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at jhttp : //books . qooqle . com/ 



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REPORT 



OF THE 



TWENTY-SECOND MEETING 



OF THE 



BKITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOR THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE ; 



HELD AT BELFAST IN SEPTBMBER 1852. 



LONDON: 

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1863. 



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PRINTED BT 
RICHARD TAYLOR AND WILLIAM FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 




CONTENTS. 



Objects and Rules of the Association xiii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement xvi 

Table of Council from commencement XTiii 

Treasurer's Account xx 

Officers and Council xxii 

Officers of Sectional Committees xxiti 

Corresponding Members xxiv 

Report of Council to the General Committee .. xxiv 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee xxix 

Recommendations for Additional Reports and Researches in Science xxxii 

Synopsis of Money Grants xxxy 

Arrangement of the General Meetings xl 

Address of the President xli 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Third Report on the Facts of Earthquake Phssnomena. Catalogue of 
recorded Earthquakes from 1606 b.c. to a.d. 1650. By Robert 

JjlALLETy t«£^ fVl.tt.J.A. •*..«.•• ••••. ••••••«. 1 

Twelfth Report of a Committee, consisting of H. E. Strickland, Esq., 
Professor Daubeny, Professor Henslow, and Professor Lindley, 
appointed to continue their Experiments on the Growth and Vitality 
of Seeds ,. 177 



IV CONTENTS. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1851-52. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Professor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford 178 

On the Influence of the Solar Radiations on the Vital Powers of Plants 
growing under different Atmospheric conditions. By J. H. Glad- 
stone, Ph.D 239 

A Manual of Ethnological Inquiry ; being a series of questions concern- 
ing the Human Race, prepared by a Sub-committee of the British 
Association for the Advancement of Science, appointed in 1851 (con- 
sisting of Dr. Hodokin and Richard Cull, Esq.), and adapted for 
the use of travellers and others in studying the Varieties of Man ... 243 

Mean Temperature of the Day and Monthly Fail of Rain at 127 Stations 
under the Bengal Presidency, from official Registers kept by Medical 
Officers, for the year 1851. By Colonel Sykes, F.R.S 252 

On Experiments on the Laws of the Conduction of Heat. By J. D. 
Forbes, F.R.S. L.& E 260 

On the Chemical Action of the Solar Radiations. By Robert Hunt... 262 

On the Composition and (Economy of the Flax Plant By Dr. Hodges, 
F,C.S., Professor of Agriculture, Queen's College, Belfast, and 
Chemist to the Chemico-Agricultural Society 273 

The Freshwater Fishes of Ulster, as enumerated in the MSS. of the late 
William Thompson, Esq.. President of the Belfast Natural History 
and Philosophical Society. Contributed by Robert Patterson, 
Esq. and James R. Garrett, Esq 290 

Supplementary Report on the Fauna of Ireland. By the late William 
Thompson, Esq., President of the Belfast Natural History and Phi- 
losophical Society 290 

Observations on the Meteorology of Birmingham. By Willia m Wills, 
Esq., F.G.S 297 

On the Vortex- Water- Wheel. By James Thomson, A.M., Civil En- 
gineer, Belfast 317 

On the Composition of Foods in relation to Respiration and the Feeding 
of Animals. By J. B. Lawes, Esq., of Rothamsted ; and J. H. Gil- 
bert, Ph.D., F.C.S. 328 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 
Mathematics. 

Pftge 
Rev. Dr. Bryce's Account of a Treatise on Arithmetic in the Chinese Lan- 
guage, by the Rev. Dr. Moncrieff, late of St. Paul's College, Hong Kong 1 

Mr. W. Gartland on Criteria for real and imaginary Roots of Biquadratic 
Equations 2 

Sir William R. Hamilton on Biquaternions 2 

J. J. Watkroton on the Gradient of Density in Saturated Vapours, and its 
Development as a Physical Relation between Bodies of definite Chemical 
Constitution 2 

Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism. 

Sir David Brewster's Notice of a Tree struck by Lightning in Clandeboye 
Park 2 

Account of a Case of Vision without Retina 3 

On the Form of Images produced by Lenses and 

Mirrors of different sizes 3 

Mr. A. Claudet on the Stereoscopometer 6 

on a Manifold Binocular Camera 6 

Professor Matteucci on the Laws of Magnetism and Diamagnetism, in a 
Letter to Dr. Faraday 6 

Captain £. J. Johnson on placing Compasses on Board Iron Ships 10 

Professor Powell on a peculiarity of Vision 11 

on Luminous beams 11 

— on Converging Sun-beams 12 

Mr. W. J. Macquorn Rankine on the Re-concentration of the Mechanical 
Energy of the Universe 12 

Professor C. Piazzi Smyth on an Improved Form of Reflecting Instrument 
for Use at Sea 12 



Remarks on the Red Prominences seen during 



the Total Solar Eclipse 13 

Professor Stokes on the Optical Properties of a recently discovered Salt of 
Quinine • • 15 

Mr. J. P. Joule and Professor W. Thomson on the Thermal Effects of Air 
rushing through small Apertures 16 

Professor W. Thomson on the Sources of Heat generated by the Galvanic 
Battery 16 



VI • CONTENTS. 

Page 
Professor W. Thomson on the Mutual Attraction between two electrified 
Spherical Conductors 17 

on certain Magnetic Curves ; with applications to Pro- 
blems in the Theories of Heat, Electricity, and Fluid Motion 18 

■ ■ on the Equilibrium of elongated Masses of Ferromag- 
netic Substance in uniform and varied Fields of Force 18 

Mr. R. W. Townbend on an Instrument for exhibiting the Colours of Liquids 
by Transmitted Light 20 

Dr. John Tyndall on Molecular Action 20 

1 on Poisson's Theoretic Anticipation of Magnecrystallic 
Action 20 

Astronomy, Meteors, Waves. 

Mr. H. Hennbssy on the Connexion between Geological Theories and the 
Theory of the Figure of the Earth 21 

Mr. Jamks Nasmyth's proposed Theory of the Origin of the Asteroids 21 

The Earl op Rosse's Drawings to illustrate Recent Observations on Nebulas. 
With Remarks by Rev. Dr. Robinson 22 

Meteorology. 

Sir David Brewster's Account of a remarkable Case of Mirage 24 

— — — — — on certain Phenomena of Diffraction 24 

Dr. G. Buist on four simultaneous Experiments in the Island of Bombay to 
determine the Fall of Rain at different Heights below 200 feet 25 

on Atmospheric Daily and Yearly Fluctuations 25 

Communication from the Smithsonian Institution ' on the Plan adopted for in- 
vestigating the Meteorology of North America' 26 

Lieut. W. H. H. Hooper on the Aurora 26 

Rev. H. Lloyd's Notes on the Meteorology of Ireland, deduced from the Ob- 
servations made at the Coast-guard Stations under the direction of the Royal 
Irish Academy 26 

Mr. M'Farland on the Fata Morgana of Ireland 29 

Mr. W. J. Macquorn Rankin b on the Causes of the Excess of the Mean 
Temperature of Rivers above that of the Atmosphere, recently observed by 
M. Renou 30 

Rev. T. Rankin's Meteorological Summary for 1851, at Huggate, near Pock- 
lington 31 

« on an Aurora observed at Huggate 31 

Rear-Admiral Sir John Ross on the Aurora Borealis 31 

Captain Strachey on the Formula for the Wet-bulb Thermometer 31 

Dr. J. Taylor on Tropical Hurricanes 31 

Mr. J. K. Watts on the Aurora Borealis observed at St. Ives, Hunts 32 

Miscellaneous. 
Mr. Henry Twining on an Instrument for Drawing 32 

CHEMISTRY. 

Professor Thomas Andrews on the Discovery of Minute Quantities of Soda 
by the Action of Polarized Light 33 

1 on the Atomic Weights of Platinum and Barium 33 



CONTENTS, VU 

Professor Thomas Andrews on the Microscopic Structure of certain Basaltic 
and Metamorphic Rocks, and the Occurrence of Metallic Iron in them 34 

Professor Jambs Apjohn on the Results of Analysis of a Substance resembling 
the Pigolite of Professor Johnston 35 

— — — — — — Ig the Mechanical Power capable of being obtained 

by a given amount of Caloric employed in the production of Vapour indepen- 
dent of the Nature of the Liquids ? 35 

Mr. Samuel Bateson on Glynn and Appel's Patent Paper for the prevention 
of Piracy and Forgery by the Anastatic Process 35 

Mr. Jambs S. Brazier on Irish-bog Butter 35 

Professor T. Graham on the Principle of the Endosmose of Liquids 36 

Professor John F. Hodges on the Phosphatic Nodules of the Greensand of 
the North of Ireland 36 

Mr. — Knox on the Effect of the Moon's Rays 36 

Mr. A. Macdoknell on the Atomie Weight of Magnesium 36 

Professor Frederick Penny on the Estimation of Iodine 37 

Professor E. Ronalds on the Oil of the Sun-Fish 39 

Professor G. G. Stokes on the application of certain Optical Phenomena to 
Chemistry 39 

Professor Tbnnant on the Koh-i-Noor Diamond 39 

Mr. Thomas Woods on Chemical Combination, and on the Amount of Heat 
produced by the Combination of several Metals with Oxygen 39 

on the Combination of Metals with Oxygen 40 

GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Professor T. Andrews on a New Variety of Magnetic Iron Ore; with Re- 
marks upon the Application of Bicarbonate of Baryta to Quantitative Ana- 
lyses...,. 41 

Mr. W. Bollabbt on the Sources of Common Salt 41 

Sir David Brewster's observations on the Diamond 41 

Mr. James Bryce, jun., on the Geological Structure of the Counties of Down 
and Antrim '. 42 

• on the Disposition of Granite Blocks in Argyllshire ... 43 

Major Charters on the Alps in the Vicinity of Mont Blanc 43 

M. Achillb Dblebse'b Account of the Changes occasioned during the Cool- 
ing of the Granite of Mont Blanc 43 

Dr. Andrew Fleming on the Rocks of the Upper Punjaub 43 

Professor E. Forres on the Fossils of the Yellow Sandstone of the South of 
Ireland 43 

Mr. John Grainger on the Shells found in the Alluvial Deposits of Belfast... 43 

Mr. Richard Griffith on the Lower Members of the Carboniferous Series 
of Ireland , 46 

Notices of the' Geology of Ireland 47 

Mr. Robert Harkness on the Fossil Remains of the Lower Silurians of the 
Sooth of Scotland, and their Position 48 

on the occurrence of Graphite at Almorness Head, 

Kirkcudbrightthire 60 

Mr. H. Hennessy's Account of the Researches of German Geologists 51 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

Mr. J. Beete Jukes on Devonian Rocks in the South of Ireland 51 

Professor William King on the Permian Fossils of Cultra 53 

Colonel Lloyd on the Mines of Copiapo 53 

Mr. Long on Crag Formations and Coprolites 53 

Mr. James MacAdam on the Fossiliferous Beds of the Counties of Antrim and 

Down 53 

Professor M'Coy on the Subdivisions of Leptcena 55 

————— on the Structure of certain Fossil Fishes found in the Old 

Red Sandstone of the North of Scotland 55 

■ on the Mode of Succession of the Teeth in Cochliodus 55 

Prof. J. Nicol on the Structure of the South Silurian Mountains of Scotland 55 

■ on the Occurrence of Glacier Moraines in Arran 55 

Mr. C. B. Rose's Notice of the Discovery of a new Talpina ? 55 

Mr. J. W. Salter on the Lowest Fossiliferous Beds of North Wales 56 

__ ., on a f ew Qenera of Irish Silurian Fossils 59 

Mr. W. D. Saull on the supposed Action of Water in Geological Formations, 

and the Position of the Poles of the Earth 61 

Mr. James Smith on the Conditions under which. Boulders occur in Scotland 61 

Dr. William Stanger on Certain Furrows and Smoothings on the Surface 

of Granite, caused by Drift Sand, at the Cape of Good Hope 61 

Mr. H. Twining on some Peculiarities of Granite in Certain Points of the Py- 
renees 62 

Dr. Vallini's Notice of a Skeleton of Mastodon angustidens found near 

Montopoli 62 

M. De Verneuil on the Geological Structure of Spain 62 

Major Vicary on the Geology of a portion of the Himalaya Mountains 62 

Mr. J. King Watts on the Geology of Saint Ives, Huntingdonshire, and its 

Neighbourhood 63 

Mr. R. Young on the Eskers of the Central Part of Ireland 63 

BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, including PHYSIOLOGY. 
Botany. 
Professor Allman on the Development of Ferment Cells in the Warm-Water 

Flax Steeps 64 

on a Microscopic Alga as a Cause of the Phenomenon of 

the Coloration of large masses of Water 64 

Professor Balfour's Remarks on the Flora of the South and West of Ireland 64 

Professor Dickie on the Distribution of the Marine Alga? on the British and 

Irish Coasts, with reference to the Influence of the Gulf-stream 65 

Notice of a Monstrosity of Bellis perennis 66 



Remarks on the Altitudinal Ranges of Plants in the North 



of Ireland 66 

Professor W. Hincks on an Anomaly of the Trifolium repens (white clover), in 
which the Pedicles of the Flowers were very much elongated, and the Petals 
and Pistil converted into Leaves 66 

Professor M'Cosh's Morphological Analogy between the Disposition of the 

Branches of Exogenous Plants and the Venation of their Leaves 66 

Major M u n ro on the Transmutation of JByilops into Triticum 68 

Professor Royle on the Black and Green Teas of Commerce 69 



CONTENTS. IX 

Zoology. 
Professor Allman on a peculiar Annelidan Larva 70 

. on the Universality of a Medusoid Structure in the Repro- 
ductive Gemmae of the Tuhularian and Sertularian Polypes 70 

on the Signification of the Ovigerous Vesicles in the Hy- 

droid Polypes 71 

Dr. Martin Barry on a singular Locality chosen for its Nest hy the Black 
Red-Start (Sylvia Tithys) 71 

Prince of Canino'b Zoological Notices 72 

Professor Dickie's Remarks on the Distribution and Habits of Echinus lividus 72 

Professor E. Forbes on a New Map of the Geological Distribution of Marine 
Life, and on the Homoiozoic Belts 73 

— — _ — - _ Remarks on a species of Sepiola new to Britain, and first 
procured in the Neighbourhood of Belfast 73 

Mr. John Grainger's Catalogue of the Shells found in the Alluvial Deposits 
of Belfast 74 

Rev. Thomas Hincks on a peculiar Organ which occurs on some of the Ma- 
rine Bryozoa, and which appears to indicate a Difference of Sex 75 

Mr. Thomas H. Huxley's Researches into the Structure of the Ascidians ... 76 

Mr. George C. Hyndman on a New Species of Acaleph from Belfast Bay... 77 

Mr. William Ogilby on the Geographical Distribution of Animals in con- 
nection with the Progress of Human Civilization *.... 78 

Professor Owen on the Homologies of the Cranial Vertebras 78 

Mr. C. W. Peach on some Fishes, Crustacea and Molluscs found at Peterhead 78 

Dr. Wyvillb T. C. Thomson on the Character of the Sertularian Zoophytes 78 

PHY8IOLOGY. 

Dr. J. Barker on the Part played bv the Cavernous Sinus in the Circulation 
of the Brain * 78 

Dr. £. nv Bois-Rbymond on a New Effect produced on Muscles by the Elec- 
tric Current 78 

Professor T. Wharton Jones on the Forces by which the Circulation of the 
Blood is carried on 80 

Dr. Richard Fowler on the State of the Mind during Sleep 80 

ETHNOLOGY AND GEOGRAPHY. 

Ethnology. 

Dr. Bialloblotzki's Remarks on an Ethnological Collection, in illustration 
of the Ethnology of Java 82 

Mr. Richard Cull on the Misapplication of the terms Evolution and Develop- 
ment, as applied by Ethnographical Philologists to the Inflexions of a 
Language « 82 

■ Notes on Blumenbach's Classification of the Human Race ... 84 

Mr. John V. Giles's Description of a Samoied Family seen at Archangel, 
in a letter to Dr. Hodgkin 84 

Mr. John Grattan's Notes upon a Collection of Irish Crania 84 

Rev. Edward Hincks on the Ethnological Bearing of the Recent Discoveries 
in Connexion with the Assyrian Inscriptions 85 



X CONTENTS. 

Pip 
Rev. Edward Hincks on the Forms of the Personal Pronouns of the Two 

First Persons in the Indian, European, Syro- Arabic, and Egyptian Lan- 
guages 88 

Rev. A. Hums on the Origin, Characteristics, and Dialect of the People in 
the Counties of Down and Antrim ...., • 89 

Professor MacDou all's Heads of a Paper "On the present state of Medo- 
Persic Philology " 90 

Geography. 

Capt. W. Allen's Attempt to account for numerous appearances of sud- 
den and violent drainage seen on the sides of the basin of the Dead Sea... 95 

■ on a Proposed New Line for a Ship Canal to the East Indies 
through the Dead Sea 97 

on the Antiquities of the Island Ruad, the Ancient Aradus, 

and on the ancient Harbour of Seleucia in Pieria 98 

Mr. W. F. Ainsworth on a Railroad through Asia Minor 100 

Mr. William Bollaert on the Distribution of Common Salt, and other Saline 
Bodies, with a view to show their Primary Origin and subsequent Forma- 
tions 100 

Colonel Chesney's Observations on the Euphrates Line of Communication 

with India . 104 

Mr. F. Galton's Expedition to the East of Walfisch Bay 110 

Dr. J. Gabon's Climatological Notes on Pisa and Lucca 110 

Messrs. Lionel Gisborne and Forde's Recent Survey for a Ship Canal 
through the Isthmus of Central America 110 

On a Recent Journey across Africa from Zansibar to Angola, as communicated 
from Her Majesty's Foreign Office to the Royal Geographical Society ] 10 

Rev. Dr. Hincks on certain Ancient Mines 110 

Messrs. Livingston and Orwell* s latest Explorations in South Africa to 
the North of Lake N'gami 112 

On the Expedition to the Interior of Central Australia in search of Dr. Leichardt 1 12 

Lieut. L. Macleod on the Proposed Expedition to ascend the Niger to its 
Source.... . 112 

M. A. Petbrmann's Notes on the Distribution of Animal Life in the Arctic 

Regions » 112 

Commercial Documents relating to the Eastern Horn of Africa 113 

Lieut.-Colonel Sykeb's Notes on the Possessions of the Imaumof Muscat, and 
on the Climate of Zanzibar, with Observations on the Prospects of African 
Discovery 113 

Capt. Synge on the most Rapid Communication with India vid British North 
America • 114 

Chevalier Van de Velde's late Explorations in Syria and Palestine 114 

Consul Vandey on the Upper Nile 114 

STATISTICS. 

Professor Alison on the Present State of the Law of Settlement and the 
Removal of Paupers in Scotland 114 

Rev. John Edgar on the Neglected and Perishing Classes, and the Means of 
their Reformation • • « • 115 



CONTENTS. XI 

Page 
Mr. J. W. Gilbart on the Laws of the Currency in Ireland, as exemplified in 
the Changes that have taken place in the amount of the Annual Circula- 
tion of Bank Notes in Ireland since the passing of the Act of 1845 115 

Professor Hancock. Should our Gold Standard of Value he maintained if Gold 
becomes depreciated in consequence of its Discovery in Australia and 
California? 116 

■ ■ • ■ ■■' * Are there any impediments to the Competition of Free 

Labour with Slave Labour in the West Indies? 117 

Mr. Jambs Hbywood's Statistics of the Revenues of the University and some 
of the Colleges of Oxford, compiled from the Report of the Oxford Uni- 
versity Commission 118 

Mr. Holdbn's Notice of the Progress of the Sewed Muslin Manufacture in 

Ireland ; : 118 

Statistics of the Island of Portsea . 118 

Mr* John Lockb on Excessive Emigration and its Reparative Agencies in Ireland 118 

Mr. Hrnry M'Corm ac on the Connexion of Atmospheric Impurity with Disease 1 19 

Mr. D. M'Culloch on the Statistics of the Province of Nova Scotia 119 

Dr. A. G. Malcolm on the Sanitary State of Belfast, with Suggestions for its 
Improvement 119 

Mr. G. R. Pobtbr on the Productive Industry of Paris 119 

Dr. John Stbano on the Progress and Extent of Steamboat Building in theClyde 120 

Lieut-Colonel Sykes on the Census and Condition of the Island of Bombay... 120 

Mr. W. A. Wilde's Statistics of the Deaf and Dumb in Ireland 121 

■ A Short Account of the early Bills of Mortality at Dublin ... 121 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

Mr. F. C. Bake well on Telegraphic Communications by Land and Sea 121 

Mr. John Barker's Mechanical Proof of the Composition of Rotatory Forces 122 

Mr. Jambs Barton on the Permanent Way of Railways 122 

on the Calculation of Strains in Lattice Girders, with practical 

deductions therefrom • • 123 

Mr. J. F. Batsman on a series of Observations on the Discharge of Water 
from actual Experiment., 124 

Mr. Gborob Clarkb on the Evolution of Gas in Wallsend Colliery 124 

Mr. James Cooper's Account of the Drainage of the Middle Level of the 
Bedford Level; with Observations on Arterial Drainage 125 

Mr. William Fairbairn on the Mechanical Properties of Metals, as derived 
from repeated Meltings, exhibiting the maximum Point of Strength, and the 
Causes of Deterioration .'..,, 125 

————— on the Tensile Strength of Unwrought Iron Plates 
at various Temperatures 125 

New Tubular Boiler 125 

— Remarks on the Minie Rifle 125 

Mr. Robert Garrett on Improvements made in the Harbour of Belfast...... 126 

Mr. Thomas Murray Gladstone on Malleable Iron for Beams or Girders... 126 

Mr. John Godwin on an Improved Cast-Iron Sleeper for Railways 127 

M. Pbrrbaux on a Dynamometric Machine for Measuring the Strength of 
Textile Fabrics and other Substances 128 



XU CONTENTS. 

Fife 
Messrs. W. J. Macquorn Rankine and John Thomson on Telegraphic 
Communication between Great Britain and Ireland, by the Mull of Cantyre 128 

Mr. W. J. Macquorn Rankine's Remarks on the Mechanical Process for 
Cooling Air in Tropical Climates proposed by Prof. C. Piazzi Smyth 128 

Capt. J. Saunders's Design for Safety Harbours . 129 

Mr. W. H. Smith on the Natural Peculiarities and Advantages of the Mineral 
Field and the proposed Harbour of Fair Head 129 

Professor C. Piazzi Smyth on Penrose and Bennett's Sliding Helicograph ... 129 

Mr. James Thomson on some Properties, of Whirling Fluids, with their appli- 
cation in improving the action of Blowing Fans, Centrifugal Pumps, and cer- 
tain kinds of Turbines 130 

■ ■ ■ on a Jet Pump, or Apparatus for drawing up Water by 

the Power of a Jet , ;.... 130 

Mr. W. S. Ward on the Production of Cold by Mechanical Means 131 

Mr. Charles V. Walker on Telegraphic Time Signals 131 

■ ■ ■ ■ on Graphite Batteries 132 

Mr. Thomas Webster on the New Patent Law 139 

Mr. Matthew Whytlaw on a New Method of Scutching the New Zealand 
Flax (Phormium tenax) , 132 

Mr. Alfred J. Woodhouse on the Mould for casting Conical Bullets 132 

Index L— To Reports on the State of Science 133 

Index II. — To Miscellaneous Communications to the Sections 135 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The Editors of the preceding Notices consider themselves responsible only 
for the fidelity with which the views of the Authors are abstracted. 




OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION, 

OBJECTS. 

The Association contemplates no interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
who cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an- 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal* of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADMISSION OF MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be- 
come Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So- 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
bers of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

Life Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
shall receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association which may be pub- 
lished after the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year the sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratuitously the Reports of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay without intermission their 
Annual Subscription. By omitting to pny this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
future years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
sequent Meeting of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sura of 
One Pound. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

Associates for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
eligible to serve on Committees, or to hold any office. 

1852. b 



XIV RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes :— 

1. Life Members admitted from 1631 to 1845 inclusive, who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition. 

2. Life Members who in 1846, or in subsequent years, have paid on ad- 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

3. Annual Members admitted from 1831 to 1839 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually. [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment.] 

4. Annual Members admitted in any year since 1839, subject to the pay- 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
volume of Reports, gratis, or to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following speciBcation, viz. : — 

1. Gratis, — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 

sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1845 a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 

New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 

Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 

2. At reduced or Members* Prices, viz. two-thirds of the Publication 

Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sura as a 
Book Subscription. 

Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 

Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 

3. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 

of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
the Publication Price* Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
Subscriptions shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEETINGS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the General Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with au- 
thors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

2. Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has beenprintedinits Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the Association. 



RULES OF THE ASSOCIATION. XV 

3. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogether not exceed- 
ing three in number, from any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
from Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5. Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nominated in writing for the meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent and Genera] Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Secretaries of the Sections are ex 
qfficio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
sisting severally of the Members most conversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

The Committees shall report what subjects of investigation they would 
particularly recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
brought under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the information of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE OF RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
and report to the General Committee the measures which they would advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Sciepce. 

All Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests for Special Re- 
searches, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
mendations. 

LOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
assist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desire. 

OFFICERS. 

A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIL. 

In the intervals of the Meetings, the affairs of the Association shall be 
managed by a Council appointed by the General Committee. The Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPER3 AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reserve 
his right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, by Auditors 
appointed by the Meeting. 

o2 



II. Table showing the Names of Members of the British -Association who 
have served on the Council in former years. 



Acland, Sir Thomas D. f Bart, M.P., F.R.S. 

Acland, Professor H. W., B.M., F.R.S. 

Adamson, John, Esq., F.L.S. 

Adare, Edwin, Viscount, M.P., F.R.S. 

Ainslie, Rev. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pern- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 

Airy, G. B., D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 

Alison, Professor W. P., M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Ansted, Professor D. T., M.A., F.R.S. 

Argyll, George Douglas, Duke of, F.R.S. 

Arnott, Neil, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 

Babbage, Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 

Babington, C. C, Esq., F.L.S. 

Baily, Francis, Esq., F.R.S. 

Balfour, Professor John H., M.D. 

Barker, George, Esq., F.R.S. 

Bengough, George, Esq. 

Bentham, George, Esq., F.L.S. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, Peyton, M.D., F.R.S. 

Boileau, Sir John P., Bart., F.R.S. 

Boyle, Right Hon. David, Lord Justice-Ge- 
neral, F.R.S.E. 

Brand, William, Esq. 

Brewster,SirDavid,K.H.,D.C.L.,LL.D.,F.R.S. 
Principal of the United College of St Sal- 
vator and St Leonard, St. Andrews. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of, K.T., F.R.S. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart, 
K.C.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Brown, Robert, D.C.L., F.R.8. 

Brunei, Sir M. I., F.R.S, 

Buckland, Very Rev. William, D.D., Dean of 
Westminster, F.R.S. 

Burlington, William, Earl of, M.A., F.R.S., 
Chancellor of the University of London. 

Bute, John, Marquis of, K.T. 

Carlisle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.G.S. 

Carson, Rev. Joseph. 

Cathcart, Lt-Gen. Earl of, K.C.B., F.R.S.E. 

Chalmers, Rev. T., D.D., late Professor of 
Divinity, Edinburgh. 

Chance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Christie, Professor S. H., M.A., Sec. R.S. 

Clare, Peter, Esq., F.R.A.S. 

Clark, Rev. Prof., M.D., F.RS. (Cambridge). 

Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T., Esq. 

Clear, William, Esq. 

Clerke, Major Shadwell, K.H., R.E., F.R.S. 

Clift, William, Esq., F.R.S. 

Cobbold, John Chevalier, Esq., M.P. 

Colquhoun, J. C, Esq., M.P. 

Conybeare,Very Rev. W. D., Dean of Llandaff, 
M.A., F.RS. 

Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. 

Currie, William Wallace, Esq. 

Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. 

Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Darwin, Charles, Esq., F.R.S. 
Daubeny, Prof. Charles G. B., M.D., F.R.S. 
De la Beche, Sir Henry T., C.B., F.R.S., Di- 
rector-General of the Geological Survey 
of the United Kingdom. 



Dillwyn, Lewis W., Esq., F.R.S. 

Drink water, J; E M Esq. 

Durham, Edward Maltby, D.D., Lord Bishop 

of, F.R.S. 
Egerton, Sir Philip de M. Grey, Bart., F.R.S. 
Eliot, Lord, M.P. 
Ellesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. 
Enniskillen, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. 
Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Fitzwilliam, Charles William, Earl, D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 
Forbes, Charles, Esq. 
Forbes, Professor Edward, F.R.S. 
Forbes, Professor J. D., F.R.S., Sec. R.S.E. 
Fox, Robert Were, Esq., F.R.S. 
Gassiot, John P., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gilbert, Davies, D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Graham, Professor Thomas, M.A., F.R.S. 
Gray, John E., Esq., F.R.S. 
Gray, Jonathan, Esq. 
Gray, William, jun., Esq., F.G.S. 
Green, Professor Joseph Henry, F.R.S. 
Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.R.S. 
Grove, W. R., Esq., F.R.S. 
Hallam, Henry, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Hamilton, W. J., Esq., SecG.S. 
Hamilton, Sir William R., Astronomer Royal 

of Ireland, M.R.I.A. 
Harcourt, Rev. William Vernon, M.A., F.R.S. 
Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F.R.S. 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.RS. 
Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.RS. 
Harrowby, The Earl of. 
Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Henslow, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.R.S. 
Henry, Rev. P. S., D.D., President of Queen's 

College, Belfast. 
Herbert, Hon. and Very Rev. William, late 

Dean of Manchester, LL.D., F.L.S. 
Herschel, Sir John F. W., Bart.,D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart, F.R.S. 
Hey wood, James, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 
Hill, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 
Hincks, Rev. Edward, D.D., M.R.I. A. 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M.D. 
Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. 
Hodgson, Joseph, Esq., F.R.S. 
Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., F.RS. 
Hope, Rev. F. W„ M.A., F.R.S. 
Hopkins, William, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., M.A. 
Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.G.S. 
Hutton, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Ibbetson,Capt. L. L. Boscawen, K.R.E., F.G.S. 
Inglis, Sir Robert H.,Bart,D.C.L.,M.P. l F.R.S. 
Jameson, Professor R., F.R.S. 
Jeffreys, John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq. 
Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 
Johnston, Right Hon. William, Lord Provost 

of Edinburgh. 
Johnston, Professor J. F. W., M.A., F.R.S. 



Keleher, William, Esq. 

Kelland, Rev. Professor P., M.A. 

Lansdowne, Henry, Marquis of,D.C.L.,F.R.S. 

Lardner, Rev. Dr. 

Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. • 

Lee, Very Rev. John,.D.D., F.R.S.E., Prin- 
cipal of the University of Edinburgh. 

Lee, Robert, M.D.,F.RS. 

Lefevre, Right Hon. Charles Shaw, Speaker 
of the House of Commons. 

Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart, M.P., F.R.S. 

Liddell, Andrew, Esq. 

Lindley, Professor John, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

Listowel, The Earl oil 

Lloyd, Rev. Bartholomew, D.D., late Provost 
of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Lloyd, Rev. Professor, D.D., Provost of 
Trinity College, Dublin, F.R.S. 

Lubbock, 8ir John W., Bart, M.A., F.R.S. 

Luby, Rev. Thomas. 

Lyell, Sir Charles, M.A., F.R.S. 

MacCullagh, Professor, D.C.L., M.R.I.A. 

Macmrlane, The Very Rev. Principal. 

MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 

MacNeill, Professor Sir John, F.R.S. 

Malcolm, Vice Admiral Sir Charles, K.C.B. 

Manchester, James Prince Lee, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of. 

Meynell, Thomas, Jun., Esq., F.L.S. 

Middleton, Sir William, F. F., Bart 

Miller, Professor W. H., M.A., F.R.S. 

Moillet, J. L., Esq. 

Moggridge, Matthew, Esq. 

Moody, J. Sadleir, Esq. 

Moody, T. H. C, Esq. 

Moody, T. F., Esq. 

Morley, The Earl of. 

Moseley, Rev. Henry, M.A., F.R.S. 

Mount-Edgecumbe, Ernest Augustus, Earl of. 

Murchison, Sir Roderick I., G.C.StS., F.R.S. 

NeiU, Patrick, M.D., F.R.S.E. 

Nicol, D., M.D. 

Kicol, Rev. J. P., LL.D. 

Northumberland, Hugh, Duke of, K.G., M.A., 
F.R.S. 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis of, V.P.R.S. 

Norwich, Edward Stanley, D.D., F.R.S., late 
Lord Bishop of. 

Norwich, Samuel Hinds, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Ormerod, G. W., Esq., F.G.S. 

Orpen, Thomas Herbert, M.D. 

Orpen, J. H., LL.D. 

Owen, Professor Richard, M.D., F.R.S. 

Oxford, Samuel WUberforce, D.D., Lord 
Bishop of, F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Osier, Follett, Esq. 

Palmerston, Viscount, G.C.B., M.P. 

Peacock, Very Rev. George, D.D., Dean of 
Ely, F.R.S. 

Peel, Rt Hon. Sir Robert, Bart., M.P., 
D.C.L., F.R.8. 

Pendarves, E., Esq., F.R.S. 

Phillips, Professor John, F.R.S. 

Porter, G. R., Esq. 

Powell, Rev. Professor, M.A., F.R.S. 

Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ramsay, Professor W., M.A. 

Reid, Lieat-Col. Sir William, F.R.S. 

Rendlesham, Rt Hon. Lord, M.P. 



Rennie, George, Esq., V.P.R.S. 

Rennie, Sir John, F.R.S. 

Richardson, Sir John, M.D., F.R.S. 

Ritchie, Rev. Professor, LL.D., F.R.S. 

Robinson, Rev. J., D.D. 

Robinson, Rev. T. R., D.D., Pres. R.I.A., 

F.R.A.S., . 
Robison, Sir John, late SecR.8.Edin. 
Roche, James, Esq. 
Roget, Peter Mark, M.D., F.R.S. 
Ronalds, Francis, F.R.S. 
Rosebery, The Earl of, K.T., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
Ross, Capt. Sir James C, R.N., F.R.S. 
Rosse, William, Earl of, M.A., M.R.I.A., 

President of the Royal Society. 
Royle, Professor John F., M.D., F.R.S. 
Russell, James, Esq. 
Russell, J. Scott, Esq. 

Sabine, Col. Edward, R.A.,Treas. & V.P.R.S. 
Saunders, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Sandon, Lord. 

Scoresby, Rev. W., D.D., F.R.S. 
Sedgwick, Rev. Professor Adam, M.A^F.R.S. 
Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Smith, Lieut-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.R.S. 
Spence, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Staunton, Sir George T., Bart., M.P.,D.C.L., 

F.R.S. 
St. David's, Connop Thirlwall, D.D., Lord 

Bishop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G. G., F.R.S. 
Strang, John, Esq. 
Strickland, H. E., Esq., F.G.S. 
Sykes, Lieut-Colonel W. H., F.R.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., late Vice-Chancellor of 

the University of Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Tayler, Rev. J. J. 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.R.S. 
Taylor, Richard, Jun., Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Tindal, Captain, R.N. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.R.S.E. 
Traill, J. S., M.D. 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.R.S. 
Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S. 
Turner, Rev. W. 
Vigors, N. A., D.C.L., F.L.S. 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.R.S. 
Walker, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq., F.G.S. 
Walker, Rev. Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Warburton, Henry, Esq., M.A., M.P., F.R.S. 
Washington, Captain, R.N. 
West, William, Esq., F.R.S. 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
Wharncliffe, John Stuart, Lord, F.R.S. 
Wheats tone, Professor Charles, F.R.S. 
Whewell, Rev. William, D.D., F.R.S., Master 

of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Williams, Professor Charles J.B., M.D.,F.R.S. 
Willis, Rev. Professor Robert, M.A., F.R.S. 
Wills, William. 

Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
Woollcombe, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A., F.R.S. 
Yarrell, William, Esq., F.L.S. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.C.L. 
Yates, James, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION FOR THE 



£ 

693 


5 


11 


90 








202 








244 








141 








5 









THE GENERAL TREASURER'S ACCOUNT from 2nd of July 

RECEIPTS. 

To Balance brought on from last account 

Life Compositions at Ipswich and since 

Annual Subscriptions at Ipswich and since 

Associates' Subscriptions at Ipswich 

Ladies' Tickets at Ipswich 

Book Composition 

Dividends on Stock (eighteen months 9 Dividends on £3500 

3 per cent. Consols) 152 18 3 

From the Sale of Publications : — Reports, Catalogues of Stars, &c. :— 

Volume 1 18 

2 16 

3 15 

4 13 

5 1 4 6 

6 , 16 6 

7 ! 15 

9 2 15 

10 9 

11 10 6 

12 16 

13 16 8 

14 2 

15 15 

16 5 8 

17 2 8 

18 5 6 8 

19 64 10 

British Association Catalogue of Stars 56 3 6 

Lalande's Catalogue of Stars 5 3 

Lacaille's Catalogue of Stars 16 

Dove's Isothermal Lines 7 9 

Lithographic Signatures 9 



162 13 4 



1690 17 6 



Audited and found correct, 

CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Auditor. 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



1851 (at Ipswich) to 1st of September 1852 (at Belfast). 



PAYMENTS. 

£ ». d. 

For Sundry Printing, Advertising, Expenses of Ipswich Meeting, 

and Petty Disbursements made by General and Local Trea- 
surers v .. 

Printing Report of 20th Meeting (paid on Account) 

Engraving, &cibr Report of the 21st Meeting 

Salaries, Assistant General Secretary and Accountant, (eighteen 
months) 

Dove's Isothermal Lines 

Maintaining the Establishment at Kew Observatory : — 

Balance of Grant of 1850 29 13 

Part of Grant for 1851 204 4 8 

On account of Grant — 

For Experiments on the Conduction of Heat 

Influence of Solar Radiations 

For a Geological Map of Great Britain and Ireland 

Researches on the British Annelida 

Vitality of Seeds 

Strength of Boiler Plates 

Balance at the Bankers 226 17 3 

Ditto in the hands of the General Treasurer and Local Treasurers 10 12 8 



£ 9. d. 



206 14 


2 


300 








17 


6 10 


525 








100 









233 17 


8 


5 2 


9 


20 





15 





10 





10 6 


2 


10 






237 9 




OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1852-53. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
Sir Roderick I. MuRCHisoN,G.C.S t .S.,F.R.S. The Very Rev. George Pbaoook,D.D., Dean 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. of Ely, F.R.S. 

PRESIDENT. 
COLONEL EDWARD SABINE, R.A., Treasurer and Vice-President of the Royal Society. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 
The Earl of Enniskillen, D.C.L., P.R.S. Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., Pres.R.I.A., 
The Earl of Rosse, M.A., M.R.I.A., Presi- F.R.A.S. 

dent of the Royal Society. George Gabriel Stokes, F.R.S., Lucasian 

Sir Henry T. Dr la Bbchb, C.B., F.R.S., Professor of Mathematics in the University 
Director-General of the Geological Surrey of Cambridge. 

of the United Kingdom. John Stevellt, LL.D., Professor of Natural 

Rev, Edward Hincks, D.D., M.R.I.A. Philosophy in Queen's College, Belfast. 

Rev. P. S. Henry, D.D., President of Queen's 
College, Belfast. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 
William Hopkins, Esq., M.A., V.P.R.S., F.G.S., Pres. Cambr. PhiL Soc. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 
The Earl of Carlisle, F.R.S. Charles Frost, Esq., F.S.A., President of 

The Lord Londesborough, F.R.S. x the Hull Lit. & Pbilos. Society. 

Michael Faradat, D.C.L., F.R.S., Pro- William Spbnce, Esq., F.R.S. 
fessor of Chemistry in the Royal Institu- Lt.-Colonel W. H. Stkes, F.R.S. 
tion of Great Britain. Charles Whbatstonb, Esq., F.R.S., Pro- 

Rev. Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S., Wood- fessor of Experimental Philosophy in King's 
wardian Professor of Geology in the Uni- College, London, 
▼ersity of Cambridge. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT HULL. 
Henry Cooper, Esq., M.D., V.P. Hull Lit. & PhiL Soc 
Bethel Jacobs, Esq., President of the Hull Mechanics Institution. 

LOCAL TREASURER FOR THE MEETING AT HULL. 
Edmund Smith, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

J. C. Adams, Pres.R.A.S. John P. Gassiot, F.R.S. Prof. Owen, LL.D., F.R.S. 

C. C. Babingtok, F.R.S. William R. Grove, F.R.S. Francis Ronalds, F.R.S. 

Professor Bell, SecJLS. Robert Hutton, F.G.S. SirJ. Clark Ross, RJl.,F.R.S. 

Prof.DAUBENT, M.D., F.R.S. James Heywood, Esq.,M.P. Prof. H. E. Strickland,F.R.S. 

Sir P. Egrrton, Bart, F.R.S. Rev. Dr. H. Lloyd, F.R.S. Lt.-Col. W. H. Stkes, F.R.S. 

Professor E. Forbes, F.R.S. Sir C. Lemon, Bart., F.R.S. Prof. Walker, M.A., F.R.S. 

Professor Graham, F.R.S. Prof. W. H. Miller, F.R.S. Lord Wrotteslbt, F.R.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 

The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the Ge- 
neral and Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presi- 
dents of former years, viz. The Earl Fitzwilliam. Rev. Dr. Buckland. Rev. Professor Sedgwick. 
Sir Thomas M. Brisbane. The Marquis of Lansdowne. The Earl of Burlington. Rev. W. 
V. Harcourt. The Marquis of Breadalbane. Rev. Dr. Whewell. The Earl of EUesmere. 
The Earl of Rosse. The Dean of Ely. Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. Sir Roderick I. Mur- 
chison. Sir Robert H. Inglis. The Rev. Dr. Robinson. Sir David Brewster. G. B. Airy, 
Esq., the Astronomer Royal. 

GENERAL SECRETARY. 

J. Forbes Royle, M.D., F.R.S., Prof. Mat. Med. & Therap. in King's College, London. 

ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
John Phillips, Esq., F.R.S., York. 

GENERAL TREASURER. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames Street, London. 

LOCAL TREASURERS. 

William Gray, Esq., York, Professor Ramsay, Glasgow. 

C. C. Babington, Esq., Cambridge. G. W. Ormerod, Esq., Manchester. 

William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh. J. Sadleir Moody, Esq., Southampton. 

J. H. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin. John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., Swansea. 

William Sanders, Esq., Bristol. J. B. Alexander, Esq., Ipswich. 

W. R. Wills, Esq., Birmingham. Robert Patterson, Esq., Belfast. 

AUDITORS. 
J. W. Gilbart, Esq. J. P. Gassiot, Esq. C. C. Babington, Esq. 



OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. XXUl 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
BELFAST MEETING. 

SECTION A. MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

President. Professor William Thomson, M.A., F.R.S. L. & E. 

Vice-President*. J. C.Adams, F.R.S. Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. ; Right 
Rev. Dr. Denvir, Sir W. R. Hamilton, Astron. Royal for Ireland ; Rev. Dr. Lloyd, 
F.R.S. ; Professor Stokes, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. W. J. Macquorn Rankine ; John Tyndall, Ph.D. ; Professor Dixon, 
F.T.C.D. ; Professor Stevelly. 

SECTION B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOGY, INCLUDING THEIR APPLICATION 
TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

President.— Thomas Andrews, M.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. Professor Apjohn, M.R.I.A. ; Professor Connell, F.R.S.E. ; 
Professor Graham, F.R.S. 

Secretaries. Professor Hodges ; Professor Ronalds ; Dr. Gladstone. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

President.— Lieutenant-Colonel Portlock, R.E., F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. Richard Griffith, F.G.S. ; Sir H. De la Beche, F.R.S. ; James 
Smith, Esq., F.G.S. 

Secretaries. James Bryce, F.G.S. ; James MacAdam, F.G.S. ; Professor M'Coy, 
F.G.S. ; Professor Nicol, F.G.S. 

SECTION D. — ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

President. W. Ogilby, Esq. 

Vice-Presidents. Professor Allman ; Professor Walker Arnott ; Dr. Robert Ball ; 
Professor E. Forbes ; Professor Owen. 

Secretaries. George C. Hyndman, Esq. ; Edwin Lankester, Esq., M.D., F.R.S. ; 
Dr. Dickie. 

SECTION E. — GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President.— Colonel Chesney, R.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.R.G.S., &c. 

Vice-Presidents.— Sir R. I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., F.R.S., Pres. R.G.S. ; Rev. 
Dr. E. Hincks. 

Secretaries. — Richard Coll, Esq., Hon. Secretary Ethnological Society, London ; 
Robert MacAdam, Esq. ; Norton Shaw, M.D., Assistant Secretary Royal Geogra- 
phical Society, London. # 

SECTION F.— STATISTICS. 

President. — His Grace the Archbishop of Dublin. 

Vice-Presidents. — Lord Dnfferin ; Mountiford Longfield, Esq., LL.D. ; Major 
Thomas A. Larcom, R.E. ; Lieutenant-Colonel Sykes, F.R.S. ; Valentine Whitla, 
Esq. ; the Earl of Mayo; James Heywood, Esq., M.P., F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Professor Hancock, LL.D. ; James MacAdam, Jun., Esq. ; Professor 
Ingram, F.T.C.D. 

SECTION G. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President.— James Walker, Esq., C.E., LL.D., F.R.S. L. &E. 

Vice-Presidents.— William Fairbairn, C.E. ; John Godwin, Esq., C.E. ; C. Lan- 
yon, Esq., C.E. ; Alex. Mitchell, Esq., C.E. 

Secretaries.— John Frederick Bateman, Esq.; Charles B. Hancock, Esq. ; Charles 
Manby, Esq., Sec. Inst* C.E. ; James Thomson, Esq., C.E. 



XXIV 



REPORT — 1852. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa 

chusetts. 
M. Arago, Paris. 
M. Babinet, Paris. 
Dr. A. D. Bache, Philadelphia. 
Professor H. von Boguslawski, Breslau. 
Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U. S. 
Monsieur Boutigny (d'Evreux), Paris. \ 
Professor Braschmann, Moscow. ) 

Chevalier Bunsen (Prussian Embassy), j 

London. 
Prince Charles Buonaparte, Paris. 
M. De la Rive, Geneva. 
Professor Dove, Berlin. 
M. Dufrenoy, Paris. 
Professor Dumas, Paris. 
Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Parts. 
Professor Ehrenbera, Berlin. 
Dr. Eisenlohr, Carhruhe. 
Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 
Professor Esmark, Christiania. 
Professor G. Forchhammer, Copenhagen. | 
M. Frisiani, Milan. 

Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, U. S. 
Professor Henry, Washington, U. S. 
Baron Alexander von Humboldt, Berlin 
M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 
Professor Kreil, Prague. 
M. Kupffer, St. Petersburg. 



Dr. Langberg, Christiania. 

M. Leverrier, Paris. 

Baron de Selys-Longchamps, Litgc. 

Dr. Lamont, Munich. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von Middendorff, St. Peters- 
burg. 

Professor Nilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordengsciold, Finland. 

Chevalier Plana, Turin. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Professor Pliicker, Bonn* 

M. Constant Prevost, Part*. 

Professor C. Ritter, Berlin. 

Professor H. D. Rogers, Philadelphia. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Virginia. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Baron Senftenberg, Bohemia. 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm. 

M. Struve, St. Petersburg. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

Dr. Van der Hoeven, Ley den. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 
Gotha. 

M. Pierre Tchihatchef, (Russian Em- 
bassy), Part*. 

Professor Wartmann, Lausanne. 



Report on the Proceedings of the Council in 1851-52, as presented 
to the General Committee at Belfast, Wednesday, Sept. 1, 
1852. 

" I. With reference to the subjects referred to the Council by the General 
Committee at Ipswich, the Council have to report as follows :— 

(a) The Council having requested the President, Mr. Airy, to use his best 
endeavours to obtain from Government a grant towards the publication of Mr. 
Huxley's Zoological and Anatomical Researches, made during the voyage of 
H.M.S. ' Rattlesnake/ have been informed by Mr. Airy that the Govern- 
ment have expressed their inability to make a grant for that purpose in the 
present year: the Council recommend that the application should be re- 
peated. 

(b) The Council requested the President, Mr. Airy, to communicate to 
Her Majesty's Government, and to the Court of Directors of the East India 
Company, the recommendation approved by the General Committee, that 
the necessary aid should be given for the speedy publication of the Bo- 
tanical Researches of Drs. Hooker and Thomson, Captain Strachey and Mr. 
Winterbottom, so as to constitute, by combination with former publications, 
a general Indian Flora. The Council have been informed by Mr. Airy, first, 
that Dr. Hooker is engaged under an instruction from Government, in 
arranging his materials for publication, in three volumes, the first of which 
will not be ready before November 1852 ; and that no immediate application 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXV 

for further assistance is required ; and secondly, that, having ascertained the 
state of preparation of Dr. Thomson's researches, he has laid the case fully 
before the Court of Directors in a letter to Mr. Melvill, to which he has as 
yet received no reply. 

(c) The Council requested the President, Mr. Airy, to make the necessary 
application to the Court of Directors of the East India Company to afford 
Captain Strachey such aid as would enable him to publish his explorations 
in the Himalaya Mountains and in Thibet, with the necessary maps and 
illustrations; and have learned from Mr. Airy that he has been informed 
that the Chairman of the Court of Directors has signified his intention of 
giving to Captain Strachey the assistance contemplated by the Association, 
and that he has therefore taken no further step. 

" II. The President, as one of the Committee for Tidal Observations in the 
Atlantic appointed by the General Committee at Ipswich, has communicated 
to the Council the Memorial which the Tidal Committee has presented to 
Government. It is as follows : — 

" * We beg leave to make to Her Majesty's Government a representation 
with which we have been charged by the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, respecting the importance of sending out a ship or 
ships to extend our acquaintance with the phsenomena of the Tides of the 
Atlantic Ocean. 

" ' The importance of an acquaintance with the phsenomena of the Tides, 
both for practical and theoretical purposes, is sufficiently obvious, and has 
been recognised by the Government of this country in many ways. At 
most of the points of our own coast, and at several places in other countries, 
observations have long been made which suffice for most of these purposes. 
But perhaps it is not generally understood how far these observations, 
hitherto, are from giving us such a connected knowledge of the subject as 
may enable us to follow the course of the tide over any considerable portion 
of the Ocean. Even with regard to our own shores, such accurate know- 
ledge hardly existed till observations were made and continued for a fortnight 
at the coast-guard stations of Great Britain and Ireland in June 1834, and 
again in June 1836. On the latter occasion application was also made to 
foreign maritime states, to make a similar and simultaneous series of obser- 
vations, the Duke of Wellington, at that time Foreign Secretary of State, 
promoting the object in a manner which procured from them the most cordial 
and effective co-operation. The results of these observations were inserted 
and discussed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836 (Part II.) ; and, in 
consequence, the course of the tides along the shore from the Strait of 
Gibraltar to the coast of Norway, was made out, as to some general features 
and also along the coast of the United States. But beyond these limits we 
may be said to have no connected knowledge of the course of the tides of 
the Atlantic ; and even within these limits it is impossible, for want of other 
observations, to connect those which were made ; for instance, the tides on 
the American and the European shores. Along the coasts of Africa and of 
South America we are ignorant of the course and progress of the tides, 
although we know some of the phsenomena at detached points, and know 
some of them to be remarkable and perplexing. Nor is it at all likely that 
these defects in our knowledge will be removed by any collection of de- 
tached observations. It is only by systematic observations made with the 
express view of connecting our knowledge on this subject, and pursued from 
place to place, as the results themselves suggest, that we shall ever obtain a 
general view of the facts. Such observations might be made in no long 



xxvi REPORT — 1852. 

time if an expedition were sent out with this special and exclusive object ; 
and might, in that case, be so conducted as to lead with certainty to the 
result. 

" * The best mode of making observations would, probably, be found to be 
to place observing parties at certain distances along the coast, the intervals 
being various according to the nature of the phsenomena; and to direct 
them to make simultaneous observations for a few days, and then to proceed 
farther along the coast with the expedition ; or the tides at any place might 
(on any day) be referred to the moon's transit, and this would afford suffi- 
cient means of comparison with any neighbouring case, unless the phseno- 
mena were peculiar In this way the progress of the tide-wave along the 
coasts of Africa and America would be determined ; from what points it 
diverges, and towards what points it converges ; the latter points being, it is 
presumed, generally those of very high tides, such as occur on the east coast 
of Patagonia. With these observations, combined with others at oceanic 
islands, the general course of the tide elevation might be traced ; and if this 
were done for the Atlantic, it would be the first time that the course of the 
tide in such an ocean-space has been made known to us. 

" * It would also be desirable to observe at the same time the streams of 
flood and ebb. From such observations, combined with those of High and 
Low water, it has appeared in Captain Beechey's recent researches, results 
may be deduced, giving a new and unexpected view of the tidal movements 
of the sea, and supplying knowledge useful for the practical purposes of 
navigation. 

" * As has been said, it is probable that an expedition devoted especially to 
such a purpose might attain the leading features of the required results in no 
long time ; perhaps in a year or eighteen months. This must be on the sup- 
position that it did not attempt to follow the details of the tides out of the 
oceanic space into collections of islands like the West Indies, the details of 
which would employ a much longer time. 

" * One ship, with several boats to set down and take up observing parties, 
would probably be the fittest scale of the expedition ; and standard points, 
where the observations shou\pi be longer continued, and to which the obser- 
vations at secondary points should be referred, would be established from 
place to place in the course of the operations/ 

"III. It has been reported to the Council, by the officers of the Associa- 
tion, that from accidental circumstances, the three following recommenda- 
tions from the Committee of Section C, at Ipswich, had not reached the 
Committee of Recommendations in sufficient time to be included in their 
Report to the Committee :— 

"1. That a Committee be appointed to take into consideration and report 
upon the exact position, number and nature of the phosphatic beds of the 
Crag, and to connect this subject with that of mineral manures generally 
with reference to their scientific and economic value ; and further to investi- 
gate the geological conditions under which the so-called ' Coprolites ' and 
other drifted Organic and Inorganic bodies occur in the Red Crag, and the 
probable sources from which these bodies have been respectively derived. 
The Committee to consist of Professor Henslow, Mr. Searles Wood and 
Mr. Long, with power to add to their number. 

" 2. That Mr. Searles Wood be requested to prepare for the next meeting 
of the Association, a Report of the observed distribution of the specific forms 
of Vertebrata and Invertebrata in the supracretaceous deposits in the vicinity 
of Ipswich. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. XXVU 

" 3. That Mr. Logan's paper on the Geology of Canada be printed in full 
in the next volume of the Reports of the Association. 

" The Council have requested the gentlemen named iu the two first recom- 
mendations to proceed in the matters referred to, pending a decision of the 
General Committee, that may be taken at Belfast; and have ordered that 
Mr. Logan's paper on the Geology of Canada should be printed in full in 
the Ipswich volume of Reports. 

M IV. In concurrence with the Belfast Provisional Committee, the Council 
directed that the meeting should commence on Wednesday, the 1st Sep- 
tember ; and requested the following gentlemen to undertake the offices of 
Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections respectively, subject 
to confirmation by the General Committee, viz. — 

Section A. — President, William Thomson, Esq., Professor of Mathe- 
matics, Glasgow. Vice-President, Rt. Rev. Dr. Denvir. 

Secretary W. J. M. Rankine, Esq. 
B. — President, Dr. Andrews, M.R.I.A. Secretaries, Dr. Hodges, 

Dr. Blyth. 
C. — President, Lieutenant Colonel Portlock, R.E. Secretaries, 

James M'Adam, Esq., J. Bryce, Esq., Professor Nicol, 

Professor M'Coy. 
D. — President, Wm. Ogilby, Esq. Secretaries, Dr. Lankester, 

J. C. Hyndman, Esq., Dr. Dickie. 
E. — President, Colonel Chesney, R.A. Secretaries, R. Cull, 

Esq., Dr. Norton Shaw, ft. M'Adam. 
F. — President, the Archbishop of Dublin. Vice-President, 

V. Whitla, Esq. Secretaries, Professor Hancock, J. 

M'Adam, Esq., jun. 
G^— President, James Walker, Esq., F.R.S. Vice-President, 

C. Lanyon, Esq., C.E. Secretary, James Thomson, Esq., 

C.E. 

" V. The Council have added the names of the following cultivators of 
science who attended at the Ipswich meeting to the list of Corresponding 
Members of the British Association : — 

M. Babinet, Paris. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 

M. Dufrenoy, Paris. 

M. Constant Prevost, Paris. 

M. Pierre Tchihatchef, Russian Embassy, Paris. 

Dr. N. Nordengsciold, Finland. 

Professor Asa Gray, U.S. 

" VI. The Council have great pleasure in submitting the following list of 
invitations from which the General Committee will have to select the place 
of meeting in 1853, viz. — 

" Hull: from whence invitations were also received in 1838, 1839, 1842, 
1849, 1850 and 1851 ; in which invitations the Municipal Council and all 
the other public bodies of the town united. 

" Liverpool: from the Mayor and Corporation; the Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society ; the Royal Institution ; the Architectural and Archaeolo- 
gical Society ; the Polytechnic Society ; Historic Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire; being a renewal of the invitation presented at Edinburgh in 1850. 

" Brighton : from the Earl of Chichester and sixty-eight other gentlemen, 



xxviii REPORT — 1852, 

in addition to the application made to the meeting at Ipswich, on the part of 
the Commissioners of Brighton, by their clerk. 

"Glasgow: from the Magistrates and Town Council, and from the 
Glasgow Philosophical Society. 

"Leeds: for a meeting some year after the year 1853. 

" VII. The Council are happy to have it in their power to report most 
favourably on the proceedings in the last year at the establishment at Kew. 
The experimental trial of Mr. Ronalds s magnetographs, which was in pro- 
gress when the last Report of the Council was made, has been completed, 
and detailed statements of the performance of each of the three instruments 
have been furnished by Messrs. Ronalds and Welsh, and are inserted in the 
volume of Reports for 1851. The Council have great pleasure in referring 
to these statements as showing that Mr. Ronalds's adaptation of photography 
to record the magnetic variations is an effective and practically useful in- 
vention, supplying to those who may desire it the means of making and 
preserving a continuous registry of the phenomena. The processes employed 
for the construction and verification of standard thermometers, have proved 
remarkably successful, and will form the subject of a distinct and detailed 
Report from the Committee of the Kew Observatory. The thermometers 
prepared by Mr. Welsh, under the direction of the Committee, have been 
found, on intercomparison, and also on comparison with Mr. Regnault's 
standard, to furnish results highly satisfactory. They have already been 
supplied on application to the observatories at the Cape of Good Hope and 
Toronto, and to several persons under the following regulation of the 
Council : — * That standard thermometers made at Kew be supplied on ap- 
plication to members of the British Association, and Fellows of the Royal 
Society, at 1/. each/ The Council have also directed that the Kew Com- 
mittee be authorized, at their discretion, to supply standard thermometers 
on official application to any department of Her Majesty's Government, or 
to the East India Company ; and 2nd, that the Committee be authorized, at 
their discretion, to present standard mercurial thermometers to certain of 
the philosophical instrument makers. In compliance with the first of these- 
regulations, the Committee have supplied, on application from the Admiralty, 
fourteen thermometers graduated to extreme low temperatures, to be em- 
ployed in the Arctic Expeditions; and, in compliance with the second 
regulation, they have presented standard thermometers to each of the follow* 
ing artists, viz. — Messrs. Adie, Barrow, Watkins and Hill, Negretti, Newman, 
and Simms. Applications have been received from Professors James Forbes 
of Edinburgh, and William Thomson of Glasgow, for suitable thermometers 
for very delicate experimental researches in which these gentlemen are en- 
gaged, and which thermometers are now in preparation. 

" The preparations for the construction of standard barometers are far 
advanced ; and with a view to the further prosecution of theie objects, the 
Committee for the construction and verification of standard instruments have 
taken steps for procuring authentic standards of length and weight, by placing 
themselves in communication with the Commission appointed by Her Ma- 
jesty's Government to prepare such standards. 

" At the request of the East India Company, twenty sets of instruments 
for proposed meteorological observations in India have been examined and 
verified at Kew. 

" The arrangements required for Professor Stokes's experiments have been 
completed, and the experiments are now in progress. 

" The Council have great pleasure in repeating their former expressions of 



REPORT OF THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. XXIX 

entire approbation of the zeal and intelligence with which Mr. Welsh con- 
tinues to discharge the various duties entrusted to him from time to time, 
by the Superintending Committee. These qualities have been especially 
shown in the manipulations required in the construction of the standard ther- 
mometers, and in the processes for their verification. 

" At the request of the Council, the Superintending Committee have made 
arrangements with Mr. Green for four ascents of the Nassau balloon, for the 
purpose of investigating the meteorological phenomena of the atmosphere. 
Two of these ascents have already taken place, one on the 17th and the 
other on the 26th of August, on each of which days Mr. Green ascended 
to between 19,000 feet and 20,000 feet, accompanied by Mr. Welsh and 
Mr. Nicklin, taking with them instruments prepared in the Kew Observatory. 
The observations made in these two ascents had reference chiefly to the laws 
of the decrement of temperature and of aqueous vapour in ascending into 
the atmosphere, and will be the subject of a communication from Mr. Welsh 
to the Mathematical and Physical Section* 

" In closing this report of the proceedings at the establishment at Kew, the 
Council are glad to be able to state that the expenditure during the year has 
not exceeded the sum placed at their disposal by the General Committee, 
and that there are no debts ; and the Council strongly recommend that the 
establishment should continue to receive the support of the British Asso- 
ciation." 



Report of the Parliamentary Committee of the British Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science, presented to the. 
General Committee at Belfast, Wednesday, September 1, 1852. 

The Parliamentary Committee* have the honour to report as follows : — 

The Committee met for the first time on the 3rd of February last, they 
met again on the 11th of March and on the 17th of June. 

At these several meetings the following, among other business, was trans- 
acted. The Committee agreed to meet yearly on the day succeeding the 
meeting of Parliament, and on the second Thursday in July. 

In consequence of the dissolution of Parliament, the meeting of June was 
this year substituted for that of July. The Committee resolved to cooperate 
with the President and Council of the Royal Society, who had already taken 
steps in this behalf, in urging upon the Government the expediency of facili- 
tating the cheap and rapid international communication of scientific publi- 
cations ; and the Council of the Royal Society, by a resolution dated the 19th 
of -February, informed this Committee that they would be much gratified by 
such cooperation. 

In pursuance of these resolutions, Lord Wrottesley, as Chairman of this 
Committee, in company with the Earl of Rosse as President, and Colonel 
Sabine as Treasurer of the Royal Society, had, on the 10th of March, an in- 
terview with Sir Thomas Freemantle, the Chairman of the Board of Customs, 
who suggested a plan by which eminent scientific individuals and institutions 
might be permitted to receive from abroad their presentation copies of scien- 
tific works duty free, through the medium of the Royal Society, and whereby 
certain facilities in this behalf might likewise be afforded to the Smithsonian 
Institution of the United States, in return for privileges conceded to that 
Institution by the Government of those States ; and he recommended that a 
letter should be written to the Lords of the Treasury embodying these sug- 
gestions. 

1852. c 



XXX 



BRPORT — 1852. 



In conformity with this recommendation a letter was addressed to the 
Lords of the Treasury by the Earl of Rosse, as President of the Royal So- 
ciety, in concurrence with Lord Wrottesley as Chairman of this Committee. 
To this letter no reply has as yet been received. 

With the view of promoting the same general object, vis. the cheap and 
rapid international communication of scientific publications, it was resolved 
that Lord Wrottesley should address, and he addressed accordingly, a letter 
to the Earl of Malmesbury, as Secretary for Foreign Affairs, of which the 
following is a copy : — 

" Mareh 15, 1852. 

"My Lord, — As Chairman of a Committee composed of Members of both 
Houses of Parliament, selected by the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, to watch over the interests of science and inspect the various 
measures from time to time introduced into Parliament likely to affect such 
interests, and which met for the first time on the 3rd of February last, I am 
requested to represent to your Lordship the great inconvenience to which 
the cultivators of the various branches of science in this country are now ex- 
posed by the extravagant charges levied by Foreign Governments on the 
conveyance by post of Presentation Copies of Scientific Publications sent from 
this country to eminent scientific men, pursuing similar branches of science 
in foreign parts ; and I am further directed respectfully to request your Lord- 
ship, by negotiating Postal Conventions or otherwise as you shall think pro- 
per, to endeavour to prevail on the governments of other countries to afford 
greater facilities for the transmission by post of such publications. 

14 The undersigned believes that he cannot better illustrate the extent of 
the evils complained of than by subjoining the following list of charges for 
the conveyance by post to the various countries named therein, of a commu- 
nication printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1851, and which was 
conveyed by our own post office to every place within the United Kingdom 
at a charge of 8d. : — 

s. d. 

ToModena 14 10 

Palermo 15 

Milan 18 4 

Turin 12 8 

Padua 18 4 

Bonn .* 9 

11 Your Lordship will at once perceive that such charges as these are far 
beyond the moans of many of the most distinguished cultivators of science, 
who are absolutely disabled thereby from forwarding by post to their friends 
abroad the copies of their scientific memoirs which are presented to them 
gratuitously for the purpose of distribution by the respective societies, to 
which such communications are sent and in whose Transactions they appear. 

" From this cause, combined with the duties levied at the Custom House on 
similar publications imported from abroad, at present the interests of science 
are very injuriously affected, for it happens continually, to use the expressions 
of the Treasurer of the Royal Society in a letter addressed to the under- 
signed, * That a quantity of intellectual labour of a very high class is un- 
productively consumed in doing over again in one country that which has 
already been done in another, from the want of a more rapid interchange of 
knowledge.' 

11 Mr. Rowland Hill of the Post Office Department, has suggested a mode 





#. 


£ 


To Berlin 


9 





Seeberg 


.... 9 





Dreissen 


.... 9 





Brussels 


.... 5 





Cadiz 


.... 7 


4 


Gdttingen" 


.... 6 






BEPORT OF THE PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. XXXI 

by which these evils might be remedied, viz. if Foreign Countries could be 
induced to adopt the arrangement, by which books are now forwarded to 
some of our Colonies, at charges very reasonable as compared with the above* 

" I remain, &c, 

" Wrottesley." 

To the above letter the following reply was received from Mr. Addington, 
the Under Secretary for Foreign Affairs: — 

44 Foreign Office, March 17, 1852. 
" My Lord, — I am directed by the Earl of Malmesbury to acquaint your 
Lordship that he has referred to the Postmaster-General your letter of the 
15th inst, urging that steps be taken by Her Majesty's Government to induce 
Foreign Governments to reduce their rates of Postage on printed papers, with 
a view of facilitating the distribution of scientific works. 

" I am, &c, 

" H. U. Addington." 

The Committee also requested Lord Wrottesley and Sir Robert Inglis to 
represent to the Earl of Derby the inadequacy of the present fund out of 
which Pensions are provided in certain cases for eminent scientific men. 

In pursuance of this resolution Lord Wrottesley and Sir Robert Inglis re- 
quested and obtained an interview with the Earl of Derby on the 19th of March 
last, at which they directed his attention to the ill-success which had lately 
attended the applications for Scientific Pensions, and instanced the cases of 
Mr. Hind and Dr. Mantell, in whose behalf the Earl of Rosse, as President 
of the Royal Society, had applied for a grant of Pensions. 

The Earl of Derby, in reply, stated it to be the wish of the Government 
to apportion the fund equitably amongst all the separate classes into which 
the List is divided, or to that effect, and requested to know the share of the 
whole fund which had in fact been allotted to Science. In answer to this 
latter question Lord Wrottesley addressed to the Earl of Derby a letter, of 
which the following is a copy :— 

" Wrottesley, April 24, 1852. 

" Dear Lord Derby, — When I had the honour of an interview with you 
in the matter of Pensions to Scientific men, you asked me for the exact 
amount of those that had been granted in favour of Science. I could not 
answer this question, as I had not then been able to obtain either the earliest 
or latest returns. I have since procured all the papers and the account stands 
as follows: out of £16,800 (1200 X 14), the total sum granted for Pensions, 
since the Civil List was settled at the commencement of the Queen's reign, 
a sum of £2150 has been appropriated to Scieuce, properly so called, or not 
quite 13 per cent 

" I give this detail because it was required from me ; but I would not be 
understood to ground any argument upon it : our complaint is, that in* a 
country like this, which owes so much to Science, there should be at any 
time no means of rewarding, either by money payments, or in any other 
manner both appropriate and acceptable to the candidates for distinction, 
cases of great merit, which have been brought to the notice of the Govern* 
ment by Scientific Societies in whose recommendations confidence may be 
securely reposed. 1 say Scientific Societies, for however trustworthy an in- 
dividual may be, there can never be the same reliance on a single opinion in 
cases of this description •. 

• •••••• 

" I may add, that when I saw you I was not aware that Lord Rosse had 

* A paragraph is here omitted as referring to personal matters. 

c2 



xxxii report — 1852. 

applied on behalf of Mr. Ronalds of the Kew Observatory, and that this 
would likewise seem to be a very deserving case; it was favourably enter- 
tained, but the funds were exhausted*. 

" Yours, &c, 

" Wrotteslby." 

In closing their Report the Committee cannot but express a hope that 
their negotiations with the Government, with respect to the cheap and rapid 
international communication of scientific works, may ultimately result in the 
complete accomplishment of this desirable object. 

June 17th, 1852. 



Recommendations adopted by the General Committee at the 
Belfast Meeting in September 1852. 

Involving Grants of Money. 

That the sum of £200 be placed at the disposal of the Council for the 
maintenance of the establishment of the Observatory at Kew. 

That Dr. Hodges be requested to investigate the chemical changes which 
are observed to occur in the technical preparation of flax ; and that £20 be 
placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Robert Hunt and Dr. Gladstone be requested to continue their 
experiments on the influence of the solar radiations on chemical combinations, 
electrical phaenomena, and the vital powers of plants growing under different 
atmospheric conditions ; with £15 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Mallet be requested to continue his experiments on the propa- 
gation of earthquake waves, availing himself of the operations now carrying 
on at Holyhead ; with £50 at his disposal for the purpose. 

•That Dr. Lankester, Professor Owen, and Dr. Dickie, be a Committee to 
continue the superintendence of the publication of tabular forms in reference 
to periodical phaenomena of animals and vegetables ; with £10 at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Mr. H. £. Strickland, Dr. Lindley, and the other members of a 
Committee already named, be requested to continue their experiments on 
the vitality of seeds ; with £5 10*. at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. R. Patterson, Dr. Dickie, Mr. Hyndman, and Mr. Grainger, be 
requested to carry out a system of dredging* on the North and East coasts 
of Ireland; with £10 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Wyville Thomson, Professor Balfour, Professor Goodsir, Mr. 
Peach, and Dr. Greville, be requested to carry out a system of dredging on 
the East coast of Scotland ; with £15 at their disposal. 

That Professor E. Forbes and Professor T. Bell be requested to assist in 
the publication of the remaining part of Dr. Williams's Report on the Struc- 
ture of the Annelida; with £10 at their disposal for the purpose. 

That the sum of £5 be granted for defraying the expenses attending the 
distribution of a Manual of Ethnological Inquiry prepared by Mr. Cull and 
a Sub-committee appointed in 1851. 

That a large outline Map of the World be provided for the use of the 
Geographers and Ethnologers; and that Sir R. I. Murchison, the Lord 
Bishop of St. Asaph, and the Secretaries of the Geographical and Eth- 
nological Societies, be a Committee for carrying this into effect; with £15 at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

* See page lxi. 



RESEARCHES IX SCIENCE. XXX1U 

Involving Application to Government or Public Institutions. 

That in order to meet the growing wants of science, and remedy, in some 
degree, the inconvenience caused to its cultivators by the dissociated, incom- 
plete, and discontinuous publication of scientific researches, it is expedient 
that the British Association, which, by its constitution, includes representa- 
tives of the various scientific institutions of the empire, should propose such 
general views on the subject as may be suggested by the experience of its 
members. 

That a Committee be formed for the purpose of considering of a plan by 
which the Transactions of different Scientific Societies may become part of 
one arranged system, and the records of facts aud phenomena be rendered 
more complete, more continuous, and more convenient than at present. 

That it be an instruction to this Committee to place itself in communica* 
cation with the Council of the Royal Society, and the Councils of other Sci- 
entific Societies which receive scientific communications at regular meetings. 

That the Committee consist of Prof. W. Thomson, Prof. Andrews, Leo- 
nard Horner, Esq., Prof. Owen, Sir R. I. Murchison, Col. Sykes, W. J. Ran- 
kine, Esq., J. C. Adams, Esq., Dr. Lloyd, Prof. Wilson, Dr. Robinson, Prof. 
Bell, Prof. Graham, \V. R. Grove, Esq., Sir D. Brewster, and ex officio the 
General Officers, with power to add to their number. 

That it is important to have a Quarterly Record of British and Foreign 
scientific publications and discoveries, and that the consideration of the prac- 
ticability of obtaining this be referred to the same Committee. 

That a representation be made to the Royal Society of the importance at- 
tached by M. Otto Strove" to the determination of the constant of " Irradiation" 
for the Huyghenian object-glass of 123 feet radius. 

That it is expedient to proceed without delay with the establishment in 
the Southern Hemisphere of a Telescope not inferior in power to a three 
feet reflector ; and that the President, with the assistance of the following 
gentlemen, viz. Lord Rosse, Dr. Robinson, Lord Wrottesley, J. C. Adams, 
Esq., the Astronomer Royal, J. Nasmyth, Esq., W. Lassell, Esq., Sir D. 
Brewster, and E. J. Cooper, Esq., be requested to take such steps as they 
shall deem most desirable to carry out the preceding Resolution. 

That the publication of the reduction upon a scale of one inch to the mile 
of the Townland Survey of Ireland, ordered to be made in connection with 
the Geological Survey by the Ordnance, and for which a vote was taken for 
1852-53, upon the Estimates of that department, be recommended to the 
Government to be accelerated. 

That the Council of the British Association be requested to continue their 
efforts to obtain the assistance of the Government for the publication of Mr. 
Huxley's researches. 

That, with the view of obtaining an accurate knowledge of the countries 
on and near the Eastern coast of Africa, from the Red Sea to 10° S. lat., the 
very important products of which have been enumerated by the late Sir 
Charles Malcolm and Mr. D. Cooley, the British Association do call the 
attention of the Court of Directors of the Honourable the East India Com- 
pany, to the desirableness of sending an expedition thoroughly to explore 
that region, as recommended by the Royal Geographical Society of London. 
The deputation to consist of the President of the British Association, and 
the President and Vice-Presidents of the Royal Geographical Society. 

That most important meteorological data are attainable by balloon ascents ; 
and that the Council be requested to solicit the cooperation of the Royal 
Society in this investigation. 



xzxiv REPORT— 1852. 

That it > important that Professor W. Thomson and Mr. J. P. Joule be 
enabled to make a series of experiments, on a large scale, on the thermal 
effects experienced by air in rushing through small apertures ; and that a 
representation to this effect be made to the Royal Society. 

That the Government be requested, on the part of the British Association, 
to connect with the survey of the Gulf-stream an examination of the Zoology 
and Botany of that current ; and also of the temperature of the sea round 
the shores of the British Islands. 

The Committee having been informed that an expedition has been pro- 
posed for ascending the Niger to its source, by Lieut Lyons Macleod, R.N. ; 
and that it has been recommended to Her Majesty's Government by the Royal 
Geographical Society and the Chamber of Commerce of Manchester, resolve 
that the President be requested to concur with the President of the Royal 
Geographical Society in bringing the subject before the Government 

The Committee having understood that Dr. Bakie, Mr. A. Adams and Mr. 
W. T. Alexander, each of them in the medical branch of Her Majesty's Navy, 
have proposed to undertake a thorough exploration of the countries watered 
by the river Magdalena in South America, in respect to their botanical, 
zoological, and geological products, on the condition of being allowed their 
full pay, request the President of the Association and Sir R. I. Murchison 
to urge the Government to accede to this proposition. 

The Committee being aware of the liberality with which the Master- 
General and Board of Ordnance have supplied the several engineer stations 
with instruments for meteorological observations, would suggest the advan- 
tage of adding to their instruments, in the Ionian Islands, others for measu- 
ring the direction and amount of earthquake vibrations, so frequent in these 
islands. 

That a systematic collection of the Agricultural Statistics of Great Britain, 
of a similar nature with the returns of the agricultural produce of Ireland, 
prepared under the care of Major Larcom, R.E., is a desideratum, and would 
be of great public utility ; and that the President, Mr. Heywood, Major 
Larcom and Col. Sykes, be requested to communicate the above resolution 
to Her Majesty's Government. 

That a Committee, consisting of Rev. Dr. Robinson, Prof. C. P. Smyth, 
W. Fairbairn, Esq., W. J. M. Rankine, Esq., C.E., and W. S. Ward, Esq., 
be requested to take into consideration the methods of cooling air for the 
ventilation of buildings in tropical climates by mechanical processes, and 
should they see fit to prepare a memorial in the name of the British Asso- 
ciation to the Hon. the East India Company, representing the advantage of 
making a trial of a process of that kind on a large scale, e.g* in a hospital. 

Not involving Grants of Money or Application to Government, fyc. 

That the thanks of the British Association be given to the Smithsonian 
Institution for the communication of Charts illustrating the plan adopted by 
that Institution for deducing the general facts of the Meteorology of North 
America, bearing on the laws of the great North American Storms ; and 
that it be referred to the Council to consider what steps it may be advisable 
to take for the purpose of extending the system of observations over the 
British portion of North America. 

That the thanks of the British Association be given to Prof. Dove for his 
valuable communication respecting the lines of abnormal temperature on the 
globe ; and that it be referred to the Council to consider of the expediency 
of procuring copies of the map of the abnormal temperatures in different 
months of the year, for the supply of members of the Association. 



RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. XXXV 

That Mr. Sylvester be requested to draw up a complete Report on the 
Theory of Determinants, to be laid before the next meeting of the Associa- 
tion. 

That the Earl of Rosse, Dr. Robinson, and Professor Phillips be requested 
to draw up a Report on the physical character of the moon's surface as com- 
pared with that of the earth. 

Printing of Communications. 

That the observations of mean daily temperature and fell of rain at 127 
stations of the Bengal Presidency, be printed at length in the next volume 
of Transactions. 

That Mr. James Thomson's paper, on Vortex Water-wheels, be printed at 
length in the Transactions of the Association. 



Synopsis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 
General Committee at the Belfast Meeting in Sept. 1852, with the 
Name of the Member, who aline, or as the First of a Committee, is 
' entitled to draw for the Money. 

Kew Observatory. £ s. d. 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying Expenses 200 

Chemical Science. 

Hodges, Prof—-Researches on Chemical Changes in the pre- 
paration of Flax 20 

Hunt, Mr. R. — Influence of the Solar Radiations on Chemical 
Combinations, Electrical Phenomena, and the Vital Powers 
of Plants growing under different atmospheric conditions. 15 

Geology. 
Mallet, Mr. R. — Experiments on the Propagation of Earth- 
quake Waves , 50 

Natural History. 
Lankbster, Dr. E. — Periodical Phenomena of Animals and 

Vegetables 10 

Patterson, Mr. R. — Dredging on the North and East Coasts 

of Ireland 10 

Strickland, Prof. H. E.— Vitality of Seeds 5 10 

Thomson, Mr.Wy ville. — Dredging on the East Coast of Scotland 15 
Forbes, Prof. E. — Researches on Annelida 10 

Geography and Ethnology. 

Cull, Mr. R. — Manual of Ethnological Inquiry 5 

Murchison, Sir R. I. — Large outline Map of the World .... 15 

Grants £355 10 



XXJCtl 



REPORT — 1852. 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid on Account of Grants for Scien* 

tjfic Purposes, 



1834. 

Jt s. d. 

Tide Discussions 20 

1835. 

Tide Discussions 62 

British Fossil Ichthyology. . 105 

.£167 6 

1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology. . 105 
Thermometric Observations, 

&c 50 

Experiments on long-conti- 
nued Heat 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments. ... 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

.€434 14 

1837. 

Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Constants 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8.9 5 3 

Vitrification Experiments . . 150 

Heart Experiments. . 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations . . 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 

.£918 14 6 

■BBBBBB 

1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Fishes 100 

Meteorological Observations 
and Anemometer (con- 
struction) 100 

Cast Iron (strength of) 60 

Animal and Vegetable Sub- 
stances (preservation of) 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experiments 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Carried forward .£800 12 9 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 800 12 9 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 

.£956 12 2 

1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides 35 18 6 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 21 11 

Vitrification Experiments . . 9 4 7 

Cast Iron Experiments 100 

Railway Constants 28 7 2 

Land and Sea Level 274 1 4 

Steam-Vessels' Engines. .. . 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste . . 331 18 6 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in R.A.S. Catalogue. . 6 16 6 

Animal Secretions 10 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 1 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies. ... 300 

Gases on Solar Spectrum . . 22 
Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations, Inverness and 

Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 

. £1595 11 

1840. 

Bristol Tides 100 

Subterranean Temperature . 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 60 

Land and Sea Level 6 11 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste).... 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies . . 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

Carried forward ^1006 15 7 



GENERAL STATEMENT. 



xxxvu 



£ 8. d. 

Brought forward 1006 15 7 

School Statistics 50 

Forma of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical 

Phenomena 40 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations .. 18 5 13 9 

. £1546 16 4 

1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterra- 
nean Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Absorbents .... 3 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology 15 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers .... 6 18 6 

Stars (Histoire Celeste).... 185 

Stars (Lacaille) 79 5 

Stars (Nomenclature of) .. 17 19 6 

Stars (Catalogue of) 40 

Water on Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations 

(reduction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Memoirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vessels 193 12 

Meteorological Observations 

at Plymouth 55 

Magnetical Observations . . 61 18 8 
Fishes of the Old Red Sand- 
stone 100 

Tides at Leith 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 1 10 

Tabulating Observations .. 9 6 3 

RacesofMen 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

j€1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamometric Instruments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannia 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 1 7 6 

Marine Zoology 1 5 

British Fossil Mammalia . . 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam-vessels' En- 
gines 28 

Carried forward .€432 8 3 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 432 8 3 

Stars (Histoire Celeste).... 59 
Stars (British Association 

Catalogue of) 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication 

of Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on 

Rocks 5 8 6 

Meteorological Experiments 

at Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dy- 
namometric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds. . 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds. . .8 1 11 

Questions on Human Race . 7 9 

jg!449 17 8 

1843. 

Revision of the Nomencla- 
ture of Stars • 2 

Reduction of Stars, British 
Association Catalogue . . 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of 

Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Ob- 
servations at Kingussie 
and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations 
at Plymouth 55 

Whewell's Meteorological 
Anemometer at Plymouth 10 

Meteorological Observations, 
Osier's Anemometer at 
Plymouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological 
Observations 30 

Meteorological Instruments 
and Gratuities 39 6 

Construction of Anemometer 
at Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation .... 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for 

Kew Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light . . 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Ob- 
servatory, Wages, Repairs, 
Furniture and Sundries . . 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive 

Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation of the Rails of 
Railways 20 

Publication of Report on 
Fossil Reptiles 40 

Carried forward .€789 8 4 



XXXVU1 



BEPORT-~1852. 



£ t. d. 
Brought forward 789 8 4 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Section* 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 
Shock* 30 

Report on Zoological No- 
menclature 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
atone near Manchester . . 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds .538 

Marine Testaoea (Habits of) 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on 

British Fossil Mammalia . 100 

Physiological operations of 

Medicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels.... 70 

Additional Experiments on 
the Forms of Vessels.... 100 

Reduction of Observations on 
the Forms of Vessels.... 100 

Morin's Instrument and Con- 
stant Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations 
at Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at 

Plymouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological 
Co-operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 
East coast of Scotland ..100 

Revision of the Nomencla- 
ture of Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establish* 
ment in Kew Observatory 117 17 3 

Instruments for Kew Ob- 
servatory *56 7 3 

Influence of Light on Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature 
in Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Rail- 
way Sections 15 17 6 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes 
of the Lower Tertiary 
Strata 100 

Registering the Shocks of 
Earthquakes, 1842 23 11 10 

Carried forward £538 11 8 



£ i. d. 
Brought forward 538 11 8 
Researches into the Struc- 
ture of Fossil Shells .... 20 
Radiata and Molluscs of the 

.figean and Red Seas, 1842 100 
Geographical distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 10 

Marine Zoology of Devon 

and Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu . . 10 
Experiments on the Vitality 

of Seeds 9 3 

Experiments on tile Vitality 

of Seeds 1842 8 7 3 

Researches on Exotic Ano- 

plura 15 

Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 100 O 

Completing Experiments on 

the Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia .... 10 
Investigations on the internal 

Constitution of Metals .. 50 
Constant Indicator and 

Morin's Instrument, 184 2 10 3 6 
,£981 12 8 

1845. 

Publication of the British 
Association Catalogue of 
Stars 351 14 6 

Meteorological Observations 

at Inverness 30 18 11 

Magnetic and Meteorological 
Co-operation 16 16 8 

Meteorological Instruments 
at Edinburgh 18 11 9 

Reduction of Anemometrical 
Observations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at 

Kew Observatory 43 17 8 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment in Kew Observatory 149 15 

For Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases from Iron Furnaces. . 50 

Experiments on the Actino- 
graph 15 

Microscopic Structure of 
Shells 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1843 2 7 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Me- 
dicines 20 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality in York 20 

Carried forward £8U 15 1 



GENMAL STATEMENT. 



XXXIX 



£ s. d. 

Brought forward 814 16 1 
on of Earthquake 

Shocks .184 3 15 14 8 

jC830 9 9 

1846. — — 
British Association Catalogue 

of Stars 1844 211 15 

Fossil Fishes of the London 

Clay 100 

Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 146 16 7 
Experiments on the Strength 

of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia.. .. 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain.. 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemo- 
meters 11 7 6 

Anemometers 1 Repairs .... 2 3 6 
Researches on Atmospheric 

Waves ....... 3 3 3 

Ca^ve^o\ms ,< '.l!/l844 8 19 8 
Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 

Statistics of Sickness and 

Mortality at York 12 

£6$5 16 

1847. "— "™" 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals.. 10 

Physiological Action of Me- 
dicines T 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Researches on Atmospheric 

Waves 6 9 3 

Vitality of Seeds 4 7 7 

Maintaining the Establish- 

mentatkew Observato ry 107 8 6 

£208 5 4 

1848. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Researches on Atmospheric 

Waves 3 10 9 

Vitality of Seeds 9 15 

Completion of Catalogues of 

Stars 70 

On Colouring Matters .... 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 

j€275 1 8 



£ t. d. 

1849. 
Electrical Observations at 

Kew Observatory 50 

Mftiwfamiing Establishment 

at ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 1 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical 

Phssnomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemo- 

metrical Observations. . . . 13 9 

.€159 19 6 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 255 18 
Transit of Earthquake Waves 50 
Periodical Phssnomena .... 15 
Meteorological Instrument, 
Azores 25 



.£345 18 



1851. 
Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(includes part of grant in 

1849) " 309 2 2 

Experiments on the Theory 

of Heat 20 1 1 

Periodical Phenomena of 
Animals and Plants .... 500 

Vitality of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 
Ethnological Inquiries .... 12 
Researches on Annelida. ... 10 

^€391 9 7 

1852. 

Maintaining the Establish- 
ment at Kew Observatory 
(including balance of grant 
for 1850) 233 17 8 

Experiments on the conduc- 
tion of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British 
Annelida 10 

Vitality of seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plat es 10 

£ 304 6 7 



Xl REPORT — 1852. 

Extracts from Resolutions of the General Committee. 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific pur- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which 
remains disposable on each grant. 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the As- 
sociation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report 
that the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., G Queen Street Place, Upper Thames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 1st, at 8 p.m., in May Street Church, Sir Roderick 
I. Murchison, G.C.St.S., F.R.S., on the pari of G. B. Airy, Esq., M.A., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., Astronomer Royal> resigned the office of President to 
Colonel Edward Sabine, R.A., Treas. and V.P. R.S., who took the Chair 
at the General Meeting, and delivered an Address, for which see p. xli. 

On Thursday, Sept. 2nd, a Soiree took place from 8 to 10 p.m., in the 
rooms of Messrs. Workman, which had been arranged for the purpose. 

On Friday, Sept. 3rd, at 8 p.m., in May Street Church, G. G. Stokes, 
F.R.S., Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge, delivered a Dis- 
course on some recent discoveries in the properties of Light. 

On Saturday, Sept. 4th, at 8 p.m., a Soiree took place in the rooms of 
Messrs. Workman. 

On Monday, Sept. 6th, at 8 p.m., Colonel Port lock, R.E., F.R.S., delivered 
a Discourse on the recent discovery of Rock-salt at Carrickfergus, and the 
geological and practical considerations connected with it. 

On Wednesday, Sept. 8th, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting of 
the Association was held in May Street Church, when the Proceedings of the 
General Committee, and the grants of Money for scientific purposes were ex- 
plained to the Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Hull*. 
* The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, the 7th of September, 1853. 



v- v ,, ... •-/- 
tVi:i7ZZ.ZUY.. 



ADDRESS 



COLONEL EDWARD SABINE, R.A., 

Treasurer and Vice-President op the Royal Society. 



Gentlemen of the British Association, 

My first duty in addressing you from this Chair, must be to express my 
grateful thanks for the high honour you have conferred upon me by placing 
me in so distinguished a position. My acknowledgements are due in the 
first place to the gentlemen of Belfast, who by their Provisional Committee 
brought my name before the Council as that of a person whose nomination 
to the Presidency would give satisfaction at Belfast ; next, to my colleagues 
in the Council, who adoped the suggestion of the Provisional Committee, 
strengthening it by their approval ; and finally, to the General Committee 
(the governing body), by whom it was confirmed. The strong attachment 
which I am known to have felt for so many years to the British Association 
will be my best guarantee that no endeavours shall be wanting on my part 
to perform the duties of the Office to the utmost of my power. 

Gentlemen, we meet for the third time in the Sister Kingdom, on the 
invitation, which has been most welcome to us, of a part of the kingdom 
which has furnished to the British Association so large a proportion of dis- 
tinguished members actively engaged in almost every department of science. 
On our arrival, we find ourselves surrounded by faces familiar to us in the 
recollections of many previous meetings, and long recognised as amongst the 
warmest and steadiest friends of our Association. Our meeting is graced 
and honoured by the presence of Her Most Gracious Majesty's representa- 
tive in Ireland. With ample and excellent accommodation liberally provided 
in the fullest anticipation of our wants, and with the evidence which forcibly 
impresses itself on every side of rapidly increasing prosperity, opening a wide 



xlii REPORT — 1852. 

field for the practical applications of science, our satisfaction in assembling 
here would be complete, were it not clouded by the absence of one friend 
who would have been among the foremost to have welcomed us to this 
meeting which he prepared, the Naturalist of Ireland, whose memory will 
long be honoured and cherished by the members of the British Association. 

The ever-increasing activity of the various branches of science embraced 
by the British Association is such, as to render it scarcely possible to com- 
prehend within the limits of an address of the usual length, even a brief 
review of the progress made in the seven departments which constitute our 
Sections. In the selection which I have thus found myself compelled to make, 
I have been guided by a practical principle, which appears not unsuited to 
an Association in which the Presidency is an annual office, viz. that the 
President for the year should notice by preference those subjects with which 
he is most familiar, in which the Association as a body have taken a part, or 
which are likely to be discussed at the meeting over which he presides. 

Among the subjects which are likely to come before the Mathematical and 
Physical Section, there is none perhaps of greater importance, or requiring 
more careful consideration, than the question whether the time is arrived, 
when the establishment of an Observatory in the Southern Hemisphere, fur- 
nished with instruments of suitable optical power for the examination of the 
Nebulae of the southern heavens, and devoted exclusively to that branch of 
sidereal astronomy, should be again brought under the consideration of Her 
Majesty's Ministers. I need not occupy your time by restating on this 
occasion the reasons both of scientific and national concernment, which in- 
duced the two principal Scientific Institutions of the United Kingdom, con- 
jointly, to recommend to those entrusted with the administration of public 
affairs, the formation of an establishment of this description in some fitting 
part of Her Majesty's southern dominions. I would rather refer you to the 
memorial presented to Government by the Earl of Rosse on the part of the 
Royal Society, and by Dr. Robinson on the part of the British Association, 
not only because it contains such a complete and formal exposition, as may 
be most advantageously consulted by those who will now be called upon to 
take part in the reconsideration of the subject, but also because it appears, to 
me to furnish an admirable model both in spirit and in matter, for communi- 
cations designed to fulfil the important purpose of conveying in an official 
form the opinions and suggestions which the united body of scientific men 
of this Kingdom may desire from time to time to bring under the considera- 
tion of the Executive. 

In the discussions which took place at a former period, the only difficulty 
which appeared to be apprehended in reference to the successful working of 
such an establishment, arose from a doubt whether mirrors of the required 
magnitude could be repolished, as they would frequently need to be, on the 
ipot This difficulty has now it is understood been entirely removed by the 
improvements which the noble Earl, the President of the Royal Society, to 



ADDBKSf. Xlili 

whom science is bo deeply indebted for the instrumental means of prosecuting 
these researches, has made in the apparatus for repolishing the mirrors, 
and in the instructions for the guidance of those who may have occasion to 
employ it, which his own great personal experience has enabled him to 
prepare. 

In this happy country, in which men are free to consider and to discuss the 
propriety of public support being given to undertakings conducive to national 
honour, and are encouraged to do so by the experience that publio men of all 
parties who succeed each other in administration, seek to be guided by en- 
lightened public opinion, we may justly entertain the full conviction that 
measures which from their intrinsic importance deserve to be adopted will 
sooner or later obtain the consideration they merit. When such propositiona 
are brought in the first instance, — as in the class of subjects with which we 
are here concerned it is desirable they should be,— before those publio bodies 
which are justly regarded as possessing the highest scientific authority in this 
country, and as most competent to judge of them, they cannot be too carefully 
considered and discussed, before by their adoption they become invested with 
the authority and weight which those bodies have it in their power to impart 
But when after due deliberation they have been so adopted, it is equally fitting 
that those publio bodies should be true to their own convictions, and should 
steadily persevere in urging on all proper occasions, both publicly and pri- 
vately, the measures which they believe will add. to their country's honour, 
as well as to that general advancement of science by which all nations benefit 
freely and alike in proportion to their degree of mental cultivation. That an 
Observatory for the purpose specified, in a part of the globe where it can 
render peculiar service, and where we possess facilities which other nations 
do not possess, will ere long be established, no one I believe entertains a 
doubt The importance was admitted by the Ministry to whom the recom- 
mendation was made, the only question with them appearing to be one of 
time. When therefore we view the intrinsic merit of the proposition itself, 
the general interest which it has excited at home and abroad, and its already, 
to a certain extent, favourable reception by Government, we cannot doubt 
that we have but to persevere, and by a judicious selection of times and 
opportunities the object will be secured. It will be for the Members of the 
Mathematical and Physical Section to consider in the first instance, and for 
the General Committee, subsequently, to consider and decide whether any 
official step shall be taken by the British Association in the present year. 
Should such be your decision, it will be the duty of the Officers and Council 
of the Association to confer with the President and Council of the Royal 
Society, and in conjunction with them to take such steps as may appear moat 
fitting to bring the subject again, and in the most impressive manner,* under 
the consideration of the Authorities of the State. On the former occasion it 
was thought most respectful to abstain from any suggestion in regard either 
to a suitable locality, or to the Astronomer who might be advantageously 



xliv BBPX>RT — 1852. 

•elected to direct an establishment of this novel description. Such may still 
be deemed, perhaps, the least exceptionable course ; but at the same time it 
may be desirable that it should be fully known, that we are not unprepared 
on these and other points, if it be the pleasure of Her Majesty's Government 
to desire our opinion. 

Hitherto the researches of Sidereal Astronomy, even in their widest exten- 
sion, had manifested the existence of those forces only with which we are 
familiar in our own solar system. The refinements of modern observation 
and the perfection of theoretical representation, had assured us that the 
orbits in which the double stars, immeasurably distant from us, revolve 
around each other, are governed by the same laws of molecular attraction which 
determine the orbits of the planetary bodies of our own solar system. But 
the Nebulae have revealed to us the probable existence in the yet more distant 
universe, of forces with which we were previously wholly unacquainted. The 
highest authorities in this most advanced of all the sciences, acknowledge 
themselves unable even to conjecture the nature of the forces which have 
produced and maintain the diverse, yet obviously systematic arrangement of 
the hosts of stars which constitute those few of the Spiral Nebulae which 
have been hitherto examined. Hence the importance of increasing our 
knowledge of the variety of forms in which the phaenomena present them* 
selves, by a similar examination of the Southern Heavens to that which Lord 
Bosse is accomplishing in the Northern Heavens ; hence also, we may believe, 
In great measure, the devotion with which his Lordship has directed the un- 
precedented instrumental power which he has created almost exclusively to 
the observation of nebulae. But whilst we cannot but admire the steadiness 
of purpose with which an object regarded as of paramount importance is un-» 
deviatingly pursued, we can scarcely forbear to covet at least an occasional 
glance at bodies which from their greater proximity have more intimate 
relations with ourselves, and which, when viewed with so vast an increase of 
optical power, may afford instruction of the highest value in many branches 
of physical science. In our own satellite, for example, we have the opportu- 
nity of studying the physical conformation and superficial phaenomena of a 
body composed, as we believe mainly at least, of the same materials as those 
of our own globe, but possessing neither atmosphere nor sea. When we re- 
flect how much of the surface of the earth consists of sedimentary deposits, 
and consequently how large a portion of the whole field of geological research 
is occupied with strata which owe their principal characteristics to the ocean 
in which they were deposited, we cannot but anticipate many instructive 
lessons which may be furnished by the points of contrast, as well as of resem- 
blance, which the surface of the moon, viewed through Lord Rosse*s telescope, 
may present to the best judgement we are able to form of what the appearance 
of the earth would be if similarly viewed, or with what may be more difficult 
perhaps to imagine, — what we may suppose the earth would appear if it 
could be stript of its sedimentary strata, which conceal from us for the most 



ADDRESS. xlv 

part the traces of that internal action # which has played so large a part hi 
moulding the great outlines of the present configuration of its surface. It is 
understood that Lord Rosse himself participates in the wish that such an 
examination of the surface of the moon should be made, and, should the 
desire of the Association be expressed to that effect, is willing to undertake 
it in conjunction with one or two other gentlemen possessing the necessary 
physical and geological knowledge. It will be for the Members of the As* 
sociation to determine the form in which a Report on the " Physical Features 
of the Moon compared with those of the Earth*' may mo3t appropriately be 
requested. 

In connection with Astronomy, I permit myself to notice the publica- 
tion, now in progress, of two works of considerable magnitude and value, 
because they do honour to the science and public spirit of the part of the 
United Kingdom in which we are assembled; I refer to the Markree 
Catalogue of Ecliptic Stars, and to the results of the Observations at the 
Armagh Observatory. The establishments from which these publications 
emanate belong to the class which owe their endowment and support to 
private munificence, but by the extent and character of the work they per* 
form entitle themselves to rank with the Institutions, which in this and 
other countries testify the liberality of a nation's patronage. The Markree 
Observatory, which has already distinguished itself under the personal 
superintendence of its founder, amongst other services by the discovery 
of oue of the thirteen planets by which our knowledge of the solar do- 
main has been enriched in the last seventeen years, — will hereafter take 
its position amongst the establishments which have most largely contributed 
to the perfection of modern astronomy by its catalogue of the approximate 
places of all the stars in the ecliptic down to the twelfth magnitude inclusive ; 
by which catalogue the detection of any still undiscovered planetary bodies 
belonging to our system will be greatly facilitated. One volume has already 
been published in the year which has elapsed since our Ipswich Meeting, and 
a second is in preparation, and both, by the aid of funds supplied from the 
annual grant now placed at the disposal of the Royal Society, to be applied 
in the advancement of science. The publication of the results of the ob- 
servations of the Armagh Observatory, since it has been under the very able 
direction of Dr. Robinson, has been for some time a desideratum. At the 
instance of the Royal Irish Academy it was recommended by the Irish 
Executive, but without success. It is now being accomplished by aid 
from the same source as the Markree Catalogue. I have the more satis** 
faction in noticing these appropriations in favour of Irish science from funds 
designed for the general benefit of the United Kingdom, because they indicate 
the fairness and equality with which the distribution of those funds is ad- 
ministered : it is also I believe strictly in character with the prevailing 
principles which sanction public aid, that it should be given, when needed, to 

1852. d 



xlvi REPORT — 1852. 

those who, as in the case of these private observatories, have already largely 
contributed from their own resources. 

The Mathematical and Physical Theories of Light have afforded subjects 
for tnany interesting and profitable discussions in Section A, and have usually 
had one day in the six specially allotted to them. Those discussions will 
derive a more than usual interest at this meeting from the remarkable dis- 
covery recently made by Prof. Stokes, that under certain circumstances a 
change is effected in the refrangibility of light, and from the advantage we 
possess in having amongst us on this occasion the eminent mathematician 
and physicist by whom this most important contribution to the science of 
physical optics has been made. His researches took their origin from an 
unexplained phenomenon discovered by Sir John Herschel and communicated 
by him to the Royal Society in 1845. A solution of sulphate of quinine exa- 
mined by transmitted light, and held between the eye and the light, or 
between the eye and a white object, appears almost as transparent and colour- 
less as water; but when viewed in certain aspects and under certain 
incidences of light, exhibits an extremely vivid and beautiful celestial blue 
colour. This colour was shown by Sir John Herschel to result from the 
action of the strata which the light first penetrates on entering the liquid; 
and the dispersion of light producing it was named by him epipolic.disper- 
sion, from the circumstance that it takes place near the surface by which the 
light enters. A beam of light having passed through the solution was to all 
appearance the same as before its entrance ; nevertheless it was found to have 
undergone some mysterious modification, for an epipolised beam of light, 
meaning thereby a beam which had once been transmitted through a quini- 
ferous solution, and had experienced its dispersive action, is incapable of fur- 
ther epipolic dispersion. In speculating upon the possible nature of epi- 
polised light, Prof. Stokes was led to conclude that it could only be light 
which had been deprived of certain invisible rays which in the process of 
dispersion had changed their refrangibility and had thereby become visible. 
The truth of this supposition, novel and surprising as it at first appeared, has 
been confirmed by a series of simple and perfectly decisive experiments ; 
showing that it is in fact the chemical rays of the spectrum more refrangible 
than the violet, and invisible in themselves, which produce the blue superficial 
light in the quiniferous solution. Professor Stokes has traced this principle 
through a great range of analogous phenomena, including those noticed by 
Sir David Brewster in his papers on " Internal Dispersion," and has distin- 
guished between " cases of false internal dispersion" or " opalescence/' in 
which the luminous rays are simply reflected from fine particles held in me- 
chanical solution in the medium, and those of " true internal dispersion," or 
44 fluorescence," as it is termed by Mr. Stokes. By suitable methods of ob- 
servation the change of refrangibility was detected, as produced not only by 
transparent fluids and solids, but also by opake substances ; add the class of 



ADDRESS. xlvii 

media exhibiting " fluorescence" was found to be very large, consisting chiefly 
of organic substances, but comprehending, though more rarely, some mineral 
bodies; The direct application of the fact, as we now understand it, to many 
highly interesting and important purposes, is obvious almost on the flrst an- 
nouncement The facility with which the highly refrangible invisible rays of 
the spectrum may be rendered visible by being passed through a solution of 
sulphate of quinine or other sensitive medium, affords peculiar advantages 
for the study of those rays ; the fixed lines of the invisible part of the solar 
spectrum may now be exhibited to our view at pleasure. The constancy 
with which a particular mode of changing the refrangibility of light attaches 
to a particular substance, exhibiting itself independently of the admixture 
of other substances, supplies a new method of analysis for organic compounds 
whioh may prove valuable in organic chemistry. These and other applica- 
tions of the facts as they are now explained to us, will probably form subjects 
of notice in the Chemical and Physical Sections, and a still higher interest 
may be expected from the discussion of the principle itself, and of the founda- 
tion on which it rests. A discovery of this nature cannot be otherwise than 
extremely fertile in consequences, whether of direct application, or by giving 
rise to suggestions branching out more and more widely, and leading to 
trains of thought and experiment which may confer additional value on the 
original discovery, by rendering it but the first step in a still more extensive 
generalization. 

As the interest of this discovery is not confined to a single branch of 
science, the Officers, with the approbation of the Local Committee, have 
requested Mr. Stokes to favour the Association with an exposition of the 
subject at an evening meeting, when the members of the different sections 
may be able to attend without prejudice to their respective sectional duties : 
and in that view I have thought that this brief introductory notice might not 
be misplaced, a notice which I cannot conclude without adverting to the 
gratification which all who cultivate science in this part of the United 
Kingdom must feel at the rising eminence of their highly accomplished 
fellow-countryman. 

Among the subjects of chemical inquiry which may well deserve the 
attention of a combination of philosophers, perhaps few could mote usefully 
occupy their joint labours than the revision of the Equivalent Numbers of the 
Elementary Bodies. This is a task which must necessarily require the co- 
operation of several properly qualified individuals, if it be accomplished 
within anything like a reasonable period of time. Most of the Numbers now 
in use depend upon experiments performed by Bertelius, at a time when the 
methods of research then known were inadequate, even in such hands, to 
determine these constants with an accuracy sufficient for the wants of science 
at the present day. So much has this been felt to be the case, that many 
of the most accomplished chemists now living have undertaken extensive 
and laborious) though isolated researches, upon the combining quantities of 

d2 



xlviii report — 1852. 

some of the most important elements. But much more than has been already 
performed still remains undone. Such a subject it is believed might be 
highly proper for consideration by the Chemical Section, to whose notice it 
would be introduced by the distinguished chemist, Dr. Andrews, who pre- 
sides over that Section, and than whom no one could be named as more 
competent to estimate the importance of such a revision, or to judge more 
truly of the qualifications that would be required for its execution. 

We are deprived by the illness, I trust only temporary, of our valued asso- 
ciate Prof. James Forbes, of the Report he would have given us of the progress 
of the experiments which he has undertaken at the request of the Association 
to test the Theory of Heat, But this branch of Physics abounds more 
perhaps than any other at the present time in subjects which may be most 
profitably discussed. The theory of Heat has made great advances within 
the last ten years. Mr. Joule has by his experiments confirmed and illustrated 
the views demonstrated about the end of the last century by Davy and Rum- 
ford regarding the nature of heat, which are now beginning to find general 
acceptance. He has determined with much accuracy, the numerical relation 
between quantities of heat and of mechanical work. He has pointed out the 
true principles upon which the mechanical value of any chemical change is 
to be estimated, and by very careful experiments he has arrived at numerical 
expressions for the mechanical equivalents in some of the most important 
cases of cheniical action, in galvanic batteries, and in combustion. These 
researches appear to be laying the ground-work for the ultimate formation 
of a Mechanical Theory of Chemistry y by ascertaining experimentally the 
mechanical equivalents expressed in absolute motive force of the thermic, 
electric and magnetic forces. Mathematical developments of the theories of 
heat and electro-dynamics, in accordance with these principles, are given in 
various papers by MM. Helmholz, Rankine, Clausius and Thomson, published 
principally within the last two years. In discussing these subjects the Sec- 
tion will have a great advantage in being presided over by the last-named of 
these gentlemen, a native of Belfast, who at so early an age has attained so 
high a reputation, and who is taking a leading part in the investigations 
to which I have referred. 

