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¥ SilXS WRIGHI btrNNlN'G 1 

{ BEQUEST « 

UNIVERSITY or MICHIGAN 

1,, CEENXRAL LIBKARY _^ 



■> 



.J25- 



REPORT AND TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



DEVONSHIRE ASSOCIATION 



FOR 



THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, 
AND ART. 



[CULLOMPTON, JULY, 1910.] 



VOL. XLII. 

[VOL. II, THIRD 8BRIBS.1 



PLYMOUTH : 
W. BRENDON AND SON, Ltd., PRINTERS. 



1910. 

All rights reservtd. 



[4] 



The Council and the £ditor desire it to be understood that 
they are not answerable for any statements, observations, or 
opinions appearing in any paper printed by the Society ; the 
authors only are responsible. 

The Transactions of the Society are not published, nor 
are they on sale. They are printed for Members only. 






[ 5] 



CONTENTS. 



List of Plates ... 7 

List of Officers . ... 9 

Places of Meeting . . . ... 10 

Rules . . . . ... 11 

Bye-laws and Standing Orders . . 15 

Report of the Council . . ... 20 

Proceedings at the Forty-ninth Annual Meeting . . . . 22 

Balance Sheet . . . . . . 38, 39 

Selected Minutes of Council appointing Committees . . . 46 

Obituary Notices . . . ... 42 

Presidents Address . . ... 54 

Twenty-ninth Report of the Barrow Committee. R. Hansford Worth, 

MEM.IN8T.C.E., P.O.S. . . . ... 62 

Twenty-third Report of the Committee on Verbal Provincialisms. 

Charles H. Laycock . . . ... 64 

Third Report of the Committee on Church Plate. Rev. J. F. Chanter, M. a . 91 

Second Report of the Botany Committee. Edited by W. P. Hiern, m.a., 

F.R.8. . . . . ... 112 

Twenty-eighth Report (Third Series) of the Committee on the Climate 

of Devon. R. Hansford Worth, mem. inst. ex., f.g.s. .140 

A Short History of CuUompton. Murray T. Foster . .156 

The Church of S. Andrew, CuUompton. Rev. Ekiwin S. Chalk, m.a. . 182 

The Vicars of CuUompton since the Commonwealth. T. Cann Hughes, 

M.A., F.$.A. . . . . ... 206 

The Hundreds of Devon, XI. Materials for the Hundred of Hairidge 
in Early Times, with an Index. Rev. Oswald J. Reichel, u.c.l., 

M.A., F.8.A. . ... ... 215 

Tavistock as a Parliamentary Borough. Part I. J. J. Alexander, m.a. 258 

The Town, VUlage, Manors, Parish, and Church of Kentisbeare. Rev. 

Edwin 8. Chalk, m.a. . . . 278 

The Manor, Parish, and Churches of Blackborough. Rev. Edwin S. 

Chalk, M.A. . . ... 346 



6 OONTSNTS. 



361 



Ralegh MiioelUneA. Part II. T. N. Brushfield, ild., f.8.a« 

Gonnoillor John Were, of Silverton, and the Siege of Exeter. Rev. J. 

Heald Ward, m.a. . ... 388 

The Mosses of SiWerton. G. B. Sayery . . 391 

Trowlesworthite and Lnxulyanite. A. R. Hunt, m.a., f.o.s., f.ub. 413 

CHllitona : the Land of the Wife of Hervins. Miss Emily Skinner . 420 

Double Daffodils. Miss Helen Saunders . . 423 

The Pycnogonida of Devonshire. T. V. Hodgson 425 

On the Boulders of Pseudo-Jasper found near Newton Abbot Harford 

J. Lowe, F.o.B. ... 440 

Visitations of Devonshire Ohurches. H. Michell Whitley . 446 

Christianity in Devon, before A.D. 909. Rev. J. F. Chanter, m.a. 476 

A Further Sketch of Bishop's Teignton. W. F. C. Jordan . 503 

Notes on Venn, in the Parish of Bishop's Teignton. Miss Mary Hall 

Jordan . . ... 512 

Wembnry : its Bay, Church, and Parish. Part II. H. Montagu Evans 517 

A Synopsis of the Fossil Flora and Fauna of the Upper Culm Measures 

of North -West Devon. Inkermann Rogers . ... 538 

List of Members ... 565 

Index . . . . ... 580 



[7] 



PLATES. 



^-Barbow Committbk Report— 

View and Plan of Kif(tva«n, I>>giM I^Ake ..... To fact ;>. 62 

CauRf^H Plate CoMMirrRii Report— 

Slirabethan Clialice. North Moltou ...... ,,102 

Alms DiKh. Ringsnympton. a.d 1756 ..... ,,106 

Ralkoh MiflCBLLASnU— 

Sir Walter Ralegh. From an Oil Painting in K iiole House, Kent BetwuH pp, 87rt aiul 377 
Ffrdinand of Toledo, Duke of Alva. From a FlUnting by 

Adrian der Werff . . . . ,» n »» 

Trowlemworthite and Luzultanite— 

Gr>«tal of Tourmaline in Trowleswortliit*? . . . . . To face p. 419 

The Ptcnogonida ok Dbvonshirb— 

Nymphon rubrum. PfCHogoicum littorcde ... Pag* 427 

A Further Sk^itch or UuBOP'i) Tbionton— 

8.W. View of Bishop's Teignton Church, IVvon . . . To face p. SOS 

Wcjit Doorway, showing Tympanum with Carving represrtnting th« 

" Adoration of the Magi " ...... ,,607 

Notes on Venm, ih the Parish ok Bishop's TKi<jNTt)N— 

Ruins of Old Venn House ....... ,,513 

Plan of Hif^er and Lower Venn Estates . „ 616 

Wkmbcry : ITS Bay, Church, and Parish— 

Map of Wem bury Parish ..... Betwun )^p. rasand &\9 

Langdon Court in 1872 To fact p. 522 

Tithe-firee Priory Lands in Colebrook ..... „ 525 

FowiL Flora and Fauna ok the Upper Culm Measures or N.W. Devon- 

Tut Hole, Cockington Cliff, Bideford Bay ,,540 

PUnt Petrifactions in Sandstone from Cockington Clitr, Bideford Bay ,, 540 



[9] 



OFFICERS 

1910-11. 



llrrsCOrnu 
JOHN D. ENYS, Esq., j.p., f.o.s. 

Ficr«)BrrjBfl)rnt». 

F. SELLWOOD, Esq., Chairman Pan'sJi ConnclL 

The Hoy. LIONEL WALROND, m.p. 

Sir C. T. DYKE ACLAND, Bart., m.a., d.u, j.p. 



M. H. CAZALET, Esq. 

Rev. E. S. CHALK, m.a. 

Rev. C. CROSLEGH, d.d., r.d. 

W. J. A. GRANT, Esq., j.p. 

Lieut. -Colonel H. B. GUNDRY, j.p. 

Rev. W. HARPLEY, m.a., r.L.s. 

H. FAIRFAX HARVEY, Esq. 



Rev. E. H. HAY, m.a. 
T. H. HEPBURN, Esq., j.p., c.o. 
Rev. Preb. T. H. HOWARD, m.a. 
W. H. TANQUERAY, E*;q. 
H. E. TRACE Y, Esq., m.r.c.s., l.u.c.p. 
R. HANSFORD WORTH, Esq., 
mem.inst.c.e., F.O.S. 



3l!on. tfrnrral Srrasurrr. 
J. S. AMERY, Esq., Druid, Ashburtan. 

l^on. tfrnrral iSrrrrurp. 
MAXWELL ADAMS, Esq., 12, South Parade, Scmthsca, Habits. 

Jlton. Iroral Srrasurrr. 
R. F. CLEEVE, Esq., Lloyds Bank, Cullompton. 

9(011. Irocal Srrrrurp. 
H. W. RAWLINS, Esq., Shortlands, CulUyuipton. 

9(011. ftuHitor. 
ROBERT C. TUCKER, Esq., j.p., c.a.. The Hall, Ashburton. 



ADAMS, MAXWELL. 
ADAMS, 8. P. 
ALEXANDER, J. J. 
AMBRY. J. S. 
BARINO-OOULD, Ret. S. 
BLACKLBR, T. A. 
BODY, MARTIN. 
BKUSHFIELD, T. N. 
BURNAJID, R. 
CHALK, Rkv. E. a 
CHANTER, Rev. J. F. 
CHAPMAN, Ret. C. 
CHAPPLE, W. E. PITFIBLD. 
CHARBONNIER, T. 
CLARKE, Miss K. M. 
CI^YDEN, A W. 
CLIFFORD, Ix>RD. 
COLERIDOB, Lord. 
CROFT, Sir A W. 
DAVIE8, W. 
DOE, O. M. 

DONALDSON, Rsv. E. A. 
DUNCAN. A. G. 
EDMONDS, Rst.Chamcsllor. 
ELLIOT, B. A S. 
ENYS, J. D. 
EVANS, H. M. 
BXBTBR, Thr Ix>rd Buhop 
or (Dr. ROBERTSON). 



€ounrtl. 

, FOSTER, M. T. 

FOURACRE, J. T. 

HALSBURY, Lord.' 

HAMILTON, A. H. A. 

HAM LING, J. G. 

HARPLEY, Rev. W. 

HARVEY. T. H. 

HIERN, W. P. 

HINE, JAMBS. 

HODGSON, T. V. 

HUGHES, T. CANN. 

HUNT. A. R. 

JACKSON, Rev. Preb. P. 

JORDAN, Misa MARY H. 

JORDAN, W. F. C. 

LARTBR. MifM C. K. 

LAYCOCK, C. H. 

LEE. Col. J. W. 

LETHBRIDGE, Sir ROPER. 

LOWE, HARFORD J. 

MARTIN, J. M. 

MORSHEAD, J. Y. A. 

NECK, J. S. 

PEARSON, Rkv. J. B. 

PETER, C. H. 

POLLOCK, Sir F. 
: PRICKMAN, J. D. 

PROWSE, ARTHUR B. 



RADFORD, A. .F. V. 
RADFORD, Mk8. G. U. 
RAWLINS, H. W. 
REED, HARBOTTLE. 
RBICHEL, Rev. O. J. 
ROBINSON. C. B. 
ROGERS, IXKERMANN. 
SAVERY. G. B. 
SAUNDERS, Miss H. 
SKINNER, A. J. r. 
SKINNER, Miss E. 
STEBBING, Rkv. T. R. R. 
THORNTON, Rkv. W. H. 
TRURO, The Ix)rd Bishop tjf 

(Dr. STUBBS). 
TROUP. Mrs. ROSE- 
TUCKER, R. C. 
WARD, Rev. J. 11. 
WATTS, H. V. I. 
WEEKES, Miss LEGA-. 
WHITLEY, H. MICHELL. 
WINDEATT. E. 
WINDEATT. G. E. 
W00DH0U8B, H. B. 8 
WOOLLCOMBB, G. D. 
WORTH, R. HANSFORD. 
YOUNG, THOS. 



[ 10 ] 
PLACES OF MEETING 

OF 

THE DEVONSHIRE ASSOCIATION. 





PUce of Meeting. 


Ih62. 


EXKTICB 


1S63. 


Plymouth 


1S64. 


Torquay 


1865. 


TlVBRTON 


1866. 


Tavistock . 


1867. 


BARNtTAPLB . 


1868. 


HONITON 


1869. 


Dartmouth . 


1870. 


Dbvonport . 


1871. 


BiDEFORD 


1872. 


Exeter 


1878. 


SiDMOUTH 


1874. 


Teionmouth . 


1876. 


TORRINOTON . 


1876. 


Ash BURTON . 


