehman Parkton 

6 3 Edna B. Miller Freeland 

6 4 Ozella G. Carr Freeland 

6 5 Ethel V. Hunter Freeland 

6 6 B'ertha M. Jordan Hamilton 

6 7 Sybilla D. Kerl Freeland 

6 8 Marion E. Dickmeyer Freeland 

6 9 Joseph A. Fowler Freeland 

7 1 (Mrs.) Jessie Van T. Markline, White 

Hall. 

7 2 A. Mabel Trout White Hall 

7 3 Grace V. Carr Parkton 

7 6 Gertrude S. Stabler Freeland 

7 7 E. May Cross Parkton 

7 8 M. Emma Moore White Hall 

7 9 Nellie N. Ledley Bentley 

7 9 Mary M. Allen Bentley 

7 10 Caroline D. Henderson Monkton 

7 n Martha E. Wineholt Parkton 

7 12 Gertrude H. Gemmill. . .New Freedom, 

Pa. 

7 12 Harriett B. Price Phoenix 

7 13 Margaret T. Feeney Texas 

8 A.H. Daisy E. Foster Parkton 

8 A.H. Bertha B. Bland. . .■: Sparks 

8 3 Olga Royston Butler 

8 4 H. Jeannette Wimsett Lutherville 

8 5 A. Olivia Hershner Towson 

8 5 Margaret K. Canavan Texas 

8 6 John M. Quinn Texas 

8 6 Katherine T. Moore Cockeysville 

8 7 S. Cora Haile Cockeysville 

8 7 Mary Evans Phoenix 

8 8 Mary L. Hipsley Owings Mills 

8 10 M. Ellen Logan Cockeysville 

8 10 Anna E. Cockey Timonium 

8 10 Anna G. Logan Cockeysville 

8 10 A. Leister Zink Cockeysville 

8 11 T. H. Crommer Cockeysville 

8 11 Ella E. Connolly, 149 W. Lafayette 

Avenue. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



325 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



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9 


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Mary A. O'Conor 1119 Valley St. 

Georgia L. Scott Darlington 

J. Walter Turnbaugh Butler 

Rachel Ensor Cockeysville 

Cora E. Royston Phoenix 

Edith E. Knsor Cockeysville 

Katherine V. Logan Cockeysville 

Madge DuH. Bowen Towson 

Clara S. Dobbin, The Walbert, Balti- 
more. 
M. Edith Cross... 61 7 Dumbarton Ave. 

Grace M. Balls Govans 

Ida L. M. Held Towson 

Florence Phipps Towson 

Ida M. Fox 2222 N. Calvert St. 

Emma K. Dunphy Towson 

Louise E. Robinson Govans 

Anna Cole 611 Montpelier St. 

Harriett E. Beall Govans 

Marion M. Knight 810 W. 36th St. 

Anna M. A. Padian Towson 

Katherine M. Tunney, 18 Wilton 
Heights, Arlington. 

Elizabeth W. Ceilings Towson 

Harry C. Haile Govans 

Olivia G. Harrison Govans ] 

Louise R. Cross Govans 

Ella V. Bowen Towson | 

Esther Lamb Matthews Govans ! 

Addid M. Flayhart Towson 

Sydney N. Free. 1940 W. Mulberry St. ' 

Marjorie R. Davis Govans i 

Nora V. Boston 1904 Cecil Ave. 

(Mrs.) Laura Phelps Todd, 2516 N. | 
Calvert St. j 

(Mrs.) Blanche S. Shargreen. .Govans 

Lela M. Beatty Monkton 

Frances Evans Phoenix i 

Helen G. Tilghman. . 1308 Linden Ave. 

Ella L. Smith 2528 Madison Ave. ' 

Georgia W. McDonnal Hamilton 

Alice V. Browne.. 22 E. Mt. Vernon 
Place. 

A. Pearl Price Hamilton 

Edna B. Hall 4701 Harford Road 

Florence M. Hayward, 838 E. Preston 
Street. 

I May Bowers Lauraville 

Katherine M. Tames Hamilton 

Ethel A. W. Frank Hamilton 

Lois M. Leary Hamilton 

Helen W. Peck Hamilton 

Lillian M. Jewell Hamilton 

Hilda E. B'roemer Hamilton 

H. Pearle Phelps Hamilton 

Edith M. Carl Hamilton 

Frances E. Tilghman, 1308 Linden Ave. 
Evelyn M. Ditman Lauraville 



9 5 Edith A. Smith. .2669 Edmondson Ave. 

9 5 F. Lillian Rodenhi Hamilton 

9 6 Thos. F. Mallonee Parkville 

9 6 Sabina Fleming Parkville 

9 6 Mildred J. Rodenhi Hamilton 

9 6 Lora A. Finney Towson 

9 6 Gladys Wilcox Hamilton 

9 T.H. Mary J. Watson Towson 

9 iT.H. Ernestine Chenoweth, 1210 Linden 
Avenue. 

9 T.H. Anna Pilson Towson 

9 T.H. Lilla A. Conrey Towson 

9 T.H. M. Cassie Ady Towson 

9 Model M. Theresa Wiedefeld. .. .Hamilton 

9 8 Geo. G. Barnes Towson 

9 9 Elizabeth M. Barrett, 1622 N. Calvert 
Street. 

9 9 Helen M. Chalk Mt. Washington 

9 10 Mary V. Phelps Riderwood 

9 10 Helen Galloway Texas 

10 1 Luella N. McComas White Hall 

10 2 Gertrude Bosley Monkton 

10 4 Ada Foard Hydes 

1 4 Agnes Nau Phoenix 

10 5 Margaret Baldwin Baldwin 

10 9 Amanda Price Phoenix 

10 10 Jennie E. Jessop, 54 Melvin Ave., 
Arlington. 

10 10 Julia M. Moore Cockeysville 

11 1 

11 2 Stephen MuUer Upper Falls 

11 2 Emily V. Quinlin Kingsville 

1 1 3 Grace O. Wann Upper Falls 

1 1 3 Lucy Burton Glen Arm 

II 5 (Mrs.) Bessie Scarff Lee Glen Arm 

11 7 Irene C. Bell Towson 

11 7 

1 1 8 Henrietta Fox Fullerton 

11 8 Lulu S. Fox Fullerton 

11 8 Alice Moore White Marsh 

11 11 Bessie M. Foard Hydes 

11 12 Annie M. Mohring Baldwin 

11 13 M. Ruth Guyton Upper Falls 

11 13 Louise Moon White Marsh 

11 14 B. Marie Hartley Glen Arm 

11 14 Eliza A. Burton Glen Arm 

12 1 Robert Andrews 1603 McCulloh St. 

12 1 Florence Martin 715 E. 33rd St. 

12 1 Margaret L. Shaughnessy, 1433 Bol- 
ton Street. 

12 1 Cecelia R. Reilly..804 W. North Ave. 

12 1 Katherine Leahy 3010 Elliott St. 

12 1 Harriett Kerchoff 1318 S. First St. 

12 1 A. Elizabeth Noppenberger, 437 E. 

Lafayette Ave. 
12 1 Annie C. Conner.. 1100 S. Clinton St. 
12 1 Anna Shamberger.. 2642 N. Calvert St. 
12 1 Leah A. Morgan... 1309 S. Clinton St. 



226 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



Name and Address 



Name and Addsess 



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Stella M. I'erkins 3050 I-'alls Koari 

Marie Ilumbcrg. . . . 1216 S. Clinton St. 
Carrie G. Richardson. . .Higlilandtown 
Grace S. Bacon.. 2937 E. Baltimore St. 
Annie E. Hilberg. .1531 W. Fayette St. 

Florence Richardson Govans 

Elizabeth Schofield. .823 N. Gilmor St. 
Ada M. Andrew, 3305 Windsor Mill 

Road. 
Bcrnardina Corrigan, 1217 Madison 

Avenue. 
Mary G. Logue..4005 Edmondson Ave. 

Mary E. O'Neill Timonium 

Mary V. Moore... 3021 McElderry St. 

Nannie M. Corrigan 1607 John St. 

Fannie M. Lochary..ll26 Linden Ave. 

Anna M. Barton 12 E. 22nd St. 

Lillian M. Herrera, 1222 W. Lafayette 

Avenue. 

Freda Sigmund 3806 Foster Ave. 

Erla I. Read Govans 

Mary F. Coster, 1001 N. Arlington 

Avenne. 
Ida R. Magers, 1801 Poplar Grove St. 

Eleanor Barron 233 S. East Ave. 

Helen K. Starkey 3541 York Road 

Katherine C. Erlmeier, 226 S. Third 

Street. 

Amelia L. Sweitzer 3507 Bank St. 

Elizabeth K. Norris 1409 John St. 

Margaret L. Hirschman, 1939 Harlem 

Avenue. 

Essie C. Roche Towson 

Minnie R. Watson. . 1830 Harlem Ave. 

Mary Rogers 403 Hamburg St. 

Hilda E. Ortel 3404 Eastern Ave. 

May C. Hanrathy 220 Richmond St. 

Margaret I. Bell. 261 S. Highland Ave. 
Annie J. Godfrey. Charles and 31st St. 

Bessie K. Purvis Govans 

H. Ethel Charles Orangeviile 

Vivian C. Spann...ll03 S. Clinton St. 
E. Irene Newton. ... 1410 Harlem Ave. 
H. Pauline Stem.. 1101 W. Lanvale St. 

Jennie E. Charles Orangeviile 

Elizabeth Curran 2651 York Road 

E. Loretta Codd 12 W. 24th St. 

Lillian E. Grenzer.1402 E. Lanvale St. 
Ann F. Dunn 309 Dolphin St., 

Hampton Court. 

Iva M. Jenkins 3417 Elliott St. 

Janet Bassett 3218 Fait Ave. 

(Mrs.) Ethel Starkey Williamson, 3541 

York Road. 

Mary R. Turner Ilchester 

Mabel M. Lakin 325 S. East Ave. 

Emma C. Burbett. . . . 134 S. East Ave. 



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(Mrs.; Nellie S. Sappington, 3633 

Greenmount Ave. 

Viola Daws 1728 N. Fulton Ave. 

Edith .M. WhiUkcr Mt. Washington 

Lucille Growl. 3602 Windsor Mill Road 

J. W. Kerr 4111 Belvieu Ave. 

Annie B. Wecr....920 N. Fulton Ave. 
Leila M. Whittington, 260 S. Highland 

Ave. 
Adele L. Bryan.. 220 3. Highland Ave. 

Ethel S. Jenkins 917 S. Clinton St. 

Frances E. Button.. 3239 Eastern Ave. 

J. Clarence Francis Raspeburg 

Anna E. Gray Sparrows Point 

Eliza C. Merritt Colgate 

Ella Stansbury Colgate 

Townley R. Wolfe, 3913 Forest Park 

Avenue. 
Emma C. Monroe... 134 S. Bouldin St. 
Carrie L. Stahl..221 S. Highland Ave. 
Katherine T. Valentine, 216 Myrtle 

Avenue. 

Anna E. Purvis Govans 

Marie S. Delaney. . . 1620 Harlem Ave. 

Anna I. Ebaugh 114 E. 2Sth St. 

Frances A. M. Erlmeier, 226 S. Third 

Street. 

Myrtle E. Groshans Raspeburg 

Eva V. Sterling, 3233 E. Baltimore St. 
Estelle H. Norman, 1008 N. Fulton 

Avenue. 

Helen JefTers Middle River 

(Mrs.) Jeannette Simms Brack, 3712 

Fernwood Ave. 
Lucynda M. B. Greet, 1518 Eutaw 

Place. 

Olive L. Smith Towson 

Alfredda E. Iglehart, 200 E. Lafayette 

Avenue. 

.^nna Lambert Colgate 

Bessie Stevens Glen Arm 

Mary V. Dorrett Colgate 

Louise Malone 314 Ilchester Ave. 

(Mrs.) Victoria H. Sheridan. ... Relay 

Ethel M. Baldwin Elkridge 

M. Katherine Gilmer Elkridge 

Sophie Odensos Halethorpe 

Anna M. Meehan 3658 Falls Road 

Florence E. McCauley, 533 N. Calhoun 

Street. 

Rhona M. Gayleard Halethorpe 

Edith N. Meek... 536 Poplar Grove St. 

Monroe Mitchell Relay 

(Mrs.) Evalyn Soper Roby, 2515 N. 

Calvert St. 

Grace E. Knell 4100 Kate Ave. 

Margaret H. Buckley. .Mt. Washington 
Sara L. Maguire Texai 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



227 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



13 4 Gertrude Stewart 1210 Linden Ave. 

13 4 Ida E. Brown 1701 Guilford Ave. 

13 4 Marguerite W. Hruska . . . Morrell Park 

13 4 Marguerite E. Hammond, 112 W. Mul- 
berry St. 

13 4 Josephine R. Wellmore. .1415 John St. 

13 4 Catherine E. Maguire..SOS E. 21st St. 

13 5 Laura McClyment Arbutus 

13 S Helen McClyment Arbutus 

13 6 Ruth Jones Govans 

13 6 Lillian F. Bond Halethorpe 

13 7 Mary A. Cullen 31 Augusta Ave. 

13 7 Augusta Astfalk Lansdowne 

13 7 Hazel M. Patterson Lansdowne 

13 7 Emma Ames Boettner.. 2920 Mosher St. 

13 7 Inez R. MacLeod Lansdowne 

13 7 Lula Schafer Violetville 

13 7 Emily J. Brandenburg, 110 Augusta 
Avenue. 

13 8 Clay T. Joyce 2202 N. Calvert St. 

13 8 Katharine Muhlbach, 109 N. Fulton 

Avenue. 

13 8 S. Leonora Haile, Lansdowne, English 
Consul. 

13 8 Bessie K. Stoddard Catonsville 

13 8 Edith E. Harraan Hanover 

13 8 Minna Hartman Violetville 

13 9 Harriet Cockey Relay 

13 10 Jennie A. Ruhl 306 E. Lanvale St. 

13 10 Angela A. Wilson, 132 Mt. Royal Ave. 

13 10 Eleanor Matthews Govans 

13 10 L. Elizabeth Wooden, 1107 Edmondson 
Avenue. 

13 10 

14 1 Georgia T. Hall Orangeville 

14 1 Effie M. Ebaugh 2114 Callow Ave. 

14 1 E. Katherine McMaster. .. .Orangeville 

14 1 Mabel E. Maeser, 204 N. Patterson 

Park Ave. 

14 1 Irene V. Baer Raspeburg 

14 1 Anna D. Travers, 1717 Poplar Grove 

Street. 

14 3 Nicholas H. Hope Raspeburg 

14 3 Mary E. Bayne Towson 

14 3 Ella G. German Towson 

14 3 Sarah McK. Williams Raspeburg 

14 3 Beatrice M. Jones. 1106 N. Strieker St. 

14 3 Marie L. Harrison Overlea 

14 3 Mary K. Evans Raspeburg 

14 3 Ruth E. Groshans Raspeburg 

14 3 Isabelle Lauterbach Roslyn 

14 3 Edith Mann Hamilton 

14 3 Myrtle S. Groshans Raspeburg 

14 3 Marie M. B'ing Lauraville 

14 3 (Mrs.) Arianna Blizzard, 617 Lennox 

Street. 

14 4 Margaret H. Smith Towson 

3 4 4 Dora Will Govans 



14 4 M. Virginia Hopkins Orangeville 

14 5 Stella E. Brown, 1234 W. Lafayette 

Avenue. 
14 5 Estelle S. Walters... 1716 St. Paul St. 
14 5 Ellen C. Wilhelm.. 1622 E. Federal St. 
14 5 Celia Vandermast. . 1405 S. Clinton St. 

14 5 Mary A. Grogan 1108 E. 20th St. 

14 5 Edna L. Foard Hamilton 

14 5 Mary E. Hawkins Jarrettsville 

14 5 M. Blanche Chipman, 2320 Guilford 

Avenue. 

14 5 E. Heighe Hill 530 E. 22nd St. 

14 5 Margaret Foard Rocks 

14 6 Rose Gilbert Rossville 

14 6 Mamie L. Peper Rossville 

14 7 (Mrs.) Lucy J Atwill Rossville 

14 7 Grace Lewis Raspeburg 

15 S.P.H. Mabel B. Garrott Knoxville 

IS S.P.H. Mary E. Simmons. . .Sparrows Point 

IS S.P.H. Martha B. Lynch Sparrows Point 

15 S.P.H. Mary C. Elliott.. 303 Harwood Ave. 
15 S.P.H. Lillian M. Emory. .. Sparrows Point 
15 S.P.H. (Mrs.)Clara A. Baldwin, 1529 Park 

Avenue 

IS S.P.H. Susie C. Pyle 1608 Harlem Ave. 

IS S.P.H. Agnes S. Myers Sparrows Point 

15 S.P.H. Addie Bell Robb Sparrows Point 

15 S.P.H. H. E. Thompson Sparrows Point 

15 S.P.H. Helen M. O'Rourke. . Sparrows Point 

IS S.P.H. Alice M. Merritt Sparrows Point 

15 2 SalHe J. Conner 1525 Eutaw Place 

IS 2 Bessie B. Payne 2416 Barclay St. 

15 3 Delia M. Renner Sparrows Point 

IS 3 Ellen E. Huffington 3012 Baker St. 

15 4 Helena Link 1313 W. North Ave. 

15 4 Anna Mantz 1112 N. Eden St. 