In connexion with the subjects of Heat, I would advert to the experiments 
in which Mr. Hopkins is engaged for investigating the possible influence of 
high pressure on the temperature at which substances, in a state of fusion, 
solidify — an inquiry which was shown by Mr. Hopkins, in a report recently 
presented to the British Association, to have an important bearing on the 
questions of the original and present state of the interior of the earth. It is 
well known that the temperature of the earth increases as we descend, and 
it has been calculated that at the rate at which the increase takes place in 
such depths as are accessible to us, the heat at the depth of eighty or a hun- 
dred miles would be such as to fuse most of the materials which form the 
•olid crust of the globe. On the hypothesis of original fluidity, and assuming 



ADDRESS. xlitf 

that the rate of increase known to us by observation continues further 
down, and is not counterbalanced by a considerable increase in the tempe- 
rature of fusion occasioned by pressure, the present state of the earth would 
be that of a solid crust of eighty or a hundred miles in thickness, enveloping 
a fluid nucleus. Mr. Hopkins considers this state to be inconsistent with the 
observed amount of the precession of the equinoxes, and infers that if the 
temperature of fusion be considerably heightened by pressure, the conclusion 
must be unavoidable that the earth is solid at the centre. Mr. Hopkins is 
assisted in these experiments, which are carried on at Manchester, by the 
well-known engineering knowledge of Mr. Fairbairn, end the equally well* 
known experimental skill of Mr. Joule. The principal difficulties attending 
the experiments with substances of low temperatures of fusion have been 
overcome, and strong hopes are entertained of success with substances of 
more difficult fusibility. The pressures employed are from three to four 
tons to eight and ten tons on the square inch. The latter is probably equal 
to the pressure at several miles beneath the earth's surface. 

From Heat the transition is easy, and by many may be deemed natural, to 
Terrestrial Magnetism, a science which, more perhaps than any other, has 
profited by the impulse and systematic direction communicated to it by the 
British Association, and which perhaps more than any other required such 
external aid. In the infancy of a science, the phsenomena of which present 
on our first acquaintance with them a great appearance of complexity, the 
path by which its progress may be advanced may be by no means easy to 
discern ; and individual explorers may well, under such circumstances, be 
discouraged by doubts whether their labour will be recompensed by pro- 
portionate success, as well as disheartened by the little sympathy which is 
usually given to investigations which hold out but little immediate prospect 
of practical utility. Some there have been however from time to time, who, 
impressed with a persuasion of the position which magnetism deserves to 
take, and which sooner or later they believe it will take, amongst the phy- 
sical sciences of the highest order, have not spared this precu reive labour, 
and have been uniformly conducted by it to the same general conclusion, 
viz. that in order to obtain a sufficient foundation of facts upon which to 
raise a fitting superstructure of inductive reasoning, it would be necessary to 
organize a system of cooperative research, in which the labours of many 
might be united agreeably to concerted arrangements ; and that as such re- 
searches would require to be carried on nearly at the same epoch at many 
distant parts of the globe, for which private resources were inadequate, public 
assistance must be sought. That this conclusion was extensively recognised 
and acquiesced in is sufficiently attested by the readiness bo generally mani- 
fested by governments and individuals in all countries where mental cultivation 
is regarded to take part in the general system of magnetic cooperation pro- 
posed by this country in 1838. In the years which have since elapsed, the 
energy and zeal of those who have engaged in these researches have accumu- 



1 REPORT — 1852. 

lated a mans of observations, which, as the fruit of systematic and concerted 
labour, is, I believe, wholly unprecedented. The labour of digesting, com- 
paring, and coordinating the body of facts thus obtained may certainly be 
stated to be not lea than that expended in obtaining them ; and as the one 
process must necessarily be in great measure carried out subsequently to the 
other, we are only now beginning to reap the first-fruits of this great co- 
operative undertaking in the bearing of its results upon theory. At the 
Ipswich meeting of the British Association, I was requested by the General 
Committee to draw up a report on the state and progress of the magnetic 
researches consequent on the application of the British Association to Her 
Majesty's Government in 1838. I regret that, from the other very pressing 
duties above alluded to, I have not been able to complete this report in time 
to present at this meeting, but as I may assume, from the request just made 
to me, that the subject retains with the British Association the interest which 
it there so happily acquired, I may venture to avail myself of this opportunity 
to make a very few remarks on some of its most important results ; confining 
myself for the most part to results obtained by persons of our own country 
as the direct and immediate consequences of the recommendation of the 
British Association, leaving to a more fitting occasion a more general and 
comprehensive view. 

We recognise in terrestrial magnetism the existence of a power present 
everywhere at the surface of our globe, and producing everywhere effects 
indicative of a systematic action ; but of the nature of this power, the cha- 
racter of its laws, and its economy in creation, we have as yet scarcely any 
knowledge. The apparent complexity of the phenomena at their first aspect 
may reasonably be ascribed to our ignorance of their laws, which we shall 
doubtless find, as we advance in knowledge, to possess* the same remarkable 
character of simplicity which calls forth our admiration in the laws of mole- 
cular attraction. It has been frequently surmised, and the anticipation is I 
believe a strictly philosophical one, that a power which, so far as we have the 
means of judging, prevails everywhere in our own planet, may also prevail 
in other bodies of our system, and might become sensible to us, in the case 
of the sun and moon particularly, by small perturbing influences mea- 
surable by our instruments, and indicating their respective sources by their 
periods and their epochs. As yet we know of neither argument nor fact to 
invalidate this anticipation ; but, on the contrary, much to invest it with 
a high degree of probability. Be this however as it may, we have in our 
own planet an exemplification of the pheenomena which magnetism pre- 
sents in one of the bodies of our system, on a scale of sufficient mag- 
nitude, and otherwise convenient for our study. Accordingly the first 
object to which the British Association gave its attention was to ob- 
tain a correct knowledge of the direction and amount of the magnetic 
force generally over the whole surface of the globe corresponding to a 
definite epoch. It has been customary to represent the results of magnetic 



ADDRESS. 11 

observations by three systems of Lines, usually called isogenic, isoclinal, 
and isodynamic lines. [Lines of equal horizontal direction, of equal 
inclination, and of equal force.] In the maps of these lines existing 
in 1838, large spaces of the earth's surface were either blank, or the lines 
passing across them were very imperfectly supported by observations. In 
the more frequented parts, where observations were more numerous, the dis- 
crepancies of their dates impaired their suitability for combination ; for the 
position and configuration of the magnetic lines has been found to undergo 
a continual process of systematic change, with the causes of which we are as 
yet wholly unacquainted, but which has obtained the name of secular change 
to distinguish it from periodical variations of known and limited duration. 
Amongst the most marked deficiencies in these maps, were the greater part 
of the extra-tropical portion of the southern hemisphere, — the British pos- 
sessions in North America, and British India ; — magnetic surveys of these 
were expressly recommended, and the practicability and advantage of 
making the observations on board-ship, and of thus extending them over the 
surface of the ocean, were pointed out. It is most pleasing to recall to recol- 
lection, and gratifying to acknowledge from this chair, the favourable manner 
in which the recommendations of the British Association were received by 
Her Majesty's Government and by the East India Company, and how 
promptly and effectually they have been carried out. The blanks in the 
southern hemisphere have been filled up by maritime expeditions appointed 
expressly for the purpose. Magnetic surveys have been completed of 
British North America at the expense of our own Government, and of the 
Indian Archipelago at that of the East India Company, and India itself U 
now in progress ; whilst from the seal of our naval officers contributions 
have flowed in from almost every accessible part of the ocean. The coordi- 
nation and mutual connection of so large a mass of materials is necessarily a 
work of time, but is progressing steadily towards completion, and when pre- 
sented in one connected view,will form the groundwork on which will securely 
rest a general theory of terrestrial magnetUm corresponding to the present 
epoch. Until these' combinations and calculations are performed, it would be 
obviously premature to speak of numerical values by which the magnetic 
forces at one part of the globe may be compared with those of another, or 
with forces of other descriptions ; and for the same reason it is desirable 
to abstain for the present from notices of the geographical positions whioh 
particular lines, or as some may deem them, critical points in the magnetic 
resultants may occupy on the earth's surface at the present epoch. Such 
notices could only be as yet provisional and liable to the amendments which 
more exact and extended calculation must be expected to produce. But 
thus much may be safely stated in reference to the general character of the 
three systems of lines which have been spoken of, that when derived afresh 
and exclusively from the observations of the last few years, they do most 
fully confirm the general conclusions derived from the observations of earlier 



Hi REPORT — 1852. 

date, which were submitted to the British Association in the Report on the 
" Variations of the Intensity of the Magnetic Force at different points of 
the Earth's surface/' which preceded the recommendations of 1838. The 
magnetic phenomena, or as it is now. customary to call them, the three mag* 
netic elements, appear to be everywhere and in both hemispheres the 
resultants of a duplicate system of magnetic forces, of which one at least 
undergoes a continuous and progressive translation in geographical space, 
the motion being from west to east in the northern hemisphere, and from 
east to west in the southern. It is to this motion that the secular change in 
all localities is chiefly if not entirely due, affecting systematically and ac- 
cording to their relative positions on the globe, the configurations and geo- 
graphical positions of the magnetic lines, and producing conformable 
changes in the direction and amount of the magnetic elements in every 
part of the globe. The comparison of the earlier recorded observations 
with those of the present epoch gives reason to believe, that viewed in its 
generality, the motion of the system of forces which produces the secular 
change has been uniform, or nearly so, in the last two or three centuries* 
Under favourable conditions the regularity of this movement can be traced 
down to comparatively very minute fractions of time; by the results of 
careful observations continued for several years at the observatory of St* 
Helena, where, in common with the greater part of the district of the South 
Atlantic, the secular change of the declination exceeds eight minutes in the 
year, and from its magnitude therefore may be advantageously studied, — 
every fortnight of the year is found to have its precise aliquot portion of the 
annual amount of the secular change at the station. This phaenomenon of 
secular change is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable features of the 
magnetic system, and cannot with propriety be overlooked, as too frequently it 
has been, by those who would connect the phenomena of terrestrial magnetism 
generally, mediately or immediately, with climatic circumstances, relations of 
land and sea, or other causes to which we are assuredly in no degree entitled 
to ascribe secular variation, and who reason therefore as if the great magnetic 
phenomena of the earth were persistent instead of being as they are subject 
to a continual and progressive change. It may confidently be affirmed that 
the secular magnetic variation has no analogy with, or resemblance to, any 
other physical phaenomenon with which we are acquainted. We appear at 
present to be without any clue to guide us to its physical causes, but the way 
is preparing for a future secure derivation of its laws to be obtained by a 
repetition, after a sufficient interval, of the steps which we are now taking to 
determine the elements corresponding to a definite epoch. 

The periodical variations in the terrestrial magnetic force, which I have 
before adverted to as distinguished from its secular change, are small in com- 
parison with the force itself, but they are highly deserving of attention on 
account of the probability that by suitable methods of investigation they 
may be made to reveal the sources to which they owe their origin and the 



ADDRESS. liil 

agency by which they are produced. They formed accordingly the subject 
of a distinct recommendation from the British Association, which met with 
an equally favourable reception. To investigate these variations by suitable 
instruments and methods, to separate each from the others, and to seek its 
period, its epochs of maximum and minimum, the laws of its progression, and 
its mean numerical value or amount, constituted the chief purposes for which 
magnetic observatories were established for limited periods at certain stations 
in Her Majesty's dominions, selected in the view that by a combination of 
the results obtained at them, a general theory of each at least of the principal 
periodical variations might be derived, and tests be thus supplied whereby 
the truth of physical theories propounded for their explanation might be 
examined. We are just beginning to profit by the collocation and study of 
the great body of facts which have been collected. Variations corresponding 
in period to the earth's revolution around the sun, and to its rotation around 
its own axis, have been ascertained to exist, and their numerical values ap- 
proximately determined in each of the three elements, the Declination, In- 
clination, and Magnetic Force. We unhesitatingly refer these variations to 
the sun as their primary source, since we find that in whatever part of the 
globe the phsenomeua are observed, the solstices and equinoxes are the cri- 
tical epochs of the variation whose period is a year, whilst the diurnal varia- 
tion follows in all meridians nearly the same law of local solar hours. To 
these unquestionable evidences of solar influence in the magnetic affections 
of the earth, we have now to add the recently ascertained fact, that the mag- 
netic storms, or disturbances, which in the absence of more correct know- 
ledge were supposed to be wholly irregular in their occurrence, are strictly 
periodical phenomena, conforming with systematic regularity to laws in which 
the influence of local solar hours is distinctly traced. 

But, whilst we recognise the sun as the primary cause of variations whose 
periods attest the source from whence they derive their origin, the mode or 
modes in which the effects are produced constitute a question which has been 
and may still be open to a variety of opinions : the direct action of the sun 
as being itself a magnet, its calorific agency occasioning thermo-electric 
and galvanic currents, or in alternately exalting and depressing the magnetic 
condition of substances near the surface of the earth, or in one of the consti- 
tuents of its atmosphere, — have been severally adduced as hypotheses afford- 
ing plausible explanations. Of each and all such hypotheses the facts are the 
only true criterion ; but it is right that we should bear in mind that in the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge, the evidence which may give a decided counte- 
nance to one hypothesis in preference to others does not preclude their possible 
coexistence. The analysis of the collected materials and the disentanglement 
of the various effects which are comprehended in them, are far from being yet 
complete. The correspondence of the critical epochs of the annual variation 
with the solstices and equinoxes rather than with the epochs of maximum 
and minimum temperature, which at the surface of the earth, in the subsoil 



liv REPOET — 1852. 

beneath the surface, or in the atmosphere above the surface, are separated 
by a wide interval from the solstitial epochs, appears to favour the hypothesis 
of a direct action ; as does also the remarkable fact which has been established) 
that the magnetic force is greater in both the northern and southern hemi- 
spheres in the months of December, January, and February, when the sun 
is nearest to the earth, than in those of May, June, and July, when he is 
most distant from it: whereas if the effects were due to temperature, the two 
hemispheres should be oppositely instead of similarly affected in each of the 
two periods referred to. Still there are doubtless minor periodical irregular 
variations yet to be made out by suitable analytical processes, which, by 
their possible accordance with the epochs of maximum and minimum 
temperature, may support in a more limited sense, not as a sole but as 
a coordinate cause, the hypothesis of calorific agency so generally received, 
and so ably advocated of late in connection with the discovery by our great 
chemist and philosopher of the magnetic properties of oxygen and of the 
manner in which they are modified and affected by differences of temperature. 
It may indeed be difficult to suppose that the magnetic phenomena which 
we measure at the surface of the globe, should not be in any degree influ- 
enced by the variations in the magnetic conditions of the oxygen of the 
atmosphere in different seasons and at different hours of the day and night ; 
but whether that influence be sensible or not, whether it be appreciable by 
our instruments or inappreciable by them, is a question which yet remains 
for solution by the more minute sifting of the accumulated facts wbioh are 
now undergoing examination in so many quarters. 

To justify the anticipation that conclusions of the most striking character, 
and wholly unforeseen, may yet be derivable from the materials in our 
possession, we need only to recall the experience of the last few months, 
which have brought to our knowledge the existence of what may possibly 
prove the most instructive, as it is certainly at first sight the least explicable, 
of all the periodical magnetic variations with which we have become ac- 
quainted. I refer to the concurrent testimony which observations at parts 
of the globe the most distant from each other bear to the existence of a 
periodical variation or inequality, affecting alike the magnitude of the diurnal 
variations, and the magnitude and frequency of the disturbances or storms. 
The cycle or period of this inequality appears to extend to about ten of our 
years; the maximum and minimum of the magnitudes affected by it being 
separated by an interval of about five years, and the differences being much 
too great, and resting on an induction far too extensive, to admit of uncer- 
tainty as to the facts themselves. The existence of a well-marked magnetic 
period which has certainly no counterpart in thermic conditions, appears to 
render still more doubtful the supposed connexion between the magnetic and 
calorific influences of the sun. It is not a little remarkable that this periodical 
magnetic variation is found to be identical in period and in epochs of maxima 
and minima with the periodical variation in the frequency and magnitude of 



ADDBSM. lV 

the soJar spots which M. Sohwabe hag established by twenty -•« yean of 
unremitting labour. From a cosmioal connexion of this nature, supposing it 
to be finally established, it would follow, that the decennial period which 
we measure by our magnetic instruments is, in fact, a solar period, mani* 
fested to us also by the alternately increasing and decreasing frequency and 
magnitude of obscurations on the surface of the solar disc. May we not 
have in these phenomena the indication of a cycle or period of secular 
change in ike magnetism of the mi, affecting visibly his gaseous atmosphere 
or photosphere, and sensibly modifying the magnetic influence which he 
exti cises on the surface of our earth ? 

The determination of the figure and dimensions of the globe whiob we 
inhabit may justly be regarded as possessing a very high degree of scientific 
interest and value, and the measurements necessary for a oorreot knowledge 
thereof, have long been looked upon as proper subjects for public underta- 
kings and as highly honourable to the nations which have taken part in them. 
Inquiries in which I was formerly engaged led me fully to concur with a 
remark of Laplace, to the effect that it is extremely probable that the first 
attempts were made at a period much anterior to those of which history has 
preserved the record ; the relation which many measures of the most remote 
antiquity have to each other and to the terrestrial circumference strengthens 
this conjecture, and seems to indicate, not only that the earth's circumference 
was known with a great degree of accuracy at an extremely ancient period, but 
that it has served as the base of a complete system of measures the vestiges of 
which have been found in Egypt and Asia* In modern times the merit of re- 
suming these investigations belongs to the French nation, by whom the arc of 
the meridian between Formentera and Dunkirk was measured towards the close 
of the last century. The Trigonometrical Survey of Great Britain, commenced 
in 1783, for the specific object of connecting the Observatories of Greenwich 
and Paris, was speedily expanded by the able men to whom its direction was 
then confided into an undertaking of far greater scientific as well as topo- 
graphical importance, having for its objects on the one hand the formation 
of correct maps of Great Britain, and on the other the measurement of an 
arc of the meridian, having the extreme northern and southern points of the 
Island for its terminations* A portion of this arc, amounting to 2° 50', viz. 
from Dunnose in the Isle of Wight to Clifton in Yorkshire, was published in 
the Phil. Trans, in 1803. As the whole arc, extending from Dunnose to 
Unst and Balta, the most northern of the Shetland Islands, would comprise 
more than 10°, and as nearly half a century had elapsed since the publication 
of the earlier part of the Survey, it is not surprising that some degree of impa- 
tience should have been felt, both by those who desired the results for scientific 
use, and by those who were interested for the scientific character of the nation, 
that the general results of the Survey applicable to scientific purposes should 
at length be given to the world. Accordingly, at the Birmingham Meeting 
of the British Association in 1849, a Resolution was passed appointing a 



lvi REPORT — 1852. 

deputation to confer with the Master-General of the Ordnance, and a similar- 
resolution was passed about the same time by the President and Council of 
the Royal Society. On communicating with the Master- General, it appeared 
that the want of special funds for the requisite calculations formed the only 
obstacle, a difficulty which was happily immediately surmounted by an appli- 
cation of the President and Council of the Royal Society to Lord John 
Russell, then First Lord of the Treasury. The Report of the Council of the 
British Association to the General Committee at the Meeting of the last year at 
Ipswich, contained an official statement from the Inspector-General of Forti- 
fications of the progress of the reduction and examination of the observations 
preparatory to the desired publication, and concluded with expressing the 
expectation of the Director of the Survey, that he " should be able to furnish 
for communication to the British Association that would probably assemble 
in 1852, the principal results obtainable from the geodetic operations in 
Great Britain and Ireland." By a recent letter to my predecessor from 
Captain Yolland of the Royal Engineers, who is entrusted with the direction 
of the publication, I am enabled to have the pleasure of announcing that the 
" printing of the observations made with the Zenith Sector, for the determi- 
nation of the latitudes of stations between the years 1842 and 1850, is 
finished, and will be presented in time for the meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation, and that the calculations connected with the triangulation are 
rapidly advancing towards their completion." 

In the meantime the great arc of Eastern Europe has been advancing 
with unexampled rapidity and to an extent hitherto unparalleled. Originating 
in topographical surveys in Esthonia and Livonia, and commenced in 1816, 
the operations, both geodesical and astronomical, have been completed be- 
tween IzmaTl on the Danube and Fugleness in Finnmarken, an extent of 25£ 
meridional degrees. Next to this in extent is the Indian arc of 21° 21 f be- 
tween Cape Comorin and Kaliana ; and the third is the French arc already 
referred to of 12° 22'. It appears by a note presented to the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburgh by M. Struve, that a provisional 
calculation has been made of a large part of the great arc of Eastern Europe, 
and that it has been found to indicate for the figure of the earth a greater 
compression than that derived by Bessel in 1837 and 1841, from all the arcs 
then at his command, — Bessel's compression having also been greater than La- 
place's previous deduction. It is naturally with great pleasure that I perceive 
that the figure of the earth derived by means of the measurement of arcs of 
the meridian approximates more and more nearly, as the arcs are extended 
in dimension, to the compression which I published in 1825 as the result of 
a series of Pendulum Experiments, which, by the means placed by Govern- 
ment at my disposal, I was enabled to make from the equator to within ten 
degrees of the pole, thus giving to that method its greatest practicable ex- 
tension. 

The observations hitherto made on the tides of the ocean have been insuf- 



ADDRESS. lvil 

ficient to furnish such a connected knowledge of the subject as would enable 
us to follow the course of the tide over any considerable portion of the ocean, 
and in the opinion of persons most competent to judge, it is only by systematic 
observations specially directed for the purpose, that this connected knowledge 
is likely to be obtained. Accordingly a resolution was passed at the Ipswich 
Meeting of the Association, appointing a Committee to prepare.a Memorial 
to Her Majesty's Government, representing the importance of determining 
the progress of the tide -wave along the coasts of Africa and South America 
by an Atlantic Tidal Expedition. This Memorial was presented to Govern- 
ment by my predecessor, and, having been referred to the Hydrographer, has 
been most favourably reported upon. We may therefore expect that the 
survey will be very shortly commenced. The recent researches of Captain 
Beechey, which have given a new and unexpected view of the tidal movements 
of the ocean, show how much yet remains to be learnt respecting the tides 
even for the practical purposes of navigation. 

The facts derived a few years since from the barometrical observations at 
St Helena, showing the existence of a lunar atmospheric tide, have been 
corroborated in the last year by a similar conclusion, drawn by Captain Elliot 
of the Madras Engineers from the barometrical observations at Singapore* 
The influence of the moon's attraction on the atmosphere produces, as 
might be expected, a somewhat greater effect on the barometer at Singapore, 
in lat 1° 19', than at St Helena, in lat 15° 57'. The barometer at the 
equator appears to stand on the average about 0*006 in. (more precisely 
0-0057, in lat 1° 19') higher at the moons culminations than when she is 
six hours distant from the meridian. 

We have received from our valued corresponding member Pro/. Dove, for 
presentation to this Meeting, an important continuation of his researches on 
the temperatures at the surface of the globe. In former communications he 
has furnished us with maps showing, so far as observation permits, the 
isothermals of the whole globe in every month of the year. He has now 
given us, first, the normal temperatures of each parallel of latitude in each 
month ; being the average of all the temperatures in that parallel in such 
month ; and second, the abnormal temperatures, or the difference between the 
temperature of each place and the. mean temperature of its parallel. From 
these again are formed lines of abnormal temperature for each month, sur- 
rounding andmarking out those districts or localities, which, from peculiarities 
of the surface or other causes affecting the distribution of heat, are charac- 
terized by excessive abnormal heat or abnormal cold. The importance of 
these researches on the general theory of the causes which interfere with the 
equable distribution of heat according to latitude is obvious. 

The activity which has prevailed so greatly of late, in the collection 
of meteorological data, has been almost exclusively confined to. that portion 
of the surface of the globe which is occupied by land, although the portion 



lviii REPORT — 1852. 

covered by the ocean is not only much greater in extent, but is also better 
suited for the solution of several meteorological problems. Many striking 
examples might be adduced to show that it is " systematic direction/' and 
not " individual seal " in naval men, which has been wanting, and it has been 
therefore with great satisfaction that meteorologists have learnt that a pro- 
position has recently been made from the United States Government to the 
British Government, to undertake, conjointly and in cooperation, a system 
of meteorological observations, to be made at sea in all ships belonging to 
the naval service of the two countries, and sufficiently simple to be parti- 
cipated in by the merchant service also. In a partial trial whioh has been 
already made of this system in the United States, it has been found to produce 
results which, exclusive of their scientific bearing, are of great importance to 
the interests of navigation and commerce, in materially shortening passages 
by the knowledge of prevailing winds and currents at particular seasons. 
The practical advantages arising from the coordination of the observa- 
tions in the Hydrographic Office of the United States, and of the circu- 
lation of the charts of the winds and currents, and of the sailing diree- 
tions founded on them, have been such and so appreciated, that there 
are now, as it is stated, more than 1000 masters of 'American ships en- 
gaged in making them. The request for British cooperation in an un- 
dertaking so honourable to the country in whioh it originated, was referred 
in the spring of this year by the Earl of Malmesbury to the President and 
Council of the Royal Society for a Report ; from which I permit myself to 
quote the concluding sentence, in the persuasion that it would find an echo, 
if necessary, in every part of the United Kingdom, and that it cannot fail to 
be promptly acted upon by the Government of a country in which 
maritime interests hold so prominent a place : — " To the Government of 
this country the demand for cooperation and for the interchange of obser- 
vations is most earnestly addressed by the Government of the United 
States { and the President and Council of the Royal Society express their 
hope that it will not be addressed in vain. We possess in our ships of war, 
in our packet service, and in our vast commercial navy, better means for 
making suoh observations, and a greater interest in the results to which they 
lead, tban any other nation ; for this purpose every ship which is under the 
control of the Admiralty, should be furnished with instruments properly con- 
structed and compared, and with instructions for using them; similar in- 
structions for making and recording observations, as far as their means will 
allow, should be given to every ship that sails, with a request that they will 
transmit the results to the Hydrographer's Office of the Admiralty, 
where an adequate staff of Officers or others should be provided for their 
prompt examination, and the publication of the improved charts and sailing 
directions to which they would lead $ above ail, it seems desirable to establish 
a prompt communication with the Hydrographer's Office of the United States, 



ADDRESS, lix 

bo that the united labours of the two greatest naval and commercial nations 
of the world may be combined, with the least practicable delay* in promoting 
the interests of navigation." 

Amongst the most valuable results which the Physical Sciences may expect 
to obtain from this extensive system of nautical observation, we may reckon 
the construction of charts of the isothermals of the surface of the ocean cor- 
responding to every month in the year, similar to Dove's monthly isothermals 
of the temperature of the air; and a knowledge of the normal condition as 
well as the abnormal variations, with their special causes and effects, of the 
great Gulf-stream which connects the shores of the Old and New World, 
and in its normal effects is influential in many ways on the climate of the 
United States and Western Europe, whilst its abnormal effects are principally 
known, so far as we are yet aware, by the peculiarities of climate they 
occasionally produce on the European side of the Atlantic. Of the extent, 
depth, and limits of this remarkable current in ordinary and extraordinary 
years we are as yet very imperfectly informed. Of the zoology of the great 
tracts of ocean which are covered by its banks of seaweed, we know nothing 
beyond the fact that they are the habitation of a countless number of oceanic 
animals,.— giving rise possibly to deposits which may have distinctive 
characters from littoral deposits or from those of marine estuaries. But 
doubtless, we can now estimate only a very small part of the advantages 
which Terrestrial Physics as well as Hydrography and Navigation would 
derive from the concurrent exertions of the two great maritime nations in 
the way that has been pointed out. 

The analogy of the configuration of the land and sea on the north of the 
continents of Asia and America, has for some time past caused an opinion 
to be entertained that the sea on the north of the Parry Islands might be as 
open as it is known to be throughout the year in the same latitude on the 
north of the Siberian Islands. The expectation that Wellington Strait might, 
as the continuation of Barrow's Strait, prove a channel of communication 
from the Atlantic into that part of the Polar Ocean, has been considerably 
strengthened in the last year by the discoveries which we owe to the hardi- 
hood and intrepidity of our merchant seamen. The access to the Polar 
Ocean, and the degree in which it may be navigable for purposes of dis- 
covery or of scientific research, are amongst the few geographical problems 
of high interest which remain to be solved ; and we may confidently look 
for a solution, in the direction at least that has been adverted to, by the 
Expedition which has been despatched under Sir Edward Belcher to follow 
up the discovered traces of Sir John Franklin's vessels. 

The success which the Kew Observatory Committee have had in their un* 
dertaking to make Standard Thermometers, encourages us to hope that they 
will be equally successful in the endeavour in which they are now engaged 
to introduce a greater degree of precision in the construction of meteorological 
instruments generally, as well as in the more delicate kinds which are so fre- 



IX REPORT — 1852. 

quently required in physical experiments. An establishment has long been 
a desideratum in which instruments for various physical researches employed 
in foreign countries should be tried in comparison with the instruments used 
here, and the relative merits of each examined, and in which new and pro* 
mising inventions and suggestions should receive a practical trial. Amongst 
its other services rendered to Science and to the country, the British Associa- 
tion is now entitled to claim the merit of having organized an establishment 
which appears extremely welUsuited to supply this deficiency, and needs only 
more extensive means to supply it to any required extent The applications 
which have been made to Kew in the past year by Profs. Forbes and Thomson 
for thermometers of particular kinds, required in very delicate experiments in 
which those gentlemen are engaged, and by the Admiralty for Standard Ther- 
mometers for very low temperatures to be employed by the Arctic Expeditions, 
show that the advantages to be derived from such an establishment are already 
beginnings to be recognised ; and as these become more known and felt, it may 
confidently be anticipated that means will not be wanting for such an exten- 
sion of the establishment at Kew, as may be necessary to meet fully the 
public requirements. The desire which is so frequently manifested by 
voyagers and travellers in distant countries to contribute to our knowledge 
of terrestrial physics, would be greatly aided by increased facilities afforded 
to- them of obtaining suitable and well-assured instruments, and still more if 
practical instruction or advice could be added. It is not from deficiency of 
interest, or of a desire to be useful in such inquiries, that our British travellers 
do not reap the full advantages of the great opportunities which they possess, 
so much as from the absence of any provision for supplying instruments on 
which reliance can be placed with practical instructions for their use. In no 
department is the " systematic direction,** which it is the object of the British 
Association to communicate to the sciences generally, more needed than in 
Physical Geography. To carry this desirable purpose into effect, might with 
great propriety and public benefit be made to form a branch of the duties of 
the Kew Observatory. 

In compliance with a resolution of the Council, the Kew Committee have 
made arrangements for four aeronautic ascents in the Nassau Balloon, chiefly 
for the purpose of investigating the laws of the decrement of temperature 
and of aqueous vapour in ascending into the atmosphere. The two first of 
these ascents took place on the 17th and 26th of August, attaining in each 
case between 19,000 and 20,000 feet, and will be the subject of a commu- 
nication to the Association, which will doubtless excite much interest, from 
Mr. Welsh of the Kew Observatory, who was charged by the Superintend- 
ing Committee with the conduct of the observations. 

The opportunity which the Observatory furnishes to the Association, of a 
convenient locality, presenting many facilities for carrying on a series of 
delicate experiments, has been taken advantage of by Professor Stokes for 
experiments in which he is engaged on the Index of Friction in different 



ADDRESS. lxi 

Gates. Experiments reported by myself to the Royal Society in 1829, 
showed that the retardation of a pendulum vibrating in different gases 
was not proportionate to their respective densities, but appeared to depend 
also on some inherent quality, whereby the different gases present different 
degrees of resistance to the motion of bodies passing through them. I was 
interrupted in the prosecution of this subject by a recall to military duty, and 
I now rejoice to see it in hands so far more able to do it justice. 

The Parliamentary Committee appointed at the Ipswich meeting to watch 
over the interests of Science, consisting of Members of the British Asso- 
ciation who are also Members of the Legislature, have this morning made 
their first Report to the General Committee, and some notice of the subjects 
which have chiefly occupied them in the past year may not be unacceptable 
to the Members of the Association at large. One of these subjects is that of 
Scientific Pensions. It is known to all that since the commencement of the 
reign of Her present Majesty pensions to the amount of £1200 have been at 
the disposal of the First Minister of the Crown, to be granted each year in 
recompense of civil services, chiefly, though not exclusively, in literature and 
science, and that several persons of various degrees of literary and scientific 
eminence have received pensions accordingly, many of which have given 
much public satisfaction. On examining the appropriations which have 
been made in the fourteen years since this fund became available, it appeared 
that only about thirteen per cent, or an eighth part of the whole amount, had 
been allotted to scientific pensions. Considering this lobe a proper subject 
to be brought under the notice of Government, Lord Wrottesley, the Chair- 
man, and Sir R. H. Inglis, one of the Members of the Committee, obtained 
an interview with the Earl of Derby for that purpose. The readiness of 
Government to attend to such representations has been fully shown in the 
scientific pensions granted in the present year, amounting to nearly a third 
of the whole sum available for the year. These pensions have been granted, 
on the recommendation of the President of the Royal Society, — to Mr. 
Hind, who has the unique distinction of being the discoverer of no less than 
six out of the twenty-five known planets of the solar system, — to Dr. 
Mantell, so well known for his successful researches in palaeontology, — and 
to Mr. Ronalds, for the electrical and kindred researches in which he has 
been engaged for so many years. The intimate association of the scientific 
services of Mr. Ronalds for several years past with the Observatory of the 
British Association at Kew, must render this last selection peculiarly gra- 
tifying to our Members. 

Another subject which has occupied the attention of the Parliamentary 
Committee in the last year, is one to which their attention was requested by 
the Council of the Association, with a view of carrying into effect the desire 
of the General Committee for a more cheap and rapid international commu- 
nication of scientific publications. The credit of the first move towards the 
accomplishment of this desirable object is due to the Government of the 

1852. e 



lxii REPORT — 1852. 

United States, by whom an arrangement was made for the admission duty 
free of all scientific books addressed as presents from foreign countries to all 
institutions and individuals cultivating science in that country, such books 
being sent through the Smithsonian Institution, by whom their further dis- 
tribution to their respective destinations was undertaken. This arrangement 
was notified to our Government through the British Minister at Washington, 
and a similar privilege was at the same time requested for the admission 
duty free into England of books sent as presents from the United States to 
public institutions and individuals cultivating science in this country, under 
such regulations as might appear most fitting. This proposition gave rise to 
communications between the President of the Royal Society and the Chair- 
man of the Parliamentary Committee on the one part, and the Treasury and 
the principal Commissioner of Customs on the other; the result of which 
has been the concession of the privilege of admission, duty free, into England 
of scientific books from all countries, desigued as presents to institutions and 
individuals named in lists to be prepared from time to time by the Royal So* 
ciety, after communication with other scientific societies recognized by charter, 
under the regulation, however, that the books are to be imported in oases 
addressed to and passing through the Royal Society. This arrangement has 
come into operation ; and it may be interesting to notice, as giving some 
idea of its extensive bearing, that the first arrival from the United 
States which has taken place under these regulations consists of packages 
weighing in all no less than three tons. There is another branch of the 
same subject which is more difficult to arrange, viz. the international com- 
munication by pott of scientific pamphlets and papers at reduced rates of 
postage ; the Parliamentary Committee have directed their attention to this 
part of the subject also, and I earnestly hope that their exertions will be 
successful. 

Allusions have been made by influential men, and in influential places, to 
a direct representation of Science in Parliament ; and we frequently hear 
opinions expressed that Parliament might be improved by a greater admix- 
ture of men who might be chosen as the representatives of the intellectual 
cultivation of the nation, amongst those who represent its material interests. 
The benefit which the Legislature might derive from a change of this descrip- 
tion, is a question rather for statesmen than for men of science, and would 
be quite unsuitable for discussion here : but in respect to the influence which 
such change would exercise on Science itself and on its cultivators, it does 
belong to us to consider both its probable advantages and disadvantages. I 
have no hesitation in expressing as an individual opinion, my belief that the 
possible gain would be incalculably outweighed by the too certain evils ; and 
that scientific men cannot too highly value and desire to retain the advantage 
they now possess in the undisturbed enjoyment of their own pursuits un- 
troubled by the excitements and distractions of political life. Some there 
are amongst us, and some there ever have been, who, born to a station which 



' % ADDRESS. lxiii 

brings with it public duties, but gifted with a strong natural taste for the 
pursuits of science, do manage to succeed in a greater or less degree in com- 
bining both. Success is in such cases the more honourable, and is the more 
admired, because it manifests the strength of the original disposition, and in- 
dicates how much more might probably have been accomplished by an 
undivided attention. The economy of human labour points specially to such 
men as the most suitable representatives of science in the legislature of which 
they already form a part The selection from amongst them of a certaiu 
number to be particularly charged with the duties of watching over and pro- 
moting the interests of science, either with Government or in the Legislature 
appears in this view a most happy expedient We cannot read over the 
names of the noblemen and gentlemen who form the Parliamentary Committee 
of the British Association, without being satisfied that science would not be 
likely to be more honourably or more ably represented by any system o£ 
direct representation ; nor can we look to the discretion and practical wisdom 
with which the proceedings of the Committee have been conducted in the 
first year of its existence, without being impressed with the belief that it is 
destined to render important services both to the country and to ourselves. 

Gentlemen, I have now occupied fully as much of your time and attention 
as I can venture to trespass upon, and yet have found it impossible to com- 
prehend within the limits of a discourse all the topics to which I would gladly 
have called your notice, even in those branches of knowledge in which I 
may consider myself least uninformed, in three of the seven departments 
into which our science is divided. I have left wholly untouched those wide 
fields of Geology and Natural History, which would of themselves have 
furnished fitting subjects for an address of still longer duration. No one can 
be more sensible of this, and of many other imperfections and deficiencies, 
than the individual who addresses you ; yet, if he has not wholly failed in 
the purpose he designed — if the impression which he has endeavoured to 
convey, however faint may be the image, be true to that which it is intended 
to represent, — yau have not failed to recognise the gratifying picture of 
British Science in the full career of energetic action and advancement, press- 
ing forward in every direction to fill the full measure of the sphere of its 
activity in the domain of intellectual culture; regardful on the one hand of 
the minutest details in the patient examination of natural facts, and on the 
other hand diligent in combining them into generalizations of the highest 
order, by the aid of those principles of inductive philosophy, which are the 
surest guide of the human intellect to the comprehension of the laws and 
order of the material universe. 



e c Z 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE 



REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE 




Third Report on the Facto qf Earthquake Phenomena. 
By Robbrt Mallrt, C.B., MJUjL. 



ERRATA IN MR. MALLET'S SECOND REPORT ON EARTHQUAKES. 

Since the printing of the preceding Report the following errata have been 
discovered : — « 

In page 288, line 5 from bottom, for 0"*014206 read 0"014286. 

289, line 14,/or 0"013910 read 0"013903. 

line30,/or0''-41743r«M*0"-41726. 

line 31,/or 0"013914 read 0"013909. 

[The preceding corrections apply also to the table of chronograph ratings 
at foot of p. 289.] 

In page 290, line 2, for 0"-013914 read 0"013909. 

for 0"006956 read 0"006954. 

293, line 1,/or ratio read rate. 

298, line 33, for 30705 read 307*60. 

299, line 12,/or 9-607 read 9609. 

306, line 13, supply a comma after the word " dial ". 

306, line 4 from bottom, supply a comma after " dial ". 

These errors are all small, and affect the results within limits much less 
than those of the differences between one experiment and another. A single 
arithmetical mistake remains however to be noticed, which alters consider- 
ably the constant of wave transit in sand as deduced from the experiments ; 
namely, that in page 292, line 3 from bottom, *8 was read instead of '3, at 
the beginning of the number representing the average of col. 4. The result 
of the subtraction should therefore be S'H 11 639 instead of 2 "'9 11 63 9, and 
hence the gross rate of transit in sand =774*568 feet per second. Using 
this corrected number in the calculation (p. 307) of the distance lost in 
raising the wave in the seismoscope, and applying throughout the small 
corrections mentioned above, the true rates of transit are — 

In Sand . 824*915 feet per second. 

In discontinuous Granite 1306*425 „ 

In more solid Granite 1664*574 „ 

which numbers should therefore be substituted for those given in pp. 307, 
308. 

This correction still further removes any probability of aerial commotion 
having at all interfered in the Killiney experiments : see pp. 303-305. 

The Catalogue of Earthquakes contained in Mr. Mallet's Report will be 
continued in the next volume. 



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169 




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CO CO-* •*« 






ON THE VITALITY OF SEEDS, 




% Twelfth Report qf a Committee, consisting of H 
Professor Daubuny, Professor Henb^ow, 
appointed to continue their Experiments on the 
of Seed*. 

Thb seeds set apart for this year's sowing were those collected in 1844, and 
it is the third time that the same kinds have been subjected to experiment 

There is a very evident deorease in the numbers which have vegetated when 
compared with those of previous sowings, as will be seen by reference to the 
annexed table* 

It being still desirable for the continuation of these experiments that seeds 
of known date should be added to the Dep6t at Oxford, more especially of 
families and genera not already there, we again beg to call the attention of 
the Members to the subject ; and to guide them in the selection, we refer 
them to the List of Genera, the seeds of which are now in our possession, 
given in p. 32 of the Report of this Association for 1848. 



Name and Date when gathered. 


No. 
■own* 


No. of Seeds of each 
Specks which vege- 
tated at 


Time of vegetating 

in days at 


Remarks. 


Ox- 
ford. 


Cam- 
bridge. 


Chia- 
wick. 


Ox- 
ford. 


Cam- 
bridge. 


Chi.- 
wick. 


1844. 

1. Ammobinm alatum 

2. Asparagus officinalis 

3.. Alstrcemeria aurantia 

4. Argemone mexicana 

h, Bryonia dioica r.,.., ...... 


200 
150 
100 
100 
100 
100 
200 
200 
100 
200 
200 
150 
200 
200 
150 
200 
200 
200 
200 
150 
200 

200 


27 




26 

3 

12 

2 
68 


25 




15 

7 

13 
9 


f Strong and 
\ healthy. 

Plants weak. 

J Strong and 
\ healthy. 

Plants weak. 
J Strong and 
\\ healthy. 






6. Carthamns tinctoriua 

7. Carum Carol 


8. Catananche coerulea 

9. Crambe maritima 

10. Chenopodium Botrya 

11. Eschscholtzia californica . 
12 HeHebonw foetidus 










13 Lioaria PresiiT-T... 


14. Scorzonera hiapanka 

1J» SAnnnAriA annua. •• 


16 Solan una ovigerum 


17. Sinm Sisaniip. *-.--.. „ 










18. Sanvitalia procumbent ... 

19. Tngopogoa porrifolinm... 

20. Veaicaria grandiflora 

21. Madia 8plendenj tttf _. tT . Tt . 


22. Malva fw^ntim* ,, T ,„f 


42 


30 


10 


s 









Sown at Oxford on the 18th of June in pots and placed in a cold frame, 
at Cambridge on the 21st of June in the open border, and at Chiswick on 
June 10th in pots placed in slight heat. 



1852. 



178 REPORT — 1852. 

Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1851-52. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Pro- 
fessor of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

In submitting to the British Association a fifth report in continuation of 
former ones on observations of Luminous Meteors, I am bound to acknow- 
ledge the contributions (as heretofore) of Dr. Buist, the Rev. J. Slatter, Mr. 
J. King Watts, the Rev. T. Rankin and Mr. Birt, besides several other friends 
who have favoured me with occasional observations : to Mr. £• J. Lowe I am 
especially indebted for communicating, besides his own valuable series, those 
of Mr. Lawson, and the very exact observations of M. Bulard, and a series ob- 
served by the Rev. J. B. Reade and several friends. 

These latter sets of observations have each been drawn up in such complete 
and distinct tabular forms that I have judged it better for the most part to 
retain them in the order in which they were communicated, than to attempt 
to reduce them to a more strict chronological arrangement. 

I have also received a considerable series of older meteor-observations by 
T. W. Webb, Esq., of Ganarew, near Monmouth, extending over a period 
of upwards of thirty years prior to 1850. As it was found almost impossi- 
ble to reduce these to the tabular form, they are given precisely as they were 
communicated : they in several instances afford points of comparison with 
former records, and supply deficiencies in them. 

I. Observations of Luminous Meteors, from 1818 to 1850, extracted from old 
diaries of natural phenomena. By Thomas William Webb, Esq., of 
Ganarew, Monmouth. 

1818. Jan. 5. — A meteor about 5 h 30 m p.m.; it passed from N.E. to S.W. 
across the zenith ; its observed time was about 3 sees. (This is but an uncer- 
tain observation, from youth and inexperience.) 

1820. Aug. 10. — My father, the Rev. John Webb, "informed me that as 
he was travelling about a quarter past 2 a.m., he saw a remarkable meteor. 
It was somewhere near Auriga, and had the appearance of a luminous line, 
with sparks issuing in great quantity from both sides of it. This soon dis- 
appeared gradually, and directly after, another, much less bright, was seen 
further on, which lasted only for a moment." He was also informed, that 
" one had been seen about 1 1 p.m ., which was much brighter and lasted longer. 
Shooting stars were observed in surprising numbers all night." 

1821. Aug. 23. — The same gentleman supposed that a meteor might have 
appeared about 9 p.m. " in the N.W. part of the sky, as he saw a light on the 
hedges before him (he was then going S.E.) such as would be produced by 
the sudden appearance of a candle, or the flash of a gun. It was accompanied 
by a noise like a rushing gale. The weather was hot, and the sky serene and 
cloudless, without a breath of wind. It should be observed that there was a 
thunder-storm on the evening of the 24-th" (and therefore this observation is 
only so far valuable as it may be corroborated by others. It was in South 
Herefordshire). 

1821. Sept. 9. — A meteor about 8 h p.m. at some height in the north. It 
had the appearance of a star, about as bright as Venus, and disappeared 
instantly without motion. 

1822. Nov. 28. — About 9 11 45 m p.m. I saw a falling star which appeared, 
at first, quite as bright, if not brighter, than a star of the first magnitude, but 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS MRTBORS. 179 

very soon lost its splendour and gradually diminished till it became totally 
invisible. Its course was perpendicular, in the N.E., and about SO° in length. 
The full moon was shining at the same time with very great brightness. Its 
course was straight and performed with a medium rapidity. 

1823. Sept 7. — About 9* 15 m p.m., a meteor was seen in the S.S.E., whose 
course may be thus delineated : 

In its descent it made an angle of about 10° with 

* m the horizon : at first it appeared as bright as 

VA<iairiiu */J m Athair, and it did not diminish until it had run 

*0 about half its course, when it gradually became 

fainter and fainter. Its progress was not more 

rapid at first than that of a cloud driving with a 

♦Scheat *y high wind, but it became quicker whilst the angle 

*• of inclination to the horizon increased. It re* 

mained visible about 3 sees. (S. Herefordshire.) 

1824. Aug. 29. — About 16* p.m., my mother saw a meteor in the S.W., 
which from her description must have had when first seen 20° or 30° of alti- 
tude : it descended in a sloping westerly direction, till near the horizon, when 
it disappeared without diminution, either by extinction, or by passing behind 
trees. It was larger than Venus in her brightest state, but so blue as to be 
compared to a ball of quicksilver, and to appear quite unlike any planet or 
star. Its velocity was considerable, and it seemed as though projected with 
force. (South Herefordshire.) 

1824. Aug. 31.— About 9 h 30 m p.m., the Swan being S. of the zenith, 
a falling star appeared in it, whose course was short and rapid, in a S.E. di- 
rection. It was of the second magnitude at one time, but very tremulous and 
variable. About three minutes after, another appeared just below it, in the 
N. part of Aquila, of the fourth magnitude, sailing in a W. direction, with 
a slow and equable movement, over a considerable space. (South Here- 
fordshire.) The Diary adds, "this night there seemed to be many little 
startings and flashings in the heavens;" but on this I would not rely, as I am 
very near-sighted, and I think at that time did not wear a concave glass. 

1825. April 13. — A servant at Gloucester saw a meteor at night in the S., 
which passed in a W. direction : it was quite red, larger than a falling star, 
and not like one. The night was quite cloudy, but the veil was unequal, and 
in some places occasionally thin. 

1825. June 5. — About 8 h 45 m p.m., a light seemed to catch my eye for a 
moment in the N. at about 30° of elevation. If not a deception, which is 
very probable, it must have been twice as large as Venus. 

1825. Aug. 10 — About 10 h SO™ p.m., a meteor equal to a star of the 3rd 
magnitude in brightness passed across the upper part of Pegasus in a straight 
line, tending somewhat downwards. Immediately on its disappearance an- 
other appeared just £• of the hand of Perseus, exactly in the course of the 
first, produced in the opposite direction : it seemed to come with a very short 
horizontal course from the N., then becoming stationary, blazed out as bright 
as Algenib for an instant, then diminished to the 4th magnitude, and quickly 
after vanished. Soon after another of the 3rd magnitude fell in the S.W., in 
a perpendicular line from Serpentarius downwards, with a swift course. After 
11* p.m. another meteor shot horizontally, rather descending, for the length 
of 2° or 3° by Scheat in Pegasus : it dissolved into a splendid broadish train 
of faint bluish light visible for some seconds. At the beginning of its course 
its apparent magnitude was about the 2nd. Just after this a very distant red 
reflexion of lightning was seen in the S. All these meteors came more or 
less from the N.E. 

n2 



180 RBPORT — 1852. 

1825. Aug. 16. — About 9 h 30 m P.M., a shooting star of the 3rd magnitude 
was seen in the E. at an altitude of about 40°, which rose perpendicularly for 
7° or 8°. 

1825. Nov. 6.— At 9 h p.m., a meteor was seen 3° or 4° below Menkar in 
the E.S.E., as large or larger than Venus when at her greatest brightness. It 
did not seem to move, but vanished in an instant. 

1826. May 12. — Great meteor, about 10 h 40 m p.m., which by the account 
of a person who was with me began to appear about two-thirds of the distance 
between the Pole and Lyra, but on a lower line, between Lyra and Cygnus. 
It was described to me to have begun " as if a star had shot," and then it 
broke out all at once in a great body, moving, with a moderate velocity, to 
the N.W. ; at first, and for some parts of its course, horizontally, but at last 
deflecting downwards in a considerable curve ; in which part of its course I 
first saw it, my attention being roused by the strange blue light it cast on the 
ground. As it was passing on beneath the Pole, it went out, as it were, but a 
red spark, half as large as Mars, passed on in the same direction for 3° or 4°, 
and had the same effect as a case that remains kindled after the extinction of 
a fire-work. This meteor had an intense bluish white light, and illuminated 
objects considerably which were not immediately in the moon's rays. When 
I saw it I thought it one-third as large as the moon, then about five days old. 
I do not think it left any train. I fancied the light on the ground was waver- 
ing and streaming, and diminished before I looked up, but I was informed that 
the meteor appeared uniform from beginning to end. An hour before, a fall- 
ing star had been seen, with a course of 50 or 60° from the zenith to S.W. 
diminishing before it disappeared. (Gloucester.) 

1826. Sept. 15. — I was informed that about 8" p.m. (uncertain to half an 
hour), a meteor had been seen at some elevation S.E., which passed from N. to 
S., or from N.E. to S.W., for 30° or 40°, as large as a star of the 1st magnitude ; 
its course was mostly horizontal, but descending towards the last. It had a 
very broad train, as long as two-thirds of its course, which lasted a short time. 

1826. Dec. 21- — About 9 b SO" 1 p.m, while I was looking through a tele- 
scope, I perceived a falling star with the other eye : as soon as I could direct 
my attention to it, I ascertained that it was descending nearly in a straight 
line in the £., the point where I first saw it being between Ursa Major, Au- 
riga, and Gemini : its course was perhaps 20°, pretty slow. It was of the 1st 
magnitude, as large, as bright, and nearly as red as Mars : at the extremity 
of its course it suddenly diminished to the 3rd or 4th magnitude, proceeded 
8° or 3° in that state, and vanished. A few seconds after, another was seen, 
which first appearing very near the course of the former one, I think below 
Gemini, proceeded 8° or 10° in a direction to the S., perfectly at right angles 
to the course of the other. It was hardly so large as the 3rd magnitude. 

1827. Dec. 6.— About 6 h or 7 h p.m., a very large shooting star was seen, 
whose course was nearly perpendicular, 8° or 10° long, passing through the 
tail of Ursa Major, and very slow : its commencement was not very accurately 
noted, but afterwards it exhibited two or three alternations of light, from a 
white star of the 2nd magnitude, to a brightness much exceeding a Lyre, and 
of a splendid reddish yellow colour. It went out in a faint spark. 

1828. Jan. 19. — About 5 h 45 m p.m., during light twilight a shooting star 
was observed to pass between two clouds in an open space of 2° or 3 in a 
direction sloping to the left. It seemed quite as bright as Venus. 

1828. April 10. — About 9 b SO™ p.m., a meteor appeared at about 30° high, 
S.S.W. As I only saw it out of the corner of my eye, I cannot be particular 
as to its appearance, but it seemed a sudden short blaze or flash of bright red 
light, brighter I thought than Venus, then uncommonly brilliant* There had 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 181 

been a clap of thunder in a hail-storm during the day, which was showery ; 
and there were a few clouds in the sky at the time, and a faint haze in the 
place where it appeared. It might, perhaps, be an electric spark ; its instan- 
taneous disappearance rendered this likely, but no report followed, nor did it, 
as far as I can judge, illuminate the haze in which it appeared. 

1828. Aug. 22. — A beautiful shooting star as large as Venus passed in a 
long tract from S.E. to N.W. under Cassiopeia, about 9 b 10° p.m. It seemed 
to become extinct by degrees. 

1828. Aug. 28.— About 10* SO" a beautiful shooting star was seen, whose 
course was from S.E. to N.W., not less than 40° long, a little S. of the zenith. 
It was of the 1st magnitude. About the middle of its course it became duller, 
moved slower as I thought, and was perhaps a little deflected : it then resumed 
its first appearance : it seemed to leave a train on disappearing, but I could 
not tell, the moon being bright, and I not using an eye-glass. 

1828. Sept. 29. — At 10* 52 m a brilliant falling star appeared, which had a 
short course close to the horizon a little to the W. of the W. extremity of a 
fine auroral light in the N. horizon. It made an angle of 60° or 70° with the 
horizon (as a streamer might have been supposed to do in that situation), 
being deflected to the right as it advanced. It was gradually extinguished. It 
had a blue colour, as bright as Venus. 

1828. Dec 1.— (At the close of the memorandum of an aurora borealis, 
the following occurs) : —Several falling stars were seen, whose courses were in 
opposite directions. 

1830. June 25. — (The following is added to an account of a most tremen- 
dous thunder-storm.) The storm passed about two miles E. of Gloucester at 
lOfcp.M., and at some period between 10* 20" and 10* 40", Mr. — — , who had 
a complete view of the whole, perceived a strange meteor in the W. or W.S.W, 
where the sky was cloudy, precisely like the moon behind clouds, of the same 
colour, and oearly as large, so that he thought for a moment it had been the 
moon. He called several other people, who all saw it It lasted about three 
minutes as near as he could judge, and gradually disappeared as if obscured 
by clouds, or retiring in a straight line backwards, for it was quite stationary. 
He stated also that he saw another thing of the same kind, very much smaller, 
on the same night. But query, was it not the moon ? [Supposing it to have 
been actually a meteor, and the observer, an educated and intelligent man, 
might not have been supposed liable to such a mistake, though the moon was, 
I believe, actually in that quarter, some light may be obtained from the fol- 
lowing memorandum, which occurs under 1831, Feb. 6.] Mr. J. B» ■ , an 
accurate observer of nature, told me that about the beginning of Sept. 1880 
(a note states that there can be no doubt, from the account of another per- 
son, that the correct date was June 25) a thunder-storm came on towards 
night, the lightning of which was of a remarkable pale hue, and had not so 
much the appearance of flashing as of rolling from one cloud to another, and 
chiefly from N.E. to S.W. (This observation was made in the South of Here- 
fordshire.) When it had passed off, and the sky was clear, about mid- 
night, though itYtill lightened at a distance towards N.E., as he was return- 
ing home, a meteor suddenly broke out in the £• horizon, and passed rapidly 
across the sky till it disappeared in the W. horizon. He described it as a cloud 
of fire, of the deepest red, of surprising brilliancy, especially at its first break- 
ing out ; so that while it passed any minute thing might have been seen upon 
the ground. He described it as appearing as large as his garden, but taper- 
ing at the two ends : it produced no noise, and the whole appearance was 
over in a quarter of a minute. 

1830. Nov. 11.— (After some streamers of an aurora in the N. about & 
p.m.) Just afterwards a very large falling star was seen E.N.E. 



182 report — 1852. 

18S0. Dec. 10.— About 5 h \5 m p.m., a meteor was indistinctly seen at 
about 10° elevation N. by E. It was stationary, lasted a second or two, and 
appeared in colour and size much like Mars in opposition, as far as could be 
judged from a very imperfect view. 

1830. Dec. 12. — (A description of a fine aurora, concluding thus): — After 
8 h , when the streamers had ceased, a splendid and large green falling star was 
seen lowish in W.N.W. which left a train : another large one was also seen ; 
and one also during the aurora of the night before. 

1831. April 10. — There were faint streamers N. at night, and a beautiful 
and brilliant falling star N.E., and a light most clearly connected with a 
black cloud N.W. 

1831. Dec. 8. — The morning being overcast with very low foggy clouds, 
and very dark (it was probably before 7 h ), as I looked suddenly towards my 
window I saw a flashing or flickering effect of light, such as might have been 
produced by faint lightning or a fire in the opposite quarter. No light seemed 
to come into the room ; the illumination was in the clouds or fog. As I in- 
stantly went towards the window, the light, after becoming rather brighter* 
faded and disappeared very suddenly. It occurred to me that it was proba- 
bly the effect of some great meteor (for though the light was faint, the lumi- 
nous body must have been considerable to have produced such an effect 
through such dense clouds); on the other hand, a boy was whistling not far off, 
who, had such been the case, would probably have been frightened. Such an 
effect from a lantern I never saw, nor believed it possible ; it might have been 
best compared, as above, to faint lightning ; perhaps a little ruddy. (South 
Herefordshire.) (The Hereford Journal of Dec. 21, contained a long ex- 
tract, a copy of which I possess, from the Bath Journal, giving along, though 
very unscientific account of this meteor, for such it was, which seems to have 
been visible over a great extent of country.) 

1832. Oct. 20. — Four shooting stars were seen within half an hour about 
10 h , three of which were large and beautiful, and sailed with a fine equable 
motion : all from E. or N.E. But one which proceeded from the latter quarter, 
at a considerable elevation, traversed 40° or 50° of the N. sky in a direction 
nearly straight and parallel to the earth, leaving behind it a fine white streak, 
which gradually spread wider and dispersed. As the star was equal to one 
of the 1st or 2nd magnitude, and as the streak was visible at once throughout 
so long a course, the effect was very striking and beautiful : what seemed re- 
markable was that the other three, though similar to this in their direction, 
left no visible train behind them. One night two or three months ago (I 
rather think on Sept. 18), I saw a bright star, which falling perpendicularly 
seemed to be partially quenched, but yet proceeded a short distance before 
it was totally extinct, in the form of a dull red spark. The appearance was 
just like that of a candle suddenly plunged into carbonic acid ; the transition 
being apparently from a state of inflammation to that of simple ignition. 

1832. Dec. 12. — A great meteor seems to have appeared between 7 h and 

8 k p.m. M was then returning through the field behind her mother's 

house at , when a bright light shone round her, much brighter than 

moonlight, and more permanent than lightning. 

1832. Dec. 13. — Another great meteor about 6 h p.m., described as a great 
body of fire passing across the sky from E. to W n and giving so strong a 
light that a pin might have been taken from the ground for a short time. 
Another account was that it passed two ways. No report seems to have 
succeeded it The weather had latterly been electrical : it lightened on 
several nights at the end of last month, and I saw a strong distant flash on the 
evening of Dec* 2. (South Herefordshire.) 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS MKTEOB8. 183 

1833. Dec. 11. — At lO* p.m., I saw a very beautiful meteor. It com- 
menced somewhere near /3 and y Ursa? Minor is, probably above and to the 
right of them, as a small shooting star, taking a left-hand direction, with an 
inclination of about 45° to the horizon. During a course of 8° or 10° it had 
increased gradually to a splendid globe, perhaps three times the size and bril- 
liancy of Jupiter, and of a lovely colour, not easily described, probably nearest 
to a greenish blue. The remainder of its course was intercepted from my view 
by a building ; but from the great illumination of the sky, I imagine its splen- 
dour still continued to increase. Its velocity was that of an ordinary falling 
star : it did not appear to leave any train. Frequent, though faint, flashes of 
lightning were seen in the E. horizon between 6 h and 7 h p.m., and a very strong 
one had been perceived on the preceding evening. The wind was N.W.with 
slight but very cold showers, indicating snow upon the mountains, which pro- 
bably existed there at the time, and the next day was seen in considerable 
quantity. (South Herefordshire.) 

1834. July 4. — A very beautiful meteor was seen at Tretire (South Here- 
fordshire) at about 9* 15 m p.m. When first noticed it was probably about 55° 
(or perhaps 60°) above the E.S.E. horizon, in the form of a very brilliant body 
of yellow or pale orange light, not apparently exactly circular, but a little irre- 
gular or angular in its outline. This appearance I think may have arisen from 
the preceding part being more brilliant than the rest, but my surprise at its 
sudden outbreaking, and the small n ess of its diameter, which probably did not 
exceed 5 f , prevent me from speaking with certainty. It descended with a very 
slow motion, vertically, for about 15°, and then broke into three balls, and be- 
came extinct : the lowermost ball was by far the largest and brightest, the 
other two were much smaller, one of them almost a point. They all became 
of a dull red before their disappearance, which took place when they were 
several minutes apart, one beneath the other, in a vertical line. This change 
of colour before extinction I have several times remarked, and it always gives 
me the idea of an entrance into a medium incapable of supporting combustion. 
The appearance of the present meteor was decidedly that of a ponderable 
body, probably fluid, in a state of ignition, perhaps fusion, actually, not ap- 
parently, descending, and upon disruption coalescing by the force of gravity 
into smaller globules, of which the heaviest preceded the rest. At any rate 
it had no resemblance to any electrical phenomenon which 1 ever witnessed. 
No report could be perceived ; there was, however, a considerable noise of 
wind, and of the mill ; at the time I am almost certain that the largest ball 
preserved its original brilliant colour longer than the others. I should esti- 
mate its splendour, before division, at 6 or 8 times greater than the maximum 
of Venus : such estimates, however, are apt to be very uncertain. The twi- 
light was so strong, that a Aquilse, which was a little below and to the left 
of the place of its disappearance, had not long been visible with the naked 
eye. Had it been in a dark winter's night the effect would have been surprising 

and magnificent. This meteor was also seen by young Mr. P , then in the 

neighbourhood of Newport, Monmouthshire : he described it as having a tail, 
which very probably was at its first appearance, which I did not see. He says 
it was as large, or larger at first than at last ; its disappearance was out of 
Bight behind trees, but he thought it had fallen in the garden just at hand. 
Mr. P. informs me that two or three years ago, very early in the morning, 
there was so brilliant a meteor as to terrify such of his men as were out ; the 
blaze seemed to surround them ; and they might have picked a pin from the 
ground. (South Herefordshire.) 

1834. Sept. 29. — About 7 h \5 m p.m., the twilight having already become 
very dusky, as I was walking along a lane among trees, 1 was startled by 



184 beport — 1852. 

seeing the road before me suddenly illuminated by a beautiful blue light, much 
resembling the effect of lightning, and scarcely longer in its duration ; such 
indeed for a moment I supposed it to be. I looked up, and saw, at a height 
of about 60° as I guessed, in the N.E., the luminous track of a meteor. The 
sky for a great extent in this quarter was overcast with a thin irregular veil, 
interspersed with darker masses ; but a few stars were visible here and there, 
and as it soon became clear, I found that the phenomenon must have oc- 
curred in or near the Galaxy between Cassiopeia and the tail of Cygnus. The 
track was about 3° or 4° long, considerably bright and very narrow, if not in- 
terrupted in places. Its form and appearance were exactly that of the summit 
of a dense cloud illuminated from behind, which, indeed, for a moment I 
thought it had been ; its light was reddish. It continued visible by estima- 
tion for 2 or S minutes, gradually decreasing in brightness and appearing 
more unconnected and like a series of insulated patches. The following may 
give a faint and inadequate idea of its form. 

No report was heard. 

1835. Aug. 4. — The forenoon had been very warm and nearly cloudless. 
Towards 3 h or 4 h clouds began to form in the W. horizon, which rapidly in- 
creased. Their great darkness indicated considerable density, but they exhi- 
bited no towering summits, or hard and defined edges, such as would lead to 
any apprehension of thunder. They gradually rose and spread to a consider- 
able height, and it appeared likely that showers would ensue towards even- 
ing, which proved to be the case, but they did not seem dense enough for 
tempest. About 4 h 30% being in my bedroom at Tretire (in the South of Here- 
fordshire), I was surprised by a distant explosion, dull and heavy, like that of 
a cannon, and by no means loud, yet causing a vibration in the house, which 
is very strongly built, and the window distinctly rattled from it I should 
have supposed it a cannon fired at Goodrich Court (about 5 miles distant), or 
the blasting of a quarry, had it not been followed by a long low rumble of 
some duration. I immediately exclaimed almost involuntarily two or three 
times, that I never heard anything like it: A servant in the kitchen heard 
the cellar door so jar from it, that she thought some person had gone down 
there. Our man, who had the fairest opportunity of hearing it, being out of 
doors, was greatly surprised at it, and thought it had been the blasting of a 
quarry, only it seemed at Borne height in the air towards the £., and the suc- 
ceeding rumble travelled towards the N. I also referred it to an £• direction. 
The sky on that side was nearly free from clouds, and of a fine serene appear- 
ance. My own impression decidedly was that it was not thunder, but the ex- 
plosion of some meteor. 

Extract from Hereford Journal, referring to the last notice : — 

" On Tuesday the 4th inst. a most extraordinary concussion in the air was 
perceived by several persons in different parts of the kingdom, and at the same 
moment, about 40 minutes past 4 in the afternoon. It is described as a re- 
port as of heavy ordnance, and followed by a reverberating heavy sound for 
some seconds. A great peculiarity attending it, and most strongly showing the 
immensity of its distance, is the impression it made on all those who heard it, 
as if it was immediately in their own vicinity." 

(I find here a reference to the Analyst, No. XIII., p. 175, which I am at 
present unable to verify.) 

1835. Aug. 28.— About 9 h 15 m , a falling star, brighter than Venus, was 
seen at a moderate elevation in the £. descending with a straight course. 

1836. March 8.— A beautiful falling star appeared in the S. to the left of 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 185 

Sinus, about 7 h p.m., but was scarcely noticed time enough to be fairly seen* 
It seemed fully as brilliant as Jupiter, and of a greenish light. 

1838. Oct 15— About 8 h 35 m , or 40 m p.m., the sky being for the most part 
covered with low dark dense clouds, driving with a strong wind, with an ob- 
vious degree of electrical light between them, in a part of the sky somewhat 
less obscured, and where several stars were plainly shining, a bluish light be- 
gan to appear, which in two or three seconds became very brilliant, as much 
so as one-quarter or one-third of the full moon, and faded away again in about 
the same time. The luminous body itself was invisible behind a cloud, and 
nothing was seen but the reflexion. This exactly resembled distant light- 
ning, but was less transient. 

1838. Dec. 7. — A great number of falling stars were observed between 
6 h and 7 h . In about half an hour forty were counted, sometimes by one, 
sometimes two, sometimes three observers, two at a medium. They were of 
all magnitudes up to the first : the larger dissolved into a train of light, but 
left no train [I presume this means no streak] behind them ; the S. and W. 
quarters were chiefly observed, but their prevalence seemed to be universal : 
they all fell in nearly a vertical direction, but those in the N.W. and S.E. 
quarters inclined towards the S.W. The colour of the more conspicuous ones 
seemed to verge towards orange. Their courses were of no great length. 
There was at the same time a pale auroral light along the N. horizon from 
N.W. to N.E., apparently equally extended on each side of the true meridian. 
The meteors were not watched after 7 h , but about 1 l k , upon looking out again, 
I saw one, the only one in several minutes, in the S.W.; but it had no longer a 
vertical direction, its course pointing now to the N.W. (South Herefordshire.) 

(For an account of this phenomenon as observed by Mr. Maverly at Goa- 
port, see ' Proceedings of the Meteorological Society during the Session 
1838-39/ p. 9.) 

[This shower of stars is not noticed by M. Coulvier-Gravier in his c EtoileS 
Filantes.'] 

1840. June SO. — About 10* 30 m , a beautiful falling star was seen in the S., 
nearly in the meridian, having a long straight course somewhat inclined to 
the E. Its commencement was small ; it gradually attained considerable 
splendour, and after a period of obscuration, produced perhaps by a thin 
cloud, it attained the magnitude of Jupiter in quadrature before it disap- 
peared. Its colour was orange. Streamers of the aurora borealis had pre- 
viously been noticed, extending from N.E. towards S.W. 

1841. Aug. 12. — In the early part of the night, from about 9* to 10£ k , 
many falling stars were seen. Being engaged myself with the telescope, I 
saw but very few ; but two or three persons in the company were frequently 
exclaiming that they perceived them. I should imagine that there must have 
been three or four times the average dumber. I did not then recollect, what 
has since occurred to me, that the smaller periodical shower is about this 
time. 

1841. Aug. 13. — On looking out of my window between 10* and ll k , I 
saw a large falling star, which induced me to go out to examine whether there 
was any repetition of the phenomenon of last night ; I saw however nothing 
in the course of several minutes. 

1841. Nov. 8. — The night seemed remarkably free from shooting stars. I 
was abroad from 6 h to 6 h J5 m , and from 9 h SO" to 9* 55 m , without noticing 
one. (South Herefordshire.) 

1841. Nov. 9. — There appears to have been a considerable meteor this morn- 
ing, from the following extract from a note from Miss H. (South Hereford- 
shire):—' 4 Last Tuesday morning, before 5 o'clock, one of our workmen saw 



186 REPORT — 1852. 

an immense large substance, which he described to be like a ball of fire, 
coming down from the sky quite perpendicular till within fifteen yards of the 
earth, when it suddenly disappeared." 

1841. Nov. 11. — One of our servants saw three falling stars in the course 
of milking, about 7 h p.m. She described them as passing from £. to W. in 
the N.W. quarter of the heavens, as being of the first magnitude, and leaving 
trains. (South Herefordshire.) 

1841. Nov. 12. — The day had been rough and showery, with a high wind 
from W. or W.S.W., and a little hail in some places, but the evening twilight 
was very clear, during which, about the same hour and in the same quarter 
as last night, our servant saw two considerable falling stars with trains. About 
6 h S0 m there was afaint light in the N. horizon, which I then thought indicated a 
slight tendency to an aurora, but I afterwards found it accompanied the edges 
of dark clouds in various parts of the sky. Until 9 h I was detained indoors at 
L. (South Herefordshire) ; from that time till 9* 45 m , I kept as sharp a look out 
as a speedy walk over a bad path permitted, but saw nothing until about 
9* 40 m , when a meteor of an orange-colour appeared low in the S.E. to the 
right of Rigel, and about the size of that star ; its course was short, rapid and 
flickering, descending gradually towards the S. I did not perceive any train. 
16* SO™ there was a fine meteor of the 1st magnitude, orange-coloured, with 
a train, in the E. quarter, shooting, as the former, in a line directed from Leo ; 
it was not seen by me. Two smaller ones afterwards, one with a train, which 
one I did not see, had short courses from the same direction in the £. or S.E. 
quarter, in the space of the next 7 m or 8 m . But between 10* S5 m and 10* 40™, 
a small point was perceived towards the feet of the Great Bear, not far above 
the N.E. horizon, drawing a small train after it, and rapidly increasing in size 
as it rose with a steady course, in such a way as to prove that it was really 
drawing near from an incalculable distance in an apparently straight line. It 
grew brighter and brighter, as did its splendid and beautiful train, and it as* 
sumed an orange-yellow hue ; it passed a few degrees N. of the zenith, but 
not quite so far N. as Cassiopeia, and still continued to increase as it de- 
scended towards the W. horizon, but it seemed to become fainter and to be 
extinguished before it reached it ; but trees partially obscured this portion of 
its course. It was seen by three others besides myself, my father, Mr. T. and 
his son, and it appeared to ail of us except my father, to be attended, when at its 
height, with a hissing sound, but a loud rushing wind prevented any cer- 
tainty as to this point. Its appearance was like that of a magnificent rocket, 
and the impression of absolute height, speed, and projectile force, was truly 
sublime. Its size appeared to me greater than Venus, but not so vividly 
brilliant The length of its course might be o or 6 seconds. At ll h 5 m a 
stormy cloud in the N.E. horizon had a faint luminosity attendant upon its 
upper edge. A shower afterwards came on. At ll h 45 m , a storm, which had 
passed to the E.N.E. horizon, was followed by a similar light, which was very 
evident 5 m afterwards amongst dark patches of cloud. Our friends also saw 
what appeared like a light cloud somewhere towards the S.W. horizon, and 
wondered at it in the absence of the moon. 10™ after midnight the E. ho* 
rizon continued light, though the clouds had left it I watched the S.E. 
quarter pretty frequently from ll h till l h 80 m , Nov. IS, but no meteor was 
seen after the large one, nor could I see anything during a short examination 
at 3 h 30 m and 4 h SO". The distinctness with which 1 saw the light of the 
Welsh furnaces [20 or more miles distant] upon my walk about 9 h 30 m , 
though the sky was very clear, except low in the horizon, was very unusual 
indeed. The air was not favourable for delicate astronomical observations, 
the diameters of the stars, according to Sir W. Herschel's remark, appearing 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS -METEORS. 187 

enlarged. Miss H. N., who watched from half-past l h till morning, informed 
me that she saw thirteen meteors ; the finest, which ran a longer course, were 
between 5 h and 6 b . None of them, however, seem to have been remarkable 
either for brilliancy or trains. 

1841. Dec. 10. — Eleven shooting stars were counted between ll b and 12 h 
at night, by a person in Hampshire. " The greater part proceeded from a 
N.W. direction, some far less brilliant than others, and their light of a silvery 
whiteness." 

1842. Aug. 9. — About 10 h (as near as I can judge) I looked out for two 
or three minutes for the periodical meteors, but saw nothing, though the sky 
was very clear: my father thought he perceived a flash of lightning in the S. 
horizon. But on looking out about 10 h 30 m (having been called by him upon 
the appearance of a falling star), I counted in about one-fourth of the hea- 
vens, or possibly one-third, 8 or 9 in as many minute*, two of which were 
brighter than any fixed star, and of an orange -colour; one left a beautiful 
train. I heard that two had been seen by a servant, between 9* and 10*, 
bright, and in immediate succession, but passing in different directions ; and 
one of those 8 or 9 (which one I did not see) appeared to my father to de- 
viate from the general direction of the others, which was towards the S. 
For about 15 m afterwards I saw no more, and gave up the observation. No- 
thing could be seen during a minute or two, about 1* 30 m on the following 
morning, or again at 2 h 45 m , except perhaps one meteor the latter time, but 
I am not sure. (South Herefordshire.) 

The meteors on this night were seen by several persons in the neighbour- 
hood. 

1842. Aug. 10. — The night was cloudy and rainy. Aug. 11. — I was out 
much during the evening and early part of the night, but saw nothing. 

1842. Aug. 13. — Extract of a letter from a correspondent in Hampshire. 
"The scene was truly magnificent I saw thirteen shooting stars within the 
space of half-an-hour, between 11 and 12, and S. saw one shoot at the same 
time that I did not witness, making fourteen. Three of them had beautiful 
trains, two in the S.W., with trains something like the tail of the comet of 
1618 ; colour of these two a silvery whiteness ; one was of surpassing beauty 
and brilliancy ; they both proceeded in a southerly direction. The third ap- 
peared near the Polar star, and proceeded towards the S.E. This was less 
brilliant than the two preceding one:*, of the same colour, but had a curious 
flickering motion ,in the train ; the streams of light radiated towards the cen- 
tre of the train, something like this figure fsss/// • I* was verv beau- 
tiful indeed, and what I had never before witnessed. The motion too was 
less rapid than that of the two preceding ones." 

1842. Aug. 27. — A little before & h p.m., the sky being overcast with thin 
clouds, a glow of dusky red light appeared between me and a thick hedge be- 
side which I was riding, and which was very dark ; from its peculiarity of ap- 
pearance, its being chiefly visible to one eye, and its duration (however short), 
I felt more inclined to refer it to (the reflexion of) a great meteor than to 
lightning, of which there was no appearance, though the weather was close 
and warm. The clouds were thin and foggy, and had no electrical appear- 
ance. (South Herefordshire.^ 

1842. Sept. S. — Between 9* and 10 11 p.m., an unusual number of falling 
stars were seen, probably 6even or eight in about 20 m . 

1844. Aug. 9. — Several fine falling stars, more numerous than the average, 
were seen (at Gloucester). Mr. H. W., who was observing with me, told me 
that for some nights previously! but especially last night, they were still more 



188 report — 1852. 

numerous and brilliant at Minehead in Somersetshire, and that he saw one 
very carious appearance, resembling a serpentine train of sparks. He de- 
scribed them as generally visible towards the S.E. All those that we noticed 
tonight had a similar general direction from N.E. to S.W. 

1844*. Aug. 10. — A few falling stars were noticed (at Gloucester) moving 
in the same direction as last night, but one was observed which presented the 
singular appearance of a comparatively slow, and as it were difficult progress 
in the opposite direction. 

1846. July 25. — A workwoman near Gloucester, returning home about Id 11 
p.m., saw a meteor of considerable magnitude. It was of the size and colour 
of the moon, and she compared its light to that of day. According to her 
account, it seemed as though it proceeded downwards from an opening cloud, 
and was instantly withdrawn into the cloud again ; but probably this retro- 
grade motion may have been a deception. It was in the N. or N.E. at a con- 
siderable altitude. 

[This meteor was described in the ' Illustrated London News/] 

1847. March 19. — Extract of a letter from a lady. 

" On the evening of Friday, March 19, A. and I left Albion Road [Hol- 
lo way] about half- past 8. Not any stars were then visible, but when we were 
in Highbury Place, A. called my attention to what we thought a fire-balloon 
ascending slowly. It was in the west, a little inclining to the south. As it 
passed on slowly to the west its intense brilliance convinced me that it was not 
an earthly thing. When it appeared to be over Hampstead (but as high in the 
heavens as the sun is at 6 o'clock in the evening when the days are longest), 
it shot forth several fiery coruscations, and whilst we were gazing at it, broke 
into an intensely radiant cloud. This cloud sailed on slowly, and we never 
took our eyes off it. At this time the stars were shining. When we were in 
the gravel path opposite to Highbury Terrace, the cloud was rather higher 
in the heavens, and more to the W. It cast a most brilliant light on the 
houses there, brighter than moonlight, and unlike any light I ever saw. It 
appeared of a blue tint on the bricks, but there was no blue light in the cloud 
itself. Suddenly over the radiant cloud appeared another cloud still more 
brilliant, but I now felt so awe-struck that I cannot say precisely how long 
they hung one over the other, before the most wonderful sight happened. 
Perhaps, they remained so for two or three minutes, when from the upper 
cloud a small fiery ball (about the size that the largest planets appear to the 
naked eye) dropped into the lower cloud, and was instantly absorbed. Soon 
after another similar ball dropped from the upper to the lower cloud ; and 
then a ball apparently four or five times the size of the two preceding fell from 
one cloud to the other in the same wonderful way. Shortly after this both 
clouds disappeared, apparently absorbed in the heavens, though I did see a 
few particles of the brilliant clouds floating about for a minute or so. Pre- 
sently the moon appeared considerably to the northward of the place where 
the clouds had hung. We then saw the bright light across the heavens which 
you told me was zodiacal light, which lasted for more than an hour." 

1847. Aug. 10. — A little after 10* p.m., several large and beautiful falling 
stars, with fine trains, appeared to descend in the S. in pretty quick succes- 
sion ; and on the whole the meteors of this kind certainly much exceeded the 
average between 10 11 and ll h 30 m . Most of them fell in the above-men- 
tioned direction, but the track of a small one, near the latest time of obser- 
vation, pointed towards the N.W. Several of them were noticed two or three 
nights ago. [Reference is then made to an account of shooting stars in a 
letter in the ' Times/ dated Aug. 17, and this follows.] The Hereford Journal 
of Sept. 8, 1847, contains also the following :— " M. A. Frdro, of Mootiaon, 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS MBTEOR8. 189 

has stated that on the night of the 1 1 th ult he counted more than fifty shooting 
stars in the course of two hours, viz. from 1 1 to 1. Most of them were seen 
in the Milky Way, and a few towards its edges. The direction of all, how- 
ever, was by the Milky Way, and towards the S.W. horizon." 

1847. Sept 14. — About 9* 48 m p.m., as I was looking (or going to look) 
through a telescope towards the S., a light caught my left eye towards the £. 
horizon. I turned immediately, but only caught a glimpse of a meteor of a 
yellow or reddish colour, about the brightness of Jupiter or Venus, which 
had descended through the N. Fish, to the S. of Aries, in a course a little in* 
dined towards the N., and had become invisible behind a building, leaving a 
narrow red streak, at first of considerable brightness, but fading very rapidly. 
Its course must have been of 20° or 30° in length, before hidden near the ho- 
rizon. (Gloucester, I believe.) 

1848. Nov. 17* — During a brilliant aurora witnessed by me at the ex- 
treme W. verge of Herefordshire, three falling stars of considerable magnitude 
were seen, one with a long course and fine train. 

1850. Aug. 12.— A few minutes after ll k (Greenwich time) a beautiful 
meteor shot across Cygnus, then at a great elevation in the meridian. I do 
not know whether I caught its first appearance ; but its brilliancy drew the 
attention of my left eye, while the other was at the telescope. Its course was 
from W. to £. and not rapid, extending for perhaps 10° or 12° till I lost it 
behind the top of a tree. Its light was intense, much brighter than that of 
Venus, and of a beautiful clear blue colour : in the middle of its course it 
seemed to be extinguished, and then broke out again as bright as before. I 
think it left no train. Nearly an hour before I had noticed a much smaller 
one, falling in quite a different direction, low in the S.S.W. perpendicular to 
the horizon. This meteor was seen at Highfield near Nottingham, by Mr. 
Lowe, as appears by his letter in the * Times.' He calls its colour, however, 
yellow, (South Herefordshire.) 

1850. Aug. 24. — A little after 10* p.m., a fine yellow meteor fell from near 
the zenith to a Aquilae, as large as Venus. 

1850. Oct. 5. — While looking with my 5^ feet achromatic at a consider- 
able star, probably of about 7 mag., I saw in the field a bright point of light, 
of nearly the same size and appearance, and at no great distanoe, which imme- 
diately vanished. It seems to have been a small and instantly extinguished 
meteor. It had I believe a reddish tinge. 

1850. Nov. 29.— About 9 h , or from 9 h to 9 h 10 m p.m. Greenwich time, I 
caught an oblique sight of a very beautiful meteor of a yellowish colour and 
considerable size, which seemed to run a very short course at a great alti- 
tude, a few degrees W. of the zenith, and I believe among the stars of Gloire 
Frederici ; but I did not exactly note the place, as finding it had left a bright 
and beautiful, though short train, I endeavoured to turn the telescope upon 
it ; but before I could succeed, the train had disappeared, and I then could 
not exactly identify its place. [This meteor is mentioned in the 'Times/ 
in two letters, dated Barnstaple and Brixton Road.] 



in 



BBPOBT— 1852. 







Hour. 




Bright- 


Velo- 


Mean pi 
1840 


aces for 


Mean places for 




No. 


Date. 


Greenwich 


Apparent 
Magnitude. 


ness and 
Colour. 


city or 
Dura- 


of A. 


1840 of B. 






















Mean Time 






tion. 


R.A. 


Decl. 


R.A. 


DecL 




1 


1848. 
Feb. 22 

1849. 
April 24 
May 22 


h m s 
9 21 25 


Siriu8Xl2 ... 


Blue 


8 

4-0 


6l 24 


14 1^ 


5i 01 


$05 




2 


11 34 53 


a Pegasi 


White ... 


3-0 


234 40 


7 48 


239 02 


11 05 




3 


11 45 00 


y Ononis 


White ... 


2-0 


247 00 


-10 16 


243 30 


-11 25 




4 


July 5 


11 38 00 


« Ononis 


White ... 


30 


343 36 


28 20 


334 17 


20 00 




5 


6 


11 34 00 


« Ononis 


White ... 


4-0 


281 35 


33 46 


266 28 


32 28 




6 


Aug. 12 


10 00 53 


i Geminorum 


Blue 


10 


352 56 


28 27 


344 00 


24 36 




7 


6 12 


10 7 00 


Sinus X 3 


Blue 


30 


356 05 


26 50 


345 41 


19 55 




8 


12 


10 14 50 


X Ononis 


Blue 


2*0 


284 31 


12 29 


289 21 


703 




9 


12 


10 15 45 


X Arietis 


Blue 


1-0 


284 45 


9 09 


288 00 


4 10 




10 


12 


10 21 00 


n Arietis 


Blue 


0-5 


282 00 


3 50 


284 26 


- 3 07 




11 


12 


10 43 00 


« Arietis 


Red 


1-5 


80 48 


61 48 


20 08 


55 39 




12 


12 


12 20 40 


x Arietis 


White ... 


0-5 


274 35 


38 52 


281 03 


34 35 




13 


12 


12 24 00 


«• Arietis 


White ... 


0-5 


336 47 


28 28 


334 17 


20 16 




14 


12 


12 14 50 


Siriu8X6 


Blue 


5-0 


291 04 


16 39 


292 14 


- 1 40 




15 


12 


12 25 00 


x Pegasi 


Blue 


0-5 


1 35 


25 11 


358 35 


14 28 




16 


12 


12 38 00 


Siriusx8 


Blue 


1-5 


282 00 


38 39 


275 44 


23 50 




17 


13 


11 12 52 


y Pegasi 


Blue 


20 


5 25 


28 24 


354 32 


20 16 




18 


13 


12 53 00 


Sirius— 0*1 ... 


White ... 


20 


310 09 


37 59 


298 38 


28 48 




19 


13 


10 3 00 


« Arietis 


White ... 


1-0 


357 8 


26 50 


346 30 


34 46 




20 


13 


11 53 00 


Sirius X 25 ... 


Blue 


4-5 


352 28 


44 41 


8 00 


31 47 




21 


13 


12 18 00 


$ Pegasi 


Blue 


2*0 


25 20 


29 56 


20 44 


28 12 




22 


13 


12 23 00 


X Ononis 


Blue 


0-5 


23 32 


19 29 


16 21 


16 09 




23 


15 


12 18 00 


Ononis 


Blue 


2-0 


349 15 


31 30 


326 28 


23 45 




24 


15 


12 31 00 


£ Ononis 


White ... 


2-0 


358 35 


-53 


352 56 


- 9 43 




25 

26 


15 
15 


12 37 55 
12 45 00 


a Lyra 


White ... 
White ... 


50 
2-0 


341 58 
357 46 


27 2 

25 11 


340 33 
350 00 


14 27 
21 45 




Pegasi 




27 


15 


12 49 00 


Ononis 


White ... 


30 


344 50 


30 27 


333 21 


20 00 




28 


15 


12 49 05 


Aldebaran ... 


Red 


0-5 


338 53 


29 23 


339 40 


30 27 




29 
30 

31 


15 
15 

16 


12 58 00 

13 11 00 

10 15 00 


Sirius 


Blue 

White ... 

Blue 


10 
2-0 

05 


356 30 
20 38 

38 19 


57 U 
14 29 

39 01 


17 40 
12 10 

45 3 


62 as 
6 43 

38 13 




a Lyra 




X Arietis 




82 


19 


10 27 00 


• Geminorum 


Blue 


20 


339 42 


- 5 03 


335 44 


- 7 22 




33 
34 


Sept 7 
7 


9 30 00 
9 33 00 


Sirius 


Blue 

White ... 


30 
0-25 


309 00 
335 8-45 


20 39 
-10 45 


301 43 
334 41 


16 37 
-10 51 




a star, 3rd mag. 




35 


11 


9 26 00 


Sirius X 4 


Blue 


20 


11 58 


10 07 


8 8 


5 59 




36 


11 


10 21 00 


Aldebaran ... 


Blue 


20 


348 3 


4 40 


340 30 


54 




37 


11 


10 22 00 


Aldebaran ... 


Crimson 


30 


348 3 


4 40 


340 30 


54 




38 
39 
40 


22 
24 
24 


9 48 00 

11 53 00 

12 6 00 


a Lyra 


Blue 

White ... 
Blue 


2-0 
25 
2-0 


66 21 
58 50 
49 42 


40 56 
67 42 
10 00 


59 39 
63 47 
52 00 


36 26 

6 41 

-96 




Sirius 




Sirius X 3 




41 


Oct. 15 


9 9 00 


Sirius— 3 


Blue 


1-5 


42 47 


8 16 


40 9 


5 19 




42 
43 
44 


15 
15 
15 


10 17 04 

11 1 30 
11 22 53 


Sirius 


White ... 

Blue 

White ... 


20 
10 
1-0 


335 28 

8 53 

66 43 


2 25 

-24 

11 00 


324 52 

3 40 

71 31 


1 51 

- 4 30 

8 17 








a Arietis 




45 
46 

47 


15 

15 

Nov. 6 


11 35 00 
11 52 00 
11 3 00 


• Lyra 


White ... 
White ... 
Orange... 


1*5 

1-75 

1-5 


28 27 
32 26 
80 57 


- 6 32 

1 7 

24 1 


22 3 

26 19 
69 22 


-11 8 

- 2 1 

20 00 




• Lyra 




Aldebaran X 5 




48 
49 


10 
13 


6 34 00 
9 39 15 




White ... 
Blue 


2-0 
0-5 


10 6 
332 25 


22 31 
-2 55 


356 12 
335 45 


15 56 
- 7 20 




Ononis 




50 


14 


10 50 00 


Sirius 


Blue 


2-0 


75 00 


- 3 33 


66 89 


7 54 









A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



193 



vlean places for 
1840 of C. 



Decl. 



Place of Observation. 



L. from G Lat. 



48 14 
330 50 
297 34 

334 12 
6 2 

335 11 
335 11 

57 20 
69 22 
52 11 

38 56 

314 7 

I 238 

| 73 3 

20 8 

| 24 14 

61 1 

348 3 

336 47 

64 52 



$45 

14 25 
-11 00 

1 57 
23 15 
20 47 

7 58 

36 

01 

- 5 07 

50 00 

27 49 

12 23 

-13 00 

5 59 

14 35 
12 09 

15 21 
37 38 
20 00 

25 11 
10 00 

2 14 
-16 40 
-12 28 

15 33 

736 

30 02 

56 58 

- 5 14 

34 14 
-12 21 

10 14 
-10 41 

00 

- 5 3 

- 5 3 
81 47 

5 20 
-11 33 

1 00 

- 6 31 

- 9 57 
3 29 

-16 30 

- 9 7 
13 32 

6 43 
-11 32 
-14 10 



in s 

-|-2 54-7 

+ 2 54-7 
+2 547 
-4 22 27 
-4 22-27 

-1-2 547 
+2 547 
+2 54 7 
+2 547 
+2 547 

+2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 
+ 2 54 7 
+2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 

+2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 
42 547 
+2 54 7 
+2 547 
+2 547 
42 547 
4-2 54 7 
4-2 547 

-1-2 547 
4-2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 
42 547 
+ 2 547 
+2 547 
-|-2 547 

4-2 547 
4-2 547 
+2 547 
4-2 547 
+2 547 
+2 547 
42 547 
4-2 547 
+2 547 
4-2 547 



+56 5tf 46*6 

+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46 6 
+49 26 29 
49 26 29 
+50 59 46 6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46 6 



Train or sparks. Remarks. 



A most splendid meteor, giving light all 
over the country. Explosion without 
noise. See fig. 4. 



With a train of light 
and nebulous ball. 




Passing through a small 
Cirrocumulus. 



+50 59 46 6 
+50 59 46*6 
+50 59 46-6 

+50 59 46-6 A very beautiful meteor, having a nebulous 
. ra ko a** appearg,,^ tra j n of j ignt No ^ alike. 

No. 14. See fig. 3 in Map. 



+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46 6 
+50 59 46 6 
+50 59 46 6 
+50 59 46 6 
+50 59 46-6 

+50 59 466 
+50 59 46 6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 466 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46 6 
+50 59 46-6 
+50 59 46*6 
+50 59 466 



Rather a brilliant object. 



+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 

+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 
+50 59 




Here a rather curious phenomenon took 
place. When No. 27 was in C, No. 28 
vanished at C, fig. 10. 



46*6 
466 
466 
466 
46-6 
46-6 
46-6 
46 6 
46 6 
46-6 

466 
466 
46 6 
46-6 
466 
46 6 
46-6 
46 6 
46 6 
46 6 



A beautiful meteor with train of light. 

34. Seen in the field of telescope while ob 
serving Neptune. The given places are for 
1800. 35. Train of light. 

37. This meteor has not been observed ex- 
cept the light which emanated from it 
from the zenith and which was very bril 
liant indeed, and so intense was it that the 
"observer thought it safer to take a shelter 
in-doors. o^ 



M 



O 





This is the curious meteor of which a draw 
ing is given in the Map. It showed a 
dark side, and then a bright one. See 
fig. 9. 






a 



1852. 



194 



REPORT— 1852. 



No. 



Date. 



Hour. 

Greenwich 
Mean Time 



Apparent 
Magnitude. 



Bright- 
ness and 
colour. 



Velo- 
city or 
Dura- 
tion. 



Mean places for 
1840 of A. 



R.A. Dec) 



Mean places for 
1840 of B. 



R.A. 



51 Nov. 

52 I 

53 ! 

54 Dec. 
55 
56 

57 

58 Feb. 

59 

60 



61 
62 
63 
64 
65 



16 

16 

16 

8 

8 

9 

1850. 

Jan. 6 

9 

11; 
12 



h m s 
7 37 00 Aldebaran 

7 37 37 ! Sirius .... 

8 43 00|Siriusx3. 
11 9 00 « Lyras.... 
11 13 OOJSirius .... 

9 7 00 Sinus .... 



6 13 00 « Lyre ... 

7 17 32 Ononis . 
9 10 25 « Lyras.... 

10 57 00 Siriusx5. 



Mar. 6 
15 



Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue- 
White 
White 
White 

White 
White 
Blue... 
Blue... 



May 



67 
68 
69 
70 Jane 



71 
79 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 

81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 



90 

91 
92 



94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 
100 

101 
102 
103 



Aug. 



Sept. 



15 12 
5 9 
5 9 

18 8 
9>13 
9,13 

30 11 
ijll 

I 

1 11 
1 13 
12 10 
12 10 
12 10 
1210 
12 10 
30 11 
10' 10 
10 11 



22 00 Sirius— 4 
42 00 [ Ononis 

9 00 1« Aldebaran... 

00 |Lyra « 



Oct. 10 
10 
11 

Nov. 6 
6 

8 
8 
8 
8 
8 

8 
23 
25 
1851. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



16 00 

48 00 
10 00 

17 00 
55 00 
33 00 

42 53 
47 00 
10 37 
23 30 
47 35 

49 37 

50 37 
15 00 
57 30 
23 54 



Sirius X3. 
« Lyras. . . . 
Ononis . 
Ononis . 
Arcturus . 
« Ononis. 

« Arietis .. 
Arietis ., 
a Lyras.... 
• Lyras..... 
Sirius .... 
Sirius .... 
« Lyras..... 
« Lyras...., 
Orionis .. 
Ononis.. 



10 15 

11 6 
10 33 

7 27 
9 56 
7 8 
7 30 

7 33 

8 21 
8 39 



9 85 24 
7 35 00 
5 58 00 



10 12 00 

27: 10 42 00 

27 10 48 00 

5; 11 33 00 

5 1 1 34 50 

5 11 45 00 

5 11 52 00 

I 

21 10 4 00 

21-11 15 00 

21 12 16 00 



Pegasi . 
Sirius .... 
Orionis . 
Sirius x3. 
Pegasi . 
« Pegasi . 
« Lyras.... 
Sirius x 5., 
r Ononis .. 



24 Orionis. 



Pegasi 
Pegasi 
Lyras... 



Mars X 4 . 

Lyras.... 
« Lyra?.... 
Orionis . 
Sirius .... 
Orionis . 

Lrne.... 



Sirius .... 
Arcturus. 
Lyras .... 



Blue... 

Blue... 

Blue... 

Blue... 

Blue... 

White 

Blue... 

Blue.... 

Blue... 

Blue... 



Blue... 
Blue- 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
Blue... 
White 
Blue... 
Blue... 



White 

Blue... 

Blue... 

Blue... 

Blue.... 

Blue.... 

Blue..., 

Blue.... 

White . 

Blue.... 



Red.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue. 



Blue 

Red 

White ... 



s 

20 
30 
50 
1-0 
20 
05 

40 
10 
0-5 
50 

10 
0-5 
0-5 
1-0 
50 
20 
1-5 
10 
20 
10 

0-5 
05 
10 
1-5 
05 
05 
10 
05 
0*5 
05 

05 

20 

05 

20 

05 

10 

15 

10 

075 

0-5 



Blue 0-5 

Blue 05 

Blue 10 



1-5 j 
0-5 

io ! 

0-75 
15 
05 
10 

05 
0-5 
0-2 



16 12 
45 37 
79 51 
64 59 
82 00 

324 21 

359 45 

85 2 

121 30 

170 30 

195 00 
130 46 
214 45 
193 33 
212 37 
168 13 
282 00 
281 3 
151 51 
237 16 

306 16 
261 42 
281 00 
295 00 

17 35 
20 44 

355 00 

344 00 

358 00 

22 47 

164 50 

28 8 

5 15 

6 00 
31 05 

322 18 
12 22 
30 5 

29 28 

14 17 

53 04 

15 00 
197 00 

166 28 
65 24 
81 25 
149 56 
186 00 
140 00 
185 00 

128 00 

92 00 

191 53 



19 00 
45 00 
12 43 
18 2 

23 45 

28 12 
1 28 
9 40 

- 2 07 

71 7 

17 34 
22 4 
10 18 
62 17 

8 12 
38 38 

33 49 

72 55 
3 02 

42 54 
47 54 
32 40 
7 10 
57 25 
55 39 

32 00 

24 36 

18 44 
27 13 

61 15 

- 9 20 

20 00 
64 00 

14 00 

25 00 

34 46 
20 00 

18 35 

19 23 

33 27 
2 46 

9 30 

15 45 
10 00 
23 56 

24 
15 47 

8 00 

1 15 

+ 4 30 

+ 23 16 
+ 6 40 



2% 9 
.38 45 
99 44 
58 40 
83 10 
332 6 

15 35 

85 10 

126 29 

181 40 

212 17 
124 55 
223 22 
189 23 
0SBoreali». 
172 11 
275 44 
274 51 

154 59 
231 47 

313 9 
253 33 
277 53 
290 20 
30 01 
13 31 

4 30 
355 00 
357 45 

20 44 

155 88 

19 05 
7 08 

20 00 
23 17 

325 38 
11 40 
28 39 
25 00 

5 14 

51 00 
17 54 

195 00 

160 00 
69 30 
72 02 

149 00 

196 30 
144 00 
189 00 



26 36 
- 3 30 

7 58 



119 30 

87 1 

197 23 



+ 13 30 
+25 17 
+ 6 19 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



19S 



Mean places for 
1840 of G. 


Place of Observation. 


Train or sparks. Remarks. 


i 


§ 


R.A. 


Dech 


L. from G. 


Lat. 


I 


30 1 


lS 55 


m s 

+2 547 


+6<J 59 46'-6 








a; 48 


»0U 


+2 547 


+50 59 46-6 


Ascending slowly. 






129 37 


62 33 


+2 547 


+50 59 46-6 








54 20 


8 98 


+2 547 


+50 69 46-6 








85 2 


-2 42 


+2 547 


+50 69 46*6 








335 9 


5 26 


+* M-7 


+50 59 46-6 








30 1 


17 23 


+8 20-0 


+50 30 00 


Ascending slowly. 






83 10 


944 


+8 90-0 


+50 80 00 


A beautiful meteor with two successive fire- 






128 45 


18 00 


+8 20-0 


+50 80 00 


balls. Explosion without noise. See 






185 24 


-15 87 


+8 9(H) 


+50 80 00 


fig. 7, 10* b7 m 0\ Kg. 8, 10* 67" 4V 






225 £3 


66 82 


+8 20-0 


+60 80 00 








121 40 


10 89 


+8 20-0 


+50 80 00 








299 9 


17 29 


+2 547 


+50 59 46 








188 82 


035 


+2 547 


+50 59 46-6 








237 45 


23 45 


+2 547 


+50 59 46-6 


This meteor passed exactly oter the follow- 






174 25 


- 1 87 


+9 547 


+50 59 46*6 


ing stars. 






276 8 


14 35 


+2 547 


+50 59 46-6 








271 54 


20 55 


+2 547 


+50 59 46-6 


/ • 






150 30 


47 47 


+2 547 


+50 59 46-6 


<^— * — -^ 






228 53 


- 7 53 


+2 547 


+60 59 46-6 


^^-^\ 






318 41 


44 53 


+9 547 


+50 59 46-6 


^\ X 






251 8 


84 99 


+9 547 


+50 59 46-6 


x X 






275 1 


28 48 


-4 99-27 


+49 26 29 


X. ^ft 






284 26 


-62 


-4 99-27 


+49 26 29 


» //i^^Hiv 






39 45 


52 60 


-4 29-27 


+49 26 29 


Vw 


i 

M 


99 


9 57 


50' 8 


-4 29-27 


+49 26 29 


•aR* '*. 


a 


15 00 


46 23 


-4 22-27 


+49 26 29 


•* 


JO 


600 


18 44 


+2 547 


+60 59 46 




•j 


357 30 


786 


+2 547 


+50 59 46 




3 


20 40 


14 88 


+2 547 


+50 59 46 






& 


148 29 


54 45 


+2 547 


+50 59 46 








12 41 

10 80 


-16 49 
-11 15 


+2 547 
+2 547 


+50 59 46 

+50 59 46 


A fine meteor with train of light. 






80 00 


82 56 


+9 54-7 


+50 59 46 








20 27 


- 5 41 


+9 54-7 


+50 59 46 








326 27 


7 80 


+9 54-7 


+50 59 46 








13 40 


16 05 


+9 547 


+50 59 46 








28 32 


6 09 


+9 547 


+50 59 46 


A beautiful meteor haying the appearance 






21 49 


5 19 


+9 547 


+50 59 46 


of a blue ball. 






1 15 


10 00 


+9 547 


+50 59 46 








51 14 


20 00 


+9 547 


+50 59 46 








19 00 


- 9 58 


+9 54-7 


+50 69 46 








190 00 


600 


+9 547 


+60 59 46 








156 38 


8 00 


+9 54 7 


+50 59 46 


A beautiful meteor, of a red colour, inclining 






72 30 


10 00 


+2 547 


+60 59 46 


towards orange, perhaps on account of 






66 30 
148 58 


20 25 
- 54 


+2 547 

+9 547 


+50 59 46 
+50 59 46 


its proximity to the horizon. 






203 30 


8 00 


+9 54-7 


+50 59 46 








145 00 


8 15 


+2 64-7 


+50 59 46 








192 00 


6 10 


+2 547 


+50 59 46 








10124 


+16 93 


+2 547 


+50 59 46 








81 25 


+93 66 


+2 54-7 


+50 59 46 








201 40 


+ 400 


+2 547 


+50 59 46 




- 


• 



o2 



196 



tt^PORT — 1852. 



No. 



Date. 



Hour. 

Greenwich 
Mean Time 



Apparent 
Magnitude. 



Bright- 
ness and 
Colour. 



Velo- 
city or 
Dura, 
tion. 



Mean places for 
1840 of A. 



R.A. 



Decl. 



Mean places for 
1840 of B. 



R.A. 



104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 

HI 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 

121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 

131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 

141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 

151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 



1851. 
Feb. 21 
21 
21 
22 
26 
24 
19 



Mar. 
Apr. 



July 



19 
22 

28 
28 
28 
30 
21 
21 
21 
21 

21 
21 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 

30 
30 



h m s 

12 20 00 

13 8 30 
13 30 30 
13 30 30 

8 58 30 
13 56 30 
10 30 30 

9 45 30 

10 47 30 
9 40 30 
9 50 30 
9 55 30 

11 40 30 

10 40 30 

11 23 46 
11 28 40 
11 46 40 



I*» 

Virgo 

Virgo 

Sinus 

Aldebaran 

Lyra 

Arcturus .. 



Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Regains .. 
Regulus .. 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Aldebaran 

Lyra 

y Arictis .. 



49 10 
56 25 
53 10 

2 
19 40 
23 10 
53 10 
56 25 
56 30 

1 10 



y Arietis , 
y Arietis , 
y Arietis 

Lyra 

Sirins .... 
y Arietis , 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Sirios .... 
Lyra 



Aug. 3 
3 
3 
3 



Sept. 



3 
3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

f 
3| 

f 

17 
17 
17 
17 
20 
21 
3 



12 5 
12 12 
9 48 
10 27 
10 29 
10 33 

10 54 

11 2 
11 14 

11 22 

12 8 
12 12 
12 16 
12 36 
12 46 
12 56 

12 59 

13 1 
13 14 
13 28 



9 44 30 
10 25 30 
10 36 30 
9 49 30 
9 50 1 
10 2 1 
13 26 30 



y Pegasi . 
Siriusx2. 
Lyrax2 . 
Lyrax2 . 
Lyrax2 . 
Lyrax2 . 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyrax4 . 
Lyrax4 ., 



Lyra x 4 

Lyrax4 

Lyra-0-25 .. 
Lyra-0-25 .. 
Lyra-0-25 ., 

Sirins 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 



Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

Lyra 

SiriusxS. 



Blue 

White ... 
White .. 

Blue 

Red 

Blue 

Blue 



Blue 

Blue 

Bine 

White .. 

White ... 

Blue... 

Blue... 

Red... 

Blue... 

Blue... 



Blue 

Blue , 

Blue 

Blue 

Blue 

White ... 

Bine 

Blue 

Blue 

Blue 



Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 



Blue..., 

White 

Blue..., 

Blue.... 

Blue.... 

