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REPORT 



OF THE 



AMERICAN BISON 
SOCIETY 



1922-1923 



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REPORT 

OF THE 



AMERICAN BISON 
SOCIETY 



OBJECTS 

THE OBJECTS OF THIS SOCIETY SHALL BE THE PERMANENT 

PRESERVATION AND INCREASE OF THE AMERICAN BISON 

AND THE PROTECTION OF NORTH AMERICAN BIG GAME 



1922-23 








PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 
1923 



COPYRIGHT 1923 

by 

THE AMERICAN BISON SOCIETY 



PRINTED BY 

BROOKLYN EAGLE PRESS 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



CONTENTS 



Officers of the American Bison Society 

Seventeenth Annual Meeting . . . . ■ 

Report of the President ..... 

Medal of Honor Awarded to the American Bison Society . 

Fifteenth Census of Living American Bison . 

Wood Bison, by M. S. Garretson .... 

European Bison, by Dr. Kurt Priemel . . • 

Full List of Subscriptions . . . • 

The Wichita Antelope ...••• 

Names of Plants Found on the Prairie in Districts Frequen 

Antelope ...■••• 
The First Census of Living American Prong Horn Antelope 
Report on a Proposed Antelope Sanctuary in Southwestern 

by Martin S. Garretson . . . . • 

Members of the American Bison Society 



Pack 
. 7 



10 
19 
21 
29 
35 
41 
45 



ted by 



Idaho, 



46 
49 

53 
65 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



Page 

A Reduced Reproduction of a Diploma . . . .2 

The Mount Dome Antelope Refuge, Siskiyou County, California . 17 

Medal of Honor Awarded to the American Bison Society . . .18 

Buffalo Crossing the Lamar River . . . . . .20 

A Wood Bison Bull . . . . . . . .28 

A European Bison Bull . . . . . . . .34 

Antelope Fawns Captured at Brooks, Alberta, Canada . . .40 

Baby Antelope One Day Old, Born in Oklahoma . . . .44 

Twin Antelope Fawn, One Day Old, Born in Oklahoma . . . 44 

Work of the Unnaturalized Basque Sheepherder . . . .48 

The Antelope's Curiosity Often Lures It Within Easy Range of the 

Rifle ......... 52 

The Ranch House, Owyhee County, Idaho ... .54 

The Cattle Corral, Owyhee County, Idaho . . . . .54 

Sheep Hills, Brace's Ranch, Owyhee County, Idaho . .56 

Numerous Trails Led Through Ancient Sagebrush . . . .57 

Five Miles South of Brace's Ranch . . . . . .59 

The Bluffs Along the Owyhee River . . .60 

Sheep on a National Forest Preserve . . . . . .63 



OFFICERS OF 

The American Bison Society 

1923 



OFFICERS 

Hon. President in Memoriam Col. THEODORE ROOSEVELT 

Hon. Vice-President Prof. HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN. New York 

President EDMUND SEYMOUR, 45 Wall Street, New York, N. Y. 

First Vice-President Dr. WILLIAM T. HORNADAY, New York, N. Y. 

Second Vice-President AUSTIN CORBIN, New York, N. Y. 

Secretary MARTIN S. GARRETSON, 414 Clifton Ave., Clifton. N. J. 

Treasurer CLARK WILLIAMS, 160 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Assistant Treasurer W. C. ROBERTSON, Oradell, N. J. 

Counsel LEONARD D. BALDWIN, 27 Pine Street, New York, N. Y. 

BOARD OF MANAGERS 

1923 Col. CHARLES GOODNIGHT Goodnight, Texas 

1923 MADISON GRANT New York, N. Y. 

1923 MORTON J. ELROD Missoula, Montana 

1923 CLARK WILLIAMS New York, N. Y. 

1923 Mrs. ETHEL R. THAYER Boston, Mass. 

1923 JOHN C. PHILLIPS ....Wenham, Mass. 

1923 AUSTIN CORBIN New York, N. Y. 

1923 WM. L. UNDERWOOD Boston, Mass. 

1923 LEONARD D. BALDWIN New York, N. Y. 

1924 HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN New York, N. Y. 

1924 JOHN M. PHILLIPS Pittsburg, Pa. 

1924 CHARLES L. BRINSMADE Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1924 HENRY A. EDWARDS Albany, N. Y. 

1924 MARTIN S. GARRETSON Clifton, N. J. 

1924 FREDERIC H. KENNARD Boston, Mass. 

1924 JOHN E. THAYER South Lancaster, Mass. 

1924 WILLIAM P. WHARTON Groton, Mass. 

1925 ERNEST HAROLD BAYNES Meriden, N. H. 

1925 EDMUND SEYMOUR New York, N. Y. 

1925 GEORGE D. PRATT New York, N. Y. 

1925 Dr. W. T. HORNADAY New York, N. Y. 

1925 ARTHUR H. HAGEMEYER New York, N. Y. 

1925 Dr. T. S. PALMER Biological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

1925 CARL K. MacFADDEN New York, N. Y. 

1925 J. B. HARKIN Ottawa, Canada 

1925 CHASE S. OSBORN Sault de Sainte Marie, Mich. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

Dr. W. T. Hornaday M. S. Garretson 

Edmund Seymour Leonard D. Baldwin 



SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING 

The Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the American Bison 
Society was held at the office of Leonard D. Baldwin, 27 Pine 
Street, New York City, on Tuesday, January 9, 1923, President 
Edmund Seymour presiding. 

The Minutes of the Sixteenth Annual Meeting were read 
and approved. 

The President delivered his Annual Report, which is 
printed in full elsewhere. 

The Treasurer reported a balance on hand for January 
1st of $346.68. An auditing committee appointed by the chair 
reported tiie Treasurer's account correct. 

A nominating committee presented the following names 
for the Board of Managers for the year, class of 1925. Ernest 
Harold B-tynes, Edmund Seymour, George D. Pratt, Dr. W. 
T. Hornaday, Arthur H. Hagemeyer, Dr. T. S. Palmer, Carl K. 
MacFadden, J. B. Harkin and Chase S. Osborn. 

The Secretary reported that during the past year he had 
taken a census of all living Prong Horn antelope throughout 
the United States and Canada, and that the taking of this census 
had been a difficult task, owing to the fact that the antelope were 
widely scattered in remote sections of 14 states. However, the 
figures, printed in full elsewhere, are believed to be approxi- 
mately correct. The Bison census is about completed, which 
shows an increase in both animals and herd owners. A com- 
parison with the figures of the census taken by Dr. William 
T. Hornaday in 1903 and printed in the First Annual Report 
of the Bison Society shows that at that time there was but twenty- 
four States in which the buff^alo were found, the number of herd 
owners forty-one, with a total number of 969 animals. Twenty 
years later, today in 1923, according to the last census, there are 
now forty states in which there are 147 herds, with a total of 
3,654 buff"alo, only eight states in the Union without buffalo, 
viz., Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Virginia, 
West Virginia, South Carolina and Florida. 

Discussion on the care and protection of the Grand Canyon 
herd ot buffalo revealed the fact that it rested entirely upon the 



question of finding the necessary funds, as it would take from 
$1,500 to $2,000 per year for a game warden and maintenance 
of the herd. 

Voted: That a strong effort be made to establish the pro- 
posed reserves in Oregon and Idaho for the Antelope and Sage 
Grouse, and further, to encourage and assist in the establishing 
of state bands of antelope in such states where the antelope 
are found. 

Voted: That the Treasurer be instructed to send $100 to 
assist in the care and protection of the Mount Dome antelope. 

Voted: That Ezra Meeker be allowed, with the approval of 
Col. Goodnight, the use of the Goodnight buffalo films in his 
historical work of filming the Old Oregon Trail. 

The Secretary was instructed to draw up letters of sympathy 
to be sent to the wife and family of our fellow member of the 
Board of Managers, A. Barton Hepburn, also to the brothers 
of our late Active member, Howard Eaton of Wolf, Wyoming. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Board of Managers, which 
was held immediately succeeding that of the Society, the follow- 
ing officers were elected: Hon. vice-president, Henry Fairfield 
Osborn; president, Edmund Seymour; first vice-president, Dr. 
W. T. Hornaday; second vice-president, Austin Corbin; secre- 
tary, M. S. Garretson; treasurer, Clark Williams, assistant 
treasurer, W. C. Robertson; counsel, Leonard B. Baldwin. 

Martin S. Garretson, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE PRESIDENT 

Concerning the activities of the American Bison Society during 
the past two years, the President has the honor to submit to the 
members of the Society the following report: 

Two of our very good members have "Crossed the Great Divide": 
Mr. A. Barton Hepburn who has been on our Board from the very 
beginning, gave his personal and moral support to our activities, and 
was very generous in a financial way towards everything that the 
Society undertook. His loss is a great one to the Society. He died 
January 25, 1923. 

The other was that fine, famous old scout, Howard Eaton, of Wolf, 
Wyoming. He was 72 years old when he died, April 5, 1922. His 
brother, F. Alden Eaton, has taken his place as a member of the 
Society. 

The most notable achievement of the Society during the year 
was the purchase of six antelopes from C. J. Blazier, of Brooks, 
Alberta, and the successful transportation of the animals to the Wichita 
National Preserve in Oklahoma. We purchased these antelope at 
$125 each and paid all the expenses of their delivery, including Mr. 
Blazier's trip to Cache, Oklahoma, and his return home, with an allow- 
ance of $5.00 a day for his time. The antelope were delivered in first 
class condition. It will be recalled that last year, from ticks or other 
causes, six of the ten antelope sent to Cache died, and in order to 
start this nucleus herd and perpetuate the antelope on the Wichita 
Preserve, we thought it desirable to purchase six more head. The 
task was difficult and it took time to capture these antelope and ship 
them into this country. Canada is now alive to the situation of saving 
the antelope, and we would not have been able to take them out of 
Canada had it been for any other purpose than preserving the species. 

I am pleased to submit a letter from the Secretary of Agriculture 
in appreciation of the efforts of the Society in the preservation of 
wild game: 

Department of Agricuhure, Washington, D. C. 
December 11, 1922. 
Mr. Edmund Seymour, 
45 Wall Street, 
New York City. 
Dear Mr. Seymour: 

"On behalf of the Department of Agriculture, I wish to thank you and the 
American Bison Society for the generous donation to the Government of six 
antelope, which were placed on the Wichita Game Preserve and National Forest 
by the Society. 

'"The effort of the American Bison Society to conserve the wild life of the 
country, particularly those species which seemed in danger of extinction, is in 
my opinion, a very useful public service, and I regard this work as being of 
the highest importance. Very truly yours. 

(Signed) "Henry A. Wallace, Secretary." 

In this connection, also, we have recovered the duty which was 
paid on the original shipment of ten antelope, amounting to approxi- 
mately $125. No duty was charged upon the last shipment. 

10 



It is interesting to know that Mr. Blazier now has captured seven- 
teen additional antelope that he is anxious to dispose of to establish 
another herd, or if he is permitted, to capture more to start an antelope 
farm. We have had quite a little correspondence covering this matter, 
taking this up with several States in view of establishing several state 
herds. Only pressure of other matters and the lack of funds has 
prevented our purchasing these animals ourselves to put them on 
another of the National Park reserves. This will be taken up during 
the year. We have a recommendation from Dr. E. W. Nelson, Chief 
of the Biological Survey, that a nucleus herd can be established on 
the Niobrara Game Refuge in Nebraska. 

I am also glad to state that Mr. Blazier has suggested a plan, 
and some correspondence has been had in reference to it, to induce 
the Canadian Government and the Canadian Pacific Railway to estab- 
lish a game preserve near Brooks, Alberta, and save this, the largest 
remaining herd of antelope in Canada. We hope something may 
come from this. 

The Society joined with the California Academy of Sciences, 
the California Fish and Game Commission and the Permanent Wild 
Life Protection Fund in subscribing towards the protection of what 
is known as the Mount Dome antelope herd, in Siskiyou County, 
California. Our share was $100. This money was spent by the 
California Academy of Sciences, through Mr. M. Hall McAllister, for 
the winter feeding and care, summer observation, warning and informa- 
tion signs, and photographs of this fine antelope herd. Your Presi- 
dent and Treasurer should be authorized to continue this subscrip- 
tion should it be necessary. This is one of the best moves in the 
country for the preservation of the antelope, valley elk and mountain 
sheep. The California Academy of Sciences is also doing all it 
can to help establish the Oregon antelope preserve. 

I am glad to quote a paragraph from a letter received from 
Daniel Carter Beard, Chief Scout Commissioner, Boy Scouts of 
America, while on his trip of observation through the Yellowstone 
National Park and vicinity, dated September 27, 1921, as follows: 

'"In regard to the antelope, I saw very few in the park (Yellowstone Park), 
not more than forty altogether. They tell me there are 300 there, that is the 
«xact number they gave me 21 years ago, which means that the herd has not 
increased by a single one in 20 years. There are lots of coyotes around the 
antelope feeding grounds, and lots of two-legged coyotes outside the park line. 
My trip West made me very pessimistic in regard to the preservation of wild 
life. Outside the Park I saw no wild life with the exception of two or three 
cranes and scattering small bunches of ducks. Twenty years ago, over the same 
ground. I saw thousands of water fowl, brant, geese, ducks, swans, shore birds, 
sage hens, sharp-tailed grouse, antelope, deer, wolves and prairie chickens. The 
only live things besides men appeared to be crows and tin lizzies." 

In regard to the Northern Lakes Park enterprise, which was 
the setting apart of the beautiful wooded lakes and islands of Northern 
Wisconsin for a State preserve and playground. This was started by 
Judge Asa K. Owen, the bill passed the Legislature but the Governor 
of Wisconsin vetoed it on the ground of economy. However, the 

11 



project has not been given up. The Society endeavored to render 
Mr. Owen some assistance and there is considerable correspondence 
covering this matter. 

For several years the Society has been actively considering what 
to do with the surplus bison and other game in the National Parks 
of this country. The situation has also arisen in Canada. Our 
Government has given from the Yellowstone National Park herd to 
several municipalities a number of bison for exhibition purposes. I 
am in receipt of a letter from Mr. Horace M. Albright, Superintendent 
of the Yellowstone Park, stating that legislation has been included 
in the Interior Department Appropriation Bill now pending in Con- 
gress to give authority for the selling or otherwise disposing of the 
surplus elk, buffalo, beaver and predatory animals, especially in the 
Yellowstone Park. The Interior Department Appropriation Act for 
1924 contains the following paragraph: 

"Hereafter the Secretary of the Interior is authorized, in his discretion and 
under regulations to be prescribed by him, to give surplus elk, buffalo, bear, 
beaver and predatory animals inhabiting Yellowstone Park to Federal, State, 
County, and municipal authorities for preserves, zoos, zoological gardens and 
parks: Provided, that the said Secretary may sell or otherwise dispose of the 
surplus buffalo of the Yellowstone National Park herd, and all moneys received 
from the sale of any such surplus buffalo shall be deposited in the Treasury of 
the United States as miscellaneous receipts." 

