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BEQUEST 
.UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 1 1 
^^ GEaJERAL LIBRARY ' 

LfcI O ■ -■ ' ■" ■■ J , ■ ■JV .i -■'!- ■ - --L. -S-- 



■^ 



REPORT AND TRANSACTIONS 



DEVONSHIRE ASSOCIATION 



FOR 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, LITERATUKE, 
AND AET. 



[LYNTON, JULY, 1906.] 



VOL. XXXVIIL 

[VOL. VIII, 8ECX)ND 8ERIBS.1 



PLYMOUTH : 
W. BRENDON AND SON, Ltd., PRINTERS, 



1906. 

AH rljhtt rrgereed. 



[ 4 1 



The Council and the Editor desire it to be understood that 
they are not answerable for any statements, observations, or 
opinions appearing in any paper printed by the Society ; the 
authors only are responsible. 

The Transactions of the Society are not published, nor 
are they on sale. They are printed for Members only. 





[ 8 ] 



CONTENTS. 



List of Officers . ... 9 

Places of Meeting . ... 10 

Rules . ... 11 

Bje-la^TB and Standing Orders . . 16 

Report of the Conncil ... 21 

Proceedings at the Forty-fifth Annual Meeting . . . 23 

Balance Sheet . . 80, 81 

Selected Minutes of Council appointing Committees . . 82 

Obituary Notices . . ... 84 

President's Address ... 40 

Twenty - fifth Report of the Barrow Committee. R. Hansford 

Worth, C.E. . . . . . . 67 

Twenty-fourth Report (Third Series) of the Committee on the Climate 

of Devon. R. Hansford Worth, c.K. . . . 67 

Twenty-third Report of the Committee on Devonshire Folk-lore. 

P. F. S. Amery ... 87 
Eleventh Report of the Dartmoor Exploration Committee. Rev. I. K. 

Anderson, m.a. .... 101 

The Parishes of Lynton and Countisbury. I. Rev. J. F. Chanter, m.a. 114 

The Parishes of Lynton and Countisbury. IL Rev. J. F. Chanter, M.A. 169 

Documents relating to the above Parishes. Rev. J. F. Chanter, m.a. . 226 

North Devon Pottery of Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries. T. 

Charbonnier . ... 266 

Pigmy Flint Implements in North Devon. Thomas Young, f.r.c.8. . 261 

Some Cryptograms of Braunton and Sherwill. Miss C. E. Larter 270 

Pages from a Manuscript History of Hatherleigh. J. M. Martin 294 

The Earliest Portion of '* Testa de Nevill." J. Horace Round, m.a. . 818 

Fees of Earl Hugh de Courtenay. Rev. T. W. Whale, m.a. . 818 
The Early Descent of the Devonshire Estates of the Honoura of Mortain 

and Okehampton. Rev. Oswald J. Reichel, m.a., d.c.l. . 887 

The Recent Neuroptera of Devon. C. A. Briggs, f.e.s. . 867 

Supposed Currency Bars, Holne Chase. P. F. S. Amery . 870 



6 



CONTENTS. 



Ancient Oak Altar in St Peter's Chnrch, Tawttock. G. R. Baker 

King, F.K.I.B.A. . ... 877 

Old Tiverton or Twyford. MIbs Emily Skinner . . 880 

The Private Chapele of Devon: Ancient and Modem. Rev. D'Oyly W. 

Oldham, m.a. ... 891 

Totnes : Its Mayors and Mayoralties. Part VI. Edward WindeaU . 404 

The Forest Bounds near Princetown. Arthur B. Prowse, m.i»., f.r.c.8. 411 

Raleghana. Part VIII. T. N. Brushfield, m.d. . . 416 

Botanical Notes. Part III. Miss Helen Saunders . . 491 

The Accounts of the Head and Subsidiary Wardens of South Tawton. 

I. Introduction. II. Accounts of Subsidiary Wardens. Miss £. 

Lega-Weekes . ... 497 

Devonshire Wit and Humour. III. J. D. Prickman . . . 529 

The Stone Bows of Dartmoor. VI. Rev. J. F. Chanter and 

R. Hansford Worth, c.s. . ... 585 

Rude Stone Monuments. II. R. Hansford Worth, c.E. . . 588 



List of Members 
Index . 



. 558 



571 



[ 7 ] 



PLATES. 



Bkpokt of Barrow OoMMiTm— 

Plate I. Urn found in Barrow near Brockenborrow 
,, II. Plan of Five Barrows 



To face p. 62 
68 



BSPORT OF COMMITTBE OV THK ClIMATR OF DkYON— 

Plat«8 I, II, and 111. Diagrams showing Rainfkll at Druid, 
Ashbnrton ..... 

Rsport of Dartmoor Exploration OoMMrrrsK— 

Plan of group of Hut-circles on Dartmoor, at Watem Oke 

Ths Parishes of Ltntom akd Countuburt— 

Lynmouth and Bast Lyn Valley, a.d. 1880 

Sections of Ramparts 

Camps at Oldburrow and Martinhoe 

sunning Knife, with ground edge, found at Fursehill 

Flint Arrow-heads found near Fursehill 

Flint Arrow-heads found near Hoar Oak 

Plan of the Port of Lynmouth 

Old Lynmouth Harbour 

Lynton Church and Village, a.d. 1800 . 

Stoop fh>m Chapel of St. John the Baptist, Fursehill 

The Old Parsonage, Lynton 



Between pp. 82 and 88 



. To foot p. 101 



114 
118 
119 
120 
120 
120 
126 
ISO 
177 
209 
211 



Nom OS North Dsfost Pottbry— 

Bideford. Harvest Pitcher . . . • 

Barnstaple, North Walk. Cup and Plate ... 

Barnstaple, North Walk. Mould for Raised Tiles, and Tile made in 

old mould . . . . ... 



256 
267 



267 



SoMB Ortptooams of North Dsvom— 

LopkocoUa alata Mitt., n. sp. . ... Page 286 

SUPFOflXD CURREBTCT BaRB FOUKD NRAR HOLNB CHASB OaMP— 

Supposed Currency Bars . ... „ 370 

AvciXNT Oak Altar in St. Peter's Church, Tawstock— 

Sketch of Altar-Uble . . ., To face p. 977 

Private Chafbi^ of Devon : Ancient amd Modern— 

Private Chapel of St. Mary's, Gnaton Hall, 8outh Devon. Erected 1887 „ 402 

The Forest Bounds near Princetown— 

Map . . ...... 412 



PLATE& 



Ralmhana— 

Map showing position of San Thom6 in 1590 and in 1617 
Map showing Oooraes of Riven Amaion and Orinoco 



Page 450 
To focf p. 470 



Ths OHTjROHWARDKirs' AoooumB OP South Tawtom— 

East end of St. Andrew's Church, South Tawton, with Burgoyne Aisle 

on South, and extension of 1881, and Vertrj added 1908, on North „ 497 

Ancient Qranite Font removed ttom Church in restoration of 1861 „ 497 

Broken Cross at West Week, showing Gateway and old House-front ,, 497 
Ancient Granite Gross at Rhighole Copse ,,506 

Cross by roadside near Ozenham . . . „ 506 
Remains of Moon's Cross at fork of roads about a quarter-mile South 

of Church . ...... 506 

Andent Monumental Slab recently discovered, and now set in disused 

North Doorway . . . 506 



Thb Stokk Rows or Dabtmoob^ 

Plan of Long Stone Row, Erme Valley 



5S6 



Stone Mokxtmbmtb of Exmoob and its Bobdbbb— 

Plate I. Fig. 1. Photograph of Hangman . . . . „ 589 

Pig. 8. Photograph of Longstone, Lyn Down . . . ,,589 

„ II. Fig. 1. Plan of Longstone and associated M6nhir, Lyn 

Down .... Between pp, 542 and 548 
Fig. 2. Plan of Quadrilateral, Brendon Two Gates „ „ „ 

„ III. Fig. 1. Enlargement fh>m Ordnance Survey, plan 

of Quadrilateral, Trout Hill, near fence „ „ „ 

Fig. 2. Plan of remaining stones of Quadrilateral, 

Trout Hill, near fence . . » >• » 

„ IV. Plan of Parallelogram, Little Toms Hill . „ „ „ 

„ V. Plan of Parallelogram, East Pinford . „ n » 

„ VI. Plan of Stone Row, near Bxe Head . . . . To ftue p. 544 

„ VII. Fig. 1. Plan of Stone Row on Furzehill Common . . ,,545 

Pig. 2. Plan of Stone Row on Furzehill Common . . „ 545 

„Vin. Fig.1. PUn of Stone Row, Exe PUin . . . „ 546 

Fig. 2. Group of Stones, Clannon Ball 546 

„ IX. Group of Stones, Trout Hill . . 547 



[:9 ] 
OFFICERS 

1906-7. 



yrrsiHrnt. 
F. T. EL WORTHY, Esq., f.8.a. 

W. RIDDELL, Esq., j.p., Chairman, Urban Districl Council. 

Sir GEORGE NEWNES. Bart., m.p. 

E. B. JEUNE, Esq., j.p. 

BASIL H. THOMSON, Esq. 

Sir ROPER LETHBRIDGE, k.c.i.e., d.l., j.p , m.a. 

ROBERT BURNARD, Esq., j.p., p.s.a. 

9(on. ^fiifrtl SrrMurrr. 
P. F. S. AMERY, Esq., j.p., o.c, Druid, AahbuHon. 

9(on. (Smeril i^rmtarirs. 

J. BROOKING-ROWE, Esq., F.8.A., F.L.S., Castle Barbican, FlympUm. 

MAXWELL ADAMS, Esq., Wolborough ffouse, Newton Abbot, 

1l(on. local Srrasum. 
VERNON PITT-NIND, Esq., Lloyds Bank, Lynion, 

9(on. local ibrrrrtarp. 
CHARLES A. BRIGGS, Esq., F.e.8., Back House, Lynmouth. 

Ikon. 9LutiiXox. 
ROBERT C. TUCKER, Esq., j.p., ca., The Hall, Ashburton, 



ADAMU. MAXWELL. 
ALSOP, R. 
AMERY, J. 8. 
AMERY, P. F. S. 
ANDRBW, SIDNBT. 
BARING-GOULD, Ret. S. 
BINGHAM, Rbt. W. P. 8. 
BLACKLSR, T. a. 
BOND, F. BLIOH. 
BRIOG9, C. A. 
BRUSH FIELD. T. N. 
BITRNARD, R. 
CHANTER, Rky. J. F. 
CHAPMAN, Rbt. C. 
CHARBONNIER, T. 
CHOPB. R. PEARSB. 
CLIFFORD, LORD 
COLERIDGB. LORD. 
CROFT. Sib A. W. 
DAVIES, W. 
DOE, G. M. 
DUNCAN. A. G. 
EDMONDS, Rsv.Ghahcxllor. 
ELLIOT, B. A. S. 
ELWORTHY, F. T. 
EYANS, H. M. 
FALCON, T. A. 
OIFFARD, HARDINGB F. 



Cotmcil. 

GRANVILLE, Rsv. Pbeb. 

ROGER. 
HAL8BURY, LORD. 
HAMILTON, A. H. A. 
HAM LINO, J. G. 
HARPLBY, Rev. W. 
HARRIS, Rbv. 8. G. 
HARVEY. T. H. 
HIERN, W. P. 
HINE, JAMBS. 
HUDLE8T0N, W. H. 
HUGHES, T. CANN. 
HUNT, A. R, 
JORDAN, W. F. C. 
JORDAN, W. R. H. 
KING. C. R. B. 
LAKE, W. C. 
LARTER, Mif 8 C. E. 
LETHBRIDGE, Sir ROPER. 
LOWE, HARFORD J. 
MARTIN, J. M. 
MORSHBAD, J. Y. A. 
NECK, J. 8. 

OLDHAM, Rev. DOYLY W. 
PEARSON, Rev. J. B. 
PlTT-NlND, V. 
POLLOCK, Siu P. 
PRICKMAN, J. D. 
PROWSE, ARTHUR B. 



RADFORD, Mrs. G. H. 
REKD, HARBOTTLE. 
REICHEL, Rkv. O. J. 
RISK. Rev. J. ERSKINE. 
ROBERTS, C. E. 
ROBINSON, C. E. 
ROUND, J. HOKACB. 
ROWK, J. BROOKING. 
SAUNDERS, Ml88 H. 
SHAPLAND, A E. 
SKINNER, Mi3f< E. 
SOMERVAIL, A. 
8PRA0UE, F. S. 
STEUBING, Rkv. T. R. R. 
THOMs^ON, BASIL H. 
THORNTON, Rev. W. H. 
TROUP, Mr8. 
TUCKER. R. C. 
VINCKNT, SIR EDGAR 
WAINWRIOHT, T. 
WEEKE.S, Mis-s LEG A. 
WHITE-THOMSON, Sir R T. 
WHITLEY. H. MICHELL. 
WINDEATT, K. 
WINDEATT. G. E. 
WOODHOU8K, H. B. S 
WORTH, R, HANSFORD. 
WYKES-FINCH, Rev. W. 
YOUNG, TH08. 



[ 10 ] 



PLACES OF MEETING 



OF 



THE DEVONSHIRE ASSOCIATION. 





PUce of Meeting. 


1862. 


EXETKR 


1863. 


Plymouth . 


1864. 


Torquay 


1865. 


Tiverton 


1866. 


Tavistock . 


1867. 


Barnstaple . 


1868. 


HONITON 


1869. 


Dartmouth . 


1870. 


Devonport . 


1871. 


BiDEFORD 


1872. 


Exeter 


1873. 


SlDMOUTH 


1874. 


Teionmouth . 


1876. 


Torrinoton . 


1876. 


ASHBURTON . 


1877. 


EiNGSBBIDOB . 


W8. 


Paignton 


1879. 


Ilfracombb . 


1880. 


Totnes 


1881. 


Dawlish 


1882. 


Crkditon 


1883. 


EXMOUTH 


1884. 


Newton Abbot 


1885. 


Seaton 


1886. 


St. Maryohurch 


1887. 


Plympton 


1888. 


EXKTER 


1889. 


Tavistock . 


1890. 


Barnstaple . 


1891. 


Tiverton 


1892. 


Plymouth . 


1893. 


Torquay 


1894. 


South Molton 


1895. 


Okehampton . 


1896. 


Ashburton . 


1897. 


KiNOSBRIDOB . 


1898. 


HONITON 


1899. 


Torrinoton . 


1900. 


Totnes 


1901. 


EXETRR 


1902. 


BiDBFORD 


1903. 


SlDMOUTH 


1904. 


Teionmouth . 


1905. 


Princetown . 


1906. 


Lynton 



PrMi4ent 
Sir John Bowring, ll.d., f.r.s. 
C. Sponco Bat«, Esq., F.R.8., f.l.8. 

E. ViYJaii^ Esq., u.jv, 

C. G. B, Daubeuj, M.D., LL.D., F.R.a, Pro- 

feasor of BoUdj^ Oxford. 
Earl Russell, e.g., k.g.c., f.r.s., etc. 
W. PeugcUj, Esq., F.R.8., F.o.s. 
J. D. Coleridge, Esq., q.c, M.A., M.p. 
G. P. Hif^der, E=iq., c.E. 
J. A. Froude, Esq., m.a. 
Rev. Canon C. Kingsley, M.A., f.l.8., f.o.s. 
Rt. Rev. Lord Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Temple). 
Right Hon. S. Cave, m.a., m.p. 
Earl of Devon. 
R. J. King, Esq,, m.a. 
Rev. Treitsurer Hnwker, M.A. 
Ven. Archdeacon Earlc, m.a. 
Sir Samuel White B&kflr, M.A., F.R.8., f.b.o.8. 
SirR. P Collier M,A, 

H. W. Dyke AoJatid, w.a., m.d., ll.d., f.r.8. 
Rev. Profoaaor Chapman, M.A. 
J. Brook ing-Ro we, E&q., F.8.A., f.l.8. 
Very Rev. C. Merivale, d.d., d.cl. 
Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, m.a. 
R. F. Weynioutlj, Esq m.a., d.Lit. 
Sir J. H, Phear^ M.A., F.G.8. 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, ll.d., f.r.8., F.L.8.,etc 
Very R«v Dean Cowiu, d.d. [f.l,8., etc. 

W H, Hudlegtoti Esq., M.A., F.R.8., F.O.8., 

Lord Clinton, m.a. 

R. N. Worth, Esq., f.g.s. 

A. H. A. Hamilton, Esq., m.a., j.p., c.c. 

T. N. Brushfield, m.d., f.8.a. 

Sir Fred. Pollock, Bart, m.a. 

The Right Hon. Earl of Halsbuiy. 

Rev. S. Baring-Gmild^ m.a. 

J. Hiue, Esq,, F.a.i.E,A, 

Lord Coleridge, m.a. 

Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, b.d. 

Lord ClifTord, m,a. 

Sir Ro]>«r Lotlibfidgo, K.C.I.E., m.a., D.L., j.p, 

Rev, \V, Hnrpley^ m.a., F.C.P.8. 

Sir Edgar Vincent, K.C.M.G., M.P. 

Sir Alfred W. Croft, k.o.i.e., m.a., j.p. 

Basil H. Thomson, Esq. 

F. T. El worthy, Esq., f.8.a. 



[ 11 ] 



RULES. 



1. Ths Association shall be styled the Devonshire Association 
for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art. 

2. The objects of the Association are — To give a stronger 
impulse and a more systematic direction to scientific inqniry in 
DeTonsbire ; and to promote the intercourse of those who cultivate 
Science, L.iterature, or Art, in different parts of the county. 

3. The Association shall consist of Members, Honorary Members, 
and Corresponding Members. 

4. Every candidate for membership, on being nominated by a 
member to whom he is personally known, shall be admitted by 
the General Secretary, subject to the confirmation of the Grenersil 
Meeting of the Members. 

5. Peraons of eminence in Literature, Science, or Art, connected 
with the West of England, but not resident in Devonshire, 
may, at a General Meeting of the Members, be elected Honorary 
Members of the Association; and persons not resident in the 
county, who feel an interest in the Association, may be elected 
Corresponding Members. 

6. Every Member shall pay an Annual Contribution of Half 
a Guinea or a Life Composition Fee of Seven and a Half Guineas. 
But Members of Ten Years' standing and more, whose Contribu- 
tions are not in arrears, may compound by a Single Payment of 
Five Guineas. 

7. Ladies only shall be admitted as Associates to an Annual 
Meeting, and shall pay the sum of Five Shillings each. 

8. Every Member shall be entitled gratuitously to a lady's ticket. 

9. The Association shall meet annually, at such a time in July 
or August and at such place as shall be decided on at the previous 
Annual Meeting. 

10. A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, a General 
Treasurer, and one or more General Secretaries, shall be elected 
at each Annual Meeting. 

11. The President shall not be eligible for re-election. 



12 RULES. 

12. At each Annual Meeting a local Treasurer and local Secre- 
tary shall be appointed, who, with power to add to their number 
any Members of the Association, shall be a local Committee to 
assist in making such local arrangements as may be desirable. 

13. In the intervals of the Annual Meetings, the aifairs of the 
Association shall be managed by a Council, which shall consiBt 
exclusively of the following Members of the Association, excepting 
Honorary Members, and Corresponding Members : — 

(a) Those who fill, or have filled, or are elected to fill, the offices 
of President, General and Local Treasurers, General and Local Secre- 
taries, and Secretaries of Committees appointed by the Council 

{b) Authors of papers which have been printed in extenso in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

The Council so constituted shall have power to make, amend, 
or cancel the Bye-laws and Standing Orders. 

14. The CouncU shall hold a Meeting at Exeter in the month 
of January or February in each year, on such day as the General 
Secretary shall appoint, for the due management of the affidrs of 
the Association, and the performing the duties of its office. 

15. The General Secretary, or any four members of the Council, 
may call extraordinary meetings of their body, to be held at 
Exeter, for any purpose requiring their present determination, by 
notice under his or their hand or hands, addressed to every other 
member of the Council, at least ten clear days previously, specifying 
the purpose for which such extraordinary meeting is convened. 
No matter not so specified, and not incident thereto, shall be 
determined at any extraordinary meeting. 

16. The General Treasurer and Secretary shall enter on their 
respective offices at the meeting at which they are elected ; but 
the President, Vice-Presidents, and Local Officers, not until the 
Annual Meeting next following. 

17. With the exception of the Ex-Presidents only, every 
Councillor who has not attended any Meeting, or adjourned 
Meeting, of the Council during the period between the doae 
of any Annual General Meeting of the Members and the doae 
of the next but two such Annual General Meetings, shall have 
forfeited his place as a Councillor, but it shall be competent for 
him to recover it by a fresh qualification. 

18. The Council shall have power to fill any Official vaoancy 
which may occur in the intervals of the Annual Meetings. 

19. The Annual Contributions shall be payable in advance, and 
shall be due in each year on the first day of January; and no 
person shall have the privileges of a member until the Subscription 
for the current year or a Life Composition has been paid. 



BULBS. 13 

20. The Treasmer ahall receive all sums of money due to the 
Anociation ; he shall pay all aocoonts due by the Asaociation af tw 
they shall have been examined and approved ; and he shall report 
to each meeting of the Council the balance he has in hand^ and 
the names of such members as shall be in arrear, with the sums 
due respectively by each. 

21. Whenever a Member shall have been three months in arrear 
in the payment of his Annual Contributions, the Treasurer shall 
apply to him for the same. 

22. Whenever, at an Annual Meeting, a Member shall be two 
yeaxs in arrear in the payment of his Aiinual Contributions, the 
Council may, at its diacretion, erase his name from the list of 
members. 

23. One mouth at least before each Annual Meeting each mem- 
ber shall be informed by the Geneial Secretary, by circular, of the 
place and date of the Meeting. 

24. Any Member who does not, on or before the first day of 
January, give notice, in writing or personally, to the Grenerai 
Secretary of his or her intention to withdraw from the Association, 
shall be regarded as a member for the ensuing year. 

25. The Association shall, within a period not exceeding six 
months after each Annual Meeting, publish its Transactions, in- 
cluding the Kules, a Financial Statement^ a List of the Members, 
the Eeport of the Council, the President's Address, and such 
Papers, in abstract or in extenao, read at the Annual Meeting, as 
shall be decided by the Council, together with, if time allows, an 
Index to the Volume. 

26. The Association shall have the right at its discretion of 
printing in eactenso in its Transactions all papers read at the Annual 
Meeting. The copyright of a paper read before any meeting of 
the Association, and the illustrations of the same which liave been 
provided at his expense, shall remain the property of the Author ; 
but he shall not be at liberty to print it, or allow it to be printed 
elsewhere, either in exteiiso or in abstract amounting to as much a.s 
one-half of the length of the paper, until after the publication of 
the volume of Transactions in which the paper is printed. 

27. The authors of papers printed in the Transactions shall, 
within seven days after the Transactions are published, receive 
twenty-five private copies free of expense, and shall be allowed to 
have any further number printed at their own expense. All 
arrangements as to such extra copies to be made by the authors 
with the printers to the Association. 



14 BULBS. 

28. K proofs of papers to be published in the Transactions 
be sent to authors for correction, and are retained by them 
beyond four days for each sheet of proof, to be reckoned from the 
day marked thereon by the printers, but not including the time 
needful for transmission by post, such proofs shall be assumed to 
require no further correction. 

29. Should the extra charges for small type, and types other 
than those known as Koman or Italic, and for the author's correc- 
tions of the press, in any paper published in the Transactions, 
amount to a greater sum than in the proportion of ten shillings 
per sheet, such excess shall be borne by the author himself, and 
not by the Association ; and should any paper exceed four sheets, 
the cost beyond the cost of the four sheets shall be borne by the 
author of the paper. 

30. Every Member shall, within a period not exceeding six 
months after each Annual Meeting, receive gratuitously a copy of 
the Volume of the Transactions for the year. 

31. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, 
by Auditors appointed at each Annual Meeting, but who shall not 
be ex officio Members of the CouncU. 

32. No rule shall be altered, amended, or added, except at an 
Annual General Meetiug of Members, and then only provided 
that notice of the proposed change has been given to the General 
Secretary, and by him communicated to all the Members at least 
one month before the Annual General Meeting. 

33. Throughout the Rules, Bye-laws, and Standing Orders where 
the singular number is used, it shall, when circumstances require, 
be taken to include the plural number, and the masculine gender 
shall include the feminine. 



[ 15 ] 



BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 



1. In the interests of the Association it is desirable that the 
President's Address in each year be printed previous to its 
delivery. 

2. In the event of there being at an Annual Meeting more 
Papers than can be disposed of in one day, the reading of the 
residue shall be continued the day following. 

3. The pagination of the Transactions shall be in Arabic 
numerals exclusively, and carried on consecutively, from the 
b^inning to the end of each volume; and the Transactions of 
each year shall form a distinct and separate volume. 

4. The General Secretary shall bring to each Annual Meeting 
of the Members a report of the number of copies in stock of each 
• Part ' of the Transactions, with the price per copy of each * Part ' 
specified; and such report shall be printed in the Transactions 
next after the Treasurei^s financial statement. 

5. The General Secretary shall prepare and bring to each 
Annual Meeting brief Obituary Notices of Members deceased 
during the previous year, and such notices shall be printed in the 
Transactions. 

6. An amount not less than eighty per cent of all Compositions 
received from existing Life Members of the Association shall be 
applied in the purchase of National Stock, or such other security 
as the Council may deem equally satisfactory, in the names of 
three Trustees, to be elected by the Council. 

7. At each of its Ordinary Meetings the Council shall deposit at 
interest, in such bank as they shall decide on, and in the names of 
the General Treasurer and General Secretary of the Association, all 
uninvested Compositions received from existing Life- Members, all 
uninvested prepaid Annual Subscriptions, and any part, or the 
whole, of the balance derived from other sources which may be in 
the Treasurer's hands after providing for all accounts passed for 
payment at the said Meeting. 

8. The General Secretary, on learning at any time between the 
Meetings of the Council that the General Treasurer has a balance 
in hand of not less than Forty Pounds after paying all Accounts 
which the Council have ordered to be paid, shall direct that so 
much of the said balance as will leave Twenty Pounds in the 



16 BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 

Treasurer's hand be deposited at interest at the Capital and Counties 
Bank, Ashburton. 

9. The Greneral Secretary may be authorized to spend any sum 
not exceeding Ten Pounds per annum in employing a clerk for 
such work as may be found necessary. 

10. Every candidate, admitted to Membership under Rule 4, shall 
forthwith receive intimation that he has been admitted a Member, 
subject to confirmation at the next Ceneral Meeting of Members ; 
and the fact of the newly admitted Member's name appearing in 
the next issue of the printed list of Members, will be a sufficient 
intimation to him that his election has been confirmed. Pending 
the issue of the Volume of Transactions containing the Kules of 
the Association, the newly admitted Member shall be furnished by 
the General Secretary with such extracts from the Rules as shall 
be deemed necessary. 

11. The reading of any Report or Paper shall not exceed twenty 
minutes, or such part of twenty minutes as shall be decided by the 
Council as soon as the Programme of Reports and Papers shall 
have been settled, and in any discussion which may arise no speaker 
shall be allowed to speak more than ten minutes. 

12. Papers to be read at the Annual Meetings must strictly relate 
to Devonshire, and, as well as all Reports intended to be printed 
in the Transactions, and prepared by Committees appointed by the 
Council, must, together with all drawings intended to be used in 
illustrating them in the said Transactions, reach the General Secre- 
tary's residence not later than the 24th day of June in each year. 
The General Secretary shall, as soon as possible, return to the 
Authors all such Papers or drawings as may be decided to be un- 
suitable, and shall send the residue, together with the Reports of 
Committees, to the Printers, who shall return the same together 
with a statement of the number of pages each of them would occupy 
if printed in the said Transactions, as well as an estimate of the 
extra cost of the printing of Tables, of any kind ; and the whole 
accompanied by an estimate of the probable number of Annual 
Members for the year shall be placed before the firat Council 
Meeting on the firat day of the next ensuing Annual Meeting, 
when the Council shall select such Papera as it may consider desir- 
able to accept for reading, but the number of Papera accepted by 
the Council shall not be greater than will, with the Reports of 
Committees, make a total of forty Reports and Papers. 

13. Papera communicated by Membera for Non-Members, and 
accepted by the Council, shall be placed in the List of Papera for 
reading below those furnished by Membera themselves. 



BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDBKS. 17 

14. Papers which have been accepted by the Council cannot be 
withdrawn without the consent of the Council. 

15. The Council will do its best so to arrange Papers for 
reading as to suit the convenience of the Authors ; but the place of 
a Paper cannot be altered after the List has been settled by the 
Council. 

16. Papers which have already been printed in extenso cannot be 
accepted unless they form part of the literature of a question on 
which the Council has requested a Member or Committee to 
prepare a report. 

1 7. Every meeting of the Council shall be convened by Circular, 
sent by the General Secretary to each Member of the Council not 
less than ten days before the Meeting is held. 

18. At the close of the Annual Meeting in every year there 
shall be a meeting of the Council, and the Council shall then 
decide what Reports and how many of the Papers accepted for 
reading the funds of the Association, as reported by the Treasurer, 
will permit of being printed in the volume of Transactions. 

19. All Papers read to the Association which the Council shall 
decide to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall be sent to the 
printers, together with all drawings required in illustrating them, 
on the day next following the close of the Annual Meeting at which 
they were read. 

20. All Papers read to the Association which the Council shall 
decide not to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall be returned 
to the Authors not later than the day next following the close of 
the Annual Meeting at which they were read; and abstracts of such 
Papers to be printed in the Transactions shall not exceed such 
length as the General Secretary shall suggest in each case, and 
must be sent to him on or before the seventh day after the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

21. The Author of every Paper which the Council at any Annual 
Meeting shall decide to print in the Transactions shall be expected 
to pay fur all such illustrations as in his judgment the said Paper 
may require. 

22. The printers shall do their utmost to print the Papers in the 
Transactions in the order in which they were read, and shall return 
every Manuscript to the author as soon as it is in type, but not 
f)e/ore. They shall be returned intact, provided they are written 
on l(K>se sheets and on one side of the paper only. 

VOL. XXXVIII. B 



18 BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 

23. Excepting mere verbal alterations, no Paper which has been 
read to the Association shall be added to without the written 
approval and consent of the General Secretary, or in the event of 
there being two Secretaries of the one acting as Editor; and no 
additions shall be made except in the form of notes or postscripts, 
or both. 

24. In the intervals of the Annual Meetings, all Meetings of 
the Council shall be held at Exeter, unless some other place shall 
have been decided on at the previous Council Meeting. 

25. When the number of copies on hand of any Part of the 
Transactions is reduced to twenty, the price per copy shall be 
increased 25 per cent. ; and when the number has been reduced to 
ten copies, the price shall be increased 50 per cent, on the original 
price. 

26. After deducting the amount received by the sale of 
Transactions from last year's vahiation, and adding the value of 
Transactions for the current year, a deduction of 10 per cent, 
shall be every year made from the balance, and this balance, less 
10 per cent., shall be returned as the estimated value of the 
Transactions in stock for the current year. 

27. The Association's Printers, but no other person, may reprint 
any Committee's Keport printed in the Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, for any person, whether a Member of the said Committee, or 
of the Association, or neither, on receiving, in each case, a written 
permission to do so from the Honorary Secretary of the Association, 
but not otherwise; that the said printers shall [>ay to the said 
Secretary, for the Association, sixpence for every* fifty Copies of 
each half-sheet of eight pages of which the said Keport consists ; 
that any number of copies less than fifty, or between two exact 
multiples of fifty, shall be regarded as fifty ; and any number of 
pages less than eight, or between two exact multiples of eight, 
shall be regarded as eight ; that each copy of such Keprints shall 
have' on its first page the words " Keprinted from the Transactions 
of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Literature, and Art for with the consent of the Council of 

the Association," followed by the date of the year in which tlie 
said Report was printed in the said Transactions, but that, with the 
exception of printer's errors and changes in the pagination which 
may be necessary or desirable, the said Reprint sliall bo in every 
other respect an exact copy of the said Report as printed in the 
said Transactions without addition, or abridgment, or modification 
of any kind. 

28. The Bye-Laws and Standing Onlers shall ))e printed after 
the * Rules ' in the Transactions. 



BYK-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 19 



29. All resolutions appointing Committees for special service for 
the Association shall be printed in the Transactions next before 
the President's Address. 

30. Members and Ladies holding Ladies* Tickets intending to 
dine at the Association Dinner shall be requested to send their 
names to the Honorary Local Secretary ; no other j)erson shall be 
admitted to the dinner, and no names shall be received after the 
Monday next before the dinner. 



b2 



[ 21 ] 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Present^ to the General Meeting held at Lynton^ 17 July^ 1006, 



At the meetings of the Council held at Princetown in July, 
1905, the ordinary routine business was transacted. The 
Winter Meeting of the Council was held at Exeter on 23rd 
February, 1906, at which, besides the usual general business, 
certain proposed alterations in the Rules of the Association 
were discussed and passed as recommendations from the 
Council to be brought before the General Meeting, of which 
notice has been duly sent to all members. Some verbal 
amendments to the Bye-laws were also made, and the follow- 
ing new Bye-law (No. 18) was added, viz. : — 

** 18. At the close of the Annual Meeting in every year 
there shall be a Meeting of the Council, and the Council 
shall then decide what Reports and how many of the Papers 
accepted for reading the funds of the Association, as reported 
by the Treasurer, will permit of being printed in the volume 
of Transactions for the year." 

The question of extending the usefulness of the Associa- 
tion and the best means of increasing its membership were 
also discussed. It was pointed out inter alia that funds are 
much needed to aid the various Committees appointed by 
the Association, not only to carry on their work, but also to 
adequately illustrate their Reports, all expenses being at 
present entirely borne by individuals, an arrangement which 
under the circumstances does not appear equitable. It was 
also considered desirable that a high standard should l)e 
maintained for the annual volume of the Transactions. 

It is obvious that with a membership of about 550, and 
the low annual subscription of 10s. 6d. now payable by 
members, there cannot be any funds available for the pur- 
poses indicated above, and it is therefore very desirable that 
the number of members should be largely increased. 

The discussion resulted in the Secretaries teing instructed 
to take steps by circular or otherwise as might be deemed 
expedient to obtain new members, so as to raise the total 



22 REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

number of meml>ers to 1000 if possible, that being con- 
sidered tlie least number requisite to enable the Council to 
carry out the objects in view. Acting on these instructions, 
the Secretaries have prepared a circular inviting existing 
members to endeavour to enlist as many new members as 
possible, and those who are not already members to become 
so. About 600 copies of this circular liave so far been 
issued to members and others, and it is proposed to send 
out in due course alx)ut 200 further copies to the clerg\' 
and other influential residents in the principal towns and 
districts of Devonsliire. Seventy-five new members have 
been added to tlie list this year, alwut lialf of which number 
may be considered to l>e the result of this circular. 

A copy of Volume XXX VII of the Transactions for 
1905 has been sent to the principal libraries and to certain 
learned societies as in previous years. 

J. r»R00KING-R0W^E, 

Maxwell Adams, 

Hon. General Secretaries, 



[ 23 ] 



PROCEEDINGS AT THE FORTY-FIFTH ANNUAL 
MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION, 

Held at Lynton, 17 July to 20 July, 1906. 



The Annual Meeting of 1906 commenced under somewhat 
sad circumstances, for it was known to the officers, if not to 
the members generally, that serious illness would prevent 
the President-elect, Mr. F. T. Elworthy, from being present 
He had been ill for some months, but it was hoped that he 
had recovered, and that a stay at Minehead had been pro- 
ductive of much good — so much so, that he was able to 
complete his Presidential Address. But unfortunately, early 
in July, Mr. Elworthy had a relapse, and his medical man 
was compelled to forbid his taking any part in the pro- 
ceedings of the meeting, his weakness being such as to 
necessitate his being spared all fatigue, mental or bodily. 

Admirable arrangements had been made by the local 
Officers and local Committee for the reception of the 
Association. The Urban District Council placed at its dis- 
l)0sal their fine Town Hall and the most convenient rooms 
therein. The Chairman of the local Committee, Mr. W. 
Riddell, w^ho is also the Chairman of the District Council. 
Mr. Charles A. Briggs, and Mr. Vernon Pitt-Nind, the local 
Secretary and Treasurer respectively, did all in their power 
to make the first meeting of the Association in " the twin 
villages of Lynton and Lynmouth " a pleasant and success- 
ful one. 

The proceedings commenced with a Meeting of the 
Council, at whicli the necessary business was transacted, 
the Report of the Council for the past year decided upon, 
the Reports of Committees received, and the papers for 
reading at the meeting accepted. 

At the close of this meeting tlie time for the reception of 
the Association by the Urban District Council had arrived, 
and at 3.30 the members of this body with its Chairman, 
Mr. William Riddell, presiding, and the members and 
associates assembled in the Town Hall. Mr. Riddell extended 
a hearty welcome to the Association, and expressed the hope 



24 PROCBBEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

that all would enjoy the beautiful scenery and lovely air. 
There was plenty in the neighbourhood that would interest 
them — the encampment at Countisbury, the barrows at 
Parracombe, the fossil at Stairhole, and the curious rock in 
the North Walk among them. Dr. Brushfield acknowledged 
the welcome in a pleasant speech, and Professor Chapman 
also joined in the thanks, and said that he did not know any 
place in Devonshire with more attraction for the eye, the 
heart too, and the imagination than Lynton. 

The General Meeting of the members followed, and it was 
seen that a large number had already arrived. The Rev. 
William Harpley presided. The Report of the Council was 
received and adopted, as were also the Balance Sheet and 
Statement of Accounts for the past year (see pp. 30-31). 
The adverse balance of last year — £35 15s. 5d. — had un- 
fortunately been increased to £86 Os. 4d., and the Auditor 
thought that this should be discharged by a sale of some of the 
invested money. It was, however, pointed out that adverse 
balances in former years had been much larger than this, 
and had in time been cleared off, and that with economy 
this would soon be reduced. The suggested sale of stock 
did not find favour with the meeting, but it was considered 
that it was very desirable that the expenditure of each year 
should be met as far as possible by the income. The Report 
of the Committee on the place of meeting, etc., for 1907 was 
also received and adopted. It stated that an invitation had 
been received from the town of Axminster, and that the 
Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Exeter. Archibald Robert- 
son, D.D., had accepted the office of President, and that 
Mr. W. Pitfield Chappie would act as local Secretary, and 
various alterations in the Rules, of which due notice had 
been given, were made. 

By the kind invitation of Mrs. Jeune the members 
assembled at the Manor House, Lynmouth, later in the 
afternoon, where they were kindly received and hospitably 
entertained. 

In the evening the President, Mr. Basil H. Thomson, took 
the chair, and in retiring from the office thanked the 
members for the kindness extended to him during the past 
year. He regretted the enforced absence of the new President, 
and read a letter received from Mrs. Elworthy with reference 
to his state of health, and his great regret that he was pre- 
vented from attending, and expressing his satisfaction with 
the arrangements which had been made necessary under the 
circumstances. Mr. Basil Thomson then i-ead the address 



PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 25 

which had been written by the President (printed, p. 40). 
On the proposal of Capt. E. B. Jeune, supported by Professor 
Chapman, a vote of thanks was given to Mr. F. T. Elworthy 
for his interesting address. 

The reading of Reports and accepted papers commenced 
on Wednesday morning. Dr. Brushfield in the chair. The 
following is the complete list : — 

Twenty-fifth Report of the Barrow Committee. 
Twenty-fourth Report of the Committee on the Climate of Devon. 
Twenty-third Report of the Committee on Devonshire Folk-lore. 
Eleventh Report of the Dartmoor Exploration Committee. 
^' h^^l. ""^ .^^^° *'!'^ Counti8-| ^ J p ^^^^^ ^^ 
Ditto ditto II. Rev. J. F. Chanter, m.a. 

Documents relating to the above Parishes Eev. J. F. Ch4inUr, m.a. 
North Devon Pottery of Seventeenth \ «, ra^^i^„^,v- 
and Eighteenth Centuries . .] ^' <^^^''^^^' 
^^vo^'"!^ Implements in Northj ^^ j.^^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

^^"sher'JSf^"^ "^ Braunton ^^idj Miss C. K Larter. 

^"^a^thSle? h^*""'^"^* ^^^"^ ""^jj^ i/. Martin. 
TheEarlie8tPortionof**TestadeNevill" J. Horace Round. 
Fees of Earl Hugh de Courtenay . . Rev. T. W. Whale, m.a. 
The E^rly Descent of the Devonshire^ 

Estates of Honours of Mortain and I Rev. OswaldJ. ReicJul, m.a.,T).(:.l. 

Okehampton . . . | 

The Recent Neuroptera of Devonshire . C. A. Briggs, f.e.s. 

Supposed Currency Bars, Holne Chase , P. F. S. Amery. 

AncicntOak Altar in St. Peter's Church, \ ^ „ n^r,^ rr.„« ^ i, t » * 
Tawstock . . . j * ^* F.K.I.B.A. 

Old Tiverton or Twyford . . . Miss Emily Skinner. 

^*r"d'M^CTn^''°'°'''°°' '^°"*°*}^«'- D-Oyly IV. Oldham. 

Totnes: Its Mayors and Mayoralties. VI. Edward Windeatt. 

The Forest Bounds near Princetown . Arthur B. Prowse^ m.d., f.r.c.8. 

Raleghana. VII T. N. Bnishfield, m.d. 

Botanical Notes. III. . . . Miss Helen Saunders. 

The Accounts of the Head and Sub- 'I ,,. . j, j ^„^ \v^„\..^ 
sidiary Wardens of Sonth Tawton./ ^"» ^- ^?<'- "^^*"- 
West-country Wit and Humour. III. . «/. D. Priekinan. 
The Stone Rows of Dartmoor. VII. . R. Hansford WoHh, r.E. 
Rude Stoue Monuments. II. . . R. Hansford JForthj c.e. 

After the conclusion of the day's business a visit was paid 
to Glen Lyn, Mr. and Mrs. Tong having kindly invited the 
members and their friends to walk through their lovely 



1M» l'KO(^KKniN(;S AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

^r«nm<ls. jinil to a garden parly, and a very pleasant time 

was S|MMll. 

This yi'jir. at tho roiiuest of the local Committee, it was 
drcithMl that ihiMV should U* a dinner, which was accordingly 
held al ihe lJ<)val Castle Hi»tel. About eighty attended. 
Sir All'n'd Crofl presiding. The function was agreeable in 
rwvy way. and I he arrangenients made by Miss Baker, the 
n lanagrii 'ss, and hov sister were admirable. The speeches 
wtM't' iVw and brief. In rt'iurning tljanks for the toast of 
the uiru't'is. whicli was prop«»seil by the llev. S. Gordon 
INuisonby, ihi* Sei-retary, who respon«led for his colleague, the 
othiM" oHii-ers, ant! hinjself. ivferred to the pecuniary position 
of I he SiM'iiM V. and si a lei I that there ouglit to be a thousand 
members al lea.sl to eany t»n the work satisfactorily, and 
asked Ids listentMs. if llu'y appreeiateil lht» services of those 
who wrvr entrustiMJ with its management, to do all in their 
poN>er lo increase I he number, and .slid that if every member 
dnrini: \hv eoniing ye;ir would obtain a new mendjer, no 
iH'ller >>a\ of thanking the ollieers ctiuld be devised, or any 
Ilia I would bi' so satisfactory io them. 

On Tliur.*<day I la* reading of tin* ])apers was resumed, and 
on the (Mnu'lusitm of the business tlie ailjnurned meeting of 
tla» members louk place. A resolution expressing the regret 
i»f lUv Assoiialion at the absence oi the President, and a 
lh»pe thai lu' woulil be speedily resioreil to health, was 
uuanimniisly pa^seil liesolution^ weieals-) earrieil thanking 
Mr. W. IIi«ld(dl, Chairman vi the Trban District Council, 
and I he bu*al (.'ommittee, for the e*»mmodious rooms they 
provide.!, and f«»r l!ie exeelleni arrangements made for the 
tMiiiMMiieiire. f.»mfi»rt. and enteriainment of the members; 
Messrs. I'hailes A. r>riggs and V. rilt-Nintl, the local 
Sei-retary and local Treasurer re^i»ectively. for their etlicient 
^erviees, and linally the members of the Lynton and Lyn- 
moulh Men's Institute an«l <»f the Volunteer Institute re- 
sivelively for their hospitality in throwing oj>en their rooms 
•J/v the use «)f the members durinu' the meeting. 

At the concluilin;^' meeting «^f the ('»)uncil ilie (juestion of 
-4 i\s and means was very seriously rjiseussed, and there was 
^ .vAuimous feeling that clloris shouM be made, as mentioned 
-, "o uioeting of members, to make the year s income meet 

. jMvuses. It was consiilored impossible to }»rint the 

V -r '*c' :he papers rear!, but the kind consideration of .^omo 

•:^ ui:hors enabletl the (Council, on the suggestion of the 

'-2^ Secretary, to make such omi.ssions fnau the list as 

-rni "i* f'»'^t of printing within the estimated limits. 



PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 27 

To further assist, two readers of papers, which had been 
accepted, then stated that they would contribute, the one 
£10, the other the cost of printing his contribution. These 
offers were followed by a gratifying announcement by the 
Treasurer, that he had received an intimation from an old 
and valued life member (whose name was not mentioned) 
that he was willing, as a token of his appreciation of the 
work and value of the Association, to present to the funds 
a donation, so that the financial pressure of the last two 
or three years might be removed. It was resolved that this 
very kind offer should be accepted, and the Treasurer was 
requested to convey to the generous donor the best thanks 
of the Council of the Association for this welcome gift. The 
Treasurer has since the meeting, it may be said, received 
from Mr. Sydney P. Adams — who now permits his name 
to be given— a cheque for £100. 

The afternoon was spent by many in the valley at 
Watersmeet, with tea at Myrtleberry, some returning by 
Beggarsroost Hill, visiting the two menhirs recently re- 
erected, and reaching Lynton by way of Barbrook Mill; 
others returning by the riverside path to Lynmouth. 

In the evening the Chairman of the Urban District 
Council and Mrs. Kiddell held a reception at the Town Hall. 
There was a large attendance of townspeople as well as of 
our members and friends. The Chairman recited an amusing 
piece in the Devonshire dialect, and the Rev. W. E. Cox told 
a ferreting stor}', Mrs. E. Goode and Dr. Brushfield sang, 
and Miss Kiddell and Mr. Broadleigh were at the piano. 

For Friday a capital excursion had been arranged. The 
party drove through the Valley of Kocks — Southey's 
"palace of the pre- Adamite kings." The Devil's Cheese 
Wring or Press was noticed on one side, and the Castle Rock 
and the White Lady on the other. Mr. C. F. Bailey gave his 
kind permission to visit Lee Abbey, and the grounds and 
Jennifred's Leap and Duty Point. The drive was continued 
to Hunter's Inn, where lunch was provided, and a stay was 
made for some little time. Parracombe was then visited, 
and Holwell Castle. The barrows and Parracombe old church 
were examined under the guidance of the Rev. J. F. Chanter, 
whose valuable help had all through done so much to con- 
tribute to the success of the meeting. Then to finish the 
day, on the lawn and amid the beautiful surroundings of 
their rectory, Mr. and Mrs. Chanter welcomed very heartily 
the somewhat tired and warm excursionists, and introduced 
them to a number of their friends and neighbours who had 



•JS PROCEKDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

hoon invitod to meet them at tea. Before leaving Sir Alfreil 
I'nift, in tlio name of the Society, thanked Mr. and Mrs. 
dmntor for all that they had done in connexion with the 
visit, to Lynton. 

As in some former years the members were invited to 
jnin in a botanical walk on Saturday. Unfortunately the 
nmrnin^ ])rovod very unfavourable, and but few were foimd 
liiiivo tMiough to face the down and marsh of Holdstone and 
Ihiyliiko. l^ndtM* the able guidance, however, of Mr. W. P. 

I I mill, M.A., K.u.s., a small party started from the Blackmore 
i\i\\{^ Station, anil, drenched although we believe they were, 
a MM V |»r«»lit.abh» anil interesting day was spent. Two species 
of Willnw -herb were noticed — one of them \y as Chamosnerion 
innfiififi/ii/iinii, of which there are two varieties, according to 
llin lnii^<th of the iH)ds, whether they measure from four 
In Meveii ccMitinictros in length or only from two to four 
run li hint roH. The specimens were not in ripe fruit, but they 
a|i|MMii«Ml In l)olong to the short-fruited variety, which is 
iIimI oI'liMi ^n'(»\vn in gardens. Tlie young root-shoots of this 
Mjnieien hervt^ as an agreeable article of food when cooked 

III lei the fashion of asparagus, and the leaves are sometimes 
Mrteil In iiiiK with china-tca. The other willow-herb noticed 
\MM\ M MiiHiller anil less robust species, and a commoner plant, 
iMinM»lv, Nftilohium tnontiinnm. It is supposed to be the 
MMIIII1 ari that llgured by Dodoens under the name of Z//.st- 
niih/intni fini'fiuiruni primum, the iirst purple-red willow- 
IiimIi Jir Lvsiiiiaehiuni, also "the Sonne l)efore the Father," 
Willi lel'emiii'O ti) which Henry Lyte in 1578, in his edition 
III hniliieiiM' "Niewe llerball." wrote that the leaves** are 
tiiiHil abtuil ihe tvlges, much like unto Willow leaves. The 
llimiert ill colour and making are somewhat like the floures 
nf \\\ts eoiiiiiion wihle Mallow or Hock, that is to say, it hath 
foiiie lilth^ broadc leaves standing togither, and lying one 
UN ei an others e<lges, under which there groweth long huskes 
(II CinMes, like to the huskes of stocke Gillofers, which 
luinKeM do a])]»eare before the opening of the tioure; the 
\>liicli huskes or seede vessels do open of themselves, and 
».|ea\o abroade into three or four partes or quarters, when 
ilie neeils is rype, the whiche bycause it is of a woolly or 
vveMony Hul»stance is carried away with the winde. The 
u^»le IM Imt small and thready." It is "called of some, in 
\ M\\\\\ Filinii nntc Patrcni, that is to say, the sonne before 
\\\\\ ItUlior. bycause that his long huskes in which the seede 
t-1 \\khnod do come forth and ware great, before the fioure 
v'^sv^olh." Among the plants observed the following may 



PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 29 

be mentioned : Com Cockle {Lychnis githago), not nearly a8 
prevalent in North Devon as in the corn-growing districts 
of the east of England; Planchon's Furze {Ulex gallii), 
and the variety humilis; Corn Marigold {Chrysantliemvm 
segetum), sparingly; Wood Spurge {Ewphorhiu amygdaloides), 
in the bog at Hoylake ; Toad Eush {Jumits hufonius), in fine 
tlower and unusually pretty for this species; Scaly-stemmed 
Club Sush (Scirpits ccesjntosKs), in large masses and in some 
cases exceeding four decimetres high ; Mat Grass (Nardus 
drwta), in fruit and about three and a half decimetres high ; 
Hay-scented Fern {Ladrea ccinula), fine specimens; and 
Kusty-back Fern {Cetemch officinarum). 

The meeting of 1906 was an altogether pleasant and 
instructive one — marred, however, by the absence of the 
President, who had been looking forward to the meeting up 
to within a comparatively short time of its commencement. 

Maxwell Adams, 
J. Brooking-Rowk, 

Hon. Secretaries. 
11 August, 1906. 



[ 30 ] 



Treasurers Eeport of llcceipts (nid Expenditure 



Becriptfii. 

By Subscriptions : — 
Arreai-H 1904 (29). 
Due ill 1905 (172i) 
CuiTcnt year 1906 (157) 

,, Lady Associatos (2) 

,, Life Composition (1) 

„ Dividends— Consols £300 Stock 

„ ,, India 3 i>cr cent £350 Stock 

From Autliors of Papei-s : — 
„ Excess under Rule 29 
,, Dr. rcarson, cost of his paper 

,, Transactions sold (1) 

,, Messrs. Brendon, Discount . 

,, Balance due to Treasurer 



£, s. d, £ s. d. 



15 4 


6 








90 11 


3 








82 8 


6 










— 


188 


4 


3 


, 


, 





10 









7 


17 


6 


7 2 


8 








9 17 


8 












17 





4 


16 13 





18 















17 



11 
IS 



6 






. 


. 


4 


3 


9 






236 


5 


4 


. 




S6 





4 



JC322 5 8 



{iiigned) W F. S. AMKKY, Jloiu Treasunr. 



[ 31 ] 



for the year ending 5th July, 1906. 



Cjrpenlitture. 

To Messrs. Brendon and Son, Ltd., Printing, etc. 
Circnlars and programme . 
Postage, late issue ** Transactions " 



Vol. XXXVII, "Transactions," 592 pp 
Extras for small type and tables 
Extra for coiTCctions 
Plans and plates . 
Covers, and doing up 

Addressing, packing, and postage 
Anthors' Reprints, 25 each . 
Carriage of " Devon Wills," Part VII 
Errata slips for Vol. XXXVI 
List of papers and notices, 1906 
Insurance premiums 1905 and 1906 



„ Record Society, ** Devon Wills," Part VII 

„ General Secretaries' Ex^ienses : — 

Postage, Stationery, and Clerical Assistance 
Printing circnlars and cards, 1905 

,, General Treasurer's Expenses: — 
PosUge and expenses 
Paid Hooper, illustrating lectures 



2 2 
15 



£ s. d. 



2 17 10 



,600 copies 123 

36 19 

16 

. 13 15 

22 10 



,, Bank Charges 



„ Balance due to Treasurer, 1905 



212 6 



18 18 

13 17 

9 

5 

1 10 
1 17 



13 19 
2 5 



36 8 3 
12 12 



16 4 8 



1 18 
1 7 



1 


- 3 5 1 

. 1 7 5 

285 10 3 

. 36 15 5 

£322 6 8 



Kxninined with Vouchers, etc., atid fouruJ to be correcty with a balance 
of £86 05. \d. diie to the Treamrer, this lOth day of July, 1906. 



{Signed) ROBERT C. TUCKER, 

A miitor. 



[ 32 ] 



SELECTED MINUTES OF COUNCIL APPOINTING 
COMMITTEES. 

Passed at the Meeting at Lyntvn, 17 July, 1906. 



6. That Dr. Brushfield, Sir Roper Lethbridge, Rev. W. 
Harpley, Sir A. Croft, and Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of considering at what place the Associa- 
tion shall hold its Meeting in 1908, who shall be invited to 
be the Officers during the year beginning with that Meeting, 
and who shall be invited to fill any official vacancy or vacancies 
which may occur before the Annual Meeting in 1907; that Mr. 
J. Brooking-Rowe be the Secretary ; and that they be requested 
to report to the next Winter Meeting of the Council, and, if 
necessary, to the first Meeting of the Council to be held in 
July, 1907. 

7. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Dr. Brushfield, Mr. Robert 
Burnard, Mr. E. A. S. Elliot, Mr. H. Montagu Evans, Rev. W. 
Harpley, Mr. C. E. Robinson, Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe, Mr. A. 
Somervail, and Mr. H. B. S. Woodliouse be a Committee 
for the purpose of noting the discovery or occurrence of such 
facts in any department of scientific inquiry, and connected 
with Devonshire, as it may be desirable to place on permanent 
record, but which may not be of sufficient importance in themselves 
to form the subjects of separate papers; and that Mr. J. Brooking- 
Rowe be the Secretary. 

8. That Mr. P. F. S. Amery, Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Mr. R. 
Pearse Chope, Mr. G. M. Doe, Rev. W. Harpley, Mr. J. S. Neck, 
Mrs. Radford, Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe, Mrs. Troup, and Mr. 
H. B. S. Woodhouse be a Committee for the purpose of collecting 
notes on Devonshire Folk-lore ; and that Mr. P. F. S. Amery be 
the Secretary. 

9. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Dr. Brushfield, Mr. F. T. Elworthy, 
Mr. C. H. Laycock, Miss Helen Saunders, and Mrs. Troup be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of noting and recording tlie existing use of 
any Verbal Provincialisms in Devonshire, in either written or 
spoken language ; and that Mr. F. T. Elwortliy be the Secretary. 

10. That Mr. P. F. S. Amery, Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Dr. 
Brushfield, Mr. Burnai*d, ]Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe, Rev. J. F. Chanter 



RESOLUTIONS APPOINTING COMMITTEES. 33 

and Mr. R. Hansford Worth be a Committee to collect and record 
hcts relating to Barrows in Devonshire, and to take steps, where 
possible, for their investigation ; and that Mr. R. Hansford Worth 
be the Secretary. 

11. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. A. H. Dymond, Rev. W. 
Haipley, and Mr. R. C. Tucker be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of making arrangements for an Association Dinner or any 
other form of evening entertainment as they may think best in 
consultation with the local Committee; and that Mr. R. C. Tucker 
be the Secretary. 

12. That Mr. P. F. S. Amery, Sir Alfred W. Croft, Mr. James 
Hamlyn, and Mr. R. Hansford Worth be a Committee to collect 
and tabulate trustworthy and comparable observations on the 
Climate of Devon ; and that Mr. R. Hansford Worth be the 
Secretary, 

13. That Sir Roper Lethbridge, Dr. Brushfield, Mr. R. 
Pearse Chope, Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, b.d.. Rev. Preb. Granville, 
Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe, and Mr. E. Windeatt be a Committee for 
the purpose of investigating and reporting on any Manuscripts, 
Records, or Ancient Documents existing in, or relating to, Devon- 
shire, with the nature of their contents, their locality, and whether 
in public or private hands; and that Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe be 
the Secretary. 

U. That Mr. J. S. Amery, the Rev. I. K. Anderson, Mr. R. Bur- 
nard, Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Mr. J. D. Pode, Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe, 
Mr. Basil Thomson, and Mr. R. Hansford Worth be a Committee 
for the purpose of exploring Dartmoor and the Camps in Devon ; 
and that the Rev. S. Baring-Gould be the Secretary. 

15. That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Mr. J. S. Amery, Dr. Brushfield, 
Rev. Professor Chapman, Sir Alfred W. Croft, Rev. O. J. Reichel, 
Mrs. Troup, Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe, Dr. Arthur B. Prowse, Mr. 
William Davies, Miss H. Saunders, and Mr. W. A. Francken be 
a Committee to consider the matter of preparing, according to 
the best methods, an Index to the First Series (Vols. I-XXX) of 
the Transactions; that Mr. J. S. Amery be the Secretary; and 
that this Committee have power to add to their number. 

16. That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Mr. J. S. Amery, Dr. Brush- 
field, Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, Mr. T. Cann Hughes, Sir Roper 
Lethbridge, Rev. O. J. Reichel, Mr. Harbottle Reed, Mr. J. 
Brooking-Rowe, Mr. George E. Windeatt, and Rev. J. F. Chanter 
be a Committee, with power to add to their number, to prepare 
a detailed account of the Church Plate of the Diocese of Exeter ; 
and that Mr. T. Cann Hughes and Mr. Harbottle Reed be the 
joint Secretaries. 

VOL. XXXVIII. C 



[ 34 ] 



©bituarj? fiotitta. 



The Eev. Samuel Eundle. The Eev. Samuel Bundle 
was the son of the Eev. Samuel Bundle, M.A., who at the 
time of his death was Beetor of Stoekleigh Pomeroy. The son 
was born in 1849, educated at a private school at Stoke, 
Devonport, and proceeding to Oxford, graduated at St 
Edmund's Hall, and took his degrees, B.A. in 1873 and M.A. 
in 1876. He was ordained deacon in the diocese of Exeter 
and priest in 1875. He was curate of Ladock, Cornwall, 
his only curacy, and in 1879 he was appointed to the living 
of Godolphin. He did good work in his parish, and was 
much beloved by his congregation and held in high esteem 
by his neighbours and by all who knew him. He was a 
good antiquary and genealogist, and frequently was a well- 
known figure at our meetings, and at those of the Penzance 
Antiquarian and Natural History Society and of the Boyal 
Institution of Cornwall. To the publications of the two 
latter he was a contributor, but his interest being mainly 
confined to the county in which he lived, ho wrote nothing 
for our Transactions. He left uncompleted a history of 
liis parish, and of the house and family of Godolphin. He 
liad been ill for some little time, and it became necessary 
tliat he should undergo an operation : from the effects of 
this he did not recover, and in spite of careful nursing and 
every attention at a Nursing Home in London, he passed 
away on 6 April, 1906. 

Alfred John Pound. Mr. Pound was a member for a 
short time only, having been elected in 1905. He was the 
son of a clergyman, who was at one time Head Master of 
the Appuldurcombe Collegiate School. He died under sad 
circumstances in May last. 

George Egberts Shgrtg. The greatly esteemed Town 
Clerk of Exeter was a valuable member of the Association, 
and he was always ready to help any one who sought his 



OBITUABY NOTICES. 35 

valuable aid, or who wished to consult any of the many 
valuable documents under his charge. His career was a 
varied one, and we are indebted to the " Western Morning 
News " for this account of his life. He was born in Exeter 
24 August, 1837. To those whose knowledge of him was 
limited to his municipal life, it does indeed seem strange 
that he should have served a long period in the army. But 
his career in the military service was no less remarkable 
than his civil service. He started life in the army, and 
in September of 1854 enlisted in the 1st Battalion of 
the Eille Brigade, and in February of the following year 
was given corporals stripes. In May of the same year he 
went to the Crimea, where he took part in the siege and 
capture of Sebastopol. He often in later years recounted 
his experiences in the trenches in the Crimea. Promotion 
was rapid in those stirring times, and in March, 1856, 
Corporal Shorto became sergeant, being then eighteen years 
and seven months of age. Eetuming from the Crimea in 
July, 1856, he was transferred as sergeant to the 4th Batta- 
lion of the Eifle Brigade, in which he served six years as 
colour-sergeant. It is said that at one time he served under 
General Garibaldi's colours. On the expiration of his term 
of service in the army he took his discharge, but still the 
military spirit was strong in him, for almost his first act on 
coming to the city was to join the volunteers, being sworn 
in by Major Denis Moore. He for many years captained the 
B Company of the 1st E.V., was an excellent shot, and was 
frequently elected as one of the team to represent tlie 
county. He retired some years ago with the honorary rank 
of major, having for thirty-nine years worn her late 
Majesty's uniform. He possessed the volunteer long service 
medal and the Crimea and Turkish medals. 

At the time of Mr. Shorto's return to civil life, the town 
clerk was Mr. John Gidley, grandfather of the present 
citizen of that name. He soon afterwards died, and Mr. 
Denis Moore, being a candidate for the office, asked Mr. 
Shorto if he would take service under him if he was ap- 
pointed. The post was given to him, and Mr. Shorto 
entered Mr. Moore's office in September, 1865, and re- 
mained with him until his death in 1878. From 1868 
Mr. Shorto acted as his locum tenens whenever he was 
absent from the city, and upon Mr. Moore's demise he was 
appointed town clerk jpro tern,, and was so acting when tlie 
Mayor's chain was presented to the city by the Arclijeo- 
logical Institute. Upon the appointment of Mr. Bartholo- 

c2 



36 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

mew Gidley as town clerk, Mr. Shorto entered his office as 
managing clerk, having special charge of the Council work. 
Mr. Shorto served his articles with Mr. Gidley, and was ad- 
mitted a solicitor in March, 1880. With this remarkable record 
and experience behind him, Mr. Shorto was appointed town 
clerk upon the death of Mr. Gidley in 1888. When Mr. 
Shorto made his first acquaintance with town clerk's duties 
the Council met once a month, and had little more to do 
than look after the police and manage the borough property. 
Since then it has become the Urban Sanitary Authority, 
with control of the sewers and streets; it has become 
possessed of the waterworks, of an asylum, the Albert 
Memorial Museum and College, with all the incidentals, 
electric-light works, etc. The city has also been enlarged, 
Exe Bridge rebuilt, and the system of electrified tramways 
installed. The growth of business that has marked Mr. 
Shorto's association with the city clerkship may be 
gathered from the fact that whereas in 1865 the annual dis- 
bursements were only about £12,000, to-day they are 
£150,000 or more. 

On commencing his municipal career he made rapid pro- 
gress towards attaining the dignified position in which he 
served so long and so faithfully as the town clerk of Exeter. 
Only those continually in association with him know how 
he gloried in his work ; no one had a more intimate know- 
ledge of the city's history than Mr. Shorto, and no one had 
a more thorough grasp of municipal law. He dearly loved 
talking of the ancient glories of the past, in showing by the 
valuable documents which the Corporation possess that 
Exeter is one of the most ancient cities of the kingdom. 
Pressed on more than one occasion to write an up-to-date 
history of Exeter, his reply would- be that it would take 
two lives, one to study the history, the other to write it. 
One of his last acts was to relate the city's history, and 
show its historic regalia to Princess Frederica of Hanover. 
A brilliant feature of Mr. Shorto's civic life was the ability 
wliich he displayed in the Council Chamber. Always genial 
in manner, he had wonderful tact in dealing with a member 
inclined to be obstreperous. He enjoyed a joke thoroughly^ 
and invariably made one at the expense of a comicillor, 
whilst he had a happy way of silencing a member who dis- 
regarded the rules of debate. 

Mr. Shorto also found other spheres of activity. For 
many years he took great interest in the Western Provi- 
dent Association, and was formerly identified with the 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 37 

Western Annuitant Society. As an ardent follower of foot- 
ball, he was for a long time a member of the Exeter Foot- 
ball Club. It was in regard to the city muniments and 
insignia that Mr. Shorto was particularly authoritative. 
When he first joined the town clerk's office, and for seven 
years afterwards, Mr. Stuart A. Moore, of London, an expert 
in such matters, was engaged in arranging and calendaring 
the city records, and he gave legal assistance from his anti- 
quarian research in many important lawsuits in which the 
Council were then engaged. All the records are still pre- 
served in the order in which they were left by Mr. Moore. 
Mr. Shorto was of necessity much associated with him in 
this work, and thus obtained a unique knowledge of the 
city's unrivalled muniments. When Sir Henry Irving was 
in the city, Mr. Shorto had the personal delight of showing 
the distinguished actor, amongst the charters and seals, a 
deed bearing the signature of Thomas k Becket, a char- 
acter whjch Sir Henry was to play at the theatre the same 
evening. 

For some time he had been in indifferent health. Early 
in. August, on a very hot day, he had a heat stroke, and was 
in a very critical condition. He however rallied, but there 
was a relapse, and he died on 23 August, 1905, at Exmouth. 
He was buried at Honiton Clyst, the first part of the service 
ha\ang been performed at the Cathedral. 

Mrs. Mary Isabella Jordan. The news of the death of 
Mrs. Jordan, wife of Mr. W. F. C. Jordan, of Teignmouth, was 
received with much regret by the large circle of her friends 
by whom she was much beloved. She was the only surviv- 
ing child of the Eev. James Metcalfe, for twenty-seven 
years Vicar of St. James, Teignmouth. Mr. Jordan was the 
local secretary at the last Teignmouth meeting of the Asso- 
ciation, and his wife took a very active part in tlie arrange- 
ments and helped much in ensuring its success. On that 
occasion she read a paper on West Teignmouth Church. In 
the spring of 1905 she became ill of phthisis and rapidly 
becoming worse, died at Yelverton in August at the early 
age of 37. 

Mr. Baldwin John Pollexfen Bastard. Mr. Baldwin 
J. P. Bastard died at Buckland Court, Ashburton, on 22 
October, 1905. He was the head of one of the oldest 
families in the county. As a young man he served in the 
9th Begiment of Foot, and fought with it in the Crimea. 



38 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

Succeeding to the family estates on the death of his elder 
brother, he left the Army and lived the life of a country 
gentleman, and for some years took an active part in public 
matters, and also for some time acted as chairman of the 
Conservative party. He was a U.L and J.P. for Devon, 
and had served as Sheriff. He had been a member since 
1876. 

Frederick James Cornish-Bowden. Mr. F. J. Comish- 
Bowden, of Black Hall, barrister-at-law, was the son of 
James Bowden, of Kidbrook, Kent, formerly of the 
Admiralty Office. He was born 24 December, 1843, and 
married Esther Priscilla Cornish, daughter and co-heiress of 
James Cornish, of Black Hall, upon which he assumed the 
prefix surname of Cornish. He was well known in the 
county, and held in great esteem by all. He was an active 
magistrate and useful in many public matters, the whole 
district benefiting by the zeal and liberality he displayed. 
He took much interest in agriculture, and although he did 
not take any prominent part in politics, the Conservative 
cause had his hearty support. He was a devout Church- 
man and a member of the English Church Union, and for 
many years was President of the South -Western District of 
the Union. He was much interested in the work of the 
riympton Deanery Choral Union, and his stalwart figure 
carrying the cross at the head of the procession at the 
annual gatherings will be remembered by many. His gifts 
to the Church were numerous, many known only to the 
recipients and himself. In 1878 he supplied a great want 
by building the church of St. James at Avonwick, the 
chancel being a memorial to his father. He had been ill for 
some time before his death, which took place on 3 October, 
1905, at Avonwick. 

Henry Bingham Mildmay. Mr. Mildmay, of Shoreham 
Place, Kent, and of Flete, in this county, was the son of 
Humphrey St. John Mildmay and the Hon. Anne Eugenia 
Baring, his wife. He was held in the highest esteem by all. 
His kindly nature was displayed to every one, and every 
object which tended to the advancement and betterment of 
those about him had his warmest sympathy and assistance. 
He was much interested in farming, and was a member of 
the Devon County and other societies. He was Sheriff of 
Devon in 1886-7, and Justice of the Peace for Devon and 
Kent as well as D.L. for the latter county. The churches 



OBITUABY NOTICES. 39 

of Holbeton and Ermington were restored by him at great 
cost. He had been a member of the Association for 
several years, and at the Plympton meeting in 1887 he took 
the opportunity of inviting the Society to visit him at his 
princely residence at Flete. For twelve months before his 
death he had been in weak health, and a cold, which he had 
not strength enough to throw oflP, caused heart failure, and 
he died on 1 November, 1905. 

Thb Earl Fortescub. Hugh Fortescue, Earl Fortescue, 
Viscount Ebrington, and Baron Fortescue of Castle Hill, 
was bom 4 ApiS, 1818, and died on 10 October, 1905. He 
was one of the oldest members on our list, and although he 
never had any opportunity of joining in its proceedings, he 
was always interested in its welfare and progress. He was 
greatly respected and loved by those who knew him best, 
a good landlord and neighbour, and died full of years and 
honours. We need not repeat the events of his life, as 
they have been given in full detail in many memoirs in the 
Press. 

Mr. E. p. Hawkins, of Exeter, and Mr. Edward 
GoDDARD, of Torquay, have also died during the past 
year. 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT, 

FRED. T. ELWORTHY, F.S.A. 



Ladies and Gentlemen, — Duty no less than inclination 
compels me to place in the very forefront of my address 
an expression of my appreciation of the high honour you 
have done me in electing me for your President, and I 
assure you it was after much hesitation and with the utmost 
diffidence that I accepted the responsibility. I could not 
but remember the number of highly distinguished men who 
have filled this chair, and feared that you had chosen but 
a bruised reed to follow them. It would be improper in 
me now to cavil at or to find fault with your choice, yet 
I cannot avoid the reflection that it might have been wiser 
to select a younger, abler, and more vigorous man for your 
President, one who would have less need to crave your 
indulgence for much that you will have to endure from 
one who has long passed the age of man, and who is fully 
conscious of the weakness of senility and old age. Most of 
my predecessors have announced at once the subject or 
main thesis of their addresses, but I have thought it well, on 
the contrary, to let the matter tell its own tale and to leave 
it to you to decide what it is all about. 

It has been held, and in my judgment amply demon- 
strated, that every common pattern or design, even of those 
conventional and seemingly absurd ones on our wall-papers, 
is the direct outcome or development of some early and 
crude attempt to depict some actual object familiar to every- 
day life. For instance, it was shown that the guilloche, a 
very common running pattern for paper borders, etc., is no 
more than a row repeated over and over of cocks' heads 
very crudely and cursorily drawn, so that at last it seems 
almost like a row of old pothooks and hangers, but with a 
method, and then the turn of each hook forms a cock's eye. 



MR. FRED. T. ELWORTHY'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 41 

All this is shown in the clever illustrations of two books 
by friends of mine — ** Evolution in Decorative Art," by 
A. C. Haddon and Henry Balfour. 

In like manner very little investigation will show that 
all the common beliefs which we are accustomed to call 
superstition can be traced back to some actual event or 
occurrence that has given rise to story and legend, until in 
these days the result is as widely divided from the original 
as our wall-paper designs are from their prototypes. It is 
80 easy to call it superstition, and to set down strange beliefs 
not easily explained to ignorance, but it is well before com- 
mitting ourselves to sweeping statements to decide what we 
mean by superstition. It is common to laugh at foolish 
and ignorant people on whom we look down from the height 
of our superior wisdom, yet a very little sweeping away of 
surface dust will show how very much of what we are pleased 
to call superstition or ignorance remains still amongst us who 
resent the imputation of ignorance, and how much it enters 
into the life and conduct of many whom we admit to be 
enlightened and hard-headed. For example, no one would 
accuse the Cunard Steamship Company of practising super- 
stition in the conduct of their business. Yet we hear that 
as a sop to superstitious voyagers by sea, the Cunard Com- 
pany have determined to eliminate the number 13 from 
their staterooms in all new vessels. This system has already 
been adopted on the "Caronia," and will apply to the two 
turbine mail steamers on the stocks. 

This same notion as to the fatality of the number 13 is to 
be seen every day. Witness the Thirteen Club, whose very 
raison d*itre is evidence of this widespread belief. Hotel- 
keepers say that they dare not number their rooms 13. 
The owner of the " Quisisana " at Capri, in reply to my 
inquiry for a room I wished to have which used to have that 
number, told me he had been obliged to alter it to 14, 
because visitors would not have 13. 

We shall find that from the very cradle mankind has be- 
come inbred and has grown up to that set of ideas we call 
superstition. When we consider the extent to which these 
perverted conceptions of divine nature had grown even in 
the golden age of Roman civilization, we cease to marvel that 
with all our modem culture, scientific discoveries, with all 
the dogmatic arrogance of our professors, that which we call 
superstition still holds its place. Not only is it rampant 
among the uneducated, but very little search will prove it to 
be very much in evidence among those who pose as en- 



42 MR. FRED. T. ELWORTHY*S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

lightened citizens, who would deeply resent the slightest 
suggestion that they were superstitious. 

Keflection will show that people in general are not 
governed by force or by any consideration of law, but by a 
body of traditional ideas and customs, some Christian, some 
heathen, which are the result of long centuries of growth, 
and which will take ages to die out; and though we may 
laugh at ignorant and foolish people on whom we look down 
from our superior wisdom, yet a very little clearing of the 
dust from the surface of things will show how very much of 
what we are pleased to call superstition remains amongst 
ourselves and bears a very distinct effect on our laws and 
conduct, even among the most enlightened and matter-of-fact 



Pardon a digression on the arrogance of science, a word 
which in its usual modern sense rather sets my back up. 

Not far away nor long ago a gentleman who poses as a 
scientific botanist, whom we will call the Eev. Fulwell Prig, 
was enlarging at great length, with much learning and many 
Greek words, to an appreciative audience of ladies, on the 
special peculiarities of an obscure Indian plant, when a by- 
stander ventured to ask if it were not possible that certain 
points might be explained otherwise. " What do you know 
about it ? " says Fulwell Prig. 

Presently another listener mildly asked if the lecturer 
knew who that was. 

" What, that ass that wanted to teach me ? Who ? " 

"That is Mr. ,the Government botanist, who discovered 

and named this plant, who knows more of Indian botany 
than any man alive." Suhsidit Fulwell Prig. 

Once a sucking physiologist used the identically rude 
expression to an unobtrusive old gentleman among his 
audience, and afterwards discovered him to be Professor 
Owen ! 

The antiquity of the belief in the power of the evil eye, 
as well as its constant persistence, is proved by abundant 
evidence. In the times of ancient Greece, and all the 
subsequent ages, the earliest, the latest, the most familiar, 
the most constantly portrayed in art of all the possessors of 
the evil eye, has been the Gorgon Medusa, whose fatal glance 
turned to stone all who beheld her awful face. She was at 
first depicted in a more or less conventional manner, with 
staring eyes, wide, grinning mouth, showing wolf-like fangs, 



MB. FRED. T. ELWORTHT'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 43 

and a protruded tongue split down the centre. This was the 
typical archaic type, and to her fearful ugliness was 
attributed her baneful influence. The story once started 
evidently developed rapidly, for at a very early period a 
parallel version seems to have taken root, and henceforward 
until comparatively recent times the two ran on con- 
currently. First the face lost its extreme hideousness, and 
by degrees, easily traced in ancient art, it became at last in 
Boman days just as lovely as it had been frightful, while the 
story grew to match. She was said to have been beautiful 
at first, and then to have been punished by being changed 
into a hideousness so terrible that whoever looked upon her 
was turned to stone (see " Solution of the Gorgon Myth " in 
"Folklore," vol. XIV, Sept., 1903). The belief that her 
baneful influence arose from her fearful hideousness con- 
tinued to hold its full force, while, at the same time, the 
story had developed in the opposite direction to such an 
extent that her power of fascinating^ heivitching, or advanc- 
ing was held to be the result of her matchless beauty ; yet 
with all this development the belief has ever remained that 
the baneful effect sprang from the eyes alone. Thus we see 
the process by which these terms applied to women in our 
day derive their meaning. Many Grseco-Koman and Etruscan 
Medusse exhibit her as beautiful, but with a sort of horror- 
struck, agonized expression (see " Horns of Honour *'). 

^lany theories have been put forward respecting the Medusa 
and the legend of Perseus — all more or less mythical and specu- 
lative. The other famous exploit of Perseus, the rescue of 
Andromeda, is doubtless still more mythical — by some it is said to 
be the classic form of the fight between the sun-god of Babylon 
(Merodach) and Tiamat the dragon or power of darkness (cf. Job 
IX. 12). Horus slaying the dragon in several forms on Egyptian 
I>aintings is but another version; the myth also appears in the 
fight between Michael and the dragon — and again is perpetuated 
by St. George on our modern coinage. The representations of 
Perseus and St. George in art are almost identical, except that the 
former rides the winged Pegasus, while in some sixteenth-century 
reliefs St. George is represented in plate armour. The panic- 
stricken lady on the rock, instead of being in the classic nudity 
where Perseus is the hero, is dressed in the hoop and farthingale 
of the Renaissance, in reliefs, at the Lou\Te and Palermo 
Museums. 

Livy was honest enough to complain of the neglect of 
augury, of signs and omens, which at that time according to 
Cicero it was the fashion to treat with outward contempt, as 



44 MR. FRED. T. ELWORTHY S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

it is to-day. Yet Cicero was liimself as certain a believer in 
charms, in omens, in bird-lore and other forms of so-called 
superstition, as are to-day many highly educated men ; e.g. 
Hawker of Morwenstow was, and the present Tsar of Holy 
Kussia certainly is a devout user of magical protectors. 

How long continued and well protected are devices for 
personal protection against that external influence hardly 
needs to be proved, but some anecdotes of the present Tsar 
are interesting instruction on that matter. He, like many 
another living potentate, is a sufferer from the ever-present 
dread. 

He (Nicholas II) is not remarkable for physical or for moral 
courage, and he lives in a perpetual state of nervous anxiety. 
The grand visit which Nicholas II paid to France a few 
years ago was a period of severe strain both to himself and 
to his gentlemen-in-waiting. So long as he was at sea 
Nicholas was happy enough, but his troubles began when he 
landed in France. He was far from happy whilst he was in 
Paris, though the newspapers had a great deal to say about 
his magnificent entry in state ; but the newspapers did not 
tell their readers what his gentlemen-in-waiting had to 
undergo. Twice a day he received absolution from his 
chaplain. In his clothes was concealed a small piece of 
garlic, as a talisman against the plots of his enemies. A pope 
of the " Orthodox Church " used to lick his left eye twice a 
day as a preventative against the machinations of the 
Nihilists. No one but Baron Freedericksy knows the extent 
of the misery which he suffered until he returned to Russia 
again (Carl Joubert's "The Truth about the Tsar," 1905, 
pp. 22, 23). 

Astrology, that essentially fatalist creed, was devoutly held 
by famous classical writers. Suetonius, Tacitus, and Dion 
Cassius all believed implicitly the predictions sought from 
Chaldajan seers on the accession of each new Emperor. At 
the same time that men had entire faith in the skill of these 
impostors, they had apparently a corresponding distrust of 
their honesty (Dill., " Eoman Society from Nero to Marcus 
Aurelius," p. 445. A most valuable book). Casters of 
'* nativities," readers of the planets, are now in the same way 
scoffed at in public and consulted in private. It has been 
well said, "Superstition is the belief by other people in 
things that are incredible to your exalted self." 

This latter-day afifectation of superiority is well matched 
by that of the highly cultured Komans. Plutarch, indeed, 
had a genuine hatred of the degrading fear of unseen 



MR. JRBD. T. KLWORTHY'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 45 

malignant powers in his day, for he says, " Better not believe 
in God at all, than cringe before a God worse than the 
worst of men " (Dill., •* Roman Society from Nero to Marcus 
Aurelius," p. 444J. 

The garlic worn by the Czar is still a very common pro- 
tector in Sicily and in Greece ; indeed, so potent is it in some 
of the Greek islands that, as in Naples with the word Corno, 
80 with them the mere utterance of the word for garlic is a 
protection (see "Evil Eye," p. 196, etc.). Of all people the 
Sicilians are perhaps fullest of what we understand by super- 
stition, in many particulars quite agreeing with notions cur- 
rent among ourselves. Many beliefs respecting everyday 
work are the same. A bed must be made at certain times when 
an angel is thought to be passing who will leave a blessing on 
it. A bed must never be made by one person, always by two, 
or still better, three. The devil, too, is a very real personage 
in Sicily ; so too are the endless charms, both concrete and 
verbal, like garlic, to guard against general as well as specific 
evils. To give even a summary of these would require far more 
time and space than I can give or than you would endure. 

In all ages superstition has been differently understood. 
The term has been both denied and applied to the very same 
belief, so that what is devoutly held in one generation is 
scoffed at as superstition in the next; while, on the other 
hand, that which has been looked on as mere superstition has 
subsequently been accepted as a creed unquestionable. 
Cicero defined superstition as any religious belief or practice 
going beyond ancestral usage (" De Natura Deor." I, xvii. 42), 
while Plutarch devoted a whole treatise to the subject, much 
more in accordance with our own views. These we may 
shortly define as a dread, a recognition of supernatural 
powers, ever ready to injure and aftiict, whose evil workings 
haunt their victims day and night, who must be propitiated 
and approached with fear and trembling prostration. Fear 
is the basis of superstition — the ills that tiesh is heir to have 
ever been looked on as the direct result of malignant and 
destructive influences. 

Poor humanity has in all ages regarded Nature's inexora- 
bility and apparent cruelty — the dangers from earthquake, 
fire and tempest, with their threats to life and its inevitable 
end for all, have had a far greater place in man's imagination 
and experience than the pleasures and joys of existence. 
Gratitude for favours received has had but a very small 
place in comparison with fear of the evil that may happen 
to the body. Hence it comes that he whom we call the 



46 MR. FRED. T. ELWORTHY'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

child of nature has always been more ready to fear and to act 
so as to pacify or propitiate the unknown powers of dark- 
ness, the authors, as he believes, of all his troubles, rather 
than to acknowledge with thanksgiving those beneficent 
powers which, notwithstanding his misfortunes, he is com- 
pelled in his inmost heart to recognize. Thus it is, that 
from the very earliest times fear has been the great mover 
of mankind. 

As I said before, nowhere is what we call superstition so 
actively surviving as in modern Sicily, where it has of late 
been my privilege to give it some time and study. Whether 
anything further will come out of the work I have done in 
that direction remains to be seen. Sicilian folk-lore is, how- 
ever, an euormous yet hitherto unexploited subject. 

Judged by the number and variety of charms and amulets 
mounted with rings to be worn on the person, exhibited for 
sale in the shops and streets of Sicily, the demand for them 
must be very great, even after allowing for the number manu- 
factured and sold to tourists as mere trinkets and curios. 

The well-known arms of Sicily, known as the Trinacria, 
are to be seen in Palermo chiefly, and the device is made in 
several forms to be worn as a charm. ** La Migration des 
Symboles," by Goblet d'Alviella, a wonderful treatise, must 
be studied by all who are interested in this sign. 

Tlie idea of the three legs is exceedingly ancient, and may 
be seen on the shields of warriors, upon vases of the very 
earliest Greek periods, and it is said to be the same as the 
four-legged fylfot or svastica, by some called the " catch K" 
This device was brought home to England by the Crusaders, 
and lias become the recognized badge or symbol of the 
Isle of Man. The difference between the comparatively 
modern Manx arms and those of Sicily is that the former 
consist of three running legs only, but spurred and cased in 
medieval plate armour, whereas the arms of Sicily are 
naked legs, but radiating from a Medusa's head. Very much 
might be said on this quaint device, now become one of the 
commonest badges of modern life. Of course, both are the 
offspring of the same primitive idea, but they have evolved 
into very different outward appearances. The ancient form 
appears always as with nude legs, and in that fonn was one 
of the earliest of heraldic shield decorations enlarged on else- 
where. I could produce from Greek vases the fylfot or swastica 
represented on shields of pre-Homeric age (on this see 
" Horns of Honour," page 67). Modern heraldry being dis- 
tinctly a science is progressive, and still in course of develop- 



MR. FBED. T. BLWORTHT'S PBBSIDBNTIAL ADDRE8S. 47 

ment, as may well be seen bj the easily obtained and eagerly 
displayed modem coats of arms and manufacture of achieve- 
ments, though one and all have sprung from the primitive 
desire of protection against the fatal Evil Eye (see "Evil Eye," 
pagel79> 

A much older representation than any now in Sicily is on 
a Greek altar in Malta (see "Evil Eye," page 291). The 
present Sicilian common representation is a quite modem- 
century rendering, taken from a large medallion upon a 
fountain in the Villa Giulia at Palermo. The arms of the 
city of Palermo are a spread eagle, while for a crest is borne 
a legendary figure of a nude male wearing a crown, whose 
breast is being attacked by a large serpent. The best repre- 
sentation of this so-called Palermo is a life-size statue on a 
fountain in the Piazza Eafaelo. The same is to be seen 
above a shield with the spread eagle on the facade of the 
'* Municipio " and on a fountain outside the Porta Felice. 

Kather favourite charm-amulets are a skeleton, a skull, 
or a harlequin mounted with a ring for suspending to the 
watch chain, and made of either silver or base white metal. 
A cock, a pig, a boar, a half-moon with a profile, are also 
very common ; while such things as an old boot, a violiu, 
a mandolin, a lady's shoe, a winged cupid, a little bucket, a 
revolver made of silver and mounted are quite comnioii. 
Hands of coral, carved in various positions, but particularly 
that known as maiw in fica, are to be seen in Sicily just as 
frequently as in Naples. 

Sicilians say in this world there is a cure for every 
disease, and if one dies it is because we do not know it. 
There was a book which described all these remedies, but 
God destroyed it, otherwise there would have been no death, 
and there would not have been food enough for all to live on. 

The body of Mahomet is shut up in an iron box at Mecca, 
and this box is suspended in the air by means of a load- 
stone (per via di calamita). The counteraction against the 
loadstone is garlic. If a Christian, having got into the 
temple of Mahomet, should throw some garlic on the box, 
the miraculous suspension would end and it would fall to 
the ground. 

Sicily is supported by three columns which are the bases 
of the three feet — one column at Faro, one at Pechino, and 
one at Trapani. Of course these feet are those of the 
" Trinacria," the well-known arms (three legs) of Sicily. 

The fire of Etna is in direct communication with that of hell. 

On Mount St. Julian of Trapani are the most beautiful 



48 XB. FEED. T. ELWOBTHT'S FUESIDECTIAL ADDSK8. 

women of Sicilv, bat if thev come down from thence and 
settle elsewhere thev I*~j6e their beantr. 

11 TrapacL «:mE.i li sost^i ciuviddL 
Efl a la Mucri li p:cc:*xci reddi ; 
Also 

Cu: vol: sal: vaji a TrapoziL 
Cii* voli vei-ii vnja a la Mund. 

.S:. Ar.:ony Abate is the p»atron of fire. 

If :he fire crackles or the lamp spatters thev pour holj 
wat^rr, ^Urr-ie^l on holy Saturiay. over it. 

}f<: who keeps no light burning (before a saint) in his 
ho:;rie wiU <i:*: accursed. 

If you --nufi a candle and throw the snuff still alight on 
th^: '/round, you must stamp it out instantly, lest the souls 
in limr/) blaspheme God and curse their relations to the 
sevc-nth j^eneration, for they are in darkness, and at the 
sight of that little light suffer horribly. 

A lij^ht on the ground portends near misfortune. 

If the kitchen fire goes out on a Holy Saturday it is a 
frightful omen ; l>efore the next, one of the family will die 
accur->;d. Therefore the common people are careful not to 
put wet or green fuel on the fire alx)ut that time. 

To try if wine is pure or watered, a little is poured on a 
plate on which stand-; a lighted taper — this is to be covered 
by a glass tumbler reversed. If there is water with the 
wine it remains outside, while the wine is instantly sucked 
up in.side. 

Another way is to half fill a large glass, and then put a 
smaller glass inside it. If there is water this rises between 
the two glasses, while the wine stays at the bottom. 

A third proof is to pour some water on a plate, fill a 
sponge with the wine, and put it in the plate of water : if 
the wine is pure, it will take a quarter of an hour to colour 
all the water; if it is watered, instantly. 

Garlic destroys the power of a magnet. 

The protector of thieves is St. Disma, the penitent who 
was crucified on Calvary. 

The ^ladonna of the island of Lampedusa has a lamp 
always wanting in oil. 

There lived on it a hermit who wore a two-faced hood: on 
one was painted a crucifix, which he offered to be kissed by 
Christians; on the other was painted Mahomet, which he 
offered for the adoration of Turks who landed on the island ; 
hence the Sicilian proverbial phrase, Zu Eiviitu di la 
*Mpidusa — For those who serve God and Mahomet. 



lOL FRED. T. ELWOBTHT'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 49 

Drunken women, when suffering much in labour, cause the 
image of Madonna to be brought so as to assist quickly, and 
say, LHutra Maria I Diutra Maria! But directly they are 
reUeved, have her put out of the house, saying, Fora Maria ! 
Fora Maria! Hence the saying about a fickle, voluble, 
inconstant person. Diutra Maria ! Fora Maria ! 

The Agnxis Dei has always been miraculous. A woman 
persecuted by a demon attached an Agnus Dei to her neck 
and the demon fled. 

A house on fire was extinguished by a morsel of Agnus Dei 
thrown on the flames. 

A child overlooked (Cersaglio) by a witch, was taken 
every night from his mother's bed, placed before the thres- 
hold of the house, with an Agnus Dei on his neck, and was 
freed thereby from that trouble. 

Among the devout Sicilians lard is not considered as real 
fat, but as a milky substance that may be consumed on fish 
days {giomi di magro). Fish is called scanamaru; meat, eggs, 
milk, are cammaru : hence cammardrisi means to eat flesh. 

If they see signs or figures on the ground they get 
together and hide in some hole ; especially if the figures are 
like crosses, they are very bad omens. 

It is a common belief in some parts that ecclesiastical 
fasts or devotions are valueless when the eve has been spent 
without eating, for the commonalty hold that not to have 
eaten on the eve of a fast day is a sin to be confessed. 

No one ought to "communicate" unless he has slept at 
least a quarter of an hour the previous night. 

As all venomous reptiles become deadly on and from the 
first of March, therefore all through that month the wood of- 
certain trees is most dangerous from the poisons it con- 
tains; those who are poisoned {ferite) not only by these 
creatures and by this wood but by other means, will not 
heal before the end of the month. 

On Candlemas Day the bear shakes himself; if the 
weather is fine all evils on earth or on man disappear — even 
if bad no ill will happen. 

If anything is missed or lost they go to St. Spiridion 
because he concedes the grace to find it. 
Santu Spiririuni 
Fa li grazii a rammucciimi. 

To him and to St. Onofrio they go promising one centesimo 
— no more, no less — which they will then give to some poor 
man. 

There are many details how to obtain help from various 

XXXVIII. D 



50 HR. FKKD. T. ELWORTHY*S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

saints ; how to know if a wife is faithful ; if a journey will 
succeed ; what is of good or bad omen, if met on the way ; 
how to divine with a ring and a hair, etc. etc. Marriages 
between relations always end badly, physically and morally. 

If a tooth comes out, throw it on to the roof of a pregnant 
woman : if the tooth be an incisor or canine she will bring 
forth a boy ; if a molar, a girl. 

Girls marry on St. Jolm's, widows on S. Peter's Day, 
Plenty of signs are current by which to predict the future 
sex of unborn infants. 

If a pregnant woman longs for lemons, vinegar, straw- 
berries, or sour fruit, she will bear a boy who will make a 
man of judgment ; if she likes to nibble dry bark of trees, 
charcoal, chalk, egg-shells, she will have a girl, who will one 
day be capricious, hare-brained, giddy ; or else a Ganymede 
weak and insipid as the — ^man. 

If on the day she should happen to wash the baby clothes 
the sky is cloudy, grey, and rainy, or gloomy, she will have 
u girl. Celu griciu e giittumiisu, 

Priparacci la fusa (the distaff). 

For a woman's second child they take account of her last 
confinement. If the moon was growing then, she will have 
a boy ; if waning, a girl. If the last day of birth was odd, 
she will have a boy ; if even, a girl (this time). If the last 
day was odd, and the day of the week even, she will 
miscarry. If even both, there is the best conception. 

If twin boys are born, one will surely die; if both are 
girls, the same ; but if a boy and girl, both may live. 

Women take care of their children that a boy and girl do 
not kiss each other during the year of birth, otherwise the 
younger will die : if both are the same sex they may kiss 
without injury. 

If a man does not return to his native village on Satur- 
day night before the Ave sounds, his wife suspects him, or is 
afraid he is dead, or wants to know why he is later than 
usual ; and a scene with the neighbours takes place. 

If few people are following the Viaticum, the sick person 
will die. 

A portent of a death shortly is the peeling of a red- 
cupped rose near the family that has had that calamity. 

Sign of death when there are two women in trouble 
distrecciate in a house at the same time. 

Do not burn the wooden pulley of your house if you do 
not wish to shorten your own life or one of your house- 
hold. 



MR. FRED. T. RLWORTHT's PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 51 

To help or to ease the dying, put underneath the bed the 
threads or weft of a (Ziz^u) loom. 

If you receive a gift from a miser, they believe, or at 
least they say, that you will soon die. 

If any one heaves a deep sigh expressive of great sadness, 
those present say at once either that it is a bad omen, or to 
a woman, 'Nta fossa toiy figghiu ! " May it be a son in thy 
bones." This is a most friendly salutation, equivalent to 
our ■• I wish you joy." 

The murderer who keeps the knife with which he com- 
mitted the crime, will be dragged by a mysterious power 
into the hands of justice. 

Many of these sayings and beliefs are too coarse for 
production here. 

A woman who lays down her distaff and whorl in spin- 
ning takes care to put them on a chair or anywhere but on 
a bed, if she wishes not to fall out with her husband. 

It is a good omen if the thread in spinning gets entangled 
in the whorl ; it presages that her husband will bring home 
money and other good things. 

Any one who treads down the back of his shoes and so 
spoils the leather is said to have told lies. 

The house will be firm into whose foundations gold or 
silver coin has been thrown. 

On setting out on a journey, if on an ass, you may know 
at starting what will be the result of your business. If the 
ass on starting eases his belly, no obstacle will hinder and 
all will be well. 

Any one who puts on his waistcoat, shirt, or. hose inside 
out, should be asked to dine outside the house. 

To those who are naturally timid, if you wish to ease 
them of silly fear, give in a spoon with sugar and water the 
gall of a hedgehog, and they will become brave. 

Whoever buys a new pitcher takes care to make a male 
person drink out of it for the first time, never a female ; and 
thus it will never become musty. 

To run like the wind anoint your feet with ointment made 
of black soap, kidney of a stag, and a black eel. 

Every ten years one changes in face and in temper. 

Every creature in the world has seven beings who re- 
semble him absolutely in everything — in habits, height, 
size, riches, and poverty. 

The beauties of the body are seven : hence the popular 
song — 

Setti su* li bidizzi di la donna. 
d2 



52 MR. FRED. T. ELWORTHY'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

There are seven principal languages, and of a very learned 
person, considered as a monument of wisdom, they say, Sapi 
li sctti lin^ui. 

There is a spring in certain remote parts called sataredda, 
that if drunk by old people renews their youth. 

At a public execution it is customary to take boys to see 
the show. To make them remember well and take warning, • 
at the fatal moment smart blows are given. This custom of 
thrashing to impress the memory is always practised in 
England as " beating the bounds.*' 

Certain deadly sins are punished by the burial alive of 
the guilty in the walls of the church.' This is said to have 
been done in many places, and by order of the governor an 
investigation was made in the mother church of Begalmuto 
in 1882. In the walls were found nineteen skeletons of the 
guilty ones ; many of them were partly turned to dust. 

Sicilians believe in basilisks — half snake, half bird — which 
have the power of paralysing a person by merely looking at 
him. The vulgar belief is that all paralytics have been 
overlooked by basilisks. There are many wise saws about 
them and their victims. 

Serpents with seven heads and seven tails still exist, and 
there are those who have seen them. A serpent of this kind 
was hidden in a grotto near a spring, and devoured all who 
approached it. These creatures possess very fine power of 
smelling. 

There are three special prayers to Maria, St. Anna, and 
St. Monica, for easy labour by women in childbirth, and after 
reciting them they pray to Madonna della Grazia to relieve 
their sufferings. A prayer to the new moon for increased 
prosperity to the house, is : — 

Santa Dduna nuova, 
Dogni iiiisu s'riniiova 
Crisci til, crisciu ia, 
Crisciu 'u bien 'n casa mia. 

In one district (Alia), when after harvest the women go 
gleaning in the field, they often leave the baby swathed up 
on the naked ground, but they take care to provide it with 
a defensive circle. This consists of nothing but some drops of 
milk from their own breast run round the ring ; then they 
are quite sure neither snake nor viper nor other venomous 
beast will break through this magic entrenchment to injure 
the poor little i)xccini. Besides tliis (to make doubly safe), 
some nurses squirt a little of their own milk over the child 
which they have placed in a cradle. That milk is Sisalvtxnos. 



HR. FBED. T. ELWOBTHY'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 53 

The forgoing notes are but a mere suggestion of the vast 
mass of the folk-lore of Sicily. For students who really 
desire full knowledge on the subject there is abundant op- 
portunity provided in the " Biblioteca delle Traditione Popu- 
lari Siciliane," 2-i vols. Palermo, L. Pedone Lauriel, 1889, 
etc. etc. 

Now, ladies and gentlemen, you will have concluded that 
the main subject of this address is after all only egomet, yet 
with that judgment staring me in the face I must detain you 
while I declare how infinitely the value and satisfaction to 
me of this presidentship are enhanced by the choice of this 
lovely place for the meeting. I have been familiar with the 
neighbourhood for nearly threescore years and ten, and can 
challenge any one to name one within the four seas of 
Britain equal to it in natural beauty ; indeed, after long and 
wide experience there is none in Europe, taken all in all, to 
be compared with it. There are some very beautiful valleys 
with woods, rocks, and streams in the Saxon Switzerland near 
the Elbe at Spaudau and Konigstein, but lovely as they are, 
they want the ever-present complement that we find here — 
the sea! Just as every modern design or pattern has its 
prototype in some rough attempt at primitive art, so a very 
little honest investigation, called by any name you please — 
even scientific research, if you will — calls back every custom, 
legend, and myth to some actual event or occurrence round 
which there has grown up and developed that which has now 
become the ordinary legend or common belief. We are all 
familiar with the commonest form of door-knocker, a boss 
consisting of a head surrounded by the practical knocker in 
the form of a hinged ring, usually of iron foliage. The makers 
of this everyday Brumagem implement little dream that 
they are perpetuating one of the earliest legends of mankind. 
The face they have cast is now intended to be at least comely 
and attractive, but originally it was the very type of hideous- 
ness; in fact, this is the surprising outcome of the awful 
face of the Gorgon Medusa, whose aspect was so fearful as to 
petrify all who looked on it. Elsewhere I have attempted to 
show the stages by which it grew from ugliness to become 
the type of beauty, and this notion survives in our everyday 
talk when we speak of a very fascinating woman or face, as 
if it had the power to entrance or spell-bind us. Legends 
and myths grow up everywhere, but in no parts so profusely 
as in Southern Italy, and specially Sicily, which may be 
called the home of fable. It is, too, curiously instructive to 



54 MR. FRED. T. ELWORTHT'S PRESIDKXTIAL ADDRES& 

compare the various legends wiih those current at home. 
Here in Devon, we are all familiar with the harvest custom of 
Crying the Neck. Again it has been my good fortune to 
bring together evidence of the very same practices from 
Egypt, America, Jerusalem, Jericho, Scotland, Wales, and 
Sicily, besides the islands of Greece. Examples from all 
these places I have shown by lantern slides in my own native 
county, and not only are harvest customs the same in widely 
divided countries, but other practices equally familiar to us 
are found far afield. Our old acquaintance, the Split Ash, 
about which I am not now going to enlarge, is to-day in full 
force in the Canary Islands, where the ceremony performed 
is identical with that we know so well, save that there is 
slightly more religious ritual in the Spanish form. I have 
the whole of it from the hand of a lady resident in Teneriffe. 
The peculiarity of the Sicilian form of Crying the Xeck is 
that the function is performed before a figure representing 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the man who makes the offering 
of the object, called Crocriatu in Sicilian, is or typifies a 
naked man ; to perform this decently the custom is for him 
to wear a shirt only. Many other similar analogies might 
be produced. 

Not very much is to be said about special customs or 
archieology as relating to this part of Devonshire. Its 
attractions are all natural beauties, and as if they were 
not amply sutlicient, one rather resents the idea that they 
should be so much enhance^l or advertised by being the 
scenes of popular romances. I distinctly despise the name 
Blackmore Country, as if Lynton and its surroundings would 
not have been just as lovely and attractive if '^Lorna Doone" 
had never been written. Indeed, it seems to me no less than 
mischievous and harmful to the locality, because people get 
so excited with the glamour and atmosphere of the novel, 
that when they go to the actual spot like the Doone Valley, 
thev are disappointed and disgusted at the want of romance 
and fancied beauty of the place. I'ut for the novel, how many 
of the visitors would ever go near the Doone Valley ? The 
i«nie applies equally to what is called Kingsley Country. 
^K^t a shock it is to admirers of his " Westward Ho ! " to 
V ttken to Northain Burrows ! I find no inspiration in 
<5njjrs ** Blackmore Country." The whole of the first part is 
ld^« «P ^'^'^ Cuhnstock and Blundell's School, very in- 
^r r^r^^ in themselves, but a long way from Lynton. The 

lt:*,5Uife put out by the local committee is by far the best 

»,jj^^ •«»« seen. 



HR. FRED. T. SLWORTHY'S PRK8IDENTUL ADDRESS. 55 

In these parts, besides ever-changing nature, there is an 
interest in its primitiveness, for even yet in some parts it 
is not up to cUUe. For example, it is but almost within 
living memory that the civilization of forks has penetrated. 
My father visited a farmhouse not far from this where not 
even the two-pronged fork had arrived. A warm ham was 
carved and eaten without a fork — and many of us have 
heard the saying, " Vingers and thumbs was a-made avore 
knives and vorks." The two-pronged fork we all remember 
is not a useful implement for eating pease, but readers of 
that quaint old book of travels, Coryatt's " Crudities," will 
see that even those were not used by our forefathers in 
Elizabeth's day. 

Not much is to be said of a scientific nature about this 
district, but for those whose strength permits nothing could 
be better than to follow out to the letter the admirable 
Uttle book of the local committee. One or two omissions 
are obvious to me. From or near where we now are is to 
be seen a real typical British camp — of course, like every 
other, known as the " Soman encampment." Why I never 
can make out ; probably no Roman ever saw it nor most of 
the other so-called Roman works. No doubt the Romans 
left their mark very conspicuously here in England, but 
every ancient remains is by no means theirs ; nor were our 
British forefathers anything like the painted savages depicted 
by many historians ; on the contrary, they were in many 
ways quite as civilized as their conquerors. The Glaston- 
bury Lake Village proves beyond dispute that 200 years 
before the Roman invasion the inhabitants of Britain were 
no mean handicraftsmen. The tools they had and their 
work, especially coopering, were quite equal to anything of 
contemporary Rome, and in several respects quite equal to 
the work and tools of some parts of modem Italy. I noticed a 
saw in a shop at Brescia, a few years ago, of a peculiar shape, 
and made as they were anciently to cut when drawn, instead 
of as now when pushed or thrust. That saw is matched, 
handle and all, identically by one at Glastonbury. There is 
also part of a ladder exactly what may be seen to-day in daily 
use in Italy. They had lathes, for there are the turned hub 
or nut and spoke of a wheel as well made as if by a modern 
English wheelwright. Who, then, shall declare the ancient 
Britons to have been woaded savages ? 

Besides the walks recommended by the local committee, 
I would point out one of wonderful chann. Go up to 
Countisbury, past the camp, noticing on the way the grass 



56 MB. FRED. T. SLWOBTHT'S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

slope or track which seems to lead from it down towards 
the beach. I want to learn from the experts here what this 
was ; it is too steep for a road or path, and never could have 
been so used, for it ends abruptly in a precipice, and never 
could have been a smugglers' road. 

Take a turn to the right by the public-house and keep on 
over the brow of the hill ; this will bring you to a spot where 
you look down into the wonderful gorge of Watersmeet. I 
shall never forget the thrill with which that view burst upon 
me more than sixty years ago. No words can express the 
loveliness of that spot : were I to attempt to find adjectives 
tit to describe it, I must, in choice journalese, at once "stop 
over,** The Portuguese corral is the only term known to me 
that can convey any notion of what it is like. The extra- 
ordinary density and even surfaces of the steep woods are a 
very remarkable feature, and the same effect, perhaps of 
prevailing winds, is noticeable in other places around. The 
knoll from whence this view is gained is called Homer^s 
Neck, and it is well worth a special walk to see it. 

There are no hut circles or other prehistoric remains in 
this district so far as I am aware, but over the border in 
Somerset are to be found objects of that kind. 

Mr. Snell alludes to a Menhir on Winsford Hill, near 
Spire Cross, where the road turns off to Tarr Steps. It was 
I who made the squeeze when I took Dr. Murray and 
Professor Ehys to see it (see " Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. 
Society Proceedings"). The late Mr. Charles I. Elton 
was also of the party, and liis vast knowledge confirmed 
the interpretation of the other savants. It is a very 
remarkable and most interesting monument of antiquity. 
Our thanks are due to Sir T. D. Acland for having erected 
a fence around it to protect it from cattle and bipeda 
The subsequent finding of the initial letter N is a strange 
confirmation of the correctness of the reading, nepus for 
epuSy on the stone. 

There is but little to be said about the dialect of this 
district, and that little I will postpone until I can find a 
fitting opportunity later during the meeting. 



TWENTY-FIFTH BEPORT OF THE BAREOW 
COMMITTEE. 

TwiNTY-FlFTH REPORT of the Committee — consisting of Mr, 
P. F. S. Am^ry, JRev. S, Barinf/'Oould, Dr, Binishfieldy Mr, 
R, Burnxird, Mr, J, Brooking- Rmve^ Rev, J, F, Chanter, and 
Mr, R. Hansford Worth — appo-inted to collect and record 
facts relating to Barraivs in Devonshire, and to take steps, 
v-here possible, for their investigation. 

Edited by R. Haksford Worth, Hon. Secretary. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



Your Committee's present Report includes : — 

(1) The record of the exploration of two small cairns in 

the Tavy Valley, on Dartmoor, by the Rev. I. Kempt 
Anderson. 

(2) The record of the exploration of three barrows near 

Brockenburrow Lane, Challacombe, North Devon, 
by the Rev. J. F. Chanter. To which is added an 
abstract of Westcote's tale of the opening of 
Broaken Barrow. 

(3) A description of certain North Devon barrows, Five 

Barrow group, and Setta Barrow. To which is an- 
nexed an abstract of Westcote's report of the open- 
ing of Woodbarrow. 

TAVY VALLEY. 

On the slopes of Hare Tor, near Tavy Cleave, is a small 
caim, unmarked on the Ordnance Survey (Devon Lxxxvin. 
S.E. Long, r 2' 52", lat. 50' 38' 3^- Of this the Rev. I. Kempt 
Anderson reports : — 

The caim is about 11 feet in diameter and stands 
about 18 inches high in centre; it has a stone boundary 
circle. It was opened on 6 July, 1905, in the presence of 
myself, Mrs. Anderson, Mr. G. Warren Smallwood, Robert 



58 TWENTY-FIFTH REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITTEE. 

Densham, William Tancock, William Cole, Joseph Newcomb, 
Miss Meade (Mary Tavy), Miss Dora Brown (ditto), and 
others. 

We found the place of cremation, about 18 inches to 24 
inches below the natural surface. There was a great quantity 
of large pieces of charcoal, some ash, and what, I think, 
might prolmbly be human cinder dust. No pottery — ^no 
kistvaen. 

Irvine K. Anderson. 

Near Homer Eed Lake is another small cairn, also un- 
marked on the Ordnance Survey (Devon xcviii. N.E. Long. 
4^ 1' 50", lat. 50" 37' 40i"). 

This is a small caini, which I found on 5 June, 1905. It 
is but 4 feet in diameter and 2 feet high at centre. There 
is no stone circle. 

It was opened on 26 July, 1905, in the presence of my- 
self, lwol)ert Densham (of Hornden), Joseph Newcorab (ditto), 
William Cole (ditto), William Tancock (Mary Tavy), and 
James Stevens (Devonport). 

Burnt earth was first found within 1 foot of surface, 
afterwards more burnt earth, a good quantity of charcoal 
(prolmbly oak), some ash, and one good worked flint with 
remarkably sharp edge. (A small semicircular scraper. — 
E. H. W.) We cleared the surface of the " deads." 

Irvine K. Anderson. 

barrows near brockenburrow lane. 

The neighbourhood of Brockenburrow or Broaken Burrow 
has an especial interest. Westcote preserves for us the 
record of a barrow-opening here in or about the year 1623. 
Tliis will l>e found given in cvtcnso in our first report. Vol. 
XI of the " Transactions," p. 149. It appears that a certain 
labouring man, having saved a little money, invested this in 
some few acres of waste land and began to build a house 
thereon. Jf ot far from the site was Broaken Burrow ; and, 
following the method even now prevalent, this he utilized as 
his quarry, fetching " stones and earth to further his work." 
Presently, ** having pierced into the bowels of the hillock, he 
found therein a little place, as it had been a large oven, 
fairly, strongly, and closely walled up." Evidently a 
kistvaen. 

This and the prospect of treasure " comforted him much." 
He broke through into the cavity and espied an earthen pot, 
which he essayed to seize. Twice he tried, and twice a noise 



TWEanr-FIFTH BKPORT OF THB BARROW COMMITTEE. 59 

as of trampling or treading of horses caused him to desist, 
fearing that there were those coming who should " take his 
purchase from him." The third time he brought the urn 
away, and found " therein only a few ashes and bones, as if 
they had been of children or the like." "But the man, 
whether by the fear, which yet he denied, or other cause 
which I cannot comprehend, in very short time lost senses 
both of sight and hearing, and in less than three months 
consuming died. He was in all his lifetime accounted an 
honest man." 

The record is in all probability the true account of an 
"honest man's" tragic adventure. The kistvaen and urn 
accord with the results of the most recent opening in this 
immediate locality. 

A further interest attaches to these barrows, since they 
are associated with some of the despoiled stone monuments 
described in the "Transactions" for last year, and again 
referred to in Part II of " The Eude Stone Monuments of 
Exmoor and its Borders," in the present volume. 

[E. H. W.] 

BARROW A. BROCKENBURROW. 

Devon vi. S.E. Long. 3** 54' 19", lat. 5V 9' 56". 

Last year my investigations of the barrows on the western 
slopes of Exmoor were confined to the groups, being on 
Chapman Barrows, the results of which were given in the 
twenty-fourth Eeport. This year I determined to shift my 
ground somewhat, and tempted by the account which West- 
cote gives of the mysterious events which happened before his 
days at the opening of one of the barrows on Challacombe 
Common, known as Broken Barrow, fixed on the same 
locality as a probably interesting field, and it is perhaps 
needless to say that the noise as of trampling horses which 
alarmed the explorer of those days at the opening of the 
kistvaen did not visit me when I, in my turn, made my dis- 
covery. 

The first barrow on which work was commenced lay in a 
field known as Deer Park, formerly part of Challacombe 
Common, enclosed and broken about forty years ago, and 
now forming part of Wistland Pound Farm, in the 
occupation of Mr. W. E. Smyth, by whose kind permission, 
and also that of the owner, Lord Fortescue, I was allowed to 
make the necessary excavations. The barrow is marked A 
in Plate XI of "Stone Monuments of Exmoor" ("Trans. D.A.," 
1905, p. 397), where the stones in connexion with it are 



60 TWENTY-FIFTH REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITTSE. 

described. It is 31 feet in diameter and 3 feet 7 
inches high above the present level of the ground at its 
highest point, and had no traces of any previous disturbance. 
A trench about 4 feet 6 inches wide was driven in from the 
south side, and at 14 feet from the margin some quantity of 
charcoal and burnt clay was found just below the present 
ground level, while at 15 feet G inches a cairn of stones was 
reached of conical shape about 2 feet 3 inches high, with 
its top 1 foot 11 inches below the top of the barrow. The 
stones were all set longways upward and leaning inwards. 
On removing the outer stones of this cairn a kistvaen was 
exposed 17 inches long, 13 inches wide, and 12 inches deep — 
the cover-stone was 18 inches long and 12i inches wide^ — the 
ends composed each of a single stone about 12 inches by 

13 inches, the north side a single stone 19 inches long and 
irregular in height, and the south side of two stones, one 

14 inches by 13 inches, the other 4| inches by 10 inches — 
the bottom formed bv a single stone about 17 inches by 
12 inches. The length of the kist lies N. 67' 13' E. On 
lifting off the cover-stone an urn was exposed full of bones, 
bone ash, and charcoal, and some earth which had been 
forced in by pressure from above, and which in its fall had 
unfortunately broken the urn in several fragments ; and in 
attempting to move these they proved to be so imperfectly 
baked and so sodden with water that many crumbled and 
broke ; sufficient, however, remained intact to render some 
reconstruction and measurements possible. It stood upright, 
not inverted, and was probably about 10 inches high and 
10 inches in diameter at the top internally; 6 inches inter- 
nally and 7i inches externally at the base; the thickness 
of the material varies from '70 inch at the base and at a 
ridge half-way up to -45 incli at the rim ; the clay is very 
coarse, with a large admixture of sand; externally the 
colour is yellow-brown, internally nearly black, the black 
colour extending through three-quarters of the thickness. 

The urn was perfectly destitute of any ornamentation 
except a plain rib half-way up, and is rudely hand- 
moulded, the rim being very uneven. An examination of 
the contents showed large quantities of bones, some quite 
white, others charred, charcoal, and one burnt flint, broken 
in two, about 3-25 inches long, which showed traces of work- 
ing and use at both ends and sides. At the bottom of the 
kistvaen four small shale stones and one quartz had been 
placed round the base of the urn to keep it in position. An 
extended search did not bring anything else to light in the 



TWENTY-FIFTH REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITTEE. 61 

ground around, but one flint chip was found in the next 
field. The barrow consisted entirely of earth and layers of 
surface turf. Barrow was opened on Saturday, 2 June, and 
Monday, 4 June, 1906. 

The base of the kistvaen was 4 feet 2 inches below the top 
of the barrow, and therefore about 7 inches below present 
level of ground. 

J. F. Chanter. 

Mr. Chanter has kindly forwarded the flint and a portion 
of the urn for examination. I am inclined to think that the 
urn was made in the near locality. The flint, a much-worn 
"fabricator," is very interesting. It has obviously been 
burnt, the surface being fused in parts and presenting the 
appearance of an irregular glaze. It was broken by the fire 
before the cremation was completed, one half being much 
more fused than the other, having presumably fallen into a 
hotter part of the fire. If we except the absence of a slight 
ornamentation, the urn is of the same character, and of much 
the same shape, as one figured in the last Eeport, and found 
at Westerland Beacon, South Devon. 

E. H. W. 

BROKEN BARROW GROUP. 

BARROW B. (Plate XI, " Stone Mon.") 

Devon vi. S.E. Long. 3" 54' 18", lat. 5V 9' 57^'. 

Examined 10 June, 1906. 

The barrow was ploughed over when the moor was broken 
forty years ago, but has not been touched since ; it is 30 feet 
in diameter, 20 inches high. A trench was driven in from 
south about 4 feet wide ; about 2 feet in a low wall of stones 
was reached, and another about 10 feet in ; beyond this the 
ground appeared to have been previously disturbed, large 
stones which may have been part of a kistvaen, earth, clay, 
and decayed turfs, with small pieces of charcoal, being indis- 
criminately mixed up. After driving about 3 feet beyond 
the centre it was abandoned and filled in, nothing being 
found but one small flint flake and spot where the cremation 
seemed to have taken place. 

BARROW c. (Plate XI, " Stone Mon.") 

Devon vi. S.E. Long. 3^ 54' 28J", lat. 51^ 9' 57i". 
Excavated 10 June. 

This barrow, according to the old man on the farm, was 
not ploughed over or touched when the field was taken in 



62 TWENTY-FIFTH REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITTEE. 

from the common, but the top was irregular, with depression 
in the centre. Diameter, 42 feet 6 inches ; greatest height, 

3 feet 9 inches. A trench was driven in from south about 

4 feet 6 inches wide. The mound was entirely of earth and 
turfs, with no containing wall; and at about 16 feet from 
edge it showed previous disturbance, a large shaft having 
been sunk from the top about 6 to 7 feet diameter down 
below the subsoil in this area. Everything was mixed up, 
large flat stones, earth, etc., as if thrown in indiscriminately. 
At about 1 foot 9 inches down from the top a few sherds of 
pottery were found, probably the remains of the former 
barrow-openers, and may perhaps determine their date. Was 
this ljarrow,for it lies close to Broken Barrow Lane, the broken 
barrow of which old Westcote tells such strange tales? 
Nothing was found on the present occasion beyond the 
potsherds and a flint core. 

J. F. Chanter. 

Mr. Chanter has sent me a piece of the pottery found in 
this barrow. It is red ware, yellow glazed inside, and may 
be medieval or of almost any later date. Quite probably it 
is the relic of a seventeenth-century barrow-opening. But 
from the description I hardly think that this is the original 
"Broaken Burrow." (I fear the name as attached to any 
definite mound is now lost.) The state of the barrow hardly 
accords with what one would expect liad it been used as a 
quarry. Tliis, however, is purely a personal opinion. 

K. H. W. 

FIVE BARROW GROUP, NEAR SPAN HEAD, NORTH MOLTON. 

Devon xi. S.W. 

Inland, Heame's Copy, Vol. II, p. 103 : — 

There rennith at this Place caullid Simonshath a Rj'ver 
betwixt to great Morisch Hilles in a depe Bottom and tlier is a 
Bridfje of Woodde over this Water. . . . 

Tlie Boundes of Scmiersetshire go bey<»nd this streame one way 
by Xortli West a 2 Miles or more to a place caulUd the Spanne, 
and the Taurre't ; for ther be Hillokkes of Yerth cast up of auncient 
tyiue for Markes and Limites l)etwixt Somersetshir and Devon- 
till Ire, And liere about is tlie Limes and Boimdes of Ezmore forest. 

The locality thus indicated by Leland is that of **Two 
Barrows," " Five Barrows," and " Setta Barrow." Of these 
Setta Barrow is the only one which actually lies on the 
county boundary, although at Two Barrows this latter 



PLATE I 
BARROW NEAR BROCKEN BURROW. 

VI. S.E. /on . 3' -S^'-zs' 
/aK JV- 9-Se' 




URN X 1/4. 




< 31'- O* > 

SECTION OF BARROW. 



e 



^ 




ai*-7' 



TWKNTY-FIFTH REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITTEE. 63 

touches one of the mounds. Five Barrows, which number 
eight, are all in Devon. 

Taken in order, from east to west, the following are the 
descriptions of these barrows. The numbers refer to the 
plan (Plate II). 

(1) A small mound, 39 feet in extreme diameter, in the 
form of a truncated cone, 5 feet 5 inches high, and measuring 
12 feet across the top. 

(2) The total diameter of this barrow is 111 feet. It 
consists of a central mound, the top surface of which is 
slightly domed, and measures 46 feet 6 inches across. From 
the edge of this area the sides fall rapidly 3 feet 1 inch to a 
trench. The trench is surrounded by an annular " rampart," 
rising 2 feet 1 inch above the surrounding ground. For 21 
feet of the western circumference there is no ditch. A 
somewhat similar barrow was described in Part I of " The 
Kude Stone Monuments of Exmoor " last year, and illus- 
trated in Plate XI, fig. 2. In that instance a few spar stones 
lay on the outer margin of the trench. I do not think that 
this form of barrow is in any case original. Subsequent spo- 
liation is responsible for the present shape. We have to 
remember that many barrows are provided with a retaining 
circle of stones, which very probably formed the original 
margin. Such a circle is well seen at Setta Barrow. Subse- 
quently, as the slopes of the mound flattened, in consequence 
of weathering and the tread of animals, the material would 
bank up outside the retaining circle, and very likely rise 
high enough to obscure it. Intermediate conditions can be 
found. Any person desiring stone, and seeking it in such a 
barrow, would find the best material in this circle, and in 
removing the same would excavate a trench. For hedging 
and other purposes the slate stone is best, spar blocks being 
very awkward and irregular in shape, hence any spar stones 
might be allowed to remain. The barrow itself might also 
be likely to be reduced in height for the sake of the earth it 
contained. It is noteworthy in this connexion that the 
trenched form is always, within the writer's experience, 
found in the vicinity of hedges and enclosure walls. 

(3) A mound in the form of a truncated cone, the diameter 
at base 104 feet, the diameter of the top 12 feet, and the 
height 10 feet. A fine and well-preserved barrow. 

(4) A dome-shaped barrow, 66 feet in diameter and 4 feet 

10 inches in height. 

(5) A conical barrow, from 100 to 110 feet wide at base, 

11 feet in height. The top has been partially excavated, 



64 TWENTY-FIFTH REPORT OF THE BARROW COMMITrKK. 

and the material thrown out steepens the upper slopes of 
what was probably a dome. 

(6) A dome-shaped barrow, 81 feet in diameter at base 
and 7 feet 5 inches in height. Apparently untouched. 

(7) A dome, 93 feet in diameter, 7 feet in height. Bears 
slight signs of disturbance. 

(8) The barrow which is shown, with its associated stones, 
in Plate X, fig. 2, of the paper above referred to. Its height 
is 9 feet 9 inohes and its diameter at the base 98 feet. A 
shallow basin, 14 feet in diameter, in the top shows where 
an attempt has been made to open this mound. 

This brief description will enable some idea to be formed of 
the magnitude and importance of the members of the group. 
The total distance from 1 to 8 is 2000 feet, and the 
barrows are scattered over a width of 500 feet measured at 
right angles to this length. They occupy the summit of a 
ridge and are conspicuous from many directions for miles 
around. There is no true alignment, but the group as a 
whole trends N. 67° W. The Two Barrow group on the 
adjacent hill lie very much in this line, but S. 67° E., while 
their own alignment is N. 86° E. 

There is a general tendency toward east and west exten- 
sion in many groups of barrows in this neighbourhood. For 
example, Chapman Barrows, N. 89** 30' W. 

Instances are known elsewhere in the county of north and 
south rows of barrows, such as the seven on Broad Down, 
near Honiton. 

SETTA BARROW, BRAY COMMON. 

Devon xi. N.W. 

This is one of an irregular group, of which the general 
trend is northerly, but there is no approach to an alignment. 
Setta Barrow is one of the bounds between Devon and 
Somerset, and has been cut into in order to admit the con- 
struction of a fence across its crest. Its form is a truncated 
cone, 101 feet in diameter at the base, 51 feet in diameter at 
the top, and 8 feet 1 inch in height. At some time it has 
been opened from the top, as is evidenced by a saucer-shaped 
depression 2 feet 9 inches in depth and 31 feet in diameter. 
Its retaining circle is very perfect, in part obscured by the 
margin of the barrow, in part standing clear from it. The 
largest stones are to the north, one measuring, ba it stands, 
1 foot 9 inches in height, 5 feet in length, and 1 foot 1 inch 
in breadth. On the western margin is clearly seen the 
manner in which the stones of this circle have been packed 



TWINTT-FIFTH BIPORT OF THB BARROW COMMITTEB. 65 

against each other, flat sides toward the mound. When the 
stones are small, four or five thicknesses are used. 

Four hundred and twenty-five feet southward from Setta 
Barrow is a companion, which has an associated stone row, 
figured in Plate VIII of the paper above referred to. This 
also has a retaining circle. 

One hundred and seventy-five feet northward from Setta 
Barrow is another companion, probably despoiled in part. 
Its diameter is 81 feet and height 2 feet; the top is flat. 
Considerable remains of the retaining circle are visible, the 
largest stone nearly equalling the largest named above. 

WOODBARROW. 

Devon vii. S.W. 

This also is a well-known barrow, and one of the bounds 
between the two counties. I mention it here because 
Westcote records its opening in the early seventeenth 
century. 

His information as to Broaken Barrow being to some 
extent corroborated, it may be well to recall his tale of the 
" brass pan " found here. If by " brass " is meanh " bronze," 
there seems some possibility of the truth, but the find would 
be most unusual 

It appears that " two good fellows, not inhabiting far from 
this burrow, were informed by one who took on him the 
skill of a conjuror, that in that hillock there was a great 
brass pan, and therein much treasure both silver and gold." 
The said conjurer undertook to preserve them from the 
powers of evil provided they would open the barrow and 
share the find with him. A fourth man whom " in love they 
made acquainted therewith," "no dastard, but hardy in deed," 
was " better qualified than to take such courses to procure 
wealth and absolutely refused to partake therein." 

The barrow being opened, the pan, covered with a large 
stone, was found. The cover was to be opened, and the 
strongest fellow at work, but he was suddenly taken with 
such a faintness that he could neither work nor scarce 
stand. His companion met a similar fate, the faintness 
lasting no time in either case. Their defender, the conjurer, 
thereupon told them " the birds were flown away and only 
the nest left, which they found to be true," for recovering 
their strength they lifted away the stone and found nothing 
in the pan, but the bottom where the treasure should have 
been was very bright and clean, the rest all eaten with 
cankered rust. " The relator protested that he saw the pan, 

VOL. XXXVIII. E 



66 TWENTT-FIFTH BEPORT OF THE BABBOW COHMITTBB. 

and they two that laboured told him severally all the circum- 
stances, and avowed them." 

The record will be foimd in extenso in the Barrow Com- 
mittee's first Report. 

Woodbarrow may be called the extreme southern member 
of the Chapman group. Not far from it are a stone quadri- 
lateral and triangle combined. 

E. H. WOBTH. 

Postscript. — On the sole substantial basis of the facts 
above stated, tlie " Daily Mail " of 18 June, 1906, produced 
the following historical novel : — 

ANCIENT BRITISH RELICS. 

CARTLOADS FOUND IN A DEVON EARTH MOUND. 



IlfracoTiibe seems likely to add to its long list of attractions one 
which will specially interest scientists, especially those who make a 
study of arcliaBolog}\ 

A well-known local clcjrgyman, who has devoted many years to 
wide researclies in the neighbourhood of the lovely North Devon 
healtli resort, has recently discovered a barrow — a great earthen 
mound — containing among other precious relics arrow heads, spear 
and axe heads, knives, bludgeons, and club spikes of flint, })ieces 
of pottery ware, ornamented l)ones, and sundry other gear used by 
the ancient Britons. Several cartloads of these relics were taken 
out of the barrow — it being a somewhat i)aradoxical fact that the 
contents of this single barrow lillcd many wagons. It is understood 
that the British Museum has l)cen advised oif the find. 

Tlie searcli for further deposits is being continued with un- 
abated zeal. Archaeologists have long regarded the neighbourhood 
of Ilfracombe as one of the favourite haunts of the Britons. 
There are many evidences, also, of the occupation of the country 
by the hardy legions from Cajsar to Honorius ; one in particular is 
an encampment made in the limited time of one day, yet complete 
in its details, and leaving uix)n it the trade mark of its builders — 
" thorough." 

Great is the (magnifying) power of the Press. 

R. H. W. 



TWENTY-FOURTH REPOET (THIRD SERIES) OF 
THE COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 

TwKNTY-FOURTH REPORT of the Committee — eonsistifig of Mr. 
P. F, S. Amery, Sir Alfred Croft, Mr. James Hamlyn, 
and Mr. R. Hansford Worth — appointed to collect and 
tabulate trustworthy and comparable Observations on the 
Climate of Devon. 