Blue.... 

Blue.... 

Blue.... 

Blue.... 

Blue.... 



Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 
Blue.. 



8 

0-5 

0-5 

0-25 

05 

1-5 

05 

2-0 

1-0 

05 

0-5 

0-25 

0-25 

0-5 

0-5 

1-0 

0-5 

025 

0-25 

0-25 

025 

1-5 

0-25 

0-5 

0-5 

0-25 

0-5 

0-25 

025 

1*0 

0-5 

fr25 

0-25 

025 

0-5 

25 

0-5 

0-25 

0-5 

0-5 

0-25 

0-25 

025 

0* 

0-25 

0-5 

025 

1-0 

0-5 

0-5 

0-25 

0-25 

10 

0-5 

1-0 



178 10 
144 00 
216 14 
175 13 
196 37 
15 33 
214 00 

128 54 
227 6 
180 00 
185 24 
184 00 
263 00 

3 1 
353 8 

348 14 
357 44 

10 15 
28 30 
20 44 

349 21 
340 25 

9 

357 14 
30 
6 40 

18 45 

358 26 
24 45 

333 40 
348 15 
22 3 
346 5 
357 14 

359 8 
10 00 

353 59 

34 45 

5 36 

31 8 

36 5 

4 2 
30 57 
40 20 
53 4 
56 4 
43 31 

257 14 
268 14 
262 17 
239 00 
17 40 
181 52 
8 28 



+ *3<S 
+26 45 
+31 4 
+15 28 
+41 00 
+86 27 
+39 00 

+18 13 

- 8 30 
+ 2 40 
-14 30 
-16 00 
+ 4 40 
+28 52 
+45 40 
+26 50 
+46 59 

+33 5 
+31 30 
+29 14 
+30 00 
+23 40 
+53 38 
+45 11 
+29 00 
+59 15 
+59 17 

+88 48 
+48 15 
+29 18 
+22 46 
+47 4 
+29 18 
+ 4 34 
+30 18 

- 3 25 
+23 41 

+ 735 

10 35 

+11 00 

+39 31 

-13 6 

+17 23 

37 10 

32 52 

17 2 

20 42 

43 27 
16 40 
1 19 
4 40 
12 30 
57 00 
40 24 



175 00 
138 50 
219 00 
163 27 
191 40 
343 51 
205 28 

127 6 
230 00 
170 32 
181 00 
180 00 
259 00 
2 5 

1 18 
354 56 

2 30 

12 20 
30 5 

26 4 
30 

342 20 

359 10 

9 58 

2 34 

350 15 
15 35 

2 30 

35 00 

338 24 

348 40 

28 31 

351 35 
20 53 

345 13 

32 

348 41 

27 15 

38 

34 40 
40 25 

1 38 
27 9 

35 12 
52 36 
56 29 
45 37 

5 37 
265 1 
257 46 
236 50 

21 49 
176 54 

10 19 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



19? 



1 
Mean places for 
1840 of C. 


Place of Observation. 




£ 


* 








Train or sparks. Remarks. 


s 

00 

.a 
O 


1 


ILL | Dtfd. 


L.fromG. 


Lilt. 


m 4 + 4 29 


m s 
+2 54/ 


+5& 59 46 




* 


«* 


J33 2ft +25 5 


+2 547 


+50 59 40 








, 224 H +30 30 


+ 2 547 


+ 50 59 46 








1 150 oo + 16 00 


+ 2 547 


+50 59 40 


Train. 






190 58 ,+28 25 


+2 547 


+50 59 46 








350 13 ,+77 00 


+ 2 547 


+50 59 4ft 








1H 00 + 5 00 


+2 547 


+50 5B 40 








i ma L 1 37 


+2 517 


+50 59 46 








232 31 - 9 31 


+ 2 547 


+50 59 46 








163 00 -13 55 


+ 2 547 


+50 59 46 








17H 00 ~I» 00 


+ 2 547 |+50 59 46 








1^ 00 -22 00 


+ 2 547 


+50 59 46 








257 00 U 7 00 


+2 547 


+50 59 46 








3 5 i+16 00 


+ 5 IS 


+50 45 m 








| 14 25 +49 41 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








| 35J 24 -|-34 46 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of Ugbl. 






t 5 !+38 42 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








IS 00 +35 1 1 


+.1 12 


+ 50 45 25 








32 IS +28 35 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








30*7 I+27 1 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








12 45 i+50 OO 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






' 342 *4 +14 27 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








MS 24 1+48 25 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








21 00 +47 55 


+5 12 


+50 45 S5 








fi 5 +32 40 


+5 12 


+50 45 S5 


• 


i 


or" 


1337 57 1+71 33 
13 00 !+5& 47 


+ 5 12 


+50 45 S5 




S 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 


^ 




1 ? 5 +33 40 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 




J2 


1 S 

2 


1 48 30 +53 15 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 


£ 


bl 


! 33* 12 +20 10 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 




w 


E 


348 4] +19 57 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








30 1 +31 U 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 








1 359 47 +34 46 


+5 IS 


+50 45 25 








52 53 |+60 38 


+5 12 


- 50 45 25 


Train of light- 






<&$ S3 1+45 30 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Tram of light. 






350 53 -15 55 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light, 






1 345 29 10 53 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






22 45 - 2 12 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






52 -23 35 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






38 2g ! 10 35 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






' 44 1 29 30 


+5 32 


+50 45 25 


Train of light* 






300 00 -22 40 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light* 






24 14 g 21 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






31 18 34 14 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






1 51 49 


S3 00 


+5 12 


+ 50 45 25 


Train of light. 






57 57 


a 2d 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






50 30 


10 S3 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






17 31 


53 I 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light 






251 53 


4 50 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






'-'<:• Is _ ;, 30 


+5 12 


+ 50 45 25 


Train of light. 






235 19 I 1 25 


+ £ 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






25 10 1 18 30 


+5 :2 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






168 20 


54 30 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 






1132 


IS 19 


+5 12 


+50 45 25 


Train of light. 







198 



REPORT— 1852. 
iy. Observations of Luminous Meteors, \85\-52. Com- 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance or 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or l 
duration. i 



1851. 
July 



Sept. 



h m 
11 16 30" 



> twice U 



20 



11 5 =twice y. 



Orange - red, 
the separate 
balls blue, 
very bright, 
at last be 
came more 
purple. 



Small separate balls. 



Qgte 



Red 



11 15 As a spark 



29 
Aug. 5 

7 
10 

22 

28 



Orange-red , 



Slight tail 



Slight tail 



10 36 Small, indistinct .... 

10 39 More than 1st mag.. 



10 39 

9 3 

8 23 

9 30 
10 31 



ll h to 13 h 

9 40 

9 40 



10 



10 7 
10 25 

9 16 



Yellow... 
Yellow. Less 
than 1st mag. 
= lat mag. ...'Train 25° long 



Separate sparks 
Separate sparks 



Small 
Large 

Large 



« 4th mag. . 



Small 

— 2nd mag... 
= to Saturn 



Blue. 



■ 3 times Venus in 
opposition. 



14 



9 15 



Orange- red. 
Brighter than 
Saturn. 

=4 times Ve- 
nus in oppo- 
sition. Blue. 



Verysmall,= 7th mag. Colourless 



As a spark 



Long tail. 



Continuous streak 
Giving out stars ... 



3 sees., slowly; at 
last vanished sud- 
denly. 



isec 



0-2 sec 



Long continuous* 
stream of light. 



Continuous streak 



0-5 sec 

l ¥ sec ; slowly 



Passed 1° 30' show 
y,2° below 0, and 
jqst below r< Ur- 
sv liajoris. 

Bapidly 



Basted midway be» 
tween 2 Dracooii 
and a Urw Ms- 
joris, throuak I 
UrssftMajons. 



Rapid 

Moved over 12° in 3 



blue 3 sees. . 



Instantaneous. 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATION* OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 199 

municated by E. J. Lowe, Esq., F.R.J.S, F.G.S. 



Direction or altitude. General remarks. Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Well-defined circu-i Highfield House 
lardisc. The small 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



From y Lyras through £ Cygni, 

$ Delphini to y Bquulei. The 

meteor always equally large circular append*; 

and bright. ages kept vanish- 

I ing quickly, never 

1 remaining visible a 

I distance of twice 

! the diameter of the j 

I object. j 

From near No. 6 Cassiopeia: to Increased from a Ibid. Id. 

H. 1 Camelopardi. Com-, point to 2 sees. If.. 1 
menced R.A. 23 h 51", N.P.D., 
29 lQ/,endedatR.A.l h 15 m ,i 
N.P.D.25°iy. I 

XCassiopeiaB to n Persei. Com-| Ibid Id. 

menced AR. h 12 m t N.P.D.l 

40°,endedAR. l h 27 m , N.P.D. 

| 37°30 / . , 

From x to X Ophiuchi Ibid Id. 

From 41 Camelopardi to 39 Well-defined disc.Jlbid. lid. 

! Itfncis. | I | 

2 sees. , Darlington, Dur-.J. Graham, Esq. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



1 Cephei to ^ Andromeda? Highfield House 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. Ibid. 



Id. 



Ibid. 



i Unas Majoris to 42 Coma Be- ( Seen through haze. Ibid., 
rtnices. 

,FromE. to W., passing 10° S.E. Nottingham M. J. L. B. Du-Ibid. 

I of zenith. ; i rand. 

(Great velocity JDarlington, Dur- J. Graham, Eaq. 

ham. 



Ibid. 



Many falling stars . Ibid Id. 

■lnS.E Ibid. jld. 

From zenith perpendic^lown in > Highfield House E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

! N.W. | Observatory. 

From under Atair perpendic J Bright (Ibid. 

I down. \ | 

,Downwards = 45°, passing 35' Increased from a Ibid 

above Saturn. point and disap- 

peared at maxi- 
mum brightness. 
Prom midway between $ and n Circular, weD-de-iObiervatory, 
! Aquilae, passing above XAqui-j fined edge, in-| Beeston. 
. Is through tiSerpentis,disap-: tensely blue. 
| peared between y and r Ophi- I 

uchi a Uttle above I Serpentis. j [ 
[Position when first seen R.A.Very many small ibid 

19 b 51« B > N.P.D.90°20 / ;poiut| meteors. | 

ofdisappearanceR.A.17 h 41 ,a l , 



Id. 
Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



N.P.D.92°58'_ 
Through i Lyra, passing to N. 
I horizontally. 



Highfield House 



Id. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

I 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

I 

I 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



200 



REPORT 1852. 



Date. 

1851. 
Sept. 14 

18* 

18* 

18* 

18* 

18* 

18 
20 



21 



28 



Oct. 



Hour. 



h m 
10 20 



8 41 

8 55 

8 59 30' 

9 40 

9 41 



9 50 



8 20 
8 24 
8 30 
8 30 
8 31 

7 40 



8 20 
8 30 
8 45 

8 20 



16 
19 
23 
27 



7 35 

8 

9 15 
12 9 
10 3 



9 51 

9 54 30* 



10 3 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



« 3rd mag. 

= 3rd mag. 
» 1st mag. 

— 1st mag. 
—3rd mag. 

— 3rd mag. 



Colourless . . . Continuous streak 
brighter Continuous streak 
Stream., 



Nearly i diam. <[ 



Small 

Small 

Small 

Small 

= 2nd mag.. 

« 8th mag. , 



— 6th mag. . 
=6th mag. . 
« 2nd mag. , 

= 2nd mag., 



= 2nd mag. , 
— 1st mag. . 
=4*5 mag. . 

1st mag 

= 3rd mag. , 



— 3rd mag , 

= ty at opposition , 



Very small 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Continuous streak 



Blue, 

than 1st. mag. 

Blue 



Blue. 



Light blue 



Train or sparks. 



Duration i sec. .. 

Duration 1 sec. .. 
Duration 1*5 sec... 

1-2 sec 

Rapid 



Stream., 



0-8 sec. 



Long train, which vanished 
rapidly. 



3 to 4 sees. 



Streak. 
Streak . 
Streak. 
Streak . 
Streak . 



Blue 

Orange-yellow 



Collection of sparks, thus 

Mm*-. 



Bluish . 
Blue.... 



Yellowish., 



Blue 

Faint blue 



As a spark 



Train 



Velocity or 
duration. 



Instantaneous . 



Instantaneous . 



1 sec. 



3 sees. . 



1 sec. 



2 sees. 



2*5 sees. 
2 sees. ... 



1 sec. 



* These fife meteors gave a point of 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 201 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place 



Observer. 



Reference* 



.From 10° S. (and same level as) 
• Lym towards S. 

From • Cassiopeia; perpendic. 

, down. 

From 39 through f Pegasi 



From m Draconis through « I'r- 
sae Majoris. 

Through i Aquilas perpendicu- 
larly down. 

From 6 Volpeculae perpendic. 
down through & Serpentis. 



Appeared very di- Highfield House 

stinct at -<45°; 

rapid. I 

Observatory, 

1 Beeston. 
Increased from a Ibid 

point, circular. 



Below x Draconis over 3 Ursa? 
Minoris, vanishing in the 
head of the Lynx near No. 14. 
Fint seen R.A. \S* 8", N.P.D. 
15° 4<r*, disappeared R.A 
6M5",N.P.D.31°. 



Several meteors 
Almost as light as 
day. 



Down through « Cassiopeia; 

Through. Delphini, downwards 

Through • Cassiopeise . . . 

Through Polaris 

From bead of Draco towards 
Cygnus. 

(Horizontal level but 2° E. oi 

> • Andromeda, perpendicular 

i down inclining to S. 

Below « Cassiopeise perpendic. 
down. 

Across from • Arietis under Pe- 
gasus, square at <25°. 

Moved horizontally from 3° N. 
and 3° lower than Saturn, 

I moved towards N. Passed 

j over 2° of space. 

jMoyed down at -<25° towards Auroral 

I N. from 1° above Cor. Caroli, 

I passing 15' to N. of that star. 



Several small me- 
teors. 



ibid., 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.., 



Highfield House 
Ibid 



ibid.., 



Obser 7 , Beeston 

Ibid. 

Ibid 

Ibid. 

Ibid 



Ibid... 

Ibid.., 
Ibid... 



An assemblage of Ibid... 
sparks, the whole 1 
mass being equal: 
to a 2nd mag.* I 
iroral glare and Ibid.., 
lightning. 



Prom under Cassiopeia hori 
i zontally to Unas Majoris. 
,From S. downwards at -< of 

40°, passed 2° below C- 
Immediately below « Pegasi, 

perpendic. down. 
Between « Pegasi and « Andro- 
1 mededown. 
fi Pegasi to « Andromeda; 



Prom Cygni to f* Aquilas 

"rom fi Aquilas, incurved direc- 
tion towards S Tauri Ponia- 
towski. 



Many meteors . 
Slow 



Space 4° 



Sear Scheat to near Markab 

(Pegasi). 



Small at first, gra- 
dually increased 
to size V- at op 
position. 



Ibid.., 
Ibid.., 



Ibid 

Castle Donington 
Highfield House 
Castle Donington 



Ibid., 
(bid.., 



Ibid.. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id. 

[Esq. 
A. S. H. Lowe, 
Id. 

Id. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id. 

Id 

Id. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

W. H. Leeson, 

Esq. 
A. S. H. Lowe, 

Esq. 
W. H. Leeson, 

Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id , 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



divergence about R.A. 23 h 15", N.P.D. 30°. 



909 



REPORT — 1852. 



Dm, 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 

1 see. 

Almost instantane- 
ous. 
sees. 

1 sec ; rapid 

2 sees. ; slowly J 

i 
12 sees. 



1851. 
Oct. 27 

29 

30 



h m s 
10 11 30,., 

8 58 30... 

8 25 



Small 

Very small .. 
=to Saturn., 



Blue. 



Much brighter Long tail of sparks . 
than Saturn; 
orange. 



Nov. 3 



8 50 

9 4 
5 32 



~ 2nd mag 

= 3rd mag, 

6 times sice of Saturn 



11 



12 



14 



5 30 i size of C 



7 49 30... 



8 & 30.. 



7 56 

9 4 

10 10 
10 45 



Very bright . 



Small 



Very small 
=4*5 mag, , 

= 2nd mag. 
2nd mag, , 



■3rd mag., 
yellow. 

Orange, =*3*5 
mag. 

Pale 
and after 
15° move- 
ment turned 
bluish. 



orange, Slight 



Orange and 
prismatic. 



Much brighter 
than Vega, 



Blue. 



Brighter than 
2nd mag.^ 
orange-red. 



Continuous streak 



Composed of many sepa- 
rate sparks. 
' tail 



The above ia a sketch of it 
No sparks 



Several seconds . 



Leaving bright train, cu- 
rious path, thus : — 



3*5 sees. 



0-5 i 



Leas than 1 1 
Less than 1 1 



Sparks 

Train of light . 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 203 



Direction or altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


Midwaybetween Vega and Altair 
to below Delphinus. 




CastleDonington 


W. H. Leeson. 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 




Esq. 


*.»■* a • a^VVf H m *■* M* 


From « to a Dracouis 


Aurora at the time. 


Ibid 


Id. 7. 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 


From near S Draconis to about 
No. 76 Ursse Majorii. First 


Obser r , Beeston 


Id. 






seenRJL 12° 53',N.P.D. 31°; 










disappeared R.A. 12 h 32 m , 










Ni > .D.26°20 / . 










Prom J Andromedse to 1 Piscium 
From No. 72 to « Piscium 




Ibid.. ,. 


Id, 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 




Ibid. 


Id. 


From 13° S. of Marac ; passed 


Moved very slowly. 


Highfield House 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 


3° S. of Areturus; continued 


Before starting in* 




and A. S. H. 




visible to near horizon; va- 


creased from a point 




Lowe, Baq. 




nished suddenly. 


to 4 times the sized 
Saturn, moved 15° 
and then increase! 
to 6 times the size of 
Saturn. 








From just N. of Jupiter fell down- 
jwardi at an angle of 55° towards 




imileW.N.W.of 
Bramcote. 


R. Enfield, Esq. 


Ibid. 








X. horizon ; it disappeared very 










near the horizon in haze. The 










sun just set, a half <£ , and much 










glare in the sky at the time. 










When first seen was about } size 










of c and had confused edges, be- 










ing a mass of prismatic light; af- 










ter descending slowly for a time 










the confused light disappeared, 










and it faurnedtheformof a well* 










defined orange ball, twice the size 










of 4, and intensely bright. The 
meteordisappearedin thickmist. 


















(Probably the luminosity which 










surrounded it was rendered invi- 










sibleowing to passingbehindcir- 










roos haze, which there was at the 










time.-E. J. L.) 










From f Pegasi to 3° below Altair, 
much brighter than Altair ; it 




CastleDonington 


W. H. Leeson, 
Esq. 


Ibid. 






then became fainter, and moved 
*° in horizontal direction some- 










|Wbat zigzag, then shot off more 










rapidly towards 3 Poniatowski, 










near which star it suddenly dis- 










appeared, leaving a bright train. 










3 above « Ursss Majoris to 1° 
below that star. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 








From « Pegasi to g Pegasi 




Ibid. 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 


From midway between y and 




Ibid 


Id. 


Cygni to near Lyre. 










From Persei through the Plei- 
ades. 

From Polaris to head of the 

Dragon. 




Highfield House. 
Ibid. 


E. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 


Ibid. 




Ibid. 






1 





204 



REPORT — 1852. 



Date. 



Hoar. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Trains or sparks. 



Velocity or 
duration. 



1851. 
Not. 15 



16 



h m 
6 18 

6 20 

6 58 

7 4 



17 
18 
20 



30 



7 5 
7 36 

7 45 

10 50 

10 8 

11 10 

11 13 
6 26 



Dec 1 



24 

26 
29 



11 4 

8 3 

10 14 

7 46 



Small 

Small 
= *... 



Yellow. 



Slight tail 



8 23 45' 



Small, thns .— 

Small 

Small 



White 



Tail 

Separate stars . 



Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous . 



No tail. 



| sec. ; rapid . 
Instantaneous . 



a to Saturn. 
atoRigel . 
« 1st mag. . 
—3rd mag. . 



Red 



Coloured, bril- 
liancy of Rigel. 
Red , 



Orange., 



«3rd mag. 



—twice Saturn 



Orange 

— 1st mag. 



Red and 
orange. 



«= 3rd mag 

=2nd mag. 

=2nd mag 

Orange, outshone 
Mars. 



Continuous train left , 

Slight sparks 

No tail... 

Sparks , 



3 sees.. 



Sparks. 



1 sec 



1 sec 



Separate sparks 

The following figures will 
show its several appear- 



1 

Passed midway bcJ 
tween » and x Dr* 
command over ■ Ur- 

Majoris. 
4 sees. j 



Orange 

Orange 
Yellow 



Train of light left 



Tail 

Tail 

Without a train 



isec 

isec 



& 



Rapid, being in* 
stantaneous. 



InN.E.ali.l2°,andl 
moved down to-j 
wardsthe extremity 
of an auroral arch J 
Its path formed tn! 
angle of about 60^ 
with E. horizon. It 
vanished when If 3 , 
above the upper 
edge of the arch, 
near its E.extremu 
ty; at about l™ later 
a very great change 
occurred in the au-j 
rora,it becameverr, 
active,very brilliant 
streamers occur-* 
ring for 15". 



A CATALOGUE OP OB8RRVATION8 OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



205 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Ibid.. 
Moved over 20° of] Ibid... 

space. 
Ibid 



'rora n Unas Majoris perpendic. 
down. 

from fi Bootia perpendic down 

from 1° above Saturn horizon- 
tally towards S. 

Vom immed 7 above m Andro 

Dedavnoved towards Atair, and 

aded when half-way to that star. 

Vom a Arietis to 2° E. of Saturn 

'erpendic. down from midway 
between « and Aurigse. 

'ell upwards through 0, n and 
{ Draconis, 

'erpendic. down from y Pegasi. Lightning and au 
rora borealis. 



Highfield House 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Ibid.. 



0bser 7 ,Beeston. 
Ibid. 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



Id. 
Id. 



Ibid.. 



Ibid... 



Ibid..., 



\ 9 N. of « Cygni towards hbri- 

am, passing S. of Vega. 
'erpend. down from midway Moved over 2}° of* Ibid, 

between n Urate Majoris & X 

Bootii. 
Perpendic. down from y Ursss Moved over 3° of] Ibid., 

Majoris. 
Rapid 



From * Ceti to i Eridani 



5° S. and 5° lower than Mars 

moved down in direction of 

S. at an angle of 45°. 
Prom 5° below Pleiades, per- 

pendic down. 
From Polaris towards W. at an 

angle of 45°. 
Very slow, moving over 3° in 5 

sees. 



First as a spark, 
then increased as a 
number of sparks, 
became less bright 
when passing near 
the star 35 Eri 
dani, but increased 
again immediately ; 
moved slowly, 



space. 



Id 

Id. 

A.S.H.Lowe,Esq 
E. J. Lowe, Esq, 



Darlington, Dur- 
ham. 



Obser. Beeston . 



Id 

J. Graham, Esq. 

E. J. Lowe, Esq. 



Highfield House. 



Ibid... 
Ibid... 



Darlington, Dur- 
ham. 



Id. 



Id 

Id. 

J. Graham, Esq. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



206 



REPORT — 1 852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1852. 
Jan. 24 



25 



h m 
10 45 



10 45 15 s 



9 
8 36 



8 52 



feb. 1 10 13 



18 
20 

22 



April 



13 



21 
26 



May 10 



10 55 
9 17 

8 54 
8 50 



10 19 

9 39 

10 40 

10 55 

12 40 

13 12 



13 18 



10 45 

9 40 
9 50 

10 10 

11 



*3rd mag. . 
:2nd mag.. 



Colourless .. 
Colourless .. 



Long streak., 
Streak 



Larger than Mars ... 



Yellow 

= 1st mag. 



• 1st mag. 



Long train 



Size of Mars 



Orange. 



Small, =3rd mag. 
=2nd mag. 



Not so bright 
as 2nd mag. 



Small 

Small 

Small 

Small 

Small 

4th mag. 



-to<J. 



= 2nd mag.. 



Small 
Small 
Small 
Small 



Continuous train. 



No tail. 



Brae. 



Train 



Blue., 



Two sparks . 



Yellowish red. 
Brighter than 

Orange 



Stream of light 



Instantaneous . 
Instantaneous . 



2 sees 

Descended perpen-' 
die. down in W.J 
passed between y 
&«Pegasi, about 
2° nearer the lat- 
ter star. 
Passed 5° above y 
Pegasi, and moved 
obliquely north- 
ward, its path! 
forming an angle) 
of about 20° withi 
horizon. It moved 
over 4°very s1ow1t:J 
it made a stop andj 
partially disap- 
peared before it' 
finally vanished. ) 
Slowly ; duration 1 



Slowly I 

Duration 1'5 sec. . 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Rapid 



Instantaneous . 



1 sec. 



Slowly. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 207 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



rom f between y and Andro- 
meda* perpendic. down. 

Vom y Ursa Majoris between 
* and £ Unas Majoris, nearly 
perpendic. down. 

rom i to n Unas Majoris .. 

used over 15° in 3 sees. .. 



tam midway between & and ^ 
Unas Majoris, fading away at 
about R.A. 13° 3C,N.P.D.44 

'rom 30° above S.S.W. horizon 
perpendic. down. 

'rom x Ureas Majoris through • 
Ureas Minoris ; moved slowly 
towards* Cephei, lading when 
3° from that star. 

tfored downwards, passing 
slightly E. of Procyon. 

V very large meteor reported as 
being in N. ; unluckily I was 
not observing at the moment. 
My brother saw the reflexion 
and registered it as a flash of 
lightning. 

'rom ) Cephei towards Arctnros 

to>m ) Hydras perpendic. down 

3owu across « Leonts .. 

rbroDghMaxs 

Near Spica Virginia 

torn Caput Medusas to i Bootis 



Highfield House 
Ibid 



Ibid 

Darlington, Dur- 
ham. 



Ibid... 



Highfield House 
Observatory. 



Ibid... 
Ibid... 



Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



Mwrt W above Mara ; moved 
1° towards Pollux. 

PromSCassiopeiie towards W., 

»%ht inclination. 
Downwards from Virginia 

Down from y Leonis 

Down from iLyne 

Perpendic down in N.N.W. 



Two spark meteors 
side by side; moved 
very rapidly, appa- 
rently at no very 
great elevation. 
Weil^denned circu- 
lar disc. 



Ibid. 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Bath Observa- 
tory. 



Mr. Lawson's 
Observatory, 
Bath. 

Highfield House 



Ibid... 
Ibid.. 
Ibid... 
Ibid... 



B. J. Lowe, Esq. 
Id 



M 

J. Graham, Esq. 



Id. 



Mr. Lowt's MS. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 

Id. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Id. 



Id. 



Id 

Id 

Id 

A.S.H.Lowe,Esq. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



208 



REPORT — 1852. 



Date. 



1852. 
July 3 



Hour. 



h m 
10 30 



6 times V-, gradually 
diminished in size. 



12 10 47 30' 



13 



22 



23 



10 47 



11 



1911 10 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



< # at opp. 



10 39 15 a 
12 6 

11 59 57* 

12 30... 



11 45 



Aug. 5 10 32 p.m. Bright .. 

"~ " Small .. 

Meteor.. 

Meteor.. 

1011 5 Meteor.. 

Meteor.. 
Meteor.. 
Meteor.. 
Meteor.. 
Meteor.. 
15 9 52 Meteor.. 



10 32 p.m. 

10 43 

10 24 

10 35 

11 5 

11 5 

11 5 

11 5 

11 10 

11 14 



= 2nd mag., 

=3rd mag. . 

= 3rd mag. , 

»3rd mag. , 

*3rd mag. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Small 



Small 



Brilliant 



Colourless 
Colourless 
Colourless 
Colourless 

Colourless 



Red, 



Train or sparks. 



Pale blue Long streak 



Left a train . 



Slowly, 8 i 



2-5 



Leaving a lengthened train 



Continuous streak 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Horizontally from * 
through { Ser- 
pentis. 

Through zenith 

from I.E. to N.W. 

Fell parallel with 
milky way, pass- 
ing near /» CygniJ 
moving to E. | 

Slowly, 1*2 sec 



'Continuous streak 0*2 sec, rapid 

Continuous train , 

Continuous train 



Continuous train.. 



With train 
Faint train 



0*2 sec. 
0*2 sec. 

01 sec 



With train 



Rapid 



1851, 
Aug. 19 

19 



V. Observations of Luminous Meteors made at the Observatory, Stone 



10 3 p.m. 



Brighter than a star 
of the 1st mag. 



Blue. 



Blue. 



Train 



A train as long as twice the 
distance from « Andro- 
meda? to Markab. 



Slow; visible da- 
ring 4 sees. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 209 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



-i- 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Netr{Ursc Majoris, above x 
Dnconis through Polaris to 
j Cephei. Ill-defined trem 
bling mass of light. 

From y Cygni to a point 2° be- 
low Deneb, it then changed 
its course and proceeded about 
3° in horizontal direction, 
growing less and less bright, 
till at length scarcely visible. 
In an instant it changed its 
coarse a second time, became 
as brilliant as at its first ap- 
pearance, fell in a direction 
nearly perpendic. to horizon 
and disappeared midway be 
tween Deneb & & Pegasi. 



NearDreux(Eure 
& Loire), France 



Castle Donington 



From « to i Andromedas . . . 
From x through i Ophiuchi 
From y through i Ophiuchi 
Moved across and « Arietis 

towards N. 
From i Herculis to 3 Coronas 

Borealia. 
From Cassiopeia to Andromeda. 

S.E. of Milky Way 

InS.W. 

InN.E 



InS. 

inw ;; 

In zenith 

lnS.S.W 

InS. along Milky Way 
InW 



From 15° below Vega to S. 



6 meteors in 9 
minutes. 



M. J. E. Durand 



W. H. Leeson, 
Esq. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Highfield House JA. S. H. Lowe, 
Esq. 



Ibid... 
Ibid... 



Id. 
Id. 



[Beeston. 
Observatory, 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Highfield House 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



E. J. Lowe, Esq. 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id. 

A. S. H. Lowe... 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id 

Id. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Vwrage, Aylesbury, Bucks. Lat. 51° 47' 57"-03. Long. 0° 52' 16"-35 W. 



T*o meteors from N. to S. un- 
der Cassiopeia. 

Two meteors from B. to W., 
one under « Herculis, and the 
otber under m Aquilse. 

no* Cassiopeia, passing south 
<» APegasito/JAquarii; it 
^appeared in a cloud beyond 
Aquarius. 



1852 



It appeared as a 
train of beads very 
well separated. 



Stone 
Ibid.., 

Ibid.., 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
Id. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
and Vnt.Fasel, 
Esq. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



210 



REPORT — 1852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1851 
Aug. 20 
21 

22 



h m 

11 p.m. 
9 10 p.m. 



Train 



9 30 

8 20 5V 
8 23 58' 



2nd mag. 



Red 
Red 



Train 
Train 



Very vapid 
Rapid 



30 



9 48 
9 55 
10 8 
10 9 
10 15 
10 50 

10 53 

10 54 

11 49 
11 52 



About 5th mag. 

4th mag 

3rd mag. , 

3rd mag. 

3rd mag. 



4th mag. 



Moderate. 



Yellow. 
White . 



31 

Sept. 3 



38 a.m. 
8 41 p.m. 
8 4 p.m. 



10 
11 



1310 



7 48 p.m. 

8 43 p.m. 
" 45 



5th mag. . 
3rd mag. 
2nd mag. , 

5th mag. . 

2nd mag. . 

2nd mag. . 

3rd mag. . 
1st mag. . 
3rd mag. . 



Blue. 
Red. 



Train 



Blue. 
Red. 



Short train ... 
Train-beaded 



Rapid 

1 sec duration 



Blue.... 
Yellow. 
White . 



Rapid .... 
Moderate. 
Rapid .... 



19 



8 44 p.m. 

8 55 p.m. 
7 35 p.m. 

7 45 p.m. 

8 4 p.m. 

8 31 p.m. 

9 p.m. 
9 38 p.m. 
9 45 p.m. 
9 54 p.m. 

10 8 



3rd mag. 

3rd mag. 
4th mag. 



3rd mag. .~ 



White 



Moderate. 



Red 
Red, 



Short train , 



White , 



Rapid 
Rapid 

Rapid* 



20 



11 45 



8 25 



8 45 

9 17 

9 18 
10 28 



4th mag. . 
4th mag. . 
4th mag. . 
2nd mag. . 
4th mag. . 
3rd mag. . 
5th mag. . 

4th mag. . 



Blue 

Yellow 

Dull red 

Light yellow 

White 

Light blue .. 
White 



Rapid .... 

Rapid .... 
Moderate. 

Rapid .... 

Rapid .... 

Rapid .... 

Rapid .... 



Yellow. 



3rd mag., andas bright 
as a star of the 1st 
mag. 

2nd mag. 

4th mag 



Yellowish.. 



Short train 



Rapid 



Moderate. 



White 

Light blue ... 



Long train 



Rapid .... 
Moderate. 



2nd mag. 
3rd mag. 



Yellow.. 
Orange.., 



Train 

Beaded train 



Rapid 
Rapid 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 



211 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Went through the Pleiades 
From • Lyre to m Coronas Bo- 
realis. 
From below Unas Minoris to 

2° east of « Ursse Majoris. 
From Cassiopeia to « Andro- 

medae. 

From Mirkab to a very short di- 
stance south. 

From • Urs. Maj. to Mizar 

From « to £ Cassiopeia; 

From Perseus to the Pleiades.. 
From H Urs. Maj. to « Bootis 

From Cassiopeia to Polaris 

Prom the square of Pegasus; 

! from esst to west. 

Through Corona Borealis, from 

| E.toW. 

kbore i Bootis from B. to W. . 

Went through Aquarius due S. 

pom C Urs. Maj. down to the 

horizon. 
4° below the Pleiades from E. 

toW. 
From C Unas Maioris passing 

through y, to 2* beyond it. 
From 4 below Corona borealis 

to i Bootis. 
through Lyra from E. to W. 
From Urs. Min. to* Urs. Maj. 
From 2° below m Serpentis, 

psstrng between £ and i Urs. 

Maj. to 2° below them. 
From E. to W., passing by 

• Hercuhs. 
From Sheat to ) Cygni ... 
From below Polaris to half-way 

between Polaris and Perseus. 
From a short distance west of 

« Bootis to near Cor. CarolL 

From C to x Dracoois t 

PromyCephdto2°belowit . 
From i Pegasi to y Aquarii 
From Cassiopeia to Capella 
Through Cassiopeiafrom N. to S. 
Prom jS Cephei to Urs. Min. . 
From Musca Borealis to the 

Hyades. 
Started half-way betwaen Aide- 

baran and the Pleiades, and 

travelled about 3° towards 

the Pleiades. 
From about ( Andromeda to 
2°belowJ. 



Stone 
Ibid.... 



Train red and con- 
tinuous. 



Ibid.., 
Ibid.., 
Ibid.. 



Ibid... 

Ibid... 
Ibid.., 
Ibid... 

Ibid.., 

Ibid.., 

Ibid... 

Ibid... 
Ibid.., 
Ibid... 



Aylesbury 



Stone 
Ibid.... 



Ibid... 



Bright. 



Ibid. , 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. , 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid.. 



Observatory.. 



Prom to y Andromeda; ... . 
From o Un. Ma), to between 

the Pointers. 
Jh>m 4° above to $ Auriga; .. 
C from Capella to 6° due east 



Stone 
Ibid.... 



Ibid.., 
Ibid.., 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
J.W.Eccles,Esq. 



Id. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid 

Ibid........ 

Ibid 

Ibid. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 

Vnt.Fasel,Esq.,& 
Rev.J.B.Reade. 
Rev. J. B. Reade 
O. J. Grace, Esq. 
H. Smith, Esq. . 
O. J. Grace, Esq. 

Id. 

Rev. J. B. 



E. J. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Reade Ibid. 



Id. 

W. Whit! 
Rev. J. B. Reade 
Id. 



W. Whitbread, 

Esq. 
Id. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Rev. J. B. Reade Ibid. 



H. Smith, Esq. , 
W. Eccles, Esq. , 
O. J. Grace, Esq, 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



J. W. Eccles, 

Esq. 
Rev. J. B, 
Id. 



Reade Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Eccles, Ibid, 



J. W. 
Esq. 
O.J. Grace, Esq. 

Id. 

J.W. Eccles, Esq. 

Id. 

H. Smith, Esq. . 

Id 

J.W. Eccles, Esq. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Rev. J. B. Reade Ibid. 



Vnt. Fasel, Esq. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 



J.W. Eccles, Esq. 
Rev. C. Lowndes|lbicL 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
Id 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



p2 



212 



REPORT — 1852. 



Date. 



1851 
Sept. 20 



21 



24 
29 



Oct 2 



14 



15 



16 



Hour. 



h m 
11 15 



3rd mag. 



11 43 p.m. 
7 27 p.m. 



7 27 p.m. 

7 53 

9 18 



4th mag. 
3rd mag. 



9 25 

7 56 
7 31 
7 32 



7 42 30* 

7 55 p.m. 
9 5 p.m. 
9 10 p.m. 

8 15 p.m. 

9 14 p.m. 
7 2 p.m. 

7 53 p.m. 

8 8 p.m. 

8 10 p.m. 

9 2 p.m. 
6 47 p.m. 



7 10 p.m. 

7 56 p.m. 

8 6 p.m. 

9 7 p.m. 

11 4 p.m. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Orange.. 



2ndVmag. 
4th mag. 
3rd mag. 

4th mag. 



As bright at « Aquihe. 

4th mag 

2nd mag 



4th mag. 

3rd mag. 

3rd mag 

3rd mag. 

Aa bright as Capella 

Much larger and 
brighter than Ca- 
pella. 

3rd mag. wheu it be- 
gan, and of the 6th 
when it ended. 

2nd mag 



1st mag. 



3rd mag. 

As bright as a star of 
the 1st mag. ; it in 
creased in size as it 
proceeded. 



3rd mag. 
4th mag. 



4th mag. . 



3rd mag. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Red... 
White 



Blue 

White 

Yellowish., 



Orange 

Light blue 

White 

Blue 



Train 
Train 



Blue.... 
Yellow. 
Yellow. 
Yellow. 
White . 



Brilliant white 

Blue 

Brilliant white 
Blue 



Blue. 



White 

Bright orange. 



White 
Blue... 



White 



Blue. 



Train or sparks. 



Long train 



3 sees, duration . 



Train 
Train 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Rapid 
Rapid 
Rapid 

Rapid 



Very rapid 
Moderate... 
Rapid 



Beaded train 



Short flash, no train 



Long train 



Long train 



Instantaneous flash., 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



Rapid 

Moderate 

Rapid 

Rapid 

Instantaneous . 



Slow... 
Rapid 
Rapid 
Rapid 



Slow.. 



Moderate. 
Slow , 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Moderate. 



Moderate., 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOU8 METEORS. 213 



Direction or Altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



From Capella, through Perseus, 
to Caput Medusa?. 



I 



from Algenib to i Piscium . . . 
From 47 AndromedsB to m Tri- 
anguli. 



The tail of the train 
was visiblefor se- 
veral seconds af- 
ter the meteor 
had disappeared. 



Hartwell . 



Rev. C. Lowndes 



B. J. Lowe's MS. 



FromjS Andromeda to X Arietis. 

From • Lyra? to i Cygni 

From « Cassiopeiss to y Andro- 
meda*. 

From « Andromeda? to « Cas- 
tiopeie. 

From « Aqailae to m Ophiuchi . 

From x Cephei to Urs. Min.. 

Through Pegasus, in a south- 
eastern direction. 

From Polaris to « Urs. Maj. 

3° through Lacerta from N. to S. 

(From ) Auriga? to m Urs. Maj. 

From I Aurigae to Castor .... 

In 7 Camelopardalis 



This meteor started 
a few seconds be- 
fore the follow- 
ing one. 



Stone 
Ibid.... 



Vnt. Fasel, Esq. . 
H. Smith, Esq. . 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid 

Ibid 



Hartwell , 



Stone 

Ibid.... 

Ibid..., 



Id 

J.W. Eccles, Esq. 
Rev. J. B. Reade 

Rev. C. Lowndes 

J.W.Eccles,Esq. 
O. J. Grace, Esq. 
W.Carter ... 



From 3° east of the moon, cross- It 
edthe moon, and went about 
7° west of it. 

From Cassiopeia to ) Cygni 



It only broke out, 
and then vanished, 
appeared like the 
flame of a candle. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Hartwell . 

Ibid 

Stone .... 



Ibid.. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
O. J. Grace, Esq. 
Rev. C. Lowndes 

Id 

Rev. J. B. Reade 

J.W. Eccles,Esq. 



Ibid.. 



Through Aquarius from N. to S. 



It was as bright as Ibid.., 
Jupiter when it 
ended. 



Id. 



Id. 



From t Bootis to the horizon, 
It started a little to the E. of 
i Bootis. 

From jS Bootis down to the ho- 
rizon. 

From • Arietis to Andromedas 

From about 24 Lyncis, passed The same meteor 
through 42 Urs. Maj., and be- 
tween the Pointers ; and va- 
nished in the middle of the 
trapezium,about 5i°from the 
little star above-named, 42. 

From • Arietis to S.E. horizon . 

iFrom between * and ft Aquita 

I to the horizon. 

to the cluster in the sword of 
Perseus. 

Started from Algol, passed be- 
tween « and ) Persei, and va- 
nished about 3° beyond ^ 
Persei. 

From « Andromede, and travel- 
ed about 8° towards x Andro- 
meda?. 



Aylesbury 



Rev. J. B. Reade 



Ibid.. 



was Been at Hart- 
well by Rev. C 
Lowndes ; his ac- 
count perfectly 
agrees with this. 



Stone 
Stone 
tory. 



Observa- 



Id. 

J.W. 
Vnt. 



Eccles, Esq. 
Fasel, Esq.. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 



It increased to 2nd 
mag. 



Stone 
Ibid.... 



Ibid.. 



Ibid.. 



Ibid.. 



J.W. 
O.J. 

Rev. 

Vnt. 



Id. 



Eccles, Esq. Ibid. 
Grace, Esq. Ibid. 

J. B. Reade (bid. 

Fasel, Esq. . Ibid. 



Ibid. 



214 



REPORT— 1852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Thin or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1851 
Oct 17 



h m 
7 47 50" 

7 48 p.m. 
7 50 p.m. 

7 54 p.m. 

8 p.m. 
8 17 p.m. 
8 21 30* 
8 24 p.m. 
8 24 30* 
8 26 p.m. 

8 27 30.. 



1st mag. . 

3rd mag. . 
6th mag. . 
3rd mag. , 

5th mag. , 
4th mag. , 
1st mag. . 
4th mag. . 
2nd mag. , 
1st mag. , 



Yellow. 

Yellow. 
Red .... 
White . 



Train 



Red .... 
Yellow. 
White . 
Yellow. 
Blue.... 
Red.... 



1st mag. and as bright Blue . 
as « Lyre. 



After it parted, that 
of the 2nd mag. was 
that of the 4th was 



Bright orange. 
Blue 



Nov. 2 



4 
20 



21 



8 35 p.m. 

9 p.m. 

9 25 p.m. 
7 1 p.m. 
7 2 p.m. 
7 2 7* 

7 35 p.m. 
6 32 p.m. 

6 45 p.m. 



3rd mag. . 
3rd mag. . 

3rd mag. . 
2nd mag. . 
2nd mag. . 
2nd mag. . 

3rd mag. . 
3rd mag. . 



Blue 

Light blue 



Train 



Train 
Train 



Train 



Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 
Blue. 

Red. 
Blue. 



Red tail 



Train 



As large as Mars, with Of 
a well-defined disc. 



the same 
colour as 
Mars. 



Very rapid 



Rapid .... 
Moderate.. 
Rapid .... 



Moderate... 
Moderate... 
Moderate... 

Rapid 

Very rapid 
Rapid 



Moderate. 



Moderate., 
Moderate. 



Moderate. 
Slow 



Rapid .... 
Moderate. 
Rapid .... 
Rapid .... 



Moderate.. 
Rapid ..... 



8 22 p.m. 3rd mag. |Orange Short train Rapid 

N.B. The above 89 meteors were observed within the space of three months and three days. From the 
there have been many bright starry nights, on every one of which there has been a constant and careful 

1852. 

1st mag. and as bright Light yellow 



Aug. 



3 


9 30 p.m. 


5 


10 p.m. 




10 18 p.m. 


15 


9 10 p.m. 




9 15 p.m. | 



as Jupiter. 
2nd mag. 
3rd mag. . 
2nd mag. , 
3rd mag. . 



Reddish 
Yellow... 
Whitish 
Yellow... 



Train 

Train 
Train 
Train 
Train 



Rapid 



Rapid 

Very rapid 

Rapid 

Rapid 



On the 10th August many meteors were seen between 9' and 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 215 



Direction or altitude. 



General remark*. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



From $ Bootis, went 5°, pasting 
between y and 3 Bootis. 

From ^ Hercnlis to Bootis ... 

From to J Bootis 

from y Lyras, and went in cir. 
culsr form to • Hercnlis. 

From « to Lyra; 

From « to { Pegasi 

From • Lyrae to y Braconis ... 

From n Hereolia to ) Bootis ... 

From y Pegasi to £ Cygni 

It went 5°, running parallel with 
• and Draconis. 

From about 15° east of the sol 
stitial colore and 7° above i 
Lyne; it went 4° towards 
N.W., then parted into two 
meteors, one of the 2nd and 
the other of the 4th magni 
tode; they took a different 
direction,each leaving a train. 
That of the 2nd mag. went 
to i Hercnlis, and that of the 
4th vanished at X Hercnlis 

From about * Cygni to « Lyras. 

From 1° under Saturn, went 
about H° from E. to W. 

From Polaris to 2 Auriga; 

Through Lacerta from S. to N. 

From Cygni to near « Aquilse 

Through r Hercnlis from east 
to west. 

From Saturn to Ceti ....... 

From a little below Polaris to ? 
Ura-Maj. 

Pssied up the field of the tele- , 
scope, which is 1*, in a little 
less than half a second. It 
preceded v Hercnlis of the 
3rd mag., and its declination 
was the same as Brorsen's 
comet Hence its R.A.— 
15 h 55-,itsN.P.D.43°56', 

From • to $ Cygni 



Stone 



Ibid... 
Ibid... 
Ibid... 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
saw the same me* 
teor from a dif- 
ferent place, and 
the two descrip- 
tions perfectly 
•free* 



Ibid.., 
Ibid.., 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid... 
Ibid... 

Ibid... 



It appeared low 



Ibid..... 
Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid 

Ibid..... 
Ibid 



Ibid... 
Ibid... 

Ibid.., 



Ibid.. 



. Wbltbread, 

Esq. 

Id 

Id 

J.W.Eccles,Esq. 
[Esq. 
W. Whitbread, 

Id. 

H. Smith, Esq.... 
Rev. J. B. Reade 
Vnt. Fasel, Esq. . 
Rev. J. B. Reade 

Vnt. Fasel, Esq. 



E. J. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Rev. J. B. Reade 
J.W.Eccles,Esq, 



Id. 

Vnt. Faael, Esq, 
J.W.Eccles,Esq. 
Rev. J. B. Reade 

J.W.Eccles,Esq. 
Ret. J. B. Reade 



Id. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Id. 



Ibid. 



end of November 1851 up to the beginning of August 1852, wry few mtttori were seen, although 

look out— Vnt. Fasbu 



From about 2 

and travelled about' 10 

S.W. direction* 
From ) Urs. Maj. to very near . 

Cor. CaroH. 
From* Cassiopeia to half-way . 

to Polaris. 
From about i Delphini to 

AqmTae. 
from 9 Pegasi, and travelled . 

about 13° in a southward di- 
rection. 

10* p.m. i mme dia t ely after a thunder-storm. 



Stone 



Vnt. Fasel, Esq. 



Ibid... 
Ibid.., 
Ibid... 
Ibid.., 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Ibid, 

Ibid, 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



216 



REPORT — 1852. 

VI. Observations of Luminous Meteors, 1851-52. Corn- 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1850. 
Sept. 4 



1851 
May 2 



22 

23 
June 1 

24 

July 30 

Aug. 3 



h m 

From 
9 30 a.m. 

to 
3 30 p.m. 

10 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 



8 30 p.m. 



A vast number of lu 
minous bodies seen 
through a telescope 



Circular illumination 
in the clouds, about 
10° in diameter. 

Large and brilliant 
meteor. 



Smaller andless bright 

Brilliant light = moon 
four days' old. 



Various mag- 
nitudes,frora 
2" to 20" 
with discs. 



Somewhat in- 
creased in 
size&bright 
ness, purple 
and green. 



Tail or streak lasted two 
minutes. 



Various velocities, 
but uniform. 



Did not change' 
place, lasted about 
one minute. l 



11 
11 



3rd mag. . 
3rd mag. . 



Became green 
just before 
disappearing 

Red 

Red 



Fell and dissipated) 
at 10° alt, , 



No train 
No train 



Rapid 
Rapid 



10 p.m. 



>Sirius 



Bluish white . 



10 9 

11 35 
10 27 



10 28 
10 30 
10 43 



1st mag 

3rd mag 

Gradually dying away 

and suddenly « 1st 

mag. 

2nd mag. 

2nd mag 

2nd mag 



No train 



No train 
No train 



10 45 

10 46 30 a 
10 48 40* 
10 48 50* 
10 52 



10 54 

10 55 30* 



4th mag. ... 
3rd mag. ... 
3rd mag. .., 
4th mag. ... 
1st mag. .., 

2nd mag. % „ 
4th mag. .., 



Fine sparks . 



Continuous line of light... 



11 26 



9 57 p.m. 
10 16 p.m. 



1th mag. 
4th mag. 



isec. 

i sec 

Isec. 

isec. 
i sec. 
i sec. 
i sec. 
1 sec. 

4 Bee. 
1 sec 

isec. 



9 40 p.m. 



From 

10 p.m. 
to 

11 p.m. 



2nd mag. 



White 

Reddish, bril- 
liant. 

Blue, very 
brilliant. 



Very rapid 
Rapid 



7 meteors., 



Train of blue light, stopped 
several seconds in its 
progress, then proceeded 



Slow.. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 217 
municated by various Observers, 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference* 



[n a continuous stream due E. 
and W. about 18° in breadth. 



South Mimms ... Rev. W. Read, 
M.A. 



a S.E.. 



Jnder a verandah, tint seen at 
alt. 75°, fell perpendicular to 
horizon into the sea. 



'romN.W.toS.E.. 
from zenith to S. . 



Entirely cloudy .. 



J.S.E. alt. 25° to 15° . 
>.S.E.,alt. 25° to 45°. 



in N.N.E., alt. 40° . 



through Ursa Major below 0. 

rhrough Sagittarius 

)own on right of Milky Way. 



These two meteors 
were seen through 
hazy clouds, pur. 
suing each other. 

Communicated to 
me by a friend 
staying in the 
house. 



E. of ? Aquarius 

trough Bootes , 

Jelow Delphin. through Anti- 
nous. 

through Sagittarius 

'ocCapric 

Lbove Cassiopeia.......... 

!° E. of Polaris 

torn centre of Pegasus -*- to 
the rest. 

felow Cassiopeia, || to rest 

torn i Pegasi,~L-to rest with 
great force. 

tam Aquar. to between 
and j3 Capric. 

'rom Ursa Major 

Below Una Major 

Sear Polaris 



Various directions, 5 generally 
towards S. f 2 towards N. 



Ennore, India, 1 1 
miles N. of 
Madras. 

Ibid. 



Ibid 

Calcutta 



Rose Hill, 
Oxford. 



Ibid.., 



Passed downwards. 
From N. to S. ... 



Passed to N. 



Moon full; atmo- 
sphere hazy. 



Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 



MS. See Appendix, 
No. 13. 



Correspondent to 
Dr. Buist, 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 



Rev. J. Slitter.. 



Ibid.., 
Ibid... 
Ibid.., 



Ibid.., 
Ibid.., 
Ibid.., 
Ibid.., 
Ibid... 



Ibid.., 
Ibid.. 



Ibid.., 



St. Ives, Hunts.. 
Ibid. 



Ibid.. 



Haverhill., 



Id. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 

Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



See Appendix, No. 
3. 

Ibid. 



Ibid. 

See Appendix, No. 
5. 

MS. communicated 
to Prof. PoweD. 



Ibid. 



J. King Watts. 
Id 



Id. 



Mr. and Mrs. W. 

Boreham. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



MS. communicated. 

See diagram, App. 

No. 7. 



218 



REPORT— 1852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1851. 
Aug. IS 

14 



h m 
8 45 , 



•19 

18 
19 



9 40 

9 38 

9 38 "30* 

9 43 

10 2 

10 13 



20 10 25 p.m. 
21 9 23 p.m. 
9 27 p.m. 
22| 9 35 p.m. 



23 

28 
Sept. 2 



3 
19 



20 



25 



Oct. 5 



9 52 p.m. 
9 8 p.m. 



10 35 pun. 
9 50 p.m. 
7 30 p.m. 



A few sees, 
later. 



7 30 

7 45 
10 
1 Oi 



3rd mag. 



3rd mag. .. 
4tb mag. .. 
5th mag. .. 
2nd mag... 
>► Jupiter 
1st mag. .. 



Red... 
Orange.. 



Coarse sparks , 
Train 



1 sec , 

1 sec . 
1 sec . 
1 sec. . 
1 sec . 
It sec. 



Small 
Large 



Large and brilliant .. 

3rd mag 

Large and bright 

Large and beautiful 



«4thmag. 
Large 



An ill-defined lumi 
nous patch or band, 
longer diameter, 
slightly inclined. 



A small shooting star 

nearly in the 

place. 
Two-thirds of moon 



11 Op.m, 

9 45 p.m. 
9 50 p.m. 



Between 
10&11 p.m. 



Sheet form 

Star of 1st mag. ... 
Larger than any star. 

Bright meteor, one- 
fifth full moon, star 
shaped. 



Disc 

Very large 



A large ball of fire , 



7 52 -¥ 



White 
Bluish 



Very rapid 
Slow 



White 

White 

Bluish 

Very 
and 

increased un- 
til it disap- 
peared 
sparks. 



Beautiful sparks and bright Slow.. 

Rapid 

Train 

bright Train continuous 

white, 



in 



White and 
brilliant. 

Bright white, 
gradually in- 
creased in 
brightness, 
then decrea- 
sed and dis- 
appeared. 



Dark red. 



Lighter red . 



Yellow and 
violet. 

Illumination 
more than 
half moon, 
tinged with 
blue. 

Bright blue 



Longtrain, which exploded About 2 sees. 

No explosion, disappeared About 5 sect 
suddenly, leaving no 
track, except a whitish 
trace at the upper part 
of its course. 



Iridescent sparks 



Slow.. 
Slow. 



Slow J 

Stationary ,duratioi 
about 1 minute. 



Rather alow, disap 
peared withoa 
explosion. 



Rapid 



* This day an immense meteor waa 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSEBVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 21 9 



Direction or altitude. 



General remark*. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



ieaeath Polaris 



through Perseus downward 
Phrongh Ophiuchus above « 
ftuoogh Aquila above y ... 
foroogh Capric., slanting down 
lame as last, slightly curved ... 
"hroDgh y Cor. Bor. from un- 
der Polaris. 

"rom Virgo 

torn Leo • 



Rose Hill, 
Oxford. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Rev. J. Blatter... 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Mow Virgo to west 

Wow Ursa Major to west... 

torn Ursa Major to west ... 

taed the whole length of Una 
Major from south to north, 
and in Hs progress rendered 
some of his stars invisible. 



1° below Cor. Bor. from n« 
Polaris, 
fom Lyra down to the west . 



Passed S 

Exploded with 
brilliant light 



St. Ives, Hants. 
Ibid 



J. King Watts.. 
Id. 



Ibid.., 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.. 
Ibid.., 



Id. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



nS.W.,alt60°? 



RoseHffl,Oxford. Ret. J. Slatter... 
J. King Watts... 
Rev. T. Master. 



St. Ives, Hunts. . 



Garsington, near 
Oxford. 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. PowelL 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Verbal communica- 
tion to Prof, 
Powell. 



Ibid.., 



Id. 



Jpwards ... 
lorizontal 



Phosphoric meteor. 



Huggate 



Rev. T. Rankin 



hired towards the earth , 



from a little north of zenith 
down about 45°* to S.W. 



Ibid.., 
Ibid... 
To the W. of Unajlbid... 
Major. 



Id 

Gamekeeper 
Id. 



Calcutta 



Correspondent to 
Dr. Buist 



from near Polaris, passed Ursa 
Major (see sketch in Appen 
dix). 

Prom N.N.W. to N.N.K., from 
alt. 25° to alt. 20°. 



Pell perpendicularly down, 
ptrently into the sea. 



Beneath the moon in 8.W. 



ap-In 



Altitudestakenfrom 
windows, also re- 
ported by Mr. 
Lowe. 

a storm, accom- 
panied by a rush- 
ing sound and a 
noise as if of 
falling 



Near Farnham, 
Surrey. 

RoseHill,Oxf6rd. 



Several places 
near Bombay. 



Rose Hill near 
Oxford. 



Mr.G.W.Hewitt 



Seen by some 
Mr. Sutter's 
family. 

Several commu- 
nicated to Dr. 
Buist. 



Brother of Rev. 
J. Slatter. 



Ibid. 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. PowelL 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Bombay Times, 
App. No. 4. 



MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell, 
see App. No. 8. 

communicated 
to Prof. Powell, 
from Rev. J. 
Slatter. 

Bombay Times. 
See App. No. 6. 



of MS. 



IS. communicated 
to Prof. PowelL 



Been at Naples from W. to E,— Paper*. 



220 



REPORT — 1852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1851. 
Not. 4 



24 

25 
1852. 
Mar. 12 



April 20 



m 
p.m. 



Brilliant 



FeU slowly towards the W. 
in a curve concave to 
horizon. 



10 2 p.m. 
10 15 p.m. 

7 6 a.m. 



Large 
Large 



2nd mag.. 



White 

Purplish, bril- 
liant. 
Pale yellow.., 



Sparkling.. 



Rapid 
Slow.., 



About 1 ice 



9 28 

10 5 

11 25 



Small .. 
Large .. 

1st mag. 



White .. 
White, 
liant. 



bril 



Sparkling, and stopped 
twice in its progress. 



Slow.. 
Slow.. 



f 11 35 4th mag, 




*0spLU + 
B T 



#Gapell» 
i B 



i'.' 

4 * 



I 4 



I 4 • • » 






A Auroral beam. 

B C Course of meteor. 



i * 



May 14 



11 35 5' .. 

12 25 

10 33 30 1 



4th mag. .. 
» Jupiter.. 
-Vega .. 



July 12 



13 



29 



About 
9 59 p.m. 

O.T. 



10 p.m. 
(London 
time.) 



9 45 p.m. 



Aug. 3 



9 15 p.m. 

(O.M.T.) 



White 
White 



diameter Very 



Apparent 
little inferior to full 
moon. 

Larger than ^. As it 
fell brilliancy in 
creased ; then seem 
ed to decrease and 
again to increase till 
disappearance. 

=2nd mag., but 
dually decreased till 
«5th. 



At first like a small 
star, intensely bright 



Fine sparks 
Fine sparks 



. bright, 
ruddy co- 
lour. 

Bright orange, 
red, chan 
gingtonear 
fy white, and 
then red 
again. 

Bluish white 



Noted shape 
tail pointing to south. 



Disappeared without s 
ration ; no explosion. - 



v 



-* 



Moved towards tb 

N. very rapidh 
Duration of ris 
bilityabout2Ka 
2i 



sepa- About 2 sees. 



For about 15° gradually Train 
increased in magnitude, 
became brilliant, though 
white (as if inflamed), 
= 2 diam. of ? when 
brightest, and continued 
through about 30°, when 
it suddenly resumed its 
first appearance (as 
burnt out) and continued 
onward some distance 
further. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 221 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Appeared first below and a little 
to the right of the moon, in 
S.E.alt. Estimatedabout 35 c 

From Polaris ruining northward 
Left of Ursa Major to north 



Perpendicular down 



Perhaps the same 
as one seen in 
Nottingham; vide 
Mr.Lowe'sCataL 



St. John's Lodge, 
Stone, near 
Aylesbury. 

St Ives, Hunts., 
Ibid. 



Miss G. R. Smyth MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell. 



J. King Watts. 
Id. 



Below Leo Minor . 



Huggate 



From the Pleiades to the north 
From Polaris to the N.W. ... 



St. Ives, Hunts. 
Ibid. 



Rev. T. Rankin 

J. King Watts.. 
Id. 



From Ursa Major to 2° N. 

Mars. 
FromCapella 



of During Aurora 



Rose Hill, nearjRev. J. Slatter., 
Oxford. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



[The meteor f fell downwards till apparently near 
the auroral haze, and then started aside into a wavy 
course, as if repulsed. % followed downwards unin- 
terruptedly. It was as if t had been repulsed by a 
similar electric force and exhausted it See figure 
above.] 



FromCapella Ibid.. 

From 1° W. of Spica to Crater . Ibid.. 
From Spica to Crater, curve Ibid. 
• curving upwards, intensely 

incandescent at the endof the 

curve. 
Altitude about 30° above west 

point of horizon. 



Ibid., 
Ibid., 
Ibid.. 



Seen at Glasgow, 
Helensburgh, 
Perth, &c. 



Appeared in N.N.W. at alt 20°, 
fell nearly vertically or a little 
toE. 



Path perpendicular to a line* 
joining Polaris and the Upper 
Pointer ; greater part of course 
above that line, and thence 
down to horizon. 

From « Lyras to past Scot. 
pionis. 



Dunse, 
Lat.55°47 / N. 
Long. 2° 23^. 

Carlisle. Seen 
also 90 miles 
W. of Carlisle. 



About 2 sees., velo- 
city uniform. 



Wm. Stevenson 



John Carrick 
Moore, Esq. 



Victoria Park, 
London. 



Oxford. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



W. R. Birt, Esq. 



Mr. G. A. 

ell. 



Row- 



Communicated to 
Prof. Powell, 
through Mr. Fa- 
raday. SeeApp. 
No. 9. 

MS. communicated 
to Prof. Powell. 



Ibid. 



REPORT — 1852. 



Date. 



1852. 
Aug. 5 



Hour. 



h m 
9 40 

9 40 p.m. 

9 42 p.m. 
From 

10 25 to 

11 30 

10 58 



Small 

80 shooting stars 



10 



10 21 p.m. 

10 30 p.m. 
to 

10 40 p.m. 

10 50 p.m. 

to 

11 5 p.m. 
11 12 p.m. 

to 

11 27 p.m. 
11 30 p.m. 

to 

11 45 p.m. 
11 50 p.m. 

to 
5 tun. 
20 t-m. 

to 
35 a.m.* 
9 20 p.m 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



» 1st mag. 
Small 



1 brilliant 
Large 



9 22 p.m. 
9 47 p.m. 



9 53 p.m. 
9 59 p.m. 



1 p.m. 
1p.m.* 



Magnitudes full 1st 
down to 5th or 6th. 

No. counted in 
northern sky. . 

No. counted in 
southern sky. . 13 

No. counted in 
northern sky. . 12 

No. counted in 
' southern sky. . 14 

No. counted in 
northern sky. . 12 

No. counted in 



Brightness 
and colour. 



White 
White 



White 

Mostly stellar 



Train or sparks. 



Path illuminated for 30 or 
40 sees. 



Velocity or j 
Duration. 



Stow... 
Rapid 



Rapid 



Almost all left a luminous Velocity as usually; 
train. noticed. Duratioa 

1' to 6" or 6", 



♦Night 
cloudy. 



southern sky.. 18 — 78 



Urge 



Small 
Large 



Small 
Small 

Large 
Large 



* On this evening, 
sides the above, chiefl 
being visible at th 



Many the whole even, 
ing, 17 in 20 mins 
(from 10 h 45 m , to 
11* 5 m .) 



Whitish red.. 



White .. 
Reddish 



Brilliant 



Many brilliant sparks, and 
a tram similar to a rocket, 
thus: 



White ... 
White ... 












White 
White 



which was ver 
yjn the field b 
e same time, 



y clear, many other meteo 
etween Polaris, Ursa Majo 
in various directions. 



going 



None particu- 
larly bril 
liant. 



Brilliant 
Brilliant 



Slow.... 




1 
■.I 


Slow.... 




'" I 


Slow.... 


Rapid . 
Slow.,.. 


.........* 


.... 


Stow 



ra were visible be-j 
r and Lyra, five 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METJEOR8. 295 




Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



From near Cassiopeia towards 

N.N.B. Through 14°. 
N.W. ; 



Velocity moderate, Oxford 

2 sees. 
From Ursa Minor 



W. 



St. lyes, Hunt- 
ingdonshire. 

Ibid. 

Haverhill 



Mr. G. A. Rowell 

King Watts, 

Esq. 

Id. 

W. W. Boreham, 

Esq., and Mrs. 

W. W. Bore- 

ham. 



N.W. 



Nearly all moved to S, oi 
8.S.W. In northern sky a 
few moved to N.W. and E. 



The meteors were 
distributed over 
all parts of the 
sky; the place 
from which they 
proceeded ap- 
peared to be in 
the northern sky, 
somewhere be- 
tween Perseus 
and the Pole, but 
this is uncertain 



N. 

s.w. 

N.E. 



From « Cephei to 
the S. f then be- 
came stationary 
several seconds 
and threw off 
some large sparks 
before it expired. 

From Ursa Major. 

From • Lyras 
through Cygnus 
to zenith. 



From zenith to W. Ibid... 
From Ursa Major Ibid., 

downwards. 
To Ursa Major ...Ibid.. 
From Cygnus*. 



St. Ives, Hunt- 
ingdonshire, 
Dunse 



King Watts, 
Esq. 
Wm. Stevenson 



MS. communicate 
• to Prof. Powell 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. See App. N< 



MS. communicate 
to Prof. Powell, 
Ibid. 



St. Ives, Hunt- 
ingdonshire. 



J. King 



[Esq. 
Fatts, 



Ibid.., 
Ibid... 



Id. 
Id. 



Id. 
Id. 

Id. 



* These two meteors 
crossed each other's path, 
and both shining at the 
same time, thus: 




All from E. to W. 
at each 45°. 



Downwards 



From a window 
facing S.E. 



Oxford. 



Mr. G.A.Rowell 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 



Communicated t< 
Prof. Powell. 



224 



REPORT — 1852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1852, 
Aug. 10 



h m 

From 
9 57 to 
10 57 

From 

10 to 

11 

9 2 p.m. 



9 8 p.m. 
9 18 p.m. 



9 27 p.m. 
9 27 30' 



9 28 p.m. 



23 shooting stars 



Numerous ; one large 
star. 



With long horizontal train 



2nd mag. 



Between 2nd and 3rd 
mag. 



White, increa 
sed rapidly in 
brilliancy un 
til its extinc- 
tion. 



2nd mag. , 



Bluish-white 



Slight scintillations as it 
passed along. 



Small; 3rd mag.. 



Between 2nd and 3rd 
mag. 



Slight train, which quickly 
vanished. 



Nearly as large as 1st 
mag. star. 



Commenced 
with consi- 
derable bril- 
liancy,which 
graduallydi 
minished as 
it proceed- 
ed, as if it 
were a long 
narrow cone 
of light, the 
base being 
first illumi- 
nated with 
great bril- 
liancy, and 
the apex ve- 
ry dim, as 
under. 



Obliquely se 
Cassiopeia, about 
half a degree N. 
of y. 

Obliquely toward* 
the horizon, a lit- 
tle to B of yPc- 
gasi. 

Shot from midwzr 
between Cassio- 
peia and Cr* 
Major, toward* 
« Ursae Majoris, 
where it becamq 
extinguished. 

From Cassiopeia ft 
0Pegasi. 

From Cassiopeia to 
wards • Ursa 
Majoris, nearij 
parallel to thi 
course of the stai 
seenbyMr.Hard 
ing. 

From Cassiopeia to 
wards Ursa Ma 
jor across f Cat 
siopeiae. 



Colour bril- 
liant white, 
with silver 
greyish tinge. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 225 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Haverhill, 



Derby and neigh- 
bourhood. 



W. W. Boreham, 
Esq. 

Correspondent to 
Derby Mercury 



Victoria Park, 
London. 



W. R. Birt, Esq, 



Globular 



Ibid.. 



Ibid.. 



Extinguished when 
nearly under Po- 
laris. 



Ibid.. 
Ibid.., 



Ibid.. 



Id. 



MS. See Appendix, 
No. 11. 

Ibid. 



See App., No. 10. 



Ibid. 



J. Harding, Esq, 



W. R. Birt, Esq. 

W. R. Birt, Esq., 
and J. Hard- 
ing. 



J. Harding, Esq. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



1852. 



226 



REPORT— 1852. 



Date. 



Hour. 



1852 
Aug 10 



15 



h m 

9 34 p.m. 



Appearance and 
magnitude. 



Small 



22 



9 37 p.m. 



9 5 p.m. 
9 8 



Brightness 
and colour. 



Bright. 



Immediate- 
ly after 



Small, brilliant 
Small, globular 
Very similar ... 



Bright bluish- 
white. 



9 14 

7 44 p.m. 



Light, a 2nd mag... 
Nearly =» half moon ., 



Train or sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



From below A 
Ursse Minora 
(Ursse Majori 

From Alga: ohfity 
ly toward the] 
rizon. 



Brilliant clearLeft a train in its path 
white light. 



Slow; several a 
ootids. 



APPENDIX, 



Containing original details of various observations of Meteors communicated 
by the respective observers to Prof Powell. 

No. 1. — It may be important for comparison to mention that in the Phil. 
Mag,, Jan. 1839, will be found observations of 54 shooting stars, seen in the 
night of Nov. 12-13, 1838, at 109 York Street, Whitechapel, by W. R. Birt, 
Esq. 

No. 2. — Farther particulars of the Meteor shower, April 19-20, 1851. 
(See last Report, App., Nos. 23, 24, 25, 29.) 

" Meteors. — We have been favoured with the following from Madras on the 
subject of the shower of meteors visible all over India on the 19th or 20th 
of April. By a blunder of our own we mistook the Bombay date, and made 
it Saturday the 19th, when it ought to been Sunday the 20th; and on this 
night accordingly the shower was seen here, at Poona, and at Cawnpore. 
With all these coincidences we came to the conclusion that our Kolapore 
correspondent, who gave an account of them, had also mistaken the date, and 
that there had been one shower only. As he makes no sign of recantation, 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 227 



Direction or altitude. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Reference. 



Victoria Park, 
London. 



W. R. Birt, Esq. 



bore /0 Cassiopeia; to S.E. for 

above |°. 

trough Pegasus/ square ... 



irallcl, but to £. 



N. of £ Caaaiopeue towards 

Pole. 

Dm W. to E. with a slight 

curve, from near « Lyrae to 

beyond m Persei. 






Ibid.., 

Ibid... 
Ibid.. 
Ibid... 

Ibid... 



Id. 

Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Id. 



St. Ives, Hunt- J 
ingdonshire. 



. King Watts, 
Esq. 



See Appendix, No. 
10. 



Ibid. 

Ibid. No. 12. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

MS. Utter. 



30C altyrir 



XfraCyyni 



we now come to the conclusion that there were two showers on two suc- 
cessive nights, bearing a very close resemblance to each other. The following 
description is one of the most copious and clear that we have met with ; it is 
from the pen of one of the oldest and ablest of our observers in India : — 

" 4 On the evening of Saturday the 19th of April, I was sitting in a 
verandah of the Government House at Madras, facing to the eastward, from 
about £ past 8 to \ past 10. From the height of the verandah 1 could see 
the sky to about an altitude of 60° or 65°, and about one-fourth of the horizon 
between north-east and south-east. During the period above stated 1 counted 
not less than forty meteors, of different magnitudes and brightness. The flight 
of the whole was from north and north-east to south and south-west Some 
of them commenced their flight at a point of the heavens invisible to my eye, 
whilst others came into sight whilst on their career, from my left-hand. Some 
burned out (if I may use the expression) whilst visible, and others disap- 
peared whilst yet burning to my right-hand. I heard no explosions, though 
some of the largest left a bright streak or tail, the trace of which remained 
for several minutes. The greater part of the time it was brilliant moonlight, 
which detracted greatly from the effect of the meteors. 



No. 3. (Continued from the same).- 



5 During the period between the 
Q2 



228 report— 1852. 

29th of April, 1851, and the 6th of May the atmosphere at Madras was com- 
pletely overcast with dense clouds. On the night of the 2nd of May (Friday), 
at 10 o'clock, there was every symptom of the subsequent gale. At the 
hour I state, I observed in the south-east quarter a very extensive circular 
illumination of the clouds, which continued for above a minute. The space 
in the clouds so lighted up might, I estimated, be about 10° in diameter, 
but owing to the dense state of the atmosphere and the lowness of the 
clouds, I saw nothing of the meteor, which doubtless covered the circular 
illumination. I infer that the meteor was flying towards me, that is, from 
south-east to north-west, because the shape of the illumination in the clouds 
did not vary. 

" * On the night of the 22nd of this month, I was sitting, as is my wont, 
under an awning on the terrace of my bungalow at Ennore (11 miles north 
of Madras) : I could see in altitude about 75°. About 4 past 10 o'clock, a 
very brilliant and large meteor came within the range of my sight, and fell 
apparently perpendicularly in the sea (Bay of Bengal). From the moment 
it became visible to me it rather increased into size and brilliancy than other- 
wise, and was in full blaze when it disappeared behind the sand-hills in front 
of my bungalow, which is not above a quarter of a mile from the sea-shore. 
The colour of this meteor, which seemed to be as large as an 8£lb. shot (qu.), 
was bright purple and green mingled, and it left a luminous tail or streak, 
which did not wholly disappear for about two minutes. 

" ' Last night (the 23rd) I saw another meteor in the same quarter, but 
neither of the dimensions nor brilliancy of that of the preceding night The 
flight was from north-west to south-east, and it burned out before it had gpt 
within 10° of the horizon. — Ennore, 24th of May, 1851/ 

" Our correspondent mentions a very brilliant meteor seen from Madras 
some months since before sunset ; it swept clean across the sky, and was so 
light and of such magnitude that it caused a glare over the landscape even at 
this early hour. This is the third meteor within the year that has been visible 
in daylight in India ; that seen to explode on the SOth of November, 1850, 
near Bissunpore at 3 p.m., — the stone was afterwards picked up ; — and that 
seen near Beerbhoom at 9 p.m. on the 8th of January, 1851/' [See last Re- 
port.] — Bombay Times, June 4, 1 851 . 

No. 4. — " A correspondent of the Bengal Uurkaru, subscribing himself 
* W. M.,' gives the following interesting account of a meteor which he had ob- 
served on the night of the 19th of September : — 

" * A splendid meteor burst over Calcutta last night about 1 1 p.m., and I 
send this notice to you that it may serve as a record of the event On the 
13th, 14th, and 15th, the atmosphere was dry and its general movement from 
south-west, the lower clouds also moved from south to west, little wind and 
occasionally sultry and oppressive. On the 16th and 17th a storm or squall 
brewed in the south-east during the afternoon, but did not visit us. On the 
18th of September the clouds and atmosphere during the forenoon moved from 
south-west ; the weather dry and close. Between 3 and 5 p.m. nimbus clouds 
passed over quietly from north-west to east, with scarcely a breath of air. After 
5 p.m. the aspect of the sky was again dry. The chirping of the crickets was 
unusually loud, and the weather close and sultry. About 1 1 p.m. the sky was 
clear, but the stars were not brilliant, and there was no wind, when a most 
splendid meteor lighted up in zenith or a little north of it, and shot down 
half-way to south a little west, illuminating the landscape as if the full or 
half-moon had suddenly appeared on high. The meteor was a bright ball of 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 229 

light appearing to be of a size equal to one-fifth the area of the full moon : it 
was star-shaped, its light brilliaut with a faint tinge of blue, but its light re- 
flected from surrounding objects had a green tinge even in the sky ; and in 
its progress there was a curdling appearance in the sky, about ten or fifteen 
degrees in advance of it, as if cirrus or fleecy clouds, very gauzy and thin, were 
retreating from it and crowding on each other, or more like a very thin and 
watery solution of white paint brushed over a smooth and polished surface 
and then invaded by the finger. The white particles fly from the finger with 
the repelled liquid, and form a white fleecy circle at a little distance all round 
it The meteor endured as long as a person would require to take five or 
six steps at a quick march and disappeared at once, from perfect brightness 
to nothing, leaving no apparent track where it was extinguished : but in the 
upper part of its course, a little south of zenith, there was a milky or phos- 
phorescent line, its thickness that of the little finger, and tapering towards the 
south ; and between its southern point and the spot where the meteor vanished, 
a clear space of some degrees without any evidence of a track. There was 
no appearance of an explosion, nor did I hear any sound. I am not quite 
certain of the hour, but I think the church clocks were chiming eleven a few 
minutes after the meteor disappeared. Shortly after a light southerly air 
sprung up, and during the night the temperature was low, approaching to 
coW— Bombay Times, Oct. 3, 1851, 

No. 5. — " On the 1st of June last, about 8j p.m., while there were clouds 
around, cirrostratus overhead, and moderate south-east wind blowing,a splendid 
meteor shot from zenith towards south : it gave a light like that of the moon 
when it is four days old, and turned to a green star just before it disappeared. 
This meteor was preceded by four days of dry and sultry weather." — Ibid. 

No. 6. — " Some singular phenomena occurred during the thunder-storm 
of Thursday evening, Sept 25, 1851, which seem well- worthy of record. 
Exactly at a quarter past ten, when the thunder was at its loudest, the inha- 
bitants of the northern end of the Fort were alarmed with the sound as if of 
a large mass of something rushing violently through the air, the noise 
resembling that of a huge cannon-shot passing close by ; and immediately 
afterwards a tremendous crash was heard, as if the mass had impinged on the 
ground or penetrated some of the buildings ; nothing however could yester- 
day morning be discovered in the neighbourhood. The whole closely re- 
sembled what is mentioned as having occurred in Ross-shire in August 1849, 
when a huge mass of ice was found to have fallen. The rain was at this time 
falling so furiously, the night was so dark in the intervals between the 
flashes of lightning, and these last so bright and frequent, that a meteor of 
any size might have " swept unheeded by;" yet appearances look very much 
as if something of this sort had fallen, and we should recommend observers 
to be on the outlook for the corpus delicti — more than likely at the same 
time to have dropped into the sea. A tumbler half-full of water, on the side- 
t>oard of a house near the Mint, fell in two about seven in the evening, im- 
mediately after a vivid flash of lightning ! We have it now before us ; it is 
cut almost as clean asunder as if cloven with a knife. The storm abated 
somewhat after eleven, having apparently gone round to the west and south- 
west : half an hour after midnight it again got round to east, and several loud 
peals of thunder were heard ; the lightning throughout was almost continued. 
Shortly after one all was tranquil again." — Bombay Times, Sept. 27. 

" The Meteor. — The writer of the following most interesting notice has our 
grateful thanks ; we trust to hear further of the matter from the lighthouse, 



230 report — 1852. 

or those on board the outer light- vessel. We have oo doubt whatever that this 
was a meteor or fire-ball of large dimensions which has fallen into the sea : — 
* It may be of interest to you, with reference to the notice in to-day's paper 
of the storm on the night betwixt Thursday and Friday, to know that I was 
last evening informed by a seafaring friend of mine, who was, at the time the 
Times describes the rushing sound to have been heard, sitting on the deck of 
a vessel in harbour watching the storm, that he saw what appeared to be an 
immense mass or ball of electric fluid fall perpendicularly (as it were) into 
the sea, apparently near the outer light- vessel: the persons in charge of this 
craft may probably be able to afford further information.' " — Ibid. Sept. 29. 

" Some further particulars of the fall of the meteor which occurred during 
the thunder-storm of Thursday evening noticed in our two last issues, have 
since then been received. The mighty rushing sound and violent concussion 
perceived by hundreds of persons in the Fort, was so in exactly the same 
manner in Colaba, a mile to the southward, — at Ainbrolie, two and a half miles 
to the north-west, — as it was in the Roadstead, a mile to the eastward. All the 
parties between these two extremes of nearly four miles giye exactly the same 
account of the matter. The sound was said to proceed from the northward as 
of that of a body passing right over head towards the south, and striking the 
ground at no great distance. As these phenomena are spoken of by all parties 
as nearly identical, the meteor must have passed when at its nearest at a di- 
stance of ten or twelve miles at least. We want more information on the sub- 
ject ; the smallest contributions will be acceptable : only one party who has 
communicated with us actually saw it rush through the air, and observed it 
fall near the outer light-ship."— Ibid. Sept. 30. 

" The Meteor of last Thursday. — The following notice of the meteor of 
Thursday last, Sept 25, closely corresponds with what has already reached us : 
had our correspondent been able to give us anything like an exact idea of 
the interval which elapsed betwixt the fire-ball being seen and the sound being 
heard, we might have formed an estimate of the distance of the falling body, 
if the hissing spoken of was in reality the same as the rushing through the 
air described by other observers. We shall be happy to receive the further 
communication our correspondent promises us. ' My wile and I had been 
watching the lightning for some time at the door of our bungalow, but feel- 
ing very much fatigued, being an invalid, I retired to the sofa, and had scarcely 
done so when my wife called out that she saw a ball of fire fall into the sea 
in the vicinity of the outer light-ship. The heavens appeared to open at one 
spot, from which it descended. This took place between the hours of ten 
and eleven p.m. Neither of us noticed at that time any peculiar noise, but 
at a later hour I said, Listen to the conflict going on amongst the elements : 
they seemed hissing one another for some moments. 1 recollect many 
years since, when residing at Sidmouth, on the coast of Devon, during a 
violent storm, a large ball of fire fell into the sea, illuminating the whole re- 
gion ; but in those years little or no notice was taken of these things.' " — 
Ibid. Oct. 2. 

No. 7.— Meteors seen by Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Boreham, Aug. 11, 1851, 
from 10 to 11 o'clock. Right ascension of zenith 19* 20" to 2CP 20™. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 231 

North. 



West. 




South. 

No. 8.— Diagram of Mr. Hewitt's meteor, Sept. 20, 1851. 

jg, Polaris. 






East 



J 



is \ 



*U 



232 report— 1852. 

No. 9. — Extract of a note from John Carrick Moore, Esq., Corswall, 
Stranraer, N.B. Addressed to Mr. Faraday. 

" On the evening of Tuesday, the 13th of July, 1852, 1 happened to observe 
a very brilliant meteor. I was walking on the bridge of Carlisle when it oc- 
curred. It resembled a large star, but certainly bigger than Jupiter, which 
was shining bright at the time. It was about N.W. or perhaps N.N.W., and 
seemed to fall vertically, or with a very slight inclination to the E. I guess 
the altitude when it first appeared to have been about 20° above the horizon. 
[I am aware that persons not in the habit of using instruments generally ex- 
aggerate altitudes ; but still I do not think it could have been less.] The co- 
lour was a bright orange-red ; as it fell, the brilliancy increased ; it became 
nearly white, and then again a very bright red, and disappeared without di- 
viding. The night was still, there were no clouds, and not the slightest sound 
was perceptible. I do not think it could have been two seconds visible. It 
had scarcely disappeared, when the clock of Carlisle, set to railway, that is 
London time, struck 10. 

" I would mention a circumstance, which I thought I noticed, but in which, 
as the time was so short, I may be deceived. The meteor appeared after the 
brilliancy increased, suddenly to become dim, and then again to shine out in 
its greatest brightness, which was at the moment of its disappearance. It 
seemed so near, that I tried to mark the spot where it fell. Mr. Hyslop, the 
clergyman of Kirkcolm, tells me he also saw it on the shore of Loch Ryan, 
about 90 miles as the crow flies to the west ; he expected it also to fall near 
him. Mr. H. tells me it seemed to him to fall with a considerable slope to the 
east He did not observe the dimness after the first increase of brilliancy, 
which I have mentioned, and of which I feel rather confident ; the more so, 
that I did not expect it, and never heard of such being observed before." 

No. 10.— Extract of a letter to Prof. Powell from W. R. Birt, Esq. 

" 11a Wellington Street, Victoria Park, London, Aug. 11, 1852. 

" My dear Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you the enclosed obser- 
vations of luminous meteors witnessed by myself and a friend, Mr. J. Hard- 
ing, last evening in the Victoria Park. The two classes of shooting stars are 
very apparent, viz. those stars that increase in brilliancy during their progress, 
and those that decrease as they proceed. The first star seen by myself, at 
9 h 2™ p.m., is an instance of the first class, and that seen by Mr. Harding, at 
9 h 28 m p.m., is a fine instance of the second. The description by Mr. Harding 
appears to be very accurate : I regret I did not catch it, but the figure given 
well describes the appearance presented by the meteor seen on the evening 
of July 29th, an account of which I forwarded you. The paths of the whole 
of the stars now sent, if prolonged, meet in the constellation Camelopardalis, 
and may be regarded as confirmatory of the point of divergence being in this 

constellation at this period of the year. The same feature which I noticed 

three years since was well brought out last evening, viz. the retrograde move- 
ment of the meteors towards the southern and eastern part of the heavens, 
and the direct movement of those in the northern and western,— confirmatory 
of the idea that the real movements of the meteors are of a planetary nature 
and opposed to the motion of the earth in its orbit, unless they should be com- 
paratively at rest as the earth passes through the group. 

" I have the honour to be, my dear Sir, 

" Yours very respectfully, 
" Rev. Professor Powell:* « W. R. Birt." 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 233 

No. 11. — Letter from Mr. W. W.Boreham to Prof. Powell, with diagrams 
of meteors. 

" Haverhill, Aug. 13, 1852. 

" Dear Sir, — I enclose three diagrams of the approximate paths of 80 on 
Aug. 9, and 23 on Aug. 10. 

" On the former evening I was assisted by Mrs. Boreham ; on the 10th I 
observed alone, looking westward. 

" There was one very remarkably brilliant meteor at 10* 58 m on the 9th, 
the path of which was illuminated for 30 or 40 seconds (marked *). 

" Trees interfered with my seeing it perfectly. 



Rev. Prof. Powell." 



" I am, dear Sir, yours most truly, 
" Wm. W. Boreham. 



Fig. 1. 
North. 



West. 




East 



South. 



Aug. 9, 1852, from 10* 25" to 10* 55" mean time. Right ascension of zenith 19 h 40 m to 
20*10". 



234 



REPORT — 1852. 



Fig. 2. 
North. 



West 




South. 

Aug. 9, 1852, from 10 h 55 m to ll h 30" mean time. Right ascension of zenith 20* 10" to 
20* 46 m . 

No. 12 Note from W. R. Birt, Esq., to Prof Powell. 

" Observations of Luminous Meteors seen at 11a Wellington Street, Vic- 
toria Park, London, by W. R. Birt 

" 1852, Aug. 15, 9* 5 m p.m* — A very small luminous meteor passed just 
above /3 Cassiopeia? towards the south-east, its visible part less than half a de- 
gree ; it was very brilliant for its size, which was less than a star of the third 
magnitude. 

" 1852, Aug. 15, 9* 8 m p.M. — A small globular meteor, between second and 
third magnitude, parsed about midway between a Andromedee and/3 Pegasi; 
it appeared to describe a somewhat curved path, but very slightly so, within 
and nearly parallel to the sides of the square formed by a, fi aud y Pegasi and 
a Andromeda? ; its motion was from the line joining a Andromedee and fi Pe- 
gasi to that joining a and y Pegasi. 

" Immediately afterwards another very similar meteor described a very 
similar and nearly parallel path about the same distance, east of a Andromeda? 
and a Pegasi, as the former star was west of them : both these meteors very 
closely resembled the falling stars designated b, No. 4 and 5, observed on the 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 235 



West 




East 



Aug. 10, 1852, from 9 h 57" to 10* bT 
20*15-. 



Righti 



iofsenithl9 h 15-to 



10th of August, 1849 (see Report, 1849, pp. 51, 52). The approximation 
of the parallelism of their paths clearly indicates them to have been two 
distinct bodies ; colour a bright bluish white. 

"Aug. 15, 9* 10™ p.m. — A bright meteor fully of the second magnitude 
shot across the Milky Way about half a degree north of fi Cassiopeia? towards 
Polaris. 

" Upon comparing the path of this star with that observed on August 10, 
9 h 2™ p.m. (1 852), it will be found that their paths cross at rather a consider- 
able angle, the star of August 10 moving from Capella towards Cygnus, 
which would be slightly erratic from the general direction of movement wit- 
nessed on that evening. The direction of the star seen this evening at 9* 14 m , 
is considerably at variance, with the motion of the other three, indicating that 
the body was certainly moving (L e. with its true motion) in a different di- 
rection." 

No. 13. — Communication from the Rev. W. Read, M.A., to Professor 
Powell. 

" Croydon, Surrey, Aug. 12, 1852. 
" I have the honour to transmit an account of a singular phenomenon wit- 



236 report — 1852. 

nessed by myself and my family on the morning of the 4th of September, 
1850. 

" I was then residing at the Vicarage, South Mimms, Middlesex, in a 
situation peculiarly favourable for astronomical observation. 

" 1 had been engaged for several consecutive days in observing the planet 
Mercury during his approach to the sun ; partly to test the accuracy of my 
power of observation by the calculations of the* Nautical Almanack, but 
chiefly to remark how nearly I could trace the planet in his course to the sun, 
before he should be wholly lost in his rays. 

" For this purpose I used the most careful adjustments my instrument was 
capable of, and continued my observations without noticing anything peculiar. 

" When, however, on the morning of the 4th of September I was preparing 
my equatoreal before it was fixed on the planet, I observed, passing through 
the field of view, in a continuous stream, a great number of luminous bodies ; 
and I cannot more correctly describe the whole appearance, than by employ- 
ing the same language which I used when 1 communicated the circumstance 
to the Royal Astronomical Society, in the Monthly Notices of Dec IS, 1850, 
and Dec 12th, 1851. 

" When 1 first saw them I was filled with surprise, and endeavoured to ac- 
count for the strange appearance by supposing that they were bodies floating 
in the atmosphere, such as the seeds of plants, as we are accustomed to wit- 
ness them in the open country about this season ; but nothing was visible to 
the naked eye. 

" The sky was perfectly cloudless ; and so serene was the atmosphere, that 
there was not a breath of wind through the day, even so much as to cause 
any perceptible tremor of the instrument; and I subjected the luminous 
bodies to examination by all the eyepieces and coloured glasses that were 
needful; but they bore every such examination just as the planets Mercury 
and Venus did, both of which were frequently looked at by me, for the pur- 
pose of comparison, during the day ; so that it was impossible I could resist 
the conclusion (much as 1 was early disposed to hesitate) that they were real 
celestial bodies moving in an orbit of their own, and far removed beyond the 
limits of our atmosphere. 

" They continued passing, often in inconceivable numbers, from I past 9 
a.m., when 1 first saw them, almost without intermission, till about | past 3 
p.m., when they became fewer, passed at longer intervals, and then finally 
ceased. 

" The bodies were all perfectly round, with about the brightness of Venus, 
as seen in the same field of view with them ; and their light was white, or 
with a slight tinge of blue ; and they appeared self-luminous, as though they 
did not cross the sun's disc ; yet when seen near him they did not change 
their shape, or diminish in brightness. 

" They passed with different velocities, some slowly, and others with great 
rapidity ; and they were very various in size, some having a diameter, as nearly 
as I could estimate, about 2", while others were approaching to 20". 

" I tried various powers upon them, and used both direct and diagonal eye- 
pieces ; but with every one I employed they showed the same appearance, 
being as sharply defined as the planet Jupiter, without haze or spot, or in- 
equality of brightness. 

" I naturally anticipated some such appearance at night, but after \ past 3 
I saw nothing peculiar, though I waited till 11 p.m. ; but have since been in- 
formed that at \ past 1 1 (it is believed on the same night) a meteor of amazing 
brilliance and size, and passing in the same direction and about the same al- 
titude, was observed by Mr. Ballau of Wrotham Park, in the immediate 
neighbourhood of South Mimms,. 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEOB8. 237 

" I repeated my observations the following morning, and then saw one such 
single body pass in the same direction as those of the preceding day. w 

"They occupied a tolerably well-defined zone of about 18° in breadth; 
and, though with some exceptions, their direction was due east and west. 
Their motion was perfectly uniform, so far as I was able to follow them with 
the instrument at liberty; and they were observed continuously by myself and 
members of my family, accustomed to the use of instruments, both by day 
and night. 

" The telescope I employed on this occasion- is one of 3-J feet focal length, 
and 2J inches aperture, by Mr. Dollond, of faultless performance and mounted 
equatoreally by Mr. Jones of Charing Cross, the circles divided by Mr. 
Rothwell of London, and reading off to 5". 

" I understand that a similar phaenomenoa has been witnessed by Mr. 
Cooper of Markree Castle, County of Sligo, though I have not communicated 
with that gentleman on the subject ; but I take the opportunity of subjoining 
a portion of the contents of a letter to me from Charles B. Chalmers, Esq., 
F.R.A.S., now residing at Jugon, Cotes du Nord, France. 

"He thus writes : — * About the latter end of the year 1849, 1 witnessed a 
phenomenon similar to that which you saw in September J 850, in every re- 
spect, excepting that I thought some of the bodies were elongated, though 
certainly the majority were globular ; and their brightness appeared to me 
about equal to that of Venus, as seen at the same time. 

" *I was then residing at Weston* Super-Mare, in Somersetshire ; and the 
instrument with which I saw them was a 5-feet telescope, equatoreally 
mounted, in a fixed observatory. 

" * I was engaged similarly to yourself in observing the planet Mercury ; 
about 4 past 10 a.m. I was at first inclined to believe it must be the seed of 
some plants of the thistle nature floating in the air, but from my position that 
could not have been the case. 

" * The wind on the day I observed the phenomenon was very slight ; but 
such as it was it came from the sea. The bodies all appeared sharply defined, 
no feathery appearances that I could detect ; and I did not observe any differ- 
ence in their brightness during the time I observed them*. 

" Mr. Chalmers, then, after offering some remarks on a communication 
made by Mr. Dawes to the Roy. Astron. Society's Notice in April 1852, says, 
' My impression certainly is that the phenomena observed by Mr. Dawes 
and myself were not similar, and I trust that future observers may throw a 
clear light on the subject ; for though Mr. Dawes is a very high authority, 
he is not infallible'. 

u I feel it right, myself, to notice, that in the paper referred to by Mr. 
Chalmers, Mr. Dawes conceives an appearance which he saw to have been 
produced by seeds floating in the atmosphere. 

" No one, I am sure, would doubt the correctness of his observations on 
such subjects ; but, excepting in the season of the year, there is so little real 
similarity, that they cannot be parallel cases ; and in his concluding observa- 
tion that ' had such a dense shoal of bodies so brilliant as those described by 
me, as seen in September, passed in the night, they would have sufficed to turn 
darkness into day;' no doubt but that would have been the case, as it was 
in the phenomenon witnessed by Messrs. Olmsted and Palmer in America, 
as recorded by Capt. Smyth and Baron Humboldt 

" In conclusion, I may be permitted to say to the British Association, that 
I had been, at the time my family and myself witnessed what I now commu- 
nicate, a careful Observer with superior instruments for upwards of 28 years, 
but that I never saw such appearance before nor since that period. 

" William Head, M.A." 



238 report— 1852. 

No. 14.— Letter from Dr. Buist to Prof. Baden Powell, Oxford. 

" Bombay, July 24, 1852. 

" Dear Sir, — I have done myself the pleasure of forwarding from time to 
time to your address copies of the * Bombay Times/ containing notices of 
meteors seen on the coast of India in the course of the year. I regret to say 
that the list is a poor one ; whether it be the want of reapers or the barren- 
ness of the celestial field which has prevented more information being gathered, 
I shall not take upon myself to determine. 1 have been about as much out 
in the open air as usual, that is, I have driven home from office six miles every 
evening after dark, and so am likely to observe anything unusual in the skies : 
this season 1 have absolutely seen nothing. 

" One of the most extraordinary circumstances hitherto observed, is the 
length of time through which they are occasionally visible in one spot, when 
they must either be approaching or retiring from the earth in a line with the 
observer's eye. Another adverted to by Olmsted is the almost equally sur- 
prising train of light they occasionally leave behind them ; the most extraor- 
dinary case of which is that described in a recent number of the Journal of 
the Bengal Asiatic Society, by Professor Middleton. 'I was awakened,' 
says he, ' at four o'clock on the morning of the 4th of Sept, 1844, by my friend 
Mr. Williams, Head Master of the College, who remarked to me that some- 
thing remarkable had occurred towards the north, when a truly beautiful 
object presented itself, namely a delicate white arch of light, extending from 
about four degrees from the horizon on the west, to about seven on the east, 
its crown rising up to near the Pole star. It looked as if an even and rigid 
rod coated with phosphorus had been made to arch the sky in the manner 
described. It was seen under very favourable circumstances, also in so far 
as no trace of cloud was anywhere visible, the sky being at the time of that 
peculiar depth and transparency which is to be witnessed here during a break 
in the rains. The account which he gave of its first appearance was this :— 
a servant rushed into the house in great fright, declaring that the sky had split 
He first saw he said an immense ball of fire pass from east to west, which left 
behind it the rent which had terrified him so much. During the time which I 
was able to observe the arch, about twenty minutes, it increased in curvature 
near the crown, which besides moved slowly through about two degrees to- 
wards the east The dawn was now setting in, and the arch diminishing in 
absolute brightness, though still as well-defined as at first, and before it had 
ceased to be distinguishable it had shortened by several degrees, rushing away 
from the ends upwards.' 

" I sent to you last year an account of a meteor seen here on the 6th of 
November, 1850, a few minutes before seven o'clock. When first seen it was 
about 60° above the horizon, and was rushing towards the south. It tra- 
versed an arc of about 40°, when it exploded without noise, descending in a 
number of brilliant fragments towards the earth. It left a long stream of 
brilliant white light behind it, ten or twelve degrees in length, resembling the 
tail of a comet, and which was visible for full twenty minutes. Seen through a 
telescope it bore exactly the appearance of a comet, the nucleus, even after 
the explosion, and when nothing was visible to the naked eye, but the light 
appearing like a star of the second magnitude, surrounded by luminous va- 
pour or cloud. Captain Shortrede describes a meteor seen by him from Churla 
on April 11, 1842 ; it was from ten to twenty degrees in length, equally bright 
throughout, except at the upper end, where it was rather faint It continued 
of the same appearance and at the same place for two or three minutes, when 
it became fainter and fainter and then vanished. There' are numberless 
instances in which similar things have been visible, but for shorter periods of 
time. I called your attention last year to the extraordinary shower of me- 



ON THE INFLUENCE OF SOLAR RADIATION ON PLANTS. 239 

teors seen on the 19th of March, 1851, at Shekarpoor, Bombay, Kholapoor, 
and Cawnpoor, over an area of nearly a thousand miles each way. I have 
now to bring to your notice the following remarkable facts in reference to 
fire-balls seen to fall during thunder-storms. 

" 1 have scarcely any hope that this will reach you in time for the Meet* 
ing of the Association, as this is our season of slow mails. It was not in my 
power to despatch it sooner, and the facts may be worth preserving though at 
present useless to you. 

" We have had three instances this season of what seems to have been the 
fall of an aerolite during thunder-storms. On the 25th of September a violent 
explosion occurred in the air at Bombay, followed by a wild rushing sound 
overhead, heard at various points over an area of thirty miles in length and 
eight in breadth, followed by a severe coouession, as if a heavy body had 
fallen, just before the occurrence of which a large fire-ball was seen plunging 
into the sea* On the 18th of March, during a violent thunder-storm near 
Dhutmah in the north-west provinces, at seven p.m., a thunderbolt, as it was 
called, was seen to fall and strike the ground, giving out in the course of the 
concussion a clear ringing sound like the crack of a rifle ; there was no echo 
or reverberation at all like thunder. It appeared 150 yards from Choki, and 
resembled in its descent a huge ball of red-hot iron with a band of fire esti- 
mated at about thirty feet in length* On the 30th of April, about midnight, a 
violent explosion was heard during a storm of wind and rain at Kurrachee, 
resembling the discbarge of a vast artillery battery, and about half a minute 
afterwards a meteor, partially obscured by the rain, but still distinct and visible, 
was seen descending into the sea. It is now well-established that in India at 
all events earthquakes are almost always accompanied by furious storms of 
thunder, lightning, wind and rain : it is difficult to trace the cause of coinci- 
dences so remarkable in the commotions of the earth and air, still more so to 
imagine any connection whatever betwixt the perturbations within the limits 
of our atmosphere and the movements of solid bodies entering it from re- 
gions beyond its boundaries ; yet it is surely possible to suppose a thunder- 
storm propitious to the precipitation on the surface of the ground of bodies 
which might otherwise have passed on in their career." 



On the Influence of the Solar Radiations on the Vital Powers of 
Plants growing under different Atmospheric conditions. By J. H. 
Gladstone* Ph.D. 

There are few subjects of experimental research in which such opposite 
statements have been made as on the mutual action of the atmosphere and 
the vegetable kingdom ; even the apparently simple question as to whether 
plants increase or diminish the amount of oxygen in the air was long a matter 
of dispute. This arose partly from defective modes of analysing gases; 
partly from experiments upon plants being made under circumstances very 
unfavourable to their healthy development ; and partly also from variations 
in light having a great influence in modifying the functions of the vegetable 
world. The history of these discussions, in which many of the greatest 
philosophers of the day took part, is too long and too well known to need 
further notice here. , When it was fully conceded that carbonic acid really is 



240 report— 1852. 

decomposed by the plant, it was natural enough that those who observed the 
wonderful powers of the chemical rays of the solar spectrum in reducing 
salts of silver and other substances, should refer the chemical changes taking 
place within the vegetable tissues to the same occult agency. But Dr. 
Daubeny, in an admirable investigation, published in the Philosophical 
Transactions for the year 18S6, has shown by indisputable evidence that it 
is the luminous, and not the chemical or the calorific rays, which cause the 
decomposition of carbonic acid with emission of oxygen from the leaves, the 
formation of chlorophyl, the irritability of the Mimosa, the evolution of water, 
and indirectly at least the absorption of it by the roots. The colours of 
flowers are supposed by this author to depend also on the luminous rays ; 
sunshine was found to act far more energetically than diffused daylight; 
while no colouring effects were observed to be produced by any artificial 
illumination, not even by that afforded by incandescent lime. 

That portion of the inquiry requested by the British Association which 
devolved upon me, embraced a question not included in the investigations of 
the Oxford Professor, nor in those of any other experimentalist, as far as I 
am aware: I refer to the influence of various atmospheric conditions in 
conjunction with light. This circumstance necessitated the employment of 
closed vessels under which the plants should be grown ; and glass, from its 
transparency, was not only the best but almost the sole article which could 
be employed. Bell-shaped glasses were accordingly procured ; and they were 
made of various colours, in order that the different properties of the spectrum 
might be to a considerable extent separated. 

The blue glasses mentioned in this paper had each a capacity of about 690 
cubic inches. A smaller bell-glass of 172 inches capacity was also employed 
in an experiment not described on the present occasion. The yellow glasses 
had a capacity of 650 cubic inches ; the red of 558 ; and those made of 
colourless glass of 740 cubic inches. The darkened glasses mentioned below 
were made by partially covering bell-jars with brown paper, thus excluding 
the light except such as passqd through about one-eighth of the surface of 
the glass, and that on the side turned away from the window. Their cubic 
contents were 500 inches. Small colourless ami yellow glasses were also 
procured, each having a capacity of 1 77 cubic inches. 

The blue glass employed is of so intense a colour, that it cuts off by far 
the greater portion of the luminous rays, but photographic paper showed that 
it admits the chemical rays freely ; it may also be considered as interfering 
much with the transmission of heat. The red glass, on the contrary, freely 
admits the calorific influence, but stops the chemical, whilst, like the blue, it 
diminishes greatly the luminous. The yellow again scarcely decreases the 
illuminating power of light, but almost destroys its chemical action. 

The place in which the experiments here described were conducted, was a 
room in a dwelling-house at Stock well, in the neighbourhood of London. 
The glasses stood on a table close by the window, which had a S.S.E. aspect. 
No fire was ever lighted in the room, but it must have been a little warmer 
than the external atmosphere in the winter time on account of the vicinity of 
heated apartments. 

As preliminary experiments, merely the effect of these coloured glasses in 
accelerating or retarding the growth of various kinds of plants was tried. 

Hyacinths were chosen as samples of bulbous-rooted plants. They were 
all of the same description, purple in colour, as nearly as possible of the same 
size, healthy, and beginning to put forth a plumule and radicles. They were 
weighed, placed on the top of colourless glasses containing sufficient pure 
water just to touch the rootlets, an<} then covered with the large glass shades. 



ON f HE INFLUENCE OF SOLAR RADIATION ON PLANTS. 241 

The experiments were started on Nov. ISth. In order to change the air, 
the shades were lifted off for a minute or two about every second night. 
Each plant grew healthily and flowered ; yet some differences were observed 
of a character which might fairly be attributed to the quality of the light 
First, as to the rootlets. Under the colourless glass they grew abundantly ; 
under the blue glass they also grew abundantly and more rapidly ; under the 
red glass scarcely any rootlets were produced, and what there were never 
attained any considerable length ; while under the yellow glass they were few 
in number, but long. Secondly, as to the leaves and flower-stalk. Under 
the colourless glass they were put forth in process of time and grew healthily. 
No difference was noticeable under the blue ; under the red long spreading 
leaves were put forth, that bent towards the light in a very marked manner, 
and the plant had an unhealthy appearance ; while under the yellow glass 
short sturdy leaves and flower-stalks were produced. 

As to the flower itself, it began to open at about the same period in each 
instance, namely, — 

Under colourless glass, on Feb. 1 1th, or after 90 days. 
Under blue „ „ 10th, % „ 89 „ 

Under red „ „ 8th, „ 87 „ 

Under yellow „ „ 10th, „ 89 ,, 

There was no observable difference in the colour of the four flowers, not- 
withstanding the variety of tint under which they had been formed. The 
flower under the red glass was long and thin. Latterly they all suffered 
for want of room. 

On April 16th all the plants were removed from the water into which their 
rootlets dipped, dried in the air, and weighed. 



Primary weight of bulb. 


Weight of folly developed plant. 


Under colourless glass 1305 grs. 






2118 grs. 


Under blue „ 1328 „ 






2026 „ 


Under red „ 1 135 „ 






1386 „ 


Under yellow „ 1299 „ 






170* „ 


showing an increase of — 








Under colourless glass, as 


1000 


: 


1623 


Under bhie . „ 


1000 


• 


1525 


Under red „ 


1000 




1221 


Under yellow „ 


1000 


: 


1312 



The greatest growth therefore was in the plant exposed to all the influences 
of the solar ray. 

Cereals were also grown under the various glasses, a comparative experi- 
ment being made under a darkened shade. Access of air was permitted to 
the plants by the glasses being placed upon boards which were perforated 
with holes close together, and were raised about one-third of an inch from the 
table. No direct rays of light could enter, especially as the space under the 
boards was blocked up on the side nearest the window, and any diffused light 
finding access by the perforations had to pass through several folds of tarla- 
tane of the same colour as the glass shade itself. 