IS 4 Irma Kelm Govans 

15 5 Alma Vandermast Rossville 

15 5 Vilmina Weller Granite 

15 6 Sarah Pielert Bengies 

15 6 Mary E. Seling Raspeburg 

15 7 Clara Jones Bengies 

IS 7 Myrtle Edwards Bengies 

1 S 8 Lillian M. Smith Chase 

15 8 Ellen M. Vincent White Marsh 

13 8 

15 9 M. Elenora Corbin Loreley 

1 S 9 Amelia C. Lantz Rossville 

1 5 9 Elizabeth Thorn Rossville 

15 10 Branford C. Gist Rossville 

15 10 Eleanor Wright Baldwin 

15 10 Louisa E. Smith, 4023 Philadelphia 

Road. 
IS 10 Annie C. Morgan 1707 St. Paul St. 

KINDERGARTEN 

12 1 Clara E. Trotton 1532 Linden Ave. 

12 1 Ella M. Baxley 1221 Bolton St. 



228 



Annual Rkport of the State Board of Education 



Name and Address 



.Name a;.£j Amji-kss 



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12 2 Sarah E. Nowcll Phoenix 

12 2 Alice McB. Rinehart, 125 W. Lafayette 
Avenue. 

Julia A. Moore 1327 E. Eager St. 

Bessie Taylor 1204 N. Eden St. 

Anna Lee Brown Govans 

Henrietta M. Armstrong. .. .Sparrows 
Point. 

Mary D. Sherwood 118 E. 24th St. 

Manual Training 

D. Fred Shamberger 2835 St. Paul St. 

C. J. McAulifTe 719 N. Calvert St. 

(Mrs.) LoIIie Whitehead 1013 N. Calvert St. 

Domestic Science 

Katherine Braithwaite Catonsville 

Lula N. Biddison Raspeburg 

Marie L. Kraft 1809 Madison Ave. 

Bertha Ide 100 N. Payson St. 

Edith S. Gibson (Colored) .. 1501 Presstman St. 
Ruth E. Wilkins (Colored), 1938 Druid Hill 
Avenue. 

HIGH SCHOOLS 

CATONSVILLE 

1 C.H. Mary O. Ebaugh..700 W. North Ave. 

1 C.H. Johanna E. Stude Catonsville 

1 C.H. Lillian M. Creighton Relay 

1 C.H. Elinor N. Spicknall. .2102Rosedale Ct. 
1 C.H. Emma J. Weyforth. .2329 Linden Ave. 
1 C.H. Marion H Gross.. 141 S. Linwood Ave. 

1 C.H. Hannah Scott Ellicott City 

FRANKLIN 

4 F.H. Addison J. Beane Reisterstown 

4 F.H. E. Georgien Ewing Hillsdale 

CALVERT 

Mary E. Humphreys Cove Point 

(Mrs.) Rosa E. Gray Lusby 

(Mrs.) Ed. J. Sellers Sellers 

Anna Lee Baldwin St. Leonard 



(Mrs.) S. E. Parran Island Creek 

Madeline T. Bond St. Leonard 

M. Susie Magruder Solomons 

Mazie D. Williams Solomons 

Violet Oberry Solomons 

Margaret Duke Broomes Island 

Katherine Parran Island Creek 

Etta C. Bond Olivet 

S. Jennie Tongue Appeal 



Ruth Ireland Bowens 

Helen Gray Lowry 

Mary B. Grahame Sunderland 

Lyda E. Leitch Cedar Hill 

Mary B'owen Willows 



4 F.H. Aileen McKenney Glyndon 

4 F.H. A. Marguerite Zouck. ... Reisterstown 

4 F.H. Mollie F SaflFclI Reisterstown 

4 F.H. Marcia L. Leach, 215 E. Lafayette 
Avenue. 

SPARKS AGRICULTURAL 

8 A.H. William B. Kemp Sparks 

8 A.H. Edna F. Schwartz. 520 N. Fulton Ave. 
8 A.H. Eleanor Curley Monkton 

8 A.H. Elsie S. Phelps Corbett 

TOWSON 

9 T.H. Arthur C. Crommer Towson 

9 T.H. M. Jane Alford 4004 Roland Ave. 

9 T.H. R. Louise Balls Govans 

9 T.H. Agnes Bandel 102 W. 27th St. 

9 T.H. Helen Coulter 2518 Maryland Ave. 

9 T.H. Edna Rothhoiz 2108 Bolton St. 

9 T.H. Ethel V. Fisher. . . .Idlewylde, Towson 

9 T.H. Edyth Gorsuch 3028 St. Paul St. 

9 T.H. Nannie Feast Towson 

9 T.H. Elsie Lee Lewis Govans 

9 T.H. C. May Townsend, 1605 W. Fayette 

Street. 
9 T.H. Margaret Smith.. 1218 N. Calvert St. 
15 T.H. W. Ernest Wood.. 1600 N. Payson St. 

SPARROWS POINT 

15 S.P.H. Joseph Blair Sparrows Point 

15 S.P.H. Caroline L. Ziegler, 2704 N. Charles 

Street. 
15 S.P.H. Frances M. Lynch, 2645 N. Charles 

Street. 
15 S.P.H. Ruth E. Kramer 319 E. 25th St. 

COUNTY 

2 6 (Mrs.) Cassie Bond Duke Prince 

Frederick. 
2 7 (Mrs.) Daisy Simmons Cox... Bowens 

2 8 (Mrs.) Jack Dorsey Parran 

2 9 (Mrs.) Effie H. Boyd Barstow 

2 10 Ruth S. Williams Barstow 

2 11 Lucy S. Williams. .. .Prince Frederick 

2 12 (Mrs.) Virginia Skinner Dorsey, 

Prince Frederick. 

3 1 Lillian B. Soper Huntingtown 

3 2 (Mrs.) Lois R. Watson. .. .Sunderland 

3 3 Helen Birckhead Sunderland 

3 4 Caroline M. Coster. .. .Lower Marlboro 

3 5 Nellie A. Ward Paris 

3 6 Rachel F. Gibson Chaneyville 

3 6 !Mattie V. Hardesty Chaneyville 

3 7 (Mrs.) James S. Jones Dunkirk 

3 8 Grace E. Howes Dunkirk 

3 9 Julia Plummer O wings 

3 10 Marie M. Soper Huntingtown 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



229 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



CAROLINE county 





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Maud Hummer Marydel 

(Mrs.) Nina Boyce Goldsboro 

Mary Laird Ridgely 

(Mrs.) Miriam Pendleton Ridgely 

Olivia Coffin Henderson 

Mabel Baker Federalsburg 

(Mrs.) Olivia Roe Denton 

Mildred Seward Ridgely 

Grace Smith Marydel 

Edna Carrow Greensboro 

Lillie Doty Greensboro 

Anna Richard Ridgely 

Ethel Eveland Greensboro 

Laura Cochrane Greensboro 

(Mrs.) Mary Wooters. .. .Queen Anne 

(Mrs.) Sallie Green Greensboro 

Elise Roe Greensboro 

Sadie Allen Denton 

Bertha Shull Greensboro 

Esther Meredith Greensboro 

Mildred Norris Greensboro 

Mary Clark Denton 

(Mrs.) Mary Stafford Denton 

Mary Raughley Denton 

Lois Krabill Denton 

Lulu Roe Denton 

(Mrs.) Mary Rairigh Denton 

Lucy Garey Denton 

Laura Melvin Denton 

Myrtle Dukes Denton 

Lavinia Crouse Denton 

Pauline Wiley Ridgely 

(Mrs.) Corinne Thomas Hobbs 

Cleone Cooper Denton 

Hazel Davis Hobbs 

(Mrs.) Alice Howard Hobbs 

(Mrs.) Hallie Dehner Hickman 

(Mrs.) Nettie Lord Preston 

Elsie Bilbrough Goldsboro 

Edith McMahan Federalsburg 

Katharine Cox Preston 

Ella Harrison Preston 

Elizabeth Phillips Preston 

Ruth Douglas Preston 

(Mrs.) Hope Headley Ridgely 

Clara Rumbold Preston 

Emeline Bradley Preston 

Henrietta McMahan Trappe 

Elsie Reick Preston 

Lelia Cox Federalsburg 

May Thompson Federalsburg 

Verda Graham Federalsburg 

Lillian Cox Preston 

Susan Quidort Federalsburg 

Florence Funk Denton 



5 2 Nettie Tribbett Federalsburg 

5 4 Hilda Covey Federalsburg 

5 5 Marguerite Wilson Federalsburg 

6 2 (Mrs.) Josephine Blades. .. .Hillsboro 

6 3 (Mrs.) Martha Clark Denton 

6 4 Delia Wooters Hobbs 

6 5 Susie Marvel Ridgely 

Lydia Jones Millington 

Isabel Swing Ridgely 

7 4 (Mrs.) S. E. Parsons Oxford 

7 4 Ethel Cade Ridgely 

7 4 Viola Skinner Ridgely 

7 4 Gertrude Morgan Denton 

7 5 Blanche Laird Ridgely 

8 2 Hazel Towers Federalsburg 

8 4 Edna Lyden Federalsburg 

8 5 (Mrs.) Mary Spicer Federalsburg 

8 3 Hedwig Losch Henderson 

8 6 Mina Horn Williamsburg 

8 7 Anna Ross Federalsburg 

8 8 Ruth Harper Federalsburg 

HIGH SCHOOLS 
CAROLINE 

3 5 (Mrs.) E. E. Pippin Denton 

3 5 Helen Roe Denton 

3 5 Ivy Yeaworth, 6237 Bellona Ave., 

Baltimore. 
3 S Eleanor Yeaworth, 6237 Bellona Ave., 

Baltimore. 

3 5 Lola Willoughby, 20 Forrest View 

Ave., Belmar. 

PRESTON 

4 S Thomas McCloud Ridgely 

4 5 Esther Lednum Preston 

4 5 Ruth Brown Federalsburg 

4 5 Miriam Dennis Preston 

FEDERALSBURG 

5 1 A. C. Brower Federalsburg 

5 1 Mary Davis Federalsburg 

S 1 Sophia Kirwan Lloyds 

5 1 Irene Roe Cordova 

5 1 Sarah Merrick Trappe 

RIDGELY 

7 4 H. D. Evans Ridgely 

7 4 Gladys Smith Ridgely 

7 4 C. C. Troxell Ridgely 



230 



Annual Report of tiik State Board of Kdijcation 



Name and Address 



Name and Addbess 



CARROLL COUNTY 





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Janu-s B. Call Tancytowii 

Clara Ilockcnsniith Taneytown 

Mabel Lambert Taneytown 

(Mrs.) Sue Crapster Taneytown 

Ruth Leinmon Taneytown 

C. Elizabeth Crapster Taneytown 

Harry Ecker Taneytown 

G. May Fouke Taneytown 

Helen ReindoUar Taneytown 

Emma L. Reever Taneytown 

Alma Shriner Taneytown 

Mary A. Shaura Taneytown 

Harry Feeser Taneytown 

Daniel J. March Taneytown 

Ella M. Lee Uniontown 

Grace A. Wilson Uniontown 

Bessie D. Mering Uniontown 

Katherine Joyce Westminster 

Vesta Zepp Westminster 



Beryl Erb Westminster 

M. Jane Ecker Union Bridge 



A. Grace Fair Westminster 

Nevin W. Grouse Westminster 

Anna Nicht Westminster 

W. M. Penn Westminster 

(Mrs.) M. M. Wareheim. .Westminster 

Margaret Cullen Westminster 

Ephraim Wildasin Westminster 

James J. Harner Westminster 

L. Miraud Nusbaum Westminster 

(Mrs.) Mary Bankert. .. .Westminster 

(Mrs.) Stewart King Westminster 

A. J. Bemiller Westminster 

Thurman Brown Westminster 

Merviu Harner Westminster 

Raymond G. Merkle Westminster 

Cora Lambert Westminster 

N. E. Easier Hampstead 

Nellie Lee Hampstead 

Wm. W. Shamer Patapsco 

Ruth Chew Patapsco 



Estie Bosley Finksburg 

Minnie Rankin Finksburg 

I. A. Buckingham Finksburg 

A. Olga Isaacs Finksburg 

Mabel Albert Finksburg 

(Mrs.) Chas. Wagner. .. .Westminster 

Lewis A. Koontz Westminster 

Rev. Noah Clough Westminster 

Carrie Niner Westminster 

Benjamin Wenger Patapsco 

Edna Blizzard Westminster 



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(Mrs.) Wm. Shipley Sykesvillo, 

R. F. D. 

Claudine Burgoon Marriottsville 

Alice K. licnnett Marriottsville 

Esther Sixx Sykesville 

Helen Etzlcr Sykesville 

Pearl Garrity Sykesville 

Louise Laccy Sykesville 

Frankie Wetzell Hoods Mills 

Ella l-'rizzcll Woodbine 

Edna Hynes Westminster 

Helen C. Webb Westminster 

Wesley Barnes Sykesville 

Lola Shipley Woodbine 

Lilly Becraft Woodbine 

(Mrs.) Basil Chaney Woodbine 

Alice ^L Hancock Sykesville 

Eva Knadler Sykesville 

(Mrs.) C. M. Griffith Gaithers 

Carrie Buckingham Finksburg 

Maude Shauck Sykesville 

Clara Powell Sykesville 

Homer Bortner Manchester 

Mary McCaffrey Manchester 

Cecelia ^L Shower Manchester 

Emma Cox Manchester 

Carrie LaMotte Manchester 

Luther Wentz Millers 

Lola Allender Alesia 

Florence Strevig Manchester 

Theo. J. Myers Manchester 

Robert Kuhns Manchester 

C. J. Sauble Manchester 

J. Albert Zepp Manchester 

Winifred Masenheimer ...Manchester 

.•\dda Trump Manchester 

(Mrs.) Mae Gettier Manchester 

S. J. Hoffacker Manchester 

Edith Crumrine Westminster 

H. T. Wentz Lineboro 

Almira Utz Westminster 

Margaret Lockard Westminster 

Emory Ebaugh Westminster 

Marie Webster Westminster 

Alma McCaffrey Westminster 

Mae Williams W'estminster 

Rachel Buckingham Westminster 

Mary Weagley Westminster 

Jessie Matthews Westminster 

Evelyn Rinker Westminster 

Hattie Willet Westminster 

Mary Royer Westminster 

Ethel Manahan Westminster 

Lottie Moore Westminster 

Carrie Panebaker Westminster 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



231 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



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Emma M. Bixler Westminster 

Dorothy Harmon Westminster 

Reba Erb Westminster 

Delia Myers Westminster 

J. H. T. Ehrha-t Westminster 

Ruth K. Walsh Westminster 

Mary Reinecke Westminster 

Bessie Beaver Westminster 

(Mrs.) Mary B. Fowble. .Westminster 
Emma M. Caple Harapstead 

Emma Richards Hampstead 

Joseph Hurst Hampstead 

Mary Whitmore Hampstead 

Rebecca DeMotte Hampstead 

Harvey T. Rill Hampstead 

Fannie Shower Hampstead 

Miriam Bergman Hampstead 

L. Naomi Derr Hampstead 

Mary H. Stansbury Hampstead 

T. W. Buckman Hampstead 

Mary Lee Hampstead 

Anna Ridgely Tannery 

Rev. Geo. Dougherty Hampstead 

Myrle Miller Greenmount 

Lettie Ncudecker Westminster 

Nora B. Haines Westminster 

Mae Farver Westminster 

Esther I. Hooper New Windsor 

Lillian H. Trayer New Windsor 

(Mrs.) Flavia Wagner. .. .Westminster 

Jacob Farver Westminster 

Annie E. Lewis Union Bridge 

Carrie Harbaugh Middleburg 

Clara Devilbiss Middleburg 

Cora Sappington Keymar 



Mary Newman Detour 

Miriam Jones Taneytown 

Hanna M. Shunk New Windsor 

S. Edna Wilson New Windsor 

Ivy Fowler New Windsor 

Nena Roser New Windsor 

\'era Fowler New Windsor 

Evelyn Bond New Windsor 

Thelma Miller New Windsor 

Emma Ecker New Windsor 



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CECIL COUNTY 



Mabel Conner Earleville 

Alverda Ferguson Earleville 

F^lla Cannan Ocilton 

Mary Emily Clark Cecilton 

Bessie Davis Cecilton 

Ada Davis Cecilton 

Arrie McCoy Cecilton 



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Anna M. Barnes Westminster 

Rev. E. M. Riddle Linwood 

Arminta Murray Union Bridge 

Verna Ort Union Bridge 

Estella Lutz Union Bridge 

Cleo H. Pittenger Union Bridge 

Jos. Langdon Union Bridge 

Ruth Klein Union Bridge 

(Mrs.) Mary Smith Mt. Airy 

Addie F. Spurrier Mt. Airy 

Hazel Clcary Mt. Airy 

Alice Selby Mt. Airy 

Edna Devilbiss Mt. Airy 

Olive J. Mount Mt. Airy 

Naomi Day Mt. Airy 

HIGH SCHOOLS 

WESTMINSTER 

W. H. Davis Westminster 

Geo. F. Morelock Westminster 

Dorothy McDaniel Westminster 

M. Katherine Fiscel Westminster 

Florence H. Mason Westminster 

Winona Greiman Westminster 

S. P. Kaltrider Westminster 

Margaret Bream Westminster 

Ruth M. Noll Westminster 

Ida Lockard Westminster 

MT. AIRY 

J. Keller Smith Mt. Airy 

Elizabeth Dawson Mt. Airy 

Alma Wathen Mt. Airy 

Eleanor Albaugh Mt. Airy 

TANEYTOWN 

J. L. Hunsberger Taneytown 

Nellie Royer Taneytown 

UNION BRIDGE 

A. F. Collett Union Bridge 

Maude Wenger Union Bridge 

(Mrs.) Ellen Long Crapster, Union 

Bridge. 
E. Pauline Derr Union Bridge 

SYKESVILLE 
Adda M. Cummings Sykesville 

Stella M. Bishop Warwick 

Marie Price Earleville 

Grace B'urris Cecilton 

Olive Oldham Earleville 

Josephine Stearns. . .Middletown, Del. 