1877. 


KiMGSBRIDOB . 


1878. 


Paignton 


1879. 


Ilfraoombb . 


1880. 


Totnes 


1881. 


Dawlish 


1882. 


Crbditon 


1883. 


EXMOUTH 


1884. 


Newton Abbot 


1886. 


Seaton 


1886. 


St. Maryohurch 


1887. 


Plympton 


1888. 


Exeter 


1889. 


Tavistock . 


1890. 


Barnstaple . 


1891. 


Tiverton 


1892. 


Plymouth . 


1898. 


Torquay 


1894. 


South Molton 


1896. 


Okehampton . 


1896. 


Ashburton . 


1897. 


KiNGBBRIDOB . 


1898. 


HONITON 


1899. 


TORRINOTON . 


1900. 


Totnes 


1901. 


Exeter 


1902. 


BiDEFORD 


1903. 


SiDMOUTH 


1904. 


Teionmouth . 


1906. 


Princetown . 


1906. 


Lynton 


1907. 


AXMINSTER . 


1908. 


Newton Abbot 


1909. 


Launceston 


1910. 


Cullompton 



President. 

Sir John Bowring, ll.d., f.r.8. 
C. Spence Bate, Esq., f.b.8., f.l.8. 

E. Vivian, Esq., m.a. 

C. G. B. Daubeny, m.d., ll.d., f.r.8. 

Earl Russell, K.O., K.o.c, f.b.8., etc. 

W. Pengelljr, Eeo., F.R.S., F.o.s. 

J. D. Oolendge, Esq., Q.C., M.A., M.P. 

G. P. Bidder, Esq., c.E. 

J. A. Froude, Es^., m.a. 

Rev. Canon C. Kinssley, m.a., f.l.8., f.o.s. 

The Lord Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Temple). 

Right Hon. S. Cave, m.a., m.p. 

The Earl of Devon. 

R. J. King, Esq., M.A. 

Rev. Treasurer Hawker, M.A. 

Yen. Archdeacon Earle, M.A. 

Sir Samuel White Baker, M.A., f.r.8., f.r.o.8. 

Sir R. P. Collier, m.a. 

H. W. Dyke Acland, m.a., m.d., ll.d., f.r.8. 

Rev. Professor Chapman, m.a. 

J. Brooking-Rowe, Esq., F.8.A., F.L.S. 

Very Rev. C. Merivale, D.D., d.cl. 

Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, m.a. 

R. F. Weymouth, Esq., M.A., d.lit. 

Sir J. B. Phear, M.A., F.o.s. 

Rev. W. H. Dallinger, ll.d., f.r.8., f.l.s., etc. 

Very Rev. Dean Cowie, d.d. 

W. H. Hudleston, Esq., m.a., f.r.8., f.o.s., etc. 

Lord Clinton, m.a. 

R. N. Worth, Esq., F.o.8. 

A. H. A. Hamilton, Esq., M.A., J. p. 

T. N. Brushfield, m.d., r.8.A. 

Sir Fred. Pollock, Bart, M.A. 

Tiie Right Hon. Earl of Halsbury. 

Rev. S. Baring-Gould, m.a. 

J. Hine, Esq., F.R.LB.A. 

Lord Coleridge, m.a. 

Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, B.D. 

Lord Clifford, m.a. 

Sir Roper Lethbridge, K.C.I.E., m.a., d.l., j.p. 

Rev. W. Harpley, M.A., f.c.p.s. 

Sir Edgar Vincent, K.O.M.G., m.p. 

Sir Alfred W. Croft, k.ci.e., m.a., j.p. 

Basil H. Thomson, Esq. 

F. T. Elworthy, Esq., F.8.A. 

The Lord Bishop of Exeter (Dr. Robertson). 
Lord Monkswell, j.p., d.l., ll.r. 
The Lord Bishop of Truro (Dr. Stubbs). 
John D. Enys, Esq., J. P., f.g.8. 



[ 11] 



RULES. 



1. The Association shall be styled the Devonshire Association 
for the Advancement of Science, Literature, and Art. 

2. The objects of the Association are — To give a stronger 
impulse and a more systematic direction to scientific inquiry in 
Devonshire ; and to promote the intercourse of those who cultivate 
Science, Literature, or Art, in different parts of the county. 

3. The Association shall consist of Members, Honorary Members, 
and Corresponding Members. 

4. Eveiy candidate for membership, on being nominated by a 
member to whom he is personally known, shdl be admitted by 
the General Secretary, subject to the confirmation of the General 
Meeting of the Members. 

5. Persons of eminence in Literature, Science, or Art, connected 
with the West of England, but not resident in Devonshire, 
may, at a General Meeting of the Members, be elected Honorary 
Members of the Association; and persons not resident in the 
county, who feel an interest in the Association, may be elected 
Corresponding Members. 

6. Every Member shall pay an Annual Contribution of Half a 
Guinea or a Life Composition Fee of Seven and a Half Guineas. 
But Members of Ten Years' standing and more, whose Contribu- 
tions are not in arrears, may compound by a Single Payment of 
Five Guineas. 

7. Ladies only shall be admitted as Associates to an Annual 
Meeting, and shall pay the sum of Five Shillings each. 

8. Every Member shall be entitled gratuitously to a lady's ticket. 

9. The Association shall meet annually, at such a time in July 
or August and at such place as shall be decided on at the previous 
Annual Meeting. 

10. A President, two or more Vice-Presidents, a General 
Treasurer, and one or more General Secretaries, shall be elected 
at each Annual Meeting. 

11. The President shall not be eligible for re-election. 



12 RULES, 

12. At each Annual Meeting a local Treasurer and local Secretary 
shall be appointed, who, with power to add to their number 
any Members of the Association, shall be a local Committee to 
assist in making such local arrangements as may be desirable. 

13. In the intervals of the Annual Meetings, the affairs of the 
Association shall be managed by a Council, which shall consist 
exclusively of the following Members of the Association, excepting 
Honorary Members, and Corresponding Members : — 

(a) Those who fill, or have filled, or are elected to fill, the offices 
of President, Ceneral and Local Treasurers, General and Local Secre- 
taries, and Secretaries of Committees appointed by the Council 

{b) Authors of papers which have been printed in extenso in 
the Transactions of the Association. 

The Council so constituted shall have power to make, amend, 
or cancel the Bye-laws and Standing Orders. 

14. The Council shall hold a Meeting at Exeter in the month 
of January or February in each year, on such day as the General 
Secretary shall appoint, for the due management of the afbirs of the 
Association, and the performing the duties of its office. 

15. The General Secretary, or any four members of the Council, 
may call extraordinary meetings of their body, to be held at 
Exeter, for any purpose requiring their present determination, by 
notice under his or their hand or hands, addressed to every other 
member of the Council, at least ten clear days previously, specifying 
the purpose for which such extraordinary meeting is convened. No 
matter not so specified, and not incident thereto, shall be deter- 
mined at any extraordinary meeting. 

16. The General Treasurer and Secretary shall enter on their 
respective offices at the meeting at which they are elected ; but the 
President, Vice-Presidents, and Local Officers, not until the Annual 
Meeting next following. 

17. With the exception of the Ex-Presidents only, every Coun- 
cillor who has not attended any Meeting, or adjourned Meeting, 
of the Council during the period between the close of any 
Annual General Meeting of the Members and the close of the 
next but two such Annual General Meetings, shall have 
forfeited his place as a Councillor, but it shall be competent for 
him to recover it by a fresh qualification. 

18. The Council shall have power to fill any Official vacancy 
which may occur in the intervals of the Annual Meetings. 

19. The Annual Contributions shall be payable in advance, and 
shall be due in each year on the first day of January ; and no 
person shall have the privileges of a member until the Subscription 
for the current year or a Life Composition has been paid. 



RULES. 13 

20. The Treasurer shall receiYe all sams of money due to the 
Association ; he shall pay all accounts due by the Association after 
they shall have been examined and approved; and he shall report 
to each meeting of the Council the balance he has in hand, and 
the names of such members as shall be in arrear, with the sums 
due respectively by each. 

21. Whenever a Member shall have been three months in arrear 
in the payment of his Annual Contributions, the Treasurer shall 
apply to him for the same. 

22. Whenever, at an Annual Meeting, a Member shall be two 
years in arrear in the payment of his Annual Contributions, the 
Council may, at its discretion, erase his name from the list of 
Members. 

23. One month at least before each Annual Meeting each mem- 
ber shall be informed by the General Secretary, by circular, of the 
place and date of the Meeting. 

24. Any Member who does not, on or before the first day of 
January, give notice, in writing or personally, to the General 
Secretary of his or her intention to withdraw from the Association, 
shall be regarded as a member for the ensuing year. 

25. The Association shall, within a period not exceeding six 
months after each Annual Meeting, issue its Transactions, in- 
cluding the Kules, a Financial Statement, a List of the Members, 
the Eeport of the Council, the President's Address, and such 
Papers, in abstract or in eoctensOy read at the Annual Meeting, as 
shall be decided by the Council, together with, if time allows, an 
Index to the Volume. 

26. The Association shall have the right at its discretion of 
printing in extenso in its Transactions all papers read at the Annual 
fleeting. The copyright of a paper read before any meeting of 
the Association, and the illustrations of the same which have been 
provided at his expense, shall remain the property of the Author; 
but he shall not be at liberty to print it, or allow it to be printed 
elsewhere, either in extenso or in abstract amounting to as much as 
one-half of the length of the paper, until after the issue of the 
volume of Transactions in which the paper is printed. 

27. The authore of papers printed in the Transactions shall, 
within seven days after the Transactions are issued, receive 
twenty-five private copies free of expense, and shall be allowed to 
have any further number printed at their own expense. All 
arrangements as to such extra copies to be made by the authors 
with the printers to the Association. The Honorary Secretaries of 



14 RULES. 

Committees for special service for the Association, provided they 
are required, shidl receive forty copies, free of expense, of all 
Reports of their Committees printed in the Transactions. 

28. K proofs of papers to be printed in the Transactions be 
sent to authors for correction, and are retained by them beyond 
four days for each sheet of proof, to be reckoned from the day 
marked thereon by the printers, but not including the time need- 
ful for transmission by post, such proofs shall be assumed to 
require no further correction. 

29. Should the extra charges for small type, and types other 
than those known as Roman or Italic, and for the author's correc- 
tions of the press, in any paper printed in the Transactions, 
amount to a greater sum than in the proportion of ten shillings 
per sheet, such excess shall be borne by the author himself, and 
not by the Association; and should any paper exceed four sheets, 
the cost beyond the cost of the four sheets shall be borne by the 
author of the paper. 

30. Every Member shall, within a period not exceeding six months 
after each Annual Meeting, receive gratuitously a copy of the 
Volume of the Transactions for the year. 

31. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annually, 
by Auditors appointed at each Annual Meeting, but who shall not 
be ex officio Members of the Council 

32. No rule shall be altered, amended, or added, except at an 
Annual General Meeting of Members, and then only provided 
that notice of the proposed change has been given to the General 
Secretary, and by him communicated to all the Members at least 
one month before the Annual General Meeting. 

33. Throughout the Rules, Bye-laws, and Standing Orders where 
the singular number is used, it shall, when circumstances require, 
be taken to include the plural number, and the masculine gendei 
shall include the feminine. 



[ 15 ] 



BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 



1. In the interests of the Association it is desirable that the 
President's Address in each year be printed previous to its 
delivery. 

2. In the event of there being at an Annual Meeting more 
Papers than can be disposed of in one day, the reading of the 
residue shall be continued the day following. 

3. The pagination of the Transactions shall be in Arabic 
numerals exclusively, and carried on consecutively, from the 
beginning to the end of each volume; and the Transactions of 
each year shaA form a distinct and separate volume. 