In a recent letter Mr. Albright further says upon this subject: 

"With reference to the responsibility of killing male buffalo in the United 
States I can speak with authority so far as the Yellowstone Park herd is con- 
cerned and state that the time is not far distant when a great many of our male 
buffalo will have to be eliminated. The situation here is not at all satisfactory, 
and I expect within five years we will have to be doing the same thing that the 
Canadian Government is doing at the present time. I do not see how this can 
be avoided in any large buffalo herd, particularly when we consider that no 
buffalo herd can live in this civilized age under ideal conditions, that is, conditions 
to which they were naturally adapted. For instance, we have observed that so 
far as the mating season is concerned in the separation of males and females, 
the Yellowstone herd has gotten very far away from natural conditions with the 
result that calves are born at all times of the year. This situation has many 
angles that I will explain to you when I see you personally tluring the coming 
winter." 

It is a matter of gratification that the buffalo are becoming so 
numerous in some of the Government herds that it presently will 
become necessary to treat the surplus bulls as so many domestic cattle. 

On May 26, 1922, your President received a letter from Dr. E. 
W. Nelson, saying in effect that a tract of some 18.86 acres of land, 
belonging to an Indian, was about to be sold. This land is traversed 
by the road leading to the main gate of the Montana Bison Range, 
and is so situated that an undesirable owner or tenant might make 
serious trouble. Unfortunately, the land could not be purchased by 
the Government until it was authorized by an Act of Congress, which 
would be exceedingly difficult to obtain promptly. Mr. Nelson, there- 
fore, asked if the Bison Society could raise $600 to purchase this land 
for the purpose of safeguarding this entrance of the Bison range. 

12 



This is one of the finest game preserves in the country, with more 
than four hundred bison, several hundred elk, two kinds of deer, 
and some mountain sheep which were introduced last winter. In 
addition, there are Chinese pheasants, sharp-tailed grouse and many 
ducks which frequent the place. We took this matter up with one 
of our Board of Managers, Mr. George D. Pratt, who very generously 
has advanced the Society $600 for this purpose. The total amount 
was S621.50, the $21.50 being taken from the Society's treasury. 
Mr. Pratt advanced the money until such time as the Government can 
appropriate the money from the General Fund for the purpose, and 
the deed for the land has been taken in Mr. Pratt's name. This 
transaction has been entirely completed. 

During the past year a number of gifts have been made to the 
Society. When Mr. Blazier was in New York last year after deliver- 
ing the ten head of antelope at the Wichita Preserve, I took him to 
the American Museum of Natural History and we discovered that 
the antelope group there contained no antelope fawn. Upon inquiry 
we also found that there was no antelope fawn in the Colorado Museum 
of Natural History group. Mr. Blazier at that time promised to send 
us at least two mountable skins of antelope fawns. Your officers 
decided to give on of these skins to the American Museum of Natural 
History and one to the Colorado Museum at Denver. A third skin 
has been received from Mr. Blazier and we recommend that it be 
offered to the National Museum at Washington, D. C. 

By the Canadian Pacific Railroad, Mr. G. Daniels, Chief Com- 
missioner, we were presented with a film of an antelope hunt. This 
film has been loaned to Mr. Ezra Meeker, as he may wish to depict 
part of it in his picture "The Oregon Trail." 

We have also been presented by Mr. Romy Ford with a painting, 
executed by himself, of a buffalo bull. 

We have further been presented with an old buffalo gun by 
Jesse Brown of Sturgis, South Dakota, through Mr. William F. Hooker 
of the Erie Magazine and a veteran of the Plains. 

The negatives of the buffalo film presented to us by Mr. Charles 
Goodnight have, with the consent of the Board of Managers, been 
loaned to Mr. Ezra Meeker for reproduction in his projected film 
of "The Oregon Trail." To this loan we have also received the 
consent of Mr. Goodnight. 

Concerning this film of "The Oregon Trail," Mr. Meeker has 
requested the assistance of the Society in securing government co- 
operation in the making of films of wild game in the government 
preserves. I think it is important that the Society's influence and 
co-operation be extended to all such men as Mr. Meeker who seek 
to make films of wild life on the game preserves, not only for their 
present interests but for their historical and educational value. 

Your President went to the National Capitol in September, 1921, 
to attend the annual meeting of the National Parks Association and 
was fortunate in meeting President Harding and speaking to him 
about saving the antelope, in which he was very much interested. 

13 



Secretary Fall was also seen and suggested that the Society try 
to stock some of the great land grants in New Mexico with antelope 
and promised his co-operation. He also expressed his approval of the 
proposed antelope preserve in Idaho and thought we should get with 
us the assistance of the local settlers. 

The petition for the establishment by the Government of an 
antelope preserve in Idaho, originating with the settlers after material 
revision by Dr. T. S. Palmer, of the Biological Survey, adapting the 
same to the requirements of the law and of the Government, was 
forwarded by your Society to the settlers, and after signature by a 
large majority living within the proposed reserve, became a part of 
the record. 

The report of your Secretary, Mr. Garretson, covers this subject 
and his investigation in Idaho. The Society paid only his traveling 
expenses. Contributions from Mr. Carl K. McFadden and Mr. William 
P. Wharton to the treasurer of the Society made possible Mr. Garret- 
son's trip. The Biological Survey paid the expenses of its represen- 
tative, Mr. Fred M. Dille, who accompanied Mr. Garretson. 

We requested Mr. Garretson, in connection with our campaign 
for the preservation of the antelope, to make a comprehensive census 
of the antelope of the United States. Wliile his correspondence, in 
taking the usual bison census is very extensive, the taking of the 
antelope census required not less than 550 additional letters. 

This census, I believe, is the first census ever attempted of the 
American antelope, and is especially interesting and valuable. Thanks 
to the painstaking care of Mr. Garretson, it is as accurate as any 
census can be made. 

To illustrate by one instance how necessary is our antelope cam- 
paign, in one State a band of seven antelope was located and so re- 
ported. As far as we could learn, these were the only antelope in 
that State, but before the census was completed a confidential letter 
was received that some hunters ( ? ) had gone out and run down with 
an automobile all these antelope and totally exterminated this band 
in one day. 

Mr. Horace M. Albright, Superintendent of the Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park, has made some suggestions to the Bison Society whereby 
substantial service may be rendered in preserving and protecting the 
antelope herd in the Yellowstone National Park. This matter is not 
yet fully developed, and I merely mention it as a service that the 
Society may possibly enter the coming year. 

It will be of great interest to our members to know that others 
are actively assisting in the preservation of the antelope. I quote the 
following extract from a recent letter. 

" In the summer of 1922 Mr. E. B. Brownell. of San Francisco, wrote to Dr. 
Hornaday, proposing that steps should be taken to establish a herd of antelope 
on the Tonto Plateau in the Grand Canyon of Arizona, immediately below El 
Tovar Hotel. This proposal was transmitted to the United States Biological 
Survey for an opinion, and from the beginning it was there reearded with favor. 
Dr. Hornaday was exceedingly sceptical about the practicability of the scheme, 

14 



and remained so until April, 1923, when he visited the Grand Canyon and made 
a study of the situation on the ground, with the aid of several local authorities, 
whose opinions in the matter were of value. The result of this conference was the 
unanimous approval of the plan. Simultaneously with this move, Mr. E. A. 
Goldman, of the Biological Survey, visited the Grand Canyon, made a searching 
personal investigation and officially reported in favor of the scheme. It then 
remained only to carry it into effect. 

"Dr. Nelson, of the Biological Survey, estimated that $2,000 would be required 
to procure an antelope herd and transport it safely to the Grand Canyon, where 
the animals would be taken in charge by the Biological Survey and the National 
Park Service, and establislied on a permanent basis on the Tonto Plateau. Mr. 
Brownell immediately offered to subscribe $1,000 of the fund required, and 
the Permanent Wild Life Protection Fund pledged the remainder. The details 
are now being worked out by the officers of the Biological Survey, and there is 
every reason to believe that by September or October, 1924, a herd of at least 
ten young antelope will be successfully installed on the Tonto Plateau, a short 
distance below the Bright Angel Trail." 

The saving of the antelope is a much more difficult undertaking 
than the saving of the bison, because the animals themselves are 
very delicate. In their natural habitat they depend largely on their 
keen vision and fleetness of foot, and as the country is settled their 
natural ranges are being pre-empted, particularly by the sheepmen 
who kill them ruthlessly. Unless something is done to preserve them 
on ranges of their own selection where they are now found, in a 
few years they will become extinct. 

We cordially invite all the members of the Society, and of similar 
conservation societies, and all lovers of wild life, to co-operate with 
and assist the officers of the Bison Society in their efforts to preserve 
the Prong Horn Antelope of America. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Edmund Seymour. 



15 




Photograph- taken Jainiary IS, 1922. 

THE MOUNT DOME ANTELOPE REFUGE, SISKIYOU COUNTY, CALIFORNIA 

FLIGHTY-SEVEN (87) WiLD AnTELOPE CoMING Up TO THE FEEDING GrOUND, AbOUT 40 AniMALS 

Shown in the Picture. This Refuge W.^s Established November, 1921, Under the Auspices 

OF the California Academy of Sciences, United States Forest Service, California Fish and 

Game Commission, New York Zoological Society and the American Bison Society 



San Francisco, Cal., 15 February, 1923. 

Mr. Martin S. Garretson, 

Secretary, American Bison Society, 

8 Union Avenue, Clifton, New Jersey. 

Dear Sir: — Your Society will be pleased to know of the satisfactory progress 
which has been made in the increase of Antelope in the Mount Dome Herd in 
Siskiyou County, California. 

"Our Keeper Ash W. Carsley reports the increase for 1922 as 34 head making 
a total count made during January, 1923, of 

"One Hundred and Twenty-one (121) Antelope. 
"This shows that good results are coming from our efforts. 
"Yours very truly, 

(Signed) "M. Hatt McAllister, Committee Chairman. 
"485 California St." 



17 





The Grand Medal of Honor Awarded to the American Bison 
Society by the Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation de Francb 



18 



MEDAL OF HONOR AWARDED TO THE AMERICAN 
BISON SOCIETY 

In 1921 the Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation de France (the lead- 
ing Zoological Society of France, established in 1854) awarded its 
Grand Medal of Honor to the American Bison Society in recognition of 
its great achievement in the preservation of the American Bison on a 
continuing basis. 

The award was made at the meeting of the National Geographic 
Society, 198 Boulevard St. Germain, on Sunday, February 13, 1921, 
in the Great Hall of the Museum of Natural History, under the active 
presidency of Mr. Sarraut, Secretary for the Colonies. The speech of 
presentation was made by Edmond Perrier, President of the Society, 
member of the Institute, in the presence of M, Poincare, and many 
figures of scientific and international prominence. The Societe 
Nationale d'Acclimatation de France devotes special attention to the 
acclimatization of species in places never before occupied by them. 

The Grand Medal of Honor is of silver, designed by Albert Barre 
and is artistic and beautiful. On the front is the image in high relief 
of Isidore Geoffrey St. Hilaire, a celebrated French naturalist, and 
upon the reverse is the inscription, 

''Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation de France 

"The American Bison Society 

1920" 

The medal, accompanied by a handsomely engraved diploma,* 
was transmitted to the Bison Society through the American Ambassador, 
Hugh Campbell Wallace. 

* See frontispiece. 



19 




20 



FIFTEENTH CENSUS 

OF LIVING AMERICAN BISON AS OF 

JANUARY 1, 1923 

Compiled by Martin S. Garretson 
UNITED STATES 



Owner and Location 



Alberta: 

Birmingham — City Park Zoo. 

Arizona: 

Fredonia— Jim Owens 



Arkansas: 

Siloam Springs— I. N. Bradfield. . 

California: 

Santa Cruz — S. H. Cowell 

San Diego — City Park 

San Francisco — Golden Gate Park. 

San Simeon— W. R. Hearst 

Santa Ynez— Armour & Williams.. 



Colorado: 

Denver — Mountain Parks 

Fort Garland — Trinchera Ranch Co 
Sedalia— Richard Dillon 

Delaware : 

Wilmington — Chy Park Zoo 



District of Columbia: 

Washington— Nat'l Zoological Park. 

Georgia: 

Atlanta — Grant Park Zoo 



Idaho: 
Pocatello- 



-Nixon Trust Estate. 



Illinois: 

Aurora — City Park Zoo 

Chicago — Lincoln Park Zoo. 

Elgin— City Park 

Granville— A. W. Hopkins.. 



Indiana: 

Fort Wayne — Estate of John H. Bass 
Lafayette— Columbia Park 



Iowa: 

Charles City— City Park Zoo 

Davenport — Department of Parks. 

Keota — C. A. Singmaster 

Keota — J. 0. Singmaster 

Sioux City— Stone Park 

Spirit Lake— John Reinhart 



Males 



34 



Females 



Est 



38 



3 
3 

7 
5 
3 

13 
imate 
5 



Calves born 
in 1922 



10 



Total 



6 
4 
23 
9 
5 

17 

110 

6 

1 

14 

2 

9 

2 

14 
1 
4 

1 
3 

2 

10 
16 
11 

7 
8 



Grand 
Total 



1 

82 

1 



47 

133 

1 

14 
2 
9 

2i 



54 



21 



CENSUS — Continued 



Owner and Location 



M.nles 



t'emales 



Calves born 
in 1922 



Total 



Gland 
Total 



Kansas: 

Hays — Fort Hays Kansas Manual 

School 

Topeka — Department of Parks 

Wichita — Department of Parks 

Kentucky: 

Junction City — Joe E. Wright 

Louisiana : 

New Orleans — Dept. of Conservation. 
Maryland: 

Baltimore— Druid Hill Park 

Massachusetts: 

Boston — Franklin Park Zoo 

Springfield — City Park Zoo 

West Brookfield — Herbert E. 

Richardson 

West Brookfield — Indian Rock Farm.. 

Michigan: 

Detroit — Department of Parks 

Grand Rapids — City Park Zoo 

Oscoda — Carl E. .Schmidt 

Minnesota: 

Lake City — Rest Island Silver Fox Co. 