R. D. 2. 
Emma May Haller. . .Chesapeake City, 

R. D. 



232 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



2 4 Gertrude Manlove ... Chesapeake City, 
U. D. 1. 

?■ 5 (iuy Jolinson Chesapeake City 

2 5 Katie Loveless Chesapeake City 

2 5 Mary C. 11. Walters. .Chesapeake City 

2 S Emma Willis Chesapeake City 

2 S Sadie T. Nicoll Chesapeake City 

2 S Linda .Anderson Chesapeake City 

2 6 (Mrs.) Leila Thornton Moycr. Klkton, 

R. D. 2. 

3 1 Klla Maloney Elkton, R. D. 

3 2 Flora Marshbank Elkton 

3 3 Edwin B. Focklcr Elkton 

3 3 Harriet Evans Elkton 

3 3 Bessie Squier Port Deposit 

3 3 Margaret Hartnett Elkton 

3 3 Ethel Hopkins Elkton 

3 4 W. B. Dupuy Childs, R. D. 

3 5 Bertha Miller Davis Elkxon, R. D. 4 

3 7 Joseph Miller Moore Childs, R. D. 

3 8 Flora Davis Elkton 

3 9 Elizabeth Warburton North East, 

R. D. 2. 

3 10 

3 11 Addie C. Ford Elkton 

3 1 1 Mary L. Budd Elkton 

3 1 1 Hannah C. Hartnett Elkton 

3 1 1 Cora L. Pippin Elkton 

3 11 J. Edna Ray Talmadge Elkton 

3 12 Lizzie F. Wells Elkton 

3 12 Grace C. Wells Elkton 

4 1 Emma B. Jaquette Cherry Hill 

4 1 Mary Evans Harlan Cherry Hill 

4 2 Mary E. Conner Elkton, R. D. 3. 

4 2 Isabel A. Scott Childs, R. D. 

4 2 Mary L. Worth Elkton, R. D. 3. 

4 3 Edith A. Robinson Elkton, R. D. 3. 

4 4 Ida Kimble Newark. Del., R. D. 2. 

4 5 M. Helen Scott Childs, R. D. 1. 

4 5 Charlotte Cann Lewisville, Pa. 

4 5 Charlotte McAllister Elkton, R. D. 

4 6 Elva Blackson Elkton, R. D. 5. 

4 7 Ella Reynolds Elkton, R. D. 3. 

4 8 Ella Cann Lewisville, Pa. 

4 9 Sara Ewing 

4 10 

4 1 1 Elizabeth Mackey Cherry Hill 

5 1 Helen Emily Mclntire North East, 

R. D. 

5 2 Walter G. Barlow North East 

S 3 Elsie Howland Elkton, R. D. 1. 

5 4 Sadie Cavanaiigh Elkton, R. D. 1. 

5 5 J. Marshall Thompson North East 

5 5 Reba Buckley North East 

5 5 Delphia Hunt North East 

S 5 Ruth McCracken North East 



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Frances M. Cleaves Elkton 

Mary firatton PJkton 

(.Mrs.) Mabel Knotts 

Edna Miller North East, R. IJ. 1. 

Violet Jonts North East, R. D. L 

Sarah Miller North East, R. D. 1. 

Blanche Ford Port Deposit, R. D. 

Hilcn Thompson . . . Rising Sun, R. D. 

Anna Logan North East, R. D. 

Bessie Wingate Charlestown 

Louise McDowell 

Virginia Maxwell .. Port Deposit, R. D. 

Elsie Rea Port Deposit, R. D. 

Elnora Martindale Colora 

W. G. Koons 

Lidie Stewart Rising Sun 

Mabel E. Barber Rising Sun 

Ethel Hall 

.Ada Johnson Rising Sun, R. D. 3. 

Abbie Shaub Rising Sun, R. D. 

Bertha Astle Colora 

Elizabeth J. Brown Liberty Grove 

Elsie Hill Colora 

Roberta J. Graham Colora 

(.Mrs.) D. T. .Stump. Principio Furnace 
Debbie A. Jackson. ..Principio Furnace 

Theodore W. Currier Perryville 

Hannah C. Whitelock Aiken 

Anna B. Gehr Perryville 

Caroline W. Stump Perryville 

Ethel Taylor Aiken 

Edna Cleaves Elkton 

Priscilla M. Ross Perryville 

Edith A. Spear 

(Mrs.) L. G. White Port Deposit 

S. Elizabeth Tyson Port Deposit 

R. D. 1. 

W. N. Sherwood Rowlandville 

Blanche M. Hill. . .Rising Sun, R. D. 3 

Jessie Bruce Conowingo, R. D. 1 

R. J. S. Bullock. .Rowlandville, R. D. 1 

M. A. E. Phillips Conowingo 

(Mrs.) Ruth A. Haddock. .North East, 

R. D. 1. 

Ruth Murray North East, R. D. 1 

Alfred B. McVey.. North East, R. D. 1 

Lera White Rising Sun, R. D. 2 

Grace Martindell .... Nottingham, Pa., 

R. D. 
(Mrs.) Goodwin Terry. .. .Rising Sun, 

R. D. 

Bessie Guthrie Rising Sun 

Esther Martindell . .Nottingham, Pa., 

R. D. 
Edith Reynolds .. .North East, R. D. a 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



233 



Name and Addkess 



Name and Address 



CECIL county 



HIGH schools 

cecilton 

4 Mary Emily Clark Cecilton 

4 Frances Griffith Cecilton 

CALVERT AGRICULTURAL 

3 Alfred B. McVey North East 

R. D. No. 1. 

3 Helen L. Teeple Rising Sun 

3 Edmund Burk North East 

R. D. No. 2. 

CECIL COUNTY 

3 Edwin B. Fockler Elkton 

3 To be supplied. 

3 Katherine M. Bratton Elkton 

3 To be supplied. 

3 Henrietta Booth Elkton 



CHESAPEAKE CITY 

Guy Johnson Chesapeake City 

CHARLES COUNTY 



Ruth B. Mills Chesapeake City 

Hilda Ostrom Chesapeake City 

NORTH EAST 

J. Marshall Thompson North East 

Emily Moore North East 

Elizabeth Brainard North East 

PERRYVILLE 

Theodore W. Currier Perry ville 

(Mrs.) Elizabeth Currier.. .Perry ville 



COMMERCIAL HIGH SCHOOL 

Chesapeake City — Mrs. Adelaide Clayton Rosen, 

Chesapeake City. 
Flkton — To be supplied. 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE AND ART 



Elkton and Cliesapeake City — Miss Mary E. 

Hershey. 
North East and Calvert — Miss Blanche Lydia 

Prentice. 



(Mrs.) A. L. Hanson ... .Port Tobacco 

Dorothy Burdett La Plata 

Janie Bowie La Plata 

Ethel Cochrane La Plata 

Pearl Albrittain Bel Alton 

Principal's place vacant. 
Not ill existence. 

E. Louise Ilaislip Welcome 

(Mrs.) Jessie F. Rison Rison 

(Srace E. Rison Rison 

Mary Kemp Welcome 

George E. Medley Mason Springs 

Mabel A. Delozier Marbury 

Agnes L. Adams Marbury 

Sadie Gray Nanjemoy 

Effie Gray Nanjemoy 



Maggie B. Dowlin Cross Roads 

Birdie C. Garner Chicaniauxch 

Lucille Speake Grayton 

(Mrs.) Edna Millar Ironside 

Marguerite Posey Faulkner 

Mae Canter Newport 

Lucy Cough Wicomico 

Edna M. Dyson Du Bois 

Mattie K. Clements Wicomico 

Annie St. Clair Dentsville 

(Mrs.) May E. Thompson. .. .Newport 

Mary E. Simpson Newburg 

Annie M. Harrison Issue 

John R. Cooksey Mt. Victoria 



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Marie Frere Tompkinsville 

Thomas M. Carpenter Newburg 

Honora Rice Rock Point 

M. Lucille Cox Pomfret 

Margaret Cochrane La Plata 

(Mrs.) Namoe Richmond ....Waldorf 

(Mrs.) J. H. Adams Waldorf 

Katherine Smythe Waldorf 

Annie Adams Billingsley 

Alma L. Atkins La Plata 

C. Alene B'urch Bryantown 

(Mrs.) Laura D. Hungerford, Marshall 

Hall. 
(Mrs.) T. Canfield Jenkins. Pomonkey 

M. R. Stone La Plata 

(Mrs.) G. M. Gardiner. .. Indian Head 

(Mrs.) R. S. Ma.xwell Indian Head 

(Mrs.) Medora Silver .. .Indian Head 
(Mrs.) Lucy T. Waller.. .Indian Head 

Eunice Burdett Bryans Road 

Nannie Truman Chapman. .Sprfng Hill 

Louise Albritain La Plata 

Mary L. Gardiner Waldorf 

(Mrs.) J. T. Mudd Gallant Green 

Eva Ruth Martin Hughesville 

Amy L. Cooksey Dentsville 

Grace M. Canter Hughesville 

Eva Chappelear Hughesville 

(Mrs.) Helen C. Hughes Benedict 

Myrtle Appell Benedict 

Maria Canter Hughesville 



234 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



Name and Address 



Name and Addsess 



DORCHKSTER COUNTY 





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Winifred Brinsfield . . . .FcdcraUburg, 
R. D. 

M. L. Dodd Rhodcsdale, R. D. 

Vivian VVhcatley . . .Rliodesdale, R. D. 

Sadie Mills Rhodcsdale, R. D. 

Anna Owens Oak Grove, Del. 

Louise Mann Rhodcsdale, R. D. 



Mary Hucmmer Galestown 

(Mrs.) Hattie Hastings. .. .Galestown 
Nancy LeCompte. .Federalsburg, R. D. 

Georgia Bloxoin E. N. Market 

Nellie Whcatley E. N. Market 

Jean Farguharson E. N. Market 

(Mrs.) Sue Creighton. . .E. N. Market 

Margaret Hurley Secretary 

B. W. Holland Secretary 

(Mrs.) Cora Murphy Secretary 

Carrie Howard Secretary 

Ruby Meredith E.N. Market 

Lavada Hackett Rhodcsdale 

J. W. Geoghegan Vienna 

Maud McAllister Vienna 

Nellie Percy X'icnna 

Margaret Sellers Vienna 

Myrtle Short Reid's Grove 

Emma Mills Vienna 

(Mrs.) Estelle Hackett Vienna 

Ruth Rhodes 

Lucille Dunnock Taylor's Island 

Mary Jones Taylor's Island 

Naomi ToUcy Golden Hill 

Martena Shenton Golden Hill 

Julian Willey Golden Hill 

Flossie Whcatley Lakesville 

Brady Todd Wingatc 

Blanche Kirwan Wingatc 

E. A. Coughlin Crapo 

(Mrs.) .Mice Bramble Crapo 

Marguerite Kirwan Crapo 

Edith Todd Robbins 

Olie Foxwell Crapo 



Viola Pollitt Fishing Creek 

Maud Mills Fishing Creek 

(Mrs.) Myrtle Adams ... Fishing Creek 

Roxa Meekins Fishing Creek 

Celia Ruark Applegarth 

(Mrs.) Mattie Phillips. .Fishing Creek 

Ernest Wiley Fishing Creek 

Georgia Wallace Fishing Creek 

Lillian Creighton Fishing Creek 

Aurclia Dashiell Cambridge 



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1 Blanche Vincent Cambridge 

1 Emma Ralph Cambridge 

1 Ellen Dashiell Cambridge 

2 (Mrs.) Willie Martin Cambridge 

2 Mary Byrn Cambridge 

2 Sallie Dail Cambridge 

2 Jennie Jackson Cambridge 

2 Susie Ilurlock Cambridge 

2 Lillian Jones Cambridge 

2 Alice Marshall Cambridge 

3 Nannie LeCompte Cambridge 

3 Anna Musselman Cambridge 

3 Agnes Collins Cambridge 

4 Blanche Matthews Cambridge 

4 Fannie Matthews Cambridge 

4 Nannie Corner Cambridge 

4 (Mrs.) Annie Taitt Cambridge 

4 Willie Pritchett Cambridge 

4 Evelyn Johnson Cambridge 

4 Sadie Wall Cambridge 

4 Nellie Medley Cambridge 

7 Mary Brannock Cambridge, R. D. 

8 

1 Sarah Jones Cornersville 

2 Thelma Holland Hill's Point 

3 Elsie Haller James 

4 Jennie Slacum Wrights 

5 Bessie Tv.illey Lloyds 

6 Mary Moore Thomas 

1 Thelma Marvel Church Creek 

2 Barbara Castens Woolford 

3 Gladys Haring Church Creek 

4 Willie Brannock ... .Cambridge, R. D. 

1 Leah Moore Crocheron 

,1 (Mrs.) Mary Robinson. .Bishop's Head 

2 Ruby Kirwan Crapo 

2 Stella Insley Toddville 

3 (Mrs.) Inez McGlaughlin Bishop's 

Head 

4 

5 (Mrs.) Blanche M. Insley Crapo 

5 Beulah P. Elliott Wingate 

6 Alta Robinson Bishop's Head 

7 

1 Mattie McCready Vienna 

2 

3 Catherine Oliphant Vienna 

4 

1 
2 
3 
1 



Louise Stephens Williamsburg 

Bessie Collins Williamsburg 

Mary Collins Williamsburg 

Margaret L. Boston Airey, R. D. 

Imogene Seward . . . .Cambridge, R. D. 

Isabelle Goslin Linkwood 

Hortense Meredith Cambridge 

Lillian McBride Airey 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



235 



Name and Address 



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Name and Address 



Nellie Smith Cambridge, R. D. 

Delia Horseman E. N. Market 

Susie Collins Hurlock 

Hilda Harper Hurlock 

Myrtle Stack Hurlock 

Elizabeth Jump Hurlock 

Rosalie Boston Hurlock 

Mildred Hastings Hurlock 

Annette Twilley Hurlock 

Irene Pitts Hurlock 

Lulu Stapelforte Madison 

(Mrs.) Alonzo Travers Salem 

(Mrs.) Lloyd Hurst Vienna 

Jessie Dail Salem 

C. W. Robinson Elliott 



FREDERICK 

Carrie Stup Adanistown 

Margaret Dronenburg . . .Buckeystown 

Minnie Kellar Buckeystown 

Elmira Renn Frederick 

Nellie Sigafoose Point of Rocks 

Bettie A. Specht Point of Rocks | 

Cora Fry Point of Rocks 

Daisy Darner Doubs 

Clara I. Pettingal Doubs 

Edith o. Thomas Adamstown 

Mary Bell Adamstown 

Charlotte Mohler Lime Kiln 

Olive Grove Frederick 

George Miller Frederick 

Hal Lee T. Ott Frederick 

Ida N. Rcinhart Frederick 

Grace S Martz Frederick 

S. Price Young Frederick 

Alvida DeLashrautt Frederick 

Charlotte Motter Frederick 

Marion K. Green Frederick 

Beulah D. Moberly Frederick 

Irma V. Biggs Frederick 

Kate I. Shank Frederick 

Mary Culler Frederick 

Louise Swartz Frederick 

Pauline Gilbert Frederick 

Chester G. Clem Frederick 

Mary H. Burger Frederick 

Margaret E. Duvall Frederick 

Hattie S. Bell Frederick 

Edith Miller Frederick 

Sadie C. Hahn Frederick 

Katie A. Zeigler Frederick 

Leota H. Roberts Frederick 

Bertha Trundle Frederick 

Charlotte DeLashmutt Frederick 

Minnie Cookerly Frederick 

Edith M. Miller Frederick 



HIGH SCHOOLS 
CAMBRIDGE 

7 1 E. C. Scitz Cambridge 

7 1 L. C. Marshall Cambridge 

7 1 A. L. Farver Cambridge 

7 1 Nellie Christopher Cambridge 

7 1 Anna Collins Cambridge 

7 1 Nita P. Perry Cambridge 

7 1 Elizabeth Mundy Cambridge 

7 1 Bessie Bradshaw Cambridge 

7 1 Bertha Robinson Cambridge 

HURLOCK 

IS 1 O. Perry Simmons Hurlock 

15 1 P. E. Houseworth Hurlock 

15 1 Mattie Zutavern Hurlock 

15 1 Lois Bloxom Hurlock 

COUNTY 

2 5 Mary J. ShufF Frederick 

2 5 Nellie M. Mateny Frederick 

2 5 Edna M. Schaeffer Frede*-ick 

2 5 Anna \V. Simmons Frederick 

2 5 E. Louise James Frederick 

2 5 (Mrs.) P. T. Kuhn Frederick 

2 5 Nellie E. Blentlinger Frederick 

2 "5 Elizabeth Goldsborough ....Frederick 

2 5 Grace H. Sponseller Frederick 

2 5 (Mrs.) George Holt Frederick 

2 8 Louise C. Blum Frederick 

2 8 Helen G. Staufifer Frederick 

2 8 Elsie K. Engle Frederick 

2 8 Helen Briscoe Frederick 

2 8 Dorothy Cramer Frederick 

3 1 Robert J. Ridgley Myersville 

3 2 Orpha Kefauver Middletown 

3 3 Edna Lighter Middletown 

3 3 Janet Cowling Middletown 

3 3 Ruth Dean Middletown 

3 3 Naomi Ifert Middletown 

3 4 Oara M. Wiles Middletown 

3 5 William E. Bowlus Middletown 

3 6 Edith Lighter Middletown 

3 7 Edna Fulmer Middletown 

3 8 A. L. Beachley Middletown 

3 9 Edith L. Fink Middletown 

3 10 Myrie Kepler Middletown 

4 1 Emma I. Long Rocky Ridge 

4 2 Littleton C. Fox Thurmont 

4 2 Bessie M. Bell Thurmont 

4 4 B. Lucy Adelsberger Thurmont 

4 5 Anna M. Rowe Emmitsburg 

5 2 Carrie Rowe Emmitsburg 

5 3 Elizabeth Horner Emmitsburg 

5 3 Madeline Frailey Emmitsburg 

5 3 Rosebelle Biser Emmitsburg 

5 3 Eva Rowe Emmitsburg 

5 4 Theodosia Mae Seiss Rocky Ridge 



230 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



Name and Addbess 



Name and Address 



s 


5 


5 


7 


S 


8 


5 


8 


6 


1 


6 


2 


6 


2 


6 


3 


6 


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6 


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6 


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9 


7 


11 


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2 


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5 


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5 


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6 


11 


7 


11 


8 



Lottie S. I'lylcr I'.iiimitsbiirg 

Emma ICsttlle Ilouck Rocky Rid(,'c 

Pauline Baker Eiiiiiiitsbiirg 

Mary C. Weigand Emiiiitsbiirg 

Dorothy Pryor Emmitslnirg 

Rooklyn Pryor Emmitsburg 

W. D. L. Harne Smithsburg 

Charles L. Leatherman. . . . Smitiisburg 

Kelva R. Stottlemyer Smithsburg 

Rae Morgan Smithsburg 

Mary C. Routzahn Smithsburg 

C. N. Frushour Smithsburg 

Columbus Iloupt Myersville 

L. Burlil Dubcl Myersville 

EtlicI Lewis Myersville 

Marshall H. Leatherman. .. Myersville 
G. Pearl Thomas. .. Frederick Junction 
Mary Molcsworth . . Frederick Junction 