4. The General Secretary shall bring to each Annual Meeting of 
the Members a report of the number of copies in stock of each 
* Part ' of the Transactions, with the price per copy of each * Part ' 
specified; and such report shall be printed in the Transactions 
next after the Treasurer's financial statement. 

5. The General Secretary shall prepare and bring to each 
Annual Meeting brief Obituary Notices of Members deceased 
during the previous year, and such notices shall be printed in the 
Transactions. 

6. An amount not less than eighty per cent of all Compositions 
received from existing Life Members of the Association shall be 
applied in the purchase of National Stock, or such other security 
as the Council may deem equally satisfactory, in the names of 
three Trustees, to be elected by the Council 

7. At each of its Ordinary Meetings the Council shall deposit at 
interest, in such bank as they shall decide on, and in the names of 
the General Treasurer and General Secretary of the Association, all 
uninvested Compositions received from existing Life-Members, all 
uninvested prepaid Annual Subscriptions, and any part, or the 
whole, of the balance derived from other sources which may be in 
the Treasurer's hands after providing for all accounts passed for 
payment at the said Meeting. 

8. The General Secretary, on learning at any time between the 
Meetings of the Council that the General Treasurer has a balance 
in hand of not less than Forty Pounds after paying all Accounts 
which the Council have ordered to be paid, shall direct that so 



16 BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 

much of the said balance as will leave Twenty Pounds in the 
Treasuier's hand be deposited at interest at the Capital and Counties 
Bank, Ashburton. 

9. The General Secretary may be authorized to spend any sum 
not exceeding Ten Pounds per annum in employing a clerk for 
such work as may be found necessary. 

1 0. Every candidate, admitted to Membership under Rule 4, shall 
forthwith receive intimation that he has been admitted a Member, 
subject to confirmation at the next General Meeting of Members; 
and the fact of the newly admitted Member's name appearing in 
the next issue of the printed list of Members, will be a sufficient 
intimation to him that his election has been confirmed. Pending 
the issue of the Volume of Transactions containing the Rules of 
the Association, the newly admitted Member shall be furnished by 
the General Secretary with such extracts from the Rules as shall 
be deemed necessary. 

11. The reading of any Report or Paper shall not exceed twenty 
minutes, or such part of twenty minutes as shall be decided by the 
Council as soon as the Programme of Reports and Papers shall 
have been settled, and in any discussion which may arise no speaker 
shall be allowed to speak more than ten minutes. 

12. Papers to be read at the Annual Meetings must striqliy relate 
to Devonshire, and, as well as all Reports intended to be printed 
in the Transactions, and prepared by Committees appointed by the 
Council, must, together with all drawings intended to be used in 
illustrating them in the said Transactions, reach the General Secre- 
tary's residence not later than the 24th day of June in each year. 
The General Secretary shall, as soon as possible, return to the 
Authors all such Papers or drawings as may be decided to be un- 
suitable, and shall send the residue, together with the Reports of 
Committees, to the Printers, who shall return the same, together 
with a statement of the number of pages each of them would occupy 
if printed in the said Transactions, as well as ati estimate of the 
extra cost of the printing of Tables, of any kind ; and the whole, 
accompanied by an estimate of the probable number of Annual 
Members for the year, shall be placed before the first Council 
Meeting on the first day of the next ensuing Annual Meeting, 
when the Council shall select such Papers as it may consider desir- 
able to accept for reading, but the number of Papers accepted by 
the Council shall not be greater than will, with the Reports of 
Committees, make a total of forty Reports and Papers. 

13. Papers communicated by Members for Non-Members, and 
accepted by the Council, shall be placed in the List of Papers for 
reading below those furnished by Members themselves. 

14. Papers which have been accepted by the Council cannot be 
withdrawn without the consent of the CouncO. 



BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 17 

15. The Council will do its best so to arrange Papers for 
reading as to suit the convenience of the Authors ; but the place of 
a Paper cannot be altered after the List has been settled by the 
Council 

16. Papers which have already been printed in extenao cannot be 
accepted unless they form part of the literature of a question on 
which the Council has requested a Member or Committee to 
prepare a report. 

17. Every meeting of the Council shall be convened by Circular, 
sent by the Greneral Secretary to each Member of the Council not 
less than ten days before the Meeting is held. 

18. At the close of the Annual Meeting in every year there 
shall be a meeting of the Council, and the Council shall then 
decide what Keports and how many of the Papers accepted for 
reading the funds of the Association, as reported by the Treasurer, 
will permit of being printed in the volume of Transactions. 

19. All Papers read to the Association which the Council shall 
decide to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall be sent to the 
printers, together with all drawings required in illustrating them^ 
on the day next following the close of the Annual Meeting at which 
they were read. 

20. All Papers read to the Association which the Council shall 
decide not to print in extenso in the Transactions, shall be returned 
to the Authors not later than the day next following the close of 
the Annual Meeting at which they were read; and abstracts of such 
Papers to be printed in the Transactions shall not exceed such 
length as the General Secretary shall suggest in each case, and 
must be sent to him on or before the seventh day after the close 
of the Annual Meeting. 

21. The Author of every Paper which the Council at any Annual 
Meeting shall decide to print in the Transactions shall be expected 
to pay for the preparation of all such illustrations as in his judgment 
and that of the Council the said Paper may require. That is to 
say, he shall pay for the preparation of all necessary drawings, 
blocks, lithographic transfers or drawings on stone ; but the Associ- 
ation will bear the cost of printing (by the Association's printers), 
paper and binding; provided that should any such illustrations be 
in colours or of a size lai'ger than can be inserted in the volume 
with a single fold, or \yQ desired to be executed in any other process 
than printing from the block or lithography, then in each and either 
of these cases the author shall himself bear the whole cost of pro- 
duction and prmtihg, and should the Council so decide shall also 
pay any additional charge that may properly be made for binding. 

22. The printers. shall do their utmost to print the Papers in the 
Transactions in the order in which they were read, and shall return 

VOL. XLII. B 



18 BYE-LAWS AND STANDING ORDERS. 

every Manuscript to the author as soon as it is in type, btU not 
before. They shall he returned iTitaci, provided they are written 
on loose sheets and on one side of the paper only. 

23. Excepting mere verhal alterations, no Paper which has heen 
read to the Association shall he added to without the written 
approval and consent of the General Secretary, or in the event of 
there heing two Secretaries of the one acting as Editor; and no 
additions shall he made except in the form of notes or postscripts, 
or both. 

24. In the intervals of the Annual Meetings, all Meetings of 
the Council shall be held at Exeter, unless some other place shall 
have been decided on at the previous Council Meeting. 

25. When the number of copies on hand of any Fart of the 
Transactions is reduced to twenty, the price per copy shall be 
increased 25 per cent. ; and when the number has been reduced to 
ten copies, the price shall be increased 50 per cent, on the original 
price. 

26. After deducting the amount received by the sale of 
Transactions from last year's valuation, and adding the value of 
Transactions for the current year, a deduction of 10 per cent, 
shall be every year made from the balance, and this balance, less 
10 per cent., shall be returned as the estimated value of the 
Transactions in stock for the current year. 

27. The Association's Printers, but no other person, may reprint 
any Committee's Eeport printed in the Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, for any person, whether a Member of the said Committee, or 
of the Association, or neither, on receiving, in each case, a written 
permission to do so from the Honorary Secretary of the Association, 
but not otherwise; that the said printers shall pay to the said 
Secretary, for the Association, sixpence for every fifty Copies of 
each half-sheet of eight pages of which the said Eeport consists; 
that any number of copies less than lifty, or between two exact 
multiples of fifty, shall be regarded as fifty; and any number of 
pages less than eight, or between two exact multiples of eight, 
shall be regarded as eight; that each copy of such Eeprints shall 
have on its first page the words " Keprinted from the Transactions 
of the Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Literature, and Art for with the consent of the Counqil of 

the Association," followed by the date of the year in which the 
said Keport was printed in the said Transactions, but that, with the 
exception of printer's errors and changes in the pagination which 
may be necessary or desirable, the said Eeprint shall be in every 
other respect an exact copy of the said Keport as printed in the 
said Transactions without addition^ or abridgment, or modification 
of any kind. 

28. The Bye-Laws and Standing Orders shall be printed after 
the ' Eules ' in the Transactions. 



BYB-LAWS AND STANDING ORDEBS. 19 

29. All resolutions appointing Committees for special service for 
the Association shall he printed in the Transactions next hefore 
the President's Address. 

30. Memhers and Ladies holding Ladies' Tickets intending to 
dine at the Association Dinner shall he requested to send their 
names to the Honorary Local Secretary; no other person shall he 
admitted to the dinner, and no names shall he received after the 
Monday next hefore the dinner. 



[ 20] 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 

Presented to the General Meeting Tield at CuUompton^ tGth July^ 1910, 



The Council regret to report the resignation of the office 
of Greneral Secretary of Mr. Robert Bumard, who was 
appointed on 30 July, 1908. The Committee appointed 
by the Council for the purpose of recommending the place 
where the Association shall hold its Annual Meeting and 
for the selection of officers to fill official vacancies, has had 
the question of the future performance of the secretarial 
work of the Association under consideration, and its 
Report will be submitted in due course. 

The Report of the Place of Meeting Committee pre- 
sented at the meeting of the Council held at Laun- 
ceston on 27 July, 1909, stated that a cordial invita- 
tion had been received from the Mayor and Corporation 
of Exeter for the Association to hold its Annual Meeting 
in 1912 in that city. The Town Clerk of Exeter, in con- 
veying the invitation, said that the first meeting of the 
Association, in 1862, was held in Exeter, and for this 
reason, and the fact that the city is the capital of the 
county of Devon, the City Council considered that 
it would be appropriate that the Jubilee Meeting of the 
foundation of the Association should also be held there, 
and, further, promised a hearty welcome from the citizens. 
This invitation was followed up by a letter from the 
Mayor (Mr. J. Commin) to the General Secretary, in which 
he said it was greatly desired by the citizens of Exeter 
that the Jubilee of the Association should be celebrated 
in their city. The General Secretary was authorized to 
accept the invitation in suitable terms. 

The Winter Meeting of the Council was held at Exeter 
on 10 March, 1910, at which the usual routine business 
was transacted, and the General Secretary was instructed, 
on the recommendation of the Place of Meeting Com- 
mittee, to accept a very hearty invitation from the Mayor 
and Corporation of Dartmouth to the Association to hold 



BBPOBT OF THE COUNCIL. 21 

its Annual Meeting in that borough on 25 July, 1911, and 
following days. 

The various Reports of the Place of Meeting Committee 
referred to above will be brought before the General Meet- 
ing, for confirmation, in due course. 

A copy of Vol. XLI of the Tranactctiona has been sent to 
every member not in arrears with his or her subscription, 
and to the following societies, namely — the Royal Society, 
the Society of Antiquaries, the Linnean Society, the Royal 
Institution, the Anthropological Institute, the Greological 
Society, the Library of the British Museum, the British 
Museum Natural History Society, the Bodleian Library, 
the University Library, Cambridge, the Devon and 
Exeter Institution, the Plymouth Institution, the Natural 
History Society, Torquay, the North Devon Athenaeum, 
Barnstaple, and the Royal Institution of Cornwall, Truro, 

The stock of back parts is now : — 

1902 Transactions, Vol. XXXIV 
Wills, Part IV . . . 
Index to Vol. XXXIV 

1903 Transactions, Vol. XXXV . 
Wills, Part V . . . 

1904 Transactions, Vol. XXXVI . 
Wills, Part VI . . . 

1906 Transactions, Vol. XXXVII 
Wills, Part VII . 

1906 Transactions, Vol. XXXVIII 
Wills, Part VIII . 

1907 Transactions, Vol. XXXIX . 
(No Wills issued) 

1908 Transactions, Vol. XL . 
WiUs, Part IX . . . 

1909 Transactions, Vol. XLI . 
(No Wills issued) 

Maxwell Adams, 

Hon. General Secretary, 



59 


copies, 


65 


» 


82 


>> 


26 


>» 


28 


>> 


42 


91 


43 


J> 


59 


i> 


61 


it 


22 


99 


25 


J> 


61 


>> 


71 


>J 


72 


»J 


77 


>f 



[ 22] 



PROCEEDINGS AT THE FORTY-NINTH ANNUAL 
MEETING OF THE ASSOCIATION, 

Held at Cullompton, 26th to 29th July, 1910. 