On Sept. 12th three grains of white wheat, sown in garden mould, to which 
a little stable manure was added, were placed under the various glasses. The 
wheat began to grow in a few days in each instance, one seed only under the 
red glass proving unproductive. They were watered as occasion required. 
In a week or two the plants under the darkened shades attained a consider- 
able height, turning in a very marked manner to that part where most light 

1852. R 



242 report— 1852. 

entered. No secondary leaves ever appeared, but each plant consisted of 
two long white leaves of about 9 inches in length, so thin and flaccid that 
they were unable to support themselves; and after thirty days they drooped 
entirely and became mouldy. The corn-plants under the other glasses grew 
more slowly, but put forth many leaves, attained a height of 10 or 12 inches, 
and remained healthy throughout the winter and spring. Those under the 
yellow glass were the* most sturdy in their growth ; and those under the blue 
alone appeared thin and unhealthy. 

Mallow-seeds (Malope trifida) were sown in garden mould, and placed 
under the various glasses near the commencement of September, the arrange- 
ments being the same as in the preceding experiment They began to grow 
after the lapse of a few weeks, first under the colourless glass, then under the 
blue, and afterwards under the red, yellow* and darkened glasses at about 
the same time, October 8th. Thin etiolated stalks, with only the first pair 
of leaves, and those badly developed, about 2 inches in length, were all that 
was produced under the darkened shade. In about a fortnight they died ; 
and in the middle of March some other seeds sprouted in a precisely similar 
manner. The mallows under the other glasses grew more healthily and sur- 
vived much longer, but in no instance did they arrive at maturity : the best 
plant was one that grew under the yellow light ; it had sprouted in the early 
part of January and put forth many leaves, reaching the height of 5 inches. 
They grew worst perhaps under the blue glass. A self-sown SleUaria grew 
luxuriantly along with the mallows under the red, and a grass-plant under 
the yellow shade. 

In a paper read by my brother and myself before the Association last year, 
and published in the Philosophical Magazine for September 1851, we re- 
marked that plants kept in an unchanged atmosphere appear to enter into a 
sort of lethargic condition. An experiment was instituted for the purpose 
of ascertaining whether the alteration in light produced by coloured media 
made any marked variation in this matter ; and as the pansy and Poa annua 
were the plants generally experimented on in our previous investigation, 
they were employed here likewise. Six pansies newly struck, which had 
taken good root and were vigorous, were planted in six flower-pots contain- 
ing good garden mould; and with each was also placed a grass-plant in 
flower. They were all set in trays filled with water to the depth of an inch, 
or thereabouts ; five were covered with the different descriptions of glass 
shades dipping into the water, so as to cut off all communication between 
the external and internal atmospheres ; while one was freely exposed to all 
the changes of the surrounding air. The experiment was commenced on 
October 17th, and access of air was never permitted to the covered plants. 
The results under the glasses were very various, but how far they depended 
upon the character of the light or upon the peculiar atmospheric condition, 
could not be determined with any accuracy. One thing however was clear, 
that the plants survived much longer for being in an unchanged atmosphere. 
The pansy that was not covered by any shade was attacked with aphides 
eight weeks after the commencement of the experiment, and although these 
were washed off, it drooped before the end of December. The Poa also 
scarcely survived the winter. Under the colourless glass the plants remained 
healthy much longer ; the pansy was attacked by the forementioned insects 
at the commencement of December, but although it was necessarily impos- 
sible to remove the aphides without disarranging the experiment, the plant 
lived till March. The grass-plant grew very luxuriantly. A curious phe- 
nomenon was observed. As the air within the glass shade was perfectly still, 
the ripe seeds of the Poa did not fall from the flower-stalk, and through the 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 243 

dampness of the atmosphere many of them which rested against the sides of 
the glass germinated and shot forth leaves, in some instances S a 5 inches long, 
and radicles of 1 inch in length. Under the blue shade the plants grew very 
tall. No aphides appeared, but mouldiness was observed. In March both 
plants were straggling and unhealthy ; the grass-seeds never germinated ; 
and any portion that died quickly suffered decomposition. The plants ex- 
posed to the red light were healthy at first, and the grass grew luxuriantly ; 
but aphides appeared on the pansy in the middle of December, and at the 
commencement of the succeeding month it became sickly and drooped. The 
grass-plant also lost its healthy appearance during the spring : some of its 
seeds germinated. Under the yellow glass neither of the plants increased in 
size at first, but in the spring they grew, the grass attaining a very great 
length ; they maintained a strong and healthy appearance ; no insects showed 
themselves on the pansy, and the grass-seeds gave little indications of germi- 
nating. Some changes in the colour of the pansy's leaves were observed to 
take place, but the grass remained of its proper green tint. The plants 
under the darkened shade soon became sickly. On December 11th the 
grass was found to be dead ; the pansy had grown tall, and turned decidedly 
towards the least darkened part of the shade ; it was mouldy and ill-favoured, 
and on January 6tb it drooped. 

Researches connected with the growth of plants must necessarily stretch 
over a considerable space of time. My object in detailing these experiments 
now is not to draw any general conclusions from them ; I regard them as 
far too few and uncertain for that ; but offer them to the Association as a 
sample of my preliminary attempts in this inquiry, — attempts which may 
indicate a line of fruitful investigation in future seasons. 



A Manual of Ethnological Inquiry ; being a series of questions concern- 
ing the Human Race, prepared by a Sub-committee qf the British 
Association for the Advancement qf Science, appointed in 1851 (con- 
sisting of Da. Hodgkin and Richard Cull, Esq.), and adapted 
for the use of travellers and others in studying the Varieties qf 
Mm*. 

The late Dr. Prichard read a paper at the Meeting of the British Association 
held at Birmingham in 1839, " On the Extinction of some Varieties of the 
Human Race." He cited instances in which total extinction has already 
taken place, and other instances in which a continually decreasing population 
threatens a total extinction. He pointed out the irretrievable loss to science 
if so many tribes of the human family are suffered to perish, before those 
highly important questions of a physiological, psychological, philological and 
historical character in relation to them, have been investigated. In order 
to direct inquiry rightly into the subject, a set of questions was drawn up by 
a Committee of the British Association, which was largely circulated by 
means of successive grants of money for that purpose. These questions were 
however adapted, not only to direct inquiry respecting those tribes which are 
threatened with extinction, but also to the rest of the human family. The 
object in publishing these questions is to induce Consuls, political and other 

* Copies of this Manual may be had on application to the Aiaiatant General Secretary, 
York ; Messrs. Taylor and Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street ; and Richard Cull, Esq., 
13 Tavistock Street, Ruisell Square. 

R2 



244 report — 1852. 

residents and travellers, to obtain precise knowledge in reply to them, and 
to send it to a centre, the British Association. 

It should always be borne in mind that the verification of what is already 
known is of importance in Ethnology, as in other sciences. The discovery 
of new tribes of the human family falls to the lot of but few observers, while 
many have the opportunity of adding to our knowledge of those tribes that 
are partially known, besides which, recent observation may differ from the 
older in consequence of changes that may have taken place in the people. 
Any amount of knowledge, however trifling it may appear in itself, may be 
of great value in connexion with other knowledge, and therefore will be wel- 
comed. We are seeking Facts, and not inferences ; what is observed, and not 
what is thought. 

The following questions might be much increased in number, and the 
reasons and motives for framing them stated, but such detail would swell the 
tract to a volume. 

Physical Characters. 

1. Ascertain the form, size and weight of the people. Measure the height 
of several men ; state those measures, and whether they are above or below 
the ordinary stature. Measure the length of the limbs, giving the situation 
of the elbow and knee. Measure the circumference of the chest, thighs, legs, 
arms, neck and head of the same men : and weigh the same men. Observe 
if the women be less than the men in stature and relative dimensions ; and, 
if possible, measure and weigh them also. If any remarkable deviations 
above or below the ordinary stature occur in the adults, measure and weigh 
them also. 

2. Note if there be any prevailing disproportion between different parts of 
the body, or any peculiarity of form. 

3. What is the prevailing complexion ? It is impossible to accurately 
describe colour by words. The best method is to imitate the colour on paper ; 
if this be impracticable, state what the colour is in comparison with some 
well-known complexion. The colour and character of the hair can be ob- 
tained by bringing home specimens. State at what age the hair falls off or 
turns grey. The colour, form, size, situation and other character of the eyes 
should be accurately described. It is very desirable to obtain individual like- 
nesses by means of some photographic process. 

4. Is there, apart from lack of personal cleanliness, any peculiar odour, as 
in the Negro ? If so, describe it 

5. The importance of the head claims particular attention. The head 
consists of two parts, viz. the face and the brain-box. Is the shape of the 
face round, oval, long, broad, lozenge-shaped, or of any other marked form ? 
In addition to the best verbal description, give three sketches of the whole 
head, by which means the character of the features, their relation to each 
other and to the whole head, can be at once displayed. These sketches should 
be, — 1st, a profile; 2nd, a front face ; and 3rd, a view looking down on the 
top of the head. Let sufficient neck be taken in order to show how the head 
is set on and carried. And in these sketches accuracy of drawing is indis- 
pensable, without which picturesque effect is valueless. 

The form and size of the head, and the relative proportions of its parts, 

can be obtained with minute precision, by measuring it in the method laid 

down by phrenologists. If the observer be competent, by a previous study 

of phrenology, he is requested to observe the manifestations of mind in con- 

?xion with the cerebral development, as indicated by the form, size and 

^portions of the head. 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 245 

6. Human skulls should be collected, and care should be taken to bring 
away such specimens as fairly represent the people. Remarkable skulls 
should also be preserved and marked as such, their deviations should be ac- 
curately described. And besides those specimens which are brought away, 
it is desirable to observe certain things in a large number, always stating the 
number observed. 

a. Is the os frontis divided by a middle suture? 

b. Are the skull-bones thick, thin, heavy, light, dense, &c ? 

c. Are the sutures much indented ? 

d. Are ossa triquetra frequent ? if so, in what sutures do they occur ? 

e. Does the squamous bone well abut on the frontal bone ? 

f. Open some crania to ascertain if there be large frontal sinuses ; if so, 
state the condition of the ossification, and also of the teeth. 

g. Observe the bones of the face, their relation to each other, and to 
the cranium. 

A. What is the form of the outer orbitar process? 

i. Is the palatine arch fiat or vaulted ? 

j. Does the upper jaw project forwards ? 

A. What is the form of the lower jaw ? 

L What is the shape of the chin ? 

hi. What is the relative position of the ossa nasi and unguis ? 

ft. What is the situation of the foramen magnum ? 

0. What is the state of development of the paroccipital processes ? 

p. Observe the number, position, character and mode of wear of the 
teeth. 

q. Have they any artificial means of modifying the form and appear- 
ance of the teeth ? 

7. The number of lumbar vertebrae should be ascertained, as an additional 
one is said to occur in some tribes. 

8* Measure the length of the sternum, and that of the whole trunk, so that 
comparisons may be instituted. 

9. Give some idea of the relative magnitudes of the chest and abdomen. 

10. What is the character of the pelvis in both sexes ? 

11. What is the form of the foot ? 

12. The form of the scapula deserves attention, especially its breadth and 
strength, and the clavicle also in relation to it 

IS. The blood-vessels and internal organs can be subjected to examination, 
but with greater difficulty : observe any peculiarities in regard to them. 

Peculiarities may exist which cannot be anticipated by special question ; 
the observer should, if possible, examine each organ in detail, and, comparing 
one with another, be will find few things escape him. 

14k Are Albinos found ? if so, what characters do they present ? State 
their parentage, and all that can be gathered to throw a light on their origin. 
State the physical characters of their children if they have any. 

15- Where a district obviously possesses two or more varieties of the 
human race, note the typical characters of each in their most distinct form, 
and indicate to what known groups or families they may belong : give some 
idea of the proportion of each, and state the result of their intermixture on 
physical and moral character. When it can be ascertained, state how long 
intermixture has existed, and of which the physical characters tend to pre- 
dominate. It is to be observed, that this question does not so much refer to 
the numerical strength or political ascendency of any of the types, but to 
the greater or less physical resemblance which the offspring may bear to the 
parental and what are the characters which they may appear to derive from 



246 report — 1852. 

each : whether there is a marked difference arising from the father or the 
mother belonging to one of the types in preference to another; also whether 
the mixed form resulting from such intermarriage is known to possess a per- 
manent character, or after a certain number of generations to incline to one 
or other of its component types. 

16. Any observations connected with these intermarriages, relating to 
health, longevity, physical and intellectual character, will be particularly 
interesting, as bringing light on a field hitherto but little systematically in- 
vestigated. Even when the people appear to be nearly or quite free from 
intermixture, their habits, in respect of intermarriage within larger or smaller 
circles, and the corresponding physical characters of the people, will be very 
interesting. 

Language. 

17. The affinity of languages is one line of evidence of high value in eth- 
nological researches, and hence the importance of obtaining accurate infor- 
mation concerning the language of a people. 

18. If the language be a written one, care should be taken to obtain spe- 
cimens of the best compositions in it, both of verse and prose. If possible, 
procure native manuscripts ; if not, obtain copies of them. 

If there be no written language, and therefore no literature, yet traditions 
will be found which should be obtained and recorded as closely as possible 
verbatim, so as to preserve their own collocation and arrangement of words, 
taking care to select as the most valuable, such as relate to their own origin, 
history, wars, habits, superstitions, &c 

19. If possible, cause some competent person to translate into their lan- 
guage a well-known continuous composition, as the Lord's Prayer, the 1st 
Chapter of Genesis, and the 6th and 7th Chapters of St. Luke's Gospel, for 
with these examples a philologist will be able to give a very good account of 
any language. 

20. In compiling a vocabulary from the mouth of an intelligent native, 
two objects must be steadily kept in view, vix. 1st, the right selection of 
words ; and 2nd, their accurate reproduction. 

1st. The proper selection of words. — In selecting the words to form the 
first vocabulary of a strange language, we must reject, — 1st, all words which 
have no corresponding words in our own language ; 2nd, all words which 
only imperfectly correspond to words in our own language ; and take only 
such words as perfectly correspond. Words are names of things, events, 
qualities, conditions, &c. Words of the following classes should be taken, 
a. The names of natural physical objects, as sun, moon, fire, water, 

man, arm, river. Mil, &c ; the names of animals, &c. 
p. The names of physical qualities, as red, blue, round, long, heavy, &c, 
y. The names of events, actions, conditions, &c, as to fall, to walk, to 

eat, to sleep. 
3. The names of family relationships, as father, mother, sister, uncle, Ac 
p. The names of the numbers as high as they can enumerate. The ordi- 
nal numerals should also be given. 
It should be ascertained if there be Distributives, Multiplicatives, and 
Proportionals. Is there anything corresponding to our Numeral 
Adverbs ? 
(. Personal Pronouns. 

rf. Particles such as prepositions, conjunctions, Arc. 
In compiling a vocabulary, the observer should verify every word he 
receives from one informant by the testimony of others. 
2nd. Their accurate reproduction. — The words should be so written, that 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 247 

a person quite ignorant of the language, and with no other guide than the 
vocabulary, shall be able from it alone to pronounce each word with accu- 
racy, sufficient for philological researches. 

If elementary sounds peculiar to the language, as the clicks of the Kaffirs, 
or the sounds represented by ^p and c of the Persian alphabet, occur in the 

words of the vocabulary, it is obvious that no alphabetic notation will enable 
one who is ignorant of the language to reproduce those words even though 
the compiler invents characters to represent them. Mr. Ellis's Ethnic Al- 
phabet is a useful stock of characters to those whose lingual knowledge is 
sufficient to use it Our own alphabet, however, is found to be sufficient to 
write many vocabularies, including both Kaffir and Persian, with an accuracy 
sufficient for our purpose- 
In writing the vocabulary it is of great importance to mark the accented 
syllable of the word. The mark' of the acute accent is commonly adopted 
for this purpose, and is recommended to be continued by future compilers. 

21. Ascertain the extent of the geographical area over which the lan- 
guage is spoken. 

22. Ascertain what languages it comes in contact with at the periphery of 
its area: and if unknown, or but partially known languages occur, collect 
vocabularies of them also. 

23. Ascertain if the same language without dialectic variations be spoken 
over the whole lingual area. If variations occur, give examples of them ; 
always bearing in mind that Facts are of greater value than opinions. 

Grammar, 

In giving an outline of the Grammar, the following hints may be useful* 

24. Give the various forms which words assume, as — 

a. The plural forms of Nouns, and the Dual if it exist. 

/3. The cases of Nouns. 

y. Adjectives, their inflections and modes of concord. 

I. Pronouns, their various forms, with the Dual if it exist 

25. Exhibit the formation of compound words. 

26. What is the order of words in a sentence? 

27. Beyond the mere order of words, observe if the subject take pre- 
cedence of the predicate : the cause of the effect, and of any peculiarity in 
the statement of propositions. 

Individual and Family Life* 

28. Are there any ceremonies connected with the birth of a child ? Is 
there any difference whether the child be male or female ? 

29. Does infanticide occur to any considerable extent, and if it does, to 
what causes is it to be referred, want of affection, deficient subsistence, or 
superstition ? 

30. Are children exposed, and from what causes, whether superstition, 
want of subsistence or other difficulties, or from deformity, general infirmity, 
or other causes of aversion ? 

31. What is the practice as to dressing and cradling children, and are 
there any circumstances connected with it calculated to modify their form ; 
for example, to compress the forehead, as amongst the western Americans ; 
to flatten the occiput, as amongst most Americans, by the flat straight board 
to which {he child is attached ; to occasion the lateral distortion of the head r 



248 report— 1852. 

by allowing it to remain too long in one position on the hand of the none, as 
amongst the inhabitants of the South Seas ? 

32. Are there any methods adopted, by which other parts of the body may 
be affected, such as the turning in of the. toes, as amongst the North Ameri- 
cans ; the modification of the whole foot, as amongst the Chinese ? 

S3. How are the children educated, what are they taught, and are any 
methods adopted to modify their character, such as to implant courage, 
impatience of control, endurance of pain and privation, or, on the contrary, 
submission, and to what authorities, cowardice, artifice ? 

,34. Is there anything remarkable amongst the sports and amusements of 
children, or in their infantile songs or tales? 

35. At what age does puberty take place ? 

36. What is the ordinary size of families, and are there any large ones? 

37. Are births of more than one child common ? What is the proportion 
of the sexes at birth and among adults ? 

38. Are the children easily reared ? 

39. Is there any remarkable deficiency or perfection in any of the senses ? 
It is stated, that in some races sight is remarkably keen, both for near and 
distant objects. 

40. To what age do the females continue to bear children ? and for what 
period are they in the habit of suckling them ? 

41. What is the menstrual period, and what the time of utero-gestation ? 

42. Are there any ceremonies connected with any particular period of life ? 

43. Is chastity cultivated, or is it remarkably defective, and are there any 
classes amongst the people of either sex by whom it is remarkably cultivated, 
or the reverse, either generally or on particular occasions ? 

44. Are there any superstitions connected with this subject P 

45. What are the ceremonies and practices connected with marriage ? 

46. Is polygamy permitted and practised, and to what extent ? 

47. Is divorce* tolerated, or frequent ? 

48. How are widows treated ? 

49. What is the prevailing food of the people? Is it chiefly animal or 
vegetable, and whence is it derived in the two kingdoms ? Do they trust to 
what the bounty of nature provides, or have they means of modifying or 
controlling production, either in the cultivation of vegetables, or the rearing 
of animals? Describe their modes of cooking, and state the kinds of condi- 
ment which may be employed. Do they reject any kinds of aliment from 
scruple, or an idea of uncleanness ? Have they in use any kind of fermented 
or other form of exhilarating liquor, and, if so, how is it obtained ? What 
number of meals do they make ? and what is their capacity for temporary or 
sustained exertion ? 

50* Describe the kind of dress worn by the people, and the materials em- 
ployed in its formation. What are the differences in the usages of the sexes 
in this respect? Are there special dresses used for great occasions ? and, if 
so, describe these, and their modes of ornament. Does any practice of tat- 
tooing, piercing, or otherwise modifying the person for the sake of ornament, 
prevail amongst the people ? N.B. Such modifications not to be blended 
with other modifications used as signs of mourning, &c. 

51. Have the people any prevailing characteristic or remarkable modes of 
amusement, such as dances and games exhibiting agility, strength or skill ? 

52. Are games of chance known to the people, and is there a strong passion 
for them ? 

53. Do the people appear to be long- or short-lived ? If anjr cases of 
extreme old age can be ascertained, please to state them. Such cases may 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 249 

sometimes be successfully ascertained by reference to known events, as the 
previous visits of Europeans to the country. Is there a marked difference 
between the sexes in respect of longevity ? 

54. What is the general treatment of the sick ? Are they cared for, or 
neglected ? Are any diseases dreaded as contagious, and how are such 
treated ? Is there any medical treatment adopted ? Are there any super- 
stitious or magical practices connected with the treatment of the sick ? What 
are the most prevailing forms of disease, whence derived, and to what extent ? 
Is there any endemic affection, such as goitre, pelagra, plica, or the like ? 
With what circumstances, situations, and habits do they appear to be con- 
nected, and to what are they referred by the people themselves ? 

55. Where there are inferior animals associated with man, do they exhibit 
any corresponding liability to, or exemption from disease ? 

56. Do entozoa prevail, and of what kind ? 

57. What is the method adopted for the disposal of the dead? Is it 
generally adhered to, or subject to variation ? 

58. Are any implements, articles of clothing, or food, deposited with the 
dead? 

* 59. Is there any subsequent visitation of the dead, whether they are 
disposed of separately, or in conjunction with other bodies ? 

60. What is the received idea respecting a future state ? Does this bear 
the character of transmigration, invisible existence about their accustomed 
haunts, or removal to a distant abode ? 

Buildings and Monuments* 

61* What are the kinds of habitations in use among the people? Are 
they permanent or fixed? Do they consist of a single apartment, or of 
several? Are the dwellings collected into villages or towns, or are they 
scattered, and nearly or quite single ? If the former, describe any arrange- 
ment of them in streets or otherwise which may be employed. 

62. Have any monuments been raised by the present inhabitants or their 
predecessors, and more especially such as relate to religion or war ? State 
their character, materials, and construction. If they are still in use amongst 
the people, state this object, even if they should be of the simplest construction, 
and be little more than mounds or tumuli. If these monuments are no longer 
in use, collect, as far as possible, the ideas and traditions of the natives re- 
garding them, and, if possible, have them examined by excavation or other- 
wise, taking care to deface and disturb them as little as possible. 

63. In these researches be on the look out for the remains of the skeletons 
of man or other animals ; and, if discovered, let them be preserved for com- 
parison with those still in existence. 

Works of Art 

64. Let works of art, in metal, bone, or other materials, be likewise sought 
and preserved, and their similarity to, or difference from implements at 
present in use amongst the people of the district, or elsewhere, be noted. 
Have they any kind of commerce or exchange of commodities with the people 
of other tribes or countries, civilized or uncivilized ? and, if so, what are the 
articles which they give and which they take in exchange ? Is this trade or 
barter in continued or irregular operation, or periodical by means of fairs, 
stated journeys to or visits from other people ? 

65. Name the people and channels of this trade. 

66. Is it of long standing, or recent ? 

67* Has it undergone changes, when and how ? 



250 report — 1852. 

68. When a people display their ingenuity by the extent or variety of their 
works of art, it will not only be desirable to describe what these are, bat also 
the materials of which they are constructed, the modes in which these ma- 
terials are obtained, the preparation which they undergo when any is required, 
and the instruments by which they are wrought, Such particulars will not 
only throw light on the character and origin of the people, but will, directly 
or indirectly, influence the commercial relations which may be profitably 
entered into when commerce alone is looked to. When colonization is con- 
templated, the facts contained in the replies to these queries will point out 
the mutual advantages which might be obtained by preserving, instead of 
annihilating, the aboriginal population. 

Domestic Animals* 

Are there any domestic animals in the possession of the people ? Of what 
species are they ? Whence do they appear to have been derived, and to what 
variety do they belong? Have they degenerated or become otherwise 
modified ? To what uses are they applied ? 

Government and Laws. 

69. What is the form of government ? Does it assume a monarchical or 
democratic character, or does it rest with the priests ? 

70. Are the chiefs, whether of limited or absolute power, elective or 
hereditary ? 

71* Is there any division of clans or casts ? 

72. What are the privileges enjoyed by or withheld from these ? 

73. What care is taken to keep them distinct, and with what effect on the 
physical and moral character of each ? 

74*. What laws exist among the people ? How are they preserved ? Are 
they generally known* or confided to the memory of a chosen set of persons ? 
What are their opinions and regulations in reference to property, and espe- 
cially the occupation and possession of the soil ? Does the practice of hiring 
labourers exist among them ? 

75. Have they any knowledge or tradition of a legislator, to whom the 
formation of laws is ascribed ? 

76. Do they rescind, add to, or modify their laws? and how ? 

77. Are they careful in the observance of them ? 

78. What are their modes of enforcing obedience, and of proving and 
punishing delinquency ? 

79. How are judges constituted ? Do their trials take place at stated 
periods, and in public ? 

80. How do they keep prisoners in custody, and treat them ? 

81. What are the crimes taken cognizance of by the laws? Is there gra- 
dation or commutation of punishment ? 

Geography and Statistics. 

82. Briefly state the geographical limits and character of the region inha- 
bited by the people to whom the replies relate. 

83. State approximately the number of inhabitants. As this is an im- 
portant, but very difficult question, it may not be amiss to point out the modes 
in which the numbers may be ascertained. The people themselves may state 
their number with more or less accuracy, but it should be known whether 
they refer to all ranks and ages, or merely comprehend adult males, who may 
be mustered for war, or other general purpose requiring their combination. 
In this case state the apparent proportion between adult males and other 



ETHNOLOGICAL INQUIRY. 251 

members of families. The Dumber of habitations in a particular settlement 
may be counted, and some idea of the average numbers of a family be given. 
Where the people inhabit the water-side, the number and dimensions of their 
% craft may be taken, and some idea of the proportion between the number of 
these and of the individuals belonging to them, may be formed. In drawing 
conclusions from observations of this kind, it will be necessary to have due 
regard to the different degrees of density or rarity, in which, from various 
causes, population may be placed. 

84. Has the number of inhabitants sensibly varied, and within what 
period? 

85. If it have diminished, state the causes ; such as sickness, starvation, 
war, and emigration. When these causes require explanation, please to give 
it. If the inhabitants are on the increase, is this the result of the easy and 
favourable circumstances of the people causing an excess of births over deaths, 
or is it to be assigned to any cause tending to bring accessions from other 
quarters ? State whether duch causes are of long standing, or recent 

86. Is the population generally living in a manner to which they have been 
long accustomed, or have new relations with other people, and consequently 
new customs and practices, been introduced? 

87. If the people, being uncivilized, have come under the influence of the 
civilized, state to what people the latter belong, how they are regarded, and 
what is the kind of influence they are producing*. State the points of their 
good influence, if any, and those of an opposite character, as the introduction 
of diseases, vices, wars, want of independence, &c. 

88. Is there any tendency to the union of races ? how is it exhibited, and 
to what extent ? 

Social Relations. 

89. What kind of relationship, by written treaty or otherwise, subsists 
between the nation and other nations, civilized or not? Have they any 
intercourse by sea with other countries ? Do any of them understand any 
European language ? Or are there interpreters, by whom they can commu- 
nicate with them? 

90. Are they peaceable, or addicted to war? Have they any forms of 
declaring war, or making peace ? What is their mode of warfare, either by 
sea or land ? their weapons and strategy ? What do they do with the slain, 
and with prisoners ? Have they any mode of commemorating victories by 
monuments, hieroglyphics, or preservation of individual trophies, and of what 
kind ? Have they any national poems, sagas, or traditions respecting their 
origin and history ? Where Europeans have introduced fire-arms, ascertain 
the modes of warfare which have given place to them. 

State whatever particulars respecting their origin and history are derived, 
either from traditions among themselves or from other sources. 

Religion, Superstitions, fyc. 

91. Are the people addicted to religious observances, or generally regard- 
less of them ? 

92. Do they adopt the idea of one great and presiding Spirit, or are they 
poly theists ? 

93. If polytheism exist, what are the names, attributes, and fables connected 
with their deities, and what are the modes in which devotion is paid to each ? 

* This question will comprise the existence of missions — the success or the want of it from 
causes connected with missionaries themselves or others. 



252 report — 1852. 

Are any parts of the body held sacred, or the reverse ? Do they offer sacri- 
fices, and are they of an expiatory character, or mere gifts? 

94. Have they any sacred days or periods? fixed or moveable feasts, or 
religious ceremonies of any kind, or any form of thauksgiving or other ' 
observance connected vith seasons ? 

95. Have they any order of priests, and if so, are they hereditary, elective, 
or determined by any particular circumstance? 

96. Is the religion of the people similar to that of any other people, neigh- 
bouring or remote? If different, are they widely so, or dependent on par- 
ticular modifications, and of what kind ? 

97* In what light do they regard the religion and deities of neighbouring 
tribes ? 

98. Is there any idea of an inferior order of spirits and imaginary beings, 
— such as ghosU, fairies, brownies, and goblins ; and how are they described ? 

99. Have they any notions of magic, witchcraft, or second fight ? 

100. What ideas are entertained respecting the heavenly bodies ? Have 
they any distinction of stars, or constellations ? and if so, what names do they 
give them, and what do these names signify ? 

101. Are they in any manner observed with reference to the division of 
the year, and how ? 

102. If time is not divided by observations of those bodies, what other 
mode is adopted ? and do observances connected with them rest with the 
priests or chiefs? 

103. When the traveller, by personal acquaintance with the language, or 
by means of competent assistance from interpreters, can freely converse with 
the people, it will be desirable that he should form some idea of their amount 
of intelligence, their tone of mind with regard to social relations, as respects 
freedom, independence, or subserviency, and their recognition of moral obli- 
gations, and auy other psychological character which observation may detect ; 
and more especially such as may contribute to an estimation of the probable 
results of efforts to dcvelope and improve the character. 

In using this little manual, it should be borne in mind that it is not a mere 
guide to inquire into those tribes that are threatened with extinction, nor to 
make out certain details which are desiderata in our knowledge of the people 
of any given locality, but is intended to direct inquiry generally respecting 
the varieties of man* 



Mean Temperature of the Day and Monthly Fall of Rain at 127 
Stations under the Bengal Presidency, from official Registers kept 
by Medical Officers, for the year 1851. By Colonel Sykes, 
F.R.S. 

[Ordered to be printed entire among the Reports.] 

Dr. George Lambe, late Physician-General in Bengal, has been good enough 
to transmit to me the following analysis of official meteorological returns, made 
by medical officers of the Bengal Presidency to the Medical Board in Calcutta. 
They are limited to the returns of mean dally temperature and fall of rain, the 
extreme difficulty of getting barometers conveyed in safety to distant stations, 
not one in three sent over reaching its destination in an efficient state, having 
left the great majority of medical officers without the means of determining 
the varying pressure of the atmosphere ; and with regard to the moisture in 



TEMPERATURE AND BAIN IN BENGAL. 253 

the atmosphere and fixing dew-points, although several medical officers kept 
registers of the dry- and wet-bulb thermometers (there not being any hygro- 
meters on Darnell's plan in use), yet the registers appeared so little satisfac- 
tory, that Dr. Lambe did not think it desirable to include them in the 
analysis. The daily mean temperature was determined by daily observations 
from three to six in number ; but as these were made during the day and not 
at all at night, the mean temperature is necessarily higher than the mean of 
the 24 hours would be. Proper precautions were taken against direct radi- 
ated or reflected heat, by the thermometers being placed in the hospitals or in 
the surgeons' houses, properly shaded and with a northern aspect ; but the 
errors of construction in the instruments do not appear to have been generally 
verified ; they are not to be relied upon therefore for absolute results ; but as 
the same mode of observation obtains throughout, the different meteorological 
records have a relative value to each other which makes them acceptable. 
The records of the pluviometer are more free from objections than those of the 
other instruments, and they contain some highly interesting results respecting 
the unequal distribution of rain, and in support of the facts adduced by myself 
from Western India, and by Mr. Miller from Cumberland, testifying that the 
rain-fall becomes a maximum in mountainous districts at a certain height, and 
then diminishes as the height increases. For the reasons previously assigned, 
I shall circumscribe my observations on temperature within narrow limits ; 
but as the stations are arranged in groups, within certain areas of latitude and 
longitude, some few facts of interest may be selected. For instance, in the 
Calcutta group of 15 stations, within lat. 19° 48' and 25° 42' N. and long. 
85° 49' and 89° 14' £., Cuttack, in lat. 20° 28', has a lower mean daily tempe- 
rature in January than Balasore, a degree further N. ; but in February this 
is reversed, but reversed again in a marked manner in March, April, May and 
the remaining months until September, when Cuttack becomes hotter than 
Balasore ; but in October it is reversed again. The maximum daily mean 
temperature in this group is 99° in May at Kishnaghur, lat. 23° 24% Ions;. 
88° 22' £. The next is the Dacca group of 19 stations between the parallels 
of lat. 20° 8' and 27° 31' N., and long. 90° 17' and 95° l'E. The same discre- 
pancies are observed here as in the preceding, of the higher latitude having a 
higher mean daily temperature than the lower in some months, witness Buri- 
saul, lat. 22° 35', temperature in January 66°, while Sylhet, lat. 24° 53', in 
the same month is 67 '7 Fahr. The highest daily mean temperature in this 
group is 88°"6 at Burisaul in May. The next group of 10 stations is in 
ascending the Ganges from Hazareehaugh, lat. 24° 0', to Darjeeling, lat. 27° 3', 
at 7000 feet above the sea* ; and from Gyah, long. 85° 3', to Dinagepore, 
long. 88° 41'. The highest daily mean temperature is at Gyah in Behar, lat. 
24° 48', viz. 96°*9 in Mayf. The next is the Benares group of 7 stations, 
from Mirzapore, lat. 25° 9', to Goruckpore, lat. 26° 46', and from long. 82° 6' 
Sultanpore to long. 83° 37' Ghazeepore. The highest mean temperature is 
101° in May at Sultanpore, in a higher latitude than any station or the group 

* Cherrapoonjie and Decca are in the same group, the former at 4500 feet above the sea ; 
the latter is on the Delta of the Brahmaputra. Their difference of latitude is 1° 33' 35"; 
their difference of mean temperature in May is 19°-1, which would give 235 feet to a degree. 
In October the difference is 13°*7 V which gives 329 feet to 1° Fahr. 

f Darjeeling at 7000 feet, and Sarun on the plains differ 1 7| miles in latitude; the difference 
of mean daily temperature in May is 31°'l, giving 225 feet for each degree of temperature ; but 
in December the difference of mean temperatures is only I4 a 8, giving 473 feet for each 
degree of temperature. Tirhoot and Darjeeling differ 55 miles in lat. The difference of the mean 
temperature in May is 30°, giving 233 feet to 1°; the difference in December is 17°'4, giving 
102 feet to a degree. 



254 report— 1852. 

except Goruckpore, and at 1050 feet above the level of the sea. The next 
group is in the N.W. Provinces, and consists of 18 stations, from lat. 21° 51' 
Baitool to lat. 27° 23' Futteghur, and from long. IT 45' Hoshungabad to long. 
81° 54' Allahabad. The highest mean temperature is 103° in May at Myn- 

Ex>rie, lat. 27° 1', and 100°*1 at Allahabad and Nursingpore, the former in 
t. 25° 27' on the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna. The daily mean 
temperatures run very high in May and June at all the stations in this group. 
The Agra group, embracing Rajpootana, has 9 stations, but the observations 
are incomplete. The highest mean daily temperature at Agra, lat. 27° 10', 
was 96°*1 in June. The Meerut and Delhi group has 13 stations, embra- 
cing Almorah at 5500 feet, from Budaon, lat. 27° 50', to Deyrah, lat. 30° 19', 
and from Delhi, long. IT 13', to Almorah, long. 79° 41'. The highest 
mean temperature is 104° at Goorgaon, 38 miles south of Delhi, lat. 27 53', 
in June, and at Delhi, lat. 28° 31', the temperature in May is 98°*6. 
The Umballa group of 1 1 stations embraces Simla, at 7500 feet, and other 
hill stations. At Ferozepore, on the Sutlege and Simla, differing 9 miles, in 
lat. 30° 57' and 31° 6', the highest mean temperature at both is respectively 
in June, 97°*5 and 69°'2 ; the difference of elevation giving 220 feet for each 
degree of difference of temperature in the month of June; but in the month of 
January the difference of mean daily temperatures, 40° and 55°* 9, gives 397 
feet for each degree of temperature. The last group takes us to the Punjab, 
where there are 25 stations between Mooltan, lat. 30° 10', and Peshawur, lat. 
34° 0', and Kohat, long. 71° 26', to long. 76° 1 9' Kangra. Lahore in this group 
is 1 180 feet above the sea, and Peshawur 1068 ; and I presume none of the 
stations, excepting probably Mooltan, have a lower elevation than these. The 
returns are defective, but it would appear a very high daily mean temperature 
exists in somemonths, notwithstanding the comparatively high latitude; Mooltan, 
lat. 30° lO'i temp. 99°*4 ; Jehlum, lat. 32° 55 r , temp. 97° ; and Mean Meer, at 
Lahore, lat. 31° 33', temp. 98°* 2, all in June. The general results would seem 
to indicate that the daily mean temperature in the summer months increases 
with the latitude ; that is to say, that the daily mean temperature in lat. 32° 
in June, July and August, is greater than in lat. 22°. The rain-fall manifests 
in a marked manner, as I have formerly had occasion to show, the great discre- 
pancies in the fall within very limited areas ; and in the increase in the fall up 
to certain maximum elevations. In the case of Calcutta and Barrackpore, only 
9 miles separate in latitude and 44 in longitude, the fall of rain respectively 
for 1851 was 6416 and 4275, differing 22 inches. Hooghly is 20 miles N. 
of Calcutta, and differs only 6 miles in longitude, but the fall was only 36 
inches, differing from Calcutta 28 inches. Barrackpore is intermediate between 
Calcutta and Hooghly, and only 1 j- mile west of the longitude of Barrackpore, 
but the difference in the rain-fall is 6§ inches. All these three places are on 
the Granges, on the same level, about 20 feet above the sea. Burdwan, which 
is 40 miles N. of Calcutta and 28 miles W., had only a fall of 28 inches ; but 
more remarkable still, Midnapore, 8 miles south of Calcutta and 59 west of it, 
had only 22*78 inches; while Cuttack, 76 miles south and l£° of longitude 
west, had 50*17 inches. In the Dacca group, which contains the hill station 
of Cherraponjie in the Cossya hills, the most extraordinary discrepancies occur. 
Chittagong, only 13 miles south of the latitude of Calcutta, but 3±° to the E., 
has 86*33 inches of rain, and lving under the same meridian as Cherraponjie, 
which is 116 miles N. of Chittagong, at an elevation of 4500 feet, it has 
524*02 inches of rain less than Cherraponjie, at which station the almost 
incredible quantity of 610*35 inches fell in 1851 ; and that this deluge is 
no mistake of record, independently of the official report which I quote, I nave 
a letter from Professor Oldham in confirmation of the fact, who spent the mon- 



TEMPERATURE AND RAIN IN BENGAL. 255 

soon of 1851 at Cherraponjie, and kept a separate record : 50 feet 10 inches depth 
of water may be said to have fallen chiefly in 7 months, for in November and 
December there was not a shower ; in January only J of an inch, in February 3*05 
in., and in March 1| inch. The S.W. monsoon would appear to commence in 
April with 67 in., followed by 115*15 in May, 147'20 in June, 99*40 in July, 
103*9 in August, 71 '7 in September, and 40*3 in October ; so that the vapour 
from the south passed over Chittagong, and little of it was condensed until it 
reached Cherraponjie and the Cossya hills. But the discrepancy in the fall 
in the neighbourhood of Cherraponjie itself is not the least remarkable cir- 
cumstance. Sylhet, which lies below Cherraponjie 23 miles to the S. of it, 
and only 7 miles to the W., had only 209*85 m. of rain ; the fall at the prox- 
imate places differing 4005 in. The greatest fall in any month at Sylhet was 
43*35 in May. The explanation of this extraordinary fall at Cherraponjie is 
in the physical circumstances connected with its location. The station is on 
the Cossya hills, at 4500 feet above the sea, facing the south ; and the vapour 
from the Bay of Bengal, floating at a height of about 4500 feet, passes over the 
plains of the Deltas of the Ganges and Brahmapootra, and first impinges upon 
the Cossya hills, and is immediately condensed by the lower temperature at the 
hills ; and then comparatively little of the vapour reaches the higher regions, 
as is the case in the Western Ghauts of India, where the maximum condensa- 
tion takes place also at about 4500 feet. This is shown at Darjeeling, 1500 
feet above Cherraponjie, 134 miles to the N., and 3£° of longitude to the W. 
of Cherraponjie, the fall being only 125*20 in. ; and yet rain fell in every 
month of the year, the maximum fall being 31 in. in June. The rain-tables 
are not complete for Simla at 7500 feet, but the maximum fall in the mon- 
soon months was only 17*95 in. in July and 11*65 in August, the most rainy 
months; so that there can be no question but that the fall does not exceed that 
at Darjeeling, and we have then the fact that those stations so widely separated 
in India as Simla, Darjeeling and Dodabetta on the Neilgherries, at about an 
elevation above the sea of from 7000 to 8400 feet, have about the same 
amount o£ rain-fall ; while the lower elevations of 4500 feet in the peninsula 
of India have the maximum fall, ranging from 300 to 600 inches. It will scarcely 
be desirable to make further comment upon the rain-tables ; but it may be 
stated generally, that as the latitude is increased, and westing made, from Cal- 
cutta the mean annual fall appears to decrease, the fall at Ferozepore being as 
low as 23 in. ; but the discrepancies in the fall in neighbouring localities con- 
tinue, as is manifest in the case of Goruckpore, lat. 26° 3', long. 83° 13', 
having 61*70 in., Azimghur, 42 miles south and 9 miles east, having only 
39*96 in. The rain-tables from the Punjab are incomplete. 

The above meteorological observations suggest to us to be cautious in ge- 
neralizing from local facts, not less with regard to temperatures and falls of 
rain, than on the supposed law fixing a fall of one degree of Fahrenheit for a 
certain number of feet of ascent into the atmosphere. 



256 



BEPOBT— 1852. 



Abttract of Mean Temperature of the Day and Fall of Rain from Regiiten kept 

N.W. Province 



I* 



January. 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day 



February. 



rature 
of the 
day. 



Bain. 



March. 



Mean 



of the 
day. 



Bain, 



April. 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 



Bain. 



Calcutta ... 
Barrackpore 
Hooghly .. 
Jeaaore . • 
Kishnughur 
Bnrdwan .. 
Moorahedabad 
Rangpore . . 
Bauliab . . 
Becrbhoom 
Bancoora . . 
Balaaore .. 
Midnapore 
Poorie .... 
Cuttack . , 



Dacca 

Akyab 

Sandowy . . . 
Ramree .. • 
Chittagong . 
Tipperah . . . 
Buriaaul . . . 

Pubna 

Bogra 

Mymenaing . 

Sylhet 

Cherraponjic 
Gwalparah . 
Gowahuttee . 

Cachar 

Seebaagor . 
Tezpore ... 
Debroghur . 
Nowgong A. . 

Dinapore . . . 
Tirhoot ... 
Dinagcpore . 
Purneah ... 
Darjeeling . 

Sarun 

Mongbyr ... 
Hazareebaugh 

Gyah 

Bhaagulpore 

Benarea 
Gorackpore .. 
Aiimghor.... 
Sultanpore .. 



ft. 
i8-ii 



76 



4500 



7000 



22 33*01 
22 4235 

22 53*24 

23 9* 
23 24* 

23 13-10 

24 11*50 

25 42*50 
24 2315 
23 54-25 
23 14-8 

21 30-7 

22 25*13 

19 48*09 

20 28-55 

23 43*10 
20 8' 



22 20*30 

23 27-30 

22 35*40 



20*34 

*5*4 

26-34 

10*30 

22*20 

52-20 

13*20 

14*50 

33*45 
34*00 
631 
58-11 
19*25 
4910 
54*15 



1050 



2444-50 

H 53 

25 16-35 

26 11* 
26 11*15 
24 48-40 

26 36*45 

27 3>"45 



»5 37*45 

26 7*20 

25 37*30 

25 48*00 

27 3* 

26 45*27 
25 27*26 
24 0-0 

24 48*44 

25 14*50 

25 18*26 

26 463 5 
20 3*2 
26 1535 



90 23*40 
92 56 



91 47*30 
91 5*40 
90 17* 



90 24*20 

91 50*30 

9* 43*55 

90 40- 

91 47* 10 

92 47*17 

92 50*10 
95 1 



5* 10 
26*15 
41*00 
33*00 
18*40 
29*12 

43'3» 

24*20 

3*i6 

O'OO 



83 3*12 

83 22*6 

83 13*20 
82 6-40 



71*2 
72*5 
68*5 

*♦' 

70- 
70*5 

63* 

65*3 

66*3 

695 

71*9 

72-9 

71*6 
72* 

67*3 

7i*5 
7»- 

677 

69-2 

66* 

70*3 

61* 

62- 

677 

53*7 

64*2 

664 

62*5 

6o* 

65*2 

636 



63-6 
6 1*8 

64*5 
40*9 



64*3 

70* 

667 

64*3 
62*2 
64*3 
65*5 



in. 

0*07 

0*24 

0-95 

0*40 

2*50 

0*30 

0*20 

I'lO 



0*90 
0*50 
0*26 

o*io 

0*69 



075 

°*55 
0*72 
0*75 
0-30 
075 
0*70 
051 

0*84 

o-6i 



175 
375 
0-80 
2*12 
3*45 



76*01 

705 

68* 

72- 

76-5 

68*7 

7i*6 

73*i 

74* 

74*9 

69* 

75*6 
78* 

71* 

738 

8i- 

66* 

72*9 

7i*4 
72-6 

74* 
68-2 
64*7 
69*6 

55*i 

66*i 

68*3 

66* 

62*3 

652 

637 

66*5 

67-7 

65*2 

7«* 

65*5 

417 



0-85 

0*30 
o75 

231 
3*60 
3*80 



68* 

65*4 

72* 

72*5 

67*8 
65*4 
669 
70*6 



in. 

2*41 

1*17 

0*65 

o-o 

1*20 

no 
165 
0*10 
o*6o 
o*6o 
0*93 
0*27 
0*23 
0*40 
0*04 

0-99 



1*90 
125 
2*50 
1-60 
170 
3**5 
450 
3*05 
0*70 
c*47 

4*39 
1*87 

5*49 
285 

i* 

i*45 
o*8o 
3*25 
2*40 



1*25 
1*00 
1-25 
150 

i*6o 

0*20 

i*o8 



85*5 

857 

80*4 

8o* 

94* 

8y 

79*2 

79*8 

813 

82*7 

824 

85*8 

74* 
82* 
825 

76*9 



75* 
80*3 

77* 
f 2 ' 5 

807 

7«- 

76-5 
«S3 

76*I 

77*5 
767 
70*5 

74* 
73*1 

7**4 

78*5 
757 
825 

7i*5 
51-8 

76*5 
768 
79*8 
8o* 

74*5 

76*1 
83*4 



in. 

105 

0*24 

o*o 

0-30 

0*50 

0*20 
Il6 
I'lO 

1*20 
i*54 

0*25 



1*22 
0*50 
2*I 5 
1*3© 
IO5 

i*45 

1*06 
2*07 
225 

2'IO 

2* 

0*90 
0*30 
1*50 

4*00 

0'20 

0*35 

O'OO 

0*65 

0*20 

o*6o 



88-7 
90- 

85* 
86* 
96* 
86* 

8r 

826 

859 

869 
89* 
87*5 
8r 5 

85* 
86* 

84' 

83* 

85* 

77*5 

817 

82*1 

84*8 

84* 

83*5 

77*3 

77*7 

67-1 

77-6 

78-9 

77*7 
72*8 

77*3 
73*5 
75*8 

87*8 
842 

IV 

55*3 

f 2 ' 5 

83* 
9 1 * 
86-5 

87*3 
82*9 
8 1*9 
92*2 



4*** 
0-50 

**55 

5"5° 

318 

2*30 

1-20 

5*3© 

19*35 

27*60 

10*20 

5*57 

12' 1 1 
885 

4*27 
9*43 
8*55 



0-70 

2*00 

4*55 



0*40 
0*80 



o*xo 
o-8o 



TEMPERATURE AND RAIN IN BENGAL. 



257 



by Medical Officers at Civil and Military Stations in Bengal and the 
for 185L. 



1852. 



Jane. 


July. 


Augurt. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 




fcf ean | 


Men 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




tmpe-| 


tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe 




tempe- 




tempe 




Rain-mil. 


•cure < Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 


rature 


Rain. 




if the 


of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 






day. 


day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 






© j i»- 





in. 





in. 


867 


in. 





in. 


e 


in. 





in. 


in. 


8 7 l | 839 


•47 


12*89 


861 


1078 


8-49 


8 3 -l 


16*25 


78*5 


.. 


7i*8 


.. 


64*16 


%r 1 6-04 


83-5 


971 


8 7 - 


7*39 


87- 


3*82 


84'5 


io*8o 


74*9 


.. 


67-3 


.. 


4*75 


85- 575 


*Y 


9*60 


84*5 


4*20 


845 


*75 


82-7 


IO'OO 


71-2 


.. 


62*5 


.. 


36*00 


94- 8'6ci8 5 * 


9-90 


9 i* 


4*40 


90*5 


5'40 


86* 


7*15 


8o- 








40*30 


9*5 1 4-5,84* 


23* 


85* 


1075 


85* 


ii* 


84" 


2*50 


75* 


.. 


66- 


.. 


57*7o 


SS 5 315' tr 


885 


86*8 


5*20 


8 7 '2 


**55 


82- 


5-6 5 


73* 


o*6o 


.. 


.. 


28*20 


*S m S\ 4' 6 ' 


8*7 


10-67 


88* 


775 


88* 


3-60 
6-30 


83* 


T 10 


75* 


0*00 


68- 


.. 


40*48 


Syy 1 23-90 


8*5 


1 170 


84-5 


14*40 


87'i 


8o* 


3*20 


79* 


.. 


70*6 


.. 


74*60 


86- x [ 6-88 


8r 


11*56 


87* 


4*95 


87'5 


3*35 


813 


3*30 


72*2 


0*17 


.. 


.. 


31*56 


88-6 1 350 


8r3 


1 1*30 


86-2 


5-40 


86-9 


270 


82* 


4*9° 


75*3 


.. 


697 


.. 


32*06 


90-6 . 4-43 


867 


8*76 


*77 


*75 


88-2 


4-05 


.. 


2*90 


73*5 


.. 


737 


.. 


31*04 


95'5 [ 3*** 


88' 


5-86 


895 


3*65 


82* 


3*40 


83* 


9' 10 


72* 


0*15 


55*5 


.. 


30*79 


865 | 3*10 


815 


4*44 


84' 


4*»3 


83-5 




77* 


7*34 


69* 


.. 


62- 


.. 


22*78 


867. 4-50 


854 


14'3° 


86*2 


7*35 


Si' 6 


4*45 


83* b 


town dow 


n76- 


• • 


72*6- 






92* 


7-31 


84* 


10*20 


86* 


12*11 


86* 


6*io 


79* 


II-65 


•• 


•• 


75" 


•• 


50*17 


84*2 


18-78 


86-3 


1376 


85-3 


10*30 


85*6 


470 


8 1*9 


I2*70 


75*7 


. . 


69*5 


. . 


68-93 


8r 


59*54 


837 


22-43 


83*4 


27*58 


8* 


-T57 


831 


14*09 


81*5 


.. 


75*1 


252 


155*07 


8r 5 


5*-i8 


8*7 


30*64 


817 


37*49 


8 1*4 


29*67 


8i*3 


10*00 


807 


130 


747 


0*62 


178*48 


5r 


17-30 




























76-6 


25-88 


78-i 


13*11 


79- 1 


7*99 


80*5 


16*27 


77*2 


IO75 


72*8 


.. 


67-5 


0*42 


86*33 


806 


19-50 


8i'S 


16-08 


82*2 


25*25 


81*1 


ii-oo 


784 


13-50 


7*7 


.. 


66*1 


• • 


95*95 


»4*5 


20*70 


*33 


17*90 


82*5 


21*00 


84*3 


6*90 


81-8 


2I'I5 


75*6 


.. 


69-5 


.. 


94*47 


r 4 * / *9<> 
14-5/ 14-65 


»»-8 


7-65 


85-2 


6*20 


85> 


6* 10 


81*6 


575 


73* 


.. 


66- 


.. 


39*05 


• • 


7*95 


.. 


8-40 


.. 


6*25 


.. 


6*oo 










5i*44 


(2-3 f 35-25 


845 


20*00 


85-1 


20*38 


!" 


6*52 


817 


10-70 


74*5 


.. 


67*3 


.. 


109-90 


In 39-70 


82*5. 


33'5<> 


82-6 


28*30 


831 


17-85 


I!' 4 


20*40 


73*9 


.. 


69* 


o*45 


209*85 


ri'3 


147-20 


71-8 


99*40 


72*4 


103-90 


7*"4 


7170 


68*2 


40*30 










610*35 


•99 


4**55 


8i'3 


17*90 


81-8 


11*65 


8ri 


7*40 


77*9 


8*85 


71*6 


.. 


658 


.. 


ii6*io 


ri-6 


16-61 


8V7 


935 


83*8 


4*53 


833 


3*05 


80*3 


3-68 


75*» 


0*38 


69*1 


0-50 


5*74 


tj-i 


»5"35 


«3-4 


15*60 


85' 


8-94 


847 


9-32 


809 


11*26 


761 


2'00 


68*3 


0-48 


102-84 


*-6 


16-35 


84-4 


10-43 


84-1 


16*40 


841 


7*40 


79-2 


638 


71*4 


0*05 


65*8 


0*50 


85-18 


b- 


16-82 


845 


4*50 


83-3 


1658 


83** 


450 


79*4 


3*00 


71*2 


.. 


66*1 


0*30 


•*3*49 


64 


1 *"85 


834 


13*74 


82*2 


18*42 


.. 


11*98 


-• 


1773 


.. 


• • 


.. 


.. 


106*95 . 


14 1 ir5<> 


83-9 


7*35 


83-8 


22*20 


8r8 


4*65 


8o*i 


7*00 


70*6 


0*40 


66* 


2*O0 


83*45 


>°*5 


4-50 


86-2 


375 


86*6 


6*75 


8*4 


7-50 


815 


375 


71* 




62-3 


. . 


V 


tf'i 


350 


85-8 


8-45 


86*3 


7*33 


845 


3*50 


8o* 


4'5o 


69* 


.. 


62-2 


.. 


33*38 


8- 


12-50 


.. 


12*70 


89*5 


6*70 


!?' 5 


3*20 


85* 


6-50 


8o* 


.. 


73* 


.. 


46-70 


r* 


9*75 


8 5 -5 


15-12 


84-5 


ii*8o 


86- 


3*35 


79*8 


375 


717 


.. 


65* 


.. 


53*39 


a* 5 


31-00 


637 


27*15 


643 


16*70 


«3* 


19*60 


55*8 


9-40 


5o*4 


0*10 


44*8 


O'lO 


125*20 % 


9*9 


.. 


86-4 


4*55 


.. 


.. 


83-5 


8*90 


80*2 


3-40 


63* 


.. 


59*6 






or 


8«20 


86- 


665 


865 


3*36 


8 S - 


8*io 


80*5 


665 


7o'5 








3666 


6-2 


876 799 


7*95 


79*3 


57o 


77-8 


5-65 


73*5 


0*90 


695 


O-85 


647 




32-06 


*7 


3*5 


86-5 


9*35 


89*8 


3*25 


86-4 


4**5 


83* 


2*50 


65*3 


0*50 


652 


• • 


24-65 


»*5 


10-45 


*T 


1440 


856 


3*50 


85- 


**35 


82* 


7*90 


72* 


** 


66*5 


-• 


4**45 


*7 


6-30 


865 


7*10 


86- 


5*57 


84-5 


9-68 


816 


3*8 S 


73-1 




683 


.. 


37*06 


9* 


15*60 


85*9 


14*10 


862 


5* 


847 


9-90 


8o*8 


1 1 *6o 


70*4 


.. 


63*2 


.. 


61 70 


»*4 


448 


853 


872 86*4 3*83 


83-8 


9*45 


81-3 


7*20 


7"'3 


• • 


64*3 


• . 


39*9 6 


h| .. 


88- 


1 1 





















258 



REPORT — 1852. 



• 


1 


, 


| 


January. 


February. 


March. 


• April. 


1 


i«r. 


Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




M 


•a 


tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 










3 


a 


rature 
of the 


Rain. 


rature 
of the 


Rain. 


ratnre 
of the 


Rain. 


rature 
of the 


Ram. 


rmtare, Bi 
of the 








day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




*V i 




ft 


e 1 


e / 





in 





in. 


e 


in. 




in. 


U" 


Murzapore • • • . 




25 9'I 9 


82 37*23 


6o- 


.. 


72*5 


.. 






88* 




9* ' 


Ghazeepore .... 




*S 34**5 


83 37*9 


64-5 


170 


68- 


1*40 


79' 


0*60 


88* 


0*00 


95" - 3 


Juanpoie 




*5 43'4« 


82 44*7 


58-5 


•• 


6r 


•• 


74* 


•• 


825 


•- 


93- 1 


Cawnpoie 




26 28*15 


80 23*45 


62*6 


.. 


676 


.. 


76-9 


. 


88-1 




95"3 '^ 


Futteghur .... 




27 23*20 


79 4^**5 


59-7 


4*95 


647 


0-66 


75*5 


0*57 


85*0 


o*n 


9**6 | ^ 


Mynpoorie .... 




27 1*24 


79 13*58 


£ s 


.. 


72' 


.. 


83' 




93' 


# # 


103- 1 ■ 

9*7 1 1 -1 


Itawah 




26 45*31 


79 3*i8 


276 


65*5 


0*63 


75*8 


0*04 


85*5 


0-05 


Humeerpore- . .. 
Oorai 




26 7-49 


79 47*** 


•• 


1-50 


58*5 


o*8o 


78-5 


•• 


95* 


0-30 


93*51 - 


Banda 

Futtepore 

Allahabad .... 




26 6*2 
25 27*43 


80 24*18 

81 54*12 


66-5 
647 


2*90 


71* 
61*2 

6 9 - 


2*00 


77** 

70* 

8o*6 


•• 


92*6 


•- 


° ff 3 

98S 

90-2 

lOO'I 


Saugor 

Dumoh 




23 50* 


78 47*55 


•• 


•• 


•• 


1*30 


•• 


•• 


89* 


•• 


91-5 i : 


Nurrdngpore.... 








6V 


, . 


6r 








95* 




too* 1 :; 


Hothungabad .. 




" 45*43 


77 45*5 










79* 


. . 


9°" 




94* 

87-4, r 


Baitool 

Seeonie. 




21 51*13 


77 58*15 


70*8 


•• 


77*6 


•• 


85*3 


0*02 


9**9 


•• 


Jubbulporc .... 




23 9-39 


79 59'43 


67*4 


0*50 


72*3 


0*90 


79*5 


.. 


94*5 


.. 


99*8 1 =■ 

964 i 

96*2. • 


Nowgong 

Jhansee 




*5 3'30 

• . . . 


79 3»* 


65-7 


3*92 


70*4 


0*66 


80*8 


.. 


91*6 
88*6 


• • 


Agra. ••••••... 




27 10*26 


78 5*4 


57'5 


ri8 


68* 


108 


79*6 


. . 


88*4 


o**o 


1 , 
95*1 e 
90- i 


Neemuch 




*4 *7*3° 


75 **3© 


65-5 


.. 


73*5© 


. . 


815 


.. 


88*5 




Muttra ........ 




27 28*42 


77 22*3 


59* 


.. 


.. 


, . 


77* 








Erinpoora 




*S 9 # i5 


73 9*4« 






















Allyghur. 




























Khewaree. ..... 




.... 


.... 


656 




















Beawur 

Bolundshuhur. 




.... 


.... 


5** 


•• 


63*5 


•• 


7i'5 


•• 


80*5 


•• 


«r i 


Ajmere. 
























1 


Meant •••••••• 


.. 


29 0*41 


77 45*3 


58*5 


. , 


64*8 


, . 


74*1 




831 


0*60 


X61 


Delhie 


.. 


28 31*23 


77 »r39 


55** 


2*60 


62*2 


0*30 


71*1 


2*60 






98-6 *: 

IQf 

^ 1 - 


Ooorgaoii 


.. 


27 53*4 


77 *4*35 


.. 


.. 


76- 


.. 




. . 


? 2 
815 


3*30 

0*50 


Moradabad .... 


.. 


29 12*49 


78 59*46 


.. 


.. 


63*5 


.. 


7**5 


0*IO 


Bareilly 


.. 


28 12*17 


79 34*45 


60*5 


285 


63*0 


2*90 


76* 


0*22 


82* 


#- 


Shajehanpore .. 


.. 


28 i*35 


79 35'" 


5* 




64* 


.. 


74" 


. . 


8r 5 


mm 


* * 1 
89*5; 


Seharunpore . . 


•• 


29 57*18 


77 35*3o 


48- 


.. 


555 


.. 


6i-5 


.. 


72*5 


. . 


Deyra 


-. 


30 18*58 


78 4 # *7 














83*3 


.. 


QX**» ' 


Almorah 


5500 


*9 3S*i° 


79 4i*i6 


.. 


4*59 


.. 


2*88 


.. 




70*1 


1*23 


lc + 




Budaon 


•• 


27 50*33 


78 44*58 










76-5 


.. 


90*5 




96*5 




Bijnore 

'Nynetal 

Landour 


•• 


29 22*36 


78 10*32 










74*5 


.. 


8r 


. . 


87*5 




■ • 


.... 


.... 


42*1 
35*9 


6*29 


46-5 
407 


371 


56- 
5»*3 


«-s« 






"" 1 


Umballa 

Simla 

Kuaiouli 

Dugahai 


.. 


30 2V4 

31 6*6 


76 48*42 


57* 


3*»5 


6o'3 


7*15 


73*2 


. . 


8l*2 


a* 1 6 


1 

87*9! c "- 


7500 


77 »'i 


40* 


2*50 


44*» 


.. 


53*4 


0*50 


61*3 


.. 


66*3 j c*: 


• • 


• • •• 


.... 


4**9 


0*37 


47*4 
45*05 


3*5° 

2* IO 


58-5 
56*8 


0*30 


641 


075 


77*2 
74*2 


CI 


Parosepore .... 

Loodiana ...... 

Sirta.. • 


•• 


30 57*05 


74 4»*48 


55*9 


1*17 


62*5 


1*68 


72*3 


C36 


84* 


0*14 


92*8 


c*: 


•• 


30 55*45 


75 56'57 


•• 




6ri 


3*25 

O'XI 


70*2 


0*I 5 


81*9 


014 


90-5 


ov 



TEMPERATURE AND BAIN IN BENGAL. 



259 



(continued.) 



Jane. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


• 


lean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




mpe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




Bain-fall. 


iture 


Bain. 


rature 


Rain, 


rature 


Bain. 


rature 


Bain. 


rature 


P*in 


rature 


Bain. 


rature 


Bain. 




"the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 






l*y. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 






, 


in. 





In. 





in. 





in. 





in. 




in. 


*♦• 


in. 


in. 


»6* 


• • 


• • 


.. 




.. 




.. 


845 


.. 


7** 


.. 






»4'5 


8*40 


88* 


6'20 


86* 


570 


86- 


570 


83-5 


6-io 


69- 


O'OO 


64 


o-o 


35*8 


♦4" 


•• 


•• 


•• 


■• 


■• 


•• 


•• 


8o- 


•• 


68* 


•• 


57*5 






158 


.. 


86*3 


.. 


86-9 


.. 


77'5 


. . 


77*5 


. . 


72* 










ia*a 


3'22 


8V3 


«5'35 


85-5 


543 


834 


6-» 7 


78-5 


0-44 


69-4 


.. 


63-4 


.. 


37**9 


i8- 5 


•• 


94*5 


• • 


88*3 


.. 


88-5 


.. 


74*5 




6r 










'47 


0*87 


2 1 " 5 


ii'40 


«7-5 


9-23 


82-5 


6l6 


76-5 


0*29 


7°7 


O'Ol 


62-7 


0-05 


3184 


»3'5 


670 


89- 


12*63 


8r 


10-54 


86*2 


48l 


825 


0*64 


68*2 








37*92 


"•5 


•• 


IP 


.. 


84s 




78*5 




73* 


.. 


65* 










'3' 


•• 


86- 


.. 


87-5 


• • 


83' 


.. 


80-5 


. . 


6**5 










• i* 


I'lO 


90* 


8*50 








6* 


77*5 


I '20 












•*3 


.. 


88*9 


.. 


91*8 


.. 


88- 


.. 


8i* 




75-6 




68*8 






•*' 


*j8 


86* 


H*77 


8 1*2 


12*40 


7*5 


•3'*3 


76-5 


1-26 


65*5 


.. 


63-5 








• • 






82-5 




79" 




77* 




68- 










>*"3 


I*30 


»r 


17-67 


8i- 5 


7*38 


80-1 


10-96 


792 


0*41 


743 


0-59 


68-5 






; 5 -6 


2*00 


«5- 


«4* 


82' 


9-50 


81- 


17-90 


8o- 


1-25 


70- 


0-50 








3*5<> 


tv 


1450 


787 


8*90 


79*5 


3-70 


825 




67-8 


0*20 


70*8 


•• 


32*02 


k>-8 


5*97 


%v S 


17-17 


8r 


3*93 


79-6 


8-22 


79*5 


i*34 


70-8 


0-37 


f5*5 


, . 


3887 


>4*8 


392 


•■ 


• • 


• • 


.. 


84*6 


.. 


84*3 




74-6 


.. 


67-9 






>4'4 


•• 


•* 


•• 


•• 


•• 


8ri 


•• 


85-1 


•• 


73-6 


•• 


657 






)6i 


0-30 


863 


9*80 


85-4 


9*95 


83*6 


3- 9 8 


8x2 


0-57 


674 








27-81 


16* 


5-00 




























;5-s 






























>3'5 


4*00 


867 


14-70 


87-5 


5*10 


85' 


0*60 


80-1 




69-8 




59'* 






>7'9 


039 


86-4 


11*62 


88-5 


6-56 


9** 


.. 


815 


. . 


68*8 




59-6 




25-08 


>4' 


• • 


2I' 5 


14' 10 


8r 


4*80 


90-1 


















>r 


• • 


86- 


1325 


8rs 


6-10 


84 


470 


84* 


2*00 












}*7 


3-04 


l 5S 


1 6-8 1 


«r$ 


775 


80- 


175 


77'5 


270 






56-8 






*'f 


• • 


!?' 


.. 


8r 


.. 


82- 




78- 














94-8 
859 


• • 


86* 


.. 


90- 


.. 


82- 


.. 


78" 


, . 


684 




62*6 






•• 


* 3 '< 


• • 


82- 


.. 


8o- 




75** 


.. 


645 




59'5 






8l'2 


6*90 


746 


lO'OO 


76-9 


2'00 


777 


5*55 


7**3 


2' IO 


61-1 




53-2 






93'* 


• • 


88' 


8-85 


88-5 


.. 


83-2 




79" 














r\ 


• • 


86' 


.. 


87-5 


.. 


8r 


.. 


79' 




• 








, 


69-6 


1 1*65 


67-8 


*3'95 


69*2 


24-69 


iv 


5-67 


6l 5 


2*36 


50-1 


0-31 


47*9 


.. 


82-31 


* " 


• • 


• • 


•• 


•• 


•• 


68' 


•• 


64-1 


0-95 


49-6 


2* IO 


463 






06-3 


1-30 


871 


7-80 


90-7 


3'10 


91*6 
66-3 


o*6o 


84*3 




67't 


.. 


62-2 


. m 


2576 


69*2 


3-50 


646 


17*95 


634 


11*65 


.. 


60*2 




52-3 


.. 


461 






80*9 


•• 


75'5 


2-40 


737 


-. 


70- 


.. 


67-9 














73*9 


3-00 


70-5 


22-13 


70-6 


6*50 


72*1 




662 














97*5 


074 


88*8 


1881 


933 
88-4 


0-18 


94* 


.. 


861 




70*8 




6r 




23*13 


91-9 


1-50 


86-1 


10-62 


2-50 


88*9 


.. 


82- 


, . 


66*6 


.. 


61-6 


0*50 




«5' 


»• 


85- 


16* 

























82 



260 



REPORT — 1852. 



!1 



Mean 
tempe- 



January. 



of the 
day. 



Bain. 



Mean 
tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 



February. 



Bain. 



Mean 

tempe- 
rature 
of the 
day. 






Bain. 



Mean 
tempe- 



April. 



of the 
day. 



Bain. 



May. 



Mean 



of the 
day. 



Histar ... 
Landour . 
Paneeput. 
Rhotuck . 



35'9 



in. 
o*54 



407 



in. 
1*09 



5**3 



in. 
0*13 



0*47 



Lahore 

Jullunder . . , 
Hooshearpore . 

Kangra 

Umritsir 
Mean Meer . . . 

Nakoda 

Kurtapore . . 



1 180 



35-0 
19-30 
31-30 
6* 10 

33-10 

7-0 

26*40 



Peshawar.... 

Kohat 

Rawulpindee 
Mume .....< 

Jhelum 

Wuzeerabad.. 
Sealkote .... 
DheraGhazeeKh. 
DheralsmaelKh. 
Ghoojarea . . 
Mooltan .... 
Shapore .... 
Shaikapoora. , 
Ghoojrat. 
Jbung. 
|L,eia. 
Mozuffergur. 



1068 



34 o's 
33 32-30 

33 34*4° 



32 55-10 
32 26*20 



74 22*0 

75 3^-45 

75 57*45 

76 19-5 

74 a4*3<> 

75 3o-»5 
75 3**3o 

71 3* 
71 26-25 

73 5**° 



536 
57'4 
5i* 
49*3 

55*8 
553 
57-2 

488 

5o-5 
49-8 



2*40 

3*20 

6-75 
7-25 

0-58 
3-28 
2-58 

324 
3*4 
359 



59'9 
5»'4 
57-6 

59*7 

6r 

60*9 



3*4* 
4*75 
3-65 

2-47 
217 
2*40 



69*1 
70*2 
687 
82-5 

7i'4 
7i'9 
70*1 



0-90 



813 

79*9 
8r8 

7«i 



i-oo 

0'20 



0*25 



0-08 
0-29 
0-37 



»3-5 
«3-4 
82- 



82-5 
104- 



0'20 
0*50 



5 8-5 

57" 1 



2-02 

6-o8 



67-3 

55*i 



165 
2*61 



777 
74-2 



115 
2*50 



88 
86-9 



73 45'*5 

74 9'5° 



53*i 
53-8 
53* 



373 



6o- 

61*9 

58-5 



3-50 



7i-8 
68-5 
65'5 



r 5 6 



85-3 
8r8 



»"35 



30 10*40 



7i 33**5 



5°' 
5i* 
48-5 
59* 



59' 
58*5 
535 
66-5 



69*5 

69* 

59*5 



77*5 
8o*8 

73*5 
86- 



86- 
911 
795 

93*5 

9** 

90- 

894 
78*5 
88* 



On Experiments on the Laws of the Conduction of Heat. 
By J. D. Forbes, F.R.S. L. $ E. 
I beobet to state that my experiments have been altogether suspended since 
the time of my last report by a severe illness which occurred just when I was 
about to renew them. Consequently only a trifling amount of the sum voted 
in 1851 for prosecuting the experiments has been expended; not is it my 
wish at present to have a fresh grant of money, as it is altogether uncertain 
when they may be recommenced. I have not, however, neglected to examine 
narrowly the results of the experiments already made, so far as they have 
been reduced. I am glad to say that they appear to be very consistent, and 
the experimental number* to be worthy of preservation as valuable data in 
the science of heat. 

It is with more reserve that I communicate any conclusions affecting the 
basis of the theory of conductivity as commonly received. But having been 
in possession for more than a year of a result which seems highly probable, 
if not quite certain, I am unwilling to withhold it longer on account of an 
outstanding difficulty which I have not been able satisfactorily to remove. 
The result is this, that in the case of iron (the only one yet tried) the flux 



ON THE LAWS OF THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT. 



261 



(continued.) 



Jane. 


July. 


August. 


September. 


October. 


November. 


December. 


• 


Men 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




Mean 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




tempe- 




Bain-mtl. 


rature 


Bain. 


rature 


Bam. 


rature 


Bam. 


rature 


Bain. 


rature 


Bam. 


rature 


Bain. 


rature 


Bain. 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 




of the 






da,. 




day 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 




day. 









in. 
ri6 


e 
«5-5 


in. 
6*27 





in. 





in. 





in. 





in. 





in. 


in. 


94'S 


°'54 


86- 




«9'1 


, , 


87-8 


. . 


76-5 














89-4 


178 


8.5*9 


.. 


88^ 


.. 


86* 


.. 


76-2 
8o- 9 f 




66« 


.. 


59*4 






92-9 


.. 


86- 


.. 


85-6 


.. 


86-6 


.. 




64-6 


.. 


59-2 


0*12 




911 


3-00 


8 1-8 


.. 


8 1*9 


.. 


«3'5 


.. 


784 


-. 


59'5 


190 


57*4 


0*50 


• 


94* 












•r 








61-5 










9*2 




864 


.. 


89*1 


.. 


87-5 


.. 


77-6 


.. 


64- 


o*6o 


59'4 


O'lO 




947 


'*54 


»7-3 


.. 


9°*1 


.. 


90-1 


.. 


82* 


.. 


66*4 


1*09 


60*4 






94'K 


ri 5 


*rs 


•• 


90*6 


" 




•• 


82-6 


" 


68*5 


i'35 


6o-6 


0-25 






.. 


95'5 




887 


. . 


871 


. . 


74 € 


.. 


6o-6 


. . 


5 Z' 5 






93* 


0-98 


91* z 


.. 


90-4 












57*9 


.. 


S* 






90-9 


370 


*5'5 


.. 


«J-» 


.. 


857 


.. 


76*2 


.. 


45' 










69-5 


•• 


68*4 


•• 


667 


•• 


02' I 


"• 


62-8 














9T 








90- 


. m 


»4- 








55" 










m 


.. 


88-3 


.. 


91*1 


. . 


887 


.. 


85- 


.. 


67' 


.. 


6r 






8r 5 


•• 


84*1 


•• 


817 


•• 


«4- 


•• 




•• 


64-5 
62' 


•• 


58-6 






95*5 








89-5 




8a* 








* 










994 


.. 


9**3 


.. 


92*1 


.. 


91-5 


. . 


86-9 


.. 


68-4 










W'5 








86-5 


.. 


8r 








67- 










95* 

1 








93* 




93* 

















of heal through the solid is not in a simple direct proportion to the difference 
of temperature of two contiguous thin slices, but varies in a less rapid pro- 
portion; or, the conductivity diminishes as the temperature increases. My 
experiments were so framed as to give the numerical relation between the 
conductivity and the temperature ; but though the numbers, given by expe- 
riments under circumstances essentially different, substantially agree, I do 
not as yet feel justified in assigning a numerical value to the effect of tem- 
perature on the conductivity of iron, until the possible disturbing effect of 
the cause which I have mentioned shall be better ascertained. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my acknowledgements to Professor 
Kelland for the advice which he has, with his usual kindness, from time to 
time afforded me. I still hope to be able to renew these experiments, and 
1 shall not cease to devise plans for their improvement ; in the meantime I 
intend to put on record both the principles of the method and the direct 
results obtained, as well as the reductions ; and also the manipulations which 
experience has taught me, and which I believe will be found of use to any 
future observer. 

Ambleside, 25th August, 1852. 



262 report— 1852. 

On the Chemical Action of the Solar Radiations. 
By Robert Hunt. 

(1). The following results are offered as a small instalment of an exten- 
sive system of examination which I have undertaken. The object in view 
is to determine, with all the accuracy possible, the relation which each 
coloured ray of the prismatic spectrum bears to the chemical action which 
takes place upon the different agents employed in the production of the 
sensitive surface. Since different media exhibit very various degrees of 
absorbent action upon the chromatic rays, as well as on the chemical rays, of 
the spectrum, by employing them we obtain indications by which we may 
determine the relation in which these phsenomena stand to each other. 

(2). The plan upon which I am proceeding is this. Having obtained a 
very extensive series of coloured glasses, and by the solution of chemical 
compounds, procured a still mftre varied set of transparent coloured solu- 
tions, I analyse the luminous spectrum of a well-formed vertical opening be- 
tween two knife-edges, by passing the spectrum through a particular absorb- 
ent medium. The spectra are obtained, first, by means of an excellent flint- 
glass prism ; again, by one of crown-glass of faultless purity, the manufac- 
ture of Messrs. Chance, Brothers, of Birmingham ; and, thirdly, by a hollow 
prism, in which I have the means of employing fluids of very different re- 
fracting powers. For obtaining the chemical impression of the spectrum, I 
procure a flame-like chromatic image of great intensity, 1 inch in length, from 
a vertical opening in my steel plate. I have adopted this as my measure 
throughout, dividing it into 100 equal parts : thus, all the numbers employed 
are intended to express inches, or the one-hundredth part of an inch. 

(3). The first part of the present Report is devoted to the examination of 
the prismatic spectrum by coloured glasses of various kinds. The numbers 
affixed may appear somewhat irregular, but as they correspond with a very 
extensive series, over many of which I have no control, but which are well 
known to me by these numbers, and can always be obtained, I have thought 
it best to retain them. I have however adopted the plan of numbering my 
paragraphs, so that in referring back there will be no difficulty in comparing 
the chemical with any particular luminous spectrum. 

As I hope to present to the next meeting a far more complete examina- 
tion of this subject, I refrain from offering a single speculation, contenting 
myself for the present with the record of careful observations and exact 
experiments. 

The lines a a' indicate throughout the length of the normal spectrum. 

Analysis of Spectrum by Absorbent Media. — No. 1. 
(A.) Series of Yellow Glasses. 

(4) 1 6. Deep yellow. Colouring matter Carbon* fig. 1. — The Kg* 1- 
ordinary red rays very intense, but partaking more of a scarlet colour — - — S- 
from the mixture of yellow than a pure red ; the orange and red rays 
blend so perfectly that it is difficult to define their boundaries. 
Combined, these rays occupy a 12. The yellow rays are reduced to 
a line of bright light equal to '10. Beyond these the green rays ap- 
pear very intense, and occupy a well-defined space equal to *25. 
Blue and violet rays, confined within a space equal to "38, appear ^Zy 
somewhat more luminous than the green, presenting no decided *^Pv 
colour, but appearing rather as a patch of a pale neutral tint. 

(5) 15. Straw- yellow. Silver stain upon one surface only. — Shortens 
the spectrum by two-thirds of the violet, so that its entire length is reduced 



I 




ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 

to -80; the other rays continue unchanged, exhibiting a tolerable degree of 
intensity. When concentrated by a lens the violet ray is seen to suffer yet 
further extinction relatively to the other rays. 

(6) 1 8. Medium yellow, believed to be Charcoal. — The red ray exhibits 
more crimson from the introduction of blue ; orange and yellow well-defined ; 
green ray somewhat shortened, but exhibiting considerable intensity, and well- 
defined. The blue ray reduced to a small band, and the rays beyond are 
only indicated by a pale stream of light, neutral in colour. 

(7) 14- Brown yellow, by Carbon, fig. 2. — Red Kg. 2. Fig. 8. 
and yellow rays are considerably reduced ; the green is 
well-defined, shading off into blue, of which a faint 
portion alone remains, the space beyond appearing ra- 
ther a lavender colour than violet. 

(8) 17. Deep yellow, by Iron, fig. S. — This spec- 
trum consists of four well-defined and nearly equal 
circles, or rather oval spaces. No blue can be de- 
tected in the spectral image ; the green rays occupying 
the place of the blue ; the yellow rays considerably ex- 
tended ; the red rays are well-defined, but on the upper 
edge a band of scarlet or deep orange is detected when the eye has become 
accustomed to the light The violet has more red than usual in the rays ; 
and at the upper edge, after long gazing, is seen a faint line of neutral gray, 
the lavender ray of Herscbel. 

(9) 45. A yellow glass, having a peculiar pink hue4 — Does not pro- 
duce any change on the coloured rays of the spectrum ; it appears to pro- 
long the yellow by reducing the upper edge of the orange and the lower 
edge of the green. 

(10) 113. Very dark smoky brown. — All blue flowers appear of a 
deep red brown. Purple and claret-coloured flowers lose all their blue, and 
appear red. The red, orange and green rays only are visible through this 
glass, and the illuminating power of those is very considerably diminished. 

(11) 114. A lighter brown than 113. — A very much more decided 
action on natural colours than 113. An examination of the spectrum shows 
that the red rays are slightly shortened ; the orange and yellow rays blend, 
the yellow coming out in much purity ; the green rays are well-defined, but 
cut off somewhat sharply at the more refrangible end. Beyond these, by 
accustoming the eye to the light, a faint trace of blue becomes gradually 
apparent. 

(B.) Series of Red Glasses. 

fig, 4. 

(12) 50. Pink olass (not very clear), fig. 4?- — The illuminating 
powers of all the rays considerably reduced. The violet rays are 
lengthened and the indigo lost ; the blue also considerably short- 
ened. The influence of this glass is of a very marked character in 
separating the rays from each other, every ray visible being well 
marked out. The orange rays are only made out after long exa- 
mination as a line of inconsiderable width edging the red rays. 
By using two thicknesses of this glass, and a spectrum concen- 
trated by a lens, the orange rays are brought out as a well-marked 
band, edged by two black lines. 

(IS) 13. Violet glass, fig. 5. — 1st. Rays passed through the glass 
to the prism. The spectrum appears divided into two distinct parts. The 
illuminating power of all the rays lessened. In the lower section ( \,a\. 
red, orange and green are visible ; blue and violet occupying the space 6. If 




I 









264 report — 1852. 

the spectrum is concentrated by a lens and then Kg 5. 

examined through this glass, the images appear *• ** 

as in (2 a), joined by a thin neck of a neutral 

tint. Few spectra are more beautiful than this 

when all the extraneous light is cut off, each 

colour being so very distinctly and clearly made 

out, the lower illumination enabling the eye to 0k 9 

examine it without weariness or confusion. '■'. y ?> y 

(14) 12. Red glass (Gold), fig. 6.— The ^ r , ^ r 

spectrum becomes an oval spot of intense red- ^ — -X— — 

ness with a prolongation of the same colour ; the 

red oval comprehending all the rays from the upper end Fig. 6. Fig. 7. 

of yellow to the end of ordinary red, and the prolongation a ^ 

extends to the edge of the blue. 

(15) 117. Violet-coloured glass, fig. 7. — Blue 
flowers observed through it appear far more red than I 
under ordinary circumstances*. The spectrum separated I 
into two long ovals, one, 6, being violet, and the other, ^L 
<?, exhibiting the red and green rays only, the spectrum B r 
being very considerably shortened at the least refran- ^^ 
gible end. 

(16) 119. Violet. — This glass obstructs but a very 

small quantity of light, and its action upon the spectrum is not very decided. 
The red rays are seen in great beauty and purity extending over the space 
covered by the orange rays ; the yellow is very pure, but the green is some- 
what diminished in intensity, and also in length. The violet rap are prolonged 
into the blue, thus shortening the latter, which are however very brilliant. 

(17) 48. A deep and not very pure violet. — The red rays are slightly 
shortened at the lower end, but they appear extended as they in- _. 
crease in refrangibility, so that the orange and yellow rays present ° a 
a long band of a pale orange tint uniform throughout. The blue 
rays are sharply cut off from the violet, the interposing indigo being 
nearly black ; the violet rays being themselves exceedingly beau- 
tiful and clear. 

(18) 104. Lilac glass (Manganese), fig. 8. — Reds of -flowers 
seen in strong contrast with the leaves, which appear darker from 
the loss of their yellow. The yellow rays of the spectrum are nearly jfb y 
obliterated ; red shortened ; green is gradually lost in black sba- W r a ' 
dow, and all the other rays blended in an intense oval patch of blue. 

(C.) Series of Green Glasses. 

(19) 36. Apple-green glass. — The red rays are shortened one-half, 
the yellow extends into the orange, and is sharply cut off without any blend- 
ing at the edge of the red ; on the more refrangible side the green 
encroaches considerably on the yellow, and upwards into the blue ; K S- 9- 
the violet by extending into the blue obliterates the indigo. 

(20) 33. Intense green, fig. 9. — AH the rays below the orange 
are cut off; the yellow and green form one tint of pale pea-green. 
The blue rays are very light in colour, losing but little of their 
illuminating power, and these are fringed with a deep band of 
indigo ; no violet rays apparent. 

(21) 34. Green. Copper of great brilliancy, fig. 10. — The red 
below the orange cut off; does not shorten the violet end, but pro- 
ices a great extension of the blue ; the green rays encroach consi- 



Fig. 8. 

r 



l 



I 




ON THB CHEMICAL ACTION OP THB SOLAR RADlM'NoW *2$ J? S I T ' 

derably on the yellow. The chemical action commences at '1 8 ftwq 3$J/?f N '" \\\ )> 
the line a'; the orange occupies the space of # 10, the yellow abouK» ^>iy^ ** ^ 
•16, bat blending with the green ; this is not easy of exact deter* 
mination ; the green occupying about °25, and the blue and vio- 
let -38. There is a considerable loss of light in the spectrum. 

(22) 12a Grebn glass acting powerfully on all the reds of 
flowers, &c. — Cuts off one-half the red, extends the yellow, and con- BP| V 
aequently reduces the green of the spectrum. The blue is shortened ^0 ° 
by an extension of the violet. Although the reds of the least re- a , 

frangible end of the spectrum suffer considerably, those which are 

most refrangible pass this glass (copper) freely. 

(23) i2i. Green glass (Copper).— Reduces the reds of spectrum ; brings 
the violet down on the blue ; but the violet less red than ordinary. 

(24) 122. Grebn glass. — Nearly the same as the last (121). Kg- "• 
There is little change on the lower rays, but the blue and violet 
rajs are reduced to one-half their ordinary linear dimensions. 

(25) u 6. Deep iron-green, fig. 11. — All the reds of flowers 
observed through this glass become nearly black. The spectrum 
exhibits two spots of pure crimson; perfect blackness between them. ^ 
A spot of yellow of great purity, from which the green shades off (''-y 
into a light blue, which becomes very bright, and then passes into ~ 
a line of indigo. The violet is entirely wanting. 

(26) 115. A pale 8M0KT-GRBEN. — Acts but very slightly upon 
any of the rays. 

(27) 44. Deep iron-green, fig. 12, — Cuts off the lower red rays ; Fig. 12. 
admits the permeation of the orange rays freely. The green very 
much blended with the yellow, so that it is only by adjusting with 
great care that a line of yellow can be seen. The blue and violet 
rays suffer scarcely any change, the lengths of these rays being rela- 
tively as follows: — green *30, blue "25, violet '15. 

(28) 6. Intense copper- green. — The spectrum appears as v .. . 
orange, green, blue and violet. The yellow rays are entirely want- \^ n 
ing ; a very thin line of red appears at the lower end of orange ; the ™ 
violet is considerably reduced by the loss of red. ^ 

In all the deep greens we find the violet rays almost entirely destroyed 
owing to the removal of the red. It is from results of this character that I 
am led to believe the violet rays to be due to a reappearance of red rays 
amongst the more refrangible ordinary rays. 

(29) 52. Yellowish-green glass. — This glass has but very slight ac- 
tion on the spectrum, defining more perfectly than ordinary the limits of the 
violet, but producing no sensible change on any other of the chromatic rays. 

(30) 107. Light green. — The reds of flowers are lost, the flowers ap- 
pearing purple. Yellows are also lost, the yellow blossom of the Elder tree, 
Ac. becoming pure white. 

The violet rays are considerably cut off; the other rays are well-defined, 
but more green and less yellow than ordinary. 

(31) 119. Light bottle-green. — Produces no evident change on na- 
tural colours ; its action on the spectrum is merely to define the spaces of 
the rays without producing any other change. 

(32) no. Deep bottle-green. — Natural blues are blackened, and the 
paler reds suffer slightly. This glass cuts off all the most refrangible rays ; 
a band of violet, or blue with some red, is seen lining the edge of the green. 
The green rays very brilliant, and yellow passing to whiteness ; the red rays 
suffering scarcely any change. 



% 



266 report— 1852. 

(S3) 1 02. Olive-green*— Green of spectrum somewhat more yellow; 
the violet diminished by an elongation of the indigo ; the violet appearing as 
a border to the indigo only. 

(34) 103. Deep olive-green. — Red flowers not to be distinguished from 
the green leaves; spectrum diminished to red, yellow and green rays, the red 
being very much reduced in extent, and the yellow and orange blended. 

(D.) Series of Blue Glasses. 

(35) 49. A light blue, fig. 13. — The spectrum is represented Fig. 13. 
in its three primary rays, suffering a little reduction in length ; when * 
concentrated by a lens a little violet appears at the extreme edge 
of the blue. Natural objects do not suffer much change when ob- 
served through this glass ; purple flowers lose more of their red 
than blue, and violet-coloured ones appear nearly pure blue. 

(36) 46. Intense cobalt-blue, fig. 14. — The ordinary red ray 
disappears, and a pure crimson ray, the extreme red, is seen below 
the lower edge a 1 of the ordinary spectrum and extending up to the 
mean yellow. All the rays but the blue, which becomes very 
intense, and a trace of violet at v, are ob- 
literated, the red rays being sharply cut off at 
y, between which and the blue a dark band 
appears. When concentrated by a lens, the 
spectrum is changed, as shown in (2). The 
lower crimson ray at a' becoming a defined 
circle, surrounded by a band of intense black- 
ness, which extends to the second circle at y, 
which, instead of being crimson, as was conti- 
nued in the neck of (1 ), is now of a lavender 
hue, from the mixture of some yellow with the 
red, the blue is condensed, the black at the lowest edge being an intense 
indigo. 

(37) 3. Combined blue and green glasses, fig. 16. — Looking at the 
spectrum through these glasses, every trace of red is obliterated, the resulting 
spectrum being a pure green and blue. Making the rays pass from pjg # 1& 
the prism to a lens (fig. 15), and causing the concentrated rays to 

Kg. 15. 






i 



permeate this combination, the result is somewhat more decided. The spec- 
trum is not shortened at the most refrangible end, but the red of the violet 
is entirely removed, forming a pure blue patch equal to *8. Over the space 
marked g the green is far more luminous than over any other part, and the 
rays gradually darken towards the lower end. 

(38) 105. Deep cobalt-blue, fig. 17.— The red of flowers, as of the 
Fuchsia, &c, is entirely lost, and not to be distinguished from the green leaves. 
The surface of leaves appears a grey or blue, with a few exceptions ; the Arbor 
viUe assumes a red-brown colour, remarkable from the striking contrast it 
makes with the surrounding trees. The leaves of the Currant and several 




ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 

other plants appear red on their under surface when examined through this 

glass, the light falling on the upper surface, and being trans- Rg # 17, 

mitted. Yellow Nasturtiums become of an intense brown. Blue 

Larkspurs not to be distinguished from the leaves. The violet 

and blue rays form a large oval, which, encroaching on the 

green, reduces it to a line bordering the lower edge of the blue. 

Yellow, a well-defined circular spot, ordinary red obliterated, 

and the extreme red forming a well-defined circular image quite 

surrounded by a black band. A prism of crown-glass gives 

the same result, as does also the hollow prism filled with Castor 

oiL The extension of this spectrum is remarkable. 

(39) 108. Pale grey-blue appears to act most upon the 
yellow of natural objects, but produces no marked difference in 
the general tints. Its action on. the spectrum is very slight; the yellow ray 
is somewhat reduced in size, and appears whiter than ordinary; and the 
green is lessened by the blue ray encroaching on it. 

(40) 112. A smoky-blub* — No effect on colours generally; increases 
the extent of the violet and diminishes the blue. The yellow suffers, green 
passing into it; orange lost in the red. 

9 (41) in. Blue-grey. — Produces a slight, but by no means a marked 
change on the colours of natural objects ; defines more perfectly the line 
between the blue and violet, and by lowering the yellow gives a more de- 
cided margin to the green. 

(42) 118. Pale blue, fig. 18. — The reds of flowers are nearly 
lost when observed through this glass, all extraneous light being 
shut off from the eyes. The red rays of the spectrum are thrown 
into two circles, and the yellow into a well-marked patch. The 
green rays are well defined; blue and indigo do not appear to 
suffer change. The red of the violet is completely lost 

(43) 123. Light cobalt-blue. — The red of the spectrum is 
brought into a well-defined oval, the yellow very distinct; the green 
rays are considerably reduced. The blue rays extended, and con- 
sequently the violet rays are much diminished. 

(44) 47. Deep purple glass. — Red, orange, green, and blue rays ad- 
mitted ; violet only distinguished after, long examination. When concen- 
trated by a lens, the violet becomes quite visible as a well-defined band of 
coloured light. 

(E.) Miscellaneous. 

(45) 1 01. Smoke-coloured glass. — Does not appear to alter the co- 
lours of natural objects observed through it Blue of spectrum nearly ob- 
literated, but the indigo and violet rays are extended; entire length of 
spectrum is not lessened. The most remarkable feature is the way in which 
the spectrum is extended over the violet end, proving the existence of red 
rays far down in the ordinary blue rays. 

(46) 106. A grey glass. — Removes some red from the violet and 
shortens it. All the rays lose in luminous power, otherwise they do not 
appear, relatively, to change. 

(47) 115. Smoke-coloured, having a green tint- — Scarcely any 
action on either of the rays ; there is a little loss of light. 

(48) 151. Glass very slightly smoky. — No change can be detected 
when this glass is interposed. 



268 report— 1852. 

Chemical Series, No. 1. 

Chemical Spectra obtained after the Prismatic Spectrum has been analysed 
by the interposition of Transparent Coloured Screens. 

Photographic Agent. 

CoUodio-iodide of Silver on Glass Plates*. 

The Dumber* preceding the coloured glass employed, refer to the numbers attached to each 
particular medium in the previous aeries. No. 1. Those following the colour refer to the 
paragraph. 

(49)* Normal Spectrum, formed by a very pure flint-glass prism. — Light 
admitted between two knife-edges, separated £th of an inch, and generally 
passed through a hole of the same diameter in an inner screen. The chro- 
matic image was received on a white tablet in a perfectly black box ; its 
length, when most accurately adjusted, was 1 inch and rf^ths, but for con- 
venience this has been reduced to 1 inch and divided into 100 parts, and re- 
latively to this all the chemical spectra have been corrected (1:2). 

(50). Without any interposed medium, fig. 1 9. — Chemical Fig. 19. 

action commences '40 above the lower end of red, and from 
this point extends to the length of l£ inch. Over the 
space covered by the red and orange rays are indications 
of a well-defined circle of protective action ; immediately 
above this a dusky brown commences, forming a kind of 
fringing which is extended to "60, and in a similar manner 
it bounds the whole of the spectrum. This is due to 
diffused light, which I always find bordering the spectrum. 
Over a space equal to '10 a well-defined black space ap- 
pears, then the action weakens, but is still strong over *7, 
when it again increases just at the end of the violet, and 
is somewhat sharply cut off at 1*90 above 0, or lowest 
red, presenting an image similar to that represented in 
the margin. Placing the glass at a small angle, and ob- 
serving the spectrum by reflexion, the lower dark space 
comes out very strongly, and the "whole space above it 
appears of a dark semi-metallic purple shaded by a dusky 
brown border. 

Glasses (A.) Yellow Media. **' 

(51) 1 6. Deep yellow (4), fig. 20. — Chemical ac- 
tion commencing over the region of the indigo and violet 
rays, the most intense action appearing to take place 
about the line H of Fraunhofer. It forms eventually a 
well-defined oval, the greatest amount of darkening going 
on in the centre of the impressed spectrum, a protected 
band, well-defined from the other parts of the surface, in 

* The collodion was made with gun-cotton which had been pre- 
pared with nitrate of potash and sulphuric acid. This being well 
washed was dissolved in aether. Iodide of potassium was dissolved in 
spirits of wine and iodide of silver added so long as it would take 
up any, and two drachms of this were mixed with one fluidounce of 
the collodion. The solution of silver employed was 30 grains to the 
fluidounce of distilled water. The image was always developed by 
pyrogallic acid. 



ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OP THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 

contract with the little darkening from extraneous light beyond the luminous 
image. The space between a and the lower end of the impressed spectrum 
is very decidedly protected from change. Upon placing the Fig. 21. 
glass in a solution of hyposulphite of soda, and allowing it to 
remain for some time, the variations of action are more ap- 
parent:— 1st, the very dark centre; 2nd, a band of much 
weaker action ; 3rd, a far more energetic band surrounding 
the whole ; and 4th, a protected band extending from the lower 
point far below this as a protected circle, as indicated by the 
shading in the figure. 

(52) 18. Medium yellow (6), fig. 21. — Chemical action 
commences above the yellow ray, upon the confines of, but in 
the green, commencing a 40 above lower red, the space oc- 
cupied by the green rays being impressed as a well-defined 
oval of the length of a 25, then a neck of very much lower in- 
tensity of *20 ; a large and well-defined oval *90 in length, 
exhibiting the greatest degree of intensity in the middle space, 

shaded off to the edges. The length of impressed spectrum 

1*40, and from the zero a! to end of chemical action 1*85, or pjg. 22. 
length of action beyond luminous spectrum at a '85. Here 
we have an extinction of the violet and indigo rays ; and over 
the space occupied by the blue rays a comparatively weak 
action, this action being continued with very much energy 
over the space occupied by the dark rays. The indication of 
protected spaces around the spectrum is less evident than in 
many other examples. 

(53) 114. Light red-brown (11), fig. 22. — Action com- 
mencing at *75 and extending with tolerably uniform inten- 
sity to 1-60, and gradually shading off to 1*85. At the lower 
end the action descends slowly to *65* A brown line of 
shading appears around this spectrum, but this is probably due 
to dispersed light, since this shading is considerably increased 
when many clouds are floating about. 



Glasses (B.) Red Media* 

(54) 1 3. Violet glass (IS), fig. 23 Chemical action commences at *60 

above 0, and is then continued with tolerable uniformity to 1*35, a faint sha- 
ding being prolonged about "15 further, or a 50 beyond the luminous spectrum. 
The long dark oval in the interior of the spectrum exhibits a more intense 
chemical action than the other portion; this darkened space appears to 
belong mainly to the upper oval of the luminous Fig. 23. Pig. 24. 

spectrum and over the dark space beyond it In 
some other experiments, during a period when 
the sky was covered with light white clouds, and 
consequently when the intensity of the sunshine 
was varying, the chemical limits were subject 
to constant changes, commencing sometimes as 
high as *70 and terminating at *30. 

(55) 104. Lilac glass (18), fig. 24. — Che- 
mical action commences at *75 and ceases en- 
tirely at 1-25, forming thus one small patch of 
changed silver, commencing near the line H, and 
occupying but about one half-inch of space. 



**&• *" 

^ 



270 



REPORT — 1852. 



More than half of the blue rays are inactive, the action being 
confined to the space of the violet and the lavender rays. 
(56) 12. Red (Gold) (14), fig. 25.— A great number 
of experiments have been made with the hope of detecting 
some chemical action on the iodized collodion by the 
bright crimson rays which permeate this glass. In no 
instance have I been successful; instead of obtaining any 
indication of change, the only result has been the occa- 
sional evidence of a protecting action over the spot on 
which the oval red patch, described in the analysis of 
the spectrum, falls when diffused radiations have* acted 
on the sensitive surface generally. 



Fig. 25. 




Glasses (C.) Green Media. 



Kg. 26. 




(57) 36. Bright apple-green (19), 
fig. 26. — Action appears singularly divided. 
Two spaces of most intense action, corre- 
sponding with the green and violet rays as 
shown at y, 0, these being surrounded with 
a band of a chocolate-brown colour. By 
placing the glass in a strong solution of the 
hyposulphite of soda the outer band is 
readily dissolved off, but the ovals y, v resist 
for a long time the action of the solvent, 
dissolving jndeed, only when the film of col- 
lodion separates from the glass. 

(58). The former result was obtained in 

London. On repeating the experiments at a^ a[ 

Falmouth, a very different result was ob- 
tained. The action commencing at *60, and continuing to 1*60, an extended 
though much weaker action is prolonged to '35. The experiments having 
been repeated several times in both localities under precisely the same con- 
ditions as regards prism, size of opening between knife-edges, length of 
spectrum, &c^ these results indicate some peculiar atmospheric conditions. 
These, however, can only be determined by several sets of experiments at 
different times. 

(59) 6. Intense copper-green (28), fig. 27* 
— Intense action, producing a bronzed line, 
commences at -60 and extends to 1*10, or over 
a space equal to *50. A weak action extends 
down to '45, marking the space occupied by 
the green ray* A similar modified action 
extends upward to 1*60. By long exposure a 
light fringe appears over the space occupied 
by the yellow rays, the actual chemical spec- 
trum being 1*35 in length. The fringe around 
the lower part of the spectrum, which is not 
readily explained, is a tolerably constant re- 
sult It may possibly arise from some refrac- 
tion of the rays near the Fraunhofer line B, 
within the glass plate. 

(60) 34. Green (Copper) (21), fig. 28.— 
Action commences at *60, and it is continued 



Kg. 27. 



Kg. 28. 




ON THE CHEMICAL ACTION OF THE SOLAR RADIATIONS. 271 

with fall intensity to 1*15. This forms a well-defined dark olive-green oval 
spot ; it is somewhat smaller at the upper end; the chemical action is then 
continued faintly to 1*85, and still more faintly to 1*60. At the lower end the 
impressed image descends to '50, and a faint border of dusky brown sur- 
rounds the spectrum, which is impressed over a space equal to 1*5. The prin- 
cipal action is limited to the blue and the rays above it 

(61) 33. Intense green (20), fig. 29. — The action here on Rg. 29. 
the most sensitive collodion plates is exceedingly slow, and after # 

an exposure of five minutes in the brightest sunshine, the only & 

indication of any chemical action is the appearance of a faint 
spot near the line H. This when acted on by the pyrogallic • 
acid becomes very dark, and another spot a little beyond the 
violet rays makes its appearance. 

(62). In the camera obscura, which has been devised for 
working with the very sensitive and beautiful collodion process 

in the open air, yellow glasses have been introduced for the ^ 

purpose, as it was thought, of cutting off the chemical rays, at 
the same time as light enough was admitted to enable the operator to see 
his work. The results obtained (see Yellow Media) clearly prove that rays, 
chemically active for collodion, pass the yellow media very freely; some 
green glasses, as the above, offer much more obstruction, but red glasses ap- 
pear to be still more effective. 

(63) 44. Deep iron-green (27). — The action of this spectrum is very 
slow, and confined to the limits between the mean green ray and the extreme 
violet. In a great many experiments the spectrum impressed has been always 
limited to the space *50 ; that is, it has commenced in the middle of the 
luminous spectrum and terminated with the violet rays. Very weak hypo- 
sulphite of soda washes off the darkened portion so readily, that I am led to 
infer that it is an exceedingly superficial dust upon the surface only. 

(64) 116. Another deep iron-green (25)-— By long-continued action 
there is scarcely a trace of any chemical change. Here we have an example 
of a spectrum in which the blue class of rays, ordinarily called the cJtemical 
rays, are very brilliant, yet they are chemically inactive upon this most sen- 
sitive photographic preparation. 



Glasses (D.) Blue Media. 

(65) 105. Deep cobalt-blue (38), fig. SO. — The 
rapidity of action with this medium prevents the marking 
of many of the more remarkable gradations of change 
which appear to go on within the chemical spectrum. 
Chemical action commences between *70 and 1*70, and ex- 
tends up to 2-20. The inner portion of this spectrum 
appears the lightest, but in reality .the action has been 
much more intense over this section than on any other 
part, and the semi-transparency of this portion is due to 
the complete production of metallic silver in a state of 
fine division. Ammonia will dissolve off the outer dark 
brown edge, but does not act in the slightest degree on 
the inside oval space. The spectrum obtained without 
any interposed medium is, upon collodion, of less extent 
than that now described; it is, usually, a long flame- 
shaped band of 1-60 or 1*70 in length, and of uniform 
intensity throughout The operation of the cobalt-blue 



Fig. 30. 




272 



REPORT — 1852. 



glasses on the spectrum indicates'some peculiar influences, which require more 
extensive study than they have yet received. The remarkable difference 
between the luminous and the chemical spectrum is very striking, and it ap- 
pears to indicate the independent existence of the actinic or chemical ray*. 

(66) 3. Combination blue and green (S7)» fig. SI* — The spectrum 
impressed by long exposure commences at "45 and terminates sharply at 10, 
there being no indication of any action beyond the visible spectrum. It will 
be found by examining the drawing of the luminous spectrum obtained 



r 



when the light has passed this combination of K _ 31 
glasses, that the action commences at the Lower 
edge of the green rays. The whole space im- 
pressed has equal intensity throughout, with a 
brightening of the silver in the middle. 

(67) 49. A Light blue (95), fig. 32.— The 
action commences at the lower edge of the blue 
rays '55 fromO, and extends to 1*40, when it is 
suddenly interrupted. Considering the usual 
character of blue glasses, and that this one is of 
an unusually transparent nature, it will be ue r 
cessary to subject it to a much more search- 
ing examination than it has yet received. That 

the chemical change is very superficial, is proved by the pjg 33, 
rapidity with which the hyposulphite of soda removes the 
impression. 

(68) 46. Cobalt-blue (36), fig. S3. — Action com- 
mencing at *75, extending with full energy to 1*50; at 
the lower edge it is continued with faint shading to '55, 
and even some very slight continuation to *0, which is to 
be detected by placing the collodion glass plate upon a 
sheet of white paper and viewing it at a small angle, and 
shading off at the most refrangible end, until at 2*10 all 
action appears to cease. This is the greatest extension 
of the spectrum which up to this date (August 20, 1852) 
has been obtained ; and in two experiments made in very 
intense sunshine at noon-day, a well-marked spot has 
been obtained *10 below 0, as marked in the drawing. 
This spot will be found to correspond with one of Sir 
John Herschel's heat spots, and may possibly be referred 
to some peculiar chemical action due to the so-called pa* 
rathermic.nja. The presence of vapour, in the form of 
light cloud or mist, however attenuated, appears to ob- 
struct this peculiar class of rays. . 

(E.) Miscellaneous Series. 

(69) 101. Smoxy-coloured glass (46), fig. 34. — Che- 
mical action commences at *70 and extends to 1*90. At the 
least refrangible end the impression descends faintly to -50. 
The maximum of action is within the limits of the visible most 
refrangible rays, the most intense spot being near Fraunhofer's 
line H. 