Little Falls— City Park Zoo 

Canby — John Landgraf 

Hibbing — Department of Parks 

Mankato — City Park Zoo 

Redwood Falls — Marion Johnson 

Rochester — City Park Zoo 

St. Paul — Department of Parks 

Mississippi: 

Jackson — Livingston Park 

Missouri: 

Joplin — City Park Zoo 

Mexico — City Park Zoo 

Springfield — City Park Zoo 

St. Joseph — City Park Zoo 

St. Louis — Forest Park 

Montana: 

Butte — Columbia Gardens 

Kalispell — City Park 

Miles City— C. H. Mott 

Moise — Montana National Bison Range 
Wallis — Wallis Huidekoper 

Nebraska: 

Crete — Anton Vavra 

Lincoln — Antelope Park 

Omaha — Department of Parks 

Valentine — Niobrara Reservation 



1 
] 

] 
1 
2 

3 
1 
1 
181 
1 



4 
11 



1 




.3 


1 


] 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


4 


.S 



1 
1 

2 
203 

2 



25 



4 
2 
4 
I4.S9 
4 

2 
1 

13 
41 



12 
1 
] 
5 



21 



10 



19 

2 



473 



37 



22 



CENSUS — Continued 



Owner and Location 



Males 



Females 



Calves born 
in 1922 



Total 



Grand 
Total 



Nevada : 

Tyson Bean 

New Hampshire: 

Newport — Blue Mountain Forest Ass'n. 

New Jersey: 

Alloway — Reeves Timberman 

Grenloch — Louis Weber 

Trenton — Cadwalader Park 

New Mexico: 

Fort Sumner — E. W. & R. E. McKenzie 

New York: 

Buffalo — Delaware Park Zoo 

New York City — Central Park Zoo... 

New York City — Zoological Park 

Chazy— W. H. Miner 

Rochester — Seneca Durand Eastmen 
Park 

North Carolina: 

Andrews — George C. Moore 

Asheville — Pisgah National Forest.... 
High Point — J. Allen Austin 

North Dakota: 

Fort Totten— Sully's Hill Nat'l Park.. 

Ohio: 

Burton — W. B. Cleveland 

Cincinnati — Zoological Gardens 

Cleveland — Brookside Zoo 

Toledo — City Park Zoo 

Oklahoma: 
Cache — Wichita National Forest Reserve 

Fort Gibson — G. A. Smith 

Oklahoma City — State Game Preserve 

Oklahoma City — Wheeler Park 

Marland — Miller Brothers 101 Ranch 

Muskogee — City Park Zoo 

Sand Springs — Sand Springs Amuse- 
ment Company 

Sulphur— Piatt National Park 

Pawnee— Major G. W. Lille 

Stillwater— M. J. Otey 

Oregon: 

Portland — Washington Park 

Pennsylvania: 

Allentown — Harry C. Trexler 

Philadelphia — Zoological Society 

Pittsburg — Highland Park Zoo 

Scranton — Zoological Society 



1 
2 
1 

16 



1 
2 

1 

32 

2 
2 
4 
4 



1 




1 


3 


.59 


70 


4 


3 


13 


17 


2 


1 


1 


2.5 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


28 


2 


1 



44 
10 



17 

i 
1 



14 
1 
1 



20 



4 

2 

54 

4 

4 

12 

12 

10 

5 

4 
3 

11 

3 

12 

1 

4 

146 

7 
31 

4 
26 

2 

2 

3 

32 

3 



85 

17 
7 
1 



20 

9 

54 



42 

12 
11 

20 



256 



no 



23 



CENSUS — Continued 



Owner and Location 



Males 



Females 



halves born 




in 1922 


Total 


7 


67 


140 


B90 


22 


92 




4 




3 




1 




2 


1 


4 


1 


4 


36 


196 




11 




1 


1 


7 


6 


26 




2 




225 




4 


4 


13 


6 


47 


1 


7 


2 


6 


2 


8 


3 


14 




2 


1 


4 




3 


82 


577 




125 



Grand 
Total 



South Dakota: 

Fairburn— State Game Preserve 

Fort Pierre — Estate of James Philip. 
Hot Springs — Wind Cave Game Preserve 
Sioux Falls — City Park 

Tennessee: 

Memphis — Overton Park Zoo 

Nashville — Glendale Park 

Texas: 

College Station — A. and M. College of 

Texas Zoo 

El Paso — City Park Zoo 

Fort Worth — Park Department 

Goodnight — W. J. McAlister 

Hartley County — George T. Reynolds. 

Houston — City Park Zoo 

Kent— Rock Pile Ranch 

Stamford— R. V. Colbert 

Utah: 

Salt Lake City— City Park 

Antelope Island — Estate of John E. 
Dooley 

Washington: 

Everette — City Park 

Spokane — City Park Zoo 

Tacoma — Metropolitan Park 

* Yakima — Gibson Brothers 

Wisconsin: 

Chippewa Falls — Chippewa Falls As- 
sociation 

Madison — C. G. Dwight 

Milwaukee — City Park Zoo 

Wyoming: 

Careyhurst — J. M. Carey Brothers, Inc. 

Gillette— R. B. Marquiss 

Sheridan — Pioneer Park Zoo 

Thermopolis — L. F. Thornton 

Yellowstone National Park, Tame Hei'd 
Yellowstone National Park, Wild Herd 



24 

400 

31 

2 



2 
1 
1 

20 
4 

1 
3 
5 



36 

350 

39 

2 



2 

2 

140 

7 

3 
15 



Estimate 



1 

2 

3 

12 



2 
1 
1 
1 

268 
Estimate 



1 

2 

6 

29 



9 
1 
2 
2 

227 



105a 



251 



227 



64 



21 



725 



Formerly the C. E. Conrad herd of Kalispell, Mont. 

24 



CENSUS— Continued 



CANADA 



Owner and Location 



Males 



Females 



Calves born 

in 1922 Total 



Grand 
Total 



Alberta : 

Banff— National Park 

Lament — Elk Island Park. 
Wainwright — Buffalo Park. 

Athabasca: 

Wood Bison 



125 
3073 



5 

167 

3073 



3 

30 

1075 



Est mate 



Manitoba: 

Brandon — Western Agri. Association. 
Winnipeg — Assinaboine Park 



Ontario: 

London — City Park 

St. Thomas — Zoological Park. 
St. Thomas— Robert J. Millei 
Toronto — Zoological Gardens. 

Total in Canada 



16 

322 

7221 



1000 



7559 



1000 



10 



10 



8579 



SOUTH AMERICA 



Uruguay : 

Montevideo — Villa Dolores. 



AFRICA 



South Africa: 

Johannesburg — Zoological Gardens . . . 
Pretoria — National Zoological Gardens 



AUSTRALIA 



New South Wales: 

Sydney — Zoological Park. 



South Australia: 

Adelaide — Zoological Gardens. 



25 



CENSUS — Continued 



Owner and Location 



!Males 



Females 



Calves born 
in 1922 



Total 



EUROPE 



Grand 
Tota. 



Belgium : 












Antwerp — Royal Zoological Society. . 


3 


2 




5 


5 


England: 












Bedfordshire — Duke of Bedford 


14 


12 


4 


25 




Faygate, Sussex — Sir Claud Alexander 




1 




1 




London — Zoological Society 


5 


1 




6 




Primley Hill, Paiquton. South Devon 


1 






1 


33 


Germany: 












Cologne — Zoological Gardens 


2 


3 




5 




Alfeld, Leine — L. Kuhe 




1 




1 


6 


Netherlands: 












Amsterdam — Royal Zoological Society 


2 


1 


1 


4 




Rotterdam — Zoological Garden 


2 


1 




3 


7 


Russia: 












South Russia — Askanija Nowa 


1 


3 




4 




Peterboorg Zoological Gardens 


1 






1 


5 



SUMMARY OF BISON CENSUS FOR JANUARY 1, 1923 



Captive in United States 3753 

Wild in United States • • 125 

Captive in Canada 7579 

Wild in Canada 1000 

Captive in North America 11332 

Wild in North America 1125 

Total Pure-blood Bison in North America 12457 

Captive in South America and Foreign Countries 64 

Total Pure-blood Bison throughout the world 12521 

Calves born in 1922. included in the above total Over 1600 



26 



CENSUS — Continued 



SUMxMARY OF UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT HERDS 



Number of United States Government Herds 9 

Montana National Bison Range, Montana 459 

National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C 14 

Niobrara Reservation, Nebraska 41 

Pisgah National Forest and Game Preserve. North Carolina 4 

Piatt National Park. Oklahoma 3 

Sully"s Hill National Park, North Dakota 11 

Wichita National Forest and Game Preserve. Oklahoma 146 

Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota 92 

Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming 702 

Total number of Bison in U. S. Government Herds 1472 

Calves born in 1922, included in above total Over 200 




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28 



WOOD BISON 
By M. S. Garretson 

THE Wood Bison of Northern Alberta, Canada, are the only 
remnaiit living in a wild state of the species of bison that 
formerly ranged in countless numbers oyer the western plains 
of the United States and Canada. 

To the average person, the home of the Wood Bison, until 
recent years, has been a veritable terra incognita, lying some- 
wheres in Canada between the International boundary and the 
North Pole. Fortunately for the buffalo the remoteness of their 
present habitat io in a region so far removed from civilization 
that it has not been coveted by the settler, and the buffalo are 
as unmolested as they were 100 years ago. Some years ago the 
Dominion Government took steps to prevent their total extinc- 
tion by prohibiting the Indians and white hunters from killing 
them. No permits to kill or capture specimens for scientific 
purposes or otherwise were allowed to be issued, and as a fur- 
ther means of protection a bounty was placed on timber wolves, 
the only natural enemy of the buffalo, except man. The bounty 
was made large enough to encourage the trapping and killing 
of these animals by the natives of that district. To enforce ob- 
servance of these regulations, they were placed in the hands 
of the Royal North West Mounted Police and the effectiveness 
of these measures have produced a noticeable increase in the 
number of the herd. 

The range of the present herds lies between latitude 59 
and 61 degrees north and longitude 112 and 114 degrees west. 
It is bounded on the east by the Slave River, on the west by 
the Cariboo Mountains, on the north by the Great Slave Lake 
and on the south by the Peace River. Latitude 60 degrees cuts 
the tract midway at about the line dividing the grounds of the 
two herds. The northern herd is reported to roam between the 
Buffalo and the Little Buffalo rivers. Near the east of this line 
is Fort Snaith, a post lying on the boundary between Alberta 
and the District of Mackenzie and just below the Slave River 
rapids. The Southern range extends south from latitude 60 to 
the Peace River. A belt of soft muskeg country separates the 
two ranges and prevents migration from one to the other 

29 



except by the way of Salt Plain. Both ranges are parts of a 
flat or rolling forested plain, traversed by low ridges of sand, 
gravel or limestone. The total area of the two ranges probably 
does not exceed 5,000 square miles. 

There has not until recently been much study given to this 
remnant of the Wood Bison; but it is generally understood that 
the buffalo of the southern range spend the early part of the 
summer in the northern part of the range near the upper waters 
of the Little Buffalo River, and in August they move southward 
only a few miles and spend the winter not far north of Peace 
River between Peace Point and Point Providence. 

The existence of this herd of wild buffalo has long been 
known but information in regard to it more or less vague. As 
late as 1917 a superintendent of the Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police who had been in charge of the district for thirty-two 
years estimated that there were then (1885) only 250 and that 
they were dying out, but since being placed under Government 
protection have prospered and increased. 

In 1922 the Canadian Government decided to get all avail- 
able facts possible about the numbers of these animals, their 
habits, food supplies, condition of health, etc., and for this 
purpose a party was sent out during the summer of that year. 
The party made a complete exploration of the buffalo range, and 
from their investigation a large amount of important information 
has been secured. It is now definitely known that there are two 
main herds and a conservative estimate well within the actual 
number places the number of buffalo in the northern herd at 
500 and 1,000 on the southern range. 

During the past year (1923) the Canadian Government has 
established a new National Park to be known as "Wood Buffalo 
Park." It includes the habitat of these two herds of Wood 
Bison. The patrol service consists of eight men, all familiar 
with northland conditions. They live in cabins which they 
themselves have erected on different parts of the range and are 
visited periodically by an inspector. It is expected that with 
this protection from poachers and predatory animals such as 
wolves, these two herds will continue to increase and will com- 



* This new park includes a territory of about 10,500 square miles, and it is 
the tenth National Park and wild life sancutary established by Canada. 



30 



prise a reserve of fresh blood which will be of great value in 
keeping up the standard of other herds. 

Mr Maxwell Graham, who has charge of wild life matters 
in the Canadian Territories, has made a study of the buffalo 
and their habits and considers the Wood Bison to be larger than 
the buffalo of the southern plains and the fur darker, and be- 
lieves them to be superior in size, weight and stamina to any 
other herds now existing. 

The only mounted specimen of the Wood Bison in existence 
where weight and measurements were taken at the time it was 
killed, is the bull killed by Harry V. Radford* west of Slave 
River, between Fort Smith and the Peace River, December 1, 
1909. (See illustration.) Mr. Radford had with him a 200-lb. 
steelyard of extreme accuracy and carefully ascertained the 
weight by the piecemeal method. The weight and measure- 
ments are as follows: 

Total weight (weighed piecemeal) . . 2,402 pounds 

Height at shoulder 5 ft. 10 ins. 

Heiglit at rump 5 ft. 4 ins. 

Circumference of neck 6 ft. ins. 

Circumference of muzzle behind 

nostrils 2 ft. 3% ins. 

Girth behind foreleg 9 ft. 9 ins. 

Length of head and body 9 ft. 7 ins. 

Length of tail vertebrae 1 ft. 7^ ins. 

Circumference of forearm 1 ft. 91/4 ins. 

The skin was fully % inch thick all over the body, where 
not thicker. On the shoulders it was one inch, on the neck and 
throat 1/4 to 1% inches, on forehead 2% or over, elsewhere on 
head % to ll^ inches. 

Mr. Radford applied to the Minister of Agriculture for 
the Province of Alberta for a permit to collect specimens of 
animals and birds in 1909. This permit was granted by the 



* Harry V. Radford was a member of the American Bison Society which 
contributed $200 towards the expense of his expedition. The Society received 
a report from Mr. Radford on his success in obtaining a specimen of the Wood 
Bison. 