During the last few years it has been the endeavour of 
the Council to hold the Annual Meetings of the Association 
in towns which have not been visited before. Thus Prince- 
town was visited in 1905, Lynton in 1906, Axminster in 
1907, and Launceston in 1909. When, therefore, in Janu- 
ary, 1909, a very cordial invitation was received from 
Cullompton for the Association to hold its Annual Meeting 
in 1910 in that ancient and interesting town, it was grate- 
fully accepted. 

There was a large gathering of members and ladies in 
the town by Tuesday, 26 July, and the Coimcil Meeting 
held at 2 p.m. was well attended. Besides the ordinary 
business usually transacted at this meeting, it was decided, 
on the recommendation of the Place of Meeting Committee, 
not to appoint a second General Secretary in the place 
of Mr. Robert Bumard, who had resigned. 

The pubUc reception of members of the Association 
followed the Coimcil Meeting, a large number of members 
of the Parish Council of Cullompton and of the Reception 
Committee having assembled in the Parish Rooms for the 
purpose. Mr. F. Sellwood, the Chairman of the Parish 
Coimcil, who presided, in welcoming the Association, spoke 
of the honour conferred upon Cullompton, and trusted 
that the visit would not only be enjoyable, but also 
beneficial from an educational point of view. He said 
they had looked forward with considerable pleasure to 
that meeting, and hoped their visit to the town would 
leave many happy memories behind. He felt that 
if there was not a great deal in the town, the country 
was interesting and the scenery very beautiful. The 
arrangements had been made by the Local Committee, 
which he trusted would work out very happily. On 
Wednesday they were invited to Bradfield ; on Thursday 



PBOCEBDmOS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 23 

Mr. and Mrs. Hepburn would extend their hospitality to 
the members ; and on Friday Colonel and Mrs. Gimdry 
invited them to the Grange. There was one place in 
which his wife and himself stepped in, and that was to 
receive the members at tea that afternoon at East View 
after the transaction of business. 

Mr. Gibbings (a member of the Parish Coimcil) also 
spoke, mentioning the eflforts that had been made by the 
Local (Committee to give pleasure to the visitors, and 
trusted the visit would be of the pleasantest description. 
He hoped Jupiter Pluvius would withhold his watering- 
pot and that Old Sol would give them plenty of his 
presence, and then all would go well. 

Dr. Brushfield returned thanks for the welcome, and 
hoped that the friendships they would form would remain. 
He said the Devonshire Association was by no means 
an exclusive club. It was not a club at all. It made no 
difference in the sexes. It had a House of Commons and 
a House of Lords, and there was no disturbance caused 
by a veto. The Association was formed in 1862, and ever 
since then it had met at these annual gatherings, as the 
printed programme said, for the advancement of science, 
literature, and art. A volume of transactions was issued 
every year. He was pleased that there was a large number 
of members, especially of ladies, and these meetings 
annually were very successful. A novel point in the pro- 
gramme was a Conversazione given by the ladies of Cul- 
lompton. That was a grand innovation, and he was sure 
it would be copied in the future at other gatherings. Sir 
Frederick Treves, in his work The Other Side of the Lantern, 
said, " The standard of enjoyment among any people, and 
indeed the touchstone of a nation's cheerfulness, depends 
mainly upon the women." 

At 4 p.m. the General Meeting was held, with Sir Alfred 
Croft in the chair, at which Mr. H. W. Rawlins, the hon. 
local secretary, invited the Association to visit the leather 
and paper factories in the town, the old Elizabethan 
house, any of the various clubs in Cullompton, and the 
private museum of Mr. Murray Foster, and stated that 
Mrs. Gidley, on behalf of the Arts and Crafts Society, 
had given the Association the three mats which had been 
made by Cullompton ladies for the platform at that 
meeting. 

The General Secretary presented the names of forty-six 



24 PBOCEEDIKQS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

new members for election, and the Treasurer his Financial 
Statement (pp. 38-39). The Report of the Council (pp. 
20-21) was adopted, and it was announced that an in- 
vitation received from Dartmouth to visit that town in 
1911 had been accepted. The meeting was then adjourned, 
and the members availed themselves of the kind invitation 
of Mr. A. Burrow and of Sir Frederick Upcott, the owners 
respectively of The Walronds and The Manor House, to 
visit these very interesting old houses in Fore Street. The 
Walronds is a fine mansion in the Tudor style, begim by 
Sir J. Petre, who was afterwards created Baron Petre of 
Writtle by Queen EUzabeth, and completed in 1605, the 
date carved in the dining-room over the mantelpiece, with 
the impaled arms of Petre. In 1790 this house was occu- 
pied by Sir Edmund Walrond, hence its name. It had 
many owners till it was purchased in 1890 by Mr. F. 
Burrow, the father of the present owner, who thoroughly 
restored it. The Manor House is said to have been built 
by Thomas Trock in the sixteenth century, and was prob- 
ably refurbished by him in 1603, as evidenced by the 
initials and date inscribed on the front of the building. 
Additions at the back were presumably made by William 
Sellocke in 1718, the date and initials inscribed on a lead 
pipe. Copies of an illustrated history of this interesting 
building were presented to the members by Colonel Sir 
Fi'ederick Upcott, c.s.i., k.c.v.o., who also very kindly 
took them over the house and pointed out the chief features 
of interest, a courtesy which was much appreciated. 

Mr. Murray Foster's museum was next visited, and its 
numerous and varied contents, in many cases imique, in- 
spected with much interest. At the church the Rev. C. 
Harris, the Vicar, received the members and gave them 
an account of the edifice, after which the members were 
most hospitably entertained at tea at East View by Mr. 
and Mrs. F. Sellwood. In the evening the Town Band 
played selections of music in front of the White Hart 
Hotel in honour of the visit of the Association, a compli- 
ment which was greatly appreciated. 

At 9 p.m., in the Parish Rooms, Sir Alfred Croft pre- 
sided in the imavoidable absence of the retiring Presidient, 
the Lord Bishop of Truro. He said he was charged with 
the duty of introducing the new President. Last year 
Devonshire, as represented by this Association, had made 



PBOCEEDmOS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 25 

a successful incursion into Cornwall. It was a new venture 
— some said a perilous venture — but it had prospered 
beyond their utmost hopes. Harmony and enthusiasm 
prevailed, and they had made many friendships on both 
sides. Between neighbours there were, of course, little 
differences ; but they had all been most anxious to avoid 
friction. Even the burning question of Devonshire cream 
or Cornish cream, which county learnt it from the other — 
and that was a topic that might easily arouse hostile feel- 
.ings and even lead to bloodshed — that perilous question 
was by common consent avoided. Such forbearance was 
bound to succeed ; and thus we enlarged our borders so 
as to include Cornwall. Whether we captured Cornwall, 
or Cornwall captured us, was perhaps a vexed question. 
Anyhow, we captured a President, whom he had the 
pleasure of introducing — ^Mr. John Enys, of Enys in Corn- 
wall ; and he was here to-night to ratify the alliance. To 
a Comishman it would perhaps seem absurd that so well- 
known a man should need introduction ; for in Cornwall 
the name of Enys was a household word. He understood 
that from and even before the Conquest there had been 
an Enys at Enys, in unbroken succession. No man had a 
better claim to represent Cornwall and the old Keltic 
stock. He was a man of science, a man of wide and varied 
experience, and a great traveller. He was known to the 
Geological Society of London ; in New Zealand he was 
equally well known. He had been President of the Royal 
Institution of Cornwall, and was this year President of 
the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. A man of mark, 
in fact ; a man of culture and knowledge ; and they as a 
Society were sincerely to be congratulated for securing 
that Imowledge and culture for the service of the Associa- 
tion. 

Mr. Enys then took the Chair and deUvered his Address 
(pp. 54-61). At the close of the proceedings a vote of 
thanks to the President was proposed by Mr. Vodden. 
Dr. Gidley, who seconded, referred to the one-time 
flourishing industry, in mediaeval times, of bell-founding. 
But that, like other industries of the town, he remarked, 
had died out. He also made allusion to the fact that 
scythe stones were once taken from a quarry at Black- 
borough. Later in the evening Mrs. Gidley held a 
reception at Heyford House. 

On Wednesday, 27 July, at 10 a.m., the reading of the 



26 PBOCEEDmOS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

Reports and Papers commenced. The following is a com- 
plete list of the Papers read at this meeting : — 

Twenty-ninth Report of the Barrow Ck)mmittee. 

Twenty-third Report of the Committee on Verbal Provincialisms. 

Third Report of the Committee on Church Plato. 

Second Report of the Botany Committee. 

Twenty-eighth Report (Third Series) of the Committee on the Climate of 

Devon. 
A Short History of Cullompton . . ifurray T, Foster. 
The Church of S. Andrew, Cullompton . Hcv. Edwin S, Chalk, m.a. 
The Vicars of Cullompton since the Com- \ m ^y rr r 

monwealth . . . . ^ jT, Cann Hughes, U.A., F.S.A. 

The Hundreds of Devon, XI. Materials i „ ^ i » r r. • . , 

for the Hundred of Hairidge in Early ^'""^ OswnldJ. Iie»chel,u. A., B.C.L., 
Times, with an Index . . . ) ^•^'^' 

Notes on the Parish of Elast Worlington . Eev. If. A, Hill, m.a. 

Tavistock as a Parliamentary Borough . J. J. Alexander, m.a. 

The Town, Village, Manors, Parish, and \ n e»j • « /^i j» 

"^^ bJ.rough''"''''' ""^ ^^''"'^ "^ ®''"'''." I^"- ^"''" «• t'A«'*' "•*• 
Ralegh Miscellanea. Part II. . . T. iV. Brushfield, m.d., f.s.a* 

Councillor John Were, of Silverton, and \ r» t rr u nr j ^, 

the Siege of Exeter .... j^"- •^- ^'^'^ '^'"^' »•*• 
The Mosses of Silverton . . . , G. B, Savcrtj. 
An Ancient Divining Well, now used as a 1 ,,. ,, ,, ,, 

Font at St Mary Church . . . j^"* ^«^ *«"'"•• 
Trowleswortliite and Luxulyanite . . A. JR. HuiU, h.a,, f.q.s., r.h.&. 
Cillitona : the Land of the Wife of Hervius i/m Emily Skimier, 

Double Daffodils Miss Helen Sainidcrs. 

The Pycnogonida of Devonshire . , T. V. Hodgson. 
On the Boulders of Pseudo-Jasper found \ rj ^ ^ t r 

near Newton Abbot . . . . )Bar/ord J. Lmve, f.o.s. 