Edited by R. Hansford Worth, Hon. Secretary. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



Your Committee presents its Report for the year 1905. 

With great regret the Committee records the death of Mr. 
F. H. Plumptree, J.P., of Teignbridge, Newton Abbot, to 
whom, since the year 1897, the Association has been in- 
debted for the annual record from that station. 

A new rainfall station at Archerton, Postbridge, on the 
West Dart, with an elevation of about 1200 feet O.D., 
appears for the first time; Mr. E. A. Bennett is the Observer. 

The following changes have taken place: — At Newton 
Abbot the station lost by the death of Mr. Plumptree has 
been replaced by Observations taken by Mr. E. D. Wylie, 
at The Chestnuts, elevation 100 feet O.D. The comparison of 
these stations for the years 1903, 1904, is as follows: — 

Teignbridge. The Chestnuts. 

Rainfall, 1903 ... 4261 ins. ... 38-35 ins. 
„ 1904 ... 35-81 ins. ... 36-48 ins. 

At Salcombe Mr. W. Prowse has ceased to take records 
and the Observatory has been removed to Holm Leigh, now 
occupying an elevation of 137 feet O.D. in place of the 
former height of 110. Mr. V. W. Twining, M.B., kindly 
supplies the return. No comparison of these stations is 
possible. 

On the Torquay Waterslml the monthly gauge at Blacking- 
stone has been removed from our list, and Tottiford gauge 
is now disused. 

Teignmouth, The Den, is now entered as"Teignmouth Obser- 
vatory," and Torquay, Cat^j Green, as ** Torquay Observatory." 

Additional Observations for Humidity are recorded at 
Teignmouth, Bitton, and for Sunshine at Teignmouth Obser- 
vatory. 

e2 



68 TWSNTT-FOURTH REPORT (THIRD SSRIXS) OF THE 

The best thanks of the Committee and of the Associa- 
tion are due to the Observers, whose assistance renders 
possible the preparation of this Beport. 

The names of the Observers or the Authoritj, and of the 
Stations, with the height above Ordnance-datum, are as 
follows : — 



STATION. SLBVATIOM (feet). OBSKR7KR OR AUTHORITT. 

Abbotskerswell (Court Grange)! 50 ... Mrs. Marcus Hare. 
— - —' ... p. F. S. Amery, j.p. 

... Thomas Wainwright. 
... Sir Alfred W. Croft, ii.A., K.C.L1. 

James Hamlyn, j.p. 
... T. Turner, j.p., f.r.Hr.Soc. 



584 
25 
124 
250 
202 



Ashburton ^Druid) 

Barnstaple (Athenseum) 

Bere Alston (Rumlei^h) 

Buckfastleigh (Bossel) . 

Cullompton 

Devonport Watershed ; — 

Cowsic Valley (weekly) 1352 
Devil's Tor (near Bear- 
down Man) (quarterly) 1785 

Exeter (Devon and Exeter 
Institution). . . 155 

Holne (Vicarage) . . 650 

Huccaby . . . 900 

Ilfracombe . . . 20 

Kingsbridge (Westcombe) . 100 

Newton Abbot (The Chest- 
nuts) . . . 100 

Plymouth Observatory . 116 

Plymouth Watershed : — 
Head Weir (Plymouth 

Reservoir) . . 720 

Siward's Cross (weekly) 1200 

Postbridge (Archerton). 1200 

Princetown (H.M. Prison) 1359 

548 
516 
137 
186 
500 



Roborough Reservoir . 
Rousdon (The Observatory) 
Salcombe (Holm Leich) 
Sidmouth (Sidmount) . 
South Brent (Great Aish) 
Castle Hill School (South- 

molton) . . . 363 

Tavistock (Statsford, Whit- 
church) . . . 594 
Teignmouth (Bitton) . . 70 
Teignmouth Observatory , 20 
Torquay Observatory . 12 
Torquay (Livermead House) 30 
Torquay Watershed : — 

Kennick . . . 842 

Laployd (monthly) 1030 

Mardon . . . 836 

Torrington, Great (Enfield) . 336 

Totnes (Berry Pomeroy) . 185 

Woolacombe (N. Devon) . 60 



H. Francis, M.LG.K. 



John E. Coombes, Librariaii. 
The Rev. John Gill, Mjk. 
R. Bumard, P.S.A. 
M. W. Tattam. 
T. W. Latham. 

... E. D. Wylie. 

... H. Victor Prigg, A.1CI.C.K., 
F.R.MsT.Soc. 



> Frank Howarth, A.if.i.ax. 

... E. A. Bennett. 

... W. Marriott, F.RMrr.Soc. 

(AsOT. Seo. RoY.HcT.Soa) 
... Frank Howarth, A.M.I.C.B. 
... Lady Peek. 
... V. W. Twining, m.b. 
... Miss Constance M. Radford. 
... Miss C. M. Eingwell 

W. H. Reeve. 

E. E. Glyde, p.r.Mbt.8oo. 

W. C. Lake, m.d. 

G. Rossiter. 

Frederick March, F.R.Hr.Soc. 

Edwin Smith. 



S. C. Chapman, A.M.LC.B. 

Georee M. Doe. 
Charles Barran, j.p. 
Basil Fanshaw. 



OOMMimB ON THK CUMATB OF DBVON. 



69 



JANUARY, 1906. 



RAINFALL. 



10N& 



I 

a 



:enwell 
on . 
pie. 
Bton 

tleigh 

>ton 



fb.: : 

idge .1 
Abbot . 

th . 

th 

tenhed 
Weir 

d'sCroas.j 

own 

ugh ! 

8. Devon) 

D . 

^ . .' 

th . .; 

Srent .| 

[ill School 

thmolton) 

ok 

nitchnrch) 

oath 

(Bitton) 
oath 
•enrmtory. 

f 
•ecTfttorj. 

iwermetA)- 
f Wtrebd. 
iek . 

>jd. . 
on . 
;ton. 

Pomcroy) 
onib# 



ins. 

2.17 

2.58 
1.98 

2.S1 
4.05 

1.54 
3.63 
3.19 
1.94 

1.94 
1.58 

2.37 



3.09 

4.23 

2.46 
1.18 
1.72 
1. 17 
3.42 



2.21 



2.39 
1.58 

1.39 

1.42 

1.30 

1.91 

1.84 
1.75 

1.26 



OKSATIST 
rALLIV 

a4Hop«a. 



.80 

.49 
.82 
.82 

•53 

.92 

.99 

1. 14 

.70 

.62 

.76 

•93 



.97 

.72 
.72 

.53 
.63 
•85 

•so 

.77 
.81 
.70 
.82 
.76 



.85 

•44 

.80 
.33 



TBMPSBATURB IN SCREEN. 



16 16 
10 1 13 
16 17 
16 15 
16 12 

i*6 ■** 






10 13 

161 8 

16 15 
16.13 

8,12 

i6'ii 

17 II 
15 14 41.8 



deg. 

40.1 
42.0 

38.4 
38.8 



37.9 
40.0 



43.3 



i6ii4 



35.9 



39-2 
43-4 
40.3 



37.8 

39-3 
4a 6 

41.7 
41.6 



42.7 



deg. 

36^6 
36.6 
34.6 
33-7 

33.2 
36.5 



39-9 

ssii 

31.7 



36.0 

33-6 
34-9 
35.7 
370 
37.6 
36.4 



39.3 



deg. I deg. 



46.2 1 4] 



46.4 

45-1 
46.6 



41.4 
41.5 
39.8 
38.2 



45-4 39-3 
45-5 41.0 



46.6 



43-2 



47.3 42.8 



42.0 



35.8 45-0 40.4 
38.1 48.7 43.4 



36.9 



46.2 41. 1 



44.4 
44.0 
47.2 

47.4 
48.0 
48.2 



46.7 



I Incomplete. 



39.0 

39.5 
41.4 
42.2 
42.8 
42.3 



43.0 



deg. 

30.5 
23.0 
22.0 
22.0 

19.5 
24.5 



32.4 



28.6 



25.9 



27.3 
30.0 
26.9 



19.9 
27.1 
26.9 

27.3 
29.4 

27.2 

21.0 
32.2 



i 12 

1 ' •§ 

3 o 

H I 5 



I 
i 

§ 

OQ 



deg. 


% 


52.1 
53-3 
53.0 
545 


?7 
83 

66 


54-7 
54.5 


88 


49.'8 


si 


53.7 


85 


49.0 


89 


52.3 
54.4 
53.6 


90 
88 
86 


51.8 


87 


50.5 


88 


54.5 


83 


54.9 


83 


54.8 


83 


55-7 


... 


49.0 


... 


5^.2 


82 



% 0-10, hours. 



6.3 j 
6-9, 

6.3 62.4 



6.9 



7.6 69.39 

I 



^o' ::. 

...I ... 
6.51 87.4 
7.4, 82.79 

6.6 I 85.35 
8.0, 



6.0 



6.5 



87.3 



57.60 



12 



10 

10 

7 



14 



70 



TWENTY-FOURTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OP THE 



FEBRUARY, 1905. 





RAINFALL, 


TEMPKHATUItE IN SCREEN. 


i 




i 








} 






MEANS. 1 


utuckis. 


t 


STATlOKa. 


124 DOCBa. 


i. 
£ 

1 


1^ 


1 

n 


i 
1 




E 

B 


1 




4 

£ 


a 




1 


J 


1 

1 




iiifl. 


ins. 1 1 


deg. 


deg. 1 deg. 


deg. 


f^eg* 1 deg. 


% 


0^0 


hours, i 


Abbotskerswell . 


1.13 


.49 as II 


14* 


... 




,,. 


... 


... 


„. 


.., 


„. 


J^b burton . 


1.62 


.71*5113 


4L9 


37,9, 484 43.4 


30*7 


5S'4 


86 6.5 


->,' 


., 


BeniBtAplc . 


L70 


.j8 26 10 


43.S 


39.8, 4S.0 43*9 


31.0 '53.0 


7S 7.0 


.,. 


*» 


Bere Abtou 


1. 21 


.33 2S 16 


4"*< 37*3; 47*a 4^.3 
42.4 37.8 49-5 42.2 


26.0 


Sl<^ 


... 


,., 


... 


., 


BuGkfftstloiKh , 
Cowaic Vallfly . 


U76 


,78135 10 


27*5 


57*0 


86 


5-3 


..*. 


., 


390 


' 


... 1 ... 


.., 1 ... 




... 


... 


... 


... ' ., 


Culloropton 


1*^3 


' ,32 22 15 


4a.o , 37^4 


48.-6 j 43.0 !'S'3 


57*2 


86 


7.3 


74*1 


i 


Ei€ter 


'37 


.36 35 10 

-S? as i^ 


43-4 l3».7 


491 43-9 


2S,o' 56,5 


... 


>.. 


>.. 


*- 


Holne 


2.69 


... 1 ... 




p., i p.. 


... 


„. 


,,. 


.. 


Huccaby , 


2.16 


; .86 25 17 


... 1 ,,» 




_ 


... 


... 


... 


*.. 


., 


Ilfracombe . 


1.04 


*30 30,14 


44 4 4» 2 


47*4 44. S 


3S^o 


S2,0 


S3 


8.0 


.,* 


.. 


Eiugabridge 
Kewtyoti Abbot . 


0.96 

l,02 


■43 25 13 
.43 26 9 




.,. 






.,. 


... 


... 


■' 


Plymouth . 


<i95 


.28 as <3 


43-9 406 


48^4 ' 44^5 


32,1 


54^1 


83 


7-i 


St.04 


1 


Plymouth 
Wat^rahed 












i 














Head W*ir . 


309 


1,00 


16 14 


,.> 


.<. 




... 


.■♦ 


... 


.., 


p.. 


,,4 


.» 


Si ward "a Cross. 


J.JO 


1 ■ " 


... 


.1. 1 ,F« 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


*.» 


*» 


Poatbridge 


352 


.84 24 Vs 


.,. 




*k' 


p.. 


... ■ ... 


.♦* 


.. 


Prittcetown 


4.67 


,S4 ^5^14 


37.0 .31*7 42.2 37.4 


2S-9 


47*3 


90 6,4 


... 


.. 


Roborongh 




3 
















(S. Devon) 


1.48 


.56 25 IS 


^ 1 ^ 


.,. 


.4 


.,. 


p.^ 


... 


,. 


Eousdon t 


0,64 


,32 25 12141.3 37.5147^3 42-4 


\n 


54*2 


90 


5*7 


99.8 


\ 


felcombe , 


0.77 


^24 35 15 i 45-3 39-9 49*7 44-S 


5S'9 


.P. 


71 


94*28 


1 


Sid mouth . 


0.96 


.22 25 13 


43.8 1 38.6 48,6 43.6 


88.7 


56.3 


84 


6.4 


9*^35 


J 


South Brent 


1-9S 


*SJ ^S ^7 


1 






... 


.., 




,. 


OMtleHUlSahool 






1 














(Southmolton' 


a.4S 


.37 26 20 


40,4 36.1 46.2 4L I 


26.7 


51.0 


86 


8,0 


,** 


.. 


Tavktock 




1 


■ 














(Whitchurch) 


1.91 


,68 25! 19 


4D.6 ^36.7 45^7 '41-2 


28.4 


Sr.S 


SS 


7,0 


»,» 


.* 


Teignmoiitb 




1 


< 1 














(Bitton) 


r*03 


.42 35 


12 


43-7 


39*7 48^8 44^2 


89.4 


55*3 


79 


^*S 


... 


.. 


Teignmouth 
Observatory . 


























0.93 


^34 [*5 


9 


... 


40.6 49' I 


44.8 


31-4 


SS*5 


S3 




*.» 


.. 


Torqtmy 

Obacrvatory . 
Torquay 

(Livermead] 


o,g4 


46 as 


10 


444 


4aa ' 49-7 


45*0 


31.0 


56.8 


82 


S,o 


98.3 


1 


aS5 


' *46|35 


It 


44 7 


39^ Si 49^6,44.5 


39.6 


55.7 


,,4 


.., 


... 


,^ 


Torquay Wtrahd. 




1 1 
























Kennick J r.2i 


,38 IS 14 


,p. 


,,. 


p.. 


... 


... 


,,. 


... 


.., 


.,, 


,. 


Laployd , 


0.81 


■ ... J... ... 


,., 


... 


.., 


.,, 


,.. 


... 


.,. 


,., 


,,* 


*, 


Hardon * 


f 37 


^SS 25 U 


... 


... 


,.. 


.., 


„, 


p*. 


>■** 


.,. 


... 


- 


Torrington 


E,76 


■33.:^ 


1% 


,.. 


.., 


.,, 


,., 


26,0 


49.0 


.., 


„< 


,,. 


" 


Totn^s 




1 
























(B<rry Pomeroy) 


0.99 


.59:25 


9 


... 


..t 




*■* 


... 


.-, 


... 


... 


— i 


„ 


Woolacoraba 


LOO 


,33 


:'s 


iS 


44-3 


41.4 


47*0 


44-2 


33.6 


Si.a 


86 


7*1 


69.C90 


t; 



COMMITTEB ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



71 













MARCH, 


1905. 


















RAINFALL. 


TEMPERATURB IN SCREEN. 


Ok 


i 

Ok 

1 

s 




{ 




1 


GBRATK8T 

FALL IN 
24 HODBS. 


•* 
1 

1 


MEANS. 


KXTREMCS. 


j 


?f. 


ATIONS. 




i 

a 


i 
1 


1 


1 


i 


s 




t 
& 






akerswell . 
irton . 
Uple . 
Alston 
astleigh 
Q Valley . 
npton 
r 

>mbe. 

bridge 

m Abbot . 

>ath 

>uth 

'at«rshed 

id Weir . 

ard's Cross. 

[idge 

itown 

ongh 

(S. Devon) 
on 

nbe . 
►nth . 

Brent 
Hill School 
uthmolton) 
;ock 
Hiitchurch) 

ODOUth 

(Bitton) 
mouth 
Observatory 

Observatory 
ay 

Livermead) 
ay Wtrshd. 
inick . 
.loyd . 
•don . 
igton 

B 

•y Poraeroy) 
icombe 


ins. 

6.97 

9.17 

4.65 

6.23 

11.85 

11.00 
4.80 
4.06 

10.98 

9.95 
4.61 
6.07 

533 
5.19 

7.83 
8.95 
12.45 
12.78 

6.25 
4.82 

4.64 
9.66 

5.39 
8.34 

5-71 

495 

5. 33 

5.52 

599 
4.04 
6.62 
5-40 

6.60 
2.65 


ins. 

1-79 
2.60 
1.08 
1.05 
2.63 

t 
2.74 
2.04 

.78 
1. 19 

1.55 
1. 01 

1.70 

3.06 
2.38 

1-39 
.84 
•94 
.83 

2.09 

.93 
1.72 
1.26 

.92 

1.42 

1.50 

1.17 

1.40 
1. 12 

1.92 
.38 


10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

22 

14 
10 
10 
10 

8 

"s 

8 

9 
10 

10 
8 

10 
8 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 
10 

10 
10 


24 
22 

23 
22 
21 

>9 
19 
22 

23 
23 
21 
22 
21 

22 

21 
21 

22 
20 
20 
21 
21 

24 
23 
21 
20 

19 

20 

21 

20 
21 

19 
22 


deg. 

4^ 
46.4 

43-9 
46.4 

44.9 
47.0 

46.7 

47.0 

::: 
39.3 

44.1 

47.9 
46.2 

... 

43.4 
44.2 
46.6 

47-5 
47-5 

46.7 


iicg. 

39.4 
40.0 

37.3 
36.6 

37.9 
39-9 

4 0.5 

34.9 

39.5 
41.5 
39.6 

36.8 
37.5 
39.7 
40.4 
40.4 
39.5 

42.0 


deg. 

517 
51.7 
50.9 
51.9 

52.9 
53.1 

50.8 
52.0 

... 

46.2 

49-4 
52.3 
51.4 

50.7 
50.1 

53.3 
52.1 

52.3 
53.1 

50.9 


deg. 

45-5 
45-8 
44.1 
42.5 

45.4 
46.S 

46.7 

46.2 

40.6 

44-5 
46.9 
45.5 

43.7 
43.8 
46.5 
46.2 
46.4 
46.3 

46.4 


deg. 

32.0 
29.0 
27.0 
275 

26.'2 

28.5 

34.9 
28.6 

27.7 

3i'9 
32.0 
30.8 

27.7 
30.4 
30.9 
31.7 
315 
29.6 

25.0 
33.8 


deg. 

59.0 
61.5 
57.0 
575 

61.0 
59.0 

60:3 

6o.'7 

SS'3 

... 
57.0 

61.9 
59.0 
61.5 
57.2 
58.5 
57.9 

58.0 


% 

85 
78 

84 

84 

80 

84 

92 
89 

8s 

86 
88 
80 
81 

81 

... 
86 


0-10 

7.3 
7.1 

6.2 

7.2 

6"s 

7.4 

7-9 

6.7 
6.5 
7.2 

7.0 
7.3 
7.3 

6.0 
7.0 


hours. 
104.0 
136^59 

1 29. 1 

146.86 

157.30 

153.9 
139.57 


4 
z 

3 


I 



2 



72 



TWENTY-FOURTH BEPOET (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



APRIL, 1905. 



BTATIOWa. 



RAINFALL. 



OBKAXEST 

FALt tX 

34 HOFna. 



TEAIPiniATURK IN SCRBEN. 



h 



I 






AbbotskersweU 
Ashburton « 
Barntitaple . 
Brre Alston 
Buckfaatleigh 
Cowsic Valley 
OuUomptott 
Exeter 
Holne 
Euccaby , 
IlfraeotJibe , 
Eingjibridge 
Newton Ablwt 
Plymoutli 
Plyniouth 
Wiiterslied 

Head Wdr 

Si ward's Cross* 
Poatbridgc . 
Priuci^lown 
Roborough 

Eousdou . 
Salcombe , 
Sidmmith , 
South Brent 
C*stle Hill School 
(SoythmoUon) 
TayistocTc 

(Wbilchurcli) 3*99 
Teignmouth 

(Bitten) 
Teignmouth 

Observatory 
Torquay 

Observatory 
Torquay 

(lavermead)! 
Torquay Wtrsbd. 
Kennick . 
Laployd . 
Mardon 
Torrington 
Totnes 

(Berry Pomeroy) 
Woolaicombe 



3.50 

3-20 

4^45 
2.60 
3*01 

S-ST 
2,36 

3.S4 
Z.70 
2.72 



7.07 

7.10 

3.41 
3,36 

4^55 



10 



2.78 


'43 


3^99 


,70 


2.98 


.78 


2.81 


.73 


2.65 


.67 


2.80 


.68 


3.97 
2.61 


.88 

.88 
.58 


3.38 
1.74 


.69 
.46 



.St 

■Sq'io 

-Sa 10 

.65 1 10 

1-05 10 

.54'i'o 
.70,15 
1-07 13 
i.iS 13 

^39, 9 

■73 10 
-7^'n 
^63,10 



.SO|i3 

MI 29 
L2S IJ 

.72' 10 
■4^1 10 
■77 1 10 

■ SS 10 
t.03!io 



di^g, dog. 



47*7 
4it-3 
4S.1 
49-7 

48,0 
49-1 



48. 5 



49.3 



I 



41.4 
43-4^ 
41 4 
41-3 

41.8 
42.9 



45-1 



44.1 



20, ,., ' .,. 
22 4L3 37,5 

J ...I... 

2( 45.7 I 41. I 



15 50,0 

22 47,8 

19, **• 

23 46.3 

22 I 47.0 

i 
16 1 49.6 

I6| ... 

15:49-5 

16 50.3 

19 

17 
17 

18 

18 48.5 



43*5 
42.1 



40.S 
40.4 

43-7 
43-6 

43.8 
42.8 



44-3 



d€g. deg. deg. 

54-0 '47-4' 3J-7 
52.9148.3134.0 
55*5!47 5'3i*o 
54*514^-7 3Z-0 



deg. 

60.4 
59-6 
61.0 
61.5 



54.0 47,9 
55-3 49- » 



55 5 48 8 



53-^ 



46.5 I 42,0 



50.4 1 45-7 
S3-4U8.5 
5M 47-2 



517 



46.2 



SO-9 45-7 



53-1 
53.5 
53.6 
54.3 



52.1 



48.4 
48.7 
48.7 
48.5 



34.0:61.2 
3S.O 61.5 



39.2 62.2 



4S.6 35-^; 58.5 



29.0 53,0 



33-3 56' I 
35^0 I 58.9 

345 57-2 



78 s-s 
to 6.7 



31-s 



598 



48.2 



31-6.58*4 



hours. 



S7>x 



113*00 



S.0 



8,5 Sao 
7 5 H2.SI 
8.2 113*5 



36.1 61.5 7 &6 




36.4 60.7 82 ... 




36.9 59-3 78 8.0 


107.S 


35.2 61,6 


... 



32.0 sao 

38.2 61.0 Si 7.7 1 101.00 



1' 



10 

7 

1 



COMMITTEB ON THB CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



73 



MAY, 1906. 





RAINFALL, 


TEMPERATURE IN BCRKEK. 


d 


^ 
S 








1 






%^Am, 


ElT&EUta. 


1 t 


IATIOK& 


94 BODA&. 


1 


1- 


^ It 


1 


1 


j 


i 


B 

4 


1 


1 




1 


5 






ills. 


iufi. 






dfg. 


dej;. 


dpg. 


deg. 


deg. 


dcg. 


% 


0-10 


lioiu^s. 


UkerswcU . 


0.61 


4J 


I 


7 




+ n 


p.* 


,.. 


... 








#«i 


nrton . 


aSa 


.50, I 


7 


543 


44-7 


61.4 


S3*o 


36.5 


c^g-i 


7» 


5' I 


t^. ! .•» 


atAple . 


0.24 


.11 I 


7 


54.5 


43-3 


6i;o 


S^'i 


34-0 


72.5 


6s 


4*9 


j .«* 


Alston 


a77 


44 ' 


S S2.S 


42.7 


63.5 


52,6 


33^0 


73.0 






' ... 


fastleigh . 


1-^3 


.61 3 


7 


S7.0 


41-3 


64.5 


S^.:^ 


32^5 


So. 5 


32 


30 


' .., 


ic Valluj , 


1.50 


*.4 


... 










.►. 










.#* 


mpton 


0.29 


,19. 1 


4 


^i 


4i"s 


63.9 


52.4 


30'S 


72! 2 


63 


4.6 


351.0 


I 


IT 


0.3a 


,iS I 


6 


54.8 


45.6 


63.2 


54-4 


38*5 


72.0 


H,. 




• *»* 


e 


1.09 


.70 I 


7 


.*. 


... 


... 


... 


.,. 


► .. 




... 


... 


»by . . 


1,4! 


.7a; I 


6 


.,. 


... 






... 


... 




.T. 


.«* 


»iiib« , 


a. IS 


.09 31 


4 


53*0 


4S.0 


57.a 


S4.9 


41*9 


71.1 


82 


S-o 


«'< 


■bridge 

^ Abbot , 


0.91 
0.92 


.46 I 

.44 2 


1 ::: 


"' 










1.T 




... 


::; 


lonth - 1 


0.96 


.34 I 


6 


54.7 


45 3 


59' 7 


S2.S 


37^9 


6g.S 


73 


59 


269. iG 


— 


\xmth 




























ratershed 




























ttd Weir - 


1. 00 


M t 


S 


'-- 1 


... 


... 


.., 


... 




... 






... 


rard'^ OroftH . 


i.oS 


.„ I.„ 


... 


■ ■« 


... 


.»» 


... 


... 




..T 


... 


... 


-** 


Bridge 


0.4S 


*iSl "^ 


7 


... 


..t 










... 




!1! 


mmt 


telown 


1.29 


,871 I 


S 


4fi^3 


39-9 


5S'4 


47".^ 


3»-3 


6^3 


76 


4^1 


... 


... 


™^^ 




























(S- DeFonJ 


0.98 


'49 1 I 


7 


.'F 


h.. 








... 


..» 


... 


^.. 


... 


ion , 


0-49 


.20; i: 7 


Si^S 


43-4 


58.9 


SIV2 


lis 


68. s 


80 5^3 


279^8 


X 


cub« . 


0,64 


'43 il 7 


56.0 


45- 1 


61.0 


53^0 


36.0 


68. 


6S 4^S 


299.10 


f 


outK . 


0.6a 


'371 " 6 


53^5 


43-3 


60.0 


517 


34-4 


7a 


73 


5-5 


2S8.10 


I 


1 Brent 


1. 19 


*79| i 


6 






■ ■■ 






.T. 


»». 




... 


... 


eHiUScbwl 




1 






















outbmolton) 
itoek 


a IS 


.06 1 


4 


SM 


40.5 


60.4 


S04 


3P.9 


70.9 


7J 


6.0 


... 


... 


ft'hitchtiroh) 


1,10 


.67 I 


7 


53-3 


42.6 


60.S 


5>'S 


35' 1 


7a 2 


7* 


S-S 


... 


„. 


lIDOIlth 


























(Bitton) a 78 
imoutb 
Obeeryatorj, 0.7% 


.50 16 


sa.4 


46,0 


64.2 


55' I 


391 


73*«5 


63 


s.* 


... 


... 


.46 I 6 


.., 


46. r 


61.3 


53*6 


40.0 


69*5 


63 




,** 


... 


ObiftTvatorf. 0.56 
(Liveroi^d) 0.64 


^43' I S 


54-4 


45^8 


60.2 


^l^^ 


37-9 


6S,8 


6S 


3*5 


28&3 


I 


'48, 1 S 


S9-0 


43*9 


62.0 


53-9 


36,1 


68,3 


... 


., 


..* 


.«. 


nay WtJisUd. 
























nnick . 


0.63 


.361 I 9 


.*. 


IT. 


.<■ 


.+. 


>*« 


... 


... 


... 


... 


..« 


ployd * 


0^43 


,„ \ 


p»* 


... 


... 


■^.. 


... 


..^ 


... 


..* 


... 


... 


krdon - 


o^Sl 


.36 1 9 


>-^ 


».* 


.+» 


• * + 


... 


.r« 




... 


... 


... 




Ovi6 


.09 


a 4 


... 


„. 


'- 


... 


32.0 


71.0 


... 


,., 


... 


... 


0,6 s 


'41 


1 


7 


... 


... 




... 






... 


... 


... 


... 


Acombe 


0,13 


.04 


tl 


4 


S3* 3 


46.5 


si's 


5^4 


40.0 


69.0 


7S 


4.3 


29320 


I 



74 



TWENTY-FOURTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



JUNE, 1905. 



fiTATIOHS, 



RAINFALL. 



rALL IN 

S4 BOPag> 



TBUFfiRATlTRB IN SOREBM. 






i 



I 

I 



Abbotskerswell . 
Afthburton . 

Bere Aiaton 
Buck ffwitleigh . 
Cowiic Valley . 
Cunompton 
Eietcr 
Holne 

Ilfraeombe * 
Kingsbndge 
N<*wton Abbot , 
Plymouth , 
Plymouth 
Wfttorelied 
Head Weir . 
8iward*sCrosa. 
Poatbridgifj * 
Princotown 
Roborough 

(S. De^on) 
Rousdon , 
Snlcombe , 
Sidmrtuth . 
South Brent 
Co^tk Hill School 
(Sonthtimltoo)' 
Tarifltock I 

(Whitchurch) 
Teignnioutli 

(Bitton) 
Teign mouth 

Observatory. 
TonjciAy 

Obaervfttoij. 
Torquay 

(Livemiftad) 

Toninay Wtrahd. 

Keuiuck . 

LA[jloyd . 

M»rdoii . 

Torringfeon 

Totnes 

(Berry Pomeroy) 

Woolacombe 



403 

3-79 

3-S3 
3^5" 
4.00 

J.2S 

3^86 
1.90 

374 
3.15 
2.46 



300 

363 

3.6S 

3,91 
i.SS 

373 
2.3a 

2,46 
2.S4 
-43! 
2.45 
2.77 

3-49 
3=3 

3'4S| 
309 ■ 

3S& 

t.2l 



1.30 I 16 

,»4'ia 

'73^9 
-91,29 
79 17 

.90 261 



J. 



.9$ 

.64 
1.09 29 

f3 "7 
.62 29 



.67 17 



■73 
74 

'99 



- 29 
.60, 5 
1.38 29 

78: 5 
74 1 16 

.5l!l2 



75 
54 

.SB 

.61 

-57 

1. 13 

1. 12 

^S7 

1. 00 
>22 



58.2 

60. s 

597 
60,4 

60,0 

6[.2 



19! 
*., ' 

19 

iS 

19 
15 
17 
r6 

17 



52,6 



56,6 

5S.S 
587 



57-9 
5S.6 

60. s 

59^ 
59.6 



deg. 



deg. 



d€g. deg. 



51.S 64.1 S7.S 4S.4 



5^ ' 

Si.S 



67.1 |59»6 41.0 
67.7 S9.S 42.0 
S5.5:5S.2 39.5 



dcg. 

74-3 
82. S 
S2.0 
77^0 



58.5 54-5 
60.1 53.3 



477 



Si.o 
53.1 
5'7 



49 5 
51-3 

53-7 
53-5 
52-7 



60.0 S3. 5 



63-5 



59'fi 537 40-6 



65.S 

64.0 
66. □ 
63.8 

64.1 



57-6 397 I 76^1 



64^8 



58,4 45-9 

39-0 
59.2 47-8 



51. S 167.4 59^4 429 77-4 
S3. 9 68,2 61.0, 45.5 8a s 



64-1,59-3:48.51 75^5 



58.4! 46.0 7S.8 



717 



61,8,56.4 43^3' 74-3 
63.3 1 57-7 45*0 74-S 
61.7 56.7 44.3; 76.6 



57-7 44-6 

58.8,45-9 

I 
58,8146,2 

I 
58.4.46,9175,9 



76,5 
S1.3 
74*3 



75.1 

86,0 

76-0 



% 


0-10 


houra. 


81 
70 


7-6 

7.1 


... 


74 


6,3 


,.. 


75 


7,2 


154^3 


83 


7-^ 


,.; 


76 


7A 


164^84 


86 


6^3 


*,. 


86 
79 
79 


7^3 
7-5 
7-4 


158^4 
173-94 
167,1s 


Si 


&o 


..« 


Si| 


7-6 


.*. 


72 


8.0 


.,, 


7$ 


*,, 




r& 


7.5 


167.1 


76 


5-9 


I9s"ii 



CXJMUITTKS ON THB CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



75 













JULY, 1905. 


















RAINFALL. 


TEMPERATURE IN SCREEN. 


i 

Ok 


Ok 

i 
i 








} 


0BBATB8T 

FALL IK 




MEAJCS. 


KXTRBMSft. 


& 


ATI0N8. 


34HODBa. 


1 

1 




1 

8 


i 
1 


i 


1 

i 


1 


m 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 

.1 




ins. 


ins. 






deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


% 


0-10 


hours. 




akerswell . 


I. II 


•S3 


26 


6 












... 




... 


... 


... 


irton . 


0.50 


.20 


9 


8 


65.3 


56.0 


7i.i'63.5 


50.2 


81.4 


70 


6.6 


... 




taple. 


1.91 


.50 


9 


18 


64.0 


55.8 


69.2 62.5 


44.0 


79.0 


62.5 


7.1 


... 


••. 


Uston 


0.65 


.19 


9 


9 


63.8 


55.6 


71.6 63.6 


47.0 


79.0 




... 


... 


... 


utleigh . 
5 Valley . 


0.51 
0.48 


.18 


II 


6 


68.9 


53^8 


73.9 62.5 


43.0 


82.0 


66 


4.3 




... 


apton 


.12 


'5 


9 


66*6 


54.4 


73-7 64.1 


42:8 


Si.'s 


69 


7*."3 


190.5 


I 


r 


0.31 


.12 


9 


6 


67.6 


56.4 


74.4 65.4 


48.5 


82.0 








... 


. 


0.47 


.14 


10 


8 






... 








... 






... 


by . . 


0.69 


.20' 10 


10 




... 






... 






... 


... 


... 


imbe. 


1. 19 


.29 


I 


16 


63*8 


58.8 


67.0 


62.9 


52.9 


74.0 


79 


6.9 




... 


bridee 

m Abbot . 


0.65 


.50 


10 


7 






... 




... 


... 




... 


... 


.. . 


0.92 


•33 


II 


5 ... 


... 


... 






... 


.. 


... 




... 


•nth . 

»ath 

atershed 


0.80 


.46 


9 


7 


65.5 


57.0 


68.9 


62.9 


49.8 


7S-8 


75 


7.3 


199.54 


I 






























d Weir . 


1.17 


.45 10 


14 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 






ird's Cross . 


1.20 




• •• 




... 




... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


idge 


1. 00 


.27 


9 


8 




... 


... 






... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


town 
ough 
(S. Devon) 


1.92 


.72 


10 


10 


si'? 


52.5 


64.2 


S8.3 


46.0 


73.4 


84 


5-5 


... 


... 


1.02 


.30 10 


10 










... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


on . 


0.50 


.29 10 


6 


6'2.'6 


55-2 


68.2 


61.7 


47*5 


75-9 


81 


?-5 


222.0 


2 


abe . 


0.60 


.33 10 


7 


65.1 


55-5 


70.0 


62.7 


48.2 


74.8 


76 


6.1 


226.25 


I 


nth . 


0.50 


.19 10 


10 


65.1 


55^4 


70.1 


62.7 


47.5 


77-4 


74 


6.S 


234.0 





Brent 


1.25 


.56 


10 


6 
















... 




... 


HiU School 






























athmolton) 


2.42 


1.02 


I 


18 


62.3 


53-2 


69.6 


61.4 


41.8 


79.1 


81 


8.0 


... 


... 


ock 1 
itchurch) j 


0.85 


.19 


9 
10 


12 


638 


54 3 


69.S 


61.9 


46.0 


78.4 


79 


7.6 




... 


nouth 






























(Bitton) 
nouth 
)bservatory 


0.66 


.25 


27 




67.4 


57.4 


73.8 


65.6 


50.3 


84.2 


67 


6.9 


... 


... 


0.78 


.36 


27 




... 


56.9 


72.2 


64.S 


49.4 


81.4 


71 


... 




... 


)n8ervatory 0.59 


.20 


27 




65.7 


57.2 


70.9 


64.1 


50.5 


78.7 


70 


6.5 


238.9 





Livermead) 0.64 


.17 


10 




66.2 


55^7 


71.7 


63-7 


49.1 


79-5 


... 




... 


... 


ayWtrehd. 




























nick . • 0.39 


.10 


9 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


.«• 


... 


loyd . .0.20 


... 










... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


don . 


0.31 


.12 


9 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 






... 


... 


gton 


1.32 


.60 


I 


13 




... 


... 


... 


41.0 


79.0 


... 






... 


1 

yPomeroy) a 52 


.26 


II 


6 




... 




.. 


... 




... 




... 


... 


combe 


1. 01 


.30 


I 


13 


63.1 


57.5 


66*9 


62.2 


50.8 


77.2 


79 


6^3 


196.12 


s 



76 



TWENTY-FOUKTH BEPOBT (THIRD SEBIBB) OF THB 



AUGUST, 1906. 



8TATI0Na 



RAINFALL. 



I 
i 



GBKA.TB8T 

FALL IN 

34 HOUBB. 



TE&fPERATURE IN SGRBBN. 



Abbotskerswell . 3.70 

Ashburton . •4.73 

Barnstaple. .4.81 

Bere Alston . 4.98 

Buokfastleigh . 5.09 

Cowsic Valley . 7.15 

GuUompton . 5.07 

Exeter . •3.93 

Holne . . 6.83 

Huccaby . .7.28 

Ilfracombe . • 307 
5.61 



Newton Abbot . 3.39 

Plymonth . •4.42 

Plymouth 

Watershed 

Head Weir .6.12 

Siward's Cross . 6.90 

Postbridge | 6.77 

Princetown . 8.38 
Boborough 

(S. Devon) 5.43 

Eousdon 



{I..98 



Salcoxnbfl , *i4.i3 
Sid mouth ♦ . I 3.80 
South Brent .16.80 
Castle HiUSohoor 
(Sontlinioltoii)j5.87 

(Wbitchansh)' 5.47 
Teignmoutb | 

(Bittoii);3.i3 
Tetgnniouth | 

Observatory J 3.21 
Torquay 

Observatory . 3.16 
Topqtiay 

(Livemjead) 3.31 

Torquajr WtrHhd- 

Ketimck, . 4.53 

Laployd . * 3.68 

Mardon , * 4.42 

Torriugton , 5.29 

Totnes 

( Berry Pomeroy) 3.99 

Woolaeombe , 2.83 



ins. 

.85 

1.20 

.76 

1. 11 
1.20 

1.15 

1. 12 
1.82 
1.80 

.75 

1-33 

.80 

.97 



1.30 

.93 
1. 15 

1.25 
.67 
1.16 
1.33 
1.17 

1.03 

1. 12 

1. 00 

1.14 

.77 

.74 

1.42 

1.40 
.84 

.86 
.57 



deg. deg. 



deg. I deg. 



2 1 22 



2 20 
26 22 



60.1 
59.6 

59.7 
63.0 

61.0 
61.8 



52.6 
53-7 
51.7 



65.2 
67.1 
66.0 



51.9 168.2 



50.8 167.1 58.9 
51.5 168.6 60.0 



58.9 
60.4 
58.9 
57.7 



61. 5 59.5 



62.0 



64.8 



52.6 65.3 



53.3 ,49.0 59.0 

... i .. 

592 52.9 J64.1 

61.6 ' 53.3 65.1 
61.3 52.8 65.^ 



57.9 
58.9 
62.4 

61.5 
62.7 



50.0 

51.4 
54.6 

54-7 
54.8 
53.7 



61. 1 55.5 65.2 60.4 



64.6 

637 
67.9 
65.8 
65.7 
67.3 



58.9 



S4.0 



58.5 

59.4 
593 



57.3 
57.6 
61.2 

693 
60.3 

60.5 



deg. 

48.2 
44.0 

43.0 
42.0 

40.0 
45.0 



47.1 



44.3 



47.7 

45.5 
45.3 



40.5 
46.0 
48.8 

48.4 
50.2 
47.2 

42.0 
50.2 



deg. 

71.3 
76.0 

75.0 
73.5 

74.5 
76.0 



62.1 514 71.8 



72.8 



67.4 



69.7 

71.0 
71.9 



72.9 
72.3 
74.5 
69.3 
69.8 
71.0 

72.0 
72.8 



% 


0-10 


hours. 


'i 


6.7 
7.9 


... 


73 


2.7 


... 


76 


7.3 


134^ 


80 


7.9 


... 


79 


7.2 


I7M6 


90 


6.5 


••• 


83 


6.5 


179.7 


79 
77 


kl 


197.84 
196.0 


84 


8.0 


... 


82 


7.5 


... 


72 


7.2 


... 


75 


... 


193-55 


69 


d.o 


193-7 


79 


7.0 


166^83 



OOMMITTBB ON THE CUHATX OF DBVOK. 



77 



SEPTEMBER, 1905. 





RAINFALL. 


TBTllPERATUaE TN SCRKEN. 


E 

Oh 










} 








KXTnUIB. 


i 


STATIOim. 


34 Hotro*, 


1 


1' 


» . 


1 


1 


i 

-a 


1 


i 


1 

1 

& 


s 




i 


1 


1 


1 Ui& 


iu3. 




t deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


dcK^ % 


0-10 


hoUJ% 




AbbctakerswelL J 3.2S 


'79 


9 


171 ^- 






.,. 






,.. 


... 


... 


... 


Ashbnrtoo . , ^.43 


1-23 


9 


16' 56.0 


Sao 


62.S 


S6.3 


AS-0 


70.6 


80 


6.7 


... 


... 


Barnflt&ple . 


i.So 


-35 


6 


I7l 


5J.0 


47-9 


6«.o 


54-9 


36.0 


67.0 ; 80 


5' 9 


... 


♦-. 


Bere Alatoo 


1,69 


■7^ 


9 


»3 


54.8 


47^6 


61.3 


544 


370 


69.0 






mt^w 


... 


BuckfAstteigU , 


2 65 


K41 


9 


<4 


s».i 


47-7 


63.3 


53-3 


34^0 


72,5 


7*6 


*-S 


.». 


..♦ 


Coveiic ValJey . 


3-00 


,., 


















... 




... 


..4 


Cttlldtnpton 


'■59 


-49 


9 


13 


56.4 


47"5 


63'3 


s'5-4 


36; I 


73-1 


Ho 


6'S 


133- I 


1 


Eieter 


1.07 


■3« 


S 


It 


57-1 


49. s 


63s 


56.6 


40.0 


71,51 


... 






..» 


Holne 


J.98 


1-47 


9 


IS 




>*. 




.*. 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


Huccabj . 


2.69 


.96 


9 


u 




■ -. 


.*. 




... 


... 




.,- 


♦ +. 


-. 


I]fT»oomb« . 


i7« 


.66 


S 


II 


57^6 


53-9 


6a7 


57-3 


46.7 


65,4 


fe 


6.S 


.*. 


.** 


KingBUrld^e 


3-99 


-7S 


S 


13 
















"tf 


«»* 


1T« 


N«wtou Abbot . 


i'93 


■S4 


6 


12 


.*. 


t.» 


*■» 


.♦♦ 


*.. 


... 


*^* 


^.Ir 


... 


.*. 


Plyi»i>tJth , 


1-37 


-3» 


S 


n 


57.8 


50-4 


62,1 


56, a 


42.« 


68.3 


80 


5*91 


142.68 


3 


PJjmcmth 






























WatersHed 






























H««d Weir . 


2.51 


t 33 


9 


14 


*., 


.-■, 


..* 


ifT 


Hi.. 


... 


..* 


..4. 


... 


... 


8iwftrd*»CrQia. 


3-00 








■ .* 


ttm 




X.. 


... 




.*. ' 


... 


... 


-.* 


Fostbridge 


3^34 


K14 


"s 


30 


F.t 


.xi 


... 


... 






... 


... 


... 


... 


PirmcetoT*Ti* 


3^69 


1.63 


9 


>s 


SO. 4 


45- 6 


55-8 


So-7 


39-^ 


61.6 


87 


6.3 


... 


... 


Boborotigh 






























(S. Dflvon) 


i.ss 


76 


9 


IJ 


.,- 


m. 


... 


... 


... 


... 


.. 


... 


... 


..* 


Boofldon . 


1.68 


S2 


S 


12 


54-7 


49^1 


60.9 


SSo 


433 


68.0 


88 


«.t 


147. I 


5 


StJoomba . 


2.92 


M 


s 


IS 


S7.0 


50.2 


6rs 


55-9 


44.0 


^5*2 


13 


6.4 


149. iS 


4 


aidinmitli . 


1.89 


.So 


s 


13 


56.4 


49-4 


61.9 


SS.6 


42.S 


69,8 


S: 


5-8 


i6a30 


2 


South Brent 


2.70 


1.46 


9 


13 




... 


.,. 






... 


... 




i-t 


..# 


OutkHin School 






























(Southmolton^ 3.14 


-37 


9 


17 


53-1 


45.S 


60.9 


53-3 


33-9 


66.8 


88 


6,0 


... 


... 


TaTiatock 






























{Whitclmrcli) 


XI4 


.96 


9 


17 


55-0 


47.7 


60.4 


54.1 


39.4 


67.4 


8S 


&i 


.*. 


i.i 


Teign mouth 






























(Bitton) 


1.64 


.64 


S 


9 


57-9 


51.065.4 


58.2 


40.2 


74-9 


76 


6.S 


... 


... 


TaigDinouth 






























Ob«erifatory 


I.7S 


M 


5 


9 


..* 


530 


62.6 


57-8 


40,2 


72.3 


76 


..r 


i6a24 


I 


ToiqtiAr 

ObservatoTj 


1.86 


.82 


5 


II 


S7.9 


5' 3 


62,9 


S7-I 


43-1 


72.4 


77 


6.0 


153^3 


2 


ToTqnay 






























(Livertnead) 


a.di 


.78 


5 


12 


584 


50-a 


64.9 


s;-5 


41.0 


73-5 


*■,*■ 


... 


.H. 


... 


ToT^uaj Wtrahd. 






























Ken nick . 


a. 19 


-67 


9 


14 


i*. 


.*. 


*.. 


..1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


*.* 


Uipbyd , 


I.5S 








+ * + 


.w 


"' 


... 


..* 


.X, 


.♦. 


... 


... 


,.. 


Mudon . 


i.g? 


-Vj 


9 


13 


'*, 


.** 




*,. 


.,. 


... 


... 




..^ 


... 


Torrington 


2.09 


-44 


6 


IS 


..,. 


... 


... 


... 


34-0 


m.o 


... 


.P. 


... 


'... 


Totneft 


2-43 


»9 


9 


13 


**, 


HI.H. 




.*. 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


{ Berry Poroeroy) 






























WooJftconib© 


1,23 


,40 


S 


14 


57-4 


52. 6 


61.1 


56.9 


45 4 


67.6 


84 


6.2 


•S4.S9 





78 



TWENTY-FOURTH BEPOBT (THIBD SERIES) OF THE 



OCTOBER, 1905. 





RAINFALLl 


TEMPErUTTJRE IN eCRBBN. 




^ 

5 




' 




1 






' iiEAjra. 


KTAUCtt^ 




1 


STATtO»a 


$4 QGCRd. 


1 




1 

a 


1 


1 


1 


1 






1 




1 


1 


1 




im. 


itu. 




deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


dog. 


deg. 


% 


0-10 


hooiB. 




Abbotakerswell . 


2.15 


1.05 


31 13 




... 




... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


».i 


Ashburton ♦ 


3'4S 


72 


311H 


49.0 


4^.0 


S4.2 


4S.1 


3»-9 


6I.S 


77 


5-S 


... 


... 


Buniitaple , 


J. 10 


*7S 


30 


IS 


4S-4 


39-4 


S4-9 


47.1 


23- 1 


64.0 


81 


S.8 


..i 


«*. 


Be re Alston 


z.ot 


-5J 


31 


«5 


43-3 


37.0 


S3-^ 


45- f 


25.0 


66.0 


... 




... 


... 


Buckra»t)e]g1i . 


3^08 


.80 


30 


n 


4S-7 


38*7 


5S-3 


47^ S 


32.S 


73.5 


76 


a-? 


-*w 


..» 


CowBio Valley . 


&.I0 










*.* 














... 


.*- 


Cullonjpton 


2.69 


[.12 


3^ 


14 


46.4 


37-7 


S4.a 


46.0 


34-5 


63-9 


si 


S-8 


"33 


6 


Exeter 


1.79 


■H 


3ti« 


47-3 


4t.4 


53^9 


47.6 


38.5 


63.5 








..* 


Holne 


3-51 


.96 


3t|U 




*.. 


... 








... 


♦ .* 


.*. 


... 


Huocaby . 


1^95 


•54 


30I12 


... 


... 


.►. i 




... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


Ilfracombe . 


2.94 


•73 


JO 14 


51a 


4«-3 


S+3| 


SO-3 


38.3 


59^4 


78 


6.4 


... 


... 


Kingsbridge 


2,i3 


.69 


J' E3 


















.4. 


.k. 


Newton Abbot . 


i.oB 


-30 


30 9 


.*» 


..* 


... 


... 


... 


... 


..4 


... 


... 


**. 


Plytwovith . 


i.Si 


.61 


31 14 


49.6 


40.9 


SSI 


4^.0 


30.1 


63.7 


77 


6.1 


133.36 


3 


Plymouth 






























WaterBhed 






























Head Weir ( 


3.18 


.50 


'^ 16 

30 


... 


... 


..* 


... 


... 


... 


.*. 


... 


... 


... 


Siward'sCrosa. 


3.90 


,,w 




... 


T.t 


... 


.1. 


... 


... 




.., 




*>« 


Poatbridge . 


5.8S 


1.16 


31 16 


*., 


,.. 


... 


... 


... 




^ 


.n 






Prmcetown 


4.S3 


.64 


30 15 


41.3 


37-3 


48.S 


43-9 


39.6 S9.0 


ft9 


4.S 


... 


..1 


Roborough 


3,30 


-47 


3' 


16 




... 








... 






«... 


... 


(a Devon) 






























Rotudon . 


2.46 


1. 00 


31 


13 


46.7 


40. a 


535 


46.8 


sag 65.4 


8S 


S-4 


136.3 


3 


Sulcombe . 


3.3S 


'73 


31 


13 


49-4 


41.7 


S4.8 


48.2 


30.0 


62.7 


78 


4^9 


14a 36 


3 


Sid mouth , 


a.48 


r,J9 


31 


13 


47.6 


40.7 


S4.I 


47-4 


28.7 


62.8 


82 


6.0 


^^SS 


1 


Smith Bi-ent 


3- 19 


.90 


31 <o 


"., 


... 


... 






... 




.*. 






Caatle Hill School 






























(SoutbmoJton) 


3 9° 


,61 


30 


15 


43-i 


36.8 


S3.9 


44-8 


21.7 


66.1 


86 


6.0 






Tavistock 






























(Whitchurch) 


3.61 


*S8 


31 IS 


46-7 


39.3 


5^-5 


4S-9 


^3 


63.1 


86 


6.1 


'*i 


..i 


Tfli^moutb 






























(Bitton) 


2.04 


,93 


31 


II 


47^9 


41-9 


SS-i 


48.S 


29.5 


6S,I 


7S 


6.7 


... 


.«* 


Teign mouth , 






























Ohatrvat^ry 


2^03 ^93 


3i|"| 


... 


41.6 


55.2 


4S.4 


39.7 


62.6 


77 




130.43 


3 


Torquay 

Obaervatory 


3.30 1,09 


3' 


ti 


4S.S 


43 I 


SS4 


49*3 


31-9 


63.1 


78 


S'O 


133.0 


3 


{Livennead} 2.3J 1.06 


31 


13 


49-9 


41. S 


56.7 


49^1 


29-7, 


66.0 










Torquay Wtrshd. 


1 


























KatuiioV . 


3' 17 n 


3' 


18 


.p* 


... 




... 






.♦. 


... 


.** 


.*. 


Loi>loyd . 


1.90 ... 




.», 


... 


*.. 


... 




..k 


... 


^!! 




[*' 


[[[ 


lllardon , 


2,17 ,S5 


3 1 M 




... 


... 


,*t 


... 


... 


... 


... 


«... 


... 


Torrington . 
Totn€« 
( Berry Pomoroy) 


3^09 


.61 


3' 17 


... 


... 


... 




33.0 


S7.0 


... 


... 


.». 


.„ 


2.46 


.87 


31 >o 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


^^ 








Woolauombe 


1.85 


.53 


31 


HI 


Sas 


45-4 


54*3 


49-9 


37-3 


6r.o 


Sa 


54 


13+70 


3 



COBOilTTBB ON THE CLIMATB OF DEVON. 



79 



NOVEMBER, 1905. 





BAIXFALL 


TEMPKRATURE IK SCREEN. 


i 

Ok 

i 


1 


, 


~~^ 




1 


TAtt I3f 
24 HOL Jig, 


1 
s 


MBJUIB. 




1 


fcTiQ^a. 


Is 




1 


1 


1 


j 




1 


1 




tketowell , 
rtott, 
«lo. . 
LlAU»n 

latleigh , 
f Valley , 
apton 

Su': : 

bridg* . 

in Abbot . 
•nth , 

■toTshed 
d Weir . 
wd^sCrosa. 
idg^. . 
ftown 
oogb 

on . 
Abe - . 

mtb , 
Brent 

Hill School 
»Dtbi3ioUon) 
lock 
^fTiitchuroh) 

DIDUth 

(Bitton) 
mouth 

Jhaemtory. 

my 

>ba«niitory. 

lay Wtrahd 
mick . . 
>loyd . . 
rdon . 
igton 

9 

rj Poineroy) 
icoinb« 


ius, 
6.Z1 

6-92 

til 

7^85 
B.30 

3^9S 
«.i3 

6!i6 
6.0S 
S,8o 

7-88 
10.74 

7.4t 
542 
Sii 

4^32 

10. 8S 

1 

5-16 

8.16 

5-39 
5.04 
5 39 
5-30 

S-84 

4-45 
5-70 
553 

6.14 
2.60 


ins. 
LOS 
1.44 
55 
1.17 

1-57 

.72 
.8a 

.7a 

1.38 

1. 10 
1,11 

1.89 

t.Sa 

I3S 
1-39 

-75 

-71 
1.48 

-97 
■95 
.88 

.87 

1.25 

1-29 

'■37 

1.22 

.46 


10 
10 
12 
10 
10 

10 

JO 

10 

10 
I 

lO 

1 
10 

ro 
9 

ID 

10 

13 
12 

161 

10 

10 

10 

10 

12 

10 

10 

10 

1 

10 
12 


21 
21 
22 
23 
'9 

20 
2t 

io 
21 

19 
21 

17 

21 

23 

31 

21 

22 

18 

19 
22 

19 
^3 

^3 
"9 
18 
16 
18 
22 

33 
22 

14 

20 


de»g. 

42.7 
40,6 
38.8 
41.1 

39 4 
4a 9 

46:5 

436 

::: 

37-3 

42.3 

44.5 
42.6 

38.0 
40.6 
41.8 

42.9 

43-9 

4s:6 


deg. 

37-S 
35-5 
33-3 
33-3 

32.V 
35-9 

4^-5 

37-5 

33^4 

177 

3S-3 
37-5 

32.6 
35'9 
37.2 

37.4 

4V.. 


deg, 

493 
49^4 
47-5 
50.1 

48"S 
47-3 

50.0 

50.2 

44.2 

47-8 
49 9 
49-1 

48.6 

47.2 

49-3 
50.0 

5CJ*4 
51.4 

_ 


43-5 
424 

40.41 
37-7 

40^6 
41.6 

46.2 
43-8 

3O! 

42.8 
44.1 

433 

40.6 

,M 

43-3 
437 
44.fi 
44.1 


deg., 

i 

30-4 
23.0 
22,0 

19. s 

26.0. 
31-7 ' 

i\ 

23^2 

1 

28:3 
28.0 

27,2 

*,' 

25-5 

26.4 
259 
25.8 

26.3 

19.0 
3^.0 


deg, 

56.0 

55-0 
5j,o 
56.0 

si I 

54.0 
56:2 

55-7 

49.0 

53-2 
56.1 

54-7 

56.0 

52.0 
S4-4 
SS-o 
SS-7 
56. 9 

5a 
56,0 


X 

84 
87 

82 

8^ 

85 

... 1 
91 

92 

u 

89 

93 
86 

", 

86 

si 


0-10 

ai 
5.9 

5*3 

&2 
70 

6;"? 

6^5 
6!o 

7.0 
6.4 
6.7 

6.0 
6.3 


hours. 

8o:j 

95-^3 

1 12.3 

104^68 

98-35 

"oa55 
103- 3 


9 

s 

3 

4 
4 

3" 



80 



TWENTY-FOUKTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OP THE 



DECEMBER, 1905. 





EAIXFALLl 


TEMPER ATUHB JN SCREEN. 




1 








} 


FA IX IN 




MltXHt^ 


dCTA^xuia. 


1 


BTATIONB. 


74 HODEt. 


1 


1' 


^ 




1 


j 


1 


1 

IS 


1 


^ 


1 


1 


1 




ilia. 


1.119. 




deg. 


dcg. 


d^g. 


i^eg. 


degi 


dcg. 


% 


040 


hours. 




AbbotakeraweU , 


1.41 


-32 


s'i7 


+ .* 


,.. 


*.* 




... 






►P.* 






Aahburt^n - 


1.S7 


^ss 


5 


14 


42^7 


39.7 


46.7 


43-2 


35-4 


^H 


§° 


7*1 




••• 


Bg-mata.plc . 


1,76 


,Si 


7 


16 


41.6 


38-0 


4S.0 


4 JO 


29.0 


54^8 


84 


7.0 




... 


Bore Alaton 


1,49 


,26 


iS 


^5 


40s 


36^7 


46.6 


4L6 


26.0 


S4.0 


♦IP 


*,i 




,« 


BuckfiustloLgh . 
Cowsic ATtiMay , 


3.64 


■77 


s 


[2 


41.9 


37^3 


47^a 


40^5 


27^5 


53.5 


9a 


M 




... 


j-ai^ 




















PIP 


,.p 




p** 


GuIIompton 


1.17 


■32 


s 


14 


40.4 


36.'6 


4616 


4v;6 


Z7.^ 


SS^o 


9i 


8.1 


35-1 


t6 


Exeter 


0.74 


.iS 


27 




42.S 


39*5 


46.9 


43-2 


30 J3 


57-0 




PP1 




*.. 


Holne 


3.41 


^54 


5^^S 










1.. 




pp* 


..1 




til 


Huccaby . 


2-49 


,46 


5 16 


... 


• t4 


*.» 


i-» 


-»♦ 


..1 


P.F 


... 




... 


IlfnKJombe . 


2.0S 


.ss 


7 


9 


4S.8 


427 


48.8 


45-7 


3S'9 


53.S 


«5 


7-0 




-Pi 


Kinpbritlge 
Newton Abbot , 




■44 
-3" 


6 
6 


15 
10 
















"' 




i.p 


Plpnouth . 


1.64 


31 


27 


13 


44.'6 


40,6 


48:6 


44-^ 


310 


S'3^9 


89 


Slfi 


39-43 


iG 


Plymouth 






























Watershed 






























Weir Htea<i . 


S'^S 


.68 


5 


17 


.,. 


-.. 


■ *■ 


11, 


1-. 






p.* 


Pii 


.1. 


Siward'sCross. 


ios 


, + > 


.. ... 


.,, 


-.* 




*** 


**. 




P + « 


-n** 


.1. 


--► 


Poitbridgo 


4-7S 


1. 12 


31 


t6 


,,, 


^L,4 


*.i 








.*♦ 


.-» 


.»+ 


-.* 


PrincctowD 


3^75 


.7S 


S 


15 


39^0 


35-3 


43-4 


393 


jiis 


49-3 


94 


8.5 


.1. 


.♦. 


Roborougli 






























(S. Devoa) 


2.07 


■39 


5 


i6 


Pf . 


..p 






+ +. 


h.t 


..p 


... 


*.» 


-p. 


Rousdon . 


1.04 


^30 


27 


*3 


42.3 3S.9 


46,3 


42.6 i 33.6 


S3-I 


92 


8.0 


47^4 


IS 


Salcotnbe . 


r-92 


'43 


6 


T2 


4S-0 ; 400 


4K1 


44' 2 


33-° 


52.9 


8S 


7^5 


4900 


13 


Sidmouth . 


0,82 


^3' 


27 


!4 


43-4 


40.2 


47^6 


43^9 


32.3 


5*5.9 


89 


S.X 


47.00 


13 


South Brent 


2,70 


■73 


7 


13 
















+p. 






CastkHill School 






























(Soiithraolton) 
Tmviatock 

(Whitchureh) 


2.03 


^54 


7 


IS 


40-0 


35^6 


46.4 


41.0 


26.7 


S3-a 


90 


S.O 


... 




2,13 


■44 


S 


Id 


41-7 


37.SI 


4S'7 


4t.8 


a94 


5a* S 


91 


7^8 






Teigumouth 






























(Bitton) 


0.S8 


.24 


27 


tl 


43-8 


4a I 


47-9 


44.0 


31.6 


54.6 


86 


8.^ 


..^ 


..• 


TeigtimoAitb 






























Obaervtttory 


0.S2 


as 


27 


U 


*^.. 


4^-3 


4S-5 


444 


31*0 


SS'ij 


83 


.., 


47-0 


13 


Toi:*3uay 






























Ohservfttory 
Totiquay 

(Livermeud) 


1,01 


.24 


37 


9 


44.8 


4r.2 


48.9 


4S^l 


33-S 


54*5 


g3 


8.0 


49-9 


r6 


0-93 


23 


7 


10 


44-9 


39^6 


4S.9 


44.2 


30.9 


553 






1>4 1 


i.. 


Torquay Wtrshd. 






























Kemiick . 


'■47 


-30 


a? 


20 


fit 


-TI 


-1- 


.bdi 


it* 


-*. 


-11 


*«. 


i.f 


.Pi 


Laployd . 


i.05 






^, 


*** 


W,, 


.,.« 1 


I'- 


i.p 


IIP 


1P1 


pp^ 


IP. 


p.* 


Mardon , 


1.41 


*30 


27 


17 


--F 


-11 


»»* 1 


ll! 


■ ■■ 


€■■ 


1P1 


*.. 


PP. 


.IP 


Torringtot) 


1.76 


.46 


7 


U 


■ ■■ 


1»1 


III 


■ ■« 


2a 


490 


bi* 


-.* 


... 


.*» 


Totoes 






























(Een-yPomeroy) 


1^93 


.48 


7 


12 


.^. 


b.. 




.-, 






*■€ 


^ 


... 


t'i 


Woolacombfl 


t.09 


.38 


7 


11 


4S3 


41.9 


48-3 


45.1 


3S-4 


5i-'8 


85 


6^2 


69.10 ! 


9 



COBOilTTEK ON THE CLIMATB OF DEVON. 
SUMMARY FOR THE YEAR 1906. 



81 





HAJNPALL, 


TEUPERATtntE IN BCHBEN. 


9 










_j 


GRBATEtT 




MCAtlSu 


»ltBn«i. 


i 


OSB. 


i 


44 HOCiM. 


1 

1 


1^ 


1 


1 


1 


j 


i 

p 


IXI 


4 

3 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 

1 




\m. 1 iira. 


! deg. 


d*g. 


dog. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


% :040 


houri. 




nw^U * 


35-28 I 79 


10/3 183 ... 




,.. 










... 


... 


n . 


41.S1 ,2.60 


10/3 '165 so. 3 


44-1 


56.2 


50.2 


30-4 


81.4 


81:4 


6.6 


... 


... 


Le. 


31.16 1.08 


10/3 1 220 


50.2 


43S 


sfi-s 


50.1 


a3.o 


82.8 


77.0 


6.8 


... 


»** 


'4m 


33*92! 1.17 


lo/t 1,(91 


4S.7 


42.25 


56.1 


r^ 


22.0 


82.0 




... 


... 


,,* 


teigli . 


4S-03 


^;«3 


10/3 


■67 


SI. 4 


42.CH 


57- S 


'9-5 


82,0 


73"9J4>8 


... 


... 


nn 


28.05 


ih 


15/8 


til 


49-8 


41.9 


S7.0 


49"5 


^9^5 


siVs 


85.0 6.9 


1419-6 


76 


bo- 


41.20 




.-. 


... 














... 


... 


... 




p 


24^83 


1. 12 


is/s 


150 


si'.o 


44^3 


57-4 


SaS 


24.^5 


82.0 






... 


,i. 


'i 


SI.4S 
49-99 


2.74 
2.04 


10/3 

*o/3 


191 
192 


... 




"* 






... 






... 


*.* 


t»! 


26.78 


.85 


7/12 


17S 


sV.75 


4S.0 


SS-4 


Sr"s6 


31-7 


75^5 


si's 


6.9 


... 




IS^: 


36.20 


K38 


lO/ll 


173 




*.. 














... 


... 


^9^33 


^'SS 


11/3 


150 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


.4. 




Ii 


3t>^49 


MI 


lO/j I 


176 


S1.6 


451 


S6.2 


50.6 


27.0 


75.8 


S0.0 


7-1 


1621.7 


54 






























Weir . 


46.66 


1.89 


[O/II 


210 


... 


... 


..* 


... 


.♦■ 


... 


... 


..t 


..> 




riCroBs. 


49-72 




.., 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


*tt 


... 


^. 


60,95^ 


3^i^ 


9/3 


... 


... 


.., 


.. . 


... 




... 




... 


t** 


... 




67.06 


2.38 


10/3 


193 


44.3 


39^8 


50.6 


45-1 


23-2 


73-4 


83^2 


6.4 


... 


... 


3730 


1^39 


10/3 


197 






... 


... 


... 


,.. 




^ 


... 


... 


m * 


25,61 


1-39 


ia/3 


165 


4S.9 


435 


54^5 


49-0 


27-3 


759 

74.8 


87.3 


6.6 


i679-3 


73 


t , 


3] SO 


1.38 


49/6 


166 


$2.0 


450 


56^5 


5a7 
49-8 


a8.& 




6.5 


1776.7 


61 


tl - 


26,51 


1-33 


iS.'S 
26/11 


1S3 


SO- 5 


43-9 


SS-7 


26.9 


77.4 


si'.'s 


6.7 


1763,1 


41 


«&t 


5^^^9 


2.65 


174 






















USeliiwl 






























jmolton) 


36.99 


1.03 


27/8 


219 


47.6 


40.8 


S%*^ 


48.0 


18.9 


79*1 


84^7 


76 


... 


... 


Dtk 


4193 


1.72 


JO/3 


212 


49-1 


42.S 


S45 


48.5 


as- 5 


7S-4 


85*0 


70 


... 


... 


(BittonJ 


28.25 


1.26 


'0/3 


156 


51.5 


45.0 


57.6 


51*3 


26,4 


84.2 


76.0 


7.0 


... 


... 




«6,93 1 


1.14 


15/8 


T47 


... 


45-4 


56.8 


SM 


25.9 


81,4 


77.0 


... 


... 


... 




27 JS 


1.42 


«o/3 


148 


S^'5 


45^^ 


56.8 


SI. 2 


2S.8 


7S-7 


7^0 


6.0 


1774-8 


so 


renntad) 

Wtc^d 


2S.41 


1.50 


10/3 


161 


52.4 


44-3 


57-7 


51*0 


26.3 


79' S 




... 


... 


... 


rd- 


33 79 

26,17 


i,4» 


2/8 


201 


,.. 


.... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


-• { 


33-70 


140 


%' 


186 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


Em 


33- S4 


1.37 


i/«i 


I9S 


... 


... 


... 


... 


19.0 


86.0 




... 


... 




'onueroT) 


34.5S 


1.92 


10/3 

21/5 


IS* 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


... 








mb« 


I*- 59 


-S7 


178 
1 J 


n.niiA.rv 


46.7 

pjatim 




S1.3 


320 


77.3 


Sf.o 


63 


1665.8 


&4 



XXXVIIL 



82 TWENTY-IOUKTH BEPOBT (THIBD SERIES) OF THE 
RAINFALL AT ASHBURTON. FORTY YEARS' RECORD. 

Your Committee tenders its heartiest congratulations to 
Mr. P. F. S. Amery, one of its members, on his completion 
of a forty years' continuous record at Druid, Ashburton. 

Forty years at one station, with one observer, and for 
thirty-seven years with one and the same instrument, and 
no change of any kind, is a record at once exceptional 
and vsduable. Ashburton has frequently been used for 
rating other gaugings of short period, and much may be 
learnt from a detailed examination of its figures. 

Mr. Amery has kindly supplied tables of averages and 
means, to which the Secretary has made some additions, 
and the whole is now published. 

The years 1866-7-8 were recorded with a home-made 
gauge, and, although carried into the average, these three 
years are not individually considered. There is, however, 
no reason to think that their figures are appreciably in 
error. 

With such a period before us, the first question which 
naturally arises is whether for any station there exists such 
a thing as a true average rainfall. Arithmetic averages 
there must be, but do these correspond to any real entity ? 
As between station and station, one will be found over long 
periods drier or wetter, on the whole, than another ; but can 
the annual expectation of rain be fairly stated for individual 
localities? Is there, for instance, any ground to suppose 
that the total rainfall for any twenty successive years will 
closely approximate to that for the similar preceding and 
succeeding periods ? The Ashburton record suggests that 
twenty years is much too short a time in which to closely 
gauge the rainfall of a district. From 1866 to 1885, 
inclusive, the annual average was 54.24 inches ; from 1886 
to 1905 it has been 49.29 ; obviously either the first was an 
abnormally wet succession of years, or the second unusually 
dry. 

If decades are taken the variation is greater, thus: — 
1866-1875, 51.10 ins.; 1876-1885, 57.38 ins.; 1886-1895, 
49.05 ins. ; 1896-1905, 49.53 ins. 

In Tdble /, appended, another method of dissecting the 
returns has been adopted. There the annual rainfall, and 
the three-year, five-year, seven-year, and nine-year means 
are given. These again are, in part, graphically represented 
in Plates I and 11^ Plate I giving the annual variation and 
Plate II the means of three and nine year periods. In the 
latter plate the ordinates are in each case drawn at the 



DPUID , AS 



72 










' 

























7Q 
























































































































/ 


































/ 
















65 
















J 
































/ 


































/ 


































/ 
































J 














/ 






60 














/ 












1 




















/ 












] 






















/ 










■ 


1 


































/ 








<0 


























/ 








V4 
> 










' 
















/ 
































/ 
































/ 






L 


\ 
































\ 




■^" 


^^- ^ 




' 


1 


^lE 






~" 






— 1 


'■ 


' 




T 


^« 












/ 




















\ 
































\ 


































^ 


Nl 










1 


























































^« 








i 
































\ 


























N 








\ 


























««: 








\ 


























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\ 


























40 








\ 


\ 






























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?>s 








, 



























i 



I 



I 



)isr 



PLATE I 











































, 




^^ 




' " 








■i^ 


1 






I 




^ i^ 




1 


-H^ 


- ^ - I 




A 


^ t 


1 




11 


t 








^ X 








1_ ± 








l^ 4 








t 4 








t ^^ -^ 




1 




\ I 


i 






\ i 


t 4X2 .__ 






X - tu 


L==2L -^ 






T r rl 


t^rt :::: 


"F - 




±1 . FT 


r^- t . _ 


I 


' 


± - ti 


tq T 


' 




^- . tt 


44 4 - 


h- 


■ 1 


.,_.r. it 


44 4 


\ 




-J 4t 


44 


\' 




^ "if- 


4t ^ ~ 


\ 


,K 




4t ^ - 


I 




" ■ 


w ^ 


^ , 


"j 


1 . ^-j ' ■ .■ - -^ 


n 




/ 


- 4 ^ 






/ 


- T P 






/ 


S^t 






/ 


_t z^ _ 






1 








J L 

















CO 



I 

CO 



k 



DRUID , a: 



N 

I 



17 

IG 

15 

14 

13 

12 

II 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

S 

4 

3 

2 
I 

O 



\ 

% 

\ 

\ 
\ 

^ 



o 



z 


cd 


tt: 


q: 


< 


u 


< 


CL 


-D 


ii- 


Z 


< 



< 
s 



z 



ON 



PLATE HI 































/ 


ji 




/ 


/ 

/ 




r 


/ 






J 






^ 

















































a: 


K 


> 


o 


ijj 


O 


o 


liJ 


(0 


O 


z 


Q 



ooMMrrrBB on the climatb of dsyok. 83 

centre of the term included in each mean. The nine-year 
series at once shows that the station has been much drier 
during the last twenty years, although individual years have 
at times ranged well above the average. 

To those using rainfall returns for practical purposes 
a knowledge of such possible fluctuations is invaluable. The 
most essential feature is, however, the ratio to a long average 
borne by any possible dry year, or two or three successive 
dry years. The Ashburton average is 51.77 inches; the 
driest year, omitting 1866 and 1867, was 1889, with a fall of 
36.61 inches, or 70.72 % of the average. The driest two 
successive years were 1892 and 1893, with a mean of 40.27 
inches, or 77.79 % of the average. The driest three succes- 
sive years were 1887, 1888, and 1889, with a mean of 42.77 
inches, or 82.61 % of the average. 

Now for Parliamentary purposes in connexion with water 
supplies it has lorig been assumed that the driest year will 
yield two-thirds of the average, the driest two years three- 
fourths of the average, and the driest three years four-fifths 
of the average. The comparison between this assumption and 
the actual results obtained at Ashburton is thus : — 



Dry Period of 


1 year. 


2 yean. 


Syean. 


Parliamentary assumption 
Ashburton — actually observed . 


66.6% 
70.72% 


77-79 % 


80% 
82.61 % 



So far, then, as this station is concerned, the assumption 
is on the safe side in indicating less than the actual fall. 
But the error unfortunately reduces the amount of compen- 
sation water likely to be given by any waterworks involving 
impounding reservoirs. 

The average rainfall for each month is given in Taile 11^ 
and Plate III shows the monthly rainfall stated as percent- 
ages of the year's total Amid all the wide individual 
irregularities the averages yield interesting results. From 
December to May the rainfall decreases steadily ; June is 
drier than May, but only slightly so. The rise from June to 
October is not so uniform ; November is, on the whole, drier 
than October; and December is the wettest month of the 
year. 

RAINFALL ON THE VENFORD CATCHMENT. 

The rainfall at Holne Moor, on the catchment area of the 
Paignton Waterworks, was the subject of discussion when 

f2 



84 TWSNTY-FOURTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 

the Paignton Water Act was before Parliament For the 
promoters it was asserted that the average would not be 
found to exceed 60 inches per annum. On behalf of those 
interested in the River Dart, the Secretary of your Com- 
mittee gave evidence that he estimated it at 78.72 inches. 

Gaugings have been taken, but never published. Last 
year, however, at Teignmouth evidence was given that for 
the past five years the actual rainfall at Venford had 
averaged " about 80 inches." As the mean for these years at 
Ashburton was practically equal to the forty years' average, 
it may now be assumed that the true average fall at Venford 
is in fact 80 inches per annum, a point of considerable 
interest to students of Dartmoor meteorology. Application 
has been made for detailed returns, but up to the present 
these have not been received. 



COMMITTEI OK THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



85 



TABLE I. 

FORTY YEARS' RAINFALL AT DRUID, ASHBURTON, 

584 feet, O.D. 

P. F. 8. Amert, Esq., j.p., Observer. 





Rainfall 


Percent 


Three 


Five 


Seven 


Nine 


Year. 


for 


of 


Years' 


Years' 


Years' 


Years' 




Year. 


Average. 


Mean. 


Mean. 


Mean. 


Mean. 


1866 


36.22 


70.0 










1867 


3533 


68.2 




... 


... 


... 


1868 


63.27 


122.2 


44.94 




... 


... 


1869 


46.22 


89.3 


48.27 


... 


... 


... 


1870 


38.89 


75.1 


49.49 


43.99 




... 


1871 


52.15 


100.7 


45.75 


47.17 






1872 


71.50 


138. 1 


54.18 


54.41 


49.08 




1873" 


48.17 


93.1 


57.27 


51.39 


50.79 


... 


1874 


57.44 


IIl.O 


59.04 


53.63 


53-95 


49.91 


1875 


61.80 


1 19.4 


55.80 


58.21 


53.74 


52.75 


1876 


65.85 


127.2 


61.70 


60.95 


56.54 


56.14 


1877 


67.98 


I3I.3 


65.21 


60.25 


60.70 


56.67 


1878 


52.76 


IOI.9 


62.20 


61.17 


6o.8i 


57.39 


1879 


58.39 


II2.8 


59.71 


61.36 


58.91 


59.56 


1880 


51.69 


99.8 


54.28 


59.33 


59.42 


59.51 


1881 


60.74 


II7.3 


56.94 


58.31 


59.88 


t^ 


1882 


62.12 


120.0 


58.18 


57.14 


59.93 
58.48 


1883 


55.66 


107.5 


59.51 


57.72 


59.67 


1884 


46.06 


89.0 


54.61 


55.25 


55.34 


57.92 


1885 


52.58 


IOI.6 


51.43 


55.43 


55.32 
54.85 


56.44 


1886 


55.09 


106.4 


51.24 


54.30 


55.01 


1887 


36.86 


71.2 


48.18 


49.25 


52.73 


5323 


1888 


54.83 


105.9 


48.93 


49.08 


51.89 


52.85 


1889 


36.61 


70.7 


42.77 


47.19 


48.24 


51.17 


1890 


44.55 


86.1 


45.33 


45.59 


46.65 


49.37 


1891 


64.11 


123.8 


48.42 


47.39 


49.23 


49.59 


1892 


38.03 


73.5 


48.90 


47.63 


47.15 


47.64 


1893 


42.51 


82.1 


48.22 


45.16 


45.36 


47.24 


1894 


64.26 


124. 1 


48.27 


50.69 


47.84 


48.54 


1895 


5367 


103.7 


53.48 


52.52 


49.11 


48.27 


1896 


43.76 


84.5" 


53.90 


48.45 


50.11 


49.15 


1897 


56.49 


109. 1 


51.31 


52.14 


51.83 


49.33 


1898 


42.37 


81.8 


47.54 


52.11 


48.73 


49.97 


1899 


50.47 


97.5 


49.78 


49.35 


50.50 


50.63 


1900 


54.98 


106.2 


49.27 


49.61 


52.29 


49.62 


1901 


44.93 


86.8 


50.13 


49.85 


49.52 


50.38 


1902 


43.76 


84.5 


47.89 


47.30 


48.11 


50.52 


1903 


66.51 


128.5 


51.73 


52.13 


51.36 


50.77 


1904 


50.26 


97.' 


53.51 
52.86 


52.09 


50.47 


50.39 


1905 


41.81 


80.8 


49.25 


50.39 


50.18 


Average 
40 Years. 


51.767 


100.00 


... 


... 


... 


... 



86 BEPORT OF THE COMMITTU ON THB CLDfATS OF DEVON. 



TABLE II. 

MEAN MONTHLY RAINFALL TAKEN AT DRUID, ASHBURTON, 

O.D. 584 feet, during the Forty Years ending 31st December, 1905. 

By P. F. S. Amery. 



MONTI 


.a i 




1 


§ 


4 


^2 
5J 


^1 


if 

||| 


III 


Iff 


January 


. 5*74 


12.9s 


1S77 


■91 


isao 


17 


5*74 


11.04 


n.04 


Fobrtxanr 


. 4.71 


11,07 


1900 


.00 


1895 


14 


10.45 
H.48 


20.01 


9,06 


March 


* 4*03 


g.17 


1905 


'24 


1S93 


15 


S7.S6 


7-77 


April 


. 32* 


7.S3 


r8S2 


'3? 


1S93 
1896 


14 


17^70 


34.00 


6.19 


Mny 


. 3.67 


6.S7 


187S 


.01 


11 


20.37 


39**0 


5-10 


Jane 


. 2M 


11,30 


1879 


aS 


1887 


13 


23.01 


44.37 


5-03 


July 


'f 3->o 


?^3J 


igSS , 


'33 


l8qS 


16 


26.11 


50-33 


S-96 


August 


J3^8S 


S.55 


1S91 


■79 


1869 


IS 


29-99 


57.^7 


7.46 


Septembe 


r . 4-U 


^,M 


1896 


.^7 


;ii! 


16 


34.13 


65,66 


7.97 


October 


. . 5 Si 


\2,g^ 


1903 


1-34 


19 


39-95 


76.47 


11.34 


Kovcmbei 


^ . S.61 


12.66 


1895 


T'OJ 


1867 


19 


45-56 


S7.6S 


10.79 


December 


. 6,42 


16.92 


1876 


KI6 


1S73 


aa 


51.98 


loaoo 


12.70 


ToUl Ave 
•tfl*, yi 


^'5-^98 


,.. 


.,. 


,„ 


.p. 


190 


.,» 


,.- 


„. 



TWENTY-THIKD REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 
ON DEVONSHIRE FOLK-LORE. 

Twenty-third Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr, 
P. F. S. Am£ry (Secretary), Mr, R. Pearse Chope, Rev, S. 
BaHng-G(mld, Mr, G. M. Doe, Rev, W, Harpley, Mr. J. S. 
Neck, Mrs. Radford, Mr. J, Brooking-Rowe, Mrs, Troup^ 
and Mr, H. B, 8, Woodhouse, 

Edited by P. F. 8. Amsbt, Honorary Secretary. 
(Read at Lynton, Jnly, 1906.) 



Thb following bits of folk-lore have been contributed since 
the last year's Report. They are on various subjects, but 
mostly in relation to charms of healing and customs. 

The names of contributors are attached for the sake of 
verification and authority. 

The Secretary begs, on behalf of the Committee, to thank 
all who have assisted in gathering these " waifs and strays " 
from the relics of the past. 

W. Harpley, Chairman. 
P. F. S. Amery, Secretary. 

1. Sacrifice of a Sheep. — In or about 1883 a man whose 

name was J S , in Meavy parish, a farmer who had 

come from North Devon, performed a curious rite that shall 
be described in the words of the Rev. W. A. G. Gray, then 
Vicar of Meavy. He told me of it at the time, and at my 
request he has written me the particulars : " Soon after his 
arrival in the parish, as I believe not infrequently happens 
with an entire change of pasture, he lost a good many cattle 
and sheep, and he told me that he accordingly took a sheep 
up to the top of Calisham Tor and killed it there to pro- 
pitiate the evil influences which were destroying his flocks 
and herds. And the offering had the desired effect — ^he had 
lost no more cattle." 

Compare with this a commumcation made to Jacob 



88 TWENTY-THIKD REPORT OF THB COMMITTBB 

Grimm, and inserted by him in his " Deutsche Mythologie," 
p. 576, ed. 1843. It is a passage from a correspondent in 

Northamptonshire. " Miss C and her cousin, walking, 

saw a fire in a field, and a crowd around it. They said, 
•What is the matter?' * Killing a calf.' * What for?' 'To 
stop the murrain.' They went away as quickly as possible. 
On speaking to the clergyman, he made inquiries. The 
people did not like to talk of the affair, but it appeared 
that when there is a disease among the cows, or when the 
calves are bom sickly, they sacrifice, that is, kill and bum, 
one for good luck." 

See also in White's "Selbome" (p. 295, ed. 1837) for 
stories of the seamed pollards and shrew-ash. 

The same man, J S , had a little granddaughter 

ill. Mr. Gray asked him how she was. He replied " that 
she was bad with the thrush, and the worst of it was that 
there was no water there running east. I asked him what 
he would do if there were. He said he would bring the 
child down in the early morning and hold her over it, 
having previously twined a piece of thread round her finger, 
and as the stream carried the thread away to the east, so it 
would also carry away the thrush. I believe he said the 
operation was to be repeated three times, and he evidently 
believed in its eflBcacy." S. Baring-Gould. 

2. Hanging in Chains. — At some time in the eighteenth 
century a man called Welland was hung in chains on Broad- 
bury Down, Bratton Clovelly, for the murder of two sisters. 
Previous to this, at some time unknown, there had been 
another man hung there in an iron cage and left to starve. 
People passing by were wont to throw up to him tallow 
candle-ends, and these he caught and greedily devoured. In 
the end he died of starvation. Told by W. Wyvill, labourer, 
Lew Trenchard. 

3. Charm to Stanch Bleeding. — A farmer in this parish 

had a cow with diseased teats. He employed a man, T 

L , with a razor to cut off the ends of the teats. In cut- 
ting off the second of them the blade slipped and cut the 1^ 
of the cow, and the blood gushed forth in abundance. The 

farmer at once dispatched T L for a woman on Lew 

Down who can charm and stanch blood, H B . She 

hurried down and muttered words over the wound, but the 

blood continued to flow. She said, "Mr. P " (the 

farmer), " I do not understand this. If you cut the cow's 
leg, the blood ought to be stanched at once." "But I did 



ON DBVONSHIRE FOLK-LORB. 89 

not cut it. That was done by T L ." " Oh ! " said 

she ; " that is different. I charmed thinking you had done 
it. Now I know I must do it again." She repeated the 
incantation, and at once the blood ceased to spout forth. 

This was told me by T L himself, who witnessed 

the whole operation. 

4 Extract Thorns.— R P , a well-to-do farmer, 

the son of the above J P , is able to charm thorns 

out of the flesh. In cutting hedges a black thorn will 
sometimes penetrate the flesh. When this occurs, the 

sufferer goes to R P ; he repeats certain words, 

and the thorn comes out at once. S. Baring-Gould. 

From Mr. Samuel Doidge, Great Torrington : — 

When a boy of twelve, or thereabouts, I suffered much 
from boils — " blackheads," we used to call them — and I also 
keenly remember that I suffered almost more from remedies, 
some of them extremely nauseous. None of these having 
proved successful, a wise neighbour recommended a charm, 
and her advice was at once acted upon. I have an im- 
pression that it was tried pretty much as a pis alter, 
without much faith in its success. It was a very simple 
matter, and the charm I suggest was a variant of the split 
tree-trunk sent by Mr. Elworthy to the Taunton Museum. 
I had to go — fasting, I think — on three successive Sunday 
mornings to a bramble grown into the earth at both ends, 
and crawl under it "the way of the sun." I cannot dis- 
tinctly recollect whether I went under more than once on 
each occasion, but have an impression that three times was 
the proper " ritual." 

Charm for Boils. — A lady at Chudleigh, about thirty 
years ago, was recommended to crawl backwards three times 
round a thorn bush very early in the morning, while the 
dew was on the grass. As the lady did not try it, we cannot 
say if it was infallible. E. Helen Langlby. 

Cure for Warts. — Take a prickle from a gooseberry 
bush, a separate prickle for each wart (this seems to be very 
important), stick it well into the wart. Then collect the 
prickles and bury them. As they decay the warts will 
disappear. S. Doidge. 

Another Cure for Warts. — In last year's Report a cure 
was noted, viz. to steal a bit of bacon, strike the wart with 



90 TWKNTY-THIBD REPOBT OF THB COMMITTBB 

it, and bury the bacon. Mr. Doidge states that it dundd be 
buried at four cross^toays. 

The Place of Heaking News. — The frequent query on 
being told any news is, "Where did you hear it?" The 
place of hearing is supposed to add to or detract from the 
faith in its veracity. 

In all old charters, grants, treaties, and agreements care 
was taken to clearly state where such were executed. This 
custom still survives in many forms. Thus a country person 
repeating something will say, "Such was told me in this 
very kitchen," which is supposed to add much to the truth 
of a statement ; hence the question, " Where did you hear 
it?" 

The following appears to afford a sort of rude scale for 
judging the veracity of any rumour. 

" Heard at the church stUe " or " Told of to church porch " 
is supposed to be common property, and may be repeated 
without fear of consequences, as adiaitted by the public to 
be correct. 

" Told of in public company*' viz. in a public-house, is 
generally supposed to have heen well argued and thrashed 
out, and fairly correct as the opinion of the certain class of 
people frequenting that house. 

" Told of to board" viz. at table. Usually in farm-houses 
all the household sat at the same table at the principal meal 
of the day, and conversation was of a general character, or 
only such as applied to the household or farm. Household 
secrets might be made known to the circle with the tacit 
imderstanding that they must go no farther. 

" Heard to casements* Eavesdroppers, or those inquisitive 
people who listened at windows, appear to have b^n very 
numerous in old times, for we find frequent presentments 
of such made at the borough and manor courts and severe 
corporal punishment inflicted. Thus many things " said to 
board," intended only for the ears of the household, became 
publia 

" Told to claveV* The clavel is the beam across a fire- 
place. In farm-houses, after the servants and children had 
gone to bed, the heads and adult members of the family 
would see the house safe, and stand a few minutes round 
the hearth warming their feet before the fire was covered 
up for the night, with their hands or heads resting against 
the claveL This was the time selected for a private family 



ON DKV0N8HIRS POLK-LORE. 91 

chat, not intended to go beyond the adult members. Any- 
thing overheard " to clavel " was on the highest authority. 

" Whispered in chamber.** The private talk between those 
occupying the same room, or more likely the same bed. In 
early times the servant-maids occupied the same chamber 
as the unmarried women of the family, likewise the servant- 
men and boys that of the sons of the house. The rooms 
were l^rge, and the beds occupied by members of the family 
were surrounded by curtains, while the menials lay on truck 
beds in distant comers, and were supposed to be asleep 
before the others came up. Still eavesdropping in chamber 
was not unknown, and matters of the highest personal 
importance occasionally got overheard. P. F. S. Amery. 

A Born Fisherman. — On inquiring of a salmon fisher- 
man's wife at Totnes how the fishing was this season, I got 
the following reply : — 

" Very good, always is where maister's fishmg, for salmon 
always follows he, 'cause for why, he's got a salmon on his 
'ead [head]. Shaw 'un to the lady." Upon that a child 
pushed back her father's hair and showed a bald mark the 
shape of a salmon, about three inches long. 

G. F. WiNDEATT. 

Night Quarters. — In a farm-house when bedtime came 
the good wife would start her household with : — 

Now then, boys to bed 
And cats to barn. 

A hole was made in the barn door to admit the cat when 
turned out for the night. P. F. S. Amery. 

Survival of a Name : Skipper Davis. — ^The Stoke Gabriel 
fishermen on the Dart say on the authority of **one 
Skipper Davis " that the quantity of fish in a river varies 
from time to time. Query. Is not this a survival of the 
naine of John Davis, who was bom at Sandridge in Stoke 
Gabriel parish in 1550, became a«navigator, gave his name 
to Davis Straits, and founded the Newfoundland cod 
fisheries ? E. Windeatt. 

A Limp Corpse. — Recently at Totnes a nurse who " did 
the last office" for a corpse reported to me some hours after- 
wards in a subdued, confidential tone, **He idn [is not] 
stiffening yet, and that's a sure sign that there's another in 
the family to follow soon." M. F. Windeatt. 



92 TWBNTY-THIBD BEPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 

Mrs. Eogers, of Whitchurch, sends the following : — 
Christening Custom. — A few years ago when I lived at 
Cudlipptown, Peter Tavy, a cottager whose ancestors had 
lived for generations on Dartmoor had four children, all 
girls. At each christening she baked a small saffron cake, 
and on the way to church, the first male they met, gave him 
the cake neatly wrapped in paper for luck ; if the baby had 
been a boy, the cake would be given to the first female they 
met. I was told it was a very old custom. 

Also this hunting song was found among my great-grand- 
mother's treasures. She died early in the last century : — 

A Hunting Song to Tune of Derry Down. 

Little Alderman M T , a dealer in ends, 

To a hunting Feaat once invited his friends ; 

Not doubting but many smart lads would be there 

To join in the hunt and partake of the Hare ! 

He summoned his Tenants, collected his Hounds, 
His generous soul was confined by no bounds ; 
A dinner was ordered, brown bread and small beer, 
And Liquor of all sorts denoted good cheer. 

But lo on the table when dinner was placed, 
The victuals ill chosen, the Landlord disgrac'd ; 
And besides, tho' the fact may surprise your belief. 
The fur beast had swoUow'd six pounds of the Beef. 

But who can express the surprise of each Guest, 
When he found he must pay for such an elegant feast ; 
All swore that the Alderman meant they to fleece. 
For the price was exhorbitant, had there been geese. 

So each pay*d his share, the rumour does say, 

That Alderman M was gainer that day ; 

For in summing the bill of bis excellent savour. 
He found that the balance was much in his favour. 

Four and sixpence a piece was a price beyond bounds, 
And to produce such a bill my Lord had no grounds ; 
However, tho' shameful and mean the demand, 
Their bountiful Landlord they could not withstand. 

A Hog, with the smell of M *s tallow delighted. 

Appeared at the feast a Guest uninvited ; 
And the old Landlady scolded and raved. 
Poor porky his Bacon would hardly have saved. 

But the old woman, finding her tongue not prevail. 
From the Parlour soon drag'd the poor Pig by the tail, 

Tho' M n protested his Hogship should stay, 

And like all his neighbours his reckoning should pay. 

What Hunting Feast must we expect then next year, 
When Math in his Robes and fur Gown shall appear j 
And in the great Senate shall take his first place. 
And the new Council Chamber with double wicks graced. 

What dinners, what suppers, what an elegant Ball, 
When his worship himself shall Dance in the Hall ; 
If an Alderman can such a Banquet prepare. 
What must we expect when Mat n is Mayor ? 



ON DBYQNSHIRE FOLK-LORE. 93 

Thb Equation of Time. — A friend from the north of 
England informed me that before leaving Yorkshire he was 
told that in Devonshire they put forward their clocks half 
an hour for summer and back half an hour for winter. He 
asked me on arrival what it meant and if we really did so. 

I was quite unable to give any information, never having 
heard of such a custom. On reflection, however, I think it 
highly -probable that in the days of sundials, before cheap 
almanacs, this may have been a ready way to reckon the 
equation of time. The almanac says sun fast or sun slow, 
making an extreme difference of about half an hour. Thus 
on 30 April sun slow 14i minutes, on 31 October sun 
fast 16J minutes, a range of thirty-one minutes in the six 
months. This, I think, accounts for the myth of putting 
forward the clock in spring and back in autumn. 

P. F. S. Ameky. 

Cure for Erysipelas. — Mrs. Gaunter, of Gobbett Plain, 
Dartmoor, told me this cure for the 'ary ciplis, " You takes 
a piece of may and 'oles un in your 'and. Then you takes 
some milk from a red cow, an' some wool from a black 
sheep, an' strikes the place all one way. Then you hangs 
the piece of may [hawthorn] up in the chimney corner, tha 
do — an' when the may is withered the 'ary ciplis is gone. 
It cured 'er ! " F. L. Burnard. 

S. Lawrence's Weather. — A few days ago it was very 
sultry, and at Hatherleigh a man used an expression new to 
me. As he wiped a somewhat heated brow : " Law bless 'ee, 
sir, 'tis proper S, Lawrence weather, in't it" I asked what he 
meant, and who S. Lawrence was. " Oh," said he, **'tis brave 
and hot, awe. S. Lawrence was the king of the idlers." 

J. D. Prickman. 

Haunted Eoads. 

Gontributed by Miss Anderson : — 

Tor Abbey Ghosts. — There is a story that the old Lime 
Avenue at Tor Abbey is haunted by the ghost of one 
Widrington, who walks there, holding his head in his hands 
before him. 

Tradition says that long ago it was a favourite custom for 
malicious persons to denounce some one as a murderer, 
whereupon the accused was summoned to present himself 
at the Court of Arches ; of course, paying his own expenses 
with those of his witnesses. It is said to be recorded that 



94 TWENTT-THIBD REPORT OF THE COMMITTEB 

a certain man was summoned to appear before the Court of 
Arches charged with having murdered Widrington. He 
accordingly appeared, bringing with him the man alive and 
well, which may account for the story getting abroad 

The above tradition is evidently an edition of the follow- 
ing story : " During the abbacy of William Norton at Tor 
Abbey, who was charged in 1390 with having abused his 
powers as lord of the manor by cutting oflf the head of a 
canon named Hastings, the abbot produced the canon alive 
to satisfy the bishop that he was not dead ; the bishop took 
him at his word and declared the whole story a falsehood 
of blackest dye. The public, however, were not so easily 
satisfied, and believed the accusation — a belief justified by 
the appearance of the canon's ghost, which has ever since 
been held to haunt the old abbey avenues on a spectral 
headless horse." ^ Editor. 

Spanish Nun Ghost. — One of the avenues near Tor 
Abbey, known as the Spanish Lane, is reported to be 
haunted by a Spanish nun. It is stated that once when 
some Spanish prisoners were being taken through Torquay, 
a rescue was attempted and much blood shed during the 
fight. Afterwards it was discovered that one of the prisoners 
was a Spanish lady who had followed her husband to the 
war disguised as a man. This story most likely gave rise to 
the story of the nun, as the lady may have worn a mantle. 

On Wednesday, 18 April, a farmer in my parish called 
upon me with a view to purchasing a young calf I had for 
sale. After a little dealing a bargain was made, and the 
following conversation ensued : — 

" I must ask a favour of you, sir, which I hope you will 
grant." 

"Whatisit, Mr. C ?" 

" Well, sir, I want you to let the calf bid along wi' his 
mother till Saturday morning, when I will come and take 
un away." 

" Certainly I will, Mr. C ; but may I ask why you 

make this request ? " 

" Well, you see, it's just this, sir : old Christmas Day fell 
on a Saturday this year, and I always wean my calves on 
the same day that old Christmas Day fell on. When calves 
are weaned on that day they never get quarter-evil." 

" Wonderful, Mr. C ," I remarked. 

1 Worth's "Devon," p. 294. 



ON DEV0N8HIBE FOLK-LORE. 95 

" Oh, it be true, sir. I've a varmied nigh on vifty year 
and I've never had a ease of quarter-evil in my herd, and I 
know it is because I sticks to my rule." W. Harpley. 

Stopping to chat one day last spring with a labourer at 
work about 11 a.m., I found him taking some refreshment, 
and I jestingly remarked, " You labourers seem to me to be 
always eating." " Only eight times a day, sir," he said, and 
immediately rapidly recited the following formula : — 

"A dew-bit 
and breakfast, 

a pocket-bit 
and dinner, 

a crumbit \ pronounced crummat 
and a numbit J and nummat. 

supper 
and a bit after supper." W. Habpley. 

Mr. R Pearse Chope sends the following notes : — 

1. Cuke for Fits. — The following letter is quoted in the 
"North Devon Journal" of 19 April, 1906, from the 
"Western Morning News" of 17 April: — 

" Sir, — ^North Devon is full of strange folk-lore and beliefs 
(we won't call them superstition). On Sunday the parish 
church of Sutcombe, a small village between Holsworthy 
and Hartland, was the scene of a revival of an interesting 
old faith-cure. A woman in the parish has of late been a 
sufferer from epileptic fits, and at the persuasion of a neigh- 
bour who nineteen years ago had done the same thing and 
had not suffered from fits since, she went round the parish 
and got thirty married men to promise to attend the parish 
church at the morning service. It was a gratifying sight to see 
so large a congregation, drawn together out of sympathy for a 
neighbour and a desire to do anything she thought might 
help her. At the close of the service the rector desired the 
selected men to pass out one by one, and as they passed 
through the porch they found the woman seated there, 
accompanied by the neighbour who had done the same 
nineteen years ago (as many who were present remem- 
bered). Each man as he passed out put a penny in the 
woman's lap, but when the thirtieth man (the rector's 
churchwarden) came, he took the twenty-nine pennies and 
put in half a crown. A silver ring is to be made out of 



96 TWBNTY-THIBD REPORT OF THB COMMITTBK 

this half-crown, which the woman is to wear, and it is 
hoped that the result will be as satisfactory in her case as it 
was on the previous occasion. In a small parish (less than 
300 population) it was not easy to find thirty married men, 
but all were willing to help — farmers, labourers, and trades- 
men — and the whole incident passed ofif very quietly, and 
all was done with the utmost reverence and decorum. The 
woman takes her seat in the porch when the preacher 
begins his sermon, and from the time she leaves her house 
until she returns she must not speak a word. We have not 
heard whether she complied with this condition. Can any 
of your readers furnish me with the details of any similar 
case ? " F. G. Scrivener. 

" Sutcombe Rectory." 

This is another example of the custom described in the 
"Trans. Devon. Assoc." for 1903 (p. 133), but it is interest- 
ing from the fact that it required " married men " instead of 
" young people of the opposite sex " (" Trans. Devon. Assoa," 
1880, p. 101), "young men" ("The Times" of 7 March, 
1854, quoted in "Choice Notes," "Folk-lore," p. 173), 
"young men (or women) between the ages of sixteen and 
twenty-one " (S. Hewett, " Nummits and Cruramits," p. 72), 
"forty single men" ("Choice Notes," p. 174). Another 
interesting feature is the necessity for silence, which is not 
recorded in the previous accounts; but perhaps the most 
curious development is the fact that the rector himself 
acted as master of the ceremonies. E. Pearsb Chope. 



2. Cure for Fits. — The following extract is taken from 
the "Daily Chronicle" of 26 May, 1906:— 

" The Kev. Eoger Granville, of Pinhoe, formerly Eector of 
Bideford, tells an interesting story of Devonshire super- 
stition. * On one occasion,' he says, * a young farmer from 
the neighbourhood of Torrington called on me and asked me 
to tell him what was contained in a bag which he had worn 
round his neck since infancy, and which a white witch had 
given his mother as a preventative against fits. After 
cutting open several outer cases, well worn and sweat- 
stained, I came upon the original inner one, which con- 
tained a number of pieces of paper, each bearing one 
word. 

" * Piecing them together, I found they formed the follow- 
ing sentences: "Sinner, Jesus died for thee" (thrice repeated). 



ON DEVONSHIKB FOLK-LORE. 97 

" Therefore flee that sin." At the man's request, these pieces 
of paper were reinserted in their several bags, and my maid- 
servant sewed them up again, and he, replacing the charm 
round his neck once more, went on his way rejoicing, being 
now in a position to tell a neighbour, whose child had also 
fits, that was a certain cure for them.'" 

E. Pearse Chope. 

3. Cure for Fits. — The following letter appeared in the 
"North Devon Journal" of 26 April, 1906:— 

"Faith-cure" in North Devon. 

"Sir, — To supplement Mr. Scrivener's letter, which 
appeared in your last issue, allow me to state that nearly 
sixty years ago there was a similar exhibition in Welcombe 
Church, though not identically the same as this, for the 
afflicted one who was seeking to be cured sat in the church 
during the delivery of the sermon and then walked out. 
He was a single man named John Luxton, but always 
called 'Jack.* And my sister was one of those asked to 
contribute a penny with twenty-nine others, and Anne 
Ayres brought the half-crown from which the ring was 
to be made, which was duly executed by John Downing, 
and ' Jack * wore it for some years, but, alas ! it did .not 
efifect a cure. Perhaps the failure may be attributed to his 
not sitting in the porch during the time of the service. 
However, he sat there as the people retired, the writer 
being present and witnessing it. Poor * Jack ' died in a fit 
nearly forty years ago, being near the church where he 
had sought the cure, and 1 believe Mr. Toller held an 
inquest, but am not sure of this. " T. Gay. 

" Barnstaple." 

It is rather curious that, in none of the Devonshire examples 
of this well-known cure, was it regarded as important to have 
the ring made of " sacrament money," although in the cure 
for paralysis given by Hunt (" Popular Eomances," 3rd ed., 
p. 412), the sufferer obtained the half-crown from the clergy- 
man, in exchange for her thirty pennies, and then walked 
three times round the communion-table. 

E. Pearse Chope. 

4 Cure for the King's Evil. — The following came to 
my notice several years ago, but I do not think it has ever 
appeared in print. A woman at Woolfardisworthy West 
used to effect the cure of this complaint by " saying words " 

VOL. XXXVIIL Q 



98 TWBNTY-THIKD BEPORT OF THB COMMITTEE 

over an ordinary shilling, which she ordered the sufiferer 
to wear always, threatening him that, if he lost or 
spent the shilling, the disease would return. In one 
instance, at any rate, the charm worked well enough for 
some time, but one day, having spent all the rest of his 
money at the inn, the wearer of the charmed shilling was 
persuaded by his companions to risk the coin on " another 
pint." Next morning the king's evil had returned! It 
should be noted that no fee was demanded, or paid, for the 
original charm. I could not ascertain that the woman had 
any special qualifications, but one family at Hartland had 
both a seventh and a ninth son who "touched for the 
king's evil," while in another the " doctor " was the seventh 
son of a seventh son, a fact which greatly enhanced the 
potency of his touch. E. Pearse Chope. 

5. Cure for Measles: Value of Personal Names. — The 
following note appeared in '*The Daily Mail" of 26 March, 
1906, under the heading " Superstitious Parents " : — 

"Witchcraft and superstition die hard in Devonshire. 

" There has lately been an epidemic of measles at Chittle- 
hampton, and in the hope of curing their children parents 
have dragged the little sufferers through three parishes in 
one day, which proceeding is said to effect a certain cure. 

" Others have taken their offspring to women who have 
not had to change their name by marriage, in the belief that 
whatever such women gave to sick children to eat would 
act medicinally. This treatment has not proved effectual, 
but still there are people who are prepared to continue 
it." 

Both of these items have, I believe, hitherto been 
recorded only as applied to whooping-cough. Sir J. W. 
Walrond, writing many years ago to " Notes and Queries " 
(1st ser., Vol. IX, p. 239; "Choice Notes," "Folk-lore," 
p. 218), said : ** Inquiring the other day of a labourer as to 
the state of his child, who was suffering very severely from 
hooping cough [sic], he told me that she was 'no better, 
although he had carried her, fasting, on Sunday morning, 
into three parishes* which, according to popular belief, was 
to be of great service to her." 

The second item is thus described by Mr. W. G. Black 
(" Folk-medicine," p. 138) :— 

"Grenerally in the west and midland counties of England 
the virtue lying in the person of a woman who has married 



ON DBYONSHIRE FOLK-LOBE. 99 

a husband of the same name as herself, or after the death of 
her first husband marries a second whose name is the same 
as that of her maidenhood, is extolled, and this is the more 
strange that one of the commonest maxims for the guidance 
of marriageable girls is to the effect that : — 

A change of the name with no change of the letter — 
Is a change for the worse and not for the better. 

" Be that as it may be, the little sufferer from whooping- 
cough is in Cheshire trustfully sent to get plain currant 
cake from a woman who has married a man of her own 
name, and in the neighbourhood of Tenbury to get bread 
and butter and sugar from Widow Smith, n4e Jones, who 
has become on her second marriage Mrs. Jones." 

The writer from Cheshire in "Notes and Queries" (1st 
ser., Vol. VI, p. 71; "Choice Notes," "Folk-lore," p. 18l) 
states that the cake must be made by the woman, and that 
" on no account whatever is any payment or compensation 
to be made directly or indirectly for the cake. My 
informant has the firmest belief in this specific, he himself 
having witnessed, in the case of his own child, the beneficial 
result ; but he took care to mention, as probably an advan- 
tage, that the cake which cured his child was made by a 
woman whose mother had also married her namesake." 

E. Pearse Chope. 

6. The Dead Hand.— The "Hartland Chronicle" for 
February, 1906, quotes the following from the quarterly 
statement of the Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariners' 
Society : — 

"After the wreck of the 8.8. * Uppingham,* in November, 
1890, some of the bodies recovered were temporarily 
deposited under the church belfry and in a stable, and the 
surprising fact is related by Mr. Chope (Vicar of Hartland 
and local hon. agent of the Society) that the hand of one of 
them was * superstitiously used by a villager for striking 
the king's evil ! ' The vicar then made an urgent appeal for 
funds to build a mortuary for use on such occasions, which 
was generously responded to, and Hartland is thus provided 
with a decent resting-place for the unbefriended dead." 

The efiicacy of the dead hand is well known. Scot, in 
the " Discoverie of Witchcraft," says : — 

"To heal the king or queen's evil, or any other soreness of 
the throat, first touch the place with the hand of one that 
died an untimely death." 

g2 



100 REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON DBVONSHIBB FOLK-LOBB. 

Hunt, in his "Popular Bomances of the West of 
England," says : — 

" Placing the hand of a man who has died by his own act 
is a cure for many diseases," and he records the instance of 
the cure of a young man who had been afflicted with 
running tumours from his birth ; he says also that he " once 
saw a young woman led on to the scaflbld, in the Old 
Bailey, for the purpose of having a wen touched with the 
hand of a man who had just been executed" (3rd ed., 
pp. 378-9). 

At a coroner's inquest at Plymouth in 1879, a lad, who 
was afflicted with the king's evil, was brought to the court 
by his mother and a friend, to obtain permission to be 
" struck " by the man who had committed suicide (" Trans. 
Devon. Assoc," 1880, p. 102). E. Pearse Chope. 



ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE DARTMOOR 
EXPLORATION COMMITTEE. 

Eleventh Report of the Committee — coiisistiTig of Mr, J, S. 
Ameri/j the Rev. I, K, Anderson, Mr. R. Burnard, Rev. S. 
Bariiig-Gould, Mr. J. D. Pode, Mr. J. Brooking-Rowe, Mr. 
Basil Thomson^ and Mr. R. Hansford Worth — for the pur- 
pose of exploring Dartmoor and the Gamps in Devon. 

Edited by the Rev. I. K. Anderson. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1006.) 



HUT CIRCLE SETTLEMENT AT WATERN OKE. 
EXPLORED JULY, 1906. 

This settlement is situated east of the junction of the 
River Tavy and Rattlebrook (see Sheet Lxxxvin. S.E.), and 
commences at a distance of 400 yards from it, and extends 
for half a mile. The number of hut circles explored was 
ninety-four and two unexplored. Between 1 and 46 
there are distinct traces of connecting walls, as shown on 
plan. Also between 33 and 36 ; 37 and 43a ; 53, 58, and 
57. Hut 12 is a capital example of a hut divided into two 
rooms by a wall; 17, a triple hut in the form of a trefoil. 
The huts are generally circular, the notable exceptions being 
12, 17, 38a, 36, and 80. 

The excavation and planning commenced on 6 June, 1905, 
and eight diggers were employed, who were encamped near 
the spot for that purpose. 

Several days were spoilt by the rain, and our tents were 
blown down on two occasions. 

Under the shelter of the rocks, midway between 46 and 
36, is a small structure which may have been artificial ; and 
between 52 and 61 is an artificial structure like a sentry- 
box, but we were unable to determine whether it was 
ancient or modern, hesitating about its destruction, which 
would have been inevitable. 



102 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE 

The exploration was terminated on 27 July. 

Charcoal in considerable quantities, much more than usual, 
was found in most of the huts, with the usual accompanying 
cooking stones, pottery, and flints. The most interesting 
find was a small glass bead, blue in colour and semi-opaque, 
which was dug up about 30 inches below the surface in 57, 
measuring | inch long and ^u ^^- diameter, with a hole 
through it longitudinally. Tliis was submitted to Mr. Head 
at the British Museum, who thus expresses his opinion 
oflBcially: — 

I think the bead old. It most nearly resembles (1) from Water 
Newton Hunts, found with Roman remains of the second century 
or thereabouts ; and (2) one from Thebes in Egypt, of no certain 
period, but doubtless Roman also. 

The hut-circle settlement is of crescent shape conforming 
to the curve of the river, No. 1 at the western end being 
about 140 feet above the river and about 200 yards from it, 
whilst the huts at the extreme east are close to the river 
and both pleasantly situated and sheltered. Those of the 
western limb are, so to speak, terraced down to 43 and 44, 
and 55, 56, 57. 

The marked entrances of the huts were generally either 
towards the south or directed towards the river. 

Hut 80, which is markedly oblong on plan, is more or 
less a departure from the circular form, and appears to have 
been rebuilt or ** restored " at some period. 

The whole settlement seems to have been intended for 
occupation in connexion with peaceful pursuits; at least, 
there are no signs to the contrary. 

Rut Circle 1. — A small irregular hut with no apparent 
entrance. 

The bottom concave and formed entirely of large slabs of 
stone. 

A stone projecting 18 inches was evidently intended as a 
shelf for some purpose. 

The longest diameter was 9 feet from E. to W., from N. 
to S. 7 feet. 

Tr6W5e of a wall uphill in N.E. direction leading nowhere. 

HiU Circle la, — Small circle ; entrance on the south side. 
Very rugged and pit-like. 

External diameter, 15 feet ; internal, 9 feet, with rocks on 
the west side. 

A wall from N.K leads in a circular direction south, and 



DARTMOOR EXPLORATION COMMITTBE. 103 

joins Hut Circle 5, with a branch leading in a similar way 
between 7 and 8. 

Found sling stones from river and some pieces of rough 
quartz. 

Hut Circle 2. — A well-made hut. External diameter, 24 
feet ; internal, 13 feet. Entrance facing S.S.W. 

Here were found cooking and pounding stones and some 
small sling stones. Also flint. 

JItU Circle 3. — Well-defined circular hut with a decided 
sheltered entrance pointing S. by W. External diameter, 
32 feet; internal, 11 feet. 

There were found pounding and cooking stones and some 
quartz crystals, some pieces of which were pointed and 
blunted by use. 

HiU Circle 3a. — Unexplored; about 7 feet in diameter, 
and did not look worth trying. It was left till the last, and 
then overlooked. 

Jlut Circle 4. — A very good hut. 

Internal diameter, 9 feet. Joined to 4a by a wall. 

The entrance on the south side is protected by a curved 
approach of stones. 

There were found here about two dozen stones, rubbers, 
etc. 

Hut Circle 4a. — Small but well made. 

Internal diameter, 8 feet; external, 13 feet. The entrance 
was probably at south. The fire-place was close to the wall 
on the north side, where there were many burnt stones. 

Hut Circle 5. — Very good small circle ; internal diameter, 
9 feet. Door at S.E. and the fire-place at north. 

From the north a wall circling N. to W. joins it to la, 
enclosing 2, 3, and 4. 

Hut Circle 6. — 10 feet internal diameter. 

Entrance well made on east side. A stone in the centre 
of floor. The fire-place was on the N.E. side not far from the 
entrance. This circle was at the top of the clatter, which 
extends southwards to the river. 

Hut Circle 7. — External diameter, 21 feet; internal, 11 
feet. A large fiat stone extended across the floor on the 
north side, of which many burnt stones were found indicating 
fire-place. 

Between 7 and 8 (nearer 8) walling is indicated, proceed- 
ing north and curving to west, joining the wall which unites 
6 to 7a. 



104 ELBYSNTH BBPORT OF THE 

Hut Cirde 8. — This circle presented an interesting division 
by boulders separating the N.W. corner into an apartment. 
Diameter, internal, 12 feet. 
Entrance uncertain, but perhaps at south. 

Hut Circles 9, 10. — These circles are contiguous and 
interesting. 

On N.W. of 9 is a large flat stone 10 feet in length and 
the ends 1 feet and 3 feet respectively in breadth. They 
seem to have been similarly designed with sheltered en- 
trances on south side in each case. Their internal diameters 
were 10 feet and 13 feet respectively. 

In 9 the fire-place was indicated at the north, where many 
burnt stones were found and large pounding stones. 

Hut 10 was not in a very good condition, it having been 
rather pulled about. A good many stones of the usual char- 
acter were found in it. 

Hut Circle 11. — This is an excellent specimen and in good 
condition, with high walls 5 feet thick. The entrance on 
south side, sheltered and well seen, is about 6 feet long and 
2 feet 6 inches wide. The internal diameter, 11 feet. It 
was evidently paved with stones. Here we found a large 
square rubber, many pieces of clean bright spar, and a lai^e 
quantity of burnt stones. 

Hut Circle 12. — An interesting dwelling, rather shallow, 
constructed of boulders, with central wall dividing it into 
two compartments. 

West, 9 feet 5 inches ; east, 8 feet 4 inches. 

Many burnt stones were found, and an entrance seemed 
to be indicated on the south side of the western compart- 
ment. 

Hut Circle 13. — Not very satisfactory for exploration. It 
was composed of large stones which had fallen inwards. 
The greatest length was from N.W. to S.E., 18 feet ; S.W. 
to N.E., about 12 feet. 

Here were found a large pounder and some rubbing stones. 

Hut Circle 14. — An ordinary hut. Internal diameter, 12 
feet, with apparent entrance on east side. 

Bubbing and cooking stones found. 

Between 14 and 15 there is a small circular pit of stones 
about 6 feet in diameter, which was evidently used as a 
fire-place, for it was burnt in several places. 

Hut Circle 15. — A good circle with large flat stones for 
floor. Internal diameter, 12 feet. 



DARTMOOR EXPLORATION COMMITTEE. 105 

The entrance, 3 feet wide, was at south. 

The fire-place was opposite the entrance close to the north 
wall. 

This circle was at the N.E. side of the clatter. 

From No. 14 in a W.S.W. direction are the remains of 
walling connecting it With the clatter. The wall is about 
70 feet long. Taking this wall as starting from the clatter, 
it proceeds E.N.E. to 14, then there is a small gap between 
14 and 16, then wall from 16 to 17 (another piece of walling 
from 17 S.W. into clatter), 17 to 18, then from 18 S.W. for 
about 80 feet ; curving S. and S.E. to 23 ; 23 is connected 
with 21a, 21a with 19 and perhaps with 22 ; 22 is connected 
by wall with 24a, from which there are traces of a wall 
towards 25. 

Hut Circle 16. — Deep and circular. Internal diameter, 
12 feet, filled up with large stones. The entrance was just 
E. of S. Burnt stones and fiat rubbing stones were dug 
up ; also pottery with double-line pattern. 

Hvi Circle 17. — This dwelling cannot be considered circu- 
lar, and consists of three compartments, as shown. There 
seemed to be an entrance into the south apartment. Here 
we found fiint and a quantity of burnt stones. Flint. 

Hvt Circle 18. — Internal diameter, 10 feet ; external, 20 
feet. The entrance was at south. 

Hut Circle 19. — This again was not circular, but oval. 
Greatest diameter, 13 feet; lesser, 9 feet. It was very well 
made, and the entrance was at south. Here were found the 
usual stones and fragments of a welUwom rubber or whet- 
stone. 

Hvi Circle 20. — Internal diameter, 11 feet. Entrance at 
south, and the fire-place was all along the wall opposite the 
entrance. This hut joins 23. Here were found a curious 
small, red, square ruddle stone and pieces of fiint. 

Hut Circle 21. — A very good specimen, deep and conical, 
or pit-shaped, being constructed of large stones in the centre. 
Diameters, 16 feet and 8 feet. The entrance was on south 
side. Cooking and rubbing stones found. Also a piece of 
flint. 

Hut Circle 21a.— This is a few feet S.W. of 21, and is 
not a circle. The fire-place was on the inside of the south 
wall, and the entrance at the west corner. It was an 
irregular clumsy-looking dwelling. 



106 ELEVENTH REPORT OF THE 

Hut Circle 22. — Due south of 21a. Small but of interest. 
Entrance on east with double sheltering wall, from which 
on S.E. side a wall goes to 24a. 

A large stone opposite the entrance showed clearly where 
the fire-place was. The internal diameter was 10 feet. 

Hut Circle 23. — Contiguous to 20 at its S.W. edge. Not 
well built, so far as the use of stone is concerned. Perhaps 
it was originally of earth and small stones. This hut was 
rather square than circular, with the entrance at the north, 
so far as we could judge, and the fire-place was quite evident 
at the S.W. corner of the floor. 

Hut Circle 24. — Very nicely constructed, but not circular. 
Entrance just S. of E. Cooking and rubbing stones found, 
and the tire-place indicated ; also pottery with marking of 
double lines :::::::::::::::::::::::: and flint. 

Hut Circle 24a. — Not well built, entrance at south, and 
the material earth and small stones. The fire was at the 
east side. Nearly circular, and 12 feet diameter — internal. 
Found a flint. 

Hut Circle 25. — A very good circle. Diameters, 17 feet 
and 10 feet. Deep and conical, with earth floor unpaved. 

The entrance was at south. Many pieces of spar and 
quartz, also burnt stones and flint piece. 

Hut Circle 25a. — Also a good specimen. Probable en- 
trance at south. Unpaved earth floor; diameters, 20 feet and 
14 feet. Flint scrapers, cooking and pounding stones. 

Clatter to the south. 

Hut Circle 26. — External diameter, 15 feet; internal, 
11 feet. The entrance on south side about 2 feet in width. 
The floor paved with large stones. We foimd cooking stones 
and pieces of spar. 

Hut Circle 27. — Good circle. External diameter, 19 feet; 
internal, 14 feet. Paved with large stones, boulders. 

The entrance was (probably) W. of S. Cooking and 
rubber stones. 

Hut Circle 27a. — Well shaped ; internal diameter, 12 feet. 

The entrance (probably) on south. At any rate, there was 
no doubt about a large fire-place at north. 

This circle was not paved. 

We found quartz, pieces of spar, small cooking stones, and 
rubbers. 

Hut Circle 27b. — Well built and shaped. Internal 
diameter, 10 feet. Entrance distinct on south side. Large 



DARTMOOR EXPLORATION COMMITTEE. 107 

flat Stone on west side. The ground falls rapidly from it 
about 25 feet at S.W., with rocks and clatter on the bank. 
It also falls at S.E. steadily towards 40 and 41. 

Hut Circle 27c.— This circle is 68 feet from 27, 88 feet 
from 31, centre to centre, about 15 feet diameter ; but being 
somewhat covered with heather, it was overlooked and not 
excavated. The peg marking its position had become over- 
turned by the cattle that were about. 

Hut Circle 28. — A well-built and well-shaped dwelling ; 
12 feet internal diameter. The entrance was about S.E. 
The fire-place at north. A large stone slab reaches from 
west side nearly to the centre of the hut. 

Some pieces of flint were found. 

Hut Circle 29. — The present excellent condition of the 
wall of this hut leads us to suspect that it may have been 
" restored " or rebuilt to its present height of 5 feet. The 
original fire-place seems to have been at north, but there are 
traces of fire in other places. Many fire stones were found. 
About 13 feet inside diameter. 

Hut Circle 30. — A rough stone pit with visible entrance at 
south. Tlie fire-place was both at east and west. Diameter 
(internal), 10 feet. Some cooking and rubbing stones found. 

H^tt Circle 31. — Made of large stones. External diameter, 
17 feet; internal diameter, 12 feet. We could not locate 
the entrance. There is a trace of walling from it to 27c. 

Hut Circle 32. — Very irregular in shape, being constructed 
of large stones. General diameter (internal), 11 feet. 

The entrance was south, and the fire at north. 

A wall seems to have extended from this circle, eastward 
about 90 feet, and west to 29, from 29 to 27a, from 27a to 
27, from 27 to 27c, from 27c to 31 ; 30 and 31 may have 
been connected, and there is a short trace of walling from 
30 towards 32. 

Hut Circle 33. — Small and irregular, being constructed of 
very large stones. Internal diameter, 9 feet. The only sug- 
gestion of an entrance was at N.E. Traces of fire all over 
the floor. Cooking stones found. 

Hut Circle 34. — Very rough dwelling constructed of un- 
usually large stones. The floor is about 6 feet square, and 
shows many traces of fire. 

Hut Circle 35. — Also constructed of large stones. The 
entrance is on east side. Earth floor. Internal diameter, 
10 feet On the N.E. side of floor is a large flat stone about 



108 ELBYENTH REPORT OF THE 

1 foot thick, 3J feet by 4J feet, which looks like a table, 
or seat, close to the fire-place, which was at N. and N.E. The 
usual variety of stones was found. 

Excavation 36. — Certainly a habitation, but very rough, 
more like a quarry than anything else. 

Length from north to south, 20 feet, and of varied breadth 
— 7 feet, 5 feet, and 4 feet. 

There was no sign of an entrance. 

The fire-place of considerable extent was at the north. 
Many cooking stones were found ; also piece of flint. 

Probably this was a large cooking chamber. 

Hut Circle 37. — Very good circle ; internal diameter, 
10 feet. Entrance at north, fire-place east. Found a piece 
of flint. 

nut Circle 38. — Kough, made with large stones. 
Internal diameter, 15 feet. No sign of an entrance. 
Built under the shelter of rocks or steep clatter. 
There were about five dozen cooking stones. 
Found some pottery. 

Hut Circle 38a. — Adjoins 38 and is oblong, 24 feet from 
north to south, and 10 feet across (both internal measure- 
ments). Made of very large rough stones. The entrance 
was at S.W. corner, and the fire-place at S. 

Hut Circle 39. — Eough and irregular. Entrance S.W. ; the 
floor, 6 feet diameter. Probably a cooking hut. The fire 
was at east. 

Hut 40. — 12 feet greatest length and 7 feet greatest 
width. It was rough, and constructed of large rocks. Prob- 
ably a cooking pit. The fire was at S.W. corner. 

Hut 41. — The entrance was possibly at S.W. corner, and 
the tire-place was evidently at S.E. About two dozen cook- 
ing stones. 

Hut Circle 42. — This small group of circles (42, 43, 43a, 
and 44) are most charmingly situated just over the brow of 
a hill, sheltered from the north, and about 40 feet above the 
Tavy and 100 feet from it, with a lovely view of the river. 
No. 42 is rather roughly built of boulders, and of squarish 
floor; diameter, 9 feet. The entrance at S.W. Fire-place at 
north. 

Hut Circle 43. — Very fine and circular, its wall being 
3 J feet in height and well built. The entrance (perfect) at 
south, the fire-place at north. Found a piece of flint. 



DARTMOOR EXPLORATION COMMITTEE. 109 

nvi 43a. — Eough and irregular, boulder built. The en- 
trance was at south, and there were signs of fire all over the 
floor. Probably this was the cook-house for 44. Its greatest 
length was 12 feet and the width 9 feet. 

Hid Circle 44. — The most charmingly situated of the 
whole settlement. Its internal diameter, 10 feet ; height of 
wall, 2\ feet. The entrance was at south, facing the river, 
the fire-place at N.E. There were about two dozen cooking 
stones. 

Hut Circle 45. — Composed of about half a dozen rocks 
and very little earth. The entrance at east. A monolith, 
which seems to have formed part of its west wall, has fallen 
outwards, and measured about 13 feet in length. 

The floor was irregularly paved with boulders. 

The tire-place was at east and west. Many cooking stones 
and a piece of flint. 

Hut Circle 46. — Circular in form, about 12 feet internal 
diameter, but not very satisfactory. This, with 46a and 
46b, being constructed amongst the clatter, was most dis- 
heartening, and took a good deal of time, patience, and 
strength. 

Hut Circle 46a. — This was evidently a cooking place, con- 
structed amongst the rocks, impossible to measure or de- 
lineate, for it had no shape ; it contained much burnt granite. 

Hut Circle 466. — Very rough, but apparently about 9 feet 
diameter on floor. We could not discern an entrance. The 
fire-place was at north. 

Hvi Circle 47. — Not circular, but approaching a square 
8 feet across; poorly constructed, earth floor, fire-place at north. 

Hut Circle 48. — Very well built with large stones. Internal 
diameter, 13 feet ; but no visible entrance. The fire-place 
was E. of N. Three dozen cooking and fire stones found and 
flint flakes. 

H2U Circle 49. — Very rough, irregular, and small, com- 
posed of large stones. Its general direction was N. to S., 
12 feet; 7 feet E. to W. The entrance was evident at S., 
and the fire-place at N.E. 

Hut Circle 50. — Composed of large stones overlapping, 
some having fallen inwards. Very difficult to explore. 

The entrance was apparent at east 5 feet wide. The fire- 
place extended from E. to W. at N. side. This dwelling was 
not circular, being 14 feet N. to S. and 8 feet E. to W. Earth 
floor. A few cooking stones, pieces of spar. 



110 BLEYSNTH REPORT OF THE 

Hut Circle 51. — ^A fair circle, 10 feet internal diameter, 
formed of boulders, and with 48, 50 on the edge of a steep 
descent of about 20 feet. There was no entrance that we 
could determine. The fire-place was at N. and N.K 

Cooking stones, pieces of spar. 

HtU 52. — Rough and oblong from N. to S., formed by large 
stones only ; dimensions, 12 feet by 7 feet. 

The fire-place seems to have been at north, but the rocks 
had been burnt on all sides. Charcoal, cooking stones. 

About half-way between 52 and 61 there is a curious 
built-up alcove or sentry-box of stone ; the entrance is about 
4 feet high by 18 inches wide, closed at the back, amongst 
the clatter on the side of the slope. It faces the Homer 
Redlake slightly W. of S. Whether ancient or modem, or 
what purpose it has served, we are not in a position even to 
suggest. It has not been disturbed, but has been left to the 
ingenious speculations of future visitors, or to the inquisitive 
destruction of the coming archaeologist. 

Hut Circle 53. — Fine circle of 14 feet internal diameter. 
Entrance distinct at south. Fire-place north, extending to 
east. A large amount of cooking and rubber stones, pottery, 
and flint. 

HtU Circle 54. — Small cooking pit ; floor, 4 feet by 5 feet; 
3 feet deep. No entrance ; fire all over floor. 