31 



Hon. W. T. Finlay, then Minister of Agriculture, and author- 
ized Mr. Radford to obtain not only big game and game birds 
but also two Wood Bison. This permit was granted with the 
understanding that Mr. Radford was to obtain for the Provincial 
Government one specimen. It appears that after obtaining his 
first specimen he was proceeding on his second trip to obtain 
the other when the Royal North West Mounted Police, acting 
under the authority of the Dominion Government, objected to 
his killing any more of the bison. The following summer he 
went to Edmonton and on reporting the particulars of the case 
was granted a permit for two more of the bison. There was 
some difficulty over the specimen which Mr. Radford brought 
out. He wished to send it to the Smithsonian Institute. The 
Alberta Government, however, took the stand that the permit 
was granted on condition that one specimen was to go to the 
Provincial Museum and that with the permit which had been 
granted authorizing him to take two more specimens Mr. Rad- 
ford would be permitted to send out to the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute, or any other institution which he chose, the two specimens 
which he aimed to get in the north. A compromise was effected 
and Mr. Radford was permitted to ship the skeleton of the ani- 
mal to the Smithsonian Institute, the skin remaining with the 
Provincial Government with which to mount a whole specimen. 
The Smithsonian Institute agreed to furnish a plaster cast of 
the leg bones and skull. These were received in due course 
and were mounted by a taxidermist in Edmonton and the 
mounted specimen is now located in the Museum maintained 
by the Calgary Natural History Society in that city. 

In 1911 Mr. Radford, accompanied by Mr. T. G. Street, 
who was a Canadian and a native of Ottawa, proceeded on up 
north. They wintered near Schultz Lake and early in 1912 
reached Bathurst Inlet. The following year reports reached 
civilization that on June 5, 1912, they had been murdered by 
some Killin-e-muit Eskimos on Kwog-juk Island in the Bathurst 
Inlet. This report was fully investigated by the Royal North 
West Mounted Police and found to be true. 



Note: In a letter from Hon. J. B. Harkin, Commissioner of Parks, Ottawa, 
Canada, dated November 27, 1923. addressed to Edmund Seymour, President of 
the American Bison Society, he states as follows. 

"Since last winter the Department has had under consideration a proposal to 
make shipments of buffalo from the surplus of the Wainwright herd to Fort 

32 



Smith country, now occupied by the so-called wood bison. It is the intention of 
the department to make some experimental shipments next Spring but I doubt 
very much whether the number will be as large as one thousand. Difficulties in 
connection with the transportation of adult buffalo to such a remote area are 
so great that it is improbable that any attempt will be made to send adults to the 
north. Yearlings appear to be the only type that could be handled on such a 
project. Just what number will be sent has not yet been decided. I do not think 
a decision can be reached until next Spring. The only established fact in con- 
nection with this subject is that the Department's present intention is to make 
an experimental shipment." 



33 




34 



EUROPEAN BISON 

(Special reprint from "Zoological palaerctica," 1. 1 (1.4.1923) 

THE PRESERVATION OF THE BUFFALO 

By Dr. Kurt Priemel 

Director of the Zoological Park in the City of Frankfurt, A. M. 

The warning cry of "Buffalo in distress!" greatly worried every 
friend of nature, when in the year 1915 our soldiers in Russia came 
close to the buffalo forest where this animal existed. It was impossible 
to check the troops from killing the buffalo for food and the trophies 
which their horns offered. Out of 700 there were only 150 left. 

Then again, the cry was heard of "Buffalo in distress!" The news 
came from Kaucasus that there, too, the buffalo had almost become 
extinct, due to the revolution and warfare, and that machine guns and 
whole regiments were used to hunt the buffalo. 

In November, 1918, under the care of military foresters, the 
buffalo had increased to about 200 head, but, again the troops passed 
through the forest and after that there were only two buffalo left. If 
this condition is not soon changed, the buffalo in Europe will become 
extinct, as at present there are only about 60 buffalo left in European 
forests. 

The Bialowieser Forest remains in German hands, and that is the 
only chance we have for preserving the buffalo from becoming extinct. 

For many years the Germans have been successful in breeding 
this animal, a fact which gives us the right to assume the role of pro- 
lector to this wonderful monument of nature, and we felt it our perfect 
right to raise our voices in warning that this animal would become 
extinct if proper precautions were not taken for its preservation, but 
we were not heeded, and, of course, we soon saw the sad consequences 
of disregarding of our warning, for the hordes again flooded our forests 
and wreaked havoc among the buffalo that were left. 

However, we will not look behind us, but will raise the question, 
"Is it worth while, due to the few animals that are left, to bother trying 
to preserve this animal at a time when there is so much materialism 
and scarcity of food?" It is already known that there are a number 
of people who are positive it will be a waste of time to try to preserve 
this wonderful beast; if so, it would mean that in about from two to 
four years the last buffalo would become extinct, and I am sure our 
grandchildren would never forgive us if we did not try to preserve 
this animal. We will not give up hope, and if all who are interested 
will work together we will be able to preserve this wonderful monu- 
ment of nature. 

In the years 1916 and 1917 these facts were presented to the 
Conference of Directors of the German Zoological Gardens; which they 
think can, with modifications, be put through at a later date, as at t- .. 

35 



time and as well today, our eyes are directed to the wonderful example 
that the United States gave us by the founding of the American Bison 
Society, as they were able to preserve this wonderful animal through 
their efforts. Of course, in America the conditions were very much 
better than they are in our country to-day, and they h?ve so mucn more 
ground in which to carry on this work. The principal thing in the 
preservation of the buffalo is that all German and out-laying countries 
should unite in their efforts to preserve the buffalo, as that is the only 
way they can be perpetuated. 

My advice is that we found an association for the preservation of 
the buffalo, but before we found this association, I find it my duty 
to give all the necessary statistics that I could gather concerning the 
buffalo. 

In my research in regard to the buffalo, I have made it my busi- 
ness to find out the number, sex, age, habitat and condition of the 
blood, the physical condition and the reason for sterility and any 
particular markings that they have on their bodies. The answers to 
jTiy questions were very satisfactory in every detail, particularly those 
from the out-of-town districts. I particularly thank the firm of Karl 
Hagenbeck, of Stellingen, whose assistant, Ludwig Zukowsky, gave me 
the following statistics on October 15, 1922: 

There are at present 27 male buffaloes and 29 female buffaloes. 

Among these are 5 bull calves. 5 cow calves and 2 sterile cows too old for 
breeding, so at the present time you can count on 54 buffaloes, of which 22 bulls 
and 22 cows are in good condition for breeding. 

These animals all seem to be in good health and have no signs of any de- 
generation in them. 

The possibility of founding the Association for the preservation 
of the buffalo does not seem to be remote, as the answers that have come 
in from all countries signify their co-operation. I hope this association 
will be organized in the following spring. 

The first thing to do is to introduce proper breeding conditions 
and interchange of young blood. This condition is naturally made 
harder as there is only one buffalo that comes from the Kaucasus, for 
instance, the bull which Karl Hagenbeck received as a present from 
the Czar of Russia in the year 1907. This wonderful animal has up 
to the present time been a great factor in breeding and has been the 
means of increasing the number of buffaloes in the zoological parks. 

The animals born in the zoological parks show better breeding 
than those born in their natural haunts, as there they mate with in- 
ferior and sometimes sick animals, whereas in our zoological gardens 
only the finest and healthiest of animals are mated, and the young 
calves are in less danger than they are in their natural haunts. Accord- 
ingly in 12 or 15 years we can think of taking at first a small amount 
from the reserves of the zoological gardens and put them in enlarged 
private breeding places which will be supervised by experienced 
breeders of these animals. The first private breeding park under the 
direction of experienced foresters is already assured, as Graf Arnim 
Boitzenburg, of Boitzenburg, in the Uckermark, has been able to get the 

36 



old park which belonged to Hagenbeck in Stellingen, and has also re- 
ceived for breeding purposes this famous Kaucasian bull that was men- 
tioned above. Now, after a year and a half, he already has two bulls 
and four cows, and these animals have been thriving wonderfully since 
they have been in this park. 

We must also mention Mr. Von Beyme, of Scharbow, in Mecklen- 
burg, who has been very successful in the breeding of these animals. 
Since the year 1916 he has in his breeding enterprise raised a wonder- 
ful bull, who is a son of this Kaucasian bull, that is now in Boitzen- 
burg, and from this son he has raised three cows and three bulls. 

We will also mention that the Prince of Pless has left only two 
bulls and one old cow in his breeding place and also that the Herzogs 
of Bedford, in Woburn (Scotland), who have only four bulls and 
three cows. 

The ones that will be able to do the most in regard to breeding 
;ind multiplying the buffalo are the Zoological Park in Berlin, Frank- 
furt, a. m., Hamburg, Nurnberg, Schonbrunn, b, Wien, Amsterdam, 
Budapest, Kopenhagen, London and Stockholm. In Budapest they 
intend to take the five buffaloes they have and put them in a large 
forest outside of the city where they may have more space for proper 
breeding. 

A very important thing to me is that in the future we must have 
some new stamping grounds for the buffalo, and if possible have them 
m different localities so we will be able to mix the breeds of the stamp- 
jng grounds of various countries. The main thing is that the buffalo 
should have natural food, which is twigs and leaves of the forest. 

Some people claim that the European buffalo is not to be found 
any more in its free, natural haunts, but only in zoological gardens, 
which is not true, as I have looked up this matter and found out that 
ihere are still some European buffaloes at large in their natural haunts, 
as during the war and after the war, horns and discarded skins of 
freshly killed buffaloes were found, particularly in unfrequented moun- 
tainous regions. I have also found out that buffalo meat has been 
offered in the markets and sold as game, so it is our duty to keep track 
of any buffalo to be found in Europe and place them in private stamp- 
ing grounds so that they will not become extinct. 

At the present time many people consider the zoological parks in 
Europe an unnecessary form of expense and luxury, but in reality they 
have been the main factor in preserving this wonderful monument of 
nature, and we must try to preserve and multiply this animal so that 
the future generation will thank us for its preservation. 

The following letter and census from Constantine C. Flerow, of the 
University Zoological Museum, Moscow, Russia, will throw some 
additional light on the location and number of European Bison in 
Russia: 



UNIVERSITY ZOOLOGICAL MUSEUM 

6 Great Nikitskaja Street 
Moscow, Russia 

March 3, 1923 
Martin S. Garretson, 
Secretary American Bison Society, 
o Union Avenue, 
Clifton, New Jersey. 

Dear Sir: — I am deeply grateful to you for your kind informa- 
tion pertaining to the American buffalo, and will try, to the best of 
my ability to communicate the necessary information you require in 
regard to the European bison. 

The few buffalo remaining in a wild state, are now only found 
in Kaucasus (bison bonasus caucasicus satunin). In the territory near 
ihe sources of the rivers Laba and Belaja there is a primitive forest 
(where the killing of beasts was forbidden), in which by the last cal- 
culation 14 buffalo were counted. Besides this, buffalo are on the 
north of the Krasnaja Polana (South Coast of the Kaukasusl. 

The bison of the Belovejs (bison bonasus bonasus Linnaeus) are 
living in a half wild state, numbering about 90 animals, on the estates 
of the Prince of Pless, Oberschlesien, Germany. Besides this, a herd 
of five head is found in Minskaja Goubernia. In Belovejskaji Pouscha 
they are, probably, destroyed. 

I have no information about the European bison in West Europe, 
but hope to receive some soon, and will then communicate them to you. 

I enclose the enumeration of the bison in Russia to January 1. 1923. 

Very truly yours, 

CONSTANTINE C. FlEROW. 



SUMMARY OF EUROPEAN BISON CENSUS FOR JANUARY 1, 1923 

1. Bison bonasus bonasus Linnaeus Males Females Total 

Askanija Nowa (South Russia) 12 3 

Peterboorgh Zoological Gardens 2 1 3 

Moscow Zoological Gardens 1 — 1 

Minskaja Goubetnija — • — 5 

Total 12 

2. Bison bonasus caucasicus Satunin 

Laba •• — — 14 

Kabarda — — 2 

South Coast — — 66 

Total in Kaukasus 82 

Total in Russia 94 

38 







^^ r^. 







C. J. BLAZIER AND SOME OF THE ANTELOPE FAWNS CAPTURED BY HIM 
FOR THE AMERICAN BISON SOCIETY, BROOKS, ALBERTA, CANADA 




ANTELOPE FAWNS CAPTLIRED BY C. J. BLAZIER FOR THE AMERICAN 
BISON SOCIETY, IN BLAZIER'S CORRAL AT BROOKS, ALBERTA, CANADA 