Visitations of Devonshire Churches . . H. Michtll fVhUlci/. 
Christianity in Devon, before a.d. 909 . Ecv. J. F. Chanter, m.a. 
A Further Sketch of Bishop's Teignton . Jr, F. C. Jordan, 

^^^Teignton''; '"^ !^' ^!"'^ ^^ ^'f^"*^! }^^ ^^""^^ ^"^^ •^^^"• 
Wembury:^its Bay, Church, and Parish, j^ ^^^^^^ ^^„^ 



Part 

8 of the Fossil Flora and Fauna \ 
of the Upper Culm Measures of North- > Inkermann Rogers, 
West Devon ) 

Stephen Glynne's Notes on Devon \ « ., ^^ ir^.^.h^. ma i? u a 
Churches )^' ^'*'*'* Huifhcs, m.a., f.s.a. 



During the discussion on Dr. Brushfield's paper, en- 
titled "Ralegh Miscellanea," the Rev. T. Flavell ac- 
knowledged the great services Dr. Brushfield had rendered 
to this great Devon worthy, and asked if any steps had 
been taken to erect some suitable monument to Ralegh„ 
who was really the foimder of the British Empire. Dr. 



PROCEEDmOS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 27 

Brushfield, in reply, said that the only local memorial he 
knew was a small bust in the Bicton Gardens. In Plymouth 
Guildhall two windows contained memorials of Ralegh. 
The only appropriate memorial was a magnificent stained- 
glass window in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, the 
church where he and his son were buried. It was erected 
by Americans, who always favoured Ralegh in every 
possible way, and if he got one letter asking questions 
regarding Ralegh from EngUshmen, he got nine or ten 
from Americans. He thought the time had arrived when 
a suitable memorial to Ralegh should be provided. 

At the conclusion of the day's business the members 
proceeded to Kentisbeare, where the Rector, Rev. E. S. 
Chalk, who earUer in the day had read a paper on Kentis- 
beare and its Church, drew attention to the various points 
of interest in the church and to the mediaeval Priest's 
House in the village, said to be coeval with the church, 
which he had recently discovered. The brakes were then 
resumed, and the party drove to Bradfield, where a 
hospitable reception awaited them from the Hon. Lionel 
and Mrs. Walrond, who had invited a large number of 
friends to meet the Association. After tea Mrs. Walrond 
graciously took the members over this very interesting 
mansion, and kindly allows the following account of it to 
be here reproduced : — 

Extracts from the Walrond Papers, — ^The Walrond family 
came to England in 1066, the first bearer of the name in 
this country being Waleran, " Venator " (himtsman) to 
William the Conqueror. Bradfield came into their pos- 
session by a grant from Fulke Paynel about 1216, and the 
deed, written in the same characters as the Magna Charta, 
is still amongst the family papers. 

In 1671, WiUiam Walrond, who served as a CavaUer, 
was knighted. He seems to have built the original chapel, 
as there is an old deed of that period granting " license 
to pubhcly read morning and evening prayer in the chapel, 
newly erected by WiUiam Walrond, Kt., at Bradfield." 
It is beheved to have been close to the north wing of the 
house, between it and the rectangular lake. Sir WiUiam 
was High Sheriff of Devon, and though never married, 
was greatly in love with a lady caUed Dinah de Mont- 
peUon, who lived in WUtshire. There is a letter, amongst 
the Bradfield papers, written on gold leaf, enclosed in a 



28 PROCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

petit-point jeweUed envelope, and with it the top of a 
gauntlet glove, and some lady's gloves, all apparently of 
the same period. 

When William, Prince of Orange, landed at Tor Bay, 
Nov. 6th, 1688, we find through a report in Dutch, dated 
the same month, that some of his troops were quartered 
at Bradfield, then in possession of Colonel Henry Walrond, 
who had succeeded his brother Sir WiUiam. The report 
states that 

" We have taken up our quarters in the house of Col. 
Hendric Waldron, which quarters we desire shall be kept 
open as long as the troops of his Highness shall remain 
in this town, or neighbourhood ; we have also left in the 
care of the aforesaid, Col. Hendric Waldron, two black 
horses, and one gray mare, which shall be kept for us." — 
Signed Sir van Ginkel, Lt.-General of the Cavalry of the 
United Netherlands, in the service of His Highness 
William, Prince of Orange. 

The property descended in the direct male line until 
1848, when Frances Walrond succeeded her father. She 
married Benjamin Bowden Dickinson, of an old Tiverton 
family, and he assumed her name and arms by royal 
license in 1845. Their only son John married Frances 
Hood, daughter of Lord Bridport and Charlotte Nelson, 
Duchess of Bronte in her own right, and came to hve 
at Bradfield in 1854. He represented the Tiverton Borough 
as a colleague of Lord Palmerston in 1865, when he won 
the seat by three votes ; and four times unsuccessfully 
contested the North Devon Division and Tiverton Borough, 
being created a baronet in 1876. 

Finding Bradfield in a state of disrepair he decided to 
restore it, employing Mr. J. Hayward to assist him. Sir 
John was himself a good draughtsman, and nearly aU the 
improvements were taken from his designs. 

The main building dates back to the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, and the rest was added in the reigns of 
EUzabeth and James I, and the dates 1592 and 1604 are 
to be seen on the old front. It is one of the finest examples 
of the Tudor Period extant, and, thanks to Sir John, has 
lost very little of its original beauty. It is built in the form 
of an H, with the Banqueting Hall, 44 ft. by 21 ft., in the 
centre. On removing the plaster and white paint some 
very fine old oak panelling, carved in the linenfold pattern, 



PBOCEEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 29 

was discovered, also some curious frescoes above the dais 
with the words " Vivat Rex," and the royal arms of 
England, quartered with those of France, besides various 
Walrond quarterings emblazoned on the window-panes. 
The dais has now been removed, and the stone floor re- 
placed by an oak one. The hammer-beam roof is the great 
feature, and remains in its integrity ; for although new 
timbers have been introduced where necessary^ care was 
taken to preserve everything that could safely remain. 
The minstrels' gaUery is at the south end of the hall, and 
there were curious openings, now aboUshed, which seem 
to have been used to hand up refreshments to the players. 
One quaint survival is the dog-gate, such as was used in 
former times to prevent the hounds wandering between 
the kitchen and the banqueting haU. The music-room is 
perhaps the most remarkable in the house ; it is 34 ft. by 
20 ft. and oak-panelled, the overmantel representing the 
" Tree of Jesse," and has besides some ciudous figures of 
the EUzabethan period. There is also a heavily carved 
porch with panels inserted above the door, one represent- 
ing Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden, and the other 
their expulsion " after that they had eaten of the tree of 
knowledge." All these figures are painted in natural 
colours, and are supposed to be the work of ItaUans, im- 
ported to this coimtry in the sixteenth century. 

In this room is one of the old scolding chairs, with the 
foUowing inscription : — 

" If you have a wife who scolds, life indeed is bitter, 
So in this chair you'd better sit her. 
Then co out and take your pleasure, 
Come back, release her at your leasure. 
And after all, too light a measure." 

When this chair is unlocked, any one unwary enough to 
sit down in it is promptly made prisoner by the back of 
the seat dropping six inches, and two curved hooks 
coming out from the arms and securely fixing each leg. 
In the dining-room are some fine tapestry panels, and an 
old oak table of the sixteenth century, weighing 11 cwt. 
and 14 ft. 6 in. long. The south front, now occupied 
by the sitting-room, front hall, and library, was in olden 
times given up to the servants' offices, a small stream of 
water running through the kitchen to turn the spit ; these 
have now been built at the back, besides smoking and 
billiard-rooms. 



30 PEOCBEDINGS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 

The gardens at Bradfield were laid out by Sir John. 
He planted the two fine avenues of cedar and oak, and 
turned the old forecourt into a small ItaUan garden, as it 
was inconvenient for the approax^h of carriages — ^making 
the chief entrance on the south side. The old "rectan- 
gular " lake, exactly a square acre, on the north side, has 
beeii in existence as long as the house, and is enclosed in 
fine box hedges, bordering the bowling-green. The chapel 
in the grounds was rebuilt by Sir John in 1874. 

As far as can be ascertained there are no legends con- 
nected with the family. There is believed to have been a 
" ghost," but even that is buried in obhvion, and the 
Walronds seem to have hved the Uves of country gentle- 
men from generation to generation ; taking their part in 
local affairs, and in some of those events in which the men 
of Devon have ever been prominent. 

In the evening, at 9 o'clock, at the request of the General 
Secretary, Mr. T. V. Hodgson, a distinguished explorer, 
kindly gave an illustrated lecture in the Victoria Hall, 
which was open to the public and was well attended. In 
this lecture, on Corals and Coral Reefs, Mr. Hodgson 
began by explaining the structure of the Coral Polype, its 
mode of growth and position in the scale of life. He par- 
ticularly emphasized the fact that corals have no relation 
whatever to insects. He then went on to deal with the 
distribution of corals, more especiaUy of those concerned 
in the formation of reefs. 

Defining the three types of reefs now recognized — the 
fringing, the barrier, and the atoll — he went into consider- 
able detail with regard to Darwin's explanation of their 
formation by subsidence. The essential features influencing 
reef construction are — 

1. Water. Must have a high specific gravity and pure, 
being free from mud or intermixture with fresh water. 

2. Temperature. Should not be less than 70° F., nor 
have an annual range of more than 12°. 

3. Depth. Should not exceed 30 fathoms, the optimum 
being between 7 and 16 fathoms. The upper limit is about 
one-third tide-level. 

It must not be supposed that the coral reef is formed 
exclusively of coral polypes. The reef forms a sort of 
garden in which thrive a varied assortment of animals and 



PBOCEBDINOS AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 31 

plants (nullipores), whose calcareous skeletons after death 
largely assist in its formation. 

Darwin's simple explanation induced a very much closer 
investigation of this problem than had previously been 
possible, nor was it long to pass unchallenged. Sir John 
Murray brought forward an explanation based on the 
detailed examination of several reefs where indications of 
elevation were much more pronounced than subsidence. 
His explanation involves the existence of submarine peaks, 
probably volcanic, upon which a substratum of debris, 
organic or otherwise, accumulated until the surface came 
sufficiently near sea-level to permit the growth of the 
coral polype. That the essential peculiarities of the vary- 
ing forms of reef were, in the main, produced by solution 
of the carbonate of lime, of the dead bodies of the polypes, 
and the associated animals dwelling on the reef. 

Modem investigation has done much to bring these two 
theories into line. It is an axiom in geology that there 
cannot be subsidence without corresponding elevation at 
a greater or less distance ; hence there is ample scope for 
the play of both these natural forces. The maximum 
depth for reef formation remains practically as it was in 
Darwin's day, viz. thirty fathoms, but since then reef- 
building species have been foimd as deep as seventy 
fathoms, while closely aUied forms have been foimd at 
much greater depths. The conditions necessary for reef 
formation do not obtain beyond the depth of thirty 
fathoms, and those species found beyond are merely 
stragglers which maintain a precarious existence, and 
clearly prove how nature resolutely declines to have any- 
thing to do with the hard and fast line so beloved by all 
argumentative naturahsts. 

The food supply and the more richly oxygenated water 
at the external edge of the reef fully explain the more 
rapid growth of that portion, and chemical solution has 
been abundantly proved to be of the greatest importance 
in determining the contour of the reef when the ax^tion of 
wind and wave is taken into consideration. 

All disputes on this interesting subject were to be set 
at rest by a boring through a reef. If coral rock was 
found at a greater depth than 180 ft., the Darwinians 
would score ; if less, the a<5curacy of Sir John Murray 
would be established. Eventually the reef of Junafuti, 
one of the EUice Islands, was selected, and after consider- 



32 PBOCBBDINGS AT THE ANNUAL BIEBTING. 

able effort the boring was brought to a successful con- 
clusion, under Prof. David and the oflScers of H.M.S. 
Penguin. A depth of 1114 ft. was obtained, the bore 
passing through irregular layers of sand and rock exclu- 
sively derived from corals and such invertebrate animala 
and calcareous algae as frequent these situations. 