Those media which have been employed in the analysis of 
the prismatic spectrum, and are described in the optical series, 
but which do not appear in the chemical one, have been omitted, 
until further experiments confirm, or the contrary, the results 
which have been obtained. 



Kg. 32. 




Kg. 34. 



THE FLAX PLANT. 2jS 

On the Composition and (Economy of the Flax Plant. By Dr. Hodges, 
jF.C.S., Professor of Agriculture, Queen? s College, Belfast, and 
Chemist to the Chemico-Agricultural Society. 

Next in importance to the study of the substances which serve man for food, 
is the investigation of the composition and osconomy of the materials which 
yield him clothing. Among the plants which, from the most remote anti- 
quity, have been valued for their textile adaptation, those of the Linaceee 
family — and especially the Linum usitatissimum % a native of our own country, 
and widely spread over Europe, and also found in Hindostan and North 
America — have occupied a prominent place ; the flax plant, we have reason 
to believe, having been cultivated for its fibre in the earliest seats of civi- 
lization, and manufactured in the tents of the patriarchal fathers of our race. 
We find that it was worn in the temples, and the microscope has demon- 
strated that it was entombed in the sepulchres of Egypt. It also appears 
that its valuable qualities were known to the ancient tribes of northern and 
western Europe. 

A complete account of the flax plant, and its industrial applications in 
Ireland, should include — 1st, the history of flax cultivation in Ireland ; 2nd, 
an account of the processes of cultivation ; 3rd, an examination of the chemical 
composition of the plant ; 4th, an account of its technical preparation. 

The second division of the subject, however, belongs so exclusively to the 
practical department of agriculture, that its consideration may at present be 
properly omitted ; and though it would be out of place to occupy much time 
in this Section with the first division, yet a few remarks may be permitted, 
for the purpose of exhibiting the attention which, from a very remote period, 
seems to have been directed to flax cultivation in this country, and as illus- 
trative of its vast importance to the inhabitants of the province in the com- 
mercial capital of which we are now assembled. 

1 . The History of Flax Cultivation in Ireland. — From the earliest periods, 
we have reason to believe that the inhabitants of this island were acquainted 
with the valuable qualities possessed by the fibre of the flax plant, and manu- 
factured it for clothing. By whom, however, or from what country it was 
introduced, we have no satisfactory record ; for the assertion made by some 
writers, that the Phoenicians were the instructors of the Irish people, is 
totally destitute of historical foundation. Our Irish name for flax is Lhin, 
which word is also applied to thread, while the term Anairt, which is used 
to express a kind of coarse linen cloth worn by the peasantry, Dr. O'Donovan, 
of Queen's College, whose extensive and valuable researches in connexion 
with the native records of this kingdom are so well known, informs me has 
no cognate term in any language with which he is acquainted, and is evidently 
a word of great antiquity. In the Brehon laws, also, we find it enjoined that 
the Brughaidhs or farmers must be acquainted with the mode of working flax. 
The linen shirt, dyed yellow, indeed, appears to have been a national dress ; 
and the celebrated Jesuit, Edmund Campion, speaking of the " meere" Irish, 
describes their fondness for capacious linen garments. " Linen shirts,*' he 
says, " the rich doe weare for wantonness and bravery, with wide hanging 
sleeves, playted ; thirtie yards are little enough for one of them." The 
importance of flax cultivation in Ireland appears to have been fully recognized 
by the English government, as may be inferred from the number of legislative 
enactments and grants for its encouragement In 1809, we find that govern- 
ment appropriated the sum of £20,000 for this purpose. The exertions of 
several national societies have also been directed to the promotion of flax 

1852. T 



274 report — 1652. 

cultivation ; and by the labours of the Royal Dublin Society, the parent of 
all our agricultural associations, important improvements were introduced in 
the management of this crop. Since the establishment, in 1841, of the Royal 
Flax Improvement Society of Ireland — an association of proprietors and ma- 
nufacturers, which was originated, and holds its meetings in this town — there 
has been expended of money, collected by subscriptions from members, 
£8000, and of money granted by the government to the Society, for the pro* 
motion of flax cultivation in the south and west of Ireland, £4000. Vet, 
notwithstanding the efforts which have been made by governments and 
sooleties to stimulate the culture of flax, and though the total extent of the 
crop produced last year was estimated by the Census Commissioners as equal 
to 138,619 acres, the value of which would be about £1,700,000, this produce 
is only about a fourth of that annually required by the rapidly increasing 
manufactures of the United Kingdom. Though flax is at present cultivated 
in almost every part of Ireland, yet it is in Ulster that this branch of industry 
has attained its chief development Of the 138,619 acres of flax grown in 
1851, only 14s 893 acres were beyond the bounds of this province. It is in 
Ulster, also, that the principal seats of its manufacture are to be found. 

2. The Composition of the Flax Plant. — In reference to the third division 
of the subject, I conceive that the most satisfactory method will be to com- 
municate the history of a crop grown by myself for experimental purposes, 
the progress of which I was able carefully to watch, from the sowing of the 
seed till its conversion into dressed flax for the market Some of the details 
which I have collected, though of importance in the study of agricultural 
science, have not been hitherto much attended to in this country. 

The field selected for the experiments was situated about a mile and a 
half from Belfast ; it has a south-west aspect, and the soil is a sandy loam, 
composed of transported materials, such as are common in the districts sur- 
rounding Belfast. It had been occupied as a grazing field for four years, 
and allowed to produce rich crops of thistles and ragweeds. Its chemical 
examination proved that it contained a fair supply of all the ingredients re- 
quired for the purposes of cultivation: 100 parts had the following compo- 
sition : — 

Organic matters 6*60 

Oxide of iron 2*06 

Alumina 2*00 

Carbonate of lime 1*91 

Sulphate of lime 1*01 

Phosphate of lime 0*18 

Carbonate of magnesia . . 0*06 

Salts of potash and soda 2*40 

Insoluble siliceous matters 83*32 

99-54 

Water in the sample 8*00 

Textural composition* — Clay, fine sand, and organic matters. . . . 16*50 
Coarse sand and gravel 83*50 

100*00 
Progress of the Crop. — On the 16th of April, 1851, a portion of the field, 
measuring exactly 70 yards by 70, which had been prepared by spade labour 
in winter, was reduced to a fine tilth by harrowing and rolling, and sown 



TH» *LAX PLANT. 2?5 

with two and a half bushels of clean Riga seed of Superior quality. The 
weather had been dry for some time; but in the evening, after the sowing, 
0*800 inches of rain fell. 

On the 28th of April the young plants appeared above the soil. 

Mean temperature, from 16th April, 46°*5 Fahr. 
Quantity of rain 1-385 inch. 

On the 14th of May the surface of the field was green; each plant con- 
sisted of two leaves. 

May 31.— Each plant, with root, measured about 6 inches. Eight plants 
were taken for examination, and were found, when all traces of adherent 
earth were removed, to weigh 36 grs. They were dried at 212°, and care- 
fully incinerated in a platinum vessel, and were found to be composed as 
follows: — 

Per-centage composition. 
Fresh plants. Dry. 

Water 30-18 83-833 

Organic matters 509 14*139 87-446 

Inorganic matters . . 0-73 2-028 12-554 

36-00 100-000 100-000 

June 26. — Two plants, with roots, were taken from the same part of the 
field as those last examined. The plants were iust about to flower. Height 
of each above surface of soil, 22± inches. Both together weighed 60 grs. 

Per-centage composition. 
Fresh plants. Dry. 

Water 81-917 

Organic matters ' 16-837 93-11 

Inorganic matters 1*246 6*89 

100-000 100-000 
June 28— The plants were in flower. Mean temperature, from their first 

appearance above the soil (60 days), 53°-7 Fahr. 
July 7. — One plant in flower was taken. Height, 29 inches. Weight of 

entire plant, 26*05 grs. 

Per-centage composition. 
. Fresh plants. Dry. 

Water 73-321 

Organic matters 25*144 94*25 

Inorganic matters 1*535 5*25 



100*000 100*000 

July 28. — One plant of flax, in seed, was taken ; height above ground, 
31 inches, root 5\ long ; length from surface of. the field to the first branch 
24 inches. About 5 inches of the lower end of stem had become yellow. 
The weight of the entire plant was 71 -1 grs. 

Per-centage composition. 
Fresh plant. Dry. 

Water 69*210 

Organic matters 30*045 97*58 

Inorganic matters 0745 2*42 



100*000 100*00 

T! 



276 • report — 1852. 

The plant was cut into three portions, which were separately incinerated, 
with the following results : — 

1 . Root and lower part of stem weighed, dried, 6*60 grs.> gave 0*094 ash, 
1*424 per cent 

2. Capsules and branches, dry, weighed 9*47, gave *29S ash, 3*094 per cent 

3. Middle portion, dry, weighed 5 53, gave '143 ash, 2*584 per cent 
August 10. — One plant taken ; entire length, with root, 37 inches ; length 

from surface of soil to branches, 29 inches; stem of a light straw colour; 
leaves withered on 10 inches of stem ; capsules 10 in number — seeds green; 
weight of entire plant 71 grs.; branches and capsules 31*8 grs.; water in 
plant 45*336 grs. ; solid matter in ditto 25*665 grs. ; inorganic matter in ditto 
1*006 gr. 

Per-centage Composition. 

Water 63*852 

Organic matters 34*732 96*08 

Ash 1*416 3*92 

Total.. 100*000 100O0 

August 25. — The pulling of the crop was begun — a plant was taken and 
examined ; weight of entire plant 62*40 grs. ; weight of capsules 22*50 grs. 

Per-centage Composition of Stem. 

In fresh plant Dry. 

Water 56*64 

Organic matters 41*97 96*80 

Ash 1*39 3*20 

Total.. 100*00 100*00 

The crop was placed in stooks, and remained in the field until the 8th of 
September, when it was weighed at the Cregagh Steeping Works. At this 
period the air-dried straw was found to contain 12*2 per cent of water, and 
the bolls 1 1 '84 per cent 

The weight of the produce of the experimental field (straw and bolls), air- 
dried, was 7770 lbs., for which the sum of £12. 9s. 9d. was obtained. 

Amount of Nitrogen and Inorganic Matters in the Straw and Capsules, 
as pulled on the 25th August, dried at 212°. 

In the straw. In the boll*. 

1. Nitrogen, percent. . . . 0*53 1*26 

2. Ash, per cent 3*20 4*77 

Composition of the Inorganic Matter of the Crop. 

100 parts of the ash of the straw and capsules had respectively the fol- 
lowing composition :-— 

Ash of strew. Ash of capsules. 

. Potash 20*32 16'38 

Soda 2*07 6*25 

Chloride of sodium 9-27 12*98 

Lime 19*88 13*95 

Magnesia 4*05 3*91 

Oxide of iron 2*83 0*38 

Sulphuric acid 7*1 3 14*51 

Phosphoric acid 10*24 23*26 

Carbonic acid * 10*72 6*37 

Silica 12*80 0*67 

Total.. 99*31 99*02 



THE FLAX PLANT. 277 

One of the earliest among those who directed their attention to the che- 
mical composition of flax, was a distinguished member of this Association, Sir 
Robert Kane. Since that time analyses of the ash of the straw of flax have 
been published by Professor Johnston of Durham ; by Messrs. Mayer and 
Brazier, and by Mr. Way in England ; by Leuchtweiss in Germany ; and by 
the reporter. The only examination however of the proximate constituents 
of the plant, so far as I am aware, consists of an analysis of the seed by Leo 
Mayer. It is, indeed, strange that a plant, the straw of which has afforded oc- 
cupation to the industry of so large a portion of the world in all ages, and the 
preparation of which, for commercial purposes, consists in acting upon its 
proximate constituents, should not have been more carefully studied. Having 
been for some time engaged with investigations in this important department, 
I shall, on some other occasion, bring forward the details of my analyses. At 
present I shall merely state the general results of the examination of a spe- 
cimen of flax-straw taken from the experimental crop. A preliminary exa- 
mination having indicated the presence of a volatile oil, a quantity of the 
stems of the plant, carefully deprived of the seed capsules, was distilled with 
water containing common salt, and from the distillate, which was without 
action on litmus, I obtained an oil of a yellow colour ; 5 lbs. of the fully- 
grown fresh stems afforded about 10 grs. of this oil, which had an agreeable 
penetrating odour, and suggested the peculiar smell which is remarked on 
entering a room where flax is stored. In my examination of the proximate 
constituents of the plant, the straw, coarsely powdered, was placed in an 
extraction apparatus, and successively treated with aether, absolute alcohol, 
water, dilute hydrochloric acid, and weak solution of potash. The solutions 
obtained on examination were found to contain a fat oil, wax, traces of chlo- 
rophyle, a peculiar green resin, a gum resin, which presented some of the 
characters of the principle which Pagenstecher termed linine, and described 
as existing in the Linum catharticum or " purging flax," but could not be 
identified with it, a modification of tannic acid, which afforded a gray preci- 
pitate with percbloride of iron, but was not affected by solutions of isinglass 
or tartar emetic, gum, not affected by solution of borax or basic silicate of 
potash, a brown colouring matter, albumen, caseine, starch, pectine, cellulose, 
and salts. The following table exhibits the action of the various solvents 
employed : — 

1. Soluble in aether 2*88 

2. Soluble in absolute alcohol 8*52 

3. Soluble in water 5*92 

4. In dilute hydrochloric acid 22*76 

5. In dilute solution of caustic potash. . 36*39 

6. Cellulose and salts 48*58 



100*00 



I shall now proceed to the fourth division of the subject, and describe the 
various* methods which are adopted for the purpose of preparing the flax 
plant for the spinner. I shall not in this place allude to the oeconomv of its 
seed, but confine myself to the management of the fibre of the plant, to 
obtain which, of superior quality, is the main object of the flax-growers of 
Ulster. 

When a portion of the straw, as it is termed, of the flax plant is examined, \ 
it is found to consist of three parts : first, of a woody, central, hollow column, \ 
which the microscope shows to be composed of cellular tissue ; second, of a \ 
tabular sheath, composed of long and firm bast-cells ; and thirdly, of a deli- 



978 REPORT — 1852. 

cate covering of epidermis. By rubbing a piece of dried flax-straw between 
the fingers, tbe woody central part and delicate epidermis can be readily 
broken to pieces, while the tough fibres of the bast- cells will be found to re- 
main but little injured. Those tough fibres, which are capable of being split 

t into filaments of extreme delicacy, constitute the raw material of our greatest 
national manufacture. In the country farm-houses and manufacturing towns 
of Ulster, they afford employment to thousands of our people, and are made 
to assume almost innumerable forms. They are moulded into the costly lace 

i and beautiful cambric. They cover our tables, and supply us with "fine 
linen," equal to that which was once the pride of Egypt. The coarser fibres 
give stout sails to our ships, and even the refuse rejected by the spinner is 
.worked up into a cheap and substantial material for covering our farm-houses, 
'while the sweepings of the Belfast warehouses are sold to the paper*makera 
of England, and used to produce the broad sheets upon which the Tmu 

J and Morning Chronicle newspapers are printed. 

To separate this invaluable fibre from the worthless parts connected with 
it is the first step in its preparation for the spinner. Numerous plans have 
been proposed for this purpose, both by scientific and practical men* The 
examination of the plant shows us that its parts are bound together by gummy 
and resinous substances, and that vegetable jelly fills its cells. The separa- 
tion of the fibre, therefore, merely by mechanical means, as might be expected, 
cannot be perfectly accomplished; yet at various times patents have been 
taken out for the application of machinery for this purpose ; and in 1815 the 
Linen Board expended £6000 in the attempt to introduce into Ireland a ma- 
chine which had been invented by a Mr. Lee. One of those machines was 
lately sold as lumber at the White Linen Hall in this town. In other 
countries the dry preparation has also been tried, and though it has been 
found capable of producing a coarse, discoloured fibre, adapted for inferior 
fabrics, such as bagging, &c, yet it has been nearly discontinued* The 
specimens on the table will serve to illustrate the results of this method of 
treatment, as pursued in the jail at Cork, where it serves to give useful 
employment to the prisoners. 

From the earliest times only one method has been found capable of yielding 
the textile material in a condition adapted for every purpose, and possessing 
all the qualities demanded by the spinner, viz. the decomposition, by the 
process of fermentation, of the adhesive substances which connect together 
the bast fibres and the ligneous tissues of the straw. It is by this pro- 
cess, variously modified in the arrangements for conducting it, that nearly all 
the fibre produced in the great flax-growing countries of Europe is at present 
prepared. In many parts of Germany the fermentation is induced by ex- 
posing the flax, spread in the fields, to the influence of the air and moisture ; 
while in Belgium, which is justly regarded as the model country for flax 
management, the practice of enclosing the straw in wooden frames, and im- 
mersing it in the waters of rivers until the necessary changes are produced, 
is in many places adopted and found to yield fibre of superior quality. 

In Ireland, at the present time, two modifications of the system of fermenta- 
tion are in use— one of which consists in steeping the straw in pools of water 
in tbe open air at ordinary temperatures, while, according to the other method* 
the steeping is transferred from the farm to the factory, and the fermentation 
accelerated by employing water maintained at an elevated temperature* The 
former method of steeping has prevailed in this country and in other parts of 
Europe to some extent from the earliest times; and though it has been 
asserted by some writers, without, however, any authority for the statement, 
that the ancient inhabitants of this island prepared the flax in the same rude 



THE FLAX PLANT. 879 

manner, by beating the unsteeped straw, as observed among some of the 
people of the South Sea Islands, yet we may, I think, infer from the number 
of places to which the name "poll a lin,' i. e. flax hole, is applied, that 
they steeped in water. The plan followed by the farmer, who adopts the plan 
of steeping the flax on his farm in the open air, is to excavate a pond in con- 
nection with some convenient stream. The dimensions preferred are from 
twelve to eighteen feet broad, and about four feet deep. The quality of the 
water employed requires careful consideration, hard waters being found ma- 
terially to interfere with the process; ferruginous waters also are avoided | 
and in those districts where the steeper is obliged to make use of them, the 
flax acquires a dark tinge, which the bleacher finds it difficult to remove* 
From the action of the salts of iron upon the modification of tannic acid, 
which I have shown to exist in the straw, we can readily understand that the 
presence of iron in the water of the steep-hole must be prejudicial. As the 
oozing of water from the adjoining soil also frequently produces discoloration 
of the flax, careful steepen place on each side of the pond a small drain, to 
prevent the entrance of drainage waters. The flax, after pulling, is prepared 
for steeping by removing the seed capsules, or bolls, by means of a simple 
machine, composed of a number of iron teeth, about eighteen inohes long, 
screwed to a socket of wood, and fixed perpendicularly on a long bench, upon 
which the workmen sit The bolls are separated from the stems by the work- 
men taking a handful of the flax, spreading it out, and drawing it through 
the teeth of the ripple, as the machine is termed. Sometimes, however, the 
steeping does not take place until the flax has been stored for some time, and 
has become so dry that the fibre would be liable to injury by using the 
common rippling-machine. In such cases the seed is beaten off by means 
of a " beater," formed of a block of wood furnished with a curved handle. 

In England, where the flax plant is cultivated more for supplying food for 
cattle than for its fibre, the value of its nutritious seed is acknowledged by 
every farmer ; but in Ireland, unfortunately, industrial knowledge is only 
beginning to influence the practice of the agricultural population. It is in 
Ulster that the chief progress has been made. The Royal Flax Society has 
diffused much useful information ; and another institution, the Chemico- Agri- 
cultural Society, by its lectures and publications, has also contributed, in no 
small degree, to overcome ancient prejudices. Yet it must, I fear, be regarded 
by this meeting as but little creditable to our agriculture, that, though annu- 
ally nearly 650,000 qrs« of flax-seed and 70,000 tons of flax-seed cake are pur- 
chased by the fanners of the United Kingdom from foreign countries, only 
about one-tenth of the seed grown in this country is saved, the remaining 
portion, by the prejudices or indolence of the farmer, being consigned to the 
steep-hole* 

In placing the bundles of flax in the steeping- pond, they are arranged in 
regular rows, placed in an inclined position, so that the tie which confines 
the straw in one bundle rests upon the root end of the preceding bundle; 
the bundles of flax of equal length being arranged in different parts of the 
pond. When the pond is filled, a thin layer of straw or rushes is spread 
evenly over the flax, and on this covering old sods are placed, so as to keep 
the bundles from rising above the water. In a day or two, according to the 
temperature of the season, fermentation commences in the pool, and in warm 
weather in from eight to ten days, at other times in from twelve to fourteen, 
the steeping and retting, as the process is usually termed, is completed* 
Duriog the steeping the water acquires a dark brown colour, carbonic acid 
is disengaged in great abundance, and the surface becomes covered with a 
gelatinous scum. To remove this matter it is usual to allow a gentle current 



280 report-— 1852. 

of water to flow over the surface of the pond from the supplying stream, as, 
when it is allowed to remain, the colour of the flax is found to be injured. 
Various methods are resorted to in this and other flax-growing countries, to 
ascertain the proper period for the removal of the flax from the pond. Thus 
the Silesian steepers take some stalks of the flax from the pits, and place them 
on the surface of the water. If the stalk* sink they remove the flax, but if 
they swim they allow the steeping to continue for some days longer ; while 
the Irish farmer, day after day, when the fermentation has fairly commenced, 
anxiously tests the progress of decomposition by drawing a few stalks from 
one of the flax bundles and breaking them aoross in two places, about two 
inches apart. If he can readily pull away the central woody column without 
tearing the filaments of bast which surround it, he considers that the period 
has arrived for removing it from the pit. 

It is easy to perceive that the peculiar series of changes which facilitate 
the breaking up of the various organic compounds which compose the struc- 
ture of the flax plant, must, in our fickle climate, where so many sudden 
alterations of temperature occur, be liable to frequent disturbance, and 
that the progress of the fermentation, in the shallow steeping- pools, must 
be exceedingly irregular and uncertain. It is not, indeed, to be wondered, 
that, notwithstanding the closest supervision, the most experienced steepers 
should frequently be deceived, and that one part of the flax should be too 
much decomposed while another part has not properly experienced the altera- 
tions which facilitate the complete separation of the valuable material. 

The disagreeable odour evolved from a flax-pool must be familiar to those 
who have travelled in the north of Ireland in the steeping season, and the 
black hue which the streams in some country districts acquire at that period, 
from the refuse waters of the pools being allowed to fall into them, excites the 
surprise of strangers. 

It is interesting to discover, amongst those wonderful records, not merely 
of the military achievements, but of the rural occupations and manufactures 
of the ancient inhabitants of Egypt, which have come down to us on the walls 
of tneir temples, that the steeping of flax and its preparation for their " fine 
linen," was conducted nearly, we may conclude, in the same manner as by our 
farmers at the present time. The drawings exhibit to us large wooden vats 
for containing the flax-straw, and men are represented carrying water to fill 
them. 

To render the history of the crop complete, it is necessary to give some 
account of the treatment which the flax undergoes on its removal from the 
steeping-pool. I shall confine myself to a description of the ordinary system 
of this country. The first operation to which it is subjected is what is tech- 
nically termed grassing, which consists in spreading the steeped straw in thin 
and even layers upon pasture ground, for from six to ten days, according to 
the season, frequently turning it during its exposure, that the air may act 
equally on every part of it. By grassing the eremacausis of the woody matter 
and loosening of the fibre is still further promoted, and the colour of the flax 
also improved. After grassing, the straw is either stored up in stacks, for 
subsequent treatment, or at once subjected to the action of machines which 
break up and remove the brittle woody parts. To break up the woody matters 
so as to facilitate their removal in the ordinary practice of the farm, a simple 
machine, termed " the break," is employed. It consists of two wooden frames, 
each of which is furnished on one side with a number of parallel angular bars, 
so arranged, that, when the frames are connected together by a hinge, the 
angular surfaces of the bars on one frame are received into the hollows formed 
between the bars of the other. One of the frames is permanently fixed on 



THE FLAX PLANT. 281 

a support, while motion is communicated to the other frame by means either 
of an iron spring, or by an elastic pole of wood attached to it and connected 
with a treadle, upon which the workman presses with his foot. By placing 
a handful of the straws between the frames, and pressing upon the treadle, 
the moveable frame descends and bruises, or breaks the inelastic woody 
matter, while the supple fibre is uninjured. So prepared, the straw is ready 
for the second and final operation, which it undergoes before it is transferred 
from the farm to the factory. Steeping and grassing have destroyed the co- 
hesion between the various structures of the straw, the break has fractured 
the woody matters, it only now remains to liberate completely the valuable 
textile material from its worthless encumbrance. This is effected on the farm 
by means of a simple implement of manual labour ; an improved form has 
been introduced from Belgium. It cousists of a thin blade of wood, attached 
to a handle, and an upright wooden stand, with a notch cut on one side, in 
which the workman inserts a handful of the steeped and bruised flax, and 
turning the flax so as to present every part to the implement, by the blows 
of the " scutcher " the brittle and broken wcody matters, technically termed 
" shoves," are knocked away, and at the same time any very short or injured 
fibres are removed, producing what is known as " scutching tow." Some- 
times bits of " shove " adhere so closely to the bast fibre, that the workman 
requires to scrape them away by means of a blunt knife. 

Amongst the various obstacles which impede the extension of flax cultiva- 
tion to the south and west of Ireland, is the difficulty of obtaining experienced 
scutchers; and serious loss has frequently been sustained, by persons who 
have attempted the preparation of the crop, from the want of that skilled 
labour which is available in almost every part of Ulster. Thus it was found 
that while the northern scutchers can turn out from 12 lbs. to 14 lbs. of fibre 
per day, the workmen in the south and west have not been able to prepare 
more than from 5 lbs. to 6 lbs. daily, and frequently not more than 2 lbs. It 
is therefore of great importance to this country that government is about to 
afford encouragement to the erection of machinery for scutching, in districts 
where skilled workmen cannot be obtained. Even in Ulster, for some years 
the opinion has begun to prevail, that, as in other departments of our manu- 
factures, hand labour must, in the preparation of the flax fibre, give place to 
machinery, and " scutch-mills," where the work is performed for the farmer, 
are to be found in all our flax-growing districts. 

The fibre of the flax, prepared either by manual labour, or in the scutch- 
mill, is ready for market, and is sold according to its quality, at prices ranging 
from £30 to £150 per ton. It is not yet, however, suitable for the opera- 
tions of the spinner. In the same bundle there exist fibres of various quali- 
ties ; and it is also necessary that the filaments«should be arranged in parallel 
" reeds? They must be sorted and hackled. " Hackling " consists in draw- 
ing the mass of fibres through sets of iron teeth, fixed in a stand of wood, 
which, like the teeth of a comb, separate and arrange the fibres, and remove 
all broken pieces. Thus treated, flax is rendered fit for its various textile 
uses. 

Produce of Fibre, fyc. — The amount of rippled flax-straw, viz. 5824 lbs., 
obtained in my experiment, considerably exceeded the ordinary produce 
of the farmer. From the returns of the Royal Flax Society, and from my 
own inquiries, I would estimate the average produce of a statute acre, in the 
north of Ireland, of air-dried flax-straw, with bolls, at two tons, which by the 
seeding machine are usually reduced to 3360 lbs. By the various processes 
of the rural manufacturer, the amount of dressed flax or fibre obtained ave- 



REPORT — 1852. 

rages from four to five cwt. per acre. Some time ago I made an experiment 
at one of the country scutch-mills nearBelfast, for the purpose of ascertaining 
the relative proportions of the various qualities of fibre, and also the distri- 
bution of the inorganic matters. The flax employed had been steeped in the 
usual way, and was found to contain 1*73 per cent of inorganic matters: — 
4000 lbs. of air-dried straw produced of — 

Dressed flax 500 lbs. 

Fine tow 132 lbs. 

Coarse tow 192 lbs. 

824108. 

An examination of the amount of ash which the above materials respec- 
tively contained, showed that its distribution was as follows :— 

In the flax 4*48 lbs. of inorganic matters. 

In the fine tow 2*08 

In the coarse tow 2*56, or in all 9*12 lbs. 

So that 59*08 lbs. of the inorganic matters, which the crop had withdrawn 
from the field, remained locked up in the woody shoves, which, as obstinately 
resisting decomposition, are used for fuel, while 9*12 lbs. were carried away 
in the dressed flax and tow sold to the spinner. 

Accelerated Fermentation— The Patent System. — For to far, we have con- 
sidered the preparation of the flax fibre solely as constituting a part of the 
ordinary farm operations of this country. Where the necessary amount of 
intelligence prevails among the agricultural community, with regard to the 
proper cultivation of the crop and its after treatment, as is the case in Belgium, 
in some provinces of which country frequently 10 per cent, of the cultivated 
area is devoted to its production, and in Ulster, where we find that, in 1851, 
one out of every 44 acres was under flax, experience has taught the farmer, 
that even with the various disadvantages attendant upon the old and unoer* 
tain methods of management, it is capable of yielding considerable profit to the 
grower. Notwithstanding, however, the efforts which have been made by 
societies and government to extend the cultivation of the crop to those di- 
stricts in the south and west of the kingdom, where, for various reasons, it was 
most important that the means of occupation which it was found to afford in 
Ulster should be rendered available, great difficulties were experienced, both 
from the deficiency of skilled labour and the want of convenient markets for 
the produce. Fortunately, at a time when great discouragements had been ex- 
perienced by those who had entertained the expectation that the fertile toils 
of the south of Ireland were destined to render our manufacturers independent 
of the supplies of foreign countries, the attention of the flax-growers of Ulster 
was directed to a system of flax management, proposed by an American 
named Schenck, which appeared to remove all the difficulties of the old 
system, and promised completely to revolutionize the oeconomy of the crop. 
In the method of Mr. Schenck, as in the old system, a process of fermentation 
is employed for the separation of the fibre ; but instead of the steeping being 
conducted in the open air in shallow pools, it is made a factory operation, 
and the requisite changes are accelerated by placing the rippled flax in water 
maintained at an elevated temperature. This method is not new, bnt had 
been proposed by Professor Scheidweiler in Belgium, and tried in this country 
several years before the arrival of Mr. Schenck. It also appeals to have 
been employed by the Malays and the natives of Bengal ; but it is to the late 



THE FLAX PLANT. 283 

Mr* Schenck, and his successors, Messrs. Bernard and Koch, that the credit 
of organizing establishments for working the process is to be ascribed. 

The advantages which the new system presented were most important :~ 

1st By leading to the establishment of factories for the steeping of flax, 
and the purchase of the crop from the farmer, who would thus be relieved 
from the trouble of its preparation, it rendered it possible to extend the cul- 
tivation of the crop beyond the bounds of the ordinary flax-growing districts. 

2nd. It introduced greater certainty and ceconomy into the preparation of 
the fibre. 

3rd. It prevented the destruction of the valuable seed, and also increased 
the per-centage of fibre. With these advantages, as might be expected, the 
new system made rapid progress, and establishments were erected, not merely 
in Ireland, but in England and Scotland, and the attention of several Con- 
tinental countries was also at once directed to it. 

To enable you completely to understand the system of management pur- 
sued at these establishments, one of which those interested in the subject 
will have an opportunity of inspecting in the neighbourhood of Belfast, 
I shall continue the description of the treatment of the experimental crop, of 
which I have already given a portion of the history. When the crop had 
been completely air-dried, by exposure in the field, so as to yield, as al- 
ready stated, in the straw, when dried at 212°, only 12 per cent of water, 
it was removed to the steeping-works at Cregagh. It was there placed in 
stacks, and after some time prepared for steeping. The first operation for 
this purpose is the removal of the valuable bolls or capsules. This, in these 
establishments, where the cost of labour is carefully considered, is usually most 
expeditiously and perfectly effected by means of a machine composed of two 
massive oast-iron rollers, to which motion is communicated by a belt from 
the steam-engine. Between these the flax is passed and the capsules bruised, 
so that the seed can be readily shaken out Having been deprived of its 
bolls by this machine, it was found that the 7770 lbs. of flax plants were 
reduced to 52 cwt, or 5824 lbs. 

Of the portions of the plant removed by the seeding machine, 910 lbs. con- 
sisted of clean seed, 10S6 lbs. of husks, leaves, and sand. The vats to which 
the flax is now removed are formed of wood, strongly bound together by 
hoops, the oval shape being preferred. They are furnished with false bottoms, 
pierced with holes beneath, through which, by means of a coil of pipe, as re- 
presented in the drawing, steam is conveyed. The flax having been placed in 
the vats, with the bundles resting on the butt or root ends, and in single layers, 
as in the ordinary steeping-pools, a wooden frame is fixed above them, so as 
to prevent their rising out of the water during the fermentation. The vats 
are now filled with water, so as completely to cover the flax, and the steam- 
cook opened so as gradually to raise the temperature to 00° F. The 
overseers are furnished with thermometers, and instructed carefully to main- 
tain the temperature at that point day and night Reckoning from the time 
at which the steam is admitted to the vats, the duration of the steeping 
averages about sixty-six hours. When the object is to obtain a very fine 
fibre, the retting is continued for a longer period. The method of ascer- 
taining the proper period for the removal of the flax from the water is the 
same as has already been described as relied on by the common steeper. 
The loss experienced by the seeded flax in steeping was IS cwt 

ZJrytw^r-— When the steeping is completed, the flax is carried from the vats 
to an adjoining apartment of the factory, and placed in layers upon tables, 
and fixed by women in the drying holders* These consist of two wooden rods, 



284 report — 1852. 

5$ feet long, between which a thin layer of flax is secured, by passing metal 
rings over the ends of the holders, fifty holders being employed for about 
1 cwt. of flax. Thus secured, the holders are carried to open drying sheds, 
and suspended from cross-beams. In three days, in favourable weather, the 
drying is completed ; but in damp weather it is placed in a hot chamber, to 
heat which the waste steam of the steam-engine is employed. 

Breaking and Scutching. — As in the patent steeping establishments a 
sufficient number of skilled workmen could not be at all times obtained, a 
new impulse was given to the invention of machines capable of performing 
the work of the hand-scutcher, and several ingenious and beautiful mecha- 
nical arrangements have been proposed, both for breaking and scutching the 
flax. In this department Belfast has produced some excellent examples, and 
the machines of Messrs. M'Adam, Brothers and Co., and of Mr. Richard 
Robinson, are to be found in almost every flax-growing district both in this 
country and in England. From the 52 cwt. of seeded straw, the produce of 
the experimental crop, there remained 6 cwt. 1 qr. 2 lbs. of marketable 
fibre. 

After the introduction of the new system, and that several establishments 
were occupied in the preparation of fibre, objections were made to the 
quality of the material, and considerable doubts were expressed, both with 
regard to the amount of produce obtained, and its adaptation for its various 
uses. These objections, however, were at the time removed by experiments 
instituted by experienced manufacturers, both in this country and at the admi- 
rably-conducted works of the Messrs. Marshall in Yorkshire. In Messrs. 
Marshall's experiments, samples of the products of which are on the table, 
flax-straw grown in Holland was the material employed ; the steeping of a 
portion was conducted at two establishments, on Schenck's system, while 
another portion from the same lot was steeped in -Holland in the ordinary 
way. The results were regarded as in all respects confirmatory of the supe- 
riority of the patent process ; and a Committee of the Royal Flax Society 
also reported, that all objections with respect to any injurious influence of the 
accelerate fermentation on the strength and bleaching qualities of the fibre 
had been shown to be groundless, and that the yield of the fibre was greater 
than when "the old, slovenly, and uncertain process of watering" was prac- 
tised. 

The process of fermentation, as conducted in the patent establishments, so 
far as my investigations have extended, does not appear in any respect to 
present phenomena different from what I have observed in the ordinary 
steeping-pools of the country, when only rippled flax is employed. Usually, 
in eight or ten hours after the flax had been placed in the vats, a copious 
extrication of gas is observed, and sometimes the vat becomes covered with a 
head of froth, like the vat of the brewer ; and at this period an odour is 
evolved in the establishment closely resembling that of the brewery. The 
gas evolved at this period is chiefly carbonic acid. The liquid at the same 
time exhibits a slight acid reaction. As the process continues the tem- 
perature rises, so that an additional admission of steam is seldom required to 
maintain the liquid at from 85 to 90 degrees. Towards the conclusion of 
the operation, usually in about 60 hours, the escape of gas becomes less abun- 
dant, and a covering of slimy matter collects on the surface of the liquid. 

The steep-water at this period has a light brown colour, is transparent, 
and closely resembling bitter ale. It is strongly acid to litmus, but the 
original blue colour of the test-paper is restored on drying. 

Its taste at first is rather agreeably acid, but followed by the peculiar 



THE FLAX PLANT. 285 

plant-like taste of the flax. Contrary to what has been stated in some reports 
on this subject, the liquid I found, at the conclusion of the process, yields 
nearly a trace of acetic acid, and in numerous experiments no trace of the 
evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen could be detected at any stage of the fer- 
mentation. When the flax is allowed to remain in the vats after the usual 
time, a new series of changes, and a fresh and rapid extrication of gas, take 
place. I have made, during the last three years, numerous experiments 
with respect to the composition of the steep-water from several establish- 
ments, and also from the common steep-pools, which afforded me some inter- 
esting results, and satisfied me that the fermentation which is induced by 
steeping flax in water resembles the so-called butyric acid fermentation, 
merely traces of acetic acid, and invariably large quantities of butyric acid, 
having been detected in every case. In fact, the fragrant butyric aether, so 
extensively employed in the preparation of pine-apple rum, and in flavouring 
confectionery, might readily be obtained in large quantities from the stinking 
waters of the flax-pool. 

(Economy of the Flax Water. — With regard to the refuse waters of the vats, 
some years ago, upon the opening of Mr. Schenck's establishment in Belfast, 
I made an analysis of the water in which the flax had been steeped, which 
confirmed the conclusions to which I had been conducted, from my examina- 
tions of the waters of the country steep-ponds, that an opinion which had 
been promulgated by scientific authority, of the possibility of restoring to the 
fields of the farmer all the ingredients abstracted from the soil during the 
growth of the flax, by means of the steep-water and other refuse parts of the 
plant, was not, even supposing that these matters could be (Economically 
employed as manure, which is impossible, supported by investigations with 
respect to the amount of fertilizing ingredients which they contained. 

Chemistry is, I conceive, contributing in no small degree to the progress 
of agricultural knowledge. It has even already introduced greater oeconomy 
into many departments of the farmer's business, and has opened up to him 
new sources of fertilizing agents. But in some cases it is to be feared that 
the chemist has himself raised obstacles to the reception of agricultural 
science by the practical agriculturist, by proposals which, though capable of 
being carried out in the laboratory, are totally inapplicable in the great 
operations of the husbandman. 

To ascertain exactly the effect produced by steeping, and the composition 
of the steep-water, I obtained from the works at Cregagh a sample of flax- 
straw unsteeped, a portion of steeped straw taken from the same lot, and a 
gallon of the steep-water taken from the vat immediately after the removal 
of the flax. The composition of the ash obtained by burning the extract of 
the steep-water, and the samples of the straw, is given in the Table. The 
spring-water employed at the works is moderately hard, indicating, on Dr. 
Clarke's scale, 8 degrees. It was not considered necessary to deduct the in- 
gredients supplied in it, as these would add but little to its fertilizing value. 
An imperial gallon of the liquid of the vat was found to contain, in grains 
and tenths, — 

Organic matters 136'7 

Inorganic matters 131*4 

Total solid matters 268-1 



286 report— 1852. 

Composition of the Ash of the Flax-draw before and after steeping, and of 
the Inorganic Matters of the Steep-water. 
100 parte of each respectively contained — 

Unsteeped Steeped Ash of the 

flax. flax. steep water. 

Potash 13-88 11-40 19-31 

Soda 5-33 4-17 

Chloride of potassium .... ... ... S-83 

Chloride of sodium 6-47 3-28 21-24 

Lime 18-86 17*69 8*23 

Magnesia 4*10 5*50 10-18 

Oxide of iron 5'40 5*76 2-02 

Sulphuric acid 11-16 4*07 6"10 

Phosphoric acid 9*63 11-87 S'77 

Carbonic acid 10-37 20-06 23-30 

Silica 15-23 15-78 M2 

Sand ... 0-60 



100-43 9958 99*77 

Ash per cent in the straw . . 3*89 2-59 

100 grs. of the dried extract of the steep- water contained 1-56 nitrogen, 
=1*89 grs. of ammonia; therefore an imperial gallon would be capable of 
supplying 5 grs. ; and a vat containing 3000 gallons of water, 2^ lb&, 
worth about 1*. 2<£, and would convey to the fields of the farmer about the 
same weight of phosphoric acid. 

By the kindness of the proprietors of the Patent Steeping-Works at Cregagh, 
who have liberally given me an opportunity of inspecting the books of their 
establishment, 1 am enabled to give the following average statement of the 
changes which 100 tons of flax undergo, when treated by Schenck s process. 
100 tons of air-dried flax-straw yield — 

Tons. 

1. By Seeding— $$ tons of seed and husks, leaving of seeded flax. . 67 

2. By Steeping — 67 tons of seeded flax yield of steeped straw 39*5 

3. By Scutching — 39£ tons of steeped straw yield of dressed flax . . 5*90 
Of tow and pluckings 1-47 

Flax Cotton.— The irregularity in the supply of cotton, the raw material 
of an important allied branch of English manufacture, and of which it is cal- 
culated the mills of the United Kingdom require annually a quantity equal 
to 1000 tons daily, has at various times suggested attempts to convert our 
indigenous flax into a form which might render it capable of being spun with 
the ordinary cotton machinery. It appears that attempts to produce from 
flax a substance possessing the properties of cotton, were many years ago 
made by a Swede named Des Charmes, and that in 1775 Lady Moira com- 
municated to the Society of Arts some experiments which, suggested by those 
of the Swede, she had made in this country. Her ladyship's experiments are 
to us peculiarly interesting, as her letters show that they were carried on at 
her seat, the present residence of David Ker, Esq., M.P., only twelve miles 
distant from Belfast. Neither Des Charmes' nor Lady Moira's experiments 
seem to have led to any practical application of the proposed substitute for 
the foreign material ; and though subsequent trials for the same purpose 
were made by various persons, the public do not appear to have placed any 
confidence in their plans. Lately, however, the project has been revived by 

Brazilian gentleman, the Chevalier Claussen, known to the public as the 
'ntor of an ingenious loom. This gentleman has been more successful than 



THE FLAX PLANT. 287 

his predecessors in exciting attention, and hii processes have been described 
by several chemists of reputation in England, as affording a new and beauti- 
ful application of the powers of chemistry to practical purposes. In every 
part of Europe, indeed, much interest has been excited by the accounts which 
have been published respecting his discoveries, which were regarded as cal- 
culated to render Great Britain nearly altogether independent of foreign 
supplies of cotton. The proposals of M. Claussen were not confined to cot- 
tonizing flax, but also embraced a method of preparing long-line or fibre for 
the flax-spinner, substituting for fermentation the more rapid action of a 
weak solution of caustic soda, followed by boiling, or simple immersion in 
water, acidulated with sulphuric or muriatic acid. The material employed 
for the production of his cotton was at first unsteeped flax-straw ; but at 
present I find that the flax in its original state is not used, and that the 
refuse tow of the scutch-mills is preferred. This limitation of the application 
of M. Claussen's patent removes some of the objections which were urged 
against his original proposal to cut up valuable flax, so as to produce what 
the opponents of the invention regarded as an inferior article ; now, however, 
it is merely the waste tow of the scutching-mill, which can be purchased at 
from £4 to £7 per ton, that is used in M. Claussen's establishments : and 
from this, as the interesting series of samples which have been kindly 
supplied to me by Dr. Ryan show, a beautiful material, capable, it is stated, 
not merely of being spun with cotton machinery, but of being combined 
with wool, silk, and other fibres, and exhibiting, apparently, that increased 
affinity for colouring matters which Mr. Mercer has found to be possessed 
by cotton fibre, acted upon by caustic alkali, has been obtained. The first 
operation at M. Claussen's works is to pass the tow through a carding and 
hackling machine, for the purpose of arranging its fibres parallel; so straight- 
ened, it is cut by another machine (somewhat similar in its operations to the 
chaff-cutter of the farmer) into pieces of about one and a half inch in 
length, and is then conveyed to the steeping vats. The vats are placed side 
by side ; and by means of a cradle and a travelling railway, the tow can be 
transferred from one to the other, as required. It is, in the first place, 
steeped for twenty-four hours in a cold solution of caustic soda, of 1° Twad- 
del. The next step is to plunge it in another vat containing a similar solution, 
but furnished with a steam-pipe, so that the liquid can be kept at a boiling 
temperature for two hours. The peculiar part of the process, or the Claus- 
senizitfg of the tow, is commenced by transferring the material prepared, as 
described, to a third vat, which holds a solution containing 5 per cent, 
carbonate of soda. It is allowed to remain immersed about an hour, so as to 
be completely saturated with this liquid, and is then raised from the vat and 
placed in a solution containing about one-half per cent, of sulphuric acid. 
In the bath of sulphuric acid it is alleged that important chemical and me* 
chanioal changes are effected in the character of the flax fibre. It is stated 
that it becomes at once changed, 'as if " by a new instance of natural magic," 
from a damp aggregation of flax to a light expansive mass of cottony texture, 
increasing in size, like leavening dough or an expanding sponge ; and this 
material, it is asserted, can be produced at a cost not exceeding 2\d. per lb., 
which is considerably below the price at which cotton can be grown and 
imported from the United States or any other cotton-producing country. 
By a simple process of bleaching, and subsequently " carding," the tow thus 
modified assumes both the texture and appearance of foreign cotton, and can 
at once be employed by the cotton-spinner. 

With such alleged advantages to recommend it, it was not wonderful that 
M. Claussen's proposal attracted the attention and excited the sympathies of 
Mr. Porter and other eminent (Economists, and that the late Lord Lieutenant 



288 report — 1852. 

of Ireland, the Earl of Clarendon, should desire that a scheme which promised 
such important results to this country, so deeply interested in the production 
of flax, should be carefully tested on a proper commercial scale. 

An inquiry having been oommitted to Sir Robert Kane, Director of the 
Museum of (Economic Geology, I was requested, together with Professors 
Blyth and Murphy of Cork, to make such investigations as might properly 
ascertain the value of the various methods proposed. But, unfortunately, 
the mechanical arrangements which had been made by M. Claussen's agents, 
to illustrate the production of the new material from unsteeped flax, were not 
capable of affording satisfactory results ; and, though some trials with tow 
proved more successful, it was found impossible to carry out the object of the 
inquiry at the locality selected. I am informed that it is the intention of 
the patentees to solicit a full investigation of the methods pursued in their 
operations at works which they have established near London, and where,, 
they state, the material is produced in large quantities. The real value 
however of Claussen's substitute for cotton must be decided by the ex- 
perience of the manufacturers of England. With regard to the ceconomy of 
the processes, it would be improper to give an opinion until the investigation 
which M. Claussen solicits has taken place. The specimens show what can 
be made from the waste tow of the spinner ; and it is interesting to find both 
Berthollet and Gay-Lussac, many years ago, pointing out the advantages 
which appear here to be realized from the conversion of tow into a substitute 
for cotton. 

I have now to request attention to a new process, entirely different from 
any of those which have been described, and the first public announce- 
ment of which I am permitted by the patentees to make to this meeting. 
The methods adopted are the invention of Mr. Watt, a countryman and 
namesake of the great philosopher. In this process neither fermentation nor 
the action of acid nor alkaline solutions are employed, the separation of the 
fibre from the useless matters of the straw being effected by subjecting the 
stems to the action of steam, and afterwards by pressure applied by powerful 
rollers. In the first place, Mr. Watt proposes to take seeded flax, and to ex- 
pose it to steam, at the ordinary pressure of the atmosphere > in a close cham- 
ber, of peculiar construction, so as to soften and dissolve out the gummy 
and other soluble matters. The chambers which he employs are square 
vessels constructed of wood, or of plates of cast iron, and provided with false 
bottoms, formed of the perforated iron plates used in malt-kilns. Two doors 
are placed in the ends of the chambers, for putting in and removing the flax. 
The top of each vat is formed of cast-iron plates so arranged as to constitute 
a shallow tank for containing water, and through which, extending for some 
inches above the surface of the water, passes an iron pipe, which commu- 
nicates with the interior of the chamber. To the opening of this pipe a valve 
is fixed, which can be opened or closed as required. Resting upon the false 
bottom, there is an arrangement of pipes, which are intended to act like the 
vomiter, or throw-pipe of the bleacher. The process is commenced by 
placing the flax in bundles, as received from the seeding machine, on the 
false bottom, until the chamber is nearly filled. The doors are then secured 
by screws, and steam is discharged into the chamber by a pipe which passes 
between the bottoms, and for some time allowed to escape through the valve- 
pipe in -the roof, so as to remove the volatile oil contained in the straw. 
After some time the valve is closed ; and the escape of the steam being pre- 
vented, it penetrates through the mass of the flax, softening and loosening 
its various parts. Water is now admitted into the metal tank, and the steam, 
which strikes against the cooled roof of the chamber, is condensed and made 
to descend in showers of distilled water, by which the soluble and softened 



THE FLAX PLANT. / T ~ >-> T **2£0U c r ~* 

| J i< 1 * S U w i J. 

extractive matters are washed out aud carried below the falte \gttpm, awr ap . ^. 
conveyed by pipe9 into a reservoir and preserved. It is, howeV^j^yfy}c£eflp w ^ >^ 
at intervals, during the operation, to allow the flax liquid to accumulate until * — -^ 
it rises above the false bottom, and then, by the pressure of the steam, to 
cause it to ascend in the throw-pipes, and to descend in streams over the 
straw, so as completely to wash away all the softened matters. In about ten 
hours the entire operation may be completed, though the patentee regards 
it advantageous to subject the flax to the action of the steam for from 
twelve to eighteen hours. 

The second part of Mr. Watt's process consists in submitting the straw, as 
it is removed, softened and swollen, from the steam chambers to the success- 
ive action of two pairs of very heavy iron rollers, somewhat resembling the 
seeding rollers used in the hot- water steeping establishments, for the purpose 
both of quickening the drying process, and of expressing any adherent colour* 
ing or glutinous matter. By this operation, also, he finds that not only is the 
drying facilitated, but that a considerable portion of the enveloping cuticle 
of the stems is removed, and that the separation of the fibre in scutching is 
rendered more perfect by the bruising and splitting up of the woody parts 
consequent/^) pon the longitudinal pressure to which they are exposed under 
the rollers. This new method, which is in operation at present in the extensive 
works of Messrs. Lead better in this town, appears to offer most striking ad- 
vantages. It is peculiarly adapted for rendering the separation of the fibre a 
manufacturing operation. No disagreeable smelling odours are evolved ; and, 
if experience confirms the expectations of the patentees with respect to the 
quality of the fibre obtaiued, and the comparatively low expenditure required 
in its production, the new process will, in no trifling degree, contribute to 
the extension of flax cultivation in this country. 

A striking peculiarity of this process, and one which renders it exceedingly 
interesting to the scientific agriculturist, is, that it offers the only satisfactory 
method of oeconomizing the matters which are dissolved from the flax plant 
in its treatment. The dark liquid which accumulates in the lower chamber 
of the vat can be obtained in a most concentrated fonn ; it is* totally free 
from the disagreeable odour of the flax-pool, and experiments which have 
been tried prove that it is found by pigs a palatable and nutritious food. 

I have to apologize for the length to which this Report has extended, and I 
feel that some of the details which I have included in it may appear unneces- 
sary to those who are familiar with the various process of the flax manufac- 
ture; but as many persons present, though acquainted with the beautiful 
fabrics, which, in every market in Europe and America, attest the skill and 
ingenuity of the linen manufacturers of Ulster, have probably now for the 
first time visited a district which, like the north of Ireland, on every side 
exhibits, in its steeping- establishments, busy flax-mills and extensive bleach- 
greens evidences of the advantages which this country has derived from the 
cultivation and skilful management of the flax plant, I trust, that, whilst in- 
specting the various processes to which our manufacturers have liberally invited 
the attention of the members of the Association, the outline which I have en- 
deavoured to give them of the oeconomy of the crop may tend to increase 
their interest in this important department of our national industry. And if 
my remarks on the composition of the plant and the various plans proposed for 
the preparation of its valuable fibre should induce any of those whom I have 
the honour to address to undertake investigations which may contribute to 
improve either the agricultural or technical management of the crop, the 
present visit of the British Association will be regarded, if possible, with still 
greater satisfaction by the manufacturers of Ulster. 

1852. u 



290 report— 1852. 

The freshwater Pishes of Ulster, as enumerated in the MSB. of the 
late William Thompson, Esg. 9 President of the Belfast Natural 
History and Philosophical Society. Contributed by Robert Pat- 
terson, Esq. and James R. Garrett, Esq. 

Tbk contributors of this paper stated that they had prepared it from' their 
late friend's MSS., in consequence of a suggestion which had been made to 
them, to the effect that an accurate catalogue of the freshwater fishes of Ulster 
would, on the present occasion, be interesting to many who had not before 
had an opportunity of observing the physical features of the North of Ireland. 
The several species of fish which inhabit purely fresh water for at least a por- 
tion of the year, and which Mr. Thompson had noted as having been found 
in the province of Ulster, were enumerated thus : — 

Perca fluvktilis, Linn. Cobitia barbatula, Linn. 

Gasterosteus aculeatus, Linn., including Esox lucius, Linn. 

the several varieties figured in Yar- Salmo salar, Linn. ") 

nil's British Fishes, viz. ( Salmulus.) / 

G. trachurus, Cuv. Sf Vol. — Eriox, Linn. 

— semiarmatus, Cuv. A* Vol. — tratta, Linn. 

— leiurus, Cuv. £ Vat. fario, Linn. 

brachycentrus, Cuv. Sc Vail. — ferox, Jard. 

— spinulosus, Cuv. 4* V°l' — umbla, Linn. 1 

— pungitius, Linn. (8. Salvelinus, Don.) J 
Gobio flimatilis, Will. Coregonus Pollan, Thomp. 
t;«-w. m ,i M *:. n^ ? T Introduced into Pktessa flesus, Cuv. 
r™L™ ^L 7jL I PO^s but not Anguilla acutirostris, Forr. 

^Z£??a£ f considered in- — mediorostris, Yarr. 
auratus, Linn, j digenonii latirostris, Yarr. (?). 

Abramis Brama, Cuv. Petromyzon marinus, Lmm. 

— Buggenhagii, Thomp. \ fluviatilis, Linn. 

(Cyprinus , Block). J Planeri, Bl. 

Leuciscus erythrophthalmus, Cuv. Ammocsetes branchialis, Cuv. 



Supplementary Report on the Fauna of Ireland by the late William 
Thompson, Esq., President of the Belfast Natural History and 
Philosophical Society. 

Robert Patterson and James R. Garrett, Esqs., the two gentlemen by 
whom this communication was brought forward, gave the following explana- 
tion as to the circumstances under which it was prepared : — At the Meetings 
of the British Association held in the years 1840 and 1843, Mr. Thompson 
presented Reports on the Fauna of Ireland, drawn up by him at the request 
of the Association. Shortly after his untimely decease in February last 
(1852), his MSS. were — in pursuance of directions contained in his will — 
handed over to the two gentlemen above-named, with a view to publication, 
so as to complete his work on the Natural History of Ireland, three vols, of 
which — on the Birds of Ireland — had appeared during the author's lifetime. 
On examination of these MSS., a memorandum was found containing a list of 
the papers which it had been Mr. Thompson's intention to submit to the 
Belfast meeting of the Association, and, amongst others, there was specified 
a supplement to his former reports. The materials of this Supplement were 
also discovered, partly arranged, and it was considered desirable that the 



ON THB FAUNA OF IRELAND. 291 

author's intentions should be carried oat as far as possible. The remaining 
volumes of " The Natural History of Ireland " being in course of preparation 
for the press, the present communication was confined to an enumeration of 
the several species of animals now recorded as Irish, but which had not 
been made known at the date of the publication of Mr. Thompson's previous 
reports. 

Div. VERTEBBATA. 

Class Mammalia. 

Vespertilio Nattereri, Kuhl M'Coy, in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. xv. p. 270. 

Delphinus tureio, Fabr Gray, in Ann. Nat. Hiit. vol. vii. p. 84. 

Class Ayes. 

Vntar rotas, IMm . Tamil, Br. Birds, ed. 2. vol. i. p. 1 ; Thomp. 

Nat. Hiit. Ireland, vol. Lp. 84. 
Aquila Nsvia, Brisson.... * Tarr. Br. B. vol. i. p. 10 9 Thomp. K« H. Lrt. 

vol. i. p. 13. 

Circus cineraceul, Mont, (sp.) Thomp. N. H. Ire. vol. i. p. 427* 

Motacilla alba, Linn., Gould „ „ p. 218. 

Alauda cristata, Gould Tarr. Br. B. vol. i. p. 455. 

Alcedo Alcyon, Linn Thomp. N. H. Ire. vol. i. p. 373. 

Hirundo purpurea, Wilson 1.. Tarr. Br. B. vol. ii. p. 257. 

Perdue rufa, Mont Thomp. N. H. Ire. vol. ii. p. 65. 

Charadrma eantianus, Latham „ „ p. 104. 

Grus cinerea, Bechst „ „ p. 131. 

Botanrus lentiginosus, Mont, (sp.) ... „ „ p. 168. 

Ciconia alba, Brisson „ „ p. 175. 

Scelopas Brehmi, Kaup ,.. „ vol. iii. p. 447. 

Tringa platyrhynca, Temm. „ vol. ii. p. 282. 

— Seninzii, Bonap „ „ p. 297. 

— — Bonapartei, Schlegel „ „ p. 297. 

— — rufescens, VieiU. M'Coy, in Ann. Nat. Hist. vol. xv. p. 271* 

— — Temminckii, Leisler Thomp. N. H. Ire. vol. ii. p. 302. 

Crex BaiBoni, VieiU. (tp.) „ „ p. 321. 

GaDinula Martinica, Gmel „ „ p. 331. 

Anser Canadensis, Gmel. (sp.) „ vol. iii. p. 24. 

jfigyptiacu*, Linn, (ro.) „ „ p. 64. 

Tadoma rutila, Pallas (sp.) „ „ p. 65. 

Anas Americana, Gmel. „ „ p. 112. 

Oidemia perepicillata, Linn, (sp.) ... „ „ p. 118. 

Mergus cucullatiu, Linn „ „ p. 161. 

Una Ieucophthalmua, Faber „ „ p. 211. 

Sterna Velox, Rvppel „ „ p. 266. 

— leucopareia, Natterer ,. „ p. 298. 

leueoptera, Meissner <$* Schini.. M'Coy, in Ann. N. S. vol. xv. p. 271 j Thomp. 

N. H. Ire. vol. iii. p. 307. 
Larus Booapaitii, Rich. Sf Swains.... „ „ p. 317. 

Procellaha glaeialis, Lin n „ „ p. 406. 

Class Pisces. 

Coitus OrefiBkndieus, Cuv. if Vol.... Specimen in Dublin University Museum, ob- 
tained by Dr. Ball at Yougbal; another 
procured by Mr. Win. Andrews from Dingle 
Bay, Feb. 1850. 

Sebastes Norvegicus, Cuv. fy Vol. ... Obtained from Dingle Bay by Mr. Wm, An- 
drews. 

Pagelm* erythrinus, Cuv. if Vol. .... Taken on south-west coast by Hie same gen- 
tleman* 

u2 



292 



REPORT — 1852. 



Cantharus lineatua, Mont, (sp,) Ann. N. II. vol. xviii. p. 313. 

Brama Raii, Cud. fy Vol „ vol. xv. p. 311. 

Xiphias gladius, Linn. ? „ vol. xviii. p. 314. 

Cepola rubescens, IAnn Obtained by Dr. Farran on southern coast, 

Dec. 1848. 

Scopelus borealis, Nillson Ann. N. H. vol xx.p. 171* 

PLatessa limandoides, Jenyns Obtained by Mr. W. Todhunter off Cape 

Clear, in winter of 1848. 

Pleuronectes Arnoglossus, Schn Obtained by Mr. W. Todhunter on Galway 

coast, Sept. 1848. 

Soleapegusa, Yarr Obtained by Mr. W. Todhunter on Gabray 

coast, Sept. 1848. 

Echeneis remora, Linn Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 314. 

Syngnathus ophidion, Linn „ vol. i. (new series) p. 6*3. 

Orthagoriscus oblongus, Schn Specimen obtained near Tramore (Co. Water- 
ford), in Sept. 1845 ; now in the Collection 
of the Dublin Nat. Hist. Society. 

Acipenser huso, Linn Ann. N. H. vol. xx. (1847) P- 172. 

Scymnus borealis, Flem. ? Mr. R. Ball (MS.). 

Amphioxus lanceolatus, Pallas (sp.).. Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 314. 



Div. INVERTEBRATA. 

MOLLUSCA. 

Testacellus Maugei, Ferussae Ann. N. H. vol. 

Succinea oblonga, Drap „ vol. 

Acteon viridis, Mont, (sp.) „ vol. 

Eolis violacea, Alder fy Han „ vol. 

Alderia modesta, Loven (sp.) Allman, in Ann. 

Idalia aspersa, Loven (sp.) Thomp. in Ann. 

Polycera punctilucens, IX Orb. 



Doris obvelata, Joknst. 

— — Ulidiana, Thomp 

Aplysia nexa, Thomp , 

Orbis foliaceus, Phtl 

Bullssa pruinosa, Clark 

Utriculus— , Brown 

Volvaria subcylindrica, Brown ..... 
Cylichna (Bulla) strigella, Loven . 
Bulla mammillata, Phil 

— producta, Brown , 

Bulla? acuminata, Brug 

Ovulapatula, Penn. (sp.) 

Pleurotoma Farrani, Thomp 

■ coarctata, Forbes 

" striolata, Scacchi 

■— brachystoma, Phil 

■ laevigata, Phil 

— teres, Forbes 

— ;— Ulidiana, Thomp 

Triton ele^ans, Thomp 

Fusus Sabini, Gray 

Buccinum Zetlandicum, Forbes .... 

Nassa varicosa, Turt. (sp.) 

Trichotropis borealis, Brod. 8f Sow. 

Natica Montagui, Forbes, 

sordida, Lam 

Odostomia crassa, Thomp 

Eulima nitida (Melania), Lam 

Stylifer Turtoni, Brod 



xx. p. 174. 

vii. (new series) p. 501. 
xv. p. 314. 
xv. p. 313. 
N. H. vol. xvii. p. 1 . 
N. H. vol. i. (new series) p. 63. 
vol. xv. (1845) p. 313. 
p. 311. 
p. 312. 
„ p. 313. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 351. 
p. 381. 
vol. xv. (1845) p. 314. 
p. 315. 
vol. vii. (n. s.) p. 501. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 351. 
vol. xv. (1845) p. 314. 
vol. iii. (n. s.)p.35K 
vol. xviii. (1846) p. 384. 
vol. xv. p. 316. 
vol. xx. p. 174. 
vol. xviii. p. 384. 
„ p. 384. 
„ p. 384. 
vol. xviii. p. 383. 
vol. xv. p. 316. 
„ p. 317. 
vol. iii. (n. a.) p. 352. 
vol.xv.(1845)p.316. 
vol. xviii. p. 38o. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
vol. xviii. (1846) p. 384. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 
vol. xv. (1845) p. 315. 
vol. iii. (n.s.) p. 352. 
p. 351. 



on the; fauna of irsland. 293 

Rissoa Warrcni, Tkomp Thomp. in Aim. N. H. vol. xv. (1845) p. 315. 

— — fulgida, Mont. (sp.) „ „ vol.iii.(n. s.)p.351. 

proxima, Alder „ „ voLxx. (1847)p. 174. 

inconspicua, Alder „ „ „ p. 173. 

costulata, Risso „ „ vol. xv. (1845) p. 315. 

— abyssicola, Forbes „ „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 351, 

?* 

Lacuna Montacuti, Tart „ „ vol. xx. (1847) p. 173. 

Scissurella crispata, Flem „ „ vol. vii. (n. s.) p. 501. 

Emarginula crassa, Sow „ „ vol. xviii. (1846) p. 384. 

Puncturella noachina, Linn, (sp.) .... „ „ vol. vii. (n. 8.) p. 501. 

Chiton Hanleyi, Bean „ „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 

Pecten similis, Laskey „ „ vol. xviii. (1846) p. 385. 

fuci, GmeUn „ „ „ p. 385, 

Area raridentata, S. Wood „ „ „ p. 385. 

Nucula Polii, Phil. „ „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p»3&2. 

decussate, Sow „ „ vol. xx. (1847) p. 174. 

Modiola vestita, Phil „ „ vol. xv. p. 318. 

Galeomma Turtoni, Sow „ „ vol. iii. (n. a.) p. 352. 

Montacuta oblonga, Turt „ „ vol. xviii. (1846) p. 385. 

Lucina lactea, Poll (sp.) „ „ „ p. 385. 

Cardium Loveni, Thomp „ „ vol. xv. p. 317. 

Ervilia caatanea, Mont, (sp.) „ „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 

Ampbidesma intermedia, Thomp, ... „ „ voL xv. (1845) p. 318. 

Telfina pygmeca, Phil „ „ vol. i. (n. s.) p. 63. 

baiaustina, Linn „ „ vol. xviii. (1846) p. 385. 

Nesera cuspidata, Olivi (sp.) „ „ „ p. 385. 

Teredo bipalmulata, Del. Chia „ „ vol. xx. p. 237. 

Didemnum gelatinosum, Edw „ „ vol. i. (n. a.) p. 64. 

Ascidia grossularia, Van Beneden ... „ „ „ p. 63. 

tubularis, M ill „ „ „ p. 63. 

virginea, Forb. Sf Han „ „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 352. 

Botrylloides rubrum, M . Edw „ „ „ p. 353. 

rotifera, Edw „ „ vol. xviii. (1846) p. 386. 

— albicans, Edw „ „ „ p. 385. 

Botryllus smaragdus, Edw „ „ vol. i. (n. s.) p. 64. 

— violaceus, Edw „ „ „ p. 64. 

Amoroucium albicans, Edw. .... „ „ „ p. 64. 

ApHdhrm fallax, Johnst „ „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 362. 

ClRRHIPEDA. 

Aetna anglica, Leach Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 386. 

Crustacea. 

Obisinm maritimum, Leach Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 386. 

Stenorhynchus tenuirostris, Leach ... „ vol. xx. p. 237. 

Enrynome scutellata, Risso „ „ p. 238. 

Polybius Henslowii, Leach „ vol. xv. p. 31 9. 

Tbia polita Dr. Scouler, in Ann. N. H. vol. xvii. p. 176. 

Paeuriis Forbesii, Bell Dr. Melville, in Ann. N.H. Sept. 1851, p. 236. 

Gebia deltura, Leach Ann. N. H. vol. xx. p. 239. 

Crangon fasciatus, His so „ vol. i. (n. s.) p. 64. 

sculptus,Be» Dr. Melville, in Ann. N.H. Sept. 1851, p. 236. 

bispraosus, Bell „ „ p. 236. 

Hippolyte Thompsoni, BeU.. Bell, Brit. Crust, p. 291. 

Pandaliformis, Bell „ p. 289. 

* This shell has, since Mr. Thompson's decease, been identified by S. Hanley, Bsq. as 
Rissoa BeanU : found in shell sand in deep water,— month of Belfast Bay. 



$94 REPORT*— 1852. 

Cynthia ? Tkomp. (J. V.) Ann. N. H. vol. xx. p. 340. 

Themisto brevispinosa, Goodsir „ „ p. 340. 

OrchestU ? „ „ p.342. 

Amphithoe fucicola, Leach (sp.) „ „ p. 242. 

rubricate, Mont, (sp.) „ „ p. 242. 

* » » p.242. 

Gammarus marinus, Leach „ „ p.242. 

* campylops, Leach „ „ p.242. 

— — longimanus, Leach (sp.) „ „ p.242. 

— — punctata!, Johnst „ „ p. 243. 

Opis typica, Kroyer 7 „ „ p. 243. 

Anonyx (sp.?) ,, „ p. 243. 

1 „ M p. 243. 

Cerapus falcatusj Mont . (sp.) „ „ p. 244. 

Hyperia Latreillii, Edw „ „ p. 244. 

Galba, Mont, (ap.) „ n p. 244. 

Lestrigonus •— — ? „ „ p. 244. 

Caprefla lobata, MuU „ „ p. 244. 

taberculata, Goodsir „ „ p. 244. 

acuminifera, Leach „ „ p. 245. 

Idotea acuminatum, Leachl „ vol. iii. (n. a.) p. 364. 

Tanais Dulongii, Audouin (sp.) „ vol. xx. p. 245. 

Jasra albifrons, Mont, (sp.) „ „ p. 245. 

Praniza essrulata, Mont, (sp.) ? „ vol. i. (new series) p. 65. 

Spbasroma Prideauxiana, Leach „ vol. xx. p. 245. 

Griffitbsii, Leach MS S.I „ „ p. 246. 

Cymodocea truncata, M ont. (sp.) ... „ „ p. 246. 

Cirolana hii-tines, Edw „ „ p. 246. 

Eurydice pulcnra, Leach „ „ p. 246. 

Bopyrus mppolytes, Kroyer „ vol. i. (new series) p. 65. 

(new) 1 "Found in Galathe* in Belfast Bay" [Thomps. 

■ ?....... / M88J] 

Sida erystallina, Mull, (sp.) Edw. ) 

Crust '. VAnn. N. H. vol. i. (n. a.) p. 65. 

Daphnia erystallina, MuU. Entom. . J „ ,, p. 65. 

Lynceus lamellatus, MuU „ vol. xviii. p. 386. 

Cypris reptans, Batrdt „ „ p. 386. 

Canthocaipusininuticornis,3i«Z/.(sp.) „ vol. xx. p. 247. 

Cetochilua septentrionalis, Goodsir... „ „ p. 247. 

Notodelphis ascidicola, Attman Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. April 1847. 

"Caligus minutus, Otto, Nordm." 

Edw v . Ann. N. H. vol. xx. p. 247. 

— — diaphanus, Nordm „ „ p. 247. 

— -~ Stromii, Baird „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 354. 

curtus, Kroyer „ vol. xx. p. 247. 

— rapax, Edw „ vol. iii. (n. a.) p. 357. 

Mullen „ „ p. 357. 

— — Nordmanni, Edw „ „ p. 357. 

pectorahs, Kroyer „ vol. xx. p. 247. 

Trebius caudatus, Kroyer „ „ p. 248. 

•Chondracanthus gibbosui, Kroyer... n „ p. 248. 

Lernseopoda galei, Kroyer „ „ p. 248. 

Nymphon Johnstoni, Goodsir „ vol. xv. p. 31 9. 

— — • spinosum, Gooiwr „ „ p. 319. 

— — femoratum, Leach „ vol. xx. p. 249. 

Phoxichilidium globosum, Goodsir... „ „ p. 249. 

Munna Kroveri, Goodsir „ „ p. 247. 

Pasithoe vesiculosa, Goodsir „ vol. xv. p. 31 9. 

/£Sgin»? longispina, Kroyer „ vol. xx. p. 245. 



ON THE FAUNA Of IBBLAND. 



ttfc 



Annelida. 

♦Udonella caligorctm, Joknst Ann. N. H. 

Borlaaia alba, Thomv 

octoculata, Joknst 

purpurea, Joknst 

— olivacea, Joknst 

Planaria cornuta. Mull 

rosea, Mull. 

lactea,Jtf«tf 

nigra, Mull 

torva, MuU 

flexilis, DalyeU 

arethusa 

Nemertes melanocephala, Joknst. ... 
Nephetts octoculata, Moquin-Tandon 

Glosaiphonia Kachana, Tkomp 

Pontobdella leevis, Blainville ......... 

Tristoma coccineum, Cue 

Euphrosina foliosa, And. Sf Edw. ... 

" Octobothrium (?) Merlangi \ 

(Octostoma Merlangi, Kukn) f "Nord. J 

FoRAMINIFERA. 

Rotalina communis, iyOrb Ann. N. H. vol. xx. 

Rotalia crassula, Mont, (sp.) 

Guttulina communis, D'Oro 

Quinqueloculina semilunaris, iyOrb. 

" Quinqueloculina cora, D' Orb ) 

——semilunaris, var.?" Wood ... / 

Triloculina minuta, Brown (sp.) 

Globulina gibba, ITOrb 

Spirohna subarcuatula, Mont. (sp.)... 
Arethusa lactea, Mont, (sp.) 



vol. xv. p. 320. 
„ p. 330. 
vol. xviii. p. 388. 
„ p. 388. 
„ p. 388. 
vol. xv. p. 320. 
„ p. 321. 
vol. xviii. p. 388. 
„ p. 389. 
p. 389. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 364. 
vol. vii. (n. s.) p. 501. 
vol. xviii. (1846) p. 387. 
p. 389. 
p. 389. 
p. 391. 
t.p. 
vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 366. 

p. 356. 



1*175. 
p. 175. 
p. 175. 
p. 175. 

p. 175. 

p. 176. 
p. 175. 
p. 175. 
p. 176. 



Tetrarhynchus megacephalus, Rud. 
Echinorhynchus gigas, Rud. 



Entozoa. 

.. Ann. N. H. vol. vii. (n. 8.) p. 501. 
„ „ p. 501. 



ECHINODSRMATA. 

Brissus lyrifer, Forbes ... Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 393. 

Holothuria inhaerens, Mull „ vol. xv. p. 321 . 

— niger, Couck Obtained by Mr. W. Todbunter on west coast, 

Sept. 1848. 

? Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 393. 

Thyone raphanus, Duben Sf Koren,.. „ vol. xx. p. 176. 

Chirodota digitata, Mont, (sp.) „ vol. xv. p. 321. 



vol. xviii. p. 393. 



Syrinx Harveii, Forbes | 

granulosus (M'Coy in Ann. N. > 

H. vol. xv. p. 272) J 

— ? [Two specimens found under stones, on beach 

at Tory Island, by Mr. Hyndman.— Tkomp, 
MSS.j 

Forbesii, M'Coy Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 273. 

— tenuicinctus, M* Coy „ „ p. 2/3. 

Sipunculus— ? [From Belfast Bay. Intermediate in some 

respects between the genera Syrinx and Si- 
punculus. — Tkomp, MSS.] 

* Included by Mr. Thompson amongst the Crustacea in Ann. N. H., but subsequently 
noted by him as belonging to the AnneUda. 



S96 ' report— 1852. 

Priapulua — — ? M'Coy in Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 273. [Not 

distinct from P. caudatus.—Yf. T.] 
? 

ACALEPHA. 

Velella subemarginata, Thomps Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 321. 

ZOOPHYTA. 

Syncoryna Listen, Van Ben. (sp.) ... Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 394. 

Gorgonia verrucosa, Linn „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 356. 

Turbinolia milletiana, Defrance „ vol. xviii. (1846) p. 394. 

Corynactis AUmani, Thomps „ „ p. 394. 

Dysidea ? papulosa, Johnst \ n oo< 

(Zoanthus Coucbii) ] » » P- **' 

Lucernaria campanulata W. H. Harvey and W. Andrews, Esqs. 

Iluanthos Scoticus, Forbes Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 322. 

Alecto granulata, Edw „ vol. xx. p. 176. 

— major, Johnst „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 357. 

— — dilatans, Johnst „ „ p. 357. 

Hippothoa sica, Couch „ vol. i. „ p. 65. 

CetteiporiLSkene'i, Ellis $Soland.(ap.) „ vol.xv. (1845) p. 322. 

Lepralia simplex, Johnst ,.... „ vol. iii. (n. s.) p. 357. 

— Hyndmanni, Johntf „ „ p. 357. 

— granifera, Johnst 

■ i annulata, Fabr. (sp.) Johnst. ... „ „ p. 357. 

— Peachii, Johnst „ „ p. 357. 

— — reticulata, Macgillivray 

innominate, var. ? Couch \ ok7 

(description, not figure) Johnst. . . J » " P* °°' ' 

— Baltii, Johnst „ „ p. 357. • 

— — trispinosa, Johnst „ „ p. 357. 

— coccinea, Abilqaard • „ „ p. 357* 

violacea, Forbes 

— concinna, (Busk MS.) 

labrosa, (Busk MS.) 

Escbara foliacea Obtained by Mr. W. Todhunter off Cape Clear, 

winter of 1848. 
Retepora cellulosa, Linn, (sp.) ...... Ann. N. H. vol. xv. p. 322. 

Amorphozoa. 

Halicbondria hispida, Mont. Wern.l 

Mem. vol. ii. p. 86. pi. 5. figures > Dr. Scolder in Ann. N. H. vol. xviii. p. 396. 

1 & 2; Johnst. B. S. p. 98 J 

macularis See Dr. Johnston in Berw. Club, Proc vol. ii. 

p. 196. 

Note. — Mr. Thompson's MSS. contain references to several sponges in his 
collection, which he considered to be of species not previously described. 
They are now in the Museum of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical 
Society. 



ON THE METB0B0L06Y OF BIRMINGHAM. 297 

Observations on the Meteorology of Birmingham. 
By William Willb, Esq., F.G.S. 

The accompanying Tables have been compiled from a Meteorological 
Register kept at the Birmingham Philosophical Institution. • 

The observations for temperature, pressure, rain and wind, extend over a 
period of eight years, from 18S7 to 1844 inclusive. The dew-point tables 
embrace a period of five years, from 1838 to 1842 inclusive ; and the evapo- 
ration tables the two years of 1843 and 1844 only. The whole of these 
observations, with the exception of those for the four months from August 
to November 1844, were made by the late Dr. Ick, the Curator of that 
Institution, whose accuracy as an observer is well known ; the observations 
for the excepted months were made by a gentleman who acted as his sub- 
stitute during his last illness, and continued to do so for a short time after 
his death, and as they bear internal marks of care and accuracy, I have not 
hesitated to incorporate them with those of Dr. Ick. 

This Register came into my possession during an official connection with 
the above-mentioned Institution, and from the care with which it appeared 
to have been kept, the long period over which it extends, and the importance 
of Birmingham as a meteorological station, it occurred to me that a reduction 
of the recorded observations was likely to repay the necessary labour, and 
that the results would probably form an acceptable contribution to this de- 
partment of knowledge ; and the rather so, that with the exception of Mr. 
Osier's papers on the winds, contained in the Reports of the Association, 
I am not aware of the existence of any long-continued series of trustworthy 
observations on the Meteorology of Birmingham. 

I will briefly notice the subjects of these observations, and recapitulate 
their chief results. 

1. Temperature (Tables I. to VII.). — The instruments were placed in the 
shade, for the first two years 4£ feet, and subsequently about 38 feet above 
the ground, and about 437 and 470 feet respectively above the mean level 
of the sea, the place of suspension being nearly in the centre of the town of 
Birmingham. In consequence of breakages, the same instruments were not 
employed throughout the whole series of observations, so that it has not been 
possible to submit them to verification. The self- registering thermometer 
was of Rutherford's construction. 

The mean monthly and annual temperatures are deduced in Tables L» IL, 
IIL,*— first, from continuous daily observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. local 
time ; secondly, from the highest and lowest daily markings of the self-regis- 
tering thermometer ; and thirdly, from the highest and lowest annual indica- 
tions of the same instrument. 

The mean annual temperature for eight years, as deduced, — 

1st From the daily observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m., is. 49°*90 

2nd. From the highest and lowest daily observations of the self- 
registering thermometer 49°*17 

3rd. From the highest and lowest yearly observations of the self- 
registering thermometer 60^00 

4th. The mean temperature of the five years, from 1838 to 1842 
inclusive (see Table XXL), which excludes the year 1837 
and the unusually warm years 1843 and 1844, is 49 Ca 694 

Of these amounts some |K>rtion is doubtless due to the great number of 
our manufacturing and domestic fires. 

In Table IV. is shown the distribution of the temperature through the 
several meteorological seasons, with the differences from the mean. 



2»: *BP0*V~18$2# 

The Tables III., V., VI. exhibit the mean range of the self-registering 
thermometer through the several years, months and seasons, with the differ- 
ences from the seasonal and annual means. The mean annual range of 
temperature is 64 0, 25, and the mean monthly range 32°*51 ; while the greatest 
monthly range, that of April, is 6°*49 in excess, and the least monthly ranges, 
namely, those of November and December, are severally 4°*95 in defect 
from the general mean. 

. In Table VII. is given the number of days on which the self-registering 
thermometer was at or below 32° ; the average yearly number being 5$. 

2. Barometric pressure (Tables VIIL, IX., X., XI.). — The instrument 
employed was a standard barometer of Newman's construction, of *546 in. 
bore, with moveable brass scale, and which had been compared with the 
flint-glass barometer at the Royal Society's rooms. The cistern was 18 feet 
above the ground, and about 447 feet above the mean level of the sea. 

The Tables VIII., IX., X. exhibit the mean monthly and annual barometric 
pressure, deduced from observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m., corrected for tern* 
perature, with its distribution through the several meteorological seasons, the 
corresponding barometrical ranges, and the differences of pressure and range 
between each season, and the general mean of the several seasons* 

The mean annual barometric pressure is 29*381 inches, from which the 
greatest yearly difference in excess is +*084 in., and in defect — '109 in. 

In Table XL is shown the mean monthly and annual pressures as derived 
from the highest and lowest of the pressures at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. The mean 
annual pressure thus obtained is 29*303 in., differing from the mean of the 
two daily observations by *078 in. only. 

In the synoptical Table XXI. the barometric pressure is resolved into its 
gaseous and vapour constituents ; and their mean monthly amounts, shown 
for the period of five years, comprised in the dew-point register, namely, from 
1838 to 1842 inclusive, with their respective differences from the several 
annual means :— 

Inches. 

The mean annual gaseous pressure is 29*065 

Ditto vapour pressure *324 

Total pressure (from 5 years' observations). . 29*389 

This result differs from that obtained from the mean of the daily obser- 
vations for eight years by only + *008 in. 

3t Rain (Tables XII. to XV.). — The receiver of the rain-gauge was placed 
38 feet above the ground, and about 470 feet above the mean level of the sea. 
The quantities which fell were registered daily at 9 a.m. The average annual 
amount was 25*258 in. The tables show the distribution of the aggregate 
annual amounts through the several months and meteorological seasons, with 
the differences from the means ; and also the number of days on which rain 
fell in each year and season, and their mean monthly and annual numbers. 

The greatest excess in any year above the average amount was in 1839, 
when it amounted to about +3*907 in., and the greatest deficiency in 1844, 
when it amounted to —5*332 in., making a total difference between the two 
years of 9*269 in. The mean monthly quantity is 2*105 in., which, on the 
average of eight years, is exceeded in November, February, July, August, 
September, and October, in the order of enumeration. The smallest monthly 
amount falls in April, and next to that month, in December, after which fol- 
low, in order of dryness, March, May and June. 

The greatest quantities of rain fell in the several seasons in the following 
order, namely, autumn, summer, winter, spring. 



ON THS METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 299. 

4. Dew-point (Tables XVI. XVIL). — The dew-point register extends over 
five years, from 1838 to 1842 inclusive. The Table XVI. shows the monthly 
and annual means as derived from observations made daily at 9 a.m. and 
3 p.m. with Daniell's hygrometer. 

The mean annual dew-point from Table XVI. is 44°*95, while the same 
result deduced in Table XVII. from the highest and lowest monthly dew- 
point at the above-mentioned hours is 44°*18. 

Adopting the first quantity, 44°*95, the mean annual dryness of the climate 
of Birmingham is 4°*95, and its mean humidity (complete saturation being 
represented by unity) is =0707 ; and consequently the weight of vapour in 
a cubic foot of air is =3*03 grs., and the quantity required for saturation 
about 1-28 gr. 

5. Evaporation (Table XVIII.). — The amount of evaporation is recorded 
for two years only, namely, 1843 and 1844 ; and was registered daily at 9 a.m., 
by Howard's evaporation gauge, which was placed 37 feet above the ground. 
In 1843 the greatest amount took place in the months of June, July and 
August, and the least in February ; while in 1844 the greatest amouut took 
place in the months of May, June and July, and the least in December. 

The total amount of evaporation was, for 1843, 32*166 in., and for 1844, 
351 13 in. 

6. Winds (Tables XIX. XX.).— The Table XIX. records the direction of 
the winds at 9 a.m., through the several months of the years 1837 to 1844 
inclusive; Table XX. being a 'summary of the aggregate number of the 
several winds throughout that period, with the corresponding barometric 
pressures, reduced to 32°, with their variations from the mean. The mean of 
the barometric pressures at 9 a.m. was 29*403 in. ; differing only by -f -014 in. 
from the mean of the observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. ; and the forces, as 
shown by the pressures, balance each other to the hundredth of an inch. 

The prevailing winds at Birmingham are from the S.W., S., and'S.S.W. in 
the order indicated. Of 2914 registered winds, not fewer than 906, or nearly 
one-third, blew from those quarters alone; namely, from the S.W. 341, from 
the 8. 300, and from the S.S.W. 265. 

It is an anomalous fact, of which I do not understand the cause, that the 
barometer is lower with the S.E. than with the S.W. winds, the mean pres- 
sure with the S.E. winds being 29*191, and with the S.W. winds 29*347. 

Conclusion.— In the synoptical Table XXI. the meteorological elements of 
temperature, pressure, and dew-point, during the five years for which the 
materials of comparison exist, are brought into juxtaposition ; and in the ap- 
pended curves (Plate V.) these elements are represented graphically. 

It is not my intention to enter into any enumeration or discussion of the 
many interesting deductions suggested by the before-mentioned tables. I 
may, however, remark, in general, that they exhibit some important results 
in comparison with similar tables constructed from data derived from other 
localities, and show a marked difference between the climate of the south- 
western and other parts of our island and its interior ; and illustrate, more- 
over, the influence of situation and local circumstances, even at moderate 
distances, in modifying the general laws of climate, and their influence on 
human health, longevity, and enjoyment 

The striking accordance of form between the accompanying curves and 
similar ones formed by numerous observers, from facts obtained at different 
and widely separated places, is strongly corroborative of the simplicity, 
uniformity, and universality of the laws by which the great agencies of me- 
teorologic change are restrained from destructive irregularity and excess, 
and controlled and adjusted, with the nicest exactness, to the exigences of 
animal and vegetable existence. 



300 



REPORT — 1852. 



Table I,— Mean Monthly and Annual Temperature from daily observations 

Differences from 



Yean. 


Dec. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


ApriL 


Mny. 


June. 


1837. 


3§*73 


38-30 


4334 


3?*03 


42-02 


52-15 


i 
63*43 , 


1838. 


40-72 


29*34 


3286 


42-38 


44-85 


5318 


59-58 ' 


1839. 


39-81 


37-92 


41-32 


41-32 


47*88 


57-00 


56-47 , 


1840. 


38-94 


40-12 


39-73 


42-22 


54-61 


55-67 


60-71 


1841. 


35-19 


35*41 


37-12 


49-21 


49-31 


59*55 


61-73 


1842. 


40-81 


33-80 


41-01 


45-38 


51-10 


55*34 


61*06 ; 


1843. 


46-70 


39-64 


36*74 


43-03 


49*26 


52-41 


57-26 1 


1844. 


45-49 


40*56 


36-27 


41-75 


54-83 


54-73 


61-53 . 


Means... 


40-924 


36-886 


38-548 


42-79 


49*232 


55003 


60-221 , 



Table II. — The Highest and Lowest Monthly Temperature by the Self- 
Monthly and Annual Means, and the Dif- 



Month. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. | 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


Hifr. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


ffifirifFfrr 


55-0 
510 
54-0 
49-0 
58*5 
69-0 
79*0 
79-0 
76*0 
67-5 
68*5 
56-5 


25*00 
25-50 
28*25 
19-00 
27-50 
3400 
39-00 
47-00 
44-50 
42-00 
33*00 
27-50 


3§00 
38-25 
41-12 
34*00 
4300 
51-50 
59*00 
6300 
60-25 
54-75 
50*75 
42*00 


55*00 
46*00 
45*50 
62*00 
61-50 
7500 
74*00 
72-50 
7800 
68*50 
6300 
57*00 


2?-50 
9-00 
2200 
29-00 
2700 
3500 
4200 
4700 
45 00 
40-50 
33-50 
26*00 


41-25 
27-50 
33*75 
45*50 
44*25 
55*00 
58*00 
59-75 
61*50 
54-50 
48-25 
41*50 


52*00 
51*00 
55*00 
5500 
72*00 
78*00 
78-00 
76*00 
79*00 
70*00 
66*00 
55*00 


25*00 
20*00 
22*50 
22*00 
27-50 
30*50 
41-00 
45*00 
42-50 
42*50 
36*00 
30*00 


38*50 
35*50 
38-75 
38*50 
49*75 
54*25 
59*50 
CO-50 
60*75 
56*25 
51*00 
42*50 


52-00 
5400 
51*50 
57*50 
81-50 
7400 
80-50 
75-50 
82*00 
74*00 
60*00 
58*50 


28-00 
22*00 
25-00 
25-00 
33-50 
38*00 
43-00 
46-00 
46-50 
38-00 
34-00 
27*50 


40*00 
38-00 
38-25 
41*25 
57*50 
56-00 
61-75 
60-75 
64*25 
56*00 
47*00 
43*00 


Means. 


63-6 


32-52 


48*05 


63*16 


31*96 


47*56 


65*58 


3204 


48-81 


66*75 


33*87 


50*31 


Diff.fr. 


An. M. -1-12 


-1-61 


-0*36 


+114 



Mean of the 8 yean 49°*17. 

Table III. — Showing the Highest and Lowest Temperature of each year, 

the Means do- 





1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 




Highest 

Lowest 


790 June 23. 
19*0 March 24. 


7*8-0 August 27. 
9-0 January 20. 


79*0 August 2. 
20-0 January 30. 


82-0 August 9. 
22*0 January 8. 




Mean Temp... 


49*0 


43-5 


49-5 


52*0 




Ann. Range... 


60-0 


69-0 


59-0 


60-0 





Mean of the extreme Temperature 50°. 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



301 



at 9 a.m. and S p.m. for 8 years, from 1897 to 1844 inclusive, with the 
the General Mean. 





July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Annual Means. 


Diflcfences n*om 
Annual Meant. 




65-43 
62-03 
62-93 
59-57 
59-85 
61-85 
61*28 
63-06 


62-61 
61-54 
62-02 
65-62 
61-63 
61-16 
63-12 
59*59 


5661 
57-38 
57-86 
54-85 
59-93 
57-85 
61-79 
61-06 


52-23 
51*40 
51-45 
48-59 
49*26 
46*88 
47*31 
49-75 


42-37 
41-62 
45-43 
44-08 
4212 
42*62 
43-60 
42-61 


49-604 
48-073 
50-117 
50-392 
60-025 
49-905 
50-178 
50-935 


- °299 
-1-830 
4- -214 
4- "489 
4- -122 
4- -002 
4- '275 
4-1-032 




62*00 


62-161 


58-416 


49-608 


43-056 


49-903 





Registering Thermometer for 8 years, from 1837 to 1844* inclusive, with the 
ferencea from the Mean of the 8 years. 



1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


52-50 


22-0 


37-25 


51-50 


22-00 


3o-75 


5800 


32-00 


45*00 


54*0 


3&-00 


45*00 


50-00 


120 


31-00 


4200 


21-50 


31-75 


53*50 


2600 


39-75 


51-0 


23*00 


37*00 


52-50 


17-5 


35-00 


53*50 


25-00 


39-25 


48-50 


18-50 


33-50 


46-5 


21-00 


33-75 


67-50 


32-0 


49-75 


57-50 


31-50 


44-50 


62-00 


26-00 


44-00 


57-5 


27*00 


42*25 


71-00 


340 


52-50 


76-50 


30-00 


53*25 


67-00 


29-00 


48-00 


67-5 


35-00 


51-25 


8500 


400 


62*50 


7000 


39-50 


54*75 


70-00 


37*00 


53-50 


700 


31-00 


5Q-50 


72-50 


40-0 


56*25 


85-00 


4400 


64*50 


71-50 


42-00 


56*75 


82-0 


43-00 


62-50 


74-00 


44*5 


59*25 


76-00 


4500 


60*50 


78-00 


46-00 


62*00 


85*0 


47*50 


66-25 


78-00 


45-0 


61-50 


86-50 


4500 


65-75 


82*50 


46-00 


64*25 


82-5 


44-50 


63-50 


81-00 


390 


. 60-00 


77-00 


4200 


59-50 


79 00 


36*50 


57*75 


85-0 


4000 


62-50 


59-00 


36*0 


47'50 


58-00 


29-00 


43-50 


64*50 


31-00 


47*75 


61-0 


32-00 


46*50 


56*50 


22-0 


39-25 


52-00 


3200 


42-00 


55-00 


3000 


42-50 


56-0 


3100 


43-50 


66*62 


32-0 


49-31 


65*46 


33*87 


49-66 


65-79 


33-33 


49-56 


66-5 


33-75 


50*12 


4-0*14 


4-0-49 


4-0-39 


4-0-95 



from 18S7 to 1844 inclusive, by the Self-Registering Thermometer, with 
duced therefrom. 





1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 




&-0 May 27. 

120 Jan. 8 & Feb. 7. 


86*5 August 18. 
21*5 January 24. 


82*5 August 18. 
18-5 February 16. 


85*0 July24&SepU. 
21-0 February 23. 




48-5 


540 


50-5 # 


53-0 




73-0 


650 


64*0 64-0 



Mean of the yearly Range 64°*25. 



302 



REPORT— 1852. 



Table IV. — Temperature of the Meteorological Seasons, and Differences 
from the Means for 8 years, from 1837 to 1844 inclusive. 



Tears. 


Winter. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


Spring. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


Summer. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


Autumn* 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 


40-45 
34-30 
39-68 
39-59 
35-90 
38-54 
41-02 
40-77 


+1-67 

-4*48 
+0-90 
+0-81 
-2-88 
,-0-24 
+2-24 
+1-99 


43-73 
46-80 
48-73 
50-83 
52-69 
50-60 
48-23 
50-43 


-5-28 
-2-21 
-0-28 
+1-82 
+3-68 
+1-59 
-0-78 
+1-42 


63-82 
6105 
60-47 
61-96 
61-07 
61-35 
60-55 
61-39 


+2-36 
-0-41 
-0-99 
+0-50 
-0-39 
-011 
-0-91 
-0-07 


50-40 
50-13 
51-58 
49-17 
50-43 
49-10 
50-90 
51-14 


+J-05 
-0-22 
+1-23 
-118 
+0-08 
-1-25 
+0-55 
+0-79 


Meant... 


38-78 




49*01 




61-46 




50-35 










Mean Ann 


ual Temper 


atnre 49°-9. 






Means of the Seasons. 


Difference from Mean of the Tear. 




Winter ... 




38-78 
4901 
61-46 
50-35 






Winter - 


.. -1112 
,. - -S9 
. +11-56 
. + -45 




Spring ... 
summer 




Sprin 
Snmi 
Autu 


8 

ner ....... 






inn t 









Table V.— Monthly Range of the Self-Registering Thermometer for 8 
years, from 1837 to 1844 inclusive. 



Month. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


Means. 


Dec.... 


32-00 


2°7'50 


2°7-00 


2400 


30-50 


29-50 


2600 


24-00 


27*56 


Jan. ... 


25-50 


3700 


3100 


32-00 


3800 


20-50 


27-50 


28-00 


29-93 


Feb. ... 


25-75 


23-50 


32-50 


26*50 


3500 


28-50 


3000 


25-50 


28*40 


Mar.... 


30-00 


3300 


33-00 


32-50 


35-50 


26-00 


36-00 


30-50 


32-06 


Apr. *.. 
May 4.. 


3100 


34-50 


44-50 


48-50 


37-00 


46-50 


38-00 


32-50 


39-00 


3500 


4000 


47-50 


36-00 


4500 


3050 


3300 


39-00 


38-25 


June «.. 


40*00 


32-00 


37-00 


37-50 


32-50 


41-00 


29*50 


39-00 


3vw 


July,.. 


32-00 


25-50 


3100 


29-50 


29*50 


3100 


32*00 


37*50 


31*00 


Aug.... 


31-50 


33-00 


36-50 


35-50 


3300 


41*50 


36*50 


3800 


35*69 


Sept J.. 


2550 


28-00 


2750 


3600 


4200 


35-00 


42-50 


4500 


35-20 


Oct. J.. 


35-50 


29-50 


30-00 


26-00 


23-00 


.29-00 


33-50 


29*1)0 


29-43 


Not J.. 


2900 


31-00 


2500 


3100 


34-50 


20-00 


2500 


25-00 


27-56 


Means. 


31*06 


31-21 


33-54 


32-92 


34-62 


31-58 


32-46 


32*75 


32-51 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



808 



Table VI*— Range of Temperature in the several Meteorological Seasons 
from the Self- Registering Thermometer, and Differences from the Means 
for 8 years, from 1887 to 1844 inclusive. 







Difference 




Difference 




Difference 




Difference 


Yean. 


Winter. 


from 
Mean. 


Spring. 


from 
Mean. 


Summer. 


from 
Mean. 


Autumn. 


from 
Mean. 


1837. 


32-0 


-Vo 


500 


+0-5 


480 


+°0-5 


4f-0 


-°6-5 


1838. 


46-0 


+11-0 


480 


-1-5 


36-0 


-3-5 


42-5 


- 5-0 


1839. 


35-0 




56-0 


+6-5 


880 


-1-5 


40-0 


- 7-5 


1840. 


320 


- 3-0 


56-5 


+7-0' 


89-0 


-0-5 


46-5 


- 1-0 


1841. 


30-5 


- 4-5 


530 


4-3-5 


38-0 


-1-5 


59-0 


+11 fr 


1842. 


32-0 


- 3-0 


46-5 


-3-0 


42-5 


+3-0 


48*0 


+ 0*5 


1843. 


39-5 


+ 4-5 


440 


-5-5 


40-5 


+1-0 


490 


+ 1-5 


1844. 


330 


- 2-0 


43-0 


-6-6 


42-0 


+2-5 


54*0 


+ 6-6 


Means... 


35-0 




49*5 




39-5 




47-5 







Mei 


in Range < 


rf the four ! 


Seasons 42*875. 




Mean Range of each Season. 


Diff. from the Mean Range of the four Seasons. 


Winter ... 
Spring ... 




35-0 
49'5 






Winfc 
Sprin 


er 


. -7-875 
. +6*625 




8 






39-5 
47-5 






Sum 
Autui 


aer.......... 


. -3-875 
. +4-62A 




Atjtpmn... 




nn. ••••••••. 















Table VII.— Number of days in each year, from 18S7 to 1844 inclusive, in 
which the Temperature was at or below 82°. 



Months. 


1837. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


December 

January 


9 
9 
5 

20 
15 

4 


7 

26 

23 

3 

6 

9 


9 
18 

8 
10 

7 

1 


12 

9 

12 

13 

4 


18 
16 
13 

1 

8 


6 
21 

7 
1 
4 

3 

1 


2 

9 

16 

10 

5 

5 
3 


1 

6 

20 

8 

1 
1 
5 


February. ...... - r 


March .... 


April 


May 

October 

November ...... 


$ums*«» 


6? 


74 


£3 


50 


M 


43 


50 


4* 



S04 



REPORT — 1852. 





Tablb VIIL- 


-Mean 


i Monthly and Annual Barometrical Pressure, from J 

(corrected 


Months. 


1837. 


1838. ! 1839. 


1840. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


3 P.M. 


Means. 9 a.m. 


3 P.M. 


Means. 


9aji 


. 3 FJi. hi 


i 
December ...••• 
January 


n. 
29-227 

•402 
•366 
•440 
•279 
•415 
•469 
•434 
•406 
•362 
•574 
29-275 


in. 

29-245 
•392 
•354 
•414 
•264 
•390 
•446 
•408 
•434 
•277 
•530 

29-252 


in. 

29-236 
•397 
•360 
•427 


in. 

29-349 
•378 
•033 
•220 


in. 

29*367 
•376 
•035 
•207 
199 
•339 
•281 
•406 
•321 
•434 

29-383 

28-980 


in. in. 
29*358 129-464 
•377 -360 


in. 

29*452 
•127 
•387 
•240 
•513 
•402 
•335 
•340 
•396 
•028 
•424 

29100 


in. 

29-458 
•243 
•381 
•232 
•515 
•405 
•359 
•306 


in. lin. i 

29-123 129-199 3 

•177 -034 


Ftbruan* 


•034 
•214 
•223 
•347 
•288 
•402 
•361 
•424 
29*405 
28-831 


•375 
•225 
•517 
•409 
•383 
•273 
•414 
•033 
-425 
29-118 


•333 
•715 
•504 
•383 
•510 
•408 


-33; 

•684 

•464 
\ -359 
> -502 1 

•394 

•445 i 


March.. 




April 


•271 "247 
•402 1 -356 
•457 1 -296 
•421 1 -399 
•420 *402 


May 


June 


July .e 


August 
Septem 
Octobei 




•405 j -494 


ber 


•319 

•552 

29-263 


•415 
29-428 
28-683 


•030 ! "369 i -319 "J 

•424 -575 -552 • 

29109 129-211 (29-137 frt 


November - 


Annual Means 


29-377 


29272 


29-322 1 

i 


Diff. from Mean 


-•004 


-10S 


) --059 1 




Table IX. — Barometrical Pressure iu the several Seasons, with the Differ- 
ences from the Mean for 8 yean, from 1837 to 1844 inclusive. 




Years* 


Winter. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


Spring. 


Difference 
from i 
Mean. 


Summer. 


Difference 
from 
Mean. 


Autumn. 


Difference 1 
from 1 
Mean. | 




1837. 
1838. 
1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842. 
1843. 
1844. 


in. 

29-331 
•256 
•361 
•186 
•462 
•412 
•340 

29*531 


in. 

-•029 
-•104 
+ 001 
-•174 
+•102 
+ 052 
-•020 
+•174 


in. 

29-367 
•261 
•384 
•518 
•410 
•431 
•378 

29-558 


in. 

-•046 
-152 
-•029 
+•105 
-•003 
+•018 
-•035 
+•145 


in. 

29422 
•350 
•353 
•450 
•430 
•544 
•455 

29*339 


in. 

+ 004 
-068 
-•065 
+•032 
+•012 
+ 126 
+•037 
-•078 


in. 

29-378 
•220 
188 
•361 
•232 
•401 
•457 

29-434 


in. 
+•044 
-•114 
-•146 
+•027 
-•102 
+•067 
+•123 
+•100 




Means.. 


. 29-360 




29-413 




29-418 




29-334 


i 
1 




1 




Mean of the 8 years 29*381. j 




Means of the Seasons. 


Differences from Mean of 8 years. 




Winte 
Spring 
Summ 


r 


29-360 
29-413 
29-418 
29-334 


Winl 
Sprij 
Sum 

Autn 


ter «... . .. 


—•021 




«r 




»8 

mer 


+•032 

+ 037 

, — -047 




Autumn . 




mn 


















■ 











ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



305 



serrations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. daily, for 8 years, from 1837 to 1844 inclusive 
Temperature). 



184L 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


Means. 


k.u.ZvM. 


Mmu. 


9 a.m. 


3f.m. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 








in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 'in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


700 29*685 ,29*692 


29-267 


291 88 29-222 29*644 29*657 29650 


29-894 


29*889 


29-891 29*457 


29*449 


29-453 


346 -338! -342 


•588 


•544 -566 


-126 


•273 


•199 


•562 


•547 


•554 


•369 


•329 


•348 


349, -338 -343 


•467 


•431 


•449 


•197 


•143 


•170 


•163 


•133 


•148 


•284 


•269 


•277 


444 -401 -422 


'406 


•877 


•391 


•502 


•485 


•493 *267 


•386 


•326 


•402 


•399 


•400 


437 -3861 -411 


•318 


•596 


•456 


•319 


•310 


•3141 '682 


•646 


-664 


•413 


•422 


•417 


404 1 -389 


•396 


•452 


•439 


•445 


-335 


•318 


•326 : -699 


•671 


•685 


•431 


•413 


•422 


5271 -481 


•504 


•588 


•551 -569 


•408 


•387 


•397 


•493 


•466 


•479 


•459 


•481 


•445 


369 1 '379 


•369 


•497 


•499 i -493 


•503 


•156 


•479 


•455 


•434 


•444 


•416 


•414 


•415 


413 -419 


•416 


•581 


•5601 -570 


•507 


•470 


•488 


•055 


•133 


•094 


•409 


•396 


•403 


'3091 «274 


•291, 


•442 


•393 -417 


•739 


•718 


•728 


'593 


•900 


•746 


•408 


•418 


•413 


078 -152 


•115 ' 


•556 


•534 


•548 


•262 


•264 


•263 


•215 


•210 


•212 


•389 


•381 


•385 


298 29-280 


29*289 

1 


29*249 


29-225 


29*237 


29*397 


29-366 


29-381 


29-366 


29335 29-345 


29*323 


29335 


29-324 


29-382 


29447 


29*407 


29-465 


Pinal Mean 29*381 


+•001 


+•066 


+•026 


+•084 





Table X. — Range of Barometrical Pressure in the Meteorological Seasons, 
as observed at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. for 8 years, from 1837 to 1844 inclusive, 
and Differenpes from the Means. 







Difference 




Difference 


- 


Difference 




Difference 


Yean. 


Winter. 


from 
Mean. 


Spring. 


from 
Mean. 


Summer. 


from 
Mean. 


Autumn. 


from 
Mean. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1837. 


1-587 


-•263 


1134 


-172 


1-403 


+•273 


1-894 


+ -270 


1838. 


1*843 


-•007 


1-732 


+•426 


1-158 


+ 028 


2*028 


+ -404 


1839. 


1*599 


-•251 


1-233 


-073 


1-055 


-•075 


1-424 


- -200 


1840. 


1*988 


+•138 


1-303 


-•003 


1*250 


+•120 


2-299 


+ -675 


1841. 


1*806 


-•044 


1-266 


-•040 


1116 


-•014 


1-661 


+ -037 


1842. 


1*699 


-151 


1*361 


+•055 


•918 


-•212 


1-784 


+ -160 


1843. 


2*401 


+'651 


1125 


-•181 


1075 


-•055 


1-459 


- 165 


1844. 


1*881 


+•031 


1*298 


-•008 


1-069 


-•061 


•444 


-1-180 


! Means... 


1*850 




1*306 




1130 




1-624 




Mean Annual Range 1*477. 


Means 


of the Sea* 


iras. 




Differences from Mean Annual Range. 


Winter .. 




1-850 
1*306 






Win* 
Sprin 


er 


... +-37 


3 


' Spring .. 




* 


... --17 


1 


i Swmer-r 




1*130 
1*624 






SaouBer 


... --347 






Autui 


nn ..* 


... +14 


7 




•» 











1852. 



306 



REPORT— 1852. 



Table XL— *Mean Monthly and Annual Barometric Pressure, deduced from 

for 8 years, from 1837 to 1844 in* 



Months. 


1837. 


1838. 




9 a.m. 