40 



FULL LIST OF SUBSCRIPTIONS 

TO THE FUND FOR THE 

ESTABLISHMENT OF A BAND OF ANTELOPE ON THE 

WICHITA NATIONAL FOREST AND GAME PRESERVE IN OKLAHOMA 



Permanent Wild Life Protection Fund (Dr. W. T. Hornaday), New York $500.00 

H. A. Edwards, Albany, N. Y 400.00 

Elizabeth S. Edwards, Albany, N. Y 50.00 

Henry H. Collins, Philadelphia, Pa 10.00 

Robert M. Thompson, New York, N. Y 100.00 

Alfred M. Collins. Philadelphia. Pa 10.00 

Clemens Herschel, New York, N. Y 5.00 

Frank Brewster, Boston, Mass • • • 5.00 

Dudley P. Rogers, Boston, Mass 25.00 

Samuel Henshaw, Cambridge. Mass • • • • 25.00 

Richard M. Hoe. New York, N. Y 25 00 

Sydney Thayer, Philadelphia, Pa 10-00 

Henry S. Fleek, Newark, Ohio 25,00 

National Ass'n of Audubon Societies (T. G. Pearson), New York 100.00 

John M. Phillips. Pittsburg, Pa 100.00 

Enos A. Mills. Long's Peak. Colo 5.00 

Clark B. Stocking, "Old Guard," Los Angeles, Calif 1-00 

Frederick E. Willets, Glen Cove, L. I., N. Y 3.00 

John L. Cox, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pa 10.00 

John D. Rockefeller, Jr., New York, N. Y 100.00 

Henry F. Osborn, New York, N. Y 10-00 

John J. Paul, Watertown, Fla 15-00 

J. H. Winterbotham. Chicago, 111 ■ • ^.UU 

Wallis Huidekoper, Wallis, Mont 5.00 

Hugo A. Koehler, St. Louis, Mo • - ■;•••••••, .^^'^^ 

Vilhjalmur Stefansson, American Geographical Society, New York Zii.W 

J. E. Roth, Pittsburg, Pa IJOO 

A. B. Hepburn, New York, N. Y 100.00 

Keith Spalding, Pasadena, Calif lO.UU 

G. H. Gould, Santa Barbara, Calif i^O.UU 

W. L. Abbott, Philadelphia, Pa • ■ • ^J.OU 

A. Huidekoper Bond, New York, N. Y 5.UU 

M. T. Atwood, New York, N. Y ^5.00 

Miss Mary Mitchell, St. Louis, Mo f-^^ 

Martin S. Garretson, Clifton, N. J • ^ 10-00 

Blair County Game, Fish and Forestry Association, Altoona, Pa -^-UU 

John C. Phillips, Wenham, Mass J5.0U 

Boone & Crockett Club, New York, N. Y 100.00 

Louis Weber, Philadelphia, Pa 100-00 

George D. Pratt, Brooklyn, N. Y 500.00 

William P. Wharton, Groton, Mass ^"^-^^ 

New York Zoological Society, New York, N. Y 100.00 

C. G. Washburn. Worcester, Mass \^-^^ 

Willard G. Van Name, New York, N. Y 15-00 

Ludlow Griscom, New York, N. Y ^-"^ 

H. E. Anthony, New York, N. Y f 00 

William K. Gregory, New York, N. Y ^-^^ 

W D. Miller, New York, N. Y 5.UU 

Robert C. Murphy, New York, N. Y. ...... -^ 1-00 

Mrs. Elsie M. B. Reichenberger, New York, N. Y ^U.UU 

L. A. Huffman, Miles City, Mont |-^" 

A. E. Beck, Miles City, Mont • ^"^ 

41 



Dr. A. F. Baldwin, Miles City, Mont 1.00 

Carl K. MacFadden, New York, N. Y 500.00 

Dr. Homer Gage, Worcester, Mass 10.00 

Dr. O. H. Everett, Worcester, Mass 10.00 

C. L. Allen. Worcester, Mass 10.00 

Joseph F. Shere, Worcester, Mass 10.00 

Chester W. Lasell, Whitinsville, Mass 10.00 

Paul F. Taylor 10.00 

Aldus C. Higgins 10.00 

R. C. Cleveland 10.00 

Austin P. Cristy 10.00 

John W. Harrington 10.00 

Josiah M. Lasell 10.00 

W. J. Whittall 10.00 

Paul B. Morgan • • • • 10.00 

George F. Fuller 10.00 

George M. Bassett 10.00 

Dr. L. F. Woodward 10.00 

F. H. Dewey ■ ■ 10.00 

Henry Worcester Smith • ■ . . 10.00 

R. Sanford Riley 10.00 

Total $3,616.00 



AMERICAN BISON SOCIETY 
DISTRIBUTION ANTELOPE FUND 

Receipts: 

1921 Contributions $3,616.00 

M. S. Garretson, refund of advances a/c Idaho trip 119.00 

1922 Contribution 5.00 

Refund of duty on antelope from Alberta to Cache, Okia 125.00 

Disbursements 

1921 Telegrams and Cablegrams $9.38 

C. J. Blazier, a/c license from Canadian Government.... 5.00 

M. S. Garretson, expenses on trip to Idaho in connection 

with Idaho Preserve 800.00 

Printing and Engraving 45.25 

C. J. Blazier, payment for ten antelope, expenses and ser- 
vices 1,572.50 

Express on antelope 309.00 

C. J. Blazier, payment for six antelope, expenses and ser- 
vices 1,030.62 

American Railway Express — express on six antelope, Al- 
berta to Cache, Okla 151.73 

Edmund Seymour, expenses a/c trip to Washington, D. C. 27.87 
Miscellaneous expense a/c stationery, postage, photos, 

prints, etc 15.75 

Deficit (supplied from General Fund ) 102.10 

$3,967.10 $3,967.10 
(Signed) Clark Williams, Treasurer. 

42 




Photo by Frank Rnsli 
Fig. 1 



A BABY ANTELOPE ONE DAY OLD, BORN ON THE WICHITA NATIONAL 
FOREST AND GAME PRESERVE IN OKLAHOMA. 1923 




Photo 



Rush 



Fig. 2. TWIN ANTELOPE FAWNS ONE DAY OLD, BORN ON THE WICHITA NATIONAL 

FOREST AND GAME PRESERVE IN OKLAHOMA. THESE YOUNG ANTELOPE ARE 

THE OFFSPRING FROM ANTELOPE PRESENTED TO THE U. S. GOVERNMENT IN 1921 

BY THE AMERICAN BISON SOCIETY 



44 



THE WICHITA ANTELOPE 

In a letter to Dr. T. S. Palmer, of the Biological Survey, Wash- 
ington, D. C, dated June 20, 1923, the District Forester of the Wichita 
National Forest writes as follows concerning the antelope situation 
on the Wichita National Game Preserve: 

"We have just received word from Mr. Rush that there is but one survivor of 
the six antelope shipped to the Wichita last fall. This survivor is a buck. Two 
of the antelope died from the effects of ticks and two have disappeared. Mr. 
Rush surmises that the coyotes got in and killed them while they were in the 
little bull pasture. Later they were moved into the buffalo yard and the only 
female left ran headlong into the gate and broke her neck. Of the antelope shipped 
two years ago, one two-year-old buck and three two-year-old does remain. This 
reduces the band to five adult antelope. 

'"Mr. Rush reports that the three does now have two fawns each. This brings 
the band up to eleven head and Mr. Rush says that he had excellent luck with 
them. It is to be hoped that the fawns born in captivity on the Wichita will 
survive the vicissitudes which have decimated the original shipment that was 
made by the American Bison Society. Since we have eleven antelope on the 
Wichita it does not seem necessary at this time to seek further assistance from the 
American Bison Society. We will, however, take our best care of the remaining 
antelope. We are satisfied that Mr. Rush has done his best and it seems that we 
have a fighting chance to secure a band of antelope on the Wichita." 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

FOREST SERVICE 

WICHITA NATIONAL FOREST 

Cache, Oklahoma, June 30, 1923. 
Mr. Edmund Seymour, 
45 Wall Street. New York, N. Y. 
Dear Mr. Seymour: 

Your letter of June 21st is received. 

The six young antelope are all alive and doing fine and I hope we shall be 
able to treat them successfully for ticks when they appear on them this fall. 

I am enclosing herewith some pictures of the baby antelope. I photographed 
these while they were too young to be afraid of a person. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Frank Rush, 

Forest Supervisor. 



45 



NAMES OF PLANTS FOUND ON THE PRAIRIE IN DIS- 
TRICTS FREQUENTED BY ANTELOPE 

THERMOPSIS RHOMBIFOLIA (Nutt.) RICHARDS. Yellow pea. 
SYMPHORICARPOS OCCIDENTALIS HOOK. Wolf bush. 
HOMALOBUS CAESPITOSUS NUTT. Milk vetch (Astragalus). 
VIOLA ADUNCA SMITH. Violet. 
ARTEMISIA CANA PURSH. Gray sagebrush. 
BISTORTA BISTORTOIDES (Pursh) SMALL. Bistort. 
DELPHINIUM BICOLOR DOUGL. Larkspur. 
OROPHOCA CAESPITOSA (Nutt.) BRITTON. Milk vetch 

(Astragalus). 
ARTEMISIA FRIGIDA WIELD. Silvery sagebrush. 
ARAGALLUS GRACILIS A. NELS. Loco weed. 
PHLOX HOODII RICHARDSON. Hood phlox. 
POTENTILLA STRIGOSA PALLAS. Cinquefoil. 
COMMANDRA PALLIDA PURSH. Bastard toad-flax. 
VAGNERA STELLATA. Solomon's seal (Smilacina). 
PULSATILLA LUDOVICIANA NUTT. Pasque flower. 
SIEVERSIA TRIFLORA (Pursh) DON. Old man's whiskers. 
PACHYLOPHUS CAESPITOSUM NUTT. Mountain primrose. 
DODECATHEON PANCI FLORURIN (Durand) GREENS. Shooting 

star. 
CAREX. Sedge. 

ERIOGONUM FLAVUM NUTT. Buckwheat bush. 
SARCOBATUS VERMICULATUS. Grease brush. 
LESQUERELLA ARENOSA (Richards) RYOB. Bladder pod. 
PENTSTEMON NITIDUS DOUGL. Pentstemon. 
ERIGERON COMPOSITUS PURSH. Fleabane. 
KOELERIA GRACILIS. June grass. 
PRUNUS SP. Cherry. 

CALAMOVILFA LONGIFOLIA. Reed grass. 
JUNIPERUS SIBIRICA BURGSD. Ground cedar. 
CAREX FILIFOLIA. Sedge. 
GRASS — cannot be determined. Grass. 
RUMEX VENOSUS PURSH. Dock. 

LEPARGYRAEA ARGENTA. Buff'alo berry. Bull berry. 
HEUCHERA PARVIFLORA NUTT. Alum root. 
BOUTELOUA OLIGOSTACHYA POM. Grama grass. 
ASTRAGALUS PECTINATUS DOUGL. Milk vetch. 

46 



Note: C. J. Blazier of Brooks, Alberta, Canada, who captured the young 
antelope fawns for the American Bison Society, states that: "In all antelope 
countries there is wormwood, juniper and sage. Antelope are like sheep, the*' will 
eat most any kind of weeds. They are very fond of peppermint, smart weed and 
wild rose bush, and around sand dunes there is lots of things they like that I 
do not know the names of." 

Another good authority states that he has on numerous occasions, for over 
twenty-five years, watched the antelope in the country where they lived wild, just 
to see what its chief food was. He said: "I found that they ate a good deal of 
sage, but that greasewood was their favorite food. They also eat a good deal of 
just grass, and it is their chief forage where they cannot get greasewood and sage, 
notwithstanding all that scientists have written to the contrary. They eat some 
buck brush and other small herbage, and I am of the opinion that in different 
localities there is a difference in their tastes. I find that this is the case with the 
habits of animals in general. What applies in one locality, does not always 
apply in others." 



47 



M&0lMl'V,.r..lf 




WORK OF THE UNNATURALIZED BASQUE SHEEPHERDER 

In the Guano Valley, Lake County, Oregon, Were Found the Carcasses of 

Seventy-five Antelope Which on Inspection Disclosed the Fact That They 

Had Been Wantonly Shot, As They All Had Bullet Holes in Them and No 

Part of the Carcasses Utilized 



48 



THE FIRST CENSUS 

OF LIVING AMERICAN PRONG HORN ANTELOPE 

JANUARY 1, 1922 

Compiled by Martin S. Garretson 

The number of antelope given in the following census has been 
obtained with great difficulty; owing to the fact that many of them are 
scattered in small bands over the most remote sections of a vast terri- 
tory, however, the figures here shown are known to be approximately 
correct. 

UNITED STATES 



Location 



Number Total 



California: 

Mt. Dome — Siskiyou County 

Dixie Vallev — Modoc County 

The Mud Flat Range — Lassen County 

San Joaquin Valley — Fresno County 

Mendota — Fresno County 

Los Angeles Refuge — Kern and Los Angeles County. 
Granite Wells — San Bernardino County 

Colorado: 

Estimate in small bands throughout the State 

Idaho: 

Owyhee County 

Dubois, Clark, Lemhi and Custer Counties 

Kansas : 

Scott and Wichita Counties 

Morton County • • 

Montana: 

*Montana National Bison Range 

Townsend — Broadwater County 

Estimate number in scattered bands 

Nevada: 

Humboldt and Elko Counties 

Washoe County 

White Pine and Nye Counties, Estimate 

New Mexico: 

Bell Pasture, San Miguel County 

Southeastern part of Eddy County 

Western part of Socorro County 

Northern part of Chaves County 

North Dakota: 

Near Beach in the Kildeer Mountain Region 



97 
9 
257 
18 
11 
12 
30 

50 

600 
400 

10 

20 

60 
60 

400 

800 
200 

75 

75 
15 
20 
15 

75 



434 



50 



1,000 



30 



520 



1,075 



125 



* Since the above census was taken, the band of 60 antelope on the Montana 
Bison Range have been completely wiped out by wolves and Indian dogs, being 
caught in deep snow drifts during a severe blizzard. 

49 



CENSUS— Co/in;/ z/ erf 



Location 



Number Total 



Oklahoma: 

Wichita National Forest and Game Preserve 

Cimmaron County 

tOREGON: 

Lake County 

Elsewhere in scattered bands 

South Dakota: 

Wind Cave National Park 

Elsewhere in scattered bands, Estimate by State Game Warden 

Texas: 

Midland County 

Culberson County 

El Paso County 

Oldham and Hartley Counties 

Moore and Hutchinson Counties 

Armstrong and Briscoe Counties • • 

Bailey, Cochran, Hockley and Lamb Counties 

Carson County 

Roberts County 

Donley County ■ • 

Utah: 

Between Lund and Zion National Park 

Elsewhere in scattered bands, estimate 

Wyoming: 

Yellowstone National Park 

Pitchfork — Big Horn County 

Estimate in other parts of the State 



5 

30 

1.000 
250 

33 
600 

.50 
75 
75 

175 
15 
15 

100 
12 
10 
10 

30 
45 

250 
1,500 
2,500 



35 



1.2.50 



633 



547 



75 



4,250 



CANADA 



Alberta : 

Canyon Antelope Reserve — Wawaskesy Park 

Nemiskam Antelope Reserve 

Elsewhere, estimate 

Saskatchewan: 

Estimate number 




SUMMARY 



United States 

Canada 

Total... 




t On the proposed antelope preserve in Lake County, Oregon, many antelope 
were destroyed by the unnaturalized Basque sheepherders in defiance of .State 
Laws, the bullet punctured carcasses being left to rot where they fell. 

The Mt. Dome band of antelope in Siskiyou County, California, under the 
protection of the California Academy of Sciences, according to latest advice, now 

50 



numbers 121, this shows what protection will do for antelope on a range of their 
own selection. The sum total as shown in the antelope census appears to be a 
sizable figure, but it must be understood that these antelope are scattered in 
forty-five bands, and perhaps more, over fourteen states and averaging from ten 
to five hundred in a band. 

There are some facts of vital importance concerning the present status of the 
antelope that are not generally known to the public. The first is, the antelope 
has been driven from its natural habitat to a more mountainous region where the 
lack of food and deep snow take an annual toll much larger than in former years 
on the plains and foothills, but this is not the principal cause of their rapid 
extinction, there are a number of contributive causes, principally four. The first 
and greatest is their wholesale destruction by a certain class of foreign unnaturalized 
sheepherders who have no respect for laws of any kind. The second is the I'ome- 
steader and small farmers who are annually reaching out farther into the last 
ranges of the antelope. It is almost impossible for these dry-farmers to eke out 
an existence under the most favorable circumstances, so, naturally they kill what- 
ever game they can find, regardless of laws, for in that part of the country it is 
very difficult to apprehend one killing game either on his own land or on that 
adjoining. The third cause is the automobile, or, to be more exact, the creature 
who in a spirit of unfairness, in an unmanly and unsportsmanlike manner, deliber- 
ately drives his machine after the fleeing antelope for no other purpose than to 
overtake and destroy it, and in this manner a number of promising bands in the 
prairie country havei been swept out of existence. No true sportsman would ever 
employ such a method, he believes in fairness always, even to the creatures of 
the wild. 