For this reef, at least, Darwin'ft explanation has been 
conclusively proved to be correct ; it is, however, open to 
question whether the supporters of Sir John Murray are 
satisfied. More borings are necessary, but there can be 
no doubt whatever that in this contrctcting world of ours 
subsidence and elevation are slowly going on in different 
localities, and more or less intermittently. As soon aa 
appropriate conditions obtain such areas will become 
populated by the reef-building polypes without regard to 
the opinions of Charles Darwin or Sir John Murray. 

At the conclusion of the lecture a vote of thanks to the 
lecturer, proposed by Mr. H. W. Rawlins and seconded by 
Mr. Eric de Schmid, was carried with €tcclamation. Later 
in the evening many of the members adjourned to Heyiord 
House, on the invitation of Mrs. Gidley. 

On Thursday, 28 July, at 10 a.m., the reading of the 
Papers was resumed, with the President in the chair, on 
the conclusion of which a General Meeting of the members 
was held, at which cordial and hearty votes of thanks were 
given to the Parish Council and the Local Reception 
Committee for the commodious rooms which they had 
provided, and for the exceUent arrangements they had 
made for the convenience, comfort, and entertainment of 
the members ; to Mr. H. W. Rawlins, the hon. local 
secretary, and to Mr. R. F. Cleeve, the hon. local treasurer, 
for their efficient services, which all thoroughly appre- 
ciated, and to Mr. J. D. Enys, the President, for his able 
conduct of the business of the Association during the 
Meeting. The General Secretary was also instructed to 
convey to Mrs. Gidley, the hon. secretary, and the members, 
of the local branch of the Arts and Crafts Association the 
grateful thanks of the members of this Association for the 
gift of three handsome rugs made bj' the workers of the 
CuUompton Rug Industry, and for the kind offer of Mrs. 
Gidley to take charge of these rugs during the intervals 
of the Annual Meetings of this Association. 

At the Council Meeting which followed nine new mem- 



PROCEEDINOS AT THE ANNUAL BIEBTING. 33 

bers were elected to the Council, and a selection made from 
Reports and Papers read at this Meeting for printing in 
the volume of Transactions for 1910. 

In the afternoon a large number of members drove to 
Plymtree Church, where the Rector, the Rev. Edgar Hay, 
met them and gave a brief sketch of the history of the 
church and its famous screen, full particulars of which 
will be found in a pubhcation entitled Plymtree in Devon : 
its Parish Churchy Rood-Screen, Manor, and Sectors, by 
Rev. E. Hay, m.a., 1905. After thanking the Rector, the 
party proceeded to Dunmore, at Bradninch, the residence 
of Mr. and Mrs. T. H. Hepburn, who had invited the 
members to tea, which and the warm welcome they received 
were greatly appreciated, especially after their wet drive. 
After tea some of the members returned direct to Cullomp- 
ton, but a small party braved the elements and visited 
the church at Bradninch, where Mr. Frederick Drake was 
awaiting them, and in the absence^ through illness, of 
the Vicar, Rev. Charles Croslegh, d.d., gave them a de- 
scription of the building, with its glorious screen dating 
from 1528, on the panels of which are represented " The 
Annunciation " and " The Salutation," besides Latin 
doctors, judges, sibyls, etc., as well as the second screen, 
at the west end, with its panels painted to illustrate the 
legends of St. Christopher, St. Francis de Assisi, and St. 
Sebastian. Then on to St. Disen's HaU, recently restored 
and beautified by the Rector and used as a Parish Room, 
which is fully described in an illustrated article in Devon 
and CornvxHl Notes and Queries, Vol. VI, p. 33. 

At 9 p.m. a Conversazione given by the " Ladies of 
CuUompton " was very largely attended. The hostesses — 
Mesdames Allej^e, Cleeve, Foster, Gidley, Miller, Sanders, 
and de Schmid — ^received their guests in the large hall 
of the Parish Rooms, which had been converted into a 
veritable garden of flowers and greenery in the short time 
that had elapsed since the conclusion of the business of 
the Association that afternoon. These ladies had provided 
a varied and interesting programme for the entertainment 
of their guests, of which the following are the items : — 

Miss Dorothy Vodden's rendering on the piano of " Two 
Sketches," by Mendelssohn, and a Valse by Chopin, 
was much appreciated, as also were Mr. R. Bareham's 
"A la Valse," by Schmitt, and a "Polonaise in D," by 
Chopin. Mrs. R. Bareham sang **A Summer Night," 

VOL. XLH. c 



34 PBOCBBDINOS AT THE ANNUAL BIEBTING. 

by A. Goring Thomas, and two Ijnrics ("Since I have 
loved Thee " and " Love in the Meadows "), by Noel 
Johnson, with much feeling. Mr. E. Salter gave two 
songs, "Stonecracker John," by E. Coates, and "Grown 
o' Green," byW. Sanderson, while Major Weeks' humor- 
ous recitations, in the Devonshire dialect, of "Farmer 
Dumpling on Eddication," " The Opera Hat," and other 
pieces, caused much mirth and amusement. A most en- 
joyable evening was spent, and the guests separated full 
of gratitude to their charming hostesses for their hospi- 
taUty and for the entertainment they had provided for 
their delectation. 

In contrast to the previous afternoon, Friday, 29 July, 
opened with brilUant sunshine and the promise of a fine 
day, which was fully reaUzed. With the admirable 
punctuaUty which had been a notable feature of the 
whole meeting, Mr. H. W. RawUns started the party for 
their long drive a few minutes after 9.30 a.m. The first 
halt was at Uffculme Church, where the Vicar, the Rev. 
Preb. Howard, received the members and gave them an 
interesting accoimt of the edifice, pointing out the Walrond 
Chapel ^ in the north aisle, with its tomb, eflBgies and 
shields displaying the arms of Walrond, Speccott, and 
Kelleway ; the Jacobean GaUery, with its six shields of 
arms ; ^ the four aisles, the carved corbels in one of them ; 

^ For a description of the Walrond Tomb, see The Ancient Sepulchral Effigies 
of Devon y by W. H. Hamilton Rogers, f.s.a. (1877), p. 298; but as the in- 
scnptions are not complete or correctly quoted therein, and have almost 
perished, the true reading is here given, through the courtesy of the Rev. 
Freb. T. H. Howard, Vicar of Uffculme. 
Round the edge: — a.d. 1657 

Fallax saepe fides 
Testata(]|ue vota peribunt : 
Constitues tumulum, 
Si sapis, ipse tuum. 
[Compare Shakespeare in Mu^h Ado ahoiU Nothing^ Act V, scene ii : ** If a 
man do not erect, in this age, his own tomb ere he dies, he shall live no 
longer in monument than the bell rings, and the widow weeps."] 
On the surface of the slab : — 

This low-built chamber, to each obvious eye, 
Seems like a little Chappell, where Til lye : 
Here in this tumbe, my nesh shall rest in hope ; 
Whenere I dye, this is my aime and scope. 

^ These arms are (left to right) : — 1. Per pale ermine and sable, a chevron 
counter changed {Blundell) ; 2. Or, a chevron vert, between three eagles of 
the second (Bluett) ; 3. Argent, between two chevrons sable, three bunches of 
ashen keys azure {Ayshfonl) ; 4. Argent, three bulls' heads cabossed sable, 
armed or ( Walrond) ; 5. Or, a fleur-de-lis gules, with an escutcheon charged 
with red hand of Ulster, for the dignity of baronet (OxLrdon) ; 6. Argent, a 
cross engrailed gules between four water Dougets sable [Bourchier). 



PBOCEEDINOS AT THE ANNUAL MBBTING. 35 

the screen, one of the finest in the county ; the mural 
monuments of the Hollway, Ayshford, Wmdsor, and 
Marker famiUes, and other features of interest. Chilm- 
stock was next visited. Here the party was met by 
the Vicar, the Rev. Tertius Poole, at whose request the 
Rev. T. S. Rundle, a former Vicar, gave the members a few 
notes on the church and parish. He said there was a 
good account of Culmstock in Domesday, and that it was 
the oldest Uving in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of 
Exeter, having been given by Athelstan to the Bishop, 
who presented it to the Dean and Chapter. In the four- 
teenth centmy, a Visitation mentions seven windows in 
the chancel well glazed and protected with iron, and a 
Commission which inquired into the conduct of the Vicar 
reported it good, and the only complaint was that there 
wa^ too long an interval between matins and mass. 
In a will of John Prescott of Prescott, a neighbouring 
hamlet, a great number of benefactions are named ; and 
the tomb in the east end of the south wall of the church 
is supposed to be his. He died in 1412, and was possibly 
the rebuilder of the church. In this hamlet there are the 
remains of a pre-Reformation chapel, and a figure now 
built into the wall of a cottage probably belonged to this 
chapel. There is an old cope in the sacrarium, worked 
with figures, descriptive of the Benedicite, said to be 
Flemish, and is simdlar to one in the Taunton Museum. 
In former days there was a close connection between this 
part of Devon and Flanders, as, owing to the religious 
persecutions in Flanders, there were a number of Flemish 
refugees in Devon. The remains of a rare stone screen, 
which was formerly fixed at the west end of the church 
to screen the ringers, is now fixed to the east wall as a 
reredos. There is a brass on the north wall to the memory 
of Dr. Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was bom 
at Culmstock, and one of the windows is a memorial to 
Major Octavius Temple, formerly Governor of Sierra 
Leone, and father of Dr. Temple. Another window is to 
the memory of W. P. CoUier, the celebrated sportsman, 
in one of the Ughts of which is the unusual representa- 
tion of a hound. The scene of Blackmore's Perlycrosa 
is laid partly in this parish. 

The party then drove to Blackborough Church, where 
the Rector, the Rev. E. S. Chalk, gave a short history of 
this modem church, which was built by the 4th Earl of 



36 PBOCEBDINOS AT THE ANNUAL MBBTING. 

Egremont for the benefit of the stone-cutters working in 
the adjacent scythe-stone quarries, replacing an older 
building which stood near Allhallows Farm. After a 
short drive the village was reached, where a lunch was 
provided for the party in the schoolroom, the excellence 
of which testified to the administrative ability of the 
local secretary, as catering for so large a number in so 
remote a spot was no mean exploit. After lunch Sir Alfred 
Croft, in a few well-chosen words, thanked Mr. Rawlins 
on behalf of the members for the able way in which he 
had organized the Meeting and arranged the excursions, 
which were all carried out with remarkable punctuality 
and without a hitch. 

At Broadhembury, the next stop, the Vicar, the Rev. 
C. James, drew attention to the chief points of interest 
in the church — the Decorated font, the window in the 
south wall, the tTacery of which is probably unique, the 
muUions being ornamented with richly carved figures of 
angels on the inside, and figures representing the world, 
the flesh, and the devil on the outside. The Drewe 
monuments and old helmet in the east end of the south 
aisle, as also the monument erected in 1898 to the 
memory of Rev. Augustus Montague Toplady, who was 
Vicar of this parish from 1768 to 1778, and author of the 
hymn, " Rock of Ages," etc., were also mentioned, as well 
as the porch famous for its fan tracery and its fine old 
bla<)k oak gates. The screen was removed about the year 
1851, and was destroyed by fire in the outhouse in which 
it had been stored. The Parish Registers are very com- 
plete and date in unbroken succession from the year 1638, 
and are in excellent preservation. There are many in- 
teresting entries, particularly the account of the great 
frost which began on Christmas Eve, 1738, and lasted for 
nine weeks. The party then walked over to Broadhembury 
House, where Mr. W. F. Drewe, the owner, kindly received 
them and described the many interesting portraits of the 
Drewe family, formerly of the Grange, and some fine 
specimens of antique furniture. Mr. Drewe had invited 
the members to lunch, but unfortunately the arrangements 
for the day did not permit of this kind invitation being 
accepted. 