3 P.M. - 


9 A.M. 


3 p.m. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Man. 




in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 




Dec 


29*800 


28-520 


29160 


29*837 


28-453 


29145 


29-924 


28-723 


29-323 


29-931 


28-675 


29-303 




Jan 


30*030 


•793 


•411 


•997 


•700 


•348 


•865 


•824 


29-344 


•835 


•899 


•322 


Pcb 


29-883 


•645 


•264 


•784 


•443 


•113 


•868 


•088 


28-977 


•833 


•181 


•007 1 


March ... 


•871 


•748 


•309 


•867 


•747 


•307 


'941 


•503 


29*222 


•907 


•534 


29*2201 


April ... 
May 


•881 


28*846 


•363 


•878 


28-755 


•316 


•698 


•620 


•159 


•624 


•209 


28*916! 


•778 


29034 


•406 


•783 


29129 


•456 


•828 


•920 


•374 


•786 


•962 


29-374! 


June 


•799 


29021 


•410 


•743 


29015 


•379 


•700 


28-973 


•336 


•690 


28-983 


•336, 


July 


'776 


28-669 


•222 


•780 


28*453 


•116 


•656 


29-066 


•361 


•645 


29-012 


•328 


Aug....... 


•856 


•903 


•379 


•813 


•883 


•348 


•645 


28-542 


•093 


•601 


28-573 


•087 1 


Sept 


29-803 


•533 


168 


29*781 


•520 


150 


•937 


•695 


•316 


•915 


•652 


•283i 


Oct 


30*137 


•730 


•433 


30114 


•558 


•386 


•929 


28-705 29*317 


•898 


28-795 


29-346 


Nov. 


29*803 


28-395 


29099 


29-798 


28-243 


29020 


29-879 


27*909 


28-894 


29-844 


27969 


28-906 


i 

i 
I 


Annual M 
Diff.from 


etna 


29-302 


29-257 


29*226 


29*202 




Final Mean 


-•001 




-046 


-•077 


-•101 














1 































Table XL- 



Month*. 



1841. 



9 a.m. 



High. 



Low. Mean. 



3 p.m. 



High. 



Low. 



Mean. 



1842. 



9 A.M. 



High. 



Low. 



Mean. 



3 P.M. 



High. 



Low. 



Mean. 



December 
January ... 
February ... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October ... 
November 



in. 

30*257 
29-970 
29-993 
30-044 
29*786 
-826 
•933 
719 
834 
726 
743 
29-975 



,111. 


in. 


28-716 29*486 


•451 


•210 


•557 


•275 


•778 


•411 


•921 


•353 


28-766 


■296 


29057 


-495 


28-817 


•268 


•953 


•393 


•623 


•174 


'345 


044 


28-314 


29144 



in. 

30-199 

29-979 
•944 
•983 
•770 
•819 
•878 
•718 
•782 
•691 
•579 

29*934 



in. 

28-789 

•519 

•599 

•879 

•961 

28-677 

29-019 

28-962 

29-080 

28-752 

454 

28-416 



in. 

29-494 
249 
271 
431 
365 
'248 
448 
340 
431 
221 
016 

29170 



Ann. Means.. 



29-296 



29-307 



Din*, from Fina 1 Mean 



-•007 



+•004 



in. 

29-726 
30097 
30092 
29-896 
29-955 
30-021 
29-874 
952 
990 
29-831 
30095 
30 096 



in. 

28*519 
754 
'680 
787 
872 

28-660 

29-177 
108 

29-287 

28-841 
320 

28-312 



in. 

29-122 
•425 
•386 
•341 
•413 
•340 
;525 
•530 
•638 
•336 
•207 

29-204 



29-372 



+'0 



in. 

29-717 

30097 

30044 

29*878 

•900 

•961 

•852 

•962 

•944 

29*802 

30064 

30-028 



in. 

28-469 
•398 
■636 
-889 
'884 

28-692 

29072 
•093 

29*202 

28*958 
'415 

28-329 



in. 

29-093 
•247 
•340 
•383 
•392 
•326 
•462 
•527 
•573 
-380 
•239 

129*178 



29*345 



+•042, 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



307 



the Highest and Lowest Monthly Observations at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. daily 
elusive (corrected for Temperature). 





1839. 




1840. 




9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


9 a.m. 


j 3 P.M. 




HiRh. 

! 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


(•Low. 

i 


Mean. 


High. J Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 




io. 


io. 


io. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


29-874 


28-755 


29-314 


29-941 28'788 


29-364 


29-761 28-545 


29-153 


29-741 28-573 


29157 


•992 


•393 


•192 


•989 


•463 


•226 


29852 -563 


•210 


! -867 -236 


•051 


•855 


•848 


•351 


•872 


•855 


•363 


30-029 28089 


•059 


29-999 28041 


•020 




•593 


•797 


•195 


•583 


•765 


174 


30-076 29-258 


•667 


30-050 29-230 


•640 




•998 


•810 


•404 


•955 


•813 


•384 


29*760 29064 


•412 


29-756 29-079 


•417 




•695' -851 


•273 


•694 


•825 


•259 


•916 28-820 


•368 


•908 28-773 


•340 




•703 -789 


•246 


•668 


•812 


•240 


•741 29-245 


•493 


•721 '29-208 


•464 




•746,28-713 


•229 


•728 


•759 


•243 


•816 29-002 


•409 


•809 28-999 


•404 


•753 29021 


29387 


•692 


•698 


29-195 


•807 28-566 


186 


•769 -723 


•246 


•418 28-389 


28-903 


•475 


•384 


28-929 


29-782 -344 -063 


29-744 ! -459 


•101 


•800 1 -851 


29-325 


•808 


•926 


29-367 


30195 1 -667 


•431 


30166 28-695 


29-430 




29-644 28-644 

I 


29144 


29-636 


28-686 


29161 


30-025 28-300 


29-162 


29-993 27-896 


28-944 




29*247 


29-242 


29-301 


29*268 




-•056 


-061 


-•002 


-•035 



(Continued.) 



1843. 


1844. 


Means. 


9 A.M. 


3 p.m. 


9 A.M. 


3 p.m. 


[High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


High. 


Ix>w. 


Mean. 


High. 


Low. 


Mean. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


in. 


1 
in. in. 


in. 


in. 


in. in. 


30-042 28-883 


29-462 


30-024 


28-874 


29-449 


30085 


29-424 


29-754 


30-065 


29-310 


29-687 


29-347 29-336 


30-072 .27-671 


28*871 


30037 


27716 


28-876 


29-976 


28-711 


29-343 


29-946 


28-731 


29*338 


•251 


176 


29-704 28-570 


29137 


29*680 


28*486 


29-083 


29-729 


•204 


28-966 


29-730 


•243 


28-986 


•177 


•148 


967 J29-013 


•490 


•935 


•942 


•438 


30-096 


28-798 


29447 


30-040 


28-816 


29-428 


•385 


•378 


'672 28*906 


•289 


•663 


•842 


•252 


051 


29179 


•615 


30-010 


29-196 


•603 


•376 


•331 


•786 '29039 


•412 


•757 


•961 


•359 


30-044 


•410 


•727 


29-967 


•402 


•684 


•399 -381 


•683 28-816 


•249 


•712 


28-753 


•232 


29-736 


•187 


•461 


•735 


•191 


•463 


•402 


•378 


I -800 


29-005 


•402 


•756 


29-090 


•423 


-804 


29042 


•423 


•783 


29-026 


•404 


•355 


•348 


29-828 


039 


•433 


29-808 


•001 


•404 


•880 


28-817 


•348 


•857 


28*811 


•334 


•357 


•327 


30-126 


29-348 


•737 


30097 


29*288 


•692 


•920 


29-273 


•596 


•916 


29276 


•596 


•287 


•294 


'29-714 


28-758 


•236 


29-703 


28-667 


•185 


•848 


28-506 


•177 


•855 


28*476 


•165 


•271 


•267 


29-922 


28-866 


29-394 


29-908 


28*880 


29'394 


29-917 


28-525 


29-221 


29*893 


28-550 


29-221 


29158 


29124 


29-342 


29-315 


29-465 


29-409 


29-314 


29*291 


+•039 


+•012 


+•120 


+•106 





Final Mean 29*303 in. 



x2 



308 



REPORT— 1852, 



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ON THE METBOBOLOOY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



309 



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310 



REPORT— 1852. 



Table XVI. — Mean Monthly and Annual Dew-Point, from Ofaierva- 





1838. 


1899. 




9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Means. 


9aji. 


December 


39-08 
27*02 
30-25 
3651 
36-90 
44-89 
51-96 
5508 
55-54 
51-55 
4600 
3810 


40-98 
28*56 
32-69 
37-88 
38-76 
46-65 
5413 
56*24 
56-65 
52-52 
46-45 
39-36 


4003 
27-79 
31-47 
37-19 
37-83 
45-77 
5304 
55-66 
5609 
52-03 
46*22 
38-73 


3°7-88 
34*42 
36*73 
37-22 
38-77 
50-56 
52-70 
5506 
54-25 
53-26 
46*93 
44-20 


39*05 
35-41 
38-56 
40-34 
39-62 
47-31 
54-63 
56-26 
54-37 
53-47 
48-02 
45*40 


38-46 
34-91 
37*64 
38-78 
39-19 
48-93 
53-66 
55-66 
54-31 
53-36 
47-47 
44-80 


3°7*24 


January 


39*46 . 


February.... 


36-51 


March 


34-21 


April .'... . 


47-58 


May 


48-49 


June 


51-35 


July 


52*84 • 


August 


56*95 


September 


49*50 i 


October 


4390 < 


November 


40*05 




1 


Annual Means 


42-74 


44-24 


43-49 


45-15 


46*03 


45-59 


44*84 j 



Table XVII.— Highest and Lowest Monthly Dew- Point, observed at 9 a.m. 

Annual Means 





1838. 


1839. 




Highest. 


Lowest. 


Means. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Means. 


Highest. 




December 


5°1*00 
44-00 
42*25 
47-50 
50*50 
53-50 
6400 
6500 
64-50 
59-00 
5700 
52*00 


30-50 
10-00 
21-00 
28-50 
23-50 
33*50 
4200 
46-50 
46-50 
3700 
3200 
2400 


4°0-75 
27*00 
31*62 
38*00 
3700 
43-50 
5300 
55-75 
55-50 
4800 
4400 
3800 


4800 
48*00 
50*00 
50*00 
5400 
5950 
63-50 
61*50 
61-50 
61*00 
57*50 
52-50 


© 

27-50 
24*00 
24-50 
26-50 
2700 
33-00 
3900 
44-00 
4200 
43-50 
3300 
33-00 


3°7*75 
36*00 
37*25 
38-25 
40-50 
46-25 
51-25 
52-75 
51-75 
52-25 
45*00 
42*75 


50*50 


Janimry ,,, r » T ,, T . 


50*50 i 


February 


47*00 1 


March 


44*00 ' 


April 


56-00 i 


May 


59-00 


June 


61*00 


July 


63-20 




August 


67*50 
64-50 
52-50 
53*50 




September 




October 




November 








Annual Means 


54187 


31-25 


42-676 


55-58 


33*08 


44-31 


55-76 





ON THE MBTEOBOLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



311 



tion* at 9 a.m. and 3 p.m. for 5 years, from 1838 to 1842 inclusive. 



1840. 






1841. 






1842. 




Monthly 
Meant. 






















3 p.m. 


Meant. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Meant. 


9 a.m. 


3 p.m. 


Meant, 






39-10 


38*17 


3°l*70 


3412 


32-91 


40*46 


40*43 


40-44 


38-00 




36-09 


37-77 


3315 


33*35 


33-25 


32-29 


33*30 


32-78 


33-30 | 




36-86 


36*68 


34*48 


35*56 


35-02 


3719 


39*67 


38-43 


35-84 I 




34*52 


34-36 


43-54 


45-03 


44*28 


40*90 


41-73 


41*31 


39-18 1 




44-80 


46*19 


41*48 


43-30 


42-39 


4115 


41*90 


41-52 


41*42 1 




49*59 


49*04 


47-28 


52-06 


49-67 


46-98 


47-14 


4706 


4809 : 




51*96 


51-65 


48*36 


48-63 


48-49 


53-57 


54-70 


54*13 


52-19 , 




54*99 


53*91 


52-22 


52-29 


52*25 


54*99 


54-79 


54*89 


54-47 




57*96 


57*45 


55-83 


56-45 


56*14 


60*25 


61-37 


60-81 


56-96 1 




48-72 


4911 


54-48 


55*80 


55*14 


53*58 


55-16 


54*37 


52-80 | 




44-01 


43-95 


46-66 


45*95 


46*30 


42*89 


43-73 


43*31 


45-45 ! 




42-78 


41*41 


39-86 


43*60 


41-73 


40*82 


42-92 


41-87 


41-70 




45-10 


44-97 


44*08 


45-51 


44-79 


45*42 


46*40 


45*91 


44*95 



and 3 p.m. for 5 years, from 1838 to 1842 inclusive, with the Monthly and 
deduced therefrom. 



1840. 






1841. 






1842. 




Monthly 
Meant. 




















Lowest 


Meant. 


Highett. 


Lowest. 


Meant. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Meant. 






30*00 


40-25 


50*00 


23-50 


36-75 


50*00 


24-00 


3°7*00 


36-50 




24*50 


37-50 


46*50 


1500 


30*75 


41*00 


21-00 


31*00 


32-45 




23-00 


35-00 


46*50 


18-00 


32-25 


49*00 


26-50 


3775 


34-77 




22-50 


33-25 


53*00 


34-00 


43*50 


51-00 


31*50 


41*25 


38-85 


, 28*50 


42-25 


58*00 


32-50 


45-25 


52*00 


32-50 


42-25 


41*45 


33*50 


46*25 


64*00 


42*50 


53*25 


5600 


39-00 


4750 


47-35 


! 38*50 


49*75 


5900 


35-50 


47*25 


65-00 


43-50 


54-25 


5110 


1 44*50 


53-85 


6500 


4300 


5400 


63-00 


43-00 


53-00 


53*87 


. 45-50 


56-50 


68*00 


4600 


57*00 


73-00 


43-00 


5800 


65-75 




39-00 


51-75 


65-50 


4100 


53-25 


64*00 


45-00 


54-50 


51-95 




34-50 


43-50 


53*00 


3600 


44-50 


54-00 


30*00 


42-00 


43-90 




30-50 


42*00 


5200 


25-50 


38-75 


50*50 


3300 


41-75 


40*25 




32*87 


44*32 


56*70 


32*66 


44*70 


5770 


34*33 


45-02 


44-18 





310 


• 


-• 






ftiP0a*-««lB8*. 
















Table XIX.- 


-Winds registered daily at 9 a.m. 


daring 8 years, from 1857 
















to 1844 inclusive. 


























1837. 
















N. 


N.N.B. 


N.B. 


B.N.B. 


B. 


B.8.E. 


8.B. 


S.S.B. 


8. 


8.8.W. 






8 






K.M.W. 


Dec. ... 


2 


... 


6 




2 






1 






6 






6 




1 s: 


Jan. i.. 


2 


... 


... 


... 


1 


... 


"i 


• i. 


"i 


... 


7 




1 


... 


7 


'i 


. - v 


Feb. ... 


1 


... 


1 


... 


... 


... 


3 


1 


6 


1 


8 


1 


3 


... 


2 


1 


t >* 


March... 


2 


... 


7 


1 


... 


1 


3 


... 


1 


1 


1 


3 


4 


2 


1 


4 


. ^ 


April ... 


2 


2 


2 


... 


... 


... 


... 


2 


1 


4 


2 


... 


5 




4 


6 


i *» 


May ... 


2 


4 


3 


1 


2 


1 


... 


... 


3 


6 


4 


... 


... 


1 


1 


3 


. i; 


June ... 




... 


1 


... 


4 


1 


3 


2 


3 


5 


3 


1 


1 


... 


2 


4 


i * 


July ... 


"s 




2 


... 


4 


1 


•». 


... 


1 


3 


2 


3 


4 


4 


1 


3 


i -V. 


Aug. ... 




3 


6 


3 


2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


5 


1 


1 


... 


1 


1 


' 31 


Sept. ... 




2 


3 


4 


2 


... 


1 


6 


3 


2 


2 


... 


2 


2 


1 


1 


i *' 


Oct 




1 


1 






1 


1 




4 


7 


7 


5 




3 




1 
1 


!m 


Nov. ... 


"i 


1 




... 


... 




1 


"5 


5 


6 


4 


2 


3 


3 


... 




16 


13 


32 


9 


17 


6 


16 


14 


30 


38 


51 


16 


32 


15 


26 


27 


.3* 








i 


k From the 26th to the Slit inclusive, wind not registered. 




















1838. 














Dec ... 


1 


2 


5 






1 


3 


7 


5 


3 


2 


1 








1 


|*1 


Jan. ... 


2 


1 


3 


3 


"i 


4 


1 


3 


3 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 




3 


3: 


Feb. ... 


... 


4 


8 


3 


5 


2 


2 




1 


... 


... 


... 




1 




... 


25 


March... 


1 


1 




1 




1 


4 




3 


2 


6 


1 


i 


8 


... 


1 


1 31 


April ... 


4 


1 


... 


... 




... 


... 




4 


2 


3 


1 


2 


9 




2 


3«'' 


May ... 


6 


5 


2 


4 


i 


8 


fe 




2 


1 


2 


... 


2 


1 


... 


... 


: 31 


June ... 


2 


... 


2 


1 


i 


... " 


4 




6 


3 


2 


1 


1 


2 




1 


1 * 


July ... 


1 


... 


... 


... 


i 


... 


2 




6 


4 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 


1 


3: 


Aug. ... 


2 


... 


... 


... 


i 


... 


1 




10 


4 


4 


2 


4 


1 




... 


'31 


Sept. ... 


1 


2 


1 


... 


... 


2 


3 




4 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


... 


... 


t W 


Oct. 


3 


2 


1 


... 




1 


1 




3 


5 


2 


2 


3 


1 




2 


i 3i 


Nov. ... 


3 


1 


3 


... 


6 


... 


1 


5 


3 


3 


1 


1 


... 


2 


1 


j — 


li 




25 


19 


25 


It 


22 


13 


24 


35 


5Q 


81 


27 


12 


19 


31 


9 


11 


365 


1839. 


Dec. ... 








1 




1 


5 


6 


4 


2 


1 


a 




5 


1 


2 


31 


Jan. ... 




1 








... 


... 


1 


5 


2 


7 


5 


5 


3 


1 


1 


31 


Feb. ... 


1 


1 


2 


... 


... 


... 


1 


2 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


... 


... 


28 


March... 


2 


3 


... 


4 


1 


4 


1 


2 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


... 


... 


3 


31 


April ... 


2 


4 


4 


4 


1 


... 


2 


1 


1 


... 


7 


1 


1 


... 


2 


... 


30 


May ... 


4 


3 


3 


... 


1 


... 


1 


... 


1 


4 


... 


2 


3 


1 


7 


1 


31 


June ... 






4 


3 


3 




3 


1 


4 


1 


4 


3 


1 


... 


3 


... 


SO 


July ... 




1 


... 


... 


... 


• a. 


2 


3 


10 4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


4 


... 


31 


Aug. ... 


i 


1 


... 


1 




... 


2 


... 


5 2 


5 


4 


2 


4 


3 


• a. 


30* 


Sept. ... 


... 


... 


in 


• i« 


... 


... 


4 


2 


7\ 7 


4 


2 


3 


... 


1 


... 


30 


Oci. 


3 


2 


5 


2 


... 


2 


3 


2 


8. 1 


... 


... 


2 




... 


1 , 


31 


Nov. ... 


1 


1 


... 


5 


... 


2 


1 


1 


3J 6 


4 


2 


... 


... 


2 


2 1 


30 




14 


17 


18 


20 


6 


9 


25 


21 


58 37 


41 


28 


21 


15 


24 


10 ' 

1 


364 



* Wind not registered on the 31st. 



ON THE METBOftOLOOY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



313 



Table XJX<— (Continued.) 



1840. 





it. 


If.lC.B. 


If.B. 


B.1C.B. 


B. 


M.8.B. 


S.B. 


0.0.K. 


ft. 


8.8.W. 


8.W 


W.ft.W 


Jw 


. W.N.W 


. N.W 


N.N.W. 






... 


a 


*i* 


1 


4 


5 


4 


5 


3 


2 


2 


1 




2 




31 






1 


. .. 


... 


1 


1 


... 


2 


10 


5 


4 


2 


2 


2 


... 


1 


31 




1 


... 


3 


4 


4 


a 


... 


1 


3 


4 


3 


1 


1 


1 




... 


29 


ch.. 


4 


4 


3 


6 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


31 


1 .. 


1 


3 


2 


2 


1 


... 


1 


2 


4 


1 


2 


... 


3 


1 


4 


3 


30 




. 3 


3 


2 


4 


2 




1 


1 


2 


3 


3 


... 


3 


I 1 


2 


1 


31 


5 .. 




... 


• •• 


••• 




... 


... 


2 


G 


2 


6 


8 


1 


! 5 


4 


1 


30 




. i 


2 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


2 


5 


9 


2 


■ 8 


1 2 


... 


... 


31 


. •• 




2 


2 


••• 


1 


2 




3 


3 


2 


9 


2 


1 2 




3 


... 


31 


T. .. 




... 


2 


... 


... 


... 


1 


... 


5 


4 


5 


4 


i 3 


3 


2 


1 


30 




. i 


1 


1 


1 


... 


1 


2 


2 


1 


... 


2 


1 


, 5 


3 


7 


3 


31 


- .. 


... 


3 


1 


... 


... 


3 


4 


... 


3 


4 


7 


1 




1 


2 


1 


30 




li 


19 


19 


17 


11 


14 


14 


17 44 


34 


| 53 


19 


29 


22 


29 


14 


366 


1841. 


► 


2 


2 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 




1 


2 


4 


1 


31 


• •• 


2 


1 


2 


1 


... 


... 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


5 


4 


4 


2 


31 


a .. 


2 


1 


1 


5 


2 


1 


... 


3 


4 


1 


2 


1 




2 


3 


... 


28 


rch.. 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


2 


3 


8 


3 


8 


2 


3 


1 


... 




31 


il .. 


1 


5 


2 


1 




... 


1 


2 


5 


2 


4 


1 


3 


3 


... 


... 


30 


f •• 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


5 


3 


3 


5 


1 


1 


... 


3 


... 


31 


e .. 


3 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


5 


2 


... 


2 


3 


3 


1 


30 


r •• 


4 




4 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


1 


2 


3 


a 


4 


4 


5 


1 


31 


c- •• 


3 


... 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


.1 


31 


t. .. 




1 


... 


... 


... 


4 


3 


... 


7 


3 


6 


i 


3 


... 


1 


1 


30 




1 


1 


3 


2 


2 


... 


... 


2 


... 


2 


2 


5 


3 


2 


4 


2 


31 


r. .. 


2 




1 


... 


1 


... 


1 


2 


3 


3 


5 


2 


6 


3 


1 


... 


30 




22 


14 


24 


13 


11 


8 


12 


21 


36 


32 


45 


23 


35 


28 


32 


9 


365 


1842. 


c. .. 


h 




... 


1 




... 


... 


2 


3 


1 


3 


3 


6 


3 


6 


2 


31 


i 


1 


• •■ 


., 


2 


2 


1 


2 


3 


5 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


3 


31 


u 




... 


1 
1 


... 


... 


2 


3 


2 
2 


5 
1 


4 
5 


6 
4 


2 
4 


1 
5 


2 
4 


3 


"i 


28 
31 


r. .. 


1 


r. .. 


2 


2 


8 


4 


4 


*2 


1 


3 




1 


1 


... 


... 


... 


2 


... 


30 


y •• 


... 


1 


3 


... 


3 


1 


... 


4 


5 


2 


4 


5 


1 


2 


• r. 


... 


31 


16 .. 


1 


... 


3 


S 


2 


... 


2 


1 


2 


4 


2 


1 


2 


1 


4 


2 


30 


y •• 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


... 


3 


1 


4 


1 


3 


4 


1 


2 


2 


3 


31 


g. •• 


2 


... 


1 


6 


... 


2 


4 


... 


2 


5 


3 


1 


2 


... 


2 


1 


31 


|>t. .. 


2 


1 


5 


2 


1 


2 


1 


... 


2 


... 


3 


1 , 


3 


3 


2 


2 


30 


t 


4 


3 


2 


1 




... 




1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


... 


4 


5 


31 


V. .. 


2 


1 


2 


2 


3 


... 


... 


4 


5 


4 


2 


2 1 


1 


... 


1 


1 


30 




17 


9 


28 


22 


17 


10 


16 


23 


35 


30 


34 


28 


27 


19 


30 


20 


365 



31* 



ttifOiltf-— IBM- 



Table XIX. — Winds registered daily at 9 a.m. during 8 years, from 18S7 

to 1844 inclusive. 

1837. 



N.N.K. N.E 



B.N.E. K. B.8.B. 8.B. 



S.8.W4 8.W. W.8.W. 



N.W. 9.W.W. 



16 



13 



32 



17 



16 14 



30 



38 



51 



16 



32 



15 



26 



27 



* From the 25th to the Mat inclusive, wind not registered. 



















1838 




















Dec. ... 


1 


2 


5 






1 


3 


7 


5 


3 


2 


1 








1 


31 


Jan. ... 


2 


1 


3 


3 


6 


4 


1 


3 


3 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


1 


3 


31 


Feb. ... 




4 


8 


3 


5 


2 


2 


1 


1 


... 




... 




1 


1 


... 


28 


March. .. 


i 


1 


... 


1 




1 


4 


1 


3 


2 


6 


1 


1 


8 


... 


1 


31 


April ... 


4 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


1 


4 


2 


3 


1 


2 


9 


1 


2 


30 


May ... 


5 


5 


2 


4 


2 


2 


fe 


1 


2 


1 


2 


... 


2 


1 


».* 


..; 


31 


June ... 


2 


... 


2 


1 


1 


... * 


4 


3 


6 


3 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


30 


July ... 


1 


... 


... 


... 


1 


,,, 


2 


4 


6 


4 


2 


2 


3 


3 


2 


1 


31 


Aug. ... 


2 


... 


••■ 


... 


1 


... 


1 


1 


10 


4 


4 


2 


4 


1 


1 


... 


31 


Sept. ... 


1 


2 


1 


... 


... 


2 


3 


4 


4 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 


... 


... 


30 


Oct 


3 


2 


1 


... 


... 


1 


1 


4 


3 


5 


2 


2 


3 


1 


1 


2 


31 


Nov. ... 


3 


1 


3 


... 


6 


... 


1 


5 


3 


3 


1 


1 


... 


2 


1 


... 


30 




25 


19 


25 


It 


22 


13 


24 


35 


50 


31 


27 


12 


19 


31 


9 


11 


365 



















1839. 




















Dec. ... 








1 




1 


5 


6 


4 


2 


1 


3 




5 


1 


2 


31 


Jan. ... 




1 


... 




... 


■•• 


... 


1 


5 


2 


7 


5 


5 


3 


1 


1 


31 


Feb. ... 


1 


1 


2 


• ■• 


... 


... 


1 


2 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


... 


... 


28 


March... 


2 


3 


... 


4 


1 


4 


1 


2 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


... 


... 


3 


31 


April ... 


2 


4 


4 


4 


1 


... 


2 


1 


1 


... 


7 


1 


1 


... 


2 


... 


30 


May ... 


4 


3 


3 


... 


1 




1 


... 


1 


4 


... 


2 


3 


1 


7 


1 


31 


June ... 




... 


4 


3 


3 




3 


1 


4 


1 


4 


3 


1 


... 


3 


... 


30 


July ... 




1 


... 






... 


2 


3 


10 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


4 


... 


31 


Aug. ... 


1 


1 


... 


1 


... 


... 


2 


... 


5 


2 


5 


4 


2 


4 


3 


... 


30* 


Sept. ... 


;.; 


... 


it. 


... 


... 


... 


4 


2 


7 


7 


4 


2 


3 




1 


... 


30 


Oct 


3 


2 


5 


2 


... 


2 


3 


2 


8 


. 1 


... 


... 


2 


... 


... 


1 


31 


Nov. ... 


1 


1 


... 


5 




2 


1 


1 


3 


6 


4 


2 


..» 


... 


2 


2 


30 




14 


17 


18 


20 


6 


9 


25 


21 


58 


37 


41 


28 


21 


15 


24 


!0 


364 



* Wind not registered on the 31st. 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



313 



Table XIX-— (Continued.) 



1840. 





ir. 


' 1V.1T.B. 


K.m. 


B.ir.i. 


a. 


M.8.B. 


0.B. 


8*8.1. 


8. 


S.S.W. 


8.W. 


W.8.W. 


jw. 


W.N.W. 


N.W. 


N.N.W.. 




€C. ... 




... 


a 


nt 


1 


4 


5 


4 


5 


3 


2 


2 






2 




31 


in. ... 




1 


. .. 


... 


1 


1 


... 


2 


10 


5 


4 


2 


2 


2 


... 


1 


31 


;b. ... 


1 


... 


3 


4 


4 


3 


... 


1 


3 


4 


3 


1 


1 


1 


... 


... 


29 


•arch... 


4 


4 


3 


6 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


3 


31 


E?::: 


1 


3 


2 


2 


1 


... 


1 


2 


4 


1 


2 


... 


3 


1 


4 


3 


30 


3 


3 


2 


4 


2 


... 


1 


1 


2 


3 


3 


••• 


3 


1 


2 


1 


31 


ine ... 


... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


2 


6 


2 


6 


3 


1 


5 


4 


1 


30 


aly ... 


1 


2 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


2 


5 


9 


2 


8 i 


2 


... 


... 


31 


u&. ... 




2 


2 


... 


1 


2 


... 


3 


3 


2 


9 


2 


2' 


... 


3 


... 


31 


Bpt. ... 




... 


2 


... 


... 


... 


1 


... 


5 


4 


5 


4 


3i 


3 


2 


1 


30 


ct 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 


2 


2 


1 


... 


2 


1 


5 i 


3 


7 


3 


31 


ov. ... 


... 


3 


1 


... 


... 


3 


4 


... 


3 


4 


7 


1 


i 


1 


2 


1 


30 




11 


19 


19 


17 


11 


14 


14 


17 


44 


3* 1 


53 


19 


»: 


22 


29 


14 


366 























































1841 




















ec ... 


2l 


2 


7 


1 


3 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


1 




1 


2 


4 


1 


31 


m* ... 


2 I 


1 


2 


1 


... 


... 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


5 


4 


4 


2 


31 


sb. ... 


2 


1 


1 


5 


2 


1 


... 


3 


4 


1 


2 


1 




2 


3 


*•• 


28 


arch... 


1 




... 


... 


... 


... 


2 


3 


8 


3 


8 


2 


3 


1 


... 


• »• 


31 


pril ... 


l 1 


5 


2 


1 




... 


1 


2 


5 


2 


4 


1 


3 


3 


... 


••• 


30 


MJ ... 


1| 


2 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


5 


3 


3 


5 


1 


1 


... 


3 


... 


31 


ine ... 


3' 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


5 


2 


... 


2 


3 


3 


1 


30 


ily ... { 4 


... 


4 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


1 


2 


3 


3 


4 


4 


5 


1 


31 


ag. ... : 3 


... 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


4 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


.1 


31 


jpt. ....... 


1 


... 


... 


... 


4 


3 


... 


7 


3 


6 


1 


3 


... 


1 


1 


30 


5t 1 


1 


3 


2 


2 


... 


... 


2 


... 


2 


2 


5 


3 


2 


4 


2 


31 


DV. ... 


2 


... 


1 


... 


1 


... 


1 


2 


3 


3 


5 


2 


6 


3 


1 


... 


30 




22, 


14 


24 


13 


11 


8 


12 


21 


36 


32 


45 


23 


35 


28 


32 


9 


365 


1842. 






ec. ...< 1 




... 


1 




... 




2 3 


1 


3 


3 


6 


3 


6 


2 


31 


in i 1 






2 


2 


1 


2 


3 5 


2 


1 


2 


1 


2 


4 


3 


31 


*k L. 


... 


1 

1 


... 


... 


2 


3 


2 ' 5 


4 
5 


6 
4 


2 
4 


1 
5 


2 
4 


*3 


1 


28 
31 


ar. ...1 1 


2 


1 


av ...... 


2 


8 


4 


4 


2 


i 


3 


... 


1 


1 


... 


... 


... 


2 


... 


30 


1 


3 


... 


3 


1 


... 


4 


5 


2 


4 


5 


1 


2 


... 


... 


31 


ine ... 1 




3 


3 


2 


... 


2 


1 


2 


4 


2 


1 


2 


1 


4 


2 


30 


dy ... 

Dg. ... 
JDt. ... 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


... 


3 


1 


4 


1 


3 


4 


1 


2 


2 


3 


31 


2 

2 


i" 


1 
5 


6 
2 


"l 


2 
2 


4 

1 


... 


2 
2 


5 


3 
3 


' 1 

1 


2 
3 


3 


2 
2 


1 
2 


31 
30 


«. 4 


3 


2 


1 


... 


... 


... 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


4 




4 


5 


31 


»v. ...| 2 


1 

J 


2 


2 


3 


... 


... 


4 


5 


4 


2 


2 


1 


... 


1 


1 


30 


t 

:i7 


1 • 


28 


22 


17 


10 


16 


23 


35 


30 


34 


28 


27 


19 


30 


20 


365 



314 



REPORT — 1852. 



1843. 



Tabli] 





N. 


N.NB. 


N.B. 


B.N.B. 


E. 


B.8.B. 


8.B. 


8.B.H. 


8. 


S.S.W. 


B.W. 


W.8.W 


. w. 


W.N.W. 


1 

K.W.jNAVT 


Dec. 


1 










... 


2 


... 


1 


4 


11 


5 


4 


2 


ll ... 


Jan 


2 


1 


... 




,,. 


... 


... 


1 


4 


2 


1 


9 


5 


2 


2 


Feb 


2 


3 


3 


4 


4 


1 


1 


... 




1 


... 


2 


1 


... 


2 


4 


Mar 


1 


2 


... 


4 


5 


2 


2 


1 


4 


1 


5 


1 


... 


... 


2 


i 


April ... 
May ... 


3 


1 


... 


3 




1 


1 


... 


2 


; 2 


5 


6 


... 


4 


1 


.- 


1 


... 


2 


2 


6 


2 


1 


... 


2 


t 2 


5 


3 


1 


3 


1 




June ... 


1 


1 


9 


5 


... 


2 


... 


... 


1 


2 


3 


1 


2 


... 


i 3 


July ... 


2 


2 


... 


... 


... 


... 


1 


... 


1 


1 


5 


4 


4 


2 


8 


I 


Aug. ... 


1 


2 


2 


1 


4 


1 




... 


5 


3 


1 


4 


2 


3 


2 


„ 


Sept. ... 


3 


1 


2 


3 


3 


1 


1 


... 


2 


► 2 


2 


... 


1 


3 


1 5 


Oct 


3 


1 


... 


1 


1 


... 




... 


2 


3 


3 


6 


2 


2 


4 ' 3 


Nov. ... 




... 


2 




... 


1 


2 


2 


1 


5 


5 


3 


3 


1 


2 


3 




20 


14 


20 


23 


23 


11 


11 


4 


26 


i 28 


46 


44 


25 


22 


26 


22 




Table XX.— General Sui 


miliary of the number and direction of tbel 






1844 inclusive, witl 


i the corresponding Barometric Pressures, « 








N. 


N.N.B. 


N.B. 


B.N.E. 


B. 


B.8.B. 


S.B. ^ 




Dec 


8 


4 


21 


3 


6 


7 


19 






Jan 


12 


6 


6 


6 


10 


6 


8 






Feb 


8 


9 


19 


17 


15 


9 


10 






March 


16 


10 


13 


18 


8 


8 


13 






April 


16 


18 


18 


16 


7 


4 


8 






May 


22 


20 


30 


18 


19 


7 


6 






June 


8 


4 


23 


14 


13 


5 


13 






July 


15 


7 


9 


2 


8 


1 


11 






Aug 


11 


9 


12 


11 


9 


6 


9 






Sept 


6 


9 


20 


13 


6 


10 


14 






Oct. 


15 


12 


14 


8 


3 


7 


8 






Nov 


11 


9 


10 


9 


12 


7 


12 




No. of 1 
Winds./ 


148 


nr 


195 


135 


116 


77 


131 




Barom. \ 
Pressure. J 


29*509 


29-537 


29*545 


29*482 


29-432 


29*349 


29-191 * 








Var. from i 
mean press./ 


+•106 


+•134 


+•142 


+•079 


+•029 


-•054 


-•212 ^ 

1 



, Mem Pressure g* 



ON THE METEOROLOGY OF BIRMINGHAM. 



315 



inued.) 



1844. 





N. 


N.N.B. 


N.E. 


E.N.E. 


s. 


S.S.E; 


8.E. 


S.8.E. 


8. 


8.8.W. 


8.W. 


W.8.W. 


w. 


W.N.W. 


N.W. 


N,N.W. 




• ■> 


1 




... 




... 


... 


3 


... 


2 


8 


7 


4 


5 






1 


31 


.... 


3 


i 


1 


... 








i 




3 


2 


1 


5 


2 


12 




31 


.... 


1 


... 


... 


1 




... 




... 


3 


2 


7 


1 


5 


3 


3 


3 


29 


.... 


4 


... 


2 


2 


i 


... 


i 


... 


1 


2 


1 


3 


7 


1 


4 


2 


31 


... 


1 


... 




2 


i 


1 


2 


l 


3 


2 


4 


3 


3 


3 


1 


3 


30 


... 


6 


2 


13 


6 


|i 






... 


... 




1 


... 


... 


*■* 


1 


1 


31 


... 


1 


2 


3 


... 


12 


i 


• ■* 


... 


1 


6 


4 


3 


3 


2 


... 


2 


30 


... 


3 


1 


1 


1 


.1 


... 


3 


l 


2 


1 


2 


2 


2 


6 


4 


1 


31 


... 


2 


1 


... 


... 


1 


... 


1 


i 


1 


... 


3 


5 


8 


3 


3 


2 


31 






2 


7 


4 




i 


••• 


... 


3 


2 


2 


5 


1 


2 


1 




30 


• •• 




1 


1 


1 


1... 


2 


1 


2 


4 


5 


4 




2 


3 


3 


2 


31 


... 


1 


2 


1 


2 


I 2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


4 


7 


3 


... 


1 


1 


... 


30 




23 


12 


29 


19 


'9 


6 


13 


8 


21 


35 


44 


30 


41 


26 


33 


17 


366 



tered daily at 9 a.m. during each month of the period from 18S7 to 
2° Fahrenheit, and their Variations from the Mean. 



i. 


8.S.W. 


S.W. 


W.8.W. 


w. 


W.N.W. 


N.W. 


N.N.W. 


Total 
number. 


:l 


23 


33 


18 


24 


12 


20 


7 


248 


!9 


17 


24 


21 


24 


15 


31 


14 


241 


!8 


18 


30 


11 


13 


10 


11 


8 


226 


12 


18 


28 


16 


22 


19 


13 


15 


248 


SI 


14 


28 


12 


17 


20 


15 


14 


240 


18 


21 


24 


11 


11 


9 


15 


6 


248 


16 


28 


26 


13 


13 


13 


17 


14 


240 


n 


21 


29 


22 


27 


24 


26 


10 


248 


28 


23 


35 


24 


25 


15 


19 


5 


247 


53 


23 


27 


14 


19 


16 


9 


10 


240 


23 


24 


22 


22 


21 


14 


23 


19 . 


248 


24 


35 


35 


16 


13 


11 


10 


8 


240 


00 


265 


341 


200 


229 


178 


209 


130 


2914 


1*286 


29-301 


29-347 


29*381 


29*369 


29*448 


29-473 


29495 




•117 


-•102 


-•056 


-•022 


-034 


+ -045 


+•070 


+•092 





the Winds 29*403. 



816 



REPORT — 1852. 



§ 



O 

H 

S3 © 

.9 e« 



3* 



ll 
H.S 

00 

C 00 
cd i-^ 

"*! 



J* 2 



oi 



w 
1-1 



ii 


cn 


CO *"» 




r« 


«4 




** 


o* ^ *<• 


■^ 




fa 


o 


0» <-H 


9 




s 


CM 

9 


o 


en «» C4 
9 r 9 


9 




•e a 


"f 


+ 4- 


+ 


+ 


1 


1 


[ 


1 1 + 


1 




«J 






















ti 


eo 
o* 


kO 00 
<N O 


kO 
CO 




CO 

© 


eo 

s 


s 

en 


Oi © w+ 

*<• en en 
cn oo o 


o 

3 


•a 
«p 
o 


ji 


en 

C* 










en 

04 


3 


3 3 


a 


cn 
cm 


if 


00 


%a <o 


CD 


f* 


«© 


00 




00 £r 25 


■*•» 


, 


M 


9 




O 


^ 


s 




i-4 


? ? ? 


s 




*i 


1 


) 1 


1 


1 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ + i 


1 






CO 


S 3 

oc oc 


8 


** 

S 


s 

CO 


§ 


8 

^ 


ass 

^ -y CO 


s 


ep 


ess 


to 
cn 


•^ cn 


«>1 
*b 


eo 

kO 
eo 


CO 


04 


S3 

cn 


i-i kO o 
© 00 tti 
O* W o 


3 

eo 




i| 


1 


1 I 


1 


1 


4- 


+ 


+ 


+ 4- + 


1 




! 


o 

9 

00 
CO 


CO 00 


00 


9 


S 
9 


en 


* 


S S 5 
S S 9 


o 


9 


1* 


§ 


M i i 


•<* 

s 


I 


s 


1 f i 






?s a 


1 


+ i 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 1 + 


1 




«* 




















' 


rf £ 


en 


s § 


«^4 


no 


eO 


tA 


»o 


•* fH #1 


3 

eo 


i 
cn i 


it 


2 


SI 


3 


s 


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ON THE VORTEX WATBR-WHEEL. 317 

On the Vortex Water-Wheel. By James Thomson, A.M., Civil 

Engineer, Belfast. 

[A Communication ordered to be printed among the Reports.] 

Numberless are the varieties, both of principle and of construction, in the 
mechanisms by which motive power may be obtained from falls of water. 
Tbe chief modes of action of the water are, however, reducible to three, as 
follows: — First, The water may act directly by its weight on a part of the 
mechanism which descends while loaded with water, and ascends while free 
from load. The most prominent example of tbe application of this mode is 
afforded by the ordinary bucket water-wheel Secondly, The water may act 
by fluid pressure, and drive before it some yielding part of a vessel by which 
it is confined. This is the mode in which the water acts in tbe water-pressure 
engine, analogous to the ordinary high-pressure steam-engine. Thirdly, The 
water, having been brought to its place of action subject to the pressure due 
to the height of fall, may be allowed to issue through small orifices with a 
high velocity, its inertia being one of the forces essentially involved in the 
communication of the power to the moving part of the mechanism. Through- 
out the general class of water-wheels called Turbines, which is of wide extent, 
the water acts according to some of the variations of which this third mode 
is susceptible. The name Turbine is derived from the Latin word turbo, a 
top, because the wheels to which it is applied almost all spin round a vertical 
axis, and so bear some considerable resemblance to the top. In our own 
country, and more especially on the Continent, turbines have attracted much 
attention, and many forms of them have been made known by published 
descriptions. The subject of the present communication is a new water- 
wheel, which belongs to tbe same general class, and which has recently been 
invented and brought successfully into use by the author. 

In this machine tbe moving wheel is placed within a chamber of a nearly 
circular form. The water is injected into tbe chamber tangentially at tbe 
circumference, and thus it receives a rapid motion of rotation. Retaining 
this motion it passes onwards towards the centre, where alone it is free to 
make its exit. Tbe wheel, which is placed within tbe chamber, and which 
almost entirely fills it, is divided by thin partitions into a great number of 
radiating passages. Through these passages the water must flow on its 
course towards the centre ; and in doing so it imparts its own rotatory mo- 
tion to the wheel. The whirlpool of water acting within the wheel chamber, 
being one principal feature of this turbine, leads to tbe name Vortex as a 
suitable designation for the machine as a whole. 

The vortex admits of several modes of construction, but the two principal 
forms are the one adapted for high falls and tbe one for low falls. The 
former may be called the High-pressure Vortex, and the latter the Low-pres- 
sure Vortex*. Examples of these two kinds, in operation at two mills near 
Belfast, are delineated in Plates 1 and % with merely a few unimportant 
deviations from the actual constructions. 

Plates 1 and 2 are respectively a vertical section, and a plan of a vortex 
of the high-pressure kind in use at the Low Lodge Mill near Belfast, for 
grinding Indian cornf* In these figures A A is the water-wheel. It is fixed 

* These terms correspond to Hochd ruck turbine, and Niederdruck turbine, used in Germany 
to express tbe like distinction in turbines. 

f This vortex was only in course of erection at the time of the meeting of the British 
Association in Belfast The water-wheel itself, removed from its ease, being light and of small 
dimensions, was exhibited in Section O. It is composed chiefly of thick-tinned iron plates 
united by soft solder. 



318 REPORT— -1852* 

on the upright shaft, B, which conveys away the power to the machinery 
to be driven. The water-wheel occupies the central part of the upper di- 
vision of a strong cast-iron case, CC ; and the part occupied by the wheel 
is called the wheel-chamber. DD is the lower division of the case, and is 
called the supply chamber. It receives the water directly from the supply 
pipe, of which the lower extremity is shown at E, and delivers it into the 
outer part of the upper division, by four large openings, F, in the parti- 
tion between the two divisions. The outer part of the upper division is 
called the guide-blade chamber, from its containing four guide-blades, G, 
which direct the water tangent ially into the wheel-chamber. Immediately 
after being injected into the wheel-chamber the water is received by the 
curved radiating passages of the wheel, which are partly seen in figure % at 
a place where both the cover of the wheel- chamber and the upper plate of 
the wheel are broken away for the purpose of exposing the interior to view. 
The water, on reaching the inner ends of these curved passages, having 
already done its work, is allowed to make its exit by two large central orifices, 
shown distinctly on the figures at the letters L, L ; the one leading upwards 
and the other downwards. It then simply flows quietly away ; for, the vortex 
being submerged under the surface of the water in the tail race, the water 
on being discharged wastes no part of the fall by a further descent At the 
central orifices, close joints between the case and the wheel, to prevent the 
. escape of water otherwise than through the wheel itself, are made by means 
of two annular pieces, L, L, called joint-rings, fitting to the central orifices of 
the case, and capable of being adjusted, by means of studs and nuts, so as to 
come close to the wheel without impeding its motion by friction. The four 
openings, H, H, Rates 1 and 2, through which the water flows into the wheel- 
chamber, each situated between the point or edge of one guide-blade and the 
middle of the next, determine, by their width, the quantity of water admitted, 
and consequently the power of the wheel. To render this power capable of 
being varied at pleasure, the guide-blades are made moveable round gudgeons 
or centres near their points ; and a spindle, K, is connected with the guide- 
blades by means of links, cranks, &c. (see the Plates) in such a way that, 
when the spindle is moved, the four entrance orifices are all enlarged or con- 
tracted alike. This spindle, K, for working the guide-blades is itself worked 
by a handle in a convenient position in the mill ; and the motion is commu- 
nicated from the handle through the medium of a worm and sector, which 
not only serve to multiply the force of the man's hand, but also to prevent 
the guide-blades from being liable to the accident of slapping suddenly shnt 
from the force of the water constantly pressing them inwards. The gudgeons 
of the guide-blades, seen in fig. 2 as small circles, are sunk in sockets in the 
floor and roof of the guide-blade chamber ; and so they do not in any way 
obstruct the flow of the water. 

M, in Plate 1, is the pivot-box of the upright shaft. It contains, fixed 
within it, an inverted brass cup, shown distinctly on the figure ; and the cup 
revolves on an upright pin, or pivot, with a steel top. The pin is held sta- 
tionary in a bridge, N, which is itself attached to the bottom of the vortex- 
case. For adjusting the pin as to height, a little cross bridge, O, is made to 
bear it up, and is capable of being raised or lowered by screws and nuts 
shown distinctly on the figure. Also, for preventing the pin from gradually 
becoming loose in its socket in the large bridge, two pinching-screws are 
required, of which one is to be seen in the figure. A small pipe, fixed at its 
lower end into the centre of the inverted brass cup, and sunk in an upright 
groove in the vortex-shaft (see the Plates), affords the means of supplying 
oil to the rubbing surfaces, over which the oil is spread by a radial groove in 



ON THE VORTEX WATER-WHEEL. 319 

the brass. A cavity, shown io the Plates, is provided at the lover part of 
the cup, for the purpose of preventing the oil from being rapidly washed 
away by the water*. 

Four tie-bolts, marked P, bind the top and bottom of the case together, so 
as to prevent the pressure of the water from causing the top to spring up, 
and so occasioning leakage at the guide-blades or joint-rings. 

The height of the fall for this vortex is about 37 feet, and the standard or 
medium quantity of water, for which the dimensions of the various parts of 
the wheel and case are calculated, is 540 cubic feet per minute. With this 
fall and water supply the estimated power is 28 horse power, the efficiency 
being taken at 75 per cent. The proper speed of the wheel, calculated in 
accordance with its diameter and the velocity of the water entering its cham- 
ber, is 555 revolutions per minute. The diameter of the wheel is 22 j- inches, 
and the extreme diameter of the case is 4 feet 8 inches. 

A low-pressure vortex, constructed for another mill near Belfast, is repre- 
sented in vertical- section and plan in Plates 3 and 4. This is essentially the 
same in principle as the vortex already described, but it differs in the material 
of which the case is constructed, and in the manner in which the water is led 
to the guide- blade chamber. In this the case is almost entirely of wood ; and, 
for simplicity, the drawings represent it as if made of wood alone, though in 
reality, to suit the other arrangements of the mill, brick-work, in certain 
parts, was substituted for the wood* The water flows with a free upper sur- 
face, W, W, into this wooden case, which consists chiefly of two wooden 
tanks, AA and BB, one within the other. The water-wheel chamber and 
the guide-blade chamber are situated in the open space between the bottom 
of the outer and that of the inner tank, and will be readily distinguished by 
reference to the figures. The water of the head race, having been led all 
round the outer tank in the space CC, flows inwards over its edge, and passes 
downwards by the space DD, between the sides of the two tanks. It then 
passes through the guide-blade chamber and the water-wheel, just in the 
same way as was explained in respect to the high-pressure vortex already 
described ; and in this one likewise it makes its exit by two central orifices, 
the one discharging upwards and the other downwards. The part of the 
water which passes downwards flows away at once to the tail race, and that 
which passes upwards into the space £ within the innermost tank, finds a 
free escape to the tail race through boxes and other channels, F and G, 
provided for that purpose. The wheel is completely submerged under the 
surface of the water in the tail race, which is represented at its ordinary level 
at YYY, Plate 3, although in floods it may rise to a much greater height 
The power of the wheel is regulated in a similar way to that already de- 
scribed in reference to the high-pressure vortex. In this case, however, as 
will be seen by the figures, the guide-blades are not linked together, but each 
is provided with a band-wheel, H, by which motion is communicated to 
itself alone. 

* Great stress has been by continental engineers and authors laid on the supposed neces- 
sity for oiling the pivots of turbines. The author of the present communication has thus been 
led to endeavour to find and adopt the best means for oiling pivots working under water. The 
oiling, however, is a source of much trouble ; and he has found in the course of his experience, 
that pivots of the kind described above, made with brass working on hard steel, and with a 
radial groove in the brass suitable for spreading water over the rubbing surfaces, will last well 
without any oil being supplied. The rapid destruction, which is commonly reported as having 
been of frequent occurrence in turbine pivots, he believes may in many cases have arisen from 
the employment of an inverted cup like a diving-bell as one of the rubbing parts, without any 
provision for the escape of air from the cup. It is evident that a pivot of this kind, although 
under water, might be perfectly dry at the rubbing surfaces. 



920 *bpobt— 1852. 

In this vortex, the fall being taken at 7 feet, tbe calculated quantity of 
water admitted, at the standard opening of the guide-blades, is 2460 eubic 
feet per minute* Then, the efficiency of the wheel being taken at 75 peir cent, 
its power will be 24 horse power* Abo tbe speed at which the wheel is 
calculated to revolve is 48 revolutions per minute. 

In connexion with the pivot of this wheel arrangements are made which 
provide for the perfect lubrication of tbe rubbing surfaces with clean oil. 
The lower end of the upright revolving shaft enters a stationary pivot box, K, 
through an opening made oil-tight by hemp and leather packing. Within 
the box there is a small stationary steel plate on which the shaft revolves. 
Within the box, also, there are two oil-chambers, one situated above and 
round the rubbing surface of this plate, and the other underneath the plate. 
A constant circulation of the oil is maintained by centrifugal force, which 
causes it to pass from the lower chamber upwards through a central orifice 
in the steel plate, then outwards through a radial groove in the bottom of 
the revolving shaft to the upper chamber, then downwards back to tbe lower 
chamber, by one or more grooves at the circumference of the steel plate. 
The purpose intended to be served by the provision of the lower chamber 
combined with the passages for the circulation of the oil, is to permit the 
oil, while passing through the lower chamber, to deposit any grit or any 
worn metal which it may contain, so that it may be maintained clean and 
may be washed over the upper surface of the steel plate at every revolution 
of the radial groove in the bottom of the shaft. A pipe leading from an oil 
cistern, L, in an accessible situation conducts oil to the upper chamber of the 
pivot-box { and another pipe leaves the lower chamber, and terminates, at 
its upper end, in a stop-cock, M . This arrangement allows a flow of oil to 
be obtained at pleasure from the cistern, down by the one pipe, then through 
tbe pivot-box, and then up by the other pipe, and out by the cock* Thus, 
if any stoppage were to occur in the pipes, it could be at once detected ; or 
if water or air were contained in the pivot-box after the first erection, or at 
any other time, the water could be removed by the pipe leading to the stop- 
cock, or the air would of itself escape by the pipe leading to the cistern, 
wbiob, as well as the other pipe, has a continuous ascent from the pivot-box. 
Certainty may consequently be attained that the pivot really works in clean oil. 

The author was led to adopt the pivot-box closed round the shaft with oil 
tight stuffing, from havitig learned of that arrangement having been sucess- 
fully employed by Kochlin, an engineer of Munchausen. As to the other 
parts of the arrangements just described, he believes the settling chamber 
with the circulation of oil to be new, and he regards this part of the arrange- 
ments as being useful also for pivots working not under water. In respect 
to the materials selected for the rubbing parts, however, he thinks it necessary 
to state that some doubts have arisen as to the suitableness of wrought iron 
to work on steel even when perfectly lubricated ; and he would, therefore, 
recommend that a small piece of brass should be fixed into the bottom of the 
shaft, all parts being made to work in the manner already explained. 

The two examples which have now been described of vortex water-wheels 
adapted for very distinct circumstances, will serve to indicate the principal 
features in the structural arrangements of these new machines in general. 
Respecting their principles of action some farther explanations will next be 
given. In these machines the velocity of the circumference is made the 
same as the velocity of the entering water, and thus there is no impact 
between the water and the wheel ; but, on the contrary, the water enters the 
radiating conduits of the wheel gently, that is to say, with scarcely any 
motion in relation to their mouths. In order to attain the equalisation of 



ON THE VORTEX WATER-WHEEL. 321 

these velocities, it i* necessary that the circumference of the wheel should 
move with the velocity which a heavy body would attain in falling through 
a vertical space equal to half the vertical fall of the water, or in other words, 
with the velocity due to half the fall ; and that the orifices through which 
the water is injected into the wheel-chamber should be conjointly of such 
area that when all the water required is flowing through them, it also may 
have a velocity due to half the fall. Thus one-half only of the fall is em- 
ployed in producing velocity in the water ; and, therefore, the other half still 
remains acting on the water within the wheel-chamber at the circumference 
of the wheel in the condition of fluid pressure. Now, with the velocity 
already assigned to the wheel, it is found that this fluid pressure is exactly 
that which is requisite to overcome the centrifugal force of the water in the 
wheel, and to bring the water to a state of rest at its exit, the mechanical 
work due to both halves of the fall being transferred to the wheel during the 
combined action of the moving water and the moving wheel. In the fore- 
going statements, the effects of fluid friction, and of some other modifying 
influences, are, for simplicity, left out of consideration ; but in the practical 
application of the principles, the skill and judgement of the designer must be 
exercised in taking all such elements as far as possible into account. To 
aid in this, some practical rules, to which the author as yet closely adheres, 
were made out by him previously to the date of his patent These are to be 
found in the specification of the patent, published in the Mechanics' 
Magazine for Jan. 18 and Jan. 25, 1851 (London). 

In respect to the numerous modifications of construction and arrangement 
which are admissible in the Vortex, while the leading principles of action are 
retained, it may be sufficient here merely to advert, — first, to the use (as 
explained in the specification of the patent) of straight instead of curved 
radiating passages in the wheel ; secondly, to the employment, for simplicity, 
of invariable entrance orifices, or of fixed instead of moveable guide-blades; 
and lastly, to the placing of the wheel at any height, less than about thirty feet, 
above the water in the tail race, combined with the employment of suction 
pipes descending from the central discharge orifices, and terminating in the 
water of the tail race, so as to render available the part of the fall below the 
wheel. 

In relation to the action of turbines in general, the chief and most commonly 
recognised conditions, of which the accomplishment is to be aimed at, are 
that the water should flow through the whole machine with the least possible 
resistance, and that it should enter the moving wheel without shock, and be 
discharged from it with only a very inconsiderable velocity. The vortex is 
in a remarkable degree adapted for the fulfilment of these conditions. The 
water moving centripetally (instead of centrifugally, which is more usual in 
turbines) enters at the period of its greatest velocity (that is, just after passing 
the injection orifices) into the most rapidly moving part of the wheel, the 
circumference ; and, at the period when it ought to be as far as possible 
deprived of velocity, it passes away by the central part of the wheel, the part 
which has the least motion. Thus iu each case, that of the entrance and 
that of the discharge, there is an accordance between the velocities of the 
moving mechanism and the proper velocities of the water. 

The principle of injection from without inwards, adopted in the vortex, 
affords another important advantage in comparison with turbines having the 
contrary motion of the water ; as it allows ample room, in the space outside 
of the wheel, for large and well-formed injection channels, in which the 
water can be made very gradually and regularly to converge to the most 
contracted parts, where it is to have its greatest velocity. It is as a con- 

1852. x 



322 report— 1852. 

comHant alio of the fame principle, that the very simple and advantageous 
mode of regulating the power of the wheel by the moveable guide-blades 
already desoribed can be introduced: This mode, it is to be observed* while 
giving great variation to the areas of the entrance orifices, retains at all times 
very suitable forms for the converging water channels. 

Another adaptation in the vortex is to be remarked as being highly bene- 
ficial, that namely according to which, by the balancing of the contrary fluid 
pressures due to half the head of water and to the centrifugal force of the 
water in the wheel, combined with the pressure due to the ejection of the 
water backwards from the inner ends of the vanes of the wheel when they 
are curved, only one-half of the work due to the fall is spent in commu- 
nicating vis viva to the water, to be afterwards taken from it during its 
passage through the wheel ; the remainder of the work being communicated 
through the fluid pressure to the wheel, without any intermediate generation 
of vis viva. Thus the velocity of the water, where it moves fastest in the 
machine, is kept comparatively low; not exceeding that due to half the 
height of the fall, while in other turbines the water usually requires to act at 
much higher velocities. In many of them it attains at two successive times 
the velocity due to the whole fall. The much smaller amount of action, or 
agitation, with which the water in the vortex performs its work, causes a 
material saving of power by diminishing the loss necessarily occasioned by 
fluid friction. 

Jn the Vortex, further, a very favourable influence on the regularity of the 
motion proceeds from the centrifugal force of the water, which, on any in- 
crease of the velocity of the wheel, inoreases, and so checks the water supply ; 
and on any diminution of the velocity of the wheel, diminishes, and so admits 
the water more freely ; thus counteracting, in a great degree, the irregularities 
of speed arising from variations in the work to be performed. When the 
work is subject to great variations, as for instance in saw-mills, in bleaching 
works, or in forges, great inconvenience often arises with the ordinary 
bucket water-wheels and with turbines which discbarge at the circumference, 
from their running too quickly when any considerable diminution occurs in 
the resistance to their motion. 
% The first vortex which was constructed on the large scale was made in Glas- 

Swr, to drive a new beetling-mill of Messrs. C. Hunter and Co., of Dunadry, in 
ounty Antrim. It was the only one in action at the time of the Meeting 
of the British Association in Belfast ; but the two which have been particularly 
described in the present article, and one for an unusually high fall, 100 feet, 
have since been completed and brought into operation. There are also 
several others in progress ; of which it may be sufficient to particularise one 
of great dimensions and power, for a new flax-mill at Ballyshannon in the 
West of Ireland. It is calculated for working at 150 horse-power, on a fall 
of 14 feet, and it is to be impelled by the water of the River Erne. This 
great river has an ample reservoir in the Lough of the same name ; so that 
the water of wet weather is long retained, and continues to supply the river 
abundantly even in the dryest weather. The lake has also the effect of 
causing the floods to be of long duration, and the vortex will consequently 
be, through a considerable part of the year, and for long periods at a time, 
deeply submerged under back-water. The water of the tail race will fre- 
quently be 7 feet above its ordinary summer level ; but as the water of the 
head race will also rise to such a height as to maintain a sufficient difference 
of levels, the action of the wheel will not be deranged or impeded by the 
floods. These circumstances have had a material influence in leading to the 
adoption in the present case of this new wheel in preference to the old breast 
■*r undershot wheels. 



FOODS, |N RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. ' 32& V 

Q» f A* Composition of Foods, in relation to RespiratUmwidyhe tetifoiiif ^ * * - 

of Animals. By J. B. Lawes, Esq., of Rothamstkiftfid JL' JL v *-? • *. 

Gilbert, PAJX, F.C.S. >^ ^rOj.i*^ >^ 

During the last twelve years our knowledge of the adaptation of food, 
according to its composition, to the various exigences of the animal system, 
has assumed much of definiteness ; and it is to the experiments and writings 
of MM. Boussingault, Liebig and Dumas, that we must attribute, either 
directly or indirectly, much of the progress that has been made. There are, 
however, connected with this important subject still many open questions; 
and it is with the hope of aiding the solution of one or two of these, and thus 
providing a new starting-point for further inquiry, that we propose in the 
present paper to bring forward some results of our own which bear upon 
them, and to point out the conclusions to which they appear to us to lead. 

The writers to whom we have above referred, as well as many others, 
whether themselves experimenters or more systematic writers on the subject 
of the chemistry of food, may, with few exceptions, and with some limita- 
tions, be said to agree on two main points, viz. on the one hand, as to the 
connection of the nitrogenous constituents of the food, with the formation in 
the animal body of compounds containing nitrogen, and with the exercise of 
force ; and on the other, as to the general relationship of the non-nitrogenous 
constituents of the food with respiration, and with the deposition of animal 
fat. It is indeed upon the assumption of this broad and fundamental classi- 
fication of the constituents of food, according to their varied offices in the 
animal oeconomy, that a vast series of analyses of foods have of late years 
been made and published ; whilst, founded upon the results of these analyses, 
numerous tables have been constructed, professing to arrange the current 
articles of diet both of man and other animals, according to their comparative 
values as such. Among the labourers in this field of inquiry, we are much 
indebted to MM. Liebig, Dumas, Boussingault, Payen, Play fair, R. D. 
Thomson, Horsford, Schlossberger and Kemp, and others. 

When speaking generally then, of the various requirements of the animal- 
organism, the more special adaptations of the several proximate compounds 
and ultimate elements of which our vegetable and animal aliments are made 
up, are, as we have already said, fully admitted ; but in attempting to apply to 
practice the principles herein involved by the construction of tables of the 
comparative value of foods, it seems to have been generally assumed, that our 
current food-stuffs are thus measurable rather by their flesh-forming than by 
their more specially respiratory and fat- forming capacities. Hence, with 
some limitations, the per-centage of nitrogen has always been taken as the 
standard of comparison. 

Founded upon their per-centage of nitrogen, M. Boussingault first arranged 
tables of the comparative values of different articles of food, chiefly in refer- 
ence to the dieting of the animals of the farm ; and with this method Professor 
Liebig has expressed his concurrence. At page 369 of the 3rd edition of his 
Chemical Letters, he says — " The admirable experiments of Boussingault 
prove, that the increase in the weight of the body in the fattening or feeding 
of stock (just as is the case with the supply of milk obtained from milch 
cows), is in proportion to the amount of plastic constituents in the daily 
supply of fodder." And at page 349 of the same, speaking of the nitrogenous 
compounds of food, he says — "It is found that animals require for their 
support less of any vegetable food in proportion as it is richer in these 
peculiar matters, and cannot be nourished by vegetables in which these 
matters are absent." 

. In like manner, various specimens of flour and of bread have been arranged 
by Dr. R.D. Thomson ; other articles of vegetable diet by Mr. Horsford ; and 

y2 



324 bbport — 1852. 

a large series of aliments from the animal kingdom by MM. Schlossberger 
and Kemp. Dr. Anderson also, in his valuable Report on the Composition of 
Turnips, grown under different circumstances and in different localities, has 
taken their per-centage of nitrogen as the measure of their comparative feed- 
ing value. 

The views which have thus led to a vast number of analyses of foods, as 
well as the information supplied by the analyses themselves, have contributed 
much to the advancement of our knowledge of the chemistry of food. It has 
however been found, that the indications of tables of the comparative values 
of foods, founded on the per-centages of proteine compounds, were frequently 
discrepant with those which common usage or direct experiment affords. 
These discrepancies have not escaped the attention of the authors of the theo- 
retical tables ; but they have attributed them rather to the erroneous teachings 
of common practice or experiments on feeding, than to any defect in the theo- 
retical method of estimation. On all hands, however, it has been admitted, 
that further direct experiment bearing upon this important subject was much 
needed ; and it is the acknowledgement of this necessity that seems to justify 
the publication, under the auspices of the British Association, the results of 
this kind which we have now to submit. 

The question to which we shall first call attention, is, whether, in the use 
of our current foods, under ordinary circumstances, but especially in the case 
of animals fattening for the buteher, the amount of food consumed, and that 
of increase produced, have a closer relationship to the supplies in such foods 
of the nitrogenous, or of the non-nitrogenous constituents ? That is to say, 
whether the sum of the requirements of the animal system is such, that, in 
ordinary circumstances, and in the use of ordinary articles of food, the 
measure of the amount taken, or of the increase produced, will be regulated 
more by the supplies of the "Plastic," or of the more peculiarly respiratory and 
fat-forming constituents. According to the views upon which all the tables 
of the comparative values of foods are constructed, it is the supplies of the 
plastic elements of food chiefly, that should regulate both the consumption, 
and the increase in weight, of a fattening animal. If, however, we bear in 
mind the views which are generally entertained as to the influence of respi- 
ration on the demands of the system for the oxidizable elements of food, it 
would appear more consistent to suppose that the measure, at least of the con- 
sumption of food, would be chiefly regulated by its supplies of those elements. 

In the experiments to which we shall call attention, sheep and pigs have 
been the subjects. As, however, their object has partly been the solution of 
certain questions of a more purely agricultural character than those now 
under consideration, the details, as to the selection of the animals, and the 
general management of the experiments, will be given more appropriately in 
another place. Indeed, the particulars of some of the experiments with 
sheep, so far as their agricultural bearings are concerned, have already ap- 
peared in the Journals of the Royal Agricultural Society of England ; and 
those of the rest, and also of the experiments with pigs, will probably do so 
shortly. It should here be stated, however, that the general plan has been 
to select several different descriptions of food, containing respectively various 
amounts of nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous constituents, the proportions of 
which were ascertained by analysis. To one or more sets of animals to be 
compared, a fixed and limited amount of food of a high or of alow per-centage 
of nitrogen, as the case might be, was allotted, and they were then allowed to 
take ad libitum of another or complementary food. In this way, in obedience 
to the instinctive demands of the system, the animals were enabled to fix for 
themselves, according to the composition of the respective foods, the quantities 
of each class of constituents which they required. 



POODS. IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 325 



In the tables which follow the results of the experiments are arranged to 
show — 

1st. The amounts respectively of the nitrogenous and the non-nitrogenous 
constituents consumed weekly per 100 lbs. live weight of animal. 

2nd. The amounts consumed of each of these classes of constituents to 
produce 100 lbs. increase in live weight. 

Summary tables of the results of the analyses of the foods are also given. 

In the tables showing the amounts of the constituents consumed, &c, — the 
weights of the animals themselves — of the foods consumed — and their per cent- 
ages, of dry matter, of ash, and of nitrogen — have formed the basis of the 
calculations. Thus, the column of nitrogenous substances consumed, is 
obtained by multiplying the amount of nitrogen by 6*3, on the assumption 
that they all exist as proteine compounds. This method of estimation will, we 
think, be found sufficient for our present purpose ; though, as we shall have 
occasion to point out further on, it is frequently far from accurate, and 
especially when applied to succulent vegetable substances. 

The amounts of non-nitrogenous constituents are obtained by deducting 
those of the mineral and nitrogenous constituents from the amount of the 
total dry matter consumed. 

In the tables showing the amounts of the respective constituents consumed 
by a given weight of animal within a given time, it is their mean weights that 
are taken for the calculation ; namely, those obtained by adding together their 
weights at the commencement and at the conclusion of the experiment, and 
dividing by 2. 

In the tables showing the constituents consumed to produce a given weight 
of increase, the figures are obtained by simple rule of three; taking as tho 
elements of calculation, the consumption during the total period of the ex- 
periment, and the total increase in weight during the same period. 

With these short explanations we may now introduce the tables them* 
selves. 

Table I. 
Summary Table of the Per-centage Composition of the Sheep Foods. 



Foods eaten by Series 1. 



Description of Food. 



Mean Per-centage Results. 



Dry Matter. 



Inclusive 
of Ash. 



Exclusive 
of Ash. 



Ash. 



In Fresh In Dry 
Substance. Matter. 



Nitrogen. 



In Fresh In Dry 
Substance. Matter. 



Swedish Turnips, No. 1. 
Swedish Turnips, No. 2. 

American Oil-cake 

Oata 

Clover-chaff 

Oat-straw Chaff 



10-58 
1212 
89-50 
8518 
78-61 
81-28 



1000 
11-49 
8408 
82-24 
72-33 
74-86 



0-577 

0-682 

5-42 

294 

6-28 

6*42 



5-46 
5-21 
606 
345 
799 
7-87 



0263 

0151 

5-08 

208 

185 



249 
125 
5-68 
244 
2-35 



Foods eaten by Series 2. 



Oil-cake 

Linseed, No. 1. 
linseed, No. 2. 

Barley 

Malt 

Clover-chaff ... 



8736 
90-56 
91-54 
85 54 
91-65 
84-66 



8188 
86-28 
87-46 
83-23 
89-34 
7739 



5-48 
4-28 
408 
2-31 
231 
727 



627 
4-72 
4*45 
270 
252 
8-58 



501 
3-68 
405 
149 
151 
211 



574 
4-07 

4-44 
1-74 
1-65 
2-50 



326 



BBPORT— 1852. 

Table I. (continued) 



Foods eaten by Series 3. 


Description of Food. 


Mean Per-eentage Results. 


Dry Matter. 


Ash. 


VntrosjesL 


Inclusive 
of Ash. 


Exclusive 
of Ash. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


Norfolk White Turnips,* 
grown by mineral manures ► 
only ......... •••»• 


9*37 

8-42 
778 

7-88 


8-74 
779 
714. 

717 


0*27 
0-630 
0*639 

0-703 


669 

7-48 
8-21 

892 


0*146 
0175 
0183 

0*252 


1-56 

208 

2*36 

i 
I 
1 

3*90 


Norfolk White Turnips,' 
grown by mineral manures ► 
and ammoniacal salts 

Norfolk White Turnips," 
grown by mineral manures ► 
ajttf rape^cake 


Norfolk White Turnips/ 
grown by mineral manures, 
rape-cake and ammoniacal 
gaits 




Foods eaten by Series 4. 


Long Red Mangold, No. 1, ... 
Long Red Mangold, No. 2. ... 

Mean.it... 

Barley 


1*94 
1314 


11-94 
1816 


1-002 
0-979 


774 
7-45 


0*30 
0-28 


2*36 
2*18 


1304 


1205 


0-990 


7-59 


0-29 


227 


81*84 
95*39 
93-76 
8974 


79-51 
92-78 
8500 
83*30 


232 
2 60 
870 
612 


2*84 
273 
9-28 
6-82 


1-45 
1-62 
410 
5-26 


178 
170 
4-38 
5-87 


Malt 


Malt-dust 


Oil-fiikftr.. ., 




. i 



Table II. 
Summary Table of the Per-centage Composition of Sheep Foods (continued). 



Series 5. 
Foods eaten by Hants and Sussex Downs. 


Description of Food. 


Mean Par-eentago Basalts. 


Dry Matter. 


Ash. 


Nitrogen. 


IncluttTe 
of Ash. 


Exclusive 
of Ash. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


Swedish Turnips, Lot 1 

Swedish Turnips, Lot 2 

Oil-cake 


9-81 
10*32 
87*54 
81-24 


9-20 

9-73 

80-84 

72-82 


0-607 
0*607 
6-70 

8-42 


619 

587 

7-65 

10-36 


0-231 
0*301 
4-98 
203 


236 
2*61 
570 
2-51 


Clover-hay ,.. 





FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION" AND FEEDING. 327 





Table II. (continued.) 








Eaten by Cotswolds. 


Description of Food. 


Mean Per-centage Basalts. 


Dry Matter. 


Aib. 


Nitrogen. 


Inclusive 
of Ash. 


Exclusive 
ofAab. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


In Freah 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Matter. 


Swedish Turnips, Lot 1. ...... 

Swedish Turnips, Lot 2. 

Swedish Turnips, Lot 8 

OU-cake - 

Clover-hay ...t-t., 


10-88 
1070 
1*60 
87 54 
83-66 


10-37 
10-12 
11-84 
80-84 
76*46 


0-504 

0-579 

0-758 

670 

7'20 


4-63 
5 41 
600 
7*65 
8-60 


0-18 
0-28 
0-27 
4-99 
2 24 


166 
2-63 
2 21 
570 

2-68 




Eaten by Leicesters ; and by Cross-bred Ewes and Wethers, 
[Leicester and Sooth Down.] 


Swedish Turnips, Lot 1 

Swedish Turnips, Lot 2. ...... 

Oil-cake 


10-89 

11-88 
86 32 
80-48 
80-08 


10-38 
11-26 
78-52 
72-38 
71-90 


0-520 
0-623 

780 
810 
818 


479 

5 23 

904 

1006 

1017 


0-23 
25 
505 
2-73 
2-73 


215 
214 
5-86 
3 40 
3 42 


Clover-hay, Lot 1, t-.... ......... 


Clover-hay, Lot 8. 





Table III. 
Summary Table of Per-centage Composition of the Pig Foods. 



Eaten by Series 1. 



Desctiptiott of Food. 



Mean Per-centage Results. 



Dry Matter. 



Inclusive 
of Ash. 



Exclusive 



In Fresb 
Substance. 



In Dry 



In 
Substance. 



In Dry 

Matter. 



Egyptian Beans 

Lentils, Lot 1 

Lentils, Lot 2 

Indian meal, Lot 1. 
Indian meal, Lot 2. 

Bran 

Barley 



88-30 
8730 
86-62 
89-70 
89-89 
84-79 
81-86 



88-57 
82-42 
81-64 
88-33 
88-61 
78-77 
79-72 



472 
4-87 
4-98 
1-37 
128 
6-02 
2*14 



5-35 
5-58 
5-75 
1-53 
142 
710 
2-61 



4 24 

452 
4-56 
1-72 
1-95 
2-61 
183 



4-80 
518 
5-26 
192 
217 
308 
2 24 



Egyptian Beans.. 
Lentils, Lot 1. .. 
Lentils, Lot 2. .. 
Barley, Lot 1. ., 
Bailey, Lot 2. ., 
Barley, Lot 3. ., 
Bran 



Eaten by Series 2. 



8817 
89-42 
89-97 
82-38 
80-95 
82-53 
85*08 



84-45 
86-44 
8510 
80-19 
78-77 
80-48 
78-67 



372 
2-98 
4-87 
2*19 
218 
2-05 
6-41 



4*22 

3-33 
5-41 
2-66 
2*9 
8*48 
7-53 



441 
4-54 
418 
1-82 
1-88 
1-55 
2-62 



4-78 
508 
4*65 
2-21 
226 
1-88 
3-08 



328 



REPORT — 1852. 



Table IV, 



Experiments with Sheep. — Weekly consumption of Nitrogenous and 1 
nitrogenous constituents of Food per 100 lbs. live weight of animal (q 
tities stated in lbs., tenths, &c). 



Non- 
juan- 



Series 1. — Five sheep in each pen, 14 weeks. 


d 
Z 

i 


Limited Food. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenoua 
Organic Substance. 


I 1 


it 

5*8 


h 


11 

CJk, 






h 


1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 


Oil-cake 


Swedish Turnips.. 

ditto 

- ditto 

ditto 


1-63 
0*88 
69 


0-82 
0-69 
0-94 
107 


2 46 
1-57 
164 
1-07 


2-75 

4-76 
3*99 


710 
6*61 
913 
9-82 


9-85 
11-36 
1312 
1017 


12-31 
12-93 
1476 
11-24 


Oats 


Clover-chaff 


Oat-straw chaff 




Means 


1-071 


0-882 


1-68 


383 


816 


1113 


12-81 


Series 2.— Five sheep in each pen, 19 weeks. 


1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 


Oil-cake 


Clover-chaff 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


1-64 
1-26 
0-50 
0-44 


214 
1-95 
208 
208 


3-78 
3 21 

2-58 
2 52 


2-55 
319 
3-83 
3*98 


10-38 
9-47 
9-96 

10-04 


12-93 
12-66 
1379 
1402 


1671 
15-87 
16-37 
16-55 


Linseed 


Barley 


Malt 




Means 


0*96 


206 


302 


339 


9-96 


1335 


16-38 


Series 3. — Five sheep in each pen, 10 weeks. 


1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

5. 


Barley 


Mangold- wurtzel • . 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


44 
0-43 
0-43 

0-40 

0-52 


1-26 
120 
1-65 

1-36 

1-36 


170 
164 
208 

1-77 

1-89 


3-53 
3-32 
3-35 

309 

3-97 


7-06 
6-80 
924 

7-60 

7-66 


1059 
10-12 
12-60 

10-70 

11-63 


12-29 
1176 
14-68 

12-47 

13-52 


Malt and malt-dust ... 
Barley (steeped) 


Malt and malt-dust 
(steeped) 


Malt and malt-dust 
(extra quantity) 


Means 


0-44 


1-37 


1-82 


3 45 


767 


1113 


12-94 


Series 4. — Five sheep in each pen, 10 weeks ; no limited Foods. 


1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 


Norfolk White Turnips, mineral manures 
only --- 


120 
151 
1-64 
214 


10-30 
9-24 
8-86 
7-60 


11-50 
975 

10-50 
9*74 


Norfolk White Turnip 
and ammoniacal salt 

Norfolk White Turnip 
and rape-cake 


s, mineral manures 
s 


8, mineral manures 


Norfolk White Turnip 
rape-cake and ammo 


s, mineral manures, 
niacal salts 






Means 


1-62 


900 


10-37 



POODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 329 

Table IV. (continued.) 





Series 5.- 


—Different breeds of sheep. 




i 
1 




Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-mtrogenou* 
Organic 8ubstance. 


4 
r 






J9l 


11 

ah, 


it 

at 


.si 


ah 


Forty Hants Down*, twen- \ 
1 ty-six weeks .......*..../ 


G 

s 

« 

1 

O 


1 


2-27 
231 
2-27 

2-30 
239 
2 41 


112 
1-06 
114 
107 
109 
112 


339 
3-37 
341 
337 

3-48 
3-53 


543 

5*64 
537 
470 
4 91 
4-96 


5-63 
5-35 
6-65 
6-46 
6*60 
6-73 


1106 
10-99 
1202 
1116 
1151 
11-69 


14-45 
14-36 
15-43 
14-53 
14 99 
15-22 


j Forty Sussex Downs, twen- 1 

I ty-six weeks J 

! Forty-six Cots wolds, twen- 1 

ty weeks J 

i Forty Leicester!, twenty 1 

weeks J 


Forty cross-bred Ewes,! 

twenty weeks J 

Forty cross-bred Wethers, 1 

twenty weeks j 


| Means 


232 


110 


3 42 


517 


6-23 


11-40 


14-83 



Table V. 

Experiments with Sheep. — Consumption of Nitrogenous and Non- nitrogenous 
constituents of Food to produce 100 /fa. increase in live weight of animal 
(quantities stated in lbs.). 



Series 1. — Five sheep in each pen, 14 weeks. 


s 

i 

i 


Limited Food. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Pood. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenoutt 
Organic Subftance. 


h 


ah 


41 




it 


'4 

Ai 


h 


l. 

2 


Oil-cake 


Swedish Turnips . . 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


111 

55 
43 


56 

48 
59 
102 


167 
103 

102 
102 


181 
289 
223 


469 
395 
513 
881 


650 
684 
736 
913 


817 

787 

838 

1015 


Oats 


3 


Clover-chaff 




4. 


Oat-straw chaff... 










Means 


70 


66 


118 


231 


565 


746 


864 






Series 2. — Five sheep ii 


i each pen, 19 weeks. 


1. 


Oil-cake 


Clover-chaff 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


138 

112 

45 

49 


183 
177 
190 
217 


321 
289 
235 
266 


219 
291 
353 
412 


884 

853 

916 

1045 


1103 
1144 
1269 
1457 


1424 
1433 
1504 
1723 


2 


■ Linseed 


3. 


1 Barley 




4. 


Malt 










u 


Means 


| 86 


192 


278 


319 


925 


1244 


1521 



aso 



REPORT— 1859. 

Table V. (continued.) 



Series 8. — Fire sheep in each pen, 10 weeks. 


i 

i 


Limited Food. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic SuUtance. 


1. 

r 




h 


eg 






h 


l. 

2. 
3. 

4. 

5. 


Barley 


Mangold-wurtzel .. 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


31 
29 
25 

32 

85 


87 
82 
96 

104 

91 


118 
111 
121 

136 

126 


248 
220 
194 

287 

265 


488 
457 
586 

584 

511 


781 
677 
780 

821 

776 


850 

788 
851 

958 

903 


Malt and malt-dost ... 

Barley (steeped) 

Malt and malt-dust 
(steeped) 


Malt and malt-dust 
(extra quantity) 


Meant 


80 


92 


128 


282 


515 


747 


870 


Series 4.— Five sheep in each pen, 10 weeks ; no limited Food. 


1. 
2. 
8. 

4. 


Norfolk White Turnips, mineral manures 
only - 


192 
153 
324 

Lost weight. 


1627 

930 

1682 

Lost weight. 


1 
1819 ' 


Norfolk White Turnips 
and ammoniacal salts 

Norfolk White Turnip! 
and rape-cake 


, mineral manures 


1083 • 


, mineral manures 


i 
2006 


Norfolk White Turnips 
rape-cake and ammoi 


, mineral manures, 
iacal salts ......... 






Means 


223 


1418 


1636 



8eries 5.— Different breeds of sheep. 



Nil 



itroMMma Or j 



Organic 



si 



it 



h 

5* 



Non-nit 
Organic Si 






Forty Hants Downs, twen- 
ty-six weeks 

Forty SussexDowns,twen< 
ty-six weeks 

Forty-six Cotrwolds, twen* 1 
ty weeks 

Forty Leicesters, twenty 
weeks 

Forty cross-bred Ewes, 
twenty weeks 

Forty cross-bred Wethers, 
twenty weeks 



I 
i 

I 



s. 

1 



Means . 



124 
129 
111 
127 
127 
127 

7*4 



62 
60 
55 
59 
58 
59 

59 



186 
189 
166 
186 
185 
186 

183 



300 
318 
260 
261 
260 
261 

277 



812 

802 
322 
358 
350 
855 

333 



612 
620 
682 
619 
610 
616 

610 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. SSI 



Table VI. 

Experiments with Pigs. — Weekly consumption of Nitrogenous and Non- 
nitrogenous constituents of Food per 100 lbs. live weight of animal 
(quantities stated in lbs., tenths, 6Vc). 



Series 1. — Three pigs in each pen, 8 weeks. 


o 

Z 

i 


limited Pood, per head, 
per day. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic Substance. 


h 


5*8 


11 

a! 


h 

5 h 


n 


•Si 


ah 


9 


None 


Bean and Lentil 

meal 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


0-83 
132 
214 


8-84 
7-30 
639 
4-73 


8*84 
813 
7-71 
6-87 


5-5 

50 

10-6 


176 
143 

12-8 
94 


176 
19*8 
178 
20-0 


26-4 
27-9 
25-5 
269 


Indian meal 


3. 


Bran 


4. 


Indian meal and Bran... 


Means 


107 


6*82 


789 


53 


135 


18-8 


26-7 


5. 
6. 
7. 
ft. 


None «.. 


Indian meal 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


1^5 
121 

3-05 


2-91 
2-60 
2-74 

215 


2 91 

4 55 
395 

5 20 


3 : 9 
4-6 

8*1 


193 
17-2 
179 


193 
211 
22 5 

221 


22*2 
25-7 
264 

273 


Bean and Lentil meal .. 
Bran 


Bean and Lentil meal, 
and Bran 






Means 


155 


2-60 


415 


41 171 


21-2 


254 


9. 
10. 
11. 

12. 


Bean and Lentil meal... 

Indian meal 

Bean and Lentil meal, 

and Indian meal ... 

None 


Bran 


334 
144 

3*23 


1-85 
2-46 

1-73 
612 


519 
3-90 

4-96 
612 


6-7 
9-4 

10-4 


70 
9-3 

6-6 
201 


137 

18-7 

170 
201 


18-9 
22 6 

22-0 
262 


ditto 

ditto 

Bean and Lentil 
meal, Indian 
meal, Bran, each 
ad libitum 




Means 


2-00 


304 


5-04 


6-6 


10 8 


17-4 


224 


Means of the 12 pens 


154 


415 


5 69 


63 


13 8 


19-1 


24-8 


Series 2.— Three pigs in each pen, 8 weeks. 


1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 


None 


Bean and Lentil 
meal ............ 


1-23 
0-66 

1-95 


6-69 
706 
8-07 

4-85 


6-69 
8 29 
873 

680 


7*3 

25 

101 


14-5 
15-3 
175 

106 


14 5 
22-6 
20-0 

206 


212 
30*9 
28-7 

274 


3 lbs. Barley meal 

lib. Bran 


ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


3 lbs. Barlej meal, 1 lb. 
Bran 


Means...... 


096 


6-67 


763 


5-0 


14 4 


19-4 


270 



332 



REPORT — 1852. 

Table VI. (continued.) 



1 


Limited Food, per head, 
per day. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic substance. 


r 


II 


■9| 


h 




§1 


It 


5. 
6. 

7. 
8. 


None 


Barley meal 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


2*81 
0-61 

2-98 


391 

236 
345 

166 


3-91 

517 
406 

4-64 


61 
23 

72 


236 

139 
20-9 

10-0 


28-6 

200 
23-2 

17*2 


27-5 

252 
27* 

218 


H lb. Bean, and 1* lb. 
Lentil meal 


lib. Bran 


1* lb. Bean, 1 J lb. Len- 
til meal, and 1 lb. 
Bran 




Means 


1-60 


2-84 


444 


3-9 


17-1 


21-0 


254 


9. 

10. 
11. 

12. 


None 


Mixture of 1 part 
Bran,2partsBar- 
ley meal, and 3 
parts Bean and 
Lentil meal 

Duplicate of pen 9. 

Mixture of 1 part 
Bran, 2 parts 
Bean and Lentil 
meal, and 3 parts 
Barley meal ... 

Duplicateofpenll. 


... 


665 
7-03 

5-86 
602 


6-65 
703 

5-86 
602 


... 


20-6 
21-9 

214 
221 


20-6 
219 

214 
221 


272 

289 

273 

281 


None • 


None 


None 




Means 


... 


639 


6-39 


... 


21-5 


215 


27-9 


Means of the 12 pens 


0-85 


5 30 


615 


2-9 


177 


*>6 


26-8 


Means of the 24 pens 


119 


4 73 


5*92 


41 


15-8 


19-9 


25-8 



Table VII. 

Experiments with Pigs. — Consumption of Nitrogenous and Non-nitrogenous 
constituents of Food, to produce 100 lbs. increase in live weight of animal 
(quantities stated in lbs.). 



Series 1.— Three pigs in each pen, 8 weeks. 



Food, per head, 
per day. 



None 



Indian meal , 

Bran 

Indian meal and Bran., 



Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 



Bean and Lentil 

meal 

ditto ... 
ditto ... 
ditto ... 



Means. 



Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 






12 

28 
38 

19 



P 



138 

102 

133 

83 

114 



si 



114 
161 
121 

133 



Non •nitrogenous 
Organic substance. 






77 
105 
185 

92 






275 

201 
267 
166 

227 



21 

,5* 



275 
278 
372 
351 

319 



413 
392 
533 
472 

452 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 333 
Table VII. (continued.) 



1 

5. 
6. 
7. 

8. 


limited Food, per head, 

per day. 


Complementary or 
ad libitum Food. 


Nitrogenous Organic 
Substance. 


Non-nitrogenous 
Organic substance. 


r 


5*8 


h 


flpM 


11 


p 




None 


Indian meal 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


31 

18 

43 


57 
42 

40 

30 


57 
73 

58 

73 


62 
68 

114 


378 
275 
264 

195 


378 
337 
332 

309 


435 
410 
390 

889 


Bean and Lentil meal .. 
Bran 


Bean and Lentil meal, 
and Bran 




Means 


23 


42 


65 


61 


278 


339 


404 


9. 


Bean and Lentil meal.* 
Indian meal 


Bran 


127 

48 

74 


71 
82 

40 

107 


198 
130 

114 
107 


255 
311 

240 


268 
309 

151 
350 


523 
620 

391 
350 


721 
750 

505 
457 


.10 


ditto 

ditto 

Bean and Lentil 
meal, Indian 
meal, Bran, each 
ad libitum 


11. 
12. 


Bean and Lentil meal, 

and Indian meal ... 

None 




Means 


02 


75 


137 


202 


269 


471 


608 


Means of the 12 pens 


35 


77 


119 


118 


258 


376 


488 


Series 2.— Three pigs in each pen, 8 weeks. 


1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 


None 


Bean and Lentil 
meal 


20 
12 

36 


146 
117 
140 

89 


146 
137 
152 

125 


120 
43 

186 


317 
254 
305 

192 


317 
374 
348 

378 


463 
511 
500 

503 


3 lbs. Barley meal 

lib. Bran 


ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


3 lbs. Barley meal, lib. 
Bran 




Means 


17 


123 


140 


87 


m 


354 


494 


5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 


None 


Barley meal 

ditto 

ditto 

ditto 


50 
10 

64 


64 

41 
56 

36 


64 

91 
66 

100 


107 

38 

157 


385 

245 
341 

215 


385 

352 

379 

372 


449 

443 
445 

472 


l*lb. Bean and Hlb. 
Lentil meal 


lib. Bran 


li lb. Bean, U lb. Len- 
til meal, and 1 lb. 
Bran 




Means 


31 


49 


80 


75 


297 


372 


452 


9. 
10. 


None . 


Mixture of 1 part 
Bran,2partsBar- 
ley meal, and 3 
parts Bean and 
Lentil meal 

Duplicate of pen 9. 

Mixture of 1 part 
Bran, 2 parts 
Bean and Lentil 
meal, and 3 parts 
Barley meal ... 

Duplicate of pen 11. 


... 


117 

no 

88 
87 


117 
110 

88 
87 


... 


362 
342 

320 
321 


362 
342 

320 
321 


479 
452 

408 
408 


None • 


11. 


None 


12. 


None 


Means 


... 


101 


101 


... 


336 


336 


437 




Means of the 12 pens 


16 


91 


107 


54 


300 


354 


461 



334 report— 1852. 

A glance at the Tables as a whole must show, that in all comparable cases 
there is much more of uniformity of amount in the total columns of non-nitro- 
genous than in those of nitrogenous substance, both as to the quantities con- 
sumed to a given weight of animal within a given time, and to those required 
to produce a given weight of increase. The deviations from this general 
regularity in the amount of non-nitrogenous substance consumed under equal 
circumstances, are indeed, in most cases such, that when examined into they 
tend the more clearly to show, that the uniformity would be considerably 
more strict if the amounts only of the really available respiratory and fat- 
forming constituents could have been represented, instead of, as in the case 
of these Tables, that of the gross or total non- nitrogenous substance consumed. 
For, in reading the actual figures of the Tables, allowance has to be made 
both for those of the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food which would 
probably become at once effete, and also for the different respiratory and fat- 
forming capacities of the portions of them which are digestible and available 
for the purposes of the animal ceconomy. It must further be remembered, 
that even after all due allowance has been made for the sources of discre- 
pancy just referred to, the amounts which we may suppose to be so corrected 
must still cover all variations, whether arising from differences of external 
circumstances — from individual peculiarities in the animals themselves — from 
the different amounts stored up in them according to the adaptation of the 
respective foods — as well as from the many other uncontrollable circum- 
stances which must always interfere with any attempts to bring within the 
range of accurate numerical measurement the results of those processes in 
which the subtle principle of animal life exerts its influence. Bearing, then, 
all those points in mind which must tend to modify the true indications of 
the actual figures in the Tables, it appears to us, that the coincidences in 
the amounts of available respiratory and fat-forming constituents consumed 
by a given weight of animal, under equal circumstances, within a given time, 
and also in those required under equal circumstances to produce a given 
amount of increase in weight, must be admitted to be much more striking 
and conclusive than d priori we could have expected to find them. With 
this general uniformity, however, as to the amounts of non-nitrogenous 
substance consumed under given circumstances, or for a given result, those 
of the nitrogenous constituents are found to vary, under the same circum- 
stances, in the proportion of from 1 to 2 or 3. 

In illustration of our statements let us examine the Tables for a moment 
somewhat more in detail. 

In Table IV. we have the amounts of the two classes of constituents re- 
spectively, which were consumed weekly per 100 lbs. live weight of animal, 
in the case of five different series of experiments with sheep. In all cases 
the experiments extended over a period of many weeks, and in some even of 
several months. Each series comprised several pens, to each of which (except 
in Series 4, in which there were no limited foods) there was allotted a dif- 
ferent description of fixed or limited food, the ad libitum or complementary 
food being (except in Series 4*) the same throughout the several pens of the 
same series, but different in the different series. In the Series 1, 2, 3 and 4, 
there were five or six sheep in each pen ; in Series 5, from 40 to 50 sheep in 
each pen. 

Iu Series 1, the complementary or ad libitum food was Swedish turnips, 
and the limited foods were— 

In pen 1, oil-cake. 

In pen 2, oats. 

In pen 3, clover-chaff. 

In pen 4, oat-straw chaff. 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 335 

The oat-straw chaff of pen 4 was given as adding to the otherwise only 
succulent matter of the turnip, the bulk of solid matter which seems to be 
demanded particularly by ruminant animals. So small a quantity of this 
straw was eaten, however, that it need scarcely enter into our calculations. 
Turning to the results of pens 1, 2 and 3, it is seen that the weekly consump- 
tion of non-nitrogenous matter per 100 lbs. live weight of animal is, with the 
oil-cake as limited food, 9*8 lbs.; with the oats, 11*3 lbs. ; and with the clover- 
chaff 13*1 lbs. Now, of these three descriptions of food, the oil-cake would 
contain by far the most of oleaginous matter, the respiratory and fat-forming 
capacity of which is about twice and a half as great as that of the starch 
series of compounds which would more abound in the oats. Hence we find 
that a less actual weight of non-nitrogenous substance was consumed with 
the oil-cake than with the oats. But to the reason just given, to which a part 
of the result was doubtless due, we might add that there was a comparatively 
large and somewhat excessive amount of nitrogenous matter consumed in the 
oil-cake pen, a part of which at least might serve the respiratory and fat- 
forming functions. Then, again, in pen 3, where clover-chaff was the limited 
food, the animals would consume a much larger amount of effete woody 
fibre than with either the oil-cake or the oats ; in this pen therefore a larger 
gross weight of non-nitrogenous substance must be eaten to yield the same 
equivalent of that which is available for respiratory or fat-forming purposes 
than with either of the other foods. When therefore, allowance has been 
made for the different quantities and capacities of the available constituents 
in the several foods, it will be seen, that the equivalents of the available non- 
nitrogenous constituents consumed in the different cases, are in reality much 
more nearly identical, than the figures as they stand in the Table would 
indicate. But if we now turn to the column of the nitrogenous substance 
consumed under the same circumstances, we find that it varies, comparing 
one pen with another in this first series, nearly as much as from 1 to 2£. 

In the second series (Table IV.) we have clover-chaff as the ad libitum or 
complementary food in all the pens, instead of Swedish turnips as in Series 1 ; 
and again, with the much larger amount of effete woody fibre, we have a 
larger gross amount of the non-nitrogenous substance consumed. The 
average of the four pens of this Series 2 is indeed almost identical with the 
amount where clover-chaff was employed in Series 1. Again, comparing one 
pen with another in this clover-chaff series, we have with the larger amounts 
of oleaginous matter supplied in the linseed and oil-cake, less of gross non- 
nitrogenous substance taken than with the barley or the malt) in which there 
is a proportionally larger amount of the starch series of compounds. When 
due allowance is made, then, for the different respiratory and fat-forming 
capacities of the several foods, we have again a closer coincidence than would 
at first sight appear, in the equivalents of the non-nitrogenous substances 
consumed in the different pens of this second series — as also when we com- 
pare this series with the former one. Turning now to the column of the 
nitrogenous substances consumed in this second series, we see that the gross 
amounts vary more than in those of the non-nitrogenous ; and more indeed 
than, according to any knowledge we at present possess, could be accounted 
for by a consideration as to the state in which the nitrogen existed in the 
several pens. Comparing now the result of the one series with those of the other, 
although in the two cases the description of the larger portion of the food is 
widely different, and we have found that there is nevertheless considerable 
coincidence in the amounts of non-nitrogenous substance consumed, yet the 
columns of nitrogenous substance throughout the two series show a very 
great variation in the quantities of these consumed — amounting} indeed, in 



336 report— 1852. 

the extreme cases, to as much as from one to three and a half. There can be 
little doubt that the method of estimating the amount of available nitro- 
genous substance from the per-centage of nitrogen must be more or less faulty, 
both in the case of the succulent turnips of the first series, and in that of the 
also unripened produce — clover-chaff — of the second; but whether or in 
what degree the differences in the amounts consumed in the two series would 
be lessened by corrections due to this source of discrepancy, we have not the 
means of accurately deciding. 

In the third series, which consisted of five pens, mangold- wurtzel was the 
complementary food ; and the limited foods were barley and malt, respectively, 
in different states and proportions in the several pens. Throughout this series 
the proportion of nitrogenous to non-nitrogenous constituents varied but 
little in the limited foods, and being also constant in the complementary foods 
of the several pens, we have but little difference in this series in the amounts 
respectively of either class of constituents when comparing pen with pen. 
Comparing the results of this series with those of the others, however, we 
observe that there was a very close coincidence between the amounts of avail- 
able non-nitrogenous substance consumed ; but in those of the nitrogenous 
substances there is little in common when thus taking at one view the results 
of the several series. 

In the fourth series we have no supply of limited food. In all the four 
pens Norfolk-white turnips only were given ad libitum. Those supplied to 
the different pens, were however, respectively grown by very different manures, 
and differed in all cases very much in ultimate composition and other 
qualities. Thus, the per-centage of dry substance and the state of maturity 
were greatest in the turnips of pen 1, and diminished in the order of the pens, 
they being in pen 4 the worst in both these respects. On the other hand, the 
per-centage of water, of mineral matter, and of nitrogen, and the degree of 
unripeness or unfitness for food, were in the inverse order. The turnips eaten 
in pen 1 were, however, too ripe, and what is called " pithy " ; and those 
were in the best condition which were supplied to pen 2. 

In this series there was, with a probably generally lower amount of effete 
matter, at the same time a generally less amount of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed — though most where the turnips were known to be too ripe and 
pithy* In pen 4 there was a very small amount of non-nitrogenous substance 
taken ; but there is no doubt that here the limit to consumption was fixed by 
the unfitness of the turnips as food, and not by their high value in this respect; 
for these turnips were very succulent and unripe, and notwithstanding they 
contained a very high per-centage of ttitrogen, all the animals fed upon them 
lost weight Taking the circumstances into account, then, we have as much 
uniformity in the amounts of non- nitrogenous constituents consumed as we 
could expect, both among the several pens of Che series, and in comparing this 
series with the rest. In the column of nitrogenous constituents, on the other 
hand, there is nothing to indicate any uniformity of demand for the supply 
of them, whether we compare pen with pen, or the results of this series 
with those of the others. It might perhaps be objected, from what we have 
already said of the varying qualities of the turnips used in this series, that 
the nitrogenous compounds themselves would exist in the different lots in a 
more or less assimilable condition; and hence probably some of the differences 
in the amounts consumed. Doubtless there were differences in this respect 
in the different lots, but it is seen that there is nearly twice as much of nitrogen 
consumed in one pen as in another ; and we cannot suppose that by any such 
method of correction as has been suggested, so large a difference as this, 
or even that the whole of the lesser ones observed in the other cases, could 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 337 

be thus accounted for. It is worthy of observation, however, that in this 
series the amounts of the nitrogenous constituents consumed are in an inverse 
ratio to those of the non-nitrogenous ; and if we are to calculate, that in the 
case of a defect of the latter or an excess of the former, a notable portion of 
the nitrogenous constituents would serve as respiratory material, such an 
assumption in the present case would tend yet more clearly to show the closer 
dependence of consumption upon respiration, than upon the supplies by the 
food of the plastic elements of nutrition, as such. 

In the next and last series of experiments to be noticed with sheep, as far 
as possible the same description of foods is used throughout ; but animals 
of different breeds aud weights and other admitted qualities are now the 
subject of experiment in the several pens. The breeds which have thus been 
compared are, — the Hampshire Down, Sussex Down, Cots wold, Leicester, 
Half-bred Wethers (Leicester and Southdown), and Half-bred Ewes 
(Leicester and Southdown). In all these experiments oil-cake and clover- 
chaff were the limited foods, and Swedish turnips the complementary food. 
About 1 lb. per head per day of each of the limited foods was given to the 
Hampshire*; and taking this allowance as the standard, the other breeds had 
quantities of these foods exactly in proportion to their weights. There were 
from 40 to 50 sheep in each lot ; and each experiment extended over several 
months. The experiments were, however, not all made in the same season ; 
the turnips were therefore of different growths ; and the oil-cake and clover- 
chaff, though chosen as nearly as possible of similar quality, were not always 
from the same stocks. These circumstances, then, as well as the intrinsic 
differences in the breeds themselves, if any, might be supposed perhaps to 
have some share in any variations in result. We see, however, that there 
is nevertheless a very striking coincidence in the amounts of constituents 
consumed to a given weight of animal among the different breeds. Bui 
what is more to the purpose, the amounts of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed to a given weight of animal by these different breeds, and at 
different times, are, after making, as before, due allowance for the probable 
different equivalents of the foods, exactly consistent with the indications of 
the other series with all their varied foods. This result, then, further shows that 
in all, the respiratory and fat- forming exigences of the animals have fixed 
die limit to their consumption of food; and also that these requirements have, 
on an average, and under somewhat similar circumstances, a pretty constant 
relationship to their weights. With this general coincidence in the amount 
of non-nitrogenous substance consumed to a given weight of animal in the 
several pens of this series, there could not, of course, with foods of similar 
composition in all, be much variation in the amounts of the nitrogenous con- 
stituents taken under the same circumstances. Of these, however, we have 
throughout this series twice or thrice as much as in many cases of the other 
series, which would not happen if the demand for them had been the guide 
to consumption; nor shall we afterwards find that the increase in weight ' 
obtained was by any means proportional to this large amount of nitrogenous 
substance consumed. 

In our experiments with sheep, then, whether with different descriptions 
of food, or with different breeds of the animal, the amount of food consumed 
would seem to be regulated by the quantities which it supplied of Hie non-nitro- 
genous rather than by those of the nitrogenous constituents. 

So much, then, for the bearing of our sheep experiments upon the question 
of the amount of food consumed according to its composition : but before 
entering upon a consideration of the results of these same experiments in 
relation to the second question, namely, that of the increase produced, it 

1852. z 



338 report— 1852. 

will be well to see how far the experiments with pigs afford us similar indi- 
cations in relation to the former one. 

The pig requires much less of mere bulk in his food than the ruminant 
animal. Indeed, the food of the pig, when on a liberal fattening diet, consists 
generally, weight for weight, of a much larger proportion of digestible or 
convertible constituents, and contains much less of effete woody fibre than 
that of the sheep. Thus, whilst the food of the fattening sheep is principally 
composed of grass, hay and roots, with a comparatively small proportion of 
cake or corn, that of the fattening pig comprises a larger proportion of con), 
which contains a comparatively small amount of indigestible woody fibre, 
and is comparatively abundant in starch, sugar, &c, and in highly nitro- 
genous compounds. Notwithstanding the generally richer character of his 
food, however, the fattening pig is found to consume a much larger quantity 
of dry substance in relation to his weight than the sheep. We should at 
least expect, therefore, that he would yield a greater proportion of increase, 
and this he is found to do. Such, indeed, is the greediness of the animal, 
and so much larger is the proportion of the food which he will consume 
beyond that which is necessary for the respiratory function, or for the 
formation of flesh, and which is therefore employed in storing up fat, that 
the amounts of non-nitrogenous matter consumed must obviously, in his 
case, have a less close numerical relationship to the requirements of the 
respiratory system than in that of the sheep. Hence, no doubt, is in part 
the reason that the exact indications of the figures of the Tables are, on the 
whole, not so consistent as with the sheep. The experiments with the pigs 
however bear testimony in the same direction as those with the sheep on 
the question now in discussion, and the evidence they afford on the point is, 
indeed, very conclusive. 

In the arrangement of the pig experiments the selection of the foods was 
made rather according to composition than to cost In the first series (see 
Tables V{. and VII.) the foods chosen were— 

A mixture of equal parts of bean and lentil meal, as a highly nitrogenous 
food. 

Indian corn meal, as the comparatively non-nitrogenous food. And — 

Bran, as containing a considerable amount of woody fibre. 

The series comprised twelve pens, in each of which three pigs were placed. 
In the first four pens, the bean and lentil mixture constituted the ad libitum 
food ; in one of these it was given alone, and in the others with a limited 
amount of one or both respectively of the other two descriptions of food. 
In the second set of four pens, the Indian corn meal was the ad libitum food ; 
and it, in its turn, was in one case given alone, and in the others with a 
certain amount of the other or limited foods. In the third set of pens, bran 
was the ad libitum food ; the other two then constituting the fixed or limited 
food. In this way there was secured a great diversity in the proportion of 
' the nitrogenous to the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food in the 
several pens ; and as the animals were allowed to fix for themselves the limit 
of their consumption, the results afford us the means of judging, whether in 
doing this, their natural instincts have led them to any uniformity in relation 
to their weights, in the amounts taken of either of these classes of constituents. 