The fourth is a more natural one but nevertheless a dangerous one. The 
foothills and mountainous parts of the country where the antelope have taken 
refuge, is also the home of the wolf and bobcat. When the antelope is helpless 
in the deep snow it falls an easy prey to the wolf, and then again, in the spring 
when the antelope kids are born these timid little creatures often furnish a 
tender meal for the ever-hungry wolf, but this is nature's way of keeping a balance 
and has never jeopardized or caused a total extinction of any species without 
the help of man. 

The Prong Horn Antelope is found nowhere on the face of the earth except 
in North America; they are rapidly disappearing and are now on the verge of 
extinction, and unless prompt measures are taken for their preservation, they will 
soon be gone forever. 



51 




THE ANTKLOl'K'S Cl'klOSlTV OFTEN LURES IT 
WITHIN EASY RANGE OF THE SHEEPHERDER'S 
DEADLY RIFLE 



52 



REPORT ON A PROPOSED ANTELOPE SANCTUARY IN 
SOUTHWESTERN IDAHO 

By Martin S. Garretson 

Secretary American Bison Society 

Having been delegated by the American Bison Society to make 
an examination of certain territory in southwestern Idaho in view of 
co-operating with the United States Government in creating a sanctuary 
for the protection of a considerable number of antelope which, accord- 
ing to report, still range in that part of the country, I left New 
York on May 12th, 1921, with instructions to proceed to Mountain 
Home, Idaho, where I would connect with the U. S. Government Game 
Inspector, Mr. F. M. Dille. A wire received while en route, from 
Mr. Dille, changed the place of meeting to Boise, Idaho. At Boise 
we found Mr. Luther J. Goldman of the U. S. Biological Survey. 
Mr. Goldman said that he had anticipated going with us but found 
it would be impossible to leave at this time. We then proceeded to 
look up Mr. Earl F. Brace, a prominent ranchman, who owns and 
lives on a ranch in that section of Owyhee County we proposed to 
visit. Mr. Brace had come up from his ranch with teams and wagons 
for supplies and to move his family, who had been staying in Boise 
during the winter, back to the ranch for the summer. Mr. Brace 
is a prominent ranchman in Owyhee County and thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the country. He advised that we make his ranch our 
headquarters, and as he expected to leave in a few days, it would 
be a good idea for us to wait and then follow his wagon track, 
as it would be the only one in that part of the country for nearly 
one hundred miles. This we concluded to do, but owing to the 
heavy rains, his start was delayed for some days. He had figured 
it would take five days for his wagons to reach the ranch, but owing 
to mud and swollen streams, it eventually required twelve. 

In talking over our plans with the State Game Warden, Mr. 
Otto M. Jones, he stated that he would like to see that region and, 
if it was possible, to make it with a car, would take us through to 
the Brace Ranch. This was a great opportunity, and although fully 
realizing that we would be up against mud and treacherous streams, 
immediately accepted the offer. We proposed to allow the teams 
several days' start so that we would all arrive at the ranch on the 
same dav. 



53 



I.. J 






muP 




r-^^**=>f>yT« 






^,fe*- 




JmH* s'i 



THE RANCH HOUSE. HOME OF EARL F. BRACE, OWYHEE CULXTV, IDAHO 




Mr. Brace pulled out early Monday morning and we left Boise 
on Thursday afternoon, going by the way of Mountain Home and 
across country to Grandview, a distance of seventy miles, where we 
proposed to stop for the night. This town is in a valley of the 
Snake and on the south bank of the river. A new iron bridge is 
being built opposite the town, so we were obliged to cross five miles 
below on the old cable ferry, known as Keith's Ferry. At Grand- 
view we were surprised to find Brace and the teams. As this was 
as far as he had gone — seventy miles — since Monday and that over 
the best section of the road, with ninety-two miles yet to go, over 
soft and boggy roads, we therefore concluded to take Mr. and 
Mrs. Brace in the car, and by an early start on the following morn- 
ing, make the ranch by night. This was a wise move, as we lost no 
time inquiring the way, and both Mr. and Mrs. Brace rendered 
valuable assistance in extracting the car out of seemingly hopeless 
mud holes in boggy meadows, and the treacherous crossings of numer- 
ous streams which, in most instances, on account of sott mud bot- 
toms, had to be built up with sage brush, willows and rocks before 
the car could venture across. There are no bridges in this part of 
the country. We made a short halt at the Mud Flats shearing corral 
and it soon became apparent that we were not only expected but also 
our business fully known and understood. The subject of establish- 
ing a game reserve seems to have been thoroughly discussed for some 
two years and the very air seemed full of it. Numerous and embar- 
rassing questions were asked, as to the intentions of the Government 
and its future policy. The sheepmen, of course, are solidly against 
any proposition that will debar or curtail the grazing of sheep, while 
the cattlemen are strong for a Federal game reserve that will exclude 
sheep but allow continuation of present conditions. Mr. Brace is a 
leading factor in the latter case; it was he who noticed the steady 
encroachment of the sheep into the cattle country and advised his 
neighbors to take action, and now since we were on the ground, the 
question was, "What does the Government propose to do in regard to 
us, in case the reserve is established?" Similar questions were asked 
by the sheepmen. It soon developed that every person we met not 
only knew of our presence in the country but was fully acquainted 
with the subject and had formed a set of questions which were impos- 
sible for us to answer with any authority. Through these questions 
we got a very clear idea of the general situation, i.e., these cattle- 
men and settlers, located within the proposed reserve, would welcome 
the creation of a reserve that would exclude the sheep and leave present 
conditions as they are. I asked thm if they were willing to sign a 
paper bearing the conditions under which they would favor and 
support Federal protection. This was somewhat of a delicate under- 
taking, as these men are very suspicious and reluctant about signing 
anything that might perchance, in some way, militate against them; 
therefore, the proposition was very simple in form, briefly stating 
that they were in favor of establishing the proposed game reserve, 
providing all existing rights and use of the range will continue under 

55 








; km^''irts>'<mf 



SHEKP HILLS. SACKBRUSH PLAIN SIX MILES SOUTH OK H KADQL'ARTERS. 
BRACE'S RANCH, OWYHEE COUNTY, IDAHO 

present occupation and conditions, subject to such regulation as the 
Secretary of Agriculture may prescribe. 

Quite a number signed the paper; in fact, all that were ap- 
proached; but as the region is large and the ranches widely separated 
it was impossible to get them all at the time I was there. Mr. Brace 
said that he would take the paper and get the balance of names, as 
it was about time for the summer round-up and he would then send 
me the paper. Of course, it will be understood that no sheepman 
signed this paper; in fact, it was not offered to them. The names 
that appear on it are ojily of those occupying and owning land ivithin 
the boundaries of the proposed reserve. 

The country, for many miles south of Grandview, is now a dusty 
wind blown desert, covered more or less with sage brush; all other 
vegetation has disappeared. These conditions prevail well down 
towards the boundaries of the proposed reserve and the sheepmen 
look with longing eyes towards that fertile region occupied by the 
cattlemen and over which hovers that protecting mantle known as 
the "Priority law," not a written law, but nevertheless one of such a 
nature that it is observed by the sheepmen and recognized by the 
courts. 

The country within the proposed reserve is of a diversified nature, 
with an elevation of from 4,500 to 5,500 feet. It consists of rolling 

56 



table lands, valleys, deep canyons and butts. Towards the northern 
boundary are the Juniper Mountains. The whole country is covered 
with sage brush and other vegetation, including good stands of bunch 
grass. This holds good except on the high tables or mesas which are 
scant in vegetation and are covered with layers of flat shale and loose 
stones of a lava formation. There are no trees except an occasional 
juniper found miles apart and a few in some of the canyons. To 
the north, on the juniper mountains, they are quite plentiful, the 
principal varieties being the juniper, cedar, cottonwood and moun- 
tain mahogany. The country is not and never can be an agricultural 
one, as its composition is of a rocky nature, totally unfit for agri- 
culture except in such places along the streams where irrigation can 
be had. All such places are either owned or have been filed upon; 
outside of these districts the country can never be used for other than 
grazing purposes. 

The streams are well placed and furnish sufficient water for a 
large number of stock. To the south is the Owyhee River, South 
Fork and Little Owyhee River, and to the east Deep Creek, Black 
Canyon and Beaver Creek. Both Deep Creek and the Owyhee River 
flow through deep and picturesque canyons, the trails crossing them 




IN PARTS OF THE RANGE; NUMEROUS TRAILS LED THROUGH ANCIENT 

SAGEBRUSH 



57 



are very few and many miles apart and are difficult and dangerous to 
negotiate, as are the fording places of these streams. 

Having made Brace's ranch our headquarters, we radiated out 
over the country for many miles in every direction, practically cover- 
ing the territory included within the proposed reserve, except that 
portion known as the Y P Desert. This tract lies between the main 
Owyhee River and its south fork. It is not what is commonly known 
as a desert, being a high plateau, fairly grassed over and having a 
number of water holes. 

This is the winter home of the antelope; they gather here because 
the snow is seldom deep and the food more easily obtained. This 

Y P Desert derives its name from the Y P Ranch whose cattle graze 
over it during the winter. The home ranch is located some ten miles 
south of the state line into Nevada. From the high bluffs, on the 
north bank of the Owyhee River, we had a fine view of the country 
beyond. From the foot to the top of the steep bluffs across the river 
could be seen the much used trails of the antelope, made during their 
spring and fall migrations to and from the Y P Desert. Below on 
the river at this point is a fording place known as Rickard crossing; 
it is used by both antelope and stock in crossing the river. The view 
from our point of observation was one of silent grandure. Several 
hundred feet below, like a ribbon, coursed the Owyhee River, in a 
swift muddy current. From the opposite shore up the steep bluff 
wound the trails used only by the antelope to a small bench and then 
to a single trail up over the rim-rock and on to the Y P Desert. Far 
below to the right lay that unknown quantity, the ford. At this time of 
year the water was high and the current swift. Presently a number 
of small objects were seen moving towards the ford; as they ap- 
proached nearer they were soon recognized to be horses. We quietly 
blended as much as possible with the surrounding scenery and scarce 
dared breathe, forsooth, those semi-wild horses have eyes like antelope, 
and we were particularly anxious to see them cross the river. We 
watched them through the glasses as they went over, and from what 
we saw concluded that it would not be wise to attempt it; and more- 
over we were repeatedly assured that there was no antelope in that 
region at this time of year. The antelope leave the Y P Desert 
in the spring and scatter out in small groups from two to four all 
over this region from Nevada to the north of the Juniper mountains 
and from the Duck Valley Indian Reservation over into Oregon. At 
no time did we see more than four together and more often encountered 
but one. We closely questioned all the ranchmen and others we met 
as to the number of antelope in the country, their winter and summer 
ranges and the largest number seen last winter. Each gave his indi- 
vidual estimate without any knowledge of our having asked anyone 
else. They all agreed that the most of the antelope wintered on the 

Y P Desert and that the average number seen was about six hundred 

58 




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o 

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in bands from fifty to three hundred each, and that during the summer 
they were widely scattered north, east and west of the Owyhee River. 

We traveled for many miles in every direction, practically cov- 
ered the territory mentioned. The total number of antelope seen, as 
noted from day to day, was not over sixty, although we encountered 
numerous tracks and signs that would indicate the presence of a larger 
number in certain vicinities than we had observed. 

The country east of Deep Creek is a rolling table and included 
within the summer range of the antelope, but recently sheep have 
invaded this section and indications are that the antelope are either 
being killed or driven away. In a whole day's ride we saw but one 
antelope miles away and running at great speed. None of the antelope 
seen outside of the sheep range were as wild as this; in fact, most 
of them seemed unafraid, and in one particular instance, a fine buck 
followed us for quite some distance, approaching to within twenty- 
five yards of the rear horse. This was north of the sheep range, and 
that day we saw thirteen, the largest number for one day. At the 
ranch where we stopped that night, the owner stated that he had seen 





l::^ 



FIVE MILES SOUTH OF BRACE'S RANCH, OWYHEE COUNTY, IDAHO 
ANTELOPES IN MIDDLE FOREGROUND 



59 




60 



twelve that afternoon near the corral of a vacant ranch, and this was 
not in the place where we had recorded the others. This clearly indi- 
cates that antelope will not long survive in a country occupied by 
sheep. The majority of sheep in this region are either owned by or 
in the hands of Basques, natives of a province of Spain; their moral 
standard is low; they do not speak the English language and pretend 
not to understand it when spoken, have little or no respect for laws 
and none whatever for game laws, State or Federal ; the only law they 
do respect is the "Prioritv" law which, in that remote region, does not 
require much time or intelligence to fully understand. 

The territory included within the proposed reserve has not been 
invaded to any great extent by the sheepmen, but they are moving up 
closer each year and seeking new territory by leasing school sections. 
They have considerable holdings east of Deep Creek in Township 
12-s, Range 1-w, but in order to protect the antelope in their migra- 
tions north from their winter range, this township must be included 
in the reserve, as one of their favorite crossings is over Battle Creek 
near its mouth. There is no question but that the antelope are being 
killed by these Basques, as evidence in shape of loosely constructed 
stone huts, built to command favorite crossings and resorts of the 
antelope were found, also that they had been occupied quite recently, 
hence the terror of the one lone antelope seen that day. In establish- 
ing the eastern boundary of this reserve, these sheep should be moved 
back east of this township. 

The boundaries of the proposed reserve, according to our investi- 
gations, should be, starting at the northwest corner of township 10-s, 
Range 6-w, running east to center of township 10-s, R 2-w, south to 
Township 11-s, R 2-w, thence east on a straight line to the northeast cor- 
ner of Township 11-s, R 1-w, from there straight down to the Nevada 
State line, following this line west to the Oregon State line, and thence 
due north along the State line to starting point. This will include most 
all of the summer and winter range of the antelope in this part of 
Idaho. From various sources we received information that the ante- 
hope frequently drifted south into Nevada and west into Oregon; this 
would be a very natural move for them to make, as the Y P Desert 
extends diagonlly across the State of Idaho and into both of these 
other states for some miles. It might be possible to extend protection 
over both ends of this desert. 