Florence Green Monrovia 

Mary E. England . .Frederick Junction 
Helen E. Wolfe. . . . Frederick Junction 
C. C. Livingston. . .Frederick Junction 

Elvira Pearre Frederick Junction 

\\'allace R. Beall Libertytown 

Gertrude Updegraff Libertytown 

Rose T. Yingling Libertytown 

Nettie M. Miller Libertytown 

Violet Beall Libertytown 

Ruby Z. O. Welker Libertytown 

Helen A. Walker New Market 

Katharine Nusbaum Frederick 

Blanche Howard New Market 

Blanche Spurrier New Market 

(Mrs.) Olive Sponseller. .J'Jew Market 

Nelle Hargett New Market 

Clara V. Smith Ijamsville 

(Mrs.) Estelle Watkins Monrovia 

Mary Hogarth Monrovia 

Harriet Smith Monrovia 

Nettie F. Jones New Market 

Anna Knott New Market 

Maude M. Miller Frederick 

George W. Manahan Sabillasville 

Elva R. Cheezum Sabillasville 

Nellie K. Gray Lantz 

Mary S. Palmer ...Smithsburg 

George O. Poffinberger Lantz 

M. J. Palmer Cascade 

Hilda M. Martz Ladiesburg 

Adam Roser Woodsboro 

George L. Etzlcr Legore 

Olive Bowlus Woodsboro 

Mae I. Dorcus Woodsboro 

Ethel Fogle Woodsboro 

Clara L Favorite Woodsboro 

Fannie Zentz Woodsboro 

Kate Murphy New Midway 



2 2 Ruth K. L. Fcrrcll Knoxville 

2 3 Emily A. Garrett Knoxville 

2 3 Esther Uttcrtack Knoxville 

2 4 Lcona Whitter Knoxville 

3 1 Helen Dudrow Mt. Pleasant 

3 2 (Mrs.) Chloe C. Hamilton, New Market 

3 3 Edith Sigmund New Market 

3 4 Eva M. Thomas Frederick 

4 1 Helen Rice Jefferson 

4 2 Margaret G. Rodrick Jefferson 

4 2 Mary Bcachley Jefferson 

4 2 Eva Doty Jefferson 

4 2 Mary Slagle Jefferson 

4 3 Helen Cochran Jefferson 

4 4 Roberta Lewis Jefferson 

5 1 Marie A. Eyler Thurmont 

5 1 Catherine Albaugh Thurmont 

5 2 L. D. Crawford Thurmont 

S 2 Nora M. Loy Thurmont 

5 2 M. Grace Henshaw Thurmont 

S 2 Mary Firor Thurmont 

5 2 Anna Jones Thurmont 

5 2 Linnie McGuigan Thurmont 

5 2 Edna M. Engle Thurmont 

5 3 O. Ruth Eyler Rocky Ridge 

5 5 Ada Favorite Thurmont 

5 6 Charles L. Munshour Thurmont 

5 7 Howard Bussard Thurmont 

5 7 Lillian Kelly Thurmont 

5 8 Edith Mae Brown Thurmont 

6 1 Emmert Stottlemyer Myersville 

6 2 Jennye M. Wolfe Myersville 

6 4 Mary C. Deeter Myersville 

6 5 Omer Dubcl Myersville 

6 5 Amy Brandenburg Myersville 

6 7 Lloyd ^L Koogle Myersville 

7 1 Mary J. Ohler Ladiesburg 

7 2 (Mrs.) Gertrude Whitmore, Union 

Bridge. 

7 2 J. May Bond Union Bridge 

7 3 Anna Wolfe Union Bridge 

7 4 (Mrs.) Mildred B'. Hively, Union 

Bridge. 

7 6 Sadie E. Spurrier Ladiesburg 

8 1 Helen Holter Mt. Airy 

8 2 George Thomas Mt. Airy 

8 3 

8 5 Sadie Moxley Mt. Airy 

9 1 (Mrs.) Myrtle Wertenbaker, Union- 

ville. 

9 2 Mary R. Diller New Windsor 

9 3 Blanche E. Cover Mt. Airy 

20 1 Miriam E. Diehl Lewistown 

20 1 Florence DeMuth Lewistown 

20 2 Susie Derr Lewistown 

20 3 Norman Harper Frederick 

20 4 Tempie Utterback Frederick 

21 1 Thelma Summers Frederick 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



237 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



21 


2 


21 


3 


21 


3 


21 


4 


21 


5 


22 


1 


22 


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3 


23 




23 




24 




24 




24 




25 




25 




25 




25 




25 




25 




25 




25 




25 


2 


25 


2 


25 


2 


25 


2 


25 


2 


25 


2 


25 


2 


25 


2 


25 


3 


25 


3 


25 


3 


26 


1 


26 


2 


26 


3 


26 


3 


26 


3 


26 


3 


26 


3 


26 


4 


26 


5 



Spencer E. Stup Frederick 

George L. Twentey Thurmont 

Merle V. Wiles Thurmont 

Amy L. Arnold Frederick 

(Mrs.) Grace G. Zimmerman, Frederick 

Barbara Ringgold Burkittsville 

Elsie Ringgold Burkittsville 

E. Virginia Musser Burkittsville 

Bertha Wiener Burkittsville 

Agnes M. Bussard Burkittsville 

Charles F. Guyton Burkittsville 

Gertrude G. Cook Frederick 

Lena J. Derr Frederick 

Thomas G. Mumford, Braddock Heights 

Ethelene R. Thomas Braddock 

Minnie F. McBride Frederick 

Ella V. Krieg Brunswick 

Margaret Duvall Brunswick 

Ottie McDonald Brunswick 

Georgia A. Hood Brunswick 

Sadie M. Reed Brunswick 

Grace D. Cage Brunswick 

Cassandra Hesson Brunswick 

Grace Mills Brunswick 

E. Virginia Wenner Brunswick 

Flora C. Gross Brunswick 

Edith O. Wenner Brunswick 

Hazel N. Wayble Brunswick 

C. Katherine VanPelt Brunswick 

Elsie Talbott Brunswick 

Lavinia Hood Brunswick 

Lillian Rine Brunswick 

Nora E. Grabill Brunswick 

Josephine Solomon Brunswick 

Lillie Moore Brunswick 

George W. Cecil Walkersvillc 

Isabelle G. Zimmerman. . .Walkersville 

Bertha M. Grabill Walkersville 

Emma C. Devilbiss V/alkersville 

Edith Nicodemus Walkersville 

Elizabeth Nicodemus ....Walkersville 

Nannie Reddick Walkersville 

Ruth Hummer Walkersville 

Hazel L. Foglc Walkersville 



HIGH SCHOOLS 
FREDERICK GIRLS' 

Chas. H. Rerasberg. Braddock Heights. 

Pearl A. Eader Frederick 

Katherine M. Wiener Frederick 

C. Bess Castle Frederick 

Lydia Rebert Frederick 

Nannette G. Shaffer Frederick 

Mildred Lee DeLashmutt Frederick 

Mary R. Witter Frederick 

Edith S. Gardiner Frederick 

FREDERICK BOYS' 

John L. Sigmund Frederick 

James C. Biehl Frederick 

Spencer Stull Frederick 

S. Fenton Harris Frederick 

Mary C. Ott Frederick 

Mildred C. Filler Frederick 

G. Nevin Rebert Frederick 

Dorothy W. Warehime Frederick 

MIDDLETOWN 

R. E. Kieeny Middlelown 

William Hauver Middletown 

Roscoe Doub Middletown 

Marcelene Kefauver Middletown 

Mary Helen Wyand Middletown 

Ella C. Bliss Middletown 



25 


J 


25 


3 


25 


3 


25 


3 


25 


3 


25 


3 



THURMONT 

2 H. D. Beachley Thurmont 

2 Ruth A. Firor Thurmont 

2 Ruth F. Wrightson Thurmont 

2 A. M. Isanogle Thurmont 

2 Evelyn R. Routzahn Thurmont 

BRUNSWICK 

Oscar M. Fogle Brunswick 

A. Virginia Reich Brunswick 

M. Ruth Coblentz Brunswick 

Charles C. T. Stull Brunswick 

Mary C. Kaetzel Brunswick 

Nora E. Yost Brunswick 



GARRETT COUNTY 



1 (Mrs.) Cora M. Lohr Swanton 

1 Lovada E. Wilt Swanton 

2 Margaret Mellinger Swanton 

3 ^f ary Pickrell Swanton 

6 Martha McKenzie Swanton 

7 Dora V. Steiding Swanton 

12 George W. Moon Swanton 

13 Beatrice L. McRobie Swanton 

1 Flossie Sterling Friendsville 

2 Letty Selby Selbysport 

2 Gladys L. Mason Friendsville 



2 2 Jeannette Guard Friendsville 

2 3 Wesley A. Fike Selbysport 

2 4 Leslie E. Savage Friendsville 

2 5 Iva G. Savage Friendsville 

2 6 Silas F. Burgess Fearer 

2 7 Letta Friend Friendsville 

2 8 Jasper Fike Selbysport 

2 9 John J. Knapp Selbysport 

2 12 Vespie C. Fike Selbysport 

2 13 Jacob S. Meyers Friendsville 

3 I A. W. DeWitt Grantsvillc 



238 



Annual REPr)RT of tup: vStatk Board or Kdixatio 



Name and Addrkss 



NaMK A?)D AfJDRKSS 



3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


5 


3 


7 


3 


8 


3 


10 


3 


11 


3 


12 


3 


IS 


3 


16 


3 


17 


3 


18 


4 


1 


4 


1 


4 


2 


4 


4 


5 


1 


5 


1 


J 


1 


5 


1 


5 


2 


5 


3 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


8 


S 


9 


5 


10 


6 


1 


6 


2 


6 


3 


6 


4 


6 


5 


6 


6 


6 


8 


6 


10 


7 


1 


7 


1 


7 


2 


7 


3 


7 


5 


7 


5 


7 


6 


7 


7 


8 


1 


8 


2 


8 


4 


8 


5 


8 


6 


8 


6 



Marie Conner (Jrantsvillc 

Hazel Younkin Grantsvillc 

Agatha Martini Crantsville 

Goldie Montague Grantsvillc 

Conrad J. Ilanft Grantsvillc 

Sarah E. Mc Ateer Avilton 

Delphi E. Miller New Germany 

Rosa Warnick Jennings 

Margaret Inskeep Grantsville 

Eva n. Loughney Frostburg 

Walter Alexander New Germany 

Lillieth B. Wiley Jennings 

Myrtle Custer Jennings 

Ethel Davies Frostburg 

Lulu E. Warnick Grantsville 

Nelle J. Bcachy Grantsville 

Nellie McGowan Isloomington 

Elsie Whitfield Bloomington 

Ernest Moon Bloomington 

Margaret R. Athey Barton 

J. W. Holman Friendsville 

J. Mahlon Speicher Accident 

Flora Nelson Accident 

Dora Schlossnagel Accident 

John Gies Accident 

Prcma Schlossnagel Accident 

N'^erna Speicher Accident 

Lulu Hartman Accident 

Bertha Spoerlein Accident 

Clarence R. Hetz Accident 

Lena E. Friend Accident 

Rhoda Barnhouse Hoyes 

Delia Savage McHenry 

Loula Hetrick Oakland 

(Mrs.) Lyda Friend Sang Run 

M. H. Frankhouser. .Cranesville.VV.Va. 

(Mrs.) T. E. Bishoff Hoyes 

Francis McGettigan Accident 

W. Webb DeWitt Hoyes 

Emma Hamill Mt. Lake Park 

Rella Pope Mt. Lake Park 

(Mrs.) Nellie Ilamill Deer Park 

Effie V. Wamsley Oakland 

Mary O'Donnell Mt. Lake Park 

(Mrs.) Rea Eagan Mt. Lake Park 

Norris K. Welch Oakland 

R. M. Alexander Oakland 

Mary B. Friend Oakland 

Lucretia Kitzmiller Oakland 

Nellie Kooken Hutton 

Carrie C. Mann Deer Park 

Elizabeth Leary Kempton, W.Va. 

(Mrs.) Stella G. Sturm. ... Kempton, 

W. Va. 
Rella G. McKenzie. . .Gormania.W.Va. 

Haze! Dawson Bayard, W.\'a. 

Mary E. Foley Oakland 

Bridget C. Maroney Oakland 



1 3 Sa'la Slaubaugh Oakland 

14 Ada C. Fahey Oakland 

1 5 Myrtle L. Wilson Steyer 

1 I-cna P. Structman Frostburg 

2 Irene Friend Frostburg 

3 Sarah li. McKenzie Finzcl 

4 Dollie Symons I-"inzel 

5 Ellen Davies Frostburg 

6 C. Arthur Murphy Frostburg 

1 A. S. Teats Deer Park 

1 Carrie Thrasher Deer Park 

2 Beulah Ralston Swanton 

3 Katherine Smith Swanton 

4 Stella Paugh Deer Park 

6 (Mrs.) Pearl Filsinger Deer Park 

8 Mary Holtschneider Deer Park 

10 Mae Bothwell Deer Park 

11 Goldie J. Gable Oakland 

12 Amy L Paugh Deer Park 

1 Stella Howell Barton 

2 Clara V. Dempsey Barton 

4 Frederick Lynch Lonaconing 

5 Elsie Custer Barton 

6 (Mrs.) Cora Broadwater Barton 

8 Catherine Turner Avilton 

9 Carrie Pence New Germany 

1 Clyde Broadwater Bittinger 

1 Lenora Wiley Bittinger 

2 Mary Glotfelty Accident 

3 Myrtle E. Glotfelty Accident 

5 Oscar L. Brenneman .Accident 

6 Nora Fresh Bittinger 

7 B. Harrison Wiley Bittinger 

1 Albert L. Lee Kitzmiller 

1 Stella Sterry Kitzmiller 

1 (Mrs.) Belle H. Nine Kitzmiller 

1 Virginia Williams Kitzmiller 

1 Nell M. Lee Kitzmiller 

1 Blanche Inskeep Kitzmiller 

2 Mary M. Eggers Kitzmiller 

4 Maude Schoppert Dodson 

4 Mildred Dawson Dodson 

5 Katherine O'Donnell Vindex 

6 Iva A. Plummer Kitzmiller 

1 A. D. Appleton Oakland 

1 Orpah C. Ashby Oakland 

1 Margaret Smith Oakland 

1 Orley V. Dunham Oakland 

1 Anna Holme DeBerry Oakland 

1 Zaidee J. Browning Oakland 

1 Beulah Loughridge Oakland 

1 Lena Ravenscroft Oakland 

3 (Mrs.) Etta DeWitt Speicher Sines 

5 Lena Adams Oakland 

7 Mabel Fike Sines 

8 Charles B. Callis Crellin 

8 Margaret Glotfelty Oakland 

9 Florence Lee Corinth, W.Va. 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



239 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



1 

2 

3 

4 

4 

6 

8 

9 
11 

1 

1 

1 

1 

3 

3 

5 

5 
10 
11 
12 
13 
15 
17 
18 

2 
2 
3 
5 
5 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
10 
11 
12 
12 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
1 



HIGH SCHOOLS 
FRIENDSVILLE 

E. A. Browning Friendsville 

L. K. Young Friendsville 

lone M. Savage Friendsville 

A. W. Ramsdell Kitzmiller 

(Mrs.) A. VV. Ramsdell Kitzmiller 



GARRETT COUNTY 

14 10 Charles H. Kolb Oakland 

14 10 Wiley VV. Jenkins Oakland 

14 10 Adah Trippett Oakland 

14 10 S. E. Wicker Oakland 

14 10 H. A. Loraditch Oakland 

14 10 Icie G. Friend Oakland 

14 10 Annabelle Bird Oakland 



HARFORD COUNTY 



Anna K. Deets Abingdon 

Lillian P. Kimble Belcamp 

Ethel Kerr Emmorton 

Gretta Hilditch Joppa 

Margaret Robinson Joppa 

Estelle George Magnolia 

Caroleen Magness Belcamp 

Cassie Gaunt Joppa 

Mary O. Smith Van Bibber 

Helen Cronin Aberdeen 

Mary B. Harkins Aberdeen 

Miriam Norris Aberdeen 

(Mrs.) Duncan McPherson. .Aberdeen 

Ada Phillips Aberdeen 

Laura Stifler Aberdeen 

Bessie Kelly Ferryman 

Alice Richardson Ferryman 

Maude S. Knight Havre de Grace 

Maggie Lee Taylor Bel Air 

Helen A. Richardson. .Havre de Grace 

Carrie A. Dill Havre de Grace 

Pearl Stewart Havre de Grace 

Susie Little Darlington 

(Mrs.) Alverda H. Osborn Havre 

de Grace. 