In Table VI. are given the amounts of the nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous 
constituents respectively, consumed weekly by every 100 lbs. live weight of 
animaL In this Table we see at a glance, that although there are some 
apparent discrepancies, yet the figures in the column of fwm-nitrogenous 
constituents are much more uniform than in that of the nitrogenous ones. 
And, as to the few apparent deviations from this uniformity, we think it 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 339 

will be much more reasonable to attempt to explain, or even considering the 
nature of the subject, to admit as inexplicable, a few discrepant cases, than to 
reject on their account the general testimony of much more numerous, more 
consistent, and otherwise sufficiently conclusive results. Thus in the first 
set of four pens in this series, there is, upon the whole, a less amount of the 
non-nitrogenous constituents consumed than in the second ; and this lessened 
amount of non-nitrogenous constituents consumed in the former is seen to be 
coincident with excessive consumption of the nitrogenous ones, and it is evenr 
the less the greater that excess. It is also worthy of remark, too, that in pens 
5 to 8, where there was this larger amount of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed, it was supplied chiefly by Indian corn meal, which, containing 
more oily matter than that of the foods in pens I to 4, would also possess a 
higher respiratory and fat-forming capacity, weight for weight, than that in 
the other cases. We may here suppose, that perhaps a surfeit of the nitro- 
genous substances put a limit to the further consumption of non-nitrogenous 
constituents which would otherwise have been taken ; or, that being in excess, 
the nitrogenous substances have substituted other respiratory material ; and 
it is consistent with such a supposition, that with the less amount of non- 
nitrogenous constituents consumed, where the nitrogenous are in excess, there 
is nevertheless a larger amount consumed of total organic substance than 
where there is more of the non-tiitrogenous constituents. 

That a larger amount of the complementary food was consumed when it 
consisted of the comparatively low nitrogenized Indian meal, was not due 
only to a craving for a supply of nitrogen which a less quantity would not 
have yielded, would appear, among other considerations, from the fact, that 
when, after a time, the pigs in pen 5, where Indian meal alone was given, 
had become affected with large tumours breaking out on their necks, 
their breathing and swallowing becoming at the same time difficult, we, in 
order to test the question as to whether this arose from a defect of nitrogen 
or from other causes, supplied them with a trough of mineral substances: they 
soon recovered from their complaint, and eventually proved to be among the 
fattest and best of the entire series of pigs ; at least, a dealer in pork with 
a practised eye, purchased by preference one of these animals from among 
the whole set of carcases. The mineral mixture that was supplied to them 
was composed of twenty parts coal ashes, four parts common salt, and one 
part superphosphate of lime ; and for it they seemed to exhibit considerable 
relish. 

In pens 9, 10 and 1 1, a comparatively small quantity of the more digestible 
foods was allowed, the complementary food being in these cases bran ; and 
as we have before said, the digestive apparatus of the pig is not adapted for 
a large amount of bulky woody substance. Here the animals consumed a 
less amount of non-nitrogenous substance in proportion as the bran predo- 
minated in their food ; and they at the same time also increased and fattened 
much less than those in the other pens. In fact, until Slbs. per head per day 
of the limited foods were allowed instead of only two, as was at first given, 
several of the pigs lost weight and became unwell ; being as it were paralysed 
(gouty ?), and almost deprived of the use of their legs. There can be little 
doubt that the proportion of woody matter in the bran, which food only 
they had at full command, was too great for the convenience of their sto- 
machs ; and that hence, after their respiratory requirements had been fulfilled, 
a limit was put to further consumption to serve the mere purpose of fattening. 

In pen 12, the several foods, namely, the bean and lentil mixture, the 
Indian meal, and the bran, were each put into a separate trough, and the 
animals were allowed to take of all or any of them ad libitum. Were it not 

z2 



340 report — 1852. 

that one of the pigs io this pen was unwell in the same way as those referred 
to in the previous pens during a considerable portion of the period of the 
experiment, we might have assumed perhaps, that the results of this pen would 
have pointed to the proportions of the several foods best adapted to the wants 
of the animals ; and if such a conclusion were a legitimate one, it would 
indeed appear, that their natural demands called for a larger proportion of 
nitrogen than was within the reach of the animals in any of those pens in 
which Indian meal was the ad libitum or complementary food. Two of the 
pigs, however, in this pen 12, increased exceedingly well, and gave eventually 
the highest proportion of carcass to live weight, of any in this entire series of 
experiments. It is, too, an interesting fact, that as the experiment proceeded, 
and the animals matured, their consumption diminished very considerably. 
Thus, the proportion of the bean and lentil mixture to the total food consumed 
was only two-thirds as great at the conclusion as at the commencement of 
the experiment, whilst that of tbe Indian meal was not three-tifths as much 
at the commencement as at the conclusion. We have in this fact some indi- 
cation of the large proportion of the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food 
which is appropriated by the fatting animal. 

Reviewing, as a whole, the reults of these twelve dietaries, and carefully 
considering the bearing of the various circumstances which must influence 
our reading of the actual figures of the Table relating to them, we think it 
cannot be doubted, that here, as in the case of the sheep, we have very clear 
evidence that it is the non-nitrogenous, rather than the nitrogenous consti- 
tuents of the food, that have fixed the limit to consumption. 

In the lower section of this Table VI., we have the results bearing upon the 
same point, of a second series of experiments with pigs, conducted on a 
similar plan to that of the former one. In this second series of pig experi- 
ments, we have, as before, the bean and lentil mixture as the highly nitro- 
genous food. Barley meal is in this case used as the non-nitrogenous food, 
instead of Indian corn as in the former series. Bran, again, constitutes the 
third food. In this series however, when either the bean and lentil mixture, 
or the barley meal, constituted the limited food, the daily allowance per head 
was 3 lbs. instead of 2, as in the former series. When the limited food was 
bran, lib. only, instead of 2 as previously, was now given. In other respects, 
excepting that in this series bran was in no case given alone as the ad libitum 
food, the arrangements were the same as in the case of the previous series. 

The weather during part of the period of this second series of experiments 
was exceedingly hot ; from this several of the animals suffered considerably ; 
and some, either from this or other causes, became quite ill and died, or were 
" killed to save their lives." Nevertheless it is seen, that there was, upon the 
whole, a larger amount of respiratory food consumed in relation to weight in 
this series than in the previous one during the cooler season. 

If we compare the column of the amounts of non -nitrogenous constituents 
consumed weekly, per 100 lbs. live weight of animal, for this series, as given 
in the lower section of Table VI., with that in the upper section for Series 1, 
we shall see that there was, upon the whole, a greater uniformity in tbe former 
than in the latter. There are, however, one or two marked exceptions to the 
regularity of amount of non-nitrogenous matter consumed in this Series % 
which, but for coincident circumstances, and the abundance we have of evi- 
dence in the opposite direction, might lead to different conclusions than those 
which we have drawn from the results as a whole ; but at any rate the uni- 
formity is still greater here than in the column of the nitrogenous substances. 
The more obvious exceptions to the rule are pens 1 and 8 ; but apart from 
any incidental causes which might account for these — and in each of these 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 341 

pens one of the animals died — we shall see, when we come to consider the 
question of the amount of increase produced by a given amount of food con- 
sumed, that although the pigs were satisfied to eat a smaller proportion of 
food in relation to their weight in these pens where the proportion of nitrogen 
was comparatively large, yet the proportion of increase to the food consumed 
was less than where the amount of non-nitrogenous substance consumed 
was much greater. Hence, in these cases, if there were a smaller amount 
of food consumed, there was also a smaller proportion of increase produced 
by it, and there would therefore at the same time obviously be a larger 
proportion of it available for the purposes of respiration^ These apparent 
exceptions are not, then, necessarily adverse to the view that the respiratory 
process was the gauge of consumption. 

We have already noticed, that notwithstanding the weather was much hot- 
ter during the progress of the second series of experiments, yet that there 
was here, upon the whole, a larger amount of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed in proportion to weight of animal than in the first This apparent 
excess, if indeed it show any real excess in respiratory and fat-forming equi- 
valent, at any rate does not do so in the degree which the bare figures of the 
Table would indicate. Thus, the Indian corn of the first series, of which 
a less amount seems to have sufficed than of the barley in the second, con- 
tained about 6 per cent, of oleaginous matter, instead of less than 3 per cent., 
as in the barley. And as a deficiency of 3 per cent, in fatty substance would, 
for respiratory and fat-forming purposes, require to be substituted by about 
twice and a half that amount of the other non-nitrogenous constituents, it 
is obvious that the respiratory and fat-forming capacity of the Indian 
meal non-nitrogenous matter was therefore somewhat higher than that of the 
barley ; and hence a less amount of it would be required to produce the same 
result. 

We could add to the results already given those of further experiments 
both with pigs and sheep, as well as some with bullocks, bearing upon the 
point we have been considering; but those we have already adduced are, 
we think, sufficient to justify our conclusion, that, in reference to this first 
question, at least so far as fattening animals are concerned, the amount of 
food consumed is regulated more by its supplies of the non-nitrogenous, than 
of the nitrogenous constituents. 

We now come to the second question ; namely, that of the relationship 
of the increase in live weight produced to the consumption of nitrogenous 
and n on -nitrogenous constituents in the food. 

Turning first to the experiments with sheep, we have in Table V. the amounts 
respectively of the non-nitrogenous, of the nitrogenous, and of the total or- 
ganic substance consumed to produce 100 lbs. increase in live weight. 

In viewing the Tables in reference to this point, we must, as before, read 
the indications of the actual figures as modified by the obviously different 
capacities for the purposes of the animal ceconomy of the substances, the 
amounts of which they in each case represent. Especially, too; when con- 
sidering the results with the sheep, we must bear in mind the fact, which we 
have ascertained by direct experiment, namely, that other things being equal, 
the more succulent the food, the less will be the proportion of real dry sub- 
stance in the increase obtained by its means ; and also, that the greater the 
amount of fat produced the greater considerably will be the per-centage in 
the gross increase of real dry substance. And we must further remember, 
that as in the Tables showing the relationship of consumption to respiration, 
the figures also included the increase in weight obtained, so now, in the 
Tables professing to show the relationship of the increase to the constituents 



342 mpobt— 1852. 

consumed, the figures at the same time include the amounts which have been 
expended in the respiratory process. 

Looking down the entire columns of Table V., it is at once seen that wherever 
clover-chaff was employed, that is to say, wherever there was a large amount 
of innutritions woody fibre, the gross amount of non-nitrogenous substance 
consumed to produce a given amount of increase is always great. The ana- 
lysis of the excrements of this series showed, indeed, that there was, in re- 
lation to the non-nitrogenous matter consumed in the food, a very much 
larger proportion of it voided by the animals than in the case of the series 
where the amount of woody fibre in the food was less. This, therefore, must 
be allowed for in comparing the figures in the column. It will at once be 
seen, when due allowance has thus been made, that the amounts of available 
non-nitrogenous substance consumed to produce a given weight of increase, 
are at any rate much more nearly uniform than are those of the nitrogenous 
constituents. Of the differences which will still remain after the allowance 
for woody fibre has been made, many can be again reduced by a consideration 
of the different equivalents of the remaining available non-nitrogenous con- 
stituents ; as for instance, when in comparable cases these contain, in one 
instance, more of oil, and in another more of the starch^series of compounds. 
A less amount of the former than of the latter is required to produce the 
same resulting increase in the animal ; and again, less of the starchy series 
than of some of the peculiar products of the root crops. 

In the column showing the proportion of the total nitrogenous substance 
consumed to increase produced (Table V.), we have a much wider range of 
difference than in that of the non-nitrogenous, and much wider, indeed, than 
can be explained away by such considerations as have above been alluded to 
in reference to the latter. It is true that these figures cannot, any more than 
in the column of the non-nitrogenous constituents, be taken as showing ab- 
solutely proportional nutritious values of the matters represented; for as we 
have before observed, the figures assume the whole of the nitrogen of the 
food to exist in the form of proteine compounds, which obviously would not 
be the case with the succulent and unripened produce, such as the roots and 
clover-chaff; and hence, this consideration must more affect the correctness 
of the statement of nitrogenous constituents consumed for a given result in 
the sheep experiments than in those with the pigs, where the foods employed 
were ripened seeds. But, as we have observed, the differences in the figures 
in the Table would seem to be too great to be satisfactorily accounted for by 
the correction of any errors arising from this cause* 

Looking at this Table V. rather more in detail, we see, taking the first two 
pens in Series 1, which are comparable so far as the description of the ad libitum 
food is concerned, that whilst the non-nitrogenous substance consumed to 
produce 100 lbs. increase in weight is very nearly equal in the two cases, yet 
that of the nitrogenous constituents varies in the two in the proportion of 
from three to two ; but a difference in the nature of the nitrogenous substance 
cannot be supposed to have made a difference so great in the amount of con- 
stituents consumed to produce a given result. On the other hand, the higher 
capacity of the oleaginous matter of the oil-cake than of the starch, &c of 
the oats, is sufficient further to lessen the but small difference in the amounts 
of the non-nitrogenous substance in the two cases. In pens 2, S and 4 of 
the first series of sheep, we have all but identical amounts of gross nitrogenous 
substance consumed for a given amount of increase ; but this would be of the 
most highly elaborated kind in pen 2 with the oats, and the least so in pen 4, 
with turnips only ; and in the latter, besides having less of available nitrogenous 
substance, the respiratory and fat-forming capacity of the non-nitrogenous 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 343 

substance in the exclusive turnip diet would be less than in the other instanoes ; 
and hence the larger amount consumed for a given result. 

Turning to the results of the second series, with clover-chaff instead of 
turnips as the ad libitum food, we have, with the larger amount of woody 
fibre, which would become at once effete, much more gross non-nitrogenous 
matter consumed to produce 100 lbs. of increase than in Series 1. This is 
less, however, in pens 1 and 2, with the large proportion of oleaginous matter, 
than in pens 3 and 4s There is, moreover, in this second series, with this 
greater amount of non-nitrogenous matter consumed for a given effect than 
in Series 1, a much larger amount also of the nitrogenous constituents ; the 
gross amount of the latter, indeed, in this second series, is twice, and even 
sometimes thrice as great as in Series 1. 

In the next series, namely, Series 3, with barley and malt in different states 
and proportions as limited food, and mangold-wurtzel as the complementary 
food, we have, upon the whole, about the same amounts of non-nitrogenous 
substance required to produce the same result as in Series 1, with, besides, a 
small quantity of grain or other limited food and Swedish turnips as the com- 
plementary food, which latter are in great degree comparable with the mangold- 
wurtzel; and of course, as in Series 1, the average amount is very different 
from that in the second series with the large proportion of clover-chaff. 
Looking to the three total columns, namely, of nitrogenous, of non-nitrogen- 
ous, and of total organic constituents consumed, although it is true the dif- 
ferences are not great, and perhaps such as might be covered by differences 
in the composition of the increase, yet it may be noticed, that larger amounts, 
both of non-nitrogenous and of total organic substance, were consumed to 
produce the same result the larger the proportion in the latter of the nitro- 
genous constituents. 

In Series 4, we have a more marked instance of the result last noticed. 
But, apart from the question as to whether the increase of the fattening 
animal has a closer relationship with the amount of the true proteine com" 
pounds, or, within certain limits of the available non-nitrogenous constitu- 
ents of its food, we have here a striking illustration of the inapplicability on 
other grounds of the percentage of nitrogen as the measure of feeding value, 
or indeed of any analytical method, unless a detailed determination of the 
proximate compounds, when succulent products, such as in this instance, the 
roots, are the subjects of the experiment Thus, in the fourth pen of this series, 
where there was by far the largest amount of nitrogen consumed, the animals 
lost weight ; and in the other three pens, the productiveness of the food is in 
the inverse order of the amounts of nitrogen taken in the food. This arose of 
course from the different states of maturity, and the consequent state of elabo- 
ration of the constituents of the various turnips, the produce of the different 
manures. Indeed, we believe that an unusually high per-centage of nitrogen 
in succulent produce is frequently a pretty sure indication of immaturity and 
innutritious qualities. Comparing the results of this series with those of the 
others, we have, considering how small would be the proportion of inert 
woody fibre in the unripe turnips, about twice as much dry substance (in 
pens 1 and 3 at least) consumed to produce a given amount of increase — a 
difference which could, at any rate in only a small degree, be accounted for 
by any difference in the capacities of the digestible and available portions of 
the foods in the cases thus compared. 

Considering only the ostensible similarity of the foods in the several pens 
constituting the 5th and last series of experiments with sheep, there is, per. 
haps, no more of coincidence in the amounts that have been required to pro- 
duce a given increase in the different pens, than, judging from previous 
results, we might have anticipated. From what we know, however, of the 



344 report — 1852. 

varying character of the several breeds as fatteners, greater differences might 
have been expected ; for, in some cases a less or larger proportion of the 
gross increase would be solid substance than in others ; whilst this solid sub- 
stance itself would be composed of more or less of fat or lean — circumstances 
which obviously imply the appropriation in the increase, of varying amounts 
and proportions of the constituents of the food consumed. Then, again, 
though nominally the same, there were unavoidably slight differences in the 
qualities of the food used in the different cases, and the experiments them- 
selves were not all conducted in the same season ; that with the Hampshire 
and Sussex Downs being made in the winter of 1850-51, that with the Cots* 
wolds in 1851-52, and with the Leicesters and half-breeds in 1852-53. 
There is also, upon the whole, a very general coincidence in the amounts of 
non-nitrogenous and total organic substance, consumed to produce a given 
amount of increase in this series with the different breeds, and the Series 
1 and S. At least the general coincidence throughout these several series is 
quite as close as the variations in the foods could lead us to look for. But 
in the column of nitrogenous substance the agreement between this series 
and the others is by no means so obvious ; nor, so far as we know, can the 
want of agreement in the cases thus compared together be accounted for by 
differences in the composition and applicability of the nitrogenous consti- 
tuents themselves. 

Reviewing then the whole of the experiments with sheep, — if we consider 
that it is the results obtained under the subtle agency of animal life that we 
are seeking to measure and express in figures, and if we also bear in mind 
the various sources of modification to which our actual figures must be sub* 
mitted in order to attain their true indications, we think that it cannot be 
doubted, that beyond a limit below which few, if any, of our current fattening 
food-stuffs are found to go, it is their available non -nitrogenous constituents, 
rather than their richness in the nitrogenous ones, that measure both the 
amount consumed to a given weight of animal, within a given time, and the 
increase in weight obtained. 

But we have still to examine the results of the experiments with pigs as to 
the latter point, namely, that of the relationship of the increase produced to 
constituents consumed ; and owing partly to the peculiarities of the animals, 
and partly to the nature of the foods employed, the actual figures themselves 
even (see Table VII.) bear out the view that has been maintained more ob- 
viously at first sight, than those relating to the sheep. Thus, casting the eye 
down the column of total non-nitrogenous substance consumed, and more 
particularly that of the total organic matter, we see with but few exceptions, a 
strikingly close coincidence in the amounts required to produce 100 pounds 
of gross increase throughout the two series of twenty-four pens, and as many 
different dietaries. Some of the exceptions, such as those where a large 
quantity of bran was used, are at once explained by a consideration of the 
more obvious qualities of that substance ; and many of the minor differences 
by that of the different capacities of those portions of the foods which would 
be digestible and available for the purposes of the animal (Economy ; and in 
this way, as we have already noticed when speaking on the first question, we 
must account for the generally larger amount consumed with the barley meal 
in Series % than in the comparable cases with the Indian corn in Series 1. 

Looking to pens 1 and 2 of Series 1, where the food consisted chiefly of 
the highly nitrogenous Leguminous seeds, we have comparatively very small 
amounts of non-nitrogenous substance required to produce a given amount 
of increase; a result which at first sight appears to lead to conclusions 
opposite to those from the experiments as a whole. If we look down the 
column of total organic substance, however, we observe that the amounts 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 345 

of it in the second section of Series i, where the Indian corn predomi- 
nated, and where the nitrogenous constituents consumed were only about 
half as great as in the pens 1 and 2, are generally as small, or even smaller, 
than in these two pens. It is not, then, that there was in reality a very great 
productiveness in gross increase from a given amount of food in these two 
pens, but rather only that with the large supply of available nitrogenous con* 
stituents in the Leguminous seeds, a certain amount of the non-nitrogenous 
constituents have been substituted by it It was observed, too, that although 
all the pigs were very fat, excepting the few with an excessive allowance of 
bran, yet those apparently grew more, where, with no deficiency of other 
matters, the nitrogenous constituents were very liberally supplied. Hence 
the gross increase obtained might be somewhat more nitrogenous with the 
large supply of nitrogenous food ; but it would in that case, according to 
some experiments of our own, contain a larger proportion of water, and less 
of solid matter, than where mote fat had been produced. 

But, with the very great regularity of non-nitrogenous equivalent con- 
sumed throughout this large series of pig experiments to produce a given 
amount of increase, we have, in the column of total nitrogenous substance, 
on the other hand, a difference in the amounts required, in the proportion of 
from one to two, or three, or even more ; though, since all the foods used in 
these experiments were ripened vegetable products, a very trifling error, if 
any, can arise from representing, in all cases, the whole of the nitrogen as 
existing as proteine compounds. And, there is throughout, a generally 
larger amount of total organic substance required to yield a given amount of 
gross increase, the larger the proportion in that substance of the nitrogenous 
constituents. 

It is seen, as has been already noticed, that where the amount of nitrogen 
consumed in these pig experiments to produce a given amount of gross in- 
crease is comparatively large, it is where a large proportion of the Legumi- 
nous seeds have been employed. Some writers who have taken the percent- 
age of nitrogenous compounds as the measure of feeding value, have recog- 
nised, and endeavoured to explain in various ways, the fact that the records 
of practical feeding experiments do not award to the Leguminous seeds a 
feeding value in proportion to their richness in nitrogen ; and they have con- 
cluded, that it is the accepted indications of the practical experiments, and 
not the theoretical conclusions, that are at fault. Thus, it has been objected 
against the teachings of such experiments, that the variations in the compo- 
sition of the same description of food used in different cases has not been 
determined ; that the test has been the gross increase or loss in weight ; that 
the increase may be only fat formed from starch, &c. ; that the loss in weight, 
if any, may be the result of activity, and not of defective diet ; that the food 
in the different cases has been employed in different states, that is, coarse or 
fine, raw or prepared ; that the animals have been variously circumstanced as 
to temperature, exposure and activity; that individual animals have very 
various tendencies to increase, and so on. Now we believe that not one of all 
these objections can vitiate the comparisons which we have made, unless,' in- 
deed, in some degree, the one which refers to the difficulty of determining 
whether the gross increase obtained be composed chiefly of fat formed from 
the starch and oily series of compounds ; or whether of flesh from the nitro- 
genous ones. We believe, indeed, from the many direct experiments which we 
have made, that in reality, the composition of our domestic animals generally, 
but especially that of the gross increase of the so-called " fattening" animals, 
consists of a much larger proportion of fat than is usually supposed. We 
have instituted very extensive and laborious investigations in regard to this 
point, the details, or even the general results of which must be reserved for 



346 report— 1852. 

some future occasion; before closing this paper, however, we propose to 
call attention to a mere summary statement of one of these experiments. 
But, apart from the considerations involved in the question of the varying 
composition of increase, or from the fact that our own feeding experiments 
(which, so far as we are aware, are the largest comparable series bearing upon 
the point) afford testimony in the same direction, we think there is evidence 
of another kind of the probable correctness of the decisions of practical ex- 
periments which have thus been objected to. Thus the comparative prices 
of the Leguminous seeds and the Cereal grains, may be taken as a pretty safe 
condemnation of the measurement of feeding value according to their per- 
centage of nitrogenous constituents. In matters of this kind, indeed, espe- 
cially when staple and generally used articles of food are concerned; the 
market la one of our shrewdest judges, as we shall presently endeavour a 
little further to illustrate. 

Whilst speaking of the comparative feeding values of the Leguminous seeds 
and the Cereal grains, we may casually allude to. some other considerations 
of much interest bearing upon this question, which, however, we cannot in 
any degree adequately discuss in this place. 

As a general rule, it may be said, that weight for weight, the Leguminous 
seeds contain about twice as much of the nitrogenous constituents as the 
Cereal grains. We have elsewhere shown, that in a Leguminous crop, under 
equal circumstances of soil and season, an acre of land will frequently yield 
twice or thrice as much of nitrogenous constituents as in a Cereal grain ; and 
again, that in the latter an increase of produce is not obtained except at the 
cost of more nitrogen in the manure than is contained in that increase. How 
is it, we would ask, if this be the case, and if really these foods are' valuable 
in proportion to their richness in nitrogenous constituents, that according to 
the usual state of the market, we can obtain, for a given sum, about twice as 
much nitrogenous substance in the Leguminous seeds as in the Cereal grain ; 
or how is it, on the other hand, that the Leguminous crop does not, much 
more than is in fact the case, supersede the Cereal grain in the field, the feeding 
shed, or-even on the table ? We have, it is true, much yet to learn of those 
minor differences of composition to which is due the greater or less adapta- 
tion to the instinctive wants of the system of the various constituents of which 
our staple articles of food are made up, but we think that in no considerations 
of this kind could we seek an adequate solution of our question. On the 
other hand, we believe that in the Leguminous seeds the due proportion of 
the non- nitrogenous to the nitrogenous constituents is not observed. It is 
obvious, if this be the case, that in the use of the Leguminous seeds, instead 
of the Cereal grains, more than was requisite of nitrogen would be taken into 
the system before the adequate supply were attained of the non -nitrogenous or 
respiratory materials ; nor, as the markets go, would the relative prices of these 
seeds and grains be found to interfere with a somewhat lavish use and expen- 
diture of nitrogen in the former. 

In the facts which are here briefly stated, we have surely very curious and 
interesting matter for reflection ; and we have brought to our view a striking 
instance of the mutual adaptations which are everywhere traceable in the 
practical operation of natural laws. Thus, then, we have said, that uuder 
given circumstauces, the Leguminous crop will give a much larger acreage 
yield of nitrogen than the Cereal grain ; and that an increase of produce of 
the latter is not obtained except at the cost of more nitrogen in the manure 
than is obtained in this increased produce ; whilst in point of fact, in the or- 
dinary practice of rotation in this country, -the growth of the Leguminous corn 
or fodder crop, with its large per-centage and actual amount of nitrogen, is 
"tself frequently either the direct or indirect source of the nitrogenous ma- 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 347 

nure by which the increased Cereal is obtained ; and again, this Cereal, ob- 
tained at the cost of, but with its lessened produce of nitrogen, is found in 
practice to be of equal, or of a more highly feeding value than the more 
highly nitrogenized Leguminous product which perhaps has been expended 
to produce it. It would thus appear, therefore, that the demands of the re- 
spiratory function which again, more than any other, regulate the consump- 
tion of food, would, in point of fact, not be satisfied in the use of the Legu- 
minous diet unless by a consumption or expenditure of an amount of nitrogen 
beyond that which the due balance of the constituents of food would seem 
to require ; whilst on the other hand, in the use of the Cereal grain, its better 
proportion of respiratory to nitrogenous constituents has only been attained 
by the sacrifice of nitrogen expended in its growth. It would seem, there- 
fore, that whether we would seek our supplies of respiratory food in the 
direct use of the highly nitrogenized Leguminous seeds, or in the better ba- 
lanced diet of the Cereal grains, in either case the end is attained only at the 
cost or expenditure of nitrogen ; in the one case, by the consumption of a 
larger amount of it in the food than the due balance of constituents would 
seem to require, whilst in the other this due balance has not been attained 
without a loss of nitrogen during growth. The claims of health and na- 
tural instinct generally leave little doubt which alternative should be adopted, 
in the case of human food at least ; and it becomes us, therefore, to investi- 
gate and understand the practical bearings of these curious and interesting 
facts ; for upon the principles they involve depend much for their success 
those fundamental practices of the farm, — the feeding of our stock, for their 
double products of meat and manure, and the adaptation of our rotations. 

It would appear, then, from our experiments, that taking our current food- 
stuffs as we find them, it is their supply of the non- nitrogenous, rather than of 
their nitrogenous constituents, which guides both the amount of food consumed, 
and of increase produced, by a fattening animal. When we consider the na- 
ture of the respiratory process, and the large share which its demands must 
necessarily have upon the consumption of food, it can scarcely appear sur- 
prising that consumption, at least, should be chiefly regulated by the supply 
in the food of compounds rich in carbon and hydrogen, rather than nitrogen. 
That the amount of increase produced should also bear a closer relationship 
to the supply of these constituents than to that of the latter, does not perhaps 
at first sight seem so obvious, especially if we supposed, as some writers on 
this subject have done, that the amount of nitrogen in the current food of 
man and other animals was frequently insufficient to supply the amount re- 
quired* for the production or restoration of the nitrogenous products of the 
animal organism. We believe, however, that a closer examination of the 
facts would show that this exceedingly rarely happens ; and we think, more- 
over, as we have already intimated, that in fact, that portion of nitrogen which 
is stored up in the increase of a growing, and especially of a "fattening " animal, 
is much less than is usually supposed. We cannot in any degree adequately 
discuss this question in this place; but when maintaining a greater relative 
importance of the non-nitrogenous constituents of food than is usually ac- 
corded to them, it seems somewhat pertinent briefly to adduce some evidence 
in confirmation of our conclusions on this point. 

We propose, therefore, to give a very brief summary of one of our expe- 
riments, in which pigs were the subjects, which was undertaken chiefly for 
the purpose of ascertaining the composition of the increase of the fattening 
animal ; but to obtain also, some clear evidence in reference to the much- 
debated question, whether or not more fatty matter is stored up in the 
animal, than is contained, as such, in its food. 



348 



REPORT— 1852. 



Taking first the question of the composition of the increase, we have in the 
following table a summary statement of the composition of the foods em- 
ployed in the experiment referred to ; and also of the pigs themselves, both 
in the store, and in the fat condition ; as well as that of the increase in weight 
during the fattening process, as deduced by calculation. 

Table VIIL 
Summary of the Per-centage Composition of the Foods employed-— of the 
Store Pig, and of the Fat Pig — and also of the Increase in Live Weight of 
the latter. 



Description. 


Dry Matter. 


Mineral Matter (Ash). 


Nitrogen. 


FattyMatter(by aether , . 


Inclusive 
of Ash. 


Organic 
only. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Substance. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Substance. 


In Fresh 
Substance. 


In Dry 
Substance* 


Egyptian Beans . 

Lentils 

Foreign Barley... 
Bran 


87-8 
86*96 
81*86 
85-08 


84-53 
82-03 
79-72 
78-67 


3-274 
4-926 
2140 
6-408 


6-73 
5-66 
2-61 
753 


4-214 

4-487 
1-834 
2-620 


4-80 
516 
2-24 

3-08 


2-26 
2-23 
2-34 

4-98 


2-58 
2-56 
2-86 
585 






Store or Lean Pig 
Fat Pig 


39-70 
5474 


37-03 
53-09 


2-67 
1-65 


6-73 
3-01 


2-20 
1-75 


5-54 
319 


23-32 
42-20 


58-74 
77-09 






Increase inl 
Live Weight J 


7183 


71-39 


0-436 


0-61 


1-33 


185 


63-44 


88-32 



We may briefly explain, that, for the purposes of this experiment, two pigs 
were selected resembling each other as nearly as possible both in weight and 
in every other respect One of these was killed at once, and its composition 
determined by methods which we shall fully describe on some future occasion. 
The other pig, after it had been put up to fatten for a period of eight weeks 
upon weighed quantities of the foods, the composition of which is given in 
the upper lines of the table, and its increase in weight determined, was also 
killed, and submitted to the same methods of preparation and analysis as the 
former one. The composition of the two pigs — the one in the store and the 
other in the fat condition — thus being ascertained, that of the increase in 
weight was, as will be readily understood, simply a matter of calculation. 

We learn from this table (VIIL), that rather less than 40 per cent, of 
the Store or Lean Pig was dry substance ; of which about 2$rds were mineral 
matter. Of the remaining 37 per cent, of dry substance, 2*2 were nitrogen, 
equal to about 14 only of proteine compounds. There is, however, of abso- 
lute or dry fat in this Store or Lean Pig, about 23£ per cent ; or nearly twice 
as much as of dry nitrogenous compounds. 

In the Fat Pig, on the other hand, there is about 55, instead of about 40 
per cent of dry substance ; of which only lfrds, instead of 2f rds, are mineral 
matter. Of the remaining 53 per cent of dry substance, only 1*75, instead 
of 2*2, is nitrogen; and this is equal, upon the entire animal, to only 11, 
instead of H per cent of proteine compounds. We have, however, offal, 
instead of 23£ per cent, about 42£ per cent in this Fat Pig, or nearly double 
as much as in the Lean one ; and nearly four times as much as of dry 
nitrogenous compounds. 

With then only about 14 per cent of nitrogenous substance in the Lean 
Pig, and nearly twice as much fat, we have, in the fattening process, con. 
ducted only for a few weeks, the per-centage of mineral matter, reduced by 
about one-third, and that of the nitrogenous substances by about one-fourth ; 
that of the fat, on the other hand, which in the Store Pig even, was in so 



POODS, IN ABLATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 349 

much the larger proportion, is nearly doubled in the Fat one. Thus, the 
increase in weight during the fattening process was found to contain as much 
as 72 per cent, of dry substance, of which only 0*4S6 is mineral matter, and 
only 1*33 nitrogen, equal to about 8£ of proteine or gelatinous compounds. 
There is, however, about 6S\ per cent, of fat, or nearly eight times as much 
as of dry nitrogenous compounds. Indeed, it is seen in the table, that 88 
per cent., or about eight-ninths of the entire dry increase of this Fat Pig, was 
pure fat. 

M. Boussingault, in his ' Rural Economy,' estimates that the Ox, the 
Sheep, and the Pig, contain from 3£ to 4 per cent, of nitrogen ; and more 
recently in his paper on the Formation of Fat in the Animal Body (Ann. de 
Chenue, vol. xiv. p. 444), he supposes 4 as the probable per-centage in the 
Pig. He also states (Rural Economy), that M. Pay en estimates the increase 
of the fattening pig to contain about 16 per cent, of nitrogenous compounds, 
equal to about 2£ per cent of nitrogen. It will be observed, however, that 
only about half of these amounts of nitrogen were found in the direct expe- 
riments of our own which we have quoted ; and it should at the same time 
be remarked, that the Fat Pig in our experiment was by no means so fat as 
is usual, at least in this country. 

It is doubtless true, that other animals, as fed for the butcher, will generally 
contain more flesh and less fat than the pig. In a very fat sheep, however, 
fed for Christmas, and which was indeed too fat, we found a larger per- 
centage of fat, and as little nitrogenous substance, as in the moderately fat 
pig, whose composition has been given above. Among our experiments on 
this subject, it was only in the case of a lean ox, that we found the nitrogen 
to exceed 2£ per cent, of the entire animal ; whilst in all the cases of store 
or lean animals, the per-centage of dry fat was much greater than that of the 
dry nitrogenous compounds. 

The fact that fat is in so much a larger proportion than lean in the animals 
fed for the butcher, would seem not only to be consistent with the results of 
our experiments as to the great influence of the non -nitrogenous constituents 
of the food of these animals in the production of increase during the fattening 
process — but it indicates also the predominance of this non-nitrogenous cha- 
racter in that description of human food (butcher's meat), which is generally 
spoken of as the most nitrogenous, and therefore the most nutritive. 

That the fatty matter of the food is not the only source of the fat stored 
up in the body of the fattening animal, is illustrated by a further consi- 
deration of the circumstances and results of this same experiment with pigs. 
Thus, in the following table are shown the amounts of Gross Dry Sub- 
stance — of Mineral Matter — of Dry Organic Matter — of Total JVon-nitro- 
genous constituents — of Nitrogenous constituents — and of fatty matter, stored 
up in the Fat Pig, for 100 lbs. of each of them consumed as food. 

Table IX. 

Showing the proportion of certain constituents stored up in the Fattening Pig 

for 100 of each of them consumed as food. 



Constituents. 

• 


Consumed 

as 
Food. 


Stored up 
in the 
Animal. 


Expired, 
Perspired, 
or Voided. 


Gross dry substance 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


15*04 

219 

15-59 

1774 

8-35 

40700 


84-96 
9781 
84-41 
82-26 
91-65 


Mineral matter 


Total dry organic matter 

Non-nitrogenous constituents 
Nitrogenous constituents ... 
Fatty matter 





350 



BKPOET— 1 852. 



It may be observed, that in the case of the experiment with this single pig, 
the amounts of nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous constituents required to 
produce a given amount of increase — though nearly the same as the averages 
of the 24 pens, as given at the foot of Table VII. — were greater, than in many 
of the cases with the better foods. Hence, the quantities of the various con- 
stituents, represented in Table IX. as stored up in this pig for 100 of each of 
them consumed, are less than they would be in many of the other experi- 
ments. We believe, however, that the figures in the Table (IX.) may be trusted 
in their general indications ; and attention may therefore be called in passing 
to the fact, that for 100 of each consumed, there is of the total dry substance 
little more than 15 stored up in the animal; of the mineral matter, little 
more than 2 per cent. ; and of the nitrogenous constituents, about 8£rd per 
cent. 

Again, a glance at the Table shows how very much larger is that propor- 
tion of every constituent of the food — excepting fatty matter — which was 
expired, perspired or voided, i. e. which was expended in merely keeping in 
working order the living mechanism, than that which is stored up in the 
animal as increase. Of fat, however, it appears that there was nearly four 
times as much stored up in the animal, as there was of fatty matter ready 
formed in the food. There was then, in this experiment, a considerable 
formation of fat in the animal body. 

As is seen in the Table (IX.), for every 100 lbs. of gross dry substance 
consumed as food, only about 15 lbs. were stored up in the animal; and about 
85 lbs. expired, perspired or voided. It may be convenient here to show in a 
tabular form, the composition of this 1504 of total dry increase obtained by 
the consumption of 100 of total dry matter as food. 

Table X. 



Mineral matter ...••«.... 


0*09 

1-67 
13 28 


Nitrogenous substance 


Non-nitrogenous substance (fat) 


Total increase 


15*04 

84 96 


Expired, perspired or voided ... 


Total dry matter consumed 


100*00 



It must not be concluded, however, that only 15 per cent of the dry sub* 
stance of the food was employed in the production of the 15 parts stored up 
in the fat pig. Thus, in Table X. we see, that, of the 1504 of gross dry 
increase produced from 100 of gross dry food consumed, 1S*S were /of; and 
from Table IX. we learn, that only one-fourth of this fat could hare been 
derived from fatty matter already formed in the food. As then only one- 
fourth, or about 3*3 parts of the 13*3 of pure fat, was already formed in the 
food, about 10 parts out of the 15 of dry animal substance produced, would 
be fat formed in the body from some other constituents. We may perhaps 
safely reckon, that at least 2£ parts of starch, or the other non-nitrogenous 
compounds of food, would be required for the formation of one part of fat. 
It is true, that less than 2£ of starch, &c. would contain all the constituents 
of one part of fat ; but when we consider, that in the conversion of the 
starch series of compounds into fat a large quantity of oxygen is eliminated, 
which we may assume would not leave the body except in combination with 
matters that would otherwise serve the respiratory process, it would seem 
probable, that more than 2| parts of other constituents of food would be ex- 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 351 

pended in the direct production in the animal body of one part of fat At 
any rate, we are safe in assuming this amount for our present purpose, in the 
absence of more exact knowledge than is at command on the nature of the 
intermediate changes to which the constituents of food are subject in their 
passage through the body. If, then, we suppose, that the starch series — rather 
than the proteine compounds — of the food, served for the formation of the 
fat in the animal body, it follows, that about 25 parts of these were expended 
in the formation of the 10 parts of produced fat If now we add to this 
amount of the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food not fat the 3£rd parts 
which were fatty matter already formed, and also the lfrds of the increase 
which was not fat, it would appear, that at least 30 parts of the 100 of dry 
substance consumed, must have been directly employed in the production of 
the 15 only of dry animal increase. It is obvious, too, from the nature of the 
chemical change by which fat would be formed from the starch series of 
compounds, that the extra 15 of the 30 parts of the dry substance of the 
food, which were expended in the direct production of the 15 of dry increase, 
would not serve any useful purpose in the respiratory process of the fattening 
animal. And, unless indeed, we were to assume — that in the more direct use 
of the starch series of compounds as respiratory matter, their oxygen was 
eliminated only in combination with respiratory material — and that when em- 
ployed in the production of fat it was not so— it would appear, that not only 
must this produced fat have been obtained at the cost of respiratory material 
expended by the fattening animal which produced it—but that it is, at any 
rate, not in the amount of respiratory material thus obtained, that there can 
be any gain in this conversion by the fattening animal of a given amount of 
compounds of lower respiratory and fat-forming capacity, into fat to serve 
as human food, of which it is the most concentrated of the respiratory con* 
stituents. 

If, then, as we have seen, so large a proportion as nearly £rd of the dry 
substance of the food of the fattening pig may be employed in the direct 
production of increase— ami we have reason to suppose that frequently more 
than this is so employed — we think that the deviations from uniformity in the 
amounts of non-nitrogenous constituents consumed by a given weight of 
animal, within a given time, as shown in our tables, will be admitted to be 
even less than might have been expected in so extensive and varied a series 
of experiments — and to be, by no means such, as to raise any question as to 
whether or not, it was the supplies of the respiratory and fat-forming, rather 
than the flesh-forming constituents of the foods, which determined the 
amounts consumed. 

But to recur to the question of the formation of fat in the animal body. 
We believe that such a formation, even to a considerable, and practically 
important extent, is demonstrated by the results of the experiments with pigs 
last given ; and there is every reason to believe, that it is the starch and other 
non -nitrogenous constituents of the food that contribute mainly, if not en- 
tirely, to this formation. 

At one time MM. Dumas and Boussingault maintained that the formation 
of fat in the animal body was improbable ; and others have done so more re- 
cently. Since that time, however, both M. Boussingault and M. Persoz have 
instituted direct experiments in reference to this question. In the course of 
these experiments they found a decided formation of fat ; and most probably 
from the starch series of compounds. 

M. Boussingault made numerous experiments of a somewhat artificial kind 
with ducks ; from which it appeared, that fat might be formed in the body 
from other non-nitrogenous constituents of food, and probably from nitroge- 



352 report — 1852. 

nous compounds also. He also experimented with pigs, in a manner somewhat 
similar to that adopted by ourselves ; and it is a curious circumstance, that 
his store y or lean pig, contained almost identically the same per-centage of 
fat as our own. The foods he employed were, however, far inferior in fatten- 
ing quality. Hence, though his experiments extended over a much longer 
period of time, the per-centage of fat in his fat pig was scarcely 5 per cent, 
higher than in his lean one ; whilst almost the whole of this increased fat had 
been supplied by fatty matter in the food. It was indeed mainly upon a 
calculation of the fat which had been supplied in the food of the store pig, ' 
that he found the evidence of the formation of fat in his experiments with 
pigs. M. Boussingault is disposed to believe, that the nitrogenous con- 
stituents of food probably have some considerable influence in the formation 
of fat in the animal body. We have ourselves called attention to the fact, 
that a large supply of the nitrogenous constituents of the food would seem 
to replace a relative deficiency of other constituents. The amount of increase 
is found, however, to bear a rapidly decreasing ratio to the amount of nitrogen 
in the food when this exceeds a somewhat narrow limit; whilst the composition 
of such increase would appear to contain a less proportion of fat Whether 
therefore any effect of an excess of nitrogenous compounds in the produc- 
tion of increase be due merely to the amounts tbey contain of certain non- 
nitrogenous elements, or to the influence of the nitrogenous compounds them- 
selves as such, in increasing the activity of some of the vital processes, and thus 
aiding the production of fat, or whether any increase due to the nitrogenous 
constituents in the food is more generally not fat at all, raay'be considered 
to be an open question. 

In the experiments made by M. Persoz, geese were the animals he operated 
upon, and maize the food employed. He. found a decided formation of fat; 
and apparently from the starch series of compounds. 

Wc repeat, then, that we believe that the formation of fat in the animal 
body, even to a considerable and practically important extent, and most 
probably from the starch series of compounds, may now be considered to be 
clearly proved. It would appear, therefore, that the theoretical opinions of 
Baron Liebig on this point are fully borne out. 

We have thus far only alluded to the feeding of fattening animals ; and we 
think that the results which have been brought forward clearly indicate, that 
with them at least, as our current food-stuffs go, both the amount consumed, 
and the increase produced, are regulated more by the supplies of the more 
peculiarly respiratory and fat- forming constituents, than of the flesh-forming 
or nitrogenous ones. We have, however, calculated many human dietaries ; 
and this branch of the subject we hope to enter upon more fully on some future 
occasion. We may, however, remark in passing, that from the results of this 
inquiry, as well as from a consideration of the management of the animal 
body undergoing somewhat excessive labour, as for instance, the hunting 
horse, the racer, the cab-horse, and the fox-hound, and also pugilists and 
runners, we are led to believe, that in the cases, at least of ordinary exercise 
of force, the exigences of the respiratory system keep pace more nearly with 
the demand for nitrogenous constituents of food than is usually supposed ; 
and in fact, that the exigeuces of the animal body are much more correctly 
stated in the following sentences by Professor Liebig, than in those wherein 
he has attached so much more of importance to the amounts of the nitro- 
genous constituents, as the measure of the comparative value of foods. 
At page 314? of the 3rd edition of his Chemical Letters, he says : — 
" * * * It is evident that the amount of nourishment required by an animal 



FOODS, IN RELATION TO RESPIRATION AND FEEDING. 353 

for its support must be in a direct ratio with the quantity of oxygen taken 
into its system." 

And again at page 322 : — 

" But the waste of matter, or the force exerted, always stands in a certain 
relation to the consumption of oxygen in respiration ; and the quantity of 
oxygen taken up in a given time determines in all seasons, and in all climates, 
the amount of food necessary to restore the equilibrium." 

A somewhat concentrated supply of nitrogen does, however, in some cases, 
seem to be required when the system is overtaxed ; as for instance, when 
day by day, more labour is demanded of the animal body than it is compe- 
tent without deterioration to keep up ; and perhaps also, in the human body, 
when under excitement or excessive mental exercise. It must be remembered, 
however, that it is in butcher's meat, to which is attributed such high flesh- 
forming capacity, that we have also, in the fat which it contains, a large pro- 
portion of respiratory material of the most concentrated kind. It is found 
too, that of the dry substance of the egg> 40 per cent, is pure fat 

A consideration of the habits of those of the labouring classes who are 
under- rather than over-fed, will show, that they first have recourse to fat 
meat, such as pork, rather than to those which are leaner and more nitroge- 
nous; thus perhaps indicating, that the first instinctive call is for an increase 
of the respiratory constituents of food. It cannot be doubted, however, that 
the higher classes do consume a larger proportion of the leaner meats; 
though it is probable, as we have said, that even with these as well as pork, 
more fat, possessing a higher respiratory capacity than any other constituent 
of food, is taken into the system than is generally imagined. Fat and butter, 
indeed, may be said to have about twice and a half the respiratory capacity 
of starch, sugar, &c. It should be remembered, too, that the classes which 
consume most of the leaner meats, are also those which consume the most 
butter, sugar, and in many cases, alcoholic drinks also. 

It is further worthy of remark, that wherever labour is expended in the 
manufacture of staple articles of food, it has generally for its object the con- 
centration of the wow-nitrogenous, or more peculiarly respiratory constituents. 
Sugar, butter, and alcoholic drinks are notable instances of this. Cheese, 
which at first sight might appear an exception, is in reality not so ; for those 
cheeses which bring the highest price are always those which contain the 
most butter ; whilst butter itself is always dearer than cheese. 

In conclusion, it must by no means be understood that we would in any 
way depreciate the value of even a somewhat liberal amount of nitrogen in 
food. We believe, however, that on the current views too high a relative 
importance is attached to it ; and that it would conduce to further progress 
in this most important field of inquiry if the prevailing opinions on the sub- 
ject were somewhat modified. 



1852. 2 a 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



or 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



<^" tit- » i : k ' \ 

[ukivsrsity: 

NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 

OF 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



Mathematics and physics. 

Mathematics. 

Thb Rev. Dr. Bryce gave an Account of a Treatise on Arithmetic in the Chinese 
Language, by the Rev. Dr. Moncrieff, late of St. Paul's College, Hong Kong. 

The Chinese have for ages had a character (called Ling) corresponding in part to 
oar zero, but used by them only to fill a vacant place, not to give local value. Thus 
they came one step nearer the Arabic notation than the Greeks did. One step how- 
ever remained* which Dr. Moncrieff has taken. The Jesuit missionaries to China 
had printed Vlacq's Logarithmic Tables in a simplified character, and it has been 
said that a copy of their work was presented to the Royal Society about the year 
1750. Dr. Moncrieff's letter requesting him to make the present communication, 
had only reached Dr. Bryce on the first day after the present meeting ; and having 
been pretty constant in his attendance on the Sections, he had not had time to 
investigate the matter particularly : however, he had examined all the records of the 
Royal Society within his reach, but could find no notice of the work of those reverend 
gentlemen. He was therefore unable to say whether they had attempted to introduce 
the admirable device of local value, which is the distinctive characteristic of the Arabic 
notation. If they had. Dr. Moncrieff evidently knew nothing of their having done 
so ; which is not wonderful, inasmuch as Dr. Peacock, io his learned and elaborate 
history of the science (Encyclopaedia Metropolitana), makes no mention of their 
work, from which we may infer that it was unknown even to him. At all events, 
pr. Moncrieff found the actual arithmetic of China in the same clumsy condition 
in which it has been for ages, their notation quite unfit for making calculations on 
paper as we do, in consequence of which they were obliged to perform all arithme- 
tical operations on the Abacus*. 

Finding the circle used for another purpose in the written language of China, Dr. 
Moncrieff used a triangle for his ling or zero, and employed it to convert the cha- 
racters representing simple units, into symbols for tens, hundreds, &c, exactly as in 
the Arabic notation. He also introduced our marks of addition, subtraction, mul- 
tiplication, division, involution, evolution, &c, modifying some of them to distinguish 
them from characters already in use for other purposes. 

The work comprises the common rules, — fractions, common and decimal, — invo- 
lution and evolution ; in short, the general scientific principles of arithmetic. He 

* Two different figures of the Chinese Abacus are given in the Phil. Trans, for 1686, and 
in Da Halde's History of China. 
1852. 1 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



or 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



REPORT — 1852. 



any author has treated of the shape of images as affected only by the size of the 
lenses or mirrors by which they are formed. This subject is of fundamental im- 
portance in the new art of Photography, when the images delineated by the solar 
rays are formed by lenses, and sometimes, too, by mirrors of a larger size. 

The images of objects formed upon a plane surface differ from the objects them- 
selves, from many causes which it is unnecessary here to enumerate. The most 
skilful opticians have striven, and to a great extent successfully, to make the most 
perfect lenses for photographic purposes ; but the photographer himself has over- 
looked the greatest imperfection to which his art is subject, arising solely from the 
size of the lenses in his camera. 

According to the geometrical principles of perspective, the correct representation 
of any body or object whatever, upon a plane surface, is obtained by drawing lines 
from the point of sight, through every point of the body or object, to that plane. 
As the pupil of the human eye is little more than two-tenths of an inch in diameter, 
we may regard the picture on the retina as a correct representation of external 
objects, in so far, at least, as its correctness depends upon the size of the lens which 
forms the picture. In like manner we may consider the image of objects formed by 
a lens the size of the pupil of the eye as a correct representation of the object. 

Now if in perspective we take a new point of sight two-tenths of an inch distant 
from the first, the perspective representation of the object on a plane will be changed, 
and the magnitude of the change will increase with the distance between the two 
points of sight. In like manner, if we look at an object from two different points, 
which are two- tenths of an inch distant, we shall obtain two views of that object 
equally dissimilar. 

Following out this principle, let us suppose that a lens four inches square is 
employed to produce upon a plane surface the image of any object, and that the 
size of the pupil of the eye is two-tenths of an inch ; then, as there will be several 
hundred areas equal to that of the pupil in the lens, the image given by the lens will 
be a compound image consisting of several hundred perspective views of the object 
taken from several hundred different points of sight, each distant two- tenths of an 
inch from its neighbour, and all those on the margin of the lens distant three inches 
and eight-tenths from those opposite to them. Such a jumble of images cannot, 
under any circumstances, be a true representation of the object. This view of the 
question, as one of perspective, will be more intelligible if we consider the subject 
optically. 

Let LL be either the horizontal or the vertical section of a lens, by means of 

which an image or picture of the object 
ABCDE is to be taken either on a plane sur- 
face, or suspended in the air, and made visible 
to an eye behind the lens. The solid object 
ABE consists of a cylindrical portion ABDC, 
whose termination AB is a circle, and of a 
conical portion CDE. If we continue the 
lines EC, ED, and CA, DB, they will meet 
the lens in the points c, a, d, b. If we now 
cover all the lens except the central portion 
ab, the image of the object ABE will be 
merely a circle, as shown at ab, fig. 1, because 
not a single ray from the cylindrical surface 
ABDC, nor from the conical surface CDE, can 
reach the lens ab. In like manner, if we cover 
all the lens except cd t the image of the ob- 
ject ABE will be, as shown in fig. 2, at cd, 
its circular termination, and the cylindrical 
part of it only being seen, because not a single 
ray from its conical part CDE can fall upon 
the lens erf. But when the whole area LL of the lens is exposed, the whole object 
will be seen suspended in the air, as at LL, fig. 2. 

If the image is received upon a plane surface behind the lens, the cylindrical part 
will be represented by a halo or circle of light surrounding the circle ab, and cor- 




Fig. 2. 



m c^a>9 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 8ECTION8. 5 

responding in size to the section wit, fig. 1 , of the cone of rays CcdD ; and the 
conical part CDE will be represented by another halo or circle, round the halo mn, 
and corresponding to the section op of the cone of rays ELL. 

Results demonstrating the truth of these views have been obtained photographi- 
cally by my friend Mr. Buckle of Peterborough, whose beautiful Talbotypes obtained 
a Council Medal at the Great Exhibition. The acting diameter of his lens was 3J 
inches, and the effect of the combination of the marginal pictures is most distinctly 
exhibited. 

Let us now apply these results to the photographical pictures of the human bust 
as taken in a camera. The human face and head consist superficially of various 
surfaces, some vertical, some horizontal, and many inclined at all angles to the 
axis of the lens by which they are to be represented on a plane surface. A true 
perspective representation of the human head placed at AB, will be that which is 
given by a lens ab whose diameter is equal to that of the pupil of the eye, or as 
formed by lines passing from the centre of the pupil to different points of the 
head. From such a portrait, all surfaces, such as AC, BD, EC, ED will be 
excluded ; but if we use the whole lens LL, all these surfaces, and all those of an 
intermediate inclination between AC and EC, BD and DE, will be introduced 
into the portrait. If, for example, LL is a horizontal section of the lens, the right 
hand marginal parts of the lens, between a and L, may introduce into the portrait 
the left eye, or the left ear, or the left Bide of the nose, and all other parts of a certain 
inclination to the axis ; thus enlarging all such parts and widening the picture. If 
LL be a vertical section of the lens, the lower part of the nose, the interior of the 
nostrils, the lower part of the upper lip, and the lower part of the chin will be intro- 
duced into the portrait by the lower marginal parts 6L of the lens ; while the top 
of the head, the upper parts of the lip and the eyelids, will be introduced by the 
upper marginal parts ah of the lens. The same is true of all other sections of the 
lens, and a monstrous portrait of the human bust is thus obtained by the photo- 
grapher, the monstrosity increasing with the size of the lens. The nature and 
character of the portrait will thus vary with the superficial form of the lens, which 
may be circular, oval, square, rectangular, triangular, or of any irregular form ; and 
in this way remarkable modifications of photographic portraits may be produced 
merely by varying the shape of the lens. 

The amount of the deformity introduced into portraits by a lens three or four inches 
in diameter may be readily estimated by the fact, that when a portrait is taken from 
two points two and a half inches distant, such as those taken as seen by each eye 
separately, the difference between the two is so well marked that it can be pointed 
out by a child. A portrait, therefore, consisting of a combination of portraits as 
seen from every point of a lens three or four inches in diameter, must give a rorm and 
expression to the human countenance very wide of the truth. 

The hideousness of photographic portraits is universally admitted, and has been 
ascribed to the imperfection of the lenses employed, the unsteadiness of the sitter, 
and the necessary constraint of features and of limb under which he submits to the 
operation. The true cause, modified doubtless by others, is the size of the lens, even 
if the lens is optically perfect. 

The photographer, therefore, who has a genuine interest in the perfection of his 
art, will receive these truths with gratitude ; and by accelerating the photographic 
processes, with the aid of more sensitive materials, he will be able to make use of 
lenses of very small aperture, and thus place his art in a higher position than that 
which it has yet attained. The photographer, on the contrary, whose sordid interests 
bribe him to forswear even the truths of science, will continue to deform the youth 
and beauty that may in ignorance repair to his studio, adding scowls and wrinkles 
to the noble forms of manhood, and giving to a fresh and vigorous age the aspects 
of departing or departed life. 

But while small apertures possess such a peculiar advantage as that of giving a 
true perspective representation of the object or scene to be delineated, a small lens 
possesses still greater advantages. In large lenses much light is lost by the absorp- 
tion of rays in passing through a great thickness of glass, and also, by reflexion from 
the four or eight surfaces of the achromatic lens or lenses employed. In such lenses, 
too, neither {he chromatic nor the spherical aberrations, which increase with the 



6 REPORT— 1852. 

aperture, are completely corrected, and no attempt even is made to remove the 
influence of the secondary spectrum. With small apertures, too, objects, or 
parts of objects, at different distances, will be delineated with nearly the same 
distinctness, and a picture produced as nearly resembling the original as it can be 
made in the present state of practical optics. 

The same observations, with the exception of those whioh relate to the achromatism 
and the thickness of the refracting medium, are applicable to the images produced 
by mirrors of different sizes. 

On the Stereoecopometer. By A. Claudet. 

This was a simple instrument, by which the relative positions of the two cameras 
and the placing of the object could be accurately determined in taking the pictures 
for the binocular stereoscope. 

On a Man\fold Binocular Camera, By A. Claudet. 

The author exhibited a Double Camera for taking the two stereoscopic Daguerreo- 
types of groups or individuals, and by which four double pictures could be succes- 
sively taken with such rapidity as to be exact representations of the same circum- 
stances. It would be impossible to make all the mechanical arrangements of this 
instrument intelligible without drawings. 



On the Lowe of Magnetism and Diamagnetism, in a Letter to Dr. Faraday. 
By Professor Matteucci. 

Pisa, August 15, 1851. 

My dear Faraday, — With much regret, and at the last moment, I am compelled 
to renounce the pleasure of assisting at the Meeting of the British Association and 
of conversing with you andf other friends on scientific subjects. I beg you to present 
my cordial thanks to Col. Sabine for the invitation he so kindly sent me. I ask 
your permission to address to you an extract of my researches on magnetism and 
diamagnetism, which have occupied me for several years : if you think that this 
communication can offer any interest to the members of the Association, you can, if 
you please, read it to the meeting, as I should be glad in any way to prove my 
gratitude; to that respectable body. 

I have studied, in the first place, the influence of temperature and mechanic action 
on magnetic and diamagnetic substances. Thus, I operated on iron in a state of 
fusion obtained by the flame of oxyhydrogen gas. In this experiment a small iron 
globule is placed in a cavity at the extremity of a horizontal bar of copper wire or 
caustic lime, suspended by a cocoon silk in the magnetic field between the conical 
poles of a very powerful electro- magnet. Iron in a state of fusion, partially oxidated, 
i« always attracted by the magnet ; the diminution of magnetic attraction produced 
by fusion io iron is immensely great : in one experiment, which I think was suf- 
ficiently exact, I found that attraction became at least 15 million times less, passing 
from the ordinary temperature to the state of fusion. All the compounds of iron, 
and all natural substances containing a portion of metallic iron, suffer a diminution 
by heat ; hence it is that the natural or artificial compounds of magnetic and dia- 
magnetic substances, such as certain coals and charcoal, clay, impure metals, gold, 
copper, zinc, &c, which are attracted at the ordinary temperature, appear to be 
temporarily repelled when strongly heated. Passing to diamagnetic substances, I 
have found that their repulsive action suffers a very slight diminution by fusion in 
phosphorus and sulphur. But this is not the case with bismuth in fusion, upon 
which I have verified and completed the observation of PlUcker. 

The following experiment is simple, and sure to succeed at the first attempt. Take 
a bar of pure caustic lime and suspend it in the magnetic field in the manner 
described ; when the magnetic power is developed, the bar is repelled ; and when 
the bar is strongly heated, the repulsion is certainly not less great. Touching lightly 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. J 

the small cavity in the bar of lime with a piece of paper besmeared with oxide of 
iron, one can easily arrange so that the bar is attracted ; and when the quantity of 
oxide is sufficient, the bar continues to be attracted even when strongly heated* 
Fill the cavity with bismuth, 1 gramme, for instance, and the bar will be again 
repelled when the magnetism is developed. But if, before passing the current, the 
bismuth is rased, the bar will be attracted, and will attach itself to the extremity of 
the pole when the magnetism is produced. At the instant that the bismuth becomes 
solid, the bar detaches itself abruptly from the pole, and the diamagnetic repulsion 
of the bismuth prevails. 

It now remained for me to ascertain whether bismuth in a state of fusion was 
indifferent to magnetic action, or whether, on the contrary, it became magnetic. 
For this purpose, I measured by the number of oscillations the diamagnetic force of 
a cylinder of bismuth contained in a corresponding cavity formed in a bar of limt 
suspended by a glass hook to a cocoon silk. Operating with the necessary pre- 
cautions, which are too long to be described here, I have found that the bar of lime, 
with its cylinder of bismuth in a state of fusion, made the same number of oscilla- 
tions as when without bismuth. The lime being constantly diamagnetic, this might 
have masked the change of the bismuth transformed into a magnetic body by fusion. 
I therefore suspended between the poles of the electro-magnet a bar of lime, formed 
somewhat like a salt-spoon, in order to increase greatly the quantity of bismuth in 
fusion compared with that of the lime. In one experiment I employed as much as 57 
grammes of fused bismuth, and nevertheless the repulsion continued. Thus, then, the 
diamagnetic power of bismuth diminishes suddenly at the point of fusion, and during 
the state of fusion the bismuth remains indifferent, without being apparently changed 
into a magnetic body. 

I have studied the influence of mechanic action on diamagnetism. By means of 
a copper box provided with a screw, I was able to compress a pure bismuth cylinder, 
3 millims. in diameter and 34 millims. in length, so as to reduce it to 88 millims. 
I then made two cylinders of bismuth precisely of the same dimensions, the one 
compressed, the other in its natural state, and I found that the compressed cylinder 
had a diamagnetic power distinctly superior to that of natural bismuth. I think it 
advisable here to call your attention to the fact which Coulomb, and more recently 
Pliicker, have discovered respecting feebly magnetic substances ; namely, that all 
cylinders of bismuth have the same oscillation independently of their weight, or in 
other words, that the diamagnetic power is proportionate to the weight of the 
cylinders. Cylinders of bismuth, varying in weight from 0*576 gr. to 18*600 gr., 
give the same oscillation. I studied afterwards, at some length, the influence of a 
powerful electro-magnet upon chemical affinity and cohesion. You have proved 
that gases, and even the most magnetic of the gases, do not suffer any variation in 
density by magnetic action. I have repeated the same experiments on gases, em- 
ploying a glass tube closed or open, such as that of a spirit* level, filled with gas 
and different liquids. The gaseous bubble placed between the two polar extremities 
suffers considerable contraction and elongation, according to the nature of the liquid 
and gas. I think I have proved that these appearances are owing to a simple 
change of form in the bubble without variation of density produced by the differential 
action of the magnet on the gas and on the liquid. I made a great number of expe- 
riments in order to measure the electrolyzation of acidulated water in a very powerful 
magnetic field, or independently of this influence. Several precautions, not gene- 
rally followed, are absolutely necessary to obtain a uniform result in the use of the 
voltameter. These experiments led me to conclude that the most powerful magnetic 
action has no influence whatever on the electrolyzation of water. There is however 
a phenomenon which I do not think has been observed hitherto, and on which I 
must say a word. In electrolysing water in a powerful electro- magnetic field, and 
if the experiment is properly arranged, the streams of gas bubbles which rise from 
the two electrodes are violently carried away in certain directions when the magnetism 
is put in activity. I think this movement is communicated by the liquid currents 
discovered by Davy. By employing a saturated solution of sulphate of copper for 
electrolyte, and by blowing into that liquid through a glass capillary tube a stream of 
atmospheric bubbles instead of those formed by electrolyzation in water, I could 
easily convince myself that the phenomenon is independent of any peculiar state of 



8 REPORT— 1852. 

the gas supposed to be derived from elect rolyzation. By a proper application of 
Nobili'8 beautiful experiment of colours obtained by electrolyzation, I was enabled 
to demonstrate, that an axis of great magnetic power has no sensible influence in 
disturbing the distribution or propagation of the electrical currents, nor the physical 
or chemical composition of the body traversed by them. Make a rectangular box, the 
longer sides of which are formed of perfectly clean plates of platina. Fill this box 
with a solution of chloride of iron, or acetate of lead, or other metallic salts, and place 
it between the poles of a very powerful electro-magnet. The coloration of these 
plates, produced by the shortest passage of a very feeble current, is found to be exactly 
the same at all points, that is, on the line of the magnetic poles, as at the distance of 
150 or 200 millimetres from that line. The magnetic power therefore does not 
change either the composition of the liquid subject to its action, nor the distribution 
of the electricity which traverses it. I remember having found formerly that the 
laws of the derived currents on a plate of tin and of the isodynamic lines, were not 
disturbed by the influence of a very strong electro-magnet. I have also studied the 
influence of the magnetic power of the elements on that of the body resulting from 
their combination. Although there are some examples of magnetic compounds, 
the elements of which are diamagnetic, such as protochloride of copper, one finds in 
general that the magnetical character of the compound results from that of its ele- 
ments. Pure copper, which, independently of inductive currents, is decidedly dia- 
magnetic'produces protoxide, which is indifferent or scarcely diamagnetic, and a per- 
oxide which is decidedly magnetic. The same may be said of silver ; the protoxide 
is diamagnetic, and the binoxide, obtained by the pile, is decidedly magnetic. Operating 
on the various oxides of bismuth and antimony, I measured the variations in the 
magnetic power induced by different quantities of oxygen contained in these oxides. 
I have made a great numbet of conclusive and elegant experiments on the laws of 
equilibrium' of diamagnetic bodies in the magnetic field, and on the reciprocal action 
of diamagnetic bodies. I have employed in these experiments a solution of chloride 
of iron in concentrated alcohol, so as to have the same density as olive oil, which is 
a diamagnetic body. I could thus fill the magnetic field with this ferruginous 
solution, in which floats a drop of oil, more or less large, or I could reverse the 
arrangement. At the moment in which the electro-magnet is set in action, the 
two liquids are set in movement and place themselves in equilibrium, occupying 
distinct places in the magnetic field. By adopting the proper arrangements, one 
can easily determine the form of the curved surfaces of separation of the two liquids. 
This method is delicate, and fitted for discovering the slightest difference in the force 
of the two poles, or in their relative distance from the centre of the magnetic field. 
If the magnetic field is uniform, as one obtains it with plane polar surfaces of great 
extent, a small piece of bismuth suspended to a cocoon silk, in the manner employed 
also by yourself, is in equilibrium in the centre of the magnetic field and in the 
greater part of the equatorial line. When the magnetic field is formed by the ferru- 
ginous solution, a piece of bismuth or drop of oil floating within the liquid does not 
remain in equilibrium in the centre of the field, but flies off to the side following the 
equatorial line. The drop changes in form, and is prolonged in axial or equatorial 
direction according to its being magnetic or diamagnetic. The constant motion of 
the diamagnetic drop from the centre towards the side along the equatorial line and 
this, even when floating not at the surface but in the middle of the liquid mass, is 
not in evident accord with the beautiful experiments of Reich and Tyndall. I have 
remarked on the fact, that the motion takes place when the drop is even in the 
midst of the liquid, in order to prove that this motion is independent of the remark- 
able elevation undergone by the ferruginous liquid along the line of the poles. 
With this method I could easily examine the mutual action of diamagnetic bodies. 
For this purpose the base of the square box placed in the magnetic field was formed 
one half of marble or wood, the other of bismuth. This base was covered with a 
thin stratum of ferruginous liquid, and of oil three millimetres in thickness. The 
line of junction of the marble and bismuth was alternately axial and equatorial. I 
was never able to discern the slightest dissymmetry in the form of the surfaces of 
separation of the two liquids, which might be attributed to the influence of the two 
very different substances, marble and bismuth, as regards their magnetic power. In 
the same way, I have never been able to discover any mutual action at toe moment 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 9 

when the electro-magnet was in activity, between two drops of oil suspended in the 
midst of the ferruginous liquid, or between a piece of bismuth and one of these drops. 
I have therefore reason to doubt whether such movements, which have been con- 
sidered as proving the mutual action of diamagnetic bodies, are not rather owing to 
the movement of the entire liquid mass of which we have spoken. Although it is 
extremely probable that the mutual action of diamagnetic bodies does exist, and, 
according to the laws admitted also by yourself, still it must be allowed that this 
action is very feeble, and it is much to be desired that an experiment should be made 
by which it might be clearly demonstrated. 

I pass over in this extract, which is already too long, my experiments upon the 
different inductive power of various metals, on the time of induction in the different 
metals, Sec. ; but I must finally call your attention to the part of these researches 
which I believe to be the most important, and which relates to an experimental 
theory of diamagnetic phenomena. 

A mass composed of very fine powder of perfectly pure silver or copper, the con- 
ductibility of which is destroyed by the interposition of a thin film of oil of tur- 
pentine, duly suspended in proximity of the polar surface, is repelled at the instant of 
the passage of the current, and continues to oscillate like a mass of bismuth. If one 
composes other similar suspended matter in which the quantity of metal and con- 
ductibility gradually increases, one sees the silver or copper pendulums first repelled 
from the pole, then come to a stop after a constantly decreasing number of oscilla- 
tions, until at last they present the phenomenon which you have called revulsion, 
due to the production of induced currents. In the same way a small copper 
or silver disc, fixed to the extremity of a straw lever suspended by a cocoon 
silk near to a pole, is repelled or attracted at the beginning or end of the current 
without being subject to any movement of oscillation : if this disc is cut so as to 
destroy its continuity as much as possible, to prevent the development of the induc- 
tive current, it then exhibits the phenomenon of oscillation like bismuth. These 
phenomena, and several others which you have described, and which it is unneces- 
sary to adduce here, have led you and Weber, with much reason, to admit the 
hypothesis of a diamagnetic polarity in reverse direction of that acquired by mag- 
netic bodies. I hasten to add, that my experiments do not lead me to reject this 
hypothesis, as you, and more recently M. Verdet, have done ; and that, on die con- 
trary, it seems to me in conformity with physical analogy to admit that diamagnetic 
substances, when subjected to magnetic force, assume a polarity the same in kind 
as, but reverse in direction of, that acquired by iron, which polarity has a duration 
varying according to the nature and conductibility of the substance, and which, 
according to these circumstances, tends to transform itself into an inductive instanta- 
neous current. I abstain from entering here into a minute development of these theo- 
retical views, which every one can do for himself, and proceed at once to speak 
experimentally. It is perfectly true that you, and more recently M. Verdet, have 
demonstrated that the phenomenon discovered by Weber in bismuth can be explained 
by simply referring to the inductive currents, and without having recourse to dia- 
magnetic polarity ; but the same experiments have not proved the non-existence of 
diamagnetic polarity. In the first place, I recollect that oxide of copper is strongly 
magnetic ; consequently a mass of copper filings with oxidated superficies cannot, 
when it acts on the electro-magnet, develope inductive phenomena similar to those 
of bismuth or pure copper. In fact, I found with my inductive apparatus, which is 
certainly the most powerful and delicate hitherto constructed, that a mass of copper 
filings oxidated at the superficies, such as used in organic analysis, gives inductive 
corrents as if it were a magnetic body. In order to prove by our experimental 
method that diamagnetic polarity does not exist, one roust prove that no induced 
currents are obtained in the direction demanded by that supposed polarity, when one 
makes an electro-magnet act on a diamagnetic body, incapable of conducting in- 
duced currents, and in quantity sufficient to induce sensible effects on our apparatus. 
To show the superiority of my apparatus, I have only to mention, that a stratum of 
500 grammes of colcothar brought near, but not in contact with the electro-magnet, 
and consequently without any apparatus of rotation, produced an induced current of 
10° to 15° and more, according to the strength of the battery. With this same appa- 



10 REPORT — 1852. 

rata* and a rotating machine, I obtained very distinct phenomena of induction by the 
action of a bundle of varnished bismuth or copper wires. I have already observed 
that the experiment can be decisive only when one acts on the electro-magnet with 
a sufficient quantity of the diamagnetic substance. In fact, it seems reasonable to 
admit that the effects of induction, magnetic or diamagnetic, ought to be in propor- 
tion with the corresponding effects of attraction or repulsion. Now I am not very 
far from the truth In admitting that 1 gramme of bismuth is repelled by an electro* 
magnet with the same force as 1 1 milligrammes of colcothar is attracted by the 
same magnet ; that 1 gramme of sugar or stearic acid makes equilibrium to 5 or 6 
milligrammes of colcothar, and 1 gramme of sulphur to 2 or 3 milligrammes of col- 
cothar. I have already said that the inductive action of 500 grammes of colcothar 
gives me 10° to 15° of induced current : therefore, to obtain a similar effect by bismuth 
(if diamagnetic polarity exists), one must employ a quantity of that metal, which is 
at least a hundred times 500 grammes, or 50 kilogrammes. By similar reasoning one 
sees what an enormous quantity of phosphorus, sugar and sulphur would have to be 
employed in order to obtain a sensible inductive effect, and how far we have hitherto 
been from employing the necessary quantity. It is only by the method of rotation 
of inductive bodies in presence of the electro-magnet, that one can obtain sensible 
effects from small quantities of diamagnetic substances. Using the method of 
rotation, as Verdet has done, with an electro-magnet and inductive coil more powerful 
than any which have been hitherto employed, I have succeeded in obtaining distinct 
signs of induction from a mass composed of fragments of varnished bismuth. I con. 
tinue to vary and extend my experiments in this way ; therefore, for the present, 
' though I should be grateful to you if you would communicate this note to the British 
Association, I wish to be able to arrange these researches myself before publishing 
them. 



On placing Compasses an Board Iron Ships. By Captain E. J. Johnson, 
li.N* F.R.S., Superintendent of the Compass Admiralty Department of 
the Royal Navy. {In a Letter to the President.) 

It was my intention to have been present at the Meeting of the British Association 
at Belfast, but I have been prevented by my official duties on board some of H.M. 
steam-ships which could not be delayed. One of these was the iron steam-vessel 
" Trident," and I think it worth while to notice to you a circumstance which oc- 
curred relating to the compass observations. 

As a member of the Compass Committee, you are aware that the system adopted 
in H.M. service on board iron ships, is to elevate the compass considerably— to 
ascertain the deviations and allow for them, and to persevere in a continual series 
of observations to ascertain the change of deviation according to the change of the 
ship's geographical position, as described in the " Practical Rules" which have been 
issued to all H.M. ships since 1842 ; — the said plan being considered safer than the 
application of iron or magnets for the reduction of the amount of deviation. 

In placing the compasses of H.M. ships, I have, of course, adhered to the recom* 
mendations of the Committee, taking care by a few preliminary observations to fix 
upon a position where the deviations were lessened ; but the circumstance to which 
I wish to draw your attention at present is this : — While the " Trident" was in the 
basin at Woolwich, it occurred to me to try whether a position could be discovered 
where the influences of the ship's iron upon the compass were so equalized as to 
render the amount of deviation so small as to be of no practical importance. 

The correct magnetic direction of the ship's head having been determined by a 
compass on the shore, and that proving to be near to one of the points of maximum 
deviation (the standard compass on the quarter-deck there indicating 90° westerly 
deviation), I moved the standard compass several feet further forward in the centre 
line of the ship, and there found the westerly deviation increased to 29°. I now 
commenced to move the compass ail 6 or 7 feet at a time, observing the deviation 
at each position, and found the westerly deviation decreased ; and on placing the 
tripod of the compass directly over the rudder- head, easterly deviation was produced ; 
and hence it followed that there must be a position somewhere between the two last 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 11 

place* of observation where there would be no deviation while the ship's head re- 
mained in the same direction. 

This position I practically discovered by moving the compass a few inches at a 
time, till it indicated the correct magnetic direction of the ship's head. 

The question which now remained to be proved, was, to what extent the deviations 
of the said compass had been lessened (or what they actually were) when the ship's 
head was placed upon different points, and I was gratified to find that after swing- 
ing the vessel and observing upon the eight principal points, the compass, placed as 
before described, proved to be correct within ^ of a point. 

It is necessary to mention that the "Trident" has wooden beams under the 
quarter-deck, and therefore it remains to be seen to what extent such observations 
may be useful in vessels which have iron beams. 

It will also be requisite to ascertain by actual observation how far a position so 
selected shall prove advantageous when the ship changes her geographical position ; 
and as the "Trident" is about to proceed to the southern hemisphere, and is amply 
provided with instructions and the means of ascertaining such changes, and as I 
shall swing her again at Greenhithe on every point before she leaves, we may hope 
for much useful information on this important subject. 

In sending you these remarks, I must observe, that it may not always be practi- 
cable to find the position of no-deviation, or where the influences of the iron in the 
ship upon the magnetic needle are equalized, because such a point might be found in 
a most inconvenient position, or be too near moveable iron work, machinery, &c. ; 
but if we succeed in approximating towards it, and thereby reduce the deviations 
within moderate limits, a point of great practical importance will be gained in navi- 



On a peculiarity of Visum. By Professor Powell, F.R.S. 

The peculiarity to which I refer affects both my own eyes, but more especially the 
left eye. They have always been long-sighted, but I never used glasses till about 
seven years ago. About that time I had, I fear, injured my eye-sight generally by 
optical experiments, and have in consequence thought it prudent to desist from them 
in a great degree. I then perceived a general indistinctness of vision, which is how- 
ever completely removed by the use of convex glasses of long focus ; but I have not 
till lately been aware of the precise nature of this indistinctness. I have now found 
that it is produced by the image of every small object, as for instance, a fine dark line 
on a white ground appearing triple. I do not find any difference from varying 
the distance of the object from the eye, nor in placing the line in different azimuths 
round the axis of the eye j the appearance is presented whether I use one eye or 
both, but is somewhat less marked with the right eye. Conjectures may easily be 
started as to the change of form in the Jens which might produce such an appear- 
ance, but I will not at present do more than simply mention the fact, as it may 
perhaps elicit other statements of a similar kind which may tend to throw light on 
the question as to its nature. 

On Luminous Beams. Communicated by Professor Powell, F.B.S. 

Appearances of luminous beams in the sky, of a peculiar kind, agreeing neither 
with the characteristics of aurora, nor of the zodiacal light, have been occasionally 
recorded. A remarkable instance of this kind was observed by Mr. G. A. Rowell, 
at Oxford, July 11, 1850 : — "When the sun was just setting, or set, but hidden by 
clouds, he saw a bright beam with parallel sides extending vertically upwards from 
the place of the sun to an altitude estimated at 15° or 20°." Again, on July 6, 1852, 
Mr. Rowell saw a similar phenomenon which he describes thus : — " About 10 o'clock 
p.m., I observed two extraordinary rays of light in the N.N.W., each extending 
from the horizon to upwards of half-way towards the pole star, and apparently pro- 
ceeding from the sun's place below the horizon, in a direct line towards that star. I 
watched this phenomenon till 10 h 30 m , and I believe it could not have been caused 



12 REPORT — 1852. 

by an aurora borealis, the direction and appearance of the rays being very different 
from any aurora I have ever 6een ; there was no change to be observed in them, and 
they kept their place with regard to the stars. At 1 1 o'clock they had disappeared.'' 



On Converging Sun-beams. Communicated by Professor Powell, FJLS. 

A peculiarly brilliant instance of the phenomenon of the solar rays converging by 
the effect of perspective to a point opposite the sun immediately after sunset, was 
observed by several persons in and near Oxford, on July 6, 1852, about 8*35 p.m., 
and lasted about twenty minutes. Mr. G. A. Rowell collected the accounts of dif- 
ferent observers, illustrated by sketches, given unknown to each other, and apparently 
without their being aware of the real nature of the phenomenon. He states that — 
" All agree as to the general appearance being that of five or seven principal rays of 
bright light arising from (converging to) a point in the S.E. horizon, just opposite 
to where the sun had set. Each ray extended about 65° or 70°, and was widest at 
the upper end ; the middle ray being perpendicular. There is a difference in the 

statements as to whether there were smaller rays between the principal ones 

The observer on Shotover Hill had a clear view of the N. W. horizon, and remarked 
that there was not at the time the slightest appearance of rays where the sun had 
gone down." 

On the Re-concentration of the Mechanical Energy of the Universe* 
By W. J. Macquorn Rankine, CJ3. % FJR.SJE. 

Mr. Rankine observed that it has long been conjectured, and is now being esta- 
blished by experiment, that all forms of physical energy, whether visible motion, 
heat, light, magnetism, electricity, chemical action, or other forms not yet understood, 
are mutually convertible ; that the total amount of physical energy in the universe 
is unchangeable, and varies merely its condition and locality, by conversion from 
one form to another, or by transference from one portion of matter to another. 

Professor William Thomson has pointed out, that in the present condition of the 
known world there is a preponderating tendency to the conversion of all the other 
forms of energy into heat, and to the equable diffusion of all heat ; a tendency which 
seems to lead towards the cessation of all phenomena. 

The author of the present paper points out, that all heat tends ultimately to 
assume the radiant form ; and that if the medium which surrounds the stars and 
transmits radiation between them be supposed to have bounds encircling the visible 
world, beyond which is empty space, then at these bounds the radiant heat will be 
totally reflected, and will ultimately be re-concentrated into foci ; at one of which, if 
an extinct star arrives, it will be resolved into its elements, and a store of energy 
reproduced. 



On an Improved Form of Reflecting Instrument for Use at Sea. 
By Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, F.R*A.S. 

The peculiar circumstances of an observer at sea, caused chiefly by the rolling of 
the vessel, preclude the use of any of the ordinary instruments employed on land 
for measuring altitudes, depending as they do on levels or plumb lines for their zero 
points ; recourse must be had to the principle of double images by two reflectors, 
the method invented by Hadley and Newton. This one necessary principle has been 
carried out in a variety of different forms, in the sextant, quadrant, quintant or re- 
flecting circle, some more or less accurate or more or less convenient than others ; 
but all of them, under whatever names they are known, are merely different forms 
of essentially the same instrument. 

Great ingenuity has been shown in many of these forms, but still the greatest 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 13 

degree of efficiency has not yet been arrived at, or the highest degree of convenience 
attained for all the various occasions required in practice. 

The naval officers, who know what these difficult circumstances are, unfortunately 
are not in a position to remedy the defects of their instruments ; while the makers 
thereof, living at home at ease, cannot fully appreciate all the difficulties actually 
met with in real practice at sea* This has left room for a person like the author, 
who has had some practice at sea and some experience in instrument-making, to 
effect several minor improvements of a practical character. 

The ordinary form of the reflecting instrument at present in use is the sextant, 
id which will generally be found, even as made by the best makers, more or less of 
the following little practical drawbacks upon the speedy and accurate employment 
of it. 

It is packed in its box in a way difficult to be got out, the handle, by which it 
ought only to be touched, being below : also it cannot be laid down anywhere 
without a changing of the hands and the incurring of risk in handling parts which 
should be sacred from the touch. 

Next there are several loose parts, as the telescope, plain tube, dark glasses, fee, 
which have to be screwed on before an observation can be taken, and time is lost 
thereby ; even then too it may be often found with faint stars at night, that the 
object-glass of the telescope is prejudicially small, and the reflectors insufficiently 
bright, as well as erroneous at extreme angles, on account of the impossibility of 
procuring perfect glass, besides giving the nuisance of images from each surface, &c. 

Then, supposing the observation taken, there is such a needless difficulty in read- 
ing off the divisions, a difficulty not felt by beginners alone, but equally by practised 
naval officers, who give that as a reason why the very important class of observa- 
tions of stars by night is so little practised at sea. 

Finally, the observation when read off at last is taken merely upon a sextant or 
part of a circle, and is therefore liable to errors of excentricity and motion of the 
centre, and this to an unknown extent, and not constantly, as they may be influenced 
by accidental causes unknown to the observer. It is essential to the accuracy and 
the honesty as it were of observations, that they should be taken with some form of 
circle with opposite readings ; many such have been brought forward in England 
and France, but owing apparently to their greater complexity, size and weight, they 
have not obtained a footing amongst practical men. 

The author then exhibited a reflecting instrument which he had had constructed 
by Messrs. Adie of Edinburgh, and which appeared to supply all the desiderata, for 
it was in the shape of a circle, small, light, and simple, with the delicate parts pro- 
tected from injury under all circumstances : the usual loose telescope and plain tubes 
were avoided by making them cross through each other and work on a pivot, thus 
admitting of instant alteration from one to the other ; the illuminating apparatus 
was improved and rendered powerfully effective even with a faint light ; and a small 
apparatus was added, which, without sensibly cumbering the instrument, gave, either 
by night or by day, a convenient horizontal referring point, visible in the field of 
view. 



Some Remarks on the Red Prominences seen during the Total Solar Eclipse. 
By Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, F.R*A.S. 

When the Members of the Association separated last year at Ipswich, it was under 
circumstances of peculiar astronomical import, viz. the impending occurrence of the 
total solar eclipse in a neighbouring .region : many astronomers started to observe 
the phenomenon to the utmost, and more especially everything having relation to, 
or tending to throw any light on the physical characteristics of the sun ; amongst 
which the "red prominences" were considered the most promising and important. 

The author was amongst the number of observers who started with these objects 
in view, but was totally defeated by the occurrence of clouds. Having been pre- 
vented then himself from seeing the red prominences, he thought it proper to defer 
to the opinions of those observers who had been more fortunate, and who seem in 



14 REPORT — 1852. 

all cases to have come to the conclusion that these apparent bodies were really at* 
tached to, and connected with, the sun, and were no less than masses of light-gmng 
matter, 30,000 or 40,000 miles in length, and playing of course a most important 
part in the mystery of the nature and the source of solar light, and the whole 
OBConomy of that mighty orb. 

But if we are never to see these bodies but during the rare occasion of a solar 
eclipse, and then only for the too short space of three minutes, ages upon ages may 
pass away before we ascertain anything very precise upon the subject. In this case 
it becomes of the greatest importance to contrive some method of making the red 
prominences visible on ordinary occasions ; and a method having been proposed by 
Mr. J. Nasmyth of Manchester, which at least prbmised well, the author lost no 
time in putting it into execution. 

The method consisted in receiving the image of the sun and field of view, formed 
by a telescope in a dark room, on a white board, in which was a hole just largt 
enough to let the sun pass through, and be absorbed on the inside of a black bag 
beyond ; the image of the field, and therefore of the sky in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of the sun, could then be examined with the greatest nicety, and free from 
the prejudicial effect of the glaring solar image ; while any faint ray of light extend- 
ing from that luminary into the space beyond could be much more easily appreciated 
than before. But although the experiment was carefully tried on all the best days 
of last summer as well as the present, not the slightest appearance of red prominences 
could be detected. The author however would not presume to say that they did not 
therefore exist $ for although the experiment in itself was extremely successful, inas- 
much as during the very time that the sun was being received into the black bag the 
room itself was much darker than the atmosphere at the solar eclipse, yet the light* 
ness of the sky, by reason of the reflective power of the air outride the room, was so 
extreme, that nothing so faint as the red prominences are reputed to be, could well be 
seen on so bright a background. This is a difficulty which can only be got over by 
ascending to a great height in the atmosphere, and it would be well worth while to 
repeat the experiment on the top of a high mountain. 

Having given this experiment, founded on the opinions of observers, full trial, the 
author then thought himself justified in taking up an opposite idea, and supposing 
that the red prominences might be some spurious effects of diffraction of the son's 
light at the edge of lunar mountains. He therefore produced an artificial eclipse by 
introducing a small opake ball into the telescope, near the focus of the object-glass, 
when directed on the sun. The results were, that pink light, similar to that of the 
prominences, was thrown off from the edge of the eclipsing ball* in greater quantity as 
the polish of the surface was increased, and was broken up into more distinct portions 
the more irregular the surface. Prominences most similar, nay, precisely like those 
of the eclipse, in shape and colour, were produced by an opal glass ball, scratched 
and cut on the edge with a diamond. 

There was however still the important failing, that the artificial prominences were 
connected with the eclipsing ball as a centre, and not with the sun, as in the case of 
the real prominences. In the latter instance, however, the sun's rays fall on the 
moon in a parallel direction, while in the former they converge on the eclipsing 
ball. To arrive therefore more nearly at this particular, the author placed a large 
tin disc, with spherically curved tangential rim, on the top of the Nelson monument* 
and examined the appearance from below, when the sun was eclipsed behind the 
disc, with a small hand telescope. The result was that orange and red light were 
thrown off the edge; and in greater abundance, according to the greater proximity 
of the sun behind to any particular side of the disc, and also according to the greater 
purity of the atmosphere. This certainly seems to point out the great probability 
of a spurious origin for the red prominences at this surface of the lunar mountains ; 
but this experiment should also be tried on a high mountain, in an atmosphere a 
little more nearly approaching that of the moon in rarity and purity. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 15 

On the Optical Properties of a recently discovered Salt of Quinine, 
By Professor Stokes, Mji, F.R.S. 

This salt is described by Dr. Herapath in the Philosophical Magazine for March 1852, 
and is easily formed in "the way there recommended, namely, by dissolving disul- 
phata of quinine in warm acetic acid, adding a few dropB of a solution of iodine in 
alcohol, and allowing the liquid to cool, when the salt crystallizes in thin scales re- 
flecting (while immersed in the fluid) a green light with a metallic lustre. When 
taken out of the fluid the crystals are yellowish- green by reflected light, with a me- 
tallic aspect. The following observations were made with small crystals formed In 
this manner ; and an oral account of them was given at a meeting of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society, shortly after the appearance of Dr. Herapath's paper. 

The crystals possess in an eminent degree the property of polarizing light, so that 
Dr. Herapath proposed to employ them instead of tourmalines, for which they would 
form an admirable substitute, could they be obtained in sufficient size. They appear 
to belong to the prismatic system ; at any rate they are symmetrical (so far as re- 
lates to their optical properties and to the directions of their lateral faces) with re- 
spect to two rectangular planes perpendicular to the scales. These planes will here 
be called respectively the principal plane of the length and the principal plane of the 
breadth, the crystals being usually longest in the direction of the former plane. 

When the crystals are viewed by light directly transmitted, which is either polar- 
ized before incidence or analysed after transmission, so as to retain only light polar- 
ized in one of the principal planes, it is found that with respect to light polarized 
in the principal plane of the length the crystals are transparent, and nearly colour- 
less, at least when they are as thin as those which are usually formed by the method 
above mentioned. But with respect to light polarized in the principal plane of the 
breadth, the thicker crystals are perfectly black, the thinner ones only transmitting 
light, which is of a deep red colour. 

When the crystals are examined by light reflected at the smallest angle with which 
the observation is practicable, and the reflected light is analysed, so as to retain, 
first, light polarized in the principal plane of the length, and secondly, light polarized 
in the other principal plane, it is found that in the first case the crystals have a 
vitreous lustre, and the reflected light is colourless ; while in the second case the 
light is yellowish-green, and the crystals have a metallic lustre. When the plane 
of incidence is the principal plane of the length, and the angle of incidence is in- 
creased from 0° to 9*0°, the part of the reflected pencil which is polarized in the 
plane of incidence undergoes no remarkable change, except perhaps that the lustre 
becomes somewhat metallic. When the part which is polarized in a plane perpen- 
dicular to the former is examined, it is found that the crystals have no angle of 
polarization, the reflected light never vanishing, but only changing its colour, passing 
from yellowish-green, which it was at first, to a deep steel-blue, which colour it 
assumes at a considerable angle of incidence. When the light reflected in the prin- 
cipal plane of the breadth is examined in a similar manner, the pencil which is 
polarized in the plane of incidence undergoes no remarkable change, continuing to 
have the appearance of being reflected from a metal, while the other or colourless 
pencil vanishes at a certain angle, and afterwards reappears, so that in this plane 
the crystals have a polarizing angle. 

If, tnen, for distinction's sake, we call the two pencils which the crystals, as belong- 
ing to a doubly refracting medium, transmit independently of each other, ordinary 
and extraordinary, the former being that which is transmitted with little loss, we 
may say, speaking approximately, that the medium is transparent with respect to 
the ordinary ray and opake with respect to the extraordinary, while, as regards 
reflexion, the crystals have the properties of a transparent medium or of a metal, 
according as the refracted ray is the ordinary or the extraordinary. If common light 
merely be used, both refracted pencils are produced, and the corresponding reflected 
pencils are viewed together ; but by analysing the reflected light by means of a 
Nicol's prism, the reflected pencils may be viewed separately, at least when the ob- 
servations are confined to the principal planes. Hie crystals are no doubt biaxal, 
and the pencils here called ordinary and extraordinary are those which in the lan- 
guage of theory correspond to different sheets of the wave surface. The reflecting 
properties of the crystals may be embraced in one view by regarding the medium as 



16 REPORT — 1852. 

not only doubly refracting and doubly absorbing, but doubly metalUc. The metoQicttu, 
so to speak, of the medium of course alters continuously with the point of the wave 
surface to which the pencil considered belongs, and doubtless is not mathematically 
null even for the ordinary ray. 

If the reflexion be really of a metallic nature, it ought to produce a relative change 
in the phases of vibration of light polarized in and perpendicularly to the plane of 
incidence. This conclusion the author has verified by means of the effect produced 
on the rings of calcareous spar. Since the crystals were too small for individual ex- 
amination in this experiment, the observation was made with a mass of scales depo- 
sited on a flat black surface, and arranged at random as regards the azimuth of their 
principal planes. The direction of the change is the same as in the case of a metal, 
and accordingly the reverse of that which is observed in total internal reflexion. 

In the case of the extraordinary pencil the crystals are least opake with respect 
to red light, and accordingly they are less metallic with respect to red light than to 
light of higher refrangibility. This is shown by the green colour of the reflected 
light when the crystals are immersed in fluid, so that the reflexion which they exhibit 
as a transparent medium is in a good measure destroyed. 

The author has examined the crystals for a change of refrangibility, and found 
that they do not exhibit it. Safflower-red, which possesses metallic optical proper- 
ties, does change the refrangibility of a portion of the incident light; but the yel- 
lowish-green light which this substance reflects is really due to its metallicity and 
not to the change of refrangibility, for the light emitted from the latter cause is red, 
besides which it is totally different in other respects from regularly reflected light. 

In conclusion, the author observed that the general fact of the reflexion of coloured 
polarized pencils had been discovered by Sir David Brewster in the case of chrysam- 
mate of potash*, and in a subsequent communication he had noticed, in the case of 
other crystals, the difference of effect depending upon the azimuth of the plane of 
incidence f. Accordingly, the object of the present communication was merely to 
point out the intimate connexion which exists (at least in the case of the salt of 
quinine) between the coloured reflexion, the double absorption, and the metallic 
properties of the medium. 

Note added during printing. — When the above communication was made to the 
Association, the author was not aware of M. Haidinger 's papers on the subject of 
the coloured reflexion exhibited by certain crystals. The general phenomenon of 
the reflexion of oppositely polarized coloured pencils had in fact been discovered in- 
dependently by M. Haidinger and by Sir David Brewster, in the instances, respectively., 
of the cyanide of platinum and magnesium, and of the chrysammate of potash. A 
brief notice of the optical properties of the former crystal will be found in Poggen- 
dorff's 'Annalen/ Bd. lxviii. (1846), S. 302, and further communications from M. 
Haidinger on the subject are contained in several of the subsequent volumes of that 
periodical. The relation of the coloured reflexion to the azimuth of the plane of in- 
cidence was noticed by M. Haidinger from the first. 



On the Thermal Effects of Air rushing through small Apertures. 
By J. P. Joule, F.JR.S. and Professor W. Thomson, M.A n F.R.SJB.% 



On the Sources of Heat generated by the Galvanic Battery. 
By Professor W. Thomson, itfJl, F.R.S.E. 

It has been stated as an objection to the chemical theory of the galvanic battery, 
that the chemical action being the same in all elements consisting of zinc and any 
less oxidizable metal, their electromotive force ought according to that theory to be 
the same ; which is contrary to experience, the electromotive force of a zinc and tin 
element in dilute sulphuric acid, for instance, being found by Poggendorff to be only 

* Report of the Meeting of tbe British Association at Southampton, 1846, part ii. p. 7. 

f Ibid. Edinburgh, 1847, p. 5. 

% This paper has been published in the Philosophical Magazine for December 1852* 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 17 

about half that of a zinc and platinum element in the same liquid. Mr. Joule in 
1841 gave (in his paper on the heat of electrolysis) the key to the explanation of all 
such difficulties, by pointing out that the heat must be generated in different quan- 
tities by the electrical evolution of equal quantities of hydrogen at equal surfaces of 
different metals. The author of the present communication, reasoning on element- 
ary mechanical and physical principles, from Faraday's experiments, which show 
that a zinc diaphragm in a trough of dilute sulphuric acid exercises no sensible 
resistance to the continued passage of a feeble electric current, demonstrated that a 
feeble continued current, passing out of an electrolytic cell by a zinc electrode, must 
generate exactly as much more heat at the zinc surface than the same amount of current 
would develope in passing out of an electrolytic cell by a platinum electrode, as a zinc- 
platinum pair working against great external resistance would develope in the resistance 
wire by the same amount of current. A series of experiments, commenced for illus- 
trating this conclusion, were described and a few of the conclusions stated. It was 
found that in two equal and similar electrolytic cells in the same circuit, which dif- 
fered from one another in one of them having its exit electrodes of zinc, and the 
other of platinum, very sensibly more heat was developed in the former than in the 
latter, verifying so far the conclusion stated. By separating the two electrodes by 
means of porous diaphragms, it was found that, at least with low strengths of cur- 
rent, more heat was developed at the negative than at the positive electrode, when 
both electrodes were of zinc ; while when both were of platinum, much more heat 
was found at the positive electrode than was found at the negative, for all strengths 
of current, which gave sufficient thermal effects to be tested in this respect. The last- 
mentioned result, which had not been anticipated by the author, appears to be in 
accordance with experimental conclusions announced by De la Rive. 

Many other results of a remarkable nature were obtained in a series of experi- 
ments on the heat evolved in different parts of various electrolytic and chemical 
electromotive arrangements, but much difficulty had been found in interpreting 
them correctly on account of initial irregularities depending on "polarization," 
which often appeared to last as long as the experiments could be continued without 
introducing other sources of disturbance, and which produced marked effects on the 
observed thermal phenomena. 

This communication was brought forward principally for the purpose of calling 
attention to what may be done if experimenters can be induced to undertake re- 
searches on the evolution of heat in all parts of a galvanic battery or of any electro- 
thermal apparatus, but partly also on account of the novelty of some of the result* 
which have been already obtained by the author. 



On the Mutual Attraction between two electrified Spherical Conductors. 
By Professor W. Thomson, M.A., F.R.SX. $ E. 

In a previous communication by the same author at the last Oxford Meeting of 
the Association, the attraction of a single electrified sphere, influenced by the, presence 
of another, on any external electric point, was shown to be the same as that due to 
a converging infinite series of electric points in determinate positions within it, to 
which the name of " electrical images" was given. Hence it is concluded that the 
attraction of one sphere upon the other is equal to that of one infinite series of 
electrical images upon another, and is immediately expressible algebraically by a 
" double series." Another method by which a single series is obtained to express the 
required attraction, had been alluded to at the previous Cambridge Meeting, and worked 
out to numerical results, which were published in November 1845, in the first Number 
of the Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal. It was not until 1849 that 
the author found a way of reducing the double series to a single one, and so sue* 
ceeded in arriving at the same form of result by the two methods. Detailed accounts 
of both methods, with all the formulas for completely working out the solution, 
including the case of contact for which the series is not convergent, were commu- 
nicated by letter to M. Liouville in the month of July of that year, and, not having 
as yet been published, are now laid before the British Association. Similar methods 
are applicable to determine the whole force experienced by either of two electrified 

1852. 2 



18 BEPOET — 1852. 

spheres placed near one another and subjected to the influence of an electrified 
point, whether in the line joining the centre of the spheres or not j but the formula 
expressing the details were not brought forward. 



On certain Magnetic Curves j with application* to Problem* in the Theories 
of Heat, Electricity, and Fluid Motion. By Professor W. Thomson, 
M^A., F.R.S*L. Sf E. 

A method, which had been given by the author in the Cambridge Mathematical 
Journal for integrating the differential equations of the lines of force in any case of 
symmetry about an axis, is applied in this communication to the case of an infinitely 
small magnet placed with its axis direct or reverse along the lines of force of a 
uniform magnetic field. Diagrams containing the curves drawn accurately, accord, 
ing to calculations founded on the result of this investigation, (corresponding to 
series of ten or twelve different values given to the constant of integration,) were 
exhibited to the Section. Certain parts of these curves were shown in a separate 
diagram, as constituting precisely the series of lines of electric force about an insu- 
lated spherical conductor under the influence of a distant electrified body ; and the 
other parts, in a separate diagram, as constituting the lines of motion of a fluid mass 
in the neighbourhood of a fixed spherical solid, at considerable distances from which 
the fluid is moving uniformly in parallel lines so slowly as to cause no eddies round 
the obstacle. The circle representing the section of the spherical conductor, in the 
former of these diagrams, cuts the entire series of curves at right angles, with the 
exception of one curve, which it cuts through a double point at an angle of 45° to 
each branch. The circle representing the section of the spherical obstacle in the 
latter diagram, along with two infinite double branches consisting of the axial dia- 
meter produced externally in each direction, constitutes the limiting curve of the 
series shown, and is not intersected by any of them. A series of diagrams (deduced 
from the former of these by describing a circle of the same size as that shown in it, 
and drawing, on a smaller scale, as much of the curves as lies without this circle,) 
was shown as representing the disturbed lines of magnetic force about balls of ferro- 
magnetic substance of different inductive capacities, placed in a uniform magnetic 
field ; and another series, similarly derived from the latter, (that is, the one repre- 
senting the lines of fluid motion about a spherical obstacle,) was shown as represent- 
ing the disturbance caused by the presence of diamagnetic balls of different inductive 
capacities in a uniform magnetic field. These two series of diagrams are also accu- 
rate representations of the lines of motion of heat in a large homogeneous solid 
having heat uniformly conducted across it, as disturbed by spherical spaces occupied 
by solid matter of greater or less conducting power than the matter round them ; 
the two principal diagrams from which they are derived being the corresponding 
representations for the cases of spherical spaces occupied respectively by matter of 
infinitely great and infinitely small conductivity. The author called attention to 
the remarkable resemblance which these diagrams bore to those which Mr. Faraday 
had shown recently at the Royal Institution to illustrate his views regarding the 
action of ferromagnetics and diamagnetics in influencing the field of force in which 
they are placed ; and justified and illustrated the expression " conducting power for 
the lines of force," by referring to rigorous mathematical analogies presented by the 
theory of heat. 

On the Equilibrium of elongated Masses of Ferromagnetic Substance in 
uniform and varied Fields of Force. By Professor W. Thomson, M^L> 
F*R%S.Mjm &f E. 

The fact, first discovered experimentally by Gilbert, that a bar of soft iron, held 
by its centre of gravity in a uniform magnetic field, settles with its length parallel 
to the lines of force, is not explained correctly when it is said to be merely due to 
the property of magnetic induction in virtue of which the bar of soft iron becomes 
temporarily a magnet like a permanent magnet in its position of stable equilibrium. 
For exactly the same statement would be applicable to a row of soft iron balls rigidly 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 19 

connected by a non-magnetic frame ; yet such an arrangement would not experience 
any directional tendency, (since no one of the balls in it would experience either a 
resultant force or a resultant couple from the force of the field,) unless in virtue of 
changes in the states of magnetization of the balls induced by their mutual actions. 
Hence the mutual action of the parts of a row of balls, and, as is easily shown, of 
a row of cubes, or of a bar of any kind, must be taken into account before a true 
theory of their directional tendencies can be obtained. The author of this commu- 
nication, by elementary mechanical reasoning founded on what is known with cer- 
tainty regarding magnetic induction and magnetic action generally, shows that an 
elongated mass, in a uniform magnetic field, tends to place its length parallel to the 
lines of force, whether its inductive capacity be ferromagnetic or diamagnetic* pro* 
vided it be non-crystalline, because if ferromagnetic it becomes more, or if diamag- 
netic, less intensely magnetized, if placed in such a position, than if placed with its 
length across the lines of force. But for all substances, whether ferromagnetic or 
diamagnetic, possessing so little capacity for induction as any of the known dia- 
magnetics, this tendency, depending as it does on the mutual action of the parts of 
the elongated mass, is, and probably will always remain, utterly imperceptible in 
experiment. All directional tendencies in bars of diamagnetic substance which have 
yet been, and probably all which can ever be discovered by experiment, are due 
either to some magnecrystallic property of their substances, or to the tendency of their 
ends or other moveable parts, from places of stronger towards places of weaker force, 
in varied magnetic fields, or to these two causes combined, and in no respect to the 
inductive effects of the mutual influence of their parts. To consider the effects of a 
want of uniformity of the force, in a varied field, on the equilibrium of a ferromag- 
netic bar, the author quoted Faraday's admirable statement of the law regarding the 
tendency of a ball or cube of diamagnetic substance, and referred to former papers, 
in which he had proved that, when applied to non- crystalline substances generally, 
with the proper modification for the case of ferromagnetics, it expresses with admi- 
rable simplicity the result of a mathematical investigation involving some of the 
most remarkable principles in the theory of attraction. From this it was shown, 
that if we conceive a ferromagnetic mass to be divided into very small cubes, each of 
these parts would, of itself, tend towards places of stronger force, and therefore 
that the bearing of the whole mass in a varied field will be produced partly by this 
tendency and partly by the tendency depending on the mutual inductive influence 
which alone exists when the field is uniform. The author then proceeded to illus- 
trate these theoretical views by a series of experiments. In some of them a steel bar 
magnet was used, and small soft iron wires, fixed in various positions on light wooden 
arms, were shown to be sometimes urged on the whole from places of stronger to 
places of weaker force by their tendency to get into positions with their lengths along 
the lines of force. In others, a ring electro- magnet, consisting of insulated copper 
wire, rolled fifty times round as closely as possible to the circumference of a circle 
of the diameter stated, about 9 inches in diameter, fixed in a vertical plane at 
right angles to the magnetic meridian, was used, and a single cube of soft iron, 
placed in an excentric position on a long narrow pasteboard tray centrally sus- 
pended in the field of force by unspun silk, was attracted into the plane of the 
ring; but a row of three or four cubes placed touching one another in a line 
through the axis of suspension, settled as far from the plane as possible, in virtue 
of the tendency of an elongated mass to get its length along the lines of force. 
Two cubes placed in contact are found to be in stable equilibrium in the plane of the 
ring, or in oblique positions, or as far from the ring as possible, according to the 
greater or less distances at which they are placed in the tray, from the point of 
suspension. A number of equal and similar bars of a composition of wax and soft 
iron filings of different ferromagnetic strengths, suspended successively with their 
middle points in the centre of the magnet, settled in various positions. Those of 
them which were of greatest ferromagnetic capacity settled perpendicular to the 
plane of the ring or along the lines of force ; others, with a smaller proportion of iron 
filings, had positions of stable equilibrium both in the plane of the ring and perpen- 
dicular to it ; and others, with a still smaller proportion of iron filings, had their 
sole positions of stable equilibrium in the plane of the ring. The last-mentioned 

2* 



20 REPORT — 1852. 

experiments illustrated very curiously the diminished proportion borne by the effects 
of mutual influence of the parts to those of a non-uniformity in the field of force, in 
similar bodies of smaller ferromagnetic capacity. 