There are a number of unsurveyed townships in the proposed 
reserve on which are three settlers, most of the other settlers in this 
country are stockmen and own considerable land, and are there to 
stay, paying taxes on land and cattle; they are opposed to the sheep- 
men and their methods, as he is neither a settler, desirable person or 
of any benefit to the community, pays no taxes, ruins the land and 
then passes on. The country is unfit for agricultural purposes, there- 
fore, when the grazing is destroyed by the sheep, it is, and will remain, 
a barren desert of loose stones, whereas cattle have and do graze on 
it year after year without injuring it. 

61 



These cattlemen and bonafide settlers are the men who seek to 
protect the antelope, they kill very few of them and the antelope on 
their range do not seem to be so wild. It is these men that created 
the idea of Federal protection for antelope and other game in their 
country, and will offer no objections whatever, providing their rights 
will be protected and present conditions not materially changed. The 
sheepmen are quite stirred up over our being in the country and are 
seeking means to fortify their position and further entrench themselves. 
The latest advice was that they intended to lease all available school 
sections, but it does not appear that such a move would be of much 
benefit to them, especially as the school sections are widely scattered 
and they would be obliged to cross some cattleman's holdings to reach 
them, and moreover, many of them are without water. 

On this proposed reserve for the antelope, there are a number of 
other species of wild life. The sage grouse are fairly abundant; we 
saw numbers of them each day, and several hens with broods of active 
chicks. In the northwestern townships are a number of black tail 
deer variously estimated at from eighty to one hundred and fifty, and 
until a few years ago a band of eleven mountain sheep ra!:^T;ed the bluffs 
and canyons along the Owyhee River, the last one — an old doe — was 
killed about three years ago. Along the streams can be found both 
beaver and otter in fair numbers. Of the smaller animals there are 
quite a variety, viz., the porcupine, mountain marmot, badger, ground 
squirrel, cotton tail rabbit and the snowshoe rabbit. There are some 
coyotes, and in the Juniper mountains bob cats and an occasional 
cougar. There are, also, some rattlesnakes, bullsnakes, lizards and 
horned toads. 

The roads in this country are very few and mostly trails. There 
is a fairly good auto road from Grandview to the Mud Flats shear- 
ing corral; this is necessary for the transportation of wool to the rail- 
road at Mountain Home. From Mud Flats on down, it is more or 
less of a primitive wagon trace, its course meanders through the 
meadows along the streams, up and over steep hills and rimrocks, 
across sloughs and bridgeless streams, and finally ends in Mr. Brace's 
corral. It is by no means an auto road, and our car was the second 
that had ever been over it, the other was a surveying outfit. Most of 
the people in this country travel on horseback, wagons are used prin- 
cipally to freight in supplies for the ranchmen. There are a number 
of trails leading in various directions. The cattle trail goes north to 
Murphy, the nearest shipping point where a branch of the Oregon 
Short Line comes down from Nampa. Another road from Brace's 
Ranch runs to Fairylawn, where the Post Office is located. This town 
is in the northwestern corner of the proposed reserve, a distance of 
about thirtv-five miles from Brace's. The old emigrant trail from 
Elko, Nevada, to Silver City, Idaho, runs in a northwest direction about 
five miles south of Mud Flats and close to the northeastern corner of 
proposed reserve. 

No opportunity should be lost in creating this preserve at the 
earliest possible moment; most of the settlers are in favor of it and 

62 



Y/yOMi 1^ (a 



\^^^.y<^l I 




N OV 3 ^ 



have so expressed themselves in a signed petition, the significance of 
which should not be overlooked; it is by far the best protection that 
could be afforded the antelope, as these settlers are widely scattered 
over this territory and would see to it that the law was enforced, 
but if the Basque sheepmen are allowed to occupy the country, it will 
be but a short time before the antelope are killed or driven off and the 
nests of the sage grouse trampled out by the sheep, vegetation destroyed 
and the country made a barren waste. 








V-'M4s#^,^* H.WawV |i^ .tLK^.^] 




SHEEP ON A NATIONAL FOREST PRESERVE 

Sheep Grazing on the Public Lands, Not Only Destroy the Natural 

Vegetation But Also Trample Out the Nests of the Sage Grouse and 

Other Ground Nesting Birds 



63 



NOTICE 

THE AMERICAN BISON SOCIETY 

Is now exerting all its energies towards the pre- 
servation of the fast disappearing 

PRONG HORN ANTELOPE 

FOUND ONLY IN NORTH AMERICA 
NOW ON THE VERGE OF EXTINCTION 



In former years the antelope ranged in countless 
numbers over all that vast territory west of the 
Missouri River, both in Canada and Mexico, but 
have melted away before the advance of civilization 
until now they are almost extinct. To allow this 
would be a blot on our civilization and a crime 
against posterity, therefore we make an earnest 
appeal to all friends of Wild Life for assistance in 
the preservation of the Antelope. 



All donations should be made payable to 

AMERICAN BISON SOCIETY 

and sent to the Treasurer 
Clark Williams, 37 Liberty St., New York 



MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN BISON SOCIETY 

HONORARY MEMBERS 

Dr. William T. Hornaday New York Zoological Park, New York, N. Y. 

Ernest Harold Baynes Meriden, N. H. 

James R. Garfield Garfield Building, Cleveland, Ohio 

PATRONS 

Blue Mountain Forest Association 192 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

Mrs. AJicia D. Conrad Kalispell, Mont. 

Howard Elliot . St. Paul, Minn. 

Col. Charles Goodnight Goodnight, Texas 

CONTRIBUTORS 

Jared G. Baldwin 13 South William Street, New York, N. Y. 

W. S. McCrea 157 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Robert Cameron Rogers Santa Barbara, Calif. 

Miss Mary Mitchell 3703 West Pine Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo. 

LIFE MEMBERS 

Mrs. Frederick H. Alms Hotel Alms, Cincinnati, Ohio 

A. A. Anderson 80 West 40th Street, N. Y. C. 

]\Irs. Henry Draper 271 Madison Avenue, New York 

Samuel Henshaw. . . • ■ Cambridge, Mass. 

Benjamin R. Hoffman 2131 Land Title Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

William T. Hornaday, 

c/o N. Y. Zoological Park, 183rd St. and So. Boulevard, N. Y. C. 

Frederic H. Kennard 220 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

N. T. Kidder. • Mihon, Mass. 

Amory A. Lawrence Boston, Mass. 

W. H. Miner The Rookery, Chicago, 111. 

Edward L. Parker 50 State Street, Boston, Mass. 

George A. Peabody • • The Hurley Farm, Denvers, Mass. 

Clay H. Pierce 25 Broad Street, New York 

Thomas Harris Powers 119 South 16th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Charles S. Sargent "Holm Lea," Brookline, Mass. 

Bayard Thayer ■ ■ Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Ethel R. Thayer 77 Bay State Road, Boston, Mass. 

Louis Weber 4740 North Mascher Street, Phila.. Pa. 

ACTIVE MEMBERS 

W. L. Abbott 400 So. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. L. Allen c/o Norton Company, Worcester, Mass. 

M. T. Atwood 468 Chauncey Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Frank Baackes c/o Amer. Steel & Wire Co., Rookery Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Leonard D. Baldwin 27 Pine Street, New York Cit v 

Charles T. Boal 150 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

65 



Jules Breuchaud 2 West 67th Street, New York City 

Mrs. Joseph Bridgham 134 George Street, Providence, R. I. 

Brig. Gen. J. A. Buchanan 2210 Mass. Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Joseph E. Bulkley ■ • Lyme, Conn. 

Henry A. Caesar 630 Park Avenue, New York City 

David B. Carse 71 Broadway, New York City 

Hampton L. Carson 1336 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chippewa Falls Park Asso., Chippewa Falls, Wis., Earle H. Baily, Sec'y, 

Chippewa Falls, Wis. 

James L. Clark 949 Homes Street, New York 

John Lyman Cox 12 Summit Street, Chestnut Hill, Pa. 

Z. Marshall Crane ■ • Dalton, Mass. 

Maunsell S. Crosby (Capt.) Grasmere, Rhinebeck, N. Y. 

Milton F. Davis, Brig. Gen., N. Y. Military Academy, Cornwall-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

J. F. Degener 44 West 74th Street, New York City 

William C. Demorest 217 Broadway, New York City 

F. Alden Eaton Eatons Ranch, Wolf. Wyo. 

Miss E. S. Edwards 73 Ten Broeck Street. Albany. N. Y. 

H. A. Edwards 73 Ten Broeck St.. Albany, N. Y. 

Miss Emma C. Embury 46 West 83rd Street. New York City 

Wilmot R. Evans • • 36 School Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dr. 0. H. Everett Pearl Street, Worcester, Mass. 

Henry S. Fleek. c/o Fleck & Neal, 41 So. Third St., Newark, 0. 

Alexander Forbes Milton, Mass. 

J. Murray Forbes 107 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Mass. 

Dr. Homer Gage 8 Chestnut Street. Worcester, Mass. 

Martin S. Garretson Clifton, N. J. 

Mrs. Walter Geer • • 246 West 72nd Street, New York City 

Miss Mary K. Gibson 1612 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gibson Brothers, Inc • • Yakima, Washington 

Mrs. E. H. Godeffroy, Neversink Lodge, Godeffroy P. O., Orange County, N. Y. 
Charles Goodnight ■ • Goodnigiit, Texas 

G. H. Gould . . .'^. Box 275. Santa Barbara, Cal. 

Madison Grant 22 East 49th Street, New York City 

Ludlow Griscom 37 Fifth Avenue, New York City 

William Russell Hallett ■ • 60 India St.. Boston, Mass. 

W. A. Harbison 1712 Farmers Bank Bldg.. Pittsburg, Pa. 

W. C. Harlan Hamilton, Montana 

W. E. Hawks Bennington, Vermont 

J. H. Henry • • . 1199 Knoll Avenue, Pasadena. Cal. 

John Henshaw 42 Westminster Street, Providence, R. L 

Clemens Herschel 2 Hall Street, New York City 

Robert W. Hunt 614 E. Division Street, Chicago, 111. 

Charles L. Hutchinson • • 2709 Prairie Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

Col. E. Lester Jones, c/o Department of Commerce, U. S. Coast & Geodetic Survey, 

Washington, D. C. 

Theodore Kemm c/o Aldine Club, 200 Fifth Ave., New York City 

Dr. Harris Kennedy • ■ Readville, Mass. 

William Kent 1410 Borland Bldg., 105 So. La Salle St., Chicago, 111. 

Adolf Kuttroff 17 East 69th Street, N. Y. C. 

C. W. Lasell. Whitinsville, Mass. 

S. P. Lippincott Wyancote, P. 0., Pa. 

Frank Lyman 14 Wall Street, New York City 

Theodore Lyman, Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Carl K. McFadden 90 West Street, N. Y. 

Dr. W. P. Manton 32 Adams Avenue, West, Detroit, Mich. 

W. J. McCalister 712 City National Bank Bkk., Wichita Falls, Texas 

Richard M. McCall. 311 So. 13th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. S. McCrea Room 1331. Peoples Gas Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

W. L. Mellon P. O. Box 1214, Pittsburg, Pa. 

66 



Miss Heloise Meyer "Overlee," Lenox. Mass. 

Mrs. Clarence G. Michalis 130 East 67th Street, New York City 

Enos A. Mills Longs Peak, Colo. 

E. W. Nelson, c/o Biological Survey, Dept. of .\griculture, Washington, D. C. 

S. M. Nixon P. 0. Box 638, Pocatello, Idaho 

Gilbert N. Oakes Oyster Bay Inn, Oyster Bay, N. Y. 

Dudley Olcott Mechanics & Farmers Bank. Albany, N. Y. 

Prof. Henry F. Osborn c/o Museum of Natural History, N. Y. C. 

Dr. T. S. Palmer 1939 Biltmore St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Gen. Daingerfield Parker 1431 21st Street, N. W., Washington. D. C. 

John J. Paul . Watertown, Florida 

John M. Phillips c/o Phillips Mine & Mill Supply Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

T. G. R. Pierson 15 William Street, New York City 

G. D. Pope 212 Iroquois Avenue. Detroit, Mich. 

Albert H. Pratt Atlantic Highlands, N. J. 

Coleman Randolph Morristown, N. J. 

Charles H. Raymond 46 MacCulloch Avenue, Morristown, N. J. 

W. C. Robertson Oradell, N. J. 

J- E. Roth c/o Phillips Mine & Mill Supply Co., Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Mrs. H. M. .Schieffciin Grasmere, Rhinebeck, N. Y. 

Ernest T. Seton Greenwicli, Conn. 

Edmund Seymour 45 Wall Street, New York City 

Dr. George C. Shattuck 205 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 

Edwin B. Sheldon Delhi, N. Y. 

Hon. George Shiras, 3rd Stoneleigh Court, Washington, D. C. 

F. M. Smith Svndicate Building, Oakland. Cal. 

W. Hinckle Smith 201 Liberty Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Keith Spalding 2626 Prairie Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

John T. Spaulding 50 Congress Street, Boston, Mass. 

William S. Spaulding 50 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

Vilhjalmur Stefansson c/o Amer. Geographical Society, N. Y. C. 

Charles H. Stonebridge 23 Warren Street, or 148th St. & 3rd Avenue, N. Y. C. 

Charles S. Sullivan 1034 So. Main Street, Anderson, S. C. 

F. W. Taylor • • Main Street, Worcester, Mass. 

Capt. M. M. Taylor Naval War College, Newport, R. I. 

H. E. Talbott First & Ludlow Sts., Dayton, O. 

Col. Robert M. Thompson 16 East 43rd Street, New York City 

Genl. Harry C. Trexler Young Building, Allentown, Pa. 

Frederick K. Vreeland 90 West Street, New York City 

Charles C. Walker 50 State Street, Boston, Mass. 

Miss Hattie Washburn Goodwin, South Dakota 

J. R. Wharton. . ■ ■ Butte, Montana 

Jos. S. Lovering Wharton 3146 North 17th Street, Philadelphia 

Charles Wheeler North American Building. Philadelphia 

William B. Whelen 505 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

John Jay White, Jr c/o F. B. Keech & Company, New York City 

D. L. Whitesell 620 Connelly Street, Paris, 111. 

Caspar Whitnev Irvington-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Hon. Clark Williams • • 160 Broadway, N. Y. C. 

James W. Wister, M.D 5430 Germantown Ave., Phila., Pa. 

0. B. Wood 50 Foster Street. Worcester, Mass. 

Robert Sterling Yard 1512 Eighth Street, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Gen. S. B. M. Young Soldiers' Home, Washington. D. C. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 

Theodor G. Ahrens, Ph.D. .. .Berlin Lichterfelde — Ost — Boothstrasse 21, Germany 

Horace Marden Albright Supt., Yellowstone National Park, Wyo. 