Hut Circle 55. — Well built of large stones. Internal 
diameter, 14 feet. Entrance at south. Fire-place on west 
side. Large quantity of cooking stones were found, pottery, 
and some pieces of flint. 

Hut Circle 56. — Not a very good construction, having few 
large stones. Internal diameter, 16 feet. The entrance was 
possibly indicated at south. Fire-place N.W. Considerable 
number of cooking stones found and flints. 

Hut Circle 57. — Very good circle. Internal diameter, 
19 feet. Number of stones fallen inwards. Entrance south. 
Fire-place N.W. Here the glass bead was found. About 
six dozen cooking stones, fragments of pottery in quantity, 
flint pieces, two flint arrow-points were found. 

Hut Circle 58. — A very good specimen. Internal diameter,14 
feet. Entrance at south. Fii^e at north. Many small cooking 
stones and pieces of spar were obtained, and some pieces of flint. 

Hut Circle 59. — Excellently built of large boulders, 4J feet 
deep. Internal diameter, 15 feet. Entrance at west. Fire- 
places at E. and N. A pile of cooking stones and a flint 



DARTMOOR EXPLORATION COMMITTEE. Ill 

Hut Circle 60. — Rather irregular or oval. Longest diameter, 
E. to W., 15 feet ; shorter, N. to S., 9 feet. No visible trace 
of an entrance. Burnt stones at east, showing fire-place. 

fftU Circle 61. — Or rather a circular pit about 4 feet 
deep ; diameter at bottom, 6 feet ; at top, 8 feet ; formed of 
large stones ; traces of fire all over the bottom. Here we 
found some rubbers, several dozen cooking stones, and a 
piece of flint. 

RtU 62. — At a distance of 146 yards, direction E.S.E., we 
come to 62, which at first sight, having a circular appearance 
with a central depression, we took for a hut circle, but after 
excavation we found no sign of habitation. It must have 
served some other purpose. 

Hut Circle 63. — A very good specimen, but much filled up 
with fallen stones. External diameter, 22 feet; internal, 
12 feet. The entrance was at south. Some cooking stones, 
pieces of spar, rubbers. 

Hut Circle 64. — A large good circle. Exterior diameter, 
25 feet ; internal, 17 feet. No sign of an entrance. Cooking 
and rubber stones (one small red-stone rubber), neck, lip (or 
handle) of a jar, and pieces of flint. 

Hu^ Circle 65. — A good circle. Exterior diameter, 18 feet; 
internal, 11 feet. Entrance denoted by large fallen stone 
W. of S. The fire-place was at east side. About a dozen 
cooking and rubbing stones. A well-worked piece of flint. 

Hut Circle 66. — A massive stone hut of large granite 
boulders about 100 feet from the river at S.W. Total length 
from N.E. to S.W., 15 feet internally. Eubber and cooking 
stones. 

Hui Circle 67. — Fine small circle. External diameter, 
19 feet ; internal, 9 feet. Could not determine the entrance. 
About a dozen cooking and rubber stones found and some 
fn^ments of pottery. 

Hut Circle 68. — Very well defined; 18 feet external and 
12 feet internal diameter. There was a large slab of stone 
5 feet square in the centre. Some of the stones had fallen 
inwards, and there was no definite sign of an entrance. 
About two dozen cooking stones and rubbers, amongst which 
there was one of granite, 12 inches in length, of triangular 
section, with very flat smooth base. Its base measured 
8 inches across, and the sides of the section were 6 feet 
and 6^ inches, as shown on sketch. Charcoal, pottery, and 
some pieces of flint were found here. 



112 KLKVBNTH REPORT OF THE 

HxU Circle 69. — Yery good. External diameter, 18 feet ; 
internal, 11 feet. Entrance (probable) at south, the stone 
posts having fallen inwards. 

Three dozen cooking stones, pounder of tourmaline granite, 
spar polished, charcoal, pottery, and a piece of flint found. 

ffut Circle 70. — Fine hut. External diameter, 21 feet; 
internal, 13 feet Entrance at south marked by one upright 
stone. About three dozen cooking, rubbing, and sling stones. 
One specially fine fractured whetstone quite smooth with 
use, pointed piece of spar, flints. 

HiU Circle 71. — Well constructed. External diameter, 
21 feet; internal, 11 feet. The only sign of an entrance 
was on eastern side. More than one hundred (sling, rubber, 
and cooking) stones and pottery were found. 

Hut Circle 72. — Fair specimen. External diameter, 17 feet; 
internal, 11 feet. Some large stones like steps suggested 
entrance at S.S.E. A considerable number of rubbing and 
cooking stones dug up. 

Ifut Circle 73. — Longer diameter, 12 feet; shorter, 7 feet. 
A large, nearly square, stone nearly filled the hut. 

Cooking stones. No entrance. 

Hut Circle 74. — Small and rough, made of large boulders. 
External diameter, 10 feet. 

Eubbing stone found here. 

Hut Circles 75 and 76. — Contiguous. Very diflBcult to 
excavate, as they were filled with rough large stones. The 
only sign of a possible entrance was close to the division 
wall on KE. side of 75, in which some large rubber stones 
were found. Internal diameter of 75 was 15 feet ; and of 
76, 12 feet. 

N.B. — These hut circles (75 and 76) have not been drawn 
in the usual manner north and south, but as shown by arrow. 

Hut Circle 77. — Rather oval, the diameters being 12 feet 
and 10 feet. Formed of very large rough boulders. 
Rubbing stones, pointed piece of quartz spar. 

Hut Circle 78. — Internal diameter, 15 feet. Also made of 
large rough boulders. Piece of glass (? ancient). 

Hv^ Circle 79. — Very rough work indeed. Floor, 8 feet 
and 10 feet ; not a circle ; constructed in the clatter. 

(N.N.W. of 80 at about 30 yards are traces of perhaps 
other ancient huts, but we were unable to investigate further.) 

Hut Circle 79 may possibly have been the cook-house 
for 80. 



DARTMOOR EXPLORATION COMMITTEE. 113 

Hut 80. — This hut seems to have been rebuilt at some 
period, and probably was never circular. A very large stone, 
at least 3 feet thick and 13 feet in length, monopolizes the 
internal space. We tried it as floor, bed, and board, but it was 
equally unsuitable for our requirements in each case. A 
corroded piece of iron was found (possibly a modern knife). 
Large rubbing stone. Pottery. Very good arrow-head point. 

HiU Circle 81. — Before digging, this seemed like a hut 
circle about 15 feet external diameter, but nothing was found 
to indicate habitation. 

Hut Circle 82. — On the opposite side of the river, to the 
west of Homer Redlake, and nearly S.W. from the boundary 
stone at about 200 yards, is a fine hut circle fully 20 feet in 
diameter and well built. Here we found a flint, charcoal, 
and traces of pottery. 

On revisiting the above settlement some months after 
exploration, it was noticeable that the cooking stones which 
were hard when first dug out had become friable. 

Whilst under canvas we were visited by Colonel Goldie, 
R.E., Commanding Western District, who was much gratified 
with what he saw. 

We were much cheered during our stay in the wilds, 
under canvas, and uncomfortable surroundings, by the visit 
of a party of enthusiastic ladies and gentlemen full of the 
meeting at Princetown, which was then in progress, who were 
ably conducted to our " diggings " by Mr. George French, of 
Postbridge. 

A hut circle is marked on the Ordnance Map N.E. by N. 
of the top of Fur Tor at a distance on plan of about 800 
yards. We located this and marked it for excavation, but 
were unable to carry out our intention, though we attempted 
to do so. 

BURIED HUT CIRCLE OR (?) BARROW AT **THE CROFT," 
PETER TAVY. 

A probable hut circle or (?) barrow discovered while cutting 
a road in a field known as "The Croft," close to the Rectory, 
at Peter Tavy on 3 January, 1906, by Arthur Heeley, Esq. 

The hollow in the centre was about 12 inches deep and 
18 inches diameter, and contained charcoal. 

A portion of a vessel of soft stone was found, three 
pieces of another vessel, and several small pieces of flint. 

VOL. XXXVIIL H 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND 
COUNTISBURY. I. 

INTRODUCTORY, ANTIQUITIES, HISTORICAL SKETCH, 
AND MANORS. 

BY REV. J. F. CHANTER, M.A. 

(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



INTRODUCTION. 

Of Lynton and Countisbury, almost isolated as they were 
from the tide of human events, with Severn Sea on one 
side and the solitudes of Exmoor Forest on the others, the 
older Devonshire writers have told us but little. For litera- 
ture in the past was wont to gather round persons rather 
than places, to describe events rather than scenery. It is 
only the more modern writers who have lingered long and 
lovingly over the beauties of nature, and with such Lynton 
and its neighbourhood have ever been a favourite subject, 
for it is a land noted far and wide for its beautiful and 
romantic scenery, its deep valleys and precipitous hills, its 
rushing streams and moss-clad rocks, its wooded vales and 
rolling moorlands, its ferns and verdure, its perpendicular 
cliffs, with fringe of silver sea beneath. And so writers 
from Polwhele downwards in a long stream — Warner, 
Southey, Dr. Maton, and others — have filled pages with 
description of its natural features, and especially of the 
Valley of Kocks, or Valley of Stones, as they called it, in 
which they saw, filled as their minds were with the fantastic 
theory of Druids and Druidical worship invented in the 
seventeenth century and then so prevalent, a place which 
ought to have been, even if it was not, a scene of its 
mystical rites. And each year adds to the number with 




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THE PAKISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 115 

a new guide-book, which repeats with slight variations the 
words and even errors of the old. 

While, on the other hand, there stands up in the past of 
Lynton scarcely a single individual around whom history 
could gather, not even a squire or a parson — names often 
held up for derision, yet the centres of every village 
chronicle, and here scarcely to be found. Not till the seven- 
teenth century was there a resident lord of the manor of 
Lynton, and then only for a brief period, after which the 
manor was rapidly dismembered ; and as long as records 
go back, with one exception, no vicar or parson (I use the 
word parson in its strict sense, the persona^ or rector, of 
the parish), but only a perpetual curate, who was often non- 
resident. Yet, in spite of this, Lynton has a past and a 
history, which, if not so eventful as other parishes*, will 
always be of interest to those who dwell there or visit it ; 
and I have tried in these pages to give some account of 
it, the manors, ecclesiastical a^airs, and families, especially 
that of the Wichehalses, around which all the romances 
and legends of the district have gathered. 

The only account hitherto published is in the "Guide 
to Lynton and Neighbourhood," written about 1850, by 
Thomas Henry Cooper, a medical man, then residing at 
Lynton. It was the result of a great deal of painstaking 
research, and contains most of what had been said by Pole, 
Westcote, and Risdon; yet as it is very incomplete and 
contains so many inaccuracies, I have attempted to give 
an entirely independent account, gathered almost entirely 
from original deeds and documents, though I would acknow- 
ledge my obligation to Mr. Cooper for putting me on the 
track of many subjects, and also to E. B. Jeime, Esq., lord 
of the manor of Lynton (Jure tixoris), for permission to 
look at the existing records of the manors of Lynton, Wool- 
hanger, and East Lyn; to Mr. Franklyn Walford, of the 
Eecord Office; Mr. W. E. Mugford for his search into the 
ecclesiastical records; and especially to my friend Oswyn 
A. R. Murray, Esq., whose wonderful knowledge of Devon- 
shire families of the seventeenth century, their wills, records, 
and family relationships, as well as the records at the 
Bodleian and Record Office, is invaluable to any student 
of Devonshire famQy history. In an appendix I have given 
abstracts of the most important of the documents from 
which my information has been drawn. 



h2 



116 THB PABISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBUBY. 

IL 
ANTIQUITIES AND PREHISTORIC PERIOD. 

The first inhabitants of the district who have left any 
traces of themselves behind are the men of the Neolithic 
or early Bronze period : along the sides of its streams, on 
the more level portions of its downs, and on the hill-tops 
their hut circles, burial places, stone monuments, and 
fortifications .can still be seen, and so frequently as to show 
for the age a somewhat numerous population along the 
northern and western slopes of Exmoor. 

Polwhele, in his " History of Devonshire," says : — 

Shapeless piles of stones on Exmoor and the adjacent country 
might be approached as rock idols of the Britons. The Valley of 
Stones, indeed, in the vicinity of Exmoor is so awfully magnificent 
that we need not hesitate in pronouncing it to have been the 
favourite residence of Druidism. . . , This valley is about half 
a mile in length, in general about three hundred feet in width, 
situated between two hills covered with an immense quantity of 
stones and terminated by rocks, which rise to a vast height and 
present a prospect uncommonly grotesque. At an opening between 
the rocks at the close of the valley there is a noble view of the 
British Channel and Welsh coast. The scenery of the whole 
country in the neighbourhood of this curious valley is wonderfully 
striking. The Valley of Stones has a close resemblance to severtd 
of the spots in Cornwall which tradition has sanctified with the 
venerable names of rock idols, Logan stones, or rock basons; 
and the north of Devon, though it may furnish us with no tradi- 
tion of the Druids, must yet be examined with an eye to Druidical 
antiquities. If the hills or valleys which have been so long con- 
secrated to the genius of the Druids of Cornwall deserve so high 
an honour^ I have little doubt but that the same distinction is 
due to the romantic scenes in Devonshire, which hitherto we 
have been led to view with an incurious eye, or to admire, perhaps, 
for their rude magnificence while we carried our ideas no further 
than the objects themselves. Not that the Druids formed these 
scenes, no, they only availed themselves of such recesses to which 
they annexed sanctity by commemorating there the rites of 
rehgion. . . . The rock idols are piurely natural, though some 
labour was employed in a few instances to make them look 
artificial. Nature, or some great convulsion in nature, left thoee 
rocks in their present fantastic shape, or if any art was applied 
to rock idols, it was only to remove some earth, some surrounding 
stone from the larger or more cmrious masses, and then the whole 
would put on the appearance it now possesses. The whole army 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 117 

of Xerxes could not have raised by force or skill such ledges of 
rock piled up in the Valley of Stones by human industry. The 
most remarkable rock idol in the valley is the Cheesewring. 
Lyttleton observes that it greatly resembles the Cheesewring at 
Altemon. 

I have quoted this passage at some length as, however 
absurd and exaggerated it may seem, it is one of the 
earliest descriptions we have of Lynton and the Valley of 
Bocks itself, as it is now called. Yet it is curious that 
Polwhele, who came to examine the neighbourhood with an 
eye to what he called Druidical Antiquities, and while he 
was familiar with Speed's words, "Ad Exmore saxa in 
triangulum alia in orbem erecta," could only see natural 
features and was blind to the undoubted erections of man 
in a prehistoric age still to be seen in the parish, and the stone 
circle and hut circles in the Valley of Rocks itself. And it 
would seem that as late as sixty years ago or less there 
were many more in the Valley of Rocks which have since 
disappeared, for in January, 1854, Mr. Charles Bailey, 
father of the present owner of Ley, in a public letter 
addressed to the inhabitants of Lynton on the subject of the 
commons enclosure complains not only of the building of 
ugly stone walls and fences, and opening of quarries in 
the valley during recent years, but also adds, " worse than 
either, the removal of the immense Druidical stones and 
circles which formed its peculiar and striking interest for 
the purpose of selling them for gate-posts." In Cooke's 
"Topographical Description of Devonshire," published in 
1810, there is a further description of these stone circles 
that have been destroyed. " The central part of the valley 
contains several circles of stone above forty feet in diameter, 
probably Druidical remains." 

Since the date of Mr. Bailey's letter many stone monu- 
ments existing then in other parts of the parish have 
disappeared, especially on the south side of the parish, 
owing to the enclosure of the commons ; and the new 
Ordnance Maps show that the destruction is still going on. 
Of those that now remain, a first account was given of 
some in the paper by Mr. R. H. Worth and Rev. J. F. 
Chanter in the '* Transactions " of the Association for 1905, 
and as a further instalment of them is to follow, I would 
refer those who desire more exact information on these 
antiquities to their papers. 



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THB PAKISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 119 

east side was apparently made to accommodate a later 
packhorse road. 

The fosse, at a point 25 ft. south of this opening, is at 
the present time 4 to 5 ft. deep, and the rampart rises 
29 ft. above the bottom of the fosse, and 5 ft. 6 in. above 
the level of the internal ground. 

The camp at Qldburrow above Glenthorne or Coscombe 
is of a difterent type from the last described, and of more 
complex design. It stands at an elevation of 1100 ft. near 
the summit of a hill rising direct up from the sea, though 
very little raised above the run of the surrounding country. 
It consists of an outer fosse and rampart which are circular, 
the rampart having a diameter of 100 yd. The fosse is 
2 ft. 4 in. deep and the rampart 6 ft. 8 in. high externally 
and 2 ft. internally ; within this is a smaller enclosure with 
double ditch and bank forming an approximate square with 
rounded comers: the diagonal measurement of this from 
crest to crest of the inner bank is 35 yd., the diameter 
being approximately 25 yd.; the outer of the two inner 
ditches is only 2 ft. 8 in. in depth ; the bank inside it does 
not rise above the natural level of the ground and is 2 ft. 
9 in. in height ; the third ditch is 2 ft. 9 in. in depth, and 
the inmost rampart is 5 ft. 7 in. in height on its outer 
face, and 1 ft. 9 in. on its inner face: all these measure- 
ments were taken at the north-west comer of the camp, 
where they are most perfect. The present entrance is on 
the north, and the camp is in a very good state of preserva- 
tion, though the ditches and banks were probably originally 
a little deeper and higher respectively. This camp has 
been spoken of by many antiquarians in the past as being 
Eoman, and an imaginary Roman road from it over the 
Forest of Exmoor to Holland has been laid down, but 
it has not the slightest claim to be considered such. I have 
given sections of all these four camps, for which and the 
measurements I am indebted to Mr. R. Hansford Worth, 
who took them with me in 1905-6. 

Hut circles are to be found in all parts of Lynton on the 
yet unenclosed land — a small circular enclosure, probably for 
cattle, is still to be seen in the Valley of Rocks — but are most 
numerous on Fursehill and Ilkerton ridges. No systematic 
investigation of any of these has yet been made. (A small 
but very perfect one made entirely of stone can be seen 
close to the water in the Hoar Oak Valley.) Barrows are to 
be seen on the hill-tops all round, and a kistvaen was exposed 
in 1896 close to the edge of the road above Glenthorne ; it 



120 THE PABISHES' OF LTNTOK AND COmfmSBUET. 

was on the Somerset side of the border. A vase was also 
found in the kist ; it is now in the Taunton Museum. Par- 
ticulars of this find were given by Mr. F. T. Elworthy in the 
"Proceedings of Somerset Archaeological Society," VoL XLII, 
p. 56. The stone weapons and implements found in the 
district are not very extensive, at least, such as have been 
recorded, but no doubt search and inquiry would bring 
many more to light. A labourer named John Bichards, now 
residing near Parracombe, who has worked a great deal at 
hedging and ditching, has been in the habit of preserving 
any good specimens of flint he found in his work, and has a 
small but representative collection. The best specimens 
are a skinning knife with a ground edge of black flint 
of oval shape, 4 in. by 3^ in.; and several arrow- 
heads of various patterns. I have given an illustration 
of some of these; they were mostly found near Furae- 
hill and Hoar Oak. Spindle-whorls or pixie grinding-stones, 
as the natives call them, have been found also at Stock 
Water and Ranscombe: the upper part of Ranscombe would 
probably produce flint flakes in some quantity. I have dog 
up several dozens in the course of an hour just on tihe 
edge of Lynton parish near Woody Bay station, also flint 
cores and a fabricator which had been used a good deaL 
Dr. Cooper states in his Guide (p. 46) that a great number 
of Eoman coins have from time to time been dug up in the 
parish of Countisbury, but I have been unable to verify 
this statement or see or hear of any specimen. Mr. E. N. 
Worth brings forward conclusive evidence to show that all 
claims of any Eoman occupation of any part of North 
Devon are entirely valueless, and that if Eoman coins are 
found they would be only marks of the peaceful visit 
of some Eoman trader. And in connexion with the 
supposed Coimtisbury finds it might be as well to put 
on record the statement I heard my father, the late John 
Boberts Chanter, Esq., of Barnstaple, frequently make, that 
the Bev. W. S. Halliday, a former owner of part of Countis- 
bury, scattered and buried coins, Eoman and others, with a 
view to puzzling the future antiquary. 



IV. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The parishes of Lynton and Countisbury form the 
extreme north-east corner of the county of Devon. Aocord- 




1. Skinning Knife, with ground edge, found at Fursehill. 
2, 4, 5, 6. Flint Akrow-heads found near Fursehill. 
3, 7. Flint Aurow-heads found near Hoar Oak. 

Lyktok.— ro yiic« p, 120. 



THE PABISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBUKY. 121 

ing to the revised Ordnance Map, Lynton contains 7285 
acres, of which 7190 are land, 13 water, 2 tidal water, and 
80 foreshore, and Countisbury 3201. These are the measure- 
ments of the Ordnance Survey, 2nd edition, 1905. They 
form part of the tithing of Parracombe in the hundred 
of SherweU. Brendon also formed part of this tithing 
(Parrecumbe cum Lyn Brendon et Lynton quae sunt 
membra ad eandem, a.d. 1316, "Feudal Aids," p. 367), the 
large extent of which, about 21,582 acres, shows how 
extremely thinly the district was inhabited at the period 
of the formation of hundreds, or at least the small Saxon 
population. The whole tithing might be properly described 
as being part of the Forest of Exmoor, as the lords of the 
manors paid chief rents and owed suit and service to the 
forest courts, and had rights of common for all animals 
on the great common or Forest of Exmoor ("Exmoor Forest 
Court Papers"), The name Lynton or Linton, as it was 
more commonly spelt, is evidently the ton on the Lyn. It 
is a name found in all parts of England. There are a Linton 
and Linmouth in Northumberland, four Lintons in York- 
shire, one in Cumberland, one in Derbyshire, one in 
Cambridgeshire, two in Herefordshire, and one in Kent. 
In all local guide-books lyn is explained as Celtic for a 
torrent or swift stream. Such a derivation would in no 
way fit in with the other Lyntons, and it is merely an 
error into which successive writers on the district, copying 
each other, have fallen. Lyn or line in Celtic means a 
pool, and is a word found in numerous combinations 
besides Lynton, such as Linlithgow, Dublin, Roslyn, all of 
which take their names from pools ; and the lynns or pools 
have often given their names to the rivers themselves, as 
the Lines in Cumberland, Northimiberland, Peebles, and 
Fife ; and our Devon Lyn is essentially a stream of rocks 
and pools, many of which, such as Peel Pool, Furze Pool, 
Black Pool, Long Pool, Vellacotts Pool, Limekiln Pool. 
Stag Pool, and Island Pool, are well known to anglers, 
Countisbury is generally explained as county's boundary, 
though Eisdon says, "Countisbury, probably the land of 
some countess," but it is far more probably, as the late 
Mr. E. N. Worth pointed out, Kant-ys-bury, the camp on 
the headland, taking its name from either the fortification 
now called Countisbury Camp or Old Burrow, near Glen- 
thome. 

The place-names seem to indicate that the Saxon settle- 
ment of this comer of Devon was a gradual and peaceable 



122 THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 

one; but by what route the Saxons first came, whether 
spreading northward from Molton or Barnstaple, or creep- 
ing down the coastline from Porlock, there is nothing to 
show, though in the Middle Ages there was 'a closer con- 
nexion between Porlock and Lynton than between Barn- 
staple and Lynton. The family names commonest at Lynton 
from A.D. 1500 downwards, such as Broomholm, are met 
with first at Porlock ; but Mr. K. J. King speaks of Exmoor 
as being for a long period a mark or frontier, and that 
Simonsbath, still pronounced Simmundsbath, preserves the 
name of Sigismund the Waelsing, one of the legendary 
heroes wlio were considered to preside over boundary 
wastes. The names attached to the churches in the neigh- 
bourliood are largely Celtic ones, as St. Culbone at Kitnor, 
or Culbone, St. Brendonus at Brendon, St. Martin at Martin- 
hoe, perhaps St. Petrock at Parracombe. Further up the 
coast we have St. Dubric at Porlock and St. Decuman at 
Watchet; lower down St. Brannock at Braunton and St. 
Nectan at Hartland. St. Mary and St. John, the dedica- 
tions of Lynton and Countisbury, are common to Celt and 
Saxon. 

Besides the names connected with Lyn, the combes — as 
generally in Devon — are very frequent in the parishes. 
We have Lyncombe, Ranscombe, Crosscombe, Metticombe, 
Shortacombe, Smallcombe, Ladycombe, Coscombe, Denni- 
combe, Ducombe, Kipscombe, Swannelcombe, Nutcombe, 
and Combe Park. Countisbury and Lynton, the parishes' 
names, both bear witness to the old Celtic inhabitants; 
yet the worthies and cotes, such as Kibsworthy, Thorn- 
worthy, Dogsworthy, and Holworthy, now Holiday, and 
numl)er8 of others in the surrounding parishes, show how 
the Saxon found it unenclosed and sparsely inhabited ; but 
place-names are somewhat difficidt in a place like Lynton, 
where they have been so much changed and altered; for 
instance, the steep from Lynton to the sea was Mer Hill, 
now it is called Mars Hill. 

I have already pointed out the large acreage of the 
tithing; but in the next two himdred years from the 
coming of the Saxon to North Devon, the population must 
have increased somewhat rapidly, for at the date of the 
survey for "Domesday" the population of Lynton and 
Countisbury was approximately 425. If this is compared 
with a population of 481 in Lynton and 120 in Countis- 
bury, total 601, in a.d. 1801, it would point to the con- 
* ns : — 



/^ 



THB PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY, 123 

(1) That the wars between the various Saxon kingdoms 
and Danish raids affected it very little, if at all. 

Although there are notices in the Saxon Chronicles of 
raids on the coasts of the Severn Sea, on the confines of 
Devon and Somerset, in a.d. 845 and 917, and that the site 
of the battle of Cynuit has been placed at Countisbury 
by members of the Somerset Archaeological Society, yet 
evidences for either Appledore or Cannington, according 
to Bishop Clifford, are much stronger; and the raid of 917, 
the invasion of the Lidwiccas, under Ohtor and Ehoald, like 
that of 988 and 997, was further east, affecting Watchet 
and Porlock. The landing at Lynmouth, with its steep 
cliffs to ascend to Lynton and the wild moors behind, would 
never have been inviting with Porlock and Ilfracombe east 
and west. 

(2) That the statement made by several writers "that 
Lynton is one of the few places of which it is recorded that 
William the Conqueror expelled the natives" is entirely 
erroneous. 

The origin of this statement would appear to be Risdon's 
words: "Lynton where, when William the Conqueror had 
expulsed the English, he bestowed these lands on William 
Chichure one of his captains, together with Crynton, Wolve- 
combe, Bocheland, and much more hereabouts." I think this 
should be read as referring to the former owners, Ailmer, 
Ailward Tochesone, and Earl Algar, who probably never 
resided at Lynton at all. The Conquest probably made 
little real difference to the parish ; the feudal lords changed, 
but as the difficulty of access would have prevented them 
from seeing much of the place or, perhaps, of coming to it 
at all, the inhabitants must have pursued the even tenor 
of their ways whoever was the nominal owner. I shall 
deal with the Norman lords of the manors in the 
section on the Manors, and so need not refer to them 
here. But it might be interesting to note that Exon 
"Domesday" enumerates the following stock as being at 
that date in the parishes: 137 cattle, 84 swine, 611 sheep, 
and 150 goats ; also 72 brood mares, probably the Exmoor 
ponies running half wild on the moor; in Brendon 104 
wild mares {equus indomitas) are mentioned. 

In these records we read of manors, lords, villeins, or 
farmers, bordars or cottagers, serfs and swineherds. The 
lord has his own demesne or separate land, the villeins 
their farms, the bordars their cottages and an acre or two, 
but nothing of the parish or the church. When was the 



124 THE PARISHES OF LTNTON AND COUNTISBUBT. 

parish formed and its boundaries defined ? When was the 
church built and endowed? Of this we have no documentary 
evidence, nor has scarce any parish in the county, for 
"Domesday" does not concern itself with these things; only 
occasionally does it mention churches or priests. The earliest 
notices we have of the parishes and rectors are in the 
ecclesiastical records and the Valor of Pope Nicholas in 
1291 : by then we find parishes regularly constituted and 
parochial clergy mentioned, and that there were rectors 
before the earliest of these records. We can, by means of 
feudal aids, carry down the history of the manors from the 
days of the Conquest to the present time, but the early 
history of our country parishes is entirely dark — we can 
only speak of the condition of the people and their habita- 
tions. The earliest church doubtless occupied the same site 
as the present; around it were a few detached cottages 
built on the bare earth; the walls were of cob, and the roof 
thatch ; half-way up there was a rude floor reached by a 
ladder, which was the general sleeping apartment for the 
household. Their food consisted of coarse bread, salt meat, 
stale fish, and very little variety of vegetable food, which 
predisposed them to scurvy and other diseases. Around 
every house were a few enclosed patches and herb gardens ; 
further out were the farms with houses a little bigger of 
the same class; the one assembly place and often storehouse 
for the whole parish was the nave of the church. 

The passing of the manors of Lynton and Countisbury 
into the hands of Ford Abbey may possibly have made 
some improvement, for the Cistercian Order did good service 
to England by the care it took to improve the breed of 
sheep and maintain the fineness of the wool. And the 
monks of Ford, who were Cistercians, would have exercised 
some local influence — although the earliest references I 
have show that for some time the manors were leased 
by the convent, and there is no means at present for stating 
accurately when it came into direct relations with the 
abbey. But at the time of the Valor Ecclesiasticus it was 
administered by a steward, Robert Store being then bailiff 
or steward of the manors of Lynton and Countisbury. 

But the conditions of the district were certainly favour- 
able for sheep-farming, both on account of its large open 
commons and the fact that from the time of the Conquest 
to the present day there has been no tramp of armies 
through it, or even near it, save a few scattered bands in 
Monmouth's rebellion and a few troopers sent after them. 



THK PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 125 

The Wars of the Boses and even the Civil Wars left it un- 
molested, although there was not always complete security 
from robbers with a wild neighbourhood around, to which 
the legends of the Doones and other sheep-stealers still 
bear witness ; but there are few districts in England which 
can show such an uneventful history, and I might say 
disappointing one, to unravel, for nearly every reference 
to Lynton in the national archives at the Kecord OfiBce 
proved on examination to refer to some other of the many 
Lyntons in England. But to its connexion with Ford 
Abbey it was indebted for the extension of its main 
industries, agriculture and fishing. The large open commons 
led to the grazing of large flocks and developed a certain 
amount of spinning of yarn, but no tucking or fulling mill 
appears in Lynton parish, though there was one at Countis- 
bury, and they are to be found in all the adjoining parishes. 
The only other agricultural industry was the raising of 
store stock, and sufficient cereals, mostly oats and rye, were 
grown for home consumption. The following inventory 
and valuation of the goods and chattels of a Lynton farmer 
in the early part of the seventeenth century will give 
a good view of their state and also be of interest as showing 
the prices of stock at that period and of what the house- 
hold goods of a moorland farmer consisted ; they are taken 
from the inventory and valuation attached to the will of 
John Knight, of Lynton, husbandman, proved 23 June, 1624. 

Apparel £3, 6 oxen £16, 3 Kine £7 3 young Bullocks £4 
8 yerlings £3 3, calves 20s., 1 Mare and 2 Colts £6 10s., 25 Sheep 
£5 7 Lambes 13s. 2 Pigges 16s. Com in the house 40s. Com in 
the ground £10 5 Brassen pans 46s. 8d. 2 Brasseu Crocks 20s., 
the Pewter vessels 20s. one cupboard 21s. The table board, form, 
and wainscote 10s. 5 coffers 10s. 4 Bedsteads 13s. 4d. 2 feather 
beds and two dust beds with their furnyture 40s. The wooden 
vessels 208. The bacon and beeafe 20s., one but and one peare 
of weeales and weane bodie 20s., all the ploughshipe 23s. 4d. 
the bees 13s. 4d., the Pultree 10s., all the husbandry workeinge 
tooles lOs., all other things left unprised or forgotten 68. 8d. 

The lease of the farm was valued as worth £20. 

From this we see that oxen were used for ploughing, and 
that a much larger proportion of land was cropped for com 
than at present; the presence of a but and wheels is 
interesting, as till the beginning of the nineteenth century 
packhorses and sledges were almost entirely used on most 
of the farms in the district. 



126 THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 

The fishery (mainly consisting of herrings and oysters) 
and the harbour were the points that differentiated Lynton 
from tlie surrounding parishes, and their history is to a 
great extent the history of the parish, and they, too, owed 
their development to their connexion with the Abbey of Ford, 
which owned the whole of the coastline in the two parishes 
of Lynton and Countisbury. The abbey had, or claimed to 
have, very extensive rights of fishery both by sea and land, 
for according to the statement made by the- Wichehalse 
family in commencing an action in the Court of the 
Exchequer : — 

The Abbots of Ford did possess and enjoy and did claim and 
entitle themselves to have the sole right of fishing within the 
river of Severne adjoining unto the coasts and shores of Lynton 
and Countisbury by such person or persons only to whom they 
granted licences. And this royalty has been always known to 
extend from Leymouth, being the most westward point of Lynton 
Mannor, there contiguous with Mattinhoe Lordshipp all along the 
shore and coast of Lynton, and thenceforth spreading to the 
middle current or thred of water, running or flowing in the 
River Severne and ebbing there vice versa, running up the said 
Channel soe far as to be opposite the most extream eastern part 
of Countisbury mannor and so far into the breadth of the 
channell from Countisbury shore or coast as to be half-way 
between Lynton and Countisbury aforesaid and Wales in direct 
opposition fronting the aforesaid premises. 

This was a claim going far beyond the old manorial one, 
which was for the shore so far seaward as a horsed knight 
could at low-water springs reach with his lance. Beyond 
this was the king's, and all the subjects of the king had 
a right to fish in the sea with hooks and nets and other 
movable appliances, but a right to exclude the public can 
be supported by immemorial usage — that is to say, of a 
grant by the Crown made before Magna Charta. And the 
Wichelialses claimed that the abbots of Ford, and they as 
their successors in their rights and franchises, had from 
time immemorial this royalty, or franchise, or liberty of 
fisliing in the river of Severn adjoining the shores and 
coasts of Lynton and Countisbury, which was a very valu- 
able one. For formerly it was a noted resort of herrings, 
and as such is mentioned by Westcote and others, and from 
a very early date there were on both the Lynton and 
Countisbury sides of Lynmouth or Leymouth, as it is always 
called in all old documents, cellars and curing-houses called 
the Eed-herring houses, all the buildings then existing at 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 127 

Lynmouth being of this class, the only access to them being 
by a zigzag path down the steep, which was called Mer 
Hill or the Sea Hill ; in later documents Merrill, and now 
by an absurd corruption Mars Hill. These Red-herring 
houses were close to the beach, and, unprotected by any sea- 
wall, were continually being washed away by storms and 
high tides. A great storm in 1607 swept away a whole 
row on the east or Countisbury side and changed the course 
of the river. The old bed and weir can still be seen to 
the west of present river-bed. At times the herrings for- 
sook the shore. A similar thing has happened at various parts 
of England, and everywhere local traditions give the same 
reason — either that the parson vexed the people for extra- 
ordinary tithe, and so the herrings left to avoid contentions, 
or that the herrings were so plentiful that they were 
used for manure, which so insulted the fish that they would 
not come again. During these times the curing-pits were 
suffered to fall into decay, and were repaired and rebuilt 
on the herrings returning. About A.D. 1750 most of these 
Eed-herring houses were sold by Mr. Short, then lord of 
the manor, and turned by the new owners into cottages. 
Since then there has been only one period in which the 
industry flourished, a.d. 1787 to 1797, and from that time 
— with the exception of two years, 1811 and 1823 — there 
have been no visits of large shoals. The export of Lim- 
mouth oysters, however, continued up to the beginning of 
the last century. 

The herring fishery and curing industry led to a certain 
amount of trade with Bristol and Scotland, and the settle- 
ment of a Scotch family or two at Lynmouth — the Fer- 
gusons for one — and to attempts to make the mouth of 
the stream into a kind of haven. In the Exchequer Bill 
I quoted from before it is stated that 

The Lords of the lordships of Lynton and Countisbury did 
always for the security of the vessells to ride, anchor, more, and 
keel in the harbour formed by Leymouth river set up posts of 
great substance, to which posts such barks and vessels are moored 
and tyed with ropes to save them from the ground sea very 
rowleing and dangerous there. Without which posts being on both 
sides it is impossible that any vessell lying in there should escape 
from being wrecked. 

But after the departure of the Wichehalse family from 
Lynton the haven or harbour fell into disrepair. The disputes 
and litigation between Wichehalse and Short, the mortgagee. 



128 THS PARISHES OV LTHTOH AND OODHTISBDKI. 

went on for nearly twenty yeacs. Jcim Wkhehalae had 
no money to spend on it, and Short, of coarae, would not 
till his position was seonre; and so what repairs were neces- 
sary had to be done by the fishermen and herring carers 
themselves; and acting on the advice of Mr. Popham, of 
East Lyn, in whose hands the trade principally was, they 
refused to pay any more for fishery licences, and spent the 
money on repairing the mooring posts. On the lawsuits 
terminating in favour of Mr. Short, he was of opinion that 
enough had been spent in law over Lynton Manor without 
throwing more into the sea ; and so matters drifted on till 
A.D. 1740, when the Eev. Edward Nicholls was appointed 
curate - in - charge. He had married the widow of Mr. 
Richard Knight, of West Lyn, and soon became the leading 
man in parish affairs. He took up the cause of the fisher- 
men, and represented their case so strongly that the lord 
of the manor ordered his receipts from fishery, keelage, and 
mowage to be spent on the repairs. The fishermen aoknow- 
leered their obligations to Mr. Nicholls by subscribing for 
a silver cup to be presented to him, but after 1750 the 
receipts fell to such small amounts by the failure of the 
fishery as to be entirely insufficient, and the mariners and 
fishers had to repair as best they could. But the dangers 
to the quay were not only seawards, but also landward. 
The gradients on the stream are very steep, and after heavy 
rains it comes down at times a foaming torrent, rolling 
great boulders along, and destroying all in its course. Such 
a fresh in 1769 did great destruction. The seamen got up 
a petition to the lord, which was signed by nearly every 
inhabitant, entitled : — 

"The humble petition of the seamen of limmouth on 
behalf of themselves and other inhabitants of Linton and 
Limmouth." It stated that — 

The river at Limouth by the late rain rose to such a degree 
as was never known by the memory of any man now living, which 
brought down great rocks of several ton each and choked up 
the harbour, broke one boat to pieces and was driven to sea, and 
another boat was driven on the rocks, which cost upward of 
£12 in repairing, and had all the rest been there some of them 
must have been broken to pieces, etc. . . . and also carried away 
the foundation under the Kay on that side against the river six 
foot down and ninety feet long, and some places two feet under 
the Kay, which stands now in great danger of falling. And had 
it not been for a new Kay adjoining to the head of the other 
of seventy feet long and four feet high made last year with large 



THE PABISHES OF LYNTON AND OOUNTISBURY. 129 

rocks and at the entire expense and labour of the seamen the 
Kay head would have actually been down, as the river forced 
itself that way, and the rest must soon have followed after. And 
as the place is now so ruinous the seamen and other families must 
entirely leave it, and then it will all soon be washed away if not 
immediately repaired, which by a moderate computation will 
amount to £40. 

Therefore the said petitioners humbly desire your honour to 
advance what your goodness shall think proper, as they will 
advance and do what lieth in their power, which may be 
advantage to you and your posterity and your petitioners as 
in duty bound will ever pray. 

Dated Linton, 8th day of August, 1770. 

This petition was signed by twenty-seven inhabitants, 
twenty-two in their own handwriting — one put his letters 
and four made their mark. It was entrusted to Mr. 
Nicholls, who forwarded it to Mr. Short endorsed with 
bis strongest recommendations for its consideration. 

Mr. Short replied that his steward, Mr. Hill, was there 
last summer but heul no complaint and heard nothing of 
land floods, and as for the great stones, they would prevent 
any further mischief. At last the lord agreed to repair the 
foundations on the condition that the seamen would give 
their time to wait on the masons and do all the labourers' 
work in the repairs ; and on their undertaking to do so the 
under-steward, Mr. William Litson, had orders to get it 
done as cheaply as possible. The work was completed 
in 1772, Mr. Short telling Litson that if there were any 
extras the seamen must pay for them. In the end the 
seamen paid three guineas extras and also bought and 
set up new mooring posts. It was not, however, very lasting, 
as in 1775 it was in as bad a state as ever. At this juncture 
a Mr. William Lock had settled in the parish and was 
engaged in the shipping business at the haven, and he took 
the matter in hand, did the most necessary repairs at his 
own expense, and called in an expert to survey the harbour 
works, who advised that an outlay of £200 would be 
necessary to put it in proper repair. The report was sent 
to the lord, who promised to give six guineas if the seamen 
and fishers would expend eighteen guineas of their own 
besides. This unsatisfactory reply brought the Kev. Edward 
Nicholls to the subject again. He represented to Mr. 
Short that if a tolerable quay was made many more sails 
of trading vessels and boats would come into the harbour, 
and thereby add to his interest if he would keep proper 

VOL. XXXVIII. I 



130 THE PABI8HBS OF LTKTON AND COUNnSBURT. 

posts and moorings, and that the poor fishermen had been 
obliged to be at the expense of it out of their own pockets 
as well as pay keelage, at which they greatly grumbled, and 
that six guineas would go very little way towards £200 
expenditure ; but if Mr. Short would contribute fairly they 
would raise the rest by a collection in all the neighbouring 
seaports. 

Tlie lord of the manor was however of opinion that 
Limmoutli harbour was a place rather like the horse- 
leech s daughters, always crying **Give, give/' and that he 
gi>t very little out of it and had little interest, as he had 
loni; ago dis}x>$ed of most of the estates. Long n^otiations 
tMuU\l in what remained of the manor and the manor rights 
InnUiX sold to Mr. Lock, by whom the quay was ultimately 
repaired. 

Tlie lawsuit between his grandson, Mr. Bobert Lock Roe, 
and Mr. Green as to the right to levy quay dues in A.D. 
1870 is too recent to give particulars of, but it is interesting 
to note that the judges in giving judgment against Mr. 
Robert Lock Roe said they did so wit£ great reluctance, 
but they could not override the evidence of a Record OflBce 
expert, Mr. Stuart Moore, who showed that while in the 
Assize Roll of the Pleas held before Solomon de Roffa in A.D. 
1281 the Abbot of Ford, while claiming certain franchises 
and rights, made no claim of quay dues, and that as such 
claims are recorded in other cases the presumption was that 
the Abbot of Ford made no such claim or had no such 
right or franchise. This, I think, is of great interest as 
showing that researches into the records of the past, which 
certain uninterested people may describe as obsolete rubbish, 
have a commercial value in these present days, and I would 
also note that if Mr. Roe's advisers had taken equal care to 
search the records of the past the case might possibly have 
ended dififerently, as there are papers at the Record Office, 
some of which I have quoted in these pages, bearing on the 
subject which seem to favour the lord of the manor's 
claim. 

The trade from the small haven has never been of any 
importance since the decay of the fishery. The export of 
oysters continued for some time; in A.D. 1801 they were 
still sent to Bristol and were sold at 2s. per 100. The only 
other exports were bark and oats, and the imports were 
coal and limestone, which was burnt near the sea ; but the 
difficulty of conveying goods from the quay up the steep 
only conveyance being packhorses — was an 



r\ 




'S 

^ 






o 
z 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 131 

insuperable bar to any development, nor did the making of 
a wheel-track in the last century lead to any improvement, 
as the gradients were so steep. I have dealt at some length 
with the fishery and haven, for the history of it is almost 
the history of Lynton, for lying as it did far oft* from the 
main roads none of the great upheavals which figure so 
largely in the history of other districts touched it. 

The suppression of the monasteries, so much of the 
parishes being abbey lands, might have been expected to 
have made great differences, but here it was scarcely felt, 
for the abbey property was administered not by one of the 
monks, but by a layman, one John Chidley, a Dorsetshire 
gentleman, who held the office of bailiff of the manors of 
Lynton, Countisbury, and Thorncombe, which he obtained 
through his relative Abbot Thomas Chard, alias Tybbs, 
Bishop of Solubria. And on the abbey being taken into 
the king's hands, Chidley obtained letters patent from the 
Crown to hold the office for his life, and held it during the 
reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth, till 
it was sold to Nicholas Wichehalse. 

The political and ecclesiastical storms of the Civil Wars 
passed it by. The nearest approach to it of any troops was 
the marching over Exmoor from Dunster to Barnstaple. 
The clergy were men of obscure note, at least so their 
successor said, and the livings so poor that their poverty 
was their protection. And there are no delinquents 
mentioned, though as I have shown in the account of the 
Wichehalse family it was the influence of the squire's son, 
John Wichehalse, the Parliamentary Commissioner, which 
was its protection. And so Lynton lived its quiet life, and 
after the brief episode of a resident squire, from A.D. 1628 
to 1686, it sank back to a little country village, without 
a squire, rector, or vicar, or scarce a visitor for another 
hundred years. Even if one came, there was no accommoda- 
tion of any kind. When the lord of the manor or his 
steward wished to visit his estate the only house able to 
accommodate them was a new one built by the curate, the 
Rev. Robert Triggs, and by a clause in the lease the owner 
had to find lodging and victual for the lord, his steward, 
servants, and horses. Its awakening was caused by the 
French Revolution. The shutting of the Continent for a 
long period to the tourists led them to seek for fresh 
pastures in the unknown parts of their native country, and 
in that period Lynton may be said to have been discovered 
by the general public; before, its existence and beauties 

I2 



132 THK PARISHB8 OF LTITTON AND COUMTISBUST. 

had only been known to a few literati and adventurous 
spirits. Among the pioneers were the Marchioness of 
Bute and Mr. Coutts the banker; they found scarcely 
any accommodation. The only hostelry, kept by John 
Litson, " At the Sign of the Crown," as the records of the 
parish styled it when the vestry adjourned there in 
A.D. 1790, was small and insuflacient. It is to a Mr. William 
Litson, son of Mr. William Litson, schoolmaster, that Lynton 
really owes its position as a tourists' resort. An enterprising 
man, he saw an opening in the advent of the visitor. Accord- 
ingly he furnished cottages for the visitors, who in those days 
came not for the day or the week, but for months ; and in 
1807 he opened what was the beginning of the now famous 
Valley of Rocks Hotel, on the site of the present Globe 
Hotel. And soon the visitors, attracted by the romantic 
scenery, began to build for themselves ; cottages and bunga- 
lows sprang up ; and another hotel, " The Castle," was bmlt 
by Mr. Colley, maltster, of Barnstaple, and the first Guide to 
Lynton made its appearance. It was a very modest sheet 
of three pages, printed at Barnstaple, and written by John 
Davis, giving directions to visitors of what were the chief 
objects of interest, their distances, and the means of getting 
at them. They were the Valley of Eocks, Mr. Clarke's 
grounds at Ley Farm, Mrs. Sandford's Terrace, the west 
valley, the east valley — less picturesque than the west, but 
more sublime — up to the meeting of the waters described 
as somewhat inaccessible. Ponies or donkeys were the only 
means of travelling, except on foot, there being even at that 
date no wheels. Since Lynton started on its career as a 
tourists' and visitors' resort its rise has been steady and con- 
sistent. A rate of the parish in 1773 produced £1 13s., in 
1865 the rateable value was £4927, and in 1905 £11,803. 

The items of the rate of 1773 will be of interest in these 
days as showing the items on each tenement : — 







8, 


d. 


Rev. Mr. Knight 


for Higher TenS West Lyn 1 


2 


If 


Lower „ 1 


1 


)* 


N. Stock . 


10 


)i 


Berry's Tenement 




2 


)} 


Barbrook Mill 




5 


Rev. J. Pine 


East Lyn . 


1 


4 


John Lock 


Ashwells 




H 


William Lock 


S. Sparhanger 




2 


it 


East Dean . 




8 


If 


Latham's Tenement 




4i 



THE PAKISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 



133 



William Lock Minnj Gloee 

„ Vellacotts 

New Mill . 
Lessee of Glebe and Tithes . 
Occupier of E. Lyn Lower Tenement 

„ Shortacombe 

„ East Ilkerton . 

„ Great Willanger 
Philip Squire, Furzehill 
David Hill, Berry's and Cook's . 
T. Jones, Crosscombe . 
J. Hooper, Linton Town 

„ Great Stock 
R. and J. Delbridge, W. Dean 
Jas. Lean, pt. E. Dean 
D. Jones and J. Lean, Lash Close 
J. Punchard, N. Furzehill . 
W. Keal, Griffith's 
Do veil and Lock, Ilkerton . 
Occupier of Crocombe's Tenement 
R. Vellacott, Sparh anger) 

„ Ratsbury / 

Occupier of Six Acre . 

„ Coffins Heanton 
R. Hooper, Barham 
R Ward, Groves Ten*. 
„ Thomworthy. 
Crabriel Keal, Combe Park . 
Occupier, Ley .... 
William Squire, West Ilkerton 
Thomas Jones, E. Ilkerton . 

„ Lower Bullen 

R. Vellacott, Ilkerton . 
Occupier, Little Willanger . 
Letheby, Linton Town 
W. VeUacott, Linton Town . 
W. Litson, Limouth and Linton Town 
J. Litson, Linton Town 
W. Hooper, Linton Town . 
W. Richards, Linton Town . 
W. Hooper, Oliver's . 
H. Vellacott, Higher Bullen. 



f . d. 



2* 

n 

3 

1 4 

2 

1 1 

lOf 

8 

6i 
9 
4 
8 
6 
3 
4 
10 
1 
6 

n 

1 lU 

2 o' 

H 

8" 

10 

6 

1 8 

1 4 

7 

1 

6 

3 

ii 

3 
1 
2 
2 
2 
1 



Of the population of Lynton and Countisbury combined 
in 1060 I have already given an estimate, and there are 
no means of estimating it again till we come to the Subsidy 
Bolls. The earliest of these I have been able to find con* 



134 



THB PARISHES OF LTNTON AND COUNTISBUBY. 



taining lists of names in these parishes is that of 
6 Edward III (a.d. 1330), when the following names 
appear. It includes Lynton and Countisbury. 



William Coffyn 


12 


Roger atte Combe . 


18 


Henry Leagh . 


18 


John Fouke 


4 


Walter de Lynton 


40 


William le Soper 


5 


Richard Machun 


H 


Adam Kyng . 


8 


John de Ashdene 


14 


Roger Compyng 


8 


Roger de Bryhttesworth 


14 


Thomas atte Mill . 


8 


William de Legh 


15 


Peter Fouke . 


12 


Richard Kr 


15 


Philip Cardour 


10 


Richard Kempe 


. 18 

• 1 • i 


Henry atte Mill 

l^ ^j^ __i 


10 



It will be noted in this list that surnames are only partly 
fixed: while we have Coffyn, Kempe, and King there are 
in several cases the places of abode, as atte Mill, Ley, the 
combe, Ashdene, and Bryghttesworth, and also occupations 
le Soper, Cardour. The subsidy does not, however, go down 
low enough to be able to estimate the population from it. 

The other existing early rolls with names are those of 
24 Edward III, 13 Henry IV, 15 Henry VII, 5 Henry VIII, 
34 Henry VIII : the last of these, which gives twenty-nine 
names for Lynton and sixteen for Countisbury, goes down 
to the smallest occupier of land, and forms a fair 
basis for estimating the population. If we allow an average 
of one unassessed household or labourer for each farm it 
will give an estimated population of 290 for Lynton and 
160 for Countisbury in A.D. 1543. The names appearing 
in this list are : — 





LYNTON. 




John Berry, of Six Acre 


10 John Bromeholme sr. 


. 10 


John Baker 


10 John Bromeholme jr. 


4 


Robert Baylie . 


. 10 


John Cloman, miller 


2 


David Knight de Dene 


. 10 


William Thome 


18 


Thomas Score . 


3 


Thomas Clerk jr. 


1 


Roger Shelford 


16 


John Roke 


2 


Thomas Berry . 


2 


David Roke 


2 


John Berry 


1 


David Dyer 


12 


John Crocombe 


1 


John Dyer 


4 


John Cloman 9r. 


1 


John Dyer jr. . 


. 10 


John Score de Ljmton 


1 


John Cloman de Ilkerton 


1 


David Knight sr. 


12 


David Cloman . 


1 


Roger Knight . 


10 


John Bury 


1 


John Dyer de Line . 


1 


Thomas Bond . 


. 10 


David Chelecombe . 


1 







THE FABISHES OF LTNTON AND COUNTISBUBT. 



135 



COUNTISBURY. 




4 


John Mogerige 
John Holle worthy de 
Ashton 


1 


! 2 


Johnna Holleworthy 
David Holleworthy . 
John Szoley . 
John Rawell 


2 

. 3 

1 


1 


David Rawyle . 


. 2 



Richard Frye . 
David Frye 
Robert Frye 
John Parkyn sr. 
John Parkyn jr. 
David Ward sr. 
John Ward sr. 
John Ward jr. . 
David Moggeridge 

Most of these names are those of families that were 
resident in the parish down till the last century. 

Later rolls with names are in existence for 1551, 1571, 
1592, 1622, an undated one temp. Charles I, and 1640. I 
have transcribed all of these, but as the period is covered 
by the registers it is unnecessary to insert them. 

The population since 1801 shows a steady increase, the 
only drop — a small one — being in 1861; the largest increase 
1901. The figures are : — 



1801 . 


Lynton 481 ... 


Countisbury 120 


1811 . 


„ 671 .. 


113 


1821 . 


„ 632 .. 


118 


1831 . 


„ 792 .. 


187 


1841 . 


„ 1027 .. 


185 


1851 . 


„ 1059 .. 


174 


1861 . 


„ 1035 .. 


176 


1871 . 


„ 1170 .. 


209 


1881 . 


„ 1213 .. 


184 


1891 . 


„ 1235 .. 


233 


1901 . 


„ 1641 .. 


279 



If the census were taken in August the total would be 
nearly 5000. 

The greatest change that has been made in the last 
century is by the enclosure of the commons between 1850 
and 1860. It gave rise to protracted litigation owing to 
conflicting interests, the details of which, however, it is 
unnecessary to enter into. Under the award 33 acres 2 
roods 34 perches in the Valley of Kocks were allotted as 
a recreation ground for the parishioners, and are happily 
still in a wild state and unenclosed. But the approach 
to Lynton from Barnstaple has been completely altered. 
Up till 1850, after leaving Parracombe, the road passed 
over a great stretch of gorse and heather, without any 
fence on either side till the top of Lydiate Lane or Dean 



136 THK PABISHES OF LTNTON AND OOmmBBUBT. 

was reached. Now the moor can only be seen in the 
distance, the heather has disappeared, aU has been fenced 
in, and wide roads have taken the place of the packhorse 
tracks of the last century. Even as late as 1859 the Lord 
Chief Justice of England, who was in that summer a visitor 
at Lynton, wrote to the local authorities to complain of the 
dangerous and almost impassable state of some of the roads 
(Vestry Minutes, 1859). 

The method by which the annual cattle fair at Lynbridge 
was first established in 1854 is, I think, of interest as 
showing the. strange blend of superstitious customs and 
affectation for legal forms that existed among the inhabitants 
at that time. 

There is an idea which is prevalent still in many villages 
that a legal fair can be established by means of performii^ 
the burlesque ceremony known as " To ride Skimmington," 
I need not describe the ceremony, as it is so well known — 
but if any desire information I would refer them to Butler's 
"Hudibras" and HalliwelL Accordingly this ceremony was 
performed, and the following account was drawn up and 
preserved in the "Fair Book with List of Tolls" by the 
organizers. 

MANOR OF LYNTON IN THE CO. OF DEVON. 

June '26th, 185 Jf. 

Whereas the inhabitants of Lynton in the County of Devon 
did send on the tenth day of June, one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty-four, public notice to the inhabitants of the parish 
of Countisbury in the Co. of Devon that they intended to ride 
Skibbiton \sic\ on Monday, June 12th, 1854, and that they 
would bring, and nail, and leave, the Ram's horns in the parish of 
Countisbury aforesaid for the purpose of establishing an annual 
cattle fair in the parish of Lynton aforesaid. And the inhabit- 
ants of Lynton did ride Skibbiton on Monday, June 12th, 1854, 
and having carried the horns and having nailed and left the horns 
in the parish of Countisbury in the Co. of Devon without let or 
hindrance, and having sent notice to the churchwardens of the 
parish of Countisbury on the nineteenth day of June, 1854, that 
they should bring the Ram's horns and nail and leave the same in 
the parish of Countisbury on Monday, June 26th, 1854, for the 
purpose of holding and establishing an annual cattle fair in the 
parish of Lynton in the Co. of Devon, and the inhabitants of 
Countisbury having received the horns without let or hindrance, 
a Cattle Fair was held at Lynbridge on the said Manor of Lynton 
on Monday, June 26th, 1854. 



THS PABISHXS OF LTI^TON AND COUKTISBUBT. 137 

Tolls were collected at this fair and handed over to the 
lord of the manor for the purpose of providing stalls and 
pens at the fair, and a notice of the fair, to be held hence- 
forth annually on 16 August, was advertised in a local 
paper by the steward of the manor, since which time it has 
been regularly held. 

The greatest alterations and improvements in Lynton 
itself have been made in the last forty years, since the 
Local Board was first formed in 1866, under the Local 
Government Act of 1858. In the same year a company 
was formed to bring a supply of pure water into the 
villages from the West Lyn (the work was completed in 
1869 at a cost of about £2500). This undertaking was 
transferred to the Local Board in 1893 for a fixed rental. 
In 1894 the Local Board gave place to the Urban District 
Council, which is now the governing authority for the 
parishes of Lynton and Countisbury, and in the same year 
Petty Sessions were first held in the parish. In 1895 the 
Bill was passed under which the long-hoped-for railway 
between Barnstaple and Lynton was constructed ; it was 
opened on 11 May, 1898. Communication between Lynton 
and Lynmouth by the Cliff Railway had anticipated this, it 
being opened on 7 April, 1890. 

In 1900 a volunteer corps was started, and in August of 
the same year the new Town Hall and Municipal Buildings, 
the gift of Sir George Newnes, were opened. A new Market 
House and new schools in 1901, we may say, completes the 
equipment of the modem watering-place which now lays 
itself out as a popular visitors' and tourists' resort. 



THE MANORS. 
THEIR EXTENT, DESCENT, AND CUSTOMS. 

The parishes of Lynton and Countisbury consist of the 
following ancient manors : — 

(i) Lynton. 

(ii) Incrinton or Woolhanger. 
(iii) Lyn. 
(iv) Heanton. 
(v) Countisbury, 
and Fursehill, and part of Crossoombe detached. 



138 THE PAfilSHBS OF LTNTON AND CX)X7NTISBnBT. 



L MANOR OF LYNTON. 
(a) EXTENT AND DESCENT. 

The manor of Lynton extended over the whole of the 
western side of the parish, excepting what lay within the 
manor of Heanton and Crosscombe. Its boundaries were 
the sea on the north from the East Ljn Biver to the stream 
that divides Martinhoe from Lynton at Leymouth; from 
there by a line running nearly south having Heanton on 
the west to a point where the three parishes of Martinhoe, 
Parracombe, and Lynton. meet, formerly called Red Hoar 
Thorn ; thence down the stream called Venus Water to the 
West Lyn, and following the West Lyn to its junction with 
East Lyn, and from there following the East Lyn to the sea; 
part of Stock also was a detached member of the manor, 
and probably Fursehill also up to the time the Tracies held 
the manor. The first owner we know of is Ailward 
Tochesone ; by William I it was granted to William Capra, 
brother of Ralph de Pomeraia. The notice of it in Exon 
" Domesday '* is : — 

William has a manor called Lintona which Ailward Tochesone 
held on the day on which King Edward was alive and dead, and 
with this manor was added formerly another called Incrintona 
which Algar held and these are held by William for one manor, 
and they rendered geld for one hide. This can be ploughed 
by twelve ploughs, of it William has in demesne half a hide and 
five ploughs, and the villeins have a hide and seven ploughs. 
There William has 13 villeins and one bordar and 12 serfs, 
58 head of cattle, and 22 swine, and 200 sheep, and 75 goats, 
and 72 brood mares, and wood 7 furlongs, and pasture 2 leugas in 
length and half a leuga in breadth, and Lintona is worth by the 
year £4, and Incrintona £3, and Lintona was worth twenty 
shillings, and Incrintona fifteen shillings when he received 
them. 

From this William Capra, also called William Chiere, 
Cherebridge, Cheriton, and Cherriford are stated to have 
taken their names; but the names are certainly of older 
date, as Cheriton under form of Cereton appears in 
" Domesday," 

William Capra's manors would seem to have been 
escheated to the Crown, and Lynton and Countisbury to 
have been granted to a Tracy. Much confusion has arisen 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 139 

from there being two distinct families of this name, both of 
which were connected with North Devon, who are often 
confounded. The better-known family in North Devon is 
that of Tracy, Baron of Barnstaple, descended from Judhael, 
of Totnes. The other family, who held the honour of 
Braneys or Brahancis, were descended from a William de 
Tracy, a natural son of Henry I. This William de Tracy 
left a daughter Grace, who married William de Sudely, who 
assumed the name of Tracy ; their daughter Eva married a 
William Courtney, who also took the name of Tracy, and it 
was their son, Henry de Tracy, who either in the first or 
tenth year of King John granted the manors of Countisbury 
and Lynton with the service of Fursehill to the church 
of St. Mary of Ford and the monks there serving God in 
pure and perpetual alms, commonly known as Ford Abbey, 
in the parish of Thomcombe, formerly part of the county 
of Devon (see Appendix No. 1). 

In this grant Henry de Tracy speaks of Lynton and the 
service of Fursehill having been held by the Abbey of Ford 
of the fee of Brahancis before he received his inheritance, 
from which it would appear that there was an older grant of 
Lynton and Fursehill only to Ford, which he then confirmed 
and added Countisbury to it. There is nothing to show 
either when the older grant was made or which Tracy first 
held Lynton and Countisbury, but as to the latter it was 
probably William de Tracy, the natural son of Henry I. 

The two manors continued in the possession of Ford 
Abbey till the dissolution of the monasteries, when they 
were taken into the king's hand by virtue of an Act of 
Parliament, 31 Henry VIII, cap. 18. 

The records of Ford Abbey, however, give us very little 
information as to the manors of Lynton and Countisbury 
during the long period of over three hundred years that 
they remained in its hand ; perhaps lying so remote as they 
did from their other possessions, they were frequently leased 
on lives instead of being managed by the abbey itself 
or their bailiff; and it is certain that they were so leased 
during part of this period to the Bonville family, as I find 
that Sir William Bonville, of Shute, who died 14 February, 
A.D. 1408, had a lease of the manors of Lynton and 
Countisbury from William, Abbot of Ford, for the term 
of his life and that of Alice his wife and the survivor of 
them, with remainder to William, son of John Bonville, 
paying yearly to the abbot and convent £6 13s. 4d. (see 
Appendix No. 4). The William Bonville mentioned who 



140 THE PARISHES OF LYKTON AND COUNTISBURr. 

had the remainder was the grandson of Sir William Bonville 
by his first wife Margaret, daughter of Sir William 
Damerell, his father, John Bonville, who married Elizabeth, 
Lady of Chewton, having died in A.D. 1396. 

The will of Sir William Bonville (died 1408) is given by 
Dr. Oliver in his " Ecclesiastical Antiquities." His grand- 
son, the remainder man, was known as Lord Bonville, and 
his son by his marriage with the Lady Elizabeth Harrington 
brought the neighbouring parish of Brendon to the Bonville 
family. 

I cannot identify the William, Abbot of Ford, who grants 
the lease of Lynton and Countisbury to Sir William 
Bonville, in either Olivers list of abbots or Brooking 
Eowe's of Cistercian houses, so it will probably add a new 
name to the list of abbots. 

The manors of Lynton and Countisbury remained in the 
hands of the Crown from 31 Henry VIII to 2 Elizabeth, 
when they were granted by letters patent, dated 5 July, to 
John Harrington and George Burden (see Appendix No. 9). 
This grant, which included various properties besides 
Lynton and Countisbury, was probably only a legal fiction, 
Harrington and Burden being agents for various parties, as 
two days after they conveyed the two manors of Lynton 
and Countisbury for a certain consideration, which is not 
mentioned, to Nicholas Wichehalse, of Barnstaple, merchant 
(see Appendices Nos. 9 and 10). The original conveyance 
Harrington and Burden to Wichehalse is now at the British 
Museum among the Harleian MSS. (No. 78, E. 51). 

Nicholas Wichehalse died 28 August, 12 Eliz., seized of 
this manor, Inq. p.m., 12 Eliz. (Appendix No. 11), and his 
son Nicholas was his heir, and had livery of seizin, 22 June, 
1588. Fine Eoll, 3 Eliz. (see Appendix No. 14). Nicholas 
Wichehalse, jun., died 30 October, 1605, Inq. p.m., 3 Jas. I 
(see Appendix No. 15), and his son Hugh Wichehalse 
succeeded him, and had livery of seizin. 22 February, 
7 Jas. I (see Appendix No. 16). Hugh Wichehalse died 
24 December, 1657, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 
John Wichehalse. I can find no record of any will of this 
Hugh Wichehalse, but the wills of this period are in great 
confusion. But it was perhaps transferred in his lifetime to 
John Wichehalse, as Lyncombe manor certainly was. John 
Wichehalse by his will dated 4 May, 1676 (see Appendix 
No. 17) left the manors to his eldest son, John Wichehalse 
(ii), when the manors of Lynton and Countisbury, which 
had been united since the Conquest, were divided, Countis- 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBUKY. 141 

bury being sold, the particulars of which I shall refer to 
under the head of Countisbury. John Wichehalse (ii) in 
1680 granted a lease of the manor for a term of one 
thousand years to John Levering, merchant, of Barnstaple 
(see Appendix No. 18). This lease was by the way of mort- 
gage a security for certain sums borrowed of his relative, 
John Levering, certain parts of the manor, including the resi- 
dence at Ley, being excepted. These reserved parts were 
also leased for a term of one thousand years on 29 October, 
1680 to Arthur Bull, of Shapwick, as security for other 
money; but Bull assigned his mortgage to John Levering 
on 29 March, 1682, and the lease of the entire manor came 
into the hands of Levering. John Levering died 19 April, 
1686, and by his will, dated 13 May, 1685, he left his wife 
Elizabeth sole executrix and trustee for his two daughters, 
Dorothy and Susanna, his two sons, John Levering and 
Venner Levering, having predeceased him. 

Elizabeth Levering married secondly Joseph Ballerj of 
Barnstaple, and the Levering property at Lynton, which 
consisted of the manors of Lynton and Countisbury, North 
Fursehill, Radespray or Eatsbury, a moiety of Sparhanger 
and East Ilkerton, was vested in trustees according to the 
directions of the will, the trustees being Eev. Henry Berry, 
of Torrington, Nicholas Marshall, of Taunton, John Nott, 
of Irishcombe, Eichard Parminter, of Barnstaple, and 
Anthony Paul, of Honyton, South Melton. They as trustees 
assigned the mortgage of the manor of Lynton, with the 
concurrence of John Wichehalse, to John Short, of Kenn, 
fuller, on 29 September, 1691, John Wichehalse at the 
same time borrowing a further sum of Short on the same 
security. The interest on the mortgage fell into arrears, 
and Short took legal proceedings to foreclose the mortgage, 
exhibiting a bill of complaint on 23 March, 1694, in Court 
of Chancery. Further particulars of these legal proceedings 
are given in the "Chancery Proceedings" for 1694, of 
which I have given a brief abstract (see Appendix No. 29). 

The case was referred to Dr. Edisbury, one of the masters 
of the Court, to decide as to what was due to John Short ; 
but after various delays and extensions of time to allow 
Wichehalse an opportimity for repayment the mortgage 
was absolutely foreclosed and the equity of redemption 
barred, the decree being exemplified on 9 November, 1697. 
John Wichehalse had allowed the time for redemption to 
pass, as his legal adviser, Thomas Northmore, advised him 
it would be best to let Short obtain judgment and then 



142 THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBUBY. 

make arrangements with him afterwards. But no terms 
could be come to, and Wichehalse was arranging for an 
appeal, in the midst of which he died in London in 1705, 
leaving by his will all his lands, manors, and tenements 
in Lynton, High Bickington, and South Molton to Mary 
his wife, her heirs and assigns. After some delay Mra 
Wichehalse exhibited a bill in Chancery in Hilary Term, 
1708, praying for an account of rents, etc., and to be let 
into the redemption, as the former decree had been obtained 
by collusion on a promise by Short to reconvey to Wiche- 
halse. The legal proceedings dragged on; they came first 
before Lord Chancellor Cowper and then before Lord 
Chancellor Harcourt, and the appeal was on 28 April, 1713, 
dismissed with costs. Mrs. Wichehalse then appealed to 
the House of Lords on 30 May, 1713, stating that North- 
more, her husband's solicitor, had colluded with Short in 
all proceedings, the estate being much more valuable than 
the sum due to Short. Witnesses were called in support 
of this, but the defendants argued that what the witnesses 
proved was nothing more than what had passed occasionally 
in conversation with third persons, and that no such parole 
evidence ought to be admitted. They also denied that 
Northmore had colluded or given any promise to reconvey, 
and on 9 July, 1713, the case was dismissed and the decree 
and other proceedings complained of affirmed ("Journal," 
Vol. XIX, p. 604). Thus the manor finally passed out of 
the hands of the Wichehalse family, and their connexion 
with Lynton ceased. 

It came into the hands of John Short, of Kenn, near Exeter, 
fuller, who however died within a year of the close of the 
litigation, and by his will, dated 8 January, 1714, and proved 
in Prerogative Court of Canterbury 3 July, 1715, he left the 
manor to his eldest son, John Short (ii). From him it 
passed by his will, dated 25 February, 1731, to Elizabeth 
his wife, and William Short his brother, in trust for his 
sons — John Short (iii), William Short, Samuel Short, and 
his daughter Elizabeth Short, who afterwards married 
Samuel Hunn. Samuel Short sold his part to his eldest 
brother, John Short, and on the death of Elizabeth Hunn 
her share passed to her husband, who sold it in 1767 to 
John Short, while William sold his share to George Short, 
of Exeter, in 1791. 

John Short (iii), by his will dated 14 March, 1779, proved 
22 May, 1784, left all his real and personal estate to his 
son, John Jeffery Short. 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 



143 



I have traced down the manor to the last Short who held 
it, but during the time it was in the hands of that family 
it was almost entirely dismembered. Most of the leases 
granted on the manor had been for ninety-nine years, if three 
lives mentioned should live so long, and by the Shorts these 
reversions for the remainder of their term of 1000 years 
were sold mostly to the leaseholders. In this manner in the 
years 1735 and 1736 the following estates were sold. 



Name. 
Ley and N. Ground 

Purchaser : 
Six Acre 

Purchaser : 
Part of Dean 

Purchaser : 
Part of Huxtables 

Purchaser : 
Part of Huxtables 

Purchaser : 
Part of Slees 

Purchaser : 
Part of Slees 

Purchaser : 
Virchils Tenement 

Purchaser : 
£llis Tenement 

Purchaser : 
Ludietts and Parrotts . 

Purchaser : 
Crocombes Tenement . 

Purchaser : 
Berry's Tenement 

Purchaser : 
Litson's Tenement 

Purchaser : 



Leaseholders. 
John Knight and David Bale 
"William Knight, of Lynton 
Peter Squire 

William Squire, of Lynton 
Richard Vellacott 
John Vellacott 
E. Pedlar and Peter Hooper 
Peter Hooper 

E. Pedler and Peter Hooper 
David Hill 
Peter Hooper 
Joan Hooper 
Anthony Holland 
Peter Hooper 
Edmund Pedlar 
David Hill 
Lancelot Ellis 
Joseph Fry, jr. 
William Hardy 
William Oliver 
John Crocombe 
Richard Crocombe, of Oare 
Walter Knight 
David Knight, mariner 
Anthony Litson 
William Litson 



Most of the Red-herring houses, cellars, and dwelling- 
houses were also sold at this period, the purchasers of 
which it is unnecessary to specify, and the remainder with 
all manorial rights, etc., were sold on 22 June, 1792, by 
John Jeffery Short and George Short to William Lock, 
of Countisbury. William Lock assigned his interests to 
John Lock in 1799, who by his will, 27 September, 1831, 
left his estates in trust for Mary his sister, who had married 



144 THB PARISHES OF LTNTON AND COUNTISBUfiT. 

Rev. Thomas Roe, Beotor of Brendon, and their children. 
Mrs. Roe died 4 September, 1855. The manor then 
descended to John Golwill Roe, the eldest son, who died 
22 November, 1858, his only daughter, Dora Medland Roe, 
having predeceased him, and it descended to his brother, 
Robert Roe, the present owner being his eldest daughter, 
Ada Medland Jeune, wife of Evan B. Jeune, Esq., son of 
late Right Rev. Francis Jeune, Lord Bishop of Peterborough. 

(b) RIGHTS AND COURTS OF THE MANOR OF LYNTON. 

The present tenure of the manor being a long leasehold, 
and it having come into possession of the present owner's 
predecessors in title through litigation, scarcely any of the 
records of the manor previous to Wichehalse's lease of 1680 
seem to have passed to the afterholders, and if they still 
exist, are probably in the possession of the representatives 
of Wichehalse; but owing to the manor having been for 
some time in the hands of the Crown, I have been able to 
supplement from the Ministers' accounts some of the 
references in the Hundred and Assize Rolls; the parts of 
which that refer to Lynton and Countisbury I have given 
in the Appendix (see Appendices Nos. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8). 
From these we learn that the Abbot of Ford claimed to have 
gallows, assize of bread and beer, tumbrel, view of frank- 
pledge and weyft in his manor of Lynton, and assize of 
bread and beer in his manor of Countisbury, and that he 
and all his predecessors had them before the memory of 
man ; also that the bailiff of the Earl of Cornwall for the 
Honour of Braneys distrained the men of the Abbey of 
Ford in Lynton to do suit to the earl's court, and to have 
peace took 88. and one ox, and that the jurors found that it 
was unjust and that no suit used to be done to the court of 
Braneys (Appendix No. 2). In the Taxation of Pope 
Nicholas, a.d. 1291, there is the following reference to 
Lynton and Countisbury manors : — 

Abbas de Ford fit apud Lynton et Contisbyri 
de redditu .... cxs 

The first name of a bailifif of the abbot for Lynton that 
I have met with is in the Valor Ecclesiasticus, Henry VIII, 
where Robert Store is mentioned as bailiff. The full 
entry is : — 

Verus et annuus valor omi possessionu tam spiial' q^m 
Temporal' Thome Abfeis Monas? ij Bte Maria de Ford pdca 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND GOUNTISBURY. 145 

in Jur' Monast ij pdci exaiat' & pbat' coram Johe Exon Ep3 
& al' comissionar' Diii Begis piioiat ad hoc assignat' nnio 
& anno pdcis. 

Possessiones Temp' al dci Abb' is 

Ljmton & Countysb'y. ^ , 

Val in toto redd' assie ibm p annu nlta- 1 

yjB viijd inde resolut' Eobto Store ballio > xiij iiij iij 
ibm p feed' suo p annu rem' clar' , J 

Et de p qnis' cur' & al' casual' ix" ij^ cu ) ^.^^ y 

fin tr ibdm coib3 annis xx . , j[ 

£xiiij xiij* v^ 

In succession to Robert Store, John Chidley, of Thorn- 
combe, gentleman, and Eobert Tybbes were appointed 
bailiffs and stewards of Lynton and Countisbury with other 
convent property. They both seem to have been relatives 
of Thomas Chard, the last abbot, who, with the title of 
Bishop of Solubria, was suffragan to Bishop Oldham, and 
to have with their families secured various other pickings 
through their relative. From grants made we discover that 
Bailiff Chidley had a wife Agnes, and two daughters AUce 
and Jane. I have been unable to discover any accounts 
of the manors while they belonged to Ford, but on their 
being taken into the hands of the Crown Chidley secured 
by letters patent his reappointment to his ofiBce for life 
with a salary of £3 13s. 4d. With the exception of the 
first year, his accounts during reigns of Henry VIII, 
Edward VI, Mary, and Elizabeth are to be found in the 
records of the Court of Augmentations and Ministers' 
accounts. I have given in the Appendix a selection of these 
(see Appendices Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8). 

From these we see there were free tenants in the manor 
of Lynton who paid 78. Id., and customary tenants in both 
Lynton and Countisbury ; also sums received for perquisites 
of courts, heriots, and farlieus. The later records of the 
manor show that the free tenants were four in number — 
one for the Glebe, who paid 4s., one for South Stock, who 
paid 5s., and two for Dean, each of whom paid Is. Id., as 
this amounts to lis. 2d., and in all the ministers' accounts 
it is only 7s. Id. It would seem as if the Glebe did not 
pay anything to the Crown. The customary tenants varied 
a great deal in number, as holdings were split up and the 
fishery varied. The grant of the manor to Harrington and 
Burden speaks of the rights enjoyed by the abbots, but 

VOL. XXXVIIL K 



146 THE PARISHES OF LTKTON AND OOUNTISBUBT. 

does not enumerate them ; but particulars of some of them 
can be gathered from an Exchequer Bill filed during one 
of the lawsuits of the last Wichehalse. It states that long 
before the letters patent and from time immemorial a 
certain royalty, or franchise, or liberty of fishing within 
the Eiver Severn adjoining to the several shores and coasts 
thereof did ever appertain and belong to the said manor, 
which fishery the abbots of Ford ever possessed and 
enjoyed, and entitled themselves to have the sole right of 
fishing therein; also they claimed a right to keelage for 
all barks and boats coming into Leymouth Harbour formed 
by Leymouth Eiver, which duty was at the rate of 2s. per 
time any vessel keeled, anchored, or moored within the 
harbour, one half being payable in respect of Lynton manor 
and one half in respect of Countisbury manor ; for smaller 
boats the rate of keelage was 4d. These rights were 
excepted from the sale by Wichehalse, of Countisbury 
manor, to Lovering in 1679. 

The courts of Lynton manor seem to have been regularly 
held from the earliest time to the present. The last steward 
under Wichehalse was Thomas Wichehalse, the first under 
Short was Lewis Gregory, the well-known town clerk of 
Barnstaple ; he also styles himself seneschal ; the first record 
of his court now existing is that of the Court Baron of 
1717. At this the homage sworn : " Coram Ludovicus 
Gregory seneschall ibm." were "Petrus Squire Johes Knight 
Johes Vellacott Petrus Hooper Johnes Crocombe David 
Eichards David Hill Willus Vellacott Walterus Knight 
Henricus Griffith Lancellott Ellis." 

The records of Gregory's court are very brief; he died 
29 June, 1733, and was succeeded by William Hill, an 
attorney from South Molten, who gives fuller particulars. 
At his court held 13 George II (1740), the free tenants 
were Thomas Dyer Stock, John Webber, of Dean, and 
the impropriators of the rectory; the conventionary 
tenants twenty in number, of whom nine appeared. 
John Knight was reeve of the manor from 1735 to 
1756, when William Litson was appointed, and continued 
in office many years, and was succeeded by another 
William Litson, whose successor was a third William 
Litson. 

At the Court Leet a jury were sworn, who made their 
presentments, which were very numerous, the main subjects 
being trespass, enclosures, throwing dirt near pot-water, 
nuisances, roads, cutting seaweed without licence, and 



THl PAKI8HKS OF LYNTON AND OOUNTISBURY. 147 

leaving turfs on the common to rot. The officers appointed 
were a constable and an ale-taster. 

The courts continue still to be held, though their busi- 
ness is merely formal, and an ale-taster is no longer 
appointed, though in these days of complaint as to the 
quality of beer and a demand for pure ale an assize of beer 
might be advantageous. During the period the manor was 
in the hands of the Short family, very exact accounts 
of everything were kept, and frequent surveys of the manor 
were made. The earliest is one in 1697; another was made 
at the end of the long litigation in 1715, the valuer being 
a Mr. Tomkins. There are also ones of 1739 and 1774, but 
as at the date of the last the manor had been almost entirely 
dismembered, it is of little interest. 

I have given that of 1717, as it gives full particulars 
of every holding on the manor, the date of lease, name of 
tenant, high rent and heriot, and also the estimated yearly 
value of every holding at that time. In this Ust BB stands 
for best beast (see pages 148, 149). 

The descents of the largest holdings on the manor of 
Ljmton after they were alienated are as follows : — 

Ley and North Grounds, 

1735, 14 February. Assigned by John Short to John 
Knight, of Ley, in trust for William Knight for residue of 
term of a thousand years. 

1760, 7 May, and 1763, 25 April. Agnes Knight mort- 
gages to Bennet and Snow. 

1784, 29 March, and 1785, 25 March. Mortgaged to 
John Clarke, and assigned to John Clarke with release 
of equity of redemption. 

Six Acre, 

1735, 17 March. Assigned by John Short to William 
Squire for residue of term of thousand years. And at 
same date mortgaged by Squire to Philip Eogers and 
others. 

1759. Mortgage, and ultimately estate passed to Miss 
Francis Incledon. 

1761. Paul Orchard, Esq., and others assigned to John 
Knight, who at same time mortgaged it to Charles Marshall. 

1769. Mary Knight assigned to John Thome. 
1769. 1772. Assignment of moieties to John Budd. 
1797. Budd assigned to John Clarke. 

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148 THE PASISHB OF LT3STQK AKD OOUXTIBBUXr. 



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THE PABISHIS OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 



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150 THE PABISHBS OF LTNTON AND OOUlHiaBUBT. 

Both Ley and North Grounds and Six Acre passed by sale 
from Clarke family to Mr. Charles Bailey in the year 1841, 
and are now in the possession of his son, Mr. C. F. Bailey, 
of Ley, Lynton. 



II. MANOR OF WOOLHANGEB. 
(a) BXTBNT AND DESCENT. 

The manor of Woolhanger or Willanger, as it was 
generally called till the last century, is practically identical 
with the " Domesday " manor of Incrinton. Incrinton is a 
variant of Ilkerton, a holding which formed the principal 
part of the manor; but later, as Ilkerton became much 
subdivided, the name of Willanger was given it from the 
then largest holding. It lies in the angle formed by the stream 
that comes down through Eanscombe to Cheribridge and the 
Fursehill stream to Cheribridge, though part of Sparhanger, 
which lies on the other side of Fursehill water, was also 
part of the manor. The members of it being Great 
Willanger, Little Willanger, East Ilkerton, West Ilkerton, 
Barham, High BuUen, Low Bullen, Thornworthy or Thorn- 
hay, Eadespray now Ratsbury, and Sparhanger. 

In the time of King Edward it was held as a separate 
manor by Algar, but on being given by William to William 
Capra it was annexed to Lynton manor, and the "Domesday" 
description of it will be found under the head of Lynton 
Manor. 

From William Capra it was escheated to the Crown. 
There is nothing to show as to whether it came with Lynton 
into the hands of Tracy or not, but it afterwards formed 
part of the Earl of Cornwall's honour of Braneys, being 
held under him by several free tenants. 

In " Testa de Neville " we find William Fauvel, Mauger 
de Sprang, and Marioth de Eadespree held ith knight's fee 
in Hiltington (i.e. Ilkerton), William Fauvel ^th knight's 
fee in Welonger. Sp'ang and Eadespree are names evidently 
taken from Sparhanger and Eadespray, and the name of 
the two largest members, Ilkerton and Willanger, both 
appear. 

In 1286 David de Furshill, Geoffery de Pyn, and 
William de Eadespraye held Jth knight's fee of the Earl of 
Cornwall of the honour of Braneys, and Geoffery de Pyn 
Jth knight's fee in Welhangre and Thorneworth of the 
Earl of Cornwall ("Feudal Aids," pp. 336, 337). In 1303 



THB PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 151 

Ralph Pyne held -^th knight's fee in Ilryngton (Ilkerton), 
T^th knight's fee in Welhangre, Ralph de ForshuU ^th 
knight's fee in Estilryngton and Westilryngton ("Feudal 
Aids," p. 36). In the inquisition p.m. (28 Edward I) of 
Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, the manor, under the name 
of Welhangre, is mentioned among the fees pertaining to 
the honour of Braneys. 

In 1346 Richard Lovering held yV^h fee in Estileryngton 
and Westileryngton, which Richard Forshill aforetime 
held, and it is part of the two fees for which John de 
Weston was charged ; William Fyn held ^^^th knight's fee in 
Ilcrynton, which Ralph Pyn before time held ("Feudal 
Aids," p. 417). 

Soon after this Ilkerton also came into the hands of the 
Pynes or Pyns ; they were the same family who afterwards 
held the manor of East Downe: a pedigree of them is 
given by Vivian and in the " Visitations of Devon," but it 
does not altogether agree with the names that appear as 
holding Woolhanger. 

In A.D. 1434 Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Richard 
Hankford, had one messuage and three ferlingates in 
Welhangre (Inq. p.m., 12 Henry VI, No. 40). 

In A.D. 1485 Edward, Prince of Wales, held ^th of a 
fee in Welhangre. 

In A.D. 1516 Thomas Pyne, who in Vivian's pedigree 
is stated to be second son of John Pyne, of Ham, in Corn- 
wall, settled 40 acres of land and pasture, 10 acres of 
meadow, and 100 acres of furze and heath in Willanger, 
as well as lands in Lyn, on Joan his wife. He had also 
in demesne two messuages, 40 acres of land and pasture, 
10 acres of meadow, and 200 acres of furze and heath in 
Thomworthy and Ilkerton (see Appendix No. 20). 

This Thomas Pyne died 2 February, 1523, and was 
succeeded by his eldest son, Augustus Pyne, who was 
twenty-one and more in 1526. From Augustus Pyne the 
manor passed to the elder branch; as in the Inq. p.m. of 
Nicholas Pyne, 14 April, 1575, it is stated that he held the 
manor of Wilhanger of the Queen as of her manor of 
Bradnych by the ith part of one knight's fee, and it was 
worth £3 15s. 10 Jd. (see Appendix No. 21). Philip Pyne, 
his grandson, then aged sixteen, was his heir; this Philip 
Pyne was buried at East Down 19 October, 1600 (see 
Appendix No. 22), his heir being Lewis Pyne, b, 1587, 
who died without issue in January, 1607-8 (Inq. p.m., 
6 Jas., No. 144), Edward, his brother, then a ward to the 



162 THE PABI8HBS OF LTKTON AKD 00UNTISBX7BY. 

king, being his heir. He died July, 1663, and the manor 
passed to his son Edward, buried 2 April, 1691 — ^will dated 
10 March, 1690-1, proved 17 June, 1692, P.C.C.— leaving 
the manor to his son Edward, buried 22 March, 1689 : this 
was the Pjme who married Dorothy Cofl&n. He was suc- 
ceeded by John Pyne, buried 21 February, 1769, whose son, 
John Pyne, and his trustees, James Eowe and Francis 
Bassett, sold on 10 October, 1772, the manor of Woolhanger 
to the Eev. Eichard Harding, of Marwood, who by his will 
dated 2 November, 1773, with various codicils of dates up 
to 1782, left the manor to his nephew Philip Harding, of 
Mount Sandford, Barnstaple, in trust for Philip Hardmg's 
two younger sons, John and Robert Harding, who were to 
hold it jointly (see Appendix No. 23). Robert Harding, 
the survivor, sold the manor in 1801 to Charles Pugsley, 
and in 1803 it was sold by Pugsley to Walter Lock, and 
by the Locks settled on Mrs. Roe and her children, and 
came by this settlement to Frances Gertrude, youngest 
daughter of Robert Roe, who married Sir Henry Palk- 
Carew, Bt., and it has recently been sold by them to a 
Mr. Slater. 

(6) OOURTB OP MANOR OF WOOLHANGEB. 

The Courts Baron of the manor of Woolhanger appear to 
have been regularly held from an early date, but rolls of 
the courts during the period it was held by the Pynes have 
either disappeared or are in Portledge archives. The earliest 
roll I have seen is that of 1775, when the manor had passed 
into the hands of Rev. Richard Harding, John Sydenham 
being the steward, and the following were sworn as the 
homage : Richard Richards, William Lock, Richard Hooper, 
John Jones, Hugh Vellacott, and William Curtis. It records 
heriots on East Ilkerton and Cherrybridge having been 
paid to the late lord, John Pyne, Esq. ; there were then four 
free tenants of the manor and twelve customary tenants ; 
also the lord of Lynton manor paid 2s. 6d. or a pound 
of pepper for tying his headweir to the lands belonging to 
the lord of the manor of Woolhanger. 

The names of the tenants and their holdings were : — 

Free Tenants, 

1. Samuel Musgrave, m.d. . . Rawles Tenement 

2. Richard Almsworthy . . . Sparhanger 

3. Edward Nicholls, clerk, andl ^ Tenement 
Richard Crocombe / ' ^^^^®® lenement 

4. Heirs of John Knight . . . Part of Lyne Wood 



THE PAKI8HES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 153 

Chistomary Tenants, 

1. Joseph Limebear, gent . Higher Wilhanger 

2. Richard Richards . . Lower Wilhanger 

3. Samuel Musgrave, m.d. . . . West Ilkerton 

4. Richard Crang .... East Ilkerton 

5. John Jones East Ilkerton 

6. Richard Hooper and Hugh Bale . Lower Barham 

7. Hugh Vellacott .... High Bullen 

8. John Jones ..... Lower Bullen 

9. Anne Courtis .... Cheribridge 

10. William Courtis .... Part of Lyne Wood 

11. Edward Nicholls, clerk, and) rpi i 
Richard Crocombe ] ' Thornbay 

12. Edward Pine, clerk . . . Broomholmes 

The presentments of the courts refer to encroachments, 
wastes, tenements out of repair, and as to what farlieus 
or heriots were due. The courts continued to be held down 
to quite recently and perambulations of the manor made, 
but the business was only formal. On the manors of 
Lynton, Woolhanger, and Lyn coming into the same hands 
a combined court of all three was held. 

Henry Drake was the last steward of the manor of 
Woolhanger when its court was held separately. 

Ilkerton was at an early date subdivided into several 
tenements, which were known by the names of the various 
holders for the time being, such as Crangs Ilkerton, Jones 
Ilkerton, etc. I am unable to give the dates of the dis- 
memberment of the manor, but from the Chancery Pro- 
ceedings of 30 Elizabeth (a.d. 1587) I find that William 
Morell and Elizabeth his wife were seized in their demesne 
as of fee as in the right of the said Elizabeth of a tenement 
in Estylkerton in the parish of Lynton, and of certain 
houses, lands, meadows, leasues, pastures, furze, and heath 
thereto belonging, and so seized had, by indenture dated 
6 September, 2 Edward VI (1549), granted them to John 
Clowman, weaver, James Morell, of Dulverton, and Christian 
Grenslade, of Luxborowe. 

About 1645 East Ilkerton and a moiety of Sparhanger, 
Radispray, and North Fursehill were the property of Adam 
Lugg, of Barnstaple, and were afterwards sold by him to 
John Levering, of Barnstaple, who by his will (he died 
1686) left them to his two surviving daughters Dorothy 
and Susanna, who married Samuel RoUe and Richard 
Acland, of Fremington, and from them descended to RoUes 



154 THB PARISHES OF LTNTOK AND GOUNTISBUBT. 

and Barbors, of Fremington, by whom they were sold in 
parcels, and by various purchases came about the year 1800 
into the possession of James Lean, tailor and draper, of 
Wiveliscombe, in the hands of whose descendants they now 
are. 

It is noticeable that both Sir William Pole tuid Bisdon 
locate the Ilkertons, Badispray, etc., as being in the parish 
of Parracombe, and owing to this they have often been 
treated of by successive writers as being in that parish. 
The county directories in their accounts of ancient estates 
still refer to them in their Parracombe section. 



III. MANOR OF LYN. 
(a) EXTENT AND DESCENT. 

The manor of Lyn comprised that portion of the parish 
of Lynton that lay between the East Lyn and Combe Park 
water on one side, and the West Lyn and Fursehill water 
on the other — with the exception of Fursehill, Sparhanger, 
and part of Stock and Hoar Oak. 

The manor was latterly divided into East and West Lyn. 
The notice of it in Exon " Domesday " is : — 

William has a manor called Line, which Algar held on the day 
on which King Edward was alive and dead, and it rendered geld 
for three virgates. These can be ploughed by seven ploughs. Of 
it William has in demesne one virgate and a half and two ploughs, 
and the villeins have one virgate and a half and five ploughs. 
There William has nine villeins and five bordars and five serfs 
and two swineherds, who render by the year twenty swine, and 
thirty-three head of cattle, and seven swine, and fifty sheep, and 
twenty goats, and one new mill, and a wood half a leuga in 
length and half a leuga in breadth, and it is worth by the year 
four pounds, and it was worth forty shillings when William 
received it. 

In 1243 (" Testa de Neville ") Cecilia de Lyn and Henry 
Lovet held Jth knight's fee in Lyn. The Hundred BoU 
1274 has a statement which has been copied by all successive 
writers, that Henry Lovet and Beginald de Lyn had assize 
of bread and beer in the manor of Lyn, likewise gallows by 
ancient tenure from the Conquest; but the Ex Placita 
cmd Quo Warranto Bolls state explicitly that they claimed 
no such right, but that it was Bichard de Beaumont who 



THB PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURT. 155 

had the right (see Appendix Nos. 2, 3), Lyn forming 
part of the honour of Braneys held by the Earl of Cornwall. 
Reginald de Lyn s part had in 1284 gone to Henry Lovet, 
who held all the ^th fee, another ^th fee in Lyn being held 
by Pyne. Galfridus de Pyn tenet quartam partem feodum 
in Lyn de Comite Cornubie et idem comes de Eege 
("F.A.," p. 335). HenricuB Lovet tenet quartam partem 
feodum in Lyn de comite Cornubie et idem comes de R^e 
("F.A.,"p. 336). 

In 1303 Walter Lovet held ^th fee in East and West Lyn, 
and Sparhanger and Ralph Pyne ^th fee in East and West 
Lyn ("F.A./'p. 361). 

In 1346 Lo vet's land had passed to Henry de Halles- 
worthy, and Ralph Pyne's to WilHam Pyne (" F.A.," p. 417). 
Dr. Cooper states that Hallesworthy's land passed to the 
Crown, in whose possession it continued until the reign 
of Charles, since which it has passed through the hands of 
Chichester and of Bassett, of Scoare and Umberleigh. 
This statement is a strange jumble, and probably arose from 
a confusion with the honour of Braneys, held by the Earl 
of Cornwall. Scoare was a person, not a place — a purchaser 
of land from Bassett, whose North Devon property came 
mainly from Beaumont's. 

It would seem that Hallesworthy's portion passed to 
Despencer, as in 1350 Hugh le Despencer and Elizabeth 
his wife, relict of Giles de Badlesmere, held Jth knight's 
fee in Lyn (Inq. p.m., 23 Edward III, No. 169), it being 
held under them by Guy de Brian, and attached to the 
manor of Chittlehampton. The heir of Hugh le Despencer 
was a minor. 

In 1380 this portion of Lyn was in the possession of 
John Beaumont. 

From this period the manor of Lyn remained for a long 
period in the hands of the two families of Beaumont 6uid 
Pyne. 

Pyne's portion remained in their hands till 1772, and its 
descent is that already given of the manor of Woolhanger. 
During the greater part of the seventeenth century it was 
held under them on a lease by the family of Popham, who 
resided at East Lyn ; on the expiration of this lease much 
of it was sold ott' in parts and parcels, and the remainder 
was sold in 1772 to the Rev. Richard Harding, of Marwood, 
who, by his will, left it to his great-nephew with a certain 
sum to repair the mansion house of East Lyn so as to fit 
it for a residence. From Harding it passed in 1803 into 



154 TEE PASSES rj§ ZXSTOS ASKI* ONrSIISBCBT. 

hsA hhTVjT^. cf Fr»3±2z;o::i, 17 whosi ihcy were sold in 
jAiT^lr. 4ii i Vj Tfcrio:!- p::rthasK eanie aconx the year 1800 
inVj T'-e po55e5£::ii of Janes Lean, tailor and draper, of 
WjveI:=5Co::-be in iLe La::i= :f whose iescendantB they now 

It is notioealk that lo:h Sir William Pole and Bisdon 
KxaUj the Ilkenons. Ea^iisp-ray. etc, as beii^ in the pariah 
of Parrauy>:iifA, and '.-win^ to this they have often been 
trt^at'.-'l of by succeafive writers as being in that parish. 
Tlio. r:/iurjty directories in their accounts of ancient estateB 
Htill refer to them in their Parracombe section. 



III. MANOR OF LYy. 
{a) EXTENT AND DESCENT. 

The laanor of Lyn comprised that portion of the parish 
of Lynloii that lay between the East Lyn and Combe Park 
water on one side, and the West Lyn and Fursehill water 
on the other — with the exception of Fursehill, Sparhanger, 
and purl of Stock and Hoar Oak. 

The manor was latterly divided into East and West Lyn. 
The notice of it in Exon ** Domesday " is : — 

William huH a manor called Line, which Algar held on the day 
on which Kin^ P^lward was alive and dead, and it rendered geld 
for thn^o virgatoH. These can be ploughed by seven ploughs. Of 
it William has in demesno one virgato and a half and twoploughfli 
aiul tlio villi'ins have one virgate and a half and five plougha 
Tlierv William has nine villeins and five boidais and five aezfB 
and twii swint'honla, who render by the year twenty swinei and 
thirtY-thi'i'o head of cuttle, and seven swine, and fifty sheep, and 
twenty goats, and one new mill, and a wood half a leuga in 
length ami lialf a leuga in hmulth, and it is worth by the yew 
four poumls, and it was worth forty shillings when William 
rtHvived it. 

In 124:5 (- Tost^ de Neville") Cecilia de Lyn asdH^iy^ 
liovot liold Jth knight's ft^ in Lvn. The Hundred KoU 
1274 has a statouieut whicli has iWn copied by all BUOoeaBi?e 
writers, that Hourv Lovet and Keginald de Lyn bad msmm 
of bitvivl and Un^r lu tlio manor of Lvn, likewise gallows bv 
anoiont tenure frvnu the Conqu^t; but the Ex PVv * 
and guo \\armuto KolU state expikiay thai they th 
uo auoh right, but that it was Kichani de Beattmo*^* ~ 




THE PABISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 157 

His widow Mathie remarried John Carew and died 10 Jiine, 
1491; being seized at her decease of Lyn and East Lyn, 
held of Thomas Pyne as of his manor of East Lyne by 
fealty for all manner of services (Inq. p.m., Henry VII, 
series III, Vol. VI, p. 88). 

The feudal lord at this time was Edward Earl of Warwick, 
as I find by an Inq. 13 November, 4 Henry VII, that 
Thomas Beaumont held the manor of Lyn of Edward Earl 
of Warwick, who is now in king's custody as of the honour 
of Gloucester by service of Jth of a knight's fee. 

On the death of Mathie Carew, Lyn passed quietly to 
Hugh Beaumont, who married Thomazine, daughter of 
Oliver Wise, and died 25 March, 1507 (Inq. p.m., 22 
Henry VII), leaving a daughter, Margaret, aged thirty, 
married to John Chichester, who succeeded to his estates. 
A claim was, however, put forward to them by John 
Bodrugan als Beaumont, claiming as the son William 
Beaumont. John Bassett, who had married Joan, whole 
sister in blood to Philip Beaumont, also laid claim imder 
the terms of Philip Beaumont's enfeoffment and wilL Amidst 
these three claimants long and protracted litigation arose. 
According to Sir William Pole, Bassett enlisted the services 
of Giles, Lord Daubeny, afterwards created Earl of Bridg- 
water, on his side, promising to hand over the greater part 
to Lord Daubeny if successful; and owing to Lord Dau- 
beny's efforts the suit was decided in Bassett's favour. 
Chichester to have Youlston and Sherwell, Bodrugan Gittis- 
ham, and Bassett the rest, on which Bassett gave the 
greater part to Lord Daubeny — which returned to Bassett 
on the death of the Earl of Bridgwater. The whole account, 
he says, is written in a fair book in the hands of Sir Eobert 
Bassett. According to legal documents, however, it appears 
that some of the Beaumont estates came into the hands of 
the Crown on accoimt of defective title, and by the Crown 
were granted to Edward, Duke of Somerset, and on his 
attainder to the Crown again. In the Patent EoUs, 3 and 4 
Philip and Mary, there is a record of a grant of some of 
them to James Bassett, Esq., including much of North 
Devon property, also of dealings with and grants of former 
Beaumont manors in the Patent Bolls, 7 Elizabeth, and in 
the records of a special commission dated 23 June, 1613, 
as to manors supposed to be escheated to the Crown on 
account of defective title that the late queen had granted 
to Arthur Bassett. 

This Arthur Bassett had issue, according to an inquisition 



158 THE PARISHES OF LTinX)N AND COUMTISBOBT. 

taken at Exeter 7 October, 1613, Eobert, Arthur, William, 
Francis, and John, besides daughters; and it states that 
Bobert, now a knight, and all his sons and daughters survive 
at Barnstaple. I am unable to find any mention of the 
manor of Lyn in any of the proceedings, but there is no 
doubt that the Beaumont portion of the manor descended 
to this Sir Robert Bassett and that he was seized of it in 
1630, and that in 1632 it was sold by him to John Knight 
the younger (see Appendix No. 24). 

In the deed conveying the property, it is described as 
lands in West Lyn, Metticombe, and Lynham. Thirty 
manors and other lands are said to have been sold by Sir 
Robert Bassett at this time to find money to pay the heavy 
fine he had incurred by his absurd pretensions to the 
crown. 

John Knight, the purchaser of West Lyn (for whom see 
section on Lynton Families), settled it on his son and heirs 
male, and it came with other portions of Lyn to his grand- 
son, John Knight, bom 1651, who by his will, dated 
24 January, 1732, conveyed it to John Richards, Rector 
of Kentisbury, and his kinsman, Richard Knight, in trust 
for his son, Richard Knight, and his heirs (see Appendix 
No. 25). From this Richard Knight it descended in direct 
line (see Knight pedigree) to Richard Knight, bom in 1788, 
who sold West Lyn to Mr. Charles Bailey, who resold it 
to Mr. Lean, various portions of the former Knight property 
having been previously sold out in parts and parcels. Part 
of Stock came in 1731 into the hands of a yeoman family 
named Dyer, of whom there are wills from 1601, and 
passed in succession through Ley, Spurrier, Forest, and 
Keal, the last named of whom sold it to the Roe family 
in 1850. Another part of Stock was, however, in the hancfa 
of the Knight family down to the last century. Shorta- 
combe, Combe Park, and Hillsford, formerly parts of Ljm 
manor, were about the year 1740 in the hands of another 
Knight family, distinct from the West Lyn one. There 
were so many of this name in the parishes of Lynton and 
Countisbury that it is most difiicult to distinguish them 
and unravel the tangle of the different branches. Mrs. 
Izett Knight, of Combe Park, sold it to the Rev. J. J. Scott, 
who should be remembered as the builder of the road from 
Lynmouth to Watersmeet. And from the Rev. J. J. Scott 
it passed to a Mr. Collard, who in 1858 sold it to Mr. 
Robert Roe, the father of the present owner. 

There is no record, as far as I am aware, of any separate 



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160 THB PABISHBS OF LTNTOK AND OOUNTISBUBT. 

manorial courts ever being held of Lyn. On portionB of 
East Lyn coming into the hcmds of the Lock family a court 
was held first with the Woolhanger Court 

BICHEORDIN. 

In " Domesday " there is a mention of a small holding 
called Bicheordin, held by Fulcoid imder William Capra, 
which is added to Line. Mr. Whale has su^ested this is 
Kibsworthy, the Eectory of Lynton Glebe, but the im- 
propriator of the glebe was a free tenant of the manor 
of Lynton. In " Testa de Neville " it appears as Bykeworth, 
and in 1286 as Bykeworthy. Mr. Whale's other sugges- 
tion of Bagworthy is more probable. 



IV. MANOR OF HKANTON. 

This lies at the extreme west of the parish, and is now 
more commonly known as Caffyn's Heanton, which is a 
corruption of CofiPyn's Heanton, the manor having been 
held for many years by various members of the Cofiyn 
family. The notice of it in Exon " Domesday " is : — 

Radulf has a manor called Hantona which Ulf held on the 
day on which King Edward was alive and dead, and it rendered 
geld for one virgate. This can be ploughed by three ploughs and 
Helgod holds it of Radulf. Of it Helgod has in demesne half a 
virgate and one ploupjh, and the villeins have half a viigate and 
one plough. There Helgod has 3 villeins and 2 serfs and 13 head 
of cattle and 8 swine and 50 sheep and 20 goats and 12 acres of 
wood and 30 acres of pasture, and it is worth by the year 37s., 
and it was worth 20s. when he received it. 

This would give an estimated acreage of 282 acres. The 
present acreage of Cofityn's Heanton is 212 acres 3 roods 
17 perches of enclosed land, 38 acres of wood, and 112 acres 
of common, so the manor may have originally included 
Crosscombe, which is partly in Martinhoe and partly in 
Lynton, 187 acres being in Lynton. 

Eadulf, who is mentioned in "Domesday" as holding 
Heanton, is better known as Ealph de Pomeroy, tmd the 
manor formed part of the honour of Berry. In A.D. 1243 
we find from " Testa de Neville " that it was held by Hugh 
Cofifyn. In the Hundred Roll of 1274 William Coflfyn is 
mentioned, and in 1284 this William Coffyn held two parts 
of half a knight's fee in Heanton Coffyn of Gilbert 
St. Albjm, and the same Gilbert held a third part of half 



.THE PAEI8HES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURT. 161 

a fee in La Worth Kynetete and La Brunctheochene, and 
the same Gilbert half a fee of Mauger St. Albyn and 
Mauger of the heirs of Henry de Pomeroy (" Feudal Aids." 
pp. 336-7). La Brunctheochene, mentioned in this extract, 
is, without doubt, Brendon or Bagworthy, as in the Per- 
ambulation of Exmoor, 26 Edward I, A.D. 1298, the Brendon 
district is called Bruntenesworthy. In A.D. 1303 Hugh 
Cofifyn held Jth fee in Heanton (" Feudal Aids,'' p. 367). In 
A.D. 1346 Eoger Crok held ^th fee in Heanton which Hugh 
Cofifyn aforetime held ("Feudal Aids," p. 417). In A.D. 
1380 John Beaumont and Joan his wife held half a carucate 
of land in Heanton Coffyn (luq. p.m., 3 Eichard II, No. 9). 
In A.D. 1428 Thomas Beaumoimd held Jth fee in Heanton 
which Roger Croke aforetime held (" Feudal Aids," p. 497). 

From these extracts we can trace that the manor was 
held under the Pomeroys, first by Cofifyns till about 1340, 
then by Eoger Crok, and after him by John Beaumont. 
This John Beaumont, who married Joan, daughter of John 
de Stockley, of San ton, and died 12 March, 1379-80, was 
the heir of Beaumonts by failure of the elder line : his son, 
William de Beaumont, who married Isabel, daughter of Sir 
John Willington, died in 1416, and was succeeded by his 
son, Sir Thomas Beaumont, mentioned in the "Feudal 
Aids " of 1428; he was born 1401 ; died 17 November, 1450. 
By his first marriage with Philippa Dinham he had two 
sons, William and Philip, and by his subsequent marriage 
with Alice, daughter of Hugh Stucley, of Afifeton, three 
sons, Thomas, Hugh, and John. The descent of Heanton 
Cofifyn through these various brothers is exactly similar 
to that of Lyn, and will be found under the head of that 
manor ; and I would note here that in the inquisition on 
the death of Mathie Carew it is stated that she held one 
hundred acres and a messuage in Cofifyn's Heanton, by gift 
and enfeofifment of Thomas Beaumont, held of Eichard 
Pomeroy, knight, as of the manor of Berry Pomeroy by 
fealty for all services. The manor of Heanton Cofifyn 
appears in the list of the lands that fell to Bassett as the 
result of the litigation (of which an account is given in the 
Descent of the Manor of Lyn), under the name of Heanton 
Foryn, and Sir William Pole mentions it under this name 
and says it descended from Beaumont to Bassett. 

Westcote (p. 251) wrongly places the manor in the parish 
of Coimtisbury, and says, "Coflftns Heanton ye land of 
Bassett, now of Scoare, who being a verderer of ye Forest 
hath thereby freely a lees heifer in ye forest." The name 

VOL. xxxvm. L 



162 THB PARISHES OF LYin:ON AND COUNnSBUBT. 

Score frequently appears in Lynton parish ; there is a will 
of John Score, of Lynton, 21 October, 1575. The possessor 
of CoflSns Heanton, of whom Westcote speaks, was probably 
the John Score who was sidesman of Lynton Church in 
1630, and it came into his hands by purchase at the time 
when a large number of the Bassett manors and lands were 
sold by Sir Robert Bassett to raise money to pay the heavy 
fine that was laid on him as the result of his absurd 
pretensions to the crown and throne in the reign of K^ing 
James I. 

I am unable to trace the exact descent from Score, but in 
1800 it was held by John Cutcliffe, in 1830 by Charles 
Cutcliffe, and in A.D. 1888 the Misses Cutclifife sold it to 
C. F. Bailey, Esq., of Ley, the present owner. Mr. Bailey 
tells me the deeds went back to the time of Queen Elizabeth, 
and would therefore have shown the descent from Bassett, 
but he did not know the whereabouts of the deeds, as he 
was called on to give them up to the solicitors of Miss 
Cutclifife on the plea that they also related to a small 
property at Combemartin not then sold. 

There are no records of any courts being held in this 
manor ; being small, it was probably annexed by Beaumonts 
to another. The present owner informed me that he had 
been under the impression that it formed part of Wiche- 
halse's manor of Lynton. 

V. CROSSCOMBE. 

This is a farm on the border of the parish, partly in 
Lynton and partly in Martinhoe — the acreage being 187 
acres in Lynton, 160 in Martinhoe — and was held as a 
reputed manor for many years by the family of Berry, who 
were a branch of the Berry family of Berrjmarbor. John 
Berry held it a.d. 1428, and various of the name appear as 
owners of it down to a.d. 1604, when it was held by a John 
Berry who married first a daughter of Anthony Kelly, 
Eector of North Tawton (1561-1603), and second Frances, 
daughter of Eoger Wikes, of North Wike, leaving no 
issue by either marriage. His brother, Eichard Berry, 
married in 1612, at Parracombe, Margaret, daughter of 
Nicholas Wichehalse, and left a son, Hugh Berry, so called 
after his great-grandfather, Hugh Acland, of Acland, who 
mentions him in his will. 

Westcote states that "Croscombe be Berrys, who after 
residing there several generations sold it to Chichester" 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 163 

— the seller was probably the John Berry married in 
1604, as an inquisition taken at Barnstaple, 22 August, 3 
Charles I, states that Sir Eobert Chichester, knight, was 
seized of Croscombe alias Welcombe, and that it had been 
settled by an indenture of a.d. 1624 (see Appendix No. 28). 
From Chichester it passed to Barbors, George Barbor 
being owner in a.d. 1800 ; from Barbors to Yeo; and William 
Arundell Yeo sold it in a.d. 1848 to Charles Bailey, the 
father of the present owner. The Barbor descent is given 
in the account of Countisbury manor. A small holding of 
Ealph de Pomeroy called Estandona has been placed by 
Mr. Whale in Lynton parish. "Domesday" states it was 
held by Algar the priest, T.R.E. ; there were there one villein, 
and thirty acres of pasture, and it was worth three shillings. 
After " Domesday " it disappears and was probably absorbed 
in another holding ; possibly it was Bonhill. 



VI. FURSBHILL. 

The first notice we have of this is in the EoUs of 1 John, 
A.D. 1199, when Henry de Tracy granted the service of the 
lands of Fursehill to the church of St. Mary of Forde. 

In " Testa de Neville " Richard de Fursehill held ^Vth of 
a fee in Fursehill. 

In A.D. 1286 Richard Thorger held ^j^th of a knight's fee 
in Fursehill of the Earl of Cornwall of the honour of 
Braneys (" Feudal Aids," p. 336). 

In A.D. 1303 Richard Thorger held i^th of a knight's fee 
in Fursehill and Stock (" Feudal Aids," p. 36). 

In A.D. 1346 Richard Levering held ^^^h of a knight's 
fee in Fursehill and Stock which Richard Thorger afore- 
time held ("Feudal Aids," p. 417). 

Later Fursehill became divided into two portions known 
as North Fursehill and South Fursehill. 

South Fursehill and part of Sparhanger came before 
A.D. 1390 into the hands of Walter Marwood, of Westcote, 
and were attached to that manor. North Fursehill and the 
other moiety of Sparhanger to Richard Pasmore. 

South Fursehill and the part of Sparhanger remained 
in the hands of the Marwood family, and formed part of 
the manor of Westcote; they passed by the marriage of 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter and coheiress of John ^Marwood, 
of Westcote, to John Chichester, of Hall, who held them 
as part of the manor of Westcots. The tenants of Furse- 
hill had to attend and do suit and service to the court 

l2 



IM THE PJLKZaHIS OT LTWrOS XSD OOC^mSBCTT. 

ci the manor oi Wes^kioce ijee Appendix Xo. 27). It 
Tir^sxAined m nbe hazL-is of nhe Chirfw^cer?. o< HaD, as part 
c*f the mAnor of Westeote MAr«rooii till the year A-Dl 1857, 

when it was aoH to Jlr. K*:cert Boe. 

Xorth FriraehilL ani the ocher moiety of Sparfaanger 
|i<wfte»i :hro^zh virioa^ hanis: in a»d looO chey bdon^ied 
to Lria^s, who ?H'jIi th^riL. :o John L^veriaz. merdiaiit, of 
Barrj»taple. A m.-irry »'.t :hese priperries was settled on 
the r.iArna;ze of hj; el ie*: iau^hrer Iv-n^thy with Samuel 
RoiL» in A.D. 1700: :he o:r.er ni-jiecy went to her sister. 
Savanna Loverln:?. who marrie-i in A.D. 17Ch) Richard 
AcLinI, of FreiAin^on. Rjth p>rr:on5 were afterwards 
sold to the Vellacotts. a family wh :• came in the early part 
of the -'leventeenth c-enturv from Combemartin to LTnton. 



VIL MANOR or C0L>T1SBUEY. 

The manor of Countisbury comprised the whole of the 
pari-»h of Countisbury. The notice of i: in Exon "' Domes- 
rlay " is :— 

William lias a manor called Contesberia, which Ailmer held on 
the rlay on which King E•lwa^l was alive an'l dead, and it rendered 
geld for half a hide. Thi^ can l»e ploughed by ten ploughs ; of it 
William ha.s in demesne one virgate and four ploughs and the 
villein-i have one virgate and six ploughs. Tht^re William has 
twelve villein.s. six Ir-rdars and fifteen serfs and one swineherd 
who render.^ ten swine by the year, and one jiackhorse and thirty- 
two hearl of cattle and twenty-four swine and three liundred sheep 
leH=5 tliirteen and twenty-five g'^ats and fifty acres of wood and two 
acres of nieadr>w, and pasture one leuga in length and one furlong 
in breadth, and it is worth by the year four pounds, and it was 
worth twenty shillings when he received it. 

The William mentioned is William Capra, who held the 
Lynton manors, and the history of Countisbury manor is 
80 much mixed up with Lynton manor that it is almost 
impossible to separate them. They were held together 
practically as one manor from the Conquest to the year 
A.D. 1G79, and till that date the descent of it may be seen 
in the section that treated of Lynton manor. 

By an indenture dated about 7th day of January, 1679, 
John Wichehalse did bargain, sell, and convey the manor 
of Countisbury to John Lovering, of Barnstaple, merchant, 
saving, however, and excepting out of this sale the Royalty 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURT. 165 

of fishing for Herrings in the sea thereto adjoining, and 
as far out into the river of Severne as middle thread or 
jUum aquae between Countisbury and the Welsh shore; 
€^80 excepting and saving the custom and Benefit of Keel- 
age in Leymouth Harbour, all which rights were reserved 
by the said John Wichehalse. The woods attached to certain 
tenements on Lynton manor were also excepted. 

On 31 January, 1679, John Levering conveyed to John 
Wichehalse, Mary his wife, and Mary his daughter, for the 
term of their lives a portion of the manor of Countisbury, 
consisting of East Leymouth with the Fishery there called 
Leymouth East Weare and a willey in the fresh water with 
sufficient frith and stakes to be taken in Countisbury Wood 
between the Great Tor and the East end of the sea 
Chamber, together with the Fishery in the Fresh water as 
far as the upper bridge and the Burning Gar. Two addi- 
tional lives, Grace Westcot and John Knight, were sub- 
sequently added to the lease by Levering. 

This portion was on 24 September, 1685, mortgaged to 
Jasper Radcliffe, of Exeter, and was by him transferred 
30 September, 1693, to John Short, who held the lease of 
the Lynton manor. At the expiration of this lease it 
reverted to Lovering's estate, but some of the rights con- 
nected with it, as well as certain manorial rights appertain- 
ing to the manor of Countisbury, would seem to be still 
vested in the representatives of the Wichehalses. 

The remaining portions of Countisbury manor passed at 
the death of John Levering (19 April, 1686), under the 
trusts of his will dated 13 May, 1685, to his two daughters, 
Dorothy and Susanna, his two sons, John Levering and 
Venner Levering, having predeceased him. Susanna married 
in 1699 Eichard Acland, of Fremington. By the marriage 
settlement, dated 20 May, 1699, Susanna agreed when she 
came of age to convey her moiety of Countisbury with her 
other lands, excepting the Dodderidge estates, to her intended 
husband for life, then for her own use for life, and then to 
trustees for one hundred years, to raise certain specified sums 
for their younger children in case there should be a son and 
heir. Gf this marriage there was issue a son, John, and 
three daughters, but Mrs. Acland neglected to carry out the 
terms of the settlement ; but after her husband's death she, 
on 15 February, 1741, conveyed her moiety to William 
Barbor and Charles Hill for a term of three hundred years, 
in trust for her use for life, then to her son, John Acland, 
and his heirs, with remainder to her three daughters, and 



166 THE PABISHBS OF LTNTON AND COUNTISBUBT. 

also by sale or mortgage to raise certain sums for her 
daughters* portions. 

This son, John Acland, succeeded at his mother's death, 
2 June, 1747, but was a lunatic and died intestate in April, 
1767, and the moiety of Countisbury fell to his sisters, 
Maria, a spinster ; Frances, married to Rev. Hugh Fortescue ; 
and the representative of Susanna, who had married William 
Barbor and predeceased him,hereldest son was William Barbor 
(ii), to whom the whole moiety fell ultimately on the death of 
his two aunts without issue, by their wills. William Barbor 
left no issue, and by his will dated 2 February, 1797, 
proved 20 June, 1801 (P.C.C), he left his lands to his only 
surviving brother, George Barbor, and at his death in 1817 
they descended to his only son, George Acland Barbor (27 
April, 1800). 

The Kolle moiety descended to Samuel EoUe, only son of 
Samuel Rolle and Dorothy Levering, who by his will left 
it to his cousin, Dennis Rolle, who sold all his Countisbury 
lands in parts and parcels chiefly to the occupying tenants. 
East Lynmouth being sold in 1759 to Peter Hooper, and 
the rest at various dates up to 1782. At the same period 
the trustees of Mrs. Acland leased the other moiety for the 
remainder of the term of three hundred years, so that 
every farm in the parish was held under the somewhat 
peculiar circumstance that an undivided moiety was free- 
hold, and the other moiety leasehold for three hundred 
years. George Acland Barber's reversionary rights to a 
moiety passed by his will, dated 15 October, 1830, proved 
27 August, 1839, to his cousin, William Arundell Yeo and 
his heirs, with remainder to Beaple Yeo, and were sold 
by W. A. Yeo, 19 June, 1848. to the Rev. W. S. Halliday. 

The following list of the principal holdings and their 
owners in 1790 and 1835 will show into whose hands the 
various farms passed (see opposite page). 

The commons, comprising about 1320 acres, are still 
undivided, and the portions of wood attached to the diflferent 
tenements in Lynton manor are about forty-four acres, in 
addition to that now held with East Lynmouth, about 
twenty-four acres. The brothers Lysons say there is now 
no manor of Countisbury, and no manorial courts appear to 
have been held since the division of the manor between the 
daughters of John Levering, though part of the manorial 
rights would seem to be in the hands of the heirs of 
Wichehalse, whoever they may be. The Rev. W. S. Halli- 
day, shortly after purchasing Coscombe, renamed it 



THB PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 



167 






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168 THS PABISHB8 OF LTITrON AND COUimSBUBT. 

Glenthome and erected a mansion for himself there, and 
made a drive nearly three miles in length from the road to 
the house, and since 1835 gradually bought up all the 
farms in the parish with the exception of East LynmoutlL 
The property was left by him to William Halliday Cosway, 
who thereupon took the surname of Halliday, and it is now 
in the possession of his daughters, one of whom is married 
to Mr. S. A. Sanders, Master of the Staghounds. 

There are in existence several surveys of the manor of 
Countisbury between 1700 and 1750, but I have not been 
able to have access to them, but I believe they are entitled 
" Surveys of the Manors of Lynton and Countisbury," a relic 
of the many ages when they formed one manor ; and they 
refer also to the lands in Lynton held by the descendants of 
John Lovering. I have given a pedigree of Barbor and 
Acland as the only families of interest connected with 
Countisbury, except the yeoman ones of Slocombe and 
Rawle. 



29 May, 1695 (BanisUple). 
liaibor, M.i).-— Petronel Pointz. 



iista]»le. Imr. 
y, 1718 (Harn- 



biir. 11 May, 172 
(Barnstaple). 



William Barbor= Elizabeth, 



. 26 March, 1701 tBarn- 
.le); bur. 21 Nov., 1767 
i-iistij)le). 



»or, M.B., 
tlchuinp- 
17 Feb., 
iple). 
1. 



daii. of George Wood Powell, 
of Kittisford, Somerset Mer- 
chant, bur. 2 Dec, 1780. 



iBarl 



John Barbor. Joan Huxtable= George Barbor, 
A captain in the barrister-at-law. 

Army ; died abroad bur. 29 March, 

without issue. 1788 (Barnstaple), 

2ud son. without issue. 

3rd son. 



3 Nov., 1788. 
if ary^ George Barbor =Jane, 



.CO, born 22 Nov., 
ton. 1765 ; baj>. 9 
Sept., 1756 
(Fremington); 
died 27 March, 
1817 (M.I. Fre- 
niington) ; bur. 
1 April, 1817 
(Fremington). 
4 th sun. 

o A eland Barbor, 

^hslilc, Fremiiigloii. 
April, 1800 (Barn- 
Will dated 15 Oct, 

roved 27 Aug., 1839. 

\ died 7 July, 1839. 



dau. of Gabriel Barnes. 
Alive in 1830. 



} 



<^ 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND 
COUNTISBURY. 11. 

FAMILY AND ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY, AND LOCAL LEGENDS. 

BY REV. J. P. CHANTER, M.A. 

(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



VI. 

FAMILY HISTORIES. 

I. THE WICHEHALSE FAMILY. 

Arms. — Per pale argent and sable, six crescents two and two, 
all countercharged. 

Crest. — A stag's head erased, per pale arg. and sa., charged on 
neck with two crescents, holding in its mouth an olive-branch 
slipped of Ist. 

One family stands out above all others in connexion with 
Lynton — that of Wichehalse — for around it all the legends 
and romances of the neighbourhood have gathered. The 
story of Jennifred, her father, Sir Edward Wichehalse, and 
her false lover. Lord Auberley, is to the present day gravely 
told with variations in " Murray's Handbook " and other 
guides to Lynton as part of its historical lore, and is asso- 
ciated in the minds of all visitors with Duty Point. Yet, 
sad to say, there never was a Jennifred or a Sir Edward 
Wichehalse. The story of her sad fate is but a perverted 
nineteenth-century rendering of the misfortunes that befell 
Mary Wichehalse, the only daughter of the last Wichehalse 
who was lord of Lynton manor. E. D. Blackmore, in 
"Loma Doone," introduces a Baron Hugh de Wichehalse 
and his son Mar wood. The former is, of course, Hugh 
Wichehalse, Esq., whose tomb may still be seen in Lynton 
Church; but though the Marwoods were connected with 
another branch of the family, there was never a Wichehalse 
named Marwood. Blackmore, in his account of them, 



170 THE PAKISHE8 OF LYNTON AND C0UNTI8BUBY. 

adapting the Rev. Matthew Mundy's rendering of the 
Wichehalse legends, says : — 

The first De Wichehalse had come from Holland, where he 
had been a great nobleman, being persecuted for his religion 
when the Spanish power was everything. He fled to England with 
all he could save, and bought large estates in Devonshire, where 
his descendants intermarried with Cotwells, Marwoods, Welshes, of 
Pylton, Walronds, and Chichester, of Hall. 

This paragraph is but an illustration of the mingling of 
fact and fiction which continually occurs in the fascinating 
pages of " Lorna Doone," for the alliances are to a certain 
extent correct, though mainly of other branches of the 
Wichehalse family. The alliances of the Lynton branch 
were with Welsh of Pylton, Acland, Pomeroy, Venner, and 
Chichester of Youlston ; but the Dutch descent is- entirely 
fiction, as also are the character and name of Marwood 
de Wichehalse. And where so much legendary lore has 
gathered round a family, in seeking to give an historical 
account of them it is very necessary to sift most carefully 
the chaff from the grain. I have in this account based 
everything on documentary evidence (some of which I have 
given in the Appendix), and what can be gathered from their 
letters, wills, and deeds, and if, with very imperfect materials, 
it is but bare skeletons which come before you — for I must 
leave my readers to clothe them with their own imaginative 
details — yet it is at least, as far as it goes, true and accurate ; 
and if neither exciting nor dramatic, I trust that some 
glamour of romance will still cling. For the story of this 
family is but the old, old one of rise and decay — a family 
springing from oblivion, first to be a gentle family, then a 
wealthy one, of riches amassed by care and industry, of 
noble alliances formed, an honoured position and name ; and 
then a gradual decline, a struggle to keep their heads high 
and then overwhelmed by misfortunes, a sinking out of 
sight and a total disappearance of the race and name ; and 
now — like Bonvilles, Ealeighs, and hosts of other honoured 
Devon names — they are only part of the old, old past, and a 
legend. 

The Wichehalses, then, were an old Devonshire family, 
springing and taking their name from a hamlet called 
Wych, on the south side of the parish of Chudleigh. The 
hamlet is said to have derived its name from a large 
wych, or whych elm that grew in its centre. The spelling 
of the family name has varied tremendously. There are 



THE PAKISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 171 

over twenty variations, but all medieval spelling was fear- 
fully and wonderfully done. The simplest form of it was 
Wichalls, which was largely used. The form Wichehalse, 
which I have adopted, is the one mainly used by the Lynton 
branch in their signatures. 

From Chudleigh they overflowed not merely to neigh- 
bouring parishes and Exeter, but in Elizabethan days all 
over the county. There was a Bennet Wichalse, bailift* of 
Exeter in a.d. 1440, and churchwarden of St. Petrock's in 
1443 and 1451 ; a Henry Wichehalse. also bailiff of Exeter 
and churchwarden in a.d. 1469. They are found at Chud- 
leigh and Ashcombe as far back as the registers go, and on 
to A.D. 1770 at Ashcombe. There are wills of a Bennet 
Wichehalse, of Hatherleigh, merchant, in A.D. 1682; of a 
Thomas Wichehalse, of Otterton, gentleman, in 1592 ; also 
of various Wichehalses at St. Mary Church and Powderham ; 
one of the family migrated to Lewisham, and founded a 
branch there which recorded a pedigree at a Kentish 
visitation. 

The earliest ancestor of the Lynton Wichehalses to whom 
we can go back with certainty is a Nicholas Wichehalse, of 
Chudleigh, who married first Alicia, daughter of a Peverell, 
by whom he had one daughter, and by a second wife, name 
unknown, a son, Nicholas Wichehalse, of Chudleigh. This 
Nicholas the Second died 14 December, 1552 (Inq. p.m., 
1 Mary, No. 18), leaving three sons — John, then aged 46, 
and who would therefore have been bom in 1506, married 
to Joan, co-heiress of Cotwell ; William, married to Ellen, 
daughter of Humphrey Walrond, and widow of Anthony 
Fortescue ; and Nicholas, to whom I shall refer later ; also 
two or three daughters. The inquisition gives no particulars 
of the younger children, but only mentions the son and 
heir. The ancestral property of Wych went to John, 
thence to his eldest son Eobert, and was taken by Robert's 
only daughter and child to Trevanion, of Caerhayes. 
William, the second son, also settled at Chudleigh, where 
his only son was buried in 1606 ; while Nicholas, the third 
son, following the custom of many younger sons of county 
families, moved to a town and entered a mercantile business. 
He settled at Barnstaple about A.D. 1530, and started in 
business in the woollen trade, at that time one of the most 
prosperous businesses in the west of England. Here his 
business brought him the acquaintance and friendship of 
the Salisburys, one of the leading merchant families at 
Barnstaple, who had taken for some years a leading part in 



172 THE PARISHES OP lYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 

the town affairs ; and after the death of Mr. Robert Salis- 
bury, in 1551, Nicholas Wichehalse, then a prosperous 
merchant, married the widow Mary, who was the only 
daughter of Eichard Welsh, of Pylton. By this marriage 
he not only acquired considerable property, but was also 
brought into relationship with the principal families in 
Barnstaple and its neighbourhood. These relationships are 
somewhat difficult to follow, as both Mrs. Wichehalse and 
her mother had married twice and had children by both 
marriages. It is best explained by the following pedigree : — 

John Dart=Katherine =Richar<i Welsh, 



of Barnstaple, 
merchant. 



