(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Report of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria: As Adopted at the Annual ..."

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



^Ati-Melbotjome 



186^71 



Melbourne * Acclinaatlsatlon 
Society of Victoria, 
Annual Report* 
3rdp 186^ 
1871 




"> 



/ 




THK 



THIRD ANNUAL EEPOTtT ,- 



girclimiitii^ufioit ^ocirtn of ^:)ictoria 

I 

At tfu! Attniril .Ui:fLiu|:t >n LIju *>cict.y, Jj^jIiI November ll^li, 16^%, 

ill Ihe J^tnilaty*8 Oihtx, hUlhoutnn, 
I 

TltaKTtlKIt WITH 

I'APEllS HEAD AT THE MONTHLY MEETIHGI^OF THE SOCIETY, 



^^rELBOUENE: 

WtLaUN ^t MACKINNON, rRFNTRKy, COLLINS Si'KEKT EAfcT, 



■J: 



^^ 



--fx 



MAY 86 1908 



THE 



THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 



^rrlimrfisrfion ^odd^ oi Widon% 



AS ADOPTED 



At the AnQual Meeting of the Society, held November 11th, 1864 
at the Society's Office, Melbourne, 



TOGETHER WITH 



PAPERS READ AT THE MONTHLY MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 



MELBOURNE: 

WILSON 9t MACKINNON, PRINTERS, COLLINS STREET EAST. 

1864. 



LIST OF THE OFFICERS 



ACCLIMATISATION SOCIETY. 



PATRON. 
HIS EXCELLRNCY SIR C. H. DARLING, K.C.B 

O O XJNOIL. 

PRESIDENT. 

Hon. W. C. HAINES. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

THOMAS BLACK, Esq., M.D., Ac, &c. 
FERDINAND MUELLER, Esq., M.D., F.R.S., &C., &o 



COMMITTEE. 



S. H. BINDON, Esq., M. .A. 
Dr. JOSEPH BLACK. 
D. S. CAMPBELL, Esq. 
COMTE DE CASTELNAU. 
H. J. CHAMBERS, Esq. 
LIEUT.-COLONBL CHAMP. 
G. S. LANG, Esq. 
THOMAS LOADER, Esq, 
W. LYALL, Esq. 



Peopbssob M'COY. 

de. madden. 

Hon. a. MICHIE, Q.C., M.L.A. 
ALBERT PURCHAS, Esq. 
A. R. C. SELWYN, Esq. 
JAMES SMITH, Esq. 
J. SPARKES, Esq. 
H. E. WATTS, Esq. 



HON. TREASURER. 

T. J. SUMNER, Esq. 



SOCIETY'S OFFICE. 
No. 30, SWANSTON STREET. 



SOCIETY'S DEPOT. 
ROYAL PARK. 



Mr. GEO. SPRIGG, Secretary, 



EEPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 

FOR THB YEAR ENDINQ SlST AUGUST, 1864. 



The Council of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, in 
submitting to the Subscribers the Third Annual Report of their 
transactions, remind the Members that, owing to an alteration made 
at the last Annual Meeting, by which the commencement of the 
Society's year was made to date from September instead of July, 
this Report will be a record of what has been done during the 
last fourteen months, and the Council trust that a perusal of it 
will prove that much progress has been made, and many important 
results achieved. 

The financial position of the Society is very satisfactory : a large 
increase has taken place in the private subscriptions, and the 
Council feel justified in accepting this fact as a proof of the 
growing interest felt in acclimatisation, ancjl the increasing import- 
ance attached to it. The total receipts, including balance from 
last year, from all sources, has been £5,386 4s. Id. The total 
expenditure, £4,689 19s. 2d., thus leaving a balance to the credit 
of the Society of £696 4s. lid. The Council would observe, that 
of the amount placed as expended under the head of Purchase of 
Animals, the sum of £600 still remains in the hands of the agents 
abroad. 

At the last Annual Meeting, as has been already mentioned, 
several changes were made in the Rules of the Society, the most 
important of which were the abolition of the office of Honorary 
Secretary, and the appointment of a second Vice-President. The 
post of Honorary Secretary was vacated by Mr. W. H. Archer, not 
however without a cordial vote of thanks having been conveyed to 
that gentleman by the Council, for the efficient manner in which he 
had fulfilled the duties of the office since the foundation of the 
Society. The additional Vice-Presidency was conferred upon Dr. 
Thomas Black, as an acknowledgment of the important services he 
has so constantly rendered to the cause of Acclimatisation. 



The following changes have taken place in the composition of 
the CounciL In December the Chief Secretary exercised the 
power conferred upon him by the Society's Rules, and appointed 
the Hon. A. Michie, Dr. T. Black, and Mr. W. Lyall, to represent 
the (Government at the Council table. In January Mr. Embling 
resigned, and was replaced by Mr. D. S. Campbell In February 
the Hon. T. T. A'Beckett resigned, and Mr. Loader was elected. 
In April Professor Halford and Mr. F. R. Godfrey resigned, and 
the Hon. W. C. Haines and Mr. H. E. Watts were elected ; and 
in May the Hon. S. G. Henty retired, and Dr. Joseph Black was 
elected ; and it now devolves upon this Meeting to confirm these 
appointments, and to elect three gentlemen to fill the vacancy in 
the Council caused by the retirement of Colonel Ross, Mr. G. W. 
Rusden, and Mr. Edw. Wilson. Since the last Annual Meeting 
there have been fifty-two Meetings of the Council, at which the 
attendance of Members has been as follows : — 



Names. 


No.Meetingaheld 
during the hold- 
ing of office. 


No. Meetings 
attended. 


Hon. W. C. Haines 


27 


4 


Dr. Black 


62 


40 


Dr. Mueller 


52 


30 


Hon. T. T. A'Beckett 


11 





Mr. S. H. Bindon 


62 


30 


Dr. J. Black 


21 


15 


Comte de Castelnau 


62 


6 


Mr. D. S. Campbell... 


43 


23 


Mr. H. J. Chambers 


62 


14 


Lieut.-Colonel Champ 


62 


26 


Mr. Thomas Embling 


8 


1 


Mr. F. R. Godfrey 


20 


9 


Hon. S. G. Henty 


20 





Mr. T. Loader 


38 


9 


Mr. W. Lyall 


48 


2 


Professor McCoy ... 


62 


35 


Dr. Madden 


62 


39 


Hon. A. Michie 


48 


1 


Mr. A. Purchas 


62 


31 


Lieut. Colonel Ross 


62 


4 


Mr. G. W. Rusden 


47 


27 


Mr. J. Smith 


62 


26 


Mr. T.J. Sumner ... 


62 


9 


Mr. H.E. Watte 


27 


21 


Mr. E.Wilson 


46 


43 



Soon after the publication of the last Report, Mr. E. Wilson, 
the then President of the Society, returned to the Colony, and at 
once entered upon the active duties of his position. During his 
absence from the Council-table, he had not been unmindful of the 
interests of the Society, and he was enabled to inform the Council 
upon his return, that the establishment of the gazelle in the Colony 
had been promised by Sir Charles Nicholson, the acclimatisation 
of the edible crab by Mr. George McLeay, that of the nightingale 
and hedge-sparrow by Miss Burdett Coutts and Mrs. Brown, whilst 
Sir Daniel Cooper had already sent off a valuable shipment of 
birds, promising at the same time that these should be supple- 
mented from time to time. Another important service rendered to 
the cause of acclimatisation has been the securing of a promise by 
the Lords of the Admiralty, that H.M. ships may in passing from 
one station to another, be rendered available for the purpose of 
conveying animals, provided that no expense be thrown upon the 
department. Another important work in acclimatisation was the 
preparation by the English Society of a set of questions, con- 
cerning the animal and vegetable productions of the various 
countries, a copy of which has been sent, through the agency 
of the Foreign and Colonial Offices, to all H.M. Consuls and 
Governors throughout the world. A copy of these questions was 
courteously laid before the Council by His Excellency Sir C. H. 
Darling, K.C.B., and a Committee, consisting of Dr. Mueller, 
Professor McCoy, and Dr. Madden, prepared the replies on behalf 
of the Society. The answers to these are now being arranged for 
publication in England, and when completed, cannot fail to be a 
serviceable guide to all Acclimatisation Societies in their labours. 

The Council have long felt it very desirable to have some dis- 
tinctive medal with which to reward services often of a most valuable 
character rendered to the Society, and to carry out this object, 
Mr. Wilson applied himself with characteristic energy. He 
succeeded in obtaining from several of the Banks a donation of £21 
each, and there is every reason to believe that the other Banks will 
give the same amount towards this special fund. Since his return, 
he has been as active as ever in the prosecution of acclima- 
tisation, and it is with unfeigned regret that the Council have to 
state, that in consequence of a complaint in his eyes, rendering 
necessary another visit to Europe, Mr. Wilson has, in spite of their 
earnest remonstrances, pressed upon the Council his resignation as 
President, which resignation the Council have most reluctantly 
accepted. 



8 

The Council unanimously requested the Hon. W. C. Haines, to 
accept the Presidency, and they are glad to say that that gentleman 
has consented. 

The Council record with much pleasure, that the gold medal of 
la Soci4t6 Imperiale d'Acclimatation de France, for this year was 
conferred upon Mr. Wilson, as a recognition of his indefatigable 
labours in the cause of acclimatisation. 

In passing the vote for the Society this year, the Legislative 
Assembly attached the condition that £650 should be raised by 
private contributions. In order to make an appeal to the general 
public, a circular was prepared,* setting forth in a concise manner, 
what the Society had accomplished during the short period of its 
existence, and what were its claims to public support. The response 
to this was of the most generous and gratifying kind. Subscrip- 
tions flowed in from all parts of the Colony, whilst the circular 
was printed in extenso in the transactions of the French Society, as 
also in The Times and Fidd, both which papers contained most 
flattering articles upon the detailed results of the Society's 
operations. 

In reviewing the more prominent labours of the Council during 
the past year, a foremost place must be assigned to the introduction 
of the salmon, constituting as it does a fresh epoch in Australian 
acclimatisation, and conducing to results of which it is impossible to 
overestimate the importance. From the few ova that were retained 
in Victoria, it cannot be asserted with certainty, that salmon is yet 
established in the Colony, although sufficient has been done to show 
that there are no insuperable difficulties in the way ; whilst in 
Tasmania complete success has been attained. To Mr. J. A. Youl 
must be ascribed the lion's share of praise for the result, whilst these 
Colonies owe a debt of gratitude to Messrs. Money Wigram and 
Sons, for the princely generosity which placed the Norfolk at 
Mr. YouFs disposal, for the conveyance of the ova. The Council beg 
to record here the votes of thanks which they passed to those gentle- 
men, and to Captain Tonkin, upon the arrival of the Norfolk ; and 
also to Commander Norman upon the successful trans-shipment of 
the ova to Tasmania. 

" The Acclimatisation Society of Victoria takes this the ea^est 
opportunity of recording its sense of the deep obligations which not 
only the Society, but the whole of the Australian Colonies are under 
to James A. Youl, Esq., for his constant and undaunted determina- 

* See Appendix. 



9 

tion to introduce the salmon to these Colonies, and in congratulating 
him upon the brilliant success obtained from the experiment made 
on board the Norfolk^ the Society wishes distinctly to ascribe 
that success to Mr. Youl's persevering, enlightened, and patriotic 
efforts." 

"That in association with the very gratifying results now 
reported of the safe arrival of the salmon ova by the ship Norfolk^ 
this Council desires to express its strong appreciation of the muni- 
ficent conduct of Messrs. Money Wigram and Sons, in their 
donation of the large amount of space on board their vessel, and beg 
to Congratulate that firm upon the hopeful prospects in one of the 
most interesting of experiments, and one fraught with vast import- 
ance to the Australian Colonies to which their liberality has so 
decidedly conduced." 

" That the best thanks of the Council are due to Captain Tonkin 
and Mr. Carpenter, of the ship Norfolk, for the care taken, and the 
zeal exhibited in reference to the salmon ova on board that vessel, 
and the Council hereby expresses its conviction, that to that care no 
small portion of the gratifying success, now reported, may be 
attributable." 

" The Council of the Acclimatisation Society desires to express 
to Commander Norman, of H.M.C.S.S. Victoria, its thorough 
appreciation of the skill, zeal, and intelligence with which he has so 
successfully accomplished the delicate and important duty of con- 
conveying the salmon ova to Tasmania, and beg herewith to present 
him with the best thanks of the Council as an acknowledgment of 
the valuable services rendered by him to Acclimatisation." 

Another subject of congratulation is the introduction of the 
gouramier from the Mauritius. For this the Colony is indebted to 
Messrs. Joshua Brothers, by whose orders and at whose expense 
the attempt was made by Captain Beaton. Twenty-four of these 
desirable fish reached Melbourne alive, and there is every reason 
to hope these will establish the species in the Colony. 

The other introductions have been as follows : — 

6 Alpacas (from Sydney) 4 Chinese partridges 

8 Sambur deer 9 English partridges 

2 Hog deer 15 Ceylon partridges 

2 Bara singha deer 8 Indian partridges 

1 Formosa deer 80 Chinese quail 

8 Spotted Axis deer 23 Tasmanian quail 

4 Small Axis deer 8 Godwits 

2 Moose deer 8 French fowls 
10 English hares 4 Roman pigeons 



10 

2 White swans 20 Mainas 

2 Crowned Goura pigeons 12 Powi birds 

14 Carolina ducks 140 Java sparrows 

2 Tree ducks 20 English siskins 

6 Ceylon peafowl 40 English finches, various 

9 Chinese pheasants 86 Tench. 

During the past year there have been liberated — 

AT PHILLIP ISLAin). 

6 Hares 4 Chinese partridges 

5 Cape pheasants 70 Chinese quail 

8 English pheasants 28 Tastnanian quail 

4 Indian pheasants 6 Starlings 

8 Ceylon partridges 10 Algerine sand grouse 

5 Indian partridges 6 Wild ducks 

AT THE EOYAL PABK. 

8 Hares 20 Greenfinches 

20 Mainas 200 Java sparrows 

6 Starlings . 6 Blackbirds 
60 English sparrows 20 Siskin finches 
16 Yellowammers 6 Powi birds 

40 Chaffinches 3 Chinese pheasants 

AT PKNTRIDGE. 
40 Eoglish sparrows. 

AT ST. KILDA. 
20 Chinese sparrows. 

AT BALLAABAT. 
25 English sparrows 20 Java sparrows. 

AT BUNEEP. 
18 Fallow deer. 

This list will prove that the Council have not flagged in their 
labours during the past year ; and, necessarily slow as the work of 
acclimatisation must be, yet with such a list of successes as this 
to show in the short space of fourteen months, the results of the 
Society's labours must soon begin to be manifest. 

At the suggestion of Dr. Black a large number of Murray codfish 
have been procured during the past year, from the Murray, and 
placed in the Yan Yean reservoir, with a view to spread the supply 
of that valuable fish throughout the Colony. 

The Council are glad to be able to report that the Cashmere 
goats which were removed to Maryborough at the suggestion of the 
same gentleman, have thriven and increased in number. 



11 

The flock of llama alpacas, the Council regret to say, have been 
decreased by death. Fluke has appeared amongst them, induced 
by the extraordinary wet weather experienced lately. Measures are 
now being adopted to secure the immediate removal of the survivors* 
to the more congenial climate of the Gipps Land Eanges. 

The experience of the last few years has determined the Council 
to materially alter the system hitherto pursued in regard to the 
animals at the Koyal Park. It has been found that in some 
respects the Koyal Park is unsuited to serve as a permanent place 
of acclimatisation, owing to the dampness of the soil, its confined 
situation, and the difficulties attending the construction of proper 
breeding-houses, especially for the birds. It has therefore been 
resolved that for the future the first and immediate object of the 
Society should be the distribution of the animals throughout the 
Colony. Under the new system, the Eoyal Park will be used 
merely as a temporary place of reception for animals on their first 
arrival in the Colony, until they are healthy and in sufficient 
numbers to be turned loose, with a reasonable hope of establishing 
the breed. 

With respect to the future the Council have every reason 
to look forward with increased confidence. £500 has been 
voted speciaQy for the introduction of some of the magnificent 
game birds of India, such as the Monal, Kaleege, Tragopan, 
and Pucras pheasants; the large Himalayan partridges, the 
floriken, the bustard, the rock pigeon, &c. kc. £400 has 
been reserved for further introduction of salmon and trout ova, 
in order that at as early a date as possible the streams of 
the Colony may be stocked with these delicious fish. It has 
also been determined with a portion of this sum to try the 
introduction of the salmon trout, grayling, perch, and charr ; and 
the Council have requested the valuable assistance of Mr. J. A. 
Youl to assist them in carrying out these views. £300 has been 
sent home for the purpose of procuring in larger numbers the 
Angora goat ; the experience which the Council has had with this 
goat leading them to look upon it as a valuable addition to the 
permanent wealth of -the Colony ; and to this sum Mr. W. G. 
M*Cullough of Maryborough laudably added £600 for a like intro- 
duction on his own account. 

Within the last few months a committee has been appointed by 
the Council, " for the purpose of collecting and reporting upon all 
available information with reference to the varieties, the habits, the 
seasons, and the qualities of our marketable fishes, with a view to 



12 

their protection and increase, and the consequent development of 
the fishery trade in this country." A large amount of valuable 
information has been collected by this committee, this is now 
* eing condensed in the report which is being prepared ; and before 
long the Council hope to be able to lay before the members a copy 
of that report. 

During the past year monthly meetings of the Society have 
been held in Melbourne and suburbs, at which papers on various 
subjects have been read, in order to bring the objects of the Society 
more prominently before the public. 

Fallowing the example set by the Imperial Society of France, 
the Council determined to hold under their auspices an ExhibitioD 
of Dogs, and it is not now necessary to recall the success which 
attended their efforts; while it is satisfactory to add that financially 
the Exhibition was self-supporting, and that the funds of the 
Society were not in any way drawn upon. 

The Council regret the almost total failure of Mr. Duffield's 
Alpaca experiment, from which so much good was expected, in 
spite of his energetic and enterprising efforts. The failure, 
however, is not such as to cause despair of final success. The causes 
of the mortality to which the alpacas were subjected are found to 
have arisen, first, from the great and exhausting hardships suffered 
by the animals during their passage hither ; and, secondly, to their 
retention in the low, and damp soil in the neighbourhood of 
Melbourne. It is hoped that with greater care in the shipment, 
and with a wiser choice of a locality for their reception, the alpaca 
may yet be profitably acclimatised in Victoria ; and the Council 
have much pleasure in reporting that Mr. Duffield, undaunted by 
his late ill success, is about to undertake a second attempt to 
introduce the alpaca into this Colony. * 

In concluding this report of their proceeedings of the past 
fourteen months, the Council must again record its sense of deep 
obligation to Dr. Thomas Black, whose great interest in and 
valuable services rendered to the Society continue undiminished. 
The Council are also greatly indebted to Professor McCoy, who in 
spite of the multifarious calls upon his time and attention has 
always rendered to this Society services of a valuable and scientific 
character. The Council would also present their best thanks to 
Messrs. Wilson Bros., of the Wimmera, and to Captain Skottowe of 
the E.M.S. N(yrtham, to Captain Farquhar of the R.M.S. Madr(Uy 

* In Appendix. 



13 

to Captain Bume of the R.M.S. Bombay, to Captain Shinner of 
the Lincolnshire, to Mr. R. S. R Fussell of Fouchou, to Mr. C. 
P. Layard of Colombo, to Mr. J. Weir of Point de Galle, to Mr. J. 
Sparkes of Melbourne, for valuable co-operation received in carry- 
ing out the objects of the Society, and to Mr. W. Godfrey and Mr. 
J. Spowers, for their services in auditing the Society's accounts. 
The Council have much pleasure in bearing testimony to the valuable 
assistance they have derived from many friends of the cause both 
in the Colony and abroad, as well as to the zeal and continued 
attention of their Secretary, Mr. Geo. Sprigg. 



u 



QO 


K^ 
W^ 


09 


©1 


CO 


o 


o 


•-^ 


O 


« 


00 


CO 


00 


eo 


00 


•* 



H 

M 

Q 

CQ 

% 


H 

H 

m 

H 

H 



Q 




^ 

-^ 



^sglllisii 




^ « O iH O CD 

^ Oft O 00 ©« J 

«4lg g g fe § 

Cq t^ CO CO 



^ 





! 


§ • 




• 




P 


• 


• 




'O 


• 


j 


1 


ptions an 
g Fees... 


«0 

1 


1 


1 


1 1 


'S 


^ 


g 






In 


1 


•» S 


!» 



5 

o 

i 



* c o 

8 E 

■21 

S - 



§ I 



« 5 

O OQ 



IK 
|S 

I § 

09 «,^ 

c q> 

•3 § 
§1 

'^ -b» 






15 



LIFE MEMBERS. 

An Members marked thus * pey their Amiual Subecripiioii also. 



Aldworth and Co., Sandhiirst £10 10 
Armitage, George. Ballaarat .. 10 10 
Austin, lliomas, Barwon Park . . 10 10 
Bagot, C. N., Melbourne Club . . 10 10 
•Barkly, His EzoellenQy Sir 

Heniy, Mauritius .. 21 

•Bear, Hon. J.P., M.L.C., Queen 

Street 21 

*Bear, Thomas H., HeidelbeiiT .. 10 10 
*Black, Dr., Thomas Melbourne 

Club 10 10 

Box, H., Little Collins Street 

West 10 10 

Bright Brothers, Messrs. k Co., 

Flinders Lane .. 10 10 

Brown, Lindsay, Oanramadda, 

Wahgrunyah 10 10 

Catto, John, Newbridge, Loddon 10 10 
Chambers, H. J., St. KUda Honorary 

Cooper, Sir Daniel, London . . 87 2 
*Coppin, Hon. Geo., M.L.C , 

Cremome 10 10 

Creswii^ Borough Council (rf, . . 10 10 
*C. S. Officer, Mount Talbot .. 10 10 
*Dalgety & Co., Messrs., Little 

Collins Street 10 10 

*Darling, His Excellency Sir 

Charles H., Toorak . . . . 10 10 
*Docker, Rev. Joseph, Wangaratto 21 
Eldridge, James, Oakleigh .. 50 
*Falooner, J. J., Bank of Austral- 
asia 20 

Firebraoe, R. T., H^eki, 

GippsLand 10 10 

Fussen, R. S. R. Fou Chou 

dolls. 50 11 10 

Glass, Hugh, 18, A*Beckett 

Street 21 

*Haines, The Hon. W. C, 

Melbomme Club .. .. 10 10 

♦Henty, The Hon. S. G., M.L.C., 

31, Market Street .. 10 10 

♦Hervey, The Hon. M., M.L.C., 

Melboiune Club .. 10 10 

*Hoihnann, W., Bush Back, 

Easendon 25 

Jones, Lloyd, Avenel .. .. 10 10 
*Jo6hua Bros., William Street .. 10 10 
Kennedy, Hon. D., M.L.C., 

Lansdowne Terrace, St. Kilda 10 10 
Learmonth, Thomas, Ercibdan- 

riley, Portland .. .. 10 10 

Layard, C. P., Colombo .. Honorary 



LyaH, W., Frogmore iBlO 10 

Martin, Dr., Heidelberg .. ..10 10 
Madcende, John, 70^ Queen 

Street 10 10 

Maddnn<ni, L., "Argus *' Office Honorary. 
Marshall, Captahi, D. S., '*A. 

H. Badger** Honorary 

McGill,A., 10 10 

McHaffie, John, Phimp Island .. 10 10 
McMuUen, J., Union Bank .. 21 
Macintosh, Alexander, Green 

Hills, Diggers Rest ..10 10 

McMillan, A. Dargo, Qipps 

Land 10 10 

MoOoy, W. T., Bahnoral .. .. 10 10 
Mueller, Dr., Botanic Gardens . . 10 10 o 
Municipal Council of Ballaarat 

West 20 

Kidiolson, Hon. W., 18, Flinders 

Street West 10 10 

"Nicholson, Germain, Collins 

Street East 10 10 

•Power, Hon. lliomas H., Haw- 
thorne 10 10 

Purchas, Albert, Kew . . Honorary 

*Ro8tron, John R., Navarre .. 10 10 

*Rutledge, WiUiam, Belfast .. 10 10 

•Salmon, J., E., S., and A. C. Bank 21 

Sargood. King & Saigood, 

Flinders Street West . . .. 10 10 
Shnpeon, Robert, Winchelsea ..10 10 
Sloan, W. 8., Fou Chou, dels. 

50 11 10 

•Spowers, Allan, " Argus'* Office 10 10 
Stanbridge, W. E., Dayleeford . . 10 10 
Staughton, S. T., LitUe ColUns 

Street West 10 10 

Stradian, J., London Chartered 

Bank 21 

Sumner, T. J., 24, Flinders Lane 

West 10 10 

Taylor, Frederick, Melbourne 

Club 10 10 

•Taylor, W., Ovemewton, Keilor 10 10 
Templeton, Hugh, Fitzroy Honorary 

Ware, Joseph, Carramut . . . . 10 10 
Wilson and Mackinnon, Collins 

Street East 42 9 

•Wilson, Edward, " Argus** Office 21 
Wilson, Samuel, Wimmera . . 10 10 
Winter, James, Toolambra, Mur- 

chison 10 10 

Whiter, Thomas, Lange Kal Kal 10 10 



16 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 

All Members marked thus * are Life Members also. 



a*Beckett, T. T., Chanoeiy Lane £2 2 
Adeney, Wm., Cbooolyn, Cam- 

penlown £2 2 

Aires, John, 81, Elinbeth-st. ..220 
Anderson, Sharp, & Wright, 

Carron Timber Yard .. ..220 
Anderson, R. S., Queen Street ..220 
Bagot, R. C. Bourke Street West 2 2 
Baines, Edward, Little Collins 

Street West 2 2 

Band, M. H., Mount Bute ..220 
Baynton, Thomas, Kyneton ..220 
Beaney,J.O.,154,Ck>llinsSt.Ea8t 2 2 
Bear, Hon. J. P., Queen Street ..220 
Bonn, John, 24, Flinders Lane 

West 2 2 

Bindon, S. H., M.L.A., Temple 

Court 2 2 

Bland, R. H., Climes ..220 

Black, Dr. Joseph, Bourke-street 

West 2 2 

B%h & Harbottle, Flinden Lane 

West 2 2 

Bon, John, Wappan . . ..220 
Bon, J. and W , Miller's Ponds, 

Merton 2 2 

Brodribb, W. A., Brighton ..220 
Brodribb, K. E., Chancery Lane 2 2 
Briscoe & Company, 11, Collins 

Street East 2 2 

Broad, Richard, Benalla .. ..220 
Brown, Charles, 83, Bourke Street 

West 2 2 

Brown, G. O., Hall of Commerce 2 2 
Buchanan, Isaac, Roseneath, 

OippsLand .220 

Buckley & Nunn, 27, Bourke St. 

East 2 2 

Callender, J. & Co., 26, King St. 2 2 
Campbell, D. S., Bank Place ..220 
Campbell, Colin, Buangor ..220 
Carfrae, Jolm, Victoria Parade ..220 
Carter and Watts, 70, Little Col- 
lins Street East 2 2 

Carter, Ernest, 60, Russell Street 2 2 
Champ, Colonel, William Street 2 2 
Chapman, H. S., New Zealand ..220 
Charsley, Edward, 91, Chancery 

Lane 2 2 

Christie, F. C, Williamstown ..220 
Clark, Richard, Benalla . . ..220 
Clark, Walter, Glenarra, Bulla ..220 



Clarke, W., and Sons, 86, EliBa)eth 

Street £2 2 

Clarke, W, J., Collins Street East 2 2 

Clarke, W. J., Sunbury .. ..220 

dough, J. H., & Co., Messrs., 

118, Collins Street West ..220 

Cooling, R. H., Bourke Stoeet 
East 2 

Cooper, Horatio, St. Kilda . . 2 
*Cooper, Sir Daniel, London . . 2 

Crisp, Geo., Queen-Street . . 4 

Cunningham and Macredie, Col- 
lins Street West ..2 

Cunningham, H., St. Heliers . . 2 

Curcier and Adet, Market Street 2 

Currie, J. L., Cressy . . 2 
^Darling, His Ezcellen<7 Sir Chas. 
H., Toorak 6 

Degrayes, Hon. W., M.L.C., Flin- 
ders Lane East 2 

Dennis, Wm., Cairo Plains Glen- 
orchy 2 

Dill, George, " Argus ** Office . . 2 
•Docker, Rey. Joseph, Wangaratta 2 

Drysdale, T. A., 112, Collins 
Street West 2 

Duerdin, J., Collins Stf^Bet West 2 

Eager, D., Pine Hills .. ..5 
•Falconer, J. J., Bank of Australasia 2 

Falk, P., & Co., 88, Littie Collins 
Street West 2 

Ferguson and Moore, Flinders 
Lane East 2 

Findlay, James, Talangatta, 
Albuiy 2 

Finlay, J., Emerald HiU .. ..2 

Fisher, Richards & Co., 114, Col- 
lins Street West . . 2 

Fitzgerald, J., Lonsdale Street 
East 2 

Fleetwood, T. P., Little Collins 
Street Wet»t 2 

Francis, J. G., M.L.A., 26, Kin^ 
Street 2 

Fraser k Co., 14, Collins Street 
West 2 

Fulton, Thomas, & Co., 120}, Flin- 
ders Street West ..2 

Gilles, L., Warmambool .. 2 

Godfrey, F. R., Somerton . . 2 

Goldsborough, R., & Co., Bourke 

Street West 2 2 



s 





2 





2 





4 





2 





2 





2 





2 





6 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 











2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 





2 






17 



Graham, J., 97, Little Collins St., 

East £2 2 

Grant, Daniel, 58, Elizabeth St. 2 2 
Grant, Robert, Switzerland ..220 
Gray, W. W., Nanit Nareeb ..220 
Gumer, H. F., 192, ColUns Street 2 2 
Haigh Brothers. 58, CollinsSt-East 2 2 
♦Haines, Hon. W. C, Melbourne 

Club 2 2 

Hamilton, William, Glenurma, 

Broadford 2 2 

Harris, Nathaniel, & Co., 36, 

Elizabeth Street .. ..220 

Henty, Hon. James, M.L.C., 11, 

Little Collins Street West. ..220 
Henty, Herbert James, 11, Little 

Collins Street West. .. ..220 
Henty, Henry, 11, Little Collins 

Street West. 2 2 

•Henty, Hon. S. G., Market Street 2 2 
Hetherin^n, Charles, 8, Collins 

Street West 2 2 

Highett, Hon. W., M.L.C., Mel- 
bourne Club 2 2 

Higinbotham, Hon. Geo , M.L.A., 

Temple Court 2 2 

*Ho£Fmann, W., Bush Back, Essen- 
don 2 2 

Hogg, E. J., Brookville, South 

Yarra 2 2 

House, Samuel, & Co., Queen 

Street 2 2 

Howitt, A W., Omeo .. ..220 
Hughes, C. W., Brighton.. ..220 
Half ord. Prof., University ..220 
Jackson, Henry, Sandhurst ..830 
Jones, Henry, Birrum, Apeley ..220 
Johnston, Hon. J. S., St. Kilda.. 2 2 
Jones, Henry, Sandhurst.. ..220 
Jo8hua,Bros., 46, William Street 2 2 
Kerr, W. L., Killingworth ..220 
Kew, Borough Coimcil of.. ..220 
Kilpatrick & Co., ColUns Street 

West 2 2 

Knight, A. H 2 2 

Koi^, Meng &. Co., Little Bourke 

Street East 2 2 

Lang, G. S., St. KUda .. ..220 
Lamach, Bank of New South 

Wales, London 5 5 

Lempriere, C, Elizabeth Street. .220 

Leroyd, J 2 2 

Loader, Thomas, Elizabeth St. . . 2 2 
Levy Bros., Bourke Street East.. 2 2 
Macfarlane, A., &Co.,13, Flinders 

Lane East 2 2 

Mackintosh, A., Green Hills, Dig- 
ger's Eest . . . . ..220 



Madden, Dr., CoUins Street East £2 2 
Martin, George, & Co., 25, Mar> 

ket Street 2 2 

Martin, Dr., Heidelberg . . ..440 
Mason and firth, Flinders Lane 

West 2 2 

Maxfleld, James, Kilmore ..220 

MoCrae, A., Kiimore .. ..220 
McCoy, Professor, University ..220 
McCracken, R., 120, Little Collins 

Street West 2 2 

McCuIloch, Sellar & Co., Queen 

Street 2 2 

McKenzie, A. Reedy Creek ..220 
McLeish, D., Glenmore, Yea ..220 
McNaughton, Love and Co., Flin- 
ders Lane East 2 2 

Michie, Hon. A., Temple Court ..220 
Mitchell and Bonneau, Elisabeth 

Street 2 2 

MitcheU, Hon. W. H. F., M.L.C., 

Hawthorne 2 2 

Moore, S., Collins Street West ..220 
Morris, James, Yan Yean ..220 

Morrison, A., Scotch College ..220 
Murphy, E. J., Eldon Chambers 2 2 
Muttlebuiy, J. W., Queen Street 2 2 
Nankivell, T. J., 3, Elizabeth St. 2 2 
Napier, Thomas, Moonee Ponds 2 2 
•Nicholson, Hon. W., St. Kilda ..220 
•Nicholson, Germain, 69, Collins 

Street East 2 2 

Nordt, Heyde & Co., Collins St. 

West .. .. . ..220 

Nutt, R. W., William Street ..220 
Ogilvy, David, 66, Queen Street 2 2 
O'Neill, H., Brighton .. ..220 

Parbm-y, Lamb & Co., Queen St. 2 2 
Paterson, Ray, Palmer, & Co., 38, 

Flinders Lane West . . ..220 

Patmore,Gumey, "Argus "OflSce 2 2 
Pearson, John, Shadwell Park, 

Mortlake 2 2 

Phelps, J. J., Melbourne Club ..22© 
Piper, William, Benalla . . ..220 
Politz & Co., Bourke Street West 2 2 
♦Power, Thomas H., Queen Street 2 2 
Prost, Kohler &. Co, 9, Elizabeth 

Street 2 2 

Pugh, Dr., 131, Collins St. East 2 2 
Ritchie, D., Blackwood, Penshurst 2 2 
Ritchie, J., Bordcarra, Belfast .. 2 2 

Ritchie, H 2 2 

Robertson, G. Warrock, Cas- 

terton 2 2 

Robinson, L., 37, Collins St. East 2 2 
Rolfe and Bailey, Bourke Street 

West 2 2 

B 



18 



Ross, Colonel, Melbourne Club . . £2 

Rosii, P. F., Collina Street West 2 

Rusden, G. W., Brighton.. .. 2 
Russell, Thomas, Warro<dc, Roke- 

wood 2 

Ryan and Hammond, Bourke -St. 

West 2 

"Salmon, J., E. S. & A. C. Bank . 2 
Sands and McDougall, ColUns St. 

West 2 

*Sargood, King and Sargood, 28, 

Flhiders Street East .. ..2 

Schlostein, A. , Flinders Lane West 2 
Schuhkrafft, A. W., 180, Elizabeth 

Street 2 

Selwyn, A. R. C, Brighton . . 2 

Sharpe, H. L., 13, Elizabeth St. 2 

Shaw, Thomas, Darlington . . 2 
Sherwin, John, Bradmoree, Mer- 

rang 2 

Sloane, W. & Co. Collins Street 

West 2 

Smale, A. W., 105, Collins Street 

East 2 

Sparkes, J., 6, Flinders St. East 2 

•Spowers, Allan, " Argus" Office 2 
Sprigg, W. G., 3, Flinders Lane 

East 2 

Stead Brothers, 43, Swanston St. 2 



2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 



Steyenson, L., and Sons, Flin- 
ders Lane East £5 5 

Steavenson, John, Boads and 

Bridges Office 2 2 

Strutt, C. E.-, Echuca . . . . 2 2 

Stutzer, J. J., " Argus** Office . . 2 2 

Swan, William, Colerane . . . . 2 2 
Taylor, Hon. Wm., OFernewton, 

KeUor 2 2 

Terry, Leonard, William Street... 2 2 

niomas. Dr., Collins Street East 2 2 
Topp, Samuel & Co., Flinders 

Lane West 2 2 

TumbuU, R. & P., WiUiam Street 2 2 

Watson, G., Bourke Street West 4 4 

Watts, H. E., Melbourne aub .. 2 2 
White, W. P., & Co. 10, Elizabeth 

street 2 2 

Williams, W., Spencer Street . . 2 2 
WUshin & Leighton, 7, Market 

Street 2 2 

«WUson, Edward, " Argus" Office 2 2 
Wilson, Dr., Summer Hill, 

Somerton 2 2 

Wragge, George, 134, CoUins 

Street East 2 2 

Wyatt, Alfred, Temple Court . . 2 2 
Younghusband and Co., 36, Eliza- 
beth Street 2 2 



DONATIONS. 