Hannah S. Parker Bagley 

May Forwood Bagley 

Stella Evans Fallston 



Clara Stonebraker Bynum 



Mary Wilson 

Edith Grafton 

Rose Wheeler 

Anna W. Lochary 

Lillian Tennant 

Anna Tennant 

Emily L'ttle 

Mabel B. Scarborough . 

Lillian Grafton 

Miriam Little 

Edith W. Terry 

Cora Reasin 

Hattie M. Bagley 

Annie E. Carter 

Bertha S. Callahan.... 
Lola Felty 



.Forest Hill 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

. Churchville 
. Churchville 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

Bel Air 

. .Norrisville 



4 


1 


4 


3 


4 


4 


4 


5 


4 


6 


4 


6 


4 


7 


4 


8 


4 


8 


4 


9 


4 


10 


4 


11 


4 


12 


4 


13 


4 


14 


4 


IS 


4 


16 


4 


18 


4 


19 


4 


20 


4 


21 


4 


22 


4 


23 


4 


25 


5 


1 


5 


2 


S 


2 


5 


2 


5 


2 


5 


2 


S 


2 


S 


3 


5 


4 


5 


5 


5 


6 


5 


6 


S 


6 


5 


7 


5 


8 


5 


9 


5 


11 


S 


13 


5 


13 


5 


13 


5 


13 


5 


14 


5 


15 



Britta Lowe Norrisville 

Rebecca Lowe White Hall 

Georgia Turner White Hall 

John W. Middendorf Fallston 

Mary E. Thompson Fallston 

Mabel St. Clair Fallston 

Helen Smith Sharon 

Mary K. Smith Jarrettsville 

Mary C. Whiteford Jarrettsville 

Louise Miller Rocks 

Margaret Wright Pylesville 

Annie M. Shane Fawn Grove, Pa. 

Ruth Knight Pylesville 

Mary Moore Rocks 

Grace Dougherty Rocks 

Helen McCausland Rocks 

Bessie Forwood Sharon 

Virginia Spencer Rocks 

Viola Strawbridge .. .Fawn Grove, Pa. 

Shara H. Wright Pylesville 

Annabel Terry Forest Hill 

Helen Breidenbaugh White Hall 

Ozella Phillips Fallston 

Flavia Hitchcock Monkton 

Alice Harkins Pylesville 

Marian J. Galbreath Delta, Pa. 

Carroll Maddox Delta, Pa. 

Oma Neeper Delta, Pa. 

Ruth Thomas Delta, Pa. 

Ethel Davis Whiteford 

Mary Treakle Cardiff 

Mary Stokes Whiteford 

Doris Stokes Whiteford 

Grace Cummings Street 

Kate Jenkins Street 

Rose Galbreath Street 

Bessie O. Mason Street 

Grace Dempsey Whiteford 

Ruth Cox Street 

Beulah Allen Darlington 

Daisy Dunnigan Street 

Edith G. Cole Street 

Nellie Scarborough .". . .Street 

Irene Little Darlington 

Anna M. Allen Darlington 

Elizabeth McCann Street 

A. F. Galbreath Darlington 



2}0 


Annual Report of the State Board of Education 


S bi 


Kami; and Address 


^: 2 Namk and Address 



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IS 


5 


15 


5 


16 


S 


18 


6 


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6 


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6 


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1 

1 




1 




1 




2 




3 




3 




4 




5 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


4 


2 


5 


2 


5 


2 


6 


3 


1 


3 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


3 


5 


3 


6 


3 


7 


3 


7 


3 


8 


3 


9 


4 


1 


4 


2 


4 


2 



Grace L. Nelson DarliiiRton 

Marianna Satterthwaite. . . .Darlington 

Marian Bcattie Whiteford 

Mildred Wheeler Pylesville 

Mattie Offley Havre de Grace 

Nellie Barron Havre de Grace 

Laura B. Tammany. . . .Havre de Grace 

Charlotte Carroll Havre de Grace 

Lena Lamm Havre de Grace 

Florence Cronin Havre de Grace 

Margaret McDonald . .Havre de Grace 

Grace Kawlings Havre de Grace 

Susie Donnelly Havre de Grace 

Gertrude Cooling Havre de Grace 

Pearl B. Howard Havre de Grace 

HIGH SCHOOLS 
ABERDEEN 

J. 11. Bonney Aberdeen 

Elsie S. Kohr Aberdeen 

BEL AIR 

VVm. M. Klinganian Bel Air 

HOWARD 

(Mrs.) Ella J. Connor Elkridge 

Marian Mollman Elkridge 

(Mrs.) Rheba G. Moore Elkridge 

Marian Bounds Elkridge 

Julia R. Kyne Elkridge 

Ethel M. Duvall Ellicott City 

Minnie Brown Ellicott City 

Antoinette S. Pindle Ilchester 

Virgie M. Cooney Dorsey 

Jennie E. Kirby Ellicott City 

Ethel Uhler Ellicott City 

L. Virginia Meade Ellicott City 

Annie E. Johnston Ellicott City 

Ida M. Brian Ellicott City 

Dora E. Grimes Ellicott City 

Mamie Scott Ellicott City 

Flora E. Brian Ellicott City 

Eva De Ford Ellicott City 

C. C. Mizener Alberton 

Minerva Todd Alberton 

Elizabeth Linthicum Elioak 

Sabra Ridgley Marriottsville 

(Mrs.) E. E. Saffell.. West Friendship 
(Mrs.) Mary W. Holman. Marriottsville 

Annie Warthen Sykesville 

Nannie M. Dudley Ivory 

Elizabeth Z. Davis Woodstock 

Etta B. Hanigan Woodstock 

E. Lillian Brosenne Ellicott City 

Elsie Ripley Sykesville 

Emma Shipley Ellicott City 

Ethel D. Patrick Mt. Airy 

Emma Glorious Mt. Airy 

Katherine Footen Mt. Airy 



3 14 Philcna Hutton Kingsville 

3 14 G. Ethel McNutt Bel Air 

3 14 Mary M. Harlan Bel Air 

3 14 Violet Baldwin Bel Air 

JARRETTSVILLK 

4 8 Chas. H. Schuster Jarrettsville 

4 8 Margaret PhilTips Jarrettsville 

4 8 Louise Tipton Jarrettsville 

HIGHLAND 

5 6 Rexford B. Hartle Street 

5 6 Minnie Ward Street 

S 6 Earl C. Baity Street 



HAVRE DE GRACE 

J. Herbert Owens Havre de Grace 

Sallie P. Galloway Havre de Grace 

Helen R. Ilouck Havre de Grace 

Alice Price Aberdeen 

Dorothy Weiser Havre de Grace 

Minnie Holland Havre de Grace 



COUNTY 

4 3 Ruth Smith Lisbon 

4 3 E. Pearl Mercier Lisbon 

4 4 Lillian T. Mullinix Cooksville 

4 5 Mabel C. Hinton Woodbine 

4 5 Eleanor W. Gaither Woodbine 

4 6 Edna R. Dorsey Glenwood 

4 7 Lucille D. Hobbs Cooksville 

4 8 Phyllis G. Adams Glenelg 

4 9 Frank E. Smith Woodbir.e 

4 10 Lucille Bowen Woodbine 

5 1 Catherine Brosenne Dayton 

5 2 Joanna Saffell Dayton 

5 2 Byron V. Cecil Highland 

5 2 Ida B. Nichols Highland 

S 2 Emily G. Parlett Clarksviile 

5 2 Susie M. Parlett Clarksviile 

5 3 Rosa Lee Johnson Ednor 

6 1 Henry C. Hall Savage 

6 1 Natalie M. Robinson Savage 

6 1 (Mrs.) John Cronmiller Savage 

6 2 Alice F. Peters Laurel 

6 3 Mary E. Dorsey Ellicott City 

6 3 Emma Johnson Ellicott City 

6 4 Annie R. W^hipps Atholton 

6 5 C. Esther Works Laurel 

6 6 Loube Bloom Ellicott City 

6 7 Katherine Warfield Atholton 

ELLICOTT CITY HIGH SCHOOL 
High School Department 

Margaret Pfeiffer Ellicott City 

Florence I. Arnold Ellicott City 

Jane Hooper Ellicott City 

Bertha R. Brown Ellicott City 

Sara E. Smith Ellicott City 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



241 



Name and Address 



Name and Address 



KENT COUNTY 



2 Edmund G. Coe Millington 

2 Martha R. Pennington Millington 

2 Mattie G. Hazell Millington 

2 Clara H. Bryan Millington 

3 Lelia N. Ware Massey 

3 Anna P. Radnor Millington 

3 Mary L. Wilkins Millington 

4 Stella Moffett Golt, R. R. 1 

5 Mary E. Moore Golt, R. R. 2 

6 Helen C. Stradley Galena 

6 Ethel I. Luthringer Galena 

6 Madge C. Wilmer Galena 

7 Josephine C. Walters Chestertown 

8 Kathryn H. Donahoe Millington 

9 Mary E. Numbers Millington 

9 Blanche C. Huhn Golt 

2 1 Helen M. Baxter Kennedyville 

-2 3 Frances B. Morris Locust Grove 

2 3 Mary V. Crew Locust Grove 

2 4 Mary L. Rouse Chestertown 

2 4 Blanche Scotten Kennedyville 

2 4 Cynthia Clendaniel Kennedyville 

2 6 H. Maude Robinson Chestertown 

2 7 Sophie Miller Still Pond 

2 7 E. Katherine Gilpin Still Pond 

2 9 L. Nellie Pearce. . .Millington, R. R. 2 

3 2 Kathryn Myers . .Chestertown, R. R. 5 
3 3 Nettie M. Graham, Chestertown R. R. 5 

3 4 Martha G. Walls Worton, R. R. 2 

.3 5 Stephanie M. Ford Chestertown 

3 5 Eva M. Duyer.... Chestertown 

3 6 A. Marie Meeks Chestertown 

3 7 Florence ^L Jewell B'etterton 

3 7 Jean C. Stokes Worton, R. R. 2 

3 7 Grace M. Tull B'etterton 

3 8 Mildred C. Melvin Worton, R. R. 2 

3 9 Margaret G. Harris... Worton, R. R. 2 

4 1 Fannie E. Stuart Chestertown 

4 1 Marietta Loud Chestertown 

4 1 Barbara Anthony Chestertown 

4 1 Edith W. Harley Chestertown 

4 1 Laura R. A. Thomas Chestertown 



4 




4 




4 




4 




5 




5 




5 


3 


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3 


5 


3 


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3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


4 


5 


4 


5 


4 


5 


5 


6 


2 


6 


2 


6 


5 


6 


6 


7 


2 


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3 


7 


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4 


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4 


1 


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1 


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4 


1 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 


5 


3 



Ella P. Robinson Chestertown 

Rose H. Duyer Chestertown 

Inez Russell Chestertown 

Hannah W. Bell Chestertown 

C. Louise Kendall Rock Hall 

lona V. Apsley Rock Hall 

Mary R. Camp Rock Hall 

Cora A. Moffett Rock Hall 

Isabel R. Jones Rock Hall 

Anna Mae Ayres Rock Hall 

Maud E. Middleton Rock Hall 

Annie L. Duyer Rock Hall 

Alice D. Wood Rock Hall, R. R. 1 

Edith B. Collison Rock Hall 

Anna C. Legg Rock Hall 

(Mrs.) S. E. Burgess Rock Hall, 

R. R. 2. 
Caroline I. Smyth, Chestertown, R. R. 2 
Linda M. Morris, Chestertown, R. R. 2 

Frances L. Copper Chestertown, 

R. R. 2. 
Myra C. Wheat. .Chestertown, R. R. 3 
Hope W. Meeks. .Chestertown, R. R. 3 
Dorothy S. Edwards Chestertown, 

R. R. 4. 
Dorothy W. Dill. .Chestertown, R. R. 3 

HIGH SCHOOLS 

CHESTERTOWN 

Mark Creasy Chestertown 

Jeannette Gooding Chestertown 

Mary W. Carroll Chestertown 

E. Frances Howard Chestertown 

Owen C. Blades Chestertown 

Susan V. Hill Chestertown 

Nellie E. Walters Chestertown 

ROCK HALL 

J. Frank McBee Rock Hall 

Gladys T. Hatcherson Rock Hall 

Estelle J. Biddle Rock Hall 

Mollie R. Mason Rock Hall 



MONTGOMERY COUNTY 



1 Mary E. Oliphant Laytonsville 

1 A. Grace Baker Laytonsville 

1 Mary White Laytonsville 

2 Lula White Gaithersburg 

3 Catharine Riordan Gaithersburg 

5 Pearle Smith Derwood 

6 Ruth Iddings Gaithersburg 

1 Edith Burdette Gaithersburg 

2 Mary E. Green Hyattstown 

2 Margaret D. Ryan Hyattstown 

3 Margaret Hughes Clarksburg 



2 4 Sarah G. Soper Boyds 

2 5 Virgie Beall Boyds 

2 6 Maud Ashton Clarksburg 

2 7 Letty Souder Burdette 

2 8 Julia M. Barber Monrovia 

3 1 R. W. Stout Poolesville 

3 1 Ruth Beall Poolesville 

3 1 Gertrude A. Brady Poolesville 

3 1 Nannie Cromwell Poolesville 

3 1 (Mrs.) G. Robert Gray Poolesville 

3 2 Helen Burdette Poolesville 



242 



Annual Rkpokt of thk Statk Board ov ICr>ucATio.\ 



Namk and Addkess 



Namk and Address 



3 3 Horace Davis I'oolesville 

3 4 Ida M. Hickman Dickerson 

3 5 N. Marcta Gano Dawsonvillc 

4 1 Elberta T. Rice Rockvillc 

4 1 Miriam M. Wriglitson. . . .Gaithcrsburg 

4 1 Marjorie L. Waters Gaithcrsburg 

4 1 (Mrs.) H. C. Kingdon Rockvillc 

4 1 Virginia F. Brewer Rockville 

4 1 (Mrs.) Sarah J. Ward Rockville 

4 1 Mary M. Brewer Rockville 

4 2 Mary B. Nicol Rockville 

4 4 (Mrs.) Anna Morton Rockville 

4 5 (Mrs.) Sad'e R. Akers. . .Garrett Park 

5 1 Eleanor Ray Colesville 

5 1 Anna Davis Colesville 

S 2 Louise McCeney, Takoma Park Sta- 
tion, Washington, D. C. 

5 3 f:isie M. Soper Beltsville 

5 3 Ethel Dorsey Beltsville 

S 4 (Mrs.) Isabel B. Jones Ednor 

5 4 Deborah A. Iddings Brookeville 

5 5 Lillian Johnson, Takoma Park Station, 

Washington, D. C. 

6 1 James W. White Gaithersbursj 

6 1 Evelyn McAtee Germantown 

6 1 Mary Rice Germantown 

6 3 Esther Pumphrey Germantown 

6 4 Eleanor Darby Germantown 

6 5 (Mrs.) Kathleen Tschiffelty, Gaithcrs- 
burg. 

6 6 Etta Gartrell Seneca 

7 1 (Mrs.) Ethel Van Hoessen. . .Rockville 

7 1 (Mrs.) J. S. Coombs Bethesda 

7 1 Ravenell Monred Gaithcrsburg 

7 2 Laura S. Nichols, Chevy Chase Station, 

Washington, No. 4. 
7 2 (Mrs.) Blanche Cramer, Chevy Chase 

Station, Washington, No. 4. 
7 3 (Mrs.) Florence M. Barksdale, 1752 

Euclid St., Washington, D. C. 

7 3 Effie G. Barnsley Rockville 

7 3 Alice Johnson, 3726 Oliver St., N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 
7 3 (Mrs.) Jos. Maguire, 17 Hesketh St., 

Chevy Chase. 
7 3 Mary E. Waesche, 6105 4th St., N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 

7 3 (Mrs.) Henry Byrne Chevy Chase 

7 3 (Mrs.) Frederick Crocker. Chevy Chase 

7 3 (Mrs.) Grace Crandall. .. .Chevy Chase 

8 1 Eleanor Darby Sandy Spring 

8 1 Anna M. Engle Sandy Spring 

8 1 Grace Williams Sandy Spring 

8 2 Eleanor Houck Rockville 

8 3 Hattie Myers Brookeville 

8 3 Elizabeth Fulks Brookeville 

8 5 Daisy C. Higgins Brighton 



9 




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1 





1 





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I'.lizabeth fJriffith Laytonsvillc 

EfTie K. Tcrnent Gaithcrsburg 

Mariel fJott Gaithcrsburg 

Leta Riggs Gaithcrsburg 

Sarali John.-^on Gaithcrsburg 

Louise Harris Germantown 

Ethel Simmons Germantown 

Anna S. Kroll Germantown 

Virginia Mays Germantown 

l\fabel Becraft Washington Grove 

Edna Ilaukc Rockville 

Mary Frye Rockville 

Ida L. Isherwood Rockville 

Jessie P.odmer Barnesvills 

Lois Holland Comus 

Rcna Sheckles Dickerson 

Elizabeth White Dickerson 

Laura K. Souder Buck Lodge 

John T. Baker Mt. Airy 

Katharine Stanley Mt. Airy 

Marion Howard Monrovia 

William A. Baker Mt. Airy 

Ola L. Burdette Monrovia 

Belle P. liawkins Gaithcrsburg 

Albert E. Warthen Monrovia 

Irene Sibley Germantown 

Doris Boyer Monrovia 

(Mrs.) Grace L. Ryan Kensington 

Dorothy Clum Kensington 

(Mrs.) Anna F. Rose Kensington 

(Mrs.) Anna Farrell Kensington 

Lillian Sage Rockville 

Grace Beall Kensington 

J. Edwin Lodge Gaithcrsburg 

Hattie J. Montgomery, 906 Butternut 

St., Washington, D. C. 