Wm dated 27 Dec., 
1554; proved 28 
May, 1565. 



of Pylton. WiU dated 
24 Dec, 1550; proved 
29 April, 1551. 



I 1st. I 24 April, 1552. 

John Dart, Robert Salisbury= Mary Welsh ==Nichola8 Wichehalse 

of Barnstaple, bur. 9 Aug., 1551. 

Mayor in 1657, 1568. 

L 



I 1 I 

Dorothy. Joan. Katherine Salisbury, 

m. Philip Pyne, Esq., m. George Pyne, m. John Wichehalse, 

of Eastdowne. Mayor of Barnstaple, 1571. 

i 1586. i 



Joan Wichehalse. Nicholas Wichehalse. 

m. Robert Prowse, m. Margaret Acland. 
Mayor 1588, 4- 

M.P. 1584. 

From this it will be seen that many of his new relatives 
occupied important positions in the municipal life of the 
town, and were in a position to push him on; he was 
elected a capital burgess in 1556, appointed churchwarden 
in 1558, and became mayor in 1561, and in conjunction 
with his brother-in-law, John Dart, and his friend, Eobert 
Apley, he took up a mortgage of the manor of Barnstaple, 
with a view of getting possession of it for the corporation. 
His residence was in Crock Street, or Cross Street as it 
is now called, some of the houses in which still, with their 
carved fire-places, moulded ceilings, and oak panelling, 
bear witness to the prosperity and magnificence of the mer- 
chants of those days. His continued prosperity is shown by 
the extensive landed property he purchased in North Devon. 
Besides the manors of Lynton and Countisbury, he held the 



THB PARISHES OF LYXTON AKD COUNTISBURY. 173 

manor of Maydenford, Barnstaple, the Watermouth estate in 
Berrynarbor, Combe in Loxhore, Overfoldhay and Netherfold- 
hay in Parracombe, the Barton, and several other estates in 
Fremington and Bickington. 

His brother, John Wichehalse, the head of the family, 
had died in 1558, leaving six sons and three daughters, who 
became the care of their uncle at Barnstaple. Through his 
influence Robert, the eldest and heir of Wych, had married 
a North Devon heiress, Elinor, daughter of John Marwood, 
of Westcote. John Wichehalse, the youngest, entered the 
service of his uncle Nicholas, as also did a Nicholas Wiche- 
halse, but whether this was a nephew or a great-nephew I 
feel uncertain. 

By his marriage with Mary Salisbury, Nicholas Wiche- 
halse had two children, Joan, born in 1554, who married 
Robert Prowse, mayor and member of Parliament for the 
town ; and a son Nicholas, born some twelve years after his 
sister, shortly after which long-desired but long-deferred 
event the father died. In his will he left the care and 
wardship of his young son to his wife, and desired his 
nephew and servant, John Wichehalse, to marry his step- 
daughter, Katherine Salisbury (see Appendix No. 12). 

His only son, Nicholas Wichehalse, who in the ''Barn- 
staple Records " is styled " gentleman," and sometimes " the 
younger," to distinguish him from his cousin, the merchant, 
was brought up by his mother at Barnstaple, and was edu- 
cated first at the High School, Barnstaple, under Humphrey 
Jeffert, and afterwards at Exeter College, Oxford, where he 
matriculated at the age of fourteen, and soon afterwards set 
up housekeeping for himself in a house described as being on 
the Quay, Barnstaple. The result was that his studies did 
not progress very much, and soon after he was seventeen he 
left Oxford without taking any degree. 

The immediate cause of this was his mother's death, which 
terminated his wardship, as by her will she left him the 
wardship of his " })odye and lands," and constituted him her 
sole executor (see Appendix No. 13). In compliance with 
her request he handed over his establishment on the Quay 
to his sister and her husband, and himself took up his resi- 
dence in the family mansion in Crock Street, and at the early 
age of nineteen married Margaret, daughter of Hugh Acland, 
of Acland, by Mary, daughter of Thomas Monk, of Potheridge. 
His two cousins were both married men, living at Barn- 
staple. John Wichehalse had, in accordance with his 
uncle's wish, married Katherine Salisbury, the young 



174 THB PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 

Nicholas's half-sister, and had by her a family of seventeen 
children, several of whom died young, and none appear to 
have left any issue, while Nicholas Wichehalse, the mer- 
chant, carried on the business established by his uncle, 
though without his uncle's capital it had sunk to be more a 
retail one, such as would now be described as a woollen 
draper's. He had married Lettice, daughter of John Dea- 
mond, mayor of Barnstaple in 1561, 1566, and 1581. There 
appears to have been some dispute over this marriage, which 
is told in the minutes of a court held at Barnstaple 26 May, 
31 Eliz. (see " Barnstaple Eecords," Vol. I, page 48). How- 
ever, the marriage took place in 1582, the issue of which 
was a son Nicholas, who died an infant, and a daughter 
Lettice, who afterwards married Hugh Fortescue, a nephew 
of Sir Faithful Fortescue. This Nicholas Wichehalse, the 
merchant, died in A.D. 1607. The inventory of his goods is 
of some interest as showing of what the stock-in-trade and 
domestic furniture of a woollen draper of the period con- 
sisted : the following are a few selections from it, for it is 
somewhat lengthy to give in extenso. 

In the shop, among other goods, were 182 yd. of coloured 
bayes, priced at Is. 4d. the yard ; 49 yd. of kersey, at 28. 4d. 
a yard ; broadcloth, at 8s. a yard ; 14 yd. of ** coarse graie 
fifrize," at lid. a yard; certain bufifyns in remnants, worth 
£1. 9s. 4d. ; a piece of white bayes; also lace, silk, black 
velvet, ell broad taffeta, leaven taffeta, and five small boxes of 
marmalade. This last word is uncertain, but I can make it 
nothing else, though marmalade certainly seems out of place 
in such surroundings. 

Among his domestic furniture were two goblets or bowls 
of silver parcel gilt, a silver salt gilted, silver spoons, a stone 
cup bound and covered with silver gilt, a scriptorie, a table- 
board, a square board, six gilt cushions, six cushions of arras 
and six other cushions, spruce chests, little chests, a cipris 
chest, pewter, glass, etc. The chambers mentioned are 
" the Shope," the " hall howse," higher buttrie, two higher 
chambers, the chamber within, the hall, the kitchen, the 
lower buttrie, courtlages, and cellars, where there were forty- 
five bushels of salt valued at £3. 58., an iron beam, scales and 
weights, wool and yarn. 

Nicholas Wichehalse,E8q., on coming of age, obtained seizin 
of his property 22 June, 1588 (see Appendix No. 14). He 
resided entirely at Barnstaple, taking no part in public 
affairs. His life appears to have been that of the country 
gentleman of the times, his companions and friends the 



THB PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 175 

Aclands, Pynes, and Chichesters of the younger generation 
who dwelt around Barnstaple, joining in their pleasures 
and also involved in their quarrels. We find him in 1590 
presented at a court with Gregorie Chichester for drawing 
his dagger and making an assault on Arthur Champemon 
and hurting him in the thigh (Presentments 12 October, 
32 Eliz.). Perhaps this was at a carousal of the young 
gentlemen of the neighbourhood on the return of one of 
the reprisal ships with rich booty. The "Prudence," we 
know, came home this year with four great chests of gold 
worth £16,000, and other things of great value. Mr. 
Edward Chichester was wounded in the same brawl. 
Nicholas Wichehal^e sold his father's lands in Berrynarbor, 
Loxhore, and Parracombe, and purchased the manor of Lin- 
combe, in the parish of Ilfracombe, formerly part of the 
possessions of the Abbey of Dunkeswell. Five sons and 
three daughters were born to him, his wife dying at the 
birth of her youngest son, and in 1598 he enfeoffed all his 
lands to Hugh Acland, Esq., and Philip Pyne, Esq., in trust 
for his eldest son Hugh, with remainder to his other four 
sons, and died at his mansion in Crock Street, Barnstaple, 
on 31 October, 1603, at the age of thirty -eight (see Appendix 
No. 15). The registers of Barnstaple, however, do not 
record his burial 

Hugh Wichehalse, the eldest son, was just seventeen, and 
continued to reside at the family mansion in Crock Street, 
and on 1 February, 1613, married at Bickington Dorothy, 
daughter of Thomas Pomeroy, of Ilsington; the two next 
brothers died young; Eobert, the fourth son, entered the 
service of the Earl of Bath at Tawstock, where he remained 
during his life, marrying in 1625 Mrs. Elizabeth Coles, a 
lady attached to the same establishment; they are both 
mentioned in the EarFs will, and both were buried at 
Tawstock. Philip, the youngest, carried on a merchant's 
business at Barnstaple, residing at Pilton, where he married 
Mary Chaldon, by whom he had three children. 

Hugh Wichehalse, Esq., after his marriage, continued to 
reside at Barnstaple, where nine children were bom to him ; 
but in 1627 there was a rumour of the Plague drawing near 
the town again, and the fear of it drove most of the gentle 
families residing there to their country seats, but the 
Wichehalses had no residence on either of their manors, 
and Hugh, thinking it desirable to have another residence, 
both on account of the Plague and also of the party spirit 
which ran so high in his native town, which he felt very 



176 THE PARISHES OF LTNTON AND COUNnSBURT. 

averse to mixing with, decided to repair and enlarge the 
old grange farm at Ley in the manor of Lynton, as a place 
where he would be at safe distance from the Plague and 
free from the danger of infection, and in the summer of 
1628 decided to remove there with his wife and children. 
It was a difficult journey to make with small children, for in 
those days for part of the way there was no road, only a 
rough track over the moors; there was no possibility of 
wagons or wheels, the only conveyance was a string of 
pack-horses on which master, mistress, children, servants, 
baggage, furniture, and all had to be carried. Some of their 
Lynton retainers, including John Babb and Lancelot Ellis, 
had come over overnight, and in the early morning a start 
for Lynton was made after a long delay to get the packs 
and pillions all settled. Their way led them up to High 
Cross and then down to the north gate over Pilton Causeway, 
and then a long steady rise up to Sherwell, then down by 
Sherwell Church to the valley of the Yeo, which was 
crossed at Loxhore Cot, then up Loxhore Long Lane, and 
along the top of the hill for a mile or more till they came 
to Westland Pound and its little solitary inn lying in a 
hollow on the edge of the Black Moors, with the great wilds 
and solitudes of Exmoor beyond. Here a halt was made 
to refresh man and beast, for beyond it was a choice of 
tracks over furze and heath, one track leading down to the 
village of Parracombe, the other keeping to the high ground 
and joining the South mol ton track which led by Moles 
Chamber, Woodburrow, and Ilkerton Ridge into Lynton. 
The former was chosen as the nearest to Ley, and the long 
string of pack-horses being counted over, with a Lynton 
retainer as guide leading, a start was made again. About a 
mile and a half of moorland track brought them to the 
enclosures on the top of Parracombe Hill, and then down 
through the hamlet of Parracombe Mill, past the old forti- 
fications of Holwell, then called South Stock, with its in- 
scribed stone, and up and on open Exmoor once again, where 
a track led over Parracombe Common, Martinhoe Common, 
and Lynton Common to the top of the hill above Sixacre, 
Endown as it was called, whence Lydiates Lane led them 
down to the Denes, or Valley of Eocks as we call it, and 
down through it on to Ley, where many of the tenants 
were assembled to welcome the first squire to take up his 
abode among them. And so the Wichehalses came to Lynton, 
with which their name has ever since been associated. 
Ley was then not the present pile of walls and buildings. 




g 



1 















THE PAKISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 177 

with its gateway, which visitors, deceived by the name Ley 
Abbey which is sometimes given it, take to be the remains 
and ruins of an old abbey, though it dates back no further 
than 1850, but merely a farmhouse with gabled ends, a 
gabled long porch in the centre, inside of which were two 
loi^; benches fixed in the thickness of walls, such as is still 
to be seen in many parts of Devon, and covered with thatch. 
An addition with extra chambers had just been built, but 
poor it must have seemed after the Crock Street mansion 
with its fire-places and moulded ceilings. 

Lynton itself they found but a tiny village, lying in a 
little hollow between moor and sea : on the top of the hill 
to seaward was the church with west-end tower, nave, and 
chanoel ; below on the shore there were a few small cottages, 
sheds, and pits, where the herring -curing industry was 
carried on ; to the landward of the church a little alehouse, 
and down in the hollow the cottage where the curate Nicholas 
Morrice dwelt, with its small herb garden, and about eight 
or nine more cottages, each with several small enclosures and 
fields attached to them known by the names of the different 
occupiers' tenements ; one, a little bigger, was a small farm- 
house to which a larger acreage of land was attached known 
as the Home Tenement. Some idea of this old Lynton may be 
gathered from the views published in 1802 by T. H. Williams, 
of Plymouth. Further away on the moor side, nestling in 
the hollows on the sides of the combes, lay some larger 
farms in the midst of wild stretches of moorland, in some 
of which families of gentle blood were carrying on the 
agricultural industry. At East Lyn were the Pophams, who 
had come from Porlock; at Crosscombe, or Welcombe as 
they called it then, were Berrys, a branch of the Berry- 
narbor family, where Hugh Wichehalse's sister was living, 
being wife of Eichard Berry, who also had a farm at Parra- 
combe; at West Lyn were the yeoman family of Knight, 
then rising to some prominence in local affairs. In none of 
the neighbouring parishes was there a resident squire, but a 
raoe of yeomen was springing up as the manors were being 
gradually dismembered. 

Here Hugh Wichehalse lived the rest of his days a quiet 
and retired life with his family. Arthur, his eldest son, 
and two or three daughters, had died before he left Barn- 
staple, but three more were bom after he took up his 
residence at Ley. He took a deep interest in all parish 
affairs, serving the office of churchwarden in his turn, and 
interested himself also in Martinhoe, where he purchased 

VOL. xxxvra. M 



178 THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND GOUNnSBUBT. 

some lands, and where his youngest daughter Bridget was 
baptized in A.D. 1631. He seems to have been a gentle and 
amiable, yet learned man, and following the steps of his 
forefathers, a devoted son of the Chutch, and in the troub- 
lous times that were arising he was rejoiced to be able in 
the seclusion of Lynton to stand aloof from the party strife 
that was waxing so strong in his native town. His energies 
were devoted to the care and education of his younger 
children and the welfare of the poor on his estates, and to 
seeking amidst the rising troubles to preserve peace, friend- 
ship, and charity with all men. 

But if the squire stood aloof from politics, his eldest 
surviving son was of another mind. During his school-days 
at Barnstaple he had formed some strong friendships with 
boys whose parents were strong Parliamentarians, as the 
majority of the townsmen were ; and chafing at the dullness 
of country life, he betook himself to the half -shut-up house 
in Crock Street, and while there made the acquaintance of 
William Venner, of Hudscott, Chittlehampton, who was 
afterwards so strongly to influence his life. The Venners 
belonged to the militant section of the Puritan party, and 
were strong Independents, and through their influence John 
Wichehalse threw himself with zest into the struggles of 
the period, and became not only a militant Parliamentarian, 
but notorious as one of the chief persecutors of the malig- 
nants or loyalist clergy of North Devon. The influence was 
strengthened by the marriages of John Wichehalse in 1649 
to Mary, daughter of John Venner, of Eoborough, by Susan, 
stepdaughter of Eoger Fortescue, and of William Venner to 
Mrs. Wichehalse's sister, Elizabeth Venner. It would seem 
that Hugh Wichehalse on his son's marriage transferred his 
estates to him, or it may have possibly been done to 
escape being scheduled as a delinquent; but it is certain 
that the son was in possession of some of the estates before 
his father's death, as on 20 September, 1653, he sold the 
manor of Lincombe to John Cutcliffe, of Damage (Sir 
William Drake's " Devonshire Notes and Notelets "). This 
also may account for there being no will discoverable or 
administration of the goods of Hugh Wichehalse, who died 
on Christ-tide Eve, 1653, and was buried at Lynton. where a 
monument erected to his memory by his wife still speaks of 
his many virtues and the love borne to him by all. She 
survived him nearly nine years, and was also buried at 
Lynton. Of his children, Edward had died at Lynton in 
A.D. 1645 at the age of twenty-three; Robert settled at 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 179 

Glastonbury, where he married; Thomas acted as steward 
for his father, and afterwards for his brother, living at what 
was known as the Home Tenement, at Lynton, a life lease 
of it being settled on him on his marriage with Mary 
Smale, widow, of Chittlehampton. On retiring from his 
duties he went to Chittlehampton, where he died. Nicholas, 
the youngest son, was provided for by being settled at New 
Mill. This was the lord's mill, and, as every tenant on the 
estates was bound to grind there, it was a fairly prosperous 
afiTair. Here he brought up a family of seven children, was 
churchwarden of Lynton in a.d. 1678, and died in a.d. 1682. 
John Wichehalse, the eldest son and heir, already in posses- 
sion of some of the estates before his father's death, was, as 
I have said before, of another kind to his father. He had, 
while residing first at Roborough and afterwards at Dolton, 
become, in conjunction with his brother-in-law, the terror of 
the North Devon clergy. There was, however, no inter- 
ference with the Lynton clergy, perhaps out of respect to 
his father, though the Rev. John Browning, Vicar of Lynton 
in A.D. 1698, said it was " rather because the poverty of the 
living made it a less tempting prey for the greedy malice of 
the religious vultures of those times " (Walker MSS.). He 
had obtained the appointment of a commissioner for eject- 
ing "ignorant, scandalous, insufficient or negligent clergy 
and schoolmasters in the county of Devon," and by his 
activity in manufacturing cases of such soon became one of 
the most dreaded of this obnoxious commission. The Rev. 
T. Lewis, Rector of Chumleigh, writing of the sufiFerings of 
his predecessor. Rev. Christopher Baitson, says : " The then 
commissioners that Mr. Baitson most feared were Mr. 
Venner, of Chittlehampton; Mr. Witchalse, of Lynton; 
Mr. Hacche, of Saturley ; and Mr. Blackmore, of Buckland " 
(Walker MSS., Vol. II, p. 337). Another of the North 
Devon clergy, the Rev. George Westcott, Rector of Berry- 
narbor, to secure himself, proposed marriage to and was 
accepted by Grace Wichehalse, a younger sister of the 
Squire of Lynton, and married her at Berrynarbor 16 April, 
A.D. 1657. That this was the motive is shown by the 
following letter of Rev. Henry Chichester, which is, how- 
ever, unfortunately torn. The words in brackets are conjec- 
tural restorations : — 

My predecessor in the Rectory (of) Berrynarbor lying in 
Sher(well Deanery) within the Archdeaconry of B(arn8taple) was 
the Reverent Mr. George (Westcott) who was inducted in the 
year of (our Lord) 1630 and continued there untill (the year) 

m2 



180 THB PARISHES OF LTNTON AND C0X7NTI8BUB7. 

1675, when he departed this (life). I have been infonned by 
persons of (good) credite that he continued in his (living in) 
those troublesome times not w(ithstanding) his great loyalty, but 
that h(e was) threatened to be turned out a(nd for) the better to 
secure himself m(arried) Mrs. Grace Wicchalls of Linton (in this) 
county whose brother was (commissioner) under the Parliament 
and a (friend) by whose means and favour he (escaped) being 
sequestered (Walker MSS., Vol. Ill, p. 161). 

The Restoration, however, put a stop to his activity in this 
direction, and with somewhat diminished reputation and 
shrunken fortunes — ^for the estates now only consisted of 
Lynton and Countisbury manors, and some property at 
South Molton and High Bickington, inherited from the 
Venners — he came to Lynton in the autumn of A.D. 1662, 
his mother's death leaving Ley available as a residence. 
Here his two youngest children were bom, and his wife died 
a few weeks after the birth of her child Hugh. John 
Wichehalse married again within a year. His second wife 
was the very opposite of his first, being of a good Church and 
Royalist connexion, while the Venners were all strong Puri- 
tans; and freed from this influence the old Wichehalse 
Church and Royalist spirit seems to have revived in him. 
He contracted a friendship with Nicholas Dennis, of Barn- 
staple, one of the members for that town in the Restoration 
Parliament, son of the Thomas Dennis who had been captain 
of the Train Bands during Sir Allan Apsley's governorship, 
and one of the few Royalists then on the corporation, under 
whose advice he seems to have acted during the last ten 
years of his life, which were spent in quiet retirement at 
Lynton, where he died in a.d. 1676 at the age of fifty-six, 
leaving two sons and four surviving daughters, three of 
whom had married and settled in the neighbourhood. By 
his will he charged his estate with a somewhat considerable 
sum for his daughters, and left his South Molton property to 
his younger son Hugh (see Appendix No. 17). 

John Wichehalse, the eldest, who succeeded to the Lynton 
and Countisbury manors — with his stepmother's jointure 
and the legacies to his sisters charged on them — soon found 
himself in financial difficulties, which were increased by his 
marriage, the year after his father's death, to Mary, 
daughter of Sir John Chichester, Bart., of Youlston, for the 
young couple were somewhat extravagant, and finding life 
in the seclusion of Ley somewhat dull and tedious, had 
removed to Chard, in Somersetshire. In their troubles 
they applied to the squire's maternal relatives, the Venners, 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBUEY. 181 

and on their advice the manor of Countisbury was sold, 
7 January, 1679, to John Lovering, a Barnstaple merchant, 
who had married Elizabeth Venner, the only surviving 
child of Wichehalse's uncle, William Venner, and who was 
also related to Mr. Saunders, the first husband of Wiche- 
halse*s grandmother, Susan Venner. The short pedigree 
(on the next page) will explain best the various relation- 
ships, and also show the owners of Countisbury after Wiche- 
halse. 

By this sale the legacies were paid off, and to make some 
provision for a child, named Mary Wichehalse, just born to 
the young couple, John Lovering gave them a lease for their 
lives and that of the child of East Leymouth, and advised 
them to return to Lynton. After some negotiations they 
agreed to do this on Lovering lending them a sum of £450. 
As security for this Wichehalse gave Lovering a lease for one 
thousand years by way of mortgage of part of Lynton 
manor. Accordingly they returned to Lynton in a.d. 1681, 
where their eldest son John wets bom soon after their 
arrival. But before returning the Wichehalses mortgaged 
the other part of the manor to a Somersetshire gentleman. 
The Venners on hearing of this were greatly annoyed, but 
once more John Lovering stood their friend, and got the 
mortgage of the Ley portion of the manor assigned to him- 
self, and for the next three years things went on quietly, 
varied by the addition of three more sons to the young 
couple. But in 1685 the Monmouth rising took place. The 
Venners were all deeply interested, for they were strong 
Puritans. An Independent meeting was regularly held at 
Hudscott, William Venner's house, and a relative of the 
family, a Colonel Venner, was in command of a regiment of 
the Duke of Monmouth, in which Wade was major. Venner 
was wounded at Bridport, and Wade succeeded him in com-' 
mand ; but John Wichehalse's sympathies were entirely on 
the other side. After Sedgemoor, Wade, in company with 
Fergusson, a dissenting preacher, and a party of about 
twenty, had made their way down the coast from Bridg- 
water to Ilfracombe, where they seized a vessel, victualled 
her, and went up Channel with the intention of picking up 
Captain Hewling and others of their party, but being forced 
ashore by a frigate, they scattered, and secreted themselves 
in the woods around Lynton. On news of this reaching 
John Wichehalse, he armed several of his servants, and with 
them set out in search of the rebels. 

The story of the discovery of Wade at Brendon, his cap- 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBUEY. 183 

ture by Wichehalse, and how John Babb, Wichehalse's ser- 
vant, shot Wade as he was running away, is told at length 
in the State Papers and Harleian MSS., and as most of 
them have been printed in Dr. Cooper's book they need not 
be given here ; but a Lynton report, which I have taken 
from an MS. of about a.d. 1780, adds that another of the 
insurgents wa^ killed by Wichehalse's servants in Bonhill 
Wood, and that the body was quartered and the dififerent 
parts hung on a paled gate at the bottom of the wood across 
the road opposite Ley. This action of Wichehalse caused 
a certain amount of friction with his wealthy Puritan rela- 
tives, and to escape it he left Lynton once more and 
journeyed to London, hoping to advance his fortunes by the 
credit he expected to have gained by his action in the 
Monmouth rising. In the neighbourhood the blame was 
put on his servant, John Babb, who was said to have in- 
cited his master to kill every rebel they could find, and 
local tradition has it that the Babbs, who had been the 
favourite retainers at Ley, never prospered after. When 
their master left Lynton they moved to West Leymouth, 
as the modern Lynmouth was called then, and employed 
themselves in the herring - curing industry, which the 
cottagers said failed because Babb was engaged in it ; and 
years after his granddaughter, Ursula Babb, was pointed 
out as the last of the race with the curse on it, and as she 
was reported to possess the evil eye, became a great object 
of fear to all around. She afterwards married a wandering 
Dutch sailor, named Eichard Johnson, who soon fell over- 
board in a voyage between Lynton and Ilfracombe, and 
their only son John disappeared and was never heard of 
again. Old Ursula lived to a great age near the limekilns, 
and it was from her tales of the great family and their sad 
misfortunes that all the local legends in connexion with the 
Wichehalse family arose, her tales forming the basis of the 
stories and Lynton legends collected by the Kev. M. Mundy 
which were printed in " Cooper's Guide." 

In A.D. 1686 John Lovering, who had been such a good 
friend to the Wichehalses, died, and their means were still 
more straitened. Most of the land was let out on long 
leases with a fine and a nominal rent, and so the yearly 
income was small. The royalty of fishing and harbour 
rights, which had been reserved when Countisbury was sold, 
brought in little and was very variable, so East Leymouth, 
the provision the Venner family had made for Mary Wiche- 
halse, was also mortgaged. Life in London was very 



184 THE PARISHES OF LTNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 

different from life in Lynton, but far more costly, and their 
extravagances seem to have worn out the Venners. His 
cousin, Elizabeth Levering, had married a second husband, 
Joseph Bailer, of Barnstaple, who thought it would be best 
to have done with the Wichehalses altogether, and accord- 
ingly he transferred the mortgages (the interest on which 
had never been paid) with all arrears to John Short, a fuller, 
of Kenn, near Exeter, and Wichehalse, being short of money 
as usual, borrowed another £400 of Short on the same 
security. But he soon found the Shorts dififerent men to 
deal with than Venners or Loverings ; they wanted to see 
the interest of their money. Wichehalse had never troubled 
about that with Levering, and let it run in arrears as before. 
Shorts, finding they got no interest, took legal proceedings by 
filing a bill in Chancery in July, 1694, and a long course of 
legal proceedings took place which involved the Wichehalses 
deeper and deeper. Mrs. Wichehalse*s brother, Henry Chiches- 
ter, died in this year, leaving her some money and reversions, 
but Sir Arthur, their brother, fearing it would disappear at 
once, would not pay her, so Chancery proceedings were com- 
menced against him, and bit by bit the inheritances of the 
Wichehalses were frittered away, the mortgages were fore- 
closed, and the equity of redemption barred by a decree of 
Chancery in a.d. 1696. Wichehalse, having the idea that 
his legal agent, Thomas Northmore, had arranged matters 
with Short, practically let judgment go by default, and at 
the end of the year A.D. 1705 died somewhat suddenly in 
London, where he had been residing, leaving by his will his 
lands and mansion to his wife, with the exception of East 
Leymouth, which was left to his daughter Mary. They 
were, however, but empty bequests, for all had practically 
gone. On the death of her easy-going husband, Mrs. Wiche- 
halse, indeed, bestirred herself to see what could be done to 
get back the lost inheritance, out of which she said the 
lawyers had cheated her. Bills were filed in Chancery 
against the Lynton fishermen for not paying their royalties 
and dues to her ; the judgment of the Chancery Court was 
appealed against, the case being ultimately carried to the 
House of Lords, her plea being that the former judgments 
had been obtained by collusion with her husband's legal 
agent, Thomas Northmore. Her appeals, however, were 
dismissed with costs in July, a.d. 1713, and the estates 
finally lost. 

Of the family of the last Squire Wichehalse there is 
little to be said. The eldest and youngest of the three sons took 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 185 

to the profession of arms. Charles rose to the rank of captain 
in the regiment of Lord Gorges, and was killed in a.d. 1707, in 
that colossal blunder of Lord Galway, the battle of Almanza, 
where in a few hours eighteen thousand men and all the 
artillery and baggage were lost. John, the eldest and head 
of the family, was a captain in Colonel Charles Oatway's 
foot regiment, and died while on garrison duty at Port 
Mahon, Minorca, in A.D. 1721, leaving a widow but no 
children. Henry settled with his mother's relatives at 
Sherwell, and died there in a.d. 1736, the last male of the 
family. 

Around the fate of Mary, the only daughter of the last 
Squire Wichehalse, some mystery hangs ; she seems to have 
married at Caerleon a Mr. Henry Tomkins, and had an only 
son named Chichester Tomkins, born about a.d. 1711, but 
after a while insisted on returning to Lynton, the old home 
of her family, and wandered about by the cliffs gazing on 
the lost inheritance of her race, under the care of a faithful 
retainer of the family, Mary Ellis, and according to one 
accoimt fell off the cliffs at Ley, or by another was washed 
off the rocks by the tide, the body never being found. 

And the sad fate of " The Last of the Wichehalses," as 
she was called, over which old Ursula the Witch of Leymouth 
used to moan and babble to the cottagers on the beach, was 
the foundation of the Rev. Matthew Mundy's tale which he 
called " The Legend of Jennifred," his insufficient knowledge 
of the Wichehalses causing him to antedate it, or perchance it 
was merely a desire to cast the story in what seemed a 
more romantic period than Georgian days, and the story of 
the Dutch origin of the family may have arisen from some 
confusion with the Dutch husband of old Ursula. 

Mary Wichehalse's 8on,Chichester Tomkins, went to Oxford 
and matriculated at Jesus College 3 November, 1729, and 
took his B.A. from Wadham College in 1733. He was after- 
wards Eector of Brendon, 1743 to 1758, from whence he 
removed to St. Mary Major, Exeter, 1758 to 1767, and died 
at St. Winnow in 1781, leaving a son and two daughters. 
This Mr. Tomkins and his sisters visited Lynton in the 
summer of a.d. 1815, and inquired among the old people as 
to their grandmother and her family, and by chance they came 
across the descendants of Mary Ellis, their grandmother's 
maid, who showed them a certificate of the marriage of 
Mary Ellis, with the name of her mistress as a witness, 
Mary Tomkins, formerly Mary Wichehalse ; on which they 
said that they did not even know their grandmother's name 



186 THB PARISHES OF LYNTON AND C0UNTI8BUBY. 

was Mary, only that she was a Wichehalse, as their father 
would never say anything about her on account of her 
misfortunes. The last of these descendants, Miss Tomkins, on 
her death in a.d. 1845, left a legacy of £100 for the poor 
of Brendon. And now the very name of Wichehalse, which 
for four hundred years occupied a conspicuous place in Devon, 
seems to have totally disappeared. 

I have given a full pedigree of the family, and in the 
Appendix will be found many of the wills and documents 
relating to them. 



2. POPHAM, OF EAST LYN. 

Arms. — On a chief, gules, a plate between two stags' heads 
caboshed or, a crescent for difference. 

The Pophams of East Lyn were a Porlock family descended 
from John Popham, second son of Richard Popham, of 
Alfoxton, County Somerset; a pedigree of the family is 
given in Collinson's " History of Somerset." This John 
Popham's son, John Popham, settled at Porlock, where he 
held land in West Chantock; his son, Walter Popham, 
married Agnes, daughter of William Hatch, of AUer, both 
of whom were buried in the chapel of St. Mary in the 
south aisle of the church of Porlock. Their son Walter, 
who married 15 June, 1562, Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas 
Berry, of Berrynarbor, died at Porlock in 1582. By his 
will dated 27 October, 1579, he desires to be buried near 
his parents in " our Lady He in the Churche of Porlock," and 
leaves his lands in West Chantock and Huish Champflower, 
and all his other lands, to his widow as long as she remained 
unmarried, and six score pounds to his three children, Eichard, 
Walter, and Eglyn, and mentions his nephew, John Trott, 
minister, Sarah his god-daughter, wife of John Trott, and 
William their son (P.C.C. Tirwhitte. 35). 

The eldest of these three children, Richard, came to 
Lynton at the end of the sixteenth century, having a lease 
of the manor of East Lyn from Pyne. Sir William Pole 
also states the family had the patronage of Brendon. He 
married Jane, daughter of Hugh Osborne, of Iddisleigh, 
who had just before become the second husband of his 
mother. He was churchwarden of Lynton in a.d. 1615, 
and was buried at Lynton 7 April, 1628. 

His son Hugh, born at Lynton, baptized 6 July, 1599, 
married into a local family, Rawles, of Countisbury and Care. 



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188 THE PABI8HES OF LTNTON AND C0UNTI8BUBT. 

The Countisbury regiaters are lost till 1678, so there is no 
record of it. but the marriage licence was issued 2 October, 
1630. He had a family of nine children born at Lyntbn, and 
was several times churchwarden of the parish. The family, 
besides farming, also engaged in the local herring industry ; 
Hugh Popham, his second son, being owner of barques and 
boats trading and resorting to the harbour in A.D. 1710. 

This Hugh Popham died in A.D. 1717, which is the last 
reference made to the family I can find in Lynton. The 
elder brother, Eichard Popham, did not reside at Lynton, 
but went early in life to Barnstaple, and with the expiration 
of the East Lyn lease the connexion of the family with 
Lynton ceased. 

On the preceding page is a pedigree of the various 
members of this family. 

8. BERRY, OF CROSSCOMBE. 

Anns, — Or, three bars, gules. 

Crest — A griffin's head erased, party per pale or and gules. 

The family of Berry, of Crosscombe, was a branch of Berry. 
of Berrynarbor, one of the most ancient in the county. In 
the Visitation of 1620 two sets of quarterings of this 
family are given, and over the old house of the family at 
Berrynarbor the arms of Bonville and Plantagenet can still 
be seen. There were also branches of the family at Chittle- 
hampton and Northam and elsewhere. 

The Crosscombe branch were settled there in A.D. 1428, 
and remained till the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
A pedigree of this branch is given by Westcote and also by 
Vivian, which differ to some extent. Where they diiBfer, 
such documentary evidence as I have seen points to 
Westcote being the more correct. I have made a few addi- 
tions to theirs in the annexed pedigree. 



4. KNIGHT, OF WEST LYN. 

Amis, — None recorded. 

Knights of West Lyn might rather be styled a yeoman 
than a gentle family, though old Westcote says the Devon- 
shire yeomen and farmers of his day were mostly of gentle 
blood, being the younger sons and descendants of the 
younger sons of knights and gentlemen. Any account or 



TBI PABISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURT. 



189 



BERRY, OF CROSSCOMBE, PEDIGREE, 



Jenkin Berry, of Berrynarbor=. 



Richard Berry, of Cro8scombe==dau. of a Spaniard. 
8rd son. 



John (Westcote) or Thomas (Colby) Berry =j=. 
of Crosscombe. 



Richard Berry, of Cro88Combe= John Berry, of Chittlehampton. 

Berry, of Chittlehampton. 

John Berry —Frances, dau. of Nicliolas Robert Berry. John Berry. 



of Croescombe. 



Berry, of Berrynarbor, 
wid. of Edward Hensley. 



d. 8.p, 



d. 8.p, 



Richard Berry = 
of Crosscombe. "Will 
proved 7 Nov., 1690. 
(Archd. Barum.) 



Jane, dau. of Edward Anthony Berry. 
Hensley, of Berrynar- 
bor. 



d. 8,p. 



I 7 March, 1612 (Parracombo). 

John Berry= (i) dau. of Anthony Richard Berry =Margaret, dau. 
of Crosscombe. Kelly, Rector of of Parracombe. 

North Tawton. 
=(ii) 22 March, 1604 
(NorthTawton), 
Frances, dau. of 
Roger Wikes, of 
North Wike. 



of Nicholas 
Wichehalse, 
of Barnstaple. 



Mara;aret Berry. Hugh Berry. 

Named in will of her Named in will of 

great-grandfather, Hugh Aclaud, 1620. 
Hugh Acland (1620). 



190 THE PAEI8HI8 OF LTNTON AND GOUNTISBUBT. 

pedigree of this family is most difficult to draw up, on 
account of there being several families of the same name in 
the parish. The earliest record of the name in Lynton is 
in the Subsidy Rolls, 34, 35 Henry VIII, when there were 
a Roger Knight, a David Knight, of Dean, and a David 
Knight, sr. The earliest entries in the register are a 
Thomasine Knight, buried 11 January, 1590; John Knight, 
married 1591 ; and John Knight, buried 1595. The earliest 
will of a Knight of Lynton I have seen is 1580. There 
are over fifty wills of Lynton Knights proved in the Court 
of Archdeacon of Barnstaple. They were settled at West 
Lyn in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and purchased the 
freehold from Sir Robert Basse tt in A.D. 1632. The an- 
nexed pedigree gives only names from deeds down to John 
Knight, born 1651, from which period I have given all the 
descendants. The last of the name of this family, Miss 
Frances Knight, died at Lynmouth 11 December, 1905. 



VII. 

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY AND CHARITIES. 

There is no evidence as to when or by whom the first 
church in Lynton was built. The entries concerning 
Lynton and Countisbury in the Episcopal Records, for 
reasons that will be hereafter explained, are excessively 
scanty. There is no mention of the church or its patronage 
in Henry de Tracy's grant of the manors to Ford, though 
without doubt it existed at the time. The Rev. 0. J. 
Reichel, however, informs me that, owing to William 
de Tracy's share in the murder of Archbishop Thomas, 
there are peculiar circumstances in connexion with the 
ecclesiastical patronage. In the Calendar of Documents in 
France, circ, a.d. 1185-91, there is mention of a charter of 
Hugh de Coterva, notifying that he has granted the gift 
which his uncle, William de Tracy, made to Alan de Tracy, 
clerk, before his crime against St. Thomas, of all the 
churches on his land to Thomas, the clerk, who is in posses- 
sion, paying Alan an annual pension. He has therefore 
presented the said Alan before John, Bishop of Exeter, and 
ratifying what his lord, William de Tracy, has done, he 
grants Alan all the churches of his land to be possessed by 
him after the death of Thomas, the vicar (p. 194). From 
this it would seem that the patronage of Lynton and 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 191 

Countisbury was separated from the manor before a.d. 
1170 ; that circ, 1185 it was held by Thomas, the vicar, and 
at his death passed to Alan de Tracy, clerk; there is no 
record of any institution of a rector ; but on 28 November, 
A.D. 1259, there is a mention of Eichard de Sancto Gorono 
de Lintone de Toritone et Avetone, rector (Bronescombe, 
p. 257). I had thought this Lintone might possibly refer to 
the chantry of Lintone, or Lynetone, in the church of 
Avetone ( Aveton Gifford) ; but Canon Hingeston-Eandolph 
informs me that Rde. Sancto Gorono was certainly Rector of 
Lynton in that year, and he is the only Eector of Lynton 
whose name is known. The churches of Lynton and 
Countisbury are both mentioned in the Taxatio of Pope 
Nicholas (1288-1291). The entries are :— 

Ecc de Countesbyre . iiij* iiij** 

Ecc de Lyntone .... iiij"* 

Dec. viij 

So they were both of them then ordinary benefices, and not 
appropriated. 

But very shortly after this date, between 1290 and 1326, 
both rectories were annexed to the Archdeaconry of Barn- 
staple, as in the "Eegistrum Commune" of Bishop Grandisson 
there is the statement, speaking of the Archdeacon of Barn- 
staple, "Cui quidem archidiaconatui sunt Ecclesise Paro- 
chiales de Lyntone et Contesbury Exoniensis Diocesis taxate 
ad X marcos sterlingorum ab antique unite et annexe" 
(Grandisson, "Eegistrum Commune," anno 40°, p. 1259). 
The use of the term " ab antique " in a.d. 1366 shows that it 
must have been very soon after the Taxatio of Pope 
Nicholas, but there is no evidence of the exact date or by 
whom granted, though there is an earlier reference to their 
being annexed to the Archdeaconry in 1330 (Grand., 
p. 547). 

The two benefices continued to be annexed to the Arch- 
de€kconry of Barnstaple till a quite recent date, and the 
livings have been served by perpetual curates licensed on 
the nomination of the archdeacon, though the patronage 
has lately been transferred to the bishop, and the title of vicar 
given to the perpetual curate, who is still, however, licensed, 
and not instituted as rectors and vicars are. And it is 
owing to this fact that there is scarcely any mention of 
Lynton or Countisbury in the Episcopal Eecords, no record 
being kept of these perpetual curates till A.D. 1689. 

To give the names of the patrons and rectors would be, 



192 THE PARISHES OF LTNTON AKD COUMnSBUBT. 

therefore, merely to record the names of the suooessive 
archdeacons of Barnstaple, which, as they have often been 
printed, it is not necessary to insert here ; but from various 
sourcgs I have put together a list of perpetual curates from 
A.D. 1568 to the present day which, I think, is complete 
(before that date I have been unable to find any), with brief 
notes on each, and also a list of assistant curates who served 
the living during the non -residence or absence of the per- 
petual curate. 

1568. Hugh Lewis. 
He signs the registers 1568, 1583, 1598, but as the 
register 1568-82 is only a copy, his date may not be till 
nearly 1583. 

1599. COPLESTONE Hawkeridge, 
Described as Curate of Lynton in will of David Dyer, of 
Lynton, dated 19 April, 1601. 

1603. John Brooke. 

In 1584 Curate of Iddisleigh. 

"Sir John Brooke, mster, was married unto Margaret 
Knight, 27 April, 1584" (Idds. Reg.). Curate of Swym- 
bridge 1590-1601, where he frequently signs registers. 
Signs Lynton register 1603, and transcripts 1606, 1610 as 
Minister of Lynton, and parish boundaries in 1613 ; buried 
at Lynton. "John Brooke, Minister of Lynton 16 March. 
161f." 

1614. EOBERT Kebbye. 

Licensed 26 September, 1614. "Emat Lnia deserviendi 
ecctia poch de Lynton concess Rob^ Kebbye clico " (Act 
Book). 

Transcripts for 1614 are signed "per me Robertum 
Kebbye vicarium Lintoniae." There was a Jasper Kebbye, 
Rector of Brendon at this date, perhaps his brother. Jasper 
Kebbye, of Somerset, pleb., matriculated St. Edmund's Hall, 
Oxon., 14 February, 1605-6, «t. 20; B.A., from All Souls 
College, 5 July, 1611. 

1621. Nicholas Morrice. 
Son of John Morrice, Vicar of Ilfracombe, and Grace 
fFosse) ; baptized 24 November, 1596 (Ilfracombe); married 
Elizabeth Dyamond 24 November, 1619 (Ilfracombe). 
Seems to have had no university degree; remained un- 
disturbed at Lynton through Civil Wars, his successor said 
" on account of poverty of living." Signed Declaration of 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 193 

Conformity 9 September, 1662 ; probably age and distance 
prevented his doing it at proper time. In 1665 presented 
** qui matrimonium solemnizat absque licencise aut bannis," 
at Visitation 1671 marked "senex et dominus excusat." 

Nicholas, son of Nicholas Morrice and Elizabeth, baptized 
27 July, 1620 (Ilfracombe). 

John, son of Nicholas Morrice, Curate of Lynton, baptized 
14 September, 1626 (Lynton). 

Marye, daughter of Nicholas Morrice, Curate of Lynton, 
baptized 27 January, 1628 (Lynton). 

Thomas, son of Nicholas Morrice, baptized 2 March, 
163f (Lynton). 

Eichard, son of Nicholas Morrice, baptized 18 May, 1635 
(Lynton). 

Joan, daughter of Mr. Nicholas Morrice, minister, buried 
17 April, 1659 (Lynton). 

Nicholas Morrice, Clerk, buried 13 August, 1672 (Lyn- 
ton). 

Elizabeth Morris, buried 14 June, 1679 (Lynton). 

1672. Anthony Williams. 

For nearly forty years previously Curate of Countisbury. 
For further particulars see " Countisbury Curates." Held 
the two together 1672-8. At Visitation 1677 excused 
"valde senex." Died in 1678, and buried at Countisbury. 

Anthony Williams, Clerk, buried 14 November, 1678 
(Countisbury). 

1678. Robert Triggs. 

Licensed 11 October, 1678 (Act Book). Held, as all his 
successors till 1860, both Lynton and Countisbury. 

Son of Robert Triggs, Vicar of Chittlehampton, by his 
first marriage with Anne Darley ; baptized 19 April, 1652, 
at Sydenham Damerell, where his grandfather, Erissy 
Triggs, was vicar; matriculated Exeter College, Oxon., 
4 March, 1669-70, set. 17; Batteler 22 February, 1669-70, 
to 20 December, 1672 ; took no degree. Appeared as Curate 
of Lynton at the Visitation 12 September, 1680, when he 
was stated to ha\^ been in arrears, and signs terrier of 
Lynton, 1680, "curat ib"; held also rectory of Stoke 
Rivers 1682-4, for the Carpenter family; appeared as 
Curate of Lynton at the Visitations 1683, 1689, 1692 ; was 
instituted to the vicarage of Ermington 17 January, 169^; 
is mentioned in a Lynton lease of 1707 as of Ermington, 
and that his daughter Ann was married to Rev. James Ivie, 
and his son Robert was an apothecary of Plymouth. 

VOL. XXXVIII. N 



194 THE PARI8HSS OF LTNTON AND COUKTISBUBT. 

Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Bobert Triggs, baptized 21 
September, 1692 (Lynton). 

Ann, daughter of Mr. Bobert Triggs, baptized 28 August, 
1693 (Lynton). 

Robert, son of Mr. Robert Triggs, Clerk, baptized 29 June, 
1695 (Lynton). 

John, son of Mr. Robert Triggs, Clerk, and Elizabeth, 
baptized 2 February, 1697 (Lynton). 

Rev. Robert Triggs buried at Ermington 10 September, 
1722. 

1695. John Browning, b.a. 

Although the Curates* Licence Book begins in 1689, no 
licence of John Browning is recorded, but he appeared at 
the Visitation 22 August, 1699 as Curate of Lynton, and I 
find he made his subscription 27 November, 1695 (Subscrip- 
tion Book). 

Son of George Browning, of Exeter, and younger brother 
of George Browning, Vicar of Barnstaple 1687-1702 ; matri- 
culated Exeter College, Oxon., 8 March, 167|, aet. 15 ; Bat- 
teler 30 January, 1671, to 13 March, 168}; B.A. 19 June, 
1682 ; Rector of Brendon 8 July, 1700, and resigned 1705 ; 
Rector of Landcross 12 December, 1705. 

By his will, dated 18 November, 1729, proved 7 August, 
1730, he gave 20s. to the poor of Lynton and 10s. to the 
poor of Countisbury. There is a memorial tablet to him in 
the church in which he is called Rector of Linton. An error 
— it should be Rector of Landcross. 

Honor, wife of Mr. John Browning, Clerk, buried 19 
November, 1712 (Lynton). 

John Browning, Clerk, and Janifred Pedlar, widow, 
married 13 April, 1714 (Lynton). (She was Janifred, 
daughter of David Hill, of Lynton, and widow of Edmund 
Pedlar.) 

Rev. Mr. John Browning buried 30 March, 1730 (Lynton) ; 
died 25 March, 1730, M.I., Lynton. 

G^nefrid Browning, widow, buried 19 June, 1736 (Lyn- 
ton). 

1730. John Shbrgold, b.a. 

He was licensed 10 July, 1730. I have no particulars 
of him except that he was B.A., Queens' College, Cambridge, 
1714. 

Mr. John Shergold was buried 2 May, 1734 (Lynton 

Reg.). 



the parishes of lynton and countisbury. 195 

1734. Thomas Steed, b.a. 

Licensed 11 September, 1734, on the nomination of the 
Eev. John Grant, Archdeacon of Barnstaple. 

Son of Benjamin Steed, of Launceston, and Ann, and 
grandson of Ezekiel Steed, of Exeter, who married Frances 
Kekewich : matriculated Pembroke College, Oxon., 14 May, 
1719, age 16; B.A. 1723; Curate of Veryan 20 December, 
1725, where he married Zenobia Fincher, of Veryan ; Curate 
of Ruan Langhorn 1732 ; Vicar of Barnstaple 17 September, 
1734 ; resided entirely at Barnstaple. 

Anne, daughter of Thomas Steed, Clerk, and Zenobia, 
baptized 1 July, 1735 (Barnstaple). She married Jonathan 
Ivie, of Exeter. The trustees of her marriage settlement, 
27 June, 1753, were John Boyce, Barnstaple, and Eev. E. 
Nicholls, Lynton. 

Thomas, son of Thomas Steed, Vicar, and Zenobia, baptized 
5 April, 1737 (Barnstaple). 

John, son of Thomas Steed, Vicar, and Zenobia, buried 11 
December, 1740 (Barnstaple). 

Mrs. Ann Steed, buried 19 December, 1761 (Barn- 
staple). 

Thomas, son of Thomas and Zenobia Steed, buried 13 
July, 1763 (Barnstaple). 

Rev. Mr. Thomas Steed, late Vicar, buried 28 November, 
1764 (Barnstaple). 

Zenobia, relict of Mr. Steed, buried 1 2 June, 1774 (Barn- 
staple). 

The parish was served during Mr. Steed's incumbency by 

1734. John Rake. 

Son of Samuel Rake, of Penselwood ; matriculated Hart 
Hall, Oxon., 29 November, 1723, set. 17. 

1735. John Hartnoll, b.a. 

Son of John Hartnoll, of East Buckland, Devon ; matri- 
culated Exeter College, Oxon., 11 March, 1730-1; B.A. 12 
October, 1734 ; married at Roseash, 25 October, 1735, to 
Mrs. Joan Buckingham, of East Buckland; licensed to 
Lynton 29 June, 1735. He died in 1756 at Torrington 
(Adiiin., Exeter). 

1738. Thomas Colley, m.a. 

Son of Rev. James Colley, Rector of Parracombe, by 
Mary, daughter of Rev. J. Blackmore, Rector of Parracombe ; 

n2 



196 THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURT. 

baptized 6 March, 171f (Martinhoe) ; matriculated Exeter 
College, Oxon., 11 March, 173f ; B.A. 1737; M.A. Gonville 
and Caius, Cambridge, 1741 ; Deacon 15 January 173i, He 
signs Lynton registers 1737 and 1738 ; was also Cimte of 
Sherwell, afterwards Eector of Arlington 1741-5, and Vicar 
of Chittlehampton 1743; married Eachel, daughter of 
Csesar Gififard, of Brightleigh, 26 May, 1746; died 
24 February; buried 26 February, 1762; M.I. (Chittle- 
hampton). His niece, Susanna Colley, was mother of the 
well-known Dr. Clarke, of Lynton. 

1740. Edward Nioholls. 

There was an Edward Nicholls, m.a., King's CoU^e, 
Cambridge, 1734, but I have not been able to ascertain his 
parentage ; he was licensed to Lynton 5 December, 1740 ; 
he married 12 September, 1742, at Martinhoe, Joan, widow 
of John Knight, of West Lyn. Residing at West Lyn, he 
occupied for over forty years the most prominent position 
at Lynton, was most highly esteemed, and the guide, adviser, 
and friend of all the parishioners ; he championed the cause 
of the fishermen and mariners in the disputes with the 
lord of the manor. The registers note the presentation to 
him of a silver cup engraved " the Fisherman's gift " (this 
cup is now in the possession of C. E, Eoberts Chanter, Esq., 
of Broadmead, Barnstaple). He was executor of the will 
of Eev. T. Steed ; also at times served parishes of Countis- 
bury, Brendon, and Parracombe. 

William, son of Edward Nicholls, Clerk, and Joan, baptized 
3 August, 1743 (Lynton). This William Nicholls matric- 
ulated Queen's College, Oxon., 1762, and was afterwards 
Rector of Martinhoe, 1771. 

Edward, son of Edward Nicholls, Clerk, and Joan, baptized 
15 March, 1745 (Lynton); Mary, daughter of Edward 
Nicholls, Clerk, and Joan, baptized 8 March, 1746 (Lynton) ; 
Joan, wife of Eev. Edward Nicholls, buried 18 May, 1780 
(Lynton) ; Rev. Edward Nicholls buried 5 April, 1785 
(Lynton). 

1765. Joshua Holb, m.a. 

Licensed 25 May, 1765, on the nomination of Rev. 
William Hole, Archdeacon of Barnstaple ; was nephew of the 
Archdeacon, and son of Joshua Hole, of South Molton, 
apothecary, by Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. Lewis South- 
combe ; bom 26 February ; baptized 2 April, 1733 (South 
Molton); matriculated Exeter College, Oxon., 23 May, 1751; 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND OOUNTISBURY. 197 

B.A. 7 February, 1755; M.A. 1 July, 1762; Rector Nymet 
Eowland, 1763-6 ; Eector of Belston, 1767-85 ; also Rector 
of Woolfardisworthy ; married 6 March, 1759, Anne, 
daughter of Rev. W. Radford, of Lapford ; buried at Wool- 
farcUsworthy, 20 April, 1793. He was non-resident at Lynton 
the whole of his incumbency ; the curates-in-charge being 

1765. Rev. Edward Nicholls. 
Curate-in-charge during the whole of Rev. J. Hole's 
incumbency. In his old age he had as assistants 

1770. Thomas West. 
Licensed to Countisbury and Brendon, afterwards Vicar 
of Wear GifiFord. See note on him in " Devon Notes and 
Gleanings" (Wear Gifford). 

1774. Thomas Clement. 

Licensed to Countisbury and Brendon, 7 July, 1774; 
signs Lynton Register 1777 and 1782; was also Curate 
of Parracombe. 

1782. John Dovell, b.a. 

Son of John Dovell, gentleman, of Parracombe, by Mary, 
daughter of John Knight, of Lynton ; baptized 19 December, 
1755 (Parracombe); matriculated Exeter College, Oxon., 
20 May, 1776; B.A. 1780; Curate of Egloskerry 1780; 
Curate of Parracombe 1785; Rector of Martinhoe 1790; 
C. Shebbeare ; buried at Petrockstowe, A.D. 1839, aet. 84. 

1784. William Robbins. 
Son of Walter Robbins, mercer, of Barnstaple, and Eliza- 
beth his wife ; baptized 24 September, 1760 (Barnstaple) ; 
matriculated Exeter College, Oxon., 1 March, 1779; B.A. 
1783 ; C. Milton Damerell, 1783. 

1785. Richard Hole, b.c.l. 
Licensed 15 July, 1785, on nomination of Rev. William 
Hole, Archdeacon of Barnstaple; was son of Archdeacon 
Hole by Thomazine, daughter of Richard Evans; 
baptized 2 June, 1746 (Exeter Cathedral); matriculated 
Exeter College, Oxon., 23 March, 1764 ; B.C.L. 3 May, 1771 ; 
C. Sowton, 1777 ; V. Buckerell, 1777 ; Rector of Farring- 
don and Inwardleigh, 1792 ; married Wilhelmina, daughter 
of Hermann Katencamp, of Exeter, 28 October, 1776 
(Holy Trinity, Exeter) ; was a poet (see sketch of his life 



198 THE PAEISHBS OF LTKTON AND COUNTISBUBT. 

by Bartholomew Parr, Exeter, 1803, and ** Dictionary of 
National Biography"); buried 28 May, 1792 (Littleham), 
leaving two daughters, Wilhelmina, bom 1782, married 
25 August, 1804, Eobert Lovell Jenkins, Captain Boyal 
Cornish Miners ; and Charlotte Anne, baptized 1787 ; 
was non-resident at Lynton. His curates-in-chai^e were 

1785. William Robbins. 
See above. Appeared at Visitation 28 July, 1785, as 
Curate of Lynton; he died 1798; will proved as William 
Robbins, Clerk, of Barnstaple. 

1788. Richard Knight, b.a. 

Son of John Knight, of West Lyn, Lynton, by Mary 
( Vellacott) ; baptized 2 February, 1762 (Lynton) ; matricu- 
lated Magdalen Hall, Oxon., 9 May, 1780; B.A. 1784; 
married 7 January, 1785 (St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol), 
Elizabeth Crocombe, of Brendon ; afterwards Rector of 
Huish and Petrockstowe, 1799-1811 ; buried 13 September, 
1825 (Petrockstowe); a member of a well-known Lynton 
family. 

Richard, son of Rev. Richard Knight and Elizabeth, 
baptized 17 June, 1788 (Lynton). John, son of Rev. 
Richard Knight and Elizabeth, baptized 20 July, 1789 
(Lynton); matriculated Magdalen Hall, Oxon., 30 May, 1808; 
B.A. 1812; M.A. 1815; Rector of Petrockstowe, 1825; 
buried at Petrockstowe, 1844; William, son of Rev. Richard 
Knight and Elizabeth, baptized 2 July, 1792 (Lynton). 

1792. Thomas Ley, b.a. 
Licensed 15 June, 1792, on the nomination of Roger 
Massey, Archdeacon of Barnstaple, son of Rev. Thomas 
Ley, Rector of Doddiscombleigh ; matriculated Merton 
College, Oxon., 23 February, 1768, aet. 18; B.A. 1772; 
Curate of Shobrooke 1777; Rector of Bratton Clovelly 
1807 ; died 29 February, 1816 ; was non-resident at Lynton 
the whole of his incumbency ; curates-in-charge, 

1792. Richard Knight, b.a. (See above.) 

1801. Francis I'Ans. V. Cruwys Morchard 1839. 

1805. Thomas Roe. 

Well known as Rector of Brendon 1831-55 ; married Mary 
Lock, who inherited manor of Lynton ; buried at Brendon ; 
died 3 January, 1855, set. 79 ; M.I. (Brendon). 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 199 

1808. Charles Kekewich, b.a. (See below.) 

1815. John Franklin Squire, m.a. 

Licensed to Lynton 15 November, 1815; son of Eev. 
John Squire, Eector of Lavenham ; Siz. Gonville and Caius, 
Cambridge, 4 October, 1758, set. 18 ; Scholar 1758 ; B.A. 
1763; M.A. 1766; Fellow 1764; Dean 1767; Eegistrar 
1776; Steward 1778; Rector of Bratton Fleming 1780; 
Rector of Arlington 1801 ; died 2 August, 1818. 

1816. Charles Kekewich, b.a. 
Licensed 15 May, 1816, on nomination of Thomas Johnes, 
Archdeacon of Barnstaple ; was seventh son of William 
Kekewich by Susanna (Johnson), and younger brother of 
Samuel Kekewich, of Peamore; matriculated Balliol Col- 
lege, Oxon., 11 April, 1796, a^t. 26; B,A. 1800; was the 
first resident incumbent of Lynton since 1734. The old 
vicarage being in a very dilapidated state, he resided in a 
house he built for himself at Lynmouth. He became Vicar 
of Grendon 1832, but continued to live at Lynmouth till his 
death on 27 March, 1849, and was buried at Lynton, where 
there is a tablet to his memory. 

1832. Matthew Mundy, m.a. 
Licensed 30 November, 1832, on nomination of George 
Barnes, d.d., Archdeacon of Barnstaple, son of Matthew 
Mundy, R.N., by Mary (Carwithen) ; baptized 21 May, 1797 
(East Budleigh); matriculated Exeter College, Oxon., 26 
May, 1797 ; B.A. 1817 ; M.A. 1823 ; Curate of St. Andrew's, 
Plymouth, 1823, George Nympton 1825; married Mary, 
daughter of James Patch, of Topsham ; Vicar of Eockbeare 
2 February, 1860; died 1 September, 1864; M.L (Venn 
Ottery) ; built the new vicarage at Lynton on the curates' 
glebe ; had several assistant curates for Countisbury, one of 
whom — Eev. W. H. Thornton, Rector of Bovey since 1866 — 
has in his " Reminiscences of an Old Westcoimtry Parson " 
given some account of Lynton and its people at this period. 

1835. Rev. J. J. Scott, of Combe Park. 

1845. Rev. W. C. Olack. 

1848. Rev. Richard Harding. 

1850. Rev. K H. Powell. 

1854. Rev. W. H. Thornton. 

A short accoimt of Rev. M. Mundy is given by Mrs. Rose 
Troup in "Transactions Devonshire Association," VoL XXVI, 
p. 332. 



200 the pari8hks of ltnton and c0ukti8bury. 

1862. William Tanner Davy, m.a. 

Was second son of Richard Davy, of Chumleigh ; matricu- 
lated Exeter College, Oxon., 12 May, 1826, set. 17; BA. 
X830 ; M.A. 1831 ; Curate of Rockbeare 1861. His position 
at Lynton appears somewhat irregular, as there is no record 
of his having been licensed to Lynton at all. He signs the 
registers in 1862 as officiating minister, but as curate from 
1864 to 1866 ; yet for the six years 1860 to 1866, when 
Mr. Tanner Davy was licensed to the perpetual curacy 
of Stoke Canon, vacant by the resignation of Thomas 
Henry Knight, the incumbency was legally vacant; yet 
there was no nomination by the Crown on lapse ; the next 
nomination in 1866 was by cession of Mundy. 

1866. William Lipsett Lawson, m.a. 

Licensed 23 April, 1866, on cession of Mundy; Trinity 
College, Dublin ; B.A. 1850 ; M.A. 1862 ; ordained deacon 
1851, priest 1852, by Bishop of Limerick. I have as yet 
received no answers to my inquiries as to ancestry, etc. ; but 
this incumbent deserves to be remembered for the large 
addition made to the value of the living through his instru- 
mentality, and the exquisite chapel of St. John the Baptist 
he built at Lynmouth, as well as the mission chapel at 
Barbrook and new chancel to parish church. Was non- 
resident during the latter portion of his incumbency, when 
cure was served by 

1882. Herbert Edwin Ayre, b.a. 

1883-5. H. M. BoBiNSON, d.d. 

1885-7. W. Scott. 

1887. Walter Eustace Cox, m.a. 

Licensed to the perpetual curacy of Lynton 13 January, 
1887, on the resignation of W. L. Lawson, youngest son of 
the Rev. Alfred Cox, Rector of Askerswell, Dorset ; matri- 
culated Jesus College, Cambridge, October, 1869; B.A. 1873; 
M.A. 1877; Curate of Chittlehampton 1877; Perpetual 
Curate. Chittlehamholt, 1882; Rector of Georgeham 1882; 
married 29 March, 1883 (Kingsnympton), Fanny Eliza, 
daughter of Newell Connop, Esq., of Kingsnympton Park ; 
the present incumbent. 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 201 



PARISH CHURCH AND ITS RECORDS. 

The parish church is dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin ; it 
has been so many times altered, enlarged, and repaired that 
scarcely anything remains of the ancient structure except 
part of the tower : this is mainly thirteenth-century. The 
walls are four feet thick, and it has a newel staircase in the 
north-west angle without any external projection, and only 
a very slight encroachment on the internal space. It opens 
to the church by a pointed arch, and has a doorway on the 
west face with characteristic mouldings and window over it. 
Dr. Fairbanks, who wrote several articles on Lynton Church 
in the local papers, says the original tower terminated 
about four feet below the present top window, at a line 
which can be made out externally by an alteration in the 
arrangement of the angle stones, those of the original part 
being set on edge alternately, while those of the more 
recent period are laid flat. Internally the addition can be 
more easily distinguished, the walls being little more than 
half the thickness of the lower part. This statement is 
incorrect. Examination shows that the whole of the tower 
is of the same date, though the present windows date only 
from 1892. The church originally consisted of chancel, nave, 
tower, and south porch, and, like most of the moorland 
churches of North Devon, was small and of little character, 
as the illustration of it, which is of the date of 1802, shows. 
The nave was rebuilt in 1741, and the south wall of this re- 
building still exists and part of the still more ancient roof ; 
but on Lynton becoming, at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, a place of resort for visitors, the then existing 
structure was found too small, and in 1817 an aisle was 
added on the north side ; but with an increase in summer 
visitors even this was insufficient, and in 1838 anbther 
aisle was added on the north side, and the two aisles were 
carried eastward to the line of the old chancel, the older 
aisle being made the nave, and a small space railed off for a 
sacrarium. The funds were raised by allowing every sub- 
scriber of £5 and upwards a life sitting, and a sum of £150 
was lent by a then resident. Sir William Herries, to be paid 
off in instalments from the pew rents. Other repairs and 
rebuildings were carried out in 1851 and 1862, and during 
the incumbency of the Rev. W. L. Lawson plans were 
drawn by Mr. E. Dalby for the rebuilding of the whole 
edifice in the Early English style. A start was made by 
the building of a new chancel which, though small, was a 



202 THE PABISHBS OF LTNTON AND GOUNnSBUBY. 

well-proportioned and exquiaitely-designed structure. The 
old chancel was, at the same time, partially rebuilt as a 
south chancel aisle. No further parts of these plans were, 
however, carried out, for soon after the commencement of 
the Rev. W. E. Cox's incumbency, Mr. J. D. Sedding was 
called on to draw up fresh plans, and from his designs a new 
nave and north aisle were built, the old nave or south 
aisle restored, the old roof being re-exposed and restored^ 
and a new north porch built. The design is somewhat 
peculiar, the windows being very low for their breadth; the 
leading of them, illustrating the Benedicite, is somewhat 
striking. The masonry is limestone, with Hamhill dress- 
ings. This work was completed in 1904 Mr. Sedding 
having died, and left only outlined and incomplete designs 
for the chancel, his pupil, Mr. H. Wilson, varied them, and 
under his direction the present chancel, of a Romanesque 
style, new south chancel aisle, and vestries were built, the 
Early English chancel being removed, and rebuilt at the 
end of the north aisle to form a morning chapeL A balda- 
chin was also designed, without which the proper effect of 
the east window cannot perhaps be properly judged. 

In the tower there are now six bells, two medieval, one 
recast in 1703 and again in 1902, and three new ones added 
at the latter date, cast by Mears and Stainbank. The in- 
scriptions on them are : — 

I. Cuthbert, Eustace, Michael, Cyril, Stephen, Patrick, 
Denys Cox. 
" We brothers seven give thanks to heaven. 1902." 

II. Fear God, honour the King. 1902. 

III. Sancta Barbara ora pro nobis. 

[In small black letters with no capitals. This bell is 
29 in. in diameter.] 

IV. lo Browning Vicor of Lye. David Knight, 

John Knight Ch. Wardens R.P. 1703. Recast 1902. 

V. Sancta Maria t g 

[In small black letters; no capitals. This bell is 
36 in. in diameter.] 

VI. Lord may this bell for ever be 

A tuneful voice o'er land and sea 
To call thy people unto thee. 
W. E. Cox, Rector; W. Hume, J. W. Holman, 

Churchwardens. 1902. 
[The weight of this, the tenor, is about 10^ cwt] 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 203 

The font consists of a large stone bowl octagonal extem- 
allv, having sixteen plain semicircular-headed panels cut 
half an inch deep, two on each of the eight sides. This is 
of Norman date. It is supported on a central shaft, sur- 
rounded by eight smaller detached shafts, all of which 
formerly had neither capitals nor bases, but foliated capitals 
and bases have been added lately; the whole rests on a 
stone block forming the foot. The canopy is also a later 
addition of Jacobean oakwork with modern brass additions. 
With so many patchings and additions it is difidcult to say 
what is ancient and what modem. 

A detailed account of the plate is given in the first report of 
the Committee on Church Plate (" Trans. Devonshire Associa- 
tion," VoL XXXVII, pp. 163, 164). All the other ornaments 
and fittings of the church, with the exception of the monu- 
ments, are modem, and therefore unnecessary to describe here. 
Of the monuments by far the most interesting is that of 
Hugh Wichehalse, Esq., which is just undergoing restoration. 
It consists of a slate slab with an irregular-shaped alabaster 
border containing four coats-of-arms : (i) Wichehalse, per 
pale argent and sable, six crescents per pale countercharged ; 
(ii) Wichehalse, as above ; (iii) Pomeroy, or, a lion rampant, 
within a bordure engrailed, gules; (iv) Wichehalse and 
Pomeroy, impaled as above. The whole is surmounted with 
the Wichehalse crest : a stag's head erased, per pale arg. and 
sable, the neck charged with two crescents, holding in its 
mouth an olive branch slipped of the first. Inscription is : — 
To I the memory of | Hugh Wichehalse of Ley | Esq. who de- 
parted this life I on Christide Eve 1653 | ^Etatis suae 66 
No not in silence, least those stones belowe 
That hide such worth should in spiffht vocall grow 
We'el rather sob it out our grateful! teares 
Congealed to marble shall vy threnes with theirs 
This weeping marble then drops this releife 
To draw fresn lines to fame and ease to greife 
To greife \^^^ groanes sad losse in him t'us all 
Whose name was Wichehalse — twas a cedars fall 
For search this urn of learned dust you'le find 
Treasures of 'virtue and piety enshnnd 
Rare pattern of blest peace and amity 
Modetis of grace emblems of charity 
Rich talents not in nig^rd napkins layd 
But piously dispenced justly payd 
Chast spousal 1 love t'his consort, to children nine 
Surviving th' other foure his care did shine 
In pious education, to neighbours friends 
Love sealed with constancy which knows no end 
Death would have stolen this treasure but in vaine 
It stung but could not kill, all wrought his gaine 
His life was hid with Christ, Death only made this story 
Christ call'd him hence his Eve to feast with him in glory. 



204 THE PARISHES OF LTNTON AND C0UNTI8BUBT. 

Among the other monumentB the most interesting are :— 

Rev. John Browning. 
Here lyeth in hope of a | joyful resurrection the | hody of 
Mr. John Browning | Rector of this parish who | departed this 
life the 25th day | of March in ye yere of | our Lord 1730 in the 
72 year of | his age | The great the good | the nohle all suhmit | 
when God at his f appointed time thinks fit. 

POPHAM. 

On a stone slab the initials " R. P." with the arms of 
Popham. (" Richard Popham, gent., bur. 7 Ap. 1628." Par. 
Register.) 

Rev. Charles ELekewich. 

In memory of | Charles Kekewich | minister of Lynton and 
Countisbury | from June 1808 to December 1832 | and a resident 
in this parish | for nearly forty-one years | He died at Lynmouth 
March 27th 1849 aged 79 years. 

Grose. 
A wooden board painted in oil colours, on a circular top 
fifteen angels, and at the sides figures of Time and Eternity. 
Some years ago there was also a circular bottom with a 
boat in a storm, but this has now disappeared. The paint- 
ing was done, Dr. Cooper says, by Phelps, of Porlock. 
"Thomas, son of John Grose, of Limmouth, nephew of 
Richard Bale, of Limmouth, who gave him a libercJ educa- 
tion and kept him as a child of his own until he exchanged 
this life for a better, which was 17th day of December, 1734, 
in 19th of his age." 

When boisterous winds and seas did roar, 
Our vessel just got off the shore ; 
But the raging storm came on so fast, 
That life and vessel then was lost. 
Now all my friends that's left on shore, 
Pray, grieve for me, and weep no more ; 
For 1 am blest with glorious gain, 
And with my Saviour to remain. 

There are also tablets to John Fry, clerk of this parish, 
27 October, 1754; Alexander Vellacott, parish clerk, 1780, 
died 16 August, 1843, in eighty-fourth year of his age; 
Knights of West Lyn, Locks, Roe, and Herries. 

In the churchyard the oldest inscription is : — 

Here lyeth the body of Elizabeth Squire late wife to Peter 
Squire of Parracombe who departed this life the third day of 
January 1645. 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 205 

Poetioal eflFosions are very plentiful. The most striking 
is to Eobert Hill, " buried ye 9th day of August a.d. 1726." 

Tho' Boras blasts on Neptune's wave, 

Hath tost me to and fro ; 
But yet at last by God's decree, 

I harbour here below. 
And at an anchor I do ride. 

With many of our fleet ; 
Yet once again I must set sail, 

Our general Christ to meet. 

The registers of the parish commence 5 November, 1569, 
for baptisms; 5 November. 1568, burials; 14 Nov., 1569, 
marriages; but are very fragmentary up till 1582, the 
previous entries being a few fragments copied in in 1582. 
There are several gaps from 1650 to 1660, and one page 
contains entries from 1602 to 1621, which appear to be 
omissions copied in later. 

The inventory taken by the special commissioners in 
6 Edward VI, under an order dated 15 February, 1549, is 
excessively scanty in the hundred of Sherwell. With 
regard to Lynton the entry is : — 

Hundr. de Sherwell. 
fo 35 : pochia de Linton 

iij bells in the towre their and one chalice committed to the 
custody of John ffrye John Dier John Scoory David Knyght 
and other the pisshefls their by indenter. 

The churchwardens' accounts, now in the iron chest, do 
not commence till 1774, and they are of no particular 
interest. In 1779 there were briefs for Wandsworth Church 
and Honiton fire. The church ales were discontinued by 
resolution of the vestry in 1792. In 1795 a sun-dial was 
fixed at a cost of £1. Is. There are several payments for 
toits, and a toit for the minister (hassocks as we call them 
now), salaries of clerk and sexton, repairs, strings for violin 
and base viol, a violoncello bow, cleaning plate, washing 
surplices, a box of lemons (probably salts of lemon), pay- 
ments to the singers; the organ dated from 1823, when 
£2. 98. 6d. was paid for carriage qf it, and we find that the 
vestry meeting occasionally adjourned to John Litson*s at 
the " Sign of the Crown." 

The old parish records seem to have laid great stress on 
keeping a fist of churchwardens, and for this reason they 
can be recorded in nearly any parish. The Lynton list, 
however, does not begin till 1751, but by means of the 
registers and transcripts I have taken it back with some 



206 



THB PARISHES OF LTNTON AND COUNTISBUBT. 



gaps to 1583, as the list may be of some local interest. Th 

names down to 1836 are given. 

1583 . William Meine, Thomas Maior. 

1598 William Meine, Thomas Maior. 

1606 . William Gill, John Stevens. 

1610 . . John Hill, John Vellacott. 

1611 . John Slee, Peter Hundell. 

1612 . . William Gill, Davie Sende. 

1613 . John Knight, John Cottes. 

1614 . David Boode. 

1615 . Richard Popham, David Bromham. 

1616 Bartholomew Maine, John Berrie. 
1618 . Hugh Popham, Thomas Dier. 
1621 John Broomham, William Periam. 
1625 David Broomholme. 

1629 . . John Vellacott, Anthony HilL 

1630 Hugh Bromholme, ward., John Scoare, side* 

1631 . . Gabriel Lichton, David Huxtable. 
1636 . Bartholomew Mayne, John Berrie. 

1645 . . William Squire, John Berrie. 

1646 . Hugh Wichehalse, Esq., Hugh Brooke. 

1650 John Groase, Edward Bromholm. 

1651 . John Knight, jun., Edward Tooker. 

1652 . . John Knight, Michael Earns. 

1653 . . Mr. Hugh Popham, John Knight. 

1654 John Dyer, Geoflfery Gaming. 

1655 Edward Broomham, John Shore. 

1656 . . Alexander Burgess, William Lang. 

1657 . David Dyer, Thomas Rail. 

1659 William Bromham, Ann Burgess. 

1660 . Anthony Hodge, Edward Bromholme. 

1661 . . William Squire, John Slee. 

1662 . . John Score, David Bale. 

1663 . . Richard Vellacott, John Cotes. 

1664 . . James Bromholme, John Litson. 

1665 . John Crocombe, Richard Latham. 

1666 . . Hugh Popham, Thomas Crocombe. 

1667 . . Hugh Bromholme, John Groase. 

1668 . . Hugh Popham, Hugh Bromholme. 

1669 . . John Knight, jun., Michael Earns, 

1670 . . John Knight, sen., John Berry. 

1671 . John Dyer, Hugh Bromholme. 

1672 , . John Knight, Jeffery Gamen. 

1673 . . Philip Squire, Edmond Lang. 

1674 . . John Crocombe, Steven Squire. 

1675 . . David Dyer, Alexander Rudd. 

1676 . . David Sloly, John Knight, jun, 

1677 . . Walter Fry, George Pile. 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 



207 



1678 

1679 

1680 

1681 

1682 

1683 

1684 

1685 

1686 

1687 

1688 

1689 

1690 

1691 

1692 

1693 

1694 

1695 

1696 

1697 

1698 

1699 

1700 

1701 

1702 

1738 

1739 

1740 

1745 

1751 

1752 

1753 

1754 

1755 

1756 

1757-8 

1759 

1760 

1761-2 

1763 

1764 

1765 

1766 

1767 

1768-9 

1770 

1771 

1772 



Mr. Nicholas Wichehalse, Barthol. Delbridge. 

Mr. Alexander Robinson, John Courtice. 

Nathaniel Hardy, John Burgess. 

Stephen Squire, Thomas Pearce. 

Anthony Holland, John Vellacott. 

John Crocombe, John Parrett. 

John Crocombe, Gabriel Litson. 

Hugh Bromholme, Thomas Crocombe. 

Hugh Popham, Hugh Bromholme. 

Hugh Popham, John Knight. 

John Groase, jun., John Prous, jun. 

John Knight, John Dier. 

John Knight, Hugh Bromham. 

Philip Squire, Edmund Lang. 

William Knight, Jeffery Gamin. 

John Crocombe, John Knight. 

Thomas Dier, Robert HiU. 

John Knight, Alexander Rudd. 

George Pile, Walter Fry. 

George Pile, sen. 

Nicholas Pugsley, John Burgess. 

Peter Squire, Anthony Berry. 

David Bale, Hugh Bale. 

John Vellacott, Hugh Courtice. 

John Knight, David Knight. 

Amos Gamin, Richard Vellacott. 

John Knight, Richard Vellacott. 

John Knight. 

David Widden. 

Edward NichoUs, Richard Vellacott. 

John Knight, John Fry. 

Richard Crocombe, David Knight. 

Richard Crocombe, Richard Vellacott. 

Richard Crocombe, Andrew Richards. 

Richard Crocombe, John Groase. 

Edward Nicholls, William Litson. 

Edward Nicholls, David Hill. 

Edward Nicholls, Richard Crocombe. 

Edward Nicholls, John Knight. 

Richard Richards, Dorcas Spurrier. 

Philip Squire, Thomas Bar wick. 

Richard Vellacott, John Knight. 

Richard Vellacott, John Punchard. 

Richard Vellacott, John Groase. 

Richard Vellacott, David Hill. 

Richard Vellacott, John Groase. 

Richard Vellacott, David Hill. 

Philip Squire, Alexander Vellacott. 



208 



THE PARISHES OF LTNTON AND GOUNnSBUBT. 



1773 

1774 

1775 

1776 

1777 

1778 

1779 

1780 

1781 

1782 

1783-4 

1785 

1786 

1787 

1788 

1789 

1790 

1791-2 

1793 

1794-5 

1796 

1797 

1798-1800 

1801-3 

1804-5 

1806-7 

1808 

1809 

1810-11 

1812 

1813-15 

1816-17 

1818 

1819-20 

1821 

1822 

1823-31 

1832 

1833-4 

1835-6 



David Hooper, John Jones. 
David Ejiight^ Richard Jones. 
William Litson, Richard Jones. 
Edward Nicholls, Richard Yellacott. 
David Knight, John Jones. 
David Knight, Richard Yellacott. 
David Knight, £lizaheth Oliver. 
David Knight, John Litson. 
Hugh Yellacott, Richard Litson. 
John Knight, Hugh Yellacot. 
John Knight, Edward Nicholls. 
John Hooper, William Richards. 
John Hooper, John Delbridge. 
Richard Yellacott, John Knight. 
Richard Yellacott, John Yellacott. 
Richard Ward. 

William Squire, William Hill. 
Richard Hooper, Richard Yellacott. 
Richard Jones, John Rawle. 
John Ix>ck, sen., John Lock, jun. 
Richard Lord, Thomas Jones. 
William Litson, Richard Litson. 
John Clarke, William Litson. 
Richard Ward William Hill. 
David Knight, Timothy Wilkin?. 
Richard Delbridge, John Keal. 
Robert Thomas, John Lord. 
John Yellacott, Robert Thomas. 
Richard Jones, John Yellacott. 
John Squire, Thomas Jones. 
David Jones, John Ridd. 
John Delbridge, John Ridd. 
Charles Hooper, John Ridd. 
Charles Hooper, Richard Jones. 
John Keal, Richard Jones, jun. 
John Keal, John Crick. 
Thomas Baker, Timothy Wilkins. 
John Clarke, Richard Tucker. 
Richard Knight, Richanl Tucker. 
Richard Knight, Richard Jones. 



CHAPELS, ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

There seem to have been anciently several chapels of 
ease in the parish. The wording of the entries concerning 
them in the Episcopal Records is somewhat uncertain on 
account of the Latin contractions, but there were probably 



^A LL 



A 








1 1 


V 














M • 

1 ; 


A 

1 
i 






I-Tlt 


=r^ 




/ 


y 



PLAN 



ELEVATION 



SECTION 
A 



.ST(X:)P FROM CHAI'EL OF ST. JOHN THE IJAPTI8T, 
FURSEIIILL. 



liYNTON. — To jai-jf. p. 209. 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 209 

three, possibly four. The only one of which the site can be 
fixed with any certainty is the chapel of St. John the 
Baptist It lay on the north side of South Furzehill Farm- 
house in a field now called Chapel Close, and parts of its 
walls are still standing incorporated into a shed. On ex- 
amining the remains of it last year, in company with 
Mr. R. Hansford Worth, we found what was probably the 
stoop, with some perpendicular work still showing on it, 
used as a fowls' trough. Colonel Ramsay, the present 
occupier of South Furzehill, kindly took charge of it, and 
has placed it in front of his house. 

The licence for celebrating in it was granted 30 May, 
1390, to Walter Marwood, Esq., of Westcote Manor, Mar- 
wood, the owner of South Furzehill, and Richard Pasmere, 
of North Furzehill. The entry of it in the Episcopal 
Register is : — 

Item penultimo die ejusdem mensis apud Ilferdycombe 
Dominus concessit Licenciam Waltero Merwode et Ricardo 
Pasmere, quod possint facere, celebrari Divina, etc., in Capella 
Sancti Johannis Baptiste de Forshylle in Parochia de Lyntone 
situata, in singulis Festis ejusdem Sancti : per unum annum 
doraturam (Brantyngham, Reg., Vol. I, fol. 207b). 

The Walter Marwood mentioned here had previously, 
25 August, 1385, a licence for himself and Margery, his 
wife, to celebrate in the chapel or oratory in their mansion 
of West Marwood, in the parish of Marwood (Brant., 
VoL I, fol. 144). 

There were also in Lynton parish a chapel of St. Mary the 
Virgin, and probably two others, one dedicated to St. 
Euman, the other to St. Dionisius. Licence was granted 
14 April, 1402, for celebrating in these on the festivals of 
the saints to whom they were dedicated. The entry in the 
Episcopal Register is : — 

Item xiiij die Mensis predicti ibidem Dominus concessit 
licenciam ut in Capella Beate Marie Virginia infra parochiam 
de Lyntone Exoniensis Diocesis, etc., in festivitatibus ejusdem 
Viiginis ac in capet] [contraction for capellis. — F.C.H.R.] Sanc- 
torum Johannis Baptiste, Dionisii et Romani [i.e. Ruman. — 
F.C.H.R.] eciam infra eandem parochiam situar [Le. situatis. — 
F.C.H.R.] in festivitatibus dcorum scorum Divina per quoscumque 
presbiteros ydoneos absque prejudicio matricis ecctie valeant 
celebrari ad beneplacitum, etc. (Stafford, Vol. I, fol. 606). 

VOL. XXXVIII. O 



210 THE PARISHKS OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 

I have given this extract in full instead of the shortened 
form in which it appears in the published edition of Bishop 
Stafford's Begister, p. 240, and also with it notes on the 
abbreviations kindly furnished me by Canon F. C. Hingeston- 
Bandolph, as there is some ambiguity as to whether the 
latter part refers to three distinct chapels. He also informs 
me none of them were private or domestic chapels, nor was 
any of them a capella curata — simply chapels licensed for 
general use and convenience — chapels of ease as we call 
them now. I am unable to hazard any statement as to the 
exact sites, but probably one was at Ilkerton, another at 
Lyn. 

There are at present chapels of ease at Lynmouth and 
Barbrook, both of which were built by Eev. W. L. Lawson, 
curate from 1866 to 1886. The chapel of St. John the 
Baptist at Lynmouth has since 1886 been annexed with 
Lynmouth to the parish of Countisbury. It was built in 
1870, from plans by Mr. E. Dalby, at a cost of £1800 ; and 
the chapel of St. Bartholomew at Barbrook, served by the 
Lynton clergy, built in 1875. 

There are also places of worship of the Independents and 
Wesleyans. The first Independent chapel was founded by 
Mr. Jope, son-in-law of Mr. CoUard, who owned Combepark 
for a short time, in a.d. 1850, but there had been an Inde- 
pendent meeting from 1835. A new building has lately 
been erected for the use of this body in the Valley of Rocks 
Eoad by Sir George Newnes. The Wesleyan body dates 
from A.D. 1869, and was founded by Mr. W. P. Stapledon 
and Mr. John Gliddon, of Williton, the school chapel at 
Barbrook being built shortly after. 



PARSONAGE, GLEBE, AND TERRIERS. 

The old parsonage was a small cottage near the National 
School. In the terrier of 1680 Robert Triggs, the then 
curate, describes it as having become "uninhabitable by 
reasons of dilapidations and demolishments." John Brown- 
ing, curate in 1698, speaks of it as "a sorry house" 
(Walker MSS.). Neither of them had thought it fit for 
habitation, and consequently Mr. Triggs built a house for 
himself, which Mr. Browning purchased of him. The par- 
sonage being repairable by the lessees of the glebe and 
rectory, had been scandalously n^lected by them then. It 




THE OLD PARSONAGE, LYXTON. 



LVNTON.-ro/uC^ p. 211 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 211 

seems afterwards to have been put in some order, as I find 
in the " Penny Magazine " for 1844, an article called 
"Illustrations from Second Volume of Old England/' de- 
scribing it, says : — 

It is a representation of one of the smallest, quaintest, and 
most picturesque of parsonage houses. The parsonage house was 
built in 1560, and continued to be used till the commencement of 
the 18th century, when the incumbent, a man of some property, 
erected a larger house. That in so doing his heart was not 
puffed up with unseemly pride is tolerably evident from his cus- 
tom of riding about the lanes of the neighbourhood of the Valley 
of Stones on a Sunday before service to collect his flock together. 
Since his death the little parsonage house has been again used, but 
a later vicar having built a still handsomer residence than the 
house we have mentioned (which has been pulled down), we see 
the new standing in striking contrast with the old parsonage house 
beside it, which is now called Ivy Cottage, and with its stone stair- 
case and diminutive windows, has an air of great antiquity inside ; 
outside, geraniums in full blossom have been seen flourishing 
beneath its shade in the month of December. 



Accompanying these words is a small illustration of the 
old parsonage, Fig. 1617. I do not know if this passage is 
to be taken seriously, or what is the authority for giving 
1560 as the date of its erection. But it is full of inaccu- 
racies, as Nicholas Morrice, curate from 1619-72, was the 
last curate who resided in it. His successor, Anthony 
Williams, resided at Countisbury. Eobert Triggs built a 
house for himself, which he sold to John Browning, his suc- 
cessor. From 1734 to 1816 there was no resident perpetual 
curate (Edward Nicholls and Eichard Knight, curates-in- 
charge, the former for thirty years, the latter till 1800, both 
resided at West Lyn). 

Charles Kekewich, curate-in-charge and perpetucJ curate 
1808-32, resided in a house of his own at Lynmouth, now 
called Bonnicott, the new parsonage being built by the Eev. 
Matthew Mundy, curate from 1832-62, on a piece of 
land called The Acre, which with the long close and The 
Grazy was the curate's glebe, as distinct from the rectory 
glebe. 

The old parsonage was for many years the residence of 
the parish clerk, and was pulled down when the National 
School was built on its site by the Eev. Matthew Mundy in 
1844. The Grazy was added to the churchyard in a.d. 
1857. 

o2 



212 THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND OOUNTISBURY. 

There are terriers of the following years : — 

1610. Lynton and Countisbury glebe lands. 

1613. Boundaries of glebe and parishes. 

1680. Lynton and Countisbury. 

1727. Very much a copy of 1680, but a little fuller. 

1745. Exact copy of 1727. 

The terrier of 1727 is as follows : — 

A true and perfect terrier of the rectories and parsonages of 
Lynton and Countisbury, of the parsonage houses and glebe lands 
belonging to them respectively, together with the curates stipends 
how pay*d and otherwise the tithes how payable. Taken the 26*** 
day of March 1727 by the Curate and Churchwardens of the 
same parish. 

The parsonages and rectories aforesaid are a corps belonging to 
the Archdeaconry of Barnstaple. The right of nomination of 
Curate or Curates belonging unto the Archdeacon of the said 
Archdeaconry the patron thereof. The approbacon of the said 
Curate or Curates to the ordinary of the diocese for the time 
being. The Curates stipend antiently eight pounds p' ann for 
Lynton, the parsonage house there and three closes of land lying 
in Lynton Towne, and the herbage and shear of the Churchyard. 
The Curate's stipend of Countisbury was antiently six pounds 
p' ann the parsonage house and all the glebe lands containing by 
estimacion about fifty acres of ground as by the deed the lessees 
hold the Rectory by may appear, but now remains not above 
nineteen acres by computation. There is an augmentation of 
thirty-one pounds fifteen shillings per annu together with the 
moyety of the fishing tythe as it shall happen to become due to 
be taken by the curate or curates of the said parish or rectories for 
the time being by decree of the Commissioners for pious uses, 
which decree was afterwards confirmed by the High Court of 
Chancery. 

LYNTON. 

The ancient parsonage house lying in Lynton towne is become 
uninhabitable by reason of some dilapidations and demolishments 
which ought to be repaired by the lessees as by their deed doth 
appear. There are three closes of land belonging thereunto 
known by the name of the Longclose, the Acre, and the Grazy all 
of which together with the Churchyard are iDy estimacion two 
acres and a small herb garden. The house that is now standing 
consists part of stone part of mudd and the floor of earth and 
stone all covered with thatch. There is another tenement belong- 
ing to the lessees called by the name of Kebsworthy lyeing in 
Lynton parish aforesaid. The antient house being utterly ruined 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 213 

by fire and dilapidations. There are four dwelling houses still 
belonging to it and three out houses the floors partly paved and 
partly earth, several small herb gardens and three meadows and 
sevend pieces of land all round together containing by estimacion 
about one hundred acres of ground hedged partly by stone -wall 
and partly by frith and stakes all entirely within itself and 
bounded on the East side by the river Lyne on the West side by 
the lands of the tenement of Dean on the North with the Lyne 
town comon and on the North East with lands formerly belonging 
to Thomas Wichehalse Gent and Mary Bromholm widow. There 
belongs also to the said lessees three acres of wood in Lyne wood 
distinct and separate from the other. The tythe all payable in 
kind and mortuaries payable. The furniture of the Communion 
Table consists of a broadcloth carpet with a silk fringe a holland 
table cloth and a holland napkin a pewter basin and a small 
pewter dish a small silver paten and of late a large silver flagon 
containing Ave pints this inscription lohannes Knight Ecclesise 
Lyntoniensis D.D.D. 1725. 

The Clerk and Sextons wages are to be payd and the fences of 
the Churchyard to be repaired by the Churchwardens for the 
time being. 

John Browning curate. 



COUNTISBURY. 

The parsonage house hath in it three rooms known by the name 
of a Hall, a Chamber and a Kitchen, the walls part stone and part 
mudd, the floors part paved and part earth one out house knowne by 
the name of a stable and a very small herb garden. Tythes all 
payable in kind and mortuaries payable. The Glebe land belong- 
ing thereunto tho mencioned in the lessees deed to be by estimacon 
about fifty acres of ground is not now by estimacon above nineteen 
acres at most, bounded now by stone wall and joining on the North 
and East sides with the common on the south with the highway 
and on the west with the ground formerly belonging to Thomas 
Thome and William Fry. 

The furniture of the Communion Table consists of a Pewter 
Flagon a small silver patin and a two handled silver cup a broad 
cloth carpet with a silke fringe a holland table cloth and a holland 
napkin. 

The Clerk and Sexton's wages are to be payd and the fences of 
the Churchyard repaired by the Churchwardens for the time 



being. 



John Browning Curate 
Walter Kelly Churchwarden 
Richard Slocombe. 



214 THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND C0UNTI8BURT. 

The terrier of 1680 is signed "Ro Triggs curat ibid 
Nath Hardy Jo Burgess Chw of Lynton William Parkman 
Chwarden of Countisbury." that of 1745 "Ed Nicholls 
Curate David Widden Chwarden *' 

There are several leases of the rectory recorded in the 
Bishops* Act Books. The first I can find is that of 1580, 
when Henry Squire, Archdeacon of Barnstaple, leased the 
rectories of Lynton and Countisbury to Hugh Osbom, of 
Iddsley, with consent of William, Bishop of Exeter, for the 
lives of John Osborn, Jane Osbom, and Julian Osbom, and 
the survivors of them. Osbom's connexion with Lynton arose 
from his marriage with Elizabeth, widow of Walter Popham, 
and his daughter Jane's marriage with Hugh Popham. 

The lease was for a reserved rent of £17, and the lessee 
was at his own charges to provide a sufficient curate or 
curates, who were to say divine service, and to administer 
the sacraments and sacramentals to all parishioilers. 
R. Almadge, clerk, and John Stephyn were appointed to 
give the said Hugh Osbom seizin. 

The words "to say Divine Service and administer the 
sacraments and sacramentalls " are interesting as showing 
the medieval terms employed in Elizabethan days. 

The next lease is in 1609, when by an indenture dated 
8 April, 1609, between William Hellier, clerk, Archdeacon 
of Barnstaple, and Jasper Bridgman, and John Stofford, 
gentleman, William Hellier, reasonable considerations him 
moving, demises and grants all the rectories and parsonages 
of Lynton and Countisbury with all manner of messuages, 
lands, tenements, etc., to the said Jasper Bridgman and 
John Stafiford, gentleman, to have and to hold for the lives 
of Hugh Popham, Agnes Popham, children of Richard 
Popham, gentleman, and Hugh Mallet, son of Oliver Mallet, 
gentleman, and the longest liver, yielding and paying to the 
said William Hellier and his successors £14 at the four 
usual feasts at the south porch of the Parish Church of Lynton; 
the lessees to repair the chancels, mansions, houses, etc., 
to find two able and sufficient curates for the cures of the 
said parishes as shall by the ordinary be admitted and 
allowed, the curate of Lynton to be paid £8, and to have the 
house, court, and garden, and three closes of land in 
Lynton; one house, where Edward Woode now dwelleth, 
and herbage of the churchyard ; the curate of Countisbury 
£6, and the parsonage house and glebe land of fifty acres 
and shear of the churchyard; lessees also to provide a 
preacher once a quarter. 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 215 

In the " Valor Eoclesiasticus," temp. Henry VIII, the tithe 
and glebe were estimated as worth £12 per annum. 

Dignitates in Eccria CatheT p diet : 

Aich'm Baz 

Unde Thomas BrerewoJe est archius val* coibz a" videlit. 

In dec & p fie eccliaz de Lynton et Contysbery in pdco com* 
Devon appriat* eidm archio p an. £XII. 

This system of leasing the rectory on lives was continued 
till quite lately, the last being that granted by Archdeacon 
Barnes to his own family. The result of this system was 
that the representatives of one archdeacon went on receiving 
the benefit of the glebe and tithe often for fifty or sixty 
years after his death, while successors in the archdeaconry 
got nothing but the small reserved rent; for instance, 
Archdeacon Hole granted a lease on three lives to his son 
the Eev. Eichard Hole, in 1776, for a nominal consideration, 
and in 1804 his descendants sold the remainder of their 
lease for £2000 to Mr. John Lock, of Lynton. 

On the expiration of Archdeacon Barnes's lease the glebe 
and tithe, which had been commuted for £270 for Lynton 
and £105 for Countisbury, came into the hands of the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and through the efiforts of the 
Bev. W. L. Lawson the Lynton part was given as an 
endowment for the perpetual curacy or vicarage of Lynton, 
the nomination of the incumbent being transferred to the 
bishop of the diocese. 

In the terrier there is a notice of an augmentation of 
£31. 15s. and a moiety of the fishing tithe. This, I find, was 
given in 1662, when James Smith, D.D., who had been 
appointed to the vacant archdeaconry at the Eestoration, by 
deed dated 20 February, 14 Charles II, demised to George 
Potter, of Exeter, merchant, the rectories and parsonages of 
Lynton and Countisbury, with all their lands, messuages, 
tenements, etc., estimated then as being of the yearly value 
of £120, for the lives of Giles Mallett, Mary Bale, and 
John Popham, at a yearly rent of £17, the said George 
Potter to repair premises, pay curate of Lynton £8 per 
annum, who was also to have use of curate's house, closes 
of land, and house lately in possession of Edward Wood, 
etc., and the curate of Countisbury £6 per annum and all 
the Countisbury glebe, containing fifty acres and parsonic 
house, which land and house were then estimated at £5. lOs. 
per annum ; and also before the making of the deed James 
Smyth, D.D., agreed with George Potter that one moiety of 



216 THE PARISHES OF LYKTON AND COUNTISBUBT. 

the benefit of the said rectories should be yearly paid 
to such persons as should be lawfully appointed to serve 
the said cures by way of augmentation of their stipend. 

It appears that George Potter sold his lease to Giles 
Mallett, Gawen Evans, John Bale, and John Slee, who 
refused to pay this augmentation to the then curate, Robert 
Triggs. On this Mr. Triggs took proceedings to enforce his 
rights, and on 11 September, 1679, a writ was issued by the 
Commissioners for Pious Uses to Thomas Lamplugh, Bishop 
of Exeter, Sir Edward Seymour, Sir Henry Hele, Sir 
Courtney Poole, and others to inquire into the matter ; and 
an inquisition was held at Exeter on 23 June, 1680, before 
the Bishop, Sir Arthur Northcote, John Copplestone, D.D., 
Thomas Long, clerk, and Eichard Lee, Esq., who awarded 
that there was due to Robert Triggs £31. ISs. per annum 
and £35. 7s. 2d. arrears. And at a court held at the Castle 
of Exeter the Bishop and others ordered Giles Mallett and 
the other lessees to pay the sums mentioned above, as well 
as the stipends, to Robert Triggs, and the augmentation of 
£31. 15s. to all other curates of Lynton and Countisbury as 
long as they were there C" Charitable Uses," Devon, 32 Chas. 
II, Inq. Bundle 39, n. 1). At the same time the moiety of 
fishing tithes was granted to the curate, and Mr. Triggs seems 
to have found difficulty in collecting them, as two years 
after (34 Chas. II) he filed an exchequer bill respecting them 
against Richard Whiddon. John Reed, William Zellack. Hugh 
Coats, David Knight, Marian Zachary, and David Bale. 

Although Mr. Triggs was somewhat contentious for 
his rights he should be remembered with gratitude, as it 
was owing to his action that the moiety of the glebe and 
tithe was secured for the curate, and this right formed the 
basis of the Rev. W. L. Lawson's successful appeal to the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners nearly two hundred years after. 

I had hoped that from Lynton having been associated 
with the Archdeaconry of Barnstaple for nearly six hundred 
years, there might have been several documents in the 
archives of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter that might 
have shed some light on the Lynton ecclesiastical history 
between 1300 and 1500, but a search, kindly made by Mr. 
Mugford, shows there are only the following : — 

No. 1 2 1 1 . A.D. 1 426. Dean and Chapter to Thomas Baxter, Rector 
of Countisbury, and others lease of tithes for tliree years. 

No. 2846. A.D. 1662. Bond of George Potter, of Exeter, mer- 
chant, to James Smyth, Archdeacon of Barnstaple, for 
augmentation of livings of Lynton and Countisbury. 



THE PABISHE8 OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 217 
COUNTISBURY. 

The ecclesiastical history of Countisbury, like the 
manorial, is so mixed with that of Lynton that it is almost 
impossible to separate them, and most of it has been given 
under the head of Lynton, with which it was so long 
united. 

It appears, however, that Countisbury had a separate 
curate or vicar of its own till the year 1672, when it became 
united to Lynton, to be separated again in 1858, when, by 
an Order in Council dated 7 May, the incumbent of Lynton, 
Rev. M. Mundy, having consented, it was made a separate 
living, the patronage having been vested in John Bartholo- 
mew, in right of his archdeaconry. This order was regis- 
tered at the registry of the diocese on 2 June, 1858, and 
forthwith came into operation : the perpetual curacy of 
Countisbury being then vacant, the Rev. John Henry Wise, 
B.A,, was licensed on 1 November. The following is as 
perfect a list of the perpetual curates of Countisbury as it is 
possible to give : — 

1606. John Parkmann. 

All I can find of him is that he signs the transcripts of 
the registers in 1607, 1610, 1624, 1633, and also the parish 
boundaries of Countisbury in 1613; appeared at Visitations 
1622, 1631. 

William, son of John Parkmann, baptized 10 April, 1633. 

1635(?). Anthony Wiluams. 

Signs the transcripts in 1638, and appeared at the Visita- 
tion that year. Does not appear to have been a graduate of 
any university. He remained at Countisbury all through 
the Civil War. John Browning speaks of him as " a man 
of very obscure note.'* Became also Curate of Lynton on 
the death of Nicholas Morrice. His orders seem to have 
been considered doubtful, as there is a memorandum against 
his name in the " Visitation List," to call for orders within 
about three weeks at Exeter, it being dubious, and also the 
further note " afterwards appeared and showed orders " ; he 
signed the Declaration of Conformity 10 September, 1662 ; 
excused at Visitation 1677, "valde senex"; died in 1678, 
and buried at Countisbury. 

Anthony Williams, Clarke, buried 14 November, 1678. 

1679. ROBEBT Triggs (see Lynton curates). 



218 THB PARISHES OF LYNTON AND CX)UNTISBUBT. 

1698. John Bbowninq, bjl (see Lynton curates). 

1730. John Shbrgold, ra. (see Lynton curates). 

1734 Thomas Steed, b.a. (see Lynton curates). 

1765. Joshua Hole, m.a. (see Lynton curates). 

1785. Richard Hole, b.c.l. (see Lynton curates). 

1792. Tho>us Ley, b.a. (see Lynton curates), 

1816. Charles Kekewich, b.a. (see Lynton curates). 

1832. Matthew Mundy, m.a. (see Lynton curates). 

1858. John Henry Wise, b.a. 

Licensed 1 November, 1858, on the nomination of John 
Bartholomew, M.A., Archdeacon of Barnstaple; bom at 
Blandford Forum 20 June, 1818 ; St. Peter's College, Cam- 
bridge; B.A. 1840; Curate Thorpse-cum-Aldeburg 1842, 
Hankerton, Wilts, 1844; Rector of Brendon 1855; married 
5 December, 1850, Frances Ann, daughter of Eev. Charles 
Tripp, D.D., Rector of Silverton ; died 12 December, 1883 ; 
buried at Brendon. 

1886. Albert Richards Hockley. 
Licensed to Countisbury, with Lynmouth, 27 July, 1886, 
on the nomination of the Crown, by lapse, the living having 
been vacant for three years, Lynmouth, part of the parish 
of Lynton, having been annexed to Countisbury by an 
Order in Council dated 26 June, 1886; Vicar of Clyst 
Honiton, 1902. 

1902. Walter Allen Lewis, m.a. 

Licensed to Countisbury, with Lynmouth, 17 September, 
1902, on the nomination of the Bishop; son of Henry 
Lewis, of Clifton; Trinity College, Dublin; B.A. 1875; 
M.A. 1886 ; Curate, St. Luke's, Sheffield, 1876, Kirk Ella 
1877, Wakefield 1878 ; Vicar of Thomes, 1886 ; Vicar of 
St. Mark's, Ford, 1891 ; Vicar of Uffculme, 1897 ; married 
9 July, 1889 (Yeadon, Yorks), Annie Phoebe Campbell, 
daughter of A. N. Briggs, Esq., Eawden Hall, Yorks. 

Margaret Campbell, daughter of Eev. W. A. Lewis and 
Annie Phoebe Campbell his wife, baptized 22 October, 1892 
(St. Mark's, Ford). 

Arthur Milton, son of Eev. W. A. Lewis, baptized 6 Feb- 
ruary, 1895 (Ford). 

John Walter, son of Eev. W. A. Lewis, baptized June, 
1896 (Ford). 



THB PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 219 

COUNTISBURY PARISH CHURCH AND ITS RECORDS. 

The parish church of Countisbury is stated by Colonel 
Harding, on the authority of Rev. George Oliver, to be 
dedicated to St. John the Baptist. It consists of a chancel, 
nave, north aisle, and tower. The present building is of 
little interest, and has no ancient architectural features, the 
oldest part of it only dating from 1796. 

Owing to its exposed situation the old building, in spite 
of the frequent repairs to which the churchwardens' accounts 
bear witness, became so dilapidated that the parishioners, in 
vestry assembled on 1 June, 1796, decided to pull down the 
nave and rebuild it. The specifications state that the roof 
was to be new timbers and slates ; the inside of roof to be 
arched, lath and plastered ; the walls to be rebuilt as far as 
was necessary ; two new windows to be fixed, one on the 
south side and one on the north. This was apparently done 
without any architect by local workmen under the super- 
vision of the chief parishioners — Richard Slocombe. of 
Ashton and Hall ; John Fry, of Wilsham ; William Lock, 
of East Limmouth ; and Richard Crocombe, of Windgate — 
the money being raised by seventy-four church rates. The 
expenses included £4. 4s. paid to Nicholas Parkin for " New 
drawing the Commandments." and shortly after a further 
sum of £7. 9s 9d. was paid to Mr. Nickals for '* painting the 
Lord's Prayer, the Commandments, and the Belief." And in 
1835-6 the tower also was taken down and rebuilt in the 
same manner at an expense of about £150, which was raised 
by church rates. Its height is thirty-six feet. 

The chancel was re-erected and the north aisle added in 
1846 by the Rev. W. S. Halliday at his own expense. 

In the tower there are three bells, the same number as 
are recorded to have been there at the taking of the inven- 
tory by the commissioners in the reign of Edward VI. They 
have, however, all been recast since that date. 

The inscriptions on the present ones are : — 
(i) I K 1826. 
(ii) John Kingston B. Water. 1790. 

(iii) Christopher Slocombe C Warden W ^ E. 1733. 

The churchwardens' accounts for 1732 record : — 

£ s. d. 
Pd for carrying up and down the Bell at Bristol . .086 
Pd for carges and expenses there concerning the bell .060 
Pd William Evans for casting of ye bell and for mettel 14 7 6 
Pd for ale when ye bell was carried up . .046 



220 THE PARISHES OF LTNTON AND C0UNTISBUE7. 

And in 1733 various entries for stocking the bells and 
making "ye wheels and carpenters work to right ye 
frame." 

And on 5 April, 1825, it was agreed between the in- 
habitants of Countisbury and Mr. John Kingston, of Bridg- 
water, bellfounder — Mr. Kingston agrees to recast the two 
smallest bells, paying one shilling per pound for the old 
metal, and he to charge one shilling and sixpence per pound 
for the new. The old metal to be delivered at Bridgwater 
and the new bells to be taken from thence at the expense of 
the parish. 

And in the accounts for 1827 are the entries : — 

£ 8. d. 
Paid John Kingstone for two new belU and hanging . 27 19 6 
Carring the Bells from Bridgewater to Minehead. .10 
John Smith going to Minehead after the Bells .0134 

Also several sums for work and timber on the frames. 

A previous recasting of a bell is mentioned in the church- 
wardens' accounts for 1681. 

A detailed account of the church plate is given in the 
report of the Church Plate Committee (** Transactions 
Devonshire Association," Vol XXXVII, p. 160). 

In the church there are tablets to Hugh Slocombe, died 
1 March, 1691, aged 80; Eichard Slocombe, 13 August, 
1692, aged 30 ; John Slocombe, 5 September, 1772, aged 61 
(the Slocombes were a yeoman family residing at Hall and 
Ashton); Sir Simon Stuart, 1813 ; and Ann, wife of F. Bard- 
well, 1850. 

The registers commence for baptisms, marri^^es, and 
burials in 1676, and there are transcripts of earlier entries 
for 1607, 1608, 1610, 1614, 1624, 1633, and 1638. 

The churchwardens' accounts commence in 1678. There 
is nothing particularly striking in these, except that beer 
was an indispensable adjunct to every parochial function. 
For instance : — 

1703. Pd when one fox was killed for beer 

Pd more for beare when one fox was killed . 
Pd for bear when two foxes were killed 
Pd when the ware a fox himting for beare 
Pd when the ware a fox hunting another time 

1718. Pd for bear to drinke ye king's helth on the Crowna 
tion day ...... 

Pd for ale ye fift of November 
Pd for ale for the foxhunters 

1721. Pd f or Beer for ye Dean Ruler 



«. 


d. 


. 2 





. 2 


6 


. 7 


6 


. 1 





. 


6 


I- 

. 1 





. 2 


6 


. 2 





. 


6 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 221 

Also beer when "ye Dean Euler visited/' and beer when the 
parish went to view the tower. It is interesting to note 
that ale for vestry meetings appears down to 1861, after 
which £1 per annum is allowed out of the churchwardens' 
funds for the expenses of the Lady-day vestry down to 1884. 
These expenses were the cost of a dinner at the Blue Ball 
Inn, at which the curate presided, supported by the church- 
wardens and all the ratepayers. 

The accounts for 1681, when £5 was paid the bellfounder 
for casting the bell and £3 for metal, show that it was cast 
in Countisbury, as among the various beer entries is : — 

Paid for beer when the bell founder talk with the parishioners 
for casting the bell, and beer when the bell was cast, and beer 
when the bell was taken out of the peet. Pd for six seemes of 
clay and bringing it from Laymouth. 

Also a payment for taking away the stones and filling the 
" peet " in the churchyard. 

From these accounts we gather that in 1679 the clerk's 
wages were 10s. and the sexton's 4s. These were gradually 
raised, the clerk's to £1. lis. 6d. and the sexton's to £1 ; the 
fox-catcher's wages were 15s. and the dog-whipper's 48. 
Other payments of interest are for killing wild cats, greys, 
and hedgehogs ; a toit for minister, keeping the ornaments 
of the church, salaries of dog-whipper, fox-hunter, etc., and 
repairs to the base viol appear down to 1866; the har- 
monium appeared in 1869. 

The ornaments of the church, recorded by the commis- 
sioners of 1549, are very scanty. The entry is : — 

f 36 pochia de Countisbery. 
iij bells in the Towre their, and one chalice comitted to the 
custody of Eichard ffrye John Buston David Rail and 
others the pisshen) their by indenter. 



The following is a list of the churchwardens of the parish. 


compiled from various sources 


J. It seems to have been the 


custom to have one only : — 






1607. Thomas Rawle. 


1615. 


Walter Moggis. 


1608. Anthony e Knight. 


1624. 


John Rawle. 


1609. Anthonye Ward. 


1625. 


Henry Kebbye. 


1610. John Thorne. 


1633. 


Walter Kelley. 


1611. Robert Whitfill. 


1634. 


John Blackmore. 


1613. George Bale. 


1638. 


William Fry. 


1614. Robert Bushton. 


1678. 


John Fry. 



222 



THE PABISHES OF LYNTON AND COUMTISBUBT. 



1679. 


William Fry. 


1739-40. 


Richard Bale. 


1680-1. 


William Parkmann. 


1741-2. 


Richard Litson. 


1682. 


Thomas Crocombe. 


1743-5. 


David Widden. 


1683. 


John Crocombe. 


1746. 


Richard Bale. 


1684-5. 


Hugh Slocombe. 


1747. 


John Thomas. 


1686. 


Hugh Knight. 


1748-9. 


Henry Litson. 


1687-8. 


Walter Thome. 


1750-1. 


John Fry. 


1689. 


Mr. Hugh Popham. 


1752-3. 


Richard Bale. 


1690-1. 


John Fry. 


1754-5. 


William Thomas. 


1692. 


Richard Bale. 


1756-8. 


Richard Litson. 


1693. 


William Parkmann. 


1759. 


Richard Kelley. 


1694. 


John Vellacott. 


1760-1. 


Richard Crocombe 


1695. 


Richard Bale. 


1762-4. 


Christopher Slo- 


1696. 


John Kelly. 




combe. 


1697-8. 


Richard Slocombe. 


1765. 


William Moggridge 


1699. 


Hugh Rawle. 


1766-7. 


Richard Bale. 


1700. 


Walter Thome. 


1768-9. 


William Bale. 


1701-2. 


Nicholas Thome. 


1770-1. 


William Hooper. 


1703. 


Thomas Fry. 


1772-4. 


Thomas Smith. 


1704-5. 


Richard Bale. 


1775-6. 


William Thomas. 


1706-9. 


Walter Thome. 


1777-9. 


John Fry. 


1710. 


Walter Kelly. 


1780-1. 


William Moggridge 


1711-13 


Richard Slocombe. 


1782. 


William Lock. 


1714. 


David Knight. 


1783-5. 


William Bale. 


1715. 


Richard Slocombe. 


1786-9. 


William Hooper. 


1716. 


'1 homas Thome. 


1790-3. 


William Fry. 


1717. 


William Bale. 


1794-5. 


William Bromham. 


1718. 


Hugh Street. 


1796-1800. John Fry. 


1719. 


John Fry. 


1801-2. 


Joseph Sloggett. 


1720. 


Richard Bale. 


1803-6. 


John Bale. 


1721. 


Thomas Fry. 


1807-20 


John Fry. 


1722. 


Richard Bale. 


1821-3. 


William Bale. 


1723. 


Peter Hooper. 


1824-30. 


John Fry. 


1724-5. 


Thomas Fry. 


1831-5. 


John Litson. 


1726. 


Walter Kelley. 


1836-7. 


John Palfreman. 


1727-8. 


Richard Slocombe. 


1838-9. 


William Fry. 


1729. 


David Knight. 


1840-1. 


John Litson. 


1730. 


Richard Slocombe. 


1842-8. 


John Palfreman. 


1731-3. 


Christopher Slo- 


1849. 


John Litson. 




combe. 


1850 1 




1734-5. 


Peter Hooper. 


to I 


John Jones. 


• 1736-8. 


William Knight, 


1890.) 





The glebe and other particulars and terriers have been 
dealt with under the head of Lynton. 



THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 223 

CHARITIES. 

LYNTON. 

I. William Litson by will bearing date 20 March, 1763, 
gave to the poor of Lynton not having parish relief £5. lOs 
per annum, to be distributed in bread on Good Friday, 
excepting 2s., which for twenty-one years was to be given 
to the family of Robert Graham. This charity was carried 
on till 1814, when the Litson family discovered it was void 
under the Mortmain Act, being charged on his real estate. 

II. Knight, of West Lyn, gave £5 for the poor to be 
paid into the parish stock; this has disappeared since 
1803. 

III. John Groves gave by his will dated 1769 a rent charge 
of £5 per annum for a school, and on 7 December, 1770, a 
trust deed for the appointment of a schoolmaster was 
enrolled, the Rev. Edward Nicholls and others being 
appointed trustees (Close Roll, 10 George III, Pt. 5, No. 1). 
This bequest was also afterwards held invalid under the 
Mortmain Act. 

IV. John Clarke, surgeon, of Lynton, by his will in 1877 
left twenty £5 shares in the Lynton Water Company, the 
interest of which was to be annually distributed among the 
poor of Lynton at Christmas. It is now vested in trustees, 
and the interest (£8) distributed by them in accordance with 
the trusts. 

COUNTISBURY. 

V. The poor have the interest of £500, which was 
left by the will of the Rev. W. S. Halliday, of Glenthorne, 
in 1871. 

SCHOOLS. 

The first school for the poor was founded by the Rev. 
Edward Nicholls, Curate of Lynton and Countisbury 1740 
to 1785 ; at his death, and owing to failure of the trust of 
1770, it was dropped. Another was started in 1818 by the 
Rev. Charles Kekewich, curate, assisted by the Hon. Mrs. 
Knight, wifeof John Knight, Esq., who had purchased Exmoor. 
On the Rev. Matthew Mundy becoming curate in 1832, the 
old vicarage was pulled down and a school-house built on its 
site, the work being completed in 1844, Mr. Mundy having 
made a grant of the glebe and ground to trustees for that 
purpose in 1843 ; it was supported entirely by voluntary con- 
tributions raised by Rev. Matthew Mundy. In 1867 a house 



224 THE PARISHES OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURT. 

for the master was added ; in 1871 the school was enlarged 
by Rev. W. L. Lawson ; and in 1901 a large new room was 
added by the Rev. W. E. Cox. 

A school was also opened in Lydiate Lane in 1835 by 
members of the Independent body. On the parish school 
being opened at Lynmouth it was closed, the staflF being 
transferred to Lynmouth school. 

The school at Countisbury was erected in 1845 by the 
Rev. J. J. Scott, of Combe Park. 



ON CERTAIN DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE 
HISTORY OF LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 

BT RET. J. F. CHANTER, H.A. 

(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



APPENDIX. 

No. 1. 
ROTULI CURIiE REGIS, HILARY TERM, 1 JOHN. 

Memb. 7 (a). Pleas of the term of St. Hilary in the first 
year of Kin<4 John. . . . 

Memb. 11 (a). Pleas in three weeks after the feast of St. 
Hilary. . . . 

Memb. 12 (a). Devonshire. Henry de Traci, son of William 
de Traci, came into the court of the Lord the Eling and made 
his charter to the abbey and convent of Ford, the tenor of 
which is that the same Henry for the health of his soul and 
(the souls) of his father and mother and all his ancestors and 
successors gave and granted unto God and the church of St. 
Mary of Ford, and the monks there serving God in pure and 
perpetual alms, the land of Countisbury with the land of 
Leoford and all other its appurtenances and all his right 
which he had in the land of Clistwick, which was the mar- 
riage portion of his mother ; and moreover he granted to the 
same monks those lands which they held of the Fee of Bra- 
hancis before he recovered his inheritance, to wit the land of 
Linton with the service of the lands of Furssil and the Land 
of Colebroc with common of pasture of Brahancis for three 
hundred sheep and twenty beasts free and quit of all secular 
services and exaction as pure alms, and that he will demean 
himself peacibly toward the same monks, and that he will 
not disturb them or their men or their tenements, and this 
he took oath and swore that he would faithfully observe. 

To these witness 
H. Arbp. Cantuar. Lord G. Fitzpeter. Walter de Bocland. 
Endorsed Roll 12. (S.M.) 

VOL. XXXVHL P 



226 DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE HISTORY OF 

No. 2. 

HUNDRED ROLL, 3 EDWARD I (A.D. 1274-6). 

Inquisition made by precept of the Lord the King in the 
County of Devon concerning rights and liberties, etc. 

No. 31, Verdict of the Hundred of SyrewelL 

The Jurors, Henry Lovett, William Cofifyn, John Sorel, 
Philip de Hole, Reginald de Lipi, Robert de Wellecumbe, 
Walter de Hole, William Banel, Hugh de la Byrche, Walter 
Bregge, Walter de Sebrescote, and William de Stakescote say 
upon their oath ... 

They say that Richard de Bellomonte holds the Manor of 
Syrewell, etc., etc., and they say also that the aforesaid 
Richard de Bellomonte has assize of bread and beer and 
gallows in his aforesaid Manor of Syrewell, etc., etc., etc. 
And the Abbot of Ford has assize of bread and beer in his 
Manor of Countisbury ; also Robert Beapel has assize of bread 
and beer and gallows at Brendon, and Henrjr Lovet and 
Reginald de Lyn have assize of bread and beer in the manor 
of Lyn, and likewise gallows by ancient tenure from the 
Conquest, etc., etc. 

Also they say that Alexander the BailiflF of the Lord Earl 
of Cornwall distrained the men of the Abbot of Ford of 
Lynton to do a certain suit at the Earl's court of Braneys, 
and to have peace took eight shillings and one ox value six 
shillings and iron value three shillings two pence and one 
halfpenny of the aforesaid men unjustly when no suit used 
to be done at the court aforesaid. Concerning the other 
chapters they know nothing. (S.M.) 

No. 3. 

ASSIZE AND QUO WARRANTO ROLLS, 9-10 EDWARD I 

(A.D. 1281-2). 

Pleas of the crown before Salomon de Rofife and his fellow 
Justices itinerant at Exeter in the County of Devon on the 
Octave of St. Martin on the 9th and beginning of the 10th 
year of the reign of King Edward. 

Roll 11. The Hundred of Shyrewell comes by twelve 
jurors ; concerning those who claim liberties they say that the 
hundred belongs to Richard de Beaumont, in the same he 
claims to have gallows, assize of bread and beer, tumbrel, 
view of Frankpledge and weyf, etc., etc. And the Abbot of 
Forde claims to have the same liberties in his manor of 
Lynton, and the aforesaid Richard come and say they have 



LYNTON AiJD COUNTISBURY. 227 

fully used the same liberties, etc., etc. And the Abbot 
comes not, therefore let the liberties aforesaid be taken into 
the hands of the Lord the King so that they should use them 
not until, etc., etc. (S.M.) 



EX PLACITA DE QUO WARRANTO (9 EDWARD I), 
p. 168, County of Devon (Eec. Comm.). 

The Abbot of Ford was summoned to answer to our Lord 
the King touching a plea by what right he claims to have 
view of Frankpledge, gallows, fines for breach of the assize of 
bread and beer in Countisbury (Kentisbury) and Thorncombe 
without licence. 

And the Abbot appearing by his attorney says that as 
regards view of Frankpledge and gallows in Countisbury he 
makes no claim, and as to fines for breach of the assize of 
bread and beer in the same manor (villa), and as to fines for 
breach of the assize of bread and beer broken and view of 
frankpledge and gallows in Thorncombe, he says that he and 
all his predecessors time out of mind have had the fines of 
the assize of bread and beer in Countisbury and view of 
frankpledge and fines of assize of bread and beer and gallows 
in Thorncombe, and he asks that this may be inquired into. 

And Walter de Giselham, etc., says that liberties of this 
kind especially belong to the crown of our Lord the King, 
and on the ground that he does not show any warrant from 
our Lord the King, he asks for judgment. A day was fixed 
for the hearing (ei) before the King one month after Easter, 
wherever the King might be, etc., for hearing his decision, 
etc. 

pp. 172, 173. Henry Lovet and Eoger de Lyn were sum- 
moned to answer to our Lord the King touching a plea by 
what right they claim to have gallows, view of frankpledge, 
fines for breach of the assize of bread and beer in Lyn with- 
out licence, etc. 

And Henry and Eoger appear and say that Lyn is within 
the precinct of Scherewell hundred, which is Eichard de 
Beaumont's. 

And as to view of frankpledge, they say they have nothing 
therefrom, nor do they make any claim thereto, because the 
same Eichard has that liberty. 

And as to fines of the assize of bread and beer in Lyn, they 
say that Lyn is within the precinct of the hundred of the 
aforesaid Eichard, where nothing can accrue to the King, and 
they ask for judgment if they must answer him thereanent. 

p2 



228 DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE HISTORY OF 

And Walter de Giselham, who follows on the King's be- 
half, asks for judgment against the aforesaid Henry and 
Koger as having no defence on the ground that they show 
no warrant therefor. Afterwards the aforesaid Henry and 
Roger did not appear. Whereupon order was given to the 
sheriff to distrain them by all writs, etc., and as to the 
issue, etc., and to produce their bodies before our Lord the 
King one month after Eawter, wherever the King might be, 
etc., for hearing his decision, etc. (0. J. R) 

No. 4. 

INQ. P.M., 9 HENRY IV, No. 42 (A.D. 1408). 
[Abstract.] 

Inq. taken at Exeter on Wednesday next before feast of 
Nativity B.V.M., 9 Hen. IV., before Nicholas Bromford, es- 
cheator of the Lord King in co. Devon, by the oath of John 
Dauney, John Vautort and others, who say that William 
Bonevyle, chevaler, held on the day that he died in the said 
county the Manors of Leveneston, Woodbury and ... to- 
gether with the advowson of the said town of Leveneston by 
the law of England after the death of Margaret, late his wife, 
of the inheritance of William, son of John, son of the said 
William Bonevyle and Margaret. . . . 

The said William Bonevyle held on the day that he died, 
jointly with Alice his wife who still survives, the Manors of 
Lynton and Countisbury with appurtenances for the term 
of their lives and the survivor of them of the grant of 
William Abbot of the monastery of Ford and the convent 
of the same place, paying yearly to the said Abbot and his 
successors £6. 13s. 4d. at Christmas and Midsummer for all 
services as by a certain indenture under seal of said Abbot 
and convent is shown, and after decease of said William 
Bonevyle, chevaler, and Alice, manors shall remain to William, 
son of said William Bonevyle, knight, to hold for the term of 
his life. The said manors of Lynton and Countisbury are 
held of the said Abbot by the said rent and are worth per 
ann. clear 40s. 

William Bonevyle, knight, died on the feast of St. Valentine 
last p6Lst without heirs by the said Alice his wife ; the said 
William, son of John, is his kinsman and next heir, viz. son 
of John, son of said William Bonevyle, chevaler, and on 
the morrow of St. Michael last past was aged 16 years and 
more. 



LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 229 

No. 5. 

RECORDS OF COURT OF AUGMENTATIONS: MINISTERS' 

ACCOUNTS, 81-32 HENRY VIII, No. 89, M. 72. 

The late monastery of Ford. 

The accounts of all and singular the Baili£fs, Keeves, 
farmers and others accountable, of all and singular, the Lord- 
ships, manors, lands and tenements and other the possessions 
whatsoever as well spiritual as temporal to the same late 
monastery pertaining or belonging, to wit from the feast of 
St Michael the Archangel in the 31st year of the reign of 
King Henry the 8th to the same feast of St. Michael the 
Archangel thence next following in the 32nd year of the 
same King, to wit for one whole year as below. 

Inter alia. 

Lynton and Countyshurys, The account of the aforesaid 
John Chidly, Bailiff there for the time aforesaid. 

Arrears, none, as is more fully contained in the foot of the 
last account next preceeding. g^^^ ^^^ 

Rents of the free tenants in Lynton. 

But he renders account of 7s. Id. of all the rents of free 
tenants there, yearly payable at the feast of St. Michael the 
Archangel as appears by divers accounts thereof examined 
upon this account. ^^^^ 7g ^^ 

Bents of Customary tenants in Lynton. 

And of £4. 3s. 2d. Of all the rents of customary tenants 
there yearly payable at the four principal terms of the year 
by equal portions, as appears by divers accounts thereof 
examined upon this account. gmj^ £4^ 3g^ 2d. 

Rents of Customary tenants in Countisbury. 

And of £9. Os. 8d. of all the rents of customary tenants 
there yearly payable at the aforesaid terms as appears by the 
accounts aforesaid. ^^^^ ^^ 0^^ gj 

Perquisites of courts. 

Of any profit happening or giving of perquisites of courts 
held there this year he does not render account, because no 
courts were held there for the time of this account by the 
oath of the said accountant. ^^^ ^^^^ 

Total sum of Receipts, £13. 10s. lid., 

of which 
Stipends. The same accounts in the stipend of the auditor's 
clerk writing this account as it is accustomed to be allowed 



230 DOCUMENTS RXLATXKO TO THK BISTORT OF 

to the auditors clerks of the Lord the King of his duchy of 
Lancaster, to wit in the like allowance as it is allowed in the 
preceeding years, 28. Sum, 2a 

Delivery of money. And in money by the said accountant 
delivered to Thomas Arundel, knight, Receiver of the Lord 
the King there, of the issues of his office of this year without 
bill, but only by his acknowledgement upon this account, 
£12. 12s. 3d. 

Sum of allowances and deliveries aforesaid, £12. 148. 3d. 
And he owes 16s. 8d., which is allowed to him for one new 
mill-stone bought this year by the said accountant and 
provided for the mill of Countisbury by his oath upon this 
account. 

And it is even 

No. 6. 
MINISTERS* ACCOUNTS, 36 & 36 HENRY VIII, No. 183, M. 68. 

Similar to last. 

John Chidley is still Bailiflf. 
Arrears, none. Free tenants Lynton, 7s. Id. 
Customary tenants, £4 3s. 2d. 
Customary tenants Countisbury, £9 Os. 8d. 
Perquisites of Courts. 