The next halt was at the Grange, where Colonel and 
Mrs. Gundry had invited the members to tea, and after 
tea took them over their interesting house, with its oak 



PBOCBBDINGS AT THB ANXUAL BIEBTINO. 37 

room, famous for its carved woodwork, dating from 1615, 
and its Adain room with a beautiful ceiling and mantel- 
piece. The celebrated portrait of Colonel and Mrs. 
Gundry's son and heir, painted by H. S. Tuke, r.a., in 
his best style, was also much admired. 

Cullompton was reached about 7 p.m. In the evening 
Mrs. Gidley held another reception, at which Mrs. and Miss 
Bartlett, r.c.m., of Exeter, gave some delightful songs and 
pieces on the violoncello and the piano. 

Thus ended a very pleasant meeting, which was most 
successful from every point of view. The attendance was 
good, many of the papers read were above the average, 
and the programme of excursions and '' sociabiUties " 
arranged by the Local Committee most enjoyable. The 
members are greatly indebted to Mr. H. W. Rawlins for 
so ably carrjdng out this programme, and to Mr. R. F. 
Cleeve for the comfort with which they were housed and 
catered for — ^no mean feat in a town where accommodation 
is Umited. 



C 38] 



Treasurer's Report of Receipts and Ejypeinditure 



"Receipte. 



By Subscriptions : — 

1908 (6) 

1909 (398) 

Lady Associates (2) 
„ Dividends— £300 Consols 
„ ,, £350 India 3 per cent 

Authors' Excess under Rule 29 : — 
„ Dr. Brushfield (Donation) 
„ Rev. E. A. Donaldson 
„ Miss Lega-Weekes . 

,, Discount from Messrs. Brendon 
,, Sales of Transactions 



£ s. d. £, s. 4f. 



3 3 




208 19 






212 2 


, , 


10 


7 2 




9 16 10 






16 18 10 


10 


2 11 3 




1 3 10 






18 16 1 


, 


7 


, , 


1 IS 6 



£251 19 4 



JOHN S. AMERY, ffon. Ge)icral Treasurer, 



[ 39] 

for the Year ending Slst December, 1909. 

JEspenDlture. 

To Messrs. Brendon, Smith and Dent :— 
Printing Notices, Cards, etc. 

,, Secretaries* Expenses and Assistant 

, , Treasurer's Expenses 

,, Messrs. Brendon and Son, Ltd. : — 

Printing Vol. XLI, 600 copies, 888 pp. 
Authors* Reprints, 25 Copies each 
Addressing, packing, and postage 

„ Insurance of stock to Slst December, 1910 
Balance .... 







. 10 7 1 






. 21 2 10 






. 2 12 10 


140 


4 





9 


6 





17 





8 
— 166 9 8 
. 1 1 




201 13 5 






. 50 5 11 



£251 19 4 



Examined with Vouchers, and found to be correct, with a balance of 
£50 65. llrf. in favour of the Association, this I2th day of July, 1910. 

• {Signed) ROBERT C. TUCKER, 

Auditor, 



[ 40] 

SELECTED MINUTES OF COUNCIL APPOINTING 
COMMITTEES. 

Passed at the Meeting at Cullompton^ 26th Jidy, 1910, 



6. That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Dr. Bnishfield, Mr. Robert 
Burnard, Sir A. Croft, Rev. W. Harpley, and Sir Roper Lethbridge 
be a Committee for the purpose of considering at what place the 
Association shall hold its Meeting in 1913, who shall be invited to 
be the Officers for 1911, and who shall be invited to fill any 
official vacancy or vacancies which may occur before the Annual 
Meeting in 1911; that Mr. Robert Burnard be the Secretary; 
and that the Committee be requested to report to the next Winter 
Meeting of the Council, and, if necessary, to the first Meeting of 
the Council to be held in July, 1911. 

7. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Dr. Bnishfield, Mr. Robert Bur- 
nard, Mr. E. A. S. Elliot, Mr. H. Montagu Evans, Rev. W. 
Harpley, Mr. C. E. Robinson, and Mr. H. B. S. Wood- 
house be a Committee for the purpose of noting the discovery 
or occurrence of such facts in any department of scientific inquiry, 
and connected with Devonshire, as it may be desirable to place 
on permanent record, but which may not be of sufficient im- 
portance in themselves to form the subjects of separate papers; 
and that Mr. Robert Burnard be the Secretary. 

8. That Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, Mr. G. M. 
Doe, Rev. W. Harpley, Mr. J. S. Neck, Mrs. G. H. Radford, 
Mrs. Rose-Troup, and Mr. H. B. S. Woodhouse be a Committee for 
the purpose of collecting notes on Devonshire Folk-lore ; and that 
Mrs. G. H. Radford be the Secretary. 

9. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Dr. Brushfield, Mr. R. Pearse Chope, 
Mr. C. H. Laycock, Rev. G. D. Melhuish, Rev. 0. J. Reichel, Miss 
Helen Saunders, and Mrs. Rose-Troup be a Committee for the 
purpose of noting and recording the existing use of any Verbal 
Provincialisms in Devonshire, in either written or spoken language ; 
and that Mr. C. H. Laycock and the Rev. O. J. Reichel be th^ 
Secretaries. 

10. That Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Dr. Brushfield, Mr. Burnard, 
Rev. J. F. Chanter, and Mr. R. Hansford Worth be a Committee 
to collect and record facts relating to Barrows in Devonshire, and 
to take steps, where possible, for their investigation; and that 
Mr. R Hansford Worth be the Secretary. 

11. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. A. H. Dymond, Rev. W. 
Harpley, and Mr. R C. Tucker be a Committee for the pur- 
pose of making arrangements for an Association Dinner or any 



RESOLUTIONS APPOrNTING COMMITTEES. 41 

other form of evening entertainment as they may think best in 
consultation with the local Committee ; and that Mr. R C. Tucker 
be the Secretary. 

12. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Sir Alfred W. Croft, and Mr. R. 
Hansford Worth be a Committee to collect and tabulate trust- 
worthy and comparable observations on the Climate of Devon ; 
and that Mr. R. Hansford Worth be the Secretary. 

13. That Sir Roper Lethbridge, Dr. Brushfield, Mr. R. Pearse 
•Chope, Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, B.D., Rev. Sub-Dean Granville, and 
Mr. E. Windeatt be a Committee for the purpose of investigating 
and reporting on any Manuscripts, Records, or Ancient Documents 
■existing in, or relating to, Devonshire, with the nature of their 
contents, their locality, and whether in public or private hands; 
And that Mr. E. Windeatt be the Secretary. 

14. That Mr. J. S. Amery, Mr. R. Biirnard, Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould, Mr. J. D. Pode, and Mr. R. Hansford Worth be a Com- 
mittee for the purpose of exploring Dartmoor and the Camps in 
Devon; and that the Rev. S. Baring-Gould be the Secretary. 

15. That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Mr. J. S. Amery, Dr. Brushfield, 
Rev. Professor Chapman, Sir Alfred W. Croft, Mr. C. H. Laycock, 
Rev. O. J. Reichel, Mrs. Rose-Troup, Dr. Arthur B. Prowse, Mr. 
William Da vies, Miss H. Saunders, and Mr. W. A. Francken be 
•a Committee to consider the matter of preparing, according to 
the best methods, an Index to the First Series (Vols. I-XXX) of 
the Transactions; that Mr. J. S. Amery be the Secretary; and 
that this Committee have power to add to their number. 

16. That Mr. Maxwell Adams, Mr. J. S. Amery, Rev. G. 
Goldney Baker, Dr. Brushfield, Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, Mr. 
T. Cann Hughes, Sir Roper Lethbridge, Rev. 0. J. Reichel, Mr. 
A. J. V. Radford, Mr. Harbottle Reed, Mr. George E. Windeatt, 
and Rev. J. F. Chanter be a Committee, with power to add to 
their number, to prepare a detailed account of the Church Plate of 
the Diocese of Exeter; and that Mr. Harbottle Reed and the 
Rev. J. F. Chanter be the joint Secretaries. 

17. That Miss Rose E. Carr-Smith, Honble. Mrs. Colbome, Sir 
Alfred Croft, Mr. W. P. Hiem, Miss C. E. Larter, Mr. C. H. 
Laycock, Dr. H. G. Peacock, Miss C. Peck, Dr. A. B. Prowse, 
Mr. C. E. Robinson, Mr. A. Sharland, Miss Helen Saunders, and 
Mr. T. Wainwright be a Committee, with power to add to their 
number, for the purpose of investigating matters connected with 
the Flora and Botany of Devonshire, and that such Committee 
report from time to time the results of their investigations; and 
that Mr. W. P. Hiem be the Secretary. 



[ 42] 



^bttuar^ Notices. 



Rev. William Henry Dallinger. By the death of 
Dr. Dallmger, m.a., f.r.s., f.l.s., d.sc, ll.d., the Associa- 
tion has lost one of its most distinguished members, and 
the world a prominent man of science. Bom at Devon- 
port, he was privately educated, and in 1861 entered 
Richmond College to be trained for the Wesleyan ministry. 
As a Wesleyan minister he was stationed successively at 
Paversham, Cardiff, Bristol, and Liverpool. 

In the *' sixties" the scientific world was much concerned 
about the theory of abiogenesis — the supposed origin of 
living from non-living matter — of which Dr. Charlton 
Bastian was and is one of the foremost advocates. Tyndall 
and Huxley were at that day amongst the stoutest oppo- 
nents of the doctrine, but in the main their arguments 
were theoretical. Dr. Dallinger investigated the subject 
experimentally. In this work he was assisted by Dr. 
Drysdale. The result of the research was to show, as the 
investigators reported, that germs, however minute, " were 
fertilized by a genetic process, like all the higher and more 
complex forms above them." Or, in other words, that 
" down to the uttermost verge of organized existence^ 
and in its lowliest condition, it is yet true that only that 
which is living can produce that which shall live." 

This piece of practical research was warmly welcomed 
and instantly recognized by scientific men. !hi 1880, Dr. 
Dallinger was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society^ 
which, unsolicited, made him a grant of £100 for the 
further prosecution of his researches, which extended over 
ten years. Later he delivered a series of lectures before 
the Royal Institution in London, a similar course at 
Oxford, and the Rede Lecture at Cambridge. To the im- 
portant oflSce of President of the Royal Microscopical 
Society, of which he had previously been elected Fellow,, 
he was chosen in 1883, on the death of Dr. Carpenter^ 
whose work on the microscope he re-edited and to a con- 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 43 

siderable extent rewrote. Dublin University conferred 
on him its degree of D.Sc., and Durham its D.C.L. The 
Wesleyan Conference appointed Dr. DaUinger President 
of the Wesley College at SheflSeld, and in 1888, greatly to 
its honour, released him from circuit work and appointed 
him " a special preacher of the society " — a status abso- 
lutely new in the history of the community. 

He was an honorary member of this Association, and 
President in 1887, when it met at Plympton. He died on 
7 November, 1909, and was buried at Lee. His wife 
(a daughter of Mr. David Goldsmith, of Bury St. Edmunds) 
and one son survive him. 