Armstrong, —, Werribee .. ..£10 
Baker, — , Werribee . . ..050 

Bamford, J., Swanston Street ..110 
Bancroft, E., Flinders Lane East 10 
Beauchamp and Rocke, Collins 

Street East 110 

Bertram, —, Werribee .. .. 10 
Beveridge, A., Kilmore . . ..100 
Bunny, B F., Temple Court ..100 

Butey, M., Bulla 10 

Butler and Moss 10 

Cameron, James, Merriang .. 10 

Cobbledich, —, Werribee .. .. 10 

Cochrane and Co 10 6 

Collie, J., Collins Street East ..110 
Corcoran, John, Tullamarine ..100 
Courtney, E., Temple Court ..110 

Daly 110 

Duncan, G., Dentgan .. ..100 
Farron, Wm., Derrimut . . ..060 
Fellows, Thos. H., Temple Court 110 
Ford, W., and Co., Swanston Street 110 



Eraser, C. R. W., Kihnore .. £1 i 

Gibbs, Henry, Whittlesea .. .. 110 

Gibbs, S. M 1 

Gotch, J. S., Collins Street West 110 
Grant, Thomas, Glenilgan . . . . 10 

Hardy and Co 10 

Harvey, J., Little Collms Street 

West 110 

Howitt, Dr., Collins Street East ..100 
Irvine, J. A., Flinders Street . . 10 
Johnstone, G. and F., Collins 

Street West 10 

Jones, — , Melton 6 

Katzenstein, J., Flinders Lane West 110 

Erouheim and Co 5 

Langlands Bros., Flinders Street 

West 110 

Levi, N., Collins Street West ..110 

Lodman, M., Bulla 10 

Lord and Co., Collins Street West 110 
MacGregor, D. R., Woodstock .. 10 6 
Macintosh, James, Oakland ..100 



19 



Mathevraon, J., £10 

McKenzie, J. M., Cloubmane, 

Kilmore 10 

McMahon, Thomas, Kororoit .. 10 

Miller. Mrs., Yea 110 

Newnham, -—, Melton ., : 10 

New, Rey. Isaac, Barkly Terrace.. 110 

Oliver, Thomas, Campbellfleld .. 10 
Oswald and Inglis, Flinders Street 

West .. 10 

PhilpSjP. a 10 

Ray, Dr. 110 

Reynolds and English, Collins 

Street East 10 

Robertson, Qeorge, 69, Elizabeth 

Street 110 



Ronald, Dr., Whittlesea .. . . £1 

Ross, C. S., Ck>llin8 Street West .. 

IVlor, T. H 1 

Towns, R., and Co., William 

Street i 

Tulloh, W. P., Mount Cotteril .. 1 
Yaughan, Moule, and Seddon, 

Chancery Lane i 

Watson and Sous, Little Collins 

Street East 1 

Whitney, J., Swanston Street .. 1 

Wilson, Henry, Kilmore . . . . 1 

Wilton, John, Morang .. .. 1 

Wilson, W. S., Kororoit .. .. 1 

Young and Martin i 




10 




1 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



Beckx, Gustave, Flinders Lane West. 
Biagi, Giuseppe, William Street. 
Blanchard, W., ColUns Street West. 
Oastelnau, Comte de, Apsley Place. 
Chalmers, Dr., New Zealand. 
Cooper, Ricardo, Queen Street. 
Damyon, James, Market Street. 
Drouyn, de Lhuys, Paris. 
Fussell, R. S. R., Fou Chou, 
Oillanders & Arbuthnot, Calcutta. 
Ckxiirey, Captain, J. B., New Ze^and. 
Graham, James, Little Collins Street East. 
Grote, Arthur, Calcutta. 
Kohler, Geoige, Elizabeth Street. 



Landells, G. J., King Street. 
Macaulay, W., Singapore. 
Michaelis, Moritz, Elizabeth Street. 
MuUick, Ri^endro, Calcutta. 
Newnham, J. A., Flmders Street West. 
Ploos Van Amstel, J. M., ColUns St. West. 
Ramel, Monsieur, Paris. 
Reid, Captain, R. M.S. "Bombay." 
Rentsch, Samuel, Flinders Street East 
Robinson, J., Calcutta. 
Scholfatein, Adolp., Flinders Lane West. 
Sparkes, John, Flinders Street East. 
Squire, Surgeon John, Dlnapore. 
Were, J. B., Collins Street West. 



B 2 



THE EULES AND OBJECTS 



^afimatisatbtt Soxutg- ai ^xdoxm. 



^^l^^ of 1. The objects of the Society shall be the introduction, 
acclimatisation, and domestication of all innoxious animals 
birds, fishes, insects, and vegetables, whether useful or orna- 
mental; — ^the perfection, propagation, and hybridisation of 
races newly introduced or already domesticated ; — the spread 
of indigenous animals, &c., from parts of the colonies were 
they are already known, to other localities where they are not 
known; — the procuring, whether by purchase, gift, or ex- 
change, of animals, <kc., from Great Britain, the British colo- 
nies, and foreign countries ; — the transmission of animals, &c., 
from the colony to England and foreign parts, in exchange 
for others sent thence to the Society ; — the holding of period- 
ical meetings, and the publication of reports and transactions, 
for the purpose of spreading knowledge of acclimatisation, 
and inquiry into the causes of success or failure ; — the inter- 
diange of reports, <kc., with kindred associations in other parts 
of the world, with the view, by correspondence and mutual 
good offices, of giving the widest possible scope to the project 
of acclimatisation; — the conferring rewards, honorary or in- 
trinsically valuable, upon seafaring men, passengers from 
distant countries, and others who may render valuable services 
to the cause of acclimatisation. 

Membership. 2. A Subscriber of two gmneas or upwards annually shall 
be a Member of the Society; and contributors, within one 
year, of ten guineas or upwards shall be Life Members of the 
Society ; and any person who may render special services to 
the Society, by contribution of stock or otherwise, shall be 



21 

eligible for life membersliip, and may be elected as such by 
the Council, or by any annual general meeting. 

3. The annual subscription shall be payable on the 1st Subscrfp- 
day of September in each year, and may be received by any 
Member of the Council, or the Collector, either of whom on 
receiving the same shall cause the person so subscribing to be 
enrolled a member accordingly. 

4. All the property of the Society, of what nature and Property 
kind soever, shall vest in Trustees to be appointed by the Trustees 
Council, for the use, purposes, and benefit of the Society. 

5. The Society shall be governed by a Council of eighteen Executive 
Members, to include a President, two Vice-Presidents, and an 
Honorary Treasurer, three of whom (viz., those who have couwcu. 
attended the fewest Meetings of the Council proportionately 

since their appointment) shall retire annually, but shall be 
eligible for re-election. Provided that if any sum of money 
be voted to the Society by Act of Parliament, or trusts con- 
ferred upon the Council by the Gk)vemment, then it shall be 
lawful for the Chief Secretary for the time being to appoint, 
if he consider it expedient, any number of gentlemen, not 
exceeding three, to act as Members of the Council, and they 
shall have all the privileges as if otherwise duly elected ; and 
further, to appoint one Co-Trustee, to act in conjunction with 
the Trustees for the time being of the Society. And provided 
further, that if the Melbourne Corporation, or any of the ad- 
jacent municipalities, shall decide upon expending any sum 
of money exceeding £100 in any one year, upon the grounds 
or for the objects of the Society, the Mayor of Melbourne or 
Chairman of such municipality shall be for such year a 
Member of the Council, and be at liberty to act in every 
respect as an ordinary member. 

6. In case of a vacancy occurring by the death, resignation, ^^^.J" 
or non-attendance of any Member of Council for the period of *^ji^^"P" 
two months, the remaining Members may appoint another 
Member of the Society to be a Member of the Council in the 

place and stead of the deceased, or resigned, or absenting 
Member, and such new Member may act until the next annual 
general meeting. Provided that such vacancy shall not be 
supplied by the Council except after seven days* notice given 



of the new Member to be proposed, and unless in tbe presence 
of at least seven Members of the Council. 

^ MeSh^s '^' '^^ Society shall hold periodical meetings, at which 
cfety. P^-pers and other communications relating to the objects of 
the Society, and reports prepared by the Council, shall be 
received, and such discussions shall be encouraged as may be 
of value in propagating a knowledge of acclimatisation amongst 
the Members and the public. And such business generally 
shall be disposed of as may be brought under consideration by 
the Council or by any Member who shall have given seven 
days* previous notice thereof to the Secretary, or as a majority 
of two-thirds of the Members present shall see fit to entertain 
and consider ; and each Member shall have the privilege of 
introducing two friends at such meetings. 

**coSl' 8. The Council shall meet at least once a month, and 
three Members (of whom the President, one of the Vice- 
Presidents, or Honorary Treasurer shall be one,) shall form a 
quorum, and be capable of transacting the business of the 
Coimcil, subject to such limitations as may be imposed by 
any bye-law of the Council, or rule, or resolution of the 
Society, which may be hereafter made. 

Powers and 9. The Council shall have the sole management of the 
Council, affairs of the Society, and of the income and property thereof, 
for the uses, purposes, and benefit of the Society ; and shall 
have the sole and exclusive right of appointing a President, 
Vice-Presidents, and Honorary Treasurer from amongst them- 
selves or the other Members of the Society, and also of ap- 
pointing paid servants, as a manager or secretary, collector, 
and such other officers, clerks, and labourers, and at such 
salaries as they may deem necessary, and of removing them if 
they shall think fit, and shall prescribe their respective duties. 
And such Council shall have power to consider and determine 
all matters, either directly or indirectly affecting the interests 
of the Society, and if they shall think fib so to do, shall bring 
the same under the notice of the Members of the Society, at 
any general or special meeting ; and to make such bye-laws as 
they may deem necessary for the efficient management of the 
affairs and the promotion of the objects of the Society, and 
for the conduct of the business of the Council, provided the 



23 

same are not repugnant to these rules ; to appoint one or more 
sub-committees, for any purpose contemplated by these rules ; 
and generally to perform such acts as may be requisite to 
carry out the objects of the Society, which bye -laws are to be 
subject to ratification, or emendation, or rejection, by the next 
annual or special general meeting of the Society. And it 
shall be the duty of the Coimcil to exercise the foregoing 
powers as occasion shall require, and to furnish reports of the 
proceedings at every periodical and annual meeting of the 
Society. 

1 0. The Society shall have power to affiliate or associate Branch So- 
itself with other Societies of kindred objects, and to found 
Branch Societies if desirable ; and the Council shall have 
power to carry out any arrangements for this purpose, and to 
furnish any monthly or other reports. 

11. Minutes shall be made, in books kept for the purpose. Minutes of 
of all the proceedings at the general and special meetings of j^J®®**" 
the Members, and minutes shall also be made of the proceed- 
ings of the Council at their general and special meetings, and 

of the names of the Members attending the same, and such 
minutes shall be open to inspection by any Member of the 
Society at all reasonable times. 

12. All subscriptions and other moneys payable to the Moneys to be 
Society shall be paid to the Treasurer, who shaU forthwith Treasurer, 
place the same in a bank, to be named by the Council, to the 

^credit of the Society ; and no sum shall be paid on account of 
the Society until the same shaU have been ordered by the 
Council, and such order be duly entered in the book of the 
proceedings of the Council ; and aU cheques shall be signed 
by the Treasurer as such, and be countersigned by the Presi- 
dent, or one of the Vice-Presidents, or by some other Member 
of the Council delegated by the Council to act as such. 

13. An annual meeting shall be held in November Annual 
of each year, and the Council shall report their pro- 
ceedings during the past year, and shall produce their 
accounts, duly audited, for publication if deemed desirable ; 

and the meeting shall elect new Members of Council to supply 
the vacancies therein. And notices of motion must be fur- 
nished to the Secretary one day previous to the holding of 



24 

such meeting, or such motions may be rejected by the 
Chairman. 

^mentX H. All privileges of membership shall cease in case any 
Subicrip- Member shall be three months in arrear, subject, however, to 
his restoration on the payment of such subscription as afore- 
said, accompanied by satisfactory explanation. 

SpedaiMeet 1^. Upon receiving a requisition in writing, signed by 
SSiberp. twelve or more Members of the Society, or upon a resolution 
of the Council, the President, or in his absence one of the 
Vice-Presidents, shall convene a special meeting of the Mem- 
bers, to be held within fifteen days of the receipt by him of 
such requisition or resolution. Provided always that sux^ 
requisition and resolution, and the notices thereunder conven- 
ing the meeting, shall specify the subject to be considered at 
such meeting, and that subject only shidl be discussed at such 
meeting. 

^Members. ^^' '^^^ Council or any general meeting of the Society 
may admit, as Honorary Members, such ladies or gentlemen 
as may have distinguished themselves in connection with the 
objects of the Society, or in objects of a kiadred nature. 

Power to ai- 17. It shaU be lawful for any annual or fecial meeting 
^ of the Society to alter, vary, or amend the rules ; or to sub- 
stitute another for any of the same ; or to make any new rule 
which may be considered desirable; if and after a notice 
specifying the nature of such alteration^ variation, amendment, 
substitution, or new rule, shall have been given to the Secre- 
tary fifteen days before the holdiog of such meeting. And 
such alteration, variation, amendment, substitution, or new 
rule, shaU be valid if carried by a majority of not less than 
two-thirds of the Members present at such meeting. 



PIlOCEBDINGhS 

At TBK 

THIRD ANNUAL MEETING, 

Held November Uth, 1864. 



The Third Annual Meeting of the Acclimatisation Society of 
Victoria was held at their offices in Swanston-street, on Friday 
afternoon, November 11th. The attendance comprised most of those 
gentlemen who have distinguished themselves in connection with 
the subject of acclimatisation in Victoria. The chair was taken by 
His Excellency the Governor. 

His Excellency said that in op^iing the proceedings c^ the 
third annual meeting of the society he had bo intention of detain- 
ing them long from the practical business of the day. Were he to 
attempt a retrospective view of the proceedings of the sodety during 
the past year, he would be only relating facts with which the m^nbers 
were much better acquainted than he was ; and as for the public, 
he should be only giving them an imperfect account of that 
which would be given wiUi much more accuracy in detail by the 
report of the Council which would be published. Having had 
the opportunity of perusing the intended report, he was happy 
to find that he could congratulate the Society on the great 
improvement that might be said to have taken place in their 
position and prospects in every respect. He was glad to see, 
that their finances were satisfactory — ^that their list of sub- 
scribers was greatly enlarged, and that their correspondence 
with the various parts of the world in which they were interested 
was much amplified. The Society had also good reason to con- 
gratulate itself on the number of objects and proper subjects of 
acclimatisation introduced by them during the year, and also on 
the fact that its prospects altogether were of a highly encouraging 
character. All this must be most gratifying to the friends of accli- 
matisation, and the friends of the Society, as it was to himself. He 
had been an observer of the carefulness and assiduity with which 



26 

the Council had attended to their duties from week to week, and to 
the various subjects discussed. No doubt a great deal of the suc- 
cess of the Society was attributable to the confidence and assurance 
felt in the fact that the Council attended energetically to the ad- 
vancement of the objects of the Society. He was well aware that 
among the most eminent of those who had done so much for the 
association must be recorded the name of their late president, Mr. 
Edward Wilson, and he desired to state his concurrence with the 
sentiment expressed by the Council at the loss of so zealous and 
experienced a co-operator. At the same time, he congratulated the 
Society on having secured, as a successor to Mr. Wilson, a gentleman 
with so high a personal and public reputation as Mr. Haines. No 
doubt under his auspices, and the active exertions of Mr. Wilson, and 
such gentlemen as Dr. Black and others who had done so mucli, the 
Society would continue to flourish and command the respect of the 
public with an equal degree of success to that enjoyed during the 
past year. For himself, he had to thank the Council for having, in 
accordance with the request made by him at the last annual meet- 
ing, offered him ample information to be sent through Her 
Majesty's Government at home to the British AccUmatisation 
Society, as to the animals and vegetable objects in this colony which 
were likely to be suitable for acclimatisation in the mother country 
and Europe. According, also, to the expressed wish of the Society, 
he had requested of Her Majesty's Government that the Reports 
received from other colonies, and Her Majesty's diplomatic represen- 
tatives abroad with the various Governments with which Her 
Majesty's Government was in communication, might be sent to this 
Society. As yet he had received no reply, but he had not the slightest 
doubt that if replies were not sent through the Gk)vemment the 
Society would in due course receive them from the acclimatisation 
society at, home. With these few observations he would call on the 
secretary to read the report. 

The Secretary (Mr. Geo. Sprigg) then read the report. (See p. 5.) 

On the motion of Mr. Stutzer, seconded by Mr. Steavenson, the 
report was adopted. 

Dr. Madden moved that the election of the Hon. W. C. Haines, 
Dr. J. Black, Mr. D. S. Campbell, Mr. Thomas Loader, and Mr. H. 
E. Watts, as members of the Council, be confirmed. 

The motion was seconded by Lieutenant-Colonel Champ, and 
carried. 

Mr. Steavenson then moved, that Messrs. G. S. Lang, J. Sparkes, 
and A. K. C. Selwyn be elected to fill the vacant seats in the CounciL 



27 

The motion was duly seconded, and carried. 

Dr. T. Black moved an alteration in Kule XII., by which the 
exact day in November at which the annual meeting should take 
place might be fixed by the Council. His object was, he said, to 
secure, if possible, the presence of the Governor. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Champ seconded the motion, which was 
agreed to. 

Dr. T. Black said he was happy to state that the hares, quails, 
and pheasants at Phillip Island were all doing very well ; while the 
salmon at Badger*s Creek were going on as prosperously as could be 
wished. As every one would be glad to hear of the progress and 
condition of the salmon in Tasmania, he begged to introduce the 
Hon. Dr. Officer, Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Tasmania, 
who would probably give all information on the subject. 

Dr. Officer, as indebted to the courtesy of the Society for the 
opportunity of being present at their annual meeting, could not but 
express his admiration at their labours of the past year, and his 
humble wishes for their continued success and usefulness. For him 
to speak in terms of eulogy of a Society which had made such a 
name in the world would be superfluous repetition ; but he was 
quite sure he had a few words of intereai|; to say on the subject 
alluded to. He was very glad that all that could be said respecting 
the salmon and trout in Tasmania could be summed up in a very 
few words. Continued success had attended the treatment of the 
fish. It was quite true that incidents had been met with and actual 
alarm occasioned in the minds of those concerned ; but happily 
these had all been surmounted in the best way, and he was now 
able to report that both were in as healthy a condition as could be 
expected. Trout in their native country were almost more advanced 
than salmon, and those in Tasmania were, therefore, now more 
nearly approaching maturity. They were now really respectable 
little fishes ; extremely active, leaping at the fly, and greedily eating 
anything thrown to them in the shape of food. He was sure that 
in less than a year these trout would have begun to produce ova, and 
then after that as many fish could be sent to Victoria as were 
desired. It was an established fact, he believed, that trout began 
to deposit eggs when they were only a year old ; and as those in 
Tasmania were already six months old, there would doubtless be a 
large progeny by this time next year. The salmon were not so large 
as this, but they grew visibly daily and took all the food offered to 
them, and for a long time no really natural deaths had taken place. 
Some had been lost, but only from incidental causes. For instance, 



28 

a few were found to have got into the crevices of the box in which 
they were confined, and thus became incarcerated without the fact 
being known, and the consequence was some dozen or so perished in 
that way. With that exception he was not aware of any deaths. 
They were in a large and commodious pond, with an abundance of 
running crystal water, so that it was impossible to doubt that an 
abundant success would result He heartily congratulated the 
society on the spirit they had displayed in uniting with Tasmania in 
effecting a second importation of salmon, and that they had appro- 
priated the liberal sum of ^£400 for the purpose, and communicated 
with his excellent friend Mr. Youl, with a view to concert measures^ 
with him for obtaining an additional supply. He was not aware of the 
terms in which the partnership would be entered into — what part 
would be taken by Victoria and what by Tasmania, but he was sure 
both would go on as harmoniously as before. Whatever this Society 
might decide upon — whether they proposed to retain a large portion 
of the ova in this colony and try their hands at hatching here, or 
whether they sent the greater part over to Tasmanian care, those in 
Tasmania would be equally ready to meet Victorian wishes in all 
respects. Probably he might take the opportunity of offering a 
little advice on the subject of the fish, but it would be better to 
confide it to the Council rather than the Society generally, the 
former having, perhaps, the more practical knowledge. He was 
not aware that he could say more, but he should be happy to answer 
any questions. 

His Excellency asked what were the number of the salmon. 

Dr. Officer replied that they had been counted up to 3,000 or 
4,000, but he did not think that was nearly the number. As to the 
trout, which were confined in a much smaller compartment, no 
more than 120 fish had been counted for a long time, but when they 
got larger and came out to feed, there were found to be upwards of 
300. So with the salmon, he believed the number would be found 
larger than that originally calculated on. They had a wonderful 
art in concealing themselves. Frequently he had walked along the 
bank of the pond and not seen one, and another day they would be 
in shoals. They seemed to dart with the speed of lightning under 
any piece of stone, and so active and so vigilant were they, that he 
had no doubt they would be too quick for any enemy. No doubt, 
this time next year we should be catching them on their return trip 
from the ocean. Out of the whole number of ova, about 18,000 
were found to have been never impregnated, and he understood 
that when they were sent out there were some fears on that score. 



29 

He might also state that the Tasmanian Goyemment and Legislature 
had provided a further sum of £800 this year, which money was in 
the hands of the Salmon Commission. Money had been sent home 
to Mr. Youl some months ago for a second importation, and he was 
glad to find that Victoria was inclined to lend her aid, especially as 
increased experience promised greater success. 

The Hon. W. C. Haines moved a vote of thanks to His Excel- 
lency for presiding. They all knew that His Excellency was always 
ready to lend his cordial assistance when efforts were being made 
to promote the welfare of this community ; and, no doubt, his 
countenance lent to this meeting would have valuable effect in many 
ways, and as much as anything in recommending the Society to the 
people of the colony generally. He trusted the case would be so. 
He also moved that the thanks of the meeting be given to His 
Excellency for his kind consideration in asking that this Society 
should be furnished with the home reports from the various consuls 
in the different parts of the empire as to the productions, animal 
and vegetable, of the several countries. These would, no doubt, be 
of great value to the Council, and enable them to pursue their oper- 
ations in the best and most advantageous mode. He felt he ought 
not to introduce any other subject, but would just take the oppor- 
tunity of expressing his extreme regret at the calamity which 
deprived the colony of the services of Mr. Wilson. He trusted that 
that gentleman would be still able to render assistance to the cause 
of acclimatisation during the time he resided in England, and should 
be truly thankful if the nature of the calamity did not prevent such 
being done. As His Excellency had alluded to his (Mr. Haines's) 
appointment, he might express his feeling that he could only in- 
adequately replace Mr. Wilson. What he could do he would do, 
and as now he had a little more leisure than he had enjoyed for 
many years, he would probably be able to do more than he might 
otherwise have done. 

Dr. T. Black seconded the resolution, expressing a hope that His 
Excellency would often preside under similar circumstances. 

His Excellency in acknowledging the compliment, said he wished 
he had done more to deserve it. He could only repeat what he had 
said once before, that he had so very little accurate acquaintance 
with any part of natural history — other pursuits having prevented 
his acquisition of much experience — that, though often tempted, he 
thought it best not to be present at their regular meetings. 
The proceedings then concluded. 



APPENDIX. 



CIECULAR ISSUED BY THE COUNCIL. 

Certain circumstances connected with the passing of the vote for 
the Acclimatisation Society have led the Council to consider it 
desirable to state a few facts relating to their p^ormance of the 
duties with which they have been charged. 

The Estimates were laid upon the table of the Assembly on the 
3rd February. On the 4th, sums amounting to £1,408,515 were 
voted. Amongst other items was that of £4,000 for the acclimatisa- 
tion Society, the granting of which was coupled with a condition 
that £650 should be raised by private subscriptions. 

From the responsibility of that condition the Council have no 
desire to shrink, feeling well aware that from the wide feeling of 
sympathy with their efforts, a demand can be met, which might have 
been fatal to almost any other institution receiving Government aid. 

The debate on the vote, and the condition accompanying it, how- 
ever, have led the Council to believe that their transactions are less 
fully understood than they would wish them to be, and the rapidity 
with which the Estimates were proceeded with took them so far by 
surprise as to have prevented them from providing the Government 
with such statement of their proceedings as would, they believe, have 
convinced the Legislature not only that the money voted was being 
well spent, but that no other public money is being expended to 
better advantage. 

The acclimatisation, or rather the introduction and assimilation to 
a new set of conditions, of every good thing that the world contains, 
to a country so singularly adapted as Australia to a wide range of 
products, seems about as legitimate an enterprise as can be con- 
ceived. 

The gathering together in good condition and in sufficent numbers 
to establish the species, foreign animals and plants, is necessarily a 
very slow and delicate process, and much time must obviously be 
expended before very decided results can be expected. Most of 
these animals breed only once a year, and their natural increase is 
therefore tardy, however eminently they may prove themselves 
adapted to their new home. But a brief outline of what is being 
done will be found not altogether barren of those results, for the 
fuller elaboration of which it is only reasonable to wait. 



31 

The inauguration of the Acclimatisation Society on its present 
footing is comparatiyely recent, as less than three years have elapsed 
since it was amalgamated with, and undertook the duties of, the 
Zoological Committee. 

Since then, in consequence of the increasing number of animals, 
and the unhealthiness of the original site of the Zoological Qardens, 
an entirely new establishment has had to be formed at the Royal 
Park, involving a very heavy expenditure in fencing, planting, 
forming excavations for poncb, building superintendent's house, 
shelter sheds, pens, <fec. 

The herd of camels brought from India at an expense of £120 per 
head had become scattered, and were in a fair way of being anni- 
hilated, under the various exploratory expeditions. Such of them 
as could be saved have been collected at Mr. Wilson's station at the 
Wimmera, where they are now breeding regularly, and forming the * 
nucleus of probably a large herd, available at some future day either 
for exploration or conveying the produce of remoter stations in the 
more arid districts. 

The alpaca has been a constant source of interest with the Society. 
Mr. Duffield has been constantly advised with and encouraged in his 
great experiment, and has stated that but for the co-operative spirit 
exhibited by the Society, he should have probably transferred his 
energies to some other country. Meantime, the little flock of llamas 
and hybrids imported from England have been diligently cared for, 
and their health and adaptation to the country watched. They have 
been crossed with pure alpacas, and young ones of the second cross 
are now being dropped. Since landing their numbers have increased 
from 19 to 56. 

The Angora goat is receiving great attention, and is likely to 
furnish a very valuable addition to the resources of our graziers, and 
of exports to our merchants. A considerable number of the best 
strain of blood has lately been presented by the Acclimatisation 
Society of France. Pure bred goats are now rapidly multiplying, 
and they are being crossed with the common goat in considerable 
numbers, four crosses being found to restore the original quality. 

Associated with the Society, an enterprising gentleman at Mary- 
borough has imported a flock of the Cashmere goat, with which he 
is now experimenting, affording an instance of the manner in which 
the Society is executing one of its principle functions, in inducing 
private enterprise to avail itself of the information and organization 
of the Society. 

Various breeds of sheep have been introduced, and are being 
experimented with, some of them showing signs of a peculiar adapt- 
ability to a hot climate. 

While devoting tMs amount of attention to such animals as the 
camel, the alpaca, the Angora goat, and the sheep, which may be 
considered as more immedlEitely interesting to the mercantile and 
pastoral classes, the sportsman has not been forgotten. The fallow 



32 

deer, the [ndian elk, the beautiful spotted axis deer, have been 
successfully imported, bred from, and turned loose at Wilson's 
PromonUMy, the Wimmera, the Sugarloaf , and the Bunyip. Numer- 
ous specimens of the hog deer of India, a beautiful deer from Manilla, 
and another from Formosa, are still in the possession of the Society, 
with a view to their multiplication and ultimate release ; and fresh 
importations of the deer tribe are almost of weekly occurrence. 

The hare has been sent to the Society by the Zoological Society 
of London, and has been turned out and is now breeding freely on 
Phillip Island. 

Various breeds of pheasants, partridges, grouse, and quail have 
been introduced, and some have been liberated. Amongst those 
may be mentioned the Califomian quail, which has bred after being 
liberated in the Botanical Qardens and Phillip Island, and the 
• Algerine sand grouse, of which a considerable number have been 
imported, and which from their hardy nature and the similarity of 
their original climate may be considered highly adapted to this 
country. 

The English wild duck has been imported, has multiplied very 
freely, and now visits the lagoon at the Botanical Gardens in nearly 
equal numbers to the indigenous water fowl. 

The Egjrptian goose has bred at the Royal Park and promises to 
be thoroughly acclimatised. 

The wild pea fowl of Ceylon has thriven and bred in the charge 
of the Society, and can soon be set at liberty. 

The white swan has been introduced in considerable numbers, has 
bred in the gardens of the Society, and is now distributed in various 
localities. 

Various kinds of foreign doves and pigeons have been introduced 
and liberated. 

The curassow has been obtained, and has bred in the aviaries at 
the Botanical Gardens. 

Of the angler, and lover of fish diet, the Society has not been for- 
getful At the recommendation of the Society, successive votes 
have been placed on the Estimates and passed towards assi^ing the 
spirited enterprise of the Tasmanian Government in the introduction 
of the king of fresh water fishes, the salmon. The gouramie, a fish 
which has been represented as the best fresh water pond fish in the 
world, is already in the possession of the Society, having been 
presented after many trials by a Melbourne firm, and, the difiiculties 
of their introduction having now been overcome, the Society expects 
soon to obtain further supplies in considerable numbers. 

The carp, tench, roach, and dace, as specimens of the not very 
valuable pond fishes of England, and the gold-fish, have been 
introduced and distributed in various localities favourable to their 
multiplication. 

But as illustrating by a small success the wonderful results 
capable of attainment by acclimatisation if adopted on a proper 



33 

scale, the Council would refer to the fact of having introduced 
living ^specimens of the sea fishes of Europe in the shape of the 
grey mullet and the edible crab ; not indeed in numbers to justify 
a hope of establishing the breed, but amply suggestive of what will 
be done in the future. 

In a country so subject as this to the ravages of insects, the case 
of the agriculturist has always been carefully considered. Hundreds 
of industrious farmers have even this year been ruined by the 
caterpillar, and similar visitations must necessarily be expected. 
The introduction of insect-destroying birds has therefore been 
carefully attended to, and with this has been combined an effort to 
surround our colonial residences with those interesting associations 
which constitute no sHght portion of the charms with which the 
name of " home " is ever surrounded. The thrush, the blackbird, 
the skylark, the starling, the chaflBinch, the sparrow, the Chinese 
sparrow, the Java sparrow, and a most active and interesting bird, 
the Indian mino, may now be considered thoroughly established, and 
are rapidly extending by natural means through the Colony. The 
goldfinch, the linnet, the greenfinch, the yellow hammer, the 
ortolan, the canary, the robin, and many kinds of the smaller birds 
of other countries are being accumulated in the aviaries of the 
Society, and many of them have akeady bred there. 

The nightingale and the hedge-sparrow have been promised us 
by benevolent ladies at home, and the Queen herself has made an 
effort to supply us with the rook. To other hberal friends of the 
cause we are indebted for promises of the gazelle and the edible 
crab. 

As a contribution of very particular interest to the cottager, the 
introduction of the Ligurian bee may be adduced, that insect being 
probably, from its industrious and wonderfully prolific properties, 
the most valuable in the world. This bee is multiplying with 
almost incredible rapidity, and will soon be accessible to all classes. 

A widely extended correspondence and a system of kindly inter- 
change are knitting us in interesting relations with kindred societies 
in all parts of the world. And to gentlemen in England, France, 
India, Ceylon, and China, the Society is in particular under deep 
obligations. 

The very great distances at which the operations of the Society 
have to be carried on, and the difficulty of getting placed in com- 
munication with the right class of persons and institutions calculated 
to aid the enterprise, should argue in favour of a steady persistence 
of effort, protracted probably over many years, and should show 
the false policy of any ill-considered interruption of a great national 
scheme. 

The British Government has recently been induced to take up 
the project of Acclimatisation with an amount of consideration 
altogether without precedent, the Foreign and Colonial Offices 
having recently sent to British emissaries in aU countries in the 

c 



34 

world, a series of questions as to the various desirable natonl 
products of each country, and the Admiralty has issued a circolar 
to all commanders of H.M. ships, directing them to render every 
service in their power to the cause of Acclimatiaationy in the 
conveyance of specimens. 

In ahnost every colony in these seas Acdimatisation Societies 
have been founded, most of them paying that of Victoria the 
compliment of taking it as their model; and with Sydn^, 
Hobart Town, Adelaide, Brisbane, Auckland, Lyttleton,and Dunedin, 
the Melbourne Society is thus brought into friendly and frequent 
communication. A French man of war is at the time of the 
preparation of this statement engaged in bringing the Society 
specimens of the yS,k, the ostrich, and other animals. 

There is something so attractive, and at the same time so novel, 
in the very nature of Acclimatisation, that paragrs^hs referring to 
the proceedings of the Society attain a circulation more general 
than almost any other subject in English and foreign newspapers, and 
such notices are calculated greatly to interest strangers in the 
progress of the Colony. 

Even the very disasters and deaths inseparable from this kind of 
experiment are not without their uses, as many interesting 
specimens have been contributed to the National Museum, from the 
collection of the Society. 

The Council of the Society is composed of gentlemen w^ho have 
no personal object to serve. They attend the weekly meetings at 
the cost of considerable valuable time taken from their business 
hours, and the reports of their meetings will show that the attendance 
is such as no other non-commerdal body in the Colony can 
boast of. 

The Council think that in this brief enumeration of facts they 
may consider that " results " have been obtained sufficient to cany 
conviction to any unprejudiced mind, to show how impolitic it 
would be to allow their proceedings to be rashly or wantonly inter- 
ferred with, and to justify them in expressing a doubt whether any 
other public money is as advantageously expended in regard to the 
future as that portion with which they have been entrusted. 

From the very novelty of the project of systematic acclimatisa- 
tion, and from the almost illimitable range of the objects with 
which it seeks to deal, a fertile topic is afforded to the sneers oi 
the thoughtless and the misrepresentations of the ill-informed. But 
in seeking to stock this country with new, useful, and beautiful 
things, to add to our national wealth, to suggest new forms for our 
colonial industries, to provide for manly sports, which will lead the 
Australian youth to seek their recreation on the river's bank and 
mountain side rather than in the caf 6 and casino, to surround every 
homestead and the path of every wayfarer with new forms of 
interest and beauty, and to add new elements to the food of the 
entire people, the Council conceive that they are engaged in a work 



35 

»iiffici^itly noble to secure the sympathies of every good man. 
And of parents in particular, they would ask, what may not be 
]3iade of this fine Colony, when the seed this Society is now 
diligently seeking to sow shall have had time to fructify in a 
complete harvest ? 



LETTER FROM MR. DUFFIELD, 

Melbourne Club, Oct. 18. 

*^ Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Council of the Acclimatisa- 
tiion Society, — ^I leave Melbourne for Europe by the mail of the 26th 
inst. I would not do so without first communicating with you on the 
subject of the undertaking with which I am connected, and asking 
firom you a continuance of the interest you, as a body, have ever 
sliown in the work we are engaged in. The introduction of the 
alpacas in Victoria has become of late more beset with difficulties 
-than ever. The public, impatient of success, have grown sceptical 
on the value of the alpaca ; and the losses and disasters we have 
already suffered, as well as yourselves, have thrown a wet blanket 
on our enterprise. Notwithstanding those disasters, it is our inten- 
tion to carry out our designs, and I ask you for your support in 
<ioing so. The Government has promised to submit a proposition to 
the Legislative Assembly for helping us with a subsidy of £10 a 
liead for each animal we may introduce, provided the nimiber do not 
exceed 1,000. I expect that proposition will be discussed during 
my absence, and I ask you to watch its discussion, so as that at 
least it shall have fair play. I might appeal to you on account of 
Tvhat we have already done, as well as on account of the promises 
^which have been made to us by no less than three different Admin- 
istrations at three different times, none of which have been kept, 
owing to political changes, but which we were led to act upon and 
did act upon them in doing a great public work. I prefer, how- 
ever, to enlist your sympathies for our future operations, the more 
as it is our intention to carry them out on a larger scale than we in- 
tended at first. We believe that to ensure a permanent footing for 
the alpaca in this colony, it will be necessary to farm our flocks our- 
selves, to form our own alpaca stations, and bear the labour and 
responsibility of demonstrating that this animal can be established 
in Victoria as one of the enduring sources of its wealth. To do 
this will demand considerable money, and a large amount of 
valuable time. I have asked that the Government should deal with 
us in this our endeavour to plant a new industry in the colony in 
the spirit of the Land Act, which grants long leases of land to 
growers of cucumbers and the cultivation of flax. K the public 
and the press support us, I believe that the Legislature of the colony 
will vindicate its own poHcy, and place ours at least on an equal 
level with those other undertakings. I ask you, as individuals, and 

2 



36 

in your collective capacity, to help in doing tHs. We have already 
collected 600 alpacas within 150 miles of the port of shipment 
They will thus be prepared for the privations and risks of l3ie sea 
voyage ; but we shall not ship them or make one further move in 
the matter until the promises of the Government have been ratified 
by the Parliament. K the Parliament deals with us in a liberal 
spirit — ^rf the offer of a subsidy is confirmed without any niggardly 
restrictions, as I believe it will be — I shall then hope to renew my 
connection with the colony and your Society under more prosperous 
circumstances than those which have attended our past laboursw 

" I have, &c., 
(Signed) "A. J. Duffikld. 