And of the 468. lid. of perquisites of courts held there 
this year with 20s. of the fine of the land of John Sloley, 
20s. of heriots, Ss. 4d. of farleus, and 3s. 7d. of other per- 
quisites, as appears by the rolls- of the same shown and 
examined upon this account. Sum, 46s. lid. 

Sum total of the charge aforesaid, £15. 7s. lOd., of which 
there is allowed 2s. for the stipend of the Auditor's Clerk 
writing this account, as it is allowed in the preceeding year. 
And to the same 6s. 8d. for the expenses of the Steward, 
clerk of the Court, and other officers of the Lord the King 
being at the Court aforesaid this year holden, as appears by 
the rolls of the same, shown and examined upon this account, 
and he owes £15. 9s. 2d., of which he delivered to Thomas 
Arundell, knight, Receiver of the Lord the King thereof, the 
issues of his office this year without bill, but only by his 
acknowledgement by this account, £14. 9s. 2d. 

And he owes 20s. 

The whole 
upon John Sloley for his fine made with him this year, being 
still in arrear unpaid, because he has a day of payment 
thereof until the next account. 208. 



LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 231 

No. 7. 

OOUET OF EXCHEQUER: MINISTERS* ACCOUNTS, 6-6 PHILIP 
AND MARY, 1 ELIZABETH, No. 9, M. 16 DORSO. 

The County of Devon. 

The accounts of all and singular the Bailififs, Eeeves, 
Farmers, and Collectors of all and singular the Honours, 
Castles, Lordships, manors, hundreds, lands, and tenements 
and other the possessions and hereditaments whatsoever in 
the county aforesaid, lately in the governance of the late 
court of the Augmentations and Revenues of the Eoyal 
Crown, to wit from the feast of St. Michael the Archangel in 
the 5th and 6th years of the Reigns of Philip and Mary to 
the same feast of St. Michael the Archangel in the first year 
of our most dear Lady the Queen that now is, to wit for one 
whole year as below. 

To wit, Fourd, late Monastery. 

The account of John Chidleighe, Bailiflf, there for the time 
aforesaid. 

Arrears, None, as in the foot of the last year for the time 
preceeding. Sum, none. 

Rent of the free Tenants in Lynton, 

But he answers of Ts. Id. of all the rent of assize of all the 
free tenants there yearly payable at four terms of the year 
equally. Sum, 7s. Id. 

Rent of Customary Tenants there. 

And of £4. 3s. 2d. of all the rents of customary tenants 
there yearly payable at four terms of the year equally. 

Sum, £4 3s. 2d., examined. 

Rent of customary Tenants in Oountisbye. 

And of £9. Os. 8d. of all the rent of the customary tenants 
there yearly payable at four terms of the year equally. 

Sum, £9. Os. 8d., examined. 

Perquisites of Court. 

And of 20s. lOd. of perquisites of courts there held as 
appears by the estreats thereof delivered by John Chudley, 
Steward there. Sum, 20s. lOd., examined. 

Sum of the charge aforesaid, £14. lis. 9d., examined, ofl 
which there is allowed to him 73s. 4d. for the fee of John 
Chudleighe, Bailiffe there, and of the Manor of Thornecombe, 
with other things so to him granted for the term of his life 



232 DOOUICENTS RBIATINO TO THE HI8T0BT OF 

by letters patent as it is said, to wit in the like allowance in 
this year as in the preceeding, and to the same 28. for the 
stipend of the Auditor's Clerk writing this account this year 
as in the preceeding. And he owes £10. 16s. 5d. (examined), 
which he delivered to John Ayleworthe, Esquire, receiver 
there by the acknowledgement of the said receiver upon this 

*^"°^- And he is quit. 



No. 8. 

COURT OF EXCHEQUER: MINISTERS' ACCOUNTS, 1-2 ELIZABETH, 
No. 7, M. 16 DORSO. 

County of Devon. 

The accounts of all and singular the BailifiFs, Beeves, 
Farmers, Collectors and Bedels of all and singular the 
Honors, castles, lordships, manors, hundreds, lands, tene- 
ments and others the possessions and hereditaments what- 
soever in the county aforesaid lately in the governance of 
the late Court of the Augmentations and revenues of the 
Royal Crown, to wit from feast of St. Michael the Archangel 
in the Ist year of the reign of the Lady Elizabeth by the 
grace of God of England, France, and Ireland, Queen, Defender 
of the Faith, etc., unto the same feast of St. Michael the 
Archangel in the second year of the said Lady the Queen, to 
wit for one whole year as below 

to wit 
Fourd, late Monastery. 



Lynton and Countisbury. 

Of £13. 10s. lid. late arising and growing of the rent and 
farm of the whole manor aforesaid, to wit by the time of this 
account he does not answer, because the Lady Queen Eliza- 
beth by her letters patent dated the 5th day of July in the 
second year of her reign gave and granted to John Har- 
rington and George Burden all that Lordship and Manor 
of Lynton and Countesbury with all its rights, members and 
appurtenances to have to the same John and George and 
their assigns for ever, together with the issues thereof, from 
the feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past until this 
time arriving and growing. 

And so in discharge of the sum above. Sum, none. 



LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 233 

No. 9. 

PATENT ROLL, 2 ELIZABETH, P. 16, M. 17. 

For John Harrington and George Burden. 
A grant to them and their heirs. 

The Queen to all to whom, etc. 

Whereas our very dear father, Lord Henry VIII, formerly 
King of England, by his indenture under his seal of the late 
court of the Augmentations of the revenues of his crown, 
bearing date the 12th day of July in the 37th year of his 
reign, gave, granted, and to farm let to one John Scott, clerk, 
the Rectory of Islyngton, in the County of Norfolk, etc., etc., 
formerly belonging and pertaining to the late priory Blewjk- 
borowe in the said county of Norfolk then suppressed. To 
have and to hold the said Rectory, etc., for a term of 21 years, 
etc., the reversion and reversions of all, etc., to us our heirs 
and successors in full right belonging and pertaining. Know 
ye that we for a sum of one thousand five hundred and eight 
pounds two shillings and three pence of lawful money of 
England at the receipt of our Exchequer to the hands of 
Roger Alford, Esquire, one of the tellers in the same receipt 
of our exchequer, to our use by our beloved John Harrington, 
gentleman, and George Burden, gentleman, in hand well and 
faithfully paid, whereof we acknowledge ourselves to be duly 
satisfied and paid, etc., etc. 

Of our special grace and our certain knowledge and mere 
motion we have given and granted and by these presents for 
us our heirs and successors do give and grant to the aforesaid 
John Harrington and George Burden the reversion and re- 
versions of the aforesaid Rectory, etc., etc. We have given 
also and granted and for the consideration aforesaid by these 
presents for us our heirs and successors do give and grant to 
the aforesaid John Haryngton and George Burden all that 
our Lordship and Manor of Lynton and Countesbery and all 
those our Lordships and Manors of Lynton and Countesberic' 
with all their rights, members, liberties, privileges and appur- 
tenances in our County of Devon late parcel of the possessions 
and revenues of the late Monastery of Forde in our said 
county of Devon now dissolved. And all our Rectory and 
our Church of Ilsyngton, etc. 

And all our Rectory and our church of Wygenhall Saint 
Mary in our County of Norfolk formerly parcel of the pos- 
sessions and revenues of the late monastery of Westacre in 
the County of Norfolk and all the scite of the late house and 



234 DOCUMENTS RBLATINQ Ta THE HISTORY OF 

priory of the late Friars called Le Blackefryers in the city 
of Canterbury and all the land called Le Churcheyard and 
all the garden, etc., etc., etc., late parcel of the possessions 
of the late Archbishop of Canterbury and are now in our 
hands. And also all that capital, messuage, etc., called 
Stoughton Grange, etc., in county of Leicester, etc., parcel 
of possessions of Henry, late Duke of Suffolk, also our por- 
tion of tithes, etc., in Medboume, in county of Leicester, 
parcel of possessions of late monastery of Saint Albans, etc., 
and advowson, etc., of Rectory and parish Church of Rothinge, 
etc., Manor and Lordship of Stanton, co, Derby, etc., parcel 
of possessions of late Monastery of Dale, etc., etc. 

And also all and singular messuages, burgages, miUs, 
houses, buildings, tofts, cottages, barns, stables, dovecotes, 
yards, gardens, orchards, lands, tenements, meadows, feedings, 
pastures, commons, ways, footpaths, wastes, furzes, heaths, 
moors, marshes, ponds, weirs, fishponds, waters, fisheries, 
fishings, water-courses, woods, underwoods, rents, reversions, 
services, pasturages of sheep and courses and foldings of 
sheep, and all works, rents and customs as well of free as 
of customary tenants, and all lands, glebes, tithes, oblations, 
obventions, pensions and portions whatsoever, all courts leet, 
views of frankpledge and lawdays and perquisites of courts 
and leets and all things which to courts leet and views of 
frankpledge and to lawdays pertain or in future may belong, 
and goods and chattels waived, estrays, free warrens, goods 
and chattels of felons and fugitives, and of felons, of them- 
selves and of persons put in exigent, also knights' fees and 
wardships, marriage, escheats, reliefs, heriots, fines, amerce- 
ments, rents, charges, rents sec, assize and assay of bread, 
wine and beer and all stock, as well alive as dead, all other 
our rights, jurisdictions, franchises, liberties, privileges, profits, 
commodities, emolumeifts and hereditaments whatsoever, with 
all their appurtenances in the said city of Canterbury and in 
Lynton and Countesbury in our said County of Devon and in 
etc., etc., as fully, freely and wholly and in as ample and the 
like manner and form as any abbot or priors of the said late 
monasteries or priories, etc., etc., had, held or enjoyed or oi^ht 
to have had, held or enjoyed them, and as fully, freely, and 
wholly and in as ample a manner as the aforesaid Lordship 
and Manors, etc., by reason or pretext of the several dissolu- 
tions of the said monasteries and priories, etc 

Except always nevertheless out of this present grant 
altogether reserved all advowsons of Churches and all bells, 
and all the lead being of and in and upon the said premises, 



LYNTON AND 00UNTI8BURY. 235 

except the lead in the gutters and windows and except the 
said advowson of the Church of Rothinge Beacharape afore- 
said, To have, hold and enjoy the said reversions, etc., and 
the aforesaid Lordships, Manors, etc., etc., to the aforesaid 
John Harryngton and George Burden, their heirs and assigns 
for ever, etc. To hold the aforesaid Manor of Lynton and 
Countesbery with appurtenances of us our heirs and suc- 
cessors in capite by the service of one hundredth part of one 
knighf 8 fee. And to hold aforesaid rectories, etc., etc. 

And further of our more ample special grace and of our 
certain knowledge and mere motion and for the consideration 
aforesaid have granted and for us our heirs and successors 
and by these presents do grant to the aforesaid John Har- 
ryngton and George Burden their heirs and assigns that they 
may hold and enjoy in the aforesaid Lordships, manors, etc., 
the same, the like, the similar courts leet, views of frankpledge, 
and all things, etc., etc., as fully, freely, and wholly as . . . 
any abbots or priors of the said late monasteries, etc., etc., 
ever held, etc., by reason or pretext of any charter, gift, grant 
or confirmation, etc., or by reason or pretext of any prescrip- 
tive use or custom heretofore had or used, etc., etc., etc. 

In witness thereof the King at Westminster the fifth 
day of July. 

By writ of the Privy seal. 

No. 10. 
COURT OF CHANCERY CLOSE ROLL, 2 ELIZABETH, PART 9. 

Of a writing indented between John Harrington, George 
Burden and Nicholas Wychehalse. 

To all the faithful in Christ to whom this present writing 
indented shall come. John Harrington and George Burden 
of London, gentlemen, greeting in the Lord everlasting: 
Whereas our most famous and illustrious Lady Elizabeth, 
Queen of England, by her letters patent sealed with her 
great seal of England, bearing date at Westminster the fifth 
day of July in the second year of her reign, among other 
things gave and granted to us the aforesaid John Harrington 
and George Burden all that her Lordship and manor of 
Lynton and Countesbye with all their rights, members, 
liberties, privileges and appurtenances in the County of 
Devon, late parcel of the possessions and revenues of the 
late Monastery of Fourde in the said County of Devon now 
dissolved. And also all and singular messuages, burgages, 
mills, houses, buildings, tofts, cottages, bams, stables, dove- 



236 D0CUMKKT8 RKLATINQ TO THE HISTORY OF 

cotes, yards, orchards, gardens, lands, tenements, meadows, 
feedings, pastures, commons, ways, wastes of furzes, heaths, 
moors, marshes, ponds, weirs, fishponds, waters, fisheries, 
fishings, watercourses, woods, underwoods, rents, reversions, 
services, pasturages of sheep and courses and foldings of 
sheep, and all works, rents and customs, as well of free as 
of customary tenants, also courts leet, views of frankpledge, 
lawdays and perquisites of Courts and Leets and all things 
which to Courts leet and view of frankpledge and lawdays 
pertain or in future may belong, and goods and chattels 
waived, estrays, free warrens, goods and chattels of felons 
and fugitives and of felons of themselves, and of persons put 
in exigent, knights' fees, wardships, marriages, escheats, 
reliefs, heriots, fines, amercements, rent charges, rents sec, 
assize and assay of bread, wine and beer, and all stock as well 
live as dead, and all other her rights or jurisdictions, fran- 
chises, privileges, liberties, profits, commodities, emoluments 
and hereditaments whatsoever, with all their appurtenances 
in Lynton and Countesbery aforesaid in the said County 
of Devon to the said Lordship and Manors of Lynton and 
Countisbury in any manner belonging or pertaining. And 
the reversion and reversions whatsoever of all and singular 
the premises and of every parcel thereof, etc., etc. Except 
and altogether reserved all Advowsons of Churches and all 
Bells and all the lead being of and in and upon the premises 
except the lead in the gutters and windows. To have, hold 
and enjoy the aforesaid Lordships and Manors, messuc^es, 
lands, tenements and other all and singular the premises 
above expressed and specified with all their aforesaid 
appurtenances to us the aforesaid John Harrington and 
George Burden our heirs and assigns to the sole and proper 
use and behoof of us John and George and our heirs and 
assigns for ever, as by the same Letters Patent among other 
things more fully is shown and appears. 

Know ye that we the aforesaid John Harrington and 
George Burden for and in consideration of a certain sum of 
money to us by Nicholas Wychehalse of Barnstaple, in the 
said county of Devon, Merchant, well and faithfully paid, 
whereof we acknowledge ourselves to be fully satisfied and 
paid, and the same Nicholas Wychehalse, his heirs, executors, 
and administrators to be thereof acquitted and discharged 
by these presents, have sold, bargained, given, enfeoffed, 
delivered, and by this our present writing confirmed to the 
aforesaid Nicholas Wychehalse the aforesaid Lordship and 
Manor of Lynton and Countesbie, etc., etc., etc. To hold of 



LYNTON AND OOUNTISBURY. 237 

the Chief Lord of that fee by the service thereof first doe 
and of right accustomed. And we also, the aforesaid John 
Harrington and George Burden, do covenant and grant, etc., 
etc., that the aforesaid Nicholas Wychehalse, his heirs and 
assigns, shall receive and have, etc., etc., all rents, etc., etc., 
from the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel last past to 
this time growing, etc., etc., etc., etc. Robert Wychehalse 
and Thomas Sterte, Gentlemen, appointed attornies to enter 
upon and take possession, and after such possession and 
seizin to deliver possession and give seizin to Nicholas 
Whycehalse or his Attorney. In Witness, etc. 

Dated seventh day of July in the second year of the 
reign of the Lady Elizabeth by Grace of God of England, 
France and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, etc. 

And be it remembered 11th July in the present year 
John Harrington and George Burden came before the said 
Lady the Queen in her Chancery and acknowledged the 
aforesaid writing indented, etc. 



No. 11. 

RECORDS COURT OF CHANCERY. 

INQUISITION POST MORTEM, 12 ELIZ., No. 20. 

Elizabeth by grace of God, etc. 

To her escheator in the County of Devon greeting. 

Because Nicholas Wichehalse who held of us in capite 
died as we have heard we command, etc., etc. 

Witness myself at Gorambury the sixteenth day of 
September in the twelfth year of our reign. Ludlowe. 

Delivered to the Court the Twenty-ninth day of October 
in the year underwritten by the hand of John Marwood, 
(jentleman. 

DEVON. Inquisition indented taken at Chidley in the 
County aforesaid the second day of October in the Twelfth 
year of the reign of the Lady Elizabeth by the grace of God 
of England, France and Ireland Queen etc., etc. 

Before Bartholomew Pope, Esq., Escheator of the said 
Lady the Queen in the county aforesaid by virtue of a writ 
of the said lady the Queen of "diem clausit extremum*' 
after the death of Nicholas Wichehalse, senior, of Barnstaple, 
in the county aforesaid. Gentleman, to the same escheator 
directed and to this inquisition shown by the oath of Emanuel 



238 DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE HISTORY OF 

Drewe, Esquire, Thomas Huyt, gentleman, John Furseland, 
gentleman, Thomas Hunt, gentleman, John Geyre, gentleman, 
William Willes, Kichard Renolds alias Bennett, John Soper, 
Richard Lutton, gentleman, John Whitborne, John Woolcott, 
Nicholas Cove, William Lang, Richard Waltham, Humphrey 
Boringdon and John Ball of Northwood : 

Who say upon their oath that the aforesaid Nicholas 
Wichehalse in the aforesaid writ named, long before his 
death and on the day on which he died, was seized in his 
demesne as of fee of and in the Manors of Lynton and 
Countisbye, otherwise Countisbery, with appurtenances and 
of and in Thirty messuages. Two corn mills, thirty gardens, 
Four hundred acres of land, one hundred acres of meadow, 
two hundred acres of pasture, one hundred acres of wood, 
one thousand acres of furze and heath, and twenty shillings 
of rent with appurtenances in Lynton and Countisbye, 
otherwise Countisbery, in the County aforesaid, and of 
common of pasture for all animals on Exmoor in the said 
county of Devon. 

And of and in the Manor of Maydenford with appurten- 
ances, and of and in three messuages, three gardens, three 
orchards, Twenty acres of land, ten acres of meadow, twenty 
acres of pasture, four acres of wood, ten acres of furze and 
heath, and 6s. 8d. of rent with appurtenances in Maydenford 
and Barnstaple aforesaid. Also of and in one other messuage, 
one stable, two solars, and one garden, with appurtenances in 
Barnstaple. 

And of and in one messuage, one garden, twenty acres of 
land, ten acres of meadow, twenty acres of pasture, ten acres 
of wood, and twenty acres of furze and heath called 
Overfoldhay and Netherfoldhay, lyeing and being within the 
parish of Parracombe in the county aforesaid. 

And, etc., garden, orchard, 20 ac. land, 10 ac. meadow, 20 ac. 
pasture, 40 ac. furze and heath, etc., called Watermoutii, etc, 
within the parish of Berianarber. 

And, etc., garden, orchard, 40 ac. land, 10 ac. meadow, 20 ac. 
pasture, and 100 ac. furze and heath, etc., called Combe, etc, 
parish of Loxford. 

And further the Jurors aforesaid say that the aforesaid 
Nicholas on day before his death, etc., was seized of one 
capital messuage, garden, orchard, 20 ac. land, 10 ac. meadow, 
100 ac. pasture, 20 ac. marsh, etc., called Barton of Fremyng- 
ton within parish of Fremyngton, etc., and four closes of land 
called Newecourte grene, Childpark, otherwise Underchild 
park, containing by estimation 24 ac. land and pasture, etc., in 



LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 239 

Fremyngton, late in tenure and occupation of Alexander 
Beaple, gent., and eight messuages, etc., 100 ac. land, 40 
meadow, 200 pasture, 20 wood, 40 marsh, 100 furze, etc., 
Knyghtacottes, Collacottes, Lake, Buckyngton, Westnorthpill, 
Eastnorthpill, with clay pittes, and with certain lands not 
measured, etc., in Fremyngton, in tenures and occupation of 
John Hill, James Haywood, Simon Barwicke, Thomas Toppe, 
John Thomas, Alice Parker, widow, William Wilkes, Agnes 
Sage, widow, and Richard Nielde. Also 20 ac. land, 2 wood, 
12 Furze, etc., called Bukyngton in Fremington aforesaid in 
tenure of Agnes Sage, 10 ac. land, 10 meadow, 20 pasture, 
20 furze, called Eastnorthpill, Newbanches all the old porte as 
f ar as Baggepoole — were in Fremyngton, in occupation of Agnes 
Sage. And the aforesaid Nicholas Wichehalse so being seized 
of aforesaid Manors, Lands, etc., etc, on 28 day of August 
in 12 year Elizabeth, etc., at Barnstaple, made his testament 
and last will in writing, and by the same will gave, etc., to 
Mary his wife all and singular his aforesaid Manors, lands, 
etc., Lynton, Countesbury, Maydenford, Barnstaple, Parra- 
combe, Loxefford, Berenaber, Fremyngton, in County of 
Devon, to have and to hold, etc., etc., for the term of her 
life, etc., pay debts and legacies, etc., and fulfill the will, etc., 
bearing date 28 Aug., 1570, etc., as more fully appears by 
these English words following : 

"Item. I give, bequeath, dispose and devise all my 
messuages, lands, tenements and hereditaments lyeing and 
being in the towns and parishes of Lynton, Countesby, 
Parracombe, Loxeford, Beryuarber, Fremyngton, and Barn- 
staple, unto Mary my wife to have and to hold to the same 
Mary for the term of her life to and for the satisfaction of 
my debts and legacies and performance of this my testament 
and will." 

Aod further the Jurors on their oath say, etc. : 
Manors of Lynton and Countisbye are held of the Queen 
by Knight service in capite, to wit by one hundredth part of 
one Knight's Fee, worth, etc., £10. Maydenforde, etc., in 
Barnstaple held of John Chichester, Esq., as of his Borough 
of Barnstaple, by fealty and rent of 3d., worth £4, etc. In 

Parracombe, held of Vawter, gent., by fealty, etc., 

worth 20s., etc. In Berynarber, held of John Jule, gent., by 
fealty, ete., worth 8s. 8d. In Loxford. held of John Marwood, 
Esq., by fealty, etc., worth 13s. 4d. In Fremyngton, held of 
Lady the Queen, as Manor of East Grenwich in County of 
Kent in free soccage and worth nothing during lives of 
aforesaid Alexander Beaple, etc., etc. 



240 DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE HISTORY OF 

And further Jurors, etc., say : Aforesaid Nicholas Wiche- 
halse held no other manors, messuages, etc, in County afore- 
said, etc., that Nicholas Wichehalse died 28 Aug., and that 
Nicholas Wichehalse, junior, is his son and heir, and was of 
the age of 3 years, 14 weeks, and 4 days on 28th Aug., etc. 

In witness, etc. 

No. 12. 

ABSTRACT OF WILL OF NICHOLAS WICHEHALSE OF BARNSTAPLE 

(D. 1670). P.C.C. (28 Lyon). 

28 Aug., 1570. Nicholas Weichalsce of perfect memory 
and good remembraunce. To be buried in the Churche of 
Barnstaple. Unto the Vicar of Barnstaple for tythes for- 
gotten, Unto Hunte the Gierke, unto John Wicchalse my 
kinsman, in consideraCon that he doe marrye withe Katherine 
Salisburye, my wyfes daughter, to Johan Wicchalse my 
daughter, To Nicholas Wichalse my sonne at 21, To Nicholas 
Wichalcee my kinsman and svaunte, To Piers Wicchallsee 
my kynsmanne, To Anthonye my negarre, Bequeath all my 
lands in the Townes and pisshes of Lynton and Counseberye, 
Peracombe, Loxford, Berynarber, ffrementon and Barnstaple, 
to Marye my wyfe for life, and for the sattisfacon of my 
debtes and legacyes and pformaunce of this my wyll. I do 
make said Marye my wife hole Executrixe, And for overseers 
I ordaine Mr. Robert Appelye and my brother John Darte. 

Proved P.C.C. 23"* Sep., 1570, by procurator of Mary the 
relict. 

No. 13. 
ABSTRACT OF WILL OF MARY WICHEHALSE. 

24^** Sept^ 1584. Mary Wichehalse of Barnestaple, widowe. 
To be buried in the pishe churche of Barnestaple, To 
my dau. Katherine Wichehalse £200. To Johan Prowsse 
my dau. £200 and all my household stuflfe in Nattsonne in 
the par. of Tawstock. Whereas Nicholas Wichehalse my 
Sonne and heir apparant is seised in his demesne as of fee of 
and in one mansion housse and tenement, etc., neare or upon 
the Kaye of Barnestaple, sometymes the landes and tenements 
of one Richard Webber of Pilton. He is within 3 years of 
accomplishing his full age of 21 to demise and lease the s^ 
mansion house to Robert Prowsse and Johan his wife my 
daughter, and the latter are to suffer the s^ Nicholas my son 
and his heires peaceably to occupye and enjoye the mansion 
howsse and tenement wherein I now dwell in Crockestreite 



LYNTON AND C0UNTI8BURY. 241 

in Bamestaple. My sonne Nicholas Wichehalse and bis 
beires to confirm any leases or grantes I have made or here- 
after shall make by copy of courte roUe of the Mannor of 
Lynton and Cantisburie. To Christopher W., sonne of my 
8^ dau. Katberine W., at 21. To Mary W., dau. of my s** 
daiL Katberine W., at marriage, and to Joban and Prudence 
•W., dau*. of my s** dau. Katberine W., at 21 or marriage. 
To Lewis Knyll and James Mayne my servants. I give unto 
y* saide Nicholas W., my sonne, the wardshippe of his bodye 
and landes, together with all the rest of my goods and 
chattells, and constitute him my sole ex*^', and appoint as 
overseers M' George Wyot and M' Humfrie Coplestone, 
Gentlemen. 

To John Wichehalse, my sonne in lawe, all such debts 
as he doth or shall owe unto me. 

To Katberine Wichehalse, my dau., all my messuages and 
tenements, etc., in Westdowne for life. 

To Humfrey Prowsse, sonne unto my dau. Jobane Prowse, 
at the age of 21. 

(Witnesses) George Wyott, Humfrey Coplestone, George 
Pyne, William Palmer, Lewis Knyll. 

Proved 25 June, 1585, by Alfred Gierke, notary public, 
procurator of Nicholas Wichehalse, the ex*^'. , 



No. 14. 
FINE ROLL, 30 ELIZABETH, PART 1, M. 21. 

Concerning land to be delivered to Nicholas Wichehalse. 

The Queen to her escbeator in the County of Devon greet- 
ing. Whereas by a certain inquisition lately taken before 
Bartholomew Pope, Esq., late our escbeator in the county 
aforesaid, by our command after the death of Nicholas 
Wichehalse, senior, late of Barnstaple in our County afore- 
said, Gentleman, deceased and returned into our Chancery, 
among other things it is shown that the aforesaid Nicholas 
Wychebalse in the said mandate named was seized on the 
day of his death in his demesne as of fee of and in the 
Manors of Lynton and Countisbye otherwise Countesbye, 
etc., etc., and of and in manor of Maydenforde, etc., and also 
of and in one other messuage, one stable, two solars, etc., in 
Barnstaple, etc., Overfoldhay, Netherfoldhay, Parracombe, 
Watermouth, Berrynarbor, Combe in parish of Loxeford, etc., 
etc., etc. 

And that Nicholas Wychebalse, junior, is his son and next 
heir, and because the aforesaid Nicholas has attained the full 

VOL. XXXVIII. Q 



242 DOCUMENTS RBLATING TO THB HISTORY OF 

age of twenty-one years and has well and faithfully paid all 
the issues and profits of aforesaid manors, etc, etc., from the 
time of his full age until the eighteenth day of this present 
month of June to us due, etc.. We, etc, have respited 
homage, etc., until feast of the Purification of the Blessed 
Mary next to come, etc, etc. 

We therefore command without delay that thou cause the 
said Nicholas to have full seizin of the aforesaid Manors, etc, 
etc. 

Witness the Queen at Westminster the Twenty-second day 
of June. 

By bill of the Court of Wards and Liveries. 



No. 15. 

INQUISITION POST MORTEM, 3 JAMES I, PART 2, No. 116. 

James by the grace of God, etc., to his escheator in the 
County of Devon greeting. Because Nicholas Wichehalse, 
gentleman, who held of us in capite, died as we have heard 
we command thee that without delay thou takest into our 
hand all the lands and tenements of which the same Nicholas 
was seized. 



Witness myself at Westminster, 26 Nov., in the year of 
our reign of England, France, and Ireland, the 3rd, and of 
Scotland the 39th. Conyers. 

Delivered to the court 10 Feb. in within written 3rd year 
by the hand of the Escheator. John Ratenbury. 

DEVON. Inquisition indented taken at Oakhampton in 
the county aforesaid 25 Jan. in the reign of our Lord James, 
etc., the 3rd, etc, before John Eatenbury, gentleman, Es- 
cheator of the said Lord the King in the County aforesaid, 
by virtue of a writ, etc., to inquire after the death of Nicholas 
Wichehalse, late of Barnstaple, in the County aforesaid, 
gentleman deceased, to the same Escheator directed, and to 
this inquisition shown by the oath of William Newcombe, 
gentleman, Henry Underden, gent., Eobert Webbery, gent, 
John Woode, gent., Andrew Trigges, gent., Peter Ratenbuiy, 
gent., John Holmes, gent., Kobert Cole, William Growden, 
Kichard Babb, Eobert Dawe, John Brownson, Thomas Speare, 
Henry Bychlake, and John Drewe: Who say upon their 
oath that the aforesaid Nicholas Wichehalse in the aforesaid 
writ named long before his death was seized in his demesne 



LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 243 

as of fee of and in the Manor of Lynton and Countisbye, 
otherwise Countisberye, with appurtenances, and of and in 
thirty messuages, two corn mills, thirty gardens, 40 ac. of 
knd, 100 ac. meadow, 200 ac. pasture, 100 ac. wood, 1000 ac. 
furze and heath and 20s. of rent with appurtenances in 
Lynton and Countisbye, otherwise Countisberye, in the 
county aforesaid and common of pasture for all animals in 
Exmore in the said county of Devon. And of and in the 
manor of LinkcoH[ibe,otherwise Lincombe, with appurtenances, 
and of and in 20 messuages, 3 Tofts, 3 mills, 2 Dovecotes, 
20 gardens, 20 orchards, 50 ac. land, 100 ac. meadow, 500 ac. 
pasture, 100 ac wood, 100 ac. furze and heath and 40s. rent, 
with appurtenances in Lincombe and Ilfordcombe in the 
aforesaid County of Devon ; 1 messuage, one stable, 2 solars and 
one garden, etc., in Barnstaple, etc. ; 8 messuages, 8 gardens, 
100 ac. land, 40 ac. meadow, 200 ac. pasture, 20 ac. wood, 
40 ac. marsh, 100 ac. furze and heath, etc., called Knighacott, 
Collacott, Lake, Bukington, Westnorthpill, Eastnorthpill, with 
Le Clay pittes and certain lands not measured in Fremington 
aforesaid and now or late in several tenures and occupations 
of Hugh Hill, Simon Hawleigh, William Sherland, Arnold 
Evans in right of Beaton his wife, William Norman, Joan 
Parker, John Tawton and Agnes Westlake. And of and in 
20 ac. land, 4 ac. meadow, 20 ac. pasture, 2 ac. wood, 12 ac. furze 
and heath, etc., called Bukington, in parish of Fremington, 
now or late in tenure and occupation of Agnes Sage ; 10 ac. 
land, 10 ac. meadow, 20 ac. pasture, 20 ac. furze and heath 
called Eastnorthpill, Newbank, all the old park as far as 
Bagpoole weare in Fremyngton in tenure and occupation of 
Agnes Saige ; and the aforesaid Nicholas Wichehalse so being 
seized on 20 Jan., 40th year of Elizabeth, etc. (1598), by his 
deed indented dated same day and year for the natural love 
and affection borne towards one Hugh Wichalse his son and 
heir apparent and for continuance of his lands and tenements 
in the name and blood of the same Nicholas, gave, granted and 
enfeoffed to certain Hugh Acland,Esq., and Philip Pyne, Gent., 
all and singular the Manors, lands and tenements aforsaid, 
etc., etc., and also by the name of all that his mansion house 
in Barnstaple, etc., to have and to hold, etc., etc., to the uses, 
intents and purposes in the same indenture mentioned, etc., 
etc. That is to say, to use of said Nicholas Whichehalse for 
life, etc., etc., and to grant for 1, 2, or 3 lives at old accus- 
tomed rents and services, etc., etc., then for use of aforesaid 
Hugh Wichehalse and heirs male of his body, etc., etc., re- 
mainders to Nicholas Wychehalse, 2nd son and heirs male, 

q2 



244 DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE HISTORY OF 

Arthur Wichehalse, 3rd son, etc., Robert Wichehalse, 4th 
son, etc., Philip Wichehalse, 5th son, etc., and assigns of 
Nicholas Wichehalse, etc., etc. And further the Jurors afore- 
said say upon their oath aforesaid Manors of Lynton and 
Countisbey are held of the said Lord the King by Knight 
service in capite by ^-J^ Knight's Fee, etc., and are worth 
per annum £10. Lyncombe held of Lord King in capite 
^ Knights Fee, worth £H per annum. Messuage, etc., in 
Barnstaple of Robert Chichester, Knight, as of his borough 
of Barnstaple by fealty and rent of 3d., etc., worth 10s. per 
annum.; messuages, etc., in Fremyngton of Lord the King 
as of his manor of East Greenwich in free soccage and not 
in capite by fealty and rent yearly of £21, worth nothing 
during lives, etc., and after determination worth 5s., etc., etc 

Jurors say held none other in said County, and aforesaid 
Nicholas Wichehalse died about last day of October before 
the taking of this inquisition, and that aforesaid Hugh 
Wichehalse is his son and next heir and is at the time of the 
taking of this inquisition of the age of 17 years, 10 montlis, 
and 22 days, etc., etc John Ratenbury, Escheator. 

Examined by Humfrey Were, feodary. 

Transcripts sent to Courts of Wards and Exchequer by 
W. Ravenscrofte. 

No. 16. 

RECORDS COURT OF CHANCERY. 

FINE ROLL, 7 JAMES I, M. 28, No. 9. 

Concerning lands to be delivered to Hugh Witchehalse, 
the King to his escheator, in the county of Devon. Recites 
inquisition 3 James I, etc., etc. 

And because the aforesaid Hugh Wichehalse has attained 
his full age of 21 years, and has well and faithfully paid all 
the issues and profits of aforesaid Manors, etc, etc., from 
the time of his full age until 10 Feb., to us due in the 
Courts of our Wards and Liveries, etc., etc, we, for half a 
mark to us on our Hanaper paid, have respited the homage 
of the said Hugh Wichehalse to us in this behalf due until 
the feast of All Saints next to come, and have taken the 
fealty of the said Hugh Wichehalse to us in this behalf like- 
wise due, and have yielded up to him the aforesaid manors, 
etc. We therefore command that without delay thou cause 
the same Hugh Wichehalse to have full seizin of the afore- 
said manors, etc., etc. 

Witness, the King at Westminster, 22 Feb. 

By bill of the Court of Wards and Liveries, etc 



LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 245 

No. \7. 
ABSTRACT OF WILL OF JOHN WICHALSE OF LYNTON. 

Dated 4 May, 1676; proved 3 May, 1677, by John Smith, 
of Dulverton, gent., power reserved to Richard Blackford of 
Danster, gent.; Eichard Parminter of Barnstaple, mercer, 
and cosen Mrs. Mary Steevens. No inventory attached. 
(Princ. Registry, Bp. of Exon.) 

Directs all expensive funeral solemnities should be avoided. 
Gives to poor of Lynton £3. Four daughters, Dorothy, 
Susanna, Grace, and Elizabeth, £250 each at 21, and £12 per 
annum for maintenance till then ; and if said Dorothy did 
not within six weeks of Testator's death convey to person 
to whom testator had devised his land of inheritance all her 
estate in tenement called Coombe in Countisbury, said legacy 
and maintenance not to be paid. 

Son Hugh £200 at 21 or marriage and £15 per annum, 
and to be apprenticed to some laudable profession as soon as 
he should be capable ; also to Hugh estate called Kings- 
ground, adjoining Bartaine, of Blackpool, in South Molton. 

Wife Susanna various gifts, including implements of hus- 
bandry at his house called Ley, where he lived; Brother 
Nicholas' servants, 5s. each. 

Son John or such as should be Testator's heir at law 
certain furniture, £30 per annum for maintenance, on con- 
dition not to disturb testator's wife in quiet enjoyment of 
hereditaments conveyed to her for jointure ; to son John all 
moneys owing. 

Children, books equally, board and lodging at Ley for 6 
months after death at cost of wife. Exors. all heredita- 
ments at Lynton and elsewhere on trust to pay debts, 
legacies, and convey to heir at law. Disputes between 
Trustees and heir at law to be settled by worthy and well- 
beloved friend Nicholas Dennis, of Ijarnstaple, Esq. 

Witnesses, Nicholas Cooke and William Meddow. 

No. 18. 

[Abstract'] 

Indenture dated 24 May, 1680, between John Wichehalse, 
of Chard, Esq., and John Lovering, of Wear Gifford, 
merchant. 

John Wichehalse in consideration of, etc., did demise, 
grant, etc., to John Lovering, etc, all that his manor and 
lordship of Linton, with the rights, members' liberties, etc., 



246 DOCUMENTS BBLATINO TO THB HISTORY OF 

and all messuages, etc., belonging to said manor, etc., and 
also all common of pasture in the Forest or great Common 
called Ex moor and elsewhere, common of Turbary, and all 
other commons, wastes, etc., rents and customs, as well of 
Free, customary, and other tenants, and also courts leet, view 
of frankpledge, etc., wrecks of sea. Fishing, fowling, etc. 

And all such woods and wood grounds as were then 
granted and enjoyed, with any of the messuages, cottages 
and tenements, which woods and undergrounds did hereto- 
fore belong unto or was or were parcel or reputed parcel of 
the Manor of Countisbye, als. Countisbury, adjoining to the 
said Manor of Lynton, etc. 

Except and always reserved unto the said John Wiche- 
halse Ley and North Ground, containing about 20 acres, and 
the late enclosed ground, about 16 acres, lately used with 
Ley, etc., to hold same for term of 1000 years, under yearly 
rent of Id., and services due to the King. In Covenants 
against encumbrances are excepted estates by leases and 
copy of court roll, etc., and such estates as should before 
default of payment be granted by John Wichehalse. 

No. 19. 
[Abstract,] 

Indenture dated 27 April, 1700, between Samuel EoUe, of 
the Middle Temple, London, Esq., of one part; Dorothy 
Levering, eldest daughter and one of the coheirs of John 
Levering, late of Hudscott, Co. Devon, Esq., 2nd part; 
Rt. Hon. Hugh Boscawen, of Trego thnan ; Samuel Eolle, of 
Heanton, Esq. ; Nicholas Hooper, of Inner Temple, Esq. ; 
Joseph Bailer, Barnstaple, gent. ; Richard Parmynter, Barn- 
staple, merchant ; and Thomas Nott, of Mariansleigh, gent, 
3rd part. 

Whereas a marriage is intended to be solemnized between 
said Samuel Rolle and Dorothy Lovering, etc. Trustees 
named are enfeofifed of various lands of Samuel Rolle, and 
also of lauds of Dorothy Lovering, viz. Manor of St. Peter 
Hays, in parish of St. Thomas, lauds granted to Elizabeth 
Bailer, mother of said Dorothy, for jointure, Higher Hud- 
scott, Lower Hudscott, East Dennington, West Dennington, 
Lerwill, Row Park, ChappePs Tenement, Whetstone, all in 
Chittlehampton ; Chuggaton, Brealey's Tenement and Small- 
ridge's in Swymbridge ; messuages and closes in S. Molton, 
messuages in occupation of Richard Salisbury at Barnstaple; 
moiety of Huxhill Barton, Weir Gififord ; moiety of Manor 



LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 247 

of Countesbury, in parishes of Countesbury and Linton, with 
all its lioyalties, Rights, members, and appurtenances; 
moiety of N. Furshill, Lynton; moiety Eadspry, Linton; 
one quarter of Spiranger, Linton; moiety of tenement in 
East Ilkerton, in possession of Alexander Reed, Lynton; 
moiety of Manor of Curry Revel ; moiety of manor of Five- 
head, and all other manors, lands, of Dorothy Lovering in 
Devon and Somerset in trust, etc., etc., etc. Children of 
marriage, etc. 

No. 20. 

INQ. P.M., CHANCERY, VOL. 45, No 121. 

[Abstract] 

Inquisition taken at Colompton in Co. Devon, 9 November, 
18 Henry VIII (a.d. 1526), after the death of Thomas 
Pyne, by the oath of John Sanford, Edward Ford, John 
Hake, John Manning, Humphrey Edgbastyn, Robert Facy, 
William Mostyn, Roger Cadbery, John Pitte, William May, 
Henry Hurdyng, Philip Herd, and John Hill, who say upon 
oath that the said Thomas Pyne was seized of a messuage, 
40 acres of land and pasture, 10 acres of meadow, and 100 
acres of furze and heath in Lyne in the parish of Lynton, co. 
Devon, in his demesne as of fee, and so thereof seized long 
before his death he enfeoffed John Body and John Roke the 
elder of the said premises during the life of Joan his wife to 
hold to them for her use in the name of her dower and 
jointure of the chief lords as appears by a charter dated 
7 July, 2 Henry VIII (a.d. 1510). The said John Body and 
John Roke the elder are still seized of the said premises to 
the use aforesaid. 

The said Thomas Pyne was also seized in his demesne as 
of fee of 2 messuages, 40 acres of land and pasture, 10 acres 
of meadow, and 200 acres of furze and heath in Thornworthy 
and Ilkerdon in the same parish of Lynton, the same are held 
of the King as of his manor of Bradnynch and are worth 
22 shillings yearly clear. 

The said Thomas Pyne died 2nd February, 14 Henry VIII 
(a.d. 1523). Augustus Pine is his son and next heir, and 
is now aged 21 years and more. 

No. 21. 

INQ. P.M. SER. II, CHANG. , VOL. 170, No. 16. 

[Abstract] 

Inquisition taken at Exeter Castle 14 April, 17 Eliz. 
(A.D. 1575), after the death of Nicholas Pyne, Esquire. 



248 D0CUM£KT8 BKLATINO TO THK HISTORY OF 

The jurors find that he was seized of the Manor of Est 
Downe, etc., etc., etc., also of the Manor of Wilhanger, in 
the Parish of Ljnton, and other premises in co. Devon. 

By deed dated 1 March, 17 Eliz., he enfeoffed John 
Chichester and others of all the said premises to the uses of 
his will. The said Manor of Wilhanger is held of the 
queen as of her manor of Bradnych by the fourth part of 
one Knight's fee, and is worth yearly 758. lOJ. The said 
Nicholas Pyne died 1 Sept. last past. Philip Pyne is his 
son and next heir, and at the date of his lather's death was 
16 years of age and more. 

Nicholas Pyne*s will is recited in this inquisition and his 
property in King's Heanton. 

No. 22. 

INQ. P.M., CHANCERY, VOL. 260, No. 187. 

[Abstract] 

Inquisition taken at 31 Oct., 42 Eliz. (A.D. 1600), 

after death of Philip Pyne. 

The jurors say upon oath that lie was seized (inter alia) of 
the Manor of Wilhanger, co. Devon, and by indenture dated 
3 Aug., 41 Eliz., he demised, and to farm let to his sons 
Edward and Philip all that tenement called Wilhanger, in 
the parish of Lynton, with a wood called Greenwill wood in 
the same parish for 90 years, they paying to the said Philip 
the accustomed rents and services. 

The same Manor of Wilhanger is held of the queen as of 
her manor of Bradnych for the fourth part of one Knight's 
fee, and is worth yearly clear £3. 15s. lOid. 

The said Philip Pyne died at Eastdowne 17 Oct., 42 Eliz. 
(a.d. 1600), and Lewis Pyne is his son and next heir, and 
was aged 13 years and 14 days at the date of his father's 
death. 

No. 23. 
WILL OF REV. RICHARD HARDING, OF MARWOOD. 

Dated 2 Nov., 1773; proved 20 May, 1782, by John 
Fosse, clerk, sole executor. 

[A bstract] 

To my nephew Philip Harding all that my manors of 
Willanger, East Line, and Shortacombe, in the parish of 
Linton, together with all lands, etc., which I lately purchased 
of John Pine, Esq., upon trust during minority of his two 
younger sons John and Bobert, to apply rents in affordiog 



LYNTON AND CX)UNTISBURT. 249 

and giving them the benefit not only of reading, writing, 
and arithmetick, but also of grammatical and classic learn- 
ing, and chiefly and above all instructions or causing them 
to be instructed in the grounds and principles of the 
Christian religion, and all commendable and good behaviour 
as is likely to beget in them a virtuous and holy life, and to 
render them useful members of human society. 

On their coming of age East Line and Shortacombe to 
John Harding. Broomholmes, part of Willanger, to Kobert 
Harding. Eest of Willanger to John and Kobert as tenants 
in common. 

Codicil. Speaks of John Pine, Esq., now John Pine, 
Clerk, and dispute as to chief rents of Willanger Manor. 

Further Codicil. To Robert Harding £120, to be laid out 
in repairing mansion of East Line. 

Rev. R. Harding died 7 May, 1782. 

No. 24. 

[Abstract.] 

Indenture made 3 Dec, 1632, between Sir Robert Bassett 
of Heanton Drewgarden in the county of Devon, Armiger, 
Andrew Bassett, Esq., son and heir apparent of the said Sir 
Robert Bassett and Eleanor Bassett, daughter of the said 
Sir Robert Bassett, of the one part, and John Knight the 
younger, of Linton in the said County of Devon, yeoman, 
of the other part. After reciting deed 8 May, 15 King 
James, selling and granting to Sir Edward Chichester and 
Arthur Hatche, Esq., certain lands in Linton for term of 
1000 years, etc., etc., Transfer part to John Delbridge, etc., 
Transfer to Eleanor Bassett 5 Nov., 20 James I, also 
reciting deed 13 Nov., 18 James I, granting and selling to 
Joseph Delbridge and Matthew Tooker certain lands, etc., 
reciting death of John Delbridge, and that Matthew Tooker 
by deed dated 17 Feb., 20 James I, granted to Arthur Bassett, 
also reciting deed 6 July, 6 Charles I, Sir Robert Bassett 
and Arthur Bassett to Eleanor Bcussett, 

Sir Robert, Arthur, and Eleanor Bassett grant, enfeoff, 
bargain and sell to John Knight the younger, his heirs and 
assigns for ever, the messuages, lands, and tenements called 
West Lyne, in parish of Linton, and certain other lands 
called Mettecombe and Lynham then in tenure of John 
Knight the elder, Northlake in parish of Lynton, in tenure 
of John Davie and Henry Davie, tenement at Babbrooke 
Mill in occupation of Richard Rooke and Beaton his wife, to 



250 D0GUICENT8 RIELATING TO THS BISTORT OF 

be bolden of Chief-Lord of the fee by rents and services due 
and by right accustomed. Covenants as to free of encum- 
brance and Warranty of Title and power to John Grease and 
Bichard Eooke to deliver seizin. 



No. 25. 
WILL OF JOHN KNIGHT, OF WEST LYNE, LYNTON. 

Dated 24 June, 1732 ; proved 5 Dec, 1735 (Archdeacon's 
Court of Barnstaple). 

[Abstract,] 

Gives West Lyn, Barbrook Mill Tenement, Stock Tene- 
ment and all other his lands of inheritance to John Richards, 
Bector of Kentisbury, and to his kinsman Kichard Knight 
in trust for his son Eichard Knight for life, remainder to 
heirs male of Testator's son Richard Knight, remainder to 
heirs female. 

No. 26. 
[Abstract,] 

Deed, 14 and 15 June, 1791. 

Lease and Release. Mary Knight, widow, relict of John 
Knight, Rev. Richard Knight of Linton, clerk, eldest son 
and heir at law of said John and Mary Knight, and Elizabeth 
his wife of 1st part, William Devon, Esq., 2nd part, and 
John Palfreman of 3rd part. Barring entail, right of dower, 
granting West Lyne, Mettecombe, Lynliam, N. Stock, Babrook 
tenement and Babrook Mill and Berry's tenement to William 
Devon that he might become a perfect tenant till recovery, 
recovery to be, North Stock for use of John Palfreman for 
lives of Mary and Elizabeth Knight to pay them annuities, 
remainder to use of Richard Knight for life and then to his 
heirs and in Trust, expiration of term to use of Richard 
Knight, his heirs and assigns, etc. 

Recovery Trinity Term, 3 George III. 

Described as 16 Messuages, 1 Mill, 13 Gardens, 550 acres 
of land, 40 meadow, 400 pasture, 100 wood, 10 Furze and 
Heath and common of pasture for all manner of cattle and 
turbary in West Lyn, Mettecombe, Lynham, North Stock, 
Babrook. 

No. 27. 

INQ. P.M., 6 JAMES I, P. 1, No. 188. 

[Abstract,] 

Inquisition taken at Tiverton, 11 July, 6 James I (A.D. 
1608), on death of John Chichester, gent., say that John 



LYNTON AND C0UNTI8BURY. 251 

Chichester, father of the above, and Elizabeth his wife, were 
seized in their demesne as of fee tail with reversion to right 
heirs of John Marwood of Manor of Westcott amongst it. 
Moiety of one messuage, 100 acres of land, 4 ac. meadow, 
100 ac. of down in Furshill in p'sh of Lynton, also one 
messuage, 40 acres in Westmeyddon and Estmeyddon in 
p'sh of Parracombe, formerly the inheritance of said John 
Marwood. 

No. 28. 

INQ. P.M., 3 CHARLES I, P. 129. 

[Abstract.] 

Inquisition taken at Barnstaple, 22 Aug., 3 Charles I, on 
death of Eobert Chichester, Knight of Order of the Bath, 
amongst other possessions was seized of 

Capital Messuage of Croscombe als. Welcombe in parishes 
of Mattinhoe and Lynton. 

Recites that by indenture dated 20 Sep., 21 Jas. I, Cros- 
combe als. Welcombe was settled, etc., etc. 

No. 29. 
EXCHEQUER BILL. 
Mary Wichehalse of Lynton, widow, complt., and Popham 
and Knight defd^. 

[Abstract,] 

John Wichehalse, Esq., her late husband, was in lifetime 
seized of fee of Manors and Lordships of Lynton and Countis- 
bury, with all rights and appurtenances which by several 
descents or remainders came to him from Nicholas Wiche- 
halse of Barnstaple, merchant. That from time immemorial 
the manors being parcell of the possessions of the Monastery 
of Ford in Devon had a certain royalty or franchise or liberty 
of fishing within the river of Seveme adjoining unto the 
several shores and coasts thereof, which said fishery the 
Abbots did ever possess and enjoy and have the sole right 
of fishing therein by such persons only to whom they 
granted licences. Fishery extended from Ley Mouth, the 
most westward point of Lynton Manor, all along the shore 
and coast and spreading to the middle current and thred of 
water running or flowing in River Severn and up the said 
channel to eastern part of Countisbury Manor, and so far 
into the breadth of the channel as to be half way between 
Lynton and Countesbury aforesaid and Wales. That time 
out of mind there hath been due unto the Lords of Lynton 
and Countisbury a certain due called Keelage for all barks. 



252 D0GUMKNT8 BELAHNO TO THK HISTORY OF 

boats or vessels coming into Leymouth harbour, which is 
formed by Leymouth river and hath the soil of Lynton on 
west side and soil of Countisbury on east side, which duty 
for bark or larger vessell was two shillings per time, toties 
quoties any such bark did anchor keel or moare within 
harbour, whereof one shilling was payable in respect of 
Lynton manor and the other shilling in right of Countisbury 
manor. And for smaller boats rate of keelage was fourpence 
or some such sum, one half in right of Lynton and other half 
in right of Countisbury, which rates owners or masters of 
every bark, boat or craft did always pay — not only on account 
of royalty, but on account of the said John Wichehalse and 
his ancestors and predecessors being Lords of several Lord- 
ships aforesaid did set up posts of great substance and at 
great expense of setting up and maintaining same, to which 
vessels are moored to save them from ground sea, very rowle- 
ling and dangerous there. 

That John Wichehalse by indenture bearing date 7 Jan., 
1679, did bargain and sell and convey manor of Countis- 
bury unto John Levering of Wear Gifford, gent., saving 
always and except thereout the royalty of iSshing for herrings 
in the sea thereto adjoining and the custom or benefit of 
keelage. That on or about ... day of Sept., 1705, John 
Wichehalse did sign and seal his last will and testament, and 
did thereby give and bequeath his lands, manors and tene- 
ments in Lynton, High Bickington and S. Molton to Mary 
his wife, her heirs and assigns for ever, and did further give 
and bequeath unto Mary his daughter and her assigns for 
ever, after the decease of Mary his wife, East Leymouth, 
and made Mary his wife sole executrix, soon after which he 
died. 

That Hugh Popham, David Knight and Walter Knight 
being owners of several barks and other boats trading and 
resorting to and lying within Leymouth Harbour, for which 
keelage hath been due. 

And said Mary Wichehalse also claims all wreck in and 
upon the Eiver Severn by right of prescription so far as 
middle current or filum aquse which divides the English and 
the Welsh coast fronting Lynton and Countisbury, and that 
defendants ought to have paid your oratrix the sums due for 
keelage, of which her said husband had no account, by living 
for some years at London for their business, so far from 
Lynton and Countisbury, that your oratrix having proved 
said will in due form, and taken out letters of administra- 
tion in the P.C.C., is entitled to account of wrecks; that 



LYNTON AND COUNTISBURY. 253 

defendants have intruded into and usurped her right and 
royalty to the loss of your oratrix's inheritance, the value 
whereof very greatly depends on the profit and benefit of 
the same, and refuse to come to account, pretending that 

Jour oratrix's husband never had any right, or, if he had, 
ad sold it away. 
Prays that defts. shall show what exemption they have or 
pretend to have, etc., etc. 

No. 30. 

WICHEHALSE WILLS IN COURT OF ARCHDEACON OF 
BARNSTAPLE. 



John Wichalls 


. bond. 


. Barnstaple, 4 May, 1604. 


Nicholas Wichehalse 


.will 


. Barnstaple, 5 Feb., 1607. 


Nicholas Wichehalse 


. a/c 


. Barnstaple, 24 March, 1611. 


John Wichehalse 




. Barnstaple, 3 Nov., 1619. 


Robert Wichehalse, gent. . will 


. Tawstock, 7 Oct., 1643. 


Dorothy Wichehalse 


.ad. 


. Lynton, 5 June, 1663. 


EHzabeth Witchalse . 


. will 


. Tawstock, 2 Dec, 1664. 


Bridget Witxihalse 


.ad. 


. Lynton, 5 June, 1668. 


Thomas Witchalse 


.will 


. Chittlehampton, June 4, 1686 


Mary Wichalse 


. ^^'ill 


. Chittlehampton, 2 Feb., 1693 


Hugh Witchalse 


.ad. 


. Lynton, 10 Jan., 1695. 



No. 31. 

INQUIS. P.M., 6 HENRY VII, SERIES II, VOL. 6. 

[Abstract] 

Mathia, late wife of John Carewe. Writ dated 12 Oct., 
Inq. 13 Nov., 6 Hen. VIL 

That Thomas Wode, Thomas Greynevyle, Richard Chi- 
chester, John Denys of Orlegh, John More of Columpton, 
Robert Yeo, Esq., and John Yeo of Braunton, being seized, 
etc., by deed dated 24 May, 4 Hen. VII, demised to Mathia, 
etc., for the term of her natural life in dower, which they 
had by gift and enfeoffment of Thomas Beaumont, Esq., 
deceased, that said Mathia died 10 June last, and Thomas 
Mogeford, aged 40 and more, is her brother and next heir. 

DEVON. Manor of Lyne worth 40s. held of Thomas 
Pyne, as of manor of East Lyne by fealty for all services. 
A messuage and 100 acres in Coffyns Heanton, held of 
Kichard Pomery, Knight, as of the manor of Bury Pomeroy, 
by fealty for all manner of services. 



254 DOCUMENTS RKLATINO TO LYNTON AND COUNTISBUBY. 

No. 32. 

INQ. P.M., 4 HKNRY VII, SERIES II, VOL. I, No. 8. 

Thomas Beaumont, dated 13 Nov., 4 Hen. VII, seized of 
Mainor of Lyne, held of Edward Earl of Warwick, who is 
now in king's custody, as of honor of Gloucester, by service 
of ifii a Knight's Fee. 

No. 33. 

Deed dated 19 May, 2 Richard^ III. Thomas Beaumont 
enfeofifed John Dennys of Orleigh,'etc., as in No. 31, Manor 
of Lyne, Coffyns Heanton, etc. 



NOTES ON NORTH DEVON POTTERY OF THE 

SEVENTEENTH, EIGHTEENTH, AND 

NINETEENTH CENTURIES. 



BY T. CHARBONNIER. 
(Read at Lynton, Jiily, 1906 ) 



Among the specimens of clay in the Museum of Practical 
Geology, was one labelled, "Potter's clay. Post Tertiary, 
Fremington, near Barnstaple." And the catalogue added : 
" Extensively used in North Devon for the manufacture of 
common pottery fired at a low heat : at a high temperature 
the ware becomes vesicular, and expands to such an extent 
that bricks made of it when overfired will float in water/' 

Around this bed of clay, which lies between Barnstaple 
and Bideford, numerous potteries have risen, flourished, and 
mostly disappeared — the earliest dating back to an unknown 
distance in the seventeenth century. Two of these old pot- 
works — the North Walk Pottery at Barnstaple and 
Crocker's old pottery at Bideford — have vanished during 
the last few years. The kilns of the latter bear, or lately 
bore, a seventeenth-century date. 

Tradition only remains of pot-works at Fremington and 
Instow. The pot-works established at Muddlebridge by 
George Fishley at the end of the eighteenth century have 
been moved to Combrew, where a pottery already existed, 
and no traces of the works at Muddlebridge remain. George 
Fishley was succeeded by his son Edmond, and Mr. E. B. 
Fishley, the present proprietor, is the third generation of a 
family of potters. Robert Fishley worked at the pottery in 
1836, and resided in a cottage at the works. John Pidler 
was wheelman there a century ago, and " John Pidler his 
hand " is inscribed on a jug. George Fishley was the first 
Fremington potter to use coal in firing his ware. 

At Crocker's old pottery, Bideford, established 1668, two 
jugs in the collection were made by George Dennis, who 
worked for Crocker. Dennis's daughter married Mr. Milton, 



256 NOTES ON NORTH DEVON POTTKBY. 

who succeeded to the works, and finally closed them in 1896. 
I repeatedly visited the works during his management and 
found some quaint shapes, now extinct, but Milton was not 
a successful potter and only made the commonest warea 
The potter's signature, " John Hoyle, 1860/* is on a harvest 
pitcher probably made at these works; "John Phillip 
Hoyle, 1852," on another, and "John Hoyle" on a money- 
box. 

There is an old pottery at East-the-Water, Bideford, 
which produces only coarse plain ware, but a dozen yean 
ago produced some decorated ware. Henry Phillips, who 
died in 1894, was partner with the present Mr. BadcliflTe^ 
the potter still at work at East-the-Water, where only the 
commonest ware is now produced; some quaint old shapes 
are still sometimes made, but in the sixties and eighties 
H. Phillips made handsome jugs and dishes deeorated in 
sgratlito. 

l^arnstaplc had fiot-works in Litchdon Street worked by 
Levering about the end of the eighteenth century, after- 
wards by a potter named Bendle, and later by Mr. Brannam, 
father of the present proprietor, who still carries on the 
works as an extensive and successful manufactory of Boyal 
Barum "Ware. The North Walk Pottery, now pulled down, 
was formerly owned by Rendle & Son, later by Mr. Brannam ; 
and evidence obtained, on or near the site, is conclusiye that 
here was one of the oldest pot-works at the beginning of 
the eighteenth century and probably far back into the 
seventeenth century. 

I have never heard of any Eoman or early British pottery 
being found in North Devon.^ Two or three pieces of late 
medieval ware have come from the Eiver Taw, but there is 
nothing to show that they are of local manufacture. 

Burton, the British iluseum Catalogue, and other author- 
ities scarcely refer to North Devon, and only incidentally as 
a locality, among others, where coarse peasant pottery was 
made, but probably not before the eighteenth century. 

Wrotham, Statibrdshire, the Metropolis, Derbyshire, and 
other localities are well represented by their pottery in 
museums and other collections, but examples of North 
Devon ware are very few. A fine harvest jug in the British 
Museum, dated 1708 ; another in Hodgkin's book on "Early 
English Pottery" (No. 210), " said to be of Devonshire manu- 

^ This paper being concerned with pottery of the seventeenth and subse- 
quent centuries, my notes are confined to the neighbourhood of the Frcming- 
ton clay beds. 




Bll>EFORI\ HAHVKST PITCHFR. 



Notes on North Devos roTTERY. — To ftut p. 256. 





BARNSTAPLE, NORTH WALK. CUP AND PLATE. 




BARNSTAPLE, NORTH WALK. 
MOULD FOR RAISED TILES, AND TILE MADE IX OLD MOULD. 

To face p, 257. 



NOTES ON NOKTH DEVON POTTERY. 257 

facture'*; and one in the collection of the late W. Edkins, 
" probably made in Wales or the west of England," are all 
three unquestionable North Devon specimens. 

Of the eighteenth-century wares of similar nature that 
most nearly resemble the North Devon ware, Donyat 
(Ilminster) in Somerset and Pencoed in Wales are most 
like, but specimens are generally easily distinguishable. All 
other eighteenth-century wares of the class, that I have 
examined, difier considerably ; and the examples this paper 
attempts to describe will, I think, show that the North Devon 
ware has considerable local character, and is not deficient in 
quaintness and sometimes beauty of shape, and, in well-fired 
examples, in the richness and depth of colour which makes 
the Toft ware of Stalibrdshire so attractive ; indeed, there is 
so much similarity in the material and process of manufac- 
ture, that it would be strange if it were not similarly 
successful. 

This North Devon ware was made at a number of small 
pot-works in remote districts, producing the jugs, baking- 
dishes, flower-pots, ovens, butter-pots, etc., for the neighbour- 
hood, or, as in the case of Fremiugton, exporting into 
Cornwall pilchard-pots, and into Cornwall and Wales 
ovens, etc., the decorated or ornamental pieces being merely 
occasional presentation pieces for neighbours, usually harvest 
pitchers, for use at harvest or sheep-shearing gatherings. 
These pieces, sometimes treasured for a time in farmsteads 
and cottages, and the tiles, to which I will refer presently, 
are the few remaining pieces of this, at its best, veiy perishable 
pottery. Every trace of a country pottery is lost in a very 
few years — not so strange if we remember how little is known 
of many important china-works of the eighteenth century 
in Staffordshire, Bristol, and Lowestoft. 

The products of the potteries at Barnstaple, Bideford, and 
Fremington, and perhaps those of other works that have 
left no trace behind, are, owing to the same materials and 
processes being used, often impossible to separate from each 
other ; but around this small clay field there were different 
types in different places. Bideford was probably the source 
of most of the harvest pitchers, especially of those decorated 
with ships, as would be special to a seaport, but some were 
also made at Barnstaple and Fremington. Puzzle-jugs were 
made at Barnstaple. The North Walk Pottery turned out 
at an unknown distance of time beaker-shaped cups, one of 
which was found in the Taw, and many pieces on the site 
of the pottery, and in sherd-heaps on the banks of the Yeo 

VOL. xxxviii. B 



258 NOTES ON NOETH DEVON POTTERY. 

opposite the pot-works. An important manufacture there 
was plates and dishes of various size and section, cuid gener- 
ally decorated, sometimes elaborately, in sgrafl&to, ie. mostly 
covered with white clay slip and with incised patterns; 
large quantities of fragments, both in the biscuit state and 
glazed, plain and slipped, were found in the refuse-heaps 
from the pottery, on the banks of the river, where the 
broken and imperfect pieces were thrown away. A few 
more fragments of similar dishes were found in the Backfield 
close by, at a small depth below the surface of old pasture. 
Extensive as the demand for these dishes must have been, 
judging from the heap of fragments, not a single piece has 
to my knowledge been found above ground. 

Eight or ten years ago butter-steans at Crocker's, Bideford, 
were quite different in shape from the degenerate butter-pots 
of Fremington and Barnstaple. At East-the-Water Pottery 
money-boxes and pipkins, the latter diflferent in type from 
those of Barnstaple and Bideford, were made within my re- 
collection, as were also oven pitchers or potato-pots at Fre- 
mington, specially for the South Molton bakers ; also from 
the same pottery came owFs heads, for whitepot, an old- 
fashioned dish, now still made, but not as cooking pots, but 
as art pottery. 

An old domestic implement was the earthen lamp, of two 
different types from Barnstaple and Fremington, said to have 
been still used at the latter place half a century ago. 

The great crock of 1724, for some home-brewed liquor, 
passed through the form of the degenerate pilchard-pot for 
the Cornish fishermen, and has now ceased to be made. 

Of posset-pots, one with a seventeenth-century date is in 
the possession of a Barnstaple potter. Porringers may still 
sometimes be seen in the markets, as paint-pots. 

Fremington clay was universally used for the body of the 
ware, never Bideford pipe-clay; pipe-clay very generally 
as a slip covering part, or the whole, of the surface, 
rarely in splashes, as in the pie-dishes or spirals poured on 
the revolving dish ; it is strange this process should never 
have extended to other decoration in poured-on slip, as it 
did in the Midlands. For ovens, tiles, pipkins, etc., Bideford 
gravel was mixed with the clay, to harden the ware, always 
the galena native sulphide of lead for the glaze, no doubt 
originally dusted on to the ware, as with the older potters 
elsewhere. Decoration in sgraffito, i.e. scratched through 
the slip of pipe-clay to produce the pattern. In Freming- 
ton only, of the time of George Fishley, manganese-brown 



NOTES ON NORTH DEVON POTTERY. 259 

and the addition of modelled or cast ornament in pipe-clay 
or mixed red and white clay, giving this ingenious craftsman 
a scale of colour similar to Toft ware. 

The galena glaze, though decidedly objectionable from the 
sanitary point of view, is probably the secret of the exceed- 
ingly deep and rich colour on some of the old wares. The 
efforts of the modern potter to produce variety of colour 
and whiteness of body being hindered by the intensely 
yellow colour of the galena glaze, has led to the use of red 
lead and other glazes, and even leadless glaze, and the depth 
and rich quality of glaze of the old ware is lost to us for ever. 

The old churches of the neighbourhood still contain large 
numbers of embossed tiles, and no doubt a careful examina- 
tion of those still in situ would afford information as to 
dates. Few fragments of them have been found underground 
on or near pottery sites, but a mould in wood for stamping 
them was found in the North Walk, a carved wood block, 
which is shown, together with tiles pressed in it, and made 
of Fremington clay and Bideford gravel, and glazed with 
galena, showing what these tiles were like when fresh from 
the potters kiln; most of these tiles are much the worse 
for wear, but the admixture of gravel in the clay has given 
them considerable hardness compared with the unmixed clay, 
which bears out the character for softness given it by the 
Geological Museum. The ware generally was very badly 
fired, though hard-fired pieces are considerably the best. 
From the fragments it can be seen that the firing was most 
unequal, parts of the body being grey in colour instead of a 
rich red, as the well-fired portions are. I am told that the 
kilns originally were open at the top like limekilns and the 
contents roofed over with old crocks. 

A further evidence of the manufacture of these embossed 
tiles in Barnstaple is found in certain roughly shaped bats 
of clay (and gravel), with the pattern of such a mould partly 
impressed on the top, sides, and front ; one of these bats of 
clay in the possession of Mr. Brannam was found in pulling 
down the North Walk Pottery, another with marks of sub- 
sequent use in the fire is from an old closed-up fireplace in an 
old house in the High Street, Barnstaple, and two in the 
North Devon Athenaeum were excavated when the Long 
Bridge was altered: these are dated 1655, the earliest date I 
can produce. Still another of these clay fire-dogs is in the Free 
Library at Bideford, and is slipped with pipe-clay, glazed, 
and has a roughly modelled head applied on the front. 

Some of these tiles from Bristol Cathedral *and Bitton 

r2 



260 NOTES ON NORTH DEVON POTTERY. 

Church, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, are labelled 
fourteenth century, and are apparently identical with tiles 
made in the North Walk Pottery in the latter half of the 
seventeenth century. The patterns are varied, most 
commonly a fleur-de-lis, but floral devices, Tudor roses, 
lions, swans, and human heads and figures occur — all of 
quite a medieval character. Of course these tiles may not 
all have been made in Barnstaple; some are dated 1708, 
and some, in the possession of Mr. Hamlyn Chichester, 1661. 

The names given to different sizes of pitchers are worth 
recording. Yellow drum pitchers with tops slipped in pipe- 
clay and made for harvest use. Then beginning with the 
largest red pitchers, long toms, forty tales, guUymouths, 
pinchgutts, sixties, and penny jugs. 

The terms forty tales and sixties refer to the number in a 
dozen or tale, a unit that contained more of the smaller and 
less of the larger sizes, and was of uniform value ; a similar 
way of counting formerly prevailed in the Stafifordshire 
potteries. There were also land dozens of thirty-nine and 
sea dozens of sixty, and milk-pans are still sold eighteen to 
the dozen. 

The different sizes of pilchard-pots were known as great 
crocks, buzzards, and gallons. 

I do not know if the poetical inscriptions on the harvest jugs 
are any of them peculiar to North Devon ; here are a few : 

The tulip and the butterfly 
Appears in gayer coats 
Than I at ome be drest 
Fine as those worms 
Excell nie still. 
This small jug in friendship take 
And keep it for the givers sake. 
"Wlien I was in my native place 

1 was a lump of clay 
And digged was out of the earth 
And brouglit from thence away 
But now I am a jug become 

By potters art and skill 
And now your servant am become 
And carry ale I will. 

Drink to me with your heart 
And fill up unto tne mark 
Then dnnk me dry 
Without spilling or you will. 

When this you see remember me 

And keep me in your mind 
Let all the world say what they ^vill 

Speak of me as you find. 
From rocks and sands and every ill 
May God protect the sailor still. 



PIGMY FLINT IMPLEMENTS IN NOETH DEVON. 

BY THOMAS YOUNG, M.R,C.S. 
(Read at Lyiiton, Jnly, 1006.) 



More than forty years ago Mr. Townshend Hall collected 
flint flakes in North Devon, and these are to be seen in the 
Athenaeum at Barnstaple. 

Those who have studied the Transactions of the Devon- 
shire Association will have read papers by Mr. Burnard, 
Mr. Francis Brent, and Mr. Spence Bate, in which mention 
is made not only of the finding of mere flint flakes, but also 
of the discovery of others — flints trimmed to a cutting edge, 
borers and awls with sharpened points, scrapers and arrow- 
heads, and an occasional axe-head ground to a sharp edge. 

Mr. Hairs collection consists only of flakes and cores. 
These other gentlemen have succeeded in finding definite 
flint instruments on Dartmoor and in other localities in the 
county of Devon. In 1903 I first visited the site of Mr. 
Hall's discoveries near Croyde, finding, as he did, abundance 
of flakes and cores. Among them was a tiny flake which, 
though it lay for two years unnoticed, had some secondary 
chipping along one edge. 1 showed some of my specimens 
to Mr. Charles H. Bead, one of the curators of the British 
Museum. He drew my attention to the discovery in dif- 
ferent parts of the world of certain minute flakes of very 
delicate workmanship — the so-called Pigmy Implements. 
They are figured and described by Mr. Bead in his Guide 
to the Antiquities of the Stone Age, 1902, also in more 
detail by Sir Jolm Evans and Professor Windle. But I 
believe there is no record among the Transactions of the 
Devonshire Association of any discovery of the kind in 
this county. 

Mr. Read encouraged me to continue my investigations, 
and I determined to keep a good look out for the " pigmy 
flints." 

Between Morthoe and Croyde, from time to time I found 
a number of flakes of little or no interest — I never missed 



262 PIGMY FLINT IMPLEMENTS IN NOETH DEVON. 

picking up all I could see. But it was not until the winter 
of 1904 that among these flakes I began to recognize the 
rare and occasional occurrence of pigmy implements. 

Six specimens are illustrated by Sir John Evans in his 
book on " Stone Implements *' — three of them came from a 
kitchen-midden at Hastings, and three from the Vindhya 
Hills of India. Their shapes are seen at a glance to be 
identical. 

"Curiously enough," he remarks, "identical forms have been 
found in some abundance on the Vindhya Hills and the Banda 
district, India ; at Helouan, E<(ypt, in France, and in the district 
of the Meuse, Belgium. Such an identity of form at places 
geographically so remote does not imply any actual communication 
between those who made the tools, but merely shows that some of 
the requirements of daily life, and the means at command for 
fulfilling them being the same, tools of the same character have 
been developed irrespective of time or space." 

One is quite willing to admit the truth of this in regard 
to instruments the general utility of which is suflSciently 
obvious, such as arrow-heads, scrapers, and celts. But when 
applied to instruments whose uses are hidden in such 
obscurity as is the case with these we are considering, the 
statement may require some modification. 

Professor Windle, in his "Eemains of the Prehistoric 
Age in England," gives an engraving of fifteen of them. He 
divides them into four classes : — 

Crescent. 

Scalene. 

Bounded and pointed. 

Ehomboidal. 

" Of the so-called Indian varieties, the remarkable point is that 
the forms in India and the forms in England are identical — a fact 
which some have thought points to a communication between 
these countries at a very early period. Others, on the contrary, 
only see in the resemblance a common result of a common need." 

In France they have been discovered at Bruniquel and 
Garancieres (Seine et Loire), and have been divided by 
M. ThieuUen into triangular or amygdaloid, concave- 
crescentic, bevelled, and other varieties. 

" The localities in which they have been found are not numerous 
in this country [England], but where they have been discovered 
they seem to exist in great numbers, and when accompanied by 
other implements, these implements belong rather to early than 
late types of Neolithic manufacture " (Ibid,), 



PIGMY FLINT IMPLEMENTS IN NORTH DEVON. 263 

Mr. Gratty has found these little tools on the sand dunes 
in North Lincolnshire, and many thousands of them in the 
valley of the Don in Yorkshire. Dr. CoUey Marsh has 
found them far from the sea on the Pennine range at an 
altitude of 1300 ft., and has presented a series of them to 
the British Museum. 

They have also been found at Lakenheath, Suffolk. They 
occur, no doubt, in other districts, but owing to their 
diminutive size they may readily escape observation. 

The probable utility of these little implements, which 
have been produced in such large numbers and at the 
expenditure of so much time and trouble, is still an open 
question. I do not consider as satisfactory any of the 
suggestions that have been made as to their use. That they 
appear to be connected with the early development of Indo- 
European races gives the study of them a peculiar interest 
to ourselves. 

All we can say at present is that the free sharp edge of 
the flake was probably let into wood in such a manner that 
the worked portion may have formed part of the armature 
of some kind of implement in common use among Neolithic 
peoples. The rhomboidal flints seem specially adapted for 
such a purpose. 

The method of mounting a series of flint flakes in a 
wooden handle dates from the time of the early Egyptians 
(Falc(5 de Selco), and a sharpened flint let into wood has 
been found in the Swiss lake dwellings. Evans suggests 
that 

" the insertion of one edge of a flake of flint into a piece of 
wood involves no great trouble, while it would shield the fiDgers 
from being cut, and would tend to strengthen the flint." 

He also endeavours to prove that the curious little bevelled 
flakes from Kent's Cavern, which bear such a close re- 
semblance to the larger kind of Pigmy Implements, were 
employed in a similar manner during the later part of the 
Palaeolithic Age. These are manufactured from simple 
triangular or polygonal flakes. The thin edge of the flake 
is left free, and the thick edge is worked throughout. In 
one form the edge of the flake is bevelled ofiT, and in another, 
and rarer form, both ends are bevelled. One or two speci- 
mens of much the same character were found at St. 
Madelaine; and in other French caves some extremely 
slender flakes have been found with one edge worn away 
and the other left untouched, which points to their having 



264 PIGMY FLINT IMPLEMENTS IN NORTH DEVON. 

been inserted in some sort of handle. Mr. Pengelly has 
pointed out that the larger implements found in Kent's 
Cavern resembling those from the river gravels 

"belong to the breccia at the base of the cave-deposits rather 
than to the cave-earth above, in which thinner and more deli- 
cately worked forms have been found." He considers "that there 
was a considerable interval of time between the two deposits, and 
that there was a difference between the fauna of the one and the 
other." 

We may conclude, therefore, that the very delicately 
bevelled flakes we have just been considering came out of 
the cave-earth above the breccia, and belong, therefore, to a 
comparatively later period of the Palaeolithic Age. They 
bear a striking resemblance in shape and design to certain 
of the larger Pigmy Implements I have found near Croyde. 
In fact, one figured in Evans is only one-fifth of an inch 
longer, and the same breadth as a large scalene flint in my 
collection. 

I have gone rather fully into these comparisons because 
any facts which may help us to fill up the interval that 
separates the two Stone Periods have a particular interest at 
the present moment. The gap that has been supposed to 
exist between the latest cave-dwellers and the men whose 
flint implements lie scattered over the surface of the globe 
appears to be wider where our own country is concerned 
than is the case with the adjoining Continent, where recent 
investigations in the south of France are tending to bridge 
it over. 

The flint implements found in the neighbourhood of Croyde 
are as a rule small in size and poor in quality. This is due, no 
doubt, to the indifferent character of the raw material which 
has been obtained from pebbles from the shore, and its raised 
beaches, also to the distance of thirteen miles which separates 
it from the nearest deposit of flint nodules across the 
estuary. 

The diminutive size of particular implements, however, 
does not entitle them to be regarded as Pigmy Flints. 
These little implements possess distinctive characteristics 
essential to themselves and quite apart from their minute 
dimensions. A selection of specimens obtained on Baggy 
Point vary in size from half an inch to an inch in length, 
by one-eighth to a quarter of an inch in breadth. 

They have been made from small ridged or wedge-shaped 
flakes, which have been carefully selected, so as to require 



PIGMY FLINT IMPLEMENTS IN NORTH DEVON. 265 

only a small amount of chipping to produce the desired 
effect. The flakes are often almond-shaped, with the bulb of 
percussion at the broader end, the opposite end being 
narrower and tapering to a point. The reverse side of the 
flake is always flat, as is the rule with the earlier types of 
implements. The sharpest and thinnest edge is left un- 
touched, but the thick edge is carefully worked to an even 
surface by successive strokes of the flaking tool, usually 
along its whole length ; but when the thicker edge of the 
flake is slightly curved towards its point, as is often the 
case, only a little bevelling is required to finish it. 

In order to obtain these flakes a shore pebble of suitable 
size was first broken into two unequal parts. The larger- 
sized portion was then held between the thumb and finger 
of the left hand, with the fractured surface uppermost. A 
series of external flakes were next detached by striking the 
raw edge of the core with a hammer-stone. In this way the 
external flakes were got rid of, then one or more ridged 
flakes were detached, until the core, no longer capable of 
being held on account of the danger of bruising the thumb 
of the operator, was thrown aside with the refuse. 

On the spot where pigmy implements were made, we 
should expect to find some of the smaller cores from which 
these little flakes have been struck, and many have been 
found. Many of the rhomboidal flakes have no doubt been 
struck from cores of ordinary dimensions, and afterwards 
shortened to the required length. 

I have one small core which shows signs of abrasion at 
the apex, probably occasioned by contact with an anvil- 
stone during the process of detaching the flakes. It 
measures only three-quarters of an inch in length, and the 
same diameter at the base. 

I f oimd a small fabricator in an old occupation on Saunton 
Down, suitable for bevelling the edges of pigmy flints. It 
is far smaller than the ordinary flaking tools in my collec- 
tion. I have often visited the spot, which was investigated 
by Mr. Townshend Hall in 1863. It lies between Croyde 
Bay and Baggy Point, where the little stream falls into 
the sea. It was wlien he was tracing a stratum rich in 
Ukynchonella jileurodon that he came on some flint flakes, 
scratched out by rabbits, as he was ascending the side of the 
cliff from the cave beneath. He made excavations here, and 
discovered the remains of an urn, and many flakes and 
cores. A selection of the flakes obtained from this spot 
have been recently mounted on two cards by the Curator of 



266 PIGKY FLINT DIPLEMKNTS IN NORTH DEVON. 

the Athenaeum just as they were figured in the "Intellectual 
Reviewer/' where Hall gives an account of the discovery. 

After every storm a few flakes and cores may be picked 
up amongst the pebbles which cover the floor of the cave. 
They are worn and polished by the action of the waves. 
Half way along the floor of the cave the top of a large 
erratic boulder is generally exposed to view. Pigmy 
implements were probably made at the site of Hall's 
excavations. My first pigmy implement came from there. 
Extremely delicate flakes abound in the soil, and numbers 
of them are washed out after every rain storm. But a more 
important site of manufacture is a ridge of land overlooking 
"the flat piece of ground eighty yards square," which is 
situated above the cave where Mr. Hall's excavations were 
made. A stone wall divides that portion of the ridge which 
is under cultivation from the grass land next to the sea. 
Now whenever the soil on the summit of this ridge has 
been turned over by the plough, and exposed for a time to 
the weather, a quantity of flint flakes are brought to the 
surface, as well as a number of cores and rough external 
flakes of all sizes and shapes. Numbers of internal flakes, 
also with sharp clean-cut edges, showing no traces of second- 
ary chipping, have evidently been cast away as worthless. 
They are all highly patinated. Some, however, have their 
edges notched and worn with use, others are sharpened at 
the end ; in rare instances hammer-stones and a few scrapers 
of moderate quality have been picked up. These are easily 
distinguished from other specimens by their chalky-white 
colour and weather-worn appearance. From among this 
abundant material I have collected from time to time many 
of my specimens of pigmy implements. Everything here 
is suggestive of a very early occupation. A field which is 
nearest to the extremity of Baggy Point was occupied 
probably at a later period, for a much finer class of imple- 
ments is found there. Many of these are lustrous but not 
patinated. 

Following the direction of the little stream inland for a 
distance of half a mile in an easterly direction, one arrives 
at its source. Here is a low boggy place, around which are 
scattered quantities of chipped flints ; and amongst them I 
have picked up several pigmy implements. These also are 
well patinated, and are found in association with refuse 
flakes and cores, occasional hammer-stones, and coarse 
scrapers. 

In the neighbourhood of Spreacombe remarkably good 



PIGMY FLINT IMPLEMENTS IN NORTH DEVON. 267 

flint instruments have been found. I have several fine 
scrapers, and some of the arrow-heads are both stemmed and 
barbed 

In nearly all cases the original colouring of the fractured 
surfaces is retained. The percentage of worked implements 
in that locality is higher than usual in relation to the 
number of useless flakes. Few, however, bear the character- 
istics of genuine pigmy flints, and I have only one or two 
specimens which appear to belong to this class. 

At Orleigh Court, south of Bideford, I have discovered 
abundant evidence of the flaking of the flint nodules that 
occur there. I have obtained arrow-heads, scrapers, boring 
tools, and some very large cores, but up to the present I 
have come across no pigmy flints. The flakes and instru- 
ments found there are lustrous, but they are not often 
patinated. 

Seeing that numbers of pigmy flints have been picked up 
upon sand dunes, and that flint implements have been found 
in such abundance on the Glenluce sands, Wigtonshire, and 
in still greater numbers also on the Culbin sands, Elgin, 
where many of the specimens collected are exceedingly 
minute, it has always struck me as surprising that I have 
never yet succeeded in finding any implements or flakes of 
any description whatever upon the large tract of sand hills 
known as the Braunton Burrows. The same applies to the 
burrows at Northam and at Croyde, and also to the sand 
links that envelop the red sandstone clififs at the base of 
Pickwell Down. At Woolacombe the flakes can be traced 
right up to the sand links, but there they cease. But in the 
spring of this year I found twenty-three pieces of flint on 
the surface of a little patch of drift which lies in front of 
the boat-house at the foot of the links. 

Two or three of these fragments fit into one another and 
are evidently portions of a pebble that has been broken on 
the spot. The edges of the flakes are quite sharp, and their 
surfaces grey with age. Some of them also have been 
scorched by fire. They were embedded in a thin layer of 
brown earthy clay which contained many particles of char- 
coal. This is evidently a scrap of the old land surface, which 
has only quite recently been exposed to view by the removal 
of some of the dry sand round about it. It seems probable 
that in most cases the level of old occupation is overlain 
by the wind-blown sand. 

I have continued Mr. Hall's investigations at Westward 
Ho in association with Mr. Inkermann Kogers. At low- 



268 PIGMY FLINT IMPLEMENTS IN NORTH DEVON. 

water mark, in the blue clay which is overlain by the sub- 
merged forest, there exists a profusion of flint flakes and 
cores. The fractured surfaces of these flakes have a pecuKar 
grey colour. They lie underneath the peat bed, and are 
curiously mottled and stained. Bones of the Keltic ox {Bos 
longifrons), deer, and other animals belonging to the recent 
period are found in association with them, together with 
masses of shells of the oyster and other edible molluscs. 

Among a quantity of refuse flakes are others of smaller size 
and finer quality, their edges, however, as keen and true as 
on the day when they were struck. They have lain undis- 
turbed for centuries in a bed of consolidated mud, unabraded 
by the ploughshare, or any contact with one another, 
protected by the peat bed, and the trunks of bog-ash and 
hazel which overlie them, whilst over these, again, are rolled 
the sands and surf of the Atlantic. The submerged situa- 
tion of this deposit, and the nature and extent of the 
material that has slowly accumulated upon the site since 
the time when it was inhabited by man, justify its claim to 
belong to a period of remote antiquity. Half a decade of 
millenniums, more or less, must have elapsed since man 
chipped flints beneath the shade of these forest trees, whose 
roots lie embedded in the old alluvium. There is a strong 
resemblance in the quality of the flint refuse that exists 
here to that which has been described, on the elevated ridge 
near Baggy Point. Here also the flakes are highly patinated, 
and no single implement worthy of the name has been 
found amongst them. Many of the flakes and cores also 
are so small tliat their only use would appear to consist in 
the production of pigmy flints. 

The limited area of this deposit as yet examined is not a 
sufficient reason for our want of success in discovering 
worked implements. 

Such a large accumulation of bones and shells bears wit- 
ness to a prolonged occupation. Moreover, Mr. Rogers has 
found excellent flint implements close to the pebble ridge. 
They were taken out of a bed of yellow clay, which is sub- 
merged at high water, and they, too, were associated with 
bones and shells. 

There is good evidence that these fine instruments have 
been made on the spot where they were found. Their 
brown colour, and complete absence of patination, mark 
them oft' as entirely distinct from the more deeply sub- 
merged and highly patinated flakes which are found at the 
low-water level. 



PIGMY FLINT IMPLEMENTS IN NORTH DEVON. 269 

Mr. Eogers assures me that his instruments belong to a 
more recent occupation. I see no reason to abandon the 
hope that future researches may lead to the discovery of 
pigmy Hint implements in the deposit at low-water mark. 
This suggestion affords the best explanation of the state of 
affairs that occurs there, and enables us to account for the 
presence of a quantity of refuse fragments of chipped flint, 
occurring as it does at a particular spot which has evidently 
been continuously occupied by man, a " kitchen-midden " in 
fact, which is peculiar inasmuch as it has not yielded any 
single example of a finished implement, broken or otherwise. 
My belief is that this deposit will eventually turn out to be 
the site of a manufactory of pigmy flints, and for this 
reason I have ventured to allude to it in a paper describing 
their occurrence in North Devon. Such little implements 
may prove very difficult to find, and it may be by mere 
accident that they can ever be discovered. The smallest 
fragments are found deep down in the clay amongst the 
pebbles of carboniferous limestone which constitute the base 
of the deposit. 

In the autumn of 1864 Mr. Hall noticed " the remains of 
a number of pointed stakes driven into it in a kind of semi- 
circle." 

This circumstance is very suggestive of the previous 
existence of a pile dwelling. The Swiss lake-dwellers used 
to shoot their refuse through holes in the platform left for 
the purpose, and many fine implements appear to have 
fallen in accidentally with the rubbish. 

This situation can only be investigated during low spring 
tides, and is only exposed after the sand has been swept off 
it by a continuance of westerly gales. This has not taken 
place during the last two winters, and for this reason a more 
searching investigation has not been possible. 



SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF THE BOTANICAL 

DISTEICTS OF BRAUNTON AND SHERWILL, 

NORTH DEVON. 



BY C. E. LARTER. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



The first sentence of this paper must be an expression of 
indebtedness. To Messrs. W. Mitten, E. M. Holmes, F.L.S., 
H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S., and Symers M. Macvicar I owe a 
gratitude that no words of obligation can even faintly 
indicate. In the following attempt to give some record of 
the Cryptogams of our district all of my own that is of 
value is owing to their most patient and unwearying aid. 
Mr. Mitten — than whose name there is none more venerated 
amongst the survivors of those great makers of bryology to 
whose labours we owe all advance in the science — has, by 
his own most generous proposal, been at the trouble to read 
through the whole of my moss and hepatic lists, and has 
added to them such records and remarks as therein appear 
with his name appended. He has also allowed me the 
great honour of giving to this Association the first publica- 
tion of a hepatic new to science, found at Lynmouth by 
himself, and just differentiated and named. Full particulars 
of this species will be found in the section concerned with 
the hepatics of the district. 

To Mr. E. M. Holmes every specimen of Algae men- 
tioned has been submitted. But for the impulse he gave 
when visiting Ilfracombe in 1903, and his continual kind 
instruction since, I should not have thought of taking up 
their study. Mr. H. N. Dixon has determined critical 
species of mosses, and Mr. S. M. Macvicar those of hepatics. 
The eminence of these authorities needs no assertion here. 
The title of the work each respectively has, in combination 



SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 271 

with a coadjutor, issued will be found under the several 
headings as the standard of the nomenclature. Others who 
have helped me will, I trust, consider themselves as included 
in the grateful rendering of thanks, without my adding a 
further list of names. 

The " Braunton " and " Sherwill " botanical districts of 
North Devon are the first two of the twelve into which, for 
botanical purposes, Mr. W. P. Hiern, m.a., F.R.S., has sub- 
divided the part of our county that drains naturally to the 
northern coast. These divisions are " broadly based on the 
existing hundreds of the county, but with such modifica- 
tions as seem best to serve the purpose " of conveniently 
grouping the botanical records. 

The " Braunton " district embraces sixteen parishes : 
namely, those of Mortehoe, Ilfracombe, Berrynarbor, Combe- 
martin, Trentishoe, Kentisbury, East Down, Bittadon, West 
Down, Georgeham, Braunton, Heanton-Punchardon, Ashford, 
Mar wood, Pilton, and Barnstaple. 

The "Sherwill" district includes fourteen parishes: 
namely, those of Martinhoe, Lynton, Countisbury, Brendon, 
Parracombe, Challacombe, Arlington, Loxhore, Sherwill, 
Bratton Fleming, High Bray, Charles, Stoke Eivers, and 
Goodleigh. Both these sub-divisions come under District I, 
that of " Barnstaple," of the eight into which, for botanical 
purposes, Mr. Hiern has divided the whole county of Devon. 

It is by the kindness of the Hon. Local Secretary of this 
Lynton meeting, Mr. C. A. Briggs, F.E.S., that I am able to 
take into account the second of these districts; my own 
explorations have been almost entirely limited to the 
Braunton one. Mr. Briggs has been so good as to hand to me 
his notes of moss-finds later than the gatherings recorded in 
"Science Gossip" for the month of September, 1900, made 
in that year in conjunction with Mr. John Carrington. As 
stated in that paper, all the determinations given by him 
have the authority of Mr. J. A. Wheldon, of Liverpool. 
Both Mr. Briggs and I wish it to be clearly understood that 
neither his lists nor mine profess in any way to be in the 
least exhaustive of the treasures of the regions indicated. 
My own searching for cryptogamic growths of the "Braunton " 
one began only in 1900, and his of the "Sherwill" one in 
the same year, coincidentally, but without each other's 
knowledge at the time. There are many recesses of this 
rich neighbourhood that we know we have barely touched, 
or not reached at all. To future explorers we are assured 
the country will yield a yet richer harvest. 



272 SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 

In the past, whilst the south of the county has been fairly 
well worked, it is curious how little attention has been given 
by cryptoganiic botanists to its northern part. The names 
of the earliest explorers are mostly to be found in the 
records of the llore Collection — the work of the late Eev. 
W. S. Hore, m.a. — that only this spring has, through 
the good otiices of Mr. Hiern, been given by the Misses 
Hore to tlie North Devon Athenaeum, Barnstaple. There, 
in a case made for its reception, it is now permanently 
deposited. Application to consult its specimens and records 
must be made to the much-honoured librarian of the 
Institution, ilr. T. Wainwright, to whose persistent and 
zealous etlorts, during the long period of forty years, to 
encourage all literary and natural history studies we in 
I^orth Devon owe so much. The name of earliest date in 
the Ilore Collection is that of the Itev. C. A. Johns, M.A., 
writer of the well-known, popular handbook, "Flowers of 
the Field." His moss-records — very few, however, in number 
— go back to 18-iO. Then comes Dr. Kalfs, whose long life 
ended only in 1890, and we have living in Barnstaple at 
least one man who was a friend of this great Cryptogamic 
naturalist. Contemporary with the earlier days of Dr. 
Kalfs were Mrs. Griffiths, of Pilton, and her sister-in law, 
MLss Griffiths, of Trentishoe. Mitten's work in the region 
was mainly done while he stayed in 1874 and 1875 with 
the then Curate of Trentishoe, tlie Rev. James Hannington, 
known to all tlie world later as Bishop Hannington. Mr. 
E. ^I. Holmes' first visit to tliis part of the county was in 
1877, the year after the pul)lication of his and the late Mr. 
Francis Brent's list of tlie "Mosses of Devon and Cornwall." 
As he knew Mitten and Hore, and, as a young man, corre- 
sponded with Ralfs (we omit the courtesy "ilr." where the 
name has become too widely familiar and revered to require 
it), he must be regarded as a living link with those first 
students in past days of this part of our county's crypto- 
gamic growths. 

Witli this brief introduction to the subject as a whole, I 
proceed to give such records as I have been able to find or 
make of the Musci, Hepaticaj, and Algie of the districts 
indicated by my title. Xotes concerning the records are 
reserved for the particular groups they concern.^ Raven- 
shaw's "Botany of North Devon" — the standard work for 

* In aU records wliere no name is ap])ended to a locality the ** find ** is my 
own. Save in a few cases, duly noted, all Mr. Briggs* records for Lynmoutn 
and mine for Combemartiu are new for those places. 



SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 273 

localities of our Phanerogams — has brief lists of all these 
three sets of cryptogams. As allusions to it will be found in 
the following pages, I may state that the date of the 
first edition was 1857 ; that of the second edition, 1860 ; 
and of the fourth edition, 1877. Of a third edition I have 
failed to find the year. The name of the editor of the first 
edition is given as the " Rev. George Tugwell, M.A., Oxon., 
Rector of Bath wick." The fourth and last edition of 1877 
was published by Simpkin, Marshall, & Co., London, and 
Stewart, Ilfracombe, with "additions to the Botanical 
Catalogue by Rev. T. F. Ravenshaw." 



L MUSCL 

The Paper read before this Association by the late 
Edward Parfitt, of the Devon and Exeter Institution, at 
the meeting at Seaton in the year 1885, though entitled 
" Devon Mosses and Hepatics," contained, in the main, only 
South Devon localities, as did the list already alluded to by 
Messrs. E. M. Holmes and Francis Brent, " Mosses of Devon 
and Cornwall.*' It would have been well had the titles 
indicated the limitations of their scope. I merely mention 
this to indicate that the present paper is not a covering of 
the same ground. 

All the mosses in the ensuing list are named according to 
the nomenclature adopted in " The Student's Handbook of 
British Mosses,'' by H. N". Dixon, m.a., F.L.S. With Illustra- 
tions, and Keys to the Genera and Species, by H. G. Jameson, 
M.A.; Second Edition, June, 1904 (Eastbourne, V. T. Sumfield). 
In the absence, save in comparatively few cases, of localities 
from Mr. Dixon's Handbook, I have looked out the previous 
records in Dr. Braithwaite's " British Moss Flora." Of that 
great work the first volume was completed in 1887; the 
second in 1895 ; and the third in 1905. Any species, so 
far as I know, not found in this part of Devon at a 
date prior to my own record, and for which no locality 
is, in Dr. Braithwaite's records of the less common species, 
given here, I have entered as new for V. C. 4 (North 
Devon). In one case, that of Barhula gracilis Schwgr., Mr. 
H. N. Dixon himself has notified me that the plant had not 
been found in Devon at all before my collecting it. Others 
indicated below are also, so far as I myself can discover, new 
records for the county. 

Those Sphagna found by myself have been named by 
Mr. E. C. Horrell, F.L.S., according to the nomenclature of his 

VOL. xxxviii. s 



274 SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF KOBTH DEYOK. 

monograph, "The European Sphagnacese after Wamistorf" 
(West. Newman, & Co., 1901). 

Sphagnum ru/escens Wamst. — Great Hangman Bog, Combemartin, 

May, 1901. 
S. crassicladum Warnst. — Great Hangman Bog, Combemartm, 

March, 1903; Chapman Barrows, Exmoor, September, 1905. 
S, papillosum (Ldb.), Var. normale, Wamst.— Combemartin, 

November, 1900. 

The following, found by Mr. C. A. Briggs, are named 
according to Dixon's Handbook, first edition : — 

S, cymHfolium Ehrh. — Exmoor. Var. congestum Schp. — ^Exmoor. 

S, rigidum Schp. — Exmoor. 

S, suhsecundum Nees. — Exmoor. 

S, intermedium HofF. — Exmoor. 

S, cuepidatum Ehrh. — Exmoor. 

Teiraphis pellucida Hedw. — Countisbury, C. A. B. 

CathanTiea undulata W. and M. — Lynmouth, C. A. B., passim; 
Combemartin; Berrynarbor. 

Pdytrichum nanum Neck. — Lynton, C. A. B. ; Sterrage Valley, 
Berrynarbor. 

P. aloides Hedw. — ^Lynton and Exmoor, C. A. B. ; Combemartin 
and Berrynarbor, passim, 

P, urnigerum L. — Countisbury, C. A. B. ; Berrynarbor, Sterrage 
VaUey. 

P. cdpinum L. — Exmoor, C. A. B. 

P. juniperinum Willd. — Lynton, C. A. B. ; Combemartin, passim. 
Sub-species strictum Banks. — Exmoor, passim^ C. A. B. 

P. formosum Hedw. — Great Hangman Bog, Combemartin, May, 
1902, c.fr. 

P. commune L. — Exmoor, C. A. B. ; Great Hangman Bog, Combe- 
martin. 

Diphyscium foltosum, Mohr. — Watersmeet, 1876, W. Mitten. 

Fleundium subulaium Kab. — Lynmouth, Miss Griffiths (Hore 
Collection) ; Woolscot Wood, Berrynarbor, 1 906. 

Ditrichum homomallum Hpe. — Pinkery Pond, Exmoor, C. A. B., 
1900; Berrynarbor, 1905; Watermouth, 1906. Mr. Briggs* 
record of this si)ecies in 1900 was the first for North Devon. 

Ceratadon purpureus Brid. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. ; Combemartin ; 
and in all the neighbourhoods included, passim, 

Dichodontium pellucidurn Schp. — Combemartin. 

Dicranella heteromalla Schp. — Parracombe and Exmoor, C. A. B. ; 
Combemartin. 

D. cerviculata Schp. — Exmoor, C. A. B. 

D. varia Schp. — Lynmouth and Brendon, C. A. B. ; Combe- 
martin. 

Dicranoweisia cirrata Ldb. — Summer-house Hill, Lynton ; and 
above Saddlegate, C. A. B. ; Combemartin, 1904. 



SOME CBTFTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 275 

Campylopus flexuogus Brid. — Exmoor, C. A. B. 

C, pyriformis Brid. — Esplanade, Lynmouth, and Exmoor, C. A. B., 

1900; by the East Lyn, May, 1902. 
C fragilia B. and S. — llfracombe, E. M. Holmes, September, 

1903. 
Dicranum scoparium Hedw. — Throughout the Lynton district, 

C. A. B. ; also in all the neighbourhoods embraced by this 

paper, passim, 

D. majus Turn. — East Lyn Valley, C. A. B. ; Combemartin and 

Arlington. 
D. Seottianum Turn. — Hooe Lake, Trentishoe, Miss Griffiths 

(Hore Collection). 
Leucobrywn glaticum Schp. — Desolation and Countisbury, C. A. B.; 

Great Hangman Bog, Combemartin, May, 1900. 
Fisstdens mridulm Wahl.— The Tors, Lynmouth, C. A. B., 1900; 

Little Hangman Hill, Combemartin, 1905. 
F. incunms Starke. — Berrynarbor, March, 1 906. 
F, hryoides Hedw. — Lynmouth, llkerton Lane ("a somewliat 

doubtful specimen "), C. A. B. ; Sterrage Valley, Berrynarbor, 

December, 1902. 
F. adiantoides Hedw. — Wood beyond Higher Leigh, Berrynarbor, 

May, 1 906 ; Road between Chelfham Station and Loxhore, 

August, 1906. 
F. decipiens De Not. — East Lyn Valley, C. A. B. ; Berrynarbor, 

April, 1901. 

F, taxifolius Hedw. — Barnstaple, February, 1864 (Hore Collec- 

tion); "Tors," Lynton, Mi-s. Griffiths (Torquay Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Collection) ; Berrynarbor, 1904. 
Orimmia apocarpa Hedw. — Lynmouth and district^ poisim, 
C. A. B. 

G. viaritima Turn. — Ravenshaw, 1877; Combemartin; Berry- 

narbor; llfracombe; 1^0^ y passim, 
G, pulvinata Sm. — In all the district, passim, 
G, ovata Schwgr. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. 
Rhacomitrium aciadare Brid. — Valleys of the East and West 

Lyns (on stones), C. A. B., 1900; and December, 1904, 

C. E. L. 
R, fasciculare Brid. — Watersmeet and Exmoor (on stones), C. A. B. 
R, heierostichum Brid. — Saddlegate, and East and West Lyn 

VaUeys, C. A. B. 
R, laniLginosum Brid. — Pinkery Pond and Desolation, C. A, B. 
R, canescens Brid. — Heath near Saddlegate, C. A. B. ; Hangman 

Hill, Combemartin. 
Ptychomitrium polyphyllum Fiirnr. — In all the district, passim,, . 
Hedmgia ciliata Hedw. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. ; Little Hangman 

Hill, Combemartin, 1904. 
Phascum curvicolle Ehrh. — Berrynarbor, April, 1906. A new 

record for North Devon. 

82 



276 SOME CBYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DSVON. 

Pottia recta Mitt. — Berrynarbor, fallow field, September, 1903. 

P. Heimii Fiinir. — Watermouth, Berrynarbor, June, 1901. 

P. truncatula Ldb. Sub-8i)ecie3 intermedia Fiimr. — Little Hang- 
man, Combemartin, February, 1906. 

P. crinita Wils. — AVatermouth, Berrynarbor, March, 1904. 

P. minutula Fiirnr. — Fallow field, BerrjTiarbor, September, 1903. 

P. Starkeana C. M. — Watermouth, Berrynarbor, February, 1906. 
Also a form with a shorter seta than is normally found which 
Mr. Dixon labels, " Pottia Starkeana probably." There 
appeared at first to be a doubt if this plant might not prove to 
be the rare P. commutata Limpr., but, on further examination, 
the coarsely tuberculate spores were found to be inconsistent 
with the characteristics of that species. 

P. lanceolata C. M. — Watermouth, Berrynarbor, February, 1906. 

From the above enumeration, in which are included six 
species and one sub-species out of the whole eleven species 
and two sub-species of our British Pottias (that is, more 
than half the number growing in these islands), it will be 
seen that this part of Devon is peculiarly rich in Pottias. 
According to the localities given in Braithwaite's "British 
Moss Flora," Vol. I (1887), Pottia recta, Pottia intermedia, 
Pottia lanceolata appear to be new records for Devon ; and 
Pottia crinita for North Devon. I have sought carefully, 
but so far vainly, for Pottia viridifolia Mitt., which from 
the records appears to be limited to slaty and basaltic rocks. 
The new Pottia commutata Limpr., discovered by Mr. W. E. 
Nicholson in Sussex, in 1903, certainly should be further 
looked for, since we have just the kind of earthy ground 
close to the sea in which Mr. Nicholson has found it in the 
two Sussex localities. 

Tortula amhigua Angstr. — Combemartin, February, 1905. 

T, aloides De Not.— Combemartin, 1903. 

T. atrovirens lAh, — Watermouth, March, 1904 and 1906; Combe- 
martin, February, 1906; Croyde, February, 1906. This, 
again, appears to be a new record for North Devon. 

T, muralis Hedw. — Lynmouth, passim, C. A. B. ; Combemartin, 
passim, Var. B, rupestris Wils. — Combemartin, 1^0^, passim, 

T. suhidata Iledw. — Countisbury, C. A. B. 

T, laevipila Schwgr. — Barnstaple, February, 1864 (Hore Collec- 
tion) ; Watermouth, February, 1906. 

T, ruralifm-mis Dixon. — Saunton, May, 1902; and c. fr. January, 
1905; Combemartin, 1906. A new record for Devon. 

Barhula lurida Ldb. — The Leat, Lynmouth, C. A. B. A new 
record for Devon. 

P. cordata Dixon. — Saiuiton (smmy banks), April, 1903, 



SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 277 

E. M. Holmes. Mr. Dixon ("Handbook," second edition) 
writes: "This plant until recently was known only from 
Central Europe (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland). In 
1902 it was detected by Mr. \V. E. Nicholson and myself in 
the Pyrenees, and Mr. Holmes detected it in the above 
locality in April, 1903." 
B. lobelia Mitt. — Road to "Watersmeet, Lynmouth, December, 

1904, C. E. L. Also (date not given) found at Lynton by 
C. A. B. ; Ilfracombo and Combemartin, September, 1905. 

B. tophacea Mitt. — Hangman Hill, Combemartin, November, 1840, 

C. A. Johns (Hore Collection) ; Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, 

Jime, 1903. 
B. faUax Hedw. — Barnstaple, February, 1864 (Hore Collection); 

Lynmouth, passim^ 1900, C. A. B. ; Combemartin, June, 

1903. Var. h. hrevifolia Schultz. — Esplanade, Lynmouth, 

1900, C. A. B. The variety is a new record for North 

Devon. 
B, rigidula Mitt. — Combemartin, C. A. Johns, November, 1840 

(Hore Collection) ; Combemartin, 1903. 
B, cylindrica Schp.— West Lyn Valley, 1900, C. A. B. A new 

record for North Devon. Berrynarbor (Sterrage Valley), 

February, 1904. 

Sub-species vinealia Brid. — Watersmeet Road, Lynmouth, 

C. A. B., 1900; Saunton, August, 1903. The Watersmeet^ 

Lynmouth, one is a new record for North Devon. 
Barhula gracilis Schwgr. — Saunton sand-hills, May, 1902. A 

new record for Devon. 
B, revoluta Brid. — Once at Watersmeet, C. A. B., 1900. A new 

record for Devon. Saunton Sands, E. M. Holmes, April, 

1903. 
B. convoluta Hedw. — Countisbury, C. A. B., 1900; Saunton, 

August, 1903. Var. h. Sardoa B. and S. — Berrynarbor 

(Sterrage Valley), E. M. Holmes, September, 1903. 
B. unguiculata Hedw. — Lynmouth, passim, C. A. B. ; Saunton, 

1 905, c. f r. Var. b. cuspidata Braithw. — Berrynarbor (Sterrage 
Valley), January, 1904. 

W, crispata C. M.— Once, Tors, Lynmouth, C. A. B., 1900. 

Weisia microstoma C. M. — Tors, Lynmouth, C. A. B. 

W, viridula Hedw. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. ; Combemartin (Little 
Hangman), November, 1902. Var. 6. amhlydon B. and S.— * 
Lynmouth, C. A. B. ; Silver Mine, Combemartin. Var. d. 
densifoUa B. and S. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. 

W, veriicillata Brid. — Ilfracombe, C. A. Johns, September, 1840 
(Hore Collection) ; Watersmeet, Lynmouth, E. M. Holmes, 
1877; Combemartin and Berrynarbor, 1899, with abundant 
fruit. In this district the fruit is not at all uncommon, as it 
is elsewhere. 

Trichostomum crisptUum Bruch. — Capstone, Ilfracombe, Raven- 



278 SOME CRYPTOOAIIS OF NOBTH DKVON. 

shaw, 1877 ; Combemartin (Newberry Cliflfs), August, 1903; 

Hagginton Cliffs, February^ 1906. 
T. mutabile Bruch. — West Lyn Valley, C. A. B. ; Combemartin 

(Newberry Cliffs), 1903. Var. lUtorale Dixon.— West Lvn 

VaUey, C. A. B. 
T. flavovireiis. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. ; Newberry, Combemartin. 
T. tenuirostre Ldb. — Glen Lyn (on damp stones), C. A. B. 
T. nitidum Schp. — Newberry, Combemartin, June, 1902. 
Ginelidotus fontinaloides P. B. — East Lyn Valley (stones near 

river-bed), C. A. B. 
Encdlypta streptocarpa Hedw. — East Lyn Valley (sparingly), 

C. A. B. 
Zygodon Mougeotii B. and S. — On a boulder to left of path in 

wood above Long Pool, near Rockford, on right bank of East 

Lyn, C. A. B. A new record for North Devon. 
Z, viridissimus R. Br. — Walls in E. Lyn Valley, C. A. B. ; 

Watermouth, February, 1906, c. fr. (on tree). 
Z: stirtoni Schp. — Lee Bay, Lynton, C. A. B. A new record for 

North Devon. 
Ulota phyllantha Brid. — Lee Bay, Lynton, C. A. B. ; Water- 
mouth and Combemartin, 1906. 
U» Hutchinaice Hamm. — Little Hangman, Combemartin, February, 

1906, c. fr. A new record for North Devon. 
Orthotrichmn Lyellii H. and T. — Desolation Farm, Countisbury 

(on a poplar), C. A. B. 
0, affine Schrad.— Combemartin, April, 1905. 
0. pulcJiellum Sm. — High Bickington, C. A. Johns, April, 1841 

(Hore Collection). 
0, diaphanum Schrad., passim, 
Philonotis fontana Brid. — Pinkery Pond, C. A. B., c. fr. ; Berry- 

narbor (Woolscot Wood), 1906. Var. d, pumila Dixon. 

Martinhoe, 1875, W. Mitten. 
P. calcarea Schp. — Lynmouth, 1875, W. Mitten. 
Breutelia arcwita Schp. — Trentishoe, September, 1840, Miss 

Griffiths (Hore Collection) ; and C. A. B. 
Wehera nutans Hedw. — North Walk and Hkerton, Lynton; 

Exmoor (in peat cuttings), C. A. B. 
W. annotina Schwgr. — Wall at Saddlegate, C. A. B. ; Berry- 

narbor (Sterrage Valley), E. M. Holmes, September, 1903. 
W, cornea Schp. — "A doubtful specimen, not in fruit, from Lee 

Bay, Lynton,'' C. A. B. 
Physocomitrium pyHforme Brid. — Combemartin, September, 

1903; Berrynarbor, April, 1906. 
Funaria fascicular is Schp. — Watermouth, W. S. Hore. 
F, hygrometica Sibth., passim, 

Atdacomnium paltcstre Schwgr. — Trentishoe, c. fr. (Hore Collec- 
tion) ; Exmoor, C. A. B. ; Great Hangman Bog, Combemartin, 

1901. 



SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 279 

Bartramia pomiformis Hedw. — Desolation, Summerhouse Hill, 

Ilkerton Lane, and Lee Bay, at Lynton, C. A. B. ; Kentisbury, 

1903; Arlington, 1906. 
W, aJbicant Schp. — Spring in East Lyn Valley, and at Lee Bay, 

C. A. B. ; Berrynarbor, April, 1906. 
W, Tozeri Schp. — Combemartin (Ravenshaw), 1877 ; Croyde, 

K M. Holmes, April, 1903. 
Bryum pendulum Schp. — Saiinton, June, 1904. 
B, incUnatum Bland. — Countisbury, C. A. B. 
B, pollens Sw. — Exiuoor, passim, C. A. B. ; Combemartin, 

September, 1902. 
B, pseudotriquetrum Schwg. — Lynmoiith, C. A. B. ; Berrynarbor, 

April, 1906. Var. b, compactum. — Combemartin, Silver 

Mine, January, 1904. 
B. caespittcium L. — Countisbury ; Watersmeet Road, etc., C. A. B. 
B, argenteum L. — Lynmouth; Combemartin, Little Hangman, 

April, 1906. 
B, roseum Schreb. — Sherry combe, Combemartin, 1899; Cowley 

Wood, Kentisbury, 1902. 
Mnium aJHne Bland. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. 
M. cuspidatum Hedw. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. 
If. rostratum Schrad. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. 
M, undulatum L., passim, 
M, homum L., passim. 
M. stellare Reich. — Sterrage Valley, Berrynarbor, E. M. Holmes, 

September, 1903; "Gardner's" Lane, Combemartin, 1905. 
Af, punctatum L. — West Lyn Valley, etc., C. A. B. ; Berrynarbor. 
Fontinalis antipyretica L. — Combemartin, 1901. 
Cryphwa heteromalla, — Sterrage Valley, E. M. Holmes, September, 

1903. 
Neckera crispa Hedw. — Watersmeet, Lynmouth, C. A. B. ; Little 

Hangman, Combemartin, 1905. 
N, pumila, — Combemartin, Rev. Augustin Ley; Berrynarbor 

(Sterrage Valley), E. M. Holmes, September, 1903. 
N, complanata Hubn. — Brendon (on tree-trunks), C. A. B. ; 

Cowley Bridge, Kentisbury, c. fr., January, 1902; Berrynarbor, 

c. fr., 1906. 
Homalia trichomanoides Brid. — Lee Bay, C. A. B. ; Berrynarbor 

(Woolscot Wood), 1901; Combemartin, ^(M«tm. 
Leucodon sciuroides, Schwgr. — Combemartin, 1906. 
Pterygophyllum lucens Brid. — Little Hangman, Combemartin, 

February, 1906. 
Pterogonium gracile Sw. — Lynmouth, Ravenshaw, 1877 ; Valley 

of Rocks, Lynton, July, 1905, H. Boydon; Little Hangman, 

Combemartin, February, 1906. 
Hahrodon Notarisii Schp. — **0n elm-trees, Lynton, Mr. J. 

Norrell" (Holmes and Brent's "Mosses of Devon and 

Cornwall "). Some recent confirmation of this record is much 



280 SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 

to be desired. The plant had been known only from Killin, 

Perthshire, until Marquand reported it from Totnes and 

Ashburton, and Cumow from Plymouth. The plant in 

appearance much resembles young Gryph<Ba heteromalla, but 

the nerve is absent in Hdbrodon Notarisii} 
Porotriehum alopecui'um, passim, — At Combemartin, c. fr., 1900. 
Leskea polycarpa Ehrh. — Banks of Taw, C. A. Johns, September, 

1840 (Hore Collection). 
Anamodon vitictdosus H. and T. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. ; Berry- 

narbor and Combemartin, passim, 
Leptodon Smithii Mohr. — Croyde Lane, E. M. Holmes, April, 

1903. 
Thuidium tamariscinum B. and S., passim, 
Pylaisia polyantha B. and S. — Watersmeet and Lee Bay, C. A. B. 

(on tree-trunks). 
Orthothecium intricatum B. and S. — Lynton, E. M. Holmes, 

1877. 
Tsothecium myurum Brid. — West Lyn Valley, C. A. B. {Eufhyn- 

chium myurum Dixon's Handbook, second edition). 
Camptothecium sericeum Kindb., passim^ c. fr. 
C. lutescens B. and S. — Saunton Sandhills, May, 1902, c. fr. 
Brachythecium albicans B. and S. — Ilfracombe Eoad, Berry- 

narbor, September, 1903. 
B, rutahulum B. and S., passim, 
B, rivulare B. and S. — East Lyn Valley and at Lee Bay, C. A. B. ; 

Martinhoe, 1875, W. Mitten; Martinhoe, 1906. 
B, velutinum B. and S., passim, 

B, populeum, — East Lyn Valley and Parracombe, C. A. B. 
B. plumosum B. and S.. — West Lyn Valley, C. A. B. 
B, purum Dixon, passim. — At Combemartin, c. fr. 
Eurhynchium crassinennuin B. and S. — Old Barnstaple Road, 

Lynton, C. A. B. 
E, prcBloiigum B. and S., passim, Var. h, Stokesii (L. Cat., second 

edition).— West Lyn Valley, C. A. B. 
E, Sxcartzii Hobk. — Lynmouth, C. A. B. ; Berrynarbor, February, 

1903. 
E. pumilum Schp. — Berrynarbor, c. fr. 
E, ahbreviatum Schp. — Countisbury Road, C. A. B. 
E. tendlum Milde, passim, 
E, myosuroides Schp., passim, 

E, striatum B. and S. — Brendon and Parracombe, C. A. B. ; Combe- 
martin and Berrynarbor, c. fr. 
E, rusciforme Milde, passim, 
E, con/ertum Milde, passim, 

Plagiothecium elegans Sull. — West Lyn Valley and at Pinkery 
Pond, C. A.B. 

^ Mr. Mitten now writes that he has found it in the Isle of Wight, at 
Lyme Regis, and by Windermere, but always barren. 



SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 281 

P, denttcttlcUum B. and S., passim. 

F, sylvaiicum B. and S.— Old Barnstaple Road, Lynton, and Lee 

Bay, C. A. B. ; Combemartin. 
P. undulatum B. and S.— West Lyn Valley, C.A.B. ; Great Hang- 
man Bog, Combemartin. 
Amhlytiegium serpens B. and S. — Coddon Hill, C. A. Johns, 

September, 1840 (Hore Collection); West Lyn Valley and 

Parracombe, C. A. B. ; Combemartin. 
A, irriguum B. and S. — Desolation Farm, Countisbury, C. A. B. ; 

" Seaside," Combemartin. 
A, filicinum De Not. — Lady's Wood, Combemartin, C. A. Johns, 

April, 1841 (Hore Collection) ; spring at Parracombe, C. A. B. ; 

Wild Pear Bay, Combemartin. 
llypnum commutatum Hedw. — Spring in East Lyn Valley, and 

on Watersmeet Road, C. A. B. ; Combemartin, March, 

1901. 
H, falcatum Brid. Var. b, gracilescens Schp. — Berrynarbor (on 

the cliffs), October, 1905. A new record for Devon. 
H. cupressifonne L., passim, Var. b, resupinatum Schp. — West 

Lyn Valley, C. A. B. ; Berrynarbor (Sterrage Valley). 

Var. </. filiforme Brid. — Desolation ; and " a pretty interme- 
diate form at Lee Bay,*' C. A. B. Var. ericetorum B. and S. 

— Countisbury and Saddlegate, C. A. B. Var. elatum B. and 

S.— Saddlegate, C. A. B. 
n. molluscum Hedw., passim, — At Combemartin, c. fr. 
H, palustre L. — West Lyn Valley (submerged), C. A. B. 
H, euryngium Schp. — Lynton (rare), Mr. J. Norrell, Ravenshaw, 

1877. 
H, straminium Dicks. — Pinkery Pond, C. A. B. 
H, c\ispid<Uum L. — Desolation, and East Lyn Valley; Exmoor, 

c. fr., C. A. B. ; Combemartin and Berrynarbor. 
//. Schreberi Willd. — The Tors, Countisbury ; Exmoor, C. A. B. ; 

Combemartin. 
H, cordi/oUum. ** A single specimen," Exmoor, C. A. B. 
H, splendens B. and S. — Desolation and Exmoor (sparingly), 

C. A. B. 
H. loreum B. and S., passim, 

H, squarrosum B. and S., passim, — At Combemartin, c. fr. 
H, triqueti'um B. and S. 

From the foregoing records it will be seen that to the 
Moss Flora of the county, as regards those rarer plants of 
which alone previous records of habitats have been kept, 
Mr. Brigga has added four species; and I myself three 
species, two sub-species, and one variety. Mr. Briggs's 
additions, besides, to that of V. C. 4 (North Devon) have 
been four species, one sub-species, and one variety ; and my 
own four species. 



282 BOMB CRTPTOGAMS OF NOBTH DKVON. 

n. HKPATICiB. 

These are all named according to "The Moss Exchange 
Club Census Catalogue of British Hepatics," compiled by 
Symers M. Macvicar (October, 1905). 

Riccia crystallina L. — Braunton Burrows, W. Mitten, July, 
1875; Braunton Burrows, E. M. Holmes, April, 1903. 

Targionia htjpophylla L. — Ilfracombe (Barnstaple Road), 1901, 
c. fr. ; and Berrynarbor (Sterrage Valley). 

Rehoxdia hemisphaerica Raddi. — Combemartin, 1902, passim, 

Conocephalum ccyiiicum Dum., c. fr. — Combemartin and Berry- 
narbor, passim. 

Lunularia cruciata Dum. — Combemartin and Berrynarbor, passim. 

Dumortiera irrigua Nees. — Combemartin, October, 1842, J. 
Ralfs; July, 1875, J. Curnow; July, 1877, E. M. Holmes; 
"probably 1883," W. CaiTuthers; Combemartin, April, 1906. 
This being our distinctive North Devon hepatic, some note on 
its history appears to be desirable — the more in that, so far as 1 
am aware, no clear account of tliat exists. Indeed, I have 
had some little difficulty in tracing it out, as the accoxmt in 
Dr. W. H. Pearson's " Hepatics of the British Isles " does 
not go so far back as its original discovery in North Devon. 
The first record that work gives is, "Cumow, Ilfracombe," 
without date. A specimen (knowledge of the existence of 
which I owe to Mr. Macvicar) in the Edinburgh Herbarium 
bears the label, " Combemartin, Nr. Ilfracombe, Devonshire. 
J. Ralfs, October, 1842." 

This is the date of the actual discovery of the plant by 
Dr. Ralfs m England. He was visiting Ilfracombe in 1841, 
etc. (See the "Journal of Botany," 1890, p. 290, where, in 
tlie obituary notice, the fact is mentioned of his being in 
Ilfracombe during that year.) It has been most interesting 
to me to learn from Mr. E. M. Holmes, who in 1877 visited 
Combemartin in order to gather the Dumortiera, that it was 
Dr. Ralfs himself who gave him the exact description of 
where the plant was to be found. That locality Mr. Holmes very 
kindly communicated to me, and, by the aid of a sketch-map 
he marked for me, I was myself able to discover the place and 
to gather a few pieces of the plant, which I found still grow- 
ing in fair quantity in the one habitat, not, however, more 
than a foot in extent. This after I liad in vain searched for 
it nearly every year we have been in Combemartin I For 
obvious reasons I do not here name the exact region where 
it is to be found, although it is happily so difficult of access 
that, even if described, the hepatic could hardly be dis- 
covered witliout some one who knew the spot to point it 
out. In 1883 ("probably," he is not sure of the date) 
Mr. W. Camithers, formerly of the British Museum, came down 



SOME CBTFTOGAMS OF NOBTH DEVON. 283 

to get the plant, and apparently he, Mr. Holmes, and myself 
are the only living people who have gathered it in this locus 
doMicus, Cumow collected it in 1875, and it is to his 
gathering, doubtless, that Dr. Pearson's record refers. The 
second locality given by Pearson is, ** Hastings, S. M. Holmes." 
Tlie " S " here is evidently a printer's slip for "E." But in this 
statement there is a slight error. It was, Mr. Holmes tells me, 
the late Mr. E. George, of Forest Hill, who was the discoverer 
of the Sussex locality. Not recognizing the plant, he sub- 
mitted it to Mr. Holmes for identification ; hence probably the 
confusion. The date of Mr. George's " find " Mr. Holmes does 
not remember. But a specimen sent from Hastings to Cumow 
in 1882 by ^fr. G. Da vies, of Brighton, who was informed of 
its existence at Hastings by Mr. Holmes, shows that Mr. 
George must have discovered the plant there before that year. 

A note in Ravenshaw's " North Devon Guide " (1877) first 
aroused in me the sense that it was necessary to seek con- 
firmation of the dates and localities there alluded to. The 
note runs as follows under the locality ** Combemartin " : 
" The wood (in which the plant grew) has been cut down, but 
Mr. Ralfs tells me that the plant was gathered in 1874 in its 
old station, whence thirty years ago it was first recorded as an 
English plant. It has since been reported from Dartmoor 
and near Torquay by Dr. Carington." 

The spelling of Dr. Carrington's name with a single " r " is 
one indication of a certain want of close acquaintance with 
the details of the matter that marks the paragraph. The 
1874 gathering of which Dr. Ralfs told Ravenshaw may be 
the one of Curnow's specimen labelled "July, 1875." In 
1877 the actual date of Dr. Ralfs' find was thirty-five years 
ago, not " thirty." 

I regret that, so far, I have been unable to discover the 
records of Dr. Carrington's "finds" in South Devon. 
Professor Weiss, of the Victoria University, Manchester, has 
very kindly looked through for me the specimens that exist 
in Dr. Carrington's collections in the museum at Owens 
College, but none are from South Devon. Dr. W. H. Pearson 
writes to mc just as this is ready for the press that he has 
found in that collection a packet labelled " Dumortiera irrigua 
Nees. — Combemartin, J. Ralfs, October, 1842. Ex. herb. 
Wils." Evidently this is part of the same gathering as the 
Edinburgh Herbarium specimen, and one sent by Dr. Ralfs to 
William Wilson, the great bryologist. 

This account refers only to the English habitats of the 
plant. In Ireland it was discovered as long ago as 1820 
by Dr. Taylor at Blackwater Bridge, near Dunkerton ; and in 
1829 in a glen near Fermoyle by William Wilson, who first 
published it as a native of the British Isles in his " English 



284 SOME CRTPT06AMS OF NOBTH DEVON. 

Flora," 1833. Since then it has heen found in several Irish 
localities. 

Aneura pinguis Dum. — Berrynarbor, 1901 ; Martinhoe, 1906. 

A, mtdtifida Dum. — Lynton, August, 1875, W. Mitten; Berry- 
narbor, March, 1904. Var. ambrosioides Nees. — Lynton, 
W. Mtten, 1875. 

A. sinuata Limpr. — Trentishoe, August, 1874, W. Mitten. 

A. latifrons Lindb. — Dfracombe Road, Berrynarbor, March, 1905, 
c. fr. 

Metzgeria furcata Lindb., gemmiferous form. — Little Hangman 
Hill (on a wall), Combemartin, Kovember, 1903; and on 
Watermouth Headland, near Ilfracombe, in parish of Berry- 
narbor, March, 1904. 

M, conjugata Ldb. — Combemartin, June, 1902. 

Pdlia endivicefolia Dum. — Ilfracombe Road, September, 1903, 
c. fr., and Loxhore, August, 1906, with gemmae. 

P. epiphylla, Dum. — Combemartin, February, 1901, c. fr. 

Petalophyllum Bal/sii Gottsche — Ravenshaw, 1877; Saunton, 
1898, E. M. Tindall. 

Fossomhronia pusilla Dum. — Saimton, 1898, E. M. Tindall; 
Combemartin, February, 1906; Loxhore, Aug., 1906, c. fr. 

F, Miitenii Tindall. — Road between Parracombe and Barnstaple, 
July, 1875, W. Mitten. 

This is the only known locality for the species, and since 
Mr. Mitten found it there it has not been collected at all. A 
search by myself this summer for it has failed, as did Mrs. 
Tindairs some years ago, although she had Mitten's own 
directions as to tlie exact spot where he gathered it. 

Marmpella emarginata Dum. — Castle Hill, Combemartin, April, 
1905, c. fr. 

Nardia scdlaris Gray. — Combemartin, 1903. 

N, minor Arnell. — Martinhoe, 1875, W. Mitten. 

N, hydlina Carr. — Loxhore, W. Mitten. 

Aplozia cremdata Dum. Var. h, gracillima Sm. — Combe- 
martin, March, 1904. 

A, riparia Dum. — "Gardner's** Lane, Combemartin, March, 
1906. 

Lojyliozia turbinata, — Lynmouth, 1875, W. Mitten; Combe- 
martin, 1901. 

L. Mulleri Dum. Var. 6. hantriensis Hook. — Martinhoe, 1875, 
W. Mitten. 

L, ventrtco8a 'Dum. — Lynmouth, 1902; Combemartin, 1904. 

L. cdpestris Evans. — Wooda Bay, 1875, W. Mitten. 

L, Floerkii Schffn.— Martinhoe Cliffs, 1875, W. Mitten. Var. 6. 
Baueriana Schffn. — Martinhoe, 1875, W. Mitten. 