Lillian Chaney Woodside 

^^iolette Murphy Woodside 

Ida V. Cauthron Woodside 

Elizabeth Hendley Woodside 

(Mrs.) Corrine Anderson. Silver Spring 

Bertha V. Brown Silver Spring 

(Mrs.) Katharine Pyles. . Silver Spring 

Marguerite Groomes Rockville 

F. W. Watkins, Takoma Park Station, 

R. F. D. 
(Mrs.) Stella E. Thomas, 6441 Georgia 

Ave., Washington, D. C. 

Effie H. Shreve Dickerson 

Mary Ward Gaithcrsburg 

HIGH SCHOOLS 
MONTGOMERY COUNTY 



1 R. Milton Hall Rockville 

1 Edith L. Ford Rockville 

1 Alice E. Hepburn Rockville 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



243 



Name and Addbess 



Name and Addbess 



4 1 
4 1 



1 1 



(Mrs.) Irving L. McCathran, Wash- 
ington Grove. 

Katie L. Frizzell Gaithersburg 

Maude V. Broome Gaithersburg 

SHERWOOD 
Jessie M. Ebaugh Sandy Spring 



PRINCE GEORGE'S 
Belle R. Marlow, 26 E. Lanvale St., 
Baltimore. 

Ethel Hand Beltsville 

Maude McCoy Beltsville 



(Mrs.) B. A. Matzen Berwyn 

(Mrs.) A. L. Husted Berwyn 

Myra H. Alexander Berwyn 7 

(Mrs.) Emily B. Gahan Berwyn 7 

(Mrs.) J. E. Metzger College Park 7 

(Mrs.) Bean A. Lewis College Park 7 

Name to be supplied later. 7 

Agnes Duckett Bladensburg 7 

Amelia M. Dieudonne. .. .Bladensburg 

Name to be supplied later. 

Name to be supplied later. 

(Mrs.) Marian P. Hill, Upper Marlboro 

Ruth Mayhew Upper Marlboro 

Anna Chambers Upper Marlboro 9 

Margaret J. Duvall Croome Station 9 

Mary L. Robey Croome 9 

To be supplied later. 9 

(Mrs.) Myra Baden Naylor 9 

Janie A. Cross Westwood 10 

Richard Bolton Croome 10 

Maria C. Queen Waldorf 10 

Elmer C. Dyson Piscataway 10 

Bertie E. Baden Piscataway 10 

Lillian Unkle Accokeek 10 

Eugenia Brent Aceokeek 10 

Fannie E. Moreland Silesia 10 

Ella Johnson, Station H, Washington, 10 

D. C, Box 136. 10 

Kate Kerby Brandywine H 

(Mrs.) Olive E. King Tippett 11 

(Mrs.) Willie G. Morgan, Ft. Wash- 11 

ington. 11 

(Mrs.) Belle Moore, Rt. A Station H, 12 

Washington, D. C. 

Addie M. Moore, Rt. A Station H, 12 

Washington, D. C. 

Blanche E. Sellner, Rt. A Station H, 12 

Washington, D. C. 

Jessie M. Gallahan Brandywine 12 

Bertha B'. Entwisle Forestville 

Martha L. Ryon, Rt. A Station H, 12 

Washington, D. C. 

Kathleen Shears Forestville 13 

(Mrs.) W. W. Griffith Forestville | 13 



1 Margaret M. Karn Sandy Spring 

1 Elizabeth M. Brooks Sandy Spring 

1 John H. Janney Sandy Spring 

GAITHERSBURG 

1 Thomas W. Troxell Gaithersburg 

1 Gail Wade Buck Lodge 

COUNTY 

5 Marie Schweppe, Rt. A Station H, 
Washington, D. C. 

5 Catherine Beall, Rt. A Station H, 

Washington, D. C. 

6 (Mrs.) Clara G. Baden, Rt. A Station 

H, Washington, D. C. 
6 Mary E. King, Rt. A Station H, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

1 

2 Mae L. Wise Upper Marlboro 

3 Sarah Townshend Mitchellville 

4 Maude A. Gibbs Mitchellville 

5 Anna W. Barber Mitchellville 

6 Mary Gardiner Mitchellville 

1 Mary J. Freeman Aquasco 

1 N. Eva Turner Malcolm 

2 Mary E. Garner Baden 

2 (Mrs.) H. M. Dent Cedarville 

2 (Mrs.) W. R. C. Connick Baden 

1 J. A. Carrico Clinton 

1 Edna G. Murray Clinton 

1 Alma Blandford Qinton 

2 Mary I. Griffith Forestville 

3 Margaret C. Leapley. .Upper Marlboro 

1 Emma E. Burton Laurel 

1 Annie B. Wilson Laurel 

1 Grace Owens Laurel 

1 

1 /][ 

2 Dena E. Aitcheson Laurel 

3 Alice McCullough Laurel 

3 Laura K. Matthews Laurel 

3 Aileen Ogle Laurel 

3 Margaret M. Tyler Laurel 

1 (Mrs.) Rosa L. Dent Townshend 

1 (Mrs.) G. H. B'illingsley. .Brandywine 

2 Hattie I. Selby Cheltenham 

2 (Mrs.) Preston DeVaughn.. North Keys 

1 (Mrs.) John Fisher, Route B, Station 

H, Washington, D. C. 

2 Eleanor Edelen, Route B, Station H, 

Washington, D. C. 

3 Ethel Davis, Route B, Station H, 

Washington, D. C. 

4 Olivia J. Kerby, Route B, Station H, 

Washington, D. C. 
4 Melva I. White, Route B, Station H, 
Washington, D. C. 

1 To be sent later Lanham 

2 To be supplied later. 



244 



Annual Report ov tiik Statk Hoard of Education 



Name and Addrkss 



Name and Addiess 



13 


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IS 


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18 





(Mrs.) Leah G. Allen Ritchie 

Ursula V. Tayraan Forestvillc 

Kathcrinc J. Duff. .Landovcr, R. F. D. 

M. Klia Gibbons Lanhain 

Name to be sent later. 

Nora L Baldwin Collington 

Annie L. Hall Glendale 

(Mrs.) E. Van Ness Duval! Bowie 

Edna E. Waring Laurel 

Edna Connick Bowie 

Adelaide Claugh Bowie 

Louise Montgomery Bowie 

Name to be sent later. 
Name to be sent later. 

Mary Cunningham Glendale 

Blanche Hoof Croome 

Ellen McGregor Upper Marlboro 

Bessie E. Sweeney. .. .Upper Marlboro 
(Mrs.) Hontas M. Sturgis. .Hyattsville 
(Mrs.) Katherine Tavener. .Hyattsville 
(Mrs.) Lillian B. Brooens. . .Riverdale 
(Mrs.) Carolyn H. Rothf us. Hyattsville 
(Mrs.) John H. Howard. . .Hyattsville 

Caroline B. Rolfe Hyattsville 

M. Harvey Campbell Hyattsville 

Sarah M. Hesscy Hyattsville 

(Mrs.) J. F. Key Hyattsville 

Nellie L. Pumphrey Hyattsville 

Caroline H. Deshiells Hyattsville 

Alice E. Barron Hyattsville 

Lucille Miller, R. F. D. 7, Brookland 

Station, Washington, D. C. 

Catherine L. Tighe Laurel 

(Mrs.) Jennie P. James. . . .Mt. Rainier 
(Mrs.) Lucille Loomis. .. .Mt. Rainier 

Mary L. Penman Mt. Rainier 

(Mrs.) L. C. Whelpley Riverdale 

(Mrs.) I. D. Arnold Mt. Rainier 

(Mrs.) C. C. Rister Mt. Rainier 

(Mrs.) H. C. Maynor Mt. Rainier 

Sigmunda M. Czarra Hyattsville 

Marie A. Van Horn Brentwood 

Mary F. Lowe Mt. Rainier 

(Mrs.) Adah Bock, 1110 Kenyon St., 

Washington, D. C. 

Aubria E. Cope Brentwood 

Emma E. Walker Capitol Heights 

Bessie Cook Capitol Heights 

Minnie L. Brooke Capitol Heights 

Alice Jones Capitol Heights 

Ada H. Johnson Capitol Heights 



18 1 Mary A. Carrick Capitol Heightt 

8 1 (.Mrs.) Sarah Lawrence. Capitol Heights 
18 1 Elizabeth Droncnburg, Capitol Height* 
18 2 Margaret A. Hawkin.s, 1433 Clifton St., 

N. W., Washington, D. C. 

18 2 Mabel G. Westcamp Seat Pleasant 

18 2 Mary M. Sinclair, Rt. A Station H., 

Washington, D. C. 
18 2 (Mrs.) Harriett Simms. .Seat Pleasant 

18 3 Nellie Wickham...R. F. D., Landover 

19 1 (Mrs.) Smith. P. O. Box 183, River- 

dale. 

19 1 (Mrs.) Brice Bowie Riverdale 

19 1 Ruth McBrien Riverdale 

19 1 (Mrs.) Wm. Stein Riverdale 

HIGH SCHOOLS 
UPPER MARLBORO 

3 1 Roger X. Day Upper Marlboro 

3 1 Maud Gibbons Croome 

3 1 Gertrude J. Wyvill. .. .Upper Marlboro 

BADEN AGRICULTURAL 

8 2 W. R. C. Connick Baden 

8 2 Howard M. Dent Cedarville 

8 2 Clara G. Gibbons Baden 

8 2 A. Eloise Dyson Baden 

8 2 Ruth B'ranner Baden 



SURRATTSVILLE 

Anna Plowman Mackay Clinton 

Anna S. Blandford Clinton 

Agnes C. Blandford Clinton 

LAUREL 

J. Edward Ford Laurel 

Margaret Edmonston Laurel 

Ruth Brauner Laurel 

Amelia H. Fritz, IS Schaffer Ave., 
Hamilton. 

Elizabeth Gardner Laurel 

Lillabelle Hare Laurel 

Mr. Gilbert Laurel 

HYATTSVILLE 

K. J. Morris Hyattsville 

Alice Dandy Hyattsville 

E. Adalyn Brown Hyattsville 

Zulieka Turley, 1511 Irving St., N. E., 

Washington, D. C. 
A. J. Stockebrand Hyattsville 



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16 


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16 



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QUEEN ANNE'S COUNTY 



Pauline Walls Templeville 

Mary Cahall Templeville 

Edith Anderson Sudlersville 

Blanche Jarman Marydel 



1 


4 


1 


6 


1 


6 


1 


7 



Mildred Wheatman Millington 

Martha Phillips Sudlersville 

Helen Peters Sudlersville 

Hildred Evans Kenton, DeL 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



245 



Name and Addiess 



Name and Addkess 



Helene Fonner. . . 
Emily Straughn , 

Ethel Hall 

Ida M. Dodd 

Margaret Wilson 
Olivia Knotts . . . 
Gladys Eley . . . . 
Grace Riggin . . . 
Hallie Clough . . . 



Barclay 

Barclay 

Barclay 

. . . .Ingleside 
, . . .Ingleside 
, .Templeville 
. Chestertown 
.Church Hill 
.Church Hill 



Grace Burris 
Lulu B'artlett 



. Price 
.Price 



Elizabeth Peters 

Mary Clough 

Lola Price 

Dorothy Brown . . . . 
Elizabeth W. Emory. 
Virginia Meredith . . 
Katharine Bailey . . . 

Mary Moore 

Gertrude Morgan . . . 

Elizabeth West 

Ruth Rittenhouse . . . 
Bessie Kinnamon . . . 

Edith Keating 

Fannie Merrick . . . . 
Barbara R. Harley.. 
Nellie Hopkins .... 

Mary Cockey 

Florence Porter ... 
Pauline Tilghman . 

Lilia M. Walters 

Myrtle Coleman . . . . 

Estelle Kersey 

Sarah A. Jones 

Reba Roe 

Mildred Palmer .... 

Laura Brisbin 

Edna Price , 

Anna May Dodd.... 
Edna Faulkner . . . . , 

Ethel Carroll 

Helen Porter 



. Sudlersville 
.Church Hill 
.Church Hill 
. .Centreville 
. .Centreville 
. .Centreville 
.Queen Anne 
. .Centreville 
. .Centreville 
. .Centreville 
. .Centreville 
. .Centreville 
. .Centreville 
. .Centreville 
. .Centreville 
. Stevensville 
.Stevensville 
.Stevensville 
.Stevensville 

Chester 

Chester 

Chester 

, Chester 

, Chester 

. .Stevensville 
.Queenstown 
. .Carmichael 
. .Carmichael 
, .Queenstown 
.Queenstown 
.Queenstown 



S 6 Helen McConnor Queenstown 

5 6 Elizabeth Bishop Queenstown 

5 7 Gertrude Price Fords Store 

5 7 Lillian Carter Fords Store 

5 7 Carolyn Coursey Fords Store 

5 7 Anita Butler Fords Store 

5 8 Henrietta Roe Wye Mills 

6 1 Elizabeth Cook Centreville 

6 2 Eva S. Hunter Hayden 

6 3 Cora Shockley Ridgely 

6 4 Cora Pippen Centreville 

6 5 Ruth Voshell Centreville 

6 6 Lillian Boyce Queen Anne 

6 7 Hattie Dukes Queen Anne 

6 7 Edna Morgan Queen Anne 

7 1 Nettie Neal Millington 

7 2 

7 2 Edith Harrison Crumpton 

7 3 Mary C. Stevens Millington 

7 4 Maraleine Baxter Chestertown 

7 5 Elizabeth Nickerson Millington 

HIGH SCHOOLS 

SUDLERSVILLE 

1 H.S. Anna Harrison Sudlersville 

1 H.S. Madaleine George Sudlersville 

1 H.S. Myrtle Derrickson Sudlersville 

CENTREVILLE 

3 H.S. J. Fred Stevens Centreville 

3 H.S. Nannie Keating Centreville 

3 H.S. Graham Watson Centreville 

3 H.S. J. D. Cummins Centreville 

3 H.S. Medora Mantz Centreville 

3 H.S. John T. B'ruhl Centreville 

STEVENSVILLE 

4 H.S. Elizabeth Trundle :. .Stevensville 

4 H.S. Ola Carter Stevensville 

4 H.S. Lettie Long Stevensville 

TRI-COUNTY 

6 Tri-Co. Mary Cooper Queen Anne 

6 Tri-Co. Alice Barto Queen Anne 

6 Tri-Co. E. W. McDowell Queen Anne 



ST. MARY'S COUNTY 



Jean M. Spence Scotland 

Myrtle M. Welch Dameron 

Emerald Abell Beechville 

M. Edna Combs Ridge 

Katherine Johnson .... St. Mary's City 

Essie May Aud Valley Lee 

Claudia V. Guyther Valley Lee 

Vera Guyther Piney Point 

Mary E. Garner Drayden 

T. Lee Mattingly Leonardtown 

Olivia Raley Beauvue 

M. Edna Wheeler Leonardtown 



3 4 Gertrude Edwards Leonardtown 

3 5 Anna May Love Morganza 

3 6 Lewis C. Thompson Leonardtown 

3 7 Elizabeth G. Mattingly. . .Leonardtown 

3 8 Agnes N. Johnson Morganza 

3 9 Virginia R. Miles Beauvue 

3 10 A. Mignonette Russell Leonardtown 

4 1 Annie V. Brookbank Ryceville 

4 2 Rosa I. Milburn Maddox 

4 2 Bertha R. Brookbank Maddox 

4 3 Lillian G. Hancock Oements 

4 4 A. Dorothea Davis Chaptico 



2-16 



Annual Rkpokt of the State Board (jf Education 



Name and Asotess 



Name and Addiees 



5 Theo. B'. Carpenter Budd'i Creek 

6 May D. Reeder Chaptico 

1 Dora Harrison Charlotte Hall 

2 Pauline R. Barber Charlotte Hall 

3 Annie May Dixon Mechanicsville 

4 M. F.thi-l Joy Mechanicsville 

4 Emma E. de Corse Mechanicsville 

5 Maude M. Jarboe Oraville 

Ii'r.S Alice Ruth Burroughs. . .Laurel Groye 

2 Henrietta V. King Laurel Grove 

3 Erva R. Foxwcll Morganza 

4 Beatrice Goldsborough Hollywood 

4 Mattie E. Murphy Hollywood 

5 B. Gladys Dixon Hollywood 

6 M. Pauline Hayden Hollywood 

7 Mary S. Fish Sandgates 



1 

1 


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4 1 

4 2 

4 2 

4 3 



9 A. Louise Fowler Hollywood 



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Doris Raley Hollywood 

Birdie V. Davis Bushwood 

Ida Louise Dent Oakley 

Olivia S. Dent Oakley 

I.^ttie M. Dent Oakley 

Loraine G. Hodges Oakley 

Carrie Chescldine Palmer 

Alma Morris Milestown 

Evelyn Bailey Abell 

Effic M. Miles Pearson 

Edith M. Clarke California 

Maria A. Y. Goodwin Great Mills 

Helen B. Shermantine Great Mills 

Daisy S. Abcll St. Inigocs 

Mildred K. Hammett Park Hall 

Myrtle B'. Foote California 

A. Maude Wheeler. . St. George Island 
Pauline Greenwell .. St. George Island 



SOMERSET COUNTY 



Florence Pollitt . .Princess Anne, Rt. 2 

Carrie Willing Venton 

Helen F. Miles Eden 

St. Peter's District. 