"P.S. — I may state that our agents in Melbourne are Messrs. 
Clough and Co., with whom We have every reason to be satisfied, 
and that they will act for me, I believe, with all requisite atten- 
tion, during the period of my absence." 



KEPLY. 

" Melbourne, October 25. 
" To A. J. Duffield, Esq. 

" Dear Sir, — On the part of the Council of the Acclimatisation 
Society, I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your communication, 
dated the 18th inst., announcing your intended departure for Eng- 
land. The Council is glad to hear from you that, in spite of the 
disasters and discouragements which you have met with in carrying 
out your great undertaking, having for its object the introduction of 
the alpaca into Australia, you are still disposed to persevere in your 
enterprise, provided that the Government of Victoria carry out the 
promises made to you by themselves and their predecessors. The 
Council look forward with great interest to your return to the colony 
with another flock of alpacas ; and it confidently believes that, upon 
the new footing you give to the undertaking, namely, by the forming 
of an alpaca station, managed upon your own responsibility, the 
next attempt will be successful ; and that you will live to earn the 
fruits of your long and patient devotion to the cause of the alpaca. 
Conceiving the acclimatisation of the alpaca to be of the highest 
value to the colony, and believing, in spite of past failures, that by 
greater care in the selection and transport of the animals, and by 
the choice of a more congenial locality for their reception on their 
arrival in the colony, the animal may and will be successfully accli- 
matised in Victoria, the Council will, on its part, cheerfully render 
you all the assistance in its power towards the accomplishment of 
your object. With my sincere wishes for your future success, 

" I am, &c. 

(Signed) "Thomas Black, Vice-President'* 



37 
CJOTTON AND ITS CULTIVATION IN PERU. 

Bead by A. J. Duffisld, Esq., at a Meeting held March 80, 1864. 

Some ten years ago a friend of mine dug out of an ancient 
tomb in Antioquia, New Granada, a massive gold plate, which 
was carved in strange figures, the centre figure being a hippo- 
potamus. That reUc of past ages is a direct proof of the 
theory of Prescott and others, that the civilization of the Aztecs, 
the Mexicans, the Muiscas, the people of the great interior 
kingdom of Cundinamarca, as well, perhaps, of the earl}' settle- 
ments on the shores of the Oreat Titicaca lake, came from the 
Nile. That gold plate was wrapped in a piece of cotton cloth, 
the workmanship of which was as regular, if not as fine, as any 
made in Manchester at the present day. I also have examined 
many of these mural monuments of early Incarial times, and taken 
from them finely-wrought and brilliantly-dyed cotton-cloths, as well 
as those string chronicles of early days called quipus, by means of 
which the Peruvians handed down their history among themselves. 
These quipus, of many colours and tangled knots, were also made of 
the finest cotton threads, proving that, centuries ago, cotton growing 
and cotton manufactures were among the mechanical arts of the 
children of the sun, and that they brought them to a perfection not 
surpassed by modem skill or science. Peru is the native soil of one 
of the finest cotton trees in the world, the length and brilliancy of 
whose staple have never been surpassed. The members of the royal 
family, priests, and great officers of state, the Coyas, the Amautas, 
the Curacas, the Quipucamayus, and the Mamacunas of ancient 
Peru, were as much indebted for their white robes as, PUny tells us, 
were the Egyptian priests to the snowy blossoms of a shrub, and 
both seem to have been equally skilled in making them. But 
though great natural forests of cotton abounded, as they still abound, 
in some parts of Upper and Lower Peru, the cultivation of cotton 
was carried on to a large extent around the chief centres of popula- 
tion — in Caxalmarca, the sacred valleys of Cuzco and Pachacamac, 
and along the western coast from the Loa to the Guayaquil. I have 
travelled over many miles of these old cotton plantations, and 
examined the splendid, scientific methods adopted for keeping up a 
plentiful irrigation, without which, on that otherwise barren coast, 
cultivation of any kind would have been impossible. And while 
those now dried-up channels, and that hard unyielding soil, are an 
everlasting disgrace to the gold-grubbing, selfish Spaniards, who 
blotted out a thousand peaceful scenes, yet, though in ruins, they 
speak to us wise and lofty words. They say plainly enough — Had 
the Incas possessed Australia as long as we have, it would by this 
time have been irrigated from Carpentaria to its opposite extremity, 
and no form of slavery or oppression exist in making it so. The 
rivers and creeks of the land would not be, as at present, so many 
thieves, running off with the fresh water to the sea, but guardians of 



38 

it) conducting it to quiet lakes, and preserring it for tlie sendee of 
man, never allowing it to become his master, much less Ms oi4>ressor 
and destroyer. Thus the works of the old Incas follow them, and 
testify that not unto themselyes only but unto us they ministered of 
things belonging unto peace. In those early times, certainly as mud) 
as five centuries ago, cotton was cultivated in Portobello, and spun 
in Guanachani, in Cuba, and Jamaica. The Indians of IJraba were 
clothed in cotton. Yucatan, Guatemala, Santa Marta, Venezuela, 
and the Sierra Nevadas — Quito and Cundinamarca, were famous for 
their cotton plantations and cotton fabrics. Indeed, as feir as the 
old kingdoms of Moxos and the Gran Ohaco, even unto Tlaxeala, 
this raw material was largely cultivated, though it chiefly grew spon- 
taneously. That is, from 16deg. N. to 36deg. S. latitude, cotton 
trees supplied clothing to a hundred millions of our race. No doubt 
to the cotton tree which yields a splendid yearly harvest for twenty 
years, together with the remarkable rainless climate peculiar to the 
Peruvian coast, so suitable to the cultivation of this delicate fibre, 
are to be attributed the extent and excellence of those once cele- 
brated cotton fields. But though no devastating rain there ever 
sweeps away the crops, or fierce hurricanes df^stroy the fruits of the 
field, although along the whole coast of Peru the atmosphere is 
almost unifoiinly in a state of repose, yet the mildness of the ele- 
ments above-ground is firightfully counterbalanced by their subter- 
ranean fury, therefore it must not be supposed that the Peruvian 
planter had no enemy to encounter, no exertion to put forth, if he 
would reap a profitable harvest. The effects of earthquakes on the 
fertility of the soil are so great, that in many cases after very violent 
shocks the most luxuriant lands have become barren wastes, and for 
several years afterwards yielded no thriving vegetation. All kinds 
of grain appear to be susceptible to the changes produced by earth- 
quakes, and if any great commotion takes place beneath a field in 
foil bloom the whole crop will wither in a few days. And with 
respect to the plantations of the interior, as well as those on the 
coast of the Caribbean Sea, difficulties and dangers had to be over- 
come of even greater magnitude than prevailed on the Pacific shores. 
So that hard work, perseverance, skill, and foresight, were required 
to keep those sources of wealth from destruction. But now those 
once mighty fields of floretted snow are either burnt up or become 
lairs of the jaguar. We have heard of a cotton famine at home pro- 
ducing disease, pestilence, and death. Men have been made to feel 
that the insanity begotten of greed in depending on one source alone 
for the supply of a material involving life or death to millions was 
to have its reward, and that the iniquity of enslaving men in order 
to make that supply a more exact or accurate commercial transaction 
was to be overtaken by a terrible avenging Nemesis. We still hear 
of Lancashire distress, and the protracted strife in America. As yet 
we do not know whether cotton is again to be king, and his throne 
to be again planted on the necks of millions of men, women, and 



39 

children. We may hope that such will not be the case, and there- 
fore I thought that the subject of cotton-cultivation in Peru, and the 
probable restoration of those once vast plantations, would be worth 
at least your hearing. We are informed by the last mail, through 
The TimeB of Jan. 14, that the cultivation of cotton in Peru is now 
being carried on to a great ext^it. The shipments made to England 
this year are more than three times what they were in 1860, and 
next year the export will be much larger. In 1860 there were 
exported 10,000 cwt. ; in 1862, 15,000 cwt. ; and in 1863 there 
had already been shipped 31,500 cwt. It is said, from the area of 
land now planted with cotton throughout Peru, the export of 1864 
should be 60,000 cwt. A small quantity from the eastern parts of 
Peru has been sent down the Amazons, but the expense attending 
this route is as yet too great to encourage exportation to any great 
extent. Now I know that even 60,000 cwt. are but a few threads 
in comparison with what is needed by the 28 millions of spindles of 
!Ekigland, to say nothing of those of France. But there can be no 
doubt that this free-grown cotton will extend its supplies till the old 
plantations of the Incas are restored, and these, added to those of 
British India, not only make the cotton supply ineidiaustible, but 
cotton slaves as great an impossibility as a slave chain round a white 
man's wrist. The cultivation of cotton then in Peru, one of its 
original sources, is, though of no local interest to us, of intense 
interest to those who watch over the cultivation of the earth's sur- 
face. I believe that the azequias, or canals of the old Incas, will 
be restored, and that they will fructify millions of acres of free-grown 
cotton. I believe that the Mcta and the Amazons, the Plata and 
the Magdalena, will soon bear down their free streams many thou- 
sand bales of free-grown cotton every year. I believe that the 
amazing ocean of cotton trees which stretches from the confines of 
Atacama to the foot of the Andes wUl soon be made to yield their 
wealth to us. I believe all this, because I have seen it partially 
accomplished ; and because science, in the hands of practical men, is 
every day convincing the world more and more that to replenish the 
earth and subdue it is the service which the Creator requires at the 
hand of man, and the only service by which the earth shall yield 
her increase, and the " centuries behind " us their fruits of peace. 
It is owing to such societies as this that cotton cultivation has been 
pushed forward with such proud success, not only in Peru and the 
East Indies, but these colonies also ; and I have ventured to broach 
lids subject to you, who are labouring in the same cause, though 
not from the same pressure of circumstances, that you may be 
encouraged, take heart, and keep to your work, undismayed by any 
failure, undaunted by any sneer. 



40 
SILK CULTURK 

Bead by J. J. Stxjtur, Esq., at a Meeting held May 25, 1864. 

I have the honour to submit to the attention of the society a few 
brief obsenrations as to the practicability of utilizing the labour of Ute 
inmates of our benevolent and reformatory institutions in conjunc- 
tion with the introduction of new industries. The object of these 
remarks is two-fold — first, to attempt making the institutions t» 
some extent self-supporting, and diminishing their heavy cost to the 
conmiunity ; and secondly, to secure a certain amount of cheap 
labour, which will render practicable the introduction of those new 
means of developing the productive resources of Australia, which in 
many cases are left untried solely owing to the present excessive rate 
of wages. Though the present average income of each Australian is 
probably even now greater than anywhere else in the world, it is 
considerably less than it has been, and may be expected to suffer a 
further diminution. Whenever a serious strain upon the national 
resources shall be felt a hurried economy will have to be enforced. 
It will be found that hundreds of thousands of pounds wiU have 
been wasted in the course of years in the maintenance of prisoners, 
lunatics, paupers, and destitute children, which might have been 
saved had the objects of this expenditure been steadily employed in 
working out their own support. On the Continent, especially under 
the French and Dutch Governments, the benevolent and reformatory 
establishments are made, by judicious management, to be to a great 
extent self-supporting. That at Mettray, a reformatory school for 
boys, is especially remarkable. At the Breda establishment the cost 
of each inmate is, or was, about £6 per head. In the north of 
Holland, on the loose sandy heaths of Overyssel and Groningen, 
pauper agricultural colonies have been established for half a century, 
and have succeeded in bringing into cultivation large tracts of land 
originally worthless, at the same time that the average cost per man 
has been under 3s. a week. When we come to Australia we find 
their cost to be in some places double, in others treble, that of 
similar establishments in Europe. At the Imperial convict establish- 
ment of Port Arthur, were the labour of 500 men under vigorous 
discipline has been always available, its money value is under 
ii 3,000 a year. At the Queen's Orphan Asylum, at Hobart Town, 
which maintains an average of 460 children, the cost was for a long 
time above i^l 1,000, or at the rate of £^Q per head. At the 
Eandwick Asylum, near Sydney, which is much better managed, the 
cost is still £20 per head. I will not take up your time by multiply- 
ing examples, but at once proceed to what I consider as a remedy, 
confining myself to schools. The great obstacle to the industrial 
employment of children is the excessive time which is given to book 
learning. A boy or girl of say 10 years old averages six hours in 
school, and will probably, if he or she want to get up their lessons, 
have a couple more hours in the evening. This is about as much 



41 

as working a young man continuously 12 hours a day, the result of 
"wMch is tersely expressed in an old university saying — four hours 
a day study are four hours, and four more are eight, and four more 
are four. Four hours a day are as much as ever a child under 12 
can give to study with advantage. And this the more, because I 
am speaking now of schools intended for the operative classes alone, 
•where if the children learn to read, write, and spell well, with the 
rudiments of geography, and a knowledge of arithmetic up to com- 
pound division, they take with them all that they are ever likely to 
retain in after life. The large amount of spare time which thus 
becomes disposable should be given to out-door industrial employ- 
ment. It is all right and proper to give boys and girls an hour or 
more of play in a day, but it is quite a mistake to suppose that 
children Hke only what may be called purposeless play. A boy likes 
nothing so well as a couple of hours or more of driving cattle, herd- 
ing cows, tending sheep, cutting wood ; he likes the sense of dignity 
-which his employment gives him, and looks on it as a promotion. 
Girls like tending rabbits or feeding poultry quite as well as they do 
a mere game at romps. Now when industrial employment is given, 
as it often nominally is, it is almost always indoors. The children, 
w^earied with lessons, are condemned to be wearied still more with 
tailoring, cobbling, and stitching, and the result is, that the money 
value of their work is next to nothing. A few sharp boys occa- 
sionally, but rarely, pick up a little artizan knowledge, and thereby 
go to swell the overgrown city populations, which only make the 
Australian colonies, like tadpoles, all head, while the farmers are 
crying out for labour and cannot get it. I beg, therefore, to suggest 
that wherever new industrial establishments, reformatory schools, 
and the like shall be henceforward established, it shall be made a 
sine qud non to have in contiguity to them a tract of land suffi- 
ciently large to answer not only as a model farm, but to neutralize a 
very large proportion of the costs of the establishment. The manner 
in which the children can be employed may be as follows : — ^After 
three hours' schooling, from 8 to 11, they can have an hour's play, 
and then dine. After dinner they can have an hour's indoor 
employment or amusement, and then should work from two to three 
hours in the field. The boys are perfectly able to dig the drains for 
thorough drainage. There should be a large dairy attached, for milk 
forms a chief part of the consumption, and while the boys can milk 
the cows the girls should make the butter and cheese. Both boys 
and girls should work in the gardens, which should be large enough 
to supply abundance of vegetables. Such a system would supply the 
establishment with milk, butter, cheese, and vegetables, and where 
there k an ample supply of these a great deal of the meat can be 
dispensed with ; at least ninth-tenths of the people of Europe never 
touch meat, and are just as healthy as the Australians. In conclu- 
sion, I come to the subject of the applicability of such a plan to the 
introduction of new agricultural industries. There are very many 



42 

most Taloable products which ahnost every one acknowledges to be 
Taloable, such as hemp, flax, olives, mulberries, <fec., but which are 
kept waiting for years solely on account of the dearness of labour. 
The agricultural training above recommended would supply this 
labour. Even a wealthy individual might reasonably object to risk 
and lose £500 in an experiment intended only for his countiys 
benefit, but such a loss once in a way would not matter mu(^ to as 
establishment supported by the nation. TMs especially appHes to 
the new industry with which I am best acquainted, and therefore 
naturally prefer to touch on, the cultivation of silk. The stambling- 
block to Australia growing silk in immense quantities has been, and 
is, the utterly baseless belief that it requires an unusal quantity <rf 
specially tnuned labour. I call this idea utterly baseless, and so 
says Sir John Young at Sydney, whose practical experience as 
Governor of the Ionian Islands has been unusually large. He says : 
" It is a product which involves very little labour ; it is conunitted 
to young people and to females ; in fact the girls of the villages look 
upon silk as their own peculiar province, and as given them for thdr 
own profit and for their own dresa It only occupies 35 or 40 days' 
labour in the course of the year ; and as it is carried on in buildings, 
it is not exposed to the climate in the same way that many other 
kinds of cultivation are." A production which occupies only 35 
days in the year, and is worked by young girls, certainly should not 
be excluded from Australia on the score of dearness of labour. But 
at any rate, this does not apply to it when grown in industrial schools. 
An acre of land planted with mulberries, for which the month's 
occupation is supplied gratuitously, is worth permanently at least 
£50 per annum. Apply this on a large scale, and, combined with 
other similar resources, you not only create for these institutions 
constant lucrative endowments, relieving the Gk)verrmient of great 
expense, but train up a large number of the waste population to a 
certain knowledge of special employments, which they will ultimately 
diffuse up and down the length and breadth of Australia. 



THE GAME BIRDS OF INDIA. 

Bead by B.. E. Watts, Esq., ctt a Meeting hdd June 2^, 1864. 

Of all countries there is none which, in my opinion, offers a more 
promising field for the labours of our Acclimatisation Society than 
our great Eastern dependency of India. This \& pre-eminently the 
great market^ for animals in the Eastern world, front^hich we have 
to derive what supplies we require, to stock the comparatively 
scanty and barren lands of Australia. The facilities which already 
exist for the interchange of productions are greater than those 
between this continent and any other part of the world. The 
distance which separates us is comparatively a short one — ^the com- 
munication is frequent, easy, and regular. The steamers of the 



43 

Peninsular and Oriental Oompany liave reduced the voyage to one 
month between Calcutta and Melbourne ; and the completion of iJie 
great Indian system of railways, now rapidly approaching, has 
practically made the hitherto ahnost unknown interior and the hilly 
country as accessible to us as the seaports. The enterprise and 
energy of our fellow-countrymen have been developing at a mar- 
vellous rate, all the splendid and various natural resources of this 
magnificent country ; and it may be said, indeed, that it is only in 
these last few years that we have really entered into possession of 
the noble heritage left to us by the valour and wisdom of our early 
Indian conquerors and statesmen. Possessed of almost every 
variety of climate and soil within her wide bounds, the peculiar 
value of India to this country lies in the fact that a large proportion 
of her territory bears a close analogy in soil and climate to Australia. 
The animals which are natural to this region may, therefore, fairly 
be presumed to be adapted to become denizens also of our (Continent. 
For the purposes of our present inquiry, India may be roughly 
divided into three principal climatic regions — ^the purely tropical 
districts of the south and the sea-coasts — the dry, temperate plains 
of the north and of the central table-land, and the region of snow 
and ice in the great mountain ranges which form the northern and 
eastern boundary of our empire. Within bounds so wide, India 
contains natural productions the most diverse and opposite — animals 
of the true tropical character, with others of pure alpine habit — the 
tiger and the elephant, as well as the chamois and ^e snow-grouse. 
Nay, sometimes, even under the same parallel, we shall find the 
most singular assemblage of varied natural forms — oaks, beeches, 
pines, and rhododendrons, on the hill tops ; the bamboo, the mango, 
and the banana, in the valleys — the degrees of elevation producing 
the same climatic effects as degrees of latitude in other countries. 
But it will be impossible, within the limits prescribed to me, that I 
should be able to give you even a sketch of the vast natural treasures 
of our Indian empire. I have to do, this evening, only with Indian 
birds, and among Indian birds, only with those of the gallinaceous 
order. Of all birds, these may claim to stand in the very first rank, 
both fi'om their beauty of form and plumage, and their usefulness to 
man. They are also by far the most interesting to the acclimatiser, 
firom the readiness with which they adapt themselves to changes of 
climate, and their capacity for domestication. Indeed, if the science 
of acclimatisation required any arguments in its defence, they would 
be sufficiently furnished in the examples of what man has done, at 
various times, with the birds of the gallinaceous order. The turkey 
and the domestic fowl are among the most precious trophies of 
acclimatisation. The pheasant, the capercailzie, and the ptarmigan, 
in the British -Islands, are instances of the success with which the 
game-birds of one country may be trained to inhabit another. Nay, 
I need not go out of Victoria to find an illustration of the ease with 
which game-birds may be acclimatised. I am informed that on one 



44 

estate alone, their liave been killed^ in honourable sport, no fei^ 
than sixty cock-pheasants during tilie present season. Who caa 
doubt, indeed, the fitness of this colony to entertain within its bouwia, 
and to natursJize on Australian ground, almost all the members of 
the great gallinaceous family ? Nor is their any dass of animals so 
easily acclimatised. We have only to remember what was tbe 
origmal country of our domestic cocks and hens, of our turkeji 
and pheasants, to be convinced that nearly all the birds of tlm 
family are capable of thriving even in a climate opposed to tidr 
natural one. With this, by way of preface, I will now proceed 
to make mention of such of the game-birds of India as I 
believe are most valuable to this country, either as objects of sport; 
for their qualities as food, or as interesting and beautiful ornaments 
of the silent and dreary Australian bush. I will begin with a biri 
which the verdict of all Indian sportsmen and epicures invariably 
places at the head of the game-birds of India : I means the flonken, 
which is a kind of small and more elegant bustard, inhabiting tke 
plains of India at the base of the Himalayas, with a tolerably wide 
destribution over the dry, sandy districts of the interior and tbe 
north-west The floriken is a bird of shy habits, and would, 
perhaps, be difficult to cage, unless previously domesticated. But 
he is worth all the attention which the Acclimatisation Society can 
bestow upon him, and once introduced here, would certainly thrive 
in the same region with our native bustard or wild turkey. Of 
partridges, there are some half dozen diflferent varieties in India, all 
of which are more or less desirable for this country. Each of the 
three great Indian regions has its special kinds ; but for us, of 
course, the most valuable would be those which inhabit the diy 
plains of the interior, or the upland valleys of moderate elevation. 
Of these, the black partridge (of which there are two solitary males 
already in the Acclimatisation Society's collection) is perhaps the 
best bird for our purposes, being excellent for the table, hardy, and 
affording capital sport. The chukorey or red-leg partridge, whose 
habitat is a colder region than that of the black partridge, extending 
northward even to Cashmere, and the lower ranges of the Hima- 
layas, is equally good for the table, but is, perhaps, less prized by 
the sportsman. The grey partridge of Bengal is comparatively 
wortMess, and should be left alone. Of the other partridges 
proper, there are the two rarer varieties, which are only found at 
considerable elevations — the curna^ which is of a rich chesnut 
brown colour ; and the lerwa, or Nepal grouse, which is a splendid 
game-bird, and of delicious flavour. The two latter are inhabitants 
of a cold mountainous region, but would probably thrive in our 
Gipps Land ranges. There is also an Indian wood-partridge, which 
roosts on trees, and the Thibet partridge (perdix Hodgsonii), which 
would be the most difiicult of all to procure. Among the birds not 
strietly belonging to the natural genus perdix, but which are vul- 
garly classed as partridges, I may mention the painted spur-fowl of 



45 

-fclie Indian ghauts {gdUorperdix lunulosa), which is very handsome, 
£tnd of fine flavour. There is also its congener, the kokutree {^aUo- 
^erdix spadiceus). But by far the noblest of all the partridge kind 
is the Kowk-durra^ or snow-partridge of the Himalayas (tetrcuhgallus 
jffzmcUayerms), which is Jive times the size of the common EngUsh 
iDird, and of most exquisite flavour. Imagine a partridge as big as 
a turkey-hen ! The kowk-durra is of a uniform sober grey colour, 
the feathers edged with reddish brown. It is not often met with 
"by the Indian sportsman, being an inhabitant of the mountainous 
slopes of northern Cashmere, the Kohistan, and the higher levels 
of the Himalaya. It is, however, to be found in the valley of 
Koonawur, just behind our hill-sanatarium of Simla, where it might 
be procured with some little trouble. Mr. Vigne, the traveller, 
carried some of these noble partridges to England, and speaks of 
them as tolerably well able to endure the hardships of a sea voyage. 
Another of these giant partridges is tetrao-gallv^ Caspius^ called by 
the Persians kef-irderra or the royal partridge, which inhabits the 
mountainous region lying south of the Caspian, and eastward to 
Affghanistan. Of quails, there are several varieties in India, but it 
seems to me that there are none better than those of our own country. 
Some of the Indian varieties might be found, however, on trial, to 
have qualities which would make them a desirable importation for 
this colony. Of the rarer birds, which partake of the partridge and 
quail character, the Thibetan sand-grouse {syrrhaptes Tibetamts) 
might be introduced ; as well as the see-aee, or sand-partridge of 
Nepal and Persia (ammo-perdtx Bonhami), which is said to be most 
excellent game. Of the francolins, there is the beautiful Itragirms 
cruentuB, or blood-coloured francolin, of the Nepal hills. There is 
also the Affghan bustard {ptis Macqiieeni) as well as otia houhara^ 
both of which are declared to be exceedingly good for the table. 
These birds might probably be procurable vid Kurrachee and 
Bombay, The so-called rock-pigeon of India, which is rather a 
kind of partridge {Pterocles exustus and Ft fasciattui) is very com- 
mon in all the dry, sandy districts of the interior. They aflford 
good sport, and are excellent eating, and ought to be admirably well 
adapted for the warmer parts of this colony. Coming to the 
pheasant tribe, we find in the mountains of India some of the most 
beautiful of all the members of this beautiful and interesting family. 
If there is one bird more than another, indeed, which demands the 
immediate attention of the Acclimatisation Society, and which is 
worthy of all the expense and trouble we can bestow on it, it is the 
Himalayan pheasant, in all its many varieties. There is the KhdUej 
pheasant which has been lately introduced with success into Eng- 
land ; the piicrasy which is one of the most common about Almorsdi 
and the valley of the Doon ; the brown Nepal pheasant, the Sylhet 
pheasant, three feet long, of a glossy velvet black colour — the 
MtUhoorUy or Chittagong pheasant, also of very large size. Of 
another genus are the cheer {lophophorus Wallichii) ; the feioari, or 



46 

western homed pheasant (ceriomis melanocephalus), found ontbe 
slopes of the north-western Himalayas, and easily domesticated. 
The Nepalese pucras is among the most beautiful of all. There ii 
also the tragopan, or singular homed pheasant (phasiantts sat^rw), 
which is a most valuable and interesting creature, besides many 
varieties of ceriomis. But king of all pheasants, and by £» the 
most gorgeous member of this family, is the famous monal, or 
Impeyan pheasant {lophophoras Impeyanui)^ whose name signifies 
the " bird of gold " in its native country. It is not possible by any 
description to convey any idea of the exquisite hues of this 
beautiful bird. Its colour is a dark purple, changing into green and 
gold. It is as big as a hen turkey, of most tender and delicate 
flesh, and easily domesticated. Unquestionably it is the most 
valuable of all the Hymalayan birds for the purposes of the acdi- 
matiser, and I trust that it will not be long before our society is able 
to exhibit some specimens of it in the Royal Park. I have already 
exceeded my allotted bounds, and will say no more than to urge 
upon the immediate attention of the society the peculiar claims of 
the game-birds of India to be added to the scanty list of the game- 
birds of Australia. There is scarcely any of the birds I have here 
mentioned which could not be adapted to some part or other of this 
colony, and I believe that they are worth all the money which wc 
can possibly expend in their introduction. 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE QUININE- YIELDING 
CHINCHON^. 

Read hy A. J. Duffikld, Esq., <it a Meeting hdd July 19, 1864. 
There is perhaps no dmg which has rendered greater service to 
man than the febrifugal alkaloid known as quinine, or Peruvian 
bark ; and among the many noble results of the art of acclimatisation 
may be reckoned that of transplanting chinchona, or quinine-yielding 
trees, from Pern to Java by the Dutch, and still more successfully 
to India by ourselves. Quinine is a word derived from the compound 
Quichua word " quina-quina," which signifies bark of bark ; the 
word quina was cormpted by the Spaniards into china, which^till 
retains its place among homoeopathists, but in Peru it is now called 
cascarilla, which also means bark. About two centuries and a half 
ago, when the name of Jesuit was suggestive of all that is chivaJrons 
in apostolic Christianity, there lay stretched op a bed in a monasteiy 
at Malacotas, a district in Peru some 300 miles south of the equator, 
a member of that order suffering the terrible agonies of terciana. 
Very likely the Jesuit father had cured many diseases, and healed 
many wounds of the Indians of that region, for Jesuits then were 
masters of many noble arts ; and so when he needed help and sym- 
pathy in his misery it came in the form of gratitude trom these 
people, who revealed to him the secret of this precious bark. A few 
years JLater, the Countess de Chinchona, the wife of the Viceroy of 



47 

IPero, lay sick of a fever in Lima, and there was sent, also from 
JVialacotas, a parcel of quina-quina to the Countess's physician, with 
instructions for its use. It was prescribed for her, and the result 
i^as a perfect cure. In 1640 the Countess returned to Europe, carry- 
ing with her a quantity of this most precious remedy. Hence it 
came to be called Jesuits' bark by some, and Countess's bark or 
Countess's powder by others. It was the Countess who first intro- 
duced it to the Old World, and in her honour Linnaeus named the 
genus which yields it, chinchona. The feme of it spread throughout 
the world ; it performed miracles, and among them may be reckoned 
the planting of patristic Christianity in China. A century and a 
lialf ago there was hardly a province in China where a Catholic 
church did not exist — there was a church within the precincts of the 
Celestial palace itself — and all those churches may be said to have 
been built on Peruvian bark. The Emperor's life had been saved by 
it, and in gratitude to the French Jesuits who introduced it to 
China, the Emperor allowed them to build as many churches as they 
pleased throughout the empire. Of course, the usual difficulties 
arose against the new agent of such mighty cures. France, Spain, 
Home, and England, imited their noted medical men in its condem- 
nation; and among the common people it was sufficient for the 
Protestant to decry a thing which the Jesuits patronized. After 
much angry disputation, and many experiments, the final discovery 
of quinine, and the completion of its chemical history, was made by 
the French chemists, Pelletier and Caventon, in 1820. Further 
discoveries were made nine years later by Pelletier, and the organic 
constituents of chinchona bark found to be — quina, chinchonia, 
aricina, quinidia, chinchonidia, quinic acid, tannic acid, kinovic acid, 
chinchona red, a yellow colouring matter, a green fatty matter, starch, 
gum, and ligidn. I wish all the others had been as easily undei*stood 
as the last two or three, but I am not responsible for those learned 
terms. I need not describe quinine, or say anything of its usefulness, 
or the multitude of circumstances under which it is apphed. They 
are well known. The zoue of the chinchonae extends from 10 deg, 
N. to 17 deg. S. latitude, following the bend of the Andes, and 
describing a line of probably nearly 2000 miles. I have seen them 
at the sources of the Meta, about 8 deg. N. ; also on the great Quindio 
ranges, and they have been speciidly observed at their extreme 
southern end by Mr. Markham, a young and ardent traveller, who 
was employed by the Indian Government to transplant them from 
their principal native regions to the NeUgherry hills. It is to Mr. 
Markham's report we are indebted for a minute and able description 
of these trees, and the localities where their most valuable species 
are to be found. They flourish in a cool and equable temperature, 
on the slopes and in the valleys and ravines of the mountains, never 
descending below an elevation of 2,500ft., and ascending as high as 
9000 ft. above thes ea level The chinchonas, when in good soil and 
under favourable circumstances, become large forest trees— at the 



48 

upper limit they become mere shrubs. The leares are of erei; 
variety of shape and size ; the flowers are small, and hang in dusten, 
like lilacs, generally of a deep rose colour, but those of the species 
micrantha are entirely white, and they are most delicioosly fragrant. 
The species of chinchona are numerous, probably about 20, but iiien 
are only some five which yield the bark of commerce. These, to 
call them by their English names, are the red, the crown, the car- 
thagena, the grey, and the yellow bark ; and they are found in fire 
distinct regions of South America. Humboldt tells us in his A^>ecU 
of Nature that they grow on mica, slate, and gneiss, from 6 to 
8000 ft above the level of the sea, with a mean temperature between 
60 deg. and 65 deg. Fah. He has seen them grow to a height of 
from 53 ft. to 64 ft., and these young trees, not more than 18 in. in 
circumference. " This beautiful tree," he says, " is adorned witi 
leaves above 5 in. long, and 2 in. broad, growing in dense forests, and 
seems always to aspire to rise above its neighbours." One cannot 
help thinking that it has the power of selecting its associates, for it 
is always found in close proximity to the groined arches of the fern 
tree, the graceful traceries of the arborescent passion flowers, and the 
allied genera of these which form the splendid architecture of the 
eternal forest. A century and a half after its introduction to Europe, 
so great had been the destruction of these trees by the bark cutta^ 
that fears were then entertained of their complete destruction, and 
these fears were but too well grounded, for some of the species are 
now very rare, and the most valuable of all may be said to be extinct. 
This is owing to the reckless manner of collecting the bark, which is 
stripped from the tree, and the tree being left standing, of course it 
soon perishes altogether. In some districts the Government is able 
to prevent this wholesale slaughter, by compelling the cascarilleros 
to fell the tree after stripping it ; this secures its reproduction ; but 
I believe the greater portion of bark exported from Peru and Bolivia, 
particularly the latter, and which is the better of the two, is stripped 
from trees left standing and to perish. It was partly owing to this 
consideration, and the desire to place the inestimable remedy in the 
hands of the millions who live in fever-infested regions, that as early 
as 1839 it was pressed on the English Government by Dr. Royle to 
plant the Neilgherries with quinine-bearing trees, and by Dr. 
Weddell, who accompanied the scientific expedition of the Count de 
Castelnau, and to whom alone we owe our knowledge of the chin- 
chonse of Upper Peru and Bolivia, who urged the introduction of 
these plants into the French colonies. Ten years ago the Dutch 
began their chinchona plantations in Batavia, and have now some 
10,000 plants. Nearly 25 years elapsed before the Indian Govern- 
ment took any effectual means to carry out the great benevolent idea 
of Dr. RoylQ, and then it was that Lieutenant Markham was sent to 
South America to collect chinchona seeds and slips, and carry them 
to India, This he did in 1860, and the total number of healthy 
plants conveyed by him and planted in 1862 was 13,700. But 



49 

l>efore that, in 1854, the Indian Gtovemment had begged from the 
Java plantations some of their cattings, which were most liberally 
given. Owing to the superiority of climate, the Indian Government 
up to 1862 had succeeded seven times better than the Dutch, and 
in that year there were actually planted out on the Neilgherry Hills 
more than 7 £,000 plants of 11 different species of this invaluable 
toee. Unfortunately, the principal part of the Dutch plantation is 
useless, being formed of the worthless species of the C. Pahudiana; but 
tbey are remedying their mistakes, and making great progress. 
Chmchona cultivation is also fsailj started in Ceylon, and I have no 
cloubt that in process of time a plantation of 150 acres of the chin- 
chona there will be more profitable than one double the size of 
coffee. Thus, while three or four earnest, but high-minded men, 
liave toiled and passed through the troubles of hunger and thirst, the 
sword and nakedness, and the perils of the sea, to do a work which 
only the law of their own jiatures imposed upon them, and the 
reward for which is only what some esteem as empty fame — ^the 
i^orld has been blessed, some of its useless soil made fruitful, its 
naked hills made to laugh and sing, and myriads of men and women, 
whose lot of life is to labour in fever-smitten swamps, are provided 
-with a power to defeat an insidious enemy which rests not till it has 
tliem in the grasp of an agonizing death. These are some of the 
triumphs of the art of acclimatisation, which give lustre to its labours, 
and might and dignity to its name. 



ENGLAND'S DEBT TO ACCLIMATISERS. 

Read by Jambs Smith, Ebo., at a Meeting hOd July 10, 1864. 