Plagiochila spintdosa Dum. — Combemartin, April, 1 904. 

P, asplenioides Dum. — Combemartin, 1899. Var. c, Dillenii 
Tayl.— Martinhoe Cliffs, 1875, W. Mitten. 



SOBIE CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 



285 



Lophoeolea bidentcUa, Dum. — Combemartin, 1902. 

L, alata^ Mitt. — Lyninouth, August, 1875, W. Mitten. 

"This hitherto undescribed species has the aspect of 
Lophoeolea hidentata^ but the angles of tlie triquetrous 
perianth are all widely alate; the alea dentate. The name 
*alata* has been taken from the * Synopsis Hepaticorum,' 
wherein, at p. 159, is described a specimen whicli Dr. Taylor 
sent from his residence Dunkerrow, and which appeared to 
the authors of that work to be a monstrous variety of 
L. hidentata^ and they made it Var. g, alata. No si)ecimen8 
of this Irish plant are available, but the term * alata' is so 
apposite to the Devon plant that it has been thus used. So 
different in its perianth from all other British species, yet 
nearly allied to the L. coadunata of Swartz. from Jamaica, 
having, like it, free floral leaves and amphigastrium oval, yet 
appearing different in areola tion, and also in stature a little 
more robust. It was overlooked until more recently in a 
search for distinctive characters among these bidentate species 
so variously described. All are probably monoicous, but the 
synonymy is so confusing that the right ai)i)ortioning of the* 
names is difficiUt." 




Lophoeolea alata Mitt., n. sp. Much magnified. 

This description, with figure accompanying, was sent me 
by Mr. Mitten in a letter on 2l8t June, 1906. 

L. sjncafa Tayl. — Lynmouth, 1875, W. ^Mitten. 
L, heterophylla Dum. — Combemartin, March, 1904. 
Chiloscijphus poli/anthos Coi-da. — Lynmouth, November, 1902. 

^ This is the new Bi)ecie8 alluded to in the Introduction to this paper that 
Mr. Mitten allows me to publish first to this gathering of the Devon- 
shire Association. 



286 SOME CBYFTOQAMS OF NORTH DKTOIL 

Saceogyna vUiculo$a Dum. — Wooda Bay (abundant and fruiting), 

September, 1875, W. Mitten; Combemartin, Febraaiy, 

1901. 
Cephalozia bicuspidatu Dum. — Combemartin, 1905. 
Kantia Trichoniania Gray. — Combemartin, 1904. 
K, Sprengelii Pears. — Combemartin, March, 1904. 
A', arguta Lindb. — Berry narbor, September, 1903, K M. Holmes. 
Lepidozia reptans Dum. — litUe Hangman Hill, Combemartin, 

April, 1904. 
PtUidium ciliare Hamj^e. — Trentishoe, 1875, W. Mitten. 
Trichocdea tonienteila Dum. — Ladv's Wood Valley, Berrynarbor, 

1899 ; and Glen Lyn, July, 1906. 
Diplophyllum albicans Dum. — Combemartin and Berrynarbor, 

1899, passim. 
Sc4ipania compada Dum. — Berrynarbor, February, 1906, c. fr. 
S. aspera Bernet. — Trentishoe, 1875, W. Mitten. 
S, gracilis Kaal. — Little Hangman, Combemartin, April, 1904. 
RadiUa HoUiu—Lynton, 1875, W. Mitten. 
Madotheca laevigata Dum. — Lynmouth, November, 1902; 

Lynton, W. Borrer. 
M, platyphylla Dum. — Hfracombe, September, 1905. 
Lejeunea cavifolia Ldb. Var. c, heterophyUa Carr. — Combemartin, 

1905. 
L, patens Lindb. — Lynmouth, 1875, W. Mitten. 
Drepanolejeunea hamatifolia Schfl&i. — Lynmouth, 1875, W. 

Mitten. 
Harpalejeunea ovata Schffn. — Lynmouth, 1875, W. Mitten. 
Marcliesinia Mackaii S. F. Gray. — Martinhoe, 1875, W. Mitten. 
Juhula Hutchinsiae Dum. — Lynmouth, 1875, \V. Mitten. 
Frullania Tamarisci Dum. — Combemartin and Berrynarbor, 1899. 
F. microphylla Pears. — Martinhoe, 1875, W. Mitten. 
F, fragilifolia Tayl. — Martinhoe, 1875, W. Mitten. 
F. dilatata Dum., passim. 
Anthoceros laevis L. — Combemartin and Berrynarbor, May, 1905, 

c. fr. 
A. punctatus L. — Combemartin and Berrynarbor, May, 1905. 

Of the 62 hepatics here enumerated only 6 are given for 
V. C. 4 in the "Moss Exchange Club Census Catalogue," 
October, 1905. The remaining 56 are, therefore, all new 
records for the vice-county. Of these fresh records, one is 
by Mr. E. M. Holmes, another by Mrs. Tindall, 20 by 
Wm. Mitten, and 34 by myself. 

III. ALGiE. 

The shores of North Devon come under Section 6 of 
the fourteen littoral districts into which, for the purpose of 



SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 287 

algological records, the firitish Isles were divided by Messrs. 
Batters and Holmes, as set forth in the Preface and 
Appendix to their standard work: '*A Bevised List of 
British Marine Algae," by E. M. Holmes, F.L.8., and K A. L. 
Batters, B.A., LL.B., F.L.S., reprinted, in 1892, from the 
" Annals of Botany," Vol. V. To this work, in the " Journal 
of Botany" for 1902, Dr. Batters added a Supplementary 
List. It is after these lists all the Algae given here are 
named. It is greatly to be regretted that the handbook on 
the subject by these two authorities, alluded to in the 1892 
list as ** already in progress," and which, they there say, 
" we hope to publish at a later date," has, in this year 1906, 
not yet seen the light. The work is much needed, Mr. 
Holmes alone having added to our British Marine Flora 
some two hundred species, of which no single text-book 
gives a complete account. The list of species found by him 
on this coast, which he has worked from Clovelly to Lynton, 
will, however, I understand, be published in the " Victoria 
History of the County of Devon," although without exact 
localities. - These have, so far as concerns species new to the 
British Flora, already appeared either in "Grevillea" or 
in Mr. Holmes' own eleven fasciculi, "Algae Britannicae 
Eariores." To none of these sources of information have I 
been able to gain access. I can, therefore, include in my 
list only such of Mr. Holmes* localities as I happen to have 
remembered, or he has himself added in very kindly 
revising my own list. 

Other and earlier records of this part of Section 6 — a 
section that in its entirety includes all the coast and 
islands on the west from the Great Orme's Head to the 
Land's End — are to be found in the Rev. W. S. Here's great 
coUection of British and Foreign Seaweeds, already alluded 
to as in the North Devon Athenaeum at Barnstaple. The 
same institution also possesses a set of miscellaneous Algae 
collected by Mrs. Griffiths, evidently the remnants of her 
numerous gatherings, and chiefly interesting as having with 
them notes of her correspondence with Dr. Greville and 
other leading algologists of her day. To a Devonshire 
audience it is perhaps hardly necessary to state that this 
lady, once of Torquay, but who passed the last years of her 
life in the home of her family at Pilton, Barnstaple, was, in 
her time, as Dr. Harvey described her, ''facile Eegina of 
British algologists." To her Dr. Harvey, himself amongst 
the greatest of our early systematists in this branch of 
science, dedicated his " Manual of the British Marine Algae." 



288 SOME CRTPTOOABfS OF NORTH DEVON. 

He writes there of her as "a lady whose long-continaed 
researches have, more than those of any other observer in 
Britain, contributed to the present advanced state of British 
Marine Botany/' and says that his volume owes much 
of whatever value it may possess to her liberal donations of 
rare specimens, and her accurate observations upon them. 

At a meeting of this Association in the region of Devon 
where they worked, it is fitting and gladdening to recall 
the names of these earlier students who made of our shores 
and moors classic ground for algologista and bryologists. 

The coast from Saunton to Countisbury is that which 
comes within the limits prescribed by the title of this 
paper. I hope to go on working the Combemartin region, 
and it is much to be desired that some one would make that 
about Lynmouth his special field of research. Doubtless 
many discoveries remain to be made there, especially by one 
able to dredge for deep-water weeds. Shells and rejectamenta 
brought in by fishermen frequently have on them rare 
microscopic algae, and furnish a good field for exploration 
and examination. 

Oscillaria sancta Gem. — Ilfracombe, September, 1903, E. M. 

Holmes. New to Britain. 
Enteromorpha compre^a Grev., passim, 
Ulva latissima J. Ag., passim, 

Codiolum greganum A. Br. — Lynmouth, 1883, E. M. Holmes. 
Endoderma viride Lagerh., parasitic on Ahnfdtia plicata^ Fries. 

— Wild Pear Bay, Combemartin, June, 1904. A new record 

for North Devon. 
Chaetomorpha tortuosa Kiitz. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 
C, aerea^ Kiitz. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 
Rhizoclonium implexum Batt. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 
Cladophora rupestris Kiitz., passim, 
C. alhida Kiitz. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 

C, lanosa KUtz — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 
Bryopsis hypnoides Lamour. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 
Derhesia fenuissima Cm. — Watermouth, E. M. Holmes, Septem- 
ber, 1903. 

Desmaresfia a^uleata Lamx. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 

D. ligidatay Lamx. — Combemartin, 1906. 

Striana attenuata^ Grev. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 
Pundaria plantaginea Grev. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 
Ectocarpus Holmesii Batt. — Ilfracoml)e, Suppl. List, 1902. 
Acliinetospoi-a pusilla Born. Yar. crinita Batt. — Ilfracombe, 

Suppl. List, 1902. 
Ectocarpus Sandriamis Zan. — Ilfracombe and Saunton, 1903, 

E. M. Holmes. 



SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 289 

E, gramdasua C. Ag. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 

E. viicrospongtum Batt. — Combemartin, 1903, E. M. Holmes. 

JE, ovatus Kjellm. Var. arachnoideus Rke. — Ilfracombe, May, 
1892, E. M. Holmes. The only known British locality. 

Phheospora brachiata Born. — Ilfracombe (margin of ladies* 
bathing pool, on R, palmata), Ravenshaw, 1877. 

PylaieUa litoralis Kjellm. — Hele, November, 1859 (Hore Collec- 
tion). 

Sphacelaria cirrhosa C. Ag. — Ilfracombe, January, 1860 (Hore 
Collection). 

8. plumigera Holm. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 

Cladostephua spangiosns J. Ag. — Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, April, 
1904. New record for North Devon. 

(7. verticillafus C. Ag. — Seaside, Combemartin, March, 1906. 

Halopteris filicina Kiitz. — Hele, January, 1860 (Hore Collection) ; 
Hele, September, 1903, E. M. Holmes; Combemartin, June, 
1906. 

Stypocaulon scoparium Kiitz. — Hele, January, 1860 (Hore Collec- 
tion). 

MijHonema stranrjulans Ore v., on Nitophyllum lacercUum Grev., 
Combemartin, May, 1905. New record for North Devon. 

Petrospongiuvi Berkeleyi Niig. — Hele, E, M. Holmes, September, 
1903; Combemartin, July, 1906. 

Leathesia difformis Aresch. — Hele, E. M. Holmes, September, 
1903. 

Scytosiphon lovientarius J. Ag. — Combemartin, 1906. 

Laminar ia saccharina Lamx., passim, 

L. digitata Edm., passim, f. stenophj/Ua Harv. — Combemartin, 
June, 1906. 

Alaria esculenta Grev. — Below Trentishoe. 

Fucus platycarpus Thur. — Com])emartin, June, 1903. 

F, vesicnlosHS Linn., passim, 
F, serratiis Linn., passim, 
Ascophyllum nodosum Le Jol., passim, 
Pelveiia canalicuiata Dene et Thur., passim, 

Bifnrcaria ttiberculata Stackh. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 

Halidrys siliqtiosa Lyngb., passim. 

Cystoseira ericoides C. Ag. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 

C, grantUata C. Ag. — Ilfracombe, December, 1859 (Hore Collection). 

C, discors C. Ag. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1903. 

Tilopteris Mei'tensil Kiitz. — "On mud-covered rocks and stones 
between Rillage Point and Watermouth," Ravenshaw, 1 877. 

Dictyota dichotoma Lamx. — Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, and Combe- 
martin, 1904. 

Taonia atomaria J. Ag. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902, 
Mortehoe, E. George. 

Dictyopteris polypodioides Lamx. — Ilfracombe, December, 1859 
(Hore Collection). 
VOL. XXXVIII. T 



290 BOMS CBTFTOGAMS OF NORTH DIYON. 

Bangia fusco-purpurea Lyngb. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List^ 1903. 

Porphyra lin^iis Grev., passim, 

Choreocolax PolystphonioB Beinsch. on Polysiphonia elongaia 
Grev. — Combemartin, September, 1903. New record for 
North Devon. 

Harveyella pachyderma Batt. on Gracilaria eon/enxndes L. — 
Combemartin, September, 1903. New record for Devon. 

Pterocladia capiUacea Bornet. — Combemartiil, 1904. 

Oelidium comeum^ Lamx., f. aculeata Grev., Suppl. list^ 1903; 
and f. pinnatum Turn. — Combemartin, 1906. 

Chondrus crispus Stackh., passim^ f. patens Tiu:n. — Combemartin, 
1906. 

Oigartina acicularis Lamx. — Combemartin, December, 1859 (Hore 
Collection); Hele, E. M. Holmes, 1903; Combemartin, 
March, 1905. 

O, mamillosa J. Ag., passim, 

Phyllophora rubens Grev. — Combemartin. 

Ph, Traillii Holm, et Batt. — Combemartin, 1906. New record for 
North Devon. 

Ph, palmettoides J. Ag. — Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, March, 1905. 
New record for North Devon. 

Ph, membranifolia J. Ag. — Combemartin, 1904. 

Stenogramme tnterrupta Mont. — Combemartin, E. M. Holmes, 
September, 1903. A new record for North Devon. 

The finding of another locality for this very rare deep- 
water weed is of great interest, as the following note respect- 
ing it, taken from Harvey's "Phycologia Britannica," 1851, 
shows. He writes : — 

"This very interesting plant, by far the most important 
addition lately made to the British Marine Flora, was dis- 
covered on the 21st October, 1846, by Dr. John Cocks, of 
Plymouth, on the shore at Bovisand, near Plymouth. A few 
days subsequently it was met with in a neighbouring station 
by the Rev. W. S. Hore . . . ; and to the imtiring persever- 
ance of these two gentlemen, who, day by day, during the 
inclement month of November, in all weathers, visited the 
shore and preserved every scrap which the wind threw up, we 
are indebted for all the British specimens which have been 
taken of the Stenogramme." 

Since that date Mr. Holmes had collected the plant at 
Torpoint previously to his discovery of it at Combemartin, 
where some of the specimens had cystocarps, and others 
tetraspores. 

Oymnogongrns Grt'ffithsice Mart. — Wildersmouth, November, 1859; 
Combemartin, December, 1859; Haggington, January, 1860 
(Hore Collection) ; Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, March, 1905. 

O, norvegicus J. Ag. — Hele, Mrs. Griffiths, March ; Combemartin, 
September, 1905, c. fr. 



SOME CEYPT0GAM8 OF NOETH DEVON. 291 

Ahnfdtia plicaia Fries. — Combemartin, April, 1905. 

Aetinacoceus aggregatus Schmitz on Gymnogongrus Griffiihsiae 
Mart. — Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, April, 1905. New record 
for North Devon. 

Stereocolax decipiens Schmitz on Ahnfeltia plicaia Fries. — Combe- 
martin, April, 1905. New record for North Devon. 

Callophi/llis laciniata Kiitz., passim, 

CHabellata Cm. — Combemartin, February, 1906. 

Callocolax neglecta Schmitz on Callophyllis flahdlata Cm. — 
Combemartin, February, 1906. 

Callymenia renifannU J. Ag., passim, 

C, microphylla, J. Ag. — Hele, E. M. Holmes, 1903 ; Combe- 
martin, April, 1905. "With cystocarps. 

C, Larteri Holm. — Combemartin, 1906. 

Mr. Holmes has provisionally given this name to a plant 
differing much in form and ramification from C. reni/ormis 
until sufficient material enables him to say whether it should 
be regarded as a variety of that species or a distinct species. 

Cystoclanium purpurascens Kiitz, jmssivi, 

Catendla Opuntia Grev. — Hele, September, 1903, E. M. Holmes. 

RhofiophyUis bifida Kiitz. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 

R, appendiculata J. Ag. — Ilfracombe, Suppl. List, 1902. 

GracUaria confervoides Grev. — Combemartin, September, 1903. 

Callible2)haris dliata Kiitz, passim, 

C. juhata Kiitz, passim, 

Rhaiymenia paZmetta Grev. — Hele, March, 1860 (Hore Collec- 
tion) ; Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, April, 1903. 

R, palmata Grev., passim, 

Lomentaria articulata Lyngb., passim. 

Chylocladia ovalis Hook. — Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, April, 1905. 

C refleza Lenorm. — Haggington, Ilfracombe, 1834 (Hore Collec- 
tion). Both sides of Hele beach, E. M. and K. Holmes, 1903. 

Plocamium coccineum Lyngb., passim, 

NilophyUum Gmelini Harv. — Ilfracombe, Mrs. Griffiths (Hore 
Collection) ; Combemartin, 1 906. With tetraspores. 

There was at first a question if this would not prove to be 
the Mediterranean species N, Sandrianum J. Ag. Mr. Holmes 
80 labelled the first specimen I sent him. On the latest he 
has, however, now written : " I think Dr. Bornet would call this 
Nitophf/Uum Sandrianum ; I should call it ISHophyllum 
Gmelini approaching SandrianumJ^ In an exi)lanatory 
letter, accompanying the return of this and four other 
examples of the same Alga I was able to send him from 
Combemartin, he writes as follows ; — 

"My Mediterranean specimens of N. Sandrianum from 
Minorca have a much more starved appearance; the central 
nerve of the branches is more pronounced, and the tetraajwres 
are in rounded spots along the maxgin, rather than in clouds 

t2 



292 SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 

or continuous sori. Still, these are characters that may be 
due to the situation, and some of the Cornish specimens are 
almost exactly similar to the Mediterranean ones, except that 
they are more luxuriant. I do not find that the ciliate 
character of the fronds is sufficient to separate Sandrianum 
from Omelinif for both have it. But the Gmelini of still 
waters is broader and more purplish; that of the open sea 
redder and narrower, and more divided. ... In any case, 
the plant of Minehead and Combemartin is intermediate 
between the Cornish narrow form and the broad purplish 
Weymouth and Plymouth form." 

N, laceratum Grev., passim, f. uneinatum Grev. — Combemartin, 
July, 1906. f. Smithii Kutz.— Combemartin, July, 1906. 

N, reptans Cm. — Combemartin, May, 1905. New record for 
North Devon. 

N. Bonnemaisanii Grev. — Ilfracombe (Hore Collection); Combe- 
martin, 1906. 

N, versicolor, Harv. — Ilfracombe, 1808 (Hore Collection) ; Combe- 
martin, July, 1906. 

Delesseria alata Lamx., passim, 

D. Hypoglossum Lamx., passim, 

D, sinuosa Lamx., passim, 

D, sanguinea Lamx., passim. Very fine in Watermouth Caves. 

ETiodomela suhfusca C. Ag., passim, 

Laurencia pinnatifiJa Lamx., passim. 

PolysipTionia elongella Harv. — Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, September, 
1903. 

P, elongata Grev. — Combemartin, September, 1903. 

P, furc^llata Harv. — Ilfracombe (Hore Collection). 

P, fastigiata Grev., 2)aA8im, 

P, Ehunensis Born. — Ilfracombe, R. V. Tellam ; and August, 1883, 
E. M. Holmes. 

Dasya ocellata Harv. — Hole, Ravenshaw, " Bot. of North Devon," 
1877. 

Lophothdlia hyssoides J. Ag. — Combemartin, 1906. New record 
for North Devon. 

D, coccinea C. Ag., passim, 

Pf ilothamnion pluma ThuT, — Combemartin, March, 1905. 

Oriffithsia setacea C. Ag. — Ilfracombe, J. W. Rohloflf (Hore 
Collection). 

Halurus eguisetifolius Kiitz. — Hfracombe, December, 1859 (Hore 
(Collection). 

Rhodochorton Eothii Nag. — Combemartin, September, 1903. 

Cdllithamnioii polyspermum J. Ag. — Sandy Bay, Berrynarbor, 
February, 1905. 

C. tetragonum C. Ag., f. brachiata J. Ag. — Ilfracombe, Mrs. 
Griffiths (Hore Collection). 

C. tetricum J. Ag., passim. 



SOME CRYPTOGAMS OF NORTH DEVON. 293 

Compsothamnioii thuyotdes Schmitz. — Hele, Ravenshaw, "Botany 
of North Devon," 1877. 

Aniith amnion plumula Thur. and f. horridtdum. — Combemartin, 
July, 1 906. The var. a new record for North Devon. 

A. harbatum Holm, et Batt. — Hele, August, 1883, E. M. Holmes. 

Ceramium rubrum C. Ag., passim, 

C. acanthonotum Carrn., f. transcurrens Kiitz. — Combemartin, May, 
1906. 

C, ienuissimum J. Ag. — Ilfracombe, E. M. Holmes. 

C, flahelligerum J. Ag. — Ilfracombe, J. Ralfs (Hore Collection) ; 
Combemartin, June, 1906. 

Orateloupia jUicina C. Ag., f. intermedia Holm, et Batt. — Combe- 
martin, December, 1859 (Hore Collection); Combemartin, 
September, 1903. 

Dumontia filifomiis Grev. — Mortehoe, April, 1860 (Hore Collec- 
tion) ; Combemartin, 1906. 

Dilsea edvlis Stackh., passim, 

Furcellana fastigiata Lamx., 2>o^''^^' 

Polijides rotundus Grov., passim, 

Mehbesia Laminariie Cm. — Combemartin, December, 1905. New 
record for North Devon. 

M, CoralUncB Cm. — Combemartin, December, 1905. New record 
for North Devon. 

Lithophyllum inct-ustans Fosl. — Combemartin, December, 1905. 
New reconl for North Devon. 

L, crouani Fosl. — Combemartin, December, 1905. 

Lithothamnion corticiforme Fosl. — Combemartin, December, 1905. 

L, lichenoides Fosl. — Combemartin, December, 1905. 

L, Lenormandi Fosl. — Combemartin, December, 1905. New 
record for North Devon. 

Phymatolithon polymorph um Fosl. — Combemartin, December, 1 905. 

Corallina officinalis L., passim. 

Of those of the above Algae foiind by myself sixteen 
species are new vice-county records for North Devon, one is 
new for the whole county, and one is new to science. 



Note. — Two days after this paper was read at Lynton Mr. Mitten 
passed away, on 20th July, 1906, just one month after his latest 
communication to me so continually referred to in these pages. 

C. E. L. 



PAGES FROM A MANUSCRIPT HISTORY 
OF HATHERLEIGH. 

BT JOHN M. MARTIN, C.E. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



Concerning the three "Hatherleigh Worthies of the 
Seventeenth Century " who were introduced to the Associa- 
tion by Sir Roper Lethbridge at Teignmouth two years ago, 
much information is to be found in a manuscript history of 
Hatherleigh now lying before me. 

Of one of these three kinsmen, Bartholomew Yeo, Sir 
Roper tells us that on St. Bartholomew's Day, 1662, he was 
ejected from Merton rectory, and according to Calamy 
** preached the Gospel [of course, as a Nonconformist] in 
Hatherleigh." And Calamy adds, "In the next parish to 
which, and in a kinsman's house, he resigned his soul to God 
in February 1693.'* This was doubtless at Dunsland Court, 
in Jacobstowe, the home of Thomas Lethbridge, whose son 
John at this time was rector of Jacobstowe, and married to 
the granddaughter of Bartholomew Yeo's sister Jacquet. 
Dunsland nearly adjoins Deckport, and here Bartholomew 
Yeo was living within an easy walk of numerous friends and 
relations, amongst whose names occurs that of his brother 
Leonard Yeo, at Reed, in Hatherleigh. 

In connection with the preaching of the Gospel in 
Hatherleigh, the MS. gives particulars which, though they 
differ on a point or two from the preceding account, are in 
the main confirmatory thereof, and also supply much fuller 
information. 

The MS. says that •* Bartholomew Yeo, Rector of Huish," 
(not Merton) " was deprived of his living on the passing of 
the Uniformity Act, a.d. 1662, and came to reside with his 
brother" (Leonard Yeo) "at Reed, where he established a 
Presbyterian Meeting which was afterwards removed to the 
Meeting-house behind Mr. CoUins's, erected 1712. He was 



A MAinJSCRIFT HISTORY OF HATHERLIIGH* 295 

buried in the Chancel of Hatherleigh Church on the first 
day of February, 1693, in the 76th year of his age." 

The entry in the Register of the burial of Bartholomew 
Yeo emphasizes the fact that having been ejected from his 
living he was no longer to be recognized as a clergyman of 
the Church of England, although his remains were per- 
mitted to be laid in the Chancel. It runs thus: "Mr. 
Bartholomew Yeo, Minister, was buried Ist February, 1693 " ; 
and the entry recording the burial of his wife, who pre- 
deceased her husband, is couched in similar terms : " Mary 
the Wife of Bartholomew Yeo, Minister, was buried y® 24th 
June 1669." 

We are not told where these Presbyterians held their 
meetings during the nineteen years which elapsed between 
Bartholomew Yeo's death and the building of the Meeting- 
house, but are left to assume that his brother Leonard, with 
whom he lived at Eeed where he established the Presby- 
terian meetings, held the same religious convictions as he 
did, and therefore allowed them to be continued at Eeed 
until the Meeting-house was built in 1712. 

That the services were continued during that period we 
may learn from a deed by one Mary Tucker, bearing date 
the twenty-sixth day of December, in the fourth year of the 
reign of Q^een Anne (1706), of which the following is an 
abstract. 

To all Christian people to whome these presents shall come . . . 
I Mary Tucker send Greeting . . . Whereas [here follow the 
terms of Mary Tucker's inheritance] I the said Mary Tucker 
... by these presents do direct limitt and appointe that the sum 
of Forty Pounds of good and lawfull money of Great Britain 
... to be paid by the said William Butt (and other trustees to 
her estate) unto Joseph Hallett (and others,) upon special trust 
and confidence ... to be employed bestowed and applyed 
for the use benefitt better support and maintenance of a Dissent- 
ing Minister of tlie Congregation or Protestant Dissenters at 
Hatherleigh afores^, vulgarly called Presbyterians. 

The next document is a copy of a deed relating to the 
purchase of a site for the chapel. 

This Indenture made the 26th day of September in the 
Eleventh yeare of the Reigne of our Soveraigne Lady Anne by 
the Grace of God of Great Britain ffrance and Ireland Queen 
Defender of the ffaith etc. Anno Domi 1712 Between Abraham 
Collins of Hatherleigh . . . Joiner (and others) of the one part 
George Lyssart (and others) of the other part Witnesseth that the 
said Abraham Collins for and in consideration of the sum of 



296 A MANU8CBIPT HI8T0BT OF HATHERLEIGH. 

Twelve Pounds of good and Lawfull money of Great Britain to 
him in hand well and truly paid or secured to be paid by the said 
George Lyssart (and others) at or before the Sealinge and 
deliverie hereof the receipt whereof the said Abraham Collings 
doth hereby acknowledge and thereof and therefrom . . . Doth 
hereby exonerate acquit release and for ever discharge the said 
George Lyssart (and others) by these presents and for diverse 
other good causes and considerations him the said Abraham 
Collins thereunto moveing Hath Granted . . . unto the said 
George Lyssart (and others) ... all that plot and parcell of his 
the said Abraham CoUins's Garden [site described] yielding and 
paying thearefore yearely imto the said Abraham Collins . . . 
the yearely Rent of Three Shillings of Lawfull money of Great 
Britain at the ffoure most usual fifeasts or dayes of payment in the 
yeare by even and equall Quarterly payments That is to say the 
ffeast of St. Michael Th* drchangell the birth of our Lord Christ 
the Annucacon of the blessed Virgin Mary and the Nativity of 
St. John the Baptist. 

This deed is a good sample of the quaint legal intricacy 
and tautology of the period : it occupies ten pages folio of 
closely written words, and much of it is devoted to the 
definition of various easements, the principal of these being 
the " free liberty of Ingress I^ress and Eegress thereunto 
in and through the Entiy and Court of the said Abraham 
Collins." It also provides for refilling any gaps among the 
trustees caused by death or absenteeism, and ends by 
saying that " the same James Collins " [one of the * others ' 
— a son of Abraham Collins] "shall be at no costs in passing 
the flBne within mentioned nor shall he be obliged to cause 
his wife to pass a ffine with him unless she will freely doe 
it." 

A paucity of trustees has occurred and is thus dealt with: 
"An Indenture made the 18th day of December 1734" 
shows that owing to vacancies which had been caused in the 
ranks of the trustees by the removal to Minehead of one of 
their number and the death of three others, there were only 
two Femaiuing alive, who from their ages and infirmity were 
desirous of being discharged of the Trust, and " that some 
other sufficient inhabitants of the s*^ parish of Hatherleigh 
being Protestants dissenting from the Church of England 
and commonly called Presbiterians should be chosen in their 
stead to execute the s** Trust"; and after reciting that 
the said Meeting-house might for ever remain and be for 
the benefit of all the Dissenting Protestants of the said 
parish of Hatherleigh, as the same was at first intended by 



^ MANUSCRIPT HISTORY OF HATHERLEIGH. 297 

the purchasers thereof, " did appoint . . . other Trustees to 
take up the Trust and take possession of the Premises," 
which on the 24th was accordingly done by them. 

In 1765, fifty-three years after the building of the chapel, 
we find that a contribution to the sustentation fund was 
made by William Coombe, late of Hatherleigh, by the follow- 
ing extract from his Will : — 

Also, I give and bequeath unto the Dissenting Minister of 
Hatherleigh for the time being after my decease the sume of Ten 
Shillings yearly and every year for ever ... to be paid out of a 
Field or Close of Land called Lomacroft in Hatherleigh. 

The last of these documents is " An Indenture made the 
24th day of March in the 21st year of our Sovereign Lord 
George the Third by the Grace of God . . . King . . . 
1781," which, after stating that other of the trustees had 
died and that some had gone out of the town and none were 
left therein but George Castle, John Eandall, and John 
Smale, witnesseth that these three, the surviving trustees, 
sold the Meeting-house to John Collins ... so 

"that he the said John Collins his heirs . . . may Peaceably 
and quietly have hold occupy possess and Enjoy all and singular 
the said Meeting-House Seats Pulpit Planch Loft and premises 
without the lawful lett suit trouble eviction molestation inter- 
ruption hinderance or Denyal of tliem the said George Castle 
John Randall and John Smale or the other Assigns of the afore- 
said Trust their Heirs Executors or Administrators or any other 
person or persons whatsoever. 
"In Witness," etc. 

Thus the career of the Meeting-house, as such, closes by 
reversion to a son of the original owner. From John Collins 
it passed into the family of the present writer, who inherited 
from his uncle Abraham CoUins's old house with the Meet- 
ing-house and garden behind it and some lands in difierent 
parts of the parish, together with his personal efiects, 
amongst which was the MS. History of Hatherleigh whence 
these details are gleaned. 

The dwelling-house, formerly Abraham Collins's, is the 
house next above the New Inn, and the Meeting-house 
stood, and probably still stands, at the top of the garden 
behind it. 

Much further information is given concerning two of Sir 
Roper Lethbridge's three kinsmen, Bartholomew Yeo and 
John Lethbridge; but William Trevethick's name seems to 
occur but twice, each time as an entry in the Register. 



298 A liAKUSCRIFT HI8T0BT OF HATH8RLBI0H. 

The first of these entries is: "Bebecca Zenobia and 
Katberine daughters of William Trevethicke were baptized 
the 29th July, 1649/' 

This is the last entry which Mr. Short has extracted from 
the first volume of the Parish Register, which b^ns in 
AprU, 1576. 

The Register had been signed by preceding vicars at the 
time of their institution, and, after them, in April, 1641, by 
" Gulielm. Trevethicke, vie." 

The MS. history of the old borough was written by a 
very unlikely sort of man to do such a thing. He was a 
country shopkeeper, and down to the month of March, 1840, 
when the Old Market Houses were burnt down, he occupied 
the shop fronting on the main street of the town at the 
upper comer of the heterogeneous mass of buildings that 
went by that name, and just opposite the waggon entrance to 
the yard of the New Inn. 

There is a printed list of the various articles sold in the 
old shop which will serve as an introduction to the worthy 
burgess himself in his capacity of shopkeeper. It runs 
thus : — 

J. S, SHORT 

Druggist Grocer and Tea Dealer 

HATHERLEIGH. 

Sells 

The following Articles of the Best Quality 

on the most reasonable Terms. 

In addition to the well-known " Allspice and Cinnamon," 
which constitute the first item, the list includes other such 
familiar articles as Currants and Raisins, Fine Teas, Salad Oil, 
Raw and Refined Sugar, Tobacco, Shag and Roll, Starch, etc., 
and many others whose names are strange to the present 
generation, such as Bole-Armoniac and Dragon's Blood, Cala- 
minaris and Tutty Powder, Hiera Picra, and Oxycroceum and 
Paracelsus ; the list ends '* With a Variety of other Drugs, 
Patent Medicines, Oils, etc." 

On the night when the fire took place I occupied the 
bedroom of Abraham Collins's old house, which was next 
to the New Inn, and being aroused from my sleep by the 
glare of the flames and the great clamour in the street, I got 
out of bed and had from my window a full view of the con- 
flagration, which, child-like, I stood watching until my aunt 
came into the room and sent me back to bed again. 

My uncle's house having been separated from Mr. Short's 
shop only by just the width of the street, I was a frequent 



A MANUSCRIPT HISTORY OF HATHERLEIGH. 299 

visitor thereto as a customer for sweetstuffs, and as Mr. 
Short and his wife had an only child, a girl of my own age, 
and as I, a motherless boy, also had neither brother nor 
sister, little "Missy," as she called herself, instead of the 
less-easily pronounced name of Elizabeth by which she had 
been christened, and I were great friends, and the dear old 
couple treated me then and for many years afterwards, as 
long as I remained at Hatherleigh, as if I had been really 
their own son. 

Besides carrying on his miscellaneous shopkeeping busi- 
ness, Mr. Short held from time to time all the important 
ofiices of the Parish and Borough. He was in turn Reeve of 
the Parish and Portreeve of the Borough, almost perpetual 
Churchwarden or Overseer, and Trustee in all the chief 
trusts connected with the charities and other institutions of 
the Borough. He was also associated with Mr. Thomas 
Roberts, who will be presently referred to, in reference to 
the Adjustment of the Land Tax in the Parish. 

It is not, however, so much in either of these capacities 
that Mr. Short may lay claim to the notice of this Associa- 
tion as in that of a zealous antiquary, who contrived in the 
course of his otherwise busy life to collect materials for a 
history of his native town, its church, and its many institu- 
tions, and, in the leisure of his later days, spent in the 
charming little abode looking down the main street of the 
town, called Red Hill Cottage, to make a compilation of 
the same, filling a big manuscript book of folio size and con- 
taining nearly live hundred pages of handwriting and pictures, 
as the outcome of his industrious investigations. 

There are sixteen full-page pictures, all of which are 
coloured except those of the Church, the old Vicarage, and a 
sheet of Elizabethan coins, which are pen-and-ink sketches. 
Emblazoned Coats-of-Arms abound, and there are also half a 
dozen copies of elaborately painted old Inn Signs. The total 
number of illustrations exceeds fifty, to say nothing of the 
scores of epitaphs, inscriptions, etc., found in the church and 
the churchyard. 

It may here be observed that Mr. Short's shop stood within 
forty yards or so of the churchyard gate — itself a stone's- 
throw from the church — so that when business was slack, or 
at other odd times, he could readily visit the scene of his 
labours, and that it was an easy walk of ten minutes to 
the same destination from Red Hill Cottage by way of 
Sanctuary Lane and the Bowling-green, or down around 
by the Market-place, where the old shop had stood. 



300 A MANUSCRIPT HISTORY OF HATHERLEIGH. 

The title-page of Mr. Short's book was written by his 
friend Mr. Thomas Roberts, and runs thus : — 

HISTORICAL MEMOIRS 

of the 

Town and Parish of 

HATHERLEIGH, 

Devon. 

Collected from the Best Authorities. 

This title is beautifully engrossed in German-text and 
English characters in capital and small print, and, being 
embellished with the customary flourishes of the period, is 
calculated to excite admiration and surprise when it becomes 
known that the artist had no hands ! 

Mr. Roberts many years predeceased the author of this 
History, who has given us the following outline of his 
friend's life : — 

Thomas Roberts was born at Anthony near Plymouth in the 
County of Cornwall [his father, also named Thomas, is however 
described on his tombstone as late of Exeter, so that both of 
them may be claimed as Devonshire men] on the r2th day of 
October 1771. When a boy about eleven years of age he lost 
both his hands by the explosion of a hand-granade. 

About the year 1797 he came to reside in the Town of 
Hatherleigh where he established a School in which was taught 
Mathematics, Latin, Writing, Arithmetic, Drawing, etc. This 
undertaking was carried on with great success for several years, 
having generally an average of eighty boarders besides day 
scholars. He built a new house in this Town for his residence 
and was a very useful member of society having several times filled 
the offices of Portreeve, Churchwarden, Overseer of the Poor, 
Surveyor of the Highways, etc. He died much regretted on the 
28th Day of December 1848, and was buried by the side of his 
Wife in the Bowling green ^ of the Churchyard of Hatherleigh on 
the 6th day of January 1849. 

Over his grave was placed a large slab of Freestone bearing the 
following inscription : — 

"Here resteth 

the body of Thomas Roberts who departed 

this Hfe December 28th 1848. Aged 78. 

Also of Mary Anne his wife who died December 

28th 1845. Aged 72.*' 

^ Bowling-green. The manor of Hatherleigh, in "Domesday" (Exeter) 
Hadreleia, belonged to the Abbey of Tavistock. ** Domesday " tells us that 
there were four military tenants of the abbey on the manor, and we learn 
from Dr. Augustus Jessopp's ** Daily Life in a Mediteval Monastcir'* that 
'* bowls was the favourite and a very common diversion among the Monks." 



A MANUSCRIPT HISTORY OF HATHERLKIGH. 301 

In another part of this Cemetery are deposited the Father and 
Mother of the above named Thomas Roberts. His son George who 
died June 6th 1833 aged 27 And three other of his Children who 
died in infancy. 

N.B. — The above named Thomas Roberts wrote the Title page 
in this Book. 

With Mr. Roberts I was also personally acquainted. He 
was Superintendent of the Sunday-school and I was one of 
the scholars, and one day when I, with others, had carelessly 
jostled him as he was going out of the schoolroom door, he, 
not being able to pull or to flip my ears — a common enough 
familiar punishment for small iniquities in those days — play- 
fully boxed them with the wooden stumps he wore on his 
wrists. These were ingeniously made and so fitted up that 
they might, as far as possible, fulfil the functions of the 
missing hands. 

In what manner they were used I saw one evening when 
my father, who occupied a house that Mr. Roberts had 
recently built on George Hill, took me with him when he 
went up to Mr. Roberts's own house at the top of Higher 
Street to pay his rent: this he had purposely taken the 
greater part of in the smaller coin of the realm in order that 
I might see how it was manipulated (?) and counted by a 
man without hands. 

The money-bag was emptied on the table at which Mr. 
Roberts was seated, and he, being supplied with a dinner- 
plate and a knife, inserted the tang of the knife-blade into 
one of the holes in his " stump," and with the blade counted 
with ease and rapidity the money into the plate which he 
had placed on his knees, and he afterwards wrote out the 
receipt. 

This was the first time he had seen me since the " boxing " 
incident, which occurred a few days earlier, and he asked 
me how my ears had felt thereafter, and when I told him 
they had ached for a little while, he said it was not to be 
wondered at, for his stumps were made of box wood and were 
apt to hurt if used ever so little ungently. However, to 
make amends, he gave me a useful Bible, on the fly-leaf of 
which he then and there wrote my name in a style that we 
used in those days to call copper-plate, thereby signifying ita 
excellence, from the resemblance it bore to the imprint of 
copper-plate engraving. 

Mr. Short, from the obituary notice above quoted, omits 
mention of the fact that in connection with mathematics, 
etc., practical navigation was a specialty with Mr. Roberts. 



302 ^A MANUSCBIFT HISTOBT OF HATHKKLEI6H. 

He combined practice with theory, and in a large room fitted 
up as a carpenter's workshop he taught his pupils to make 
and rig-up models of ships and boats, and, in order to test 
their sailing qualities, they made on Hatherleigh Moor a 
large pond, called Roberts's Pond to this day. 

For the accommodation of his boarders in the church, he 
erected, at his own cost, a gallery at the west end of the 
north aisle. I used to see the youngsters trooping in around 
the corner from the tower-arch on a Sunday morning from 
my father's sitting in another new gallery which had been 
recently built out from the middle of the external wall of 
the same aisle. To this gallery special reference will be 
made later on. 

Mr. Roberts died on 28 December, 1848 — the third 
anniversary of the death of his wife — ^leaving no issue: a 
son, George, who died at the age of thirty-seven, having 
predeceased his father, as had also three children who died 
in their infancy, and were buried in the same grave, in 
another part of the churchyard, with their grandfather, 
Thomas Roberts, who is described on his tombstone as " late 
of Exeter." 

Two of his brothers, however, survived him : one of them, 
named William, will perhaps be remembered by some of the 
older members of this Association. He was a bookseller in 
Exeter — probably the largest and best known in the city. 
His shop stood in High Street, facing Broadgate, and 
over the doorway was suspended a large imitation Bible, 
which now adorns the entrance to Messrs. Eland's shop 
higher up the street. 

John, the third of the brothers, held ofl&ce in the Excise 
at Birmingham, and early in June, 1852, my uncle James 
and I spent Sunday there with him and his wife, and long 
and well did I remember the thoroughly Devonshire dinner 
they gave us, for I had no other like it for many years. The 
next day I was on board a ship, being towed down the 
Mersey on my way to Australia, 

On his superannuation, John Roberts removed to Hather- 
leigh, and lived for the remainder of his days in the house 
on George Hill which his brother had built, in which my 
parents had lived and died, and in which I was born. It 
faces a little triangular shop, occupied by a saddler, and 
known as the "Salt-box," which was erected on the spot 
where the pillory formerly stood. 

Mr. Short commences his " Historical Memoirs of Hather- 
leigh " with a description of the topography of the town in 



A MANUSCRIPT HISTOKT OF HATHERLEI6H. 303 

relation to the adjoining parishes, its size, population, etc. 
and then bestows a warm eulogy on the superior comfort to 
be found in the old cob-houses, of which the town almost 
entirely consists. He gives a drawing of the inscription 
over one of the windows of a house which was built in 1585, 
and speaks of another which was built in the last year of the 
reign of Queen Mary the First, 1558; whilst a third shows 
the date 1668; but these houses are small and mean in 
comparison with the more important buildings of the town, 
which have been better cared for, and are probably much 
older, so old even as to justify the ancient proverb that 
" with a good hat and good shoes," that is, protected from 
wet above and below, " good cob will last for ever." 

He next proceeds to tell us of the government of the 
town. 

There ia a Court Leet and Court Baron held in this Town every 
year at which Court a Jury is regularly nominated and sworn who 
has the power of chosing [sic] a Portreeve for the better Govern- 
ment of the Town, Two Constables are also deputed and sworn, a 
Tithingman, Reeve, Ale Tasters, Searchers and Sealers of Leather 
and a Scavenger are also chosen. 

And in another place he adds that these officers " are 
invested with considerable authority if they choose to 
exercise it." 

In this Court which has been held here time immemorial 
anciently all i)etit causes relative to the inhabitants were tried, 
and in order to defray the expenses of keeping Court the Lord has 
a right to demand a Chief Rent from a great number of the 
Tenants in Fee which is collected in the Borough by the Portreeve 
[the chief rents in the jmrish being collected by the reeve]. 

In the " Rentall " of 1744, sixteen of the tenants had to 
furnish a capon in addition to the sum set down as chief 
rent. 

Many of the items of chief rents to be paid by the tenants 
to the borough are trivial and curious. Among them are : 
" Pales before his House, 6d. ; Posts before his House, 6d. ; 
Posts to his House, Is. ; Posts to her House, 6d. ; Posts, 6d. ; 
Sign Posts, 6d. ; Posts, 6d. ; His Posts, 6d. ; Posts, 6d. ; 
Pool for Northcotts, 6d. ; Pales, 3d. ; Porch, 3d. ; Porch, 3d. ; 
Pales, etc.. Is. ; Corner of the wall next the Front, 3d. ; Sign 
Post, Is., etc." One unspecified charge is set down at one 
halfpenny. 

The items in respect of which these sums are payable may 
be regarded as perpetual easements which cannot be in* 



304 A MANUSCBIFT HI8T0BT OF HATHERLEIG^ 

terfered with by the lord, nor even altered or abandoned 
by the tenants themselves, without the consent of the 
Court. The lord's remedy for non-payment of the high 
and chief rent is an exceedingly prompt levy of distress, 
as is shown by the following copy of a warrant for collection. 

^ \ '^o Mr. Andrew Goss, Reeve, Mr. Arthur Titherley, 

annoT \ jy^^x^X^r Reeve of the said Mannor and John Hur- 
jr^-i T ' \\ ford, Bailiff, You're hereby authorized to Ask, 
^ ^ ' ' Collect and receive of the severall persons whose 
names are witliin written, the severall sumes of Money (together 
with the araerciments^) to their names respectively affix*d, and for 
their refusal or non-payment to Levy the same by a Distress on 
their respective goods witliin the said mannor, and if the same shall 
not be redeemed within five days then to appraise and sell the 
same, rendering to the partys the oveq)lus (If any), reasonable 
charges being first deducted and for your so doing this shall be 
your Warrant. 

Given under my Hand and Scale the 22 day of Octob' 1744. 

Ar. Arscott. 







The Court Baron for the Hundred of Blacktorrington is now 
held in Hatherleigh ; it had been held at Clawton Bridge, as 
may be seen by the following proceedings which I [J. S. S.] copied 
from the old Court Book. 

A Court held at Clawton Bridge *the 23'** day of June 1737 Cha» 
Lurdon, Steward ; W*" Bubley and Free-Suitors. 

Into this Court was brought one Bright bay Nagg about twelve 
or thirteen hands high having a Meally Mouth, a white Starr on 
the forhead, a black mane, three white spots in the back, a 
Blackish bob tail. Burnt in the near Buttock with T W which 
came as an Esstrey about the twenty first day of this Instant: 
July 14^*» the Bay Nag is still in Custody— Aug«* 4**> 1»* Procla- 
mation, — July 6*** 1738 another Procl" was made and as no person 
hath owned or claimed the same the said Nag is forfeited unto 
Will™ CliiFord Martin Esq"^ Lord of the Hundred afores<*. 

As an instance of the mode of procedure followed by the 
Borough Court in the sixteenth century, the following case 
of alleged unlawful commoning on the moor may interest, 
especially as John Yeo, of Heed, was the person accused. 

* Ameroiamont: Pecuniary puuishment imposed mwii Offenders at the 
Mercy of the Court ; it differs from a Fine, which is a punishment certain and 
determined, from Statute (Bailey). 



A MANUSCKIPT HISTORY OF HATHKRLKIGH. 305 

A Copy of a Record of the Right of Common in 

Reed Estate on Hatherleigh Moor. 

Dated 10"» April 31»* Elizabeth a d 1590 

Also an Acknowledgment of the same Right 

and Inrollment 6**> Nov. 1626. 

Memorandum that the Lawe Courte daye holden at Hatherleigh 
within her Majestie's Borrough the Tenth daye of April in the 
one and thirtieth yeare of her most Gracious Raigne came into 
the said Courte John Stowell Gent^ William RoUstone, John 
Wadland Sadler, Will™ Reade and Johan Bennett Wydowe, and 
then and there theye and every of them of theire owne accorde 
dide take theire voluntarye othes, that several of them for ffower 
scoore yeeres past, some for three scoore and tenne yeeres and 
others for three scoore yeeres by the lest, dide know one Thomas 
Reede dwelling in a Tenement called Reede al» Sworthecotte 
within the Mannoure of Hatherleigh and after him Richard 
Reed his sonne did Comon in and uppon Hatherleigh Moore, wth 
their Plough and small Cattle Horse and Sheep in right of the 
saide Tenement of Reede al» Sworthecotte and at no tyme denyed 
the use of the said Comon, these thinges aforesaid they dide 
openly declare uppon theire othes in the presence and Audience 
of George Arscott Gent, then Steward of the same Courte, and 
before both Juries of the Burrough and Mannoure whose names 
are hereunder wroten with manye others being then present. 

The Burrough Jurye. 

Will™ Hooper John Whitbreade Richard Wadland 

Richard Hooper John Kympe Richard Heard 

Will™ Egwyrt John Holmes Richard Christopher 

Walter Bulhedd John Sraytham Will™ Edye 

Robert Rist Will™ Edward Perme Willmid Edye 

Will™ Wadland John Loder Serriptorem et Testime 

The Mannoure Jurye. 

Raymond Webber Will™ Godefray Robert Lugger 

Richard Laishbrook John Baggaton lliomas Morcomb 

John Gove Thomas Locke Robart Tayler 

John Wadland John Merrifield Peter Lucas 

John Seldon John Crocker de Lake Will™ Jarston 

Memorand That at the Burrough Court of Hatherleigh holden 
the sixt day of November 1626 John Yeo Gent (being accused 
by the Jurye of the sayd Borough for Comoning in Hatherleigh 
Moor agaynst ryght for his Tenement called Reede al» Sworthecott 
w**» in the Manor of Hatherleigh) came into the Courte and openly 
shewed this present evidence w^** was then and there Inrolled in 
the Courte Books by me William Bleigh, then Steward of the 
same Court. 

Mention of other Manorial Courts follows, and then are 

VOL. XXXVIII. u 



30$ A MANUSCRIPT BISTORT OF HATHSRLKIGH. 

given the histories of certain sub-manors and estates which 
had been carved out of the great " Mannoure " of Hather- 
leigh, the first to be named, and named only, being Fishleigh, 
** the ancient abode of the Yeos." 

I^wer or, as Risdon calls it, Le-worth, had sometime lords 
that bore that territorial appellation. In the year 1546 
Lewer was in the possession of a member of that ancient — 
almost prehistoric — ^Devonshire family, the Crockers, for 
King Henry the Eighth, in the thirty-seventh year of his 
reign, granted unto John Crocker de Lewer and others in 
trust the house called the Priest- or Church-house, within the 
town of Hatherleigh; concerning which Priest-house, Mr. 
Short has much to say when he comes to tell us about the 
church in connection with the Yeo family. 

Langbear, or Lang-a-beare, comes next with the tradition 
that a town, having a weekly market held therein, stood in 
a field which is still called Market Gratton. 

'* Near this place is Knap's-lane-hill where a battle was 
fought at the time of the Civil Wars in the reign of King 
Charles the First, and on Hurlbridge Moor, adjoining, are 
now to be seen several Hillocks which cover the dead bodies 
of the slain ; this Moor has recently been plowed up for the 
purpose of tillage, and several Human bones, old pieces of 
Swords, etc., have been found." 

** Yollaberry, anciently Yeo-la-beare, which, in the beginning 
of King Edward the Third's reign, was the property of 
Nicholas Yeo, son of William Yeo, who had this, together 
with Heanton Satchville, in the parish of Petrockstowe," and 
as many other manors and estates in Devon and Cornwall as 
must almost have caused those much-manored gentlemen, 
Baldwin of Exeter and Judhel of Totnes, to turn in their 
graves with envy. These manors formed, later on, the bulk 
of the great RoUe estate, and the devious way in which 
they passed through the hands of the Earls of Lincoln and 
of Oxford, the Barons Clinton, Saye, and others, to the 
Trefusis family, is traced at great length, as are also the 
provisions of the Acts of Parliament passed for the settle- 
ment of the various properties embraced therein. 

The historical references made by Mr. Short to the Yeos 
occupy a considerable space in his book, and are illustrated 
with many coloured drawings of the arms borne by the 
various branches of that family. There are several forms in 
which these arms are shown, but in all of them appears the 
inevitable " Shoveller " — thus defined by Bailey, " the Pelican, 
a bird." 



A MANUSCRIPT HISTORY OF HATHERLBIGH. 307 

Mr. Short has a difficulty concerning this " bird " which 
figures so largely in the Yeo arms, and he has left blank the 
shield he had outlined ; this has on the left side the single 
word "Arms," and on the other, "Flor. A.D. 1358, E. E. 
Edw. 3." 

The arms, however, are thus described : — 

Argent, a Chevron between three Shovellers, Azure, Member'd 
and beak'd, Or. 

Crest. On a Torse, Arg. and Sab., a Peacock (Qu. if not a 
Turkey Cock) Standing proper. 

On a Stone against the North Wall over Reed pew, with five 
Coats of Arms painted round the Stone, is the following inscrip- 
tion : — 

" PiaB MemorisB lohannis Yeo Filij lohannis Yeo de Heed Ar : 

et Mariti Annae FiliaB Henrice Hurding de Long Briddy in Agro 

Dorsett"' Ar: qui mortalitatem deposuit 15^ die Octob: 1662. 

Amoris ergo. Uxor amans oliiii Delecta, nunc solitarie Kelicta hoc 

' posuit A* Etatis 63." 

What of difficulty remains is to reconcile the difference in 
respect to their Coat Armour. 

It is generally agreed that the Shovellers aforesaid do belong 
to the Heanton Family of this Name. But Guillim ("Display 
of Herald." sec. 3, c. 21, p. 233) tells us that a Silver field, a 
Chev. Sab. between three Turkey Cocks in their pride is born 
[sic] by the name of Yeo of Devonshire. 

It may be so, and yet the Bearing be honourable enough : Let 
therefore no Critic, as Dr. Fuller advises, cavil at the Coat, as but 
a modern Bearing, because Turkey Cocks came not into England 
'till about the tenth year of K. Hen. 8***, for they might formerly 
be shown here for Rarities, tho' not fed on as Table Fowl till that 
time. Besides Heralds have ever assumed that priviledge to 
themselves, to assign for Arms, both those Creatures which are 
found only in foreign Countries, as Lions, Leopards, Tigars and 
the like ; and those whose sole Existence is in the fancy of Poets 
and Painters, as the Phoenix, Centaur, Griftin and Ilarpie, whose 
face is like a Virgin's, but hath Talons like an Eagle. 

So Virgil :— 

Tristus haud illis Monstrum nee Saevior ulla, etc 

Thus translated by Guillim : — 

Of Monsters all, most monstrous this: no greater Wrath 
God sends 'mongst men; it comes from Pitchy Hell; 
A Virgin's face, but womb-like Gulf insatiate hath; 
Her hands are griping Claws, her Colour palo and fell. 

It was mentioned early in these notes that the Courts of 
the Hundred, Borough, and Manor were held at the George 

u2 



308 A MANUSCRIPT HISTORY OF HATHBRLEIGH. 

Inn, Hatherleigh. The "Dragon " might have been omitted 
from the notices given of the holding of these Courts for the 
sake of brevity, the inn being so well known; but in Mr. 
Short's time its name was " George and the Dragon," and he 
gives us a splendidly coloured copy of the sign. It shows 
St. George in full armour, with an immense plume of black 
ostrich feathers in his helmet, mounted on a white horse, 
likewise protected, and prodding with his spear a most 
demoniacal -looking green dragon with red wings, which 
emits flames not only from his mouth and nostrils, but from 
some imaginary vent at the top of his head. 

That there were poets in the land in those days let the 
following epitaph on the late landlord of the " George " bear 
witness : — 

Sacred to the memory of Richard King of this Parish who 
died the 20tli day of March 1816 in the 58th year of his Age. 

A])i)roacli with Awe — here sleeps a King ! 
Whose Soul from Earth has taken wing 
From this vain World its toys and toil 
I'm gone— to reign my name is Roy*l. 
Believe in Christ from sin refrain 
Then you above like Kings shall reign. 

Mr. Richard King was formerly Landlord of the George Inn in 
this town. His wife, Mary King, kept on the Inn after her hus- 
band^s death for nearly forty years and died on the 7th day of 
August 1853 aged 80 years. 

Her character as a landlady was found written on a pane 
of glass in a window of the George Inn with a diamond, and 
runs thus : — 

Traveler this Inn — which some call mean 
Approach with Awe — here lives a Queen ! 
Nay ! start not at so strange a thing 
For truly she's a female King — 
So rich her soups — her hashes — minces 
My Boys— you iiere may fare like Princes ! 

The signs of six other inns have been copied with equal 
care— the •* Seven Stars," the " Swan," the " Koyal Oak," the 
" Three Crowns," the " Bell,*' and the " Sun." 

Of the "Seven Stars" (1742) we are told that it was **a 
house much frequented by the Gentry of the Neighbourhood 
and others who delighted in that barbarous Sport of Cock- 
fighting. A Cock pit (slq it was commonly called) was erected 
on the premises,^and large bets made on their Cocks. The 
Ale at this house was very good and sold at three pence a 
quart." 

The " Koyal Oak " sign shows the Eoyal Fugitive up a fine 



A MANUSCRIPT HISTORY OF HATHKRLKIGH, 309 

oak tree, but by no means trying to conceal himself ; on the 
contrary, he seems to be openly watching the movements of 
three horse soldiers, who, accompanied by three dogs, are 
capering about on the foreground. 

The "Sun" is represented by a man's face within the 
arms of a bright yellow crescent, which is surrounded with 
glowing, wavy, effulgent rays, and the whole is within an 
outline of horseshoe form, with a shadowy representation of 
a man's face in the lower left-hand corner. 

The other signs, though quaint and graphic, call for no 
special notice, and the originals of all have long ago dis- 
appeared. 

Here I should come to an end, leaving the church and the 
churchyard, with their monuments, inscriptions, and epi- 
taphs, of which many scores of instances are given, the 
charities, with the numerous documents relating thereto, 
many of them containing references to the families of Yeo 
and Lethbridge, to a future period. 

Mr. Short's own biography of Jasper Mayne and of the 
Eev. Cradock Glascott — a friend of John and Charles Wesley 
and of Whitefield — the vicar whose faithful ministry made 
necessary the building of three new galleries in the church 
in order to accommodate worshippers, — must also stand over, 
together with the notice of that gallant, much-persecuted old 
cavalier, Colonel George Yeo, of Huish, and of others whose 
lives were intermingled with those of Lethbridge, Yeo, and 
Trevithick — the three Hatherleigh Worthies of Sir Eoper 
Lethbridge's paper. 

I cannot, however, refrain from mentioning a wonderful 
mural painting that was discovered in the church in 1832 
and copied by Mr. Short. 

On the left of the picture of the Lethbridge monument, a 
photograph of which Sir Eoper gave us in 1904 (" Trans.," 
p. 290), is shown the angle of a wall with a window beyond. 
This angle and this window form part of the third new 
gallery which was built for increase of accommodation for 
Mr. Glascott's congregation. 

Down to the year 1832 there was no proper vestry for the 
clergy nor for the parish meetings. These wants had been 
supplied, before the screen was taken down, by what appears 
to have been a chapel at the east end of the south aisle, 
which then formed part of the chancel. In this chapel^ 

^ " In the east window of this chapel were painted the Royal Arms, sup- 
posed to be done for John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, who, the inhabitauto 
say, gave the moor to the poor of the parish." 



310 A MANUSCRIPT UISTORY OF HATHERLKIGH. 

stood the parish cofifer, in which were deposited the church 
plate, the parish documents, records, etc., "until of late 
years," when they were removed to the priest's house over 
the churchyard gate, and the space that had been so occupied 
was set apart for the girls of the Sunday school. 

The surface of the churchyard outside the north wall of 
the church was at so high a level above the church floor as 
to permit the construction of a gallery having a separate 
entrance from the churchyard and on a level therewith, 
which would leave sufficient height for a vestry beneath it 
on the same level as the floor of the church itself. The new 
building enclosed a small portion of the churchyard. The 
gallery provided sixty sittings. The vestry had, besides the 
doorway into the church, a second entrance from the church- 
yard, and the whole work constituted a notable improve- 
ment. The cost was defrayed by the sale of the sittings 
thus provided, and my father's name appears in the seat or 
pew assigned to him on the plan of the gallery showing the 
general allotment, which plan is duly given in the book, as 
well as copies of the faculty, specification, etc. 

Let Mr. Short himself describe his great discovery : — 

As the workmen were scraping off the wliitewash from the wall 
in the Nortli Aisle ... a Scripture sentence from Isaiah, 55 chap. 
6 & 7 verses, was discovered written in old black letters in a good 
state of preservation. This on being removed and several more 
layers of whitewash scraped off an old oil painting in distemper 
appeared to view, supposed to be a figure ... of Saint Cliristo- 
phor, upwards of eight feet high, with fishes &c. at his feet. 

The annexed drawing is a rough Copy taken on a Scale of One 
inch to the Foot. 

In Mr. Short's drawing, St. Christopher is arrayed in a 
tunic striped vertically in various shades of pink, and a flow- 
ing red mantle. He wears a golden crown on his head, and 
with an olive branch in his hand, used as a walking-staff, is 
carrying an infant on his shoulder across a stream. He is 
girt with a bright yellow belt from which depends a small 
brown pouch. 

The Child, who sits astride on the saint's left shoulder, is 
clad in a blue *' combination " garment reaching from his neck 
to his feet, which are bare. An orb surmounted by a cross is 
in his left hand, whilst the right is raised in benediction. He 
has long curly hair, on which is a high cap ornamented on 
the outer border with fleurs-de-lis. 

Between the saint's bare legs a mermaid, with a wonderfully 
large scaly tail and furnished with the regulation mirror and 



A MANUSCRIPT HISTORY OF HATHERLEIGH. 311 

comb, disports herself; while around her a lot of fish of 
various strange kinds, and a couple of water-fowl, are swim- 
ming about. In the forefront is a three-masted ship at 
anchor, and a man is paddling about in a boat, which, lest it 
should be carried away by the current, is attached to the ship 
by a rope. By the saint's uplifted right foot in the lower 
left-hand corner of the picture there is a marvellous spotted 
beast whose head and fore parts alone appear above water, 
and what might by a strong exercise of the imagination be 
deemed a turtle, only that it has six legs and a row of formid- 
able spines along the back, is seen on the other side of the 
saint's foot. 

A curly-headed stripling in a yellow jersey and blue 
trousers stands on the left bank fishing, and exceedingly 
good sport he seems to be having, for on two of the three 
hooks attached to his line are hooked two fish, either of 
which is as big as a boat containing eight people, which is 
being rowed by four of them towards the bank in front of 
him. Another boat with two black paddlers is seen higher 
up, just under the hem of the saint's cloak. Two of the fish, 
one of them hooked, are flat fish with red spots on them ; 
they are apparently plaice, though it puzzles one to think 
what sea-fish would be up to in a little stream only a couple 
of strides wide, and only deep enough to reach half-way up 
to the saint's knees — although capable of floating the ship 
mentioned above. 

St. Christopher seems to have been having a " refresher " 
before essaying the ford, for standing on the bank behind him 
is a nun in a bluish-grey robe and black tippet, with a rosary 
hanging from her left arm, who holds in her right hand a 
hooped tankard nearly as big as the saint's own head ; behind 
the nun is a building of alternate red and white bricks, laid 
checker -fashion, with narrow loophole-like windows and 
roofed with lead, and in the gable-end there is a rose- window, 
and on the top of it a cross. 

In the distance are seen mountains — the more distant of 
the purplish tint due to atmospheric haze ; on their foot-hills 
appear the loopholed walls of a city, with the circular 
towers of a castle behind them. 

This is, in truth, a very marvellous picture, independently 
of the circumstances under which it was found. 

It is now seventy-four years ago that this old painting was 
discovered and destroyed. It is therefore unlikely that any 
parishioner still survives who was then old enough to notice 
such a picture intelligently, or, if old enough then, too old 



312 A MANUSCRIPT HISTORT OF HATHSBLBIGH. 

now to retain more than a vague impression of having seen 
something of the kind. 

Strangely enough, when Mr. Short's book came into my 
possession and I saw the picture, I felt at once that I had 
seen it before — the fresco itself I could never have seen, for 
at the time of its transient exposure I was still unborn — and 
the only theory that helps me to account for that conviction 
is that I must have seen Mr. Short's drawing whilst he was 
at work on it, for he liked to have me with him at times and 
would talk to me about matters antiquarian and otherwise 
till he was tired, when he would say : " Now run away, boy, 
and ask mother for that slice of cake ! " 



THE EARLIEST POETION OF THE "TESTA DE 
NEVILL" RELATING TO DEVON. 

BY J. H. ROUND, LL.D. 
(R«ad at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



In spite of the confused arrangement and often corrupt text 
of the volume known as " Testa de Nevill/' its great value 
and importance for the local and family history of the feudal 
period have been rightly insisted on by students of the sub- 
ject, such as Mr. Whale (XXIX, 218) and Mr. Reichel 
(XXXVII, 410). But its evidence needs to be employed 
with great discrimination, and the dates of its various re- 
turns require to be carefully fixed. 

It is clear that Mr. Whale assigned the whole of the 
Devon portion to 1235, and mistook the heading of the first 
part of it for the heading of the whole (XXIX, 218). The 
Pomeroy extent, however, he dated 21 Ed. I, its date being 
so given. 

A great advance on this view is seen in Mr. Reichel's recent 
paper on its "earlier sections,"^ which, as he justly observes, 
" from the detailed information they contain are by far the 
most important." 

I here address myself specially to the first in order of 
date.i Mr. Reichel dates this as "1216" (XXXVII, 410, 413), 
but states that " it dates apparently from the first year of 
Henry III" (XXXVII, 411). As John was king for the 
greater part of the year 1216, this is not as clear as it 
might be, and I therefore wrote to ask Mr. Reichel his 
authority for the date he gives. He explained that the 
reference he gives is erroneous, and that his authority is 
" the internal argument from the contents." This, however, 
proves to be only the wardship of Reginald de Valletort, 

* Mr. Reichel is mistaken in calling it " the oldest section in the whole 
volume" (which contains some returns of 1198), but it is the earliest for 
Devon. 



314 THE KARLIBST PORTION OF "TBSTA Dl NKVILL." 

which indicates a date, as he observes, not "later than 1 Hen. 
Ill, though it may have been penned earlier." Exactly so; 
and I shall now show that it was. But I may first observe 
that it affords another note of date in its mention of Robert 
de Ver; for although Mr. Eeichel adds "[Earl of Oxford]" 
after his name, the return is correct in omitting that style. 
It was made before he succeeded his brother in 1214. 

The fact is that, as I explained in my paper on " The Great 
Inquest of Service,"^ published so far back as 1899, this 
Devon return on pp. 194-5 of the "Testa" is merely part 
of the returns of a great inquiry made by John all over 
England in the year' 1212. Its primary object was to trace 
all the lands which had been formerly in the hands of the 
Crown and had been alienated therefrom. The order for this 
inquiry is thus entered in the "Annals of Waverley " : — 

[1212] Idem (rex) scripsit vice-comitibus ut per singulos hun- 
dredos facerent homines jurare quae terrsB essent de dominico pr»- 
decessorum suorum regiim antiquitus, et qualiter a manibus regum 
exierint, et qui eas mode tenent et pro quibus servitiis.* 

The actual writ commanding the survey was issued on 
1 June, 1212, and is printed on page 54 of the "Testa." 
From it I select these words : — 

De tenementis omnibus quae antiquitus de nobis aut de progeni- 
toribus nostris regibus AnglisB teneri sclent, quae sint data vel 
alienata . . . et noraina illorum qui ea teneant et per quod ser- 
vitium.^ 

The return was made with great promptitude, and the 
heading to the Devon portion in the "Testa" runs thus: — 

Inquipicio dominicorum tenementorum et feoffamentorum domini 
Regis vel aiitecessorum suorum in Devonia (p. 194). 

The contents of the return correspond exactly with the two 
previous extracts quoted above. 

With this return we have to compare, but with discrimina- 
tion, the lists [assigned to 1210-1212] on pp. 558-60 of the 
" Red Book of the Exchequer." 

Having now explained the date and object of this valuable 
return, I turn to some of its entries, for the identifications 
in which we are indebted to Mr. Reichers local knowledge. 
The references are to the pages and the numbers in his paper 
(Vol. XXXVII). 

^ In "The Commune of London and Other Studies." 
' *' Commune of London and Other Studies," i». 266. 
» Ibid. 



THE EARLIEST PORTION OF "TESTA DE NEVILL." 315 

The annual payment in respect of the hundred of Bud- 
leigh (p. 415, No. 1345) is recorded as 408., not lis. (Mr. 
iReichel seems to have misread xl. as xj.) 

The gift of Harpford to the monks of Marmoutier (p. 415, 
No. 1347) was made by Oliver de Dinan 18 June, 1173.^ 

Hugh Peverel of Sampford Peverel and Aller Peverel 
(p. 416, No. 1350). This is a very important entry, for its 
reference to an early enfeoffment by "William Peverel, of 
Essex, and Matilda his sister." I have not been able to trace 
this enfeoffment, but Mr. Eeichel has fallen into error by 
confusing (like some of the older antiquaries) the two great 
and distinct honours of Peverel of Essex {cdias of London) 
and Peverel of Nottingham. The former appears to have 
escheated to the Crown under Henry I some time earlier 
than the other. Hugh Peverel, the holder at the time of 
the return, appears on p. 556 of the "Eed Book" as "Hugo 
Pyperellus de Saunforde" holding two and a half fees of the 
Bishop of Exeter in 1210-12. But on p. 558 he is entered 
for the holding in the "Testa" return as "Hugo Paynel de 
Saunforde," and is so indexed, the editor (Mr. Hubert Hall) 
failing to recognize his identity. 

The comments on the Wonford entry (p. 418, No. 1356) 
need much revision. I am myself made responsible, both in 
text and note, for the statement that Geoffrey de Mandeville, 
who received Wonford, was son to Geofirey de Mandeville, 
the Conqueror's companion. But on turning to p. 392 of my 
"Geoffrey de Mandeville" (the reference given) no such state- 
ment is found, nor have I made it anywhere else. 

Mr. Eeichers note opens thus : — 

Mr. Whale, on the authority of Madox, says that Ralph Taisson 
held Wonford in King Stephen's reign; but how this statement 
can be reconciled with Henry I's gift to Geoflfrey de Mandevil 
does not appear. 

Why create these difi5culties ? Every antiquary knows, 
or should know, nowadays, that the roll which Madox with 
some hesitation accepted as of "5 Stephen" is simply the 
Pipe Roll of 1130 (31 Henry I), published by the Record 
Commission. Moreover, the record is not only misdated by 
Mr. Whale, but misquoted as to its purport. What we read 
in it is (p. 154): — 

Godefridus clericus Bald[uini] de Redv[eriis] reddit comp. de 
Till li. et VI s, et viii d, ut teneat ad firmam terram de Wunford, 
In thesauro xl s. . . . 

^ See ray " Calendar of Documents : France," p. 428. 



316 THE EARLIEST PORTION OF "TESTA DB NBVILL." 

Here we have evidence that Wonford was being farmed of 
the Crown in 1130. 

Entry No. 1362 (p. 420) relates to the lands of Juhel de 
Mayenne (Meduana). "Gorham" and "Ambreres" were 
Gorron and Ambriferes, the chefs-lieu of two adjacent cantons 
in the arrondissement and Department of Mayenne (not 
" Marne," as Mr. Keichel has it) to the south of Domfront, in 
Normandy. 

We can supplement this entry in very interesting fashion 
by turning to another page of the " Testa " (p. 163), where, 
in the Somerset portion of the same return, we learn that 
the royal manor of South Petherton formed part of the same 
exchange, and that Juhel's actual predecessor, who received 
these lands, was Hamelin de Mayenne.^ 

Tliere is a reference in entry 1364 (pp. 420-1) to the grant 
by Richard I to Henry, the Earl's son, of Kings Kerswell 
and Diptford. Its date was 24 April, 1194, and the charter 
is printed in my "Ancient Charters" [Pipe Poll Society], 
pp. 101, 102. 

I turn to the Braunton entry (p. 421, No. 1366). Mr. 
Peichel states, apparently on the authority of "Eisdon's 
Note Book " — a secondary authority which is too much used 
— that *'in 1176 the king gave £20 a year in Braunton to 
Ode son of William son of Gerald." But I have dealt with 
these Braunton transactions, using the original authorities, 
in **The Ancestor,"- and have there shown, from the Pipe 
Poll of 20 Hen. II, that the grant was made at Midsummer, 
1174, and that Odo — the ancestor of the great house of 
Carew^ — held the estate at least as late as 1201. 

Having now dealt with the details of the return, I recur 
to the question of its date. This, I have shown, was 1212, 
though Mr. Keichel makes it 1216. He closes his remarks 
on the date thus : — 

The only difficulty is the mention of Baldwin de Insula as E^rl 
of Devon (No. 1349) ; for he only became earl on the death of his 
father Baldwin de Redvers in 1246. Perhaps the reference to him 
is an after insertion (p. 411). 

Again I ask, Why create these imaginary difficulties? 
We have only to turn to the writer's own version of "No. 1349" 
to find that it contains no mention of an Earl Baldwin at all ! 

* Et Henricns Rex senex dedit illud maneriuni Hamelino de Cheduana 
[sic] in escamliium de Anibreres et dc Gurrehani iiescimus quo servicio. Etcii 
for the *' Testa de Nevill " ** Cbeduaua " is a gross error. 

« No. 5 (1903), i»p. 23, 24. 

' He is not identified by Mr. Reicbel. 



THE EARLIEST PORTION OF "TESTA DE NEVILL." 317 

His words are "the Earl de I'lsle (de Insula)." This style, 
like Earl of "Exeter," could be applied to any of the earls of 
Devon since the first of them (before his creation), when 
driven from Exeter by Stephen, fled to his possessions in the 
Isle (of Wight), and thence defied the king. 

A precisely similar instance occurs on the same page (p. 41 1). 
Dealing with the section of the "Testa/' "on p. iy6h, Nos. 
1436-66 [sic], part 37 in the summary," Mr. lieichel holds 
that it "probably dates from a time between 1217 and 1221." 
But he adds that : — 

It mentions, however, Patrick de Chaworth (No. 1493) [sic] as 
tenant of Holsworthy, whose father Pagan did not die before 1226, 
which seems to create a difficulty ; the explanation offered is that 
Patrick was tenant of Holsworthy in his father's lifetime, Hols- 
worthy having been his mother's land. 

Again a needless difficulty ! How can " Xo. 1493 " be 
comprised in " Nos. 1436-66 '* ? We have only to turn to the 
entry in question, on p. 439, to find that it forms part of a 
section (Nos. 1467-1508) which Mr. Reichel himself assigns 
to 1244 (pp. 411,431)! 

The simple moral of this paper is that, without care and 
accuracy, no amount of local knowledge and no assiduity of 
research can produce archaeological work of real and definite 
value. 



FEES OF EARL HUGH DE COURTENAY. 

BY RBV. T. W. WHALE, M.A. 

(Read at Lyntou, July, 1906.) 



Devonians will always take a lively interest in the 
authentic records of the possessions of the greatest of her 
sons, the Earls of Devon. The document transcribed below, 
" Chancery, Miscellaneous Rolls ^," is one of the most 
important of these records, showing that Hugh, Earl of 
Devon, who died in the ninth year of Hen. V, paid scutage 
for 102^ fees on the honour of Plympton, and for 102^ fees 
on the honour of Okehampton. In the time of Hen. Ill 
only 427 fees paid scutage in Devon, so that we may say of 
this Earl Hugh that he held nearly half of the knights' fees 
of the whole county. 

No satisfactory list of knights' fees can be found till 12-14 
Hen. II, when the barons were required to make a return to 
the King of the knights under them and the fees they held 
(see Trans. : Dev. Assoc, Vol. XXXIII, p. 363). To show 
how uncertain were the payments before this, we find (2 Hen. 
II) the King claiming of the Abbot of Pershore for 105J fees, 
while the abbot conceded only 16J. In the next place the 
book called *' Testa de Nevill" collects from the Rolls of the 
Exchequer of 27 Hen. Ill the knights' fees of the county to 
serve as a basis for future assessments, and to which the 
figures on the right of each page of the present document 
refer, mostly following in consecutive order. 

The first volume of the new Inquisitiones post mortem is 
very useful for explaining the fees of the honour of Plympton, 
47 Hen. Ill, p. 173. The old Calendar, which gives only 
the names of caput manors, fails utterly to reveal its true 
meaning, and, following closely on *' Testa de Nevill," was a 
complete riddle ; but now we see (p. 174) that certain manors 
were surveyed separately. Afterwards (p. 175) we find **the 
following knights' fees held of the lord of the castle " : and a 
comparison of these with the Inq. p.m., 1 Ric. II, p. 2, No. 12, 



FEES OF EARL HUGH DE COURTENAY. 319 

and with Trans.: Vol. XXXII, p. 540, enables us to 
follow the list of the knights of the honour and the fees 
each held. 

The number of fees, reckoning the Barony at 2J, is 89, ^, 
T^r, as compared with 89 fees of 12 John and of 27 Hen. IIL 

The second volume is shortly to be published, and will be 
useful to explain the inq. p. m. of John de Curtenay, 2 Ed. I, 
p. 52, 27, with its 91 fees pertaining to the Barony of Oke- 
hampton. 

The Aid for marrying the King's daughter,A,D.1302,31Ed.I, 
next claims special attention. Granted by Parliament, 18Ed. I, 
the inquisition was probably made at once, but the subsidy 
was not levied. In a parliament held in London in the year 
1302 it was unanimously resolved that this aid should be 
raised for the service of the Scottish war (Lyttleton's 
" England," I, 470) and the consequent King's writ to each 
county notes "pro dicti comitatus aisimento hue usque super- 
sedimus graciose." 

In this year (31 Ed. I) King Ed. I granted to Hugh de 
Courtney scutage of the honour of Okehampton for the 
armies of Scotland (Feoda in capite, 223). 

Eight years later we get (Trans. : Vol. XXXII, pp. 540-2) 
a register of fees and liberties of Hugo de Courtney, ex- 
tracted from previous registers. This is very important 
in connexion with the "Kalendar" we have in hand, for its 
quondam tenants are mostly taken from the above Aid, and 
where they differ we probably have changes of tenants 
between the time of its survey (whether 18 Ed. I or 3 1 Ed. I) 
and 4 Ed. II. 

Next we note the Inq. p.m. of Hugh Courtney, 1 Ric. II, 
p. 2, and of Margaret his widow, 15 Eic. 11, p. 133, who was a 
daughter of Humphrey Bohun, Earl of Essex. It is notice- 
able that these inquisitions are not arranged in hundreds, but, 
like the Cartse, according to the holdings of successive mili- 
tary tenants. Apparently the above register of 4 Ed. II was 
arranged in the same way. 

Passing on to 32 Hen. VIII, when the Court of Wards 
and Liveries was created, we find (Feoda in capite, p. 3) fees 
held of the King in capite and in demesne collected from 
previous registers by the Master, through John Ford, who, 
under him as Feodary, had charge of the Devon fees (p. 223), 
with special reference to 4 Ed. II. This list contains the 
above fees of 1 Ric. II, in the same order, but with certain 
additions representing, I suppose, recent acquirements, with 
the names of the quondam military tenants of 4 Ed. II 



320 FEES OF EARL HUGH DE COURTENAY. 

at the head of their respective fees, the first being the 
caput. 

As to our **Kaleudar/' Scargill Bird, "Guide to Records," 
p. 120, gives its date as £d. Ill, but there is no good reason 
for doubting the date, 1 Hen. VI, 63, p. 75, Inq. p.m. ; in 
fact, the Inq. p.m. of Hugh de Courtnay's widow Anna, 
daughter of Kichard Lord Talbot, 19 Hen. VI, proves the 
date by comparison of entries. The inquisition states that 
Hugh died in the reign of Hen. IV, seemingly a mistake for 
Hen. V. The 10th of Hen. V only lasted from April to 
August, A.D. 1422 ; the remainder of the year was 1 Hen. VL 
In the next place note carefully the Inq. p.m. of Hugo 
Courtenay, Earl of Devon, 10 Hen. V, 29b, p. 66. This must 
be, I think, the same Earl Hugh. The inquisition of his 
manors, rents, etc., was taken between April and August, 
1422; that of his fees later on, in the year 1 Hen. VI; and so 
it becomes desirable to add this inquisition to our Kalendar. 

The consecutive numbers to each entry are not in the 
original, but are inserted for purposes of reference. The 
holders of each fee are entered as "quondam tenentes" ; ex- 
amination will conclusively prove that they were the tenants 
of 4 Ed. II. Against each fee is entered a sum of money at 
the rate of £5 for each fee. Now the relief rolls of Ed. I 
("Feudal Aids," 438) show that £5 was then the relief payable 
on each fee. (See also "New Calendar of Inquisitions," Vol. I, 
135.) The names of honours and hundreds within brackets 
are not in the original, but are inserted to explain the plan 
of the survey. The figures at the end of each entry are 
inserted for comparison with "Testa de Nevill" (Trans.: 
Vol. XXX, 203-57). 

The entry 65 is out of place, and should have been entered 
before 139. Bramforde, 399, among the omissions at the end, 
has been entered before (see 224)— a strange blunder in an 
original document. Aylescote occurs twice (327, 339), perhaps 
divided between the two owners. 

Hyanton seems to be omitted after 288, but included in 
the 2 J fees. 

There are some minor faults in the addition. The sum 
total of all fees appears to be £1117. 9s. 3Jd. I have failed 
to discover why relief should be charged on the cwivowsons ; 
perhaps the incumbents had to pay on the death of the 
patron. Nor is it easy to see why the third part of the 
relief was taken, unless it was an allowance to the Earl. 

In the inquisition of manors the third penny of the county, 
as of old £18. 6s. 8d., paid to the Earl, appears at the head. 



FBES OF EARL HUGH DE COURTENAY. 



321 



It is remarkable that, after the death of the Countess Isabella 
de Fortibus, the Earl Hugh, who died 20 Ed. I, did not assume 
the title, and was ordered by the King to take it. So on the 
death of Earl Eichard de Red vers, A.D. 1162, the third penny 
ceases to be paid till after 1 Ric. I ; seemingly then his suc- 
cessors, Baldwin and Richard, did not take up the title, perhaps 
because their mother Hawis, daughter of Earl Reginald, was 
the Countess. The word hurgus is used in two senses : (1) 
as representing the larger burgh of the Nomina Villarum ; 
(2) as a smaller defensive castle, for example in Chulmleigh, 
Chawleigh, Kenford, . of which we find notices elsewhere. 
They were ancient circular buildings or ring forts. 



Chancery, Miscellaneous Rolls ^i, 

KALENDAR OF ALL KNIGHTS' FEES, AND ADVOWSONS OF 
CHURCHES, WHICH WERE HUGO DE COURTENAY*S, FOR- 
MERLY EARL OF DEVON, DEFUNCT. 



DEVON. 
[HONOUR OF PLYMPTON.l 

{HuTuired of fVenfort.] 

1. Roucomb Hughe, lobelia de Brent . 1 fee, lOOs. .. 

2. Poltymore. • i Robert Morchard ) 

o u ^wTi J A ? and > 1 fee, lOOs. .. 

4. Baggetorre, Thomas de Baggetorre . . 1 fee, lOOs. .. 

6. Syggeford, Joel de Bukyn^n . . i fee, 25s. .. 

6. Stapelhille, Roger Stapelhille . . i fee, 50s. .. 

7. Holebenie, William Holebeme . . J fee, 50s. .. 

8. Stoke in Tynehyde, Robert Fitz Pain . J fee, 508. .. 

9. Throuleghe, William Prouz . . I fee, 50s. .. 

10. Parva Lam foi*de. Prior of Plympton . ;:fee, 258. .. 

11. Hakeworthy, Peter Hakeworthi . . $ fee, 50s. ,. 

12. Clyfforde Corbeyn 1 

cum y Thomas Radeweye . ^ fee, 508. .. 

13. Halstowe . .J 

14. Estwogwill, Robert Malstone 

15. Hyncton inToppysham, JoeldeBukyrgton 

16. Sege in Topsham, Augustine de Baa 

17. Roghorn in the manor of Topsham, John 

deToryton . . . . . i fee, 25s. 

18. Hewyssh Tremynet, John de Henryssh 

Tremynet . . . . ^ fee, 50s. 

19. W'oneford, William de Mountaga . . J fee, 50s. 

20. Woneford Wygor, William de Venella . " J fee, 50». 

21. Pynho . . . ., Thonjas Mpleton . . 1 fee, 100s. 

VOL. XXXVIIL X 



^ fee, 50s. .. 
\j fee, 5s. .. 
I fee, 12s. 6d. 



632 
626 



^103 
627 
628 
629 
630 
633 
637 
638 
639 



631 
624 
625 



640 



S22 



FKSS OF KABL HUGH DX OOURTENAT. 



[Esmminidra.'i 

22. Legh Doddyscomb, John de Doddyscomb 

23. Broyngtone, Walter de Broyngtone 

24. Ayesherystx)!!, Richard Prouz 

25. Shillyngforde, Thomas fil. Ranulphe 

26. Holdham. John de Clavyle . 

27. South woae, John Frauncevs 

28. Aysford Peverel, Walter de Ashford 



b ^ fee, 50b. ... 


722 


. J fee, 256. ... 


719 


1 fee, 1008. ... 




. ffee, 668. 8d. 


718 


fee, 508. ... 




; fee, 25s. ... 


720 


: fee, 258. ... 


721 



29. 



31. 
32. 

33. 
34. 
35. 



[TairUona.] 

Twynes, John de Twynes and Hugh de 
Coleford . ... 

Yeddeforde, Gilbert de Knovyle . 

Anykesdone, John de Moeles 

Aystryngton, Isabella de Fysacre and 
John ae Beaumond 

Holrygge, Abbot of Torre . 

Whitewey, Richard de Whiteweye . 

Lowedone, John de Doddyscomb . 



36, 



ICarseuilla,] 
Wakeleforde / Gnj d^Bry^n \ 

(Bakeleford)jjjj^hola^Penyles/ 

37. Bokelond '\ Stephen de Haccomoe ] 

and > and 

38. Charlecombe ) John Herpath ; 

39. Eggergswill J John de Ferramus (Fer- 

aiid > "^^^^^)> Roger de Rem- 1 

( mysbwey, and Eustace I 
Odeknoll . ) de (le) Baron 
Torbruer, John de Mohoun. 
Aire juxta Carswill, John de Aire . 
Wydecomb, Thomas Fitz Ralph . 

[Cadelintona,] 



40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 



44. Stoke in la Hamme ) Matthew Fitz John ) 
and c and [ 



j- and 

45. Blake Aueton . ) Abbot of Torre 

46. Qrymston, William de Qrymston . 

47. Stancombe, Peter Prior 



[JDippe/orda,] 

48. Leghe Artour, William de Grymstone 

49. Herewelthesore, Baldwin de Bastard 

50. Wodelegh, Henry Fitz Alan 

51. Morleghe, Peter de Fysacre 

52. Myddelton "j James de Mohoun ^ 

and V and > 

53. Horswille J Richard de Neweton J 

( William de Beneleghe ) 

54. Beneleghe < and > 

( John de Moeles ) 

55. Combe Rouel, William de Combe . 



J fee, 168. 8d. 701 

1 fee, 1008. ... 702 

1 fee, lOOs. ... 705 

1 fee, lOOs. ... 706 

^fee, 338. 4d. 703 

I fee, 16s. 8d. 704 

I fee, 50s. ... 722 



1 fee, lOOs. 
1 fee, 1008. 

I fee, 508. 

1 fee, lOOs. 
1 fee, lOOs. 
ifee, 25s. 



695 

^696 

[697 
698 



700 
699 



1715 
2 fees, 2008. .,.< 

(714 

1 fee, 100s. ... 716 

^ fee, 88. 4d. 717 



1 fee, lOOs. ... 709 

ifee, 25s. ... 707 

1 fee, 100s. ... 708 

1 fee, lOOs. ... 709 

1 fee, lOOs. ... 711 



1 fee, lOOs. 
^fee, 258. 



713 
712 



FEES OF KARL HUGH DB COURTRNAY. 



323 



[AUeriga,] 

66. Aueton Gyflfard, William le Prouz 
57. Flute . . ) 

68. Bykcomb . ( John de Ambe Marie \ 
and ( (Alba Maria) / 

59. Wardyslegh) 

60. Ermyngton, John de Benestede 

61. Kyngestone, William Martyn 

62. Holboghetone, William de (le) Prouz 

63. Kyllebury, Robert de Kyllebury . 

64. Uggeburgh, John de Monoun 
Wytherygge, William Poleyn 
Blache worth, Baldwin le Bastard 



[65 



I fee, lOOa. 
1 fee, lOOa. 

^ fee, 

J fee, 

J fee, 
. ^ fee, 

1 fee, lOOs. 
i + ^fee, 608. 

± fee, 258. 




67. Nyther Blaccheworth, Prior of Plympton J fee, 258. 



[Plintona,} 

68. Hennemerdona 1 

cum > Nicholas de Warwyk 

69. Bockeworth .J 

70. Bykeford, William de Bykeford . 

71. Legh Chalouns, Robert Chalouns . 

72. Gosewill, Baldwin le Bastard 

73. Alfamestone, William de Treauwen 

74. West Hoo, Osbert Gyffard . 



1 fee, lOOs. ... 641 



J fee, 268. 

tfee, 20s. 
fee, 508. 
1 fee, 1008. 
I fee, 258. 



641 
644 
643 
642 
684 



[ JFalehentOfuu'j 

75. Tauyfolyot, John GJorges . 

76. Whitechurch, Joan de la Treauwen 

77. Sampforde-spyne, Walter de la Spyne 

78. Shiteletorre, John Herbert . 

79. Louytone, Baldwin le Bastard 

80. Bokelond, John Gyffard . 

81. Comptone, John Gyffard 

82. Efford, Baldwin le Bastard . 

84.' ?Srelegli I ^^"^^ ^' ^aTd ^^""'"''^^ 

85. Whythy . ( *^^^^ ^^ Blakeston 

86. Buttockyshyde, William de Buttockya- 

hyde . . ... 

87. Tamertone Folyot, John Gorges 

88. Blakestone, John Blakestone 



} 



1 fee, lOOs. 
1 fee, lOOs. 
1 fee, 1008. 
1 fee, 503. 
I fee, 26s. 
1 fee, lOOs. 
I fee, 75s. 
I fee, 508. 

3^ fees, 350s. 



1 fee, 100s. 
1 fee, lOOs. 
j[ fee, 608. 



677 
678 
679 
680 
681 
682 
683 
685 
686 
I 687 

'688 

689 
693 
694 



[Xiftono.] 

89. Wyselysworth, William Trenchard . 1 fee, lOOs. 

90. Lamerton, Joan de la Treauwen . . 1 fee, lOOa. 

91. Colycomb) 

and y William Trenchard . . 1 fee, lOOs. 

92. Wylestre J 

93. Bradestone, John de Crwys . . 4 fee, 508. 

94. Sprey, John de Assheleghe . . i fee, 508. 

x2 



645 
648 
649 



r64 



6:)0 

661 
652 



324 FEES OF EARL HUGH DB COUBTBNAY. 

[TauuerUona,] 



96. Mylestonel 

and > Richard Corbyn 

96. Hoke J 

97. Cruke Burnell, Ralph Burell (Burnell) . 

98. Taiitone \ 

cum I 

iStSre Hughd^VaUeTovta . . 

and I 

101. Wyke / 

[Toritona,] 

102. Lughhyngcote, Jordan de Liiglihyngcote 

103. Brygge Rouwald, Ralph de Doune 

104. Chury Potford, Robert de Mortone 

105. Tiuieueburgh "j 

and V Ralph de Asshe. . 

106. Clystmeldoune J 

107. Gydecote, Walter le Denys . 

ll^^fU HalphdeEsse | 

110. Haie ( Richard deStapledone J 

111. Whamford, William le Prouz 

112. Innelegh, John Beaumound 

r Walter Speare "j 

113. Myddelcote-! and V 

(^ Robert de Kyllebury J 

114. Scobchestre, Roger Asshbrytell (Assh 

bury). 
116. Asshbury, Roger Asshbrytell (Asshbury) 

116. Radeclyve, John le BrocKe . 

117. Beworthy \ 

and > Ralph Bloyou . 

118. MelleburyJ 

119. Kympebeare, John le Beare 



1 fee, 100s. 
1 fee, lOOs. 

1 fee, lOOs. 



1 fee, lOOs. 
1 fee, 100s. 
1 fee, lOOs. 

1 fee, lOOs. 

i fee, 508. 

J fee, 758. 

i fee, 508. 
1 fee, lOOs. 



^563 

[564 

562 

r567 

I 568 
569 



589 

590 

591 

1^592 

[593 

594 

^595 

I 597 

'599 
600 
601 



^fee, 168. 8d. 602 



ifee, 338. 4d. 
1 fee, 100s. ... 
i fee, 258. ... 

i fee, 508. .., 

} fee, 758. ... 



603 

604 
[606 

[607 
605 



[Mertona.] 

120. Warre A 

and > Joan de la Treauwen . 

121. HoldhamJ 

122. Little Tori tone, William Crwys . 

123. Beauforde, John Wyletone . 

( Robert de Stokhay ) 

124. Hele Pouere < and > 

( Matthew Gyffard ) 

125. Hele Godyng, Thomas Terrell 

126. Twykeyeare . ) 

127. Wynse^ote . . ( ^^^^^P ^^ Courtenay 2 fees, 200s. ... j 

et cum membris ) ( 

ISInlSr'^rrlondlDaviddeServjngton 1 fee, 1008. ... 616 



1 fee, 1008. 

i fee, 508. 
J fee, 25s. 

1 fee, lOOs. 

J fee, 25s. 



I 608 

*609 
611 
612 

613 

614 
: 615 



FEES OF EARL HUGH DE COURTENAT. 



325 



nyrgton ^ 
le DenysJ 



[Brantona,] 

130. Lobbe, Mauger de Sanctx) Albino . 

r rain de Mollecote ) 

131. Mollecote-! and V . 

(^ John Doddyscomb ) 

132. Whitfyld, Richard Whitfyld 

( Prioress of Cany 

133. Qodelegh< and 

( Heirs of John 

134. Cburche Merewode, William Martyn 

135. Crackeway, John White way 

[Scireaella,] 

136. Sherewille, Thomas Beaumound . 

137. Stoke, Peter de Fyshacre . 

[Sul Moltona,] 
13d. Polham, John de Sancto Mauro 



i fee, 60s. 

i fee, 508. 

1^ fees, 1508. 

1 fee, lOOs. 

i fee, 508. 
I fee, 258. 



1 fee, 100s. 
^fee, 258. 



582 
I 583 



584 
686 



585 

7 



687 
688 



iVfee, 88. 4d. 610 



139. Wolferysworth 

140. Tedelegh. 

and 



[jrUric.] 

Robert de Stokay, 
Walter de Mollond, 

John de Wyke, 
and 

William Dubbe 



141. Blakegrove 

142. Baggeston, Robert de Baggeston 

143. Warbryghtyslegh ] 

and y 

144. Blakeworth .J 

145. Derterauf, Ralph de Esse . 

146. Odetowne, Robert de Horton 



Tliomas de Danecaster 



1 fee, 1008. 



J fee, 

ifee, 

i fee, 
J fee. 



25s. 
258. 



128. 6d. 



671 
672 
573 



676 
676 

677 
581 
679 



147. Langgelegh 



[Budeleia.] 

and ~ > Henry de Wylytone 

148. Brotherygge J 

149. Crydehylyon, Ralph de Hylyon 

150. Wortha, Alexander de WoVtlia 

151. Blakeburgh, Hoger le Poyer 

152. Clyst St. Alary, Roger Tauntefer . 
Femdon Rauf, Thomas Fitz Ralph 

C John de Forde ) 

Forde < and > 

( Nicholas de la Wythyen ) 
Cadebury, William de Botreaus 



153. 
154. 



155. 



[Culiniona»] 

156. ^Vhitelegh ) 

and > Hugh le Prouz 

157. Wydecomb ) 

158. Muttone (Suttone), Maurice de Lucy 

159. HuUe, Abbot of Quarera . 

160. Forewode, Abbot of Quarera 



:■•{: 



'723 
1 fee, lOOs. 

■ Y23 
Ifee, 16s. 8d. '724 
^ fee, 508. .. 
A fee, lOs. .. 
* fee, 50s. .. 
I fee, 338. 4d. 



ifee, 168. 8d. 
^ fee, 508. ... 

i fee, 608. ... 



726 
726 
727 

728 



729 
863 

619 



fee, 508. ... 


620 


fee, 168. 8d. 


621 


fee, 60s. ... 


69 



326 



FEES OF KARL HUGH DB COUBTENAY. 



[Axtmuda,] 

161. Doune, Ralph de Doune 

[Axeministra.] 

162. Memburye Capye, William Capye . 

163. Wyke, Ralph de Doune 

164. Kylmetone, Richard de Mertone . 

[ffamiihe.] 
166. Chery Stan tone, Oliver de Todeham 

[Clisiana,] 

166. Kolomp, Mauger de Sancto Albino 

167. Biyghrycheston, Nicholas de Boteforde . 

iJohn de Valle Torta ) 
and V 

Henry de Frankehayne ) 

169. Boterlegh, William Poleyn . 

[Badentona,] 

170. Pal tone, John de Radyngtoue 

171. Donnyngston, Abbot of Torre 

[TuuerUma,] 

172. La Cove ) 

and > Roger Fitzpain . 

173. La Mere) 

174. La West Mere, Matthew de la Newlond 
176. West Cheuethome, William de Cheue 

thorne . . . 

176. Louerlegh, Richard le Palmer 

177. Legh, Thomas de Legh 

178. Pole, Mauger le Qraunt 

179. Noggecote, Robert Mauduyt 

180. Est Bradelegh, Richard de Est Bradelegh 

[Sul/ertana,] 

181. Cadelegh, John de Mohon . 

182. Plymptrwe, Robert Fitzpain 

183. Greenelynch J 

184. Northwill f . 

and t 

186. Yerdone ) 

186. Blakeburgh Boty— of which |th parti 

is in Ashforde, Adam de Boty . j 

187. Est Raddone, Augustine de Baa 

188. Nywelond, Gregory de Wyllyngton 

189. Waylesbeare, John de Chalouns 

190. Borne A 

and > Margaret de la Borne . 

191. DowryggeJ 

192. Paddokebroke, William de Cogan . 

193. Emehilte, Henry de Campo Amulphi . 

194. Sylferton, Humphry de Bello Campo . 



ifee, 168. 8d. 618 



^ William Thorlok 



r fee, 168. 8d. 
ffee, 168. 8d. 
r fee, 608. ... 



1 fee, 1008. ... 

J fee, 60s. ... 

I fee, 338. 4d. 

^ fee, 608. ... 

i fee, 608. ... 



1 fee, 1008. 
1 fee, lOOs. 



1 fee, 1008. 
I fee, 128. 6d. 



nfee, 
i fee, 
ifee, 
; : fee, 
fee, 
A^ee, 



608. 
268. 
668. 8d. 
268. 
20a. 
2s. 6d 



1 fee, lOOs. 
i fee, 608. 

1 fee, lOOs. 



1 fee, lOOs. 

1 fee, lOOs. 
" fee, 268. 



Jfee, 

ifee, 

ifee, 
J fee, 
1 fee, lOOs. 



268. 

60s. 

608. 
258. 



[Honour of Plympton 102^ fees, 10233s. 4d.] 



622 



861 



667 
669 

668 



963 



660 

[661 
662 

762 
663 
664 
666 
666 
106 



653 
&54 



/864 
•\856 

! 668 

. 666 

f666 



659 



PSSS OF KABL HUGH DX COUBTSNAY. 



327 



195. 
196. 
197. 
198. 

199. 

200. 
201. 

202. 
203. 

204. 
206. 
206. 
207. 
208. 
209. 

210. 
211. 
212. 

213. 

214. 
216. 
216. 
217. 
218. 

219. 



221. 

222. 
223. 
224. 



[HONOUR OF OKSHAHFTON.] 
[JFenf&rt.'i 

Rawlandeston, Master John Derwyen . 

Bramford Pvn, Robert de Pyn 

Parva Donsford, William Servyngton , 

Matforde, Oliver de Dynham 

rRalpli Fitz William^ 

Rocombe Cadeho-! and V 

[ Henry Fitz Alan J 

Medenecomb, John de Byttlysigate 

Rydemore \ 

and > Stephen de Haccomb . 

Clifford .J 

Teigntone Drw \ John Dabemoun "j 

and > and > 

Bradeforde . J John Denes J 

Ryssheforde, William de Ryssheforde . 

Spraytone, William Talbot 

H utteneslegh, Roget Cole . 

Eg£;ebeare J 

Boledone f j , „ ir«ii«. 

and > John Kelly . . . 

Haylake ) 

Foleforde, Henrv de Foleforde 

Melehewyssh ( f eter de Melehewyssh ") 



^fee, 16s. 8d. 476 

1 fee, 100s. ... 475 

fee, 608. ... 477 

fee, 12s. 6d. 478 



1 fee, lOOs. 



479 



^fee, 50s. 480,481 
( 484 

f fee, 66s. 8d. \ 

(486 
(486 



and ' I and > 

Langeston . ( Langeston ) 

Tettebom, Thomas de Harpetrwe . 
Tettebom, R(M5er de Langeforde 
Wolderygge, John de Wyke 
Wolderygge, Henry Goraunt 
Colechurcne, Dommus de Colechurche 

" c^ue dicitur Sancte Marie in le Hethe." 
Westecote ^ 

and > Walter de Langedon . 
La HagheJ 

Uppecote . 1 y^^.^ ^j 1^^^ ^j Uppecote 
Holecombe ) <^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ Exemynstre) 
Floyerslond juxta Exham, Walter Floyer 
Bramforde, William Le Speke 



^ fee, 508. 

J fee, 75s. 
1 fee, 1008. 
^fee, 60s. 

1 fee, lOOs. 

^ fee^ 60s. 

1 fee, lOOs. 

i, ^ fee, 76s. 

fee, 603. 

fee, 50s. 

fee, 508. 

fee, 75s. 



487 
488 
489 
[490 
491 



•"{ 



492 
493 



1 fe^, 100s. 

J fee, 268. ...< 



494 

496 
496 
497 

498 

499 
553 



[Esseministra,'] 
( Hugh le Prouz ^ 

225. Shappelegh-I and V . 

\ Richard le Prouz J 

226. Fenne ^ 

and \ Robert de Valepytte 

227. Jordenestoune J 

228. Tengce George, John le Norreys . 

229. Alandestone, Nicholas Pecche 

230. Mamaheued, Nicholas de Carru 

231. Teygnemuthe, Serlo de la Gore 



^fee, 508. 
1 fee, 100b. 



1 fee, 100s. 



ifee, 16s. 8d. 

J fee, 508. ... 
fee, 258. ... 
1 fee, 100s. ... 
^iee, 168. 8d. 



552 

71 

549 

550 

548 

551 
554 



328 FEES OF EARL HUGH DE GOURTENAT« 

[Taintona.] 

232. Heanoke, John de Tremynet 

233. Parva Maneton, Mabel de Langedon 

234. Nytherdone, Hugh le Prouz 



236. Torbryan ) 
nd } 



[Caruuilla.] 



and { Guy de Briane . 

236. Westeton ' 

237. Spearkewill, William Bernhous 

238. Blakedon, John Pypard 

239. Haccomb, Stephen de Haccomb 

240. Welleburgh, Abbot of Torre 



[Cadelintona,] 

241. Aydesham (Dydesham), Roger de Inke- 

penne . ... 

242. Slaptone, Quy de Bryane . 

243. Doddebrok A 

and y Henry Fitz Alan . 

244. Porttelemwe J 

245. Lamsyde, Henry Fitz Alan 

246. Pral, William Pral ... 

247. Engleburne, Abbot of Bucfestre . 



[LisUma.] 

248. Wyke Langeforde, Prior of Frethelystok 

249. Barony of (Bratton) ) 

250. Comb . . .U^eydeMeryet . 

251. Qodescote . ) 

252. Brydestawe, John de Cobeham 

253. Dountertone, Philip de Courtenay . 

254. Kelly A 

and VJohnde Kelly 

255. MedewylleJ 

256. Lyem . . \ 

and y William Trenchard . 

257. WadelestoneJ 

258. Orchard, John de Mules 

259. Godberdone ( Thomas de Godberdone ^ 

and < and > 

260. Alfardestone ( Alfardesdone ) 

261. Meledone, Michael de Meledone . 

262. Hoke, William de Cockyscomb 

263. Stokelegh, Geoffrey de Stockelegh . 

[TauuetUona,] 

264. Eggeneford, Richard de Reygny . 

265. Wemme Worthy ) 

and I William le Speke 

266. Brysshford J ^ 381 

267. Pettrycheswall i J 379 

and \ Adam de Boys . . I fee, 25s. ... { 

268. Heyghes. J U78 



1 fee, lOOs. ... 


538 


ifee, 25s. ... 
ifee, 16s. 8d. 


539 


640 




638 


1 fee, 100s. ... 






633 


r fee, 50s. ... 


634 


fee, 16s. 8d. 


636 


fee, 338. 4d. 


636 


Ifee, lOOs. ... 


537 


1 fee, lOOs. ... 




1 fee, 100s. ... 






f643 


ifee, 60s. ...- 






1644 


ifee, 33s. 4d. 


646 


fee, 128. 6d. 
rfee, 258. ... 


646 


647 


ifee, 508. ... 


500 




'601 


1 fee, 100s. ... < 


|502 


1 
1 fee, lOOs. ... 


607 


1 fee, lOOs. ... 


608 




r509 


Ifee, 1008. .... 






[510 




f611 


i fee, 338. 4d. - 






,512 


ifee, 25s. ... 


513 

r 


ifee, 50s. .... 






,503 


: fee, 20s. ... 


604 


fee, 20s. ... 


506 


fee, 50s. ... 


506 


ifee, 50s. ... 


377 


( 


380 


I fees, 200s. ... 





FEES OF EARL HUGH DE GOURTENAT. 



329 



270. 
271. 
272. 
273. 
274. 

276. 
276. 
277. 
278. 

279. 
280. 
281. 
282. 
283. 
284. 
285. 



Nymet Rolond ) 

&i [johndeWolfryngton 

Kolondistone ] 
Brodenymet ) 

^*^T^^ > Robert de Appeldore 
Appledore . ) 

Bordeuylestone, Walter de Loges . 
Cloueneburgh, Walter le Denys 
Walestone l Robert de Stokhay i 

and I and } . 

Thorn . I Thomas de Tetborn ' 
Hals, Walter Tauntefer 
Greneslade, Hu^h de Greneslade . 
Newelond, William de Newelond . 
Cheynystone, Walter de Chenystone 
Harawynslegh, Roger Cole . 
Wyke, Robert Flambard . 



1 fee, lOOs. 



1 fee, lOOe. .. 

ifee, 508. ... 

fee, 33s. 4d. 

J fee, 25s. ... 

^ fee, 508. ... 

j^fee, 75s. ... 

rfee, 168. 8d. 

; fee, 25s. ... 

irfee, 50s. .., 

^:fee, 258. ... 



384 



286. 
287. 



289. 
290. 
291. 
292. 
293. 
294. 
295. 

296. 
297. 
297. 

298. 
299. 
300. 
301. 

302. 
303. 

304. 
305. 
306. 
307. 
308. 
309. 



Ledebrok 



[Taritona,] 

Domeforde ( ^^^^^ ^^ ^f^f °^ ^^''}^' \ 
nr^A } boHie aud Agnes de > 

Yekesbomei Domeflforde J 

Lodecote . ) 

wis': Jo^'^^«C''<^«^° • • 

Rokeworthy ) 

Belstone, Henry de Belstone 
Bryxteneston, Robert de Brodenemet . 
Herpforde I Walter Tantefer j 

and ] and / . 

Radewey . ' Roger de Radewey * 
Wyghelegh, Walter Tauntefer 
(H)Sonychurch, Richard de (H)Bony- 

chiirch . ... 

Monokekhampton, Robert de la Mare '. 
Brodewode, Henry de Belston 
Corbynestone, Peter de Corbynestoue . 
Inwardlegh ( Elias Coffeyn ] 
and < and > 

Westecote ( Walter Perer ) 
Catokebeare | 

and J Roger de Langeforde 
Crofte. . J 

Gorhuwyssh, William Gorhuwyssh 
Maddeforde, William de Maddeforde 
West Polworthi, Ralph de Ponestone 
Bordone, Roger de Bordone 
Bradeforde Auborne, Heirs of lord of 

Bradeforde Auborne 



2^ fees, 250s. 



1 fee, lOOs. ... 

i fee, 508. ... 
I fee, 33s. 4d. 

J fee, 508. ... 

5«5 fee, 5s. ... 

1 fee, 100s. ... 
h fee, 508. ... 
I fee, 33s. 4d. 
I fee, 16s. 8d. 

1^ fees, 1258. ... 



453 



i fee, 508. 

I 454 

ifee, 60s. ... 455 

I fee, 258. ... 456 

^ fee, lOs. ... 467 

^ fee, 10s. ... 458 

ifee, 128. 6d. 433 



330 



FEES OF EARL HUGH DX COUBTKNAY. 



[Mertana.] 

310. Langcars, John de Beaumond 

311. Pairkham, Henry de Belston 

312. Hemsham, William de Comu 

313. Poderygge, Hugh le Moygne 

I Matthew Gyffard ) 

314. Methe j and [ . . 

( John le Deneys i 
316. Wolledon, John de Wolledon 

316. Stokelegh Dabernoun, John le Denys . 

317. Heauntou Sachevyle, Mauger Fitz Henry 

318. Tonyrton, Joel Pollard 



^ fee, 268. ... 

2 fees, 7008. ... 

^ fee, 608. ... 

I fee, lOOs. .... 

1 fee, 100b. ... 

J fee, 60s. ... 

fee, 60a. ... 

I fee, lOOs. ... 

I fee, 128. 6d. 



[ffertilanda,] 

319. Asshmoundesworthy, Roger Bemehous . \ fee, 60a. 

i Richard de Strokesworth | 
and I ^ fee, 608. 

Bartholomew Gyffard ' 
321. Parva Yeamescombe, Walter Fitz Warin 1 fee, lOOs. 



[Brantona,] 

322. Asshforde, John de Beaumound 

323. West Asshforde, Robert Beaupel . 

324. Heaunton. 
326. Hagyngton 

326. Blakewill . 

and 

327. Aylescote . 

328. Lyucomb 

329. "VV^orcomb 

and 

330. Myddlemere 

wode 

331. Worcombe Roges, Heirs of Fitz Rogo 

332. Ilf redecombe, Henry de Campo Arnulpho 

333. Kentelysber}', Richard le Wolf 

334. Felelegh, Thomas de Felelegh 

335. Westecote . j 

and [ Henry Merewod 

336. Puttesforde * 

337. West Bokelond, Nicholas de Warwyk 

{Robert Beaupell \ 
and J 

Matthew Forneauus ' 
339. Aylescote, Augustine de Pyn 



-John de Puncherdon , 



Abbot of Donkeswell ) 

and ; 

Matthew Crowethom ' 



[Scireu£lla»] 

340. Sherewille, John de Beaumond 

341. Charles, Henry de Ralegh . 

[Sut MoUona,] 

342. Newetone . | 

and 5 Baldwin de Lorrewille 

343. Wettestone * 



469 
460 
461 
462 

463 

464 
466 
466 
467 



641 



642 



1 fee, 1008. ... 


412 


. 1 fee, 100b. ... 


413 






r414 






416 


. 3 fees, 3008. ...- 


416 






. 6 






r417 






418 


. 2 fees, 


200b. ,,.- 


.419 


. i fee, 
1 fee, 


20s. ... 


420 


100s. ... 


421 


. 1 fee 


100s. ... 


422 


. i fee. 


608. ... 


423 
111 


. ifee, 


60s. ... 




Ifee, 


100a. ... 


424 


. ifee. 


508. ... 


425 


• ifee, 


60s. ... 


6 


. Hfees, 


1608. ... 


426 


. 1 fee. 


1008. ... 


427 

i 431 


. ifee. 


508. ...j 


432 



FEES OF EARL HUGH DX COUBTENAT. 

^fee, M)8. 



344. Ansty Reygny, Richard de Revgny 

345. Frodetone i 

and I William de Moigne . 

346. Monyeston ' 

[JFitric.] 

347. Chedeldownle Yestre, John Unthunk . 

348. Haunteforde, William, son of John de 

Ralegh 

349. Cadebury, Richard I^e Copyner 

350. Bonevyleston, John de Bonevyleston 

351. Gorlounde, John de Gorloimde 

352. Shitysbeare, William de la Fenne (Stone 

353. Baylekeworth, William Cole 

354. Stone, William de la Stone 

355. Heaunteforde, Roger Cole . 

f Simon Fitz Rogo ") 

356. Meu8hawe< and > . 

(^ Baldwin Flemyng ) 

357. La Yerd, Roger de la Yerd 

358. Assh, Robert de Assh 

359. Rakeneforde, Alexander de Crws . 

360. Wodebom) 

and > Henry de Colecomb . 

361. West Aps J 

362. WestwcKieborn, Thomas de Westwodebom 

363. Ad pontem ) 

and > William de Raysshelegh . 

364. Hospitalem ) 

[Chriditona,] 

365. Yolk (Yowe), Annora de Tettebom 



^fee, 50b. 



^ fee, lOs. ... 

e, 33s. 4d. 

fee, 20b. ... 

fee, 128. 6d. 

: fee, 128. 6d. 

fee, 50s. ... 

- fee, 168. 8d. 

J fee, 128. 6d. 

^ fee, 10s. ... 

1 fee, 100b. ... 

i fee, 50s. ... 

I fee, Sas. 4d. 

1 fee, lOOs. ... 

I fee, lOOs. ... 

i fee, 338. 4d. 

J fee, 508. .. 



366. 
367. 
368. 
369. 
370. 

371. 
372. 



373. 



374. 



[Axeministrci.] 
377. Forde, Nicholas de Forde . 



331 

428 
(429 

I43O 

. 395 

397 
398 
399 
400 
401 
403 
404 
405 

406 

407 

408 

409 

r410 



{ 



.411 
410 



[Budeleia.] 
lie Shute, Thomas de Swaynesseye 
Yetemetone, John le Pouer . 
Dialedeche, Robert Dyaledech 
Rokebeare, Abbess of Legh 
Rokebeare Baudewyne 1 

and > Henry deBelston 

Dodetone . . . ) 
Aylysbeare, Sir Hugh de Courtenay 

[CuliniorM.'] 

( William de Parco "i 

Colewill -| and > 

( The Master of Bothemyscomb ) 

! William de Parco, J 
John de Veer ) 



1 fee, lOOs. .., 

^ f ee, 258. ... 

I fee, 128. 6d. 

ifee, 508. ... 

I fee, 503. ... 

1 fee, lOOs. ... 

^ fee, 508. .. 



1 fee, 100b. 



1 fee, lOOs. 



396 



655 
656 
557 
658 
659 

^560 
661 



473 



474 



ifee, 608. .,.{%l 
I fee, 128. 6d. 471 



332 



FSBS OF EABL HUGH DE COUBTENAT. 



[Axemuda.] 

378. Comb Coffyn, Gilbert de Umframvyle 

379. Suttecomb, John de Veer . 

380. Brokelonde, Vivian de Trylle 

[Bdmiohe.'i 

381. Hydone, Margaret de Dynham 

382. Colomppyne, John Toiler . 

383. Nonyngcote, John TyrrV . 

384. Bolham, Abbot of Dunkeswill 

[Clistana,] 

385. Clyst Hydon, William de Hydon . 

386. Aflsheclyst, Abbot of Torre 

[BadetUona,'} 

387. Trounham, William Bamevyle 

388. Hokeworthy, William de Hokeworthi 

389. Holecomb, Henry de Roges 

[HcOberUma.] 

390. Selake, Philip Gyffard 

[Tuuertona.] 

391. Chyuethom, William de Chyuethom 

(in the hundred of Baunton) 

[Sul/ertona,] 

392. Payhembury, Philip Gyffard 

393. Hele, Roger de Hele 

394. Kentelesbeare ' 



395. Kyngefforde . 

396. Ponteforde . 

and 

397. Cattesburffh 



irgJ 
roe 



Henry Fitz Mauger j 

and I 

William Vacy ' 



398. Langeforde, John de Langeforde 



399. Bramforde, William Speke . 

400. Monketon, John de Carru . 

401. Spelecomb, Roger le Geu . 

402. Borlond, Richard de Hewyash 



; fee, 50s. ... 468 

:fee, 148.3^. 472 

fee, 258. ... 748 



fee, 508. ... 527 

fee, 50s. ... 528 

fee, 50b. ... 529 

fee, 50s. ... 530 



1 fee, lOOs. 
ifee, 25s. 



i fee, 50s. 
I fee, 50s. 
1 fee, 100s. 



531 



525 
526 



I fee, 128. 6d. 515 



^fee, 50s. ... 523 



. ifee, 


50s. ... 


514 


. 1 fee. 


lOOs. ... 


516 
519 


. 3 fees, 300s. ..." 


518 






^520 


. ifee, 


50s. ... 
100s. (see 


521 


1 fee. 


224) 


i fee, 


503. ... 




. Ifee, 


25s. ... 




. Ifee, 


50s. ... 





[fee8l02f 10214 3^] 
The sum £1020 5 11^ 



Est Coker 
North Coker 

and 
Haryngdon 



SOMERSET. 

John de Maundevyle, 

I John de Sancto Quinteno, I 

I and I 

Clement de Monte Alto 



3 fees, 300s. 



FEES OF EARL HUGH DE COURTENAY. 333 

Heghe Church (juxta Hemyngton), William le 

Prr»na 



1 fee, 33a 
. I fee, 258. 

.10 fees, lOOOs. 

i fee, 50s. 

1 fee, 100s. 



Prous. . . . . . i fee, 33s. 4d. 

Folkelond, Nicholas de Seyntvyger 
Ashull \ 

and I Matilda de Moleton 

Sevenhampton * 
Staunton, Brodo de Staunton . 

I John Ryvere ) 
and > 

Stephen Beaumond ) 

( William de Mounceaus ) 

Quarme Mounceaus ! and J . J fee, 50a. 

' John de Doddescomb ' 

^T,Simbris}Thomas Gorges . . . 2 fees. 200s. 

The sum £87 18 4 

DORSET. '"^^'^'^'^^ 

Childokforde, otherwise called Childakford . . 1 fee, 100s. 

BERKS. 
Sutton Courtenay, John Borne vile , • • A ^*^» ^^' 

BUCKS. 
Wottesdon, Richard le Monte . • • i ^^c, 25s. 

(Richard Atte Halle,\ 
Edmund Bernarde, I 
John Cotes, I 
Isabella Buket, > . . . J fee, 50a. 
Stephen Fitz Adam, j 
and I 
Richard Wermeston^ ^ 

The sum £3 15 

Sum total of all fees . £1117 19 3^ 
Of which the third i>art £372 13 1 

ADVOWSONS OF CHURCHES, ETC. 

SOMERSET. iB «. d. 

WestCoker . . . . . . 20 

Crukem . . . . . . 53 6 8 

The second portion in the church of Crukern . . . 10 

Chantry of the chapel of the Blessed Mary in the church 
of Crukern . . . . ..500 

Chantry of the chapel of the Blessed Mary in the church- 
yard of Crukern . . . ..500 

Chapel of Misterton within the parish of the said Church 

of Crukern ..... . 200 

Sum £95 6 8 

DORSET. 
Church of Ebryghton . . • . . 10 

HAMPSHIRE. 
Advowson of the priory of Brymmore . • . 100 



334 



FBIS OF EABL HUGH DB OOURTKNAT. 



DEVON. 

Priory of St James by Exeter 

First Dortion in the church of Tyvertone 

Church of Samforde Courtenay 

„ Chaluelegh 

„ Wodelegh 

„ Throwlegh 

„ St. Leonard by Exeter 
Prebend of Cutton 

„ Ken . 

Chantry of St. John the Evangelist of Colcomb 
„ St Mary of Whiteford . 



A «. 


d. 


. 20 





. 20 





. 26 18 


4 


. 26 13 


4 


. 13 6 


8 


. 10 





. 10 





. 10 





2 





. 6 





6 






Sum £354 



BUCKS. 

Advowson of three portions of the church of Wodeadon, 
each at £13. 6s. 8d. . . . . . 



40 



DEVON. 

Third portion in the church of Tyvertone 
Abbey of Forde . 
Prebend of Heyghes 
Church of Musebery 

„ Alfyngton 

„ Duelton 
Chantry of St. John the Evangelist of Ken 

„ St. Luke in Newton Popleford 

„ Brygbtlegh . 



SOMERSET. 
Church of Hemyngton 
First and principal portion of the church of Crukern 



BERKS. 



Church of Sutton Courtenay 



. 16 








. 200 








. 33 


6 


8 


. 20 








. 20 








. 13 


6 


8 


6 








6 








2 









Sum £354 13 4 



DEVON. 
Abbey of Bokelond 
Priory of Cowyke 

Second portion in the Church of Tyvertone 
Fourth „ ,. „ 

Church of Mylton Damarelle 

„ Chylmelegh 

Five prebends in Chylmelegh, each at 66s. 8d. 
Church of Ken . 

„ Stokedamarl 

Chantry of St Mary of Stykelpath . 



Sum total of advowsons £1063 
of which one third part £354 6 8 





. 20 


ni . 20 


. 53 6 8 


. 100 




. 40 




. 16 




. 10 




. 26 13 4 




. 20 




. 16 13 4 




. 13 6 8 




. 13 6 8 




. 5 


Si 


im £354 6 8 



FEES OP EARL HUGH DE COURTENAY. 335 

INQ. P.M. OF HUGO COURTENAY, EARL OP DEVON, 
10 Hen. V, 29b, 66. 

(Mention is made of divers manors, etc., in the county of 
Devon, under the county of Somerset.) 

Devon £18. 68. 8d. from the issue (3rd penny) of the 
county. Extent of manors and hundreds — Plimpton 
honour, castle and burg'; Tyverton, and burg'; Exminster; 
Topsham manor; Weneford and Harygge hundreds; Exe, 
free fishery; Wodeleghe and Stokdamerle — lands and ad- 
vowsons of churches. Advowsons — Bokeland Abbey ; Exon', 
priory of St. James. 

Trowelegh, Milton Damerle, St. Leonard juxta Exon* — 
advowsons of churches. 

Bottesford, messuages, lands, etc. Holbogheton, rents. 
Okhampton — manor, honour, burg', etc. — extent, Brightlegh, 
advowson of chantry. Sampford Courtney, manor (extent), 
and advowson of church. Stykelpath, advowson of chantry. 
Churebeare, manor. Duwelton, manor, and advowson of 
church. Chulmelegh, manor, burg', and advowsons of church 
and prebends there. Chaluelegh, manor, burgh', and advow- 
son of church. Nywenham, manor juxta Chitelbamholt. 

Exclond, manor. Ken, manor, and advowson of chantry 
there. Keneford, burgii'. Whympell and Aylesbeare, 
manors. Neweton Popelford, hamlet, and advowson of 
chantry there. Hontebeare, manor. Colyford, burg'. Mus- 
berye, manor, and advowson of church. Brokelond — Frill 
and Smalecombe, messuages, and lands there. Pontesford 
juxta Colompton, messuages, mill, etc. Alsyngton vel 
Alfyngton, land there, and advowson of church. Seilake 
juxta Halberton, messuages, land, etc. Advowsons — Forde 
Abbey, Cowyk Priory. Heighys, Cutton, and Ken — prebends 
in the chapel of the castle of Exon. Crulledych, half of 
the market. Budlegh, hundred. Stuttecomb, Milham, and 
Loueclyff — messuages, lands, etc., as parcel of the honour of 
Okehampton. 

Manors of — Godrington, Stancombe Dawny, Southaling- 
ton, Slapton. Didisham and Poleantony, as of the honour of 
Plympton. Whitewill. 

Coleford, and Blackeworth in hundred of Whiterigge — 
messuages, lands, mill, etc. 

Mill called Habrigemille. Columpe John, manor extent^ 
as of the Duchy of Lancaster. Exilond, tenement there. 
Paddskesbroke juxta Colympton, messuages, lands, etc. 
Cornwode, manor. Norton, manor, as of the manor of 



336 FESS OF EABL HUGH DE GOUBTENAY. 

Marshwodvale. Northpole, manor, as of the manor of 
Burlescomb. Farewaye, manor, and advowson as of the 
manor of Linieland. Manors of — Toutz Seinston, Twyke- 
beare, Holdham. Exon* — land there, glebe of the church 
of All Saints, Goldsmith Street — tenements called Londesyn 
and Lytelbrian. Bents in Legh Durant and Lopethorne. 
Land in Eadestan. Kent of a messuage, etc., in Hurneford. 
Wodhaye aliaa Wodecort, rent of a messuage as of manor 
of Dertington. Washburn Durant, rent Bayllisford, 4 mes- 
suages, 1 cottage, mill, etc. Burdisheale, rent. Sandwell, 
messuages, etc. Thorlegh Durant, 2 messuages. Yealborne, 
rent. Knytheton, messuages, land, etc. Maneton, rent. 
Ford juxta Alington, land. Kingesbrigge and Dodebrok, 
2 messuages in each. Coldashe and Kekehill, rents. Burye, 
messuage and land. Vielyston, rent. Estekleworthy, 
messuage and land. Westekleworthy, Gallisore, Suwelond, 
Thornwygger, Coldiscote, Bokelond Chalowe, Lokkysore, 
rents. Middelton, messuage and land. Churibeare, 2 mes- 
suages, etc. Cotteford, rent. Prestecote, messuage and land. 
Exon', tenement, Lancaster Duchy member. Bradeninch 
manor member, Barnstaple castle member. Colecombe, 
manor. Colyton manor, hundred. Whyteford, manor. 



THE EAELY DESCENT OF THE DEVONSHIRE 
ESTATES BELONGING TO THE HONOURS OF 
MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 

BY THE REV. OSWALD J. RBICHEL, B.C.L. & M.A., F.8.A. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



I. The Honour of Mortain and the Earldom of Cornwall, 

The portion of the honour of Mortain to which the follow- 
ing observations are intended to apply is not the original 
comt(5 of Mortain in the diocese of Avranches which 
gives its name to the honour, a Norman barony which, 
on the forfeiture of William the Warling (Warlenc) in 
1051, was conferred on Robert, the Conqueror's half- 
brother (Planch^, "The Conqueror's Companions," I, 108; 
II, 55); nor yet the whole of that very much larger estate 
in twenty counties in England which on the division of the 
spoils was assigned to the count of Mortain; not even 
indeed the whole of that portion of it in the shires of 
Wilts, Dorset, Devon, and Cornwall which, according to the 
summary in the Exeter " Domesday*' (fol. 531),^ consisted 
of " 623 manors assessed at 833 hides all but 2J virgates,*' 
with arable land for 1480 ploughs, " of a value of £1409 all 
but 6 shillings and 10 pence,*' and of which we are told 
" the count had 200 hides all but 2 [virgates] in lordship, 
worth to him £400 and a mark of silver," and ** his liegemen 
had 655 hides all but ^ virgate worth to them £1000 all but 
6 shillings and 10 pence"; but only the Devonshire estates 
belonging to this section, a comparatively small number, 
81 manors assessed at 79^ hides with a cultivated area of 

^ These fi^oires will not tally. It is suggested that in the lordship we 
should read '* 200 hides all but 2 mrgates^'" and that either 833 hides should 
bo changed into 855, or 655 into 633. Also how can £1409 -6/10 = £400 + 
£1000-6/10 + 13/4? Perhaps instead of 1409 we ought to read 1404— iv 
easily beconies ix if carelessly written ; and instead of a mark we should 
read 6 marks — vr instead of i — £4 l)eing = 6 marks. 