Daisy B. Miles Oriole 

Lena Smith Oriole 

May Cannon Monie 

Emma W. Somers Champ 

Lena Tull Smith Kingston 

S. Dora Turpin Kingston 

Elizabeth Beauchamp, Pocomoke, R. 

F. D. 
Elizabeth Chamberlain Pocomoke, 

R. F. D. 

Mary Lucille Tull Marion Station 

Carrie L. Gunby Marion Station 

Gussie E. Haynes Marion Station 

Lillie H. Dalby Shelltown 

Leona Revelle Marumsco 

Myrtle Dryden Tull's Corner 

LIcIen V. Pusey Marion Station 

Carrie B. Whittingdon. Marion Station 
Myrla A. Powell, Princess Anne, R. 

F. D. 
Alma Dennis, Princess Anne, R. F. D. 
Mary Parks, Pocomoke City, R. F. D. 
Elsie Melvin, Pocomoke City, R. F. D. 
Rose W. Lankford, Pocomoke City, R. 

F. D. 
Laura V. Lambden, Pocomoke City, R. 

F. D. 
Mabel Dennis, Pocomoke City, R. F. D. 
Jennie Ward Howeth, Westover, R. F. 

D. 
Ruby N. Bounds, Princess Anne, Rt. 2 
Frances Elliott, Princess Anne, Rt. 2 
Sallie E. Dashiell, Princess Anne, Rt. 2 
Gladys Lawson, Princess Anne, Rt. 2 



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Cecilia Webster Jason 

Viola French Upper Fairmount 

Mary A. Long Upper Fairmount 

Zenobia Miles Upper Fairmount 

Elizabeth Sudler Upper Fairmount 

Marie S. Davis Crisfield 

Nellie H. Davis Crisfield 

E. Gertrude Curtis Crisfield 

Rena Cox Dougherty Crisfield 

Priscilla Sterling Crisfield 

Marian A. Nelson Crisfield 

Ethel Johnson Crisfield 

Nellie Nelson Crisfield 

Ethel Colbourne Crisfield 

Pearl Kneisley, Manual Training, Cris- 
field. 
Corinne W. Adams, Com. Dept., Cris- 
field. 

Oscar B. Landon Crisfield 

Willie T. Riggin Crisfield 

Kate Howard Crisfield 

Ada B. Cochrane Crisfield 

Ulmont Bedsworth Crisfield, Rt. 2 

Harriet Sterling Crisfield, R. F. D. 

Mildred Hickman... .Crisfield, R. F. D. 

Marie Powell Crisfield, R. F. D. 

Mildred Tull Marion, R. F. D. 

Mary A. McNamara, Crisfield, R. F. D. 
Viola M. Dougherty, Crisfield, R. F. D. 

Ada M. White Chance 

Lucy V. Tarleton Chance 

Alice Todd Chance 

J. A. Hudson Rhode's Point 

Arintha Marsh Tylerton 

Carrie G. McNamara Ewell 

Ruth B'radshaw Ewell 

E. Virginia Goslee Dames Quarter 

Helen M. Ward Dames Quarter 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



247 



Name and Address 



Name and Addkess 



12 1 Beatrice Nelson Crisfield 

12 1 Cristie Wilson Horsey Crisfield 

12 1 M. Charlotte Shockley Crisfield 

1 2 1 Mabel Sterling Crisfield 

13 1 Virginia Dryden Westover, R. F. D. 

13 2 Margaret I. Mitchell Westover 

13 2 Mary Ritzel Westover 

13 3 Anna Ruark Manokin 

13 4 Annie L. Furniss. . .Westover, R. F. D. 

14 1 Elizabeth Anderson Deal's Island 

14 1 Addie W. Bradshaw Deal's Island 

14 1 Esther M. Webster Deal's Island 

14 1 Saydie C. Webster Deal's Island 

14 2 Edna Anderson Wenona 

15 1 Susie E. Collins Princess Anne 

15 1 Elizabeth Cahill Princess Anne 

15 1 Nannie C. Fontaine Princess Anne 

15 1 Elizabeth Dougherty. .. .Princess Anne 

15 1 J. Frances Moore, Domestic Science, 

Princess Anne. 

15 2 Delsie Fooks Pusey. .. .Princess Anne,! 
R. F. D. [ 



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3 Florence Goslee Princess Anne, 

R. F. D. 

4 Ruth Wilson Eden 

5 Blanche Adams Princess Anne, 

R. F. D. 

HIGH SCHOOLS 
CRISFIELD 

F. E. Gardner Crisfield 

Priscilla Lankford Crisfield 

Addie Handy Crisfield 

Miriam Dryden Crisfield 

Margaret Tull Crisfield 

Mabel Ward Crisfield 

WASHINGTON 

Fred. H. Dewey Princess Anne 

W. A. N. Bowland Princess Anne 

Mary D. Fitzgerald Princess Anne 

Mildred Powell Princess Anne 



TALBOT COUNTY 



Alice McDaniel Easton 

M. Neva Seymour Easton 

Annie M. E. Mason Easton 

Bessie A. Cretzinger Easton 

Katherine S. Dexter Easton 

Marie Callaghan Easton 

Carrie B. Smith Easton 

Grace S. Holmes Easton 

Virginia B. Hughes Easton 

Ethel D. Spencer Easton 

Florence E. Lane Easton 

Frances E. Henry Easton 

Mabel Shockley Easton 

Mary E. Stewart Easton 

Edna E. Griffin Easton 

Freda Harper Royal Oak 

Delia V. Altvater Easton 

A. Ellis Harper St. Michaels 

L. Beatrice Corkran St. Michaels 

Addie M. Dean St. Michaels 

Pearl M. Thomas St. Michaels 

Mary L. McDaniel St. Michaels 

Elva W. Keithley Royal Oak 

Lina Bridges Royal Oak 

Isabelle B. Mullikin Bozman 

Susan E. Marshall Bozman 

M. Louise Marshall Neavitt 

Margaretta S. Reese Neavitt 

Nettie S. Martin Trappe 

Ethel Kemp Trappe 

Ella Haddaway Oxford 

Ella J. Stevens Oxford 

Hennie M. Marrick Trappe 



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M. Ella Smith Oxford 

Nannie I. Stevens Oxford 

Alice Haddaway Oxford 

Neva M. Jones Trappe 

Mabel E. Carroll Trappe 

Ethel K. Blann Trappe 

Margaret C. Mullikin Trappe 

Hazel S. Dyott Trappe 

Martha D. Ornett Trappe 

Fannie C. Marvel Easton 

E. Lela Bailey Cordova 

Edith L. Warner Queen Anne 

M. Elizabeth Davis Easton 

Florence R. Lednum Cordo^■a 

Marguerite H. Milby Cordova 

Frances E. Russell Easton 

Bessie C. Matthews Cordova 

Mary W. Shillinger Cordova 

Laura P. Newnam Cordova 

Anna E. Porter Wye Mills 

Iva Christopher Wye Mills 

Helen L. Kirby Queen Anne 

Mary G. Lowe McDaniel 

Olive O. Howeth Wittman 

Mildred B. Frampton Wittman 

C. Elma Diefenderfer Sherwood 

Alexandria W. Mullikin Tilghman 

Amelia B'. Tarr Tilghman 

Sallie R. G. Faulkner Tilghman 

Margaret Wilson Tilghman 

Gladys M. Sinclair Tilghman 

A. Lida Smith Claiborne 



218 



Annual Rkpokt of tiim Stati: Boakd of Education 



Name and Addbess 



Name and Adoif.ss 



HIGH SCHOOLS 
EASTON 

C. A. McBride Easton 

Mary T. Brcnnan Easton 

Clara B. Price Easton 

Mildred II. Willis Easton 

\Vm. L. Hull Easton 

Hcttye I. Newnam Easton 

Ruth C. Simpson Easton 

ST. MICHAEL'S 

2 Harold S. Borden-Smith. .St. Michaels 



2 2 May M. Kemp St. Michaels 

2 2 Cora Dodson St. Michaels 

2 2 Mary T. Macklem St. Michaclt 

TRAPPE HIGH SCHOOL 

3 3 H. E. Nelson Trappe 

3 3 Ruth Taylor Trappe 

OXFORD 

4 3 Nellie R. Stevens Oxford 

4 3 \'irginia Bouldin Oxford 

4 3 Erma B. Stewart Oxford 



WASHINGTON COUNTY 



J. W. Eavey Sharpsburg 

-Mary E. Haller Sharpsburg 

Bertha V. Myers Sharpsburg 

Martha Snavely Sharpsburg 

Anna H. Knode Sharpsburg 

Bertha A. Mumma Sharpsburg 

Jessie L. Cook Sharpsburg 

Lottie M. Houser Sharpsburg 

Lucy Grayson Ditto Sharpsburg 

Harry E. Wolfe Williamsport 

Josephine R. Hutzell Williamsport 

Susye G. Kershner Williamsport 

Elizabeth Beard Williamsport 

Katie L. Schnebly Williamspott 

Edna R. Conrad Williamsport 

Mary E. Schnebly Williamsport 

Bertlia M. Corby Williamsport 

Ruth L. Summers Williamsport 

Melcora Gruber Williamsport 

Katherine R. Bowser Williamsport 

Nellie Lemen Williamsport 

Marie F. Finzel Williamsport 

Edna Lumm B'oonsboro 

John D. Zentmyer Hagerstown 

Estella Cochran Hagerstown 

Laura V. Spielman Hagerstown 

G. Evelyn Clopper Hagerstown 

Miriam B. Dui»ahugh Hagerstown 

Maude R. Sperrow Hagerstown 

Ruth A. Gabriel Hagerstown 

Inez S. Charles Hagerstown 

Myrtle I. Bachtell Hagerstown 

H. L. Rinehart Hagerstown 

Jac. A. Ziegler Hagerstown 

Attie V. Swann Hagerstown 

Kittle I. Startzman Hagerstown 

Gertrude F. Hoover Hagerstown 

E. Louise Howard Hagerstown 

Mildred I. Strite Hagerstown 

Daysye E. Frushe Hagerstown 

Mabel Van Horn Hagerstown 

E. Margaret Kaylor Hagerttown 

Hulda I. Ingram FuBlutowQ 



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Kathleen Rinehart Hagerstown 

Clara V. Higgs Hagerstown 

Loyola Snyder Hagerstown 

Doris Rinehart Hagerstown 

Elizabeth B. Frenzel Hagerstown 

Hilda V'arner Hagerstown 

Wilhelmina A. Schramm. .Hagerstown 

E. Rebecca Brov/n Hagerstown 

Lucie Mae Newcomer Hagerstown 

Edna R. Fiery Hagerstown 

Mazie A. France Hagerstown 

Anna M. Story Hagerstown 

Ethel L. Foltz Hagerstown 

Gossie Hipsley Hagerstown 

Clara Bazell Hagerstown 

Eva V. Huyett Hagerstown 

Nannie C. Davis Hagersto-.vn 

Margaret E. McCauley. .. .Hagerstown 

Erma V. Gsell Hagerstown 

Alma K. Long Hagerstown 

Frances Eavey Hagerstown 

Elizabeth Wheeler Hagerstown 

Ima D. Stotler Hagerstown 

Vera V. Faulder Hagerstown 

Edna Needy Bell Hagerstown 

Alice R. Newcomer Hagerstown 

Ethel Garling Hagerstown 

Geo. A. Sites Clearspring 

Geo. B. Young Oearspring 

M. Louise Anderson Clearspring 

Mabel V. McDonald Clearspring 

Julia H. Boswell Clearspring 

Loulia E. Shank Clearspring 

Alma J. Dennis Clearspring 

Lillian McDonald Clearspring 

Mary I. Steele Clearspring 

Anna R. Kellner Oearspring 

Nellie K. Newkirk Big Springs 

Margaret E. Lakin Hancock 

Hattie E. Brady Hancock 

Mabel C. Brooke Hancock 

Mary T. Boswell Hancock 

Mary F. Thomas Hancock 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



249 



Name and Addbess 



Name and Addbess 



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Sara E. Kellner Hancock ■ 10 

Rose Barnhart Hancock 

Edna A. Powers Hancock 1 1 

Clara M. Creek Hancock} 11 

L. Marie Munson Hancock , 1 1 

Mary A. Powers Hancock i H 

Rita P. Cooper Hancock 1 1 

Raymond E. Staley Boonsboro i H 

Inez E. Alexander Boonsboro 1^ 

Tilghman H. Smith Boonsboro ^^ 

Gladys M. Thomas Boonsboro ; ^^ 

Ena M. Cheney Boonsboro 

Ina Long Boonsboro ^ ^ 

M. Agnes Murphy Boonsboro | '^ 

Charles L. Grove Boonsboro j 

E. May Winder Maplevilie i 

I 12 

Ezra T. Moser Boonsboro ; 

I 12 

John E. Flegle Smithsburg | 

Mabel C. Harp Smithsburg! 

Edith M. Wolfinger Smithsburg ! 

Edna L. Donaldson Smithsburg | 

Ruth Poffcnbcrger Smithsburg 

Mary M. Murray Smithsburg , 

Irene G. Oswald Smithsburg ^^ 

Lelias C. Abbott Smithsburg ^ 

Anna M. Ridenour Smithsburg j^ 

Chas. M. Clopper Smithsburg | 

J. H. G. Seigman Smithsburg : j_j 

Nora M. Williar Smithsburg i 

Josephine L. Smith Smithsburg j^ 

Helen Eichhorn Brownsville i jj 

L. A. Stangle Rohrersville I j^ 

J. VV. Kemp Rohrersville ; j^ 

Louise Miller Rohrersville | j ^ 

Emma A. Grimm Rohrersville | j4 

D. H. Snyder Rohrersville j J4 

Hazel I. Stouffer Boonsboro ! 14 

Elizabeth S. Wagner Rohrersville j 24 

Naomi Wilson Rohrersville j 14 

Edward C. Weigand Leitersburg j 14 

Ruth Z. Poe Leitersburg j 15 

M. Gertrude Newcomer Leitersburg :' 15 

Mary H. Poe Leitersburg ; IS 

Elsie N. Wolfinger Hagerstown, ! 15 

R. F. D. 6. I IS 

Grace A. Martin Hagerstown, I is 

R. F. D. 6. ! 15 

Mary W. Baumgardner. ..Hagerstown, j 15 

R. F. D. 6. j 15 

Slyva I. Stine Boonsboro , IS 

Chas. B. NefT Smithsburg | IS 

M. Evelyn Hollingsworth. .Smithsburg ! 16 

Pauline McKalvey Clearspring j 16 

Sarah E. Iseminger Funkstown j 

Pearl V. Hoffmastcr Funkstown . 16 

Iva V. Wishard Funkstown j 16 

Ruth Warrenfeltz Funkstown 16 



Grace Haller Hagerstown, 

R. F. D. 3. 

Louella A. Mills Sharpsburg 

Clinton E. Miller Keep Tryst 

Mildred Harrison Keep Tryst 

Delia V. Houser Sharpsburg 

A. D. Snyder Keedysville 

C. C. Jones Wcverton 

Bessie P. V. Phillips Weverton 

Mildred Benjamin Weverton 

Percy Walker Harpers Ferry 

R. F. D. 1. 

Marie Mills Sharpsburg 

Mary Sherley Fair Play 

Elva May Munday Breathedsville 

H. S. Reiff Fair Play 

Madge E. Poffenberger Fair Play 

G. Harvey Sprecher Fair Play 

Emma B. Burtner Fair Play 

Martha E. Bartles Fair Play 

Edith L. Sheeley Lydia 

Adah M. Weaver Keedysville 

Lillian Pittenger Hagerstown, 

R. F. D. 4. 
Nellie O. Pittenger Hagerstown, 

R. F. D. 4. 
John J. Park Hagerstown, 

R. F. D. 4. 
Carrie P. Grimm Hagerstown, 

R. F. D. 4. 

Maude M. Wolfe Hagerstown 

Edith A. Johnston Maugansville 

Cora Mae Besecker Maugansville 

Mary E. Cooper Clearspring 

Helen C. Klipp Hagerstown 

B. G. Sheiss Smithsburg 

Katie E. Ridenour Smithsburg 

Alice B. Fitz Cascade 

Edna Kretsinger Cascade 

Lulah M. Reynolds Cascade 

\'era I. Sensenbaugh Smithsburg 

Chas. E. McLucas Big Pool 

Olive P. Piper Millstone 

Mildred C. Ritz Hancock 

Fannie Martin Big Poo! 