I think it may not be unserviceable to remind those who regard 
acclimatisation as the new-fsuigled hobby of a few crochetty enthu- 
siasts, that it has been practised in England for a period of 1200 
years — dating from the time at which the first wheat was sown in 
her soil — and that, up to the commencement of the sixteenth century, 
at which period great efforts seem to have been made for the intro- 
duction of exotic flowers, fruits, and vegetables, the mother country 
was singularly destitute of all these ; her population subsisting, as 
some of the early settlers of this colony did, upon bee^ mutton, and 
damper. Indeed, there is a striking similarity between the condition 
of England in the dawn of her civilization and that of Australia at 
the present time. She was both a pastoral and a gold-producing 
country ; and her exports consisted of gold, silver, tin, copper, wool, 
and horses. Not to pursue this parallel further, however, I will at 
once proceed to point out what acclimatisation has done for England 
in regard to fruits, flowers, and esculents. The very rose which we 
adopt as a national emblem, and profess to consider so purely English, 
is an alien, and was brought over from France, Flanders, and Italy. 
The honeysuckle which garlands the hedgerows and overruns the 



50 

porch of the peasant, came originally from North America ; whik 
tiie lavender which the £urmer*s wife deposits among her snow-white 
napery in the household linen-chest, is a native of the south of EnropeL 
So, too, are the rosemary, the mignonette, the lily, and the pink. 
English shrubberies are indebted to Hungary for the "golden tresses'* 
of the laburnum, to Portugal for the laurel, to Italy for the bay tree^ 
and to the Levant for the weeping willow. The common daffodi], 
** that comes before the swallows' dare," is of Italian lineage, the wiM 
foxglove is a denizen of the Canary Isles, and the passion-flower, with 
its sacred symbols, is a native of South America. In fact, if yoa 
were to strip our English flower gardens, green lanes, woods, and 
meadows of their exotic decorations, you would rob them of half their 
beauty, and English descriptive poetry of half its charm. To the best 
of my belief, England does not possess so much as one indigenous veget- 
able ; and, until the time of the Tudors, what little garden stuff her scot- 
butic population, did consume was imported from tjie Netherlands. Yon 
may remember that Shakspeare makes Sir Andrew Aguecheek account 
for the dulness of his mind by observing, ** 1 am a great eater of bee( 
and I believe that does harm to my wit f and, in the absence of aoy 
succulent vegetables, his excessive consumption of animal food is not 
at all surprising. Nor, considering their very restricted range of diet, 
can we feel much surprise at Queen Elizabeth's robust maids of 
honour making such heavy meals of bread, beef, and beer, as they are 
reported to have done. About this time, however, it seems to have 
occurred to our beef eating.beer-bemused, and slow-witted fore-fathers, 
that it would be cheaper to import garden seeds than vegetables, and 
more wholesome to eat newly-cut cabbages, than to feed upon such 
half-rotten garbage as was brought over from Holland, in the holds 
of broad-bottomed and slow-sailing luggers ; and having once opened 
their minds to this conviction, they began to cast their eyes over the 
four quarters of the world in search of vegetables. So, in course d 
time, they procured brocoli, beans, and cauliflowers from Greece ; peas 
from Spain ; carrots and celery from Flanders ; asparagus and Iddney 
beans from Asia ; lettuce, artichokes, and cabbage from Holland ; 
parsley from Egypt ; and potatoes from South America ; and thence- 
forth the kitchen garden formed as indispensable an appurtenance to 
the mansion and the manor-house as the pleasaunce, the butteiy-hatch, 
or the bowling-green. Of indigenous fruits, also. Old England was 
lamentably destitute. All she could boast of was a few crude berries, 
growing wild upon brambles ; for I wn doubtful whether even the 
crab was native to her soiL Most of the fruits which now flourish 
in her gardens, hot-houses, and orchards (none of which fruits, by the 
way, are said, upon the authority of Mr. Hawthorne, to be compar- 
able in flavour with an Ajuerican turnip), were introduced betweai 
the years 1520 and 1600. Italy sent her the mulberry ; S3nia tiie 
apple and the plum ; Portugal the grape ; Persia the nectarine and 
peach ; Flanders the gooseberry, the finer descriptions of cherry, and 
the strawbeny ; Qreece the currant and the apricot ; Austria the 



51 

q[Timce ; Spain the pomegranate, and the '' oranges and lemons," so 
j>opularly associated with " the bells of St. Clement's ;" and North 
America the raspberry and the walnut. It was early in the same 
century, too, that England borrowed from the Netherlands, and 
planted in her southern counties, the most beautiful, and, withal, 
the most useful, of all creepers — the hop plant. Imagine the condi- 
tion of the people of England without bitter beer ! — ^and without the 
means of brewing it, unless by the employment of obnoxious and 
unpalatable drugs ! The beverage which has immortalized the names 
of Bass and Allsop, which has been the means of strewing the 
summit of the Rhigi and the slopes of the Pyramids with tiie vitreous 
evidences of John Bull's ubiquity ; which has made the tropical heat 
of an East Indian summer endurable ; which has imparted its own 
briskness and sparkle to Australian picnics ; and which has given 
Englishmen of the nineteenth century the new sensation which 
Xerxes ineffectually sighed for — ^this beverage, I say, is one of the 
fruits of acclimatisation, and must be taken credit for accordingly. 
!FuUy to appreciate what this beneficent agency has accomplished for 
the mother country, we have only to picture one of her counties 
denuded of every natural feature which has been borrowed from 
abroad. Take the county of Kent, for example, and obliterate from 
its surfsice those lovely hop gardens, with their " long-drawn aisles " 
overrun with a living tracery of green and gold ; those leafy orchards, 
glowing with their ruddy fruitage ; those rippling fields of yellowing 
wheat ; those picturesque hedge rows of hazel ; those stately 
gardens at Knowle, Cobham, and Penshurst ; those chequered 
masses of colour which beautify every cottager's patch of homely 
jBowers ; and the face of the country would be not merely transformed, 
but deformed. It would be as unlike the Kent of to-day as a noble 
fresco would be unlike its former self, after having received a thin 
coat of whitewash. I leave to other and to abler hands the task of 
showing what acclimatisation has done for England in so far as the 
animal kingdom is concerned ; for the subject is a wide one, and is 
entitled to more skilful treatment than I am qualified to bestow upon 
it. I have confined my attention to one particular only ; and I 
have selected this theme because it appears to me that we ought to 
derive encouragement here, from the knowledge of what our fore- 
fathers accomplished elsewhere, under circumstances especially 
unfavourable to the work ; for I need not remind you, that in the 
sixteenth century the means of communication between the different 
countries of the world were few in number, tedious in operation, and 
liable to all sorts of obstructions. The timid scruples, sordid sus- 
picions, and jealous fears of one nation, frequently prohibited or 
impeded the exportation of such seeds or plants as were likely to 
prove beneficial to another ; and all foreigners were looked upon as 
hateful rivals or natural enemies, whom it was lawful to defraud in 
time of peace, and to plunder and pauperize in time of war. If the 
stupid and barbarous policy is not wholly exploded, it is, at any rate, 

D 2 



52 

discountenanced bj the more enlightened citizens of the more 
civilized nations of the world in our time ; and hence the work of 
acclimatisation is comparatively easy, and a gratifying reciprodty of 
feeling and effort is exhibited by its friends, in different conntries. 
In applying ourselves to the work in this colony, we may be animated 
by such a retrospective glance as that which I have taken at what 
has been effected in this way, with a view to multiply the means of 
subsistence and the modes of enjoyment, as well as to augment the 
attractiveness of the natural scenery and the charms of social life, in 
England. Coming into the inheritance of these things, both as a 
matter of custom and right, as such of us did who were bom tha%, 
we are very apt to take it for granted that th^ existed from time 
immemorial, and to think no more of them than we do of the conmion 
blessings of light and air. But when we find, upon inquiry and 
reflection, that the energy, the enterprise, and the forethought of 
acclimatisers in the sixteenth century mainly contributed to make 
England the picturesque garden which it is in the nineteenth, we 
may not unreasonably ask ourselves whether it is not in our powec 
to confer similar obligations upon those who are to come after us in 
Australia. When we are invited to make some little sacrifices of 
time and money for posterity, we should reject as a malignant insult 
the sneering rejoinder of " What has posterity done for us ?' The 
question which each generation has to propose to itself under such 
circumstances is this. What have preceding generations done'for our 
own ? And if any man will deliberately sit down and compute the 
sum of his obligations — the magnificence of the inheritance he enjoys 
— the legacy b^ueathed to him in art, literature, and science by the 
illustrious dead ; — ^if he will take into account tiie inventions which 
have virtually trebled the term of his existence — ^which have multi- 
plied his delights and mitigated his sufferings — which have given 
the day labourer of to-day the command of comforts and enjoyments 
inaccessible to the most powerful monarchs two centuries ago — ^which 
have made life infinitely happier and more beautiful for all, than it 
was formerly possible to be to the most favoured children of fortune 
— ^if he will honestly calculate this debt, " the long result of time," 
he will be startled by its magnitude, and vdll feel that nothing bat 
the basest ingratitude or the most degrading selfishness could 
influence him in refusing to bestow upon posterity the slender pittance 
it may be in his power to offer, not in requital, but in acknowledge- 
ment, of what he owes to those who have departed '^ to join the 
majority." 



53 
THE CULTIVATION OF THE MULBERRY. 

Bead by A. Mabtilli, Esq., at a Meeting hdd September 15, 1864. 

** From a ploughed field is not only sprlDging up wheat, but the entire 
civilization of a country, "—Lamaetine. 

Mr. President, Ladies, and Grentlemen, — I would crave your in- 
dulgence and attention to this paper on the cultivation of the mul- 
berry, as it is one of great importance to the future welfare of the 
colony. In support of this remark I may mention that in two 
provinces of Northern Italy, viz., Piedmont and Lombardy, with an 
area of about twenty-five millions of acres, that after supplying the 
home market, the annual value of raw sdlk and cocoons exported 
amounts to upwards of six millions sterling. It will be no exagger- 
ation to foresee that Victoria, with a surface of sixty millions of 
acres, a soil and climate better adapted if anything than that of the 
North of Italy for the production of Silk, will be in a position, in 
a few years, with a properly directed movement, to export more than 
twelve millions worth of sHk and cocoons annually. The obstacle to 
this great success is however not confined to silk alone. The great evil 
of all countries is the Hstlessness that pervades the monied classes in all 
matters relating to agricultural interests, and it is against this apathy 
that we should endeavour to fight, by setting an example of activity 
to the poorer classes of the community, and by raising up an intelli- 
gent body of men fitted to carry out the projects designed for the 
furtherance of the cultivation of the soil. Complaint is useless 
where work is necessary to build up the future greatness of a country. 
Give a just direction to agricultural progress, specially by promoting 
the more industrious cultures, amongst which that of silk may be 
considered as one of the greatest sources of riches to a country, by 
the large returns on the distribution of a comparitavely small capital 
amongst the labouring classes, and you will have been worthily 
assisting in the great work of the erection of the edifice of social 
happiness and well-being. It wiU now be necessary to bring under 
your notice some principles of vegetable physiology, in order that we 
may draw deductions from them for the practical cultivation of the 
mulberry. Every tre^ that grows draws the elements of its existence 
from the decomposition of mineral and organic substances, by the action 
of the atmosphere and the dampness of the soil in which it is planted. 
This is done not only by the exterior roots, but also by the leaves 
and the skin of the younger branches, Nature beneficently provding 
the trunk of the tree with a thicker skin to withstand the rigour of 
the elements. There exists such harmony in the provisions for the 
growth of trees, that the leaves and roots are working simultaneously 
in the absorption of the principles necessary for the perfection of 
their vegetation. Those principles materially aid in the circulation 
of the sap, which is very rapid in the summer and under favourable 
circumstances, but it is nearly suspended during the winter months, 
and the powers of the tree recruited and strengthened for the pro- 



54 

daction of vegetation daring the next season. There are two saps 
continually ascending and descending. The ascending saps pas 
through the wood and give nutriment to the branches and leayea, 
and the descending ones pass through the skin to the roots, and 
produce new wood from season to season as the tree grows oldec 
The preservation of the leaves is not so necessary to the existence of 
a tree as its roots, as from these it derives its principal support and 
nourishment ; it will therefore be gathered from these remarks, that 
it is impossible to propagate mulberry trees for silk culture by 
cuttings, but that they must be raised naturally frx>m seeds in order 
that peifect roots may be formed for the sustenance of the tree in the 
future periods of its existence, and when it shall be necessary to 
gather its leaves for the education of the precious worm. As the 
grand object of the cultivation of the mulberry tree is to fit it fi)r 
the production of leaves in the least possible time, nothing must be 
neglected by its cultivator to attain that object, not so much by the 
expenditure of a large amount of capital as an assiduous study of the 
necessities of the plant, as no tree in the world yields so lu^ a 
return to its propagator as this one. The good quality of 
the ground is certionly of great importance to the prosperity 
of the tree ; but the judicious pruning and training of its 
branches is of far greater moment, and the excuse of the had 
cultivator as to the indiflferent quality of the soil only tends to 
betray his ignorance of the art of cultivating the mulberry. The 
time for pruning and training the branches greatly depends on 
the climate and the situation in which the trees are placed. From 
great experience in the cultivation of the mulberry, I am convinced 
tiiat the establishment of plantations of these trees will yield large 
returns, and be of great benefit not only to the agriculturist but to 
the whole community. The demand for silk produced from the 
worms fed upon the leaves of the mulberry is always increasing, and! 
cannot foresee any but the most beneficial results in its general 
adoption in this country. In the composition of the leaves of the 
mulberry tree there are five different substances, viz., solid or 
fibrous, colouring matter, water, and saccharine and resinous or silky 
matters. The three first substances are not absolutely necessary for 
the life of the silk-worm. The saccharine matter nourishes and aids 
in the formation of the animal, and the resinous matter imbibed bj 
the worm from the leaves is accumulated and purified by its peculiar 
organisation, and collected in the two reservoirs of the worm, to be 
discharged afterwards through its mouth in the form of silk. The 
yield of silk will be found in accordance with the presence of more 
or less of the saccharine and resinous matters in the leaves on which 
the worm is fed. For instance, the silk produced by the leaves of 
the black mulberry, which are hard, rough and tenacious, and which 
was the principal food of worms in the warm countries of Europe, 
(such as Greece, Spain, Sicily, Calabria, &c.,) is abundant, the thread 
strong, but very coarse. The worms fed on leaves of the white 



55 

mulberry (which has been planted on elevated situations and 

exposed to a dry wind) produce abundance of silk, strong, very pure, 

and of very fine quality. It is almost unnecessary to state that the 

less nutriment there is in the leaves the greater will be the quantity 

required to perfectly develop the worm. The result is that the 

worm that is fed on leaves which possess great nutritive power will 

grow large, and produce less silk than that which is fed on those 

containing a large amount of resinous matter, although not attaining 

the same size, as the former is liable to become sick, and its productive 

powers put out of order. Of the white mulberry there are many 

varieties^ but of these the following 16 are in general use in Italy for 

grafting stocks, viz. : — 1. A foglie nervose ; 2. Bathiany ; 3. Colum- 

bassa ; 4. Flava ; 5. Giazzola a foglia doppia ; 6. Integrifolia ; 7. Lati- 

folia j 8. Macrophylla : 9. Macrophylla grisea ; 10. Mascula pedemon- 

tana ; 1 1. Ovalifoha fructibus albidis ; 12. Piramidale ; 13. Koseo di 

Lombardia; 14. Rosea laevigata ; 15. Rouillardi; 16. Vainissi. For 

sowing, two are principally used, viz., Morrettiana and common alba. 

Of those used for grafting the three most generally in favour are the 

Giazzola a foglia doppia, Mascula pedemontana, and the Roseo di 

Lombardia, as being more rich in saccharine and resinous matters, 

and containing less water, &c., than the others. From experiments 

made with lOG oz. of the fresh gathered leaves of each of these 

varieties, the yield after being properly dried was found as follows : 

Roseo di Lombardia, 30 oz. ; Giazzola a foglia doppia, 31 oz. ; and 

Mascula pedemontana, 36 oz. Another variety of mulberry, the 

Multicaulis, that was imported from the Island of Luzon, is also very 

much used for the early education of the silk-worm, but owing to its 

large leaves it is not adapted to all climates, although it is a splendid 

stock to graft on any other variety, and well fitted for the formation 

of hedges, and is excellent food for the very young worms. Having 

called attention to the physiological principles and different varieties 

of the white mulberry in greatest repute, I shall endeavour to give 

directions towards making plantations of this valuable tree. First — 

With respect to the selection of the ground. A spot of ground 

should be selected in a situation sheltered from the south wind, dug 

to the depth of 18 in., and afterwards mixed with a little stable 

manure, and the surface made perfectly level. Secondly — With 

regard to the method of sowing the mulberry. The best time for 

sowing in this climate will be found between the middle of March 

and the middle of May. The objection I have to spring sowing in 

in the case of the mulberry is the long drought and prevalent 

hot winds of the Australian summer, which would require a vast 

amount of attention and diligence in watering the seedlings. The 

winter rains, on the contrary, may be easily prevented from injuring 

the young plants by covering them with straw ; but the choice of 

season is a matter which may very safely be left to the intelligence 

of the farmer. A suitable spot being fixed upon and prepared for 

the reception of the seed, the surface of it should be laid out in beds 



56 

about 3 ft. wide, snfficient space being left between each for tlie 
passage of a man. The seed diould be steeped in water for about 
24 hours before sowing, to accelerate its tendency to germinate, and 
afterwards well mixed with about one-third part of di^ sand. This 
mixture is then to be sown broadcast oyer the beds, the earth caie- 
fully raked over it, and gently patted down with the back of a 
spade. If the soil is rather hard, a little cut straw sprinkled over it 
will tend to remedy this defect. If the season is wet with cold 
nights, it will be found beneficial to prepare a blanket or canvas to be 
thrown over the ground already sown, supported by pegs, to protect 
the seeds and young plants from the inclemency of the weather. In 
the absence of rain, they must be watered with a hand watering-can; 
and in the event of too much rain, protected with straw or in Uie 
manner above stated. As a matter of course, no weeds must be 
allowed to remain in the beds. Thirdly — The mode of transplanting. 
The young plants after attaining an age of firom 18 to 24 month^ 
may be transplanted to a proper nursery, or in ground prepared for 
the formation of hedges, according to the following directions. For 
the nursery it will be necessary to cut longitudinal trenches 15 in. 
deep by 15 in. wide. The bottom of the trenches should be covered 
with dead branches to the depth of 2 in. or Sin., and afterwards 
filled in with earth nearly to the level of the former surface, for the 
reception of the roots of the young plants. These plants have 
generally a fusiform root from which a piece of about 2 in. must be 
cut off The plants so prepared should be laid on the surface of the 
ground in the trench in such a fashion tiiat their upper portions 
should be supported by the unbroken ground, and the lower portion 
covered in with some of the earth taken from the trench, which 
must be slightly compressed with the hand ; on this should be 
placed a layer of stable manure, and finally the remaining portion of 
the earth taken out of the trench. After the young plants have been 
set according to these directions, the tops of them should be cut to 
within six inches of the ground, for the purpose of increasing the 
strength of the young plant. All the suckers springing up from the 
plant must be removed except the two strongest, which should be 
left for the purpose of giving support to the foot of the tree, and 
when they have gained sufficient strength they should be banked up 
with earth all round. The distance at which the plants are to be 
set should be in accordance with the fertility of the soil, but they 
may be set at a general average of 3 ft. from the lines and 15 in. from 
each other. No care, trouble, or expense must be spared to keep 
the ground well moved round the foot of the mulberry, in order to 
maintain the humidity of the soil so necessary for the production of the 
vegetation of the tree. Most cultivators are aware that loose earth will 
retain its natural moisture for a longer period than that which is com- 
pressed; it would therefore, be advantageous to the growth of the tree 
to move the surface of the earth with a rake, in order that the rays of 
the sun might penetrate to its roots^ Heat and humidity are the most 



57 

efiectnal natural agents in the rapid devolpment of v^tation, more 

especially with regard to the mulberry, which is indigenous to warm 

olimates. In seasons of drought it will be necessary to irrigate the 

giroand along the trenches, and a few days afterwards to rake it over 

-to admit the penetration of the heat, which had been nearly destroyed 

\>y the previous irrigation, because the evaporation of Uie water is 

creating cold. These directions may perhaps appear minute to 

persons unacquainted with the great importance of the matter, but I 

consider they are essential to the successful rearing of the young 

plants, and if they grow well and prosperous the first year they will 

l>e fit to be gjcsh&5. in the second, and the graft will usually spring 

up a young tree in the course of the next season. I would not 

"trespass on your patience by extending this paper to any greater 

length ; I shall therefore reserve my remarks on the formation of 

liedges, the education of the trees, and the rules necessary for 

pruning, &c., for the next paper that I shall have the honour to 

l>ring before you on this subject. 



THE FISHEKIES OF VICTOKIA. 

Bead by G. S. Lano, Esq., at a Meeting field September 15, 1864. 

The object of my present paper is to show how, and how far, our 
fisheries may be elevated into one of the great industries of the 
colony. I shall commence simply by a few remarks on the present 
fish supply of Melbourne. 

BAY-FISHING. 

From the information already collected as to a very limited portion 
of the coasts and seas vdthin easy reach of Melbourne, it is estab- 
lished that the supply of fish is practically unlimited. In Port 
Philip Bay there is an area of over 700 square miles, with coast line 
of about 130 miles, well supplied with fish ; and in Western Port 
Bay about 300 square miles, one immense fishing-ground, and still 
more plentifully supplied with better fish, and vnth a coast line of 
120 miles, including French and Philip Islands. Both bays are 
landlocked, and in every way favourable for fishing. The follow- 
ing are the descriptions of fish found in these bays : — Schnapper, 
from 21b. to 201b., and even 301b.; rock-cod, flathead, garfish, whiting, 
silver-fish, mullet, gurnet, ling, perch, mackarel, butter-fish, 101b. to 
201b.j salmon-trout, white sabnon, bream, plaice, flounders and kingJ 
fish, also crayfish, shrimps, and oysters. It is very difficult to form 
even a near approximation to the number of boats and men engaged 
in fishing. There are 316 licences issued for tents and huts for 
fishing, and allowing only one boat for each licence, and two and 



58 

a-half men for each boat, this will give 790 men. There are tiros, 
it appears, almost at oar doors an milimited supply of fish, plent; 
of men and boats to catch them, and a large population anxious tc 
purchase ; yet the public cannot be suppli^ except at enormous 
prices, while the fishermen often cannot sell their fish at all, and 
then at prices they can barely exist upon. The reason is, * that tbe 
fishermen have no capital beyond Uieir boats and nets, and are &t 
the mercy of one or two middlemen who keep the trs^de in their own 
hands, and fix their own price. If another buyer interferes, ^ 
raise the price till he is forced to retire and then at once lower it to 
the old scale, tabooing any refractory fisherman, and not bnying 
from him at all, while he is unable to take his fish to Melbonrner 
and most probably would not find a purchaser if he did. Coital 
will, no doubt, remedy this to a very great extent in time ; but fisher- 
men as a body, are always poor (perhaps because men cease to be 
fishermen when they rise above poverty), and a remedy tli^ will 
protect them without preventing the introduction of capital, shonld 
be at once applied, and render unnecessary such an association as they 
have formed, with rules as unnecessarily severe as those of the anciait 
guilds — enough to destroy any industry. The first step is to est&hlist 
a fish-market, not only with retail stalls, but with licensed salesmen, 
conducting business in the same way as at Billingsgate, to whom an/ 
boat can safely consign its fish ; and there is little doubt that the 
salesmen would find it their interest to combine with the poorer 
fishermen in removing the present difficulty, by establishing convey- 
ances for their fish, even if coaches were not laid on for the profit of 
the carriage, which they most probably would be. It would also he 
a great boon to the fishermen if certain portions of land in suitable 
localities were marked off as fishery reserves, and fishermen were 
allowed to purchase, at a fixed price, sufficient for a house, garden, 
and nets, after occupying it a certain time, say two years. The land 
would seldom be of much value for any other purpose, and it would 
benefit the public most materially, by encouraging men with fsunilies 
to establish themselves permanently as fishermen. 

DEEP-SEA FISHING. 

The colony will never have anything approaching the full advantage 
of our fishery resources until capital is applied on a large scale to the 
deep-sea fishing ; and that will be only when the fishing-ground is 
proved of sufficient extent and there are sufficient capitalists whom 
the investment would suit. First, the Fishing-grounds. — Besides the 
Western Port and Port Philip bays, where an ample supply is to be 
had during the summer months, there are fishing-grounds outsi^l^ 
which will yield not only an equally ample supply during the winter 
months, when fish generally leave the bays for deep water, but supply 
for an extensive export trade. Besides the schnapper fishing a* 
Queenscliff, which now yields during the summer about 250 tons of 



59 

sobnapper alone, there is a bank outside where they can be caught 

SL± all times of the year. There is also one immense bank extending 

S- and E. from the eastern entrance of Western Port swarming with 

sehnapper, rock-cod, and other fine fish, that would of itself, even as 

£ar as now known, supply a large fishery. It has been ascertained 

txhat the banks extending to the eastward of King's Island, Babbit 

ICsland, and Comer Inlet, besides soles, butter-fish, jew-fish, and 

others, abound in flounders of large size and of the finest quality ; 

suid as the Straits average less than forty-five fathoms, and with 

much sand and shell bottom, most favourable for trawling, we only 

require proper boats to give us as ample a supply in winter as m 

summer. In a strait between such rocky coasts as this and Y^m 

Diemen's land, with islands cropping up in every direction, there 

xnust be extensive areas of rocky and broken ground below water, 

giving both food and shelter, and forming banks for winter fishing 

as richly stocked as that to the eastward of Western Port. In the 

Straits the kingfish and barracouta are in large shoals, and might be 

caught in quantities infinitely greater than at present. Again, on 

the south and east of Van Diemen's Land there is a bank covered 

by the waters of the cold Southern Ocean, cold enough for the finest 

quality of fish, with which it swarms, and of suflScient extent to 

supply all the Australian colonies over and over again. This bank 

is known to extend from twenty-five to thirty miles from the end 

of Maria Island to Tasman's Peninsula — ^how much further is 

unknown. It abounds with trumpeter, running up to sixty and 

eighty pounds; arbouca, also a large fish, rock-cod, schnappers, 

flounders, and many other fish of fine quality. This bank is 

as near Melbourne as the banks that supply London with fresh 

cod, and traversed by every steamer passing between Hobart Town 

and Melbourne, so that it is almost as much a Melbourne as a Hobart 

Town fishing-ground. We have, in fact, sufficient data to prove 

that the deep waters off the coast are teeming with life. Fish have 

been found everywhere ; and the entire bottom, where sounded, is 

mixed with shells and seaweed, and where the food is the mouths 

will be there to eat it How universaUy animal life is disseminated 

in these seas was proved by the wreck of a French whaler, which 

came ashore to the east and west of Portland in 1848. She left 

Adelaide to fill up, and was never heard of for years, when she came 

ashore in pieces, the wood exposed to the water being covered deeply 

with muscles, &c., while the broken parts were perfectly fresh, 

showing that she had lain in still water till moved by some current 

or very deep commotion of the water, on to ground within reach of 

the surfEMje waves. There is, in fact, every reason to believe that 

we have under the waters as extensive a field for the profitable 

exertion of our energies as we have on the land, though hitherto left 

as utterly useless and unprofitable as were our pastures before a 

white man trod upon them. Second, the Capitalists. — These will 

be of two descriptions — ^first, individuals or companies with consider- 



60 

able capital, say i£3,000 and upwards, who will hare one or more 
stations ashore, with every appliance for curing as well as fi<=^>iii?g ; 
and second, single fishing vessels, which will confine themselves to 
fishing, selling their fish as far as possible in the Melbourne market, 
and the remainder to the curers, unless when they can cure on board 
The body of the fishing fleet will consist of such single vessels, fitted 
out by a few individuals, as in the Newfoundland and Scotch fisheries. 
The cost of a thirty-ton vessel with trawl, well, <fec., would be 
about J&400 or £500, and there are many in this community whcmi 
such an investment would suit — ^men in various capacities, who 
have accumulated money beyond the requirements of their business, 
which they have now great difficulty in investing profitably. Mining 
has proved too much of a lottery for most prudent men ; agriculture 
requires personal superintendence, and has generally proved ruinous 
at least to those not brought up to it ; squatting requires too much 
capital; ordinary shares giving too small a profit. Whereas, a sound 
fishing-smack, fitted out by a few partners under the Limited Liability 
Act, insured, and under a skilful master, part owner, would be not 
only a safe but a profitable investment. Second, the pioneers in 
establishing a national deep-sea fishery must encounter considerable 
risk and many difficulties, so that a company such as I have alluded 
to, and such as is now actually being formed, would be much more 
suitable for the enterprise than one individual As this preliminary 
loss was incurred by me twenty years ago, I shall give the result of 
my dearly-bought experience for the benefit of these second pioneers. 
On arriving here in 1841, I had been struck by the fsict that there 
was no article to exchange for the enormous quantities of sugar, tea, 
and rice, &c., imported from the East ; and, further, I learned that 
the East India Company had for years found a most profitable market 
for a large quantity of Newfoundland cod, in Mauritius, India, China, 
and the PhiUipines, &c., and had given up the trade only on account 
of the very long voyage then usual, during which the fish became 
imsaleable. Having partners to manage my sheep stations, I deter- 
mined to establish a deep-sea fishery, and addressed a memorial to 
Lieutenant-Governor La Trobe, pointing out these facts, and the 
advantages that would arise to the colony. The Government almost 
at once granted me a squatting licence at the mouth of the Yarra, 
where I established what I intended should be my head station. I 
set to work with a body of Scotch Highland fishermen and curers, and, 
before the season ended, proved to my satisfaction that the supply 
of schnapper was unlimited, and so cheaply cured that a most exten- 
sive and profitable export to the places above-mentioned could be 
established. The men then offered to hire the boats, and fish for 
the Melbourne market during the winter, and I agreed, for the sake 
of keeping them together; but this at once brought them into col- 
lision with the other fishermen, and led to my giving up the scheme 
altogether. These men did not object to the deep-sea fishing, but 
declared that no gentleman or company had any right to interfere 



61 

in supplying Melbourne, and refused to supply any hawker who 
bought from the ^' company's " boats, and as my boats could not 
guarantee a constant supply, my men were stopped. To meet this 
I established a dep6t in Melbourne, and put one of their own coun- 
trymen to manage it, but instead of confining himself to his own 
business, when he did very well he turned it into a general store. 
On my return from a long exploring voyage I found everything 
paralyzed ; a regular war by the fishermen generally against my men, 
burning and cutting nets, setting boats adnft, &c. ; the men were so 
interrupted that they demanded daily wages, and the hawkers de- 
manded to be guaranteed a supply, while considerable liabilities had 
been incurred in the store, and its contents distributed on credit to 
all the Highlanders in Melbourne. The crisis of 1843 coming, I 
wound up the fishery and went to the bush, but not before I had 
ascertained to my perfect satisfaction that there was an opening for 
a great national fishery. I would suggest that this pioneer fishing 
company should establish at first, not ten, as they propose, but two 
stations— one at QueenscHff and the other at the eastem entrance of 
Western Port or near it; each, of course, supplied with row boats, 
seines, set nets, drift nets, crab pots, &c. ; also appliances for salting, 
drying, and smoking, and in due time preserving fish in tins — the 
modem substitute ^r salting. Each station should have one, or 
perhaps two, trawling cutters, or, rather, fore-and-aft schooners, as 
being more easily handled, and first-rate sea-boats, so as to hold their 
own in any weather. They would thus be able to employ their men 
in almost any weather, in any wind, and at all seasons, either inside 
or outside the Heads, and, in case of a large take, could always secure 
the surplus. In the schnapper fishing, alone, they would have a 
Btand-bye that would secure them a profit ; the hawkers and salesmen 
now object to this fish on account of its weight in proportion to the 
profit upon it, and only the smaller sizes are acceptable. Now these 
are not suitable for salting, but a company could keep the curers 
and preservers in tins going with the large fish, sending the smaller 
to Melbourne with the general take; in the same way, when the cutter 
is not trawling she can lay-to on the banks and fill herself with 
schnapper and rock-cod, either to cure on board or preserve on 
shore, besides keeping the men employed in the winter when fish 
have left the bay for the deep water. They should strictly confine 
themselves to their own particular business on the sea and the beach; 
they must certainly establish a means of rapid communication with 
the railway, but even that they should do by contract, if therg is no 
public conveyance ; sell the fresh fish in the public market, and the 
rest through an agent, until the business is in full working order, 
when they may extend it as they please, and more particularly and 
legitimately by curing the fish caught by other boats. Let them be 
content at first with plain bush buildings ; they are cheap, and will 
serve for years. Companies generally neglect their men ; it is a great 
mistake in any business, but more particularly in a fishery, as it is 



62 

of vital importance to retain men acquainted with tiie fishing grounds, 
tides, and currents. Hoose them comfortably, and give them the 
best of rations. Give the single men a comfortable barrack, with a 
cook to look after it, so that they may always be certain of a com- 
fortable meal and dry clothes on coming ashore; they will thus secure 
the willing services of the best men to be had. A company so b^an 
and prudently conducted will, I have no doubt, not only prove most 
profitable to the parties engaged but to the colony genersJly . 

It is not the business of the Government to force this or any otha 
industry into existence, but as the fishing grounds are at our doors, 
most bounteously stocked by nature, while there are both capital and 
men ready to be employed upon them, it is the legitimate province of 
the Governments of Victoria and Tasmania to clear the way by a 
survey of the coasts and straits. Private individuals cannot be 
expected to spend their capital in making discoveries which at once 
become public property, as fishing banks inevitably do. Where 
labour is so high it is of great importance to have the men constantly 
employed, but until the different banks are laid down they cannot 
be so. llie trawlers cannot work in anything like a heavy sea, bat 
if they knew of a bank in their neighbourhood they could, wi^ the 
deep-sea line, as long as the vessel could hold her own, actually fill 
the vessel instead of lying-to idle. The survey of the bank off 
Tasman's Peninsula alone would well repay the expense of employiog 
a sixty-ton vessel, which would be quite sidficient. There is no doubt 
that most of the fish come into the bays in summer to spawn, and it 
is most desirable that both Governments should strictly enforce a close 
time, and regulate the size of the mesh in all nets, trawlers included, 
as the wanton destruction now is most sinful. 

1 hope when the Society has the means that the Council will turn 
their attention to the introduction of the cod and the herring. 
Lieut. Maury, in his " Physical Geography of the Ocean," mentions 
that on the portion <^ the southern states of America touched by 
the Gulf stream on its way northwards, the fish are of bright colour 
but poor quality, and that these southern states are supplied by rail 
from the states further north, whose coasts are washed by the cold 
current which flows south from the Arctic Ocean inside of the Gulf 
stream. It appears from Maury's chart of these seas (No. IX. Sea- 
drift and Whales) that the whole of the south coast of New Holland 
is bathed by the waters of the cold Antarctic, so that fish of the 
finest kind will retain their good qualities. The cod is not only a 
good £sh of itself, superior to any of ours, but the salt-fish of 
commerce, and if established in these seas, would greatly fiEicilitate 
the formation of an export trade, and, I think, quite as worthy of 
attention as the salmon. The roe is so exceediingly minute, that 
more than nine millions have been counted in one fish; being 
so fine, it would be laid among the moss in pieces, and cue 
box might contain twelve millions of roe. The sea- water would be 
sufficiently cold during a great portion of the voyage, certainly after 



63 

rea.cliiiig eighteen degrees south, and as one cask per day of iced 
sea-'w^ater would be ample for a box of cod and one of herring, it 
appears to me that it is well worthy of an early trial. But whetiier 
T^e introduce cod and herring or not, there is no doubt of the fact 
tliat 'we have fish of such quantity and of such quality, that it only 
requires that capital and labour be applied with ordinary prudence 
and. sagacity to make our fisheries one of the great interests of the 
colonies. 



BfEMORANDUM No. 41 

M 



ADMIRALTY, 

lOth October, 1863. 



{Aitistance to he rendered to the AccUmatisatum Society.) 

My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, having had nnder their 
consideration the important question of Acclimatisation, are pleased to 
direct that so far as is consistent with the requirements of the public 
service, and upon the distinct understanding that no expense whatever 
Is incurred, every facility is to be given by the Ck)mmanding Officers of 
Her Majesty's ships and vessels to any accredited agent of the Aodima- 
tisation Society, who may apply to them through any of Her Majesty's 
Foreign Ministers or Consuls, or through the Governor of any of Her 
Majesty's Colonies, for the transport of specimens. 

The annexed copy of a circular addressed by permission of iha 
Secretaries of State for Foreign Affairs and for the Colonies to Her 
Majesty's Foreign Ministers and Consuls and Colonial Governors, in 
various parts of the world, will explain the objects which the Society has 
in view. 



B^ Command of their Lordships, 

C. PAGET. 



To all Flag OfiBcers, Captains, C!om- 
manders-in-Chief, and Command- 
ing Officers of Her Mt^esty's Ships 
and Vessels. 



LIST OF ANIMALS 



In THi BoTAL Paak and Botanical Garddts, Milbourmb. 



2S CamelB at Wimmera 

Llama alpacas 
5 PureiUpacas 

11 Ceylon elks 

12 Axis deer 
20 Hog deer 

2 Ma^iillft deer 
2 Bamsmyha deer 
2 Formosa deer 
4 Brahmin cows 

1 Chinese bu£Falc 
24 Cashmere goats 
18 Angora goats 
50 Hsfi-bred do. 
60 Common goats 
SO Sheep 

17 Silver grey rabbits 

4 ChmdOnas 

2 St. Bernard dogs 

5 Kangaroos 

8 Wallaby 

4 Opossums 
2 MonkevB 

1 Agouti 

4 Indian porcupines 

2 Moorukes 
»6 Curassows 

9 Ceylon wild peafowl 

6 English peafowl 
4 Golden pheasants 



9 Silver pheasants 
6 English pheasants 
2 Black Indian part- 
ridges 
8 Guernsey partridges 
4 Ceylon partridges 
2 Madagascar quaU 
6 Chinese quail 
6 Indian quail 

8 Grohorts 

2 Algerine sand grouse 

12 White swans 

4 Canadian geese 

13 l^vptian geese 

9 Chinese geese 

2 Cape Barren geese 
50 English wild ducks 

1 Mandarin dude 

2 Bahama ducks 
13 Carolina ducks 

8 Call ducks 

5 Mountain ducks 
2 Tree ducks 

5 Wood ducks 
2 Macaws 

9 Wonga pigeons 
12 Fan<7 pigeons 

6 Bronze wing pigeons 
1 Crested pigeon 

11 Turtle doves 



5 Ground doves 

7 Grey Indian doves 
9 Green Indian doves 

8 Manilla doves 
2 Brazil doves 

12 Emeus 

1 Native companion 
12 Black swans 

1 Malleehen 

2 Native bustards 
8 Curlews 

2 Eagle hawks 
2 Small hawks 
8 Owls 

2 Laughing Jackasses 
80 Magpies 

2 Grey African parrots 
4 Indian game fowls 
2 Houdin fowls 
4 Padua fowls 
2 Gascon fowls 

15 Bantams 

6 Common fowls 
8 Cardinal birds 
6 Indian finches 

6 Bockhampton finches 
12 Linnets 

16 Canaries 

6 Hives Ligurian bees 



18 Canaries 
18 Blackbirds 
24 Thrushes 



ANIMALS LIBERATED. 