VOL. XXXVIII. Y 



338 THE HONOURS OF MOBTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 

some 40,000 acres. The count had besides 263 manors in 
Cornwall (Exeter "Domesday," fol. 224-65), besides 17 
which he had filched from the bishop of Exeter, St. Petrock, 
or some other Church holder.* 

The holder of this great fief, Bobert, count of Mortain 
(Comes Moritonensis or Moritanius, or de Moritonio, or de 
Moritolio, or de Moriteleio, for it is written in all these 
ways), was by extraction a younger son (Odo, bishop of 
Bayeux, being his elder brother) of Herlwin de Conteville and 
his wife Herleva, the Conqueror's mother. He was therefore 
the Conqueror's half-brother. Born about 1031 (Planch^ 
I, 108), he must have been some thirty-five years of age 
at the time when he received his English estate, the western 
section of which now occupies our attention. By his first 
wife Matilda (Oliver, ** Mon.," p. 32), daughter of Boger de 
Montgomery, earl of Shrewsbury (Bound, " Feudal England," 
154); who is spoken of as ^leceased in documents dating 
between 1087 and 1091 ("Cal. of Documents in France," 
257, 433, 435), he had a son, William, afterwards count of 
Mort€un, and four daughters, viz. Emma, married to William, 
count of Toulouse, great-grandmother to Eleanor, Henry II's 
queen ; Agnes, married to Andr6 de Vitre, mother of Hawise, 
wife of Bobert de Ferrers, earl of Derby ; Denise or Agatha, 
married to Sieur de Laval ; and Barbe, married to Baudouin 
de Bose (Mrs. Vade-Walpole in " Notes and Queries," 9 ser, 
VIII, 526, 28 December, 1901). After Matilda's death in 
1083 ("Cal. Documents in France," p. 435) he married 
secondly Almodis (ibid, p. 256, 436), by whom he had 
another son, Bobert. On the Conqueror's death he joined 
in the rebellion against William Bufus in 1088 (" Political 
History of England," II, 75). The insurrection was soon 
put down, but sharing in the general amnesty he never lost 
his earldom, and died some time before 1100 (Planch^, I, 
113, ** Cal. of Docts. in France," 436). 

His eldest son, William, who succeeded him as count of 
Mortain and earl of Cornwall ("Cal. of Docts. in France," 
285), married Adelidis de Ou or de Eu (ibid, 436) between 
1100 and 1106, and founded the priory of Montacute in 
Somersetshire (" Trans." XXIX, 257, n. 40). Offended with 

' The 17 are Pennadelwan (fol. 101b) taken from a king's manor, Boietona 
(fol. 181b) Uken from Tavistock Abbey, Matela market (fol. 199) and St. Ger- 
man's market (fol. 200) taken from the bishop of Exeter, Elhil, Calestoo, Trelloi, 
Hecglosemuda, Botcinnu, Tremail, Polroaa, Hecglostudic (fol. 202b, 203, 
203b, 204b) all taken from St Petrock, LAngorroc (fol. 206) Uken from 
St. Carentoch, lAndscauetona (fol. 206b) taken from St. Stephen, Nietestoa 
(fol. 207) taken from St Niet, and Treiwal (fol. 179) taken from St MichaaL 



THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKBHAMPTON. 339 

Henry I because that King refused to give him the earldom 
of Kent, which his uncle, Odo, bishop of Bayeux, had be- 
queathed to him, he took part with Kobert de Bellesme, his 
maternal uncle, against the King (Maclean's "Trigg Minor," 
II, 287; Ordericus Vitalis, III. 358), was defeated and 
taken captive at Tinchebrai in 1106 ("Political History of 
England,'* II, 138, 144). His honour was then forfeited 
(Round, " Victoria History of Northampton," 288), his eyes 
were put out, and he was condemned to imprisonment for 
life. Shortly before his death in 1140 he became a monk at 
Bermondsey. 

For a time Henry I himself held the honour, and in that 
capacity gave a charter to Constance de Tony ("Trans." 
XXXIV, 589, 592) ; but before 1113 (" Cal. Docts. in France," 
97, 290) he had bestowed it on his nephew, Stephen of Blois, 
afterwards King (ibid. 127). To Stephen succeeded his son 
William (Ramsay, " The Angevin Empire," 12). A charter of 
William as count of Mortain is dated 1158 ("Cal. Docts. 
in France," 285, 343). On William's death in 1159 the 
honour of Mortain was reannexed to the royal demesne 
(Ramsay, 22), Mathew, son of Dietrich of Flanders who 
had married Mary, Stephen's daughter and heiress, some- 
time abbess of Riomsey but dispensed from her vows by 
the Pope ("Political History of England," II, 271), not being 
allowed by Henry II to take it up (Ramsay, 91). The King 
then retained the honour of Mortain, but gave the county 
of Cornwall to Reginald, a natural son of his grandfather, 
Henry I, by Amasa the daughter of Richard Corbet (" lib. 
Nig.," p. 131, note ; " Trans." XXIX, 455, n. 4 ; XXXIII. 366), 
who in 1166 paid 215 marks 4/5 (Dugdale, "Bar.," I, 610) 
for 215J fees in Devon and Cornwall (" Lib. Nig.," 131, 132), 
besides 59 marks 6/8 for the fees of Richard de Red vers. 
Reginald died 1 July, 1175 (Round, "Feudal England," 509), 
leaving two side-wind sons, one by Alice, de Vaux, after- . 
wards the wife of the elder William Briwere, known as ^j(«tW^<c>-v 
Henry fitz Count or Henry the Earl's son, the other William UtalhiJujii 

("Trans." XXXIV, 571), who held Sheepwash in Devon ^^=^^ 

("Lib. Nig.," 129) and Recradoc in Cornwall ("Trans." JotrlJ4f 
XXXIV, 571),» and by his wife Beatrix, daughter of the / / 
Cornish magnate, William, son of Richard, son of Turold or 
Turolf (Round, "Feudal England," 487), four daughters 
(" Trans." XXIX, 455, n. 4), one of whom, Maud, is stated 

' William was succeeded at Sheepwash by his son Robert and his daughter, 
the wife of Nicolas Avenel ("Trans." XXXIII, 894), and at Recradoc by his 
son Henry (" Trans." XXXIV, 667). 

t2 



340 THE HONOURS OP MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 

to have married Kobert, count of Meulan (" Trans." XXXIV, 
586, n. 4). Henry II then bestowed the honour of Mortain 
on his own son, John, afterwards King (" Devon Notes and 
Queries," II, 111), who signs charters as count of Mortain 
in 1194 ("Cal. Docts. in France," 469), in 1196 {ibid. 278) 
and 1198 (ibid, 71, 91, 339), and is so called in the Pipe 
EoU of 1196 (8 Ric. I ; "Trans." XXXVI, 417, 420).* The 
county of Cornwall he gave to Reginald's son Henry to hold 
to farm, and with it he gave him the manor of Bradninch 
("Trans." XXXIV, 573), to which King Richard added 
Kingskerswell and Diptford ("Testa," No. 1364, p. 194b) 
and King John the castle of Totnes, Comworthy, and 
Loddiswell ("Pat. Rolls," 17 John, m. 15; "Testa," No. 
1373, p. 195a). After the separation from Normandy in 
1204 the county of Cornwall — for the countship of Mortain 
no longer belongs to English history — was again confirmed 
to Henry the earl's son by Henry III, but was forfeited on 
Henry's rebellion in 1219 (Dugdale, "Bar.," I, 611), and on 
10 August, 1231, was given by Henry III to his brother 
Richard, King of the Romans ("Trans." XXXIV, 574). 
From Richard it descended to his son, earl Edmund, who 
died without issue in 1300, when it again reverted to the 
Crown. In 1307 Edward II bestowed it on his favourite, 
Peter de Gaveston, who had married Margaret, Edmund's 
widow, daughter of Richard de Clare, earl of Hereford and 
Gloucester, but on Gaveston's death on 19 May, 1312, it once 
more reverted to the Crown. Ultimately in 1337 it was 
constituted an appanage of the heir to the throne and as 
the Duchy of Cornwall still retains certain quasi -royal 
privileges, such as the appointment of its own sheriff. It 
is characteristic of all the honours which grew out of this 
fief that they consist of small or Mortain fees, a Mortain 
fee being roughly described as § of an ordinary fee,* but to 
use exact terms being f of such a fee.® 

* 8 Ric. I, ni. 14, Grant to ** J[ohn] count of Mortain of £13 and J mark 
in Axenienistra with the hundred for 1 half year." This is rei)eated 9 and 10 
Ric. I and 1 John. In 10 Ric. I, m. 12d, Grant to "count John of £9. 15/ 
in Adlerichescote which is called Tauton,'* In 6 John, m. 7, Hamelin de 
Torintou ** accounts for 20 marks for having his laud of Ailricheston which 
the King gave him when he was count of Mortain." In 7 John, m. 2d : 
"Roger son of Roger de Guierin owes 100 marks and a palfrey and a goshawk 
for having his land of Wike and Standon whereof the King when count [of 
Mortain] made seisin to Robert his father." 

8 "Lib. Niger," 85, 98, 99. 

« "Trans." XXXIV, 570. In a.d. 1346, when an ordinary fee paid 40/-, 
a Mortain fee jmid 25/- (" Feudal Aids," p. 385). 



THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKBHAMPTON. 341 

II. The derivative Honours of the Mortainfief. 

On the Mortain fief being forfeited to the Crown its vava- 
sours became tenants in chief of the King, and their holdings 
became separate baronies. It becomes therefore necessary to 
glance at the descent of those derivative honours which 
inchided Devonshire estates. Of these there are seven : the 
Cornish honours of Trematon, Botardel and Cardinan, Lantian 
and Mideliand or Launceston ("Trans.*' XXXIV, 566) and 
the Somersetshire honours of Odcombe, Montacute, and Ash- 
leigh. 

1. The principal vavasour of the count of Mortain having 
estates in Devonshire was Eeginald de Valletorta or de Torta- 
valie (Geld KoU, XLIX, B. 8), whose fief is known as the 
honour of Trematon from Trematon Castle its chief seat in 
Cornwall. It is described in 1166 (" Lib. Niger," 131) as con- 
sisting of fifty-nine small fees, and included besides the estates 
held in Devonshire and Cornwall by Eeginald de Valletort 
under the count, also the ancient crown lordships of Sutton, 
Maker, and Kings tamerton,^ likewise one estate held at the 
time of the survey by Hugh de Valletort under the count 
(Geld Roll, XLI, B. 2), to wit Batson (W. 336), and one 
held by Donne, to wit Spriddlecombe (W. 340). According 
to the "After Death Inquests" of Edmund earl of Cornwall, 
in 28 Ed. I, No. 44, p. 160, and Edward Prince of Wales, in 
2 Eic. II, No. 57, p. 14, it included the following fees, those 
in Cornwall being printed in italics : — 

*'A.-D. Inq.,"28Ed. I. **A.-D. Inq.,"2Ric. II. Reference 

Fees belonging to Fees belonging to number to 

Trematon Castle. Trematon Castle. "Domesday." 

[3l76]Liskerret« . 1 fee . 

[836] Blikebury (Big. [3177] Bukkebury . 1 fee . W. 321 p. 838 

bury) . . 1 fee 

[3178]Hyngehaton ,\ partofW.321 

and ll fee 



[837] Hugaton 
(Hoi ■ 



- 1 fee [3179] Lippeston. J W. 348 p. 374 



(Houghton in 
Bigbury) 
[838] Loppeston 

(Lip son in 
Compton Gif- 
fard) 

' Mr. Whale, in "Trans." XXXIII, 376, suggests Clist St Laurence for 
Valletort's 1 fee in 1166 (" Lib. Niger," 128). ^But amrt from the fact that 
Clist St. Laurence is returned in the fee lists as only J fee ("Testa," No. 1607, 
p. 200), the "A. D. Inq." of Chaworth, 8 Ed. II, No. 56, p. 268, describes 
it as held of Odcombe, and not of Trematon. "Feudal Aids," 340, show 
Sutton, Makerton, and Kingstamerton held by John de Vautard of the earl 
of Cornwall for 1 fee ; and "After Death Inquest," 2 Ric. II, No. 57, p. 14, 
names Makre, Sutton, and Kingstamerton 1 fee among *'fees belonging to 
Trematon Castle." 

^ Liskaret was given to Henry, the earl's son, by King Richard ("Testa," 
No. 1364, p. 194b).'^ It did not therefore originally belong to this honour. 



342 THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 

[889] Eyt la Grave 



[840]Notdenc . 

[841] Holwell (in 

Bighury) — 

[842] Shipham (in 

Modbury)* . J fee 

[843] Baddcston (Bat-x 
sou in Mai- 1 
borough) I 

[844] Salteconibe (Sal- 
combe) 

[845] Wvraondesham 
( whinipston in 
Modbury) 



2 fep J3180] On? and . 

'*'®*^ [3181] Xa^rVow. 

1 fee [3182]Nottedon. 

[3183]Holewill . 



[3184] Ocbiphara 
[3185]Bede8ton . 



;}|fce 

! 1 fee 
. ifee 

. ifee 



2 fees C^^^^l Saltecombe 

[8187] Wymondesham. 



[846] Orchardon (in 

Modbury) . 1 fee 
[847]Peke (Torpeak ^ 

in Ugborough) 
[848] Trevnlneth 
[849] Spridlesconib (in 
lodbury) 



[3188] Godefonl 

(Gutsford in 
Modbuiy) 

[3189] Orcharton 



[3190]Torpike . 

2 fees [3191] Trtnalnard 
[3192] Spriddilscomb 



[861] Southrigge (in\ 

Plympton) { « feM 

[860]LopriKge (in ( ^ fee« 
North Huish) ) 



[3193] Torrigge " 
[8194] Lopperigge 



[852] Makere . 
[853] Sutton 
[854] Kingstamertou 
[866] Hepeford (Har-^ 

ford) 
[866]Stokelegh(Stock 

leigh English) 
[857] Treloven ^ 

[858] Harestane \ 

(Hareston in 

Brixton) 
[859] Yen ton 

(in Ughorough) 
[860]Harecnoll 

(Ilonicknowl 

in St. Budcaux) 
[S6\]Fen?ia7igell 



[3195] Leye (Leigh) and 

[3196] Payneston 

(Penson) . 

[3197]Makre . 

1 fee [3198] Sutton . 

[3199] Kiugestamerton 
[3201]Ly8foi-di'- 

- 2 fees [3202] Stokclegh . 

[3203] Trcnelowan 
[3204] Hardston . 



) 2 fees 



Ifee 



6 fees 



[3205] Venton . 
[3200] Hareknolle 

[3207] Penhangre 



\6 fees 



part of W. 321 
part of W. 821 

partofW.818 

p. 360 
W. 386 p. 870 



. part of W. 386 
2 fees, part of W. 818 



1 fee 



2 fees 



partofW.318 
W. 819 p. 862 

W. 829 p. 368 



W. 340 p. 374 

W. 842 p. 344 

W. 832 p. 318 

part of W. 332 

part of W. 332 
W. 86 p. 30 
W. 33 p. 28 
W. 84 p. 28 
W. 325 p. 338 

2 fees W. 307 p. 342 
W. 343 p. 346 
W. 326 p. 364 



W. 347 p. 374 



• "A.-D. Inq.," 31 Ed. I, No. 138, p. 184, gives the members of Modbury 
as Orcherton, Yedmerston, Penkeyt, Scliipham, Shilston, Spridelesconibe, 
Wymundeston, Julesconibe, and Langeston. 

" From the collocation it is evident that Southrigge = Torrigge, and that 
Loprigge of 28 Ed. I. includes Lupridge, Leigh, and Penson of 2 Ric. II. 

''•^ Hepeford, alias Lysford, must be Harford, since Harford and Stockleigh 
are the only 2 fees held by Gilbert English of the honour of Trematon in 
"Testa," No. 1328, p. 194a; 1172, p. 190b. 



THE HONOUKS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 343 



[862] North Lodbroke^ 
(Lud brook in 
Ugborough) 

[863] Bauecombe 

(Bawcombo in 
Ugboroucli) 

[864] South Lodbroke 
(an outlier of 
Modbury) 

[865] LAUgham (in 
Cornwood) 

[866] Trethmake 

[867] Broke 

lS6S]JiathvilU . 

[869] ApUdoitw/ord . 

[S70] Halton . 

[871 1 PiUton . 

[872] Nodaiorre . 

[873] Trewoman 

[874] Trem 

[8761 Trebigou . 

[876' Tregantell 

[877] Comhe 

[878] Inhosworth 

[S79] IHsert 

[880] TrewenU . 

[881] Kallilond . 

[882] TreicenU . 

[883] St, Goran . 

[SSi]^''a)lstadderion 

[885] Lantian . 

[886] Bore manor with 
members " 



3 fees 



:} 



;} 



[3208] North Lodebroke^ 
[3210] Baucombe 
[3209] South Lodebroke 
[3211]Langham . 



[8212] Trethynack 
[h^Brodeoke . 

■ 3 fees [ c ] Rackehevill 

[ d] Appledemeford, 
^Q]Halton . ^ 

\{\Pilaton . 

- 4 fees \g\ Nodetorr , 
[h Trewomam 
[ i I Tremaur . 

1 fee [k Trenygoo . 
Ifee [^]TreganUl. 
^ ^^ [m] Combe . 
J fee [n] Voyswarke 
ifee [o]Di8ert 
J fee [ p ] Trewynt . 
ifee {i\\Callilond , 
1 fee [T^Kelligreu. 

[ s ] Nan Ladron 

2 fees 



-8 fees 



W. 831 p. 816 



W. 387 p. 372 



W. 830 p. 868 



W. 828 p. 866 



8 fees 



4 fees 



:} 



1 fee — 

1 fee ~ 

ifee — 

ifee — 

J fee — 

J fee — 

Ifee — 

2 fees — 



21 fees 



[8213] Bere manor 
with members 



21 fees W. 850 p. 840 



[Total 69J fees] 
(Beer Ferrers and Beer Alston) 
Newton Ferrers being one of 

the members (**Testa," No. 

1324, p. 193b) 
Cornwood another ("Testa," 

No. 1327, p. 193b) 



[Total 59i fees] 



W. 824 p. 328 
W. 828 p. 826 



^^ The following note which occurs in "Feudal Aids," 489, under date 1846, 
shows that only 4^ of these fees lay in the county of Devon : "William de 
Ferrers is charged 100 marks for 20 small Mortain fees for the manor of Byr 
[Beer Ferrers and Beer Alston, 1 fee apparently not being char^^ed at all] held 
of the honour of Trematon. In the notes of the 2nd year Michaelmas term 
the aforesaid collectors are chai^ged for 4 fees under the names of John de 
Ferrers, son of the aforesaid William and Matilda who was the wife of the said 
William, in the hundreds of Roborough and Blacktorington by ancient evi- 
dences and inquisitions. And by the same evidences they are charged for 
16 fees the remainder of the aforesaid 20 fees, because it is not known to the 
court who are the tenants of those fees except by inquisitions officially taken 
by the said collectors. Of these [16 fees] 4 fees and a fraction [viz. i-M 
and a fiftieth [4^ in all] are in the hands of divers tenants in the county of 
Devon whose names are set forth in a Schedule attached to this roll as the 
collectors say, and lli + i fees are as they say in the County of Cornwall." 



344 THE HONOURS OF MOBTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 

Eeginald de Valletort was tenant of nearly all the estates 
composing the honour in 1086, and was also the tenant in the 
time of William Rufus (Lysons, 287). In 1166 the honour 
was held by Half de Valletort (" Lib. Niger," p. 131), whose 
heir was in 1207 in the custody of Peter de Rupibus, bishop 
of Winchester ("Testa," No. 1372, p. 195a). In 1216 
Reginald de Valletort came of age and received possession 
("Rot. Lit. Glaus.," 1 Hen. Ill, m. 18 de reverso). He 
married Joanna, one of the daughters and heiresses of 
Thomas Basset, and was in possession in 1227 ("Trans." 
XXXIV, 566) and in 1241 ("Testa," No. 1236, p. 192a), 
but died without issue in 1245 ("A.-D. Inq.," 30 Hen. Ill, 
No. 11, p. 3), when his brother Ralf succeeded. Ralf died 
before 1269 (Risdon's "Notebook," p. 61), leaving a widow, 
Joanna, who survived till 1275 ("A.-D. Inq.," 4 Ed. I, 
No. 61, p. 59), and an only son, Reginald, who died without 
issue in 1269 (" A.-D. Inq.," 54 Hen. Ill, No. 9, p. 33), also 
leaving a widow, Hawise, who survived him till 1298 (" A.-D. 
Inq.," 27 Ed. I, No. 32, p. 149). The honour then came to 
Roger de Valletort, uncle of the last Reginald (Roberts, 
"Cal. Geneal.," No. 32, p. 566, and No. 11, p. 639), who 
became insane and dissipated the estate. In 1270 he made 
over the honour to his overlord, Richard earl of Cornwall, 
and many of the estates to Alexander de Okeston,^* who had 
married Joanna, his deceaused brother Ralf s widow. On his 
death in 1275, Nicolas de Montfort is returned as holding it 
as guardian of Ralf's heir (" Feudal Aids," 316), and in 1286 
it was in the hands of the Crown (" Feudal Aids," 327). In 
1299, however, Henry de la Pomeroy, a grandson of Hawise 
de Valletort, and Peter Corbet, who had married Beatrice de 
Valletort, her sister, both being sisters of Roger de Valletort 
("Trans." XVIII, 204), were found to be next heirs (" A..D. 
Inq.," 27 Ed. I, No. 32 ; Roberts, "Cal. Gen.," No. 32, p. 566, 
and No. 34, p. 299), and on the death of Edmund earl of 
Cornwall, in 1300, they claimed the honour as such (" Abbrev. 
Plac," 33 Ed. I, Easter Rot., 5), but in 1315 judgment was 
given against them ("Abb. Plac," 9 Ed. II, Easter Rot., 123). 

2. The honour of Cardinan and Botardel consisted of 
71 fees ("Testa," No. 976, p. 187a), of which 51 represent 

" "Cal. of Ancient Deeds," A. 10,842-4; "Abbrev. Placit," 321; 
Hundred Rolls, 4 Ed. I, p. 96. Modbyri : "They say that Roeer de 
Valletort gave the castle of Trematon to Richard earl of Cornwall and 
the borough of Modbyri to Alexander de Okestone who now holds of the 
aforesaid earl in socage." These donations were challenged unsuccessfully 
by the heirs on the CTound that Roger was mad at the time. In Edwani IPs 
time Ox ton conveyed Modbury to Champemown. Oliver, "Mon.,*' 298. 



THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKBHAMPTON. 345 

the fee of William, son of Eichard, and 20 that of Walter 

Hai ("Lib. Niger," p. 131). The honour included all the 

Devonshire and Cornish estates of Kichard, son of Turold 

or Torolf, whether held of the King in chief, as Woodhuish 

and Eoddicombe in Brixham (W. 1130; "Testa," 1261, 

p. 192b), Notsworthy (W. 1131; "Testa," 1281, p. 192b), 

and East Allington (W. 1133; *'Testa," 1257, p. 192a), or 

held of the count of Mortain as St. Mary Church (W. 312; 

"Testa," 1287, p. 193a), Cotleigh (W. 317; "Testa," 915, 

p. 184a), Little Bolbury (W. 333; "Testa," 1240, p. 192a), 

Shilston in Modbury (W. 338; "Testa," 1338, p. 194a), and 

Little Modbury (W. 341; "Testa," 1322, p. 193b); and also 

Earl Hugh's estate of Anstey Crewes (W. 351; "Testa," 

919, p. 184a). Kichard held at least two other estates in 

Cornwall, viz. Berner (Exeter "Domesday," fol. 199b) and 

Cudawoit {ibid. fol. 224b), and witnessed a charter as late 

as 1104 ("Cal. of Docts. in France," 437). In 1166 this 

honour was held by his grandson, Robert, son of William 

son of Kichard son of Turold,^^ who by Agnes, his wife, ^ 

had a son, Kober t II (Oliver, " Mon.," 38), and a daughter ,^^^j OA 

called Isabel, his eventual heiress (Lysons, "Cornwall," <^a{eiil^ 

LXXIX), who carried it to her husband, Kobert de C a rdinan. 

In 1227 the honour was held by A[ndrew] de Cardinan 

("Testa," in "Trans." XXXIV, 574), and in 1235 by Kobert 

de Cardinan (Oliver, 38), whose widow, Isolda (Oliver, 43), 

married Thomas de Tracy, and about 1259 conveyed it to 

Oliver de Dinham, son of GeofiPrey de Dinham, a relative 

of her deceased husband (Lysons, "Cornwall," LXXIX). 

His descendant. Sir John Dinham, was treasurer of the 

Exchequer under Henry VII, and died in 1501 without 

issue, when his honour and estates fell among his four 

sisters, coheiresses, married respectively to Lord Zouche, 

Sir Nicolas Carew, Sir Fulk fitz- Warren, and Sir Thomas 

Arundel (Lysons, LXXX). 

"Botardel 30 fees" appears among fees held of the earl 
of Cornwall in 1300 (" A..D. Inq.," 28 Ed. I, No. 44, p. 160), 

^^ According to the charter of Archbishop Thomas of Canterbury in 
Oliver, **Mon.," 41, Richard, son of Turold [the Domesday tenant], had 
a son William. Another charter {ibid. 38) shows that William was succeeded 
by his son Robert, who by Agues his wife had a son, Robert II, and a 
daughter, Isabel. The Robert de Cardinan, who confirmed his predecessors' 
charters (Oliver, 39), was probably grandson of Isabel and son of Andrew de 
Cardinan, since he calls William, son of Richard, his atavw (giandfather's 
grandfather, Oliver, 39). He had apparently succeeded l)efore 1235, when 
llenry III confirmed his charters {ibid, 38), and in 1241 the l»arony is 
described as the honour of Andrew de Cardinan (*' Testa," No. 1257, p. l»2a ; 
1261, p. 192b). 



346 THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMFTON. 

but not Cardinan. On the other hand, among fees held of the 
Prince of Wales in 1379 (" A..D. Inq.," 2 Ric. II, No. 57, 
p. 14) is found Cardynan 26 fees, but no Botardel. In 1286 
Oliver de Dinham, son of Oliver, was lord of Cardinan, and 
in 1332 John de Dinham died seized of 5^ fees in Devon 
belonging to it at St. Mary Church, Little Modbury, East 
Allington, Anstey, Woodhuish, and Little Bolbury (" A.-D. 
Inq.," 6 Ed. Ill, No. 59, p. 49). 

3. The honour of Mineli and Lantian consisted in 1166 
of 19 fees ("Lib. Niger," 131), of which 10 formed the 
ancient barony of Richard de Luci and 9 the fee (Lantian 
9 fees in " A..D. Inq.," 2 Ric. II. No. 57, p. 14) of Adam 
Malherbe ("Lib. Niger," 131). In 1227 it was held by 
Robert, son of Walter and Matilda de Luci ("Trans." 
XXXIV, 566). It consisted apparently of Cornish estates. 
One Devonshire estate, however, belonged to it — Shobrook 
(W. 304). The "Black Book" (235) has in the return of 
Richard de Luci in 1166 this entry: "Oger the server has 
1 fee in the township of Scotebroc," and the "After-Death 
Inquest," 18 Ric. II, No. 31, p. 182, has "Shokebrook 1 fee 
belonging to the manor of Lantyan." The manor of Lantyan 
and the fees thereto pertaining, together with Stowford 
( W. 353) and Houndbear (Laudeshers, W. 354), in " Domes- 
day" the earl of Chester's estates, and subsequently 
Herbert son of Mathew's ("Testa," No. 1183, p. 190b; 
1217, p. 191a), were in the fourteenth century held by 
Ralf de Monthermer, the husband of Joane Flantagenet, 
daughter of Edward I, and were by him settled on his son, 
Edward de Monthermer and his heirs, but Edward having 
died without issue, they came to his brother, Thomas de 
Monthermer, whose daughter and heiress carried them to 
Sir John de Montacute, second son of William, first earl of 
Salisbury. Sir John de Montacute died 4 March, 1390 
(" A.-D. Inq.," 13 Ric. II, No. 34, p. 116), followed by his 
widow on 24 March, 1395 (" A.-D. Inq.," 18 Ric. II, No. 31, 
p. 182), when his son of like name succeeded, who on the 
death of his uncle William became second earl of Salisbury, 
and was beheaded in 1400. His son Thomas was, neverthe- 
less, allowed to succeed in 1408, when he was of full age, 
and in 1409 was restored to the earldom. He died in 1428 
(" A.-D. Inq.," 10 Hen. IV, No. 54, p. 326), leaving an only 
daughter, Alice, who married Richard Nevil, third son of 
Ralf, earl of Westmoreland, upon whose attainder in 1460 
the estates were forfeited to the Crown (Maclean, " Deanery 
of Trigg Minor," II, 125). 



THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 347 

4. The honour of Launceston Castle, according to the 
"A..D. Inq." of 28 Ed. 1, No. 44, p. 160, included Polreda 
6 fees, Worthfala and Penhale 12, Eekaredek 4, Alett li, 
Trehagh 3, Tremewith 1, Tremodred 3, Hudene 1, Middel- 
launde [i.e. launceston] 10, Hilton 5, Breton [Bratton 
Fleming], Hautebray [Highbray], and Bray 7, Fenington, 
[West] Kaddon 1, Wadefast 1, Stratton 1, Efford 1, Treverys, 
HoUewall, Penrosburden ^, Tidye 1, Hemston 2, Tregony 1, 
Lantraghon 1, Hornycote 5 ; but according to '* A.-D. Inq.," 
2 Eic. II, No. 57, p. 14, only those before Hautebray and 
Bray belonged to the castle and the rest to Launceston. Its 
Devonshire estates, which in the above list are printed in 
small capitals, appear therefore to have been confined to 
(1) those held by Erchenbold under the count, viz. Hele 
(W. 283), Culleigh (W. 275), and Stockleigh Francis ( W. 284) 
1 fee ("Testa," Nos. 907-10, p. 184a), Alverdiscot (W. 285) 
1 fee ("Testa," 911), and Bratton Fleming (W. 288) 2^ fees' 
C* Testa," 918), Croyde (W. 290) 1 fee ("Testa," 917) and 
Highbray and Bray (W. 158) 1^ fees ("Testa," No. 31, 175b), 
constituting the 7 fees held by Archebold le Fleming in 1227 
("Trans." XXXIV, 567), by Richard le Flemyng in 1299 
(" A.-D. Inq.," 29 Ed. I, No. 46, p. 167), and frequently referred 
to in the fee lists ("Feudal Aids," 413, 415, 417, 439) as the 
8 fees of Baldwin le Flemyng. Ash Eogus, Benton, and Haxon 
(ibid. 439 ; " A.-D. Inq.," 4 Kichard II, No. 26, p. 30) making 
up the eighth ; (2) to the count's own estate of West Eaddon 
(W. 306) which in 1241 Geoffrey de Mandevil held appur- 
tenant to his honour of Marshwood ("Testa," No. 841, p. 183a)J; 
(3) to the two estates held by Hamelin under the count, to 
wit Alwington (W. 272) 2 fees ("Testa," No. 906, p. 184a; 
" Feudal Aids," 329), and Hempston Borard (W. 316) 2 fees 
("Trans," XXXIII, 382); and (4) to one estate held by 
Nicolas the King's crossbowman in " Domesday," viz. Web- 
worthy (W. 1018; "Testa," 914, p. 184a). It may be 
observed that the 10 fees in Midellaund or Launceston held 
by William Briwere in 1227 ("Trans." XXXIV, 566) appear 
to be identical with the 10 fees held by Geoffrey, son of 
Baldwin (Oliver, "Mon.," 41), son of Hamelin (ibid, 42), in 
1166 ("Lib. Niger," 131). These were in 1234 held by 
Robert de Pin and Walter son of William in right of their 
wives ("Trans." XXXIV, 568) and in 1306 by Herbert de 
Pyn." All of them were in Cornwall excepting Alwington. 

" "Feudal Aids," 207, enumerates tliemaa 4 in Middelaund [or Launceston], 
1 in Gere [i.e. Bere, " Feudal Aids," 201], 2 in Alwenton [i.e. Alwington], 1 
in Marwenchurche [i.e. Marhamchurch], and 2 in Pensentenyon, Trethewy, 
and Westwy. 



348 THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMFTON. 

5. With the Somersetshire honour of Odcombe ("Lib. 
Niger " 98) went all the estates held in " Domesday " under 
the Count (1) by Ansger Brito or the Breton, to wit, Buck- 
land Brewer (W. 276; "Testa" No. 948, p. 184b; A.-D. 
Inq. 36 Ed. Ill, No. 37, p. 247), ^ fee ("Feudal Aids," 
p. 358), East Putford (W. 277; "Testa" No. 949, and 1650, 
p. 200), i fee ("Feudal Aids," 358), Bulkworthy (W. 278) 
\ fee ("Testa " 950 ; " F. Aids " 358), and Smytham (W. 279 ; 
"Trans." XXXIII, 376); (2) by the Englishman, Alward, to 
wit Clist St. Laurence (W. 293) i fee ("Testa," 1607, p. 200 ; 
"F. Aids" 333; A.-D. Inq. 8 Ed. II, No. 56, p. 258), 
Northleigh (W. 315) i fee ("Testa" 843, p. 183b; "F.Aids" 
330), and Hawkerland (W. 310) J fee ("Testa," 844 and 1203, 
p. 191a ; "Trans." XXXV, 294) and Stockleigh in Highamton 
(W. 270) ; and (3) one estate held by Alured the count's 
butler {pincertui), to wit, Sutton Satchvil and Upcot 
(W. 301), i fee ("Testa" 951 and 1644, p. 200). In 1126 
this honour was held by Ansger Brito, a great benefactor 
to Bermondsey Abbey (CoUinson's "Somerset" III, 223); in 
8 Henry II by Eoger Brito (Risdon's "Notebook" 74), and 
in 1166 by Walter Brito ("Lib. Niger" 98), when it was 
returned as consisting of 15 Mortain or small fees. From 
Walter it descended to his sister's son, Walter Croc ("Lib. 
Niger" 372), who in 1200 sold a moiety of it to Richard, 
son of William Briwere.^® In 1219 William Croc succeeded 
(" Trans." XXXVI, 422), but the entirety appears to have 
been acquired by William Briwere, and by his eventual 
heiresses it passed to Chaworth and others. William 
Briwere was sheriff of Devon 1179-89, of Cornwall 

»8 Red Book, quoted "Trans." XXXIII, 373, by Mr. Whale: Richard, 
son of William Brewer, holds the barony of Walter Brito. Richard was the 
eldest son of the well-kno^vn judge, William Briwere, and lost his life before 
1196 fighting against the Welsh. The judge William Briwere*s connexion 
with Devon is stated by Dugdale to commence With his purchase of Ilesham 
r" y /y in 1179 ("Bar.," I, 700), but it appears that his mother was a Devonshire 
J^ K/*<*yUt^ lady, da«^||tEr of Geoffrey and siote rj)f Reginald de Albemarle, of Wood- 
^ C&VttCy ^"^y (Hund. Rolls, No. 9, p. 65)7 and that William Briwere inherited 

Greendale from his mother. This family, variously written Briwere 
("Testa," No. 1488, p. 197b, and 1567, p. 199a), Briguere (charters in 
1190 and 1198, "Gal. of Documents in France,*' 119, 462), Bruere ("Testa," 
1357, p. 194b), Bruerre (Red Book, 232), and Briwarr ("Testa," 1442, 
I). 196b)— in the foundation deed of Tor Abbey (Oliver, **Mon.," 173) 
William signs for himself Briewere and for his son Briegwere—must not l^o 
confounded with that of Ralf de Brueria, in "Domesday," an undertenant 
of Baldwin, although in the twelfth century the two families became con- 
nected by marriage. William de la Brueria married Englesia, William 
* Briwere's sister (*• Trans." XXXV, 289), and William Briwere obtained 

♦#»/ A0^^ Wolborough (Oliver "Mon.," 186) by purchase from Anthony de Bruera. 

^' A j/\ -T^ '^^® charter of 1191 is witnessed by both William Briwerre ana William de 
*m. iif^^^^r*<r»^rueria (**Cal. Docts. in France" 17). 



THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 349 

1202-3, of Dorset and Somerset 1209-10 (Maclean's "Trigg 

Minor," III, 148). His wife was Matilda de Vallibus or /^juj^.^/i 

de Vaux (Oliver, "Mon." 173), the mother by Keginald, earl / / 

of Cornwall, of Henry the earl's son, and by her he had 

issue, besides Richard who lost his life in Wales, another 

son William who succeeded him in 1227 (Oliver "Mon.," 

293), and five daughters, who on the death of their brother 

on 22 February 1233 without issue by his wife Joanna 

(Oliver, p. 174), became his eventual heiresses. Margaret, 

the eldest of these according to Risdon ("Notebook" 74), 

was married to William de la Ferte or de Aflfertis, and had 

by him an only daughter, Gundreda, who brought her share 

of William Briwere's honour to her husband. Pagan de 

Chaworth (Dugdale, "Bar." I, 517; "Testa" p. 200a). 

From Pagan it descended to his son, Patrick de Chaworth 

(Hundred Rolls, No. 32, p. 79; "Trans." XXXVII, 428, 

n. 22), who was in possession in 1241 ("Testa," p. 183b), 

and died in 1257. Patrick was followed by his two sons 

in succession. The elder one, Pagan, died without issue in 

1278 (Risdon, 75), and the younger one, Patrick, died in 

1315 (A.-D. Inq. 8 Ed. II, No. 56, p. 258), leaving an 

only daughter, Matilda, who became the wife of Henry 

Plantageuet, duke of Lancaster. On Henry's death in 1362 

(A.-D. Inq. 35 Ed. Ill, No. 122, p. 237), part of her share 

came to her daughter, Matilda, wife of the duke of Bavaria, 

who died in 1363 (A.-D. Inq. 36 Ed. Ill, No. 37, p. 247), 

but some years later Henry IV incorporated all the Chaworth 

estates, some 30 fees, in the Duchy of Lancaster. 

Of William Briwere's other daughters, Graecia was married 
to Reginald de Braose; Isabel was twice married, Baldwin 
Wak being her second husband; Alice married Reginald 
de Mohun, and Joan William de Percy (Dugdale, " Bar.," I, 
702), "Testa de Nevil" (p. 199a, in "Trans." XXXVII, 446 
seq^ enumerates the different estates allotted to the several 
coheiresses, from which it appears that of the Mortain fees 
in Devon, Denson (No. 1573, W. 291) went to William de 
Braose's heirs, Clist St. Laurence (No. 1607, W. 293) to 
William de Percy, Northleigh (No. 1628, W. 315) to 
Chaworth ("Trans." XXXVII, 428), and Sutton Satchvil 
(No. 1644, W. 301) and East Putford (No. 1650, W. 277) to 
Hugo Wak. In each case it may be presumed that these 
were the head manors, carrying with them a number of 
other manors. 

6. Two other Somersetshire honours had their origin in 
the great Mortain fief — that held in 1166 by the younger 



350 THE HONOURS OF MORTillN AND OKBHAMPTON. 

Drogo of Montacute, and that of Walter de Ashul (" Testa," 
p. 184b) or Ashleigh ("Testa" 169a), which "Feudal Aids" 
writes in one place Ystlegh (427). To Drogo's honour be- 
longed (1) three out of the four Devonshire estates held 
at the time of the survey by Drogo or Drew, viz. Feniton 
(W. 298), Corscombe (W. 299), and Womberford (W. 314), 
3 fees ("Testa" 362, p. 179a)— the fourth, Honiton, had 
gone to the earl of Devon; (2) all the estates, excepting 
Sutton Satchvil, held by Alured the count's butler in 
Devon, viz. Monkleigh (W. 273), Frizenham (W. 280), 
Wedfield (W. 281), Woodland (Liteltrorilande, W. 282), 
Matford Butter (W. 286; "Testa" 369, p. 179a), Thorn- 
bury (W. 294; "Testa" 957. p. 184b), Chitterleigh (W. 295), 
Stockleigh Luccombe (W. 302), and Poughhill (W. 303) ;» 
besides (3) one held by Hugh de Valletort, to wit. Much 
Bolbury, alias Bolbury Beauchamp. (W. 334),» i fee ("Testa" 
367, p. 179a; 1239, p. 192a). This honour, accordmg to 
the Black Book, contained in 1166 10^ + J fees ("Lib. 
Niger," 94). To Ashleigh's honour belonged 5^ small fees 
("Trans." XXXIII, 371), including the three Devonshire 
estates held by Bretel of St. Clare,^ under the Count, to 
wit, Charlton (W. 300) i fee ("Testa" 364, p. 179a), Little 
Faringdon (W. 308) i fee ("Testa" 1194, p. 191a, in 
"Trans." XXXV, 291), and Holbrook Grindham (Colebroca, 
W. 309) i fee ("Testa" 1192; "Trans." XXXV, 290). 

Before leaving the Devonshire estates of the count of 
Mortain it may be as well to observe that the Englishman 
Alward, who appears as undertenant, was probably neither 
Alward Tochisons, who is mentioned as the ancient holder 
of Cruwys Morchard (W. 868, p. 708), Brendon (W. 653, 
p. 922), and Puddington (W. 873, p. 714), nor yet Alward 
Merta, the dispossessed tenant of Dowland (W. 787, p. 824) 
and Nimet (W. 792, p. 828), described as a freeman {liber 
honio), because he could go with his land to what lord he 
might like, to whom the queen in pity gave a small property 
in Ashreigny (W. 1081b, p. 1174), but he may have been 

'^ '* Testa," 1205, p. 191a, describes the two last estates as held in socage 
of Catharine de Montacute of the barony of Cheselbergh, and Exeter 
*' Domesday," fol. 618, shows Ceselberia, in Somerset, held by Alured the 
count's butler. 

^ "Feudal Aids," 324, says held by Beauchamp of the King, because 
Valletort's barony was then in abeyance. 

^ Dr. Round says that this was Bretel of St Glare and not Bretel of 
Ambrferes, on the ground that he is so described in the G«ld Roll for 
Somerset, and that the count's tenant, Bretel, is found in the Montacute 
Cartulary as Bretel de Sancto Claro, giving the very land he held at Monta- 
cute in " Domesday." 



THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 351 

Alward Tabe, who was dispossessed of Matford (W. 286, 
p. 350). Richard, son of Torolf, or Torold, besides being 
undertenant of the count of Mortain, held other estates in 
chief of the Crown, and these as well as the others were 
included in the honour of Cardinan. Alured, the count's 
butler, was, however, in all probability a distinct person 
from Alured the Breton, who held in chief of the Crown. 
Otherwise both groups of estates would have constituted 
one honour, whereas those of Alured, the count's butler, 
formed the Mortain honour of Montacute or Cheselbergh, 
whilst those of Alured the Breton were held of the honour 
of Plymton. Is it possible that Robert, son of Ivo, who is 
also mentioned in an agreement of 1121 ("Cal. Docts. in 
France " 258), may be the son of Ivon or Iwun al Chapel 
alias Eudo al Chapel (Eudo cum capello), the eldest son of 
Turstan Haldub, who subscribed himself in a charter of 
1074 as Eudo Haldub (Planch(5, II, 124)? This Eudo 
married Muriel, the Conqueror's half-sister, and had a 
daughter Muriel, his eventual heiress, who married Robert 
de la Haie (ibid. II, 125). A charter of Robert's in 1105 
calls him son of Ranulf, house steward to Robert, count 
of Mortain, and grandson of Eudo, steward of King William 
(" Cal. Docts. in France" 328). 

III. Th^ Honour of Okehamton, 

The descent of the honour of Okehamton presents greater 
difficulties. The authorities tell us that Baldwin, usually 
called the sheriff*, the first holder of the honour of Oke- 
hamton, was the younger son of count Gilbert de Brionne 
in Normandy (" Cal. of Doc! in France " 133, 141, 148, 503), 
that he was sometimes called de Molis, from the castle of 
Meules (ibid. 26) in Normandy, where he was bom, and at 
other times de Sap, after one of the estates restored to him 
by Duke William in 1053 (Planch^, II, 34, 41). We also 
find him called de Clare (Round, "Feud. Engl." 473), and / ;v^r,^ 
occasionally de Exeter (" Cal. Doc. in France ** 38) or sheriff 
of Exeter (ibid. 327). His share of the spoils of conquest 
consisted of 177 manors, assessed at 146 hides, and com- 
prising roughly some 100,000 acres of land under cultiva- 
tion. With five exceptions, viz. Middlecot (W. 381, p. 406), 
Whiteway (W. 512, p. 542), and Alraforda (W. 522, p. 552),** 

^ The list of Coartney fees in 1 Ric. II, No. 12, p. 2, names together 
Rosamond ford, Whiteway, and Middlecot among fees held of Plymton. Pre- 
suming that Alraforda is Rosamondford, Briwere was suceessorto Rannulf in 
all three. 



352 THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 

of which Eannulf was undertenant, Woodington (W. 501, 
p. 530), of which William, probably William the guest- 
master, was undertenant, and Torington ^ (W. 387, p. 412), 
of which Eichard was undertenant, all Baldwin's estates are 
found in later times belonging to the honour of Okehamton. 
That honour included in addition (1) three fees held of the 
bishop of Exeter ("Lib. Niger" 115), to wit, Yeo in Credi- 
ton (" Feudal Aids," 337), Dittisham, and Slapton (" Feud. 
Aids" 331; "Trans." XXXII, 542); (2) one held of the 
bishop of Coutances, to wit, Brampford Speke (W. 195, 
p. 192; A.-D. Inq. 1 Eic. II, No. 12, p. 2); (3) two estates 
held by Godeva Brictric's widow, to wit, Torbryan (W. 1110, 
p. 1192; "Feud. Aids" 317) and Dodbrook (W. 1115, 
p. 1192; "Feud. Aids" 332); and (4) Saulfs Little Duns- 
ford or Sowton (W. 1118, p. 1188; "Feud. Aids," 314); in 
all 92f fees (Eed Book, 558; "Trans." XXVII, 99), and it 
was held by the service of three knights (" Trans." XXXII, 
542). 

Baldwin was twice married, (1) to Albreda, the Con- 
queror's niece (Oliver, "Mon.," 338; "Trans." XXX, 506) 
or cousin (Planch(5, II, 43), and (2) to Emma (so stated in 
"Domesday," W. 478, p. 512), and had issue three sons, 
William, Kobert, and Eichard ("Cal. of Doc. in France" 
524), besides a daughter Adeliza. The older authorities 
gave him also another daughter Emma. Dr. Eound gives 
the three sons to Emma, though he is doubtful about 
William (" Feudal England " 473). Planche gives her only 
the two daughters ("The Conqueror's Companions," II, 44). 
Eobert succeeded his father as count of Brionne in 1090 
(Planch(5, I.e. 43), and William Succeeded him as sheriff of 
Devon (Charters in Oliver, "Mon.," 117, 153; Eound "Feud. 
Engl." 330, n. 37), and was succeeded by his brother 
Eichard, who in 1129 held the shrievalty together with 
the honour of Okehamton (Eound, I.e. 473). Eichard died 
without issue on 25 June, 1137 (Oliver, "Mon.," 338), when 
the sisters became his heirs. The elder one, Adeliza, was 
the wife of William son of Wimund in 1086,^'' which would 
almost require her to be Albreda's, and not Emma's daughter, 
and if she was the aunt (amita) of Eannulf Avenel, Eannulf 
must have been the son of her sister, so that she must have 
had a sister married to Avenel's father. She died 23 August, 

* Presuming tliat Torintona is Littlo Torington, which, however, Mr. 
Whale disputes. 

^ "DomesJay," W. 397, p. 422. This manor (Dolton) Baldwin gave to 
William son of Wimund, with his daughter in marriage. 



THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 



353 



1142, after founding Ford abbey, it is usually said without 
issue, but the Ford abbey cartulary (Oliver, "Mon.," 341) 
gives a diJBferent pedigree, which may be summarized as 
follows : — 



Baldwin de Brionis=Albreda. 



Richard, 

founder of Brightley in 1133, 

ob. t.p. 25 June, 1137. 



Adeliza= 
only daughter, 
d, 23 August, 1142. 



Rannulf Avenel= Alice. ^ .. ..'^^ 
I ■ • / ^ 



Robert d'Avrancheg= Matilda == Robert, the King's son, 



first husband. 



second husband. 



Two 

daughters, 

nuns. 



Ha wise: 
elder daughter, 
second wife, 
stated to be a 
descendant of 
Albreda, o6. 31 
July, 1209. 



Reginald de Courtney = a Nomian 



son of Florus, Florus 
being a son of Louis 
the Fat. 



lady, first 
nfe. 



Robert de Courtney, 

younger son, 

deprived of the 

shrievalty in 1231. 



r 



r 



William de Courtney = Matilda, 
elder son. younger 
daughter. 






A difficulty arises in reconciling this pedigree with the 
charter of William Avenel (Oliver, 136) addressed to Bishop 
Eobert of Exeter [1150-59] and to Earl Baldwin [who died 
in 1154] and others, whereby William Avenel the then 
possessor of the honour of Okehamton between 1150 and 
1154, confirms to Ply m ton priory "all that my father 
Rannulf and Adeliza his aunt (arnica = father's sister) gave 
to them." Further, it is not true that Hawise de Courtenay 
died as stated in the pedigree in 1209, for the Pipe EoU of 
12 John, i.e. 1210, contains the entry: "Hawise de Curtenai 
accounts for £195. 10s. scutage of 92f fees in Okemanton at 
3 marks for each fee"; and that of 16 John, i.e. 1214: 
"Hawise de Curtenai owes 7^ marks for the honour of 
Okemanton." Also as Cleaveland, p. 124, points out, Reginald 
de Courtenay's father, whether called Peter or Florus or 
bearing some other name (Florus being only a nickname), 
cannot have been son of Louis the Fat. because Louis the 
Fat after 1150 married Reginald's daughter. 

VOL. XXXVIII. z 



354 



THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 



Pole, setting the Ford pedigree down as erroneous, gives 
an entirely different one, taken, as he says, "out of the 
Okhamton lieger book" ^ as follows : — 

'.'- 'j^ Baldwin^ - ;, -^ 



Richard, Adela, 

lord of lady of 

Okhampton. Okhampton, 
ct /I V married a 

Kentish 
knightf ob.8.p. 



William Avenel= Emma = William d'Avranchos. 



Matilda=Ralf Avenel, 
sister to lord of Ok- 
Richard hampton. 
de Redvers. 

The lord de Aincoort: 
first husband. 



daughter of 
Godwin Dole. 



Robert d'Avranches, 
lord of Okhamp- 
ton. 



Matilda = Robert, son of the Eine, 
brother of earl Reginald; 
second husband lord of 
Okhampton. 



A Norman lad7=Reginald de Gourtney^Matilda, 



first wife. 



whom queen Eleanor 
brought with her to 
England. 



second wife, 
ob. $,p. 



Ha wise de Aiucoort= William Courtney, 
lord of Sutton, 
Berks. 



Robert Courtney=MaiT, daughter of 

William de Vernon. 



Pole quotes three charters to prove that Matilda, the wife 
of Eeginald de Courtney, died without issue. In the first 
one Hawise refers to and confirms a deed '*made by my 
sister Matilda/' which shows that Matilda was in posses- 
sion of the honour before her sister Hawise. The second is 
a grant of Musbury made by Matilda, lady of Okhamton, 
which supports this suggestion. The third is a grant made 
by Reginald de Courtney "with consent of Matilda my wife," 
which proves that Matilda's husband was not called William, 
but Reginald. Hawise's charter is witnessed by "Robert 



* John Chase, chapter-clerk of Winchester, complains that in the Civil 
War " the Minument house was broken up by the Army and Soldiery and all 
my lidcer register books taken away'* (Capes, "Rural life in Hami»hire," 
190 ; Winchester Cath. Doc. II, 67). 



THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHAMPTON. 355 

Courtney and Eeginald his brother my sons," but the father's 
name is not given. 

There is, however, a diflBculty in the way of William 
Courtney being the husband of Hawise, if Cleaveland's 
assertion is correct that William Courtney died in the 
crusade of 1147-9 before his father came to England. To 
meet, as I understand, this diflBculty, A. Ellis in " Notes and 
Queries," 1 January 1881, says that there were two Eeginald 
de Courtneys, father and son, a view which has been accepted 
by the editors of Kisdon's *' Notebook " 73. The documentary 
evidence is conclusive that when Robert the natural son of 
Henry I, who was in possession of the honour in 1166, in 
right of his wife Matilda d'Avranches ("Lib. Niger" 119; 
Bound, "Feudal England," 266) died in 1172, followed by 
his widow on 21 September, 1173 (Dugdale, "Mon." V, 381), 
the elder Reginald de Courtney obtained the wardship of 
Matilda's two daughters, and himself married the younger 
one, Matilda, whilst he gave the other, Hawise, to his son, 
called by Pole and the monks of Ford William Court- 
ney. An entry in the Close Roll of 8 Hen. Ill, m. 8, 
runs: "Robert de Curtenay had seisin of the manor 
of Wotesdon [Wootton Courtney in Somerset] which 
Matilda de Curtenay held in dower since the death of 
Reginald de Curtenay aforetime her husband, grandfather of 
the aforesaid Robert, whose heir he is." But however the 
pedigree may be explained, the succession to the honour 
according to the charters was, first to William, son of Bald- 
win, next to his brother Richard, and then to his sister 
Adeliza the aunt of Rannulf Avenel, afterwards to Rannulf 
Avenel and to William Avenel his son ("CaL of Docts. in 
France" 257, 434), then to Robert the King's son in right of 
his wife Matilda, followed by Reginald de Courtney in right 
of his wife Matilda, and then to her half-sister Hawise, the 
wife of Reginald's son whether called William or Reginald. She 
held the honour, it is stated, until 1219, and was succeeded 
by her son, Robert Courtney, who married Mary de Redvers, 
daughter of William de y«niOn, and had issue John de 
Courtney. Through John the honour descended to Hugh I 
his son, Hugh II his grandson, and Hugh III de Courtney 
his great-grandson. In 1335 (9 Ed. Ill), some years after 
the death in 1293 of Isabella de Fortibus, last of the Redvers, 
the second of these Hugh Courtneys was authorized to assume 
the title of earl of Devon "as being the heir of the Redvers 
family and in possession of their estates," and in his person 
the honours of Plympton and Okehampton were united. 

z2 



356 THE HONOURS OF MORTAIN AND OKEHABiPTON. 

According to "The case in the House of Lords, 1832," 

Hugh II de Courtney, the first earl of Devon of the new 

fi^O' 1^"^» ^^^^ l'^ ^- m* ^^s s^^» Hugh III, second earl of 

/Jtr Devon, died 51 Ed. Ill, and was succeeded by his grandson 

' Edward, son of Sir Edward Courtney, as third earl, Edward's 

uncle being Sir PhiUp of Powderham On the death of the 

third earl in 7 Hen. V his son, Sir Hugh, succeeded as fourth 

earl, but died 10 Hen. V, Thomas Courtney, his son, then 

succeeded as fifth earl, and died 36 Hen. VI. The sixth 

earl was his grandson, Thomas Courtney, who was attainted 

and beheaded 1 Edw. IV, leaving no issue. 

In 1 Hen. VII, Sir Edward Courtney, a collateral, being the 
grandson of Sir Hugh Courtney, of Haxjcombe, a brother of 
the third earl, was created earl of Devon by a fresh grant 
from the Crown, but died in 1509. His son. Sir William, 
having been attainted, and his grandson, Henry Courtney 
created marquis of Exeter having been attainted and be- 
headed 31 Hen. VIII, a new grant of the earldom of Devon 
was made by patent on 3 September, 1553, to Sir Edward 
Courtney, the son of the late marquis of Exeter, " to him and 
his heirs male for ever," but without reversal of the attainders 
of his ancestors. The effect of this was to make Sir Edward 
and his heirs male earls of Devon of a new creation, but to 
leave the old earldom descendible to heirs general together 
with the honours and estates of Plympton and Okehampton 
forfeit to the Crown. The new earl died without issue 
18 September, 1556, when the four daughters of his great- 
great-grandfather's brother. Sir Hugh Courtney, of Boconnoc, 
were found to be his next heirs, viz. Isabel the wife of 
William Mohun, Maud the wife of John Arundell, Elizabeth 
wife of John Trethurffe, and Florence wife of John Trelawney. 
The present line of earls of Devon, whose claim to the earl- 
dom of the last creation was allowed in 1832, are descended 
from Sir Philip Courtney, of Powderham. 



THE RECENT NEUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 

BY CHARLES ADOLPHTJS BRIGGS, F.E.8. 

(Read at I.yiiton, July, 1906.) 



STONE -FLIES, MAY- FLIES, DRAGON - FLIES, 
CADDIS -FLIES, ETC. 

The four main divisions of the groups of insects comprised 
in the Linnaean order Neuroptera are : — 

(1) The Pseudoneuroptera, consisting of the Psocidcc, or 

Book-lice, the Feiiidcc, or Stone-flies, and the 
UphcMcridcc, or May-flies. 

(2) The Odoiutta, or Dragon-flies. 

(3) The Neiiroptera'Planipennia, or true Neuroptera, and 

(4) The Trichoptcra, or Caddis-flies. 

Of these divisions the Pscudaneuroptcra and the Odoiiata 
undergo incomplete metamorphosis, while in the Neuroptera- 
Planipennia and the Trichoptera the metamorphoses are 
complete. With the exception of the Psocidce and the great 
majority of the Neuroptera -Planipennia the Neuroptera are 
aquatic in their habits, passing the larva or nymph stage in 
the water, those of the Perlida^, Ephemcridw, and Odouata 
living without protection, while those of the Trichoptera 
weave cases of varying thickness covered in some instances 
with minute water shells, in others with stones or other 
debris. 

All the groups, with perhaps the exception of the Odonata, 
are well represented in Devonshire. There are few, if any, 
counties in England so well adapted to these water-loving, 
wood-frequenting insects; and if the record of the species 
observed does not stand out above that of any other county, 
the fact must be ascribed rather to the general neglect 
which has been shown to this most interesting order than 
to the paucity of the county fauna. 



358 THE RECENT NBUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 

The upland bogs of Exmoor, extending 1500 ft. and up- 
wards above sea-level and but little altered since the time 
of primitive man whose remains are so thickly scattered 
among them — the still more wild and lofty range of Dart- 
moor — the richly wooded combes and torrent streams of 
North Devon, and the larger, more slowly -moving rivers 
of other portions of the county with its canals and ponds, 
all afford home and shelter suited to the varied require- 
ments of different species. 

The recorders of Devonshire Neuroptera are but few. 
Stephens, in his " Illustrations of British Entomology," 
Mandibulata, Vol. VI, published in 1835-6, records a number 
of species from Devonshire apparently on the authority of 
Dr. Leach, but no localities are given, and in many instances 
the records cannot be implicitly relied on. From his time 
but little was done until the late Mr. Parfitt, of Exeter, 
the great authority on Devonshire fauna, read his exhaus- 
tive paper on Devonshire Neuroptera before the Devonshire 
Association in 1879. 

Since then the principal records are those by the Eev. 
A. E. Eaton and Messrs. McLachlan, Bignell, Porritt, and 
myself. Much however remains to be done, especially in 
the wilder regions of Exmoor and Dartmoor, where sys- 
tematic work, particularly at night, would probably produce 
great results. 

The Psocidce, the first of the three sub-groups forming the 
Pseudoneuroptera, are arboreal or terrestrial in their habits. 
Some of the wingless section are chiefly found indoors, being 
rarely found away from houses, while the winged section 
are usually to be found on the barks of trees or among the 
foliage, or on palings and other decaying wood, or among 
dead leaves. They are well represented in the county, no 
less than three species having recently been added to the 
British list from specimens found in Devonshire by myself. 

Of the wingless, or partially winged, section, Atropos divin- 
atoria, Mull., the " death-watch " of our superstitious ances- 
tors, is but too common and destructive in ill-kept collections, 
but, like the equally abundant and destructive Clothilla 
jndsatoria, Linn., is rarely seen out of doors. These two 
species, which have a certain superficial resemblance, may be 
easily distinguished by the strongly dilated femora of the 
former. Clothilla picea, Mots., is not uncommon at Lyn- 
mouth indoors, but is occasionally also taken by beating. 
Mr. Parfitt records it as being found among dried fimgi. 
Hyperetes gucstfalimis, Kolbe, was introduced to our list 



THE RECENT NEUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 359 

from specimens beaten from an old beech tree in the Valley 
of Stones, Lynton, in 1898, and subsequently found at Lyn- 
mouth in considerable numbers on ilex trees and, very 
rarely, under stones on the hills. The first British speci- 
mens of Bertkauia prisca^ Kolbe, were found in 1900 on the 
side of a boulder on Countisbury Hill, Lynmouth — (now, 
alas ! buried beneath a motor gart^e) — and subsequently on 
a few occasions under stones at Lynton. All the specimens 
taken were ? , the (J , which is said to be winged, not having 
yet been observed here. 

In the winged section Psocus longicomiSy Fab., is found 
on the rugged bark of trees and has been beaten from alder 
on the banks of the Exe and the East Lyn, also taken at 
Horrabridge (Bignell). Ps. nebulosuSy Steph., common on 
larch at Kockford on the East Lyn, is also recorded from 
Bickleigh and Ivybridge (Bignell), and from Newton Abbot 
and Killerton (Parfitt). Ps, variegaUts, Fab., occurs on the 
banks of the Exe (Parfitt) and near Plymouth (Bignell). 
Ps. fasciatiis. Fab., has occurred at Eockford on the East 
Lyn. Ps. sexpunctattis, Linn., occurred abundantly in 1902 
at Lynmouth, some on the bark of the ilex oak, but the 
majority on the stone wall of a cottage. Ps. bifasciattis, 
Latr., is fairly common at Lynmouth, and has occurred at 
Cann Wood (Bignell) and Stone Wood, Exeter (Parfitt). 
A solitary specimen of Ps. qucbdriviaculatus, Latr., is re- 
corded without locality by Mr. Parfitt, who also records 
Ps. bipunctatusy Linn., though with some hesitation. 
Stenopsocus immacidatiiSy Steph., occurs commonly in Lyn- 
mouth, Ivybridge (Bignell), and elsewhere. St. cniciatus, 
Linn., common round Lynmouth, is also recorded from 
Seaton, Stoke Wood, and Dunsford. CcecUius pedicularis, 
Linn., frequent in houses, is also found on the trunks and 
flying in the sunshine. It has been noticed in abundance at 
Saddle Stone Gate, Exmoor, 1500 feet above sea-level, and, 
as Mr. McLachlan has pointed out, is the only Psocid that is 
known to fly without being disturbed. CJUtvidtts, Steph., 
also occurs on the high levels of Exmoor, as well as at Ljm- 
mouth, Plymouth, Dawlish, Seaton, Exeter, and Ivybridge. 
C. obsolettis, Steph., occurs very sparingly at Lynmouth, and 
C. dalii, McLach., in abundance late in autumn. C. vittatus^ 
Latr., is fairly common at Lynmouth, Stoke Wood, and 
Alphington. C. perlattcs, Kolbe, and C. piceiis, Kolbe, are 
sparingly found along the East and West Lyns. Ectopsocus 
briggsii, McLach., a genus and species new to science, was 
found sparingly at Lynmouth in October, 1899, and since 



360 THE BSCEKT NEUROFTSIU OF DEVONSHIBB. 

then in abundance there, among dead leaves. A specimen was 
taken at Christmas at Seaton (Eaton). Peripsocus pfictopterus, 
Steph., has been taken at Gann Wood (Bignell), Stoke 
Wood (Parfitt), and is common at Rockford on the East 
Lyn. JElipsocus unipunctatus, Miill., is common and generally 
distributed, and E. cyanops, Kostock, is common at Lyn- 
mouth. K westtooodii, McLach., and its variety dbietia^ 
Kolbe, are commonly met with. E, hyalinus, Steph., is not 
uncommon on the Exe (Parfitt), and E, Jlaviceps, Steph., 
found sparingly at Dawlish, is frequent at Lynmouth. 

The Fcrlidce, or Stone-flies, the second sub-group of the 
Pseudoneuroptera, pass their early stages imder water, pre- 
ferring as a rule the more swiftly flowing streams, though 
some are to be foimd in the still waters of canals and 
ponds. The larvae or nymphs may frequently be found 
beneath submerged stones or crawling on wooden piles in 
the water. In Devon the group has been greatly neglected, 
though perhaps not more so than in other counties. 

Dictyopteryx microcephala, Pict., is recorded by Mr. Parfitt 
as being very common along all the streams from spring to 
autumn, but on the East Lyn it occurs very sparingly in 
spring. D, rectangudatay Pict., was taken in Devonshire, 
according to Stephens. Perla margiimta, Panz., is recorded 
by Mr. Parfitt as common on the banks of streams, possibly 
in error. P, maxima. Scop., and P. ceplmlotes, Curt., are 
abundant along all the rivers, as also are Isopteryx torren^ 
Hum, Pict., and Isop, tripunctata. Scop. A few specimens 
of Tmniopteryx nebulosa, Linn., have been taken near Exeter 
(Parfitt), and at Exminster in March (Bignell), and T. risi, 
Morton, rare at Exeter, has been taken in Bickleigh Vale 
(Bignell), and is not uncommon near Watersmeet on the 
East Lyn in April. Leuctra geniculata, Steph., is common 
on the Exe and the East Lyn in August and at Bovey 
Heathfield in May (Parfitt). Of the species formerly con- 
fused under the name of L. fuscivcntris, L, hippopus, Kemp., 
occurs at Ivybridge (Bignell), is abundant along the East 
Lyn, and L. klapalekiy Kemp., occurs along the East Lyn and 
is common on the high grounds of Exmoor some 1500 ft. 
high. Nemoura varieyaia, Oliv., is common at Shaugh 
Bridge and Bickleigh (Bignell), at Exeter (Parfitt), and on 
the East Lyn. N, meyeri, Pict., rare on the Exe in June 
(Parfitt), is common on the East Lyn, sometimes appearing 
as early as January. It has also been noticed at Horra- 
bridge (Bignell). lY. cinerea, Oliv., apparently recorded by 
Parfitt under the name of StdcicolliSf Steph., is common 



THE RECENT NEUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRB. 361 

along the East Lyn, where also N, marginata, Pict., is 
equally common. M inconspicua, Pict., has been taken in 
Cann Wood in October (Bignell) and Ivybridge in August 
(Bignell). 

The Epkemeridce, or May-flies, another aquatic sub-group 
of Pseudoneuroptera, are also fairly represented. Ephemera 
vulgata, Linn., and Eph, danica, Linn., though common, are 
not perhaps so abundant as in some coimties. Eph. lineaia, 
Eaton, has been taken near Exwick (Parfitt). Leptophlebia 
svhmarginata, Steph., and Habrophlebia fusca, Curt., have 
been taken sparingly on the Exe in June. Ephemerella 
ignita, Poda, is common along the East and the West Lyn. 
Ccenis halterata. Fab., and C, dimidiata, Steph., are abun- 
dant on the canal at Exeter (Parfitt). Bcetis binoculaius, 
Linn., may be found on the Exe and Greedy from spring 
to autumn (Parfitt). B, scamhus, Eaton, and B, niger, Linn., 
have been occasionally captured near Exeter (Parfitt). B, 
pumilns, Burm., is common along the East Lyn. B. rhodani, 
Pict., is generally common from spring to autumn, as also 
is B, vermis, Curt., which appears sometimes even in winter. 
Cloeon dipte7nim, Linn., is common on the slower streams, 
and Centroptilum lutcolum, MlilL, seems to be generally dis- 
tributed, as also is Ehithogeniu semicolorata. Curt. Hepta- 
genia sulphurefi, Miill., occurs at Stafford's Weir on the Exe. 
Ecdifurus venosus, Fab., is common and generally distributed. 
Ec. insignis is recorded from the Dart (Eaton) and Exwick 
(Parfitt), and Ec, volitans^ Eaton, from Dunsford on the 
Teign (Parfitt). 

The second main division of the Neuroptera consists of 
the Odonata or Dragon-flies, which are also aquatic in their 
early stages. Owing no doubt to their conspicuous appear- 
ance and diurnal habits the records are fairly satisfactory, 
though probably a few species have been overlooked. 

Of the forty-one species comprised in the six families of 
British Odonata only twenty-five have been recorded from 
Devonshire, a number almost equalled by a single pond in 
Surrey, but there can be no doubt but that careful search 
would add several species. Libellula fvXva, MiilL, for 
instance, has probably been passed over for its commoner 
congener. L, quadriviaculatus, Linn., and Cordulia anea, 
Linn., most surely occur in at all events the southern portion 
of the county. jEschTia junceay Linn., and Enallagma 
cyathigcrum, Charp., both occur freely at Pinkery Pond, 
Exmoor, only about half a mile over the Somersetshire 
border. 



362 THE BBCENT NEUBOPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 

Of the first family the Idbellulidcg, Sympetrum striolatum, 
Charp., is generally common, some of the moorland speci- 
mens being very highly coloured, and a solitary specimen of 
S. vulgatum, Lmn., was taken at Torquay on 15 August, 
1899, by Mr. A. H. Hamm. A few specimens of the sporadic 
migrant S, flaveolum, Linn., were recorded in 1876 from 
Lapford and on the Exe and Clyst (Parfitt). S. sanguineum, 
Miill., is reported by Stephens from Devonshire, but has 
not been noticed since. S. scoticum^ Don., which appears to 
be rare in the southern part of the county, is very common 
on Exmoor at an elevation of 1400 feet. Platetrum de- 
pressum, Linn., and Libdlula quadrimaeulata, Linn., are 
fairly common over ponds and streams. Orthetnvm caned- 
latum, Linn., occurs sparingly in the Exeter district 
(Parfitt), and 0. carrulescens. Fab., has been taken at Corn- 
wood and Ivy bridge (Bignell), Bovey (Hamm). on the Clyst 
and at Strete Raleigh (Parfitt), and elsewhere in the southern 
portion of the county, but not at present in the northern 
portion, although it is common near Bude in North Cornwall, 
just over the border. The only species of the next family, 
Cordvliidoe^ is Oxygastra curtisii. Dale, which is recorded 
by Curtis, "British Entomology," p. 617, from Braunton 
Burrows. 

Of the Gomphidce, the magnificent Cordulegaster annvlaXtis, 
Latr., is widely distributed and fairly common. The jEschnidcc 
are represented by Brachytroii pratense, Miill, which is 
fairly common, as also is JEschna cyanea, Miill. ^. mixta, 
Latr., so long a rarity, has recently been taken in some 
numbers by Mr. G. T. Porritt and others at Torcross and 
elsewhere along the south coast. ^, grandis, Linn., hos 
been taken at Torcross (Bignell) and Bovey Tracey (Hamm). 
Of the Calopterygidce, Calopteryx virgo, Linn., is recorded by 
Mr. Parfitt as being very scarce in the Exeter district, but 
is common at Bickleigh, Plym Bridge, and Shaugh Bridge 
(Bignell). It occurs also at Lydford and abundantly on the 
East Lyn, while C. splendens, Harris, is generally distributed 
in the Exeter district, but not near Plymouth. Of the 
Agrionidm, Lestcs sponsa, Hans, is recorded from Ivy bridge 
(Bignell) and Bovey Tracey (Hamm). Platycncmis pennipeSy 
Pall., has been taken at Saltram (Bignell) and is common 
some seasons in the Topsham Marshes (Parfitt). ryrrhosoma 
nymphula, Sulz., is generally distributed throughout the 
county, and P. tenellum, Vill., has been taken near Bovey 
Tracey (Hamm). Ischnura elegaiis, Lind., is fairly distributed 
and sometimes abundant. Agrion pidchellum, lind., has 



THE RECENT NEUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 363 

been taken along the Exe (Parfitt), and A, pudla, Linn., is 
generally common throughout the county. Miiallagma 
cyathigerum, Charp., has only been recorded from Bovey 
Tracey (Hamm), but is common at Pinkery Pond, Exmoor, 
about half a mile over the Somersetshire border. It has no 
doubt been overlooked. 

The third main group of Neuroptera, the Planipennia 
(Snake-flies, Lacewings, Scorpion-flies, etc.), contains three 
divisions — the Sialina, the Hemerobiina, and the Paiwiyina, 
which are represented in Great Britain by seven families ; 
others, such as the Myrmeleonidce (Ant Lions), familiar 
enough on the Continent, not having yet been noticed in 
our islands. The group is well represented in the county. 

The larvffi for the most part are arboreal, but some are 
aquatic and a few terrestrial. In the Sialina the larvae of 
both species of Sialis are aquatic. In the Hemerohihia all 
are arboreal except the aquatic genera Osmylus and Sisyra, 
while the Fanorpina live on or under the ground. Of the 
first family of the Sialina, the Sialidce, Sialis lutaina, linn., 
is common and generally distributed, while the rarer 
S. fulffinaria, Pict., has only been very sparingly taken on 
the East Lyn (Briggs). In the next family, the Raphidiidoe^ 
Raphidia notata, Fab., and R. xanthostigma, Steph., are men- 
tioned by Mr. Parfitt as having been taken in North Devon 
by Mr. Eaddon, but a record three-quarters of a century 
old is scarcely satisfactory. In the second division or 
Hemerohiina in the family Osmylidoe, the beautiful Osmylus 
chrysops, Linn., often known as the Fairy-fly, is common 
along the East Lyn, and is recorded from Ivybridge (Big- 
nell), Marsh Mills and Plym Bridge (Keys), and rarely 
at Topsham (Parfitt). Sisyra fuscata, Fab., is not un- 
common among firs where water is (Parfitt), and S. ter- 
minnlis, Curt., occurs in the Exeter district (Parfitt). Of 
the Hemcrobiida:, Micromus variegatus. Fab., and M, paganus, 
Linn., are fairly common and widely distributed, the former 
being frequently swept from rank herbage by the hedge- 
side, while the latter shows a preference for trees and 
bushes. Of the genus Hemerobitis itself, ff. pelluddiLS, 
Walker, has occurred at Exwick (Eaton) and sparingly at 
Lynmouth (Briggs) in company with H, inconspicwus, 
McLach. H. 7iitidultis, Fab., occurs among fir trees. H. 
micans, Oliv., is common and generally distributed, but its 
variety, fuscincrvis, Schn., is rare. ff. humuli, Linn., and 
n. lutescenSy Fab., are fairly common and generally distri- 
buted. H, marginatus, Steph., is recorded from the Exeter 



364 THE RECENT NBUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 

district (Parfitt). E, stigma, Steph., is common among firs. 
H, atrifrons, McLach., is fairly common at Eockford, on the 
East Lyn, and Mr. Parfitt records H. pint from Stoke 
Wood, near Exeter. H, suhnebulosus, Steph., is fairly com- 
mon but local. H. nervostcs, Fab., occurring at Bude and 
Penzance, has not yet been recorded from Devonshire. Two 
specimens of the very rare Megalomus hirtus from near 
Exeter are recorded by Mr. Parfitt, but there is probably 
some error in identification or locality. Of the Chrysopidce, 
Chrysopa flava, Scop., occurs sparingly, but is probably fre- 
quently confused with the commoner C, mttatay Wesm. 
C. alba, Linn., is common and widely distributed, being 
recorded from Exeter (Parfitt), Plymouth (Bignell), and 
near Lynmouth (Briggs). C. Jlavi/rons, Brauer, is ifairly 
common, and C, vulgaris, Schr., is common throughout the 
county, though its winter condition, carnea, Steph., has not 
been recorded. The ill-odoured C. septe7npunctata, Wesm., 
which most unjustly has given the name of stink-fly or 
corpse-fly to the whole of this beautiful genus, is equally 
common. C. ventralis, Curt., is taken sparingly both in the 
Exeter and Lynmouth districts, but the commoner C, aspersa^ 
Wesm., seems only to have been taken by Mr. Porritt at 
Torcross in 1902. Cperla, Linn., is generally common, and 
0, ahhreviata, Curt., was recorded by Curtis from North 
Devon, but has not occurred since his time. Most unfor- 
tunately his collection with all his types was allowed to 
leave England, and is now at the Eoyal Victoria Museum, 
Melbourne. Nothochrysa fulvicepSy Steph., and N, capitata. 
Fab., are recorded by Stephens from Devonshire, but have 
not been noticed since. Of the Conioptciygidce, Conioptcrt/x 
tineiformis, Curt., is common in woods and gardens, as also 
is C, psociformis, Curt., but C. aleyrodifanniSy Steph., though 
widely scattered, is rarer. All three species, however, are 
much overlooked. 

In the third division, the Panorpina, the family Panarpidce 
is represented by Panorpa communis, Linn., and A germanica, 
Linn., which are generally common throughout the county, 
and P. cogiwta, Ram., which is recorded with hesitation by 
Mr. Parfitt from a fir plantation near Powderham. 

The Triclwptera, the last of the four groups of the 
Neuroptera, are very well represented, taking the county as 
a whole, but the distribution is somewhat irregular, owing 
to the different character of the waters. Some of the com- 
monest of the Phryganidce, Limnophilidm and Leptoceridm, 
are almost absent from the Lynmouth district, where the 



THE RECENT NEUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 365 

rivers are rapid mountain torrents, while in the southern 
portion of the county, where the rivers are broader and 
slower and there are more marshes, ponds, and canals, there 
is a marked difference in the Neuropterous fauna, fully 
accounting for the richness of Mr. Parfitt's list. 

The Tinchoptera are separated into two main divisions, the 
Neuroptera, in which the joints of the maxillary palpi of 
the males (four, three, or two) are less in number than 
those of the females (five), and the JEquipalpia, in which the 
number of joints (five) is equal in both sexes. With the 
exception of the single terrestrial species, the larvae of all 
are aquatic. Many of the imagines come freely to light, and 
a few occasionally appear at the lepidopterists' "sugar." 
In the first division, in the family PhryganidcBy Phryganea 
ffrandiSy Linn., has been taken by the Exeter Canal, and 
P. varia, Fab., near Shaugh Bridge (Parfitt). Of the Limno- 
phUidce, Colpotaulius incisus, Curt., occurs on the Dartmoor 
streams near Ashburton and Tavistock (Parfitt). GramvKh 
taulim cUomarius, Fab., is recorded by Stephens; Glypho- 
tceluis pelhicidus, Oliv., is recorded as common in June and 
July by Mr. Parfitt, but no locality is given. Zimnophilus 
rhombvcus, Linn., is not uncommon in May and July. Z, 
Jlavicomis, Fab., is frequent at Exeter, and a single specimen 
has occurred at Lynmouth. Z. murmoratics, Curt., has been 
taken on the Teign in May, on the Axe at Whitford 
(McLachlan), at Bickleigh (Bignell), and Torcross (Porritt). 
L. lunatus, Curt., sparingly throughout the county. L. griseus, 
Linn., is recorded by Stephens, and L. bipunctatus, Curt., by 
Parfitt at St. James' Weir, Exeter, and at Torcross at sugar 
(Porritt). X. affinis, Curt., occurs sparingly at Lynton, but 
is in great abundance on the south coast, flying freely in the 
sunshine (Porritt). L, cerUralis, Curt., and Z. vittattLS, Fab., 
are not uncommon at Lynmouth, and are also recorded 
from the Exeter and Plymouth districts. Z, auricula, Curt., 
has occurred at Shute (McLachlan), Bickleigh (Bignell), and 
is not uncommon at the Alphington Brook and Blackwaller 
Weir on the Exe (Parfitt). Z, luridus, Curt., is not common 
on the Exe (Parfitt). Z, sparsus, Curt., occurs at Bickleigh 
and sparingly on the Upper Weir, Exeter, on the Alphing- 
ton Brook in May and June, at Colyton (McLachlan), and 
near Lynmouth. Z, fiiscicomis, Kam., is also occasionally 
taken near Exeter (Parfitt). Anabolia nervosa, Curt, common 
near Exeter in autumn, also occurs near Saddle Stone, 
Exmoor, where Anysarchus ccenosus, Curt., may be found 
sparingly. Of the somewhat puzzling group of Stenophyllax 



366 THK BBCENT NEUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 

and its allies, Stevophyllax stellatus, Curt., taken occasionally 
at sugar at Alphington, is not uncommon at Lynmouth, as 
also is S. concentricuSy Zett, which has been taken freely at 
sugar at Torcross (Porritt), while S, vibex, Curt., is recorded 
from Alphington (Parfitt). Microptema sequax, McLach., 
has been taken at Alphington (Parfitt) and Lynton (McLach- 
lan). M. lateralis, Steph., is not uncommon and widely 
distributed. Halesus radiaticSy Curt., and JT. digitatus, Schr., 
are both generally common. Ihnisus annulatus, Steph., 
taken by Mr. McLachlan at Dawlish and by Mr. Bignell at 
Horrabridge, is common on the higher reaches of the West 
Lyn. Chcetopteryx villosa, Fab., is scarce, both in the north 
and south of the county, and Apatania muliebris^ McLach., 
is not uncommon at Lee Bay, Lynton, and is also recorded 
by McLachlan from the Lynton district. 

Of the SeriscostomidcPf Seriscostama personatum, Spence, is 
generally distributed throughout the county. Notidobia 
cUiariSy Linn., is common along the Dartmoor streams 
(Parfitt), Ooera pUosa, Fab., at Whitford (McLachlan), on 
the Dartmoor streams, and on the East Lyn. SUo paUipes, 
Fab., is generally common, and S. nigHcornis, Pict., is not 
uncommon on the East Lyn. Brachycentrus subnubilus. 
Curt., has been taken in some numbers by Mr. Parfitt near 
Exeter. Cruncecia irrorata, Curt., is recorded from Bovi- 
sand (Bignell), Dunsford (Parfitt), Dawlish (McLachlan), 
Plymouth (McLachlan), Seaton (Eaton), and a solitary 
specimen from the East Lyn (Briggs). Lepidostoma hirtum, 
Fab., and Lasciocephala basalis, KoL, are common in most 
parts of the county. 

In the second division of the Trichoptera, the jEquipalpia 
of the family Leptoceridce, Bercea pullata, Curt, which has 
occurred at Woodbury, but not commonly, is abundant at 
Axmouth and Bovey Common (McLachlan). B, maunis, 
Curt., at Seaton (Eaton) and at Shute (McLachlan). B. arti- 
cularis, Pict., very sparingly at Seaton (Eaton) and Haven 
Cliff (McLachlan). Afolanna angtistata, Curt., was recorded 
by Stephens, but has not been noticed since. Odontocericm 
alhicome. Scop., has occurred at Newton and Bovey Heath- 
field (Parfitt), on the tributaries to the Coly (McLachlan), 
and is very common on the East Lyn. Leptocems nigrotur- 
vosuSy Retz., occurs along the Exe in June (Parfitt). L, albo- 
r/uttatuSy Hag., a specimen taken by the Eev. J. Hellins at 
Exeter. Z. annulicornis, Steph., is common by Bla.ckwaller 
Weir, Exeter (Parfitt). X. aterrimus, Steph., Exeter, but 
not common (Parfitt). Z, ciTieretis, Curt, a very variable 



THE RECENT NEUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 367 

species, is common (Parfitt). L, alhifrons, Linn., occurs at 
Alphington Brook and by the Exe commonly (Parfitt), 
also at Whitford and elsewhere on the Axe and Yarty 
(McLachlan), and at Marsh Mills and Plym Bridge (Bignell). 
L, commutatus, McLach., at Dunsford on the Teign (Parfitt) 
and Plym Bridge (Bignell). Z. bilineatiis, Linn., at Whit- 
ford (McLachlan), Dawlish, Dunsford, Exeter, and in abun- 
dance at Exwick (Parfitt), and on the East Lyn (Briggs). 
L, dissimilis, Steph., at Whitford, but rare (McLachlan), 
Dunsford and by the Exe (Parfitt). Mystaddes (vsurea, 
Pict., is common on most streams, but M. nigra, Linn., is 
not so common (Parfitt). M, longicomis, Linn., occurs 
commonly on all slow waters. Tricenodes hicolor, Curt, is 
recorded by Stephens. T, conspersa, Eamb., is taken on the 
Exe (Parfitt), and occurred commonly at Whitford on the 
Axe in 1902 (McLachlan). Adicdla reducta, McLach., is 
recorded by McLachlan from near Seaton Junction and 
Axmouth, and is widely distributed in the south (Parfitt). 
(Ecetes testacea, Curt., occurs sparingly, but is widely dis- 
tributed, Exeter, Plymouth, and Cann Quarry (Bignell) 
being among the localities recorded. Setodes tinei/ormis, 
Curt., occurs sparingly in the south, and S. interrupta. Fab., 
is common in a very restricted locality near Exwick water- 
mill (Parfitt), and has occurred on the Axe (McLachlan). 

The county is rich in the Hydropsychidce, Hydropsyche 
pdlucidula, Pict., is generally distributed in South Devon 
(Parfitt) and not uncommon on the East Lyn (Briggs). 
H, instabilis, Curt., not common in the south, is abundant on 
the East Lyn. ff. angustipennis, Curt., taken at Ivybridge 
by Mr. Bignell, is common at Exwick, Stoke Hill House, and 
Higher Weir, Exeter (Parfitt). ff, guttata, Pict., has been 
taken singly on the Axe and Coly (McLachlan), at Shaugh 
Bridge (Bignell), and on the Exe not commonly (Parfitt). 
H. lepida, Pict., on the Exeter Canal, but rare (Parfitt). 
Diplectrona felix, Westwood, widely distributed in the 
south, occurs sparingly in the Lynmouth district. PhUo- 
potamics montanuSy Donovan, is abundant on the more rapid 
streams. It appears on the East Lyn throughout the year, 
and varies greatly in size and colour ; the variety insvlaris 
(McLachlan) has occurred at Salcombe, and chrysopterus 
(Morton) at Ilfracombe (Saunders) and the Exmoor streams 
(McLachlan). Wormaldia occipitalis, Pict, occurs at Bovisand 
(Bignell), at Dawlish (Parfitt), and not uncommonly at 
Lynmouth. W, subnigra, McLach., at Lynton, 1 $ 
(McLachlan), and on the East Lyn (Briggs). Plectronemia 



368 THE RECENT NEUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 

conspersa, Curt., common near Plymouth, has occurred also 
at Dunsford, at Exwick Weir, and on the East Lyn. F. 
geniculata, McLach., is recorded from Dawlish (McLachlan), 
and the rare P, hrevis, McLach., was taken sparingly near 
Seaton by the Rev. A. E. Eaton in May, 1898. and also 
subsequently. Polycentropus flavovfiaculatus, Pict.,is common 
at Whitford and the tributaries to the Coly, and also at Ide 
Brook, the Exeter Canal, and the East Lyn. P. kingi, 
McLach., occurs on the East Lyn, and P. muUiguUatus, Curt., 
at Exwick Weir (Parfitt), Bovisand and Bickleigh (Bicknell). 
Holocentropus duhim, Ramb., is rare on the Exeter Canal 
and in the Exminster Marshes (Parfitt), as also is Ecnomus 
tenelliis, Ramb. Tiiiodes wceneri, Linn., has been taken at 
Whitford, at Dunsford, and on the Exe, and is common near 
Lynmouth. T. tinicolor, Pict., has been taken somewhat 
commonly at Seaton (Eaton), and also at Haven Cliff near 
Axmouth, and T. aureola^ Zett., at Dawlish (McLachlan), 
near Axmouth (Eaton), and singly at Branscombe. Lype 
phceopa, Steph., has been taken on the Exe and is abundant 
on the East Lyn. Psycnojnia pusUla, Fab., occurs at Whit- 
ford (McLachlan) and on the East Lyn. 

Of the Rhyacophilidcc, Chimarrha marginata^ Linn., hew 
occurred at Cadover Bridge, Dartmoor (Bignell), at Shaugh 
Bridge and Drewsteignton (Parfitt), near Dunsford, and a 
solitary specimen at Rockford on the East Lyn (Briggs). 
RhyacophUa dorsalis, Curt., common at Shaugh Bridge, Duns- 
ford, and on the Exe, is in profusion on the East Lyn. K 
oUiterata, McLach., was noticed by him higher up the Ex- 
moor streams, but is very rare near Lynmouth. R, munda, 
McLach., generally distributed on the Dartmoor streams, 
also occurs on the East Lyn, where several 2 2 were taken 
(Briggs), as well as at Drewsteignton (Parfitt), Comwood 
and Shaugh Bridge (McLachlan). Glossoina holtoni, Curt., and 
0. veimale, Pict., are recorded by Mr. Parfitt from the Exe 
and from Dunsford ; both species are common on the East 
Lyn. Agapetics fuscipes, Curt., from Dunsford and Woodbury 
Common (Parfitt), near Seaton (McLachlan), and abundantly 
at Lynmouth, and A. coinahis, Pict., at Dunsford and 
Alphington Brook, more commonly than the last (Parfitt), 
also on the tributaries to the Coly (McLachlan). 

Of the concluding family, the JTj/droptilidce^ Agraylea 
multipunctata, Curt., is not uncommon by Stafford Weir 
on the Exe, at Dunsford, and on the bridge at Whitford 
(McLachlan). Hydroptila tineoides, Dalm. ( = sparsa, Curt), 
is very generally distributed in the south. H. McLachlani, 



THE RECENT NEUROPTERA OF DEVONSHIRE. 369 

Klap., has been taken at Seaton (Eaton), and H, forcvpata, 
Eaton, at Shute (McLachlan). Of Orthotrichia angustella, 
McLach., a single specimen is recorded doubtfully by Mr. 
Parfitt, and Oxythira falcata, Morton, has been taken at 
Seaton (Eaton). 

From the foregoing notes it will be seen that although 
the record of Neuroptera is a moderately good one, yet it is 
not nearly so full as might be expected. 

Many of our records are those made during brief holiday 
visits, chiefly paid to seaside towns. There is much need 
for systematic and continued observation, especially in the 
central part of the county, where any one willing to devote 
time and attention to the group will, beyond doubt, add 
largely to the list of Devonshire Neuroptera. 

Rock House, 
Lynmouth. 



vol. xxxviii. 2 A 



SUPPOSED CUEEENCY BAES, FOUND NEAR 
HOLNE CHASE CAMP. 

BY P. F. 8. AHBRT. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



In a paper I read before this Association at Sidmouth in 
1873, on " Some Unrecorded Hill Fortresses near Ashbur- 
ton," while describing the so-called Eoman camp, an earth- 
work on the elevated peninsula of Holne Chase, I mentioned 
a find of several iron bars about fifty yards outside the fosse, 
which at the time were supposed to be unfinished weapons 



l^SESS^^ilS^S^^ 



jgjg y 



i:!::^^^ 



ky^Jg>^?l ' % ' ^*^^^^:^^^i^:iafe>^;^'^\^V,y x.X 




.;^L:2-^«ww^^#j.ji^.i^i7v;^*V7X- 



Supposed Currency Bars. 



NoTS. — By the kindness of Reginald A. Smith, Esq., F.S.A., and the 
permission of the Committee of the Society of Antiquaries, I am enabled to 
reproduce the illustration of typical iron bars used as currency from the 
"Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries'* for 26 January, 1906, quoted 
sboye. 



SUPPOSED CURRENCY BARS, FOUND NEAR HOLNE CHASE. 371 

(" Trans.," VoL VI, p. 264). The discovery came about thus. 
In 1870 Sir Bourchier Wrey's gamekeeper, while digging 
out a rabbit from among a clitter of rocks between the 
camp and the River Dart on the west side, came upon about 
a dozen flat iron bars packed together on a flat stone with 
another stone laid on the top, the whole embedded in peat 
earth among the roots of oak coppice. The bars resembled 
heavy spear-heads, were twenty-four inches long and two 
inches broad, tapering slightly to a flat point at one end, 
while the other was bent round as if to receive a shaft or 
form a handle. Unfortunately the man broke most of the 
bars against the rocks, but carried two or three back to the 
house, where the gardener used them for supports under a 
cucumber frame. 

I first heard of this find in July, 1871, when examining 
the camp with Mr. Spence Bate, f.r.s. Being anxious to 
get a sight of the bars, I subsequently called at the 
gardener's and managed to secure some fragments, for they 
had been still further broken a.cross. I then obtained one 
specimen showing the flat point and another with a portion 
of the folded end, but all was a brittle mass of rust. These 
fragments I showed to several members of the Association 
meeting at Bideford in 1871, among them to Mr. 6. W. 
Ormerod, f.g.s., Mr. E. Parfifct, and Rev. R. Kirwan. By 
Mr. Ormerod's advice I sent a portion of the iron to Pro- 
fessor Church of the Agricultural College, Cirencester, in 
August, 1871, with inquiries. 

In reply, Professor Church wrote : — 

Tlie iron weapons to wliich you refer have fairly puzzled the 
antiquaries. They have been found in several places in England, 
sometimes in considerable numbers. They appear to be unfinished 
straight swords, but whether they are Roman or not is a question 
of great diflficulty. They are smaller in size than any known forms 
of gladius or glaive of the Roman times. Yet it is not impossible 
that great variations in this particular may have occurred. The 
sword in our museum is of about their size (from Bourton-on-the- 
Water where it was found with many others). I do not entertain 
the faintest doubt of the antique character of your swords. They, 
however, are quite unlike the heads of the pila as far as known to 
us from sculptures, Roman remains in Gaul and Italy, etc. 

In September, 1871, Mr. 6. W. Ormerod sent my most 
perfect specimen to Professor Ramsay. In October, 1871, 
Mr. Ormerod enclosed me the reply he had received, stating 
that he had deposited the specimen in the Museum of 

2a2 



372 SUPPOSED CURRENCY BARS, FOUND NEAR HOLNK CHASE. 

Practical Geology, also Professor Eeeks' replies to the ques- 
tions I submitted as follows : — 

Gkological Survey of England and Wales, 

London, 19 October^ 1871. 

Mr DEAR Ormerod, 

I received your letter and the weapon yesterday. I have 

put it into the hands of the proper man, Mr. Reeks, and it will go 

into the museum. I wish your friend had been able to spare us 

one of the pointed ones, but I suppose he could not do so. I do 

not believe any man can tell whether the iron is ancient or 

mediaeval, or later, composition would give no hint. I do not 

think they are at all likely to be Roman, at least they are not at all 

like any Roman spears or other weapons I have ever seen. They 

seem to have been rude pikes of some sort. Reeks or Ruddier 

will write a letter of thanks. _ , , 

Ever yours truly, 

Andr. Ramsat. 

From Mr, Reeks to Mr. Ormerod, 

Replies to Mr. Amery*s questions respecting a fragment of an 
iron implement sent by Mr. Omerod to the Museum of Practical 
Geology, October, 1871. 

1. There appears no evidence to prove that the iron of which 
this implement is formed is of any great antiquity. It appears to 
be ordinary wrought or malleable iron, and exhibits a fibrous 
structure at the fractured end. The surface is covered with a 
thick coating of hydrous peroxide of iron, wliich is crystallized in 
some of the cavities. The time required for this oxidation of the 
metal must depend on the conditions to which it has been ex- 
posed, but might under favourable circumstances bo effected in a 
comparatively short time, and certainly does not by itself bespeak 
any high antiquity. 

2. It is difficult to assign any date to this implement. Iron 
weapons referred to the Anglo-Saxon period are not uncommon, 
but they differ from the implements in question. 

3. As the edges are thick and blunt the implement could not 
have been used as a cutting instrument, but its point at the end 
may have rendered it useful as a tlirusting weapon. At the same 
time it seems doubtful whether it is really a weapon at all, but 
its use could be better determined by examination of a specimen 
more perfect than the one now sent. 

4. It does not appear to resemble the iron head of the Roman 
pilum carried by the pilerii. 

5. There is no reason why it should not be an English imple- 
ment of modern or mediaeval date. But on this point, as on the 
other question, the opinion of a competent antiquary should be 
consulted. 



SUPPOSED CURRENCY BARS, FOUND NEAR HOLNE CHASE. 373 

This ended the inquiry, and I put away the fragments 
and made no further investigations. 

In September last (1905), when visiting the County 
Museum at Heading, I noticed a group of iron bars similar 
in appearance to those found thirty-five years before in 
Holne Chase, and labelled " Supposed British period 
weapons." On inquiry of the Curator, Mr. Colyer, I was 
informed that Mr. Eeginald A. Smith, f.s.a., of the British 
Museum, had been interested in the subject and was mak- 
ing investigations on the character of these iron bars of 
British origin, and I gave him some particulars of those 
found at Holne Chase, of which he made notes. In 
November I heard from Mr. Reginald Smith asking for 
full particulars, which I gave him, and he kindly sent me 
a copy of his paper on "Ancient British Iron Currency," 
read before the Society of Antiquaries on 26 January, 1905, 
in which he states that these iron bars have been known 
for many years, and have gone under the name of un- 
finished or unforged sword-blades, but they have received 
no special attention. The bars roughly resemble swords, 
and consist of a flat and slightly tapering blade, the edges 
of which are blunt and vertical and the faces parallel. A 
rude handle is formed by turning up the edges so as to 
meet one another at a point about two inches from the end. 
The average length of the twenty pieces he had examined 
was 2 ft. 7^ in., the greatest width usually 1 J in., while the 
narrow end is square, not pointed, and is usually J in. wide. 
An important point, he observes, is that such bars have 
often been found secreted in considerable numbers. They 
have been foimd buried in the centre of British camps. 
And it seems much more probable that the Ancient Britons 
would conceal their money at a crisis than that they would 
bury half-made swords. It must be remembered that in such 
a society division of labour was not in an advanced stage, 
and the smith who shaped these bars would have himself 
produced the finished article if swords they were to be. He 
would not have prepared a large number to hand on to 
another to finish. There is too much metal in them for the 
manufacture of a sword of the period. Mr. Smith gives 
the following particulars of eleven such finds, and the 
museums in which they are deposited, which show a wide 
distribution which may carry conviction as to their use. 

Hod Hill, Dorset — In 1868 it was reported in an account of 
this famous earthwork, near Blandfoid, that altogether seventeen 



374 SUPPOSED CURRENCY BARS, FOUND NEAR HOLNE CHASE. 

had been found, measuring on the average 34 in. in length. There 
are eight of them in the British Museum. 

Spetfishury Fort^ Dorset. — Also known as Crawford Castle, 
seven miles from Hod Hill. Tliere are two complete specimens 
from this camp in the British Musexmi, and the handle of a third, 
also two of smaller size with average length of 22 in. and \ in. 
in thickness. These correspond with a large number found at 
Malvern. A detail in the discovery at Spettisbury is that with 
them was found a sword-blade, the upper part of which resembled 
a fine example of the late La T^ne type from the Thames, now in 
the National Collection. Four more of the larger size were 
formerly in the Durden Collection, and came from Hod Hill or 
other site in Dorset. 

Winchester y Hants, — There are four specimens in the British 
Museum. 

Ham Hillf Somerset, — In May, 1845, a large number were 
ploughed up on a part of Hamdon, called Stroud's Hill. The 
length deduced from the illustration of one given in "Proceed- 
ings of Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc." (1886, Plate III, f. 4, 
p. 82) was about 28 J in., but the end of the grip was missing. 
In the British Museum one from this site measures 27|in. and 
three-parts of the handle are missing. 

Moon Hillf Oloueestershtre, — In 1824, in the middle of this 
encampment, 394 similar blades were found deposited in a heap, 
each measuring about 30 in. and tapering slightly away from the 
handle. 

Bourton-on-the-WateVf Qloucestershire, — ^At a place called "the 
Camp" 147 examples were found closely packed together in a 
gravel pit about 1 J ft. below the surface, and the remains of a box 
are said to have accompanied them. Another account says 140 
were found lying edgewise in two rows of seventy one above 
another in the middle of the camp not far from Addlestrop 
Station. There is one specimen in the British Museum and 
another in the Reading Museum. 

Malvern^ Worcestershire, — In one of the dingles on the east 
side of the range between Great Malvern and the Wyche 150 
specimens were found together in 1856. They had evidently 
been concealed about half-way up the dingle, and lay at a depth 
of 3 ft. covered by a piece of rock and rusted into a solid mass. 
In the following year a second deposit of 160 were found 3 or 
4 yd. further up the hill. The second find comprised 100 com- 
plete specimens, the rest being in fragments, and the average length 
of the bars was 22 in., with a width of f in. and thickness of \ in. 
They were of equal breadth and thickness with one end blunt, the 
other hammered out and turned up, forming a sort of socket. 

Giasf anbury (Lake Viliage\ Somerset, — Two specimens have 
been recovered. The handles resemble those of the smaller 



SUPPOSED CURRENCY BARS, FOUND NEAR HOLNE CHASE. 375 

Spettisbury and Maidenhead examples ; the lighter is 26 in. long, 
weighing 4653 grains ; the heavier, only 21 in., weighs 9098 grains. 

Maidenhead, Berks. — A bundle of seven or eight bars was 
found at the bridge about 1894. One is in the British Museum. 
The handle is represented by two flanges hammered out thin, and 
the weight of two shows them to have double the value of the 
common size. 

St, Laicrencej Ventnor, I.W, — Two were found in 1880 in a 
cleft of a rock 6 ft. below the surface, and were broken by the 
workmen ; one measures 34 in. 

Hunsbury (Danes' Camp\ Northants. — Sir Henry Dryden 
illustrated a specimen and compared it with the Meon Hill ex- 
amples, being doubtful of their use as swords. 

The object of Mr. Smith's paper is to suggest that these 
iron bars are none other than the identical iron currency or 
money of certain British tribes as described by Caesar in 
the Fifth Book of Commentaries. He goes into a long argu- 
ment on the various readings to show that iron bars may be 
read in the passage usually translated iron rings. 

By an examination of the weights and lengths of the 
recorded groups of bars he finds them divided into three 
sets. The lighter ones average just under 4770 grains or 
11 ounces, which he presumes the standard weight; the 
twenty of the next set average 8969 grains or 20 i ounces, 
the weights ranging between 16^ and 26^ ounces : these he 
calls double weight ; then come two heavy ones averaging 
18,238 grains or 41 ounces, being a little below the quad- 
ruple weight of 19^080 grains or 43 J ounces. It may be 
assumed that the conditions afiFecting decay were not uni- 
form, but the slightness of the margin affords a good pre- 
sumption that these denominations of weight were current 
among the Britons occupying the Western strongholds in 
the first century B.C. 

Mr. Smith mentions a recent coincidence. Near Neath, 
Glamorganshire, there has been found a series of late Celtic 
bronzes, evidently a hoard, including a weight of 4770 grains. 
It is of a common Roman form, cheese-shaped, with "I" 
incised on the top. A similar weight, but made of basalt, 
is in the museum at Mayence, probably found in that 
neighbourhood. It is 4767 grains, and may be considered 
identical with that from Wales. This near agreement with 
the calculated standard of the iron bars is very remarkable, 
and makes it probable that this was the unit of weight in 
Britain and Western Europe, and of our smaller iron bar 



376 SUPPOSED CUBRENCT BABS, FOUND NEAR HOLNE CHASE. 

currency, the others being twice and four times the unit 
respectively. 

I have searched out the fragments in my possession and 
find the effect of thirty-six years' exposure to the atmo- 
sphere, has caused a disintegration of the structure of the 
iron, which has separated into thin plates lengthways like 
the leaves of an old book : these are exceedingly brittle and 
will scarcely bear lifting. The great value of the whole 
subject is its bearing on the antiquity of the use of iron 
and the glimpse we may have of early commerce in Dan- 
monia, and is my apology for recording the find of iron bars 
near Holne Chase Castle. 




AxciKNT Oak Altar in .St. Petkr's CarRcii, Tawstock.— To /m« p. 877. 



ANCIENT OAK ALTAE IN ST. PETEE'S CHUECH, 
TAWSTOCK 

BT C. R. BAKER KINO, A.R.I.B.A. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



Many years ago, when I was engaged upon the restoration 
of this church, there was in the south chapel an old table, 
which, though not standing against the east wall, I judged 
from its unusual design must have been constructed for use 
as an altar. I had not then an opportunity of making a 
drawing of it, but being in North Devon last year I re- 
visited the church and took sketches and measurements 
from which the accompanying illustration has been made. 

Wooden altar-tables of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries are frequently met with. They usually consist of 
an open framework, having four turned and moulded l^s, 
with horizontal rails or stretchers framed into them at the 
top and near the bottom. The top or slab, also of wood, 
generally has moulded edges projecting a little on all sides 
beyond the supporting frame. 

The table at Tawstock differs from this ordinary type, it 
having the general form of a stone altar, being enclosed on 
the visible sides, Le. the front and the two ends, by close 
paneling. The back is open, having the supports at the 
angles without any panelling between them, this face being 
intended to stand against the wall 

The front has a moulded sill or plinth, mimtings moulded 
on both edges, and top-rail moulded on its under edge next 
the panels. This front face is divided by the muntings 
into four panels, the panels being fluted somewhat similarly 
to "linen panels." The ridges between the hollows or 
" flutings " are continued from bottom to top, meeting the 
plinth and top- rail, without being " stopped " or returned at 
the ends, as in the more ornate form of linen panels. The 



378 ANCIENT ALTAR IN ST. PKTER'S CHUBCH, TAWSTOCK. 

ends of the table are plainer than the front, but the moulded 
plinth is continued. The dexter end has both the muntings 
moulded, but one munting only of the sinister end is so 
treated. The top-rail of each end is left unmoulded. The 
top-slab, of oak, is moulded on its front edge, projecting 
beyond the face of the frame below. The ends of the slab 
also project beyond the face of the end framing, but the 
edges are square instead of being moulded as on the front. 
The back edge of the slab is flush with the back edge of the 
framed supports, so that the frame and top fit closely up 
to the wall. There are no crosses cut in the upper surface 
as is the case with stone mensae. The top is pinned with 
oak pins to the framing below. 

The length of the top is 5 ft. 7^ in., with a breadth or 
projection of 1 ft. SJ in. The height from the floor is 
3 ft. 2iin. 

The table now stands against the north wall of the north 
transept, being used to accommodate the visitors' book and 
its accompaniments. 

This work, judging from the character of its details, seems 
to belong to the early part of the sixteenth century. At 
this period altars were almost universally of stone, and the 
subject of this notice seems to have been designed to preserve 
the general form of the stone altar, the "table form," having 
four ornamental legs but otherwise entirely open below, not 
having come into use. Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, in the Alcuin 
Club Tract, " The Ornaments of the Eubric," mentions in a 
note that wooden altars were sometimes used as early as the 
fifteenth century. This statement is made on documentary 
evidence, but he does not cite any existing examples. It 
would be interesting to know whether other of these early 
wooden altars remain. 

Close by the altar just described stands the beautiful 
canopied "squire's pew," and in the church are many fine 
monuments. 

The design of the Tawstock altar shows that it was 
intended to stand altarwise against the east wall, the long 
front, the part generally seen, being the most ornamented. 
I have in my collection of drawings one of the altar-table 
at Nerquis, in Flintshire, which was intended to stand in 
the centre of the chancel. In this case the frame is open, 
having four legs with moulded and carved rails and other 
ornaments. One end (intended for the west) is very ornate, 
being that towards the people in the nave ; the sides are less 



ANCIENT ALTAR IN ST. PETER'S CHURCH, TAWSTOCK. 379 

ornamented ; and the other end (the east), being away from 
the people and not much seen, is still plainer. This table 
now stands in the chancel, altarwise, with the result that 
the legs at the opposite ends differ in design, those at one 
end being far more ornamental than those at the other end. 
This table dates from about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. 



OLD TIVERTON OE TWYFORD. 

BT MISS EMILT SKINNER. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



I. Old Tiverton. 

The present town of Tiverton appears to have grown under 
the Courtenays' sway, but very old Twyford shows the 
marks of three Saxon homesteads gathered together for the 
sake of safety, two on the east side of the Exe, Skrinkhill 
and Little Holwell, and one on the west side called West 
Exe. I will take that which appears the most ancient — 
Skrinkhill. 

The natural position of old Twyford, between the old ford 
in Collipriest and the ford of the Lowman near old 
Blundell's School, made it a place of early importance, and 
as late as the Commonwealth it was called the Pass. In 
pre-Norman days, when an arm of the sea was said to have 
extended to the Watergate of the city of Exeter (Moor 
Palkan MSS.), the Isca or Exe must then have been 
more a tidal river. Anchors have been discovered as far 
inland as Cowley, and to this day a sea influence is some- 
times visible in the water that works the mill in West 
Exe. Before the Countess Weir was made by Isabella de 
Fortibus, ships must have been able to come much further 
inland and bring the foreign foe nearer Twyford. 

Cranmore Fort on Skrinkhill appears to have been an 
ancient British settlement, and it is to be regretted that the 
old wall of uncemented stone which remained there about 
forty years ago should have been destroyed. A rocky hill, 
rising like a small Gibraltar, Skrinkhill was undoubtedly 
the old guard of the rivers. The names of the old owners 
are lost in antiquity, as they would probably have had an 
exemption from taxation from the importance of their 
service as guards of the rivers. 



OLD TIVERTON OR TWYFORD. 381 

Certainly in the earlier sections of " Testa de Nevil," A.i). 
1221 — number 1440 closely following Tiverton — Henry de 
Pont Audomar (Henry of the Bridge) holds the manor of 
Wobernford, Halberton. (I shall mention later the close 
connexion this manor had with Tiverton.) ('Trans.," 
Vol. XXXVII, p. 426.) 

Any one on the river between the bridge and the church 
looking at Skrinkhill would understand its ancient import- 
ance. Scouts sent out on Exeter Hill could see a beacon 
fire burning on Black Down and other hills, or give warning 
by lighting their own. (Culmstock was an old Saxon out- 
post. " Trans.," Vol XXX, p. 297.) 

From this fort invaders on the east and west of the Exe 
could be seen and their crossing the Eiver Lowman checked. 
Near Caerwise or the City of Waters (Exeter), Twyford, 
through its easy access by the Exe, was exposed to marau- 
ders by sea, and this was a warpath — proved by the battle 
at Bampton, A.D 620 — whilst the finding of Eoman coins 
hidden near Gombay marks the trace of man along the 
banks of the Lowman. 

In the days of King Alfred the position and locality of 
this little town as being near Skrinkhill are placed beyond 
dispute, for it is called Twyford or Two Fords, and is described 
as on a hill composed of twelve tythings governed by a 
portreeve, and is specially named by him in his will to be, 
with Collumpton and other places, the property of his 
second son. 

Although we have no distinct record of Alfred's visiting 
Devonshire, a man of his capacity in planning his resistance 
of the Danes would certainly have examined, or made 
another examine, so important a place as Twyford, with its 
two river passes, particularly as in 877 he tried to reach 
Exeter to defeat the Danes (Oliver). He was not far off, for 
as late as 1826 on the Bath road, eleven miles from Taunton 
on Borough Bridge, a pillar stood that was said to mark the 
site of the hut where Alfred allowed the cakes to burn. 

We know from the word portreeve that Twyford at this 
date was a commercial town, and although the English are 
considered to have been only shepherds and wool-sellers 
before the Plantagenets promoted the manufacture of wool, 
the charter of a.d. 690 shows there was a slave traflBc. 

Charters of Alfred lay great stress on truth and honour 
in respect to contracts and debts. Reeves were to be men 
of unimpeachable integrity, and a merchant who traversed 
the sea frequently received the social position of an earl. 



382 OLD TIVERTON OR TWYFORD. 

In Athelstan's day all large transactions of buying and 
selling were to be within the gate, and witnesses of a bargain 
were to be above suspicion. He also commanded the 
rendering of tithes. 

Edgar, A.D. 959-75, fixed one coinage, with the standard 
of measurement and weight observed at London and at 
Winchester. 

Canute's Charter, a.d. 1016-35, regulated military dress, 
allowed a man to hunt on his own land. The Sabbath was 
to begin at noon on Saturday and continue until Monday 
dawn, and there were to be no marketings or business 
transactions on this holy day (Stubbs, " Select Charters "). 

And 80 this little Saxon homestead continued gaining a 
notoriety in its massacre of the Danes. 

Gytha, the mother of Harold, held it in the Confessor's 
day. 

In the Exchequer "Domesday" it is Tovretone, in the 
Exeter " Domesday," Touretona. 

King William held it and had in demesne 1^ hides with 
6 ploughs. His villeins, 35 in number, held 2 hides; there 
were 24 bordars and 19 serfs. Cattle and swine appear 
plentiful. It had two mills of some importance, as each 
paid 58. 6d. annually. One of these mills was probably 
near the site of the present one in Elmore, not far from the 
old ford of the Lowman (from an early date one portion of 
the town lake has been conveyed into the Lowman just 
above the mill head in Elmore), and the other in St. Andrew s 
Street near Cranmore Fort. At a later date this mill had 
a chapel and a court-house near it, and there was an old 
bridle-path from Exeter Hill over Skrinkhill that led to it. 

These mills appear the most ancient, as the leat which 
worked the others was made after the Conquest. 

The acreage is given as 4474. 

In addition to its woods and fourteen acres of meadow-land, 
there is the record of forty acres of common pasture — probably 
the moorland round Elmore. Polwhele places Tiverton among 
the fenlands of Devon, and the shifting nature of the soil 
in Elmore was confirmed in the terms of the gift of Countess 
Amica of Elmore to the poor of Tiverton, which contained 
a clause, " If soil were taken away it was to be replaced by 
other matter." I have heard from my forefathers that 
Elmore was originally a sort of fenland on which grew the 
wood used for the bows of archers. It is interesting to 
note how many important bowmen received land in this 
neighbourhood. 



OLD TIVERTON OR TWYFORD. 383 

Nicolas, King William's head bowman, held in Silverton 
and CoUumpton ; Fulcher had also a free grant of land in 
the Hundred of Tiverton. The Kev. T. W. Whale traces 
one holding of Fulcher to be Leigh in Loxbeare (" Trans.," 
Vol. XXXIV, p. 297). Archers lived generally near a river, 
and I think Fulcher*s land was nearer the Exe. One of his 
holdings had the name of " Cott," and " Cotty-house " was 
the name of the old turnpike gatehouse at the foot of 
Seven Cross Hill. ** Orchard Leigh " is still the name of a 
place not far from Broad Lane. 

William of Normandy's successful conquest of England 
was undoubtedly due to the master mind that made him 
secure all places of importance, and he made the Hundred 
of Tiverton a Norman stronghold, realizing the advantage 
of doing so. As king, he held the little settlement guarding 
the junction of the rivers, and some of his important followers 
were apportioned other commanding positions. Walter de 
Claville held land along the bank of the Eiver Lowman ; 
Odo Fitz Gamelin was given Huntsham ; Ealf de Pomeroy 
had Chevithome, Uplowman, and Awliscombe; Hamericus 
de Arcis, East Bradley; William Hostiarius, the King's 
Eeeve, one of the two who carried the geld for Devonshire 
to the King's Exchequer at Winchester("Trans.," Vol. XXXV, 
p. 159), had a holding at Boleham, and to this day an estate 
near is called Eix, apparently a corruption of Bex. Badulf 
Paganel and Baldwin the Sheriff had also land in the 
hundred. 

Four thanes appear to have held land in the Tiverton 
hundred. From an explanation given in "Transactions," 
XXIX, 493, note 58, it seems that thanes tilled the post 
of county gamekeepers or royal foresters. The many 
woods around Tiverton would have given them work. 

There was a tradition that the Worth family received 
their manor at the Conquest: I do not find it confirmed. 
The king held it and Radulf Paganel under him, and in the 
Confessor's day Saward held it. 

The old Chattey family also claimed from the Conquest : 
that I find possible, as Humphrey de Charters held under 
Drogo in the Witheridge hundred, and Humphrey continued 
a family name to the nineteenth century. 

As late as 1860 two surnames were left in Tiverton 
that were reminders of the long past — Clavel and Gamelin. 
Walter de Claville and Odo Fitz Gamelin held land in the 
'* Domesday" list. 

From old deeds, and an exemption of service, it seems 



384 OLD TIVEETON OR TVnrFORD. 

probable that land on the lower portion of Skrinkhill was 
old Saxon bog-land. I can trace no Saxon church or 
mother church in Tiverton at this early date. I will speak 
of its church connexion in my Holwell paper. 

II. Manlbytona or Manley Town. 

THE HOLWELLS. 

The two estates of Great and Little Holwell were formerly 
known by the name of Manley, and had that name in deeds 
in the reign of Henry VIII. 

They correspond in size to the Manley tona of the "Domes- 
day " list in the hundred of Tiverton. Manley and Bradley 
were popular names for estates in the Halberton and 
Tiverton hundreds. The "Domesday" identifiers were 
unable to correctly trace this estate, as they did not 
know of its purchase, also change of name by the Holwell 
family. 

It had a splendid position for a Saxon "tun," not far from 
the banks of a stream, with woods near to supply it with 
fuel ; it was also near the very ancient road and causeway 
on Exeter Hill. 

In Saxon days Tiverton appears to have had no mother 
church, therefore its services must have been conducted by 
outside help. At this early date Collumpton, or some 
religious house, would have supplied the priest. Collump- 
ton, according to the "Domesday" records, had an early 
church. Crediton was then the see of the west, and Saxon 
roads to this old town must have been through Bickleigh, 
which is said to have had one of the first bridges over the 
Exe. The Holwells lay in the direct route east of the river, 
and old river bridle-paths and lanes from Twyford, Newte's 
Hill, Exeter Hill, and Bax Woods converged near and round 
them. These can still be traced. 

From an early period an alms-box was to be found in 
every place of worship. Following the suppression of the 
monasteries it became a more permanent source of relief. 
An injunction in the reign of Edward VI, and the Visitation 
in the second year of Elizabeth, called for special attention 
in the placing of this box in a prominent position, and the 
antiquity of the highway of Exeter Hill is confirmed, as 
Butterleigh Church still retains its poor-box with its in- 
scription : " This box is Frelie given to receive Alms for ye 
Poore, 1629." 

Outside Gogwell farmhouse on Exeter Hill is a flight of 



OLD TIVERTON OR TWYFORD. 385 

steps, which tradition says was tlie spot where the minister 
stood to receive the tithes when they were paid in kind. 

The records of Little Holwell puzzled Harding. More 
than three hundred years ago the rights of wdy through it 
were declared to be of great antiquity, and the names of its 
fields marked a lost power. 

One field was called the Gill Hall, or Guildhall, and 
another had the important name of Gallows Down. Gallows 
were only granted " in a lihti-um mancHum or villa integra " ^ 
("Trans.," Vol. XXX, p. 247). 

Ancient deeds lay stress on its two herb gardens. In 
tithes of curtilage garden herbs were accepted as payment, 
and in the tithe list of Bishop Brownlow, 1287, the profit of 
ovens was included (" Trans.," Vol. XXVI, p. 226). There 
also appears to have been an old '* bake howse " of much 
importance. The Old English word for a baker was baxter, 
and the woods near were called the " Bax Woods.*' 

It has no record of a mill, but Tiverton and Bickleigh 
mills were near. 

The buildings of Great Holwell are comparatively modern, 
but no one can look at those of Little Holwell without 
noticing their antiquity, and the cottage (now in decay) in 
the lane near Bax Woods is also very ancient. 

There is a tradition that in older and more troublesome 
times, when the fire on the hearth was not burning, guard 
used to be kept over the lai^ge open chimney of Little 
Holwell, fearing any one might descend to rob or kill, as 
tramps and troublesome wayfarers frequented the very old 
bridle-paths and roads around the farm. 

The " Domesday" records of this manor (" Trans.," ibid. IV, 
pp. 544-6) show that it was given to Baldwin the Sheriff, 
but it is interesting to note that Edwi the Saxon owner 
remained as a tenant at the charge of 10s. yearly. 

Ac. r. p. 
Its measurement of 145 acres is exactly that 
of Little Holwell . ... 

and Great Holwell or Hare Hill 



31 








114 


3 


20 


145 


3 


20 



This manor, held by Edwi in Saxon days, has no exemp- 
tion in the Geld List. It is not a large holding with its 
3 villeins, 3 bordars, and 1 serf ; 10 head of cattle, 30 sheep, 

^ The original deed confinuiug the rights of way is still preserved. 
VOL. XXXVIII. 2 B 



386 OLD TIVERTON OR TWYFORD. 

and 25 goats. Its situation is helped by Edwi appearing to 
be the owner of the near manor of Butterleigh. 

The curious old names of the places around still linger — 
" Durkshay's- Lane." 

One portion was called " Durshame," evidently the Ham 
of Dur. The name Gill Hall and the nearness of the 
Gallows Down suggests some past payment. 

There are strong reasons for considering that at Holwell an 
old Court of the Hundred was held — its easy access by the 
river paths of the Lowman and Exe and the nearness of the 
fords. 

" This Court, as regards Devon, was in early times held 
in the open air on some carefully entrenched hill or kopje on 
the boundary line of the Hundred, where the authorities 
and knights of the Hundred met for defence against the 
Danes." 

Little Holwell was the boundary line of the cultivated 
land of tlie Tiverton Hundred, south-east of the Exe, the 
Bax Woods forming a wedge between the Tiverton and old 
Harrige or Sulfretona Hundred. Silverton was one of the 
four cases of exemption of the ordinary form of hiding. 
There is a record that a Court of the Hundred of Harriage 
was held of old (on the boundary line between Bradninch 
and Collumpton) at Whorridge Farm ("Trans.," Vol. XXXII, 
p. 545). 

Tiverton being a royal holding had a king's reeve by 
whom the tax was collected, and I have shown one of the 
highest of the King's reeves, William Hostiarius, had a 
residence as near as Boleham. 

Little Holwell held just the position for the Court of the 
Hundred, as it was the boundary line for the collection of 
the Danegelt of the Tiverton Hundred in the tenth and 
eleventh centuries, and it is worth noting that later, in the 
tenth year of Edward I's reign. Arnica, Countess of Devon, 
claimed frank-pledge and gallows rights of court on White 
Down, near Collumpton, also south of the Tiverton Hundred. 

The missing virgate for Tiverton from the Halberton 
Hundred is stated to have been one virgate of land in the 
Wobemford estate, which at that time included Pitt and 
Obernford. It is named villagers' land, held under Bristric, 
and is distinct from the township of Halberton, and it proves 
this to have been an inhabited region, as Pitt is close to the 
Holwells. 

This portion of old Twyford and the Cranmore Fort 
portion, with its old Castle Barton, now Collipriest Farm, 



OLD TIVERTON OR TWYFORD. 387 

appear to help make that part of the Tiverton hundred in 
Chappie's Risdon, page 133 : Tiverton £3. 19s. Od. 

Although the property of Baldwin the SherifiP, there is no 
record of this estate being a possession of the Courtenays, 
but it is described as joining their land, and these facts are 
confirmed by tlie records of John Greenway's Charities 
which included the estate of Little Holwell, which he gave 
in the reign of Henry VIII, and from the title deeds and 
old leases we know that it was not a possession of the 
Courtenays. 

The possessors later took the name of the holding, and 
bore the surname of Manlech or Manley, and one, William, 
is mentioned in an old Latin deed concerning the four 
ecclesiastical divisions of Tiverton, and the will of John 
Manlie, who held a lease of this little estate granted in the 
thirty-second year of Henry VIII, is in the list of Wills 
(" Trans.," date 1591, p. 460). He was succeeded by John 
Godbere, who was succeeded by Richard Holwell, who 
changed the name of the tenement from Manlie to Holwell, 
a name he had already given to Great Holwell. 

The estate of Little Holwell was connected with Green- 
way's Charities from the time of tlie death of the donor in 
1529 until the close of the last century ; it has since been 
sold. 

Great Holwell, which belonged to Blagdon's Charity, has 
also been sold. 

III. West Exe. 

West Exe was the guard of the Exe on the west side and 
was of great importance in checking invaders from the 
north. It was the third of the Saxon settlements near to 
each other for help and security. 

The great success in the slaughter of the Danes is ex- 
plained if we consider the deadly nature of the attack 
coming from the inhabitants east and west of the Exe or 
Isca as it was then called. Polwhele says that the word 
Isca, in the opinion of several etymologists, is derived from 
the British "isacu" (elder), as this wood grew in great 
abundance on the banks of the Exe. Elder-wood was held 
in great esteem by the ancient inhabitants of Devon and 
Cornwall. 

There is an ancient legend that dwarf elder or danewort 
grows only where the Danes were slain. It certainly 
flourishes vigorously around Tiverton and in the Chorl below 
St. Peter's churchyard. 

2b2 



388 OLD TIVERTON OR TWYFORD. 

In West Exe lay the earliest roads from the old ford in 
Collipriest to Washfield, Stoodleigh, Oakford, Witheridge, 
and Southmolton, as the new road beyond Bolham and 
Stoodleigh £oad was not cut before the last century. An 
old bridle-path can still be traced from the Broad Lane and 
Path Fields, passing in olden days through the meadows in 
front of Waldron's Almshouses, and the Loughboro' Fields 
to Washfield. There was another old path through the 
Ham by Exeleigh. 

Seven Cross lload was a very ancient highway, carried 
over the hill for safety, when the valleys would be impass- 
able at times of heavy rain and floods. One portion on the 
brow of the hill is still called Cold Harbour (shelter), 
generally held to indicate the neighbourhood of a Roman 
road ("Trans.," Vol. X, p. 300). It was an old road to 
Bickleigh, Thorverton, and Crediton, and its by-ways led to 
Templeton, Eackenford, and also Chumleigh: the latter 
was on the borders of the great forest between Exmoor and 
Dartmoor, where King Athelstan was said to have hunted 
" or ever it was towned." This ancient road, from its position 
and crossways, was probably one of the places where Saxon 
slaves were liberated. **The solemn enfranchisement of 
slaves is recorded as having taken place not in a church but 
at the four ways, because here stood the cross where the 
people were in the habit of assembling for worship. In fact, 
the erecting of a cross seems to have been regarded as a kind 
of legal consecration" ("Trans.," Vol. XXX, p. 269). 

There are traces of great antiquity around West Exe. 
The word " Ham " speaks to us of early dwellers before the 
mill leat divided the meadow from the river. The name 
" Wellbrook " appears a corruption of the old Saxon word 
Wallabrook or brook of tlie town. It was in this part the 
very early markets were held ; a stream of some importance 
passed through Wellbrook, but it was diverted for filling 
the leat. 

West Exe was a separate settlement, with a separate 
market and tithing, from the more modern town of the 
Courtenays' above the Exe bridge. In the very early 
entries of the parish registers inhabitants from this part 
are specified as from West Exe. 

This separation was continued for centuries. 

In the ** Taunton Journal," September, 1726, was the 
following : " Two burgesses did serve in parliament for the 
borough of Twyford. They were chosen by the votes of 
potwalliners before Tiverton was incorporated. Note. — ^The 



OLD TIVERTON OR TWYFORD. 389 

inhabitants of West Exe, they have no vote in such 
election." 

This portion of Tiverton is in "Domesday" (Devon), 
ibid. VI, p. 904. It is in the Exeter book Touretona, and in 
the Exchequer book Tovretone, spelt in the same way as the 
manor of Tiverton held by Gytha, the mother of Harold. 

This part and Washfield were held in Edward the Con- 
fessor's reign by the Saxon Merusalem. They were given 
by the Conqueror to one of his military servants, Eadulf 
Paganel, a Frankling knight, and they were sub-held by 
Girard. Eadulf Paganel held the adjoining manor of Worth 
under the king; he had in demesne two ferlings and one 
plough (ibid. 756). There is an exemption between the 
Geld and " Domesday " lists, and a reduction from 40s. to 30s., 
which helps to decide that the military service was local. 
There is another proof of this being a military station. 
William is said to have boasted that not one head of cattle 
was omitted from the "Domesday" return — in West Exe 
and Washfield not one animal is mentioned. 

The mistake of the Rev. T. W. Whale in first naming this 
holding "Cove," in his "Analysis of Exon 'Domesday'" 
("Trans," Vol. XXVIII, p. 445, number 1005), is easily 
traced to the spelling " Covertone," instead of Tovertone in 
the Pipe Eolls of Henry II ("Trans.," Vol. XXIX, p. 484). 
He corrects it in Vol. XXXIV, p. 289 — there he names it 
West Exe. The history of the escheat in the Pipe Eolls 
of Henry II. places it beyond doubt as the "Domesday" 
holding of Girard, and as it belonged to the barony of 
Peveril it could not have formed part of the Courtenays' 
Ashley park made about 1106. This is further confirmed 
by Weyber's gift as late as 1518. " Vocate le Hamme cum 
suis pertinenties," "lying in the south part of West Exe 
between the land of John Hensleigh on the east, the 
tenement of John Bodleigh on the west, and the land of 
the Coimtess of Devon on the south." Taking the acknow- 
ledged old boundary line of the Earl of Devon's Home Park 
as not extending beyond the line of St. Peter's churchyard 
in the Ham below where Exeleigh now stands, it helps to 
locate this old Peveril portion as being those fields below 
Prescott, and to explain why from ancient days there has 
been a free use of the river for bathing and fishing near the 
weir, and it has been used by the people for generations 
as an indisputable right, just as children always played 
freely on the portion called the Eag, on the west side of the 
ford. 



390 OLD TIVERTON OR TWYFORD. 

In the Tax EoU of Edward I (" Trans.," Vol. XXX, p. 417) 
Little Washfield only is mentioned. In " Testa de Nevill " 
(*• Trans./' Vol. XXX, p. 213, note 127) it is again confirmed 
as West Exe ; Feoda in Capite acknowledging its tithing, 
and this confirms this separate portion shown in Chappie's 
(p. 133): West Exe, 15s. This part has still the same 
name, but the Washfield next to it, from the smallness of the 
holding, 202 acres, could not be the present Washfield ; 
that would be Wasfelta (" Dom.," iUd, Vol. VII, p. 946). 
Worth is returned about 500 acres. There is little doubt 
this portion of the hundred lay between West Exe and 
Worth, and would be the Loughboro' Fields, Leat Street, 
and where the factory stands. The old name for the 
Loughboro* Fields was Tomwill. An old shed and other 
buildings were there in the last century. 