Laura Roach Clearspring 

Ethel A. Grove Big Springs 

Annie E. Miller Clearspring 

Daisy M. Martin Big Pool 

Andrew S. Mills Big Pool 

Gladys L. Zimmerman Big Pool 

Wm. F. Murray Big Pooi 

Sarah E. Rowe Keedysville 

Stanley Hoffman Boonsboro, 

R. F. D. 1. 

J. W. D. Seigman Funkstown 

Nellie B. Pettingall Meyersville 

W. E. Sperrow Hagerstown 



250 



Annual Kkimjim ok tiii-, Statk Ijoahd of Ivdccation 



Name and Address 



XaMB and AtJDlKSS 



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Mary L. Martin Hagergtown, 

R. F. D. 7. 

Mildred C. Bowers Hagerstown 

Geo. W. McBridc Boonsboro 

Kleora A. Sands Hagerstown 

S. Helen Mclsridc Boonsboro 

Florence V. Albert Hagerstown 

Agnes F. Schcffer Hagerstown 

E. Maude Smith Hagerstown 

Bess K. Martin Hagerstown 

Kathryn Brown Hagerstown 

F'loss HofFhine Hagerstown 

Ella Toms Funkstown 

Maude Hildcbrand Hagerstown 

Irene MiddlekaufF Hagerstown 

Mattie V. Myers Hagerstown 

Nellie Hoover Hagerstown 

F. D. Bell Hagerstown, 

R. D. 5. 

Cleta B. Whitmorc Hagerstown 

Maude S. Smith Hagerstown 

Emily M. Winebrenner. . .Hagerstown 
M. Catherine Gossard. .. .Hagerstown 

Anna Humrichouse Hagerstown 

Iva G. Smith Hagerstown 

Goldie Middlekauff Hagerstown 

Cecil F. Geutilus, Hagerstown, R. F. 
D. 5. 
rphans' Home. Lillian B. Hutzell, Hagers- 
town. 

Joseph A. Burkhart Smithsburg 

Edith L. Harshman Chcwsville 

S. Frances Beck Chewsville 

Ilda M. Kiracofe Hagerstown 

M. Cotlie Bachtell Hagerstown 

W. D. Albin Rohrersville 

Eimer G. iHller Keedysville 

Mary W. Kitzmiiler Keedysville 

Pauline Blackford Sharpsburg 

Alice M. Blackford Sharpsburg 

Edna L. Sinnisen Boonsboro 

Effie I. Long Downsville 

Carrie Cline Downsville 

Mary R. Irving Downsville 

Virginia Cushwa Fair Play 

Ruth E. Ream Williamsport 

Anna K. Zepp Hagerstown 

Orpha S. Showe. . .Mason & Dixon, Pa. 

Feme C. Bowers Hagerstown 

John B. Houser Hagerstown 

Elizabeth K. Keller Hagerstown 

Nellie P. Hill Hagerstown 

M. Isabclle Beckcnbaug'i. .Hagerstown 

Anna M. Whitmore Hagerstown 

J. B. Wolfinger Hagerstown 

Marie B. Hartman Hagerstown 

Ruth E. Leatherman Hagerstown 

Mildred Yeatts Hagerstown 

Mary P. Rauth Hagerstown 



22 1 M. Willie Smiili Ilagerilown 

22 1 Ruth C. Fiery Hagerstown 

22 1 Leah V. Schindel Hagerstowo 

22 1 Ida M. Walkins Hageritown 

22 1 Harriett J. Dunahugh Hagerstown 

22 I Olive L. Sponsciler Hagerstown 

22 1 Kathryn Garver Hagerstown 

22 2 .Sadie Summers Hagerstown 

22 2 Margaret E. Reichard Hagerstown 

22 3 J. J. Day Hagerstown 

22 3 Mary Rowland Hagerstown 

23 1 A. Ethel Widmyer Clearspring 

23 2 Victor M. Spickler Clearspring 

23 2 Austin D. Herbert Clearspring 

23 3 Chas. W. Plummer Hagerstown 

23 4 Ada Gossard Clearspring 

23 5 \'iola G. Swope Hagerstown, 

R. F. D. 2. 

23 6 Christina A. Rowland Clearspring 

HIGH SCHOOLS 
HAGERSTOWN MALE 

3 1 John D. Zentmyer Hagerstown 

J. B. H. Bowser Hagerstown 

Louis E. M. Strite Hagerstown 

J. K. Rhoades Hagerstown 

I. S. W. Anthony Hagerstown 

H. M. Lippy Hagerstown 

D. Webster Groh, Jr Hagerstown 

3 1 I. K. Shank Hagerstown 

HAGERSTOWN FEMALE 

22 1 John B. Houser Hagerstown 

Ina L. Slaughenhaupt Hagerstown 

Laura C. King Hagerstown 

Winnie May Smith Hagerstown 

Electa Ziegler Hagerstown 

Susan F. Heyscr Hagerstown 

Mary M. Kaylor Hagerstown 

Margaret Kornegay Hagerstown 

22 1 Innes Boyer Hagerstown 

WILLIAMSPORT 

2 1 Harry E. Wolfe Williamsport 

Samuel B. Plummer W^illiamsport 

Elizabeth Clever Hagerstown 

2 1 Arita Snyder Keedysville 

CLEARSPRING 

4 1 Geo. B. Sites Clearspring 

Dorothy S. Nissley Clearspring 

Mamie Constance Sites. .. .Clearspring 

4 1 Helen M. Beard Clearspring 

BOONSBORO 

6 1 

McClurc Haupt Boonsboro 

Nellie Wishard Boonsboro 

6 1 Frances M. Storm Boonsboro 

! SMITHSBURG 

I 7 1 John E. Fleagle Smithsburg 

I J. W. Schnebly Smithsburg 

7 1 Mary K. Fleming Smithsburg 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



251 



Name and Address 



Name and Addkess 



WICOMICO COUNTY 





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Lillian English Mardela Springs 

Rosena C. Jones Mardela Springs 

Hester W. Bounds. . . .Mardela Springs 

Lulo B. Bounds Mardela Springs 

George E. Bennett Hebron, R. D. 1 

Lula E. Wright Mardela Springs 

Lucy B. Bailey Riverton 

Sadye Insley Quantico 

Marion E. Pusey Quantico 

Blanche L. Heath Quantico 

Alice Robertson Tyaskin 

Edna Owens Hebron, R. D. 1 

Nita Knowles Hebron, R. D. 1 

Elsie V. Larmore Tyaskin 

E. Helen Burton Tyaskin 

Susie A. Vvilling Wetipquin 

John F. Phillips Clara 

(Mrs.) Edna Robertson. .White Haven 

(Mrs.) Garley Dennis Pittsville 

Nellie Truitt Pittsville, R. D. 

(Mrs.) Ruth Ennis Figgs.Delmar, Del., 
R. D. 3. 

Frances P. Hopkins Parsonsburg 

Edith Shockley Parsonsburg 

Ruth Carey Pittsville 

Thomas H. Truitt Pittsville 

May Hamblin Pittsville 

Mattie L. Truitt Pittsville 

Louise Hastings Pittsville 

(Mrs.) Ella Lee Betts Salisbury 

Nellie B. Lankford Salisbury 

Edna A. Wilkins Salisbury 

Gertrude Killiam Salisbury 

Minnie E. Anderson Salisbury 

Agnes May Todd Salisbury 

Viola Townsend Salisbury, R. D. 3 

Edna Hammond Delmar, Del., 

R. D. 3. 

Lillian Parker Salisbury, R. D. 3 

Gertrude Hamblin, Parsonsburg, R. D. 1 

Mae Parsons Salisbury, R. D. 3 

Maude Brown Salisbury, R. D. 3 

Amanda Downing... .Salisbury. R. D. 3 
E. Grace Wimbrow Parsonsburg, 

R. D. 1. 

A. Mae Parker Willards 

Mamie Morris Pittsville, R. D. 

Addie Parsons Pittsville, R. D. 

Miriam Gilliss Allen 

Mildred Whayland Allen 

Edith Puscy Eden, R. D. 2 

Alice M. Pollitt Eden, R. D. 2 

Mildred E. Parker Salisbury 

Ruth N. Wimbrow Eden, R. D. 2 

Mary B. Robinson. . .Salisbury, R. D. 1 
Erie Johnson Salisbury, R. D. 4 



8 2 Sallie Colbourne .... Salisbury, R. D. 4 

8 3 Ruth M. Dykes Fruitland, R. D. 1 

8 4 Alma Dykes Salisbury, R. D. 4 

8 5 Elizabeth Davis Salisbury 

8 6 (Mrs.) Ella Jones... Salisbury, R. D. 4 

8 7 Pauline Nelson Fruitland 

8 7 Ida C. McGrath Fruitland 

8 7 Edna L. Disharoon Fruitland 

9 1 Elsie M. Hughes Salisbury, R. D. 

9 2 Lettie M. Lowe Salisbury, R. D. 2 

10 1 (Mrs.) Berkley H. James. . .Sharptown 

10 1 Mary E. Mann Sharptown 

10 1 Mary E. Cooper Sharptown 

10 1 Hattie M. Twilley Sharptown 

11 1 Hettie F. Lowe Delmar, Del. 

11 1 Mamie Campbell Delmar, Del. 

11 1 Ida Jester Delmar, Del. 

11 1 Gladys L. Hearne Delmar, Del. 

11 1 Mol lie L. Parker Delmar, Del. 

11 1 Lossie Hearne Delmar, Del. 

11 1 Mildred A. Parker Delmar, Del. 

1 1 2 Olive Howard Salisbury, R. D. 2 

12 1 Mary R. Larmore Bivalve 

12 1 Margaret A. Travers B'ivalve 

12 2 Mildred L. Insley Nanticoke 

12 2 Naomi C. Taylor Nanticoke 

14 1 Ruth W. Richardson Willards 

14 2 Elsie P. Baker Willards, R. D. 

14 4 Mamie Hastings Salisbury, R. D. 

14 4 Nellie G. Fisher Salisbury 

14 4 Mabel Gillis Salisbury 

14 5 Gladys Rayne Willards 

14 6 Mattie E. Parker Willards 

15 1 Mark Dolbey Hebron 

15 1 Blanche Owens Mardela Springs 

IS 1 Maude B. Bennett. .. .Mardela Springs 

IS 1 E. Helen Waller Hebron 

IS 2 Ruby F. Hayman Rockawalkin 

15 3 Elsie Howard Salisbury, R. D. 2 

9 3 L. Cora Gilliss Salisbury 

* 3 Nina G. Venables Salisbury 

9 3 Nellie L. Smith Salisbury 

9 3 Elsie Hearne Salisbury 

9 3 Pearl Phillips Salisbury 

9 3 A. May Reddish Salisbury 

9 4 Alice Toadvine Salisbury 

9 4 Elizabeth Woodcock Salisbury 

9 4 Mildred Dougherty Salisbury 

9 4 Arietta Smith Salisbury 

13 2 May C. Hill Salisbury 

13 2 Mary E. Toadvine Salisbury 

13 2 A. Edna Windsor Salisbury 

13 2 Georgia M. Reddish Salisbury 

13 2 Mabel E. Waller Salisbury 

13 2 L. Kate Darby Salisbury 

13 2 Wilsie Banks Salisbury 

13 2 Josephine Porter Salisbury 



252 


Annual Report of the State Board of Education 


o 


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2 Nancy H. Smith Salisbury 13 

2 Belle J. Smith Salisbury | 13 



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HIGH SCHOOLS 
WICOMICO 

R. Lee Clark Salisbury 

Nellie F. Hill Salisbury 

Alma Lankford Salisbury 

Katharine True Salisbury 

Alice Killiam Salisbury 

Madge Ilayman Salisbury 

Ethel A. Parsons Salisbury 

Emily I. Dashiell Salisbury 

Olive Vincent Salisbury 

(Mrs.) Annie Peters Wescott. Salisbury 

Mary M. Dryden Salisbury 

Gertrude Fluer Salisbury 

Mary Wilson Salisbury 

Dorothy Mitchell Salisbury 

WORCESTE 

Rilla Webster Pocomoke 

Mrs Laura Nichols Pocomoke 

Sadie O. Powell Pocomoke 

Winnie Cutler Pocomoke 

Jennie Bonneville Pocomoke 

Zella Mapp Crockett Pocomoke 

Louise Matthews Pocomoke 

Annie L. Ross Pocomoke 

Pearl Bratten Pocomoke 

Violet Chesser Pocomoke 

Louise K. Giltz Pocomoke, R. D. 

Edith L. Pilchard Pocomoke, R. D. 

Bessie Gordy Pocomoke, R. D. 

Martha Custis Pocomoke, R. D. 

Elsie M. Bonneville. .Pocomoke, R. D. 



Ruth Powell Salisbury 

(Mrs.) Helen A. Fooks Salisbury 

SHARPTOWN 



1 Edwin K. Mcintosh Sharprtown 

1 Emma Caulk Sharptown 

1 Pauline Howard Sharptown 

DELMAR 

Clarence Cordrey Delmar, Del. 

Ann Jester Delmar, Del. 

Susie L. Utz Delmar, Del. 

Bertha McGrath Delmar, Del. 

NANTICOKE 

C. Allen Carlson Nanticoke 

Nannie R. Potts Nanticoke 

Elsie Tomlinson Nanticoke 



Annie V. Moore Girdletrce 

Mary V. Riley Snow Hill 

Lucy N. Stagg Snow Hill 

Bessie Purnell Snow Hill 

Amy Hickman Snow Hill 

Elizabeth Richardson Snow Hill 

Georgia Bonneville Snow Hil] 

Lillie Heward Snow Hill 

Mabel Dunlap Snow Hill 

Bessie Riley Snow Hill 

Emily P. Williams Snow Hill 

Elva M. Donoway Showell, R. D. 

Aralanta Coffin Berlin, R. D. 

Irma Jones Berlin, R. D. 

Edith C. Pruitt Berlin, R. D. 

Estella Pruitt Berlin, R. D. 

Florida Jarvis Berlin 

Mary Hickman Showell 

May V. Hastings Showell 

Ralph R. Dennis Ocean City 



R COUNTY 

3 8 Elizabeth Thomas Ocean City 

3 8 Minnie Coffin Ocean City 

3 8 Annie L. Price Ocean City 

3 8 Anna F. Schaefer Ocean City 

3 9 Mamie Coffin Berlin, R. D 

4 1 Mary L. Williams Snow Hill 

4 2 Mary E. Holloway Newark 

4 2 Bessie Dryden Newark 

4 3 Nellie Savage Newark, R. D. 

4 4 Wilsie Whittington Berlin, R. D. 

5 1 Alice Hudson Bishop 

5 2 Elizabeth Bishop B'ishopville 

5 2 Nellie Ringler Bishopville 

5 2 Annie Ryan Bishopville 

5 3 W. F. Godwin Bishopville 

5 3 Mildred Rayne Bishopville 

5 4 Amelia D. Carey Whaleyville 

5 5 Delia R. Williams Bishopville 

5 6 Laura Walker Bishopville 

5 7 Grace Hignut Hudson Bishop 

6 1 Minnie Warren Snow Hill 

6 2 Cora Perdue Snow Hill, D. D, 

6 3 Elizabeth A. Jones. .. Snow Hill, R. D. 

6 4 Fannie Perdue Snow Hill, R. D. 

7 1 Lillian Scott Pocomoke, R. D. 

7 2 Mrs. Zilpha C. W. Corbin. .Snow Hill 

R. D. 

7 3 Eunice C. Bounds. . .Snow Hill, R. D. 

7 4 Elizabeth Warren Snow Hill, R. D. 

7 6 

7 7 Roberta Gordy Eden, R. D. 

7 8 Francis Warren Snow Hill, R. D. 

7 8 Mae Richardson Eden, R. D. 

7 9 Eva K. T. Powell Salisbury, R. D. 

7 10 Ethel Pusey Snow Hill 

8 1 Jeannettc White Pocomoke, R. D. 

8 7 Nellie Stanford Girdletrce 



Annual Report of the State Board of Education 



35;; 



Nahx and Addkess 



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Elsie M. Dennis Stockton 

Lottie E. Bromley Stockton 

Bertie E. Jones Stockton 

Annie B. Colona Stockton 

Virginia Dickerson. . .Snow Hill, R. D. 

Hden TuU Girdletree 

Louise Dickerson Girdletree 

Mrs. Margaret T. Ames. .. .Girdletree 
Hazel Smack Girdletree 

Sallie K. Tingle Berlin 

Pearl Boston Berlin 

Daisy Wise Berlin 

Pauline Horsey Berlin 

Lurah Collins Berlin 

Minnie VV. Jones Berlin 

Hazel R. Hill Berlin 

Mina D. Bel! Berlin 

Mary Warren Ironshire 

Mary A. F. Gilliss St. Martins 

Nellie G. Collins St. Martins 

Elizabeth Dale Whaleyville 

Angie Hudson Whaleyville 

Mamie Hopkins Whaleyville 

Katherine McCr-be Whaleyville 

Blanche Hall Whaleyville 

HIGH SCHOOLS 
POCOMOKE 

E. Clarke Fontaine Pocomoke 

Mary B'. Hamilton Pocomoke 

Evelyn Gardner Pocomoke 

Mary W. Davy Pocomoke 

Ida Belle Wilson Pocomoke 



2 Lucy Alderman Pocomoke 

2 Annie Merrell, M T Pocomoke 

2 Ethel M. Dix, D. S Pocomoke 

2 Edith L. Stevenson, C. C... Pocomoke 

SNOW HILL 

5 A. C. Humphreys Snow Hill 

S Edna Staton Whaley Snow HiU 

5 Julia F. Bratten Snow Hill 

5 Emily K. Dryden Snow Hill 

5 Sallie Sterling Snow Hill 

S L.J. Kelley, M. T Snow Hill 

5 Nancy Purnell, D. S Snow Hill 

5 Mary A. Powell, C. C Snow Hill 

STOCKTON 

2 John S. Hill Stockton 

2 Mrs. Lola B. Hudson Stockton 

2 Mary N. Hyland Stockton 

2 Mrs. M. A. Mills, M. T Stockton 

2 Mabel Jones, D. S Stockton 

GIRDLETREE 

4 \V. A. P. Strang Girdletree 

BUCKINGHAM 

1 Eugene W. Pruitt Berlin 

1 Ella Massey Berlin 

1 John T. McManis Berlin 

1 Mrs. M. A. Mills, M. T Berlin 

1 Mabel Jones, D. S Berlin 

I Mary F. Bailey, C. C Berlin 



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