At thb Botanical GAaoiirs. 

I 6 California quail 

60 English wild ducks 
I 85 Java sparrows 



4 English robins 
8 Turtle doves 
50 Mine birds 



6 Hares 

6 Cape pheasants 

8 English pheasants 

4 Indian pheasants 
8 Ceylon partridges 

5 Indian partridges 



At Phillip Island. 

4 Chinese partridges 
70 Chinese quail 
26 Tasmanian quail 

6 Starlings 
10 Algerine sand grouse 

6 WUd ducks 



5 Pheasants 

6 Skylarks 

6 Cdifomia quail 
4 Thrushes 
4 Blackbirds 
1 Pair white swans 



4 Pheasants 



At Sandstoni and CeuacHiLL Islands. 

I 4 Skylarks | 4 Thrushes 



At Tarba Bend. 



6 Thrushes 



4 Skylarks 



66 



9 TbrvMheu 



5 Ceylon elk 



NSAR StDNKT. 

4 Skylarks 
At Suoarloaf Hill. 

I 



I 10 Blackbirds 
8 Axis deer 



8 Haree 

90 Mainas 
Starlings 
mo English sparrows 
16 Yellowammers 



25 English sparrows 



At Wilson's Promontory. 

4 Axis deer 

At THi ROTAL Park. 

40 Chaffinches 

2 Thrushes 

20 Greenfinches 

200 Java sparrows 

6 Blackbirds 

At Pbntridob. 
40 English sparrows 

At St. Kilda. 
20 Chinese sparrows 

At Ballaarat. 



20 Siskin findies 
6 Powi birds 
3 Chinese pheasants 
6 Blackbirds 



20 Java sparrows 



4 Kangaroos 
6 Mountain ducks 
200 Murray codfish 
22 Blapk swans 
20 Australian quail 
14 Eax;\e hawks 
86 Magpies 
4 Rosella parrots 
6 King parrots 
6 Cockatoos 
6 Dingos 

20 Emeils 

22 Kanearoos 

12 Bla<£ swans 
8 Cape Barren geese 
1 South AustraUan 

wombat 
4 Native geese 



2 Kangaroos 
8 Black swans 



At Bunebp. 
18 Fallow deer 

ANIMALS SENT AWAY. 
To London. 

8 Tal^^allai 
26 Waterhens 

4 Kangaroo rats 

9 Wombats 
2 Cranes 

2 Wood ducks 

2 Kangaroo dogs 

4 Echidna 

26 Laughing jackasses 
40 Shell parrots 

To Paris. 

8 Curlews 

1 Native crane 

8 Murray turtles 

2 Wombats 

17 Australian quaU 
4 Laughing Jackasses 

To St. Pitbrsburo. 

2 Laughing Jackasses 
2 Wal&bies 



36 Lowry parrots 
2 Opossums 
22 Wonga pigeons 
81 Bronze-wing pigeons 

2 Wild ducks 

3 Swamp magpies 
7 Landndls 

4 Sugar squirrels 
3 Coots 

Some Yarra fish 



2 Bronze>wing pigMRtf 
8 Goatsuckers 
2 Native companions 
14 Bockhampton fincbtf 
1 Iguana 
4 Opossums 



8 Emeus 



To Ahstbrdah. 
8 Water hens | 6 Australian quail 

To Rottbrdah. 
2 Cape Barren geese | 2 Water hens 

To Hamburgh. 



2 Wonga pigeons 
2 Blacks 



2 Black swans 
2 Black geese 



2 Bronze-wing pigeons I 2 Kangaroo rats 

I 2 Waterhens 



To COLOONB. 

2 Curlews 



To COPVNHAOBN. 

2 Black swans 



67 



34 Black swam 
12 Emeus 
2 Ela^rles 

6 Wliite cockatoos 

7 Kin^r parrots 



8 Black swans 

1 Kangaroo 

2 Cape Barren geese 



To Calctjtta. 

16 Rosella parrots 
10 Kangaroos 

4 Opossums 

1 Dingo 

1 Wombat 

To MAUBimiB. 

2 Eagle hawks 
9 Fowls 



To BOUBBON. 

8 Black swans 



6 Bronze-wing pigeons 
6 Laughing jackasses 

20 Shell parrots 

52 Magpies 



2 Magpies 

2 Laughing jackasses 



Black swans 



2 Black siwans 



S Bla^ fliwaos 



2 Angora goats 
2 Brush kangaroos 

1 Silver pheasant 

2 Canadian geese 



1 Angora goat 

2 Blackbirds 



To SlOILT. 

1. 

To Rangoon. 
6 Black Swans 



To Java. 
2 Gape Barren geese 

To BUBTBIEONO. 

2 Cape Barren geese 

To Stbnit. 

6 English wild ducks 

1 MaJleehen 
10 Blackbirds 
10 Thrushes 

To ASSLAIDl. 

2 Thrushes 

8 English pheasants 

To HoBABT Town. 



14 Natire Ducks 



1 Kangaroo 



1 Kangaroo 



4 Larks 
4 Starlings 
2 Ortolans 
2 Sparrows 



2 Silver pheasants 



1 Angora goat 



9 Native bears 



3 Thrushes 



To NbW ZSAItAND. 

6 Magpies 



4 Opossums 



WIIAON AND MACKINNON, PEINTBES, COLLINS STBSKT BA0T, MBLBOURNB. 



.J^^^^^^c^-^;^^ 




^,.^-^^C^2^^^>^^ 



.."■^ 



•^ 



REPORT 



S^icIittmtferfi0n ^odtij^ of Wxdom 



AS ADOPTED 



At the AjsnsfVAL Mbetino of the Societt, held Mabch 10th, 1871, 

AT THE HRCHANICS' IhSTITUTB, MELBOURNE. 



*'9m^ Ut^ tmm UVm:* 



MELBOURNE: 

STILLWELL ft ENIGHT, PBINTEBS, COLLINS BTBEET EAST. 

187I. 



LIST OF THE OFFIGKRS 



AcCLiyVlATISATION SoCIETY. 



HiB ExciLLBKCY VISCOUNT CANTEBBUBYJ 

db. black. 

Db. von MUELLEB, O.M.G. PBOFESSOB McCOY 

ion. ^xmmtx. 

T. J. SUMNEB, Esq. 



ptmbtr0 of (tmmcil. 



Hon. a. mOHIE, 
COUNT DE CA8TLENAU. 

F. G. MOULE, Esq. 
Hon. Db. DOBSON, M.L.C. 
H. P. VENABLES, Esq., B.A. 
Db. JOSEPH BLACK 

G. COPPIN, Esq. 

JOHN STEAVENSON, Esq. 



J. B. WEBE, Esq. 
F. C. CHBISTY, Esq. 
ALBEBT PUBCHAS, Esq. 
GEOBGE SPBIGG, Esq. 
BOBEBT HAMMOND, Esq. 
CUBZON ALLPOBT, Esq. 
Db. PUGH. 



ALBEBT A. C. LE SOUEF, Esq. 



ACCLIMATISATION SOCIETY OF VICTOKIA. 



The Annual Meeting of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria 
was held at the Mechanics' Institute, Collins-street, on Friday, 
March 10, 1871. 

The President of the Society, Dr. Black, took the chair, and in 
doing so stated that His Excellency the Governor, who was the 
Patron of the Society, would have been present but for a prior 
engagement. 

The hon. Secretary, Mr. Le Souef, then read the following re^rt 
of the Council : — 

The Council of the Acclimatisation Society has much pleasure 
in presenting to the subscribers, the Seventh Report of their 
proceedings. 

Circumstances prevented the issue of the Report for 1869, 
the usual subsidy having been discontinued for that year, the 
efforts of the Society were necessarily confined to conserving the 
aniTTfiAla already in their possession, rather than directed towards 
the introduction of fresh stock. Last year the Government and 
Parliament again recognised the useful labours of the Society, 
the sum of £1,000 was voted towards its maintenance, and 
£400 has been granted for the first half of the present year. It is 
much to be regretted that the present list of subscribers is so small, 
but it is confidently anticipated that an improvement will take 
place in that respect in future. 

Since the last report was published^ the Society has lost the 
valuable services of Mr. George Sprigg as secretary, that gentle- 
man having accepted another position, as in consequence of the loss 
of a large portion of the income of the Society, the Council were 
compelled to make the secretaryship an honorary office. On Mr. 
Sprigg's resignation, Mr. lissignol was elected as his successor, 
and after Mr. lissignors removal in May last, the services o£ 



6 

Mr. Albeit Le Souef, the Usher of the LegislatiTe Coandl, were 
secured for the daties of honorary secretary. Under his management 
the Society bids fair to again become extensively useful 

At the date of the last report, the Society was daily ezpectiog 
the arrival of some ostriches from South Africa ; the birds, four in 
number, reached Melbourne in safety, and Mr. Samuel Wilson, of 
Longerenong, kindly undertook their charge. They have now 
increased to sixteen, and there is every reason to suppose that 
their numbers wUl be considerably augmented in the coarse of 
this season. So far the experiment has been a marked success. 
Ostrich farming is a profitable occupation at the Cape Colony, 
and it is hoped will ultimately become so here. The climate oi the 
Wimmera district appears to be well adapted to their haMts j as a proof 
of which, the young Australian birds are now taller than the pareot 
stock. 

The Society has disposed of a number of Angora goats during tike 
last two years, having been compelled to do so, in consequence of 
their financial position ; though much regretted at the time, this 
must prove of advantage to the colony, as these animals are now in 
a great many hands, and as all who possess them are fully alive 
to their value, it is hoped that carid and attention will be 
paid to them. A number of males have bden purchased by peraom 
who wished to place them with the common white goat ; the crott 
produces a fine and docile animal. The Society is now in possession 
of about seventy pure Angoras, the greater number of whidi are at 
Mr. Wilson's station, on the Wimmera, a locality in every way 
suited to them. 

The Society has done and is doing all in its power to encourage 
sericulture in the colony, and to this end has, in conjunetioii wiA 
Dr. Von Mueller, sent white mulberry cuttings and plants to 
all parts of Victoria. Befoce this industry oeai become a commercial 
success a sufficient supply of food must be provided for the worms, 
and it is of interest to observe the large number of ^ipplications 
for cuttings to form plantations, and the great desire evinced to te«t 
practically so profitable and desirable an industry. Some months 
ago a box of silk-worm eggs was sent by the Government of India to 
His Excellency ike Governor, who kindly handed tiiem to &e Sooiely 



ior diBtiibfEtfoil, ftfid laJbely a fini^ly ti very superior Japanese eggs, 
such as are seldom sold to foreigners, have been forwarded by Dr. 
Bennett, the Hon. Sea of the Acdimatisation Society of New 
Soatii Wales. The Ooimcil is in oommnnication with the Hon. 
Mr. Verdon, <Mie of the Vice-Presidents of the Silk Supply Associa- 
tion of London, aiHi with Mr. Francis Cobb, tiie hou. secretary of 
tliat insytutkm, and have asked the latter gentleman whether 
it would come withm the scope of the operations of the 
Association to appdnt S(nne person in Melbourne to purchase 
eoooons, as thore are a number of peo{de who hold parcels, and are 
discouraged at not being able to turn the fruit of their labour into 
money. Until an answer has been received to this letter, the 
Council is prepared to forward coco(ms to London, the sender paying 
the jhreight j Biod would impress up<Hi sericulturists that it is quite un- 
oeceseary to reel l^e silk, as tliat operation is performed much better 
in inland where machinery exists for the purpose. The Silk 
Supply Association, in one of their Reports rec^tly published' 
rec(^pQises no leas than 36,000 square miles of country in Victoria 
well suited to the growth of silk, taid when the numerous 
yoimg piantatkms eome into bearing, a great stimulus will be given 
to this induB<^, whi^ in all probabiUty will, before many years, 
add materially to the wealth of the cdony. The Council would 
h&te ex]a«ss th^ thMtks to the i^esident and Professor M'Coy, for 
the gfeat interest they have always shown in developing sericulture. 

Tiie de^ turned out at various times have increased rapidly, 
the Council have heard from time to time of considerable herds 
haying become established in different parts of the country. The 
ans deer on the Ghfampians are numerous and widely spread, and 
O^ier pMrts of iht edony are stocked with varieMes of the same 
azdmak There ate at present some surplus deer at the Society's 
Gardens at the Royal Peak, which will be shortly liberated in 
Sttiti^le bcalilies removed from settlem^it, whilst many have 
already been turned out this year. 

'^le hares have • increased in a very marked manner, and are 
rapidly extending Uiroughout the country : a few have been lately 
^aoed in a district well suited to them, about forty miles from 
tovm, and the Coundl have in addition sent some to Tasmania and 



8 

Kew Zealand, as well as having supplied several applicants in 
Victoria. 

With reference to pisciculture, the Council have to report that 
considerable progress has been made, notwithstanding several draw- 
backs and losses. One hundred ova of sea trout were received from 
the Salmon Commissioners of Tasmania last year, at the proper 
season, and were successfully hatched at the Koyal Park, where they 
were retained with very small loss until fit for removal ; they were 
then carried to a pond which had been prepared forth^n; 
but the water was found to be unsuitable, and a number 
of deaths occurred in consequence ; the remainder were successfully 
removed without further loss to the headwaters of a bright clearatream 
a day's journey from Melbourne. This experiment has proved 
that ova may be successfully hatched at the Society's establishment, 
and the young fish carried to any part of the colony. The Council 
therefore propose, for the present, to obtain ova from Tasmania 
rather than to incur the expense of preparing breeding ponds. It 
is proposed, after hatching the ova at the Royal Park, to distribute 
the young fish to persons who will place them in enclosed waters 
adapted for them, and who will engage to prepare ponds to keep 
fish for breeding purposes, so that the fry may be turned out each 
year into the open streams. 

A large number of brown trout ova were also obtained last spring, 
and in compliance with previous arrangements were placed in hatching 
boxes upon a stream some distance up the coun^, at the station of 
a Member of the Society, who, at his own expense not only pre- 
pared the boxes, but also a pond. The boxes were properly protected 
so far as could be foreseen. The ova were sucessfuUy hatched, and 
the young fish in a fit state for moving, when some person in the 
absence of the o.wner cut away the zinc covering from the boxes and 
removed the young fish. It is disheartening to gentlemen who are 
spending their time and money in carrying out the objects of the 
Society to have their ends frustrated by such nefimous conduct It is 
to be presimied, however, that the fry have been turned out elsewhere, 
it is to be hoped, into some stream suitable for them. 

Several streams have already been supplied with young trout, and 
from one of them a fish was taken about dix months ago measuring 



ten inches in length; it is now exhibited as the first Yictorian trout 
Hie Council hare just completed at their gardens a breeding pond 
for perch, and are advised that the parent fish will reach Melbourne 
from Tasmania on the 10th instant. From this pond the whole of 
the colony may be supplied. There is no doubt that the introduction 
of sahnon and trout into the rivers of Tasmania^ has proved a 
success. It is reported that large sahnon have been seen this season, 
and trout fishing is now permitted under license. The fish caught 
some time back in the Derwent, about which a discussion took 
place, have been admitted to be true salmon ; and as they were the 
young of fish reared in the colony, the acclimatization of them 
has been accomplished. The Council desire cordially to thank Sir 
Robert Officer and the Sahnon Commissioners for the trout ova and 
fry they have sent, and also to express their appreciation of the 
services of the Melbourne Anglers' Protective Society in conserving 
the native fish. 

The zoological element has not been neglected, and proves 
pleasing and instructive to many thousands of people who visit the 
Society's Gardens during the course of the year. A considerable 
measure of success has been achieved in the rearing of phea- 
sants and wild-fowl during the season just passed, about sixty of 
the former have been reared, principally of the silver variety 
(jPhouiarms Nycthemerm)^ some of which have just been liberated. 
A great ntunber of English and Indian wild duck have also been 
reared ; some of these have been set at Hberty in the lake at the 
Botanic Gardens ; about forty yoimg birds have taken fiight with the 
native wild ducks visiting the ponds, and some others have been 
presented to gentlemen who have sent the Society birds or aniiinalft of 
interest in exchange. 

The Council would here desire to mention to their friends in the 
country, that donations of any native birds or animals, excepting 
native bears, oats, or opossums, will be gladly received. If not 
required for the collection at the gardens, they are always useful 
for the purpose of exchange with other countries. 

Since the date of the last Eeport, a number of pheasants (50 
JPhcuiamts Fictus)^ brought out by Captain Jones, of the Svperb, 
•wexe purchased partly by the Society, and partly by a gentleman 



16 

who has turned them oat on his property, and wh6 speaks ytxj 
encouragingly of their rapid increase ; and the Cknmcil heat frmn 
time to time of the increase of pheasants in other localities. 

The Council have sent to San Francisco, Califemi% for a cctnaigii- 
ment of the splendid mountain quail of that eountiy. And, at tl)e 
request of the Societv, His Ezceilency the Qovernor has kindij 
placed himself in oommuuici^on with His Excdlency Lord Mayo 
the Viceroy of India, on the subject of procuring partridges, phea- 
sants, and jungle fowl from that couAtry. 

From past experience in the operations of the Society, tiie 
Council have considered it desirable to solicit, through the medium 
of the Field, and Land and Water newspapers in the rnoth^ 
country, the kind donations of animals and birds suitable to tills 
climate, from owners of landed property and others who maj 
posses^ them. 

The Council intend to renew their efforts in the nexit session <^ 
Parliament, to amend the present Game Act. It is their opinion 
tiiat the swivel gun ought to be at once abolished, as the effect of 
that wei^n is to wound as many birds as are killed; independuiUy 
to its putting a stop to all legitimate sport. 

The Council notice with regret that there is amongst some perooos 
a tendency to decry the cause of acclimatisation, but there are oth^n 
who take a very different view, and who regard the disint^eeted 
labours of the Society as useful in the highest degree. Its sole aim 
is to benefit the Colony at large, by filling its forests with game, and 
its rivers and creeks with fish, thereby providing a variety of food 
and sport for the inhabitants. Its efforts will be better appreciated 
as time goes on, and as the results become more apparent 

The Council cannot conclude this report without expressing their 
great obligations to the present Government, and to the late Parlia- 
ment, for the supplies granted to carry on the work ; they would also 
respectfully wish to thank His Excellency the Gov^nor, the Patron 
of the Society, for the great interest he has always shown in its 
proceedings. 

The Council are likewise not unmindful ot the valuable services 
in the cause of acclimatisation hitherto rendered by His Exodlency 
Sir Henry Barkly, Governor of ^e Cape of Good H<^, and then 



u 

is everjT reason to believe that he will still conliaue to farther the 
interests of the Society, whenever it is in his power to do so. The 
cordial thanks of the Council are likewise due to our numerous 
friends, especially to Mr. Edward Wilson, who, though in England^ 
continues to take a lively interest in the objeets of the Society, and 
has recently made a handsome donation to its funds. The 
Council is also indebted to Mr. Samuel Wilson, for his many 
services, and to Mr. Kendall, the agent for the P. and O. Company, 
for his kindness in granting permission on several occasions to send 
stock free of charge by the mail steamers ; the same concession has 
generally been granted by the agents of the different lines of inter- 
ccdonial steamers, for which the Council beg to tender l^eir thanks. 
In conclusion, they would express their warm thanks to Dr. Blade, 
the President of the Society, and to Mr. T. J. Sumner, the Honorary 
Treasurer, for their disinterested and valuable services. 



Pitron: — HIS EXCELLENCY VISCOUNT CANTEEBUEY 
continues to be Patron of the Society, and the following gentlemen are 
the present Office-bearers : — 

DE. BLACK, President. 

DE. VON MXJELLEE, C.M.G., rice-President 

PEOFESSOE McCOY, Do. 

T. J. SUMNEE, Esq., Honorary Treasurer. 

HON. A. MICHIE, Member of the Council. 

COUNT DE CASTLENAU, Do. 

F. a. MOULE, Esq., Do. 
HON. DE. DOBSON, M.L.C., Do. 
H. P. VENABLES, Esq., B.A. Do. 
DE. JOSEPH BLACK, Do. 

G. COPPIN, Esq., Do. 
JOHN STEAVENSON, Esq., Do. 
J. B. WEEE, Esq., Do. 
F. C. CHEISTY, Esq., Do. 
ALBEET PUECHAS, Esq., Do. 
GEOEGE SPEIGG, Esq., Do. 
EOBEET HAMMOND, Esq., Do. 
CUEZON ALLPOET, Esq., Do 
DE. PUGH, Do. 

ALBEET A. C. LE SOUEF, Esq., Stm. Sker^^, 



12 

It will be necessary, under Rule 6, that the present Meeting con- 
firm the appointment of the gentlemen who have been elected to 
the Council to fill vacancies which have occurred since the last 
Annual Meeting. The Society's Balance Sheet duly audited by 
Mr. Eucker, public accountant, up to the end of last yeai^ is ako 
submitted to the meeting. 

Dr. Von Muelleb, C.M.G., Vice-President of the Society, moved 
the adoption of the Eeport and Balance-sheet, and in doing so 
said that it was gratifying to him to witness once more the pro- 
ceedings of the Annual Meeting, more particularly as the last year 
closed in prosperity, and the new one had commenced hopefully. He 
considered that a large share of the present prosperity of the Society 
was due to the care and interest displayed by Mr. Le Souef ; he felt 
it more his duty to refer to this as he knew fix>m his former experi- 
ence, as the executive officer of the first Zoological Committee, how 
much toil and anxiety were involved in such duties. He further 
wished to observe how large a field of operations there was before 
the Society ; in enhancing the resources of the country, for instance, 
he thought that careful researches should be instituted in the mode 
of development of the sturgeon and herring, with a view of learning 
whether they could possibly be brought to these colonies. There was 
a time when the transfer of salmon to the distant south was deemed 
an impossibility, yet through the patient and thoughtful persever- 
ance of Mr. Edward Wilson, Mr. Youl, Sir Robert Officer, Mr. M- 
port, and other promoters of the great salmon enterprise, it had been 
triumphantly accomplished. And he would here allude to the oppor- 
tunities afforded by new Antartic Navigation, for observing the 
transit of Venus, for perhaps locating the herring in the Antartic 
Sea. Any increase of food in rivers and seas was effected without 
any cultural exertion, while the yield of such food, irrespective of its 
ordinary value, gave so much opportunity for fertilising the land 
without deprivation of any kind. Even on a small scale, much might 
be done by merely transferring a basketful of eels to any lagoon or 
chain of waterholes, which could not be utilised like flowing streams 
for trout and other superior fish. Abready on his suggestion, eels had 
been taken from Melbourne to the rivers of St Vincent's Gulf, and 
the lagoons near King George's Sound. He might here remark 



13 

that the new InduBtrial Museum afforded a splendid opportnnity of 
bringing the commercial products of acclimatisation before the public. 

He would also call attention to the fact, that the Society was 
entitled to the favourable consideration of the Legislature, not 
merely for the work of universal benefit which it continues to carry 
out, but also because it maintains a large recreation ground with 
garden plantations for the use of the general public, which otherwise 
the large and populous suburbs near the Boyal Park would be 
deprived oi; and he might be permitted to state that it would afford 
liim pleasure to continue to aid in the extension of the park planta- 
tions. He would remark, in conclusion, that he hoped to be able 
this year to establish (as long ago recommended in his official re- 
pots), test plantations in different climatic localities, one for instance 
in the Lower Murray Desert, one on the Alpine Highlands, 
and one in the Fern Tree Qullies. This might give new facilities for 
local experiments in the cause of acclimatisation. 

Mr. PuBOHAS seconded the adoption of the Report and Balance- 
sheet, and in doing so stated that he considered the Eeport as the 
most favourable one that had been put forward by the Society for 
some years. 

The motion for the adoption of the Beport and Balance-sheet was 
put to the meeting by the chairman, and unanimously carried. 

Mr. S. P. Winter, of the Wannon, said he would avail himself of 
this opportunity, to thank the Society for having at the suggestion 
of the President, given him a very valuable present of six silver 
pheasants, to send to the Wannon Valley. Having reared within the 
past four years a large number of English pheasants, from birds 
imported from England, and having the necessary enclosures, and 
men who understood the rearing of the young pheasants, he had no 
doubt he should in due time be able to supply birds and eggs to 
settlers who would incur the expense of providing proper places for 
breeding. 

Mr. CxTBZON Allpobt then addressed the meeting. There was one 
course, he stated, not referred to in the report just read, and which 
he thought should be known to the public, namely : that the Coun- 
cil had appointed sub-committees to deal with particular branches 
of acclimatisation ; for instance game birds, fish, <fec., the sub-com- 



14 

HdHee oonwting of gratkmen iDterested in tiie partit^iiliir pmssitB 
to which the sab-oonmiitted reiq[)ectiyel7 related. That as to the 
progrefis of the accHmal^tioii of fish, to which he had paid more 
particular attention, the sub-committee had come to the eondusion, 
that rather than at present incur the expense of preparing and kesp- 
ing up breeding and rearing ponds, it would be better to subscrdM 
a certain sum per annum towards the cost of the ponds in TasmaDia, 
iod obtain from thence a supply of ova in return, which eoidd be 
hatched al the Royal Park, and the young fish disMbxtted, when 
ready for removal, as indicated in the B^>ort By this meaiis the 
produce of the parent fidi might be drafted into the streams each your, 
instead of risking the increase to oomparatiyely few fiah tmmed loose 
into a large stream, expoBed to all their enemies. Several gentlemea 
bad already, at their own expense, prepared breeding p(mds for the 
i«oeption of fish, some for trout, and others for perdL The sub- 
committee had just completed a pond at the Royal Park, and he 
had had the pleasure and satisfaction of placing a number of young 
perch in it that day, which he had just received from Tasmanis, 
from his brother Mr. Morton Allport ; a similar number had aho 
been placed in a pond, prepared by the Hon. A. Midue. 

Mr. Coppin remarked, that when in Tasmania, within the last week, 
a gentleman had killed twenty-five genuine trout there at wie dxfi 
fishing, whidi was considered a good basket. 

The CHAiSMAiii called attention to some specimens on the table, 
one was a trout (preserved in spirits), the firot caught in Biddell'ft 
Creek, Mount Macedon, one of the numerous fry placed in the 
creek upwards of eighteen months ago. There were also some ez- 
cdleut samples oi silk, sent by Mrs. Pike, of Toorak, and Mrs* 
Henley, and Mrs. Talbot, of Blchmond. Sericulture he expected 
to become at no distant date a very important industry. 

A discussion of a conversational diaracter ensued relative to the 
scope and objects of the Society. The chairman stated that the 
Society, acting on the suggestion of the Qovemment, had some tune 
ago sent over goats, rabbits, pigs, and poultry, to the AuckLind 
Ides, for the sustenance of such persons as were unfortunate 
enough to be shipwrecked there. Wrecks had occurred on the 
island since, and the live stock had proved of great ben^ 



15 

Mr^ WiHTBB, in aiKtwer to tlie ebainnaii, said thai in the Westem 
District he found indigenous birds injurious to his fruit trees, par- 
ticularly the black magpies. A simple plan oi frightening birds 
awaj» was a bottle bell hung to the trees, which was made by cut* 
Idng off the bottom of a champagne bottle, by means of a cotton 
wick saturated in turpentine, which must be ignited, and the bottle 
dipped when hot into a bucket of cold water, a piece oi hard ecnrk 
or soft wood suspended from the mouth of the bottle formed a 
clapper, which was kept in motion by a feather inserted in it He 
(Mr. Winter), had found this phm answer very well. 

Count db Castelnau spoke of a plan said to be adopted by the 
Malays, that of hanging up a wooden effigy pierced with holes, the 
wind passing through which, caused most unearthly noises. 

Dr. JosBPH Black called attention to the fact, that hares w^re 
being frequently killed, and hoped that an expression of disapproval 
£rom the Society would have the effect of preventing persons from 
wantonly destroying those valuable animals, before they had become 
thoroughly established. 

The President said, that the Society had done what it could to 
punish persons who were caught destroying hares, he was pleased to 
state that in many parts of the country hares were abundant. If 
they were allowed to increase unmolested for a couple of years more, 
the law would be changed, and coursing might be allowed without 
objection. 

Mr. Chbisty said he had noticed the sparrows doing good service 
in his garden, by killing the aphis on roses. 

Dr. PuGH added, that sparrows sent to a gentleman at Sunbury, 
had not only done no mischief to the fruit, but cleared the garden 
of aphis^ and been a great benefit in all respects. 

Mr. Webb remarked, on the other hand, that according to the 
testimony of market gardeners, the destructive qualities of the 
sparrow had far exceeded its beneficial qualities. 

llie PfiESiDBNT said that the letters furnished on the subject by 
market gardeners and others to the Society, came from a small 
number of persons, and were not all of a trustworthy character. 
The English people were naturally given to grumbling, and not only 



16 

the BparrowB but eyeiyihiiig else introduced by the Society, would 
be found fault with by some. 

On the motion of Mr. Moule, the appointment of the yarioos 
gentlemen who had been elected to the Council since the last Axmiul 
Meetingi wae confirmed. 

There being no other business before the meeting, it closed with 
a Yote of thanks to the Chairman. 



17 



*k 












1 




i3R 




*e 




■& 




•S 




ta 




m 


6 . 




.iS- 


o 


w 


"U 


^'' 


ttt 


•a 


*-^ 


1 


i 


<3 


a 


•8 

M 

CO 


^ 


o 


^±33 


•M 


-4-* 






g^ 


^ 


1 


yft^ 


►« 


ta^ 


o 

CI 




•ts 


/^ 


c> 


^ 


?: 


^jj 


J? 




-^^s 


>e> 


^ 


^ 


•< 


M 


^ 


% 


^ 


M 


c 




8 


« 


Q 


'3 




*s 




1 




*3 




^ 





• r-l iH r-l iH r-( 



00 O Ok 





ga S »f|"|t| 

llllil ds 



^ © © » © 

fill © V m 



!^ 




i 



1 ^ 
1 ^ 



I 



s 



18 



LIFE MEMBERS. 



AU Memben mirked thus * pay their Annual Subscription lao. 



Aldworth and Co., Sandhorrt £10 10 

Armitage, Qeorge^Baparat .. 10 10 

Armatrong, W., Hexham.. .. 10 10 

Anatin* Thomaa, Barwon Park ... 10 10 

Bagot, 0. N., MelbonrneClub .. 10 10 

Barkly, Hia Excellency Sir Heniy 42 

•Bear, Hon. J. P., M.L.C. .. 21 

Bear, Thomaa H.; Heidelbeig ..10 10 
BhMsk, Dr. Thomas, Melbourne 

aub 10 10 

Black, W., BelflBst 10 10 

Borough Coonoil of Sandhurst . . 10 10 
Box, H., Littie Collins-etreet 

West 10 10.0 

Boyd and Carrie, CoUins-street 

West 10 10 

Bright Brothers, Messrs. ft Co., 

FUnders-lane 10 10 

Brown, Lindsay, Garramadda, 

Wahgunyah 10 10 

Canterbury, His Excellency 

Viscount 10 10 

Catto, John, Newbridge, Loddon 10 10 
Chambers, H. J., St. Hilda . . Services 

Cooper, Sir Daniel, Ldndon . . 87 2 

Coppin, Qeo. S 10 10 

Cieewick, Borough Council of . . 10 10 

Cumming, G., Mount Fyans . . 10 10 

Cumming, W., Mount I^ans . . 10 10 

Curr, B. M., Queen-street . . 10 10 
Dalgety and Co , Messrs., Little 

Collins-street 10 10 

Docker, F. O., Wangaratta . . 10 10 
^FUconer., J. J., Bank of Austral- 
asia 20 

Fellows, The Hon. T. H 10 10 . 

Fiiebraoe, R. T 10 10 

Fnssell, B. S. B., Fou Chou 

dols. 50 11 10 

Ohiss, Hugh, 18 A'Beckett-street 21 

Ohun, B. J., Waiparella . . . . 10 10 o 

♦Henty, The Hon. S. G., M.L.C. . . 10 10 
Hervey, The Hon. M., M.L.C., 

Melbourne Club . . 10 10 
•HoAnann, W., Bush Back, 

Essendon 25 

Jamieeon, Hugh 10 10 



Jenner, Hon. C. J., M.L.C. £10 10 
Jones, Lloyd, Ayenel . . 10 10 

•Joshua Bros., William-street ..10 10 
Landells, G. J., Lahore, India .. Services 
Layard, C. P., Colombo .. Services 

Layard, B. L., Cape Town . . Services 
Learmonth, Thomas, Erdbdan- 

riley, Portland 10 10 

Londesborough, The Bight Hon- 
orable Lord, Carlton Gardens^ 

London 87 10 

Lyall, W 10 10 

Mackinnon, L., "Argus" OflElce Servicei 
Mackenzie^ John, 70| Queen- 
street £10 10 

Macintosh, Alexander, Green 

Hills, Diggers Beet .. .. 10 10 
MaTwhall, Captain D, 8., "A. 

H. Badger " Services 

Martin, Dr., Heidelberg .. .. 10 10 
Matheeon, J., Bank of Victoria . . 21 

McGill.A. 10 10 

McGregor, Samuel, Bel&st . . 10 10 
McHaffie, John, Phillip Island . . 10 10 
McMuUen, J., Union Bank ..21 
MoUoy, W. T., Balmoral . . . . 10 10 
Mueller, Dr. F. Von, Botanic 

Gardens 10 10 

Municipal Council of Ballarat 

West 20 

Murray, S., Dunrobin . . 10 10 
•Nicholson, Germain, Collins- 
street East 10 10 

•Officer, C. S., Mount Talbot . . 10 10 
•Power, Hon. Thomas H., Haw- 
thorn 10 10 

PuTchas, Albert^ Eew . . Services 

Ritchie, J., Streatham ..10 10 

•Bostron, John R., Navarre . . 10 10 

Rusden, G. W., iighton.. ..10 10 

Russell, A. Matuwalloch .. .. 10 10 

•Rutledge, William, Bel&st .. 10 10 

•Sahnon, J. E., S. and A. C. Bank 21 

Saigood, King and Sargood, 

Flinders-efcreet East .. ..10 10 
Shoobridge, B., Valleyfleld, Tas- 

1010 



19 



Siinpeoii, Bobert> Lange Eal 

Kal £10 10 

Sladen, Hon. C, M.L.C., Birre- 

gurra 10 10 

Sloan, W. a, Fon Chou, dolB. 50 U 10 
Spowera, Allan, "Ai-gus" Office 
Stanbridge, W. E., Daylesfoxd . . 
Btanghton, 8. T., Little CoUins- 

street West 

Stewart, J., Emeidale, Streatham 21 
Strachan, J., London Chartered 

Bank .. .. 21 
Simmer, T. J., 24 flinders-lane 
West 10 10 



10 10 
10 10 



10 10 



Tajlor, Frederick, (Melbourne 

Club £10 10 

•Taylor, W., Ovemewton, Keilor 10 10 
Templeton, Hugh, Fitzroy Services 

♦Ware, Joseph, Carramnt . . . . 10 10 
Wilson and Maokinnon, Collins- 

tftreetEast 42 9 

♦Wilson, Edward, "Argus" Office 21 

Wilson, Samuel, Wimmera . . 10 10 
Winter, James, Toolamba, Mur- 

chison 10 10 

Winter, Thomas, Winchelsea . . 10 10 

Winter, S.P 10 10 

Toul, James, A., Clapham Park, 

London Services 



ANNUAL MEMBERS. 