Edward Phelps Allis, Jr Palais de Carnoles, Menton (A. M. ) France 

Vernon Bailey 1834 Kalorana Road, Washington, D. C. 

George D. Barron Rye, N. Y. 

67 



R. T. Bartlett Woodsville, N. H. 

G. C. Bartoo Eden, N. Y. 

Dr. S. W. Battle Asheville, N. C. 

John F. Betts. . • • 319 North 4th Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Lyman Blair Hillside Avenue. Greenville, Me. 

A. Huidekoper Bond 21 East 60th Street, New York 

Frank Brewster Ames Building. Boston, Mass. 

John L D. Bristol Madison Ave. & 23rd St., N. Y. C. 

Dickson Q. Brown 11 Broadway. New York City 

Charles S. Butler 32 Nassau Street, New York City 

Butte Electric Ry. Co Daly Bank Bldg.. Butte, Mont. 

Charles U. Caesar 630 Park Avenue, New York City 

Mrs. Laura F. Caesar 630 Park Avenue, New York City 

W. R. Callender • • 239 Westminster Street, Providence, R. L 

W. M. Camp 7740 Union Avenue. Chicago. 111. 

J. S. Carpenter, Rear Admiral, U. S. N., Navy Department. Washington, D. C. 

George Gary, Jr 460 Franklin Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Thomas Gary 7 West Genesee Street, Buffalo. N. Y. 

D. D. Casement Manhattan, Kansas 

Henry S. Chafee 5 Cooke Street, Providence. R. I. 

John P. Chessrown. .c/o Phillips Mine & Mill Supply Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Starling W. Ghilds 25 Nassau Street, New York City 

R. S. Chilton, Jr ■ ■ Coboing, Ontario, Canada 

L. T. Christian 1012 East Broad Street, Richmond, Va. 

Clarence M. Clark 321 Chestnut Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Emory W. Clark 1740 Jefferson Ave. E., Detroit, Mich. 

F. S. Cleghorn 54 Batterymarch Street, Boston, Mass. 

Hazen Clement 70 State Street, Boston. Mass. 

H. B. Clow, Jr c/o Rand, McNally & Co., Chicago, 111. 

Julian Codman 18 Tremont Street, Boston. Mass. 

Alfred M. Collins ......226 Columbia Avenue, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Henry H. Collins 226 Columbia Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Frank H. Conklin Lakeville, Mass. 

Miss Margaret L. Corlies Magnolia, Mass. 

Tench C. Coxe Asheville, N. C. 

C. P. Curtis. . . • • 71 Ames Building, Boston, Mass. 

Charles C. Curtiss 110 Astor Street, Chicago, 111. 

Thomas Curtiss 671 Lafayette Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Charles A. Dean c/o Hollingsworth & Whitney Co.. Boston 

John Ross Delafield. . 52 Wall Street, N. Y. C. 

Louis E. Dennig Brentmoor, St. Louis, Mo. 

H. W. Dickey, V.P., The Conrad Nat'l Bank of Kalispell, Kallispell, Montana 

A. P. Dienst Third Avenue & 140th Street, New York 

Mrs. T. Coleman Du Pont 808 Broome St.. Wilmington. Del. 

Mrs. A. G. Durfee P. 0. Box 39, Wickford, R. I. 

John W. Edmonds 107 Wall Street, New York City 

Mrs. L. P. Elliott 30 Saxon Road, Newton Highlands, Mass. 

Ralph Ellis Jericho, L. L 

Prof. Morton J. Elrod University of Montana. Missoula, Montana 

George P. Ells Norwalk, Conn. 

H. L. Emerson 311 Main Street, Stoneham, Mass. 

Mr. Charles Evans Riverton, N. J. 

Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, 
Director, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park. San Francisco, Cal. 

Mrs. John V. Farwell, Jr Ardleigh, Lake Forest, 111. 

Dr. A. Fernald 420 Boylston Street, Boston. Mass. 

George Wood Garrard Frontenac, Minn. 

John W. Garrett German St. corner of South, Baltimore, Md. 

Dr. Edward Ghidella 460 Columbia Avenue. San Francisco, Cal. 

Robert M. Gibson Webster Grove, Mo. 

68 



Edwin F. Gillette 691 La Loma Road, Pasadena, Cal. 

Walter L. Gootlwin 783 Main Street, Hartford, Conn. 

Charles W. Goodyear, .h 123 Oakland Place, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Rev. Percy S. Grant 7 West 10th Street, N. Y. C. 

F. C. Gratwick 886 Ellicott Sq., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Albert Z. Gray 5 Nassau Street, New York 

Roland Gray 60 State Street, Boston, Mass. 

Chas. P. Grayson, M.D 262 South 15th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Owen Gudger Asheville, N. C. 

Brinckle Gummey 12 Laclede Place, Atlantic City, N. J. 

Arthur H. Hagemeyer 71 Broadway, N. Y. C. 

R. B. Hansel) c/o Allegheny Trust Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ralph W. Harbison 1712 Farmers Bank Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Henry E. Hardtner Urania, La. 

Henry W. Hart 62 Rockview Street, Jamaica Plain Station. Boston, Mass. 

W. O. Hart 134 Carondelet Street, New Orleans, La. 

Thomas S. Hathawav New- Bedford Mass. 

Louis Haupt, M.D.. .' 232 East 19th Street, New York 

Walter J. Hewlett 51 Wall Street, N. Y. C. 

Harrv G. Higbee Sharon, Mass. 

Richard M. Hoe 11 East 71st Street, New York City 

•Hon. A. W. Hopkins Granville, Putnam County, 111. 

E. P. Home 318 Keith & Perry Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 

1. S. Home 318 Keith & Perry Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 

Dr. H. E. Hou_non Whitefish, Montana 

L. A. Huffman Miles City, Montana 

A. C. Huidekoper Meadville, Pa. 

Edgar Huidekoper Meadville, Pa. 

Mrs. Frances L. Huidekoper Meadville, Pa. 

Wallis Huidekoper Wallis, Montana 

Mrs. Roy DeNeale Hunter West Claremount, N. H. 

Frank P. Hupe Grandview, Washington 

Mrs. Arnold S. Hyde 252 West Monument Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Mrs. William James. Jr 89 Irving Street, Cambridge, Mass. 

Mrs. Frank B. Keech 340 Park Avenue, New York City 

Robert H. Keiser 620 .Security Building, St. Louis, Mo. 

Joseph A. Kelly 803 Federal Reserve Bank Bldg.. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Luther S. Kelly Paradise, Butte Co., Calif. 

Miss Mary A. Kilvert 41 East 4th Street, Chillicothe, Ohio 

S. L. B. Kinzer Lansdowne, Delaware Co., Pa. 

S. D. Kittredire Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Hugo A. Koehler 5346 Maple Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 

Dr. Henry F. Kreutzman 1054 Sutter Street, San Francisco. Cal. 

Thomas Carv Kuhn 218 East 11th Ave., Homestead. Pa. 

'H. .P. Lambert Beverly, Mass. 

Warren R. Leach Rushvdle, 111. 

Francis J. LeMoyne 5737 Wilkins Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Kirke Porter Lincoln 5140 Pembroke Place, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

R. Mason Lisle Paoli, Chester County, Pa. 

J. Alden Loring 351 Front Street, Oswego, N. Y., or N. Y. Zoological Park 

W. C. Loring 2 Gloucester Street, Bo.ston, Mass. 

Marklove Lowery 1824 Sunset Avenue, Utica, N. Y. 

Frank G. Macomber 45 Batterymarch Street, Boston, Mass. 

Miss S. W. Manpin 2013 Maryland Ave., Baltimore, Md. 

Mrs. H. T. dePeyster Martin 863 Park Avenue, New York City 

J. Willis Martin. 658 City Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thomas S. Martin 127 City Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. 

G. E. Matthies c/o The E. Day Co., Seymour, Conn. 

Alfred Collins Maule Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

69 



M. Hall McAllister, Chairman, Live Animals Committee, 

California Academy of Sciences, 485 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 

William B. McClure University Club, Chicago, 111. 

Marshall McLean 27 Cedar Street, New York City 

Mrs. Robert Mee 1718 Vine St., Hollywood, Cal. 

T. A. Mellon 401 N. Negley Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

D. A. Merriam 1234 Commercial Nat'l Bank Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Jack C. Miles 408 16th Street, Denver, Colo. 

Dr. R. M. Miller Ashmont Street, Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. J. G. Mitchell 1% Gardner Road, Brookline, Mass. 

Mrs. Wistar Morris Green Hill Farm, Overbrook, Pa. 

F. J. Muhlfeld 24 Nassau Street, N. Y. C. 

Miss Catherine W. Myer 414 Delaware Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

Miss C. B. Neely 4929 Greenwood Avenue. Chicago, 111. 

Nettleton Neff c/o Penna. Lines, 108 Fir St., Akron, O. 

Albert B. Neill 83 Hodge Avenue, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mrs. Charles A. Nichols 100 Meeting Street, Providence, R. I. 

J. H. Nusser Walker and South Aves., N. S., Pitts., Pa. 

Prescott Oakes 607 Lowman Bldg.. Seattle, Wash. 

J. C. O'Conor 24 East 33rd St., N. Y. C. 

W. A. Oppen 68 Pleasant St., Stoneham, Mass. 

Isaac H. Orr 401 West 4th Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Russell W. Osborn 558 Sacramenta St., San Francisco, Cal. 

William Cliurch Osborn 170 Broadway, New York City 

Dr. H. G. Pape Davenport, Iowa 

Roswell Parish 1253 Beacon Street, Brookline, Mass. 

George S. Parker 87 Milk Street. Boston, Mass. 

H. S. Parker Cohassett, Mass. 

William S. Patten 6 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 

A. S. Peters Lake Wilson, Minn. 

George Pfeiffer 900 Bloomfield Street, Hoboken, N. J. 

Carl Pickhard 1042 Madison Ave., New York City 

Dudley L. Pickman 53 State Street, Boston, Mass. 

James R. Poor 806 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. James R. Po(u- 806 Tremont Building. Boston, Mass. 

G. D. Pope 212 Iroquois Avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

A. J. Porter 6 Fourth Street. Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Allen Potter 19 Braemon Road, Aberdeen, Boston, Mass. 

Joseph Hyde Pratt Chapel Hill, N. C. 

J. Sargent Price. Jr Chestnut Hill, Phila., Pa. 

Raleigh Rains "Tlie Mansfield." 1730 M St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 

Mr. J. E. Rankin Asheville, N. C. 

S. P. Ravenel Asheville, N. C. 

Verne Rhodes Asheville, N. C 

Charles I. Rice 42 Shattuck Street. Worcester, Mass. 

Jarvis Richards 423 Temple Court Bldg., Denver, Col. 

Mrs. Craig D. Ritchie 414 North 34th Street, Philadelpfiia, Pa. 

Powhatan Robinson 120 West 70th St., New \ork City 

Dudley P. Rogers 50 State Street, Boston, Mass. 

Miss Elizabeth Ropes 3 Cambridge Street. Salem. Mass. 

A. Le Baron Russell 21 Milk Street, Boston, Mass. 

Mrs. Marv A. Russell 208 Battles Street, Brockton, Mass. 

Richard M. Saltonstall Siiawmut Bank Building. Boston, Mass. 

O. P. Satrom Galesburg. North Dakota 

W. R. Schuchman Homestead, Pa. 

Frank A. Schulte 143 Camborne Ave.. E.. Ferndale Branch. Detroit, Mich. 

Henry R. Scully lackson Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Mr. Richard Sears 10 State Street, Boston, Mass. 

Mr. F. L. Seely Asheville, N. C. 

G. 0. Shields 1110 Simpson Street, New York City 

George H. Simonds North Andover, Mass. 

70 



Mrs. Roswell Skeel. Jr c/o Bankers Trust Co., 47tli St. and 5tli Ave., N. Y. 

Mr. John F. Souther 123 Claremont Ave., Arlington, Mass. 

Isaac Sprague Wellesley Hills, Mass. 

J- A SpurreU Wall Lake, Iowa 

Charles H. Stearns 265 Howard Street, Brookline, Mass. 

H B. Stearns Dedham, Mass. 

Olin J. Stephens 220 E. 138th Street. New York City 

.) . G. Stikeleather Asheville N. C. 

Mr. Clark B. Stocking 437 West 67th Street. Los Angeles, CaL 

Mrs. James Sullivan 120 Riverside Drive, N. Y. C. 

Victor Sutro 66 Broadway, N. Y. C. 

Dr. Parker Synis 361 Park Avenue, N. Y. C. 

Clyde B. Terrell Oshkosh, Wis. 

Sydney Thayer 28L5 Gray's Ferry Road, Phila. 

De Courcy W. Thorn 405 Md. T. Bldg.. Baltimore, Md. 

Fred W. Thomas 8 Lnion Avenue, Clifton, N. J. 

S. B. Thorne 17 Battery Place, New York City 

George Tonkin Biological Survey, Baker, Oregon 

Dr. A. F. Townsend 747 Slater Bldg., Worcester, Mass. 

Charles H. Townsend The Aquarium, Battery Park, N. Y. 

E. M. Townsend Townsend Place. Ovster Bay, N. Y. 

Mrs. John E. D. Trask 406 Geary .Street, San Francisco. Cal. 

William Henry Trotter 36 No. Front St.. Philadelphia, Pa. 

William B. Trowbridge Saranac Lake, N. Y. 

Nels A. Tuveson c/o Weston Grain & Stock Co., Weston, Neb. 

Charles T. Lpton 63 Mt. Vernon St., Lowell, Mass. 

Dr. Willard G. Van Name, c/o American Museum of Natural History, 

77th St. and Central Park West, New York Citv 

Seymour Van Santvoord Troy, N. Y. 

J. S. Walters Nappanee. Indiana 

F. M. Weaver Asheville, N. C. 

Edwin S. Webster 147 Milk Street. Boston, Mass. 

L. F. Webster Wellington, Ohio 

Andrew Grey Weeks 8 Congress Street, Boston, Mass. 

Col. W. H. Wheeler 1428 Norton Ave., Los Angeles. Cal. 

Jos. P. Whittemore Galesburg. N. D. 

James Willits, Jr Glen Cove, N. Y. 

F. E. Willits Glen Cove. N. Y. 

Alan D. Wilson 321 Walnut Street. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Joseph Winterbottom 8 So. Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111. 

John C. Wise -The Portland."' Washington, D. C. 

Oliver Wolcott Readville, Mass. 

E. C. Wright Newark, Ohio 

Joe E. Wright Junction City. Ky. 

Winfield F. Works 1818 Newton St.. N. W.. Washington, D. C. 



71