The Exe has frequently changed its course ; in the days 
of the Conqueror the river flowed more to the south and 
left more land on the other side for the Courtenays* park, 
and its nearness to these fields was no doubt the cause of 
the old name Wasfelta and Wassyfield. Beyond these 
Ix)ughboro* Fields a line of old villages and old important 
residences can be traced. Bishop I^cy's Register records 
a licence for a chapel at Palmer's village. There was an 
earlier chapel at Farleigh, licensed by Brantyngham in 1374. 

Some Tivertonians have an erroneous idea that there 
could be no roads or ways near or through tlie Earl of Devon's 
park. They should read the Statute of Winchester, a.d. 1285, 
Clause V, and they will see that in it Edward I guarded the 
rights of all classes of his subjects, and no lord's park could 
encroach on a highway. 

I can find no trace of habitation at the Norman Conquest 
on the principal portion of our present town. Boleham, or 
the Ham of Bole, was as disconnected as it is now. This is 
shown by its possession of a pack-horse, and a large mill 
for it rendered 7s. annually. This was held by William 
Hostiarius, the King's reeve, at the time of the " Domesday " 
and Geld List. 

It is interesting to note that in the long past Tiverton 
held its own ; no doubt the abundance of its waterways 
helped to make it. 

The ancient settlements of Twyford, Manleytona, and 
West Exe help to confirm the accepted fact that early 
dwellers chose their position on or near the banks of a 
stream. 



THE'PEIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: 
ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

BY THE REV. d'OYLY W. OLDHAM, M.A., OXON., J.P. 

(Read at Lynton, July, 1900.) 



There are those who in the present day ignorantly talk of 
old times as being ** dark ages." It is true that as to social 
refinement and scientific knowledge, our distant forefathers 
were very far behind ourselves of this twentieth century, 
but in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries the 
people of England were, according to their lights and educa- 
tion, deeply imbued with Keligion and its sacred ordinances, 
while at the same time it may be fearlessly asserted that 
Eeligion entered into the common routine of daily home 
life, forming a larger part of that daily home life tlian we in 
this our day have any idea or conception of. For those were 
indeed *' the ages of faith." 

As early as a.d. 692 the second Trullan Council decreed 
that no priest should celebrate either Baptism or Eucharist 
without a special episcopal licence for the same, while 
Gregory the Great gave licence for the consecration of an 
oratory outside the city of Fermo on condition that there 
should not be a Baptistery or a " Cardinalem Presbyterum,*' 
i.e. a titled parish priest. 

And in those days which we are now considering the 
erection and maintenance of the Private Chapel or Domestic 
Oratory was a very important factor in the Keligious Life 
of Christian countries. At one time as many as 7000 
private Chapels in Castles, Manors, and Parsonages are said 
to have been in use in England. And no wonder, when we 
consider the conditions of country life in those days. Long 
distance from the parish Church, no roads, but rough cart- 
tracks, over vast moors and through dense woods, whilst 
highwaymen, beggars, pedlars, and wandering minstrels, all 



392 PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

eking out a precarious existence, rendered riding or walking, 
(especially for females,) along the country-side both un- 
pleasant and unsafe. 

So it came to pass that all who could claim to be of any 
substantial position or estate, would crave of their Bishop, 
a licence for a private oratory, within their own Domain, in 
which the Lord and his Lady, and their retinue, the Squire's 
family of lowlier degree, or the Parish Priest, who from age 
or infirmity could no longer climb the hill to the parish 
church, might in peace and safety celebrate the rites of the 
Faith, and daily keep alive the flame of devotion in the 
parish or the district where they dwelt. 

The Private Chapels of the greater nobles were buildings 
of size and importance, while the services therein were 
conducted on a scale of magnificence. The finest specimen 
of course still extant is that of St. George's, Windsor, whilst 
among the large and important ones were those in the 
White Tower of London and in the Castle of Colchester,^ 
the former being the largest, and forming a great and 
prominent feature of the building itself, while sometimes, 
in the greater Castles, there were two chapels, one being for 
the private use of the Lord and his Lady, and the greater 
one for the whole resident party.* In the Edwardian 
period, the Chapel was as necessary and usual a part of the 
house as the Banqueting Hall. Fine examples may still be 
seen at Ightham Mote in Kent, Bodiam, Sussex, at the 
Vyne, Hants, and also at Haddon Hall in Derbyshire, which 
is much like a village Church, and is furnished with Font 
and Pulpit, etc. I was there in the autumn of 1903, and I 
was told that some years since the fine and ancient stained 
glass of the east window had been taken by robbery, and 
that its whereabouts had never yet been discovered. As an 
architectural feature the Chapel had great differences. In 
one good example, that of Broughton in Oxfordshire, the 
Chapel is approached by a groined corridor; at Meare in 
Somerset, and at Ightham Mote, the Oratory was upstairs ; 
and in other places is to be found that singular arrange- 
ment by which the Chapel erected on the ground floor 
had two stories, the lower portion forming the space 
used for the servants and retainers, while the upper 
front portion was composed of a handsome gallery seat, 
occupied by the master and mistress and their own 

^ Now used as a museum. 

* This arrangement of having two Chapels is still observed in the Royal 
Castle of Windsor. 



PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 393 

immediate entourage. These seats immediately faced the 
altar. 

This arrangement is to be seen at Maxstoke, Markenfield, 
Hendred, Studley, and at Godstowe Nunnery near Oxford. 
But to come nearer home, an interesting specimen of this 
arrangement is to be seen at Northwyck Manor, South 
Tawton, Devon, which has recently been beautifully re- 
stored by Mr. Fellowes Prynne, F.R.I.B.A., to which I shall 
allude more particularly later on. In Parker's " Domestic 
Architecture,' 1853, vol. 2, page 80, we find this interesting 
extract from tlie " Liberate Eolls " : — 

21st Henry III. AVe command that you cause to be made at 
Kennington, on the spot where our Chai)el, roofed with thatch, is 
situated, a Chapel with a staircase of plaster, which shall be 30 ft. 
long and 12 ft. wide, in such a manner that in tlie upper ^mrt there 
be made a Chapel for the use of our Queen so that she may enter 
tliat Chapel from lier chamber, and in tlie lower part, let there be 
a Cliapel for the use of our Family. 

Further on we read : — 

At Freemantle a certain chamber with an upper storj' with a 
Chapel at the end of the same chamber for the Queen's use. 

In some Castles and houses the Chapel was extremely 
small in itself, being, in fact, merely a sacrarium with altar 
and pace, and divided from tlie great Hall by wooden 
screens, in order, perhaps, that the hall space might be 
utilized when there was a larger attendance at the services. 
And in some few cases the Oratory was a detached building 
in the Courtyard. But Mr. Parker in his " Glossary of 
Architecture" says: "Domestic Chapels were often also made 
from Rooms in a Castle or house, more frequently than 
erected as separate buildings." 

In olden times in the greater houses the fittings, services, 
and the Chapel staff were on a scale of great magnificence. 
In the " Archiologicae," c. 25, pp. 320-3, is to be found 
the description of the ecclesiastical establishment of Henry 
Algernon, fifth Duke of Northumberland, which consisted 
of a Dean, who was a D.D., ten priests, eleven gentlemen, 
and six Boys of the Choir, and we learn that the " gentle- 
men and children of the Lord's Chappell which be not 
appointed to attend at no time, but only in exercising of 
God's service in the Chapel daily, at Matins, Lady Mass, 
High Mass, Evensong and Compline.'* 

In the greater houses a band of minstrels was sometimes 
kept, and these performed not only in the hall for the 



394 PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

amusement of the guests, but also played in the servioes of 
the Domestic ChapeL 

Now as to Devonshire and Cornwall we are able to gather 
much from certain sources, as to the prominent place which 
the system of Private Chapels found in the Eeligious life of 
medieval days, and especially in that monument of special 
knowledge and accuracy, which we now possess in the 
Episcopal Eegisters of Exeter, which are being brought out 
under the able supervision and successful labours of 
Prebendary Hingeston-Eandolph. 

The custom of having a Private Chapel attached to 
dwellings (as has already been stated) was of very early 
origin, but here in the West of England, as far as we may 
judge from the entries in the Episcopal Eegisters, it was not 
until the earlier part of the fourteenth century that these 
became so common. In the Eegisters of Bishops Brones- 
combe and Quivil^ the entries of Licences granted are 
very few,^ but during the episcopate of Stapeldon, A.D. 
1307-26, wo have a long list of names of persons in 
various ranks of life who applied to and obtained from the 
Diocesan, permission to keep a Chaplain for private services. 
Dr. Cust, in his " Parish Priests,*' p. 427, says that Arch- 
bishop Walter de Gray gave his licence to have a Private 
Chapel and Chaplain to one Alberic de Percy to celebrate 
Divine offices at Sutton "as long as he lives," and, again, he 
gives a similar grant to Alexander de Vilers and his heirs 
to have Divine offices at Newbottle for his family and 
guests " for ever," and there are others mentioned to whom 
this prelate did likewise. But as far as I can discover the 
Bishops of Exeter usually licensed Private Chapels for 
a stated time only, to be renewed if required. In Stapeldon's 
time we find that sickness, age, or infirmity were at once 
regarded as reasons sufficient for giving the episcopal per- 
mission, viz. to Dame Isabella Fishacre in "diebus feriatis" 
and on Festivals, on account of rough weather, or from 
bodily infirmity being unable, as it is stated, to get to her 
Parish Church, a.d. 1312, and again in A.D. 1317 this licence 
is renewed to Sir Peter Fishacre, the Bishop " Considerans 
impotenciam Domini Fishacre " for the Chapel of Lupton, 
in the parish of Brixham. Then again we find that permis- 
sion is given to Oliver de Halap, " broken by age and blind," 

^ Qnivil licensed a Chapel in St. Colomb Major Parinh. I find no other. 

• The Chapel at Bishopscourt is said to have been erected by Bishop 
Bronesconibe m 1296, and I imagine licensed, but nothing appears in his 
Register on this point. It was re-licensed by Bishop Phill|)otts in 1868. 



PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 395 

for an Oratory and Chaplain, within his Manor at Hartleigh, 
in the parish of Buckland Filleigh, as long as nothing is done 
contrary to the well-being of the Kector of the Parish, or 
to the Mother Church of St. Mary at Buckland. 

To Henry de Lapford and to his wife is leave given from 
1 July, 1310, to Michaelmas, 1311, with directions that 
they are to attend the Parish Church on Sundays, and on 
the greater Festivals, with the kindly and considerate words 
attached, " as long as the temperature of the air and their 
health permit." The same directions with regard to attend- 
ance at the Parish Church are again to be observed in the 
licence issued to David and Alianora Servyngton ; they are 
given a licence for their Chapel at Dynesbeare, in the parish 
of Merton, and also for their house at Upcott, in Bideford, 
the services to be entirely for themselves, and, I suppose, 
for their family and servants, wliile all other parishioners 
were to be excluded. 

To William do Wollegh a grant is made in his Manor at 
Wollegh, he being a Priest and Rector of Yarnscombe, but 
residing in the parish of Beaford. He was not to administer 
the Sacrament to any one, and he was to resort to his Parish 
Church on Sundays and Festivals, given in 1320, and re- 
newed in 1322. In Grandisson's Kegister, a.d. 1328, a 
licence is issued to Joanna Arundel, Dame Trembleythe, 
which runs in these words, " that the consent of the Kector 
of the Parish is to be obtained." And from these extracts 
we may see most clearly how jealously were the rights of the 
parochial clergy protected, and w^e also observe that the rule 
was carried out, when from difierent causes people were 
unable to avail themselves of the ministration of the Parish 
Church, that the Church and its blessings were brought to 
them. These old llegisters of prelates, who lived and ruled 
under such widely differing circumstances from those of the 
present day, reveal to us, as it were by sidelights, the rough 
state of society of that period. Not only do we read in 
Quivil's Kegister (1280-91) of the murder of Walter de 
Lechlade, Precentor of Exeter Cathedral, in the Close, on his 
way home from early Moniing Service, or again of a Kector 
of Exbourne being stabbed by another clergyman when at 
supper at the house of one of the Canons of Exeter, and of 
the would-be assassin being excommunicated by Bell, Book, 
and Candle, but afterwards being reconciled to the Church 
and receiving absolution. In Brantyngham's Kegister, 
p. 335, we find the Bishop excommunicating a certain 
Richard Prideaux, who in the Cathedral had attacked and 



396 PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

grievously wounded John Durant, Rector of Comb-in- 
Teignhead, but later on we find this wretch seeking and 
obtaining absolution, from his Bishop in September, 1374. 
Another case of murderous attack took place on the Provost 
of Glasney, Sir Reginald Calle, by one Robert Hoo, a cleric, 
whom the Bishop in his sentence of excommunication calls 
"a satellite of Satan." We notice that frequently Churches 
and Churchyards were behig polluted by blood-shedding and 
other wickedness, so that the office of reconciliation had to 
be used before the sacred precincts were available for Divine 
service. Those must have been indeed strange times in Eng- 
land, when in some ways Law seemed almost to be in 
abeyance, and when in too many instances might became 
right, and violence got the upper hand. In Brantyngham's 
Register are some curious entries which show that a licence 
for a Private Chapel was not always to be traced to the fact 
that either age or infirmity were the causes why the petition 
was made. For in the year 1373 Sir Peter Hardbrigge 
(many of the clergy of those days enjoying the title of Sir^), 
the Rector of Dartington craves permission that he may 
celebrate the services of the Church within the seclusion of 
his own house, because he was living " in the just fear of his 
own Parisliioners." His petition was granted, and let us 
hope that during the remainder of his sojourn at Dartington 
something like peace was his portion ; but it is evident that 
his life in that beautiful parish was (like the policeman's in 
the well-known comic opera) "not a happy one," because in 
the following year the good Bishop gave Sir Peter Hardbrigge 
permission to leave tlie parish on account of the suggestion 
made to his Lordship that Hardbrigge " dared not reside in 
Dartington," " propter sa3viciam inimicorum suonim." 

Some interesting entries in the Register of Brantyngham's 
episcopate must be noticed, for I find that here in my own 
neighbourhood of Mid Devon a licence for a Private Chapel 
was granted to John Northwood, Rector of North Tawton, of 
St. Mary, Croke, North Tawton, to perform the sacred offices 
in the Chapel of Croke in that parish. This ancient sanctuary 
exists to-day, used as a hayloft. It still retains its bossed and 
ribbed cradle-roof, its altar steps and its piscina, a relic of by- 
gone piety; while at the same time also, is granted permission 
to the same Rector to officiate in another chapel dedicated to 
St. Paul, standing in the cemetery of the Parish Church, 

In the parish of Colebrook, it is said, there formerly 

* This title Wing equivalent to the University dcjin*<?e of B.A., whereas 
' • Magister '* va8 used for those who had gone further in their studies. 



PRIVATB CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 397 

existed no less than five chapels dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, and in Brantyngham's Register, p. 348, 
mention is made of the Manor of " Wolmerstones," a 
licence here given to Thomas Peverel and his wife. Again, 
in 1384 another licence is given for a chapel in this parish 
granted to Adam Copplestonc and his wife Alice, in the 
mansion of Colebrook. This was renewed to the same 
people by Bishop Stafford in a.d. 1395. 

Brantyngham seems to have been very particular in 
stating the duration of time for which these licences were 
to run : sometimes the wording was thus : " as long as his 
Lordship pleases *' (qtiam diu Domino placuerit) ; at another 
time for one year, or for two years, or for any longer period. 
There is a licence given in September, 1381, to "those living 
in the town of Okehampton" for Divine Services to be 
celebrated in "a certain Chapel"; this may mean the Chapel 
of St. James in the Borough, about which some time since 
a contention existed between the Vicar on the one side and 
the Trustees of the Charity Lands on the other on the 
question of whether the Vicar or Corporation of Oke- 
hampton owned the Chapel, when it was decided by the 
authorities that St. James' formed a part of the Vicar's 
rights.^ But this entry may apply perhaps to the Chapel in 
Okehampton Castle, belonging to the Earldom of Devon, 
and this is quite possible, as the words by " Contemplacione 
Edwardi Comitis Devonite" occur. On very high ground, 
three miles from Hatherleigh, commanding a magnificent 
view of the Dartmoor Hills to the south, with a foreground 
of woods and valleys, Cliurch towers, and farmsteads, is 
still to be seen in the parish of Meeth a goodly farm called 
Crocker's Hele; and in 1383 here lived William Crocker and 
his wife, to whom the Bishop gave his licence for Divine 
Service in their Chapel of St. Martin, which was to run for 
one year, and no doubt at its expiration be renewed. 

In 1397 John Passenham was Eector of Sampford 
Courtenay, living there with his sister Eleanor, and to 
these worthy jicrsons, Bishop Stafford gave leave for a 
Chapel within the Rectory House, and it is an interesting 
fact that, when about thirty-six years ago the old Eectory 

^ The Vicar of Okehainpton (the Rev. Arthur L. Giles) has kindly fur- 
nished me with a draft of the scheme of the Charity Commissioners. In 
it, it is stated that henceforth three ex-officio Trustees— the Vicar of Oke- 
hampton and two Churchwardens — with two co-optative Trustees shall form 
an " Ecclesiastical Charity," and so, after many years' doubt and disputation, 
an anxious and difficult question has been settled. I am told that, in medieval 
times, this Chapel was in some way connected with the Courtenay family. 



398 PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

House was taken down, a large flat stone with five crosses 
was discovered built into the wall It is an ancient altar 
slab, and, I rejoice to say, was placed in the Church at 
the recent fine restoration by Mr. Fellowes Prynne, and 
put beneath the wooden mensa of the altar. This no 
doubt once stood in the Domestic Oratory of Eector 
Passenham, rescued after many years of oblivion, and 
once more restored to its sacred use. 

Special mention must be made of an excellent and most 
interesting restoration quite recently made in the parish of 
South Tawton at the ancient Manor House of Northwyck, 
the former seat of the Wyke family. Some few years since 
this property returned to the descendant of that family, the 
Rev. W. Wykes-Finch, j.p., who has for some time been re- 
building and restoring this beautiful old mansion. The 
Chapel has been brought back to more than its former 
beauty, and here may be seen the old arrangement of 
two floors and an upper gallery overlooking the sanctuary. 
The altar is again in place, and the whole apartment is 
finished with fine oak panelling, and ready for Divine Service. 

Dr. Cust in his work before alluded to, " Parish Priests 
and their People in the Middle Ages in England," speaks 
thus (p. 434) :— 

It is a very pleasant feature in the daily life of the Manor 
House of medieval England which is brought home to us by 
these studies of ancient domestic architecture and from these dry 
extracts from Episcopal Registers. By the latter part of the 
14 th century it would seem that nearly every Manor House had 
a Chapel and its resident Chaplain. Divine services, Matins and 
Mass before breakfast, and Evensong l^efore Sui)per were said every 
day, and when the solemn worship of Almighty God held so con- 
spicuous a place in the daily family life, it is not possible that it 
should not have exercised an influence upon the character and 
habits of the people, for the family and household really attended 
the service as a part of tlie routine of daily life and duty. There 
are numerous incidental allusions in the course of historical 
narratives which prove this, for Robert of Gloucester says of 
William the Conqueror : — 

In Church he was devout enow. 
For him none day abide 
That he heard not Mass and Matins 
And Evensong at each tide. 

Malory, in his " History of Prince Arthur," has these words : 
" So they went home and unarmed them, and so to Even- 
song and supper. And on the morrow they heard Mass, 
and after went to dinner, and to their counsel, and made 



PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 399 

many agreements what was best to do." One more allusion 
to ancient writings on Eeligion in domestic life must suflBce. 
In the vision of Piers Ploughman we read these words : — 

The king and his knights to the Church wenten 
To hear Matins and Maas, and to the meat after. 

At the beginning of the sixteenth century, at the time of 
Henry VII, I think we may take it that the age of erecting 
Domestic Chapels to a great extent ceased, and the fashion 
came in of a family building an aisle on to the Parish 
Church, using that as their special place of occupation 
during Divine Service and after death as a place for 
sepulture. It is not quite easy to know wliy this change 
was made, but it was so, as the history of many country 
parishes shows. The north aisle of Hatherleigh Church was 
erected by the munificence of the Yeo family, the Speccot 
aisle or Chapel in Merton Church owed its origin to this 
change, and in North Lew the north aisle of the Church 
still bears the name of Eutleigh Manor, as being erected by 
the once owners of that estate. At Modbury also we find 
to the north and south small transepts with names either of 
families or estates attached (Champemoune and Prideaux, 
Okeston). These are only, of course, a few instances, but 
they could be indefinitely multiplied. 

Dr. Cust, for so learned a man, in his work to which I 
have before alluded has apparently fallen into an extra- 
ordinary error with regard to medieval Private Chapels, for 
at page 420 he asserts " that the Domestic Chapels of the 
nobility and great men were always consecrated and had a 
perpetual licence for Divine Service." I beg leave to doubt 
this entirely, for in the Middle Ages it is a well-known fact, 
that even in respect to Parish Churches the rite of Con- 
secration was seldom fully carried out, the reason being the 
enormous expense which formal consecration imposed upon 
the parishioners. Over and over again we come across the 
records as to how the Bishops during their long journeys 
through the Diocese dedicated^ both Churches and altars 
which were being placed in enlarged Churches. Bishop 
Bronescombe dedicated himself, eighty-eight Churches and 
altars in Devon and Cornwall from the years 1259-69, forty 
in one year. Of course it is possible, that these enlarged 
or partially rebuilt fabrics needed no fresh consecration, 
which they rnaij have received in an earlier day, for Canon 
Law holds that if any portion of the walls remain of the 

* It is only riglit, however, to mention that some antiquaries say that 
**Dedicavit'* and "Consecravit" are synonymous terms. 



400 PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 

older buildings, the rite of consecration is not needed. 
Where consecration was carried out, crosses were usually cut 
in the stone, and these are extremely rare ; they are to be 
seen in great form on the south aisle exterior wall of Exeter 
Cathedral and at Ottery St. Mary, but these are the only 
ones with which I am acquainted in this Diocese. At the 
Parish Church of Highampton a cross is cut on a stone of 
the tower, but its explanation, I think, is, that this Church is 
itself dedicated to Holy Cross. The Roman Pontifical has 
this prayer at the consecration of a Church: "Benedic 
Domine creaturam istam lapidis, et prsesta per invocationem 
Sancti Nominis Tui, ut quicunque ad banc ecclesiam aedifi- 
candam, pura mente auxilium dederint, corporis sanitatem 
et animje medelam percipiant " (see " Bingham," IV, 80). 
"Pontificis judicio locus, et atrium designentur, et per eum 
vel ejus auctoritatem per sacerdotem cmx in locofigatur, et 
lapis primarius ponatur. Tunc aspergit lapidem ipsura 
aqua beuedicta, et accepto cultro per singulas partes sculpit, 
in eo signum crucis " {ibidem). 

The formal act of consecration at once throws a place of 
worship open to the general public, whereas dedication or a 
simple licence, confine the services either to the community, 
family, or special persons mentioned in the document. So 
it is quite obvious that in the case of a Private Chapel, the 
very fact of its being consecrated would at once defeat the 
object of its being set up, and in no sense could such a 
building be regarded as a Private Chapel, 

Now to come from ancient times to modern. How many 
Domestic Oratories here in Devon are either wholly or par- 
tially in use for Divine Service ? As far as I know, at the 
present day there are nineteen Chapels attached to Mansions 
and Parsonages in this Diocese. They are viz.: — 

Cothele ; 

Powderham Castle; re-licensed in 1861, 
Palace, Exeter ; 

Deanery, Exeter ; licensed in 1333. 
Killerton ; 

Bishopscourt ; re-licensed in 1803. 
St. Mar//\% Gnaton Hall; 1887. 
Maristowe ; 

Lusconibe Castle; licensed in 1862. 
Waddeton Court ; licensed in 1868. 
Fardel (Cornwood), licensed by Lacy, A.D. 1421. 
Eecently restored by Mr. Pode. 



PKIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODEKN. 401 

Haldon House ; licensed in 1867. 

Filham, St. Andrew's, licensed A.D. 1400. 

Nutwell Court ;^ licensed in 1370. 

Bowringsleigh ; 

The Eectory, Milton Damarell ; licensed in 1875. 

The Vicarage, Exwick ; 

The Vicarage, Bovey Tracey ; 

Northwyck Manor ; 

Beaford Rectory ; licensed in 1894. 

The first named of these is, strictly speaking, across the 
Tamar, and in the County of Cornwall and Diocese of Truro, 
but up to thirty years ago and for centuries before that time 
this lovely place was within the Diocese of Exeter. The 
chapel of the mansion was first licensed by Bishop StafiPord 
12 May, 1411, and re-licensed by Bishop Phillpotts. It is 
right to notice in passing that here within this ancient 
sanctuary the marriage of the noble owner, the Earl of 
Mount Edgcumbe, and Lady Eavensworth, was solemnized 
Eastertide, 1906. The Chapel of Powderham Castle^ has 
marks of great interest, and contains some valuable fittings. 
The fine St. Gabriel's Chapel at Bishopscourt, in the parish 
of Sowton or Clyst Fomison, near Exeter, is one of the 
earliest as to foundation which we have, for it was erected 
in or about the year a.d. 1296 by Bishop Bronescombe, 
Bishopscourt being one of the coimtry seats of the Bishops 
of Exeter. Bishopscourt was well restored in 1863, or 
thereabouts, by the late Mr. Garratt, and is still the resi- 
dence of that family. In the beautiful park at Killerton, 
the seat of Sir C. Thomas Acland, Bart., stands the Chapel 
of the Holy Evangelists, while this family also has another 
Chapel at Culm John for use in connexion with a private 
burial-ground. A modem Chapel is to be seen at Haldon 
House, in the parish of Kenn, erected in the time of the 
first Lord Haldon, the present home and seat of J. Fitzgerald 
Bannatyne, Esq. In the parish of Newton Ferrers stands 

* Licensed by Brantynghain, a.d. 1370. The Rev. J. C. Browne, Rector 
of Lympstone, kindly gives me this information : ** Nutwell Court is not in 
my parish, but my registers contain entries of two marriages solemnized in 
the Domestic Chapel there by one of the rectors of this parish. The Chapel, 
which is a beautiful specimen of fourteenth -century architecture, still exists, 
but is now used as a library." Nutwell is really in the parish of Wood- 
bury. 

^ The screen in Powderham Chapel is said to have once belonged to 
More ton Hampstead Church, while the screen in Bowringsleigh was a few 
years since removed from South Huish Church. 

VOL. XXXVIII. 2 C 



402 PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODKBN. 

Gnaton Hall, to which is attached a very beautiful Chapel ^ 
dedicated to B.V.M., built by the late Michael Williams, 
Esq., High Sheriff of Cornwall (deceased in 1899) in 1887. 
on which no expense has been spared, where marble, oak, 
and fine glass all combine to make a very fine interior. 
At Maristowe, the beautiful home of the Right Honble. 
Sir Massey Lopes, Bart., P.O., and over lovely scenes of wood 
and water, appears the spire of the noble Chapel erected 
in 1877, there having formerly existed one dedicated to 
St. Martin near tliis spot. In this instance also, as in the 
last mentioned, munificence and good taste have brought 
into being a sanctuary in every way worthy of its hjjgh 
purpose. Here are daily and Sunday Services, and a resident 
Chaplain. The Oratory of Waddeton Court on the Dart 
has recently been the subject of a lawsuit, by which the 
Rector of Stoke Gabriel laid claim to the Chapel ; but one 
which could not be sustained in the Courts, as the judges 
decided that the sacred building was the sole property of 
the owner of the estates. In the parish of Dawlish is 
Luscombe Castle, renowned for the beauties of its sylvan 
surroundings. About forty-five years ago or more the 
owner, Mr. Hoare, in whose family the property still remains, 
constructed a very fine Oratory, in which during his lifetime 
Divine Services were celebrated, and it is said to be a 
building of great beauty. 

In the Bishop's Palace at Exeter is the ancient and well- 
proportioned Chapel of the See House, a quiet spot where 
"prayer is wont to be made," a place indeed hallowed by 
the solemn associations of many centuries. Here successive 
prelates who have ruled this great Diocese have confirmed 
the young, and ordained many who in their day have done 
good work for the Church. This Chapel was extensively 
repaired and adorned in the episcopate of Bishop Temple, 
and is of course in constant use in the present day. The 
Deanery, too, has its ancient Oratory still fitted up where 

* Chapel of St. Mary's, Gnaton Hall, of which a picture of interior is hero 
added. Erected by the late Michael Williams, Esq., designed by Mr. 
Fellowes Prynne, f.]i.i.d.a., built by William Veal and men under him, 
stone from neighbourhood, marbles from Eitlcy Park, brass and woodwork 
by Singer, of Frome. The triptych of paintings by E. Fellowes Prynne, 
brother of architect, seating for seventy persons. This cha])el was erected in 
A.D. 1887. It is interesting to note that during this present week, July, 
1906, in which our meeting takes place, a marriage was celebrated in thia 
cha^Mil, the daughter of the present owner being the bride, Miss Bewea. 
The details of the building of St Mary's, Gnaton, kindly given me by 
Mrs. Giles of Okehampton Vicarage, who was the widow of the late 
Mr. Michael Williams. 




o 






-«1 



c5 

3! a 



c 



Private Chapels of Dkvon : Anxient and Modern.— To fojot p. 402. 



(: 



PRIVATE CHAPELS OF DEVON: ANCIENT AND MODERN. 403 

Family Worship is held. At Milton Damarell in West 
Devon the late Kector set up a Chapel, attached to his 
Kectory, for his daily service, and some other Parsonage 
Houses in Devon have their private Oratories. It was duly 
licensed, and is used by his successor for its sacred purpose, 
and as far as I know with some others, mentioned in the list, 
concludes the list of Private Oratories, great or small, in the 
present Diocese of Exeter. There may be more which are 
not mentioned, either in Diocesan Calendars or in Directories 
of the County, but few as they are in comparison with the 
numbers of Private Chapels existing in Devon, say, in the 
fourteenth century, yet still we have in this our day a 
sufficient number to show us that at all events the spirit 
of devotion forming a part of our daily life is not dead 
amongst us. And who can say whether or not in "the 
coming by and by " the Private Chapel will not again take 
a more prominent place in the Eeligious Life of England ? 
For if at any time the Parish Churches of our land are 
seized by the secular power, handed over to Sectarians for 
their use, or even put up to sale for secular purposes, who 
can say that then, in the houses of the wealthier and more 
educated classes and of the more devout laity, there will not 
arise the determination to have the offices of religion jujcord- 
ing to the Anglican Rite performed at their own expense and 
within their own Domains, and open to all who value a 
definite form of religious belief coupled with an ordered and 
dignified ceremonial, instead of being forced to give in to 
the tyranny of an invertebrate religionism ? May that day 
be long far distant from our beloved land, but if at any 
time our faith is in this way attacked, I venture to predict 
that the Private Chapel will become again, as once it was, 
one of the ruling factors in the Eeligious Life of England. 

It has been suggested that a list of all Private or Domestic 
Oratories in Devon should be added to this Paper. They 
are all to be found in the Episcopal Registers of the Diocese. 
It is possible that, as a Supplement to this Paper, such a List 
may at a future day be added. 



2 2 



TOTNES: ITS MAYOES AND MAYORALTIES. 

1836-1906. 

Part VI. 

BY EDWARD WIXDBATT. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



EiCHARD SOPER, the Mayor, elected September, 1834, by the 
provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act, continued 
Mayor until 31 December, 1835. 

1836. Charles Taylor. 

This first Mayor under the Municipal Corporations Act 
held office from 1 January to 9 November, 1836, and in 
future the election of Mayor took place on 9 November 
in each year. He had been Mayor in 1820. Trewman's 
Flying Post, Exeter, under date April, 1836, announced a 
company had been set on foot for establishing a steamboat 
to navigate the Kiver Dart between Dartmouth and Totnes. 

1836. William Fabyan Windeatt. 

He was elected 9 November, was the father of the 
compiler of this paper, and proclaimed Queen Victoria in 
Totnes May, 1837. The original Proclamation is preserved 
in the Guildhall. He was present the next year in West- 
minster Abbey, at the coronation of the Queen. 

1837. Charles Webber. 

On 7 February, 1838, Mr. George Farwell ceased to be 
Town Clerk, and Mr. George Presswell was appointed in his 
place. March, 1838, desk around the Councillors' seats 
erected. 

1838. John Derry. 

On 10 February, 1839, resolved to petition Parliament in 
favour of the penny postage as proposed by Rowland HilL 



TOTNES: ITS MAYORS AND MAYORALTIES. 405 

1839. John Fogwill. 

He died one week before his year of oflBce expired, 
1 November, 1840. 

On 24 February, 1840, the Town Clerk was instructed to 
take the necessary steps to vindicate the immemorial right 
to the seat in the Parish Church usually called "The 
Mayoress's Seat" by action at law or otherwise against 
Mrs. Baker and others, and to take Counsel's opinion if 
necessary. 

On 24 February, 1840, an address was voted to the Queen 
and Prince Albert on the occasion of their marriage. On 
3 August, 1840, it was resolved that no one not a member 
of the Corporation should sit in the Corporation seats in the 
church without the permission of the Mayor. 

1840. William Doidge Taunton. 
On 22 February, 1841, resolution passed requesting the 
M.P.s for the borough to support the proposal that Dart- 
mouth be made a packet station by the Government. 

1841. Thomas Shore. 
On 30 November, 1841, loyal address voted to the Queen, 
Prince Consort, and the Duchess of Kent on the birth of the 
Prince of Wales, now Edward VII. The address was stated 
to be from 

" Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Mayor, 
Aldermen, and Burgesses of the Ancient Borough of Totnes, 
incorporated by the Charter of King John, subsequently con- 
firmed by other Charters of your Majesty's predecessors, Kings 
and Queens of glorious memory." 

1842. Samuel Huxham. 

1843. Charles Webber. 

1844. Edward Luscombb. 

In 1845, during this Mayoralty, an Act was obtained for 
improving the markets and providing the borough with 
water, and under it new markets were erected. 

1845. Edward Luscombb. 

1846. John Derry. 

On 18 May, 1847, there were bread riots in Totnes. 
On 28 July, 1847, South Devon Kailway opened to 
Totnes. 

On 5 October, 1847, extended Cattle Market opened. 



406 totnes: its mayors and matoraltiks. 

1847. Samuel Huxuam. 

1848. GrSORGE Farwell. 

On 11 August, 1849, owing to cholera in Plymouth and 
neighbourhood, the Council recommended the races, which 
brought large numbers of vagrants and trampers into the 
borough, should not be held. As a fact they were held. 

1849. William Bowden. 

On 22 April, 1850, resolution passed in favour of Great 
Exhibition of 1851. 

1850. James Gill. 

1851. Richard Soper. 

On 20 July, 1852, Prince Albert visited the borough, and 
the bells were rung in his honour. 

1852. EiCHARD Soper. 

1853. EiCHARD Soper. 
1854 Samuel Huxham. 

1855. Frederick Thomas Michell, 

REAR ADMIRAL, C.B. 

An account of him appears in VoL XXXII of the 
" Transactions " of this Association, p. 390. He had com- 
manded the ** Queen" before Sebastopol, and handled his 
ship so well that he twice received the signal, " Well done, 
* Queen '." There is a cast of a marble bust presented to 
him by his townsmen in the Guildhall. On 9 January, 
1856, the Mayor was requested to call a public meeting 
to consider the propriety of keeping Greenwich time, and 
this was done. 

1856. James Gill. 

1857. James Gill. 

On 7 May, 1857, the Mayor presented a portrait of 
Captain Short, a benefactor to the charities of the borough, 
to the Council, and it was placed in the Guildhall, where 
it still hangs. 

1858. Frederick Thomas Michell, 

REAR ADMIRAL, C.B. 

1859. Samuel Huxham. 

1860. Willlam Fabyan Windeati. 



totnes: its mayors and mayoralties. 407 

1861. John Derry. 

1862. WiLLUM Bentall. 

On 10 March, 1863, there was great rejoicing on the 
marriage of the Prince of Wales, now King Edward VII. 

1863. John Friend Perring Phillips. 

1864. John Friend Perring Philups. 

He resigned September, 1865, and James Gill was elected 
for the remainder of the year. 

1865. Thomas Greaser Kellock. 
During this Mayoralty the restoration of the church 
commenced. 

1866. Thomas Edward Owen. 
A son was bom to this Mayor during his Mayoralty, and 
he was presented with a silver cradle. 

1867. John Bowden. 

In May, 1868, the Bill for railway from Totnes to Buck- 
fastleigh received the Eoyal Assent. 

1868. John Bowden. 

1869. John Hains. 

1870. John Webber Chaster. 

1871. John Webber Chaster. 

1872. Egbert Bourne. 
Railway opened from Totnes to Ashburton. 

1873. James Smith Rose. 
1874 Jeffery Michelmore, 

1875. Jeffery Michelmore. 

During this Mayoralty the Mayor's chain was presented 
by the inhabitants and relatives of previous Mayors for the 
use of the Mayor. 

June, 1876. For the first time within fifty years a ship 
was built and launched at Totnes Quay. 

1876. Joseph Roe. 

1877. Joseph Rob. 

1878. John Hains. 



408 TOTNES: ITS MAYORS AND MAYORALTIES. 

1879. Jefpkry Michelmore, 
First visit of Devonshire Association to Totnes, Sir 
H. D. Acland President. 

1880. Edward Harris. 

1881. Edward Harris. 

1882. Frederick Bowden. 

1883. Frederick Bowden. 

In 1888 Mr. Bowden placed £1000 in trust to provide 
annuities of £10 for three poor men of the borough, and he 
was 9 November, 1897, elected an Honorary Freeman in con- 
sideration of this gift. In April, 1884, the Town Clerk, 
Mr. George Presswell, who had been Town Clerk forty-six 
years, died, and his son, Mr. H. J. Presswell, was elected in 
his place. 

1884. Thomas Creaser Kellock. 

The compiler of this paper was elected Town Clerk 
1 December, 1884, in the room of Mr. H. J. Presswell, 
resigned. 

1885. Thomas Creaser Kellock. 

During these mayoralties a new Cattle Market was pro- 
vided. The market had from time immemorial been held in 
the streets. A new Water Supply was provided, the water 
being obtained on the Bowden estate, the property of the 
Duke of Somerset. 

1886. Henry Symons. 
Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The commemoration in the 
borough was carried out on a grand scale. The Mayor 
attended the ceremony in Westminster Abbey, and on 20 
December, 1887, he was appointed the first Honorary Free- 
man. 

1887. John Earle Lloyd Lloyd. 
Jubilee Eeservoir erected and opened. 

1888. Augustus Hingston. 
Mr. F. B. Mildmay, M.P., presented to the Corporation a 
portrait of Christopher Maynard, Mayor of Totnes 1632, 
1648, and 1658, in his robes. This hangs in the Guildhall 
It was found in a garret in a country house, and Mr. 
Mildmay purchased it, had it restored, and presented it to 
the Corporation. 



totnes: its mayors and mayoralties. 409 

1889. Philip Symons, Jun.^ 

1890. Philip Symons, Jun. 

1891. William Condy. 

1892. WILLLA.M Condy. 

On 6 July, 1893, there were great festivities in the 
borough on the occasion of the marriage of the Duke of 
York, now Prince of Wales. 

1893. Andrew Hawkins Tanqubray. 

1894. Alfred Michelmore. 

1895. Henry Symons. 

1896. Thomas Greaser Kellock. 

Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria. Eejoicings on large 
scale in the borough. The Mayor attended the Court at 
Buckingham Palace the day after the Jubilee held by Her 
Majesty. On 9 November, 1897, he was made an Honorary 
Freeman of the borough, being an Alderman, having been 
four times Mayor of the borough, one of which was the 
Diamond Jubilee year. 

28 July, 1897, Sir William V. Whiteway, K.C.M.G., D.L., Q.C., 
Premier of Newfoundland, a native of Littlehempston, 
educated at Totnes Grammar School, visited Totnes, and was 
made an Honorary Freeman of the borough. 

On 9 November, 1897, borough extended, a portion of the 
parish of Dartington, including the railway station, included 
in the borough. 

1897. Benjamin William Hayman. 

1898. George John Gibson, m.d. 

The Duke of York, now Prince of Wales, visited the 
borough and was received by the Mayor. 

1899. Thomas White Windbatt. 

He was the first person elected Mayor from outside the 
Council At the election, 1 November, 1900, he was elected 
a Councillor. In July, 1900, the Devonshire Association 
visited Totnes for the second time. Lord Clifford was 
President. 

* The old north gateway was sold by the Endowed School Goveraors, and 
purchased by Mr. F. B. Mildmay, M.P., and presented to the Corporation in 

1890. 



410 totnss: its matobs and mayoralties. 

1900. Frederick Tapscott Tucker, 

On 22 January, 1901, Queen Victoria (lied,and His Majesty 
King Edward VII was proclaimed by this Mayor on 25 
January, 1901, at the GuUdhall, outside the parish church of 
St. Mary, in the Rotherfold, on Brutus' Stone, on the Plains, 
and in Bridgetown. The original Proclamation is framed 
and hangs in the Guildhall. 

1901. Thomas White Windeatt. 
Coronation festivities in the borough. The Mayor at- 
tended the coronation of King Edward VII in Westminster 
Abbey. 

1902. George John Gibson, bid. 

1903. Alfred Michelmore. 

1904. Capt. Horace Eeid Adams, r.n. 

1905. Capt. Horace Reid Adams, rjj. 

A member of an old Totnes family, owners of Bowden 
House. Several of the family were M.P.S and Mayors. 

During this Mayor's Mayoralty, through his instru- 
mentality, a MS. book was obtained from the executors of 
the late Francis Benthall, Esq., a member of an old Totnes 
family, which book contained among other records a list of 
Mayors with the following heading : — 

" Mayors of Totnes with their Receivers as they are collected by 
Mr Wm Yeo some time Town Clarck out of divers records bj 
him perused from 33 of Edwd 3d unto 1st of Hen 8 as followeth. 

**In ye 27 yr of Edw the Ist there is mention made in ye acct 
of the Guild of Mirchants of a Mayr Commonalty and Burgesses 
keeping of the Mayrs & the Cort of the Com*^ making of Freemen 
there fines, of Rents belonging to ye Mayor & Co Cenery Rent in 
the Borough Cenery Rents of Mchants Customs of cutting Flesh 
& Amerccnts &c. 

Edwd 3d 

33. JohnAiyling Mayr. 1359. 

34. Ricd Coucheneed 1360." 

There is then a gap of seventeen years to 1377, without 
any record of a Mayor's name, and in the latter year com- 
mences the list which is complete to present time, and gives 
a record list for a period of no less than 530 years, with no 
name missing, and where a Mayor has died during his 
mayoralty the name of his successor recorded. This is a 
list of which any borough might well be proud. 



THE FOEEST BOUNDS NEAR PRINCETOWN. 

BY ARTHUR B. PR0W8B, M.D., F.R.C.8. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1006.) 



The frequency with which we find references in old Dartmoor 
records to disputes concerning boundaries, and to actions for 
trespass and poaching, between the " Duchy " and holders of 
property and others living near the forest, makes it evident 
that the method followed in defining the boundary by 
natural or artificial features, situated at considerable 
distances from each other along the forty-two miles circuit, 
was not sufficiently definite for practical purposes. 

The best natural boundary is undoubtedly a stream, but 
such a plain and incontestable limit is only possible here 
and there; and, as the distances between the various 
boundary-marks fluctuate from three-eighths of a mile up 
to as much as two miles, it is easy to understand how difTer- 
ences of opinion would arise, even if the boundary line were 
supposed to pass from one point to another without any 
deviation to right or left on the way. Doubtless a fairly 
direct course would be taken, as a rule, in "beating the 
bounds " ; but in a wild and rough country like the moor it 
is often impracticable to do this. Land, so boggy as to be 
difficult for men on foot and quite impassable for horses, 
would certainly be avoided, unless very small in extent and, 
therefore, easily skirted during a " perambulation." 

The necessity for more clearly defining the boundary 
would be felt, especially where the land is firm and good for 
grazing purposes, etc., and where fairly level and with but 
slight undulations, and also where the principal boundary- 
marks are of small size and not easily distinguishable, 
except from short distances. 

Then, too, we must remember the not unfrequent mists, 
when even the largest and most distinctive " bounds " may 



412 THB FOREST BOUNDS NEAR PRINCETOWN. 

be invisible, and therefore useless as guides to a perambulat- 
ing party. 

Consideration of these points makes it likely that even in 
quite early times some additional means would be employed 
in some cases to define the boundary beyond a mere enume- 
ration of well-known objects at considerable intervals from 
each other. One method would be the (modem) plan of 
erecting small stone posts at shorter intervals. But such 
marks can be, and sometimes have been, moved by designing 
persons. A much better, but more laborious, plan is the 
turning up of a bank, not necessarily of large size. This, 
with the associated ditch, would withstand the denuding 
effect of weather for very long periods — it would be a very 
good guide in foggy conditions, and as a boundary-mark 
could not be easily or quickly obliterated, even though it 
might extend for only a short distance. 

Bearing in mind these considerations, I have of late years, 
when opportunities have ofTered, been on the look out for 
lesser boundary-marks in the intervals between the principal 
" bounds " mentioned in the " perambulation " documents ; 
and with some success in certain parts of the "forest" 
margin. 

The accompanying map (3 in. to 1 mile) shows what I 
have noted in the neighbourhood of Princetown, between 
Great Mistor and South Hessary Tor. Starting from the 
latter point, the modem boundary-marks in the 1^-mile 
stretch to North Hessary Tor are seven granite posts at 
intervals along a straight line passing across the west end 
of Princetown Station. For about 300 yd. before reaching 
the high road the boundary-wall of a meadow runs parallel 
and close to this line. Elsewhere the line cuts across other 
fences, including that of a meadow belonging to the prison, 
about half-way up the hill towards the tor. 

When standing on South Hessary Tor, however, a 
small bank is seen running for about 500 yd. in a direc- 
tion five or six degrees west of the direction of North 
Hessary Tor. This is shown upon the Ordnance Survey 
6-in. map, except its last 70 yd. (see A on the map accom- 
panying this paper). Beyond this, for about one-third of a 
mile, there is now no bank visible on ground which has 
become rather rough, partly by weathering and partly also 
by the usual careless way in which the surface sods have 
been replaced in former " turf- ties." Then, again, we find 
running in the same direction another similar bank (B) 
about 80 yd. long. After an interval of 220 yd. another 



THE FOREST BOUNDS NEAR PRINCETOWN. 413 

piece (C), about 50 yd. in length, extends almost to the high 
road. On the other side of the road is a meadow, to the 
west of which is a very boggy bit of ground at the head of 
the Meavy Eiver, S.W. of the station. The boundary-line 
here probably deviated slightly to the west, so as to cross 
this wet ground at its narrowest part. Just beyond it is 
another well-defined bank (D) about 50 yd. long which 
reaches to the railway embankment, pointing N.W by N. 
directly towards North Hessary Tor, which, however, cannot 
be seen from here owing to the shoulder of the hill. 
After this comes an interval of 90 yd., and then another 
bank and ditch (E) nearly 250 yd. long extending in the 
same direction. This is ended by an old mining gully 
running east and west across its course, just beyond which 
the bank can again be followed for fully 140 yd. (F), where 
it forms the south-west side of a roughly-rectangular area 
of ground, which some one probably intended to enclose. 

The south-east side of this area is bounded by a bank, 
which forms part of an old trackway running S.W. b S. 
towards the south side of Leedon Tor, where it passes 
through the middle of a large group of hut-circles and 
pounds ; and then, altering its direction rather more to the 
south, runs straight up to Sharper Tor. In the other direc- 
tion this bank points N.E. straight for Beardown Clapper 
Bridge, which is about 1^ miles distant, and near which 
there are other remains of the ancient trackway. 

Keverting to the boundary-bank, the end of which is 
about one-third of a mile from, and pointing directly towards, 
North Hessary Tor, it will be seen that rather more than 
half-way up the slope the dotted line marking its direction 
is continuous with the upper end of the western boiindary- 
wall of a large field belonging to the prison. 

Beyond North Hessary Tor the modern boundary of the 
forest is marked by a series of nine granite posts running 
in a direct line to Great Mistor, two miles distant. The 
third of these is by the side of the main road from Ash- 
burton to Tavistock, about 200 yd. west of where the road 
to Princetown branches off at the top of the hill. The few 
cottages hereabouts form the hamlet of Rundlestone, which 
takes its name from a notable old menhir, mentioned in 
various documents, and also in the curious old route-book 
called " Britannia Depicta or Ogilby Improved," the fourth 
edition of which is dated 1736. In this, on page 180, it is 
mentioned as " a Great Stone call'd Eoundle," and is placed 
rather more than 1^ miles east of Men vale Bridge. 



414 THE FOREST BOUNDS NEAR PRINCBTOWN. 

The third of the granite posts mentioned above, by the 
roadside, is by some persons called the Bundlestone; but 
I am sure that it is of comparatively recent date, and it is 
almost exactly like some of the other modeim boundary- 
posts. It would hardly be described as a " Great " stone, 
and certainly has no claim to be considered a notable object. 
Feeling sure that if there had been a large menhir here- 
abouts, it must have shared the fate of many another 
ancient monument, and been broken and carried ofif to form 
part of some comparatively modem building or wall, I 
searched carefully every likely place in the immediate 
neighbourhood, but could find no trace until one day I saw 
a pillar-like block (S) of granite, 8 ft. 5 in. long and 1 ft. 9 in. 
square in section, lying on the turf by the roadside a quarter 
of a mile east of the modern boundary-post, and close to the 
gate of one of the prison fields on the north side of the road. 
Two of the warders of the prison told me that the stone was 
there when they first began their duties more than twenty 
years previously, and that they had never met any one who 
remembered how it got there. I think their evidence fairly 
outweighs that of a local farmer about fifty years of age, 
who, in an off-hand way, said. Oh, yes, he knew the stone ; 
and added that it was brought from the quarries beyond 
Merivale Bridge a few years ago, and was meant for a gate- 
post, but had been left by the roadside. That any one would 
have gone to the expense and trouble of shaping such a huge 
block for such an object, and then — after bringing it up a 
long hill to a place over 500 ft. higher — abandon it, is, to 
say the least, unlikely. The man may have thought it a 
good joke to invent such a tale, but he must have realized 
that I was sceptical before we parted. Moreover, examina- 
tion shows that the surface of the three visible sides and of 
one end of the block is distinctly weathered and lichen- 
marked to such a degree as would not be seen in the case of 
a block quarried only a few years since. 

A day or two later I found what I believe is the hose of 
the menhir embedded in the turf by the roadside about 
50 yd. west of where the branch road to Princetown leaves 
the main road. Further evidence, however, is needed, by 
digging round the stone, before one can feel quite certain on 
this point. 

This base-stone is close to the line of a boundary-wall 
half a mile long coming N.N.W. straight down the hill from 
North Hessary Tor ; and it is in a commanding site on the 
crest of the hill, 1500 ft. above sea-level, with a long descent 



THE FOREST BOUNDS NEAR PRINCETOWN. 415 

on both sides — to the west to Merivale Bridge over the 
Walkham, and to the east into the Blackabrook Valley. 
From the opposite side of the road another boundary-wall 
runs N.W. b N. for about half a mile, almost in a direct line 
towards the top of Great Mistor. Nearly a quarter of a mile 
beyond its end, in the same direction, is the base of a 
tumulus, most of which has been used to build the neigh- 
bouring fence. It is 22 yd. in diameter ; and, before its de- 
struction, must have been a large and prominent object, 
standing on ground 1590 ft. above sea-level. The summit 
of Great Mistor is three-quarters of a mile further on, in a 
direction slightly to the west of the line hitherto followed 
from the base of 'the Rimdlestone. 

The evidence, therefore, seems to me to suggest that the 
ancient boundary of the forest between North Hessary Tor 
and Great Mistor deviated to the east of the modem straight 
boundary-line ; and that its course is indicated by the two 
boundary-walls mentioned, between the ends of which, in 
the turf by the roadside, is the base of the original Eundle- 
stone. The large tumulus also would formerly have been a 
very useful " boimd." 

Supporting this view, I think, is the fact that the small 
farms forming the hamlet of Bundlestone are all on the 
western side of this suggested ancient boundary. No part 
of their land is on the eastern side ; whereas in the case of the 
modem straight boundary-line between the two tors, these 
farms extend both to the east and to the west side of it, i.e. 
they are partly within the Duchy boundary and partly in 
the domain of the lord of the manor of Walkhampton. 

In the future I hope to be able to investigate the 
boundary on the confines of the forest in other districts ; 
and shall be glad of any hints or help from other members 
of our Association. 



RALEGHANA. 

Part VIL 

THREE STATE DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE ARREST 
AND EXECUTION OF SIR W. RALEGH IN 1618. 

BY T. N. BRU8HFIRLD, M.D., F.8.A. 
(Read at Lynton, July, 1906.) 



Part II. 
THE king's "DECLARATION." 

We pass on to consider the third and most important of the 
State Papers that were composed and published in justifica- 
tion of the action of the King and Privy Council in their 
treatment and condemnation of Ealegh. Although usually 
known as the King's "Declaration," and by the general 
public regarded as his "Apology," the reprint in the Somers 
Tracts is headed, " His Majesty's Reasons for his Proceedings 
against Sir Walter Raleigh " (II (1809), 421). It was issued 
as a small quarto, with the following title-page : — 

"A Declaration of the Demeanor and Cariage of Sir 
Walter Raleigh, Knight, as well in his Voyage, as 
in, and sitheuce his Returne ; And of the true 
motiues and inducements which occasioned His 
Maiestie to Proceed in doing lustice vpon him, as 
hath bene done. (Printer's device.) 
LONDON, Printed by Bonham Norton and lohn 
Bill, Printers to the Kings most Excellent Maiestie. 
M.DC.XVIIL" (Firfe facsimile.) 

The Royal Arms on the verso of the title-page. 

As to its authorship, Edwards affirms "Bacon suggested 
that document. He penned it, and published it" (I, 655. 
This is Gardiner's opinion also. III, 66, 152); but this is 
only partly correct. Probably he prepared the draft copy, 
much in the same way that a secretary of a committee 



A 

DECLARATION 

OF THE DEMEA- 
NOR AND CARIAGE OF 
Sir Walter Raleigh, 
Knight,afweli in his Voyagc,as 
in , and Hcheoce his Recuroc$ 

fiAndofthetruemotiues and induce" 

mcnts which occafioncd His Maicftic 
to Preceeditt doing luff iee vfonhim. 



as 



hathlene dotK^* 




London, 

Printed by Bonham Norton 

andloHN Bill, Printers to the 

Kin^s moB ExeeOeat Mdiefik^ 

Mdc. XVIII. 



VOL. XXXVIII. 2 D 



418 KALEGHANA. 

does at the present time, as a basis for a report. This 
seems to coincide with the opinion of Spedding. It was — 

"penned by certain Councillors (Bacon being one), allowed by 
the Council, and printed by authority. Bacon's rank in Council, 
together with his concern in the actual composition, entitle us 
to impute to him a large share of the responsibility ; but as he 
spoke in the name of others, and his authority was not absolute, 
to charge him with the sole responsibility is a mistake " (383). 

Brief references in the text (additional to those in "Trans. D. A.," 
XXXVII, 285):— 

Fort Pap. = "The Fortescue Papers" (Camd. Soc., 1871), ed. S. R. 
Gardiner. 

Inderwick = "Side-Lights on the Stuarts," by F. A. Inderwick (1891). 

Camd. Misc. = ** Documents relating to Sir Walter Raleigh's last Voyage," 
ed. S. R. Gardiner ("Camd. Misc.," V (1864), pt. ii). 

Howell = " Familiar Letters" (ed. of 1903), tliree vols. 

Apologie= ** Sir W. Rawleigh his Apologie for his last voyage to Guiana." 
First printed in "Judicious and Select Essayes" (1660). 

Arraignment=**The Arraignment of S' Walter Rawleigh . . . coppicd 
by Sir Tho : Overbvry " (1648). 

M. Hume=**Sir Walter Ralegh." by Martin A. S. Hume (1897). 

Stud. Hist, of Eng.=**A Student's History of England," by S. R. 
Gardiner (1892). 

Canib. Mod. Hist = ** Britain under James I," by 8. R Gardiner, in 
"Cambridge Modem History," III (1904) 

Cayley="Life of Sir W. Ralegh," by A. Caylcy, Junr. (1806), two vols. 

Even, with a Rev. = " Evenings with a Reviewer," by J. Spedding (1881), 
two vols. 

Ediu. Rev. = " Sir W. Ralegh," by Macvey Napier (" Edinburgh Review," 
CXLIII, 1840). 

That the Council fully assented to it in its final form is 
proved by the statement at its close, that it was attested by 
"sixe of his Maiesties priuie Counseir* (68). Edwards 
appears to imply tliat the King had nothing to do with its 
composition, although, as Gardiner notes, it was drawn up by 
his " express order " (III, 152) ; but James would never allow 
any State document to be printed in which his personality 
or his kingly duties were concerned, without some active 
interference on his part, and the "Declaration" was no 
exception to this rule. In it this paragraph is printed at 
p. 25 : *' This Commission so drawne and framed (as you 
see) his Maiestie himselfe did oft peruse and reuise, as fore- 
seeing the future euents." And a letter from Bacon to the 
Marquis of Buckingham, dated 22 November, 1618, contains 
this note : " We have put the Declaration touching Ralegh 
to the press with his Majesty's additions, which were very 
material, and tit to proceed from his Majesty."^ 

Spedding adds: "There are no marks in the original to 

' Spedding, 378, from ** Gibson Papers," VIII, 99. 



BALEGHANA. 419 

distinguish these additions. But I suspect them to be the 
opening and the coneluding paragraph." But the opening 
sentence, "Although Kings be not bound to giue Account 
of their Actions but to GOD alone/' is simply a repetition 
verb, ct lit. of that which had appeared in the Council's letter 
of 18 October, usually assigned to Bacon.^ Then in his 
reply to this letter, James certainly suggested some of the 
details to be subsequently embodied in the "Declaration": — 

"After the sentence for his execution ... a declaration be 
presently putt forth in print, . . . Wherein we hold the French 
Physitian's confession very materiall to he inserted, as allso his 
own and his consortes confession that, before they were at tlie 
Islandes, he told them his ayme was at the fleet, with his son's 
oration when they came to the town, and some touch of his hate- 
full speeches of our person." ^ 

In his reprint of this letter, why did Spedding omit the 
important phrase here shown in italics ? (364). 

That the "Declaration," like Stukeley's "Petition," was 
not prepared, or was not completed, until after Ealegh had 
been executed, is shown by these paragraphs in it : — 

" Leaning the thoughts of his heart, and the protestations that 
hee made at his death to God that is the searcher of all hearts, 
and ludge of all Trueth " (2). 

"As to Sir Walter Raleigh his confession at his Death, wliat 
he confessed or denied touching any the points of this declaration, 
his Maiestie leaues him and his conscience therein to God, as was 
said in the beginning of this Discourse. For Soueraigne Princes 
cannot make a true iudgement vpon the bare speeches or asseuera- 
tions of a delinquent at the time of his death, but their iudge- 
ment must be founded vpon examinations, re-examinations, and 
confrontments, and such like reall proofes," etc. (67-8). 

Bacon must have been aware that at Ealegh's trial in 
1603, when the latter requested permission for a "confront- 
nient " (i.e. " the advice of bringing face to face," H. E. D.) 
with Cobham, the only witness against him, he was refused. 

Of the extreme haste in which the printing was effected, 
80 as to get the work published with as little delay as 
possible, we have ample evidence. Bacon's letter of 22 
Xovember (already quoted from) implies it was sent to 
press within a day or two of that date. And on the day 
of publication, 27 November, Naunton writes thus to the 
Marquis of Buckingham : — 

"The printer hath sent me two copies of each [i.e. of the 

1 ** Trans. D. A.,» XXXVII, 294. • • "Fort Pap.," 68. 

2d2 



420 RALEGHANA. 

" Petition " as well as of the " Declaration "] for his Majestie and 
the Prince, and prayes pardon for some escapes committed in 
theyr haste, which was such as they were faine to watche 2 nights 
and sett 20 presses aworke at once." ^ 

We have further proof of this on collating a number of 
copies with each other. As at that period stereotyping was 
unknown, the twenty presses would require as many distinct 
settings of type ; probably each worked off a definite number 
of pages or sections, as apparently indicated in the occur- 
rence of blank pages (8, 44), which were otherwise not 
needed. We may accept as the most satisfactory copy the 
one with 68 pages, of which the earliest was probably that 
having the word "which" (line 12 from top on p. 41) 
wrongly placed, but amended in other copies. It is printed 
in "Great Primer," the portion between pages 9 and 24 
being in italics. The signatures are A to H in fours, I two 
leaves, and it ends at " Finis," there being no colophon. 

Another copy (penes me) has only 63 pages, all in " Great 
Primer," except pp. 46-58, which are in "English" type. 
The signatures terminate at H 4; and the work ends with 
this colophon, similar to the imprint on the title-page : — 

« Imprinted at LONDON by 

Bonham Norton and lohn 

Bill, Printers to the Kings 

most excellent Maiestie. 

Anno 1618." 

In a number of impressions that have been examined, 
some are wrongly paged, while others show variations in 
spelling ; thus the surname " Stewkley," and " Stewkeley '^ 
in the first copy noticed, appears as "Stucley" in some of 
the others. The only portions in all where no variation 
has been detected, consist of the title-page and the Eoyal 
Commission (pp. 9-24). A singular attempt to explain the 
blank page 44 is thus advanced by Spedding: "In the 
original a blank page is interposed here : apparently for the 
purpose of distinguishing what follows as resting only upon 
the testimony of Mannoury " (401) ; but the joint account 
of him and of Stukeley commenced on page 42. He offers no 
suggestion why page 8 also is blank. A due examination 
of these circumstances must lead to the conclusion that the 
"Declaration," although contemplated, was probably not 
written, from being deemed unnecessary, until the burst of 

1 ''Fort. Pap.,"67. 



RALKGHANA. 421 

popular indignation after, and in consequence of, Ealegh's 
execution, seemed to demand a State explanation; and, 
accordingly, the "Apology," as the public regarded it, was 
hurriedly composed, and as hurriedly printed and published. 
The contents of the *' Declaration " may be thus briefly 
enumerated : — 

Pages 1-7. The preliminary proceedings that led to the 
King granting Ralegh permission to undertake the voyage 
to Guiana, notwithstanding the remonstrances of the Spanish 
Ambassador. 

Page 8. Blank. 

Pages 9-24. The King's Eoyal Commission for Ealegh 
to make the voyage to Guiana for the purpose of mine 
exploration. 

Pages 25-40. The voyage, proceedings at Guiana, and 
the return to England. 

Pages 41-65 (except p. 44 blank). Report based on the 
proceedings of the spies Manourie and Stukeley. 

Pages 65-8. Summary of Ralegh's offences and con- 
cluding remarks. 

The summary is thus stated : — 

" For these his great and hainous offences, in actes of Hostilitie 
vpon his Maiesties confederates, depredations, and abuses, as well 
of his Commission, as of his Maiesties Subiects vnder his charge, 
Impostures, Attempts of escape, declining his Maiesties lustice, 
and the rest, euidently prooued or confessed by himself e ; he had 
made himselfe vtterly vnwoorthy of his Maiesties further mercy : 
And because he could not by Law bee iudicially called in question, 
for that his former attainder of Treason is the highest and last 
worke of the Law (whereby bee was Ciuiliter mortuus) his 
Maiestie was inforced (except Attainders should become priuiledges 
for all subsequent offences) to resolue to haue him executed vpon 
his former Attainder " (65-6). • 

An execution characterized by Napier as " unquestionably 
one of the most revolting acts that stains the annals of 
l>ritish criminal procedure." ^ 

The opening pages of the "Declaration" are devoted to 
the King's explanation of his reasons for releasing Ralegh 
from the Tower, after the latter had made several ineffectual 
efforts to procure it during Salisbury's lifetime (ob. 12 May, 
1612). But with the appointment of Sir R. Win wood as 

1 **Edin. Rev.," 94. 



422 RALEGUANA. 

Secretary of State (known to have anti-Spanish views) 
Ralegh had better hopes of freedom. Edwards (I, 662) 
affirms Ralegh's release to have been effected (1) by bribing 
Court favourites, and (2) to enable him to visit Guiana for 
the purpose of gold mining. 

Respecting the alleged bribery, Oldys (1, 468) states : " That 
sir William St. John and sir Edward Villiers . . . procured 
sir Walter Ralegh's liberty, and had fifteen hundred pounds 
for their labour."^ This seems to be corroborated in the 
following extract from a letter, dated 17 March, 1615-16, 
from Ralegh to Sir G. Villiers (afterwards Duke of Bucking- 
ham) : — 

" You have, by your mediation, put me again into the world ; 
I can but acknowledge it ; for to pay any part of your favour by 
any service of mine as yet, it is not in my power. If it sueceed 
well, a good part of the honour shall be yours; and if I do not 
also make it profitable unto you, I shall shew myself exceeding 
ungrateful." 2 

Gardiner doubts whether bribery was necessary; at the 
same time he mentions that Ralegh was " liberated through 
Buckingham's influence."* But throughout the Stuart period 
bribery was absolutely necessary to procure any favour 
directly or indirectly from royalty. Ralegh's release, the 
elder D'Israeli declared, "was effected by bribing powerful 
Court favourites, who worked upon the avarice of James I."* 

On 19 March, two days after his letter to Sir G. Villiers, 
Ralegh received a letter from the Privy Council, commencing 
thus : — 

" His Majesty, out of his gracious inclination towards you, being 
pleased to release you out of your imprisonment in the Tower, to 
go abroad with a keeper, to make your provisions for your intended 
voyage^' etc.^ 

The following curious reasons that have been assigned for 
his release will show how little the real cause of it was 

* Quoted from ** Obs. on Sanderson's Hist, of King James," 4to, p. 10. 
2 Oldys, 468 ; Edwards, II, 341. 

» " Student's Hist, of England," 485 (1892). 

* **Cur. of Lit," III, 115 (1858). Many courtiers and others who were 
pensioners of Spain have been already noticed ("Trans. D. A.," XXXV, 
670). In a dispatch from Gondoraar to Philip III he mentions that the 
Duke of Lennox and Lord Hay ... are of the French party, and derive 
large pensions from France (" Archaeologia," XLI, 2). The painful example 
of Lord Bacon shows how nmch the judges were open to bribery (Gardiner, 
II, 217 ; Inderwick, 16). 

* Edwards, I. 563. Quoted from the registers of the Privy Coancil. 
Italics not in the original. 



RALEGHANA. 423 

known to some writers. One would have thought that Sir 
W. Sanderson, an attendant at Court, might have been more 
accurate than in the following distorted relation : — 

"At last, by meanes of the French Embassadour, with others of 
our own Lords, he had freedome, to repair for his health, to his 
liouse at St. James; and after a year or two, he procured a 
Commission, to make a Voyage to Gueana in the West-indies for 
the return of Gold Oare or Mine." ^ 

The intercession of the French Ambassador we learn for 
the first time, and as it is unmentioned by any other writer 
we may pass it by. The condition of Ealegh's health had 
never been considered throughout his Tower confinement; 
and so far from waiting for ** a year or two " before he received 
his Commission, it was granted him on 24 August (probably 
two months earlier), five months only after his release. 

Another singular explanation was advanced by the 
historian D. Hume, who asserted that the King "thinking 
... he had already undergone sufficient punishment, he 
released him from the Tower and gave him 'permission to 
try the venture.' " ^ 

The Eoyal Commission granted permission to Ralegh ** to 
vndertake a voyage . . . vnto the South parts of America, or 
elswhere within America ... to discouer and finde out 
some commodities and merchandizes in those Countries, that 
be necessary and profitable," etc. To be "commanded by no 
other then himselfe " ; with " full power and authoritie, and 
free licence and libertie out of this Our Realme of England 
or any other Our Dominions ... for and towards his said 
intended voyage." He was "to be the sole Gouemor and 
commaunder of all persons that shall trauell, or be with him 
in the said voiage"; with *'fidl power and authority to 
correct, punish, pardon, gouerne and rule them"; and "in 
case of rebellion, or mutiny by sea or land, to vse and exercise 
Marshall law"^ 

This occupies pages 9-24 of the "Declaration," is dated 
24 August, 1616, and was issued " Per breue de priuato 
Sigillo." 

According to Oldys, the " commission seems to have been 
given under the great Seal of England," and at least two 
months earlier than the one just cited, which was issued 
under the Privy Seal (473) This is corroborated by a letter 

1 «* Aulicua Coquinariae," 91-2 (1660). 

2 "Hist of Eng.." III. 39 (1824). 
' Italics not iu the origiual. 



424 RALEGHANA. 

of Peter Vanlore, quoted by Oldys on the same page.^ 
Amongst the headings of the charges of the Attorney- 
General at the Privy Council meeting on 17 August, 1618, 
is this one : ** His Majesty in respect of his countries good 
licenseth him by his commission under the great seek " (Camd. 
Misc., 9). 

This was not the only alteration that was made in the 
Commission. Edwards declares that Gondomar " persuaded 
James to have certain awkward words scratched out " from 
it. and " the words were erased — after they had been written,"* 
and so the sentence " trusty and well-beloved servant " was 
omitted. This is corroborated by the following extract from 
a letter written by J. Pory to Carle ton on 31 October, two 
days after Ralegh's execution. At the Council meeting held 
on 28 October, Ralegh said that 

"His MsL^^ had given him a commission to be his lieutenant 
general ouer an army at sea, wherein he styled him our beloved 
trusty subjecte, & gave him power of life and death ; as his 
Ma^^ would neuer haue done to the man he should esteeme a 
Tray tour; ergo his commission was equivalent to a Pardon."* 

That the terms of his commission implied a pardon was 
the general opinion of those writers of the seventeenth 
century who devoted any attention to the subject. Thus 
F. Osborne : — 

"The most honest sort of Gown-men . . . maintained that his 
Majesties Pardon lay inclusively in the Commission he gave him 
upon his setting out to sea : It being incongruous, that he, who 
remained under the notion of one Dead in Law, should as a 
Generall dispose of the lives of others, not beinge himselfe Master 
of his owne."* 

Howell relates the well-known anecdote of Bacon having 
told Ralegh — " positively " — that a pardon was unnecessary 
from the fact of the powers that had been confeiTed upon 
him by the commission. 

" The knee timber of your voyage is money : spare your purse in 
this particular, for upon my life you have a sufficient pardon for 
all that is passed already, the king having undei' his broad seal 
made you admiral of your fleet, and given you power of the 
martial law over your officers and soldiers." ^ 

1 Cf. Edwards, II, 343. 

2 II, 591. Cf. Gardiner, III, 42 ; Stebbing, 801. 
» **S. P. James I, Dom.," CIII, 61. 

* *' Historical Memoires," 11,16-17(1658). 
» II, 232. Cf. Shirley, 218. 



KALEGHANA, 425 

And that " his said commission was as good a pardon for 
all former offences, as the law of England could aftbrd him."^ 

Although this conversation was fraught with the greatest 
importance to Kalegh, yet it is not referred to by Spedding, 
although he accepts as trustworthy, on the unsupported 
authority of the spy Wilson, two other anecdotes relating 
to the same two personages, of which one alludes to Kalegh's 
intended piracy. '*This," remarks Spedding (347), "must 
be supposed to have been spoken in jest/'^ That is to say, 
he could cite an anecdote reflecting on Ealegh, but with- 
held another that seemed in any way to reflect upon his 
favourite, Bacon.^ 

The following is the sole notice in the "Declaration" of 
the sentence passed upon Ealegh in 1603: "in respect of 
the perill of Law wherein the saide Sir Walter Ealiegh 
[sic] now standeth" (10), and is remarkable for bearing no 
relation to the context which either precedes or succeeds it. 
Tliere are good grounds for believing this interpolation 
to have been made in the revised form of the commis- 
sion, and most probably at the instigation of Gondomar.* 
To his counsel may also be attributed the two months' delay 
before the second form of the commission was framed, as 
also the alteration from the Great to the Privy Seal. 

Attention must be directed to one important section of 
the King's Commission, as it discloses the principal, perhaps 
the sole, underlying motive in issuing it. Although in 
the preamble only "commodities and merchandizes" are 
mentioned, in later pages the precious metals, etc., receive 
special notice, as being proper imports, upon which large 
dues were to be paid to the Crown. 

** Paying and answering vnto Ys, Our Ileires, and Successours 
the full fift part in fiue parts to be diuided, of all such gold, and 
siluer, and bullion and oare of gold or siluer, and pearle, and 
precious stone, as shalbe so imported," etc. [15, and repeated on 
pages 17 and 22.] 

Similar dues were to be paid by Harcourt and his suc- 
cessors, when they took possession of the eastern portion 
of Guiana in 1608.^ All this shows "the care taken to 
secure his majesty's dividend."* Even Gardiner, who does 

^ '*0b3. on Sauderson's History of King James," p. 10. 

2 Quoted from *' Literary and frofessional Works,** II, 168-9 (1879). 

8 Cf. Gardiner, III, 47-8. 

* Cf. Lingard, "Hist, of Eng.," VI, 165 (1825). 

* Patent Roll, 11 James I, pt i. n. 5. 

« Oldys, 476 ; cf. Mrs. Macaulay, "Hist, of Eng.," I, 5 (1771). 



426 RALEGHAKA. 

not often support Ralegh's action, confirms this view : " It 
can hardly," he remarks, " be doubted that the prospect of 
sharing in the profits of the gold mine blinded him [James] 
to the risk to himself, as well as to Raleigh, by which the 
search would be accompanied" (II, 382). In the opinion 
of Spedding, Ralegh ''thought that if he had brought the 
gold the King would not have quarrelled with him about 
the means employed to get it ; and it was to his supposed 
cupidity, not to his sense of justice, that the argument was 
really addressed" (351). But James wanted money very 
badly ; and however good his principles may have been, and 
as recorded by himself in his printed works (especially in 
his Basilicon Doron\ his actual practice was directly 
antithetic to them, especially when he thought they were 
prejudicial to his interests. Examples of this will be found 
in Appendix E, and will show what " his sense of justice '* 
was worth. 

The following were the reasons advanced by James for releas- 
ing Ralegh from prison, as recorded in tlje " Declaration " : — 

" Sir W. Raleigh had so inchanted the world, with his confident 
asseueration of that which euery man was willing to beleeue, as 
his Maiesties honour was in a manner ingaged, not to deny vnto 
his people tlie aduenture and hope of so great Riches, to bee 
sought and atchieued, at the charge of Voluntaries, especially . . . 
to nouriph and incourage Noble and Generous enterprises," etc. (4). 

But James had denied, for nine years, "the aduenture 
and hope" here expressed, as Ralegli had made repeated 
though unsuccessful applications of a similar kind, com- 
mencing in 1607. Apart from this, the King was not the 
kind of man to be governed by such sentiment; and the 
probability of obtaining a large share of the spoil would 
prove a much more powerful factor in inducing him to 
sanction Ralegh's scheme. 

The "great and hainous offences" which, according to the 
"Declaration," rendered Ralegh "vtterly vnwoorthy of his 
Maiesties further mercy," consisted of two classes, and com- 
prised the following : — 

Primary. 1. The pretence of a gold mine in Guiana as a 
cloak for other projects. 

2. Attacking the Spaniards in their own territory , 

burning and sacking the town of St. Thomas; 
and thereby endangering the peace of the 
two countries. 

3. Intention to capture the Mexico fleet. 



RALEGHANA. 427 

Secondary, 4. Attempt to abandon his ships and men. 

5. Mutiny. 

6. Impostures. 

7. Attempts to escape. 

8. Attempt to bribe the spies. 

9. Speaking ill of the King. 

10. French Commission. 

11. "And the rest." 

Of these, the "Secondary" offences could scarcely even 
be termed acts of misprision, and yet they form a full third 
of the printed work. What the last on the list (" and the 
rest ") refers to is unknown. 

The first charge in this list refers to the mine project, to 
which twenty allusions are made. These deny the existence 
of the mine altogether, and declare that Ealegh knew it to 
be " imaginarie " (37). Having been spared " from his Execu- 
tion" for foui'teen years, he '*fell vpon an Enterprise of a 
golden Mine in Guiana," being " recommended to his Maiestie 
by Sir Ealph Winwood, then Secretary of State, as a matter 
not in the Aire, or speculatiue, but reall, and of certainty, 
for that Sir W. Kaleigh had scene of the Oare of the Mine 
with his eyes, and tried the richnesse of it" (3). One 
assertion in this quotation is misleading. It is stated that 
after his long incarceration, Kalegh "fell vpon" his mine 
enterprise ; but, as already noted, similar requests made by 
him in former years had been disregarded, and no valid 
reason could be adduced why he might not have been re- 
leased long before 1616, as his statements concerning the 
mine were almost identical on each occasion. Winwood having 
died on 17 October, 1617, the "Declaration" makes him 
tlie scapegoat for his intercession with the King in favour 
of Kalegh, whereas his advocacy was scarcely necessary, as 
James was swayed by his own personal motives, aided by 
the influence of the favourite Buckingham. 

The "pretence of the Mine" was advanced by him "to 
procure his libertie, and then to make new fortunes for 
himself e, casting abroad onely this tale of the Mine as a 
lure to get aduenturers and followers, hauing in his eye the 
Mexico Fleete, the sacking and spoyle of Townes planted 
with Spaniards, the depredation of Ships, and such other 
purchase " (26). Eespecting " this golden baite of the Mine " 
(27) ; ..." it is true that his Maiesty, in his owne princely 
iudgement, gaue no beleefe vnto it; as well, for that his 



428 - BALEGHANA. 

Majesty was verely perswaded, that in Nature there are no 
such Mines of gold entire " (3, 4). 

But unless James possessed the gift of prescience (Scottish 
second-sight), it is difficult to credit his assertion that he 
"gaue no beleefe" to the existence of a mine. A similar 
claim for him is made at page 25 in his power of " foreseeing 
the future euents." That is to say, he branded Kalegh at the 
outset as an impostor, and yet assisted him to carry out his 
project, knowing its avowed object, the place he was to visit, 
and all the arrangements that had been made for carrying 
it out ! Surely an attempt to prove too much. There is no 
trace of any such belief recorded in the Royal Commission, 
nor of any until the failure of the expedition was known. 
It was certainly an afterthought, and was probably one of 
Bacon's efforts to screen James from the consequences 
attached to the ill-success of Ralegh's voyage. Spedding 
maintains that " the failure of the search for the mine was 
only the misfortune of the adventurers, and of small concern 
to the King, who had built no extravagant hopes upon it " 
(352). No other writer attempts to coincide with, or to 
corroborate, this assertion ; and it is diametrically opposed 
to the opinion of Gardiner, who had studied the character 
of James more deeply than Spedding appears to have done 
(vide post). 

The "Declaration" endeavours to make young Walter 
Ralegh a witness against his father, as being " likest to know 
his father's secret," by asserting that as he was leading his 
soldiers against the town he ** vsed these or the like words, 
* Come on, my hearts, here is the Mine that ye miist expect, 
they that looke for any other Mine, are fooles"* (34-5). 
And is thus alluded to by the Attorney-General at the Privy 
Council in August, 1618: "His sonnes speeches to the 
soldiers to attend the spoile of S* Thomas, for that was the 
mine they sought after." ^ On what authority all this is 
based we know not. No author relates any trustworthy 
information respecting it, or gives any reference to it; nor 
do any of the witnesses. Oldys disbelieved it (497). More- 
over, Capt. Parker, who was one of the attacking party, after 
rejoining Sir Walter about a month later, sent a letter to 
Capt. Alley, dated 22 March, 1617, containing particulars of 
the engagement, but he does not allude to young Walter's 
speech, which he undoubtedly would have done had it 
been delivered, as at the time he was smarting under the 
failure of the expedition.* Howell declares, " there is a 
> "Camd. Misc.," 10. » Spedding, 420. 



BALEGHANA. 429 

worthy captain in this town (London), who was a co-adventurer 
in that expedition, who, upon the storming of St. Thomas, 
heard young Mr. I^leigh encouraging his men with the 
speech just quoted " (II, 228). 

This was written in 1645, when the author was a prisoner 
in the Fleet, twenty-eight years after the occurrence, a 
statement unconfirmed during that long interval. That the 
speech affirmed in the " Declaration *' to have been made by 
young Walter Ealegh is spurious we have the positive 
testimony of Capt. Keymis, who was present in the action. 
He, in a letter to Sir Walter, dated 8 January, to inform of 
his son's death, wrote thus of him: "With the constant 
vigour of mind being in the hands of death his last breath 
expressed these words: 'Lord have mercy upon me and 
prosper your enterprise.' " ^ 

When James heard of the failure of the mine project, by 
which all his hopes of obtaining money from this source 
towards the payment of his debts were frustrated, then we 
learn for the first time of his asserted belief, or, rather, the 
public expression of his belief, in the fraudulent character 
of lialegh's proceedings. James received the tidings from 
Capt. E. North on 23 May. Then on 11 June the King 
issued a Proclamation commencing thus : — 

"Whereas We gave Licence to Sir Walter Rawleigh knight and 
others of our Subjectes with him to undertake a Voyage to the 
Countrey of Guiana, where they pretended great hopes and 
probabihties to make discovery of certain Gould Mynes for the 
lawful! inrichinge of themselves and these our Kingdomes," etc. * 

On 19 June a Council was held, when James spoke at 
length of Ealegh's crime, and Buckingham asked, "Was it 
not really just to punish those * traitors who, under pretence 
of gold mines, . . . and upon other pretexts equally false, 
had brought him [the King] to give his consent to the 
expedition ? "* On the following day Gondomar, apparently 
to ease the King's conscience, attempted, as Buckingham 
had already done, to cast the onus of the Commission on 
some members of the Council, and added, " that Ealeigh and 
bis followers were in England, and had not been hanged, 
and that the councillors who had advised the King to 
consent to the expedition were still at large."* 

All this shows that on an ex-parte statement, and before 

1 "Apologie/'SS. 

- Rynier'a ''Foedera," XVII, 92. In the "Cal. S. P., James I, Dom.," 
XCVII, 98, the date 9 June is recorded. 
» Gardiner, III, 133. 



430 RALE6HANA. 

Ralegh was examined (it is doubtful whether he had arrived 
in England at the time), he was practically condemned. It 
reminds one of Lydford Law, 

How in the morn they hang and draw, 
And sit in judgment after. 

One mistake in the "Declaration" is thus commented 
upon by Gardiner : ** In starting from the theory that the 
mine was a mere figment of Baleigh's imagination, it left out 
of sight the fact that he had reason to believe that the mine 
existed" (III, 153). What were the foundations for such a 
belief on Ralegh's part ? Even the most cursory student of 
English history must be well aware that Ralegh made his 
first adventurous voyage to South America in 1595, of which, 
under the title of "The Discouerie of . . . Gviana," he 
published a full account in the following year.^ Naunton 
(1563-1635) was well acquainted with him, and describes 
him as " an indefatigable Reader, whether by Sea or Land," * 
so that we have good reason to believe he was possessed of 
ample knowledge of the exploits of Cortez in Mexico in 
1522, and of Pizarro in Peru twelve years later. That 
visions of El Dorado — " the golden land " — the country from 
whence the King of Spain drew his enormous revenues, led 
to Ralegh's memorable expedition, is recorded in the Epistle 
Dedicatory of his work : " Many yeares since, I had know- 
ledge by relatid, of that mighty, rich, and beawtifull Empire 
of Guiana, and of that great and Golden Citie. which the 
spanyards call El Dorado, and the naturals Manoa" (iv). 
Having first sent Captain Whiddon with an exploring party 
in 1594, from which no important results were obtained, he 
commenced his own voyage in February, 1595, and returned 
to England in the August following. On arriving at Trinidad 
he captured and burnt the Spanish settlement of San Joseph, 
and took Berreo, the Governor, prisoner, for having ill-treated 
some of XJaptaiu Whiddon's men during the previous year. 
From there be started on a boat journey up the River 
Orinoco (which he entered by the Cano Manamo branch), 
and ascended it as far as the large tributary river Caroni 
(Caroli), situated about three hundred miles from the mouth 
of the former. This was his turning-point, from whence he 

^ The full title of this work, together with much information relating to 
the existence of gold in Guiana quoted from it and from other sources ; 
together witli the information he received of the fabled city and lake of 
Manoa, will be found in Aj)pendix A. 

^ "Fragmenta Regalia," 31 (1641). 



RALEGHANA. 431 

returned to his ships by the eastern or Capuri branch. 
(His route is marked in the map in Schomburgk's work.) 

Near the surface, in the vicinity of the Caroni River, he 
discovered much white spar containing gold, specimens of 
which he brought away with him (68). He heard of "a 
greate siluer mine " (66) ; and Putijma, a lord of Guiana, 
informed him of a gold mine in the neighbourhood of the 
Iconuri Mountain, and offered to conduct him there, but as 
he was unable to leave his men he sent Keymis (93, an error 
for 83). No habitation of any kind was to be seen near the 
river at the time of Ilalegh's visit, but when he sent Keymis 
to that part in the following year the latter found it occupied 
by the Spaniards, as thus recorded by him: "Here the 
Spaniardes haue seated their Kancheria of some twenty or 
thirtie houses. The high rookie Island, that lyeth in the 
middest of the Riuer, against the mouth of Caroli is their 
Forte or refuge." At the mouth of the river they had placed 
*'a secret ambush, to defend the passage to those mines, 
from whence your Oare and white stones were taken the 
last yeere." ^ 

Owing to this "remooue" of the Spaniards the expedition 
failed in its main object, and had to return, "not without 
griefe to see ourselues thus defeated.*' 

His " Pilot . . . offered to bring vs either to the myne of 
white stones neere Winicapora, or else to a gold myne [which 
Putijma had shewed him during the previous voyage], being 
but one dayes iourney ouerland, from the place where we 
now stayed at an ancor." His Indian showed him how 
" they gather the gold in the sand of a small riuer . . . that 
springeth . . . from the rockes where this myne is."^ In 
October of the same year Kalegh sent, under the command 
of Leonard Berrie, " a pinnesse called the Watte " to the 
same place, of which an account was written by T. Masham. 
In it he alludes to "the lake called Perima, whereupon 
Manoa is supposed to stand " ; and also that " great store of 
gold " was to be found in Wiana." ^ 

Throughout the remainder of his life Salegh's mind seems to 
liave dwelt continuously upon his voyage to Guiana, and upon 
the auriferous rocks he saw, or heard of, there, etc. During his 
Tower imprisonment, from 1603 to 1616, he made frequent 
applications to be permitted to send another expedition to 
that country, and as shown by the few letters that have been 
preserved, he held out every possible inducement for his 

1 " Hakluyt'8 Voyages (ed. Goldsmid), XV, 69-70 (1890). 

2 IhicL, 70-1. » Ibid,, 98-110. 



432 RALE6HANA. 

suggestions to be adopted. In 1607 he offered, in a letter to 
Lord Salisbury, to accompany such an expedition as "a 
private man ... the charge of the shipp, . . . the master, 
and all other officers" being appointed by others than by 
himself ; and added, " if I do but perswade a contrary course 
to cast me into the sea." The only stipulation he made was, 
" that uppon the land they may be directed by me, or by any 
joynt commissioners." He further offered to pay one-third, 
or, under certain circumstances, the whole of the cost.^ He 
made a similar offer and suggestions in a letter to Viscount 
Haddington in 1610 (?), with tliis addition, " when God shall 
permit us to arrive, If I bringe them not to a mountaine 
(nire a navigable river) covered with gold and silver care, 
let the comander have commissione to cut off my head 
ther."2 Then in IGll, or the year following, in a communi- 
cation to the Lords of the Council, he reminded them of their 
** offer to be att the charge to transport Keemish into Guyana"; 
and if he " faile to bringe into England halfe a tunne .... of 
that slate gold ore whereof I gave a sample to my Lord 
Knevett," then all the cost to be borne by him; "yett that 
your Lonhhipps iimy he satisfied of th^ truth I am conteiiteil 
to adventure all I have, but my reputacion, upon Keemishe's 
menwi-y.''^ The importance of this letter (of which a full 
transcript will be found in Appendix C) cannot be over- 
rated. Of it Schomburgk remarks, "We cannot help express- 
ing our astonishment that such a strong case for his defence 
should have been overlooked by his biographers" (167). 
Neither Oldys nor Gardiner notices it; Stebbing (290-1, 318) 
draws attention to its value ; but Spedding, although alluding 
to it, does not grasp its importance (343-4, 433). It is prob- 
able that much correspondence on this subject has been 
lost. For example, in his letter of 1611, lUlegh alludes to 
his " former " one to the Lords of the Council ; and in the one 
to Winwood of 1615 or 1616,* he notes having sent "letters 
.... both to his Majestic and to the Treasurer Cecill.'* Of 
these the former is unknown, and the latter was apparently 
of later date than the one of 1607. Moreover, Sir Joseph 
Jekyll, Master of the Ilolls, once possessed in his private 
library a MS. volume, described as containing "several letters 
wrote by Sir Walter Kaleigh in relation to Guiana, subscribed 
by his own hand*'; which have, thus far, not been traced.^ 
All the correspondence that has been preserved proves 

1 E<lwards, II, 389-91. ^ /^^y^^ 392.4. 

' Ibid., 337-9. Italics not in original. 

* Edwards, II, 339-41. *» Ibid., II, 337. 



RALEGHANA. 433 

that up to the period of the last dated letter (1611 or 1612) 
the mine, and nothing else than the mine was alluded to, or 
even hinted at, in any conversation, or in any letter written 
by or concerning Ealegh, as to his suggested visit to Guiana 
for the second time. 

Before proceeding further, it may be as well to complete 
the later history of the mining project. After the return of 
lialegh a Privy Council meeting was held in August, at 
which Ealegh was examined. Among the " Impostures," the 
Attorney-General thus accused him : " Hee never intended a 
mine. . . . Hee gave no order to seake the mine." To this 
lialegh replied, " he intended a mine, and trusted Captain 
Kemish, in whom also they confided, to find the mine, and 
the foi'ce hee sent was not to invade them of S^- Tliamas, but to 
kcape betwene them and the mine, least the Spaniards should 
interrupt them in theire search and tvorkJ*^ The portion 
shown in italics formed a part of Ralegh's instructions to 
Keymis. ( Vide Appendix B.) On this point the evidence 
that had been preserved of two witnesses is printed in 
Spedding's work (none of Ralegh's replies are known), from 
which these entries are transcribed. Each witness was 
asked this question : " Whether in his opinion Sir W, Ralegh 
did really intend a mine, or did pretend it only to abuse the 
State and to draw followers'* 

W. Herbert "saith that ... Sir W. Ralegh was verily 
persuaded there was a mine, but not of his own sight, but 
upon the credit which the said Sir Walter gave to Keymis ; 
for that Keymis told this Exam*« that Sir W. Ralegh was 
never at the mine." 

Captain R. North ** saith that for his part he thinketh that 
Sir W. Ralegh did not believe there was any ; and being 
asked the grounds of his so conceiving, he saith that it was 
partly out of Keymis his speeches and behaviour, who until 
such time as the Town was taken, was confident, and made 
no doubt in all his speeches of finding the mine." Further, 
that "many others were in doubt" as to the existence of a 
mine. If "others" could so testify, there is no record of 
their examination on this important point (416-19). 

It is singular that neither of these persons replied to the 
latter part of the question, marked in italics. Captain Parker, 
in a letter dated 22 March, 1617-18, makes many severe 
reflections on the action of Keymis. All three witnesses 
were in the boat expedition. 

1 *'Camd. Misc.," 9-12. 
VOL. XXXVIII. 2 E 



434 RALBGHANA. 

The examination of the first two took place in September, 
but the King had been actively engaged in his investigations 
nearly two months earlier, for on 22 June (about the time 
of Ralegh's return), according to Gardiner, " James told him 
(Gondomar) that he had been for two hours examining 
witnesses who had been inclined to lay the blame on Keymis, 
but that he had told them that lialeigh was responsible for 
all that had been done, as Keymis had acted under his 
orders" (III, 133). But he did not tell him that Keymis had 
acted contrary to Ealegh's instructions. 

To his dying hour Ralegh never faltered in his great 
belief in the existence of a gold mine in Guiana ; a belief 
that was fully shared by Keymis. It was based on his 
personal examination of the district; on the specimens of 
gold ore which he had gathered near the mouth of the 
Caroni River; on the reports of the inhabitants; on the 
testimony of Keymis, and on the information he had obtained 
from Berreo. He had, therefore, good grounds for feeling 
convinced he would be able to enrich his country, his 
companions, and himself. 

He made this entry in his second testamentary note: 
" My true intent was to goe to a Mine of Gold in Guiana. 
Itt was not fained, but is true that such a Mine there is, 
within three miles of St. Tome '* ^ ; followed up by these words 
on the scafifold : " I protest it was my full intent, and for 
gold, for gold for the benefit of his Majesty, and my selfe, 
and of those that ventured, and went with me, with the rest 
of my countreymen : But he that knew the head of the myne 
would not discover it, when he saw my Sonne was slaine, but 
made away himselfe." ^ Finally the Caroni gold mine where 
Ralegh picked up his specimens has been identified by Dr. 
C. Le Neve Foster in modern days, and been described by 
him. ( Vide Appendix A.) 

The circumstances under which he was released from the 
Tower, and the preparations for his voyage, hindered as they 
were by Gondomar, have already been related. The fleet 
sailed from the Thames about the commencement of April, 
1617, and after considerable delays finally left Cork on 19 
August. Before tracing its subsequent history it is neces- 
sary to draw attention to some important circumstances, 
which belong to the period before Ralegh left the Thames. 

I. The first is thus advanced by Spedding : — 

*' If Ralegh himself had been asked . . . what he would do if 

1 Edwards, II, 496. « "Arraignment,'* 32. 



RALE6HAKA. 485 

when he came to the mine he found a Spanish settlement pre- 
pared to resist him, what answer could he have given ? . . . And 
it is possible that some such questions were put to him before he 
went" (346). 

Had such inquiries been made they would assuredly have 
beeu noticed in the *' Declaration." That they were never 
asked is certain; and it is equally certain they ought to 
have been. In his " Apologie " Ralegh remarks : — 

" If the Ambassadour had protested to his Majesty that my going 
to Guiana before I went would be a breach of the peace, I am 
perswaded that his Majesty if he had not bin resolved that Guiana 
had been his would have stayed me " (53). 

According to Gardiner, James " told Sarmiento [Gondo- 
mar] that if he stopped the expedition now, the whole 
nation would cry out against him." And in a foot-note, 
*' That James was influenced by popular clamour is plainly 
stated in the King s * Declaration,' and receives full confirma- 
tion from Sarmiento's despatches" (III, 56). 

Here is the paragraph in the " Declaration " referred to : — 

'* Sir W. Raleigh had so inchanted the world, with his confident 
asseueration of that which euery man was willing to beleeue, as 
his Maiesties honour was in a manner ingaged, not to deny vnto 
his people the aduenture and hope of so great Riches, to bee 
sought and atchieued," etc. (4). 

When did James ever yield to public clamour ? Did he 
do so with respect to the subject of the Spanish marriage ? 
Of this Hallam remarked, " If the king had not systematic- 
ally disregarded the public wishes, he could never have set 
his heart on this impolitic match" (I, 355). Again, "James 
little heeded the popular voice" (I, 299.) There is ample 
reason to believe that he made no such attempt, and, more- 
over, had no desire to prevent Kal^h from proceeding on 
his voyage, and that in so doing he was influenced solely by 
mercenary motives. That he could have stopped the ex- 
pedition, and would have done so, on being " told . . . that 
euery one of the principals that were in the voyage, had 
put in security one for another, which if his Maiestie had 
knowen in tivxCy hee would neicer haue accepted of^' is afiirmed 
in the "Declaration" (26). Of this James was informed 
before the fleet sailed : the words are " till they were vpon 
their parting," and confirm the statement that he had no 
intention of yielding to Gondomar's urgent wish to stop 
the expedition. Had Ralegh been successful in bis quest 

2s2 



436 RALEGHANA. 

for gold, James would have been independent of Spain with 
respect to the payment of his debts. 

II. James was fully aware from many sources of informa- 
tion (especially from Gondomar) of the mine on the Orinoco, 
and of the Spanish settlement there. Both he and the 
Council must have been well acquainted with the " Discoverie 
of Guiana" ; with Keymis's voyage in 1596 ; and with Bal^h's 
letters on the subject, of 1607, 1610, and 1611 (the last- 
named, printed in Appendix C, mentions " St. Thome, where 
the Spaniards inhabite.") ^ Oldys points out that the King 
" knew where Kalegh was going, and no where declines his 
knowledge that the Spaniards were settled there " (479-80). 
Ealegh owned that though he had informed James of his 
intention to land in Guiana, he had not acquainted him that 
the Spaniards had any footing there (letter to Lord Carew 
in Edwards, II, 375-6). But he had already given him full 
information on the objects, etc., of the expedition. Writing 
from St. Christopher's to Winwood on 21 March, 1618 (he 
was unaware of Win wood's death on 27 October, 1617), he 
states : — 

" It pleased his Majestie to value us at so little, as to commaund 
me, upon my allegeance, to sett downe under my hand the countrey, 
and the very river by which I was to enter it ; to set down the 
number of my men, and burden of my ships ; with what ordnance 
every ship caryed which being made knowne to the Spanish 
ambassador, and by him, in post, sent to the King of Spain, a 
despatch was made by him and his letters sent from Madrill, 
before my departure out of the Thames ; for his first letter, sent 
by a bark of advice, was dated the 19th of March, 1617, at 
Madrill; which letter I have here enclosed sent your Honour." ^ 

A list and survey of Ealegh's ships "taken by certaine 
Gentlemen appointed thereunto by the Eight Honourable 
Charles Earle of Nottingham, Lord high Admirall of England, 
the 15th of March 1616-17," first printed in "Newes of Sir 
Walter Eauleigh" (1618), is quoted in full in Schomburgk's 
work, 171-2. 

Caiiew informed Howell that James had promised " upon 
the word of a king to keep it secret " (II, 229). After reading 
the foregoing account it is difficult to agree with Gardiner 
that " there was nothing in the papers placed in Gondomar's 
hands which was not perfectly known to him already " ; 

1 Cf. Stebbing, 338 ; Schomburgk, 167. 

2 Kd wards, fl, 353-4, where three others are described ; referred to in 
Keyniis^s letter to Ralegh of S January, 1(517-18 ; and in the latter'a ** Aiwlogie,'* 
34, 41 ; also in letter to Lady Kalegh on 22 March, 1618, Edwards, II, 362. 



RALEGHANA. 437 

yet the Spanish Ambassador affirmed he was ignorant of 
the destination of the expedition, and professed to be unaware 
of it until after it had left the Thames three months; 
whereas Ralegh "had been reiterating for the last twelve 
months" that it was bound for a mine on the Orinoco 
(III, 56-7). Gondomar's ignorance was certainly diplomatic,^ 
as he knew from the very commencement of everything 
relating to Kalegh, and his intended voyage, and made it his 
especial business to obtain as much information about him 
as possible, which was duly forwarded to Spain. The phrase 
" no reliance can be placed on his mere word," applied by 
Gardiner to Ralegh, was certainly more strictly applicable to 
Gondomar. While some authorities deem these proceedings 
of James and of Gondomar to have been acts of treachery, 
they are not so considered by Gardiner, Spedding, and 
Macvey Napier. It need scarcely be said that the 
"Declaration" does not allude to the matter. Oldys tersely 
sums up the King's action thus : " If James knew, and it is 
certain that he did know, of the place where Ralegh was to 
work a mine ; also that he affirmed he knew it belonged to 
the Spaniards, then he issued a commission to plunder 
the territories of a King with whom he was at peace" 
(547). 

III. The " Declaration " records Ralegh's expressed promise 
and intention solely to visit the Guiana gold mines; and 
that he "neuer meant or would commit any outrages, or 
spoils vpon the King of Spaines subiects " (6, 7). And when 
he called at Lancerato, on his way, he informed the Governor 
there he "had no purpose to invade any of the Spanish 
Kings territories having received from the King . . . 
express commandment to the contrary." * Ralegh expressed 
no desire to depart from this promise;^ at .the same time it 
must be remembered, as the result of his first voyage there 
in 1595, he claimed to have taken possession of it for 
England. 

"The countrey is already discouered, many nations won to her 
Maiesties loue & obediece, Si those Spaniards which haue latest 
and longest labored about the conquest, beaten out, discouraged 
and disgraced, which among these nations were thought to bo 
inuincible." * 

1 Cf. ••Apologie,"49. 

2 Ralegh's ''Journal of his Voyage," in Cottoa MSS., Titus, bk. viii. 
fol. 153. Quoted by Schomburgk, 180. 

3 Cf. **Apologie,»*49. 

* "Disc, of Guiana," 93. 



438 RAI.EQHANA. 

A letter from him to Lord Carew of 21 June, 1618, 
contains this statement : — 

'* That Guiana he Spanish territory can never he acknowledged, 
for I myself took possession of it for the Queen of England, by 
virtue of a cession of all the native chiefs of the country. His 
Majesty knows this to he true, as is proved hy the conoeasion 
granted hy him under the great seal of England to Harcourt." ^ 

Again, in his " Apologie " we find the following : — 

" These parts hordering the Eiver Orrenoque, and to the South 
as farre as the Amazones doth hy the Law of Nations belong to 
the Crowne of England, as his Majestie was well resolved when I 
prepared to goe thither, otherwise his Majesty would not have 
given once leave to have landed there." * 

" The Guianians before their planting, they did willingly resigne 
all that territory to her Majesty, who by me promised to receiye 
them, and defend them against the Spaniards ; and though I were 
a Prisoner for this last Fourteene years, yet I was at the charge 
every yeare, or every second yeare, to send unto them to keepe 
them in hope of being relieved " (52). 

And in the report of Keymis, after his voyage in 1596, he 
remarks : " It hath pleased God of his infinite goodnesse, in 
his will and purpose to appoint and reserve this empire for 
vs."^ Then in 1604 Charles Leigh sailed to Guiana, " where 
he had beene in a former voyage," and took possession of the 
country on the day he landed, " For the prosecuting of this 
voyage, in such sort as that we be not preuented by the 
Spaniard nor any other nation." * He died in 1605, and in 
1609 Robert Harcourt succeeded him, his commission under 
the great seal bearing date 13 February, 1609, by which he 
was granted **all that parte of Guiana or continente of 
America lyinge betweene the Eyver of Amazones and the 
Ey ver of Dessequebe (Essequibo).'* ^ 

In the account of his voyage he mentions that if "the 
Spaniards disturb our plantation and endanger the lives of 
those that shall make the first settlement there," which in 
the writer's opinion could only be effected " by a preparation 
out of Spain itself " ; then such attempt is to be frustrated 
either by a fort, or by " setting ourselves above two or three 

* Quoted by M. Hume, 387, from MS. 

' 49. Rei)€ated in his letter to Lord Carew printed in Edwards' work, 
II. 376. 

» Hakluyt's "Voyages," XV, 98 (1890). 

* Purchas. "Pilgrims," IV, 1259-64. 

» "S. P. James, Dom.," LXXIV, 198. Copy of grant of 1609, tranjcribed 
in that of 1618. 



RALEGHANA. 439 

of the overfalls of the rivers " (175). Full power is granted 
in the above commission for the erection of "forts," etc, 
against all intruders. 

At page 196 he gives particulars of the manner in which 
he took possession "of a part, in the name of the whole 
continent of Guiana, lying betwixt the rivers of Amazones 
and Oroonoko, not being actually possessed and inhabited by 
any other Christian Prince or state." The claim advanced 
in the last paragraph quoted is remarkable, as it includes all 
the territory between the rivers Amazon and Orinoco, 
whereas the commission limits it eastward by the boundary 
of the Essequibo River, which discharges itself into the sea 
far to the south of the latter one. 

Up to this period Spain seems to have offered no impedi- 
ment to foreigners to visit or even to colonize those parts of 
South America which had been claimed by it since the 
Pope had conferred it upon that country in 1493 ; but with 
the advent of Gondomar as the Spanish Ambassador in 
1613 all this was changed, so far as England was concerned. 

In 1619 James granted letters patent under the great seal 
to Eoger North (one of Ralegh's old captains) to enable him 
**to establish the King's right to the coast and country 
adjoining the Amazon river," apparently the same portion as 
that which had been occupied by Harcourt. This met with 
the "determined opposition of Gondomar," who, beyond 
delaying the expedition from starting, was not successful, 
as North, apart from "a message of encouragement from the 
King," had " obtained from Buckingham one of the passports 
which as lord high admiral it was his privilege to seir*; 
and he sailed from Plymouth in May, 1620. But before the 
end of the month, the King issued a proclamation against 
him, and on returning he was imprisoned, and his ship and 
its contents were confiscated. Gondomar "assailed the 
King with bitter remonstrance," and James laid the 
blame on Buckingham.^ In 1626 or 1627 Gondomar again 
opposed North, but on this occasion he was unsuccessful, 
when North transported to Guiana "a hundred English 
settlers." 2 

Gondomar's action in claiming Guiana (and, in fact, the 
whole of the South American continent) was in striking 
contrast to the wavering conduct of the King throughout 
the proceedings with North. The former "spared neither 
solicitation nor importunitie to stop y* voyc^e, insomuch as 

1 «* D. N. B.," iuh ** North, Roger." 
> " D. N. B.," iub «* Harcourt, Robert." 



440 RALEGHANA. 

he came to y® Counsel Table ^ for this only busines, and did 
there boldly and confidently aflfirme that his Master had y« 
actuall and present possession of these countries, but he 
would not hear our witnesse to y® contrary." ^ But like 
weak persons, James could insist at times on having liis own 
way, despite either the cajolery or the bullying of the 
Spanish Ambassador, as in the instances of Kalegh's expedi- 
tion, and of his sanction to North's application in 1626—7. 

To the end of Elizabeth's reign, the claim of Spain to the 
exclusive possession of the South American continent was 
disregarded by Englishmen, who refused to accept the pro- 
visions of the Papal Bull of 1493, by which "the Pope as 
Vicar of Christ was held to have authority to dispose of 
lands inhabited by the heathen."^ They believed them- 
selves to have as much right to territory there as had the 
King of Spain. In taking possession of Guiana in 1595 
Ealegh "could not comprehend by what right they (the 
Spaniards) claimed monopoly of its sovereignty for theni- 
.selves against the rest of Europe." * 

Oldys was of opinion that the King "waived his right to 
Guiana, at least till Balegh was put to death (for then he 
assumed it a^ain, by the power he gave to another expedi- 
tion [North's] to those parts, however irresolutely, according 
to custom, he revoked it) " (546-7). 

The forcible remark of Stebbing that "Unless the King's 
title to Guiana were clear, his [Kalegh's] entrance for any 
purpose could not have been sanctioned" (351) is patent 
enough. If that country belonged to Spain, clearly Ealegh 
had no right to visit it for mining purposes without the 
knowledge and sanction of the Spanish King ; whereas if it 
did not, and as Ralegh claimed it was English territory, 
then he had full liberty with the permission of James to 
enter that country for the purpose named. 

The onus and responsibility of Ralegh's voyage rested 
entirely on the head of James, who could have stopped the 
'expedition had he cared to do so, and as he ought to have 
done. 

After the destruction of St. Thomas was known, Gondo- 
mar was the more determined to effect Ralegh's condemna- 
tion, in which he met with complete success; partly by 

^ Gondomar was a member of the Privy Council. The very thought of 
such a tiling being possible would havo made Queen Elizabeth's blood boil. 
« **D. N. B.," sub "North, Roger." 
» Creighton, ** Annals of the Papacy," IV, 196. 
* Stebbing, 110. 



RALKGHANA. 441 

acting on the fears of the vacillating King in threatening a 
war with Spain unless the outrage was severely punished, 
and partly by working on his cupidity with respect to the 
projected Spanish marriage. In this manner, notes M. Hume, 
•' the Spaniards had gained their point; the King of England 
had admitted that all South America was sacred to them " 
(419). The same author attributes the sacrifice of Ralegh 
not to any injuries he may have committed in Guiana, " but 
to serve as an object lesson to England that all South 
America, at least, belonged to Spain*' (xi, xii). Probably 
enough this was Gondomar's idea. It is, however, singular 
that the asserted right of Spain to Guiana was so far ignored 
by the King and Council as to receive no mention in the 
"Declaration," or in the patent under which Kalegh was 
authorized "to vndertake a voyage by Sea and shipping, 
vnto the South parts of America, or elswhere within 
America " (9). Moreover, even in directing the execution of 
lialegh, all reference to the Spanish claim was carefully 
avoided. This is clearly shown in the following quotation 
from the earliest separate biography of Sir Walter, by 
J. Shirley, published in 1677 :— 

" King James was willing to sacrifice the Life of Sir Walter to 
the Advancement of Peace with Spain, but not upon such 
Grounds as the Ambassadour had design'd : for he desir'd a 
Judgment upon the pretended Breach of Peace, that by this 
Occasion he might slily gain from the English an Acknowledgment 
of his Master's Eight in those Places, and hereafter both stop 
their Mouthes, and quench their Heat and Valour. Hence upon 
his old Condemnation ... he was sentenced** (216-17). 

Doubt as to the validity of the Spanish claim is even 
noted by Gardiner : — 

" It was, indeed, difficult to say where the lands of the king of 
Spain began or ended, but James left the burden of proving this 
to Raleigh." ^ The King "left the whole responsibility to Ralegh, who 
was given to understand that, if he meddled with any part of the 
king of Spain's dominions, he would answer for it with his head. 
Since it was precisely the extent of those dominions that was in 
dispute, this practically meant that if Ralegh brought back the 
assurance of large quantities of gold for James, the site of the 
mine would be held at Whitehall to be outside the limits of 
Spanish territory." ^ 

In his great work on the history of England, Gardiner 
scarcely alludes to this matter. In that of 1892, he intro- 

» "Stud. Hist of Eng.," 489. ' " **Camb. Mod. Hiat," 562. 



442 RAL1BGHAKA. 

duces it without any undue prominence; bnt in Uie third 
above quoted be is remarkably emphatic on the probable 
action of the King, that had Ealegh been successful in his 
quest, he, James, would have claimed the territory for 
England. This volume of 1904 contains some of Gardiner's 
latest writings, and is noteworthy for his criticisms of 
Balegh being more just than in his earliest work. In it he 
changed the name of " Raleigh " to " Ralegh." 

IV. According to the ** Declaration," Gondomar offered 

" That if Sir Walter Raleigh would goe with one or two ships onelj 
to seeke the said Mine, that hee would mooue the King of Spaine 
to send two or three ships with him backe againe for his safe 
conuoy hither with all his gold; And the said Ambassadours 
person to remaine here in pledge for the King his Master his 
performance thereof. But such were the constant faire offers 
of the saide Sir Walter Raleigh, and specious promises, as his 
Maiestie in the end reiected the importunate Suit of the said 
Spanish Ambassadour for his stay, and resolued to let him goe" 
(6, 7). 

This offer Ralegh did not accept. 

" What reason [he remarked] had I to goo unarmed npon the 
Ambassadours promises, whose words and thoughts that they were 
one, it hath wel appeared since then, as well by the forces which 
he perswaded his Master to send to Guiana to encounter me, and 
cut me off there ; as by his persecuting of me since my returne." ^ 

"James . . . knew perfectly well that the Spaniards 
would fall upon Raleigh wherever they could find him," 
declares Gardiner (III, 55), and this was certainly the 
prevailing opinion; e.g. Lord Carew, writing to Sir T. Roe 
on 18 January, 1617, in alluding to Ralegh having set sail 
for South America, notes, "The Spaniards will lie in wait 
for him, but he will have a good fleet of 500 men, and fears 
nothing.*' 2 

The following testimony recorded by M. Hume is sufiBcient 
to prove the bitter feeling of the Spaniards against Ralegh. 
In a letter from Gondomar to the King of Spain, he writes : — 

" Pray send the fleet to punish this pirate. Every man caught 
should at once be killed, except Ralegh and the officers, who 
should be brought to Seville, and executed in the Plaza the next 
day. It is the only way to treat such pirates and disturbers " (333). 

* **Apologie," 51. 

« " Cal. 8. P., James I, Dom.," XC, 24. 



RALIGHANA. 443 

It is fairly evident that if Ealegh had accepted Gondomar's 
offer, some little difficulty would have arisen to prevent his 
return. 

We now continue the subsequent history of Ralegh's 
voyage. The "Orders" issued to the officers, and dated 
Plymouth, 3 May, 1617, have often, remarks Gardiner, " been 
quoted as a model of forethought and perspicuity. They 
show his anxiety not to fight unless attacked by the 
Spaniards, at least till he reached the Orinoco** (III, 113). 
Was there any reason for inserting the innuendo marked in 
italics? The "Orders" are printed at length in "Works," 
VIII, 682-8 (1829). He arrived off the coast of Guiana 
in November, and the boat journey started on 10 December, 
under the command of Keymis, to whom Ealegh had given 
special instructions what course to pursue on arriving in the 
vicinity of the mine, and are so brief and concise as to 
suggest they were inserted in his work in abstract foim 
only. Attention is now drawn to these passages in it: — 

" If you find it [the mine] Royall, and the Spaniards begin to 
Warre upon you, then let the Serjeant Major repell them, if it 
be in his power, and drive them as far as he can. . . . If . . . 
without manifest Perill . . . you cannot pass toward the Myne, 
then be well advised how you land. ... I would not for all 
the world receive a blow from the Spaniards to the dishonour of 
our Nation" ("Apologia," 27-8). 

Gardiner asserts that Ealegh 

" Had sent his men up the Orinoco without any instructions which 
might lead them to suppose that he thought the fulfilment of his 
promise worth a moment's consideration" (III, 141), 

Surely, on all the known evidence, Gardiner was not 
warranted in making such a reflection on Ealegh; and it 
is hardly a matter of wonder that in 1892 he softened the 
accusation in this modified paragraph : " Ealeigh . . . sent 
his men up the river, without distinct orders to avoid 
fighting."! 

Although he regarded the Spaniards as the enemies of his 
country, Ilalegh endeavoured to avoid any conflict with 
them during his real, as also in his projected, voyages to 
Guiana. In his letter of 1607 he wrote: "We will only 
trade with the Indiens, and see none of that [Spanish] 
nation— except they assail us."* And in that of 1611 he 

' ''Stud. Hist of Eng.,'' 489. « Edwards, II, 89U 



444 RALEGHANA. 

stated he did not desire '* to begiune any quarrell with them 
[the Spaniards], except themselves shall beginne the warra"^ 
Tlie boats under the command of Keymis continued their 
journey up the river for twenty-three days. What followed 
is thus related by Ralegh : — 

"They agreed to land and encamp between the Mine and the 
Towne, which they did not suspect to be so neer them as it was, 
and meaning to rest themselves on the Rivers side till the next 
day, they were in the night set upon and charged by the Spaniards, 
which being unlooked-for, the Common sort of them were so 
amazed, as had not the Captaines and some other valiant Gentle- 
men made a head and encouraged the rest, they had all been 
broken and cut to pieces." ^ 

This account, according to Edwards, 

"of the treachery which ensured a conflict with the Spaniards 
before any attempt could be made upon the Mine is fully and 
expressly confirmed by the Spanish historian, Pedro Simon'* 
(I, 620). 

The evidence of various witnesses testifies to the Spaniards 
having first attacked Keymis's party. Of those who gave 
their testimony before the Privy Council, W. Herbert " saith 
that the Spaniards did first assaile them in the night time, 
when they were within less than half a mile of the Town." 
Capt. R. North declared "the first shot upon them that 
lauded was from the wood at eleven o'clock at Night." And 
the Rev. S. Jones who accompanied the expedition in the 
" Chudleigh," stated : ** Our men, ready to repose themselves 
for that night, were assaulted by the Spaniards from the 
skirt of a wood, in pursuit of whom they were brought to 
the town almost before themselves knew of it."^ 

It must be borne in mind that the recorded evidence as 
to the Spaniards being the original transgressors, as well as 
on other points relating to the expedition, was generally in 
favour of lialegh's account of what took place. "Those 
who gave it," notes Gardiner, "were, for the most part, 
angry and disappointed men " (III, 142). Had their state- 
ments been adverse to him, it is certain they would have 
occupied a prominent position in the " Declaration.'* 

According to Spedding, '* the soldiers landed ; found them- 
selves in the neighbourhood of an armed force ; attacked or 
were attacked (for accounts differ as to the first blow) . . ."* 

1 Edwards, 338. '^ •*Ai)ologie," 29-80. 

. » Spedding, 417, 419, 423. * IbicLt 362. 



RALEGHANA. 445 

He does not give any authority for the latter part of this 
assertion, nor has the writer discovered any clue to it, ex- 
cepting in a letter of Captain Parker dated 22 March, 1617, 
which describes the assaults on the town, but does not state 
which side commenced the attack. Moreover, it is in direct 
opposition to all the known evidence. 

The importance of the point as to which side commenced 
the attack is thus remarked on by Stebbing : — 

"The whole question of the guilt or innocence of Kalegh on 
James's reading of international law, is narrowed to the minute 
issue whether the Spaniards or the Englishmen on the particular 
scene of the light were the aggressors " (354). 

The comments of Gardiner upon it are extremely unsatis- 
factory. He asserts : — 

" The charge against the Spaniards of having rushed upon the 
English when quietly resting on the bank was, no doubt, an after- 
thought. The English were preparing to attack, but the Spaniards 
actually struck the first blow, ... It must be remembered that 
Raleigh had every motive to falsify the narrative, so as to make it 
appear that his men were not the aggressors" (III, 122-3. Italics 
not in original). 

In this account does not Gardiner himself attempt "to 
falsify " the matter by relying on the statement of a Spanish 
historian, and ignoring the direct evidence of independent 
English witnesses, of whom some were present at the attack? 
His remarks might raise some doubt if his description had 
been made on the sole authority of Ralegh. 

Spedding descends to gross misrepresentation, in asserting 
that Ralegh " sent his men up the river with instructions to 
fight any Spanish force which they could be sure of defeat- 
ing" (350); the Spaniards "having ofiTered no provocation 
whatever except an attitude of self-defence " (372). Further, 
he affirms the instructions to Keymis were " in themselves 
a breach of his Commission" {vide Index, sub "Sir W. 
Raleigh"). 

Edwards regards them as "stringent instructions" to the 
leaders to "do their best to reach the Mine without any 
conflict with the Spaniards" (I, 616). 

When the King sanctioned Ralegh's project, both were 
fully aware of the Spaniards being in the vicinity of the 
mine, who would assuredly attempt to hinder any of the 
English from reaching it. Owing to the limitations to 
Ralegh's action being, through Gondomar, imposed upon 
him by James, Ralegh became conscious of the difficult task 



446 BALEGHANA. 

he had entered upon. Both sides were cognizant that a 
conflict with the Spaniards was almost inevitable : a conflict 
that Gondomar did all in his power to provoke. He took 
steps to have an adequate number of troops sent to St. 
Thomas, where a near relative (some state his brother) was 
Governor; and he prepared to meet Ealegh there, who he 
intended ** should be drawn into a conflict which would 
afiford a pretext for the Spaniards to claim the fulfilment 
of the King's promise."^ On arriving at liis destination, 
Ralegh found "the Spaniards were planted all along the 
river." 2 Ralegh's letter to Lord Carew* points out some 
of his doubts as to his plan of action, but whatever may 
have passed through his mind beforehand, his actual in- 
structions to Keymis were "stringent" enough, so as to 
avoid as far as possible any contest with the Spaniards. 
"Common sense," states Gardiner, "should have warned 
Keymis to pass the town on the further side of the river, 
and to take up a defensive position near the mine" (III, 
121-2). "Presumably, if Ralegh's expedition had landed 
at any other place than in the neighbourhood of San Thome, 
even King James must have held him guiltless," is M. Hume's 
opinion (392). But neither of these plans would have 
obviated the necessity of driving the Spaniards from the 
approach to the mine, access to which was through a wood 
near the town. 

In the severe fight which followed, young Walter Ralegh 
was killed, and it is not surprising that the excited troops 
pursued the Spaniards into the adjacent town of St. Thomas, 
and set it on fire, the destruction being completed some 
days later. This action proved the principal gravamen of 
the treason charge against Ralegh, which, according to the 
"Declaration," consisted in "the sacking and spoyle of 
Townes planted with Spaniards"; as though, in imitation 
of Drake, Ralegh had attacked important towns, etc., brought 
away large quantities of plunder, and lowered the prestige 
of Spain. Whereas his leading captain had ascended a 
river for nearly 300 miles, and had burnt an insignificaat 
and slightly-built Spanish town,* because the garrison had 

J M. Hume, 883-4. 

a " Cal. S. P., James I, Dom.," XCVI. 10. » Edwards, II, 375 et seq. 

* *' In his *Apologie,* Ralegh calls it *a village,* and *a wooden Towne* 
(29, 52) ; and describes it in his letter to Lord Carew as 'a towne of staks, 
covered with leaves of trees* (Edwards II, 375). Gardiner terms it *« 
cluster of huts' (III, 121); and this agrees with the name 'Rancheria* 
given it by Keymis (Hakluyt, XV, 69). That a collection of such lightly 
constructed dwellings would be rapidly destroyed by fire is certain." 



RALEQHANA. 447 

"laid an ambush for his men, to hinder their access to a 
district which his Sovereign had commissioned him to enter, 
and were soundly beaten for their hostility."^ 

Although the "Declaration" is asserted to be "not founded 
vpon coniectures or likelyhoods, but either vpon confession 
of the partie himselfe, or vpon the examination of diuers 
vnsuspected witnesses" (66), it could not ignore the fact 
of the witnesses having testified to the Spaniards having 
been the aggressors, but had to own it, although in a very 
specious manner, thus: ** It was Uowne abroad, that the 
assault of St. Thome was inforced by a kinde c»f necessity, 
for that our Troupes were first assailed " (30). That is to 
say, it treats the testimony of those who were present as 
an idle rumour, and then follows the assertion : — 

"It appeareth manifestly, both by his speech at London, of a 
Towne indefinitely, and by this his speech earely in his voyage at 
Sea of St. Thome by name, that it was an originall designe of his 
from the beginning " (30). 

The only known basis for this statement will be found in 
the examination of Captain North ; one example of the idle 
gossip that took place in the fleet, and on which some of the 
serious charges against Balegh were made. Captain North 
said he 

" Heard Sir W. Ralegh say before he went from London, that he 
knew a place where they might make a saving voyage in tobacco ; 
and that he had heard him also say as they were in the voyage, 
that if [wc] they could surprise the Town in the river Orenoque, 
they might be sure of forty thousand pounds weight or worth of 
tobacco." ^ 

In the endeavour to make the case stronger against him 
must be reckoned the next quotation from the "Declaration." 
While on the voyage, when in conversation with his ofificers, 

"Most falsly and scandalously, hee [Ralegh] doubted not with 
confidence to affirme that he had oroer by word of mouth from 
the King and his Councell, to take the Town, if it were any 
hinderance to the digging of the Mine " (34). 

This seems to be a paraphrase of two charges of the 
Attorney-General : — 

" Sir Walter's company assaile it [St Thomas], and by direction 
from Sir Walter Ralegh. 

1 Stebbing, 357. 

^ Spedding, 418. It must be borae in mind tliat private trading in 
tobacco as in other goods was not prevented in Ralegh's Commission, 



448 BALEGHANA. 

Hee Bignified to his companie that hee had a commission to doe 
what he did."i 

Of this Gardiner declares : " This stands on the authority 
of the Declaration, upon which I am ready to accept it" 
(III, 120. He adds that Ealegh uttered the words with 
" unblushing efifrontery "). 

A serious charge like this (as well as the one respecting 
the speech asserted to have been made by young Ralegh just 
before he died) would, if substantiated, have proved strong 
evidence against Ralegh; but, on the contrary, there is a total 
absence of any corroborative testimony, and even of prob- 
ability, to support it. The more the "Declaration" is 
examined, the less trustworthy it is found to be. It can 
record the names of witnesses in unimportant points, but in 
a serious allegation such as this is no names or other references 
are noted. The writer therefore dissents from Gardiner as 
to the truthful character of this passage in the King's Mani- 
festo, which should be placed among what Stebbing has 
aptly termed " unproved assumptions " (337). 

Keymis remained for some days in the neighbourhood of 
St. Thomas in making a fruitless search for the mine. The 
cause of his non-success has been accounted for in many 
ways.^ There can, however, be little doubt that the death 
of young Ralegh, the loss of so many of his soldiers (Steb- 
bing says 250), and the numerous difficulties he had en- 
countered, affected him greatly ; so seriously, in fact, that on 
being reproached by Ralegh soon after he had rejoined him 
near the mouth of the Orinoco River, he committed suicide. 

Amongst the many pieces of gossip that were disseminated 
after, and in consequence of the death of Keymis, the 
following extract from " The Life of James I," by A. Wilson, 
published in 1653, will be found interesting. (The author 
was oet. 23 at the time of Ralegh's beheadal.) Ralegh 
" Was no sooner in the Tower, but all his Transactions in this 
business are put to the Rack, and tenter'd by his Adversaries. 
They say he knew of no Mine, nor did Kemish know that the 
Mine ho aimed at was Gold ; but Kemish bringing him a piece of 
Ore into the Tower, he fobb'd a piece of Gold into it in dissolving, 
making the poor man beleeve the Ore was right, that by these 
golden degrees, he might ascend to Libertie, promising the King 
to fetch it where never Spaniard had been. But when Kemish 

' "Camd. Misc.," 10. 

* The **Apologie," 31-7, contains nmch information on this subject, as 
also does a letter from Ralegh to Lord Carevv, printed for the first time in 
M. Hume's work (383-8). 



BALEGHANA. 449 

found by better (bitter 1) experience he was couzen'd by Rawleigh, 
he came back from the Mine : and Rawleigh knowing that none 
but Kemish could accuse him, made him away. This Vizard was 
put upon the face of the Action, and all the weight of the Mis- 
carriage was layd upon Rawleighs shoulders" (116).^ 

In his letter of 1611 (vide Appendix C) Ealegh pointed out 
the difficulties of localizing a spot after the absence of some 
years. - Upon this particular subject no one has thrown so 
much light as Gardiner, who states, " it is curious that none 
of Kaleigh's biographers have seen the importance of fixing the 
locality of the mine" (III, 44). No town existed at or near 
the mouth of the Caroni River when Ealegh visited the 
vicinity in 1595, but before Keymis went there in the 
following year, Berreo had erected the town of St. Thomas ; 
Kalegh therefore had reason to believe 

"That no Spanish settlement would be reached at any point 
lower than the mouth of the Caroni, and as the mine which had 
been pointed out to Keymis was situated some miles before the 
junction of the rivers was reached, he had no difficulty in coming 
to the conclusion that it would be possible to reach the spot with- 
out a conflict with the Spaniards " (III, 43). 

An excellent sketch map * (vide facsimile) with a description 
in Gardiner's work, fully explains the changed position of the 
town, and the altered relative one of the mine, which 
evidently added so greatly to Keymis's failure. Ealegh 
instructed Keymis " to passe to the Westwards of the moun- 
taine Aio,* from whence you have no lesse than three miles 
to the Myne, and to lodge and encampe between the Spanish 
towne and you."^ But between the visits of 1596 and of 
1617 a great change had taken place, as between those 
dates the town had been shifted to the east side of the Aio 
Mountain, of which fact neither Ealegh nor Keymis was 
aware when they sailed from England in 1617. "The whole 
of the evidence upon Ealegh's voyage," remarks Gardiner, 
"is unintelligible unless it is admitted that he knew nothing 
of the change of site" when he left England on his last 
voyage (III, 45). On the assumption that Ealegh was 

^ The account of Ralegh's return to England, and what followed it, will 
be found in "Trans. D. A.," XXXVII, 287 et. seq, 

^ Cf. the evidence of R. Mering in Spedding's work, 416. 

' "With the kind permission of Messrs. Longmans, Green, k Co. 

* Sped(iing, 349, quoting from a volume of 1702, has the phrase, ** to the 
westwai-d of the mountains," which gives a different meaning to the text. 
The Aio Mountain, according to Schomburgk*s map, would, in a straight 
line, be about twenty-five miles from the month of the Caroni River. 

« *'Apologie,"26-7. 

VOL. XXXVIIL 2 F 



450 



RALEGHANA. 



aware of the altered position of the town, and that James 
was not, Spedding appears to get somewhat confused.^ 
There is, however, good reason to believe in these positions 
being reversed, and that the King was fully acquainted from 
time to time of everything relating to Ealegh and to his 
expedition, including the altered site of the town, of which 
Bdegh had no knowledge. Instead of attempting to explain 
the idtered site of the town, the framers of the ** Declaration," 
to whom the fact must have been well known, concealed 
their knowledge in this curious paragraph : *' This Mine was 




not onely imaginary, but m