Allport, Curzon, Chancery-lane . . £2 2 
Bainee, Edward, Little Collins-street 2 2 
Banks, Bros., Bell and Co., Flinders- 
lane 2 

Bligh and Harbottle, Flinders-lane 2 
Bla(^, Dr., Bourke-sfareet . . . . 2 
Brodribb, K. E., Chancery-lane . 2 
Bindon, Judge, St. Kilda . . . . 2 
Christy, F. C, Bfalyem . . 2 

Evans, d. E., ''Aigus" Office .. 2 
Emerald Hill Borough Council . . 5 
Fiskin, Archibald, Lai Lai .. 2 

Fraser and Co., CoUins-street . . 2 
Fanning, Nankivell and Co. . . 2 
Goldsborough and Co., Bourke- 

street West . . 2 
Gray, Charles, Nareeb Nareeb . . 2 
House, Son and Co., Elizabeth- 
street 2 2 

Haddon, F. W., "Aigus" Office ..22 
GoTemor, His Excellency the . . 10 
Joshua Bros., William-street ..22 



McNaughton, Love and Co. ..£220 

Moule, T. O., Market-street ..220 

Nicholson, Germain, CoUins-street 2 2 
Paterson, Ray, Palmer and Co. . . 2 2 
Power, T. H., Power, Rutherford 

and Co 2 2 

Pugh, Dr., Collins-street . . ..22 
Robertson, Wm., Temple Court .. 2 2 
Ryan and Hammond, Bourke-street 2 2 
Rosser, C. and E., Brunswick ..50 
Sloane, Wm. and Co., CoUins-street 2 2 
Sargood, Son and Co., Flinders- 
street 2 2 

Stevenson, L. and Sons, Flinders- 
lane 2 2 

Sands and McDougall, Collins-, 

street 2 2 

SmaU, R W., Brighton ..22 

Sprigg, George, St. EUda . . ..22 
Venables, H. P., Caulfield ..50 

Wilson, Edward, England . . ..22 



DONATIONS. 



and Co. 



Alcock and Co., BusseU-street . . £1 1 Grice, Richard, Grioe, Sumner 

Anderson and Wpght, Flinders-lane 110 

Briscoe and Co., CoUinsnertareet East 110 

Courtney, E., Temple Court ..110 

Dobson, Hon. Dr., Temple Court.. 110 

Dunn, Dr. Robert, Maryborough.. 110 



Hovritt, Dr., Caulfleld 
McDougall, James, Carlton 
Nutt, R. W., Collins-street 
Pike, Mis. J., Toorak 



£110 
110 
110 
110 
10 



b2 



so 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



▲nport, Morton, Hobwrt Town. 

Baofac, GhutaTe, FUnden Lane West 

Biagi, GhiMppe, Willlaiii Street. 

BlMiduurd, W., ColliiiB Street West. 

Boaton, A., Tahone, New Caledonia. 

BocUand, Dr. F., Londpn. 

Cactelnaii, Comte de, Apdey PJaoe. 

Chalmen, Dr., New 7iBaland 

deeland, J., Albion Hotel, Bonike-street 

Cooper, Bicaido» Queen Street. 

Coste, rrofceaof , Hunlngne. 

Damyon, Jamee, Market Street. 

Dromjn, de Lhnys, Paris. 

Frauds, Frands, Jxmdon. 

Oillanden & Arbathnot, Calcutta. 

Ckxlfrey, Captain J. B., New Zealand. 

Graham, James Little CoUlns Street East 

Grote, Arthur, Calcutta. 

Johnston, Clement, down Lands Office. 

Latham, GeneraL 

Madden, Walter, Office of M nes. 



Mathieo, A., Tahoue, New Caledonia. 

Merryman, Captain, Essex. 

MichaelJH, Moritz, Elizabeth Street 

Mi ch a el , Mi^or, Madras. 

McQueen, Captain, *' Martha Biraie." 

MulUck, Bi^endio, Calcutta. 

Officer, Sir Robert, Hobart Town. 

lioos Van Amstel, J. W., Collins St. West 

Bamel, Monsieur, Paris. 

Rentsch, Samuel, Flinders Street East 

Bidgers, Ciq>tain, " Sussex." 

Robinson, J., Calcutta. 

Salt, Titnii, Saltaire, England. 

Seholstein, Adolp., Flinders Lane West. 

Sdater, Dr. P. L., London. 

Shinner, Captain, '* Lincolnshire." 

Smith, Captain, ** Dover Castle-" 

Squire, Surgeon John, Dinapore. 

St. Hilaire, G., Bois de Boulogne, Puis. 

Were, J. B., Collins Street Weak 



THE RULES AND OBJECTS 



^altmatisalkit ^otkt^a td Wxdam, 



1. The objects of the Society shall be the introduction, objeetoof 
acclimatisation, and domestication of all innoxioos animals, ^' 

birds, fishes, insects, and vegetables, whether useful or orna- 
mental; — ike perfection, propagation, and hybridisation oi 
races newly introduced or already domesticated ; — the spread 
of indigenous animals, <!^., from parts of the colonies where 
they are already known, to oth^ localities where they are not 
known; the procuring, whether by purchase, gift, or ex- 
change, of animab, <l5C., from Great Britain, the British colo- 
nies^ and fco'eign countries; — ^the transmission of animals, &c», 
fiom the colony to England and foreign parts, in exchange 
for others sent thence to the Society ; ttiQ holding of period- 
ical 'meetings, and the publicati<m of reports and transactions, 
for the purpose of spreading knowledge of acclimatisation, 
and inquiry into the causes of success or failure ; — the inter- 
change of r^>orts, d^c, with kindred associations in other parts 
of the world, with the view, by correspondence and mutual 
good o£ices, of giving the widest possible scope to the project 
of acclimatisation : — ^the confemng rewards, honorary or in- 
trinsically valuable, upon seafaring men, passengers from 
distant countries, and others who may render valuable services 
to the cause of acclimatisation. 

2« A Subscriber of two guineas or upwards annoally shall Memberahip. 
be a Member of the Society ; and contributors, within one 
year,, of ten guineas or upwards shall be Life Members of the 
Society ; 9od any person who may render special services to 
tiift Soci^, by coQiributbu of ato«k or otharwise^ shall b% 



22 



Sabserip- 
tiont. 



Proper^ 
Test in 
Tmstaes. 



£zeciitiTe 
Offioen. 



Ck>imciL 



Vacancy in 
CJoundl) 
how sap> 
plied. 



eligible for life membership, and may be elected as snch by 
the Council, or by any annual general meeting. 

3. The annual subscription shall be payable on the 1st 
day of January in each year, and may be received by any 
Member of the Council, or the Collector, either of whom on 
receiving the same shall cause the person so subscribing to he 
enrolled a member accordingly. 

4. All the property of the Society, of what nature and 
kind soever, shall vest in Trustees to be appointed by the 
Council, for the use, purposes, and benefit of the Society. 

5. The Society shall be governed by a Council of eighteen 
Members, to include a President, two Vice-Presidents, and an 
Honorary Treasurer, three of whom (viz., those who have 
attended the fewest Meetings of the Council proportionately 
since their appointment) shall retire annually, but shall be 
eligible for re-election. Provided that if any sum of money 
be voted to the Society by Act of Parliament, or trusts con- 
ferred upon the Council by the Government, then it shall be 
lawful for the Chief Secretary for the time being to appoint, 
if he consider it expedient, any number of gentlemen, not 
exceeding three, to act as Members of the Council, and they 
shall have all the privileges as if otherwise duly elected ; and 
further, to appoint one Co-Trustee, to act in coigunction with 
the Trustees for the time being of the Society. And provided 
further, that if the Melbourne Corporation, or any of the ad- 
jacent municipalities, shall decide upon expending any sum 
of money exceeding £100 in any one year, upon the grounds 
or for the objects of the Society, the Mayor of Melbourne ot 
Chairman of such municipality shall be for such year a 
Member of the Council, and be at liberty to act in every 
respect as an ordinary member. 

6. In case of a vacancy occurring by the death, resignation, 
or non-attendance of any Member of Council for the period of 
two months, the remaining Members may appoint another 
Member of the Society to be a Member of the Council in the 
place and stead of the deceased, or resigned, or absenting 
Member, and such new Member may act until the next annual 
general meeting. Provided that such vacancy shall not be 
supplied by the Coimcil except after seven days' notice given 



23 

of tlie new Member to be proposed, and unless in the presence 
of at least seven Members of the Council. 

7. The Society shall hold periodical meetings, at which ^^nJ^g 
papers and other communications relating to the objects of ^^^®**' 
the Society, and reports prepared by the Council, shall be 
received, and such discussions shall be encouraged as may be 

of value in propagating a knowledge of acclimatisation amongst 
the Members and the public. And such business generally 
shall be disposed of as may be brought under consideration by 
the Council, or by any Member who shall have given seven 
days' previous notice thereof to the Secretary, or as a majority 
of two-thirds of the Members present shall see fit to entertain 
and consider ; and each Member shall have the privilege of 
introducing two friends at such meetings. 

8. The Council shall meet at least once a month, and Meetings of 

' Council. 

three Members shall form a quorum, and be capable of 
transacting the business of the Council, subject to such 
limitations as may be imposed by any bye-law of the 
Council, or rule, or resolution of the Society, which may be 
hereafter made. 

9. The Council shall have the sole management of the Powers and 

^ Duties of 

affairs of the Society, and of the income and property thereof, Counou. 
for the uses, purposes, and benefit of the Society ; and shall 
have the sole and exclusive right of appointing a President, 
"Vice-Presidents, and Honorary Treasurer from amongst them- 
selves or the other Members of Society, and also of appoint- 
ing paid servants, as a manager or secretary, collector, and 
such other officers, clerks, and labourers, and at such salaries 
as they may deem necessary, and of removing them if they 
shall think fit, and shall prescribe their respective duties. 
And such Council shall have power to consider and determine 
all matters, either directly or indirectly affecting the interests 
of the Society, and if they shall think fit so to do, shall bring 
the same under the notice, of the Members of the Society, at 
any general or special meeting ; and to make such bye-laws as 
they may deem necessary for the efficient management of the 
affairs and the promotion of the objects of the Society, and 
for the conduct of the business of the Council, provided the 



u 

nae tie net i^ogoant to these ndas; ta appmnt OBe or ino^ 
Bub-ocmiinitteeey for any purpose ooiitemjdated by these rules ; 
and gsaeaMj to perform such acts as may be requisite to 
cany out the objects of the Society, which bye-laws are to be 
suljeet to ratifieationy or em^idation, or ejeclioD, by the next 
annual or qiedal genial meeting of the Society. And it 
diall be the duty of the Council to ez^dse the forcing 
powers as ooosicm shall require, and to fumiidi repots of the 
proceedings at every periodkal and annual meeting of the 
Socie^. 

BfeaaohSo- 10. The Society shall have power to affiliate or associate 

***'*^**' itself with other -Societies of kindred objects, and to found 

Branch Societies if desirable ; and the Council shall have 

power to carry out any arrangements for this purpose, and to 

furnish any monthly or other reports. 

MiMikwof 11- Minutes diaU be made, in books k^t for the purpose, 
?2J***^ of all the proceedings at the general and special meetings of 
the Members, and minutes shall also be made of the proceed- 
ings of the Council at their general and special meetings, and 
of the names c^ the Members attending the same, and such 
minutes shall be open to inspection by any Member (d the 
Society at all reasonable times. 

Mon^tobe 12. All subscriptions and other moneys payable to the 
a. Society shall be paid to the Treasurer, who shall forthwith 
place the ssune in a bank, to be named by the Council, to the 
credit of the Society ; and no sum shall be paid on account of 
the Society until the same shall have been ordered by the 
Council, and such order be duly entered in the bodt of the 
proceedings of the Council ; and all cheques shall be signed 
by the Treasurer as such, and be countersigned by the Presi- 
dent, or one of the Vice-Presidenfe, or by some other Member 
of the Council delegated by the Council to act as such. 

13. An annual meeting shall be held in ot about 

Meeting p^^jy^ary of cach year, and the Council shall report their 
proceedings during the past year, and shall produce their 
accounts, duly audited, for publication if deemed desirable; 
and the meeting shall elect new Members of Council to supplj 
the vacancies therein. And notices of motion must be far* 
nished to the Secretary oue^ day previous to the holding <rf 



nddto 
Treasurer. 



25 

such meeting, or such motions may be rejected by the 
Chairman. 

14. All privileges of membership shall cease in case any Non-pay- 
Member shall be three months in arrear, subject, however, to sniMorip- 
his restoration on the payment of such subscription as afore- "*** 
said, accompanied by satisfactory explanation. 

15. Upon receiving a requisition in writing, signed by SpecUiMaet- 
twelve or more Members of the Society, or upon a resolution Memben. 
of the Council, the president, or in his absence one of the 
Vice-Presidents, shall convene a special meeting of the Mem- 
bers, to be held within fifteen days of the receipt by him of 

such requisition or resolution. Provided always that such 
requisition and resolution, and the notices thereunder conven- 
ing the meeting, shall specify the subject to be considered at 
such meeting, and that subject only shall be discussed at such 
meeting. 

16. The council or any general meeting of the Society Honoraty 
may admit, as Honorary Members, such ladies or gentlemen 

as may have distinguished themselves in connection with the 
objects of the Society, or in objects of a kindred nature. 

17. It shall be lawful for any annual or special meeting Power to «i- 
of the Society to alter, vary, or amend the rules ; or to sub- 
stitute another for any of the same ; or to make any new rule 

which may be considered desirable ; if and after a notice 
specifying the nature of such alteration, variation, amendment, 
substitution, or new Yule, shall have been given to the Secre- 
tary fifteen days before the holding of such meeting. And 
such alteration, variation, amendment, substitution, or new 
rule shall be valid if carried by a majority of not less than 
two-thirds of the Members present at such meeting. 



26 



LIST OF ANIMALS AND BIRDS 

Ik thb Rotal Park and Acclimatisation Socibtt*B Gardens, Melbournb. 



11 Brahmin cattle 

6 Hogrdeer 

7 BairaDgadeer 
7 Formosa deer 

7 Samhiir deer, or Cey- 
lon elk 

1 Fallow deer 

2 Nylffhau 

4 Mauritius deer 
2 Japanese deer 

12 Angora goats 
1 Agouti 

1 Madagascar sheep 

1 Cape sheep 
7 Monkeys 

6 Wallaby 

2 Kangaroo Tats 
1 Wombat 



1 Ceylon porcupine 

1 Leoperd 

2 Native dogs 

1 Tasmanian devil 

1 Er.giish Fox 

3 Opossums 

3 Emeus 

18 English pheasants 
22 Silver pheasants 
9 Peafowl 

4 Jungle fowl 

11 Egyptian geese 
6 Qeese 
About 70 ducks 
3 'Crown goiu^ pigeons 

2 Ravens 

1 Mooruke 

2 Tallegalla 



2 Curassows 
8 Kagus 
2 Maori hens 

1 Kiwi 

2 Bleeding heart doTes 

2 Macaws 

3 Blackbirds 
2 Jackdaws 

1 English magpie 

8 Owls 

A number of natiTB 
cockatoos and parrots of 
different varieties ; aboat 
the grounds large i^um- 
bers of doves, and acMse 
Californiau qutil. 



18 Canaries 
18 Blackbirds 
14 Thrushes 



ANIMALS LIBERATED. 

At thb Botanical Gardens. 

6 California quail I 

80 English wild ducks ' 
85 Java sparrows | 



4 English robuis 
8 Turtle doves 
60 Maiuas 



Hares 

6 Cape pheasants 

8 English pheasants 

4 In<uan (measants 
8 Ceylon partridges 

5 Indian partridges 



At Puillip Island. 

4 Chinese partridges 
70 Chinese quail 
23 Tasmanian quail 

6 Starlings 
10 Algerine sand grouse 

6 Wild ducks 



5 Pheasants 

6 Skylarks 

6 California quail 
4 Thrushes 
4 Blackbirds 
1 Pair white swam 



At Sandstone and CnuRcniLL Islands. 



Pheasants 



I 4 Skylarks 



6 Thrushes 



At Yarra Bind. 

I 



I 



4 Thrushes 



4 Skylarks 



9 Thrushes 



6 Ceylon elk 



4 Hares 
%0 Mainas 

6 Starlings 
00 English sparrows 
40 (Chaffinches 



Near Stdnet. 
4 Skylarks 

At Suoarloaf Hill. 
I 

At Wilson's Promontory. 
4 Axis deer 

At the Rotal Park. 

2 Tlirushes 
20 Greenfinches 
15 Yellowhammers 
200 Java sparrows • 

At Pbntridob. 
40 English sparrows 

At St. Kilda. 
20 Chinese sparrows 



10 Blackbirds 



3 Axis deer 



6 Blackbirds 
20 Siskm finches 
6 Powi birds 
3 Partridges 
6 Pheasants 



„J 



27 



6 English sparrows 



2 Hof^deer 



12 Ooato 
3 Geese 



10 Pheasants. 



At Ballarat. 
I 

At Bunbep. 
IS Fallow deer 

At Cape Liptrap. 

4 Ceylon peafowls 
10 Pigeons 

At Auckland Islauds. 

12 Rabbits 
3 Pigs 

At Wbstkrnport. 
7 Samburdeer 

At Wimmera. 
35 Axis deer 

At Ybrino. 
5 Axis deer 

At Plenty Ranges. 
I 4 Jungle fowls. | 



20 Java sparrows 



4 Guinea fowl 



6 Fowls 
3 Duclcs 



7 Guinea fowls. 



75 Kangaroos 

6 Mountain ducks 
200 Murray codfish 
22 Black swans 
20 Australian quail 
14 Eagle hawks 
85 Magpies 

4 Roeella parrots 

8 King parrots 

6 Cockatoos 

6 Dingos 

a Talegallas 

1 Tasmanian deril 



20 Emeus 



Langaroos 
tlack swanfi 



80 K 

12 Bl 
8 Cape Barren geese 
1 South Australian 

wombat 
4 Native geese 



ANIMALS SENT AWAY. 
To London. 

26 Waterhens 

4 Kangaroo rats 
10 Wombats 

2 Cranes 

7 Wood ducks 

2 Kangaroo dogs 

4 Echidna 

26 Laughing jackasses 
40 Shell parrots 

6 Mallee pheasants 
86 Lowry parrots 
12 Opossums 

2 Emeus 

To Paris. 

3 Curlews 

1 Native crane 

8 Murray turtles 

2 Wombats 

17 Australian quail 

4 Laughing jackasses 

2 Bronze-wing pigeons 



40 Black ducks 

40 Teal 

22 Wonga pip^eons 

31 Bronze-wing pigeons 

8 Swamp magpies 

2 Iguanas 

7 I^nd rails 

4 Sugar squirrels 

8 Coots 

5 Native companions 
Some Yarra fish 



8 Goatsuckers 

2 Native companions 
14 Rockhampton finches 

1 Iguana 

4 Opossums 
20 Black ducks 
20 Teal 



2 Kangaroos 

3 Black swans 



To St. Pbtbrsburo. 

12 Laughing jackasses 
2 WalUbies 

To Amsterdam. 
3 Water hens | 

To Rotterdam. 
2 Cape Barren geese | 



I 3 Emeus 

6 Australian quail 
2 Water hens 



2 Wonga pigeons 
2 Black swans 



2 Black swans 
2 Black geese 



To Hamburgh. 
2 Bronze-wing pigeons 

To Cologne. 
2 Curlews 



8 Kangaroo rats 



2 Waterhens 



28 



24 Blade fwuii 
12 EmeuB 

5 Eaglet 

6 White cockatoot 

7 King parrots 



t Black awana 

1 Kangaroo 

t Gape Barren geeee 



To CortSBABWK. 

S Blade swans 

To Calcutta. 

IS Rosella parrots 
10 Kangaroos 

4 Oponums 

1 Dingo 

1 Wombat 

To MAtTBrnvs. 

2 Eagle hawks 
9 Fowls 

'7 Magpies 

To BOURBOV. 

8 Blade swans 



6 Bronze-wing pigeons 
6 Laughing jackuses 

20 Shell parrots 

52 Magpies 



2 Laughing JadcasM 
4 Wallabies 



2 Blade swans 



2 Blade swans 



To SiCILT. 

6 Blade swans | 14 Native dudes 

To Ranooov. 
6 Blade Swans 

To Java. 
I 2 Cape Barren geese 

To BuRTBNzoiro. 
I 2 Cape Barren geese 

To Stdnbt. 



I 



I 



1 Kangaroo 



1 Kangaroo 



5 Angora goats 
2 Brush kangaroos 
2 Silver pheasants 
2 Canadian geese 
2 Egyptian { 



10 Angora goats 
2 Blackbhxis 



6 English wild ducks 

1 Mallee hen 
10 Blackbirds 
10 Thrushes 

To Adblaidb. 

2 Thrushes 

8 English pheasants 

To HoBART Town. 



4 Larks 

4 Starlings 

2 Ortolans 

A number of sparrows 



2 Silver pheasants 



1 Angora goat 
9 Native bears 
Wild ducks, Indian ft English 



8 Egyptian j 

Hares 
A number of sparrows. 



5 Thrushes 

6 Magpies 



To Nbw Zbalakd. 

4 Opossums 

2 Brace of hares 



Indian and English 
wild ducks 



48 Wildrabbite 



I 



I 



2 Parrots 



238 Sparrows 



8 Hog deer 
10 Pea fowl 
20 Guinea fowl 



To Foo Chow. 
2 Kangaroo 

To Nbw Calbdokia. 

I 12 Laughing jackasses 

At Mr. Wilson's— Lonobrbnono Wimmbra. 
16 Ostriches . | 66 Angora goats 

Libbrated in thb Bush this Ybab. 

SO Pheassnts I A number of doves 



Several brace of hares 



26 Skylarks 



A large number of hares were likewise distributed last year in various parts of the country, 
and upwards of 100 Angora goats were disposed of in addition to those enumerated abovei 



THE PRINCIPAL TIMBER TREES 

SBADILY ELIOIBLB FOB 

VICTORIAN INDUSTRIAL CULTURE, 

with indieatUms of their native countries and tome of their 
technologic uses, 

AN ENUMERATION OFFEBED BT 

PERD. VON MUELLER, 

C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., P.R8., P.L.S., P.R.G.S., C.M.Z.a, 

Commander of the Order of St. Jago, VioeTPresident of the 
Aoclimation Society of Victoria. 



This eniuneration originated in a desire of the writer to place 
before his fellow colonists a succinct list of those trees, which in our 
geographic latitudes can be grown to advantage. Calls for such 
information arose gradually in the department of the Botanic 
Qarden of Melbourne, not merely because it impressed itself more 
and more on the mind of every thoughtful settler, that the wanton 
waste of the native forests should be checked, but that also largely 
should be added to our timber riches by means of copious and 
multi£mousintroductions from abroad, and tihat for these introductions 
the widest possible scope should be allowed. Nevertheless this list 
is far from claiming completeness, either as a specific index, or as a 
series of notes on the principal technologic applicability of the trees 
most accessible. Indeed it may be regarded simply as a precursor 
of larger essays, such as the intended forest administration will 
gradusJly call forth. Meanwhile, however, this brief explanatory 
catalogue may fEicilitate locally that information, which hitherto was 
afford^ by the authors correspondence chiefly. 

It seemed beyond the scope of this writing to tabulate the trees 
here enumerated, in reference to climatic regions. The inhabitant 
of colder and moister mountains in this colony, or the settler in the 
hotter and more arid tracts of country, can readily foresee from the 
brief geographic notes given with each tree, which kind should be 
chosen for the spot, selected by him for wood-culture ; but if doubts 
in tbis respect i^ould arise, the needful advice will readily be offered 
by the writer. 

Though this list was originally prepared and alluded to as an 
append^e to a lecture* recently delivered at the Melbourne Industrial 
Musexim, I was honored by my colleagues of the Council of the 
Acclimation Society in their giving publicity to this document 
along with their last annual report, the Society being quite as anxious 

* Tlie Application of Phytology to the Industrial Purpoeee of Life; 

P 



30 

to fiDster the introduction and mnltiplieation of industrial {^anta, 
as the continued acquisition and diffusion of f(»%ign animals d 
utilitarian importance. 

Unquestioiiably also, tiie periodical issue of essays on aoiinalfl 
and plants, to be introduced or to be diffused, will give addildcmal 
strength to the Society's labours. 

Should, therefore, this small literary offer prove aoc^>table to the 
supporters of the Victorian Acclimation Society, then the writer 
would feel sufficiently encouraged to offer in a siimlar form,* a hstof 
other plants, recommendable here for more general cultivation ; and, 
although such indices only to some extent contain original researdi, 
they are likely to bring together information, more condensed and 
more recent, than it would be attainable in costly os voluminous 
works of even several languages, and yet such treating perhaps only 
of countries with far narrower climatic aones than ours. 

Possibly this publication may aid us also to render known our 
colonial requirements thus far abroad, while it will offer likewise 
aome inf onnaticm to speed interchangea. 

For our Industrial Museum and such similar institutions^ as ^mbt- 
kss ere long on a limited scale will be connected with each Meduuuof 
Institute, &is unpretensive treatise may help to explain the ical 
wealth, which we possess in our unf(»tunatky almo^ unguarded 
forests, or point out the manifold new treasures, which we sfaoold 
raise independently in our woodlands, while- also these pages mi^t 
stimulate both public and private efforts, to i»royide by timely thooghl- 
ulness those increased timber resources, without which the neit 
generations ci this land can be neither hale nor f»x>sperous» 



L— CONIFEROUS TREES. 

Arauoaaria Bidwilli, Hook.* 

Bonya Banya. Soatbem QneeBsland. A tree 150 feet in heigkt, irith 

a fine grained, hard and durable wood ; the seeds are edible. 
Arauoaria Brasilienais, A. Bich. 

BrasdHaa Pine. A tx«e, 100 feet high, producing ed^e laeiL 

Onght to be tried In our fern guUies. 

Arauoaria Cookii» B. Br. 

In New Galedonjla, where it forms large forests. Height oC tree S0O 
feet. 

Arauoaria CunnizLgliami, Ait.* 

Moreton-Bay Pine.— -East Australia, between 14^ and 32^ 8. latitndiB. 

The tree gets 130 feet high. The timber is used for ordinary fumilnne, 
Arauoaria ezoelsa, B* Br * 

Norfolk-Island Pine.— A magnificent tree, sometimes 220 feet hi^ 

with a stem attaining ten feet in diameter. The timber is usefollbr 

ihip-building and many other parposes. 

* A short essay on such plants and trees as well was promulgated by the 
Philoa. Society of Victoria 18^, pp. 98—105, 



Aranoaria imbrloata, Pay. 

01^ And PMagbnia. Thd ttifile tt^ attains 6nty a hef ght of 50 feeti 
but the female reaches 160 feet It ftirnishes a hanf and durable 
timber, as well as an abondanoe of edible seeds, which oonstitate 4 
main article of food of the natives. Eighteen good trees will yield 
em>agh for a man's sustenance all the year ronnd. In onr lowlands 
of comparative slow growth, bnt likely of far more rapid developm«:Lt, 
If planted in onr ranges. 

Oallitris quadrivalTis, Vent 

North Africa. A middling-sised tree, yielding the true Sandarao 
resin, 

Ceplialotaztts Fortimei, Hook. 

China and Ji^nui. Thb splendid yew attains a height of 60 feet^ and 
is very hardy. 

Oryptomeria Japonloa^ Bon. 

Ji^Mui and Northeom China* A slender evergreen tree, 100 feet high. 
It requires forest valleys f<Mr snooessfol growth. The wood is ooupact, 
very white, soft and easy to work. 

Onpressns Benthami* EndL 

Ife3cico,at6to7,000'. A beantiMl tree, GO feet high. Thewoodis 
fine gndned and ezceediogly durable. 

Onpressns Xiawsoniana, Mnrr.* {fihanuBeypaim Lawioniana, ParL) 
Northern California. This is a splendid red-flowered cypress, growing 
100 feet high, with a stem of 2 feet in diameter, and furnishes ft 
vahiaUe timber for building purposes, being clear and easily Worked. 

Onpresona Llndleyi^ Elotmch. 

On the mountains of Mexico. A stately oypites, up to 120 feet high. 
It supplies an excellent timber. 

Onpressns maorooarpa, Hartw.* (C LtunbertianOf Gord.) 

Upper California. This beautiful and shady tree attains' the height of 
160 feet, with a stem of 9 feet in circumference^ and Is one Si tho 
quickest growing of all ocmifers, even in poor dry sdL 

Onpressns Nntkaensis, Lamb. (OhamctcyparU Nutkatfuii, Bpach.) 
North-West America. Height of tree 100 fSset Wood used lor boat- 
bollding and other purposes ; the bast for mats and ropes. 

Onpressns obtnsa, F. von Muell. {Rditmpcra ohtutat S- ^ 2.) 

Japan. Attains a height.of 80 feet ; stem 6 feet in circumference. It 
forms a great part of the "forests at Nipon. The wood is white- veined 
and ocmipact, assuming, when planea, a silky lustre. It is used in 
Japan for temples. There are varieties of this species with fcdiage of 
a golden and of a silvery- white hue. 

Two other Japanese cypresses deserve introduction, namely : Ottpr. 
brevlramea (Chamaeyparis breviramea, Maxim.), and Onpr. pend^s, 
{OhanuBeyparis pendulat Maxim.) 

Onpressns pislfera, F. von Muell. {CJumaeypaHi pUifera, S. ft Z.) 
Japan. It attains a height of 80 feet, producing also a variety with 
golden foliage. 

Onpressns sempervirens, L. 

Common Caress of South Europe. Height of ^ree up to 80 feet It 
is famous lor the great age it reaches, and for the durability of its 
timber, which is next to imperishable. At present It is much sought* 
for the manufacture of musical instruments. 

D 2 



33 

Onpressiui thurltea, Hamb. B. Ap E.* 

Mezioo; 8,000 to 4,600 feet aboTe sea-leveL Aliaadsome pynunidAl 
tiee, upwards of 40 feet high. 

Oapressna tlmyoldes, Linn^. ( Chamoseyparis ipharoidea, Bpach.) 

White Cedar of NorUi America ; in moist or morassy ground. Height 
of tree 80 feet ; diameter of stem 8 feet. The wood is light, soft, and 
fragrant; it tarns red when exposed to the air. 

OapressnB tornlosa, Don.* 



Nepal Cypress. Northern India ; 4,500 to 8,000 feet abovo sea level 
Height of tree 160 feet; circumference of stem, as madi as 16 
feet. The reddish fragrant wood is as durable as that of the 
Deodar Cedar, highly valued for furniture. The tree seems to prefer 
the limestone soil. 
Baorydlnm oupresGdnnm, Soland. 

New Zealand. Native name, Rimu ; the Bed Pine of the colonists. 
This stately tree acquires the height of 200 feet, and furnishes a hard 
and valuable wood. With other New Zealand conifers particulaily 
eligible for our forest valleys. A most suitable tree for cemeteries, on 
account of its pendulous branches. 

Daorsrdlnm FrankUni, Hook. fil. 

Huon Pine of Tasmania; only found in moist forest recesses, and 
might be planted in our dense fern-tree gullies. Height of tree 100 
feet; stem-droumference 20 feet. The wood is highly esteemed for 
ship-building and various artizan's work. * 

Bammara alba, Rumph. (2>. orientalise Lamb.) 

Agath Dammar. Indian Archipelagus aud mainland. A large tree, 
100 feet high, with a stem of 8 feet in diameter; straight and 
branchless for two-thirds its length. It is of great importance on 
account of its yields of the transparent Dammar resin, ezteniuvely 
used for varnish. 

Bammara Australia, Lamb.* 

Kauri Pine. North island of New Zealand. This magnificent tree 
measures, under favourable circumstances, 180 feet in height and 17 
feet in diameter of stem. The estimated age of such a tree being 
700 or 800 years. It furnishes an excellent timber for furniture^ masts 
of ships, or almost any other purpose ; it yields besides the Kauri 
resin of commerce, which is largely got from under the stem of the 
tree. The greatest part is gathered by the Maories in localities 
formerly covered with Kauri forests ; pieces, weighing 100 lbs., have 
been found in such places. 

Bammara maorophylla, Lindl. 

Santa Cruz Archipelagus. A beautiful tree, 100 feet high, lesembling 

D. alba. 
Bammara Moorel, Lindl. 

New Caledonia. Height of tree about 60 feet. 
Bammara obtnsa, Lindl. 

New Hebrides. A fine tree, 200 feet high; with a long, clear trunk; 

resembling D. Australis. 

Bammara ovata, Moore. 

New Caledonia. This tree is rich in Dammar resin. 
Bammara robuata, Moore. 

Queensland Kauri* A tall tree, known from Bockingham*i Bay and 

Wide Bay. It thrives well even in open, exposed, dry localities at 

Melbourne. 



33 

Damxnara Vitiensls, Seem. 

In Fiji. Tree 100 feet high ; probably identical with Lindley*8 D. 
longifolia. 

S^tzroya Fatagonloa, Hooker fil. 

Sonthem parts of Patagonia and Ohili. A stately tree, 100 feet high, 
np to 14 feet in diameter of stem. The wood is red, almost 
imperishable in the open air or nnder ground ; it does not warp, and is 
easy to spUt. It comes into commerce in boards 7 feet long, 8 inches 
wide, i inch thick, and is used for roofing, deals, doors, casks, &c. The 
outer bark produces a strong fibre used for caulking ships. Like many 
other trees of colder r^ons, it would require here to be planted in our 
mountain forests. 

S*renela AotinoatrobUS, Huell. {Aeiinostrobut pyramidalis Miq.) 

From S.W. Australia, though only a shrub, is placed here on record as 
desirable for introduction, because it grows on saline desert flats, where 
any other conifers will not readily succeed. It may become important 
for coast cultivation. 

Frenela Haoleayana, Pari. 

New South Wales. A handsome tree of regular pyramidal growth, 
attaining a height of 70 feet ; the timber is valuable. 

Frenela vermcosa, A. Cunn. 

Also several other species from Victoria and other parts of Australia 
are among the trees, which may be utilized for binding the coast and 
desert sand. They all exude Sandarac. 

QinkgO biloba, L. (Saliaburia adiantifolia, Smith,) 

Ginkgo tree. Ohina and Japan. A deciduous fan-leaved tree, 100 feet 
high, with a straight stem 12 feet in diameter. The wood is white, soft, 
easy to work, and takes a beautiful polish. The seeds are edible, and 
when pressed yield a good oiL Ginkgo trees are estimated to attain an 
age of 3000 years. 

Jonipenis Bermadiana, L.* 

The Pencil Cedar of Bermuda and Barbadoes. This species grows some- 
times 90 feet high, and furnishes a valuable red durable wood, used for 
boat building, ftimiture and particularly for pencils, on account of its 
pleasant odor and special fitness. Many of the plants called Thuya or 
Biotia Meldensis in gardens, belong to this species. 

Jnniperus brevifolia, Antoine. 

In the Azores up to 4,800^ ; a nice tree with sometimes silvery foliage. 

Jtmipema Cedms, Webb. 

A tall tree of the higher mountains of the Canary Islands. 

Jtmiperas Chinensis, L.* 

In temperate regions of the Himalaya, also in China and Japan. This 
tree is known to rise to 75 feet. Probably identical with the Himala- 
yan Pencil Cedar (Jnniperus religiosa, Boyle) ; it is remarkable for its 
reddish close-grained wood. 

Jnniperus oommnpls, L. 

One of the three native coniferaB of Britain, attaining under favorable 
circumstances a height of nearly 60 feet, of medicinal uses ; the bearies 
also used in the preparation of gin. 

Jimiperas dmpacea, LabilL Plmn Juniper. 

A very handsome long-leaved Juniper, the Habhel of Syria. It attains 
a height of 80 feet, and produces a sweet edible fruit, highly esteemed 
throughout the Orient 



u 

Janipema ezoelsa, Biebent 

In A4a Minor, 2 to 6000 feet fibova the tea level. A stately trae, 60 
feet high. 

Joniperas ilaooida, Schleoht. 

In Mexico, 6 to 7000 feet high. A tree of 80 feet in height, ikii in 
lesin, pimilar to Sandsrach« 

JuBiperns foBtidiasima, Willd. 

A tall beautiful tree in Annenia and Tauria, ^000 to 6,500 fe^t, 
jTuUp^ma Hezioaaa, Schiede. 

Mezieoi^tan eleratloaof 7000te ll,000feet. A stiaigfat tiee, 90 feet 

high, stem 8 feet diameter, exuding copiously a resin similar to San- 

darac. 

Junipema oooidentatia, ^Qok. 

North Oalifomia and Oregon, at 6000 feet. A stn^ght tree, 80 feet higli, 
with a stem of 3 feet diameter. 

Juniperoa PhcBnioea, L. 

South Europe and Orient A small tree, 20 feet high, yielding an 
{iromatic resin. 

Junipema prooera, Hochst. 

In Abyssinia. A stately tree, furnishing a hard useful timber. 
Juaipema reotmra, Hamilton. 

On the Himalayas, 10 to 12,000 feet high. Atree attaining; 80 feet in 

height 

Jnnipema aphjailoa, LindL 

North Ohina. A handsome tree, 40 feet high. 

Ji;ui}pQni8| VirgUxlana, L. 

Kort^ A^aerican Pencil Cedi^r ^ Bed Qeidar. 4 handsome tree^ 50 M 
high, supplying a fragrant timber, much esteemed for its strength sod 
durability ; the inner part is of a beautiful red 90lor, the outer is white; 
it is much used for pencils. 

^l)ooe(inia Olillansia, EndL 

In cold valleys on the southern Andes ol Chili, 9000 to 5009 feet A 
fine tree, 80 fe^t high, famishing ^ h^^ remount wood of a yellowish 
color. 

Libooednia deourrena, Torr. 

White. Ced^r of California gprowipg on high i^o u n t ^ Q g- Attahis a 
height of fully 200 feet, with a stem 25 feet in circumference. 