On an Instrument for exhibiting the Colours of Liquids by Transmitted Light. 
By R. W. Townsend, 

This consisted of a short portable trough for containing the liquids, at the ends 
of which parallel mirrors being placed, by the reflexion of the visual ray or of 
light backward and forward several times, the effect was produced of transmitting the 
ray proceeding from the eye (or a beam of light) virtually through considerable 
thicknesses of the liquid. The author had been led to construct this in order to test the 
common explanation of the deep blue colour of the waters of the Rhone, where they 
enter the Lake of Geneva, and in other places. But his experiment with the in- 
strument did not lead to the conclusion that the natural colour of all pure water 
was blue. Pure spring or rain water when perfectly clear exhibited no colour when 
thus viewed ; but a sunbeam transmitted thus through the water received a beautiful 
deep yellow-green colour. He verified the experiment by afterwards using a very 
long trough without mirrors, and found the results the same. 



On Molecular Action. By John Tyndall, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

In this investigation the author has examined the influence exerted by the peculiar 
structure of wood upon the transmission of heat through the substance. A sen- 
sitive thermoscope was found in a bismuth and antimony couple, and by means of 
cushions of mercury which pressed upon the bodies under examination, perfect and 
uniform contact was obtained. The bodies were reduced to the cubical form. Four 
faces of each cube were parallel to the fibre of the wood ; one pair of these faces 
intersected the ligneous layers perpendicularly, and the other pair was parallel to the 
layers. The velocity of calorific transmission was examined in the above three di- 
rections, and the following law of action established by experiments on fifty-seven 
different kinds of wood, both English and foreign ; — 

" At all points not situate in the axis of the tree, wood possesses three rectangular 
axes of calorific conduction : the first and greatest axis is parallel to the fibre of the 
wood ; the second and intermediate axis is perpendicular to the fibre and to the 
ligneous layers which mark the growth of the tree ; while the third and least axis 
is perpendicular to the fibre and parallel to the layers." 

Two other systems of axes were pointed out by the author as existing in wood ; 
the axes of cohesion and those of fluid permeability. In order of magnitude and 
direction these axes coincide with the axes of calorific conduction, and all three 
systems coincide with the axes of elasticity discovered by Savart. 



On Poisson's Theoretic Anticipation of Magnecrystallic Action. 
By John Tyndall, Ph.D. 9 F.R.S. 

Professor Wm. Thomson has drawn attention to the fact, that the discovery of 
magnecrystallic action by Plucker was anticipated in Poisson's Theory of Magnet- 
ism ; and in a recent number of Liebig and Kopp's Annual Report, the author's 
investigations are referred to as particularly confirmatory of this view. Dr. Tyndall, 
however, conceives that the hypothesis of Poisson is by no means sufficient to 
account for magnecrystallic phenomena. Poisson supposed that in crystallized 
bodies the magnetic elements were possibly ellipsoidal ; and conceiving the larger 
axes of these ellipsoids all to lie in the same direction, he inferred that a differential 
action, such as that first observed by Plucker, would be the result. But exactly the 
Same results are obtained by a peculiar arrangement of the particles of amorphous 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 21 

bodies. A wax model of calcareous spar was exhibited by Dr. Tyadall, the deport- 
ment of which, as proved experimentally before the Section, was precisely the same 
as that of a calc-spar crystal of the same size and shape. Similar experiments were 
made with other substances, both magnetic and diamagnetic, and all went to esta- 
blish the result— a result assented to by Prof. Thomson, who witnessed the experi- 
menta — that the phssnomena in question are not due to the shape of the molecules, 
but to their manner of arrangement. 



Astronomy, Meteors, Waves. 

On the connexion between Geological Theories and the Theory of the Figure 
of the Earth* By Henry Hennessy, M.R.LA. 

As geology may be considered to embrace an examination of the form and struc- 
ture of the earth, it follows that every correct geological theory must be capable of 
explaining the greater as well as the lesser inequalities in the figure of our planet. 
Certain geological theories being incompatible with the supposition that the earth 
was originally in a state of fluidity, attempts have been made to account for its 
spheroidal figure by the abrading action of the waters at its surface. It has been 
shown by Play fair and Sir John Herschel that the earth would from such causes 
ultimately tend to assume the form of an oblate spheroid ; but neither of these emi- 
nent mathematicians have presented such numerical results as would enable us to 
compare the theory with observation satisfactorily. This the author has effected in 
a paper communicated to the Royal Irish Academy, in which he deduces for the polar 
compression, according to the theory in question, xhr- The compression given by 
measurements is y^ ; consequently it seems that the theory of the earth's primitive 
solidity must be rejected in favour of that of its primitive fluidity, which perfectly 
agrees with observation. 

The author also pointed out an inconsistency between the theory of the earth's 
primitive solidity and the theory of climates proposed by Sir Charles Lyell in order 
to account for the diminution of temperature at the earth's surface since early 
geological epochs. This theory would require a gradual transport of matter from 
the equator to the poles in order to account for a diminution of the heating surface 
of dry land at the equator. Consequently on this theory the earth would tend to 
become prolate instead of oblate. The author concluded by pointing out similar 
objections to the geological views known as the Neptunian theory and the chemical 
theory of volcanos. 



Proposed Theory of the Origin of the Asteroids. 
By Jambs Nasmyth, P.R.A.S. 

As the progress of science is frequently aided by advancing hypothetical views in 
explanation of the cause of certain phenomena, Mr. Nasmyth desires to hazard a 
suggestion as to the cause of the break-up of the original planet whose fragments, it 
has been conjectured, form that numerous and remarkable group of small planets 
revolving between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, some peculiarities of whose path 
have led to the supposition that they must have parted company from a parent mass 
at the same time and place. In order to render his views on this subject more clear, 
he would refer to the well-known toy called a " Prince Rupert Drop," namely, a drop 
of glass which has been let fall while in a semifluid state into water, by which the 
surface of the glass-drop is caused to cool and consolidate with such rapidity that 
the subsequent consolidation and contraction of the interior mass induces so high 
a degree of tension between it and the exterior crust that the slightest vibration is 
sufficient to overcome the cohesion of the external crust, and by so letting free the 
state of tension cause the glass-drop to fly into thousands of fragments. Nor is 



22 REPORT — 1852. 

this action confined to " Rupert's drop/' as we nave examples of the same action in 
our foundry operations in the case of masses of brittle metal, when the exterior of the 
casting, by consolidating (as it always does before the interior) the after con- 
traction of the interior of the mass, induces a sort of " touch and go" state of tension, 
which frequently results in such castings flying into fragments in spite of their 
apparent strength, either per at, or on the application of some force otherwise 
totally inadequate to produce so destructive a result. 

Now let us apply this action (which we find constant in the cooling of all masses 
of brittle material) to the case of the supposed parent planet of the asteroids. 

It appears to Mr. Nasmyth that we shall find in such the elements of a very feasible if 
not the true explanation of the origin of this remarkable and numerous group of planets, 
namely, that the parent planet may hare consisted of such materials as that by the 
rapid passing of its surface from the original molten condition to that of solidifica- 
tion, while the yet fluid or semifluid interior went on contracting by the compara- 
tively gradual escape of its heat into space through the solid crust, a state of tension 
may thereby have been induced, such as that in the " Rupert drop," and that the 
crust may have at last given way with such violence as to cause the fragments to 
part company, and so pass whirling off into orbits slightly varying from each other, 
according to corresponding variations in the condition of each at the instant of 
rupture. 

The remarkable fact that the orbits of these asteroids have one common node or 

Ct of coincidence causes us to look to some such explanation as has thus been 
rded, and which perhaps may be entitled, in the mean time, to fill up a gap until 
supplanted by a better explanation. 



Drawings to illustrate Recent Observations on Nebula. By As Earl 
of Rosse. With Remarks by Rev. Dr. Robinson. 

Dr. Robinson stated that he had examined the drawings, which contain care- 
ful delineations of several nebulae not previously examined, and certainly the 
contemplation of them was well fitted to increase the obligations of the astrono- 
mical world to Lord Rosse, as well as to fill every mind with astonishment at the 
wondrous revelations of bis matchless telescope. Each of them was a new proof of 
a former statement of his, that this instrument would probably disclose forms of 
stellar arrangement, indicating modes of dynamic action never before contemplated 
in celestial mechanics. He referred to the drawings of M. 51, in which the spiral 
or vorticose arrangement of the stars and unresolved nebulas was first remarked in 
its simplest form ; and to others already published, .where it presents itself under 
conditions of greater complexity. He also referred to the important fact that the 
class of planetary nebulae might now be fairly assumed to have no existence, as all 
of them which have been examined prove to be either annular or of a spiral charac- 
ter. Thus M. 97, which was considered by Sir J. Herschal the finest specimen of 
them, and seemed even in his 18-inch reflector a uniform disc, presents in the six- 
feet a most intricate group of spiral arcs, disposed round two starry centres, looking 
like the visage of a monkey. Among the new ones are H. 2241. It is a ring of 
stars with a faint nebula within, and a fine double star near its edge ; H. 2075, of the 
tame kind, but with a bright star almost exactly central, and nine others round it, 
evidently part of the same group. H. 450 is a most extraordinary object ; the ring 
exactly circular, its light mottled and flickering, and within it what is evidently a 
globular cluster. Scarcely less surprising, but more magnificent from its association, 
is the planets ry at the edge of M. 46, which he had seen, though in a night not so 
favourable as that must have been when the drawing was made. It is a resolvable 
double ring, rather spiral, with a central star ; and from the improbability of two 
objects so rare as a splendid cluster, and one of these compound rings being eataa% 
connected, it seems reasonable to think they constitute one system. The double 
star, « Ononis, belongs also to this class, and he called attention to the absolute 
darkness of the aperture in the nebula round the two stars, and that the larger of 
them was at its edge instead of being central. He argued, from the remarkable dif- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 28 

ference between these objects as seen in the telescopes of Lord Rosse (even the three- 
feet) and those of previous observers, how desirable it was that a complete review 
of the nebulae should be made without loss of time. Even now much labour and 
talent were expended in theorizing on the imperfect data given by instruments, which 
though matchless in their time nave now been surpassed. Among others he di- 
rected the notice of the Section to H. 604, where the two clusters and the associated 
spirals are projected into ellipses ; and to H. 2205, in which the long- resolved ray, being 
the most intense, was alone seen by Herschel, but the magnificent spirals and their 
central stars escaped him. M. 65, H. 857, appear to be helices seen obliquely. 
But the most curious one is M. 33, of which die centre is a triple star disposed as 
an equilateral triangle among a mass of smaller, from which proceed eight or nine 
spirals ; and round all is an enormous nebula, in which however no spiral character 
•had yet been traced. 

There were several examples of another singular system, nebula? streaked with 
dark bands, such as Bond discovered in the great nebula of Andromeda. H. 399, a 
wisp ; H« 1393, a long ray of most marvellous appearance ; H. 218, an oblique with 
sixteen or seventeen dark transverse stripes) and H. 315, having in the nebula a 
cluster nearly insulated by offsets from the broad curved dark band, are among the 
most surprising. But tie number of these curious objects was so great that 
time would only permit him to invite attention to H. 1052 and 1053, where the 
cause of spirality had been interrupted by some other forces that bent the system at 
a right angle and drew the nebula into a straight ray ; to H. 444, a double resolved 
nebula inclosed in a large and faint oval ring ; and above all to M. 27, the " Dumb 
Bell " nebula as shown by the six-feet, with its brilliant two clusters of comparatively 
large stars, its dark bands and the faint rings which surround it differing even more 
from the picture of the three-feet than that does from the figure of Herschel. 

In the name of the Section he thanked Lord Rosse, not merely for the pleasure 
which they received from the sight of these wonders, but for the unremitted and 
precious gifts which he was conferring on astronomy. Would he also increase their 
gratitude by mentioning any improvements which he might have lately made in the 
methods of suspending these large specula? in their tubes or in the process of polish- 
ing, the latter with reference to the possibility of its being practised with success by 
persons who had not the long experience and mechanical knowledge of his Lordship r 

Lord Rosse adverted to the peculiar conditions of equilibrium which must prevail 
in these systems, or rather to the forces which are required to produce the peculiar 
constitution which they indicate, and pointed out the difficulties of such an investi- 
gation. It could however not be undertaken with advantage till we possess a much 
more extended collection of data, to which he would contribute to the utmost of his 
power. These drawings were based on measures carefully taken with a bar-micro- 
meter (the only one available in such cases), and he believed they might be trusted. 
He had already described the improvement effected by supporting the speculum on 
its lever by eighty-one balls, and mentioned the striking fact, that with a speculum 
weighing 3£ tons a slight pressure of the hand would deform for a time the image 
of a star. He had since effected a further improvement by supporting the edge of 
the speculum in a hoop mounted in jimmals. As to polishing, he had recently made 
many experiments with 3-feet specula in reference to the object of Dr. Robinson's 
question, and in particular had found, that, by increasing the speed of the second ex- 
centric in his machine, the process was rendered so much more certain, that desiring 
one of his workmen, a smith, to perform the whole process without any superintend- 
ence on his part, he produced a speculum, not perhaps absolutely perfect, but capable 
of doing excellent work. He had no doubt that any person of ordinary mechanical 
capacity would be able to do as much with a little instruction, and he would be most 
willing to give that instruction to any observer that might be placed in charge of a 
large reflector. • 



24 REPORT—I 852. 

Meteorology. 

Account of a remarkable Case of Mirage. By Sir David Brewster, KM^ 
D.CX^ F.R.S., $ VJP.R.S. Edinb. 

On the 21st of August, 1851, Miss F. £. went out on a drive with Mrs. and Miss 
H., and leaving them in the carriage, climbed to the top of the Mynydd, a high and 
steep hill, rising about 500 feet above the valley of New Radnor, the summit round 
and bare, the ground firm. 

It was about half- past 2 p.m., and there was a bright hot sun. 

After picking some flowers on the top of the hill, she went to a spot whence she 
could see the road, the carriage and the ladies, and waved to them her " victorime" 
which she held in her hand. Then, turning, she suddenly perceived a figure at the 
distance of a few yards from her. It was standing on a wet spot, where there was 
a little thin mist (probably steam) rising, and wavered a little, never remaining still ; 
for which reason she did not think it was a real figure, though she says it had " a great 
deal of bulk," It was on a level with herself, and formed a species of triangle with 
herself and the sun, F. looking towards the sun, but not directly to it. She thought 
at first that the figure might be a delusion ; it stood exactly facing her, and she first 
discovered it to be her own image by perceiving that, like herself, it held a " victo- 
rine" and bunch of flowers in its hand. She moved the hand with the nosegay, and 
the figure did the same. The dress and the flowers were precisely similar to her 
own, and the colours as vivid as in the reality. She could see the colouring and 
the flesh ; it was like looking at herself in a looking-glass. 

She stood looking at and examining it for two or three minutes ; then, becoming 
frightened, turned away from the figure and ran straight down the side of the hill 
(which, though covered with turf, is of almost perpendicular steepness) without look- 
ing behind her, to Mrs. and Miss H., to whom she said that she had "had such a 
strange companion on the hill — herself." There was no mist around her when she 
saw the figure ; it hung only over the one spot. 

Miss H. said, that she and her sister-in-law had remained in the carriage. Look- 
ing up, she saw two figures on the top of the hill against the sky, at a few yards' 
distance from each other. Being short-sighted, and the distance considerable, she 
could distinguish nothing but this fact, and merely observed, that she wondered 
what companion F. had met with. She then turned to talk to her companion, and 
thought no more about the matter, until F. came running to them, considerably 
alarmed, to tell them what she had seen. Mrs. H. saw the two figures as well as 
her sister-in-law. 

A little servant-boy who was with the carriage, saw F. run down the hill, falling 
repeatedly, and appearing much frightened. 

Miss F. E. returned a few days after to the same spot to see whether the appear- 
ance would be renewed, but has never seen it again. 

The figure, of Miss £., thus distinctly seen by herself and others, was obviously 
produced by reflexion from the mass of vapour rising from the wet ground on which 
she stood. Sir David Brewster stated, on the authority of direct experiment, that 
when the particles of vapour are sufficiently small, such as that produced by breathing 
on a glass surface of nearly the same temperature as the breath, the surface of the 
vapour reflects as distinct a picture as if it were the surface of water. The vapour 
surface must have been considerably extended in the direction of Mrs. H.'s carriage 
in order that the reflected rays might reach it. 



On certain Phenomena of Diffraction. By Sir David Brewster, K.H^ 
D.CJL., F.R.S., $ V.P.R.S. Edinb. 

In this communication the author pointed out some new and interesting pheno- 
mena which he had observed. The diffracting body tapers like the point of a very fine 
needle, which will be understood from the figure, which very imperfectly represents 
the internal and external fringes as produced by a needle-point like MN. The ex- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 25 

tonal fringes are represented by nm, a*V, and are convex outwards, or parallel to the 
m ' ,„ sides of the point MN. The internal fringes, 

? * ' ftHL A iWL ** 8Ccn b 7 Grimaldi *nd Dr. Young, are shown 

s% ltil\ $RM by ^ e p black lines between A •"'d B « 

A ^JErfiw f/ftuU Tbes 6 internal fringes, however, I have ob- 

AB WmAi \lf/WC served extending far beyond the shadow in 

■ M fine hyperbolic curves, as shown between o 

II /flBSoIl KBfflj and n, and o' and />'. They intersect the ev- 

il ' -3^ Khq ^ ' enMI ' °nes, and give them the appearance 

B B °f •ceio* or twitted cords. In homogeneous 

N W light, where the fringes are alternately dark 

- and coloured, the dark fringes are dark at 

their intersections, and the coloured ones coloured. 

When the needle-point is illuminated by the spectrum, and the fringes viewed by 
a lens, which is necessary to see them, we require to approach the lens to the fringes 
si's 1 on the violet side of the spectrum, and to withdraw it on the red side, in order 
to see them distinctly. When this experiment is made with great care, I have 
counted twenty external fringes on each side of the shadow, which may always be 
seen most distinctly by looking through the margin of the lens. 

When the diffracting body is an exceedingly small wire with parallel sides, the 
internal fringes extend far beyond the shadow, mingling with the external ones, and 
completely altering their colours and forms. 

The internal fringes beyond the shadow, like those in it, disappear by intercepting 
the light with a screen on the opposite side of the diffracting body. 

In former notices on certain dark bands in the spectrum, the author noticed that 
they resembled screws or twitted lines; and he infers from the preceding experi- 
ments, that these bands may have a similar origin, that is, that they may be pro- 
duced by the intersection of two systems of bands, or by portions of bands produced 
by the ragged or uneven edge of the diffracting body. 

In this communication Sir David stated that the bands which in former notices he 
had considered as indicating an apparent polarity of light, were merely the internal 
diffraction fringes produced by the edge of the plate, displaced, according to M. Arago's 
discovery, by the retarding action of the plate itself, and rendered visible through 
the action of the prism in one position of the edge more than another. He had seen 
the fringes under various circumstances, whether the diffracting edge was towards the 
red or blue side of the spectrum, never having any dependence on the aperture of the 
pupil or of the object-glass. ^___ 

On four simultaneous Experiments in the Island of Bombay to determine the 
Fall of Rain at different Heights below WO feet. By Dr. G. Buist. Com- 
municated by Col. Sykes. 

Dr. Buist gave the details of the means which he adopted to ensure accurate re- 
sults. No satisfactory conclusion could be drawn, because the gauges at the several 
heights below and at 200 feet did not give uniform results ; sometimes the most 
elevated gauges having the greatest fail of rain, and at other times the lower 
gauges having the greatest quantity. Nor did gauges at similar heights receive the 
same quantity of rain. 

On Atmospheric Daily and Yearly Fluctuations, By Dr. G. Buist. 

The object of the author was to show from the annual and daily oscillations of 
the barometer south of latitude 44° N., that the usually received opinion, that "the 
annual range of the barometer increased and that the daily fluctuations decreased as 
the equator was receded from/' was met by so many instances to the contrary aa 
to go far to invalidate the rule. Dr. Buist supplies a list of twenty-five stations 
from lat. 43° 30/ N. to lat. 42° 52' S„ in which the annual and daily ranges of the 
barometer are given for the year, and for the summer and winter months. With 
the exception, however, of Aden, Toronto, St. Helena, and Hobart Town, the stations 
are confined to the continent of India and within 22 J degrees of latitude north of the 



86 report— 1852. 

equator ; and many of the stations are at very different derations, which it is 
known affects both the annual and the daily oscillations. Dr. Buist in his paper 
discusses the exceptional cases to the supposed rule, and recommends them for 
scientific consideration. 



Communication from the Smithsonian Institution 4 on the Plan adopted for 
investigating the Meteorology of North America' 

Col. Sabine read a letter from Prof. Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution. 
Accompanying the letter was a set of charts to illustrate the plan adopted by the 
Institution. They gave the atmospheric changes in pressure, temperature, and 
wind during a storm which commenced at the close of January 1851. The prin- 
cipal object of this communication was to cause the British Association to procure 
the establishment of a series of observations in the British possessions on that con- 
tinent which may serve as an extension of those proceeding under the direction of 
the Smithsonian Institution. The general plan is that originally proposed by Prof. 
Mitchell of North Carolina, and used successfully by Prof. Loomis in the study of 
two storms which occurred some years since. It consists in ascertaining the changes 
of the several meteorological elements from the mean of the month In which the 
storm occurs, and delineating on a series of charts all the phases and movements of 
the atmosphere from the beginning of the disturbance to its end. As many of the 
instruments used had not been compared and were not of the most improved con- 
struction, it had been feared that no reliable results could be obtained. But this is not 
the case : though the absolute mean temperature and pressure are not obtained, yet 
facts of equal, if not greater interest, are deducible, namely, the change* from a 
normal state. Thus the average (say for a month) can be deduced with sufficient 

}>recision to afford important practical deductions. Though the aero-points may be 
n error several divisions of the respective scales, they may give with sufficient accu- 
racy the changes which occur at a given time, and thus furnish reliable data for de- 
termining the dynamic phenomena of the atmosphere, though Inadequate to furnish 
statistical meteorological elements. The whole number of observers immediately 
under the direction of this Institution is about two hundred ; and a hope was ex- 
pressed that the British Association and the Royal Society would aid by their co- 
operation in extending the system by establishing corresponding observations in Her 
Majesty's possessions in America. 

On the Aurora. By Lieut W. H. H. Hooper. 

The author believes the aurora borealis to be moisture in some shape (whether dew 
or vapour, liquid or frozen), illumined by the heavenly bodies, either directly or 
reflecting their rays from the frozen masses around the pole, or even from the imme- 
diately proximate snow-clad earth. This opinion he endeavoured to support by 
facts and argument. 

Notes on the Meteorology of Ireland, deduced from the Observaticms made at 
the Coast-guard Stations under the directum of the Royal Irish Academy. 
By the Rev. H. Lloyd, DJ)^ F.R.S. 

In the year 1850 an application was made by the Royal Irish Academy to the 
Government, requesting that meteorological and tidal observations should be made 
by the officers of the Coast-guard Service, according to a prearranged plan* at cer- 
tain selected stations on the coasts of Ireland, the Academy undertaking to furnish 
the instruments and the instructions for their use. This application was promptly 
acceded to by the Government ; and in the course of the same year meteorological 
instruments, previously compared with the standards belonging to the Dublin Mag- 
netical Observatory, were conveyed to the several stations, and tide-gauges of a new 
construction were erected. All the stations were subsequently visited by Members 
of the Council of the Royal Irish Academy, who undertook the task of placing and 
adjusting the instruments, and of training the observers in their use. At the si 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. flj] V T T» * « r -• - 

II */ *< X v Hi j,\ £ i . 

time an application was made to the Board of Trinity College, a&d/fer f&HHeadfr tff „., * 
the Queen's Colleges of Belfast, Cork and Gal way, requesting their^pWcaiiCji fa*"^ ^ x \'~\ 
the meteorological observations ; and a similar application was addressed »~^-~ rftmin~ * * * ^ 
son and Mr. Cooper, and to several private individuals who were known to be in- 
terested in meteorological inquiries. These applications were, for the most part, 
cheerfully acceded to, and the observations, upon the plan laid down by the Academy, 
were commenced everywhere before the close of the year. 

Dr. Lloyd having been requested by the Council of the Academy to superintend 
the reduction of the meteorological observations, some of the principal results to 
which he has been conducted are given in the present communication. 

The first point to which he invited the attention of the Section was the distribution 
of mean temperature in Ireland at the different seasons of the year. On an exami- 
nation of the mean monthly temperatures at the several stations, it was found that 
those of the inland stations (Armagh, Markree, Portarlington and A thy) were in defect, 
as compared with the corresponding coast stations ; the defect being (as might be 
expected) least in summer and greatest in winter. The daily and yearly ranges of 
temperature are, of course, greater at the inland than at the coast stations. 

Upon examination of the results at the coast stations, it is found that there is a 
decrease of mean yearly temperature, in proceeding northward, amounting to 3 0, 5 ; 
the mean temperature at Castletownsend being 52°*2, and that of Buncrana 48°*7. 
The rate of decrease is about 1° in 80 geographical miles. 

Again, there is a decrease of mean yearly temperature, although not so rapid, in 
proceeding eastward. Thus from Weatport to Dublin, places nearly in the same 
parallel of latitude, the decrease of temperature is 1°'3 ; the mean rate of decrease 
in proceeding eastward being about 1° in 130 geographical miles. In consequence 
of this variation, the mean temperature of the western coast of the island exceeds 
that of the eastern by about 2°. 

The following are the angles which the isothermal lines form with the meridian 
at the several seasons of the year : — 

Spring S. 63° E. 

Summer N. 77° E. 

Autumn S. 27° E. 

Winter S. 47° E. 

It thus appears that the direction of the isothermal* makes a wide oscillation in the 
course of the year, viz. through an angle of about 80°, their mean direction for the 
entire year being S. 67° E. It appears, further, that their two extreme positions are 
in the consecutive seasons of summer and autumn. 

The latter conclusion, startling as it is at first sight, is completely explained by the 
form and annual movement of the isothermal lines, as shown in Dove's maps. In 
fact, there is a rapid flexure of these lines in the neighbourhood of the British 
islands in the autumn and winter months, the lines (as we follow them eastward) 
first tending to the N.E., and then, after a sudden bend, taking a S.E. course. Now 
this flexure, which is due to the influence of the Gulf-stream, begins to manifest itself 
in the month of September, and the maximum advances westward with the advance 
of the season ; so that the ascending and descending branches of the curve pass 
through Ireland at a short interval. It is to this flexure that we owe, in this country, 
the mildness of our winter .climate. 

The next point connected with the meteorology of Ireland referred to by Dr. Lloyd, 
was the mean elasticity of vapour and the mean humidity, The maximum elastic 
force of vapour occurs, as might have been expected, at the southern stations, 
Cahirciveen and Castletownsend; and the minimum at the northern, Buncrana and 
Armagh. The mean elastic force of vapour in Ireland, during the year 1851, was 
•314 of an inch of mercury ; and the extreme variation depending on position was 
•046. 

If we divide the actual elasticity of vapour by the maximum elastic force com. 
sponding to the temperature, we obtain the measure of the humidity. The humidity 
is, as we know, very great in Ireland ; its mean yearly value for the whole of Ireland 
being *86. The driest stations are, as might be expected, on the eastern coast, and 
the most humid on the western. 



28 REPORT — 1852. 

The total amount of raw, at the several stations, for the year 1851, is as follows : — 

Station. Rain in inches. 

<«*—<« \Killough 23-2 

f Dublin 26-4 

25-3(J Ath y • 26 ' 7 

25 J0 1 Donaghadee 27*9 

ICourtown 29*6 

fKilrush 32'6 

30-35J Arma « b 331 

W— <5D< j^uy^gg 33.2 

(JDanmore 33*5 

•«_ -in/ p °rtnish 37-2 

do— *"\ B uncrana 39*3 

40^45/ Markree 40 * 3 

4u— **>\Castletownsend 425 

45—50.. .Westport 45*9 

50 — 60...Cahirciveen 59*4 

It will be seen from the foregoing table — 

1. That there is great diversity in the yearly amount of rain at the different sta- 
tions, all of which (excepting four) are but a few feet above the sea-level ; the 
greatest rain (at Cahirciveen) being nearly three times as great as the least (at 
Portarlington). 

2. That the stations of least rain are either inland or on the eastern coast; while 
those of greatest rain are at or near the western coast. 

3. That the amount of rain is greatly dependent on the proximity of a mountain 
chain or group, being always considerable in such neighbourhood, unless the station 
lie to the N.E. of the same. 

The author illustrated this last position by reference to the map prepared by 
Captain Larcom, at the instance of the Land-tenure Commissioners, in which degrees 
of elevation, differing by 250 feet, are distinguished by different shades of colour. 
Thus, Portarlington lies to the N.E. of Slieve-bloom, Killough N.E. of the Mourne 
range, Dublin N.E. of the Dublin and Wicklow range, and s,o on. On the other 
hand, the stations of greatest rain, Cahirciveen, Castletownsend, Westport, &c. are 
in the vicinity of high mountains, but on a different side. 

If we assume the proportion of rain at the different stations to be constant, or 
nearly so, the preceding numbers may all be reduced to their mean values by multi- 
plying by the factor, which expresses the relation of the rain of 1851 to the mean at 
any one station. The following table gives the yearly fall of rain in Dublin for the 
last eleven years :— 

Year. Rain in inches. Year. Rain in inches. 

1841 27*05 1847 25-80 

1842 28*08 1848 34*11 

1843 27*71 1849 29*80 

1844 28*38 1850 24*16 

1845 31*49 1851 26*40 

1846 3609 

Mean.... 29*01 

On this assumption, therefore, the mean yearly rain at any station will be found 

C29*01\ 
== 26*40 /' ^ e 
greatest mean monthly fall of rain in Dublin occurs in October, and its amount is 
3*34 inches; the least mean monthly rain is in February, its amount being 1*74 
inches. 

The last point adverted to by Dr. Lloyd, as deduced from these observations, was 
the evidence which they afford of the frequent occurrence of cyclonic movements in 
the atmosphere. The observations being simultaneous at all the stations, such 
movements are at once detected by a comparison of the directions of the wind at the 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 29 

same moment at the different stations ; and it thus appears that the rotatory move- 
ment of the air, which constitutes a cyclone, is by no means confined to tne more 
violent currents, but may be traced even in the gentlest breeze. The author con- 
cluded with some remarks on the physical characters of these aerial movements ; 
"and he showed in what manner the results of observation should be combined by 
the method of least squares, so as to deduce the direction and velocity of the centre 
of the vortex. 





Monthly Amount of Rain from the Register, 


Armagh Observatory. 




Anno. 


Jan. 


F*. Mar. 

i 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


Dec. 


Days on 

which 

rain Ml. 


Sum of 
rain. 




Inch. 


inch. 1 inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


inch. 






1840. 


4*035 


3751 ! 0*403 


0700 


3*035 


3*501 


8*154 


3*050 


3*434 


1*360 


3*448 


3*818 


101 


30*1Q3 


1841. 


3-004 


3-385 ' 3*049 
3730 4*330 


1-099 


1*549 3*597 


3*353 


3*890 


3*314 


4*001 


3*034 


3-603 


190 


31-858 


1842. 


*7©4 


0*033 


4*070 I 3*419 


3*009 


8*970 


3*850 


1-977 


4700 


8*005 


191 


34*800 


1843. 


3*345 1*209 1*930 


38 

8*150 


3*944 ' 3*314 


4*100 


3*841 


1*223 


3*905 


3*188 


2*243 


183 


34*311 


1844. 


9*090 3*339 8*888 
4*985 , 1*330 1*033 


0*043 I 4*472 


3*300 


3*007 


9*330 


4*351 


3*002 


0*533 


180 


30*487 


1845. 


0*391 5*500 


8*088 


1*877 


3*839 


4*841 


4*755 


6*350 


189 


41*333 


1840. 


4*579 i 1*804 < 3*793 


3-848 


1*084 8-104 


3*854 


3*551 


3*353 , 4*931 


3*397 


1*033 


180 


87007 


1847. 


3*087 : 1*974 


1*401 


3*147 


3*483 • 1*913 


1*083 


1*096 


3-005 3*778 


8*775 


6*850 


310 


33*358 


184& 


1*807 ' 0754 


8*709 


3*330 


1*339 3733 


3*930 


3*470 


3*379 


3*147 


8*098 


3-011 


381 


39*318 


1840. 


0*303 3*507 


1*483 


3*091 


3*004 ! 0*870 


3*977 


9*891 


8*554 


4*387 


3*730 


3*360 


330 


87*048 


1890. 


4*083 . 5*085 


1*335 


3*507 


3*414 ' 9*371 


8*143 


37«0 


3711 


3*340 


3*314 


3*403 


338 


86*134 


1851. 


6*538 3*837 


3*547 


1*538 


1*915 . 3-453 


3*055 


3*809 


3*438 


3*808 


1*406 


3*113 


333 


39-136 


Mom. 


3749 3*879 | 3*433 


3-335 


3-330 3-803 


8*191 


3*831 


3'580 


3*484 


3*353 


W*i| 





On the Fata Morgana of Ireland. By Mr. M'Farland. 

These singular illusions are termed in the Irish language Duma Feadhreagh, or 
Fairy Castles. As proof that the Morgana had appeared as an island, either resting 
or floating on the sea prior to 1185, Mr. M' Far land read a passage from the topo- 
graphical history of that country, by Giraldus Cambrensis (lib. ii. c. 12). He then 
referred to the " Miranda loca, quae vidit St. Brandanus in Oceano," to which Usher 
alludes in his ' De Hibernia' (p. 813), and quoted an unpublished History of Ire- 
land, composed about 1636 (and now remaining in MS. in the Library of the 
Royal Irish Academy at Dublin), that speaks of an " Hand which lyeth far att. sea, 
on the west of Connaught, and sometimes is perceived by the inhabitants of the 
Owles and Iris ; also from St. Helen Head, beyond the haven of Calbeggs (Killibegs, 
Donegal). Likewise, severall seamen have discovered it att sea as they have sailed 
on the western coasts of Ireland." Mr. M'Farland also read from the Chronogra- 
phical Description of Connaught, written in 1684, by Roderick O'Flagherty, and 
published by the Irish Archaeological Society, in which it is recorded (p. 68), that, 
" From the Isles of Arran and the West continent, often appears visible that en- 
chanted island, called O'Branil, and in Irish Beg-ara, or the Sessen Arran, set down 
in cards of navigation. * * There is, westward of Arran, in sight of the next conti- 
nent, Skerde, a wild island of huge rocks ; these sometimes appear to be a great city 
far off, full of houses, castles, towers, and chimneys ; sometimes full of blazing flames, 
smoke, and people running to and fro. Another day you would see nothing but a 
number of ships, with their sailes and riggings ; then so many great stakes or reekes 
of corn and turf." Mr. M'Farland next cited the ' History of the Parish of Ramoan 
(Bally castle)/ by the Rev. Wm. Conolly (1812), in which it is stated, that the 
author had received a minute description of the Fata Morgana from several persons 
who saw it, on different summer evenings, along the shore of the Giant's Causeway ; 
shadows resembling castles, ruins and tall spires darted rapidly across the surface of 
the sea, which were instantly lengthened into considerable height ; they moved to the 
eastern part of the horizon, and at sunset totally disappeared. This work makes 
mention of an earlier one (of 1748), by a gentleman who resided near the Causeway, 
and which presented a long account of an enchanted island, annually seen floating 
along the coast of Antrim. Reference was afterwards made to ' Plumptree's Nar- 
rative' (of 1817), as showing that, at Rathlin — a considerable island opposite to 
Balrycastle— -a belief then prevailed, that a green island rose every seventh year, out 



80 REPORT — 1852. 

of the sea, between it and the promontory of Bengore ; the inhabitants asserting that 
many of them had distinctly seen it, crowded with people selling yarn, and en- 
gaged in various other occupations common to a fair. The notes to the second book 
of Dr. Drammond'8 poem on the ' Causeway' were also glanced at, as containing an 
account of other cases of the Fata Morgana, by the Bushfoot Strand and Tor-point. 
So, a person still living (and whose name, ficc. were given) conceived that he had a 
sight of the floating isle off Fair- Head ; that it seemed to be well -wooded j and that 
he could distinguish upon it the forms of buildings, and a woman laying out clothes. 
Mr. M'Farland then mentioned that, in June 1833, he himself and a party of friends, 
when standing on a rock at Portbalintrea, perceived a small roundish island as if in 
the act of emerging from the deep, at a distance of a mile from the shore ; at first it 
appeared but as a green field, afterwards it became fringed with red, yellow and 
blue ; whilst the forms of trees, men and cattle rose upon it slowly and successively ; 
and these continued for about a quarter of an hour, distinct in their outlines, shape 
and colour ; the figures, too, seemed to walk across it, or wandered among the trees, 
the ocean bathed it around, the sun shone upon it from above ; and all was fresh, 
fair, and beautiful, till the sward assumed a shadowy form, and its various 
objects, mingling into one confused whole, passed away as strangely as they came. 
Further, Morgana had occasionally assumed the semblance of a beautiful bridge 
that spanned the Sound between the Skerry rocks and the strand at Pbrtrush, 
and having people passing and repassing over it. A particular instance of 
this Was stated, as well as of the appearance of the sea, at Ballintoy, of what 
resembled a city with its streets, houses, spires, &c. Two occasions were then spe- 
cified, in which the Fata had been seen in the sky — the one in the summer of 1847, 
over the Ferry at Lough Foyle, and the other on the 14th of December 1850, near 
to the Bann mouth; and in the course of which the images of troops, ships, &c. 
were reflected on the clouds. Four other cases of the Aerial Morgana were adduced, 
as witnessed about the town and coast of Waterford in 1644, and at the close of the 
last and commencement of the present centuries, and taken from the ' Voyages and 
Observations' of M. le Gown, Brewer's " Beauties of Ireland " (vol. ii. p. 307, n.), 
and the 13th volume of the Phil. Mag., Old Series. Mr. M'Farland considered that 
these various exhibitions of the Fata Morgana might all be accounted for by apply- 
ing to those parts of the coast on which they had been displayed, the theories of 
Minasi and M. Honel, as advanced by them in explanation of similar phssnomena 
seen on and about the Strait of Messina. The Northern Channel of Ireland presents, 
to a very great degree, the same data as regards shape, indentations, currents, and 
bitumen, as that strait does, and on which their theories rest ; and he believed that, 
to some extent at least, so did the sea in the neighbourhood of the isles of Arran 
and town of Waterford. Where the Marine Morgana was found, the Aerial might 
be expected, and the Prismatic was a mere corollary to the first. 



On the Causes of the Excess of the Mean Temperature of Rivers above that of 
the Atmosphere, recently observed by M. Kenou. By W. J. Macquorn 
Rankinb, CJB* F.R.SM. 

M. Renou having for four years observed the temperature of the River Loir at 
Venddme, as compared with that of the atmosphere, has found that the mean tem- 
perature of the river invariably exceeds that of the air, by an amount varying from 
1$ to 3 Centigrade degrees, and averaging 2°' 24 Centigrade ; and a similar result has 
been deduced from observations made by M. Oscar Valin on the Loire at Tours. 
M. Renou and M. Babinet account for this fact by the re-radiation from the bed of 
the river of solar heat previously absorbed by it. 

Mr. Rankine thinks this supposition inadequate to account for the facts ; because 
the excess of temperature of the river over the air was considerably above its mean 
amount in November, and very near its maximum in December ; and because the 
mean diurnal variation of temperature of the river was much less than that of 
the air. He considers that friction is probably one cause of this elevation of 
temperature ; for if water descends in a uniform channel, with a uniform 
velocity, from a higher level to a lower, the whole power due to its descent is 
expended in overcoming friction ; that is to say, is converted into heat, as the cxpe- 



TRANSACTIONS OF THB SECTIONS. SI 

riments of Mr. Joule have proved. This mast cause an elevation of temperature, 
which will go on until the loss of heat by radiation, conduction, and evaporation 
balances the gain by friction, and at this point the temperature of the river will 
remain stationary. 

Meteorological Summary for 1851, at Huggate, near Pochlington. 
By the Rev. T. Rankin. 

This, as usual, contained a summary for the year of the thermometer, barometer, 
hygrometer, rain-gauge, atmospheric waves, winds, aurora, and meteors observed 
at Huggate. It also contained a brief notice of eclipses. 



On an Aurora observed at Huggate. By the Rev. T. Rankin. 



On the Aurora Borealis. By Rear- Admiral Sir John Ross. • 

This explanation of auroras is the same as that which was formerly given by Sir 
John Ross at the Dublin Meeting in 1835. 



On the Formula for the Wethulh Thermometer. By Capt. Strachey. 

The author stated objections to the .principle on which Or. Apjohn's formula 
had been investigated \ affirmed that this formula was found not applicable to 
the high temperatures and dew-points observed in India, and proposed a correction 
in that part of the process whicn involves the difference of the number of degrees 
of the dry and wet bulbs. _____ 

On Tropical Hurricanes. By Dr. J. Taylor. 

The author began by stating the observed facts as to these hurricanes. They 
begin from 10° to 20° from the equator, but are not observed at it. A hot, sultry 
and calm state of the atmosphere, with a low barometric pressure, indicates their 
occurrence, or immediately precedes them. The force of the wind increases as the 
centre of the area over which the action of the hurricane extends is approached. 
The author then pointed out the inconsistency of the theory of Mr. Espy and other 
American philosophers with the facts observed, and particularly that a ship situ- 
ated in a storm of the structure which that theory supposed would find the wind to 
bear in either direction indifferently in the northern or the southern hemisphere, 
which ia contrary to experience) for the direction of the whirl in the northern 
hemisphere is always contrary to the motion of the hands of a watch j while in the 
southern it was as constantly in the same direction for the true cyclone. He stated 
his conviction that the opinion which is alone consistent with all the facts is, that 
the movement of the air is one of revolution round a central space which is itself in 
a state of progressive motion ; and that the direction of the rotatory movement is 
invariable in the same hemisphere. The author then sketched the causes which 
might give rise to such a rotatory movement ; particularising the hypothesis of Dove 
and others, viz. that of contending currents, and showing its utter incompetence } 
and proceeded to give the theory which he proposed of them, viz. that the partial 
vacuum indicated by the low state of the barometer over the area of the storm, and 
particularly towards the vortex, is not the effect of centrifugal force, but the original 
cause of the movement, by inducing a translation of air from beyond the boundary of 
the partial vacuum inward towards its centre, — a motion which would occur in directly 
converging right lines were the earth and air at rest ; but the earth being in motion, 
and therefore the area of the hurricane turning round with regard to its own centre, 
the velocity of such movement being greater for a particle of air at a distance from 
that centre than for one nearer, as the particles approach it, they retain their greater 
velocities, and thus move not in radial lines, but in diminishing circles or spirals 
round the centre, which would be the case were the particles of air only to retain 
their primitive velocity of rotation ; but by the principle of the conservation of areas, 
the velocity would increase more and more as the centre of the vortex was approached. 



32 report — 1852. 

The author then traced the consequences of such combined motions, by supposing the 
disturbance to commence first around one of the poles of the earth, and then by 
tracing the change of circumstances which must take place in other latitudes ; and 
asserted, that by calculating by these suppositions, using as data the well-ascertained 
dimensions of the area over which cyclones extended, a relative movement of the air 
over the earth, even greater than any that had ever been observed in violent hurri- 
canes, might result. He concluded by showing how an experiment which he had 
prepared might be performed, so as to exhibit the more striking effects of a hurricane 
m water, by giving a whirling motion to a wide vessel of water furnished with a 
valve in the bottom, at a distance from the axis, which could be withdrawn. He 
also stated his conviction, that the phenomena of sea and land breezes would yet be 
found to partake of the rotatory character. 



Aurora Borealis observed at Su Ives, Hunts* By J. K. Watts. 

This is a record of four displays of the aurora on the 26th of March, 1851, and on 
the 19th and 21st of February, and the 21st of March, 1852. 



Miscellaneous. 
On an Instrument for Drawing. By Henry Twining. 

The use of the instrument is to assist in obtaining correct representations of ob- 
jects from nature, by pointing out the different angles at which they present them- 
selves to the eye, and by finding out the. vanishing points of their retiring sides. 

The instrument consists of a graduated semicircular plate placed horizontally 
on the top of a rod or pillar, so as to be raised or lowered at pleasure. Above 
this plate or dial is placed another having a vertical position, in connexion with 
which there is an index or needle, moving vertically on a pivot, and which 
serves to mark the elevation and the depression of any point above or below the 
horizon. Also connected with the horizontal plate or dial is another index, con* 
sisting of three branches or wires placed at right angles, and which is susceptible of 
a horizontal motion. Its position is immediately above the horizontal graduated 
plate. The straight side of this plate is placed parallel with the picture, the angular 
dimensions of which are marked on the graduated semicircle opposite. Hie cross 
wire of the index above the plate is then so directed, that, to the observer's eye, it 
will correspond exactly with a given line of any object in nature of which it is 
wished to obtain the direction, or, in other words, the inclination with reference to 
the plane of the picture. A plan recommended by Varley for attaining this purpose, 
is to give to one of the limbs of a jointed rule the inclination which any receding 
line in nature may appear to have to the eye ; but with the instrument now described 
we reverse the method, as it were, for we adjust the direction of a wire which is 
level, so as to correspond with the horizontal line of any retiring object, and then we 
find out, on the graduated plate connected with the wire, the exact position of the 
vanishing points of these objects, that is to say, those points to which their various 
horizontal lines converge. Thus the true inclination of all horizontal lines is 
obtained by finding out, in the first place according to a simple method, but which 
cannot here be fully detailed, the vanishing points of all level lines of objects. 

The advantages of this instrument may be considered to consist in accustoming 
the student to view the perspective of objects theoretically, and in a manner calcu- 
lated to impress its principles on the mind ; the horizontal plate and index serving 
to convey clear and precise notions of the relations of the vertical surfaces of objects 
to the plane of the canvas, whilst the vertical plate and needle serve to give the 
angular elevation and depression of objects, or their extension above or below the 
horizon ; a correct representation of nature, under various circumstances, requiring 
a perfect familiarity with both these principles. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 8ECTION8. 33. 

CHEMISTRY. 

On the Discovery of Minute Quantities of Soda by the Action of Polarized 
Light. By Professor Thomas Andrews, MJ)., MMJ.A., F.R.S., 
VJP. Queen's College, Belfast. 

The double chloride of potassium and platinum crystallizing in regular octahedrons, 
exercises, when placed m the dark field of the polariscope, no depolarising action ; 
and the same remark applies to the bichloride of platinum in consequence of its im- 
perfect crystallization. On the other hand, the chloride of sodium and platinum in 
thin crystalline plates is remarkable for its depolarizing power, and a trace of this salt, 
which, is invisible to the naked eye, may be at once detected by the brilliant display 
of prismatic colours which it exhibits under the action of polarised light The author 
applies this property to the detection of soda in the following way. The other bases 
having been removed by the ordinary methods, and the alkalies converted into chlo- 
rides, a drop of the solution is placed on a glass slide, and a very small quantity of 
a dilute solution of the bichloride of platinum added, avoiding as far as possible an 
excess of that reagent. The drop is then evaporated by a gentle heat till it begins to 
crystallize, and afterwards placed in the field of a microscope furnished with a good 
polarizing apparatus. On turning the analyser till the field becomes perfectly dark, 
and excluding carefully the entrance of light laterally, the crystals remain quite invi- 
sible if either potash alone or no alkali whatever be present ; while the presence of 
the slightest trace of soda is at once indicated by the depolarizing action of its pla- 
tinum compound. With a drop of solution of chloride of sodium, weighing 0*0015 
gramme, and containing } ~ of its weight of chloride of sodium, a very distinct 
effect was obtained. The quantity of soda thus detected was only tfjsSjSn °* * g Tamme > 
or about j^j^ of a grain. 

On the Atomic Weights of Platinum and Bariusn. 
By Professor T. Andrews, M.D^ MMJ^ F.R.S. 

No determination of the atomic weight of platinum having been made since the 
recent revision of atomic weights, and the number adopted by chemists for that metal 
resting on the authority of a single experiment of Berzelius, the author considered it 
of importance, on practical as well as theoretical grounds, to institute some new expe- 
riments on the subject. The salt of platinum selected was the double chloride of 
potassium and platinum, which, after being dried in vacuo at a temperature of 105° C, 
was decomposed by digestion with metallic zinc and a small quantity of water, the 
action being assisted by the application of heat towards the end of the -process. After 
the complete precipitation of the platinum and the formation of chloride of zinc from 
the decomposition of the double salt, the excess of zinc was removed by the addition, 
first of acetic and subsequently of nitric acid. The precipitated platinum was then 
removed by means of a small and carefully washed filter, and the amount of chlorine in 
the solution of chloride of zinc ascertained by Gay-Lussac's process, which has been 
of late so successfully applied by Pelouze to the determination of several other 
atomic weights. The double chloride of potassium and platinum was found to retain 
i^gfcdths of its weight of moisture, even when dried at a temperature considerably supe- 
rior to the boiling-point of water. In three experiments performed by this process, 
the numbers obtained were 98*93, 98-84, and 99*06; the mean number 98*94 ex- 
presses therefore the atomic weight of platinum. 

For the atomic weight of banum, the author obtained from two closely-accordant 
experiments the number 68*789, and concluded with some general observations as to 
the importance of a systematic series of experiments to settle, if possible, definitively, 
whether the law of Prout, that the atomic weights of all bodies are multiples of that 
of hydrogen, be universally true. He concluded by reading an interesting extract 
from a letter which he received from Baron Liehig :— '* It is not certain that Prout's 
law may not be true for oxygen, nitrogen and carbon, without it being necessary to 
assume, as a consequence, that other bodies behave similarly ; that is, their atomic 
weight must be exactly multiples by whole numbers of the atomic weight of hydrogen* 
The law is certainly not true of all bodies, but it may be true of certain croups, whose 
members, in respect to atomic weight, stand in a simple numerical relation to each 

1852. S 



34 report — 1852. 

other. The atomic weights of silicium, cobalt, strontium, tin, arsenic and lead, are in 
the same ratio as the numbers 1:2:3:4:5:7. We do not see the necessity of this 
relation, but only the possibility. Why should fractional numbers only occur, and not 
whole numbers also ? I consider these relations only as facts ; the law of the numbers 
themselves is quite unknown to us — as unknown as the absolute weights of the atoms." 

On the Microscopic Structure of certain Basaltic and Metamorphic Rocket 
and the Occurrence of Metallic Iron in them. By Professor T. Andrews, 
M.D.> MJRJ^i* FJR.S. 

If a thin splinter of basalt is viewed by reflected light in the field of a good micro- 
scope, it is seen to consist of a semitransparent granular mass, containing occasionally 
opake crystals of the magnetic oxide of iron and of iron pyrites. The former are easily 
recognized by their dark colour, metallic lustre, and the triangular and striated facets 
of the regular octahedron ; the latter, by their yellow colour and cubical form. The 
semitransparent portion which forms the great mass of the stone evidently consists of 
two distinct minerals ; one having a resinous lustre, and in microscopic characters 
closely resembling crystallized augite ; die other, colourless and with a glassy lustre, 
might be referred to certain varieties of felspar or of zeolite. These remarks apply 
to the compact varieties of basalt 

The metamorphic rock of Portrush — an indurated clay-slate containing the charac- 
teristic fossils of the lias formation, and in external characters closely resembling 
Lydian stone— exhibits under the microscope a very different appearance. It is 
formed, in fact, of a semitransparent paste of homogeneous structure, everywhere 
thickly studded with Innumerable microscopic cubes of iron pyrites. These crystals 
are very perfectly formed, but so minute that twenty of them may frequently bt 
counted in the space of y^dth part of a square inch, the sides of the crystals being on 
an average not more than TtrWbh of an inch in length. If a portion of any of these 
rocks be reduced, in a porcelain mortar, to a tolerably finer but not impalpable powder, 
and a magnet be passed several times through the powder, magnetic particles will be 
found adhering to the magnet, in greater or less abundance) according to the nature 
of the rock. On removing these magnetic particles and placing them in the field of 
the microscope, they exhibit distinct polarity and all the other characters of the mag- 
netic oxide of iron. This mineral may be separated by the above simple process, not 
only from basalt, but from granite) clay-slate, primitive limestone, hardened chalk, 
msgnesian limestone, and many metamorphic rocks. In short, it is one of the most 
widely- diffused minerals in nature, occurring in almost every rock which exhibits 
evidence of igneous action. The author was only able however to discover a doubtful 
trace in roofing-slate, serpentine and marble. 

After referring to the few instances in which metallic iron, not of meteoric origin, 
is alleged to have been observed, the author proceeded to describe the process by 
which he has succeeded in showing that native iron is by no means an uncommon 
constituent of basaltic rocks. The stone is first reduced to powder in a porcelain 
mortar, the use of metallic tools being carefully avoided in every part of the operation. 
The magnetic portions are then removed, as in the process for separating the oxide of 
iron, and placed in the field of the microscope. While in the field) they are moistened 
with an acid solution of sulphate of copper, which produces no change on the oxide, 
but immediately indicates the presence of the slightest trace of metallic iron by a 
deposition of metallic copper. On making this experiment, a deposit of copper occa- 
sionally occurred in irregular crystalline bunches, perfectly opake, and with the 
characteristic colour and lustre of that metal. With neutral solutions of the copper 
salt this deposit very rarely occurred, indicating either that the iron it covered witn a 
film of oxide, or that it is analogous in properties to the meteoric alloy which precipi- 
tates copper from acid, but not from neutral solutions. If instead of the copper 
solution dilute sulphuric acid be added to the magnetic particles, a slight effervescence 
at particular points frequently indicates the presence of the metallic iron ; and oh add- 
ing solution of copper while the disengagement of gas continues, the latter is suddenly 
arrested, and a bright deposit of metallic copper appears at the same points. The 
largest deposit of copper obtained was abont ¥ ^th of an ihch in diameter. The most 
abundant indications of metallic iron were obtained from a coarse-grained variety of 
basalt, which forms the hill of Slieve Mish in Antrim, and also occurs at the Maiden 
Rocks and other localities. Indications of its presence in the basalt of the Giant's 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 35 

Causeway, the lias slate of Portrusb, and the trachyte of Auvergne have also been 
obtained. 

This experiment is liable to the ambiguity that nickel and cobalt, in a state of very 
fine subdivision, also precipitate copper, and would also be extracted from a powder 
containing them by passing a magnet through it. The extreme improbability of 
either of these metals being present is such, that the author considers it scarcely to 
weaken the conclusions at which he has arrived. 



On the Results of Analysis of a Substance resembling the Pigolite of Professor 
Johnston. By Professor James Apjohn, M.D., M.R.I.A. 

Is the Mechanical Power capable of being obtained by a given Amount of 
Caloric employed in the production of Vapour independent of the Nature of 
the Liquids f By Professor James Apjohn, Hf.D. 9 M.R.I.A. 

On Glynn and Appel's Patent Paper for the prevention of Piracy and 
Forgery by the Anastatic Process. By Samuel Bateson. 

On Irish-bog Butter. By James S. Brazier, F.C.S. 

The substance bearing this name is found accidentally in the various boggy districts 
ot Ireland, sometimes also in Scotland, and is usually preserved in small kegs, in 
which the matter had most probably been originally deposited. Nothing appears to 
be known as to what this substance formerly was, or the time of its deposit. The 
specimen supplying the materials for Mr. Brazier's experiments was found in the 
neighbourhood of Belfast. In Berzelius' Rapport for 1847, is found an examination 
of another specimen of this substance by M. Luck, under the name of " Bogie Acid" 
who describes it as whitish, of low specific gravity, and of a peculiar odour. He fixes 
the fusing-point of the purified body at 51° Cent. (124° Fahr.). He mentions also that 
its reaction to litmus paper is acid, and gives for the formula of the acid C fi H M 4 . 

The specimen examined by Mr. Brazier was of a yellowish- white colour, the slight 
tinge of yellow being due to the presence of a very small quantity of a yellow oil 
pervading the whole mass : its external surface was somewhat friable, but portions 
from the interior of the specimen might have been selected having on unctuous feel, 
and possessing a most peculiar urinous odour. It is nearly insoluble in cold water, 
somewhat soluble in hot, but very soluble in alcohol and aether, especially on boiling, 
from either of which fluids it is deposited in white granular crystals. The alcohol or 
aether separated from the crystalline deposit, which was usually done by expression, 
was of a deep yellow colour, and containing apparently a small quantity of the yellow 
oleaginous matter above mentioned in solution, and imbibing more powerfully the 
urinous odour of the interior of the mass. 

A clear portion of the substance taken directly from the keg gave a fusing-point of 
45° Cent. (113° Fahr.), but after repeated purification and crystallization, by means of 
alcohol and aether, to free it from all oleaginous matter, the fusing-point was raised to 
53° (127°*5 Fahr.). This means of purification was repeated several times, the fusing- 
point of the body remaining constantly the same, the substance itself resembling after 
fusion ordinary stearic acid. Before subjecting the substance to analysis, I thought 
it more advantageous to submit the body to a more rigorous method of purification, 
and adopted that of saponification. With potassa this body forms a beautifully clear 
transparent soap, and with the exception of the small portion of yellow oil mixed with 
it, is readily soluble in water ; by means of solution therefore the oil and other acci- 
dental impurities may easily be separated. By the addition of hydrochloric acid to 
the aqueous solution of the soap, the fatty acid is set free ; this has to be well washed 
with large quantities of water and subjected several times to a considerable pressure. In 
this state the fusing-point was found to be 127°o Fahr., and the same portion of acid 
having undergone the same routine of purification a second time, the fusing-point re- 
mained constant. An analysis of the body thus purified furnished numbers correspond- 
ing to the formula C^ H 3a 4 , and for which the name of Butyro-limnodic Acid is pro- 
posed. The acid was subsequently recrystallized from alcohol and aether, when it was 
obtained in crystals of a beautifully white-satiny appearance, resembling benzoit acid. 

3* 



36 REPORT — 1852. 

r 
We have now three fatty acids, isomeric in composition, and differing only by a 
few degrees in their points of fusion, viz. 

C. H. O. Fuanft-potot. 

Palmitic acid 32 32 4 58° Cent. 

Cetylicacid 32 32 4 55° „ 

Butyro-Iimnodic acid 32 32 4 53° „ 

On the Principle of the Endosmose of Liquids. 
By Professor T. Graham, M«A. 9 F.R.S. 

On the Phosphoric Nodules of the Greensand of the North of Ireland. 
By Professor John F. Hodges, MJ) n Queen's College, Belfast* 

Professor Hodges, of Queen's College, gave an account of his discovery of the 
existence, in the greensand of the north of Irelaud, of nodules rich in phosphate 
of lime, the important fertilizing ingredient of bones. The beds of greensand, he 
remarked, occurred immediately under the chalk, and belonged to what was called 
the chalk formation. They extended from the neighbourhood of Moira to the Giant's 
Causeway, forming in some places a broad belt, and in other parts a narrow stripe, 
and presented various shades of colour, from yellowish green to a rich dark green 
colour. The nodules which he bad analysed were found imbedded in the greensand, 
and possessed peculiar interest, as affording the agriculturist a native source of the 
phosphoric acid. The beds of greensand contained about 5 per cent, of the bone-earth 
phosphate, while the nodules afforded so much as from 30 to 50 per cent. He gave 
the analysis of a sample of the greensand from the neighbourhood of Kilroot, in 
Antrim : — 

100 parts were found to contain — 

Water 097 

Organic matters 0*73 

Potash 0-56 

Soda 025 

Lime 4*14 

Magnesia .., 0*41 

Oxide of iron 4*85 

Alumina 2-41 

Sulphuric acid trace 

Chlorine 004 

Phosphoric acid, equal to 6*68 bone-earth phosphate 3-24 

Silica, soluble in potash 6*41 

Insoluble siliceous matters • 74-88 

Carbonic acid and loss I'll 

100-00 
One ton of the sand would, therefore, convey to the soil 149} lbs. of bone-earth 

phosphate, worth, at \d. per lb., 9s. 3d. 

Dr. Hodges also directed attention to the valuable discovery of phosphatic nodules 

in England, and of a mineral in America, rich in phosphate of lime ; and gave an 

account of some successful experiments which had been made with greensand applied 

as a manure. 

On the Effect of the Moon's Bays. By Knox. 

This paper described the effects of a large lens in fusing different substances, 

S'ving the effects produced upon silica and other bodies, noting the temperature of 
e day at the period of experimenting and the time occupied. By concentrating the 
moon's rays upon two individuals, sensation was excited. 

On the Atomic Weight of Magnesium. By Alex. Macdonnkll. 
The results of experiments were stated, which induced the author to conclude that 
the atomic weight for magnesium was 11-95 or quam prox. 12, and the atomic weight 
of magnesia as 19*95 or quam proximo 20, instead of 12*7 and 20*7, numbers that have 
usually been assigned in chemical works. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 3/ 

On the Estimation of Iodine, By Professor Frederick Penny, Ph,D. 
Andersonian University, Glasgow. 

Among the many applications that may be made of bichromate of potash to the 
purposes of centigrade analysis, there is none more convenient or useful than its 
employment for the estimation of the amount of iodine in samples of commercial iodine 
and of iodide of potassium. In Glasgow especially, which is the principal focus of the 
manufacture of potash-salts and iodine from kelp, and where tne problems referred 
to are frequently presented for solution, an expeditious and exact method for the deter- 
mination of iodine becomes truly valuable. 

According to the statements of a party well qualified to judge, it appears, that, in 
the kelp season of 1851, the total quantity of kelp brought to Glasgow was about 
6000 tons (22£ cwt to the ton), which may be considered a fair average of ordinary 
seasons. On account of the greatly increased demand for potash-salts, the arrivals in 
1850 amounted to nearly 10,000 tons, which is considerably higher than for several 
previous years*. The manufacture however is not confined to Glasgow ; there are 
iodine works at Borrowstowness, Greenock, and Falkirk, in Scotland, at Ramelton 
in Ireland, and at Cherbourg and Brest in France. 

The centigrade process, here to be described, for the estimation of iodine, is based 
upon the fact, that chromic acid in presence of hydrochloric acid causes the complete 
decomposition of soluble metallic iodides, the chloride of chromium and the chloride 
of the other metal being produced, while the iodine is thrown down in the solid state. 
Bichromate of potash is taken as the most convenient and stable form of chromic acid* 
The reaction with iodide of potassium is exhibited in the following equation :— 
3KI + KO, 2CrO» + 7HC1=I» + *KC1 + Cr* Cl» + 7HO. 

The action is immediate, and provided that the solutions are kept cool, no secondary 
result is formed. The precipitated iodine speedily subsides, leaving the supernatant 
liqnid quite clear, though slightly coloured, with a few floating particles of iodine on the 
surface. When the solution of the bichromate is overdosed with the iodide, it becomes 
dark red, from a portion of the iodine being dissolved by the excess of the iodide. 
This change of colour is useful as indicating when the addition of the iodide has been 
carried too far. 

Iodide of Potassium. — The process for iodide of potassium is conducted as follows :— 

10 grs. of bichromate of potash are dissolved in half an ounce of cold water, and half 
an ounce by measure of hydrochloric acid is afterwards poured in. An alkalimeter 
of 100 measures is then made up in the usual manner with 50 grs. of the iodide of 
potassium dissolved in water, and the solution is added to that of the bichromate of 
potash until the chromic acid is completely decomposed. To hit the exact point at 
which the action is complete, a white plate is spotted with a solution containing a 
mixture of pure protosulphate of iron and sulphocyanide of potassium, slightly acidi- 
fied with hydrochloric acid, and by means of a glass rod a small quantity of the bi- 
chromate liquor is brought into contact with the mixture on the plate. So long as a 
red colour, or even dark tinge, is communicated to the spots by the application of this 
test, the presence of chromic acid is indicated ; but when no dark shade is produced, 
the action is complete, and the operation is finished. The number of measures used 
is accurately read off, and the per-centage quantity of iodine in the sample subjected . 
to trial is found by dividing 5080 by this number, 10 grs. of bichromate being equal 
(as will presently be shown) to 25 4 of iodine, and to 33*3 of iodide of potassium. 

Throughout the process the liquid should be kept quite cool, and towards the con- 
clusion the iodide solution in the alkalimeter should be added very slowly, in order to 
give ample time for the mutual action of the iodide and chromic acid, which should 
likewise be assisted by repeated and brisk stirring. 

* Kelp Import* in Glasgow. July to July. 

1841-42 2565 tons. 

1842-43 1887 „ 

1843-44 1965 „ 

1844-45 3263 „ 

1845-46 6086 „ 

1846-47 3627 „ 

Mr. Glassford's Kelp Manufacture, 



98 import-— 1852. 

The mode of preparing the mixture of protosulpbate of iron and sulphoeyanide ef 
potassium, as well as its extreme delicacy in detecting minute quantities of bichromate 
of potash, I have fully explained in a paper published in the Quarterly Journal of the 
Chemical Society of London, vol. iv. p. 244. It should be made very weak, and in using 
it the precaution should be observed of not spotting it on the piste until the moment 
of its being required. The spots moreover should be large, and thinly spread on die 
surface of the plate, and care should be taken to bring the drop of the liquor to be 
tested into contact with the oentre of the spot, which it is allowed merely to touch, 
without any stirring or agitation. The colour or tinge is produced instantaneously if 
any chromic acid be present. It is not always easy to procure protosulpbate of iron 
perfectly free from peroxide, and theq the mixture prepared with such impure sulphate 
has a pinkish colour. This is of no moment when the tinge is light, as it becomes 
extremely pale and scarcely perceptible on the mixture being spread upon the plate. 
In the ease of the mixture, however, being dark-coloured from the impurity of the 
sulphate of iron, it is better to dissolve a small piece of iron wire in dilute hydrochloric 
add, and to add a portion of the clear solution at once to the sulphoeyanide of potas- 
sium previously dissolved in water. 

When minute accuracy is required, it will be advisable to add 30 grs. of the iodide, 
dissolved in a small quantity of water, at once to the bichromate solution j then to 
make up the alkalimeter with 10 o? 20 grs. of the iodide, and to proceed with the 
operation as before directed. By using in this way a very weak solution of the iodide, 
it is perfectly easy to bring the result within a tenth of a grain of the proper quantity. 

I nave tried this process repeatedly upon carefully-purified iodide ef potassium, 
both in large and small quantities. The results, which never differed more than a 
tenth of a grain from each other, show that 100 parts of bichromate of potash are 
equal to 333 of iodide of potassium, and to 254 of iodine ; and accordingly 10 grs. of 
bichromate are equivalent to 25*4 grs. of iodine. 

The following are some of the results obtained by subjecting different specimens 
of commercial iodide of potassium to trial by this process: — 



No. 1 99'8 per cent. 

2 99-5 „ 

3 98*6 „ 

4 888 

6 79-3 „ 

6 30-2 „ 

The last sample consisted chiefly of carbonate of potash. 

Iodine. — When iodine is the subject of examination, it must be first converted into 
a aolubje iodide. The iodide of sine appears to be best adapted for the purpose, 
from its stability and the readiness with which it may be prepared. 50 grs. of the 
iodine to be tested are put into a small flask with some fragments of pure sine and 
half an ounce of water. The mixture is agitated till the iodine becomes completely 
converted into iodide of zinc, which is indicated by the solution losing the dark red 
colour that it first acquires, and becoming nearly colourless. The solution is then 
decanted into an alkalimeter, which is made up to with rinsings *from the excess of 
zinc. 

10 grs. of bichromate of potash are next dissolved in a small basin with half an 
ounce pf water, and half an ounce of hydrochloric acid is subsequently added. 

The remaining operations are precisely similar to those directed for jodide of potas- 
sium. The iodide solution is dropped into that of the bichromate till no coloration is 
produced with the sulphoeyanide mixture ; then 5080, divided by the number of mea- 
sures consumed, gives the amount of iodine per cent, in the sample. 

This process is obviously incompatible with proto-compoundt of iron, arjenioua 
acid, and substances having similar chemical relations ; but their presence would be 
immediately disclosed and their influence easily prevented. 

Kelp and Kelp-liquor. — The direct application of the present process to kelp and 
kelp- liquors is evidently inadmissible, in consequence of the sulphides, sulphites, typo- 
sulphites and sulphocyanides, which they invariably contain. Ail these ingredients 
act readily upon bichromate of potash, in presence of hydrochloric acid. They mar 
however be effectually removed py cautiously treating the solution from the kelp with 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 59 

hydrochloric acid, and evaporating to dryneu, repeating the operation* if neqetsary, 
or till the above ingredient* are decomposed. In the cafe of kelp, the following it 
an outline of the mode of procedure : — A known weight it exhausted with water in 
the usual manner, and the several liquors, being mixed) are concentrated by evapora- 
tion, and set aside to crystallize. The mother-liquor it decanted and slightly super- 
saturated with hydrochloric acid, boiled and filtered. The filtrate if then evaporated 
completely to dryness, a little carbonate of soda being added towards the conclusion, 
if it be found that the hydrochloric acid it in such excess at to affect the iodide* 
This will be indicated by the liberation of iodine, and by the solution acquiring 4 dark 
colour* The drv residue is digested in a small quantity of cold water and filtered, 
The solution it then tested for the pretence of the substances before named, when, if 
pure, it it transferred (wholly or in part, according to the quantity of kelp operated 
upon) to the alkalimeter, and subsequently dropped into the prepared solution of 
bichromate of potash and hydrochloric acid, as previously described 1 . If however it 
should stil] contain any sulphite, hyposulphite, &c, the treatment with hydrochloric 
acid it repeated. It has been found that the extraction of the iodide from the residue 
by means of alcohol answers very well when the removal of the incompatible matters 
it attended with difficulty. The quantity of iodine in kelp it proportionately small, 
and of eourse subject to extensive variation. The amount extracted on the large scale 
from " drift- weed kelp" varies from 5 to 12 lbt. per ton, though larger quantities are 
said to have been obtained. From cut-weed kelp not more than 2 to 3 lbs. per ton 
have been extracted ; and it is easy to conceive that the produce will be variable 
when these two kinds of kelp are mixed together. Not lets therefore than 2 lbs. of 
drift-weed kelp should be operated upon, and in the case of cut-weed kelp, it will be 
advisable to use only 5grs. of bichromate of potash in place of lOgrs. 

The method of testing kelp-liquors is evident from the above outline of the mode of 
operating upon kelp itself. ______ 

On the Oil of the Sun-Fish. By Professor E. Ronalds, PhJ>* F.C.g. 

On the application of certain Optical Phenomena to Chemistry, 
fly Professor G. O. Stokes, H~4., F.R.S. 

On the Kok-i-Noor Diamond. By Professor Tennant, F.G.S. 

At the last Meeting of the British Association, Dr. Beke read a paper on the dia- 
mond slab supposed to have been cut from the Koh-i-Noor, and stated, that " at the 
capture of Coochan, there was found among the jewels of the harem of Reeza Kooli 
Khan 1 the chief of that place, a large diamond slab, supposed to have been cut from 
one aide of the Koh-i-Noor, the great Indian diamond now in the possession of Her 
Majesty. It weighed about 130 carats, showed the marks of cutting on the flat and 
largest tide, and appeared to correspond in size with the Koh-i-Noor." Professor 
Tennant was induced to record his opinion of the probability of this being correct. 
He had made models in fluor spar and afterwards broken them, and obtained speci- 
mens which would correspond in cleavage, weight and size with the Koh-i-Noor. By 
this means he was enabled to include the piece described by Dr. Beke, and pro- 
bably the large Russian diamond, as forming, altogether but portions of one large 
diamond. The diamond belongs to the tessular crystalline system ; it yields readily 
to cleavage in four directions, parallel to the planes of the regular octahedron. Two 
of the largest planet of the Kon-i-Noor, when exhibited in the Crystal Palace, were 
cleavage planes ; one of them had not been polished. This proved the specimen to 
be not a third of the weight of the original crystal, which he believed to have been a 
rhombic dodecahedron, and if slightly elongated, which is a common form of the 
diamond, would agree with Tavernier's description of it, bearing some resemblance to 
an egg. 

On Chemical Combination ; and on the Amount of Heat produced by the 
Combination of several Metals with Oxygen. By Thomas Woods, M.D. 

The author endeavoured to show that in chemical combination no action different 
from that which takes place in simple bodies when expanding or contracting, when 



40 REPORT — 1852. 

heated or cooled, exists. Every substance is an assemblage of particles between which 
a definite distance exists, as shown by every body having a specific gravity and bulk 
always the same for the same temperature ; and therefore the matter and space 
of a body are related, or have some dependence on each other. Now if two bodies be 
brought together at an insensible distance (and this must always be the case before 
chemical action takes place), they form, as far as their particles are concerned, one 
body ; and therefore these particles behave as though they were particles of a simple 
body, that is, the distance between them or the space is regulated by the matter. 
But as the matter of the compound body is not the same as the matter of either of 
those separately which compose it, the distance between the particles of the compound 
must be different from that of the elements. This distance cannot be greater, for 
then the particles would be nearer at a sensible than an insensible distance, and so 
could not mix at all ; and being less, a particle of each of the elements must be joined 
to one of the other, for if not, the relation of the space to matter could not be carried 
out : hence what is called chemical combination. And, as where two simple bodies 
are brought together they unite, if the distance of the particles is less for the compound 
than the simple, so, if a simple and compound body are mixed, the former decomposes 
the latter if its particles lie closer to those of either of the elements of the former than 
those of the other elements do, for in every case the relation between space and matter 
must be carried out. But in other papers published in the Philosophical Magazine, 
Dr. Woods has endeavoured to show that the distance between particles cannot either 
be increased or diminished without an opposite and equal cnange simultaneously 
occurring in some other particles ; hence, when in chemical combination the distance 
between the uniting particles is being diminished, other particles expand, and this 
expansion is the heat of chemical combination : and the necessity of this equal and 
opposite movement shows that it cannot be any power of matter, such as attraction, that 
causes particles to cohere, but the absence of expansion going on in other bodies; and 
the same law also proves that the idea of repulsion is equally unnecessary. Now, accord- 
ing to this theory, bodies which have the greatest affinity for each other should also lie 
the closest together, and as the more closely they lie the greater the distance their parti- 
cles move together when combining, so the heat or accompanying expansion, which is 
equal although opposite, might be taken as a measure of the affinity of bodies for each 
other. 

To prove whether this idea were correct, the author investigated the " amount 
of heat produced by the combination of several metals with oxygen." The method 
of finding the amount of heat is new. Instead of burning the metals in oxygen, as 
formerly, Dr. Woods dissolved them in water (potassium, sodium), or sulphuric or 
nitric acid, and noted the effect on the thermometer. To the number of degrees 
indicated was then added the quantity of heat absorbed by the decomposition of the 
dissolving menstruum ; for Dr. Woods has proved in the October Number of the 
Philosophical Magazine, 1851, that " decomposition of a compound body absorbs as 
much heat as the combination of the elements originally produced." In the follow- 
ing table are the results : — 

Amount of best produced by the combina- 
Name of metal, turn of an equivalent of each with 1 gram 

of oxygen in 00 grains of water. 

Sodium T 284 Fahr. 

Potassium . . 256*5 „ 

Zinc 159*8 „ 

Tin 129-6 „ 

Iron 126-4 „ 

Lead 99-4 „ 

Bismuth 74-5 „ 

Copper.: 72-6 „ 

Mercury 40*4 „ 

Silver 38-9 „ 



On the Combination of Metals with Oxygen. By T. Wood, MJD. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 41 

GEOLOGY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

On a New Variety of Magnetic Iran Ore ; with Remarks upon the Application 
of Bicarbonate of Baryta to Quantitative Analyses, By Professor T. 
Andrews, M.D., F.R.S* M.RJJi. 

This mineral occurs in the schist rocks of the Mourn e Mountains, near their junction 
with the granite. In -external characters it resembles somewhat the common mag- 
netic oxide ; but its lustre is inferior. It occurs both in the amorphous state and in 
imperfectly-formed octahedrons. Its composition was found to be, — 

Sesquioxide of iron 71*41 

Protoxide of iron 21*59 

Magnesia «. 6*45 

The formula of this mineral is evidently Fe a O, + (FeO, MgO), a part of the protoxide 
of iron being replaced by magnesia. Although not mentioned in any of the published 
analyses of magnetic oxide of iron, magnesia appears to be a constant constituent of 
this mineral. The author gave the results of analyses of magnetic oxide in which 
2*00, 0*71, and 0*09 per cent, of magnesia had respectively replaced an equivalent 
amount of the protoxide of iron. It is remarkable that not a trace of lime could ever 
be detected in any specimen of magnetic oxide. Oxide of manganese is usually also 
present, but in minute quantity. In this analysis a solution of the bicarbonate of 
baryta was employed to separate the sesquioxide of iron from the magnesia. A 
solution of this compound, which is readily prepared by passing a current of carbonic 
acid into water containing recently- precipitated carbonate of baryta in suspension, the 
author finds to effect «a very complete separation of the sesquioxide of iron from the 
oxide of manganese and from magnesia, and considers that it may be very usefully 
employed in quantitative analyses for effecting the separation of the bases just men- 
tioned, presenting many advantages over the insoluble carbonate of baryta, as well as 
over the other reagents usually employed for the same purpose. 

On the Sources of Common Salt. By W. Bollaert. 

Observations on the Diamond. By Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. 

In the course of last spring I was requested by H.R.H. Prince Albert to give my 
opinion respecting different forms into wnich it was proposed to reduce the Koh-i-Noor 
diamond, in order to make it an ornamental gem. In the state in which it then was, 
it exhibited an inferior display of colours to its glass model, and it was only by sur- 
rounding it with a number of vivid lights that its coloured refractions could be de- 
veloped. Having had occasion to observe some remarkable phenomena in small 
portions of diamond, an account of which was published in the Transactions of the 
Geological Society for 1836, I was desirous of examining so large a mass of diamond 
as the Koh-i-Noor before it was reduced in size, and covered with facets which would 
not permit it to be examined. His Royal Highness readily granted my request, and 
I had thus an opportunity of submitting it to the scrutiny of polarized light. In 
place of producing no action upon this species of light, as might have been expected 
from its octahedral structure, it exhibited streaks of polarized tints, generally parallel 
to one another, but in some places of an irregular form, and rising to the yelhw of 
the firtt order of colours. These tints and portions of polarized light were exactly 
the same as those which 1 had long ago found in many other diamonds, and figured 
in the Edinburgh Transactions for 1815 and 1816. In placing the Koh-i-Noor under 
a microscope of considerable power, I observed in it, and also in eacli of the two 
small diamonds which accompanied it, several minute and irregular cavities, sur- 
rounded with sectors of polarized light, which could only have been produced by the 
expansive action of a compressed gas or fluid that had existed in the cavities when 
the diamond was in a soft state. In an external cavity, shown in the model, and 
which had been used for fixing the gold setting, I observed, with common light, a 
portion of yellow light, indicating a yellow substance. Mr. Garrard and others con- 
sidered it as gold rubbed off the gold setting ; but as gold is never yellow by trans- 
mitted light, I considered the colour as produced by a yellow solid substance of 
unknown origin. Sir Henry De la Beche having suggested to me that it would be 



43 EKPOBT— 1852. 

desirable to make a general examination of the principal diamonds in London, I went 
next day to the British Museum, and found tnere an interesting specimen, which 
threw some light on the yellow solid to which I have referred. This specimen was a 
piece of colourless diamond, uncut, and without any crystalline faces, about three or 
four tenths of an inch broad, and about the twelfth of an inch thick, and on its sur- 
face there lay a crystal of yellow diamond, with the four planes of semi-octahedron. 
This singular fact was illustrated by a Urge model placed beside it. Upon examining 
the original, I noticed a pretty large cavity in the thickness of the specimen, with the 
extremity of which the yellow octahedron was connected ; and finding a portion of 
amorphous yellow diamond in the other end of the cavity, I bad no doubt that the 
yellow crystal had emerged, in a fluid state, from the cavity when it was accidentally 
opened, and had immediately crystallized on the surface of cleavage. I am well 
aware that such an opinion makes a good demand upon the faith of the mineralogist ; 
but to those who have seen, as I have done, the contents of fluid cavities in crystal 
solidifying and even crystallizing on the face of cleavage, while another portion of 
the contents of the cavity escaped in gas — to those who have seen in topaz cavities 
numbers of regularly formed crystals, some of which, after being fused by heat, 
instantly recrystallized — the conclusion I have drawn will be stripped of much of its 
apparent extravagance. In examining a number of diamonds in ihe museum of the 
Bast India Company, to which Col. Sykes kindly obtained me access, and about forty 
or fifty in the possession of Messrs. Hunt and Roskill, I found many containing large 
and irregular cavities of the most fantastic shapes, and all of them surrounded with 
irregular patches of polarized light, of high tints, produced undoubtedly by a pressure 
from within the cavities, and modified by their form. Among these specimens I 
found one or two black diamonds, not black from a dark colouring matter, like that 
in smoky quartz, but black from the immense number of cavities which they con- 
tained. Tavernier has described a large and curious diamond which throws some 
light on the subject of this notice. It contained, in its very centre, a large black 
cavity. The diamond merchants refused to purchase it. At last a Dutchman bought 
it, and by cutting it in two, obtained two very fine diamonds. The black cavity 
through which he cut was found to contain eight or nine carats of what Tavernier 
calls black vegetable mud! _____ 

Geological Structure of the Counties of Down and Antrim, 
By James Bryce,/w»., M.A., F.Q.S. 

The author began by stating that the valley of the Lagan, on which the town of 
Belfast is situated, is a great depression on either side of which formations of dif- 
ferent ages are confluent. On the southern side of the valley the strata belong 
to the older formations; on the northern side they are the newest that occur in 
Ireland. Each of the counties of Down and Antrim is thus almost exclusively occu- 
pied with rocks peculiar to itself; those in the one county not including those in the 
Other. The author then proceeded to describe the leading geological features of the 
County of Down. Tt contains two granitic tracts, which seem to have been elevated 
at different epochs. They are separated from one another, and each is wholly enclosed 
by a thick band of metamorphic slate, gneissose in its lower part, and passing upwards 
into flinty and common clay-slate. Superimposed conformably on these are other 
slates of a less crystalline type, whose aggregate thickness is epormous, and whose 
upper portions have yielded a few imperfect fossils, which seem to make them refer- 
aDie to the lower Silurian group ; but as vet no definite lines have been made out 
to justify a classification. Over the slates, but unconformable to them, there occurs 
in the N.E. part of the county many strata abounding in fossils, which the author 
is inclined to refer to the Carboniferous and Permian systems. Among these no traces 
of coal have yet been found ; which is remarkable, seeing that the system is otherwise 
so fully developed. 

The formations of Antrim were next described. These consist of triassic beds, lias, 
and the cretaceous system, including greensand and chalk ; the whole overlaid by 
vast accumulations of igneous rocks presenting many varieties, — basalts, greenstones* 
greystones, porphyries, tufts, and ashes with lignites ; which the author endeavoured 
to separate into distinct flows from certain foci of submarine volcanic action. Many 
new pbaenomena connected with the Giant's Causeway were also described; and a 



TRANSACTION! OF TBS MOTIONS. 49 

tertiary pliocene formation at Belfast which has yielded a mater variety of fonU 
speeies toan all the other similar beds In Ireland taken together. In conclusion, the 
recent discorery of extensive beds of rock-salt near Carrickfergus was briefly al- 
luded to. 

On the Disposition of Granite Block* in Argyllshire. 

By James Bryob,>*„ F.G.S. 

■ ' ■ ' j ■ 

On the Alps m tke Vicinity of Mont Blanc. By Major Charters, F.G.S. 

An Account of the Changes occasioned during the CooUng of the Granite of 
Mont Blanc. By M. Achille Delesse. 

On the Rocks of the Upper Punjaub. By Dr, Andrew Fleming, of the 
East India Company's Service. 

Sir Roderick I. Murohison briefly explained the nature and value of the last re- 
searehes of Dr. A. Fleming, to whom the Indian government had assigned the task of 
exploring (as Director) the salt mines of the Upper Punjaub. The chief results are, 
thai the salt range is composed, in descending order, of a mass of nummulite lime- 
stone, which, forming its peaks, throws off younger and pebbly deposits, and is under- 
laid first by secondary rocks of Jurassic (Oxfordian) age, and next by limestone, 
laden with well-known species of Produoti of the carbouiferous or mountain limestone ; 
the whole being supported by inferior masses of red shale, sandstone and oonglome* 
rate, to which the salt is subordinate. After a pointed allusion to the great importance 
of these discoveries, Sir R. I. Murchison informed the Section that he had acquainted 
the author that some of the salt of Russia occupied the same position, or that of the 
Devonian or Old Red Rocks. 

On the Fossils of the Yellow Sandstone of the South of Ireland. 
By Professor £. Fqrbhs, F.B.S. 
During the course of the labours of the Geological Survey of Ireland in 1851, 
strata referable to the " yellow sandstone," and consisting of compact flagstones of a 
very grey and creamy colour, at the hill of Knocktopher in Kilkenny, were found to 
abound in fossils of mat beauty, and apparently entirely new. Tliev consisted of 
remains of ferns ana other plants in a beautiful state of preservation, and were 
accompanied by a large bivalve shell, which must provisionally be referred to the 
genus Anodon, and may receive the name of Anodon Jukesil. The ferns belong 
tq the genus CycfopterU, and to a group in that genus among which the aspect of 
Neuropteru is assumed. They differ materially from any of the members of this 
group hitherto described, not only specifically, but also in their general arrange- 
ments ; and exhibit some peculiarities not hitherto noticed in fossil ferns. The most 
common of these (Cyclopteru Hibernicut) is often two feet in length of its bipinnate 
frond*. Along with these are species of Lepidodendron and Stigmaria ; also curious 
cones, formed of loose groups of scales or bracts, each furnished with an exceedingly 
long mucro. AH of these appear to be new* Great interest attaches to this assem- 
blage: — 1st, as an indication of fresh, or at least brackish, water conditions at the 
period of the depositions of the beds ; and 2ndly, as, if we are correct in considering 
these strata Devonian, this is the most perfect illustration of the flora of that epoch 
yet discovered. Fish remains of the genus Holopti/chius, and of the crustacean PUry- 
gotus occur also in these beds. ____ 

On the Shells found in the Alluvial Deposits of Belfast. 
By John Grainger, ffon. Sec. of the Dublin University Zool t Assoc. 

The author, after referring to the incomplete character of what had been published 
oil (be subject, statecji that the alluvial deposits of Belfast occupied the greater part 
of the foundations of the town, and extended three or four miles into the bay, and 
that the Shells had been found in various levels from four feet in vertical height ^hove 
high-water mark to twenty-four feet below it. The deposits appeared to have the shells 



44 report — 1852. 

rather diffused throughout them than lying in regular beds. This, together with the fact 
that the same species were found at every depth, made it useless as well as impossible 
to observe levels to which the species should respectively belong. Besides, the sheila 
were all of recent species, and thus fixed the formations of one geological age. The 
following is a summary of the remarks upon each species. 

Teredo norvegica, Sprengler. A considerable number of tubes were found, tending 
to prove the indigenousness of the species. It is not now an inhabitant of the bay, 
nor indeed is there any habitat nearer than Portpatrick in Wigtonshire, a harbour 
presenting identically similar geological features to those of Belfast Bay. 

Pholas dactylus, Linn. A single valve in the sand of the deposits. It exists at 
present in some numbers in the harbour. 

P. parva, Penu. Was met with, and in the living state upon the surface. 
P. crispata, Linn. Several huge examples 4£ inches long. Not now common in 
the bay. 

P. Candida, Linn. A tolerable number of single valves, with a few perfect speci- 
mens, one three inches in length. At the present day abundant in the harbour. 
Saxicava arctica, Linn. A few single valves. Still an inhabitant of the bay. 
Mya truncaia, Linn. Occurred plentifully. An extremely common species in the 
harbour. 

M. arenaria, Linn. Was found everywhere in the deposits. Now a favourite food 
with the poor along the neighbouring shores. 

Corbuia nucleus, Lam. Was met with but sparingly. It still occurs in the bay. 
Thracia phaseolina, Lam. A few specimens, but only with separated valves. Com- 
mon enougn in the harbour at present. 

T. pubescent, Pult. One rather fine individual. Has been taken also in the living 
state in the neighbourhood. 

T. convexa, Wood. A large number was obtained. Has not been taken in Belfast 
Bay. 

Sokn marginatum, Pult Occurred rather frequently. Has been dredged in the 
dead state near the mouth of the harbour. 

S. ensis, Linn. Represented by one or two poor examples of the var. magna. 
Both the typical form and the var. occur in the living state. 

S. peUuctdus, Penn. In small numbers, and rather local. Dredged commonly 
enough in the bay. 

Solecurtut coarctaius, Gmel. A single rather fine example. Not in the harbour as 
a living species, but has been dredged in some of the neighbouring estuaries. 
Psammobia vespertina, Chem. One valve only. Still an inhabitant. 
P. Ferroensis, Chem. Rather scarce, and only in single valves. Now dredged in 
tolerable numbers alive. 

TeUina tenuis, Da Cos. Was represented by rather fresh-looking specimens. Quite 
abundant as a living occupant. 

T. sotidula, Pult. Distributed everywhere throughout the beds. Still a common 
shell in the neighbourhood. 

Syndosmya alba. Was well distributed, and occurred in large numbers in company; 
It is also an inhabitant in the recent state. 

Scrobicularia piperata, Gmel. Left ample memorials of its former presence ; and 
does not occupy suitable localities near Belfast The best specimens found nearest to 
the course of the river. 

Mactra elHptica, Brown. Occurred pretty often. Enumerated amongst the inha- 
bitants of the harbour. 

M. subtruncata, Da Cos. A large number of fine examples. Abundant in the bay 
in the living state. 

Lutraria elliptica, Lam. Was imbedded everywhere. It is yet in the harbour a not 
unfrequent species. 

Tapes decussata, Linn. Appeared pretty often. Dug living out of the sand near 
Belfast. 

T. pullastra, Wood. The typical form was met with abundantly. Extremely 
numerous at the present day. 

T aurea, Gmel. Was locally abundant. In some parts of the bay nothing could 
be more plentiful than this as a living species. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE SECTIONS. 45 

Venus striatula, Don. Three varieties occurred in some numbers, vis. lammosa, 
gallina, and a decidedly ventricose form. Still lives in the harbour. 

Artemis lincta, Puit Very sparingly in single valves. Not oommonly met with in 
the living state in the bay. 

Lucinoosis undata, Penn. Distributed in vast numbers. Thrown on the neigh- 
bouring snores in the recent state. 

Cardium echmatum, Linn. Fine examples extremely numerous. Still living near 
its ancient station. 

C. edule, Linn. Imbedded in vast numbers. On both sides of the harbour it is 
obtained for the market. 

C. pygmaum, Don. Not unfrequent. Still to be met with living in the neigh- 
hourhood. 

Lucma borealis, Linn. Was found finely developed, and in some numbers. Now 
dredged living in the harbour. 

L.flexuosa, Mont. Fine examples in great numbers. One of the recent inhabitants. 

Tvrtoma minuta, O. Fab. A few specimens of fine colour. Sometimes taken in 
great abundance in the living state. 

Mytilus edulis, Linn. Several varieties in vast numbers. An individual mea- 
sured 3( inches in length. As a living occupant it is extremely abundant. 

Modiola tulipa, Lam. Pretty frequent in single valves of large size. Still inhabits 
the harbour. 

Nucula nucleus, Linn. Somewhat frequent, and of large dimensions. Belongs to 
the fauna of the neighbourhood. 

Leda caudata, Don. A single valve. Not found in the bay in the recent state. 

Lima hians, Omel. A number of detached valves. Dredged living also. 

Pec ten varius, Linn. Frequent Now a well-known inhabitant. 

P. maximus, Linn. Diffused abundantly, and present examples of all ages. Not 
unfrequently brought to market from the neighbourhood. 

P. opercularis, Linn. In large numbers. Excellent examples dredged in the 
living state. 

Ostrea edulis, Linn. In innumerable myriads, and several beautiful examples of 
the var. parasitica. The market is supplied by their descendants. 

Anomia ephippium, Linn. Appeared: abundantly. The bay still contains the species 
in numbers. 

Patella vulgata, Linn. One specimen only. In suitable localities nothing could 
exceed the abundance of this moUusk at present. 

Trochus cinerarius, Linn. Distributed in some numbers. The harbour still retains 
its presence in abundance. 

T. magus, Linn. Occurred sparingly. Abundant as a living species. 

Liltortna littorea, Linn. Diffused in vast quantities. It still exists in the bay in 
countless myriads. 

L. rudis, Don. Occurs but seldom. Lives in the harbour in abundance. 

L. tenebrota, Mont. Rather frequent Enumerated in the fauna of the neighbour- 
hood. 

L. lateralis, Linn. Found pretty often. Extremely prolific in the bay. 

Lacuna crassior, Mont Distributed in some numbers. In the harbour it is still a 
living species. 

Rusod labiosa, Mont Frequent, and in company with Cerith. reticulatum. In 
the harbour it still abounds. 

R. ulva, Penn. Was common. Is thrown upon the shore in the living state in 
multitudes. 

TurriteUa communis, Riss. Exceedingly abundant in the deposits. One specimen 
was 2$ inches in length. It still lives in the harbour. 

Aporrhui* pes-pelecani, Linn. Was frequent Still an inhabitant 

Cerithium reticulatum, Da Cos. Perhaps the most abundant shell in the beds. 
Still a member of the fauna of Belfast. 

Scalaria Trevelyana, Leach. A tolerable number. Not present in the living state. 

Eulima subulala (?). An individual of this genus was met with, but is now lost, and 
is doubtfully referred to the species subulata, which occurs at present in the neigh- 
bourhood. 



46 REPORT — 1852. 

Odostomia eulimoides, Haul. Was met with sparingly, not at all corresponding to 
its present numbers. 

Natica niHda, Don. Was found frequently. It is in the harbour as a living species. 

Murex erinaceus, Linn. Was constantly met with. It occurs abundantly in the bay. 

Purpura lapillue, Linn. In considerable numbers. It still lives there in great 
abundance. 

Nana reticulata, Linn. Fine examples very common. A prolific inhabitant at 
present. 

N. intrastate, Mull. In exceeding abundance. Its presence still diffused through 
the bay. 

Buccinum undatum, Linn. Very abundant. One specimen of the carinated var. 
Still an inhabitant. 

Fusus antiquus, Linn. Occurred sometimes. Lives in the harbour, 

Cyprma Europeea, Mont A single imperfect example. Dwells now at the mouth 
of the bay. 

Akera bullata, Mull. A specimen or two only. Sometimes thrown in now in vast 
numbers. 

Scaphander tignarius, Linn. A portion of a full-grown shell. Still an occupant. 

Philine aperta, Linn. Abundantly present. The harbour still retains it 

Helix rotundata, Miill. Was found once. In its usual abundance near the town. 

H. nemoralis, Linn. Occurred once. Common all round Belfast. 

Creuria verruca, Leach. Two or three specimens. Enumerated in the fauna of 
the locality. 

Balanus. Two forms of this genus occurred. Both forms recent in the bay. 

Pectinaria Belgica, Pall. Met with on one occasion. Common in the harbour. 

Serpula triquetra, Linn. Was frequent. Constantly met with in the living state. 

Eighty species in all, examples of nearly all of which are preserved in the author's 
cabinet. Those species which usually present colouring have preserved it in a striking 
degree. The great size generally attained is also remarkable. The shells which were 
in the greatest abundance were those of edible Mollusca, a fact which evidences such 
design as to suggest the beneficent Author of Nature as the Cause of it. 



On the Lower Members of the Carboniferous Series of Ireland. 
By Richard Griffith, M.RJji^ F.G.&. 

Having briefly glanced at the carboniferous series, as it occurs in various parts of 
Ireland, he proceeded to describe the yellow sandstones and carboniferous slates, 
which, he said, are best developed in the north coast of the County Mayo, extending, 
in a western direction, to the undulating quartz rocks and mica-slate at Ballinderry, 
and in the north of Ireland, in the counties of Londonderry and Donegal. In the 
north, the series is altogether about 6000 feet thick, 3000 feet belonging to the car- 
boniferous limestone, and 3000 to the slate and yellow sandstones, so that altogether 
the series is about 6000 feet in thickness. The first members of the series consist of 
beds of yellow sandstones, with occasional alternating layers of whitish aud greenish 
coloured shales, red sandstones, and limestones. The beds contain a great number 
of fossils ; and it is a remarkable fact, that fossils of the same character occur in each, 
and are found from top to bottom. The limestone alone contains upwards of 90 spe- 
cies, some remarkably curious specimens of which were shown by the author; and: in 
the yellow sandstone there is a large number, including fish-beds and plants, such as 
were first discovered by Col. Portlock at Moyola in the County Londonderry. Mr. 
Griffith next directed attention to various sections in the County Dublin, in which he 
pointed out the carboniferous slate beds as having a stratification consisting of impure 
• argillaceous limestone, and perfectly distinct in character from the lower limestone ; 
and also to sections in the County Waterford, in which the old red sandstone is found 
resting unconformably on the Silurian rocks, with carboniferous slates and yellow 
sandstone below it He conceived, that what he called the carboniferous slate and 
yellow sandstone might belong to the carboniferous limestone. 



TRANSACTIONS OP TBS SECTIONS. 47 

Notices of die Geology of Ireland. By Richard Griffith, F.G.8. 

Mr. Griffith directed attention to the map of the geology of Ireland, on which ho 
had been to many yean engaged, and to the improvements which he had been 
enabled to make on it since 1838, acknowledging with thanks the sendees rendered 
to him by Col. Fordyce, and Messrs. Bryce and M* Adam. On looking at the map, 
it will be found, he said, that the conformation of Ireland is peculiar, the coast being 
mountainous and the interior flat. Taking the line from Dublin to Galway, which 
is 120 miles, the summit level is seen to be only 160 feet above the level of the sea; 
hence it is that our canals and railways have been made at an expense so com- 
paratively trifling. Lough Allan, which may be considered the source of the Shan* 
non, is 160 feet above the level of the sea ; while between Killaloe and the tide water 
at Limerick, a distance of about 12 miles, the fall is only 110 feet. The average fall 
is less than six inches to the mile, a circumstance to which we are to attribute so 
many sluggish rivers, and the existence of large tracts of country flooded during six 
or nine months in the year. The mountain ranges which indicate the strata of Ire- 
land run in the north from north-west to south-east, and in the county of Cork from 
nearly east to west. 

Beginning with the foundation and going to the top, it may be said that the mica 
slate, which forms the basis of all the sedimentary rocks of Ireland, occurs in abun- 
dance in the counties of Londonderry and Donegal, where it is found twisted and 
contorted in every direction bv the protrusion of the granite. Mr. Griffith next 
alluded to the stratifications in the counties of Mayo and Galway, which, he remarked, 
were chiefly composed of mica-slate, granite rock, and limestone. Granite also 
occurs to the north of Galway Bay, where it is succeeded by metamorphic rocks and 
mica-slate. To the north of the grand boundary several granite rocks occur, pro- 
truding through the mica-slate and limestones. In this district there appears the 
green marble, which is only limestone metamorphosed by the action of the granite. 

Passing northward, the mica-slate is found covered by Silurian rocks. These 
rocks contain numerous fossils belonging to the Silurian system, and are succeeded 
bv enormous masses of conglomerate, containing large pebbles of grey granite, some 
or them nearly a ton in weight, and perfectly rounded. The granite thus observed 
is quite distinct in its character from the granite of the district, and clearly enough 
belongs to an older period. The thickness of the Silurian strata, including the con" 

Slomerate, may be set down at about 5000 feet. The speaker next alluded to the 
ates and Silurian ranges of the promontory at Dingle, in the county of Kerry, and 
described similar formations in the counties of Waterford, Wexford, and Wicklow. 
To the north of Dublin there is another slate district, similar in character to that of 
Wicklow and Wexford, and probably belonging to a lower Silurian series, though, aa 
no fossils have been discovered in it except at the south portion, its exact age remains 
undetermined. This is accompanied with the granite at the Mourne Mountains, 
which Mr. Griffith conceives to be newer than the slate* One of the most interesting 
Silurian districts in Ireland occurs near Pomeroy, in the county of Tyrone. 

Mr. Griffith next described the Old Red Sandstone, particularly alluding to the large 
district which occurs in the county of Tyrone, and which, apparently, has some rela- 
tion to the Silurian district at Pomeroy ; and then pointed out on the map several 
mountain ranges which are capped by the deposit, particularly the Gaftees and 
Knockmeledown mountains, Slievenish, in the west of Kerry, and districts north of 
the county of Cork. Mr. Griffith remarked that the old red sandstone is succeeded 
by the great mountain limestone district of Ireland, which occupies two-thirds of the 
entire country. The carboniferous limestone series, ne observed, is altogether about 
6000 feet thick, 3000 feet of which belongs to the lower portion of the series, and 3000 
to the upper. 

He next described the several coal districts of Ireland, commencing with BallVcastle, 
at Fair Head, on the north coast of the county of Antrim. This district, which is of 
creator antiquity than any other in Ireland, had, he remarked, been worked to a consi- 
derable extent. The coal was worked bv tunnels, and the beds, which were affected at 
different elevations by the protrusion of dykes of greenstone, have been nearly worked 
out, though at Murlough Bay, which contains bituminous coal, or stone coal, there 
are tome beds, whether exhausted or not he had not information to enable him to say. 
The next coal district u that situated near Coalisland, in the county of Tyrone. It 



48 REPORT — 1852. 

is very small, and the beds are now nearly all worked out A third occurs in Leitrim, 
Cavan, and Roscommon, stretching to Ijough Island, which contains only one bed, 
not exceeding two feet in thickness, though in this locality there is the site of the 
Arigna iron-works, which, though they are not worked at the present time, formerly 
attracted much attention in this country. The shale accompanies the coal with rich 
beds of argillaceous ironstone, some of it containing so much as 40 per cent, of iron ; 
indeed, the iron that was made at Arigna was found to be of very superior quality. 

Mr. Griffith next described the Kilkenny coal district, which contains, he said, an 
unflaming coal, or mineral charcoal alone. There are several beds in this district, 
two of which are three feet in thickness, one four feet, and two less than three feet. 
The upper beds have been long since worked out; the lower ones still remain, 
though they are so impure in quality, and contain so much sulphur, that they are not 
used except to burn limestone. The Munster coal district -was next dwelt upon. It 
occupies a considerable portion of Clare, Limerick, Cork, and Kerry, and contains 
three beds, some of which are not more than six inches in thickness. The most 
valuable portion is found at the south, immediately to the north of the river Black- 
water, where several excellent beds of anthracite occur. 

Having remarked that he would not say that a valuable coal bed would not be 
found in Ireland, though he believed that no such coal would be had in the country 
as is to be found in England, Mr. Griffith proceeded to the New Red Sandstone. The 
new red sandstone, he said, is very sparingly developed in Ireland. The most 
southern locality in which it is found is at Carrickmacross, in the county of Monaghan, 
where, in sinking through it to obtain coal, a bed of gypsum, 40 feet in thickness, 
was discovered ; and the districts in which it is found most extensively are in the 
counties of Tyrone and Antrim. In Tyrone, it adjoins the coal district, and rests 
upon it. It also occurs in the valleys of the river Lagan, in the counties of Down 
and Antrim, continues under Belfast, and again displays itself at Carrickfergus. The 
strata contain gypsum in thinner beds, however, than those mentioned as occurring 
at Carrickmacross. Some time ago, when sinking through it to obtain coal, a bed of 
salt was discovered. 

The new red sandstone is covered by the lias, which is similar to that in England, 
and this again by the chalk, which in the north of Ireland is called white limestone, 
owing to being more dense than the chalk found in England. The chalk is covered 
by tabular trap, which occupies a large portion of the counties of Antrim and Deny. 

Mr. Griffith next explained the position of the tertiary beds, remarking that an in- 
teresting tertiary district occurs in the south side of Lough Neagh, in the counties of 
Tyrone and Down. It is ten miles in length and four in breadth; a bore was made 
through it, to the depth of 300 feet, with a view to obtain coal, and the strata were 
found to consist of alternations of white ironstone and blue clay, with surlurbrand, or 
wood coal — a series similar to that at Bovey, in Devonshire. The level of the bore, 
which was situated not far from the coal-field, and adjoined the coal district, was 
about 70 feet above the level of the sea ; and, as the boring itself was 300 feet deep, 
the depth of the series was 230 feet below the level of the sea, though even at this 
distance it was not penetrated. Mr. Griffith next alluded to the tertiary districts 
situated on the coasts of the counties of Wicklow, Wexford, and Waterford, and con- 
cluded by a view of the eskar hills and diluvial gravel which cover so large a portion 
of Ireland, and which appeared to him to have been produced by currents setting in 
from the north-west towards the south-east. 



On the Fossil Remains of the Lower Silurians of the South of Scotland, and 
their Position. By Robert Harkness. 

The occurrence of fossil remains amongst the deposits known to the earlier Scotch 
geologists by the name of transition, was a circumstance which excited considerable 
attention even in the days of Hutton and Playfair. The locality from whence these 
were procured was Wrae in Peeblesshire, and this spot for a long time was regarded 
as the only source which afforded organic remains amongst the Silurians of Scotland. 
Since these deposits have been discovered to be of the Lower Silurian age, they have 
furnished fossils in considerable abundance. 

Prof. Nicol has, from the slate auarries of Greistone and Thornielee in Peebleshire 
and Selkirkshire, obtained Graptohtes ; Mr, Carrick Moore, at Cairnryan, has procured 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE SECTIONS. 49 

the nme fossils ; Prof. Sedgwick at Moffat also obtained Graptolites ; and Sir Rode- 
rick Murchison, in the last year's volume of the Journal of the Geological Society, 
has given an elaborate account of the Silurians of the south-west of Ayrshire and their 
fossil contents. These Silurians, described by Sir R. Murchison, occupy a higher 
position than those which constit