Libooednia Doniana, Endl, 

North island of New Zealand, up to 6000 feet elevation. A forest tm 
100 feet high, stem 8 feet and more in diameter. The wood is hard tw 
resinous, of a dark reddish color, fine-grained, excellent for |»lank8 and 
spars. 

Libooednia tetragona, BndL 

On the Andes of North Chili, 2000 to 5000 feet This species has a veiT 
straight stem, and grows 120 feet high. The wood it quite whitib M^ 
Ug^^y esteemed for variouf ftrtisans' work» ind^ very pieoiouff. 

Kageia (Podooaipua) amara, Blume. 

Java, on high volcanic mountains. A lai^ge tree, sometimes 200 feet 

high. 
NW^lfk (?o(U>a(grp^ owroaalAf^ ^ Br. 

Java. aM PhilHpine Islands. Height ol tree 180 feet» fandihisg* 

highly valuable Umber* 



.- ^- 



35 

Kag^a (PodooarpuB) daorydioldes, A. Rich. 

In swampy ground of New Zealand ; the ** Eabikatea'* of the MaorieSf 
called White Pine by the colonists. Height of tree 160 feet ; ^diameter 
of stem 4 feet. The white sweet fruit is eaten hy the natives ; the wood 
is i>ale, close-grained, heavy, and among other purposes, used for 
building canoes. 

IS'ageia (Podocarpus) femiginea, Don. 

Northern parts of New Zealand. The Black F!ine of the col<mists; 
native name ** Miro." Height of tree 80 feet ; it produces a dark red 
resin of a bitter taste ; the wood is of a reddish color, very hard. 

19'ageia (Podooarpus) Lamberti, Kiotzsch. 

Brazils. A stately tree, yielding valuable timber. 
Hagela (Podooarpos) Purdieana, Hook. 

Jamaica, at 2500 to 8500 feet. This quick-growing tree attains a 

height of 100 feet. 

Hagela (Podooarpus) sploata, Br. 

Black Hue of New Zealand. Tree 80 feet high ; wood pale, soft, close 
and durable. 

Kagela (Podooarpus) Thtinbergii, Hook. 

Gape of Good Hope. A large tree, known to the colonists as " Geelhout*' ; 
it furnishes a splendid wood for building. 

HftCfoia (Podooarpus) Totara, Don.* 

New Zealand. A fine tree, 120 feet high, with a stem of 20 feet in cir- 
cumference ; it is called niahogany pine by the colonists. The 'reddish 
close-grained and duraUe wood- is valuiJi>le both for building and for 
fumltore, and is also extensiv^y used for telegraph posts; It Is con- 
sidered the most vtUuable timber of New Zealand. Many other tall 
timber trees of the geuus Podocarpus or Nageia occur in various parts 
of Asia, Africa and America, doubtless all desirable, but the quality of 
their timber is not well known, though likely in many oases excdlent« 
Nageia is by far the oldest published name of the genus. 

Fh jllooladns rhomboidalis, Rich. 

Cekry Pine of Tasmania. A stately tree up to 60 feet high, with a stem 
of 2 to 6 feet in diameter. The timber is valuable for ships' masts. It 
will only grow to advantage in deep forest valleys. 

FbyUooladus triohomanoides, Don. 

Celery Pine of New Zealand^ northern island ; it is also called Pitch 
Pine by the (Mdonists. This tree attains a height ol 70 feet, with a 
stn^ght stem of 8 feet in diameter, and furnishes a pake close-grained 
timber, used particulariy for spars and planks ; Uie Maories employ the 
bark for dying red and black. 

Pinns Abies, Du Roi.* {Finns Pieea LinnL) 

Silver Fir, Tanne. In Middle Europe up to 50^ N. Lat, forming dense 
forests. A fine tree, already the charm of the ancients, attaining 200 
feet in height, and 20 feet in circumference of stem, reaching tfa» age 
of 800 year& It furnishes a most valuable timber for building, as well 
as furniture, and in respect to lightness, toughness and elasticity it is 
even more esteemed than the Norway Spruce, but is not so good for 
fuel or for charcoal. It also yields a fine white reinn and the Strass- 
lk>u]^ turpentine, similar to the Venetian. 

Finns Allies rar. Oephalonioa, Parlatoze. (Pinus Cephaloniea, BadL) 
Greece, 8 to 4000 feet above the sea. A tree 60 feei high, with a stem 
drcumlerenee of 10 feet. The wood k rmj hard and durshle, and 
much esteemed for building. 



36 

PiniiB Abies var. Nordmaxmiaaay Parlatore. (P. Nordmanniana, 
Steven.) 
Crimea and Circassia, 6000 feet above the sea. This is one of the most 
imposing firs, attaining a height of 100 feet, with a perfectly straight 
stem. It famishes a valoable building timber. 
The Silver Fir is desirable for our mountain forests. 

Finns alba, Ait. 

White Spruce. From Canada to Carolina, up to the highest mountains* 
It resembles P. Picea, but is smaller, at most 60 feet high. Eligible for 
our alpine country. 

Finns Aloooqniana^ Parlatore. 

Japan, at an elevation of 6 to 7000 feet. A fine tree, with very small 
blue-green leaves ; the wood is used for light household furniture. 

Pinns amabilis, Dougl. 

Califomian Silver Fir. North California, at an elevation of 4000 feet 
A handsome fir, 200 feet high, circumference of stem 24 feet ; the st^n 
is naked up to 100 feet. 

Finns Anstralis, Michz.* 

Southern or Swamp Pine, also called (Georgia, Yellow Pitch or Broom 
Pine. In the Soutbem States of N. America The tree attains a 
height of 70 feet. It furnishes a good timber for furniture and building. 
It is this tree, wbich forms chiefly tbe extensive pine barrens of the 
United States, and yields largely the American turpentine. 

Finns Ayaoahnite, Ehrenb. (P. Loudoniana, Oord.) 

In Mexico, at an elevation of 8Q00 to 12,000 feet. An excellent pine, 
100 to 150 feet high, with a stem diameter of 8 to 4 feet, yielding a 
much esteemed white or sometimes reddish timber. 

Finns balsamea, L. 

Balsam Fir, Balm of Qilead Fir. Canada, Nova Scotia, New England. 
An elegant tree, 40 feet high, which with Pinus Fraseri yields the 
Canada Balsam, the well-known oleo-resln. The timber is light, soft 
and useful for furniture. It thrives best in cold swampy places. Eligi- 
ble for our alps. 

Finns Canadensis, L. 

Hemlock Spruce. In Canada and over a great part of the United 
States, on high mountains. A very ornamental tree, 100 feet high, 
with a white cross-grained and inferior wood. The tree, however, is 
extremely valuable on account of its bark, which is much esteemed as 
a tanning material ; it is stripped off during the summer months. The 
young shoots are used for making spruce bedr. 

Finns Canariensis, C. Smith.* 

Canary Pine. Canary Islands, forming laige forests at ^an elevation of 
6 to 6000 feet. A tree 70 feet high, with a resinous durable very heavy 
wood, not readily attacked by insects. It thrives well in Victoria, and 
shows celerity of growth. 

Finns Gedms, L. 

Cedar of Lebanon. Together with the Atlas variety on the mountains 
of Lebanon and Taurus, also in N. Africa. The tree grows to a 
height of 100 feet, and attains a very great age ; the wood is of a light 
reddii^ color, soft, easy to work, and much esteemed for its dura- 
biUty. 



37 

Finns Oedrns var. Daodara.* 

Deodar Cedar. On the Himalaya monntains, 4 to 12,000 feet above sea 
level. A majestic tree, 150 feet high, and sometimes 30 feet in circumfer- 
ence of stem. The wood is of a whitish yellow coler, very close-grained 
and resinous, and furnishes one of the best building timbers known ; it 
must, however, not be felled too young. The tree also yields a good 
deal of resin and turpentine. 

Finns Oembra, L. 

On the European Alps, also in Siberia and Tartary. The tree attains 
a height of 60 feet; the wood is of a yellow color, verv soft and resinous, 
of an extremely fine texture and is ^tensively used for carving and 
cabinet work. The seeds are edible, and when pressed yield a great 
quantity of oil. A good turpentine is also obtained from this pine. 

Finns oemhroides, Zucc. (P. Laveana^ Schiede and Deppe.) 

Mexican Swamp Pine. A small tree, 80 feet high, growing at an eleva- 
tion of 8000 to 10,000 feet. The timber is not of much use, but the seeds 
are edible and have a very agreeable taste. 

F. Oilioica, Ant. and Eotsch. 

Cilidan Silver Fir. Asia Minor. 4000 to 6500 above sea leyel. A hand- 
some tree of pyramidal growth 160 feet high. The wood is very soft 
and used extemvely for the roofis of houses, as it does not warp. 

Finns oontorta, Dougl. 

On high damp ranges in California, attaining 50 feet in height. It is 
valuable as a shelter tree in stormy localities. 

Finns Conlteri, Don. 

California, on the eastern slope of the coast range at an elevation of 
8000 to 40OO feet. A pine of quick growth, attaining a height of 76 feet; 
it has the largest cones of all pines. 

Finns Donglasli, Sabine.* 

Oregon Pine. N.W. America forming very extensive forests. A large 
conical shaped tree, up to 800 feet in height, with a stem of 2 to 10 feet 
diameter. Only in a moist forest climate of rapid growth. 

Finns dnmosa, Don (P. Brunoniana Wall) 

Bootan, Sikkim and Nepal, 10,000 feet above sea level. A very oma- 
m^tal fir, rising to 70 or 80 feet. 

Finns exoelsa, Wall.* 

The Lofty or Bootan Pine. Himalaya, forming large forests at from 6000 
to 11,600 feet elevation. A fine tree, 160 feet high, furnishing a valu- 
able, close-grained, resinous wood, as well as a good quantity of tur- 
pentine. 

Finns Fortnnei, Parlatore. 

China, in the neighbourhood or Foochowfoo*. A splendid tree, 70 feet 
high, somewhat similar in habit to P. Cedrus. 

Finns Fraseri^ Pureh. 

Double Balsam Fir. On high mountains of Carolina and Pennsylvania. 
This tree, which gets about 20 feet high, yields with P. balsamea 
Canada Balsam. 

Finns Gerardiana, Wall. 

Kepal Hut Pine. In the N.E. parts of the Himalaya at an elevation of 
10,000 to 12,000 feet, forming extensive forests. The tree gets 50 feet 
high, and produces very sweet edible seeds, also turpentine. 

8 



98 

Flnxui grandis, DoogL 

Graft* SaTer Ht of Norih California. A splendid fir, 20afert1iigb and 
npwudi, growing beat in moisfe yaUeya oif iiigh ranges ; the wood is 
white and soft. 

Pimu Haleppenedfl^ Mill.* 

Aleppo Pine. South Earope and North Afiica, This well known pine 
attains a height of 80 feet with a stem of from 4 to 5 feet iu diameter. 
The timber of young trees is white, of older trees of a dark color; it 
is principally esteemed for ship building, but also used for fumitare. 
The tree yields a kind of Venetian turpentine, as well as a yaluable tar. 
It thri?es well in waterless rocky places, also on the sandy sea cooji 
P. maritima is a variety of this species. Content with the poorest and 
driest localities, and rapid of growth. 

Finns Hartwegil, Lindl. 

Hexioo, 9000 to 18,000 feet above sea level. A pine, 50 feet in height, 
with a very durable wood of a reddish color ; it yields a large quantity 
of resin. 

Finns Iiarix,L. 

Common Larch ; deciduous. On the European Alps up to 7000 feci It 
attains a height of 100 feet, sometimes rising even up to 160 feet, and 
produces a valuaUe timber of great durability, which is used fOT land and 
water buildings, and much prised for ship building. Tlie bark is used 
for tanning and dyeing. The tree is of great importance for its yield of 
the Venetian turpentine, which is obtained by boring holes into it in 
spring ; these fiU during the summer, supplying from ^ to f pint of 
turpentine. In Piedmont, where they tap the tree in different places 
and let the liquid continually run, it Is said that from 7 to 8 may be 
obtained in a year, but the wood suffers through this operation. P. L. 
var. Bossica, Bussian Larch, grows principally on the Altai mountains 
from 2,600 to 5,500 feet above sea level ; it attains a height of 80 feet. 
The species would be important for our upland country. 

Finns leiophylla, Schiede and Deppe. 

7000 to 11,000 feet up on the mountains of Mexico. A tree 90 feet 
high. The wood is excessively hard. 

^inns leptolepis, Sieb . and Zucc. 

Japan Larch. In Japan, between 35° and 48° N. lat., up to an elevation 
of 9000 feet. The timber is highly valued by the Japanese. 

Finns longifolia, Roxb.* 

Emodi Pine or Cheer Pine. On the Himalaya mountains, from 2000 to 
7000 |feet. A handsome tree with a branchless stem of 50 feet; the 
wood is resinous and the red variety useful for building ; it yields a 
quantity of tar and turpentine. The tree stands exposure and beat 
welL 

Finns Massoniana, Lamb. (P. Sinensis, Lamb.) 

China and Japan. This pine attains a height of 60 feet, and supplies a 
resinous tough and durable wood, used for buildings and furnitnie. 
The roots, when burned with the oil of Brasslca Orientalis, furnish t1^ 
Chinese Lampblack. 

Finns Menzieoii, Dougl. 

North West America. A very handsome tree, which grows to a height 
of 70 feet, and furnishes a valuable timber ; it thrives best in mdst 
ground. 

Finns Hndsonioa, Poir. (P. JBanksiana, Lamb.) 

Grey Pine ; North America, up to 64^ N. lat. Height of tree ^ feet, 
in the cold north only a shrub. The wood is' light, tongh and easily 
worked. 



Finns JeflBreyi, Marr. 

NfflrthCaliforBia, on a sterile fttndysi^. A noble pine^ 160 feet liigh ; 
stem 4 feet thick. 

Finns Kaempibri, Lamb. 

Chinese Larch ; also called Golden Pine. Ohina. This is the hand- 
somest of all the larches. It is of quick growth, and attaios a height 
of 150 feeti The leaves, which are of a vivid green daring spring and 
summer, turn to a golden yellow in autumn. The wood is very hard 
and durable. 

Finns Koraiensie, Sieb. and Zucc. 

China and Japan. A handsome tree^ 80 to 40 feet hig^, producing 
edible seeds. 

Finns Lambertianay DougL 

Giant or Sugar Pine. North-west coast of America ; mostly in great 
altitudes. A lofty tree,^ upwards of 800 feet high, with a stndght, 
naked stem of from 20 to 60 feet in circumference. It thrives best in 
sandy soil, and produces a soft, white, straight grained wood, which 
for inside work is esteemed above any other pine in California, and 
famished in large quantities. The cones are 18 inches long; the 
seeds are edible, and used as food by the natives. Would come best 
to perfection in the humid regions of our higher mountains. 

Finns Larielo, Poir .♦ 

Corsican Pine. South Europe. It attains a height of 120 feet. The 
wood is white, towards the centre dark, very resinous, coarse-grained, 
elastic and durable, and much esteemed for building, especially for 
waterworks. There are three main varieties of this pine, viz. : 
P. L. Poiretiana, in Italy ; P. L. Austriaca, in Austria ; P. L. Pallas- 
siana, on the borders of the Black Sea. The tree grows best in 
calcareous soil, but also in poor, sandy soil, where, however, the timber 
is not so large nor so good. It yields all the products of P: silvestris, 
but in greater quantities, being perhaps the most resinous of 
all pines. 

Finns Mertensiana, Bong. 

Califomian Hemlock Spruce, North-west America. . The wood is 
white and very soft, but is often used for building. The tiee is from 
100 to 150 feet high, by a stem diameter of 4 to 6 feet 

Finns mitis, Michx. 

Yellow Pine of North America. In dry sandy soil, attaining a height 
of 60 feet. Wood durable, fine-grained, moderately resinous, valuable 
for flooring. 

Finns monopliylla, Torr. and Frem. 

Stone or Nut Pine of California, on the Sierra Nevada and Cascade 
Mountains, 6,500 feet. The seedfs are edible, of an almond-Uke taste, 
and consumed in quantity by the natives. Height of tree only 85 
feet ; thickness of stem 8 to 10 inches. 

Finns montana, DuBoi. (P. PunUlio ffcenke.) 

On the Alps and Carpathians up to the highest points, covering large 
tracts, and thriving on the poorest soil. The tree, which grows about 
. 25 feet high, in favourable localities 50, yields much oil of turpen- 
tine. The wood is used for carving and for firewood. Only available 
to advantage for our highlands. 
Finns Monteznmae, Lamb. (P. Devonianot Lindl.) (P. OrenvilUcd, 
Gord.) 
Mexico. A handsome Pine, 80 feet high; wood white, soft and 
resinous. 

B 2 



40 

Flniis montioola, Bongl. , 

CaliforaiA, st an el6vati<m of 7,000 feet It tbriyes best in poot aofl 
of granite formation, and attains the heiglit of 200 feet, with a stem 
of H to 4 feet thick. The wood is white, cloee-grained. 

Piniis mnrioata, Don. 

Bishop's Pine. California. Found np 7,600 feet! This pine grows to 
aboQt 40 feet. 

Piniis nigra, Ait, 

Black Spruce. North-East America, Occurring eztensiyely between 
44^ and 68^ N. latitude. This tree, which is termed Double Sprace 
by the Canadians, attains a height of 70 feet, and furnishes a light 
elastic timber of white colour, excellent for yards of ships. Tlie 
young shoots are used for making spruce-beer, and the small roots 
serve as cords. It likes swampy forest land. 

Finns nobiliSy Dongl. 

Koble White Fir. North west coast of America, on the Columbia 
Biyer and the mountains of North California, where^'it forms exten- 
siye forests at 6 to 8,000 feet. A majestic tree, 160 to 200 feet high, 
with regular horiaontal branches. It furnishes a valuable timber for 
building. 

Finns orientalis, L, 

Sapindus Fir. In A^ Minor, at 4,000 feet. The tree rises to aboat 
80 feet, and resembles somewhat the Norway Spruce. The wood is 
exceedingly tough and durable. 

Finns parviflora, Sieb. 

In Japan. It only gets about 26 feet high ; but is much used as an 
avenue tree ; wood for fine furniture and boat-bailding. 

Finns Pattoniana, Par). 

California ; 5 to 6,000 feet above sea-level. A very fine fir, 300 feet 
high, with a perfectly straight stem. The wood is hard, of a reddish 
colour, with handsome veins ; but poor in resin. 

Finns patnla, Schiede and Deppe. 

In Mexico ; at an elevation of 8 to 9,000 feet. A graceful pine, 80 feet 
high. 

Finns pendnla, Soland. (P. microearpa, Lamb*) 

Small-coned American Larch ; Black Larch or Tamarack. Frequent 
in Vermont and New Hampshire, A pine of pyramidal growth, 100 
feet high. The timber is white, heavy, resinous, and as highly 
valued as that of the Common Larch. 

Finns pioea, Du Roi.» (F. Ahiet, L.) 

Norway Spruce, Fichte, Middle and Northern Europe and Northern 
Asia ; rising from the plains to an elevation of 4,600 feet, and forming 
extensive forests. The tree attains a height of 160 feet or even more, 
and furnishes an excellent timber for building and furniture ; com- 
monly known under the name of White Deal. It also produces the 
Burgundy Pitch in quantity, while the bark is used for tanning. 
Though enduring our dry summers, this spruce would have to be 
restricted for timber purposes to the damp mountains. 

Finns Pinaster, Soland.* 

Cluster Pine. On the shores ot the Mediterranean. The tree is of 
quick growth, and rises to 60 feet in height ; the wood is soft and 
resinous; it yields largely the French turpentine. Among the best 
pines for consolidation of sandy coast land, and converting rolling 
sands into pasture and agricultural land. For ease of rearing ana 
rapidity of growth, one of the most important of all pines. . 



Finns Pinoeana, €k>Td. 

Mexico, np to 9000 feet above sea level. A very remarkable pine, 
having drooping branches like the Weeping Willow; 60 feet high. Most 
desirable for cemeteries. 

Finns Pindrow, Royle. 

In great abundance on the spurs of the Himalaya mountains, 8 to 
12,000 feet above the sea level. A fine straight stemmed tree, 100 feet 
high. 

Finns Pinea, L * 

Stone Pine. Frequent in the countries bordering on the Mediterranean ; 
height of tree 60 feet ; the wood is whitish, light, but full of resin, and 
much used for buildings, furniture and ships. The seeds are edible, 
somewhat resembling almonds, but of a taste resinous though not dis- 
agreeable; they only ripen in their third year. This pine grows as 
easily and almost as quickly as the Claster Pine. 

Finns Pinsapo, Boiss. 

Spanish Fir. In Spain, on the Sierra Nevada, 4 to 6000 feet. A tree 
of 60 feet high, with branches from the ground. 

Finns ponderosa, Dougl.* (P. Benthamiana, Hartw.) 

Yellow or Pitch Pine of the mountains of N. W. America. Height of 
tree up to 226 feet, with a stem of 24 feet in circumference, of compara- 
tively quick growth; the wood is heavy, and for general purposes 
preferred to that of any other pine. Has proved well adapted even for 
dry localities in Victoria. 

Finns Psendo-Strobns, Lindl.* 

In Mexico. This tree is superior in appearance to any other Mexican 
pine ; height 80 feet 

Finns Pyrenaioa, Lapeyr. 

In the South of Spain and on the Pyrenees. A fine ornamental tree of 
quick growth, 80 feet high ; the wood is white and dry, poor in resin. 

Finns radlata, Don.* (P. insignis, Dougl.) 

California. A splendid pine, fully 100 feet high, with a straight stem 
2 to 4 feet in diameter. It is of remarkably rapid growth, a seedling, 
one year old, being strong enough for final transplantation ; the wood 
ifl tough, and much sought for boat-building and various utensils. 

Finns religiosa, Humb. 

Oyamel Fir. Mexico, 4 to 9000 feet above the sea level. A magnificent 
tree with silvery leaves, growing 100 feet high ; stem 6 feet in diameter ; 
the wood is particularly well fit for shingles. 

Finns resinosa, Soland. 

Red Pine. N. America, principally in Canada and Nova Scotia. It gets 
80 feet high and 2 feet in diameter ; the wood is red, fine-grained, 
heavy and durable, not very resinous, and is used for ship-building. 

Finns rigida, Mill.* 

American Pitch Pine. From New England to Virginia. It grows to a 
height of 80 feet ; the timber, when from good soil, is hard and resinous 
and used for building ; but the tree is principally Important for its yield 
of turpentine, resin, pitch and tar. 

Finns mbra, Lamb. 
• Hudson's Pine, Bed Spruce. Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and other 
northern parts of the American Continent. A straight slender tree, 70 
feet high; the wood is of a reddish oolor and highly esteemed 



4« 

Pinna Sabiniana, Doogl.* 

Galifomian Nafc Pine or White Pine, Most frequent on the westom dopes 
of the Rocky Mountains, intermixed with other trees ; 160 feet high; 
8tem 8 to 6 feet in diameter ; the wood is white and soft ; the dos- 
tered heayj cones attain a length of 1 foot; the seeds are ed^Ue. 
Proves in dry localities of Tictoria to he of qm.ds. growth. 

Pinna serotina, Michz. 

Pond Pine. Southern States of North America, in black morassy soil, 
principally near the sea coast ; it is 60 feet high, stem 16 indies in 
diameter; the wood is soft. 

Pinna ailTestris, L.* 

Scotch Pir, Foehre. Middle and Northern Europe, up to 70<» N. Lat, 
and Norf^ Asia, thriving best in sandy soiL A very valuable tree, 
fully 100 feet high, growing to the age of about 120 yeaiB. The Bed 
Baltic, Norway, or Biga deals are obtained from this pine, as well as 
a large portion of the European pine tar. Proves well adapted ev^ 
for the drier parts of Victoria. 

Pinna Sibirioa, Turca. (P. Fichta, Pisch.) 

Siberian Pitch Fir. On the Altai Mountains ; it reaches a height of 
60 feet. 

Pinns Strobns, L.* 

Weymouth Pine or American Wh^e Pine. N.E, America, growing on 
any soil, but preferring swampy ground ; it is found 1 00 feet high, 
with a stem of 4 to 6 feet in diameter ; the wood is soft, white, light, 
free of knots, almost without resin, easy to work, and much 
esteemed for masts ; it yields American turpentine and gallipot. 

Pinna Tseda, L. 

Frankincense or Loblolly Pine. Florida and Virginia, in sandy soil, 
attaining a height of 80 feet; the timber is esteemed for ship-building. 
It also yields turpentine in good quantity, though of inleri(Mr qualitj. 

Pinna tennifolia, Benth. 

Mexico, at ta elevation of 5000 feet, forming dense forests ; height of 
tree 100 feet, stem up to 6 feet in diameter. 

Pinna Teooote, Cham, and Schledht. 

Okote or Torch Pine. Mexico, 6 to 8000 feet above the sea level 
Tree 100 feet high, stem 8 to 4 feet in diameter ; i^e wood is lednoos 
and durable. 

Pinna Tanga, Ant. 

In the northern provinces of Japan, 6 to 9000 feet above the sea. The 
tree ^ets only 25 feet high ; its timber is highly esteemed for superior 
furniture, especially by ttimers. 

Pinna "Webbiana, Wallich.* 

King Pine, Dye Pine. On the Himalaya Mountains, at an elevation 
, of 12 to 18,000 feet. A splendid fir 70 to 80 feet high, with a stem 
diameter of generally 3 to 4 feet, but sometimes even 10 feet The 
wood is of a white color, soft, coarse-grained and very resinous ; the 
nativeB extract a splendid violet dye from the cones. 

Soiadopitya Tertioillata, Sieb.. 

The lofty and curious Umbrella Fir of Japan, 140 feet high ; resists 
severe frosts ; wood white and compact. 

Seqnoia aempervirena, Endl.* (Taxodium semperviretiit Lamb,) 

Red Wood or Bastard Cedar of N. W. America, chiefly California. A 
splendid tree, 800 feet high, occasionally with a diameter of the stem of 
65 feet. The wood is reddish, close- veined, but light and brittle* One 
of the most oolossal trees of the globe. 



Seqnoia WeUingtonia, Seem.* ( WelUngtonia gigantea, Llndl.) 

Mtimmoth Tree. Califorma, np to 6000 feet above the sea. This, the 
biggest of all trees, attains a stem of 820 feet in length and 112 feet in 
circumference, the oldest trees being estimated at 1100 years ; the total 
height of a tree will occasionally be 450 feet ; a stem broken at 300 feet 
had yet a diameter of 18 feet. The wood is soft and white when felled, 
afterwards it turns red. 

Tazodinm distiohnm, Bich.* 

Virginian Swamp or Bald Cypress. In swampy places of North 
America, k large and valuable tree, 100 feet high, with a stem circum- 
ference of sometimes 40 feet, of rapid growth, with deciduous foliage 
like that of the Larch and Ginkgo ; it is found fossil in the miocene 
formation of man^ parts of Europe. The wood is fine-erained, hard 
and durable ; it yields an essential oil, and a superior kind of tur- 
pentine. Useful for avenues on swampy margins of lakes or river 
banks. 

Taxodium mnoronatum, Ten. 

The famed Montezuma Cypress of Mexico, 120 feet high, with a trunk 
44 feet in circumference ; it forms extensive forests between Chapultepec 
and Tescuco. 

Tazns baooata, L. 

Yew. Middle and South Europe and Asia, at 1000 to 4000 feet 
elevation. Generally a shrub, sometimes a tree^ 40 feet high, which 
furnishes a yellow or brown wood, exceedingly tough, elastic and 
durable, and much esteemed by turners. The tree is of very slow 
growth, and reaches a great age, perhaps several thousand years ; some 
ancient ones are known with a stem of fifty feet in girth. 

Tazus brevifolia, Nuttall. ( T, Lindleyana, Laws.) 

N. W. America. Western Yew. A stately tree, 76 feet high, with a 
stem of 6 feet in circumference. The Indians use the woodfortheir 
bows. 

Thuya gigantea» Nutt. 

N. W. America, on the banks of the Columbia Biver. The Yellow 
Cypress of the colonists. A straight, graceful tree, 200 feet high, fur- 
nishing a valuable building timber of a pale or light yellow color. 

Thxiya oocidentalis, L. 

N. America, particularly frequent in Canada. A fine tree, 70 feet high ; 
the wood is reddish or yellowisb, fine-grained, very tough and resinous, 
and well fit lor building, especially for water work. The shoots and 
also an essential oil of this tree are used in medicine ; the bast can 
be converted into ropes. 

Thnyopsis dolabrata, Sieb and Zucc. 

Japan. A majestic tree, furnishing anexcdl^t hard timber of a red 
color. 

Torrvya Califomioa, Torr. (r. myristiea, Hooker.) 
In California. Tree 60 feet high. 

ToneytL grandis, Fortune. 

China. A tree 60 feet high, with an umbrdla-shaped crown ; it pro- 
duces good timber. 

Torreya auoifera, 8. and Z. {Caryotaxui nueifera, Zucc.) 

Japan. Height of tree about 80 feet. From the nuts the Japanese 
press aa oil| used as an Article of food. 



44 

Tbrreya tazifolia, Arnott. 

Florida. A tree 60 feet in height, with a firm, dose-grained, durable 
wood of a reddish color. 

Widdringtonia Jnniperoldes, Endl. 

South Africa, 8000 to 4000 feet above sea level. A middling siaed 
tree, rich in resin. 



II.— MISCELLANEOUS TREES, NOT CONIFEROUS. 

Aoaoia aotuninata, Benth. 

A kind of Myall from Western Australia, attaining a height of 40 feet. 

Aoaoia deourrens, Willd. (A. moUmima^ Willd. A. dealbata, Link.) 
The Black Wattle or Silver Wattle. From the eastern part of 
B. Australia, through Victoria and N. S. Wales, to the southern part 
of Queensland, in open plains a small or middle sized tree, in deep 
forest recesses a lofty tree, of singularly rapid growth. Its wood can 
be used for staves and many other purposes, but its chief use would be 
to afford the first shelter, in treeless localities, for raising forests. Its 
bark, rich in tannin, and its gum, not dissimilar to Gum Arabic, 
render this tree also important. Other quick growing trees, usef al in 
various ways, growing m any soil and enduring drought, can be 
used simultaneously, by mere dissemination, in ploughed ground, for 
dense temporary belts of shelter, or for quick yielding fuel planta- 
tions, such as Acacia pycnantha, A. lophanthay Casuarina quadri' 
valvia, Casuarina tuherosa^ Eucalyptus meltiodorat Eucalyptus viminalis 
and many other Eucalypts, all easily growing &om s^d. 

Aoaoia homalophylla, Cunn. 

The Victorian Myall, extending into the deserts of N.S. Wales. The 
dark brown wood is much sought for turner's work on account of its 
solidity and fragrance; perhaps its most extensive use is in the 
manufacture of tobacco pipes. Never a tall tree. 

Aoaoia Melanozylon, R. Br. 

The well known Blackwood of our river flats and moist forest 
valleys, passing also under the inappropriate name of lightwood. In 
irrigated valleys of deep soil the tree will attain a height of 80 
feet, with a stem several feet in diameter. The wood is most valu- 
able for furniture, railway carriages, boat-building, casks, billiard 
tables, pianofortes (for sound-boards and actions), and numerous 
other purposes. The fine-grained wood is cut into veneers. It takes 
a fine poli^, and is considered equal to the best Walnut. Our best 
wood for bending under steam. For further details refer to the 
volumes of the Exhibitions of 1862 and 1867. 

Aoer oampestre, L. 

Extends from Middle Europe to North Asia. Height 40 feet, in shelter 
and deep soil ; the yellow and purple tint of its foliage in autumn 
render the tree then particularly beautiful. The wood is compact 
and fine-grained, and sought for choice furniture. The tree can be 
trimmed for hedge growth. Comparatively quick of growth, and easily 
raised from seed. These remarks apply to almost all kinds of Maples. 

Aoer dasyoarpxixa, Ehrhart. 

The Silver Maple of North America. Likes rather a warmer climate 
than the other American Maples, and therefore particularly desirable 
for us here. Height 50 feet ; wood pale and soft, stem sometimea 9 
feet in diameter. 



Ik 

Aoer maoropliyllTim, Pnnb. 

Large Oregon Maple. Tree 90 feet high, of quick growth ; stem 16 
feet in circumference ; wood whitish, b^utif uUy veined. 

Aoer Kegnndo, L. 

The Bob Elder of North America. A tree, deciduous like the rest of 
the Maples ; attains a height of about 50 feet, and is rich in saccharine 
sap. Proved well adapted for our country. 

Aqer palmataniy Thunb. 

This beautiful tree with deeply cleft leaves is indigenous to Japan, 
where various varieties with red and yellow tinged leaves occur. 
Should it be an aim to bring together all the kinds of Maples, which 
could be easily grown in appropriate spots of Victoria, then Japan 
alone would furnish 25 species. 

Aoer platanoides, L. 

The Norway Maple, extending south to Switzerland, 70 fe^ high. The 
pale wood much used by cabinetmakers. 

Aoer Psendo-platannSy L. 

The Sycamore Maple or British Plane. Attains a height of over 100 
feet. The wood is compact and firm, valuable for various implements, 
instruments and cabinet work. It furnishes like some other maples a 
superior charcoal. 

Aoer rabram, L. 

The Bed Maple, North America. A tree attaining 80 feet, fond of 
swampy places ; wood close-grained. The trunk when twisted furnishes 
also curled maple wood. Grows well with several other maples, even 
in dry open localities of this part of Australia, although the foliage may 
somewhat suffer from our hot winds. 

Aoer saooharinnm, Wang.* 

One of the largest of the maples. In the colder latitudes of North 
America, 80 feet higb. Wood of rosy tinge, when knotty or curly 
furnishes the Birdseye and curly Maplewood. In the depth of winter 
the trees, when tapped, will yield the saccharine fluid, which is so 
extensively converted into maple sugar, each tree yielding 2 to 4 lb. a 
year. The trees can be tapped for very many years in succession, without 
injury. The Sugar Maple is rich in potash. Numerous other maples 
exist, among which as the tallest may be mentioned, Acer Creticum, 
L., of South Europe, 40 feet ; A, IcBvigatum^ A. tterculiaceum and A. 
villosam, Wallicb, of Nepal, 50 feet ; A, pictum, Thunb., of Japan, 
80 feet. 

^scTiliis Hippooastannm, L. 

Indigenous to Central Asia. One of the most showy of deciduous trees, 
more particularly when during spring ** it has reached the meridian of 
its glory, and stands forth in all the gorgeousness of leaves and 
blossoms." Height 60 feet. It will succeed in sandy soil on sheltered 
spots; the wood adapted for furniture; the seeds a food for various 
domestic animals ; the bark a good tanning material. Three species 
occur in Japan, and several, but none of great height, in North America 
and South Asia. 

Ailantus glandulosa, L. 

S.E. Asia. A hardy deciduous tree, 60 feet high, of rather rapid growth, 
and of very imposing aspect in any landscape. Particularly valuable 
on account of its leaves, which afford food to a silkworm (Bombyx 
Cynthia) t peculiar to this tree ; wood pale yellow, of silky lustre when 
planed, and therefore valued for joiners' work. In South Europe 
planted for avenuee. 



u 

Alnns glutinosa, Gaertn. 

TbeoidinArj Aider. Tbitraghoat Europe and extra tropical Asia, 70 feet 
high ; well adapted for river hanke ; wood soft and light, tumiDg red, 
farDiahing one of the best charcoals for gunpowder ; it is also durable 
under water, aod adapted for turners and joiner's work. A. incana 
Willd. Is an equally h^b and allied sp^iea, 

Amyris terebinthifolia, Tenore. 

BrazIL Is here perfectly hardy, and is content in dry ground without 
any irrigation. It proved one of the best among the smaller ayenne 
trees, is beautifully spreading and umbrageous, and probably of 
medicinal value. 

Angophora intermedia, Cand. 

South East Australia. This is the best of the Angophoras, attaining a 
height of 50 feet, and growing with the rapidity of an Eucalyptus, but 
being more close and shady in its foliage. It would be one of our best 
trees to line public roads, and to effect shelter plantations. 

Baloghia Incida, Endl. {Codiceum lucidum, J. M.) 

East Australia. A middle sized tree. The sap from the vulnerated 
trunk forms, without any admixture, a beautiful red indelible pigment. 

Betula alba, L.* 

The ordinary Birch of Europe and extratropical Aeoa. It attains a 
height of 80 feet, and would here thrive best in moist glens of the 
rauges, or in the higher regions of our mountains, where it would 
form up at the Aljaue Zone excellent shelter plantations. The durable 
bark serves for roofing. Wood white, turning red. The oU of the 
bark is used in preparing the Busuan leatlMr. 

BettQa nigra, L. 

The Black or River Birch of North America. One of the tallest of 
Birches. If grown on the banks of a lim{^ stream, it wBl bear ittieose 
heat. The wood Is compact, of a light colour. 

Betala papyraoea. Ait 

The Paper Birch of North America. A larger tree than B, Ma, with 
a fine-grained wood and a tough bark ; much used for portable canoes. 
It likes a cold situation. 

BetiOa lenta, Wiiki. 

The Cherry Birch of North America. A tree of middle si^e, liking 
moist ground. Bark aromatia Wood rose-coloured or dark, fine- 
grained, excellent for furniture. Several Birches occur in Japan, which 
might well be tried here. 

Oarpinua Betnlns, L. 

The Hornbeam. A tree of 80 feet high. Middle and South Europe. 
Wood pak, ei a horny toughness and hardness, close-grained, but not 
elastic. This tree would serve to arrest the progress of bushfires, if 
planted in copses or hedges like willows and poplars around forest 
plantations. A smaller species, Oarpinus Americana, Mich., yields the 
Ironwood of North America. Four species oocur in Japan ( C. cord<U<h 
C, eroMf C. laxiflora, Cjaponica (Blume). Carpinui viminea (Widlich) 
is a species with durable wood from the middle regions of Nepal 

Oarja alba, Nuttall.* 

The Shellbark-Hickory. A deciduous tree, 90 feet high, which delights 
in rich forest 8<^1 ; a native of North America, Wood strong, elastic, 
and tenacious, but not very durable. Yields the main rapply of 
Bickory nata« All tbe hickories aire extttttirdy uted in Noilli America 
for hoops. 



«7 

CasTa atnara, NnttaD. 

The Bittemnt Tree or Swamp Hickorj. A tree, 80 feet high, in 
Bwampy grounds of North America. Wood less valuable than that of 
other Hickories. 

Carya glabra, Torrey .♦ {Carya porcina, Nuttall.) 

The Hognut Tree. A tree» 80 feet high, in forest land of North 
America. Wood very tcngh ; the heart-wood reddish or dark-coloured ; 
much used for azletrees and axehandles. 

Carya oliviformis, Nutt«dl.» 

The Pecan Nut Tree. A lofty tree, fond of riyer banks in North 
America. 

Caiya snloata, NuttalL* 

The Furrowed Hickory and Shellbark Hickory of some districts ; also 
Sliagbark Hickory. A tree, 80 feet high, in damp woods of North 
America. Heart-wood pale-coloured. Seed of sweet pleasant taste. 

Carya tomentosa, Nuttall.* 

The Mocker Nnttree or White Heart Hickory. A big tree of North 
America. Likes forest soil, not moist Heart-wood pale-colonred, 
remarkable for strength and durability. Seeds very oily. Nut small, 
but sweet. A variety produces nuts as large as an apple. 

Castanea sativa, Miller.* (C. vesea Gctrtner.) 

The Sweet Chesnut Tree. South Enrope and temperate Asia, as far as 
Japan, and 9 variety with smaller frnits extending to North America. 
It attains an enormous age; at Mount Etna an individual tree 
occurs with a stem 204 feet in circumference. The wood is light 
and coarse-grained ; the importance of the tree rests on its adapta- 
bility for shade plantations, its nutritious nuts and timber value. 

Castanopsis argentea, A. Caadolle. 

A lofty tree in the mountains of India, produces also edible chesnati* 
Other species of the genus Castanopsis are valuable. 

Casnarina glanoa, Sieber. 

The Desert Sheoak, widely distributed through Australia, but nowhere 
in forest-like masses. This species attains, in favourable places, a 
height of 80 feet. Its hard durable wood is valuable. Important for 
its rapid growth, resistance to exposure for shelter plantation, and 
a spe^y supply of fuel, a remark which applies also to the following 
species. 

Casuarina qnadrivalvis, Labillard. 

The Coast Sheoak of South-east Australia, but not merely living in 
coast sand, but also on barren places up to the hills inland. Height 
to 60 feet. The male tree is very eligible for avenues, the foliage of 
the species being drooping. Cattle are fond of the foliage. For 
arresting the ingress of coast sand by belts of timber, this is one of 
the most important trees. It produces, like other Casuarinas, seeds 
eaily and copiously, and is easily raised. 

Gasnarina snberosa, WOld. 

The Erect Sheoak of South East Australia. Height to 40 feet. A 
beautiful shady species. Caiuarina trickodon (Miq.), O, Fraterianot 
fMiq.), and O, Huegeliana (Miq.), are arboreous speaes of South-west 
Australia, all valuable for their wood. 

Cedrela Taona, Roxburgh.* 

The Singapore Cedar. A meve variety of this is the Bed Cedar of East 
Australia {Cedrela AuitraiU, Cunn.) The light beautiful wood, easily 
worked and sosoeptible of high polish, la miMh in «e(|aMt for 



18 

famitQre, for the mannfacture of pianofortes, .for boAt-boildiiig and a 
yariety of other work. As this important tree is largely extirpated in 
the cedar brushes, it is highly desirable to form of it in our rich forest 
gnllies independent plantations for future local supply. The Bed 
Cedar is hardy at Melbourne, but in our open exposed gardens and 
poor soil of slow growth. 

Geltis Australis, L. 

The Lotus tree of South Europe and North Africa. Of longevity, 50 feet 
' high, available for avenues. Berries edible. Wood hard and dense, 
eligible particularly for turners and carvers' work. 

Celtis Oooidentalis, L. 

The Huckberry Tree. A fine forest tree in Ohio, and other parts of 
North America. Height, 80 feet. The variety called C, croisifolxa is 
the best. The sweet fruits edible. Wood elastic and fissile. 

Geratonia SUiqua, L. 

The Carob tree of the Mediterranean regions. It attains a height 
^ of 30 feet and resists drought well. Wood pale red. The saccharine 

pods, Algaroba or 8t. John's Bread, of value for domestic animals. 

The seeds germinate readily. 

Cixmamomtim Camphora, Nees.* 

The Camphor tree of China and Japan, attaining a height of aboat 
40 feet. It endures the occasional frosts of Port -Phillip, though the 
foliage will suffer. The wood, like all other parts of the tree, is 
pervaded by Camphor, hence resists the attack of insects. 

Ck>rylas Ck>liima, L. 

The Constantinople Nut tree, the tallest of Hasels, attaining 60 feet 
in height, of rather quick growth. This, as well as the European 
Basel (CoryluB Avellana,lt.) and the Japan Hazel f (7. heterophyUa^ 
Fitcher) might be grown for copses in onr forest gullies. 

CtorynocarpuB laevigata, Forst 

The Earaka of New Zealand and the principal forest tree of the 
Chatham Islands, attaining the height of 60 feet. The wood is 
light, and used by the natives for canoes. The pulp of the fruit is 
edible. Cattle browse on the foliage. In rich humid soil the tree 
can be adopted for avenues. 

Diospyros Virginiana, L. 

The N. American Ebony or Parsimon. A tree 60 feet high. Wood 
very hard and blackish. The sweet variety yields a good table fruit. 

Engelhardtia spicata, Blume. 

The spurious Walnut tree of the mountains of Java and the Himalayas* 
It reaches a height of 200 feet. 

Enoalyptus amygdalina, I^abill. 

In our sheltered springy forest glens attaining not rarely a height of 
ovet 400 feet, there forming a smooth stem and broad leaves, pro- 
ducing also seedlings of a foliage different to the ordinary state of 
Euc, amygdalinat as occurs in more open country. This species or 
variety, which might be called Eucalyptus regnans, represents the 
loftiest tree in British territory, and ranka next to the Sequoia Welling^ 
tonia in size anywhere on the globe. The wood is fissile, well adapted 
for shingles, rails, for housebuilding, for the keelson and plank- 
ing of ships and other purposes. Lablllardidre's name applies ill to 
any of the forms of this species. SeedlingH raised on rather barren 
ground near Melbourne have shown the same amitfing rapidity of 
growth as those of Euc. globulus; yet, like those of Euc, obli^a^ 
/ they «re not ao easily satiflfied with any soil. 



49 

Siioailjptiis oitrlodora, Hooker. 

Qaeeosland. It combines with the ordinary qaalities of many Eacalypts 
the advantage of yielding from its leaves a rather large supply of 
volatile oil of excellent lemon-like fragrance. 

Bnoalyptns diversioolor, F. v. Mneller. 

The Karri of S. W. Australia* A colossal tree, exceptionally reaching 
to the height of 400 feet, with a proportionate girth of the stem. The 
timber is excellent. Fair progress of growth is shown by the young 
trees, planted even in dry exposed localities in Melbourne. The shady 
foliage and dense growth of the tree promise to render it one of our 
best for avenues. In it8nati?e localities it occupies fertile, rather humid 
valleys. 

BnoalTptxis globulus, Iiabill. 

Blue Gumtree of Victoria and Tasmania. This tree is of extremely 
rapid growth and attains a height of 400 feet, furnishing a first^slass 
wood ; shipbuilders get keels of this timber 120 feet long ; besides this 
they use it extensively for planking and many other parts of the ship, 
and it is considered to be generally superior to American Bock Elm. A 
test of strength has been made between some Blue Gum, English Oak, 
and Indian Teak. The Blue Gum carried 14 lbs. weight more than the 
Oak and 17 lbs. 4o2sS. more than Teak upon the square inch. Blue Gum 
wood, besides for shipbuilding, is very extensively used by carpenters 
for all kinds of out-ooor work, also for fence rails, railway sleepers — 
lasting about 9 years,~for shafts and spokes of drays, and a variety of 
other purposes. 

Eaoalyptus gomphooephala, CandoUe. 

The Tooart of S. W. Australia ; attains a height of 50 feet. The wood 
is close-grained, hard and not rending. It is used for shipbuilding, 
wheelwright's work and other purposes of artisans. 

Euoalyptus marginata, Smith.* 

The Jarrah or Mahogany tree of S. W. Australia, famed for its inde- 
structible wood, which is attacked neither by Chelura nor Teredo nor 
Termites, and therefore so much sought for jetties and other structurei 
exposed to sea-water, also for any underground work, and largely 
exported for rsulway sleepers. Vessels built of this timber have been 
enabled to do away with all copperplating. It is very strong, of a close 
grain and a slightly oily apd resinous nature ; it works well, makes a 
fine finish, and is by shipbuilders here considered superior to either 
Oak, Teak, or indeed any other wood. The tree grows chiefly on iron- 
stone ranges. At Melbourne it is not quick of growth, if compared to 
our Blue Gum (Euc. globulus, Lab.) or to our Stringyl»rk {E. Miqua, 
rjUer.), but it is likely to grow with celerity in our ranges. 

Enoalyptus rostrata, SchlechtendaL 

The Bed Gum of Victoria, South Australia and many river fiats in the 
interior of the Australian continent. Although a native tree of this 
colony, it has been introduced into this list on account of its wood 
being of extraordinary endurance under ground, and for this reason so 
highly valued for fence-posts, piles and railway sleepers ; for the latter 
purpose it will last at least a dozen years, and, if well selected, much 
longer. It is also extensively used by shipbuilders— for main stem, stern 
post, inner post, dead wood, floor timbers, futtocks, transomes, knight 
head, hawsepieces, cant, stern, quarter and fashion timber, bottom 
planks, breasthooks and riders, windlass, bowrails, &c. It should be 
steam^ before it is worked for planking. Next to the Jarrah from 
West Australia this is the best wood for resisting the attacks of sea- 
worms and white ants. For other details of the uses of this and other 
native trees refer to the Beports of the Victorian Exhibitions of 1862 and 



00 

1867. Thetneatttinsahdghtof foltjlOO tMt The sopply for oav 
locftlwttatifiUlialfMdyduNrtyaAd cannot ba obtained from Tasmftnia, 
whora the troe does not natarally eziit 

Xuoftljptus Sidoroi^lOBy Cann. 

Iron Bark tree. It attains a height of 100 feet, and sapplies a 
raloable timber, poeeeesing great strength and haidoess ; it is mucli 
prised for its durability by carpenters, ship-builders, &c. It is largely 
employed by waggon-builders for wheels, poles, &c. ; by ship-builders 
for top sides, tree nails, the rudder (stock), belaying pins and other 
purposes ; it is also used by turners for rough work. This is considered 
the strongest wood in our colony. It is much recommended for railway 
sleepers, and extensively used in underground mining work. 

EzoSBOaria seblferay J. M. {StiUingia sebifera, Mich.) 

The tallow tree of China and Japan. The fi^ coating of the seeda 
yield the TQgetable tallow. The wood is so hard and dense as to be 
used for printing blocks; the leaves furnish a black dye. The tree 
endures Uie night frosts of our open lowlands, though its foliage fauffem. 

TtLgua Cminingliaiiil, Hooker. 

The Victorian and Tasmanian Beech. A magnificent evergreen tree, 
attaining colossal dimensions, and only living in cool damp rich forest 
valleys, not rarely 200 feet high. The wood much used by carpenters 
and other artisans*, the myrtlewood of the trade. It requires to be 
ascertained by actual tests in the forests, whether the allied tall ever- 
green New Zealand Beeches possess any advantage over ours for foiest 
culture, they are: Foffut Menziesii, Hooker, the Red Birch of the 
colonists; Fagusfutcat Hook., the Black Birch ; Fagua Solandrij Hook, 
the White Birch. A magnificent beech, Fagu9 Moorei, F. von Mu^L 
occurs in New England, 

FsLgVLB sHvatioa, L. 

The deciduous beech of Britain, of most other parts of Europe and 
extra tropical Asia, and as Fagus ferruginea, Ait. in a particular variety, 
extending through North America. The trunk has been measured in 
height 118 feet, the head 850 feet in diameter ; the wood is hard, exten- 
sively used by joiners and ship-builders. An allied Beech, Fagus 
Sieboldii, Endl., occurs in Japan. All these could here be grown to 
advantage only in our springy mountain forests. 

Fiona Sycamoms, L. 

The Sycomore fig tree of the Orient, copiously planted along the road 
sides of Egypt. The shady crown extends to a width of 120 feet. 
Though introduced, we have as yet no local means of raising this tree 
in quantity, and must therefore rely on fresh importations of cuttings 
or more particularly seeds. 

nous maorophyUa, Desfont. 

The Moreton Bay Fig-tree, which is indigenous through a great part 
of East Australia . Perhaps the grandest of our avenue trees, and among 
the very best to be planted, although in poor dry soil its growth is slow. 
In our latitudes it is quite hardy in the lowland. The foliage may 
occasionally be injured by grasshoppers. Easily raised from seed. 

Frazinns Americana, L.* 

The White Ash of North America. A large tree, 80 feet high, which 
delights in humid forests. Timber valuable, better resisting extreme 
heat than the common Ash. The Bed Ash {Fraxinut pube»€ens. Lam.), 
the Green Ash {F. viridis, Michx.), the Black Ash {F, tambueifolia^ 
Lam.), and *the Oarolina Ash {F, platgearj>a, Michx.}, are of smaller 
sice. 



The ordittaiy Ash of Boiope and West Asia. Height 90 feet, of com- 
paratively qaick growth, known to attain an age of nearly 200 years. 
Bich soil on forest rimlets or rirerbanks snit it best ; wood remark- 
ably tongb and elastic, used for agricultural and other implements, for 
oars, azletrees and maoy other purposes. Six peculiar kinds of ash 
trees occur in Japan, some also in the' Indian Highlands; all might 
be tried here. 

Fraziniis floribnndat Don. 

Nepal Ash, 40 feet high. 
Frazixiiis Onms, L.« 

The Manna Ash of the Mediterranean regions. Height abottt 80 feet. 

It yields the medicinal manna. 

Fraxinus qaadrangnlata, Michx.* 

The Blue Ash of North America. One of the tallest of the Ashes, 70 
feet high, with an excellent timber. 

Frazinns Tiridls, Mich. 

The Qreen Ash of North America. Height 70 feet ; wood exoeUent. 

Gleditsohia triaoanthos, L. 

The deciduous Honey Locust tree of North America. Height up to 80 
feet. Wood hard, coarse-grained, fissile. Sown closely, this plant forms 
impenetrable, thorny, not readily combustible hedges. An allied species 
the O. horrida, Willd. in East Asia. The Water Locust tree of North 
America {Oleditschia monosperma, Walt.), will grow in swamps to 
80 feet. 

Grevlllea robnsta, Cunningh.* 

Our beautiful Lawntree, indigenous to the subtropical part of East Aus- 
tralia, 100 feet high, of rather rapid growth, and resisting drought in 
a remarkable degree ; hence one of the most eligible trees for desert- 
culture. Our cultiyated trees yield now already an ample supply of 
seeds. The wood is valued particularly for stayes of casks. 

Gnevina Avellana, }io\in% (Quadria heterophyUa^ R. & P.) 

The eyergreen Hazel tree of Chili, growing as far as 30® S. It attains a 
height of 80 feet, and yields the Hazel nuts of S. America 

Gymnooladns Oanadensis, Lamark. 

The Ghirot. A North American timber and avenue tree, attaining 
a height of 80 feet ; allied to Gleditschia, but, as the name implies, 
thornless. The wood is strong, tough, compact, fine-grained, and 
assumes a rosy color. 

Jnglans oinereay L.* 

The Butternut tree of N. America. About 50 feet high ; stem-diameter 
4 feet. Likes rocky places in rich forests. Wood lighter than that of 
the Black Walnut, durable and free from attacks of insects.* 

Jnglans nigra, L.« 

Black Walnut tree. Attains a height of 70 feet ; trunk 4 feet in dia- 
meter; found in rich forest land in N. America. Wood purplish 
brown, turning dark with age, strong, tough, not liable to warp or to 
split; not attacked by insects. Seed more oily than the European 
Wahiut: 

Jnglans regia, L.* 

The ordinary Walnut tree of Europe, but of Central Asiatic origin ; 
it attains a height of fully 80 feet, and liyes many centuries. Wood 
light and tough, much sought for gunstocks, fnmituie and other things. 
The shells of the nut yield black pigment. Trees of choice quality of 



63 

wood liAYO been sold for £600, the wood Mng the most yaliiahle of 
middle Europe. Can be grown in cold localitiee, sb it lives at 2000 feet 
elevation in middle Europe. The Caiifomtan Walnnt tree {Jugltmi 
rupettris, Eogelmann) and the Chinese Walnat tree {Julians Mandchu- 
ricaj Maxim.) ought to be introduced here. 

Lexioadendron argentetun, Brown. 

The Silver tree of South Africa is included on this occasion among 
forest trees, because it would add to the splendour of our woods, and 
thrive far better there than in our gardens. Moreover, with this tree many 
others equally glorious might be established in our mild forest glens as 
a source of horticultural wealth, were it only to obtain in future years 
a copious supply of seeds. Mention may be made of the tall Magnolia 
trees of N. America {Magnolia grandiflora, L., 100 feet high ; M. umbrella. 
Lam., 40 feet ; M» acuminata, L., 80 feet; M, cordata, Michz. 50 feet; 
M, Fraseri, Walt., 40 feet; M, maerophylla, Michz., 40 feet), M. Yulan, 
Desf. of China, 60 feet ; Magnolia Campbellit Hook., of the Himalayas, 
160 feet high and flowers nearlv a foot across ; M, sphaerocarpa, Bozb., 
also of the Indian Highlands, 40 feet ; the North American Tulip tree 

ilAriodendron tulipifera, L.), 140 feet high, stem 9 feet in diameter ; the 
lediterranean Styraz tree (Styrax officinalis, li.) ; Stenoearpus tinuosui, 
Endl., of East Australia (the most brilliaDt of the Proteacem) ; the 
crimson and scarlet Bates of New Zealand (Metrosiderot florida, Sm. ; 
M, lucida, Meuz. ; M. robusta, Cunn., 80 feet nigh ; M, tomentosa, Cunn.» 
40 feet) ; fuchtia ezcorticata, L., also from New Zealand, stem 2 feet in 
diameter; the crimson-flowered Eucalyptus ficifolia of West Aus- 
tralia; Rhododendon Falconeri, Hooker, from Upper India, 50 feet 
high, leaves 18 inches long. In the Sassafras gullies, here alluded to, 
also may be planted the great Melaleuca ^ Leucadendron, L., the true 
Asiatic Cajuput tree, wbieh grows to a height of 100 feet ; even the 
North European Holly (Hex Aquifolium), which occasionally rises to 
60 feet, though both from regions so distant. 

Liquidambar Altingla, Blume. 

At the Red Sea and in the mountains of India and New Guinea, at 
8000 feet, and probably hardy in the warmer parts of our colony. The 
tree attains a height of 200 feet. It yields the fragrant balsam known 
as liquid Storaz. 

Liquidambar stTraoiflua, L. 

The Sweet-Gum tree. In morasses and on the springs of the forests of 
N. America, with a wide geographic range. The tree attains vast 
dimensions of its crown ; the stem 10 feet in diameter. The terebin- 
thine juice hardens, on ezposure, to a resin of benzoin odour. Wood 
fine-grained. 

Haoadamia temifolia, F. von MoeU. - (Helicia temifoUa, F. M. ) 

The Nut tree of subtropic East Australia, attaining a height of 60 feet; 
hardy, as far south as Melbourne ; in our forest valleys likely of fair 
celerity of growth. The nuts have the taste of hazels. 

Horns rubra, L. 

The Bed Mulberry tree of Korth America is the largest of the genus, 
attaining a height of 70 feet ; it produces a strong and compact timber. 
The White Mulberry tree {Morus alba, L.), with others, ofifering food 
to the silkworms, should be planted copiously everywhere for hedges or 
copses. 

Haolura aurantiaoa, Nuttall. 

The Osage Orange of North America. Greatest height 60 feet; wood 
bright yellow, very elastic, fine-grained. For deciduous thomhedgea 
the plant is important; its value for silkworms needs further to be 
tested. 



«$ 

Ostcya oarpinifblia» So(H[x>]L 

South Europe, and Orient The Hop Hombeaiu A deciduoos iree^ 
eo feet high. 

Ostrya Virginica, Willdenow. 

Leyerwood tree of North America, 40 feet high, in rich woodlands. 
Wood singularly hard, close-grained andheavj, in use lor levers mucL 
other implements. 

Pistaoia vera, L. 

Indigenous in the Orient, as far as Persia. A deciduous tree, 80 feet 
high, yielding the Pistacia Nuts of commerce, remarkable for their 
green almond-like kernels. The likewise deciduous Mediterranean 
Piitacia TerebinthuB, L. , yielding the Ohio Turpentine, the P. Atlantica, 
Desf., and the evergreen South European Pistacia Lentiscus, L., 
furnishing the mastiz, grow rarely to the size of large trees. 

Flanera Japonioa, Miquel. 

Considered one of the best timber trees of Japan. 

Flatanua oooidentalls, L. 

The true Plane tree of the East part of North America. More eligible as 
an avenue tree, than as a timber tree ; diameter of stem at times 14 
feet ; wood dull red. 

Platanns orientalls, L. 

The Plane tree of South Europe and Middle Asia. One of the grandest 
trees for lining roads and for street planting, deciduous like the other 
planes, rather quick of growth, and not requiring much water ; attains 
a height of 90 feet. The wood is well adapted for furniture and other 
kinds of cabinet work. 

natanns raoemosa, Nuttall. 

The Califomian Plane tree. Wood harder and thus more durable 
then that of P. occidentalis, also less liable to warp. 

Fopnlus alba, L. 

The Abele or White Poplar of Europe and Middle Asia. Height 90 feet 
It proved here an excellent avenue tree, even in comparatively water- 
less situations, and gires by the partial whiteness of its foliage a 
l^easing effect in any plantation. Populut eanesceni, Sm., the grey 
Poplar, is either a variety of the Abele or its hybrid with the Aspen, 
and jrields a better timber for carpenters and millwrights. 

Populns balsamifidra, L. 

The Tacamahac or Balsam Poplar, of the colder, but not the coldest 
parts of North America, 80 feet high. Its variety is P, candicant, 
Alton. 

Popnlua grandidentata, Michauz. 

North America, 60 feet high. A kind of Aspen. 
Populua heterophylla, L. 

The downy Poplar of North America. Height 60 feet 

PopTilua moniliflsra, Alton. (P. Canadentii, Desf.) 

The Cottonwood tree of North America. Height 100 feet. One of the 
# best poplars for the production of timber. 

Popnlns nigra, L. 

The European Black Poplar, extending spontaneously to China. It 
includes Populw dxlaiaia^ Alton, or as a contracted variety^ P. faiti" 



ffiata, DesL, the Lombardy Poplar. Ghpeafort hdght IB^ faei Onnrtti 
ispid, like that «f ail other poplan. Wood 0oft,|light and of looee 
texture, used by joiners, coopers and tamers, famishing also saperior 
charcoaL Bark employed in tanning. The tree requires damp'soii 

PqPq1iI9 tremtUaiTi. 

The European Aspen. Height 80 feet It extends to Japaa, where also 
a peculiar species, Populut Sieboldii (Miq.) exists. T^ aspettwood is 
white and tender, and in use by coopers and joiners. 

FopTilus tremuloidea, Michaux, 

The North American Aspen< Height 60 feet It extends west to 
Oalifomia, where a partioalar species, Pop, trichoearpm, Torrey, oocurst 
All Poplars might be pbmted like all WiUows, in our gallies, to 
intercept forest-fires, also generally on river>banks. 

Qnerous iBgilops, L.* 

South Earm>e. A tree of the size of the British Oak. The cape, 
known as vidonia, osed for tanning and dyeing; Hm unripe aoonis as 
Camata or Camatena, for the same purpose. The wood is capital to 
furniture. 

Queroos alba, L.* 

The White or Quebec Oak. A most valuabTe timber tree, 100 feet high ; 
diameter of stem, 7 feet. Wood in use by ship-builders, wheelwrights, 
coopers and other artisans. ' - 

Qaefoaa anaulata, Smith. 

A large Oak of Nepal, which provides a yery good timber. 
Querous aqxiatloft, Walter, 

North America. Height of tree 60 feet ; it ^(»|8hflli a •iq[>erior bark 

for tanning, also wood for ship-building. 

Qierons Gerris, L. 

South Earope, of the height of the English Oak, in suitable localities 
of quick growth. The foHage dedduoos, or also evergreen. The wood 
available for wheelwrights, cabinetmakers, tumeric peapeiss tik» ipr 
building purposes. 

Qnerena oooGi£9ra,L. 

The dedduoos Eeimes Oak pi flbath Boom; so called from tiie red 
dye, famished by the Cocm9 iliei$, ftfom (l|ia Oak. It also snppliea 
tanner's bark. The huge and aaeient AJmhamli Oak bslonga to thia 
species. * 

QaerooB coooinea, Wangenheim. 

The Black Oak of North America* Height 100 feet; -stem-diameter, 
5 feet. Foliage deciduous. The yellow dye, kn^ewn as Quercitron, 
comes from this tree. Bark rich in tannic acid. 

Querous oomea, Loureiro. 

China. An evergreen tree, 40 feet high. Acoms used, fi>r loqd. 
QtierotLB fletloata, Michaux. 

North Ameri(». Foliage dedlduoas. lives in ^ly 8MQ4iy gveond. 

A good-sized tree with excellent tanner's bark. 

QnQroua Hex, L. 

The Holly Oak of South Ehxrope. Height of tree 50 feet. WoOd in 
use for sbip-building, bark fbr tanning. From varieties of this tret 
are obtained the sweet and nourishing Ballota and Chesni^ aeoma^ 

Quoreos Ineana, Boxb. 

A Hkaal^yan timber tree of great dimensIoDSy beantUol, eTBigreeiL 



65 

Q;aerotis infeotoria, OUt. 

Oely 1^ smaXi tree, with dAcidaoos foliage. Chiefly from this tree the 
galls of commerce are obtained* 

Qnerons lanoifolia, Boxb. 

A taU limber tree a( the Himalayas. Wood valued for its durability. 
Q;iier<ms xoaorooarpa, Michx.* 

The Bur Oak of North America. Tree 70 feet high. The timber 

nearly as good as that of the White Oak. 

QjOfirons paluatriiSy Du BqI. 

The Marsh Oak of No^h America. Height 80 feet ; of quick growth 
The wood, though pot fiQe-grained, is strong and tough. 

QiaeroiLs Frlnua, L. 

The North American Swamp Oak. A tree» 90 feet high, available for 
wet localities. Foliage deciduous. Wood strong and diastio, of fine 
grain. A red dye is produced from the bark. 

Querona Bobnr, L. * 

The British Oak, extending through a great part of ISurope and 
Western Asia, attaining a great age and an enormous size. Extreme 
height 120 feet. Two yarieties are distinguished : — 1. Quercua 
ses^Qifiora, Salisbury. The Durmast Oak, with a darker, heavier timber, 
more elastic, less fissile. This tree is also the quickest of the two in 
growth, and lives on poorer soil Its bark Is ^so richer in medicinal, 
dyeing and tanning principles. 2. Quercus peduneutata^ Willd. This 
variety supplies most of tiie oak-timber in Britain for ship-bnildiog, 
and Is the heat for bending under steam. It is also pieferred for 
jQin«r's work. 

Querons rubra, L. 

The Bed Oak of North America. Height 100 feet ; diameter of stem^ 
4 feet. The wood is not of value ; but the bark is rich in tannin. 
Autnpnal tint of foliage beautifully rfd. 

Qinerons semeoarpifbllay Smith. 

In the Himalayas. Height of tree often 100 feet; girth ql stem 
18 feet It furnishes a first-class timben 

QoOTOWS aenrftta, Thunbeig. 

One of the 23 known Japan Oaks. It yields the best food for the 
oak silkworm {Bomtyx Tomaisai.) 

Qnerons Slderozylon, Qumboldt. 

Mountains of Mexico, at 8,000 feet elevation. An Oak of grea^ size, 
of compact timber, almost imperishable in water, Q. ImceQlata, Q, 
ehryiophyllay O, reticulata^ Q. laurinot 0. obtumtar Q, ^lauceaeent, 
Q. Xalapen%i9 (Humb,) and Q, acutifolia (Nee), are among the many 
other highly important timber Oaks of the cooler regions Gi Mexicou 

Qioeroas 0(|ttamata,BexbBigli. 

One of the tallest of the Himalayan Oa^s, Wood lasting, 

QtteroBs Saber, L,# 

The Cork Oak of South Europe and North Africa; evergreen. It 
attains an age of fully 200 years. After about 20 years it can be 
stripped of its bark every 6 or 7 years ; but the best cork is obtained 
from trees over 40 years Mi, Ikight of tree about 40 feet. Aooms 
of a sweetish taste^ 



56 

Qnerons Snndaioa, Blame. 

One of the oaks from the moantainB of Jav^t where several other 
Talaable timber oaks exist. 

Queroxis Toza^ Bosc 

South Europe. One of the handsomest oaks, and one of the qnickest of 
growth. Foliage evergreen. 

Queroos virens, L.* 

The Live Oak of North America, evergreen, 60 feet high. Supplies a 
most valuable timber for shipbuildiDg ; it is heavy, compact, fine- 
grained ; it is moreover the strongest and most durable of all American 
Oaks. Like Q. obtusiloba, Michauz., it lives also on seashores, helping 
to bind the Band, but it is then not of tall stature. Of many of the 300 
Oaks of both the Western and Eastern portion of the Northern hemis- 
phere, the properties remained unreconled and perhaps unexamined ; 
but it would be important to introduce as many kinds as possible for 
local test-growth. The acorns, when packed in dry moss, retain 
their vitality for some months. The species with deciduous foliage are 
not desirable for massive ornamental planting, because in this clime 
they shed their dead leaves tardily during the very time of our greatest 
verdure. 

Rhus vemioifera, Cand. 

Extends from Nepal to Japan. It forms a tree of fair size, and 3rield8 
the Japan varnish. 

Rhus suooedanea, L. 

The Japan Wax tree, the produce of which has found its way into the 
English market. The Sumach (Ekus eoriaria, L.), and the Sootino 
(Rhus Cotinus, L.), both important for superior tanning and for dyeing, 
thrive here quite as well as in South Europe. They are more of shrubby 
growth. 

Robinia Psendaoaoia, L. 

The North American Locust Acacia. Height to 90 feet. * The strong 
hard and durable wood is for a variety of purposes in use, and par- 
ticularly eligible for tree nails. The roots are poisonous. The allied 
Bobinia viscosa attains a height of 40 feet 

8assafiras officinale, Hayne. 

The deciduous Sassafras tree, indigenous from Canada to Florida, in 
dry open woods. Height 50 feet ; leaves lobed ; wood and bark medici- 
naJ, and used for the distillation of Sassafras oil. 

SoplLora Japonioa, L. 

A tree of China and Japan, resembling the Laburnum, up to 60 feet 
high ; wood hard and compact, valued for turner's work. AU parts of 
the plant purgative ; the flowers rich in a yellow dye. 

Salix alba, L.« 

The Huntingdon or Silky Willow of Europe and Middle Asia. Hdgbt 
80 feet, circumference of stem 20 feet ; wood light and elastic, available 
for carpenter s work and implements, bark for tanning. The golden 
Osier (Salix vitellina; L.), is a variety. The shoots are used for hoope 
and wickerwork. 

Salix Babylonloa, Tournefort. 

The Weeping Willow, indigenous from West Asia as fur aa Japan. 
Important for oonsolidathig river banks. 



57 

Sallx oaprea, L. 

The British Sallow or Hedge Willow; grows also to a tree ; wood oseM 
for handles and other implements, bark for tspining. It is the earliest 
flowering willow. 

Salix oordata, Moehlenb. 

One of the Osiers of North America. 

Salix daplmoideSy Yillars. 

Middle Europe and Northern Asia, as fsr as the Amoor. A tree of 
remarkable rapidity of growth, 12 feet in four years. 

Sallx firagills, L. 

The Crack Willow. Height 90 feet, stem to 20 feet in girth. A variety 
of this species is the Bedford Willow, SaUx Euaelliana, Smith, which 
yields a ligbt elastic tongh timber, more tannin in its bark than oi^, 
and more salicine (a sabstitnte for quinine) than most congeners. 

Sallx laaoeolata, Smith. 

One of the Basket WiUows, cultivated in Britain. 

Sallx luoiday Muehlenb. 

One of the Osiers of North America. 
Sallx purpurea, L. 

Of wide range in Europe and West Asia. One of the Osiers. 
SaUx rubra, Hudson. 

Throughout Europe, also in West Asia and North Africa; is much 

chosen for Osier b^ds. When cut down, it will make shoots 8 feet long 

in a season. 

Sallx triandra, L.* (5. amy^dalina, L.) 

The Almond Willow, through nearly all Europe and extratroplcal Asia. 
Height of tree 30 feet. Shoots 9 feet long, for hoops and white basket 
work, being pliant and durable. 

SaUx vimlnaUs, L.« 

The common Osier of Europe and North Asia, attains the height of 30 
feet. One of the best for wicker-work and hoops ; when cut it shoots 
up to a length of 12 feet. It would lead too fiir to enumerate even the 
more important willows all on this occasion. Professor Andersson, of 
Stockholm, admits 158 species. Besides these, numerous hybrids exist. 
Many of the taller of these willows could here be grown to advantage. 

Tilla Americana, L. 

The Basswood tree or North American Linden tree, growing to 52^ 
North Latitude. Height of tree 80 feet, diameter of stem 4 feet ; wood 
pale and soft. TiHa heterophylla, Vent, the Silver Lime of North 
America^ and Tilla Manchurioa, Bapr., of South Siberia might be tested. 

Tllla Enropsea, L. 

The common Lime of Europe, eztendii]^ naturally to Japan, the large 
leaved variety of 'South European origin. Height ap to 120 feet, 
exceptionally 60 feet in girth. Tbe wood pale, so^ and close-grained, 
sought for turnery and carving ; the bast excellent for mats. 

Ulmua alata, Michx. 

The Whahoo Elm of North America. Height of tree 80 feet; wood 
fine-grained, 

Ulmus Americana, L. 

The White Elm of North America, a tree fond of moist river banks, 
100 feet high ; trunk 60 feet, 5 feet in diameter. 



M 

Ulmiui oampestriSy L.« 

Til* ordinary Blm, IndigMoas to Soalh llhuope and iMnperato AeHtk, as 
ftur BMt at Japan. 8«iMral maiked farleUed, sooh as the Oork film 
and Wych Elm, exist. Tlie Elm in attaining an age of sereral centariea 
becomes fimdly of enormons siae. The wood is tough, hard, fine-grained 
and remarkably durable, if constantly under water; next to the Yew, it 
is the best of European woods, wliere great elasticity is required, as for 
archery bows. It is also used for keels, blocks and wheels. Bast tough. 

Ulmus Floridana, Chapman. 

The West Florida Shn, 40 feet high. 
Ulmus folva, Michx. 

The Slippery or Bed Elm of North America, 60 fe^ high ; wood red, 

tenacious. 

Ulmtui raoemoaa, Thomaa. 

The Ooric Elm of North America. 

For fuller information on trees, long known, refer to Loudon's 
Classic "Arboretum;" also for many further details to lindley's 
Treasury of Botany, to Asa Qra/s Manual, to Nuttall's North 
American Sylva, to Lawson's Pmetnm and many looal works; 
also to the volumes of the Exhibitions of 1862 and 1S67. 

The trees marked with an asterisk * should receive prominent 
attention in Victorian woodoulture. The dimensions given are the 
greatest, of which the writer could trace reliable records. 



•TllLWIIiL AXB VXZOST, FBXXTIBS, OOLKOn STUn BAST, MlIAOVmiTB. 



^i^ftMifa 



m^ ..-^ 



mmu 

3 2044 106 223 373 



r