Rev. J. S. ExELL. The Rev. J. S. Exell joined the 
Association in 1900. Formerly he was a curate at Weston- 
super-Mare, and left there to take up the duties of Vicar 
of Townstal with St. Saviour's, Dartmouth. In 1890 he 
succeeded to the rectory of Stoke Fleming, near Dart- 
mouth, where he died very suddenly on 2 April, 1910, at 
the age of sixty-one years. He was a preacher of much 
eloquence and was possessed of great talent, and was 
editor of The Pvlpit Commentary. He was twice married^ 
but was a widower at the time of his death. 

John Fleming. Mr. Fleming, who died in London on 
1 March, 1910, at the age of eighty-three, was one of the 
oldest Devonshire magistrates, and in 1877 filled the 
oflSce of Sheriff. He was head of the firm of Robinson^ 
Fleming, and Co., merchants, of London, and a Justice 
of the Peace for the coimty of Middlesex. He became a 
member of the Association in 1876, and took a large part 
in the public life of Devonshire. His Devon residence was 
at Bigadon, Buckfastleigh, and his golden wedding was 
celebrated there in 1909. Although in later years he was 
not an active politician, an older generation will possibly 
recollect that, as a Conservative, he was returned as 
Member of Parliament for Devonport forty-five years ago> 
but a petition against his return was successful. He was 
one of the Dart District Fishery Board, and took much 
interest in the fishing. He owned the Weir and Mill 
property at Totnes, and gave the Board facilities for im- 
proving the fishing by placing a pass on the Weir. He 
leaves two sons and several daughters. 



44 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

Francis Ford Freeman. Mr. Freeman, who was the 
•eldest son of Mr. Charles Freeman, of Belgrave Mansions, 
Grosvenor Gardens, S.W. (who survives him), was bom 
on 16 December, 1847, at Ford House, which was then 
the only house standing in what is now the populous 
district of Ford, near Devonport. In 1863, he matricu- 
lated at St. Andrews University, and graduated in 1868, 
after which he travelled for four years, chiefly in China, 
Japan, Australia, and Tasmania, and his reminiscences 
of Japan, a country of which he had an intimate know- 
ledge before it advanced to its modem civilized state, were 
most interesting. He took a great interest in all matters 
pertaining to the sea, and made several voyages roimd the 
world in sailing vessels, always preferring sail to steam. 
In 1872, he became a partner in the firm of Messrs. Coates 
and Co., distillers, of Plymouth. 

Mr. Freeman had many ta^stes and pursuits, but prob- 
ably entomology claimed his gre^^test interest. He was 
a Fellow of the Entomological Society, and his collection 
of British and European butterflies, which he presented 
to the South London Natural History Society, is a very 
fine one. In his later years he took up horticulture, 
especially rock gardening, and was a Fellow of the Royal 
Horticultural Society. 

He joined the Devonshire Association in 1901, and took 
a great interest in antiquities, genealogy, and heraldry. 

As a young man, while at St. Andrews, he was devoted 
to golf, and tried to introduce the game into the West of 
England at least thirty years before it became generally 
popular. 

He was also a keen fisherman, and in spite of delicate 
health, being a victim to asthma from early youth, he 
pursued this sport in all its branches to the end of his life. 

In politics, he was a Conservative, but took no very 
active part in political affairs, as he had a strong objection 
to pubUcity of any kind. 

In 1876, Mr. Freeman married Lucy Emma Haden, a 
niece of Sir Francis Seymour Haden, the etcher. 

In 1891, he moved to Abbotsfield, Tavistock, where he 
died on 6 April, 1908. 

Rev. William Hope. The Rev. W. Hope was bom at 
Foot's Cray, Kent. He was educated at the Church 
Missionary College, Islington, was ordained deacon in 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 45 

1865 by the then Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Longley), 
and priest in 1866 by the Bishop of Victoria (for the 
Bishop of London). His first curacy was at Dunchurch, 
near Rugby, from 1865-6. In the latter year he went to 
India as a missionary for the Church Missionary Society, 
in Travancore and Cochin, until 1873. Mr. Hope was 
officiating domestic chaplain to the Bishop of Madras^ 
1873, and acting chaplain of Emmanuel Church, Madras^ 
1873-4. 

On his return to this country he was, in 1874, appointed 
curate-in-charge of St. Leonard's Church, Exeter, and 
afterwards became assistant curate of Bradninch, 1876-82. 
The Dean and Chapter of Exeter, in 1882, presented Mr. 
Hope with the living of AllhaUows, Goldsmith Street^ 
Exeter. This has since absorbed the parishes of St. 
Pancras (1887) and St. Paul's (1894), the three parishes 
now being united in one benefice ; while Allhallows Church 
was demolished in 1906. 

Mr. Hope became a member Of the Association in 1907. 
He twice filled the office of Sheriflf's Chaplain. He was a 
Grovemor of the Episcopal Schools, and Hon. Secretary of 
the Exeter branch of the South American Missionary 
Society. He was also chaplain to the West of England 
Eye Infirmary from 1885 to 1892. 

Arthijb Wbllbsley Jeffery. Captain Jeffery was 
bom in Plymouth in 1855, and belonged to an old 
Devonshire family. His father was a well-known per- 
sonage amongst the seafaring community of that port> 
he having been one of the few practical opticians with a 
thorough knowledge of the chronometer. He went to sea 
early in life, and when quite a young man held commands 
in the Lamport and Holt line of steamers, and for several 
years carried the mails between Antwerp and the River 
Plate. In 1886, he was successful in obtaining a Board of 
Trade appointment in London, and was transferred to 
Liverpool, in 1888, as nautical surveyor to the department, 
where he became conspicuous for the active part he took 
in measures for the suppression of overloading in vessels. 
While in Liverpool he acted for some time as secretary of 
the Liverpool Astronomical Society. In 1893, he was 
transferred to Glasgow as chief Board of Trade officer. In 
that port he also became secretary of the Glasgow branch 
of the British Astronomical Association, and it is said 



46 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

that owing to his efforts shipmasters were officially re- 
quested to take observations of Halley's Comet, which are 
expected to prove a great aid to science. 

In his younger days Captain Jefifery was an accomplished 
swimmer, and in 1874 won the championship of England. 
In the course of his duties he was the means of saving 
eighteen lives, and he held the Humane Society's medcd 
and other awards for personal gallantry. 

He joined the Association in 1900, and besides being 
an enthusiastic collector of books relating to his native 
county, he took a leading part in the work of the Glasgow 
Devonshire Association. 

In the discharge of his duties he was a striking example 
of conscientiousness and courtesy. 

He died 2 May, 1910, at the age of fifty-five years. 

Thomas Crbaser Kellock. Mr. Kellock was the son 
of a Totnes medical man, and hved in that borough 
practically all his life and rendered it service in many 
capacities. He was well known as an able soHcitor, being 
admitted to the profession in 1845. He was also the 
" Father " of the Corporation, first entering the Town 
Council in 1860, and being first elected Mayor in 1865. 
He was raised to the aldermanic bench in 1877. In 1884 
and 1885 he again filled the civic chair, and accepted the 
Mayoralty again in 1896, in the following year entering 
with zest into the Diamond Jubilee celebration of Queen 
Victoria's reign, and attending the reception at Bucking- 
ham Palace. The same year he had the freedom of the 
borough conferred on him in recognition of his many 
years' service. Mr. Kellock took an active interest in the 
work of the Council, and advocated the incorporation of 
part of Dartington with the borough eleven years ago. 
He was Chairman of the Water Committee, and, in that 
-capacity, in May, 1908, inaugurated the Follaton Water 
Scheme. 

He held the position of Registrar of the Archdeaconry 
for over fifty years, of late years his son (Mr. G. F. Kellock) 
assisting him in that capacity. He had been a member 
of the Board of Guardians for over forty years, there being 
only one member with a longer record of service. He was 
also the oldest of the Municipal Charity Trustees and the 
Dart Navigation Commissioners. He was a staunch sup- 
porter of the Church, and from the formation of the 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 47 

Cottage Hospital he took a great interest in it, and, as 
Vice-President, presided over its last annual meeting. 

When the Bribery Commission took place in the " six- 
ties,'' and Totnes was disfranchised, he was one of the 
chief witnesses. 

He became a life member of the Association in 1877. 
His wiie predeceased him, but he leaves three sons and 
four daughters. He died in February, 1910, in his eighty- 
seventh year, and was buried at Totnes. 

Frederick Charles Lemann. Mr. Lemann, who died 
on 23 March, 1908, became a Ufe member of the Associa- 
tion in 1892. He was a partner in the well-known firm 
of Coates and Co., distillers, of Plymouth, which firm he 
joined in 1881, when he also came to reside in Plymouth. 
He was an art critic of no mean ability, a generous sup- 
porter of struggling artists, and possessed a fine collection 
of art treasures. He was a member of the London Rifle 
Brigade, and retired as a corporal with the long service 
medal, having refused a commission in the battaUon. He 
was also a member of the Plymouth Field Club and a 
keen entomologist. In Pljnnouth society, as well as in 
business circles, he was well known, and for twenty-five 
years was a prominent member of the Royal Western 
Yacht Club. He was buried at Egg Buckland. 

William Lethbridoe. Mr. WiUiam Lethbridge, who 
became a life member of the Association in 1903, died in 
Switzerland on 9 March, 1910, at the age of forty-six. He 
succeeded to the property of Wood, near South Tawton, 
on the death of his uncle, Mr. Lethbridge, who was for- 
merly a partner in the firm of Messrs. Smith and Son. 
He was of a retiring disposition, and the state of his 
health did not permit of his taking any prominent part in 
the affairs of the coimty. He was fond of gardening, and 
gave much personal attention to the beautiful garden and 
groimds of Wood. He had travelled much, and was a 
great lover of books. He was buried at South Tawton 
amid many tokens of the esteem in which he was held 
in the neighbourhood. 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Monkswell. Robert Collier, 
Lord Monkswell, who was the son of the first Baron 
Monkswell, county Devon, was bom on 26 March 1846, 



48 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

and succeeded his father in the title in 1886. He was a 
member of a well-known Devonshire family which for 
more than two centuries has been closely associated with 
Pljonouth and the district. His grandfather, Mr. John 
Collier, who represented Plymouth in Parliament from 
1832-41, was a merchant and shipowner of that town, 
and it is remarkable that the business has been in the 
family without a break for over 230 years, having been 
originally acquired by Mr. Jonathan Collier in 1676. 

Lord Monkswell was educated at Eton and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated in the First Class 
of the Law Tripos in 1866. He was called to the Bar in 
1869, and became conveyancing barrister to the Treasury. 
He took a great interest in all kinds of public work. When 
the London County Council came into existence he was 
elected at once, and sat in it continuously for eighteen 
years for the same constituency (Haggerston), and was 
Chairman of the Council in 1903. 

In the House of Lords he passed through Bills to amend 
the law of libel and the Public Libraries Act, and in 1891 
carried through the second reading a measure to amend 
and consolidate the law of copjTight, a matter in which 
he took a deep interest ; six years later he brought in a 
short Copyright BUI. He was also connected with mea- 
sures for the industrial training of soldiers and the pro- 
hibition of children entering public-houses. Lord Monks- 
well was Chairman of the Royal Commission on the Health 
and Safety of Miners ; he was a member of Lord Dun- 
raven's Committee on the Sweating System, of Lord 
Sandhurst's on Metropolitan Hospitals, and Lord Hob- 
house's on the Law of Copyhold. 

Lord Monkswell was a great lover of the beauties of 
nature, and greatly admired Devonshire, where a great 
part of his life was spent. Next to that he had a romantic 
affection for Switzerland, which country he visited again 
and again. Otherwise he did not travel very widely, 
though he spent some months, thirty years ago, in America 
and travelled over a good part of the United States. 

Though he did not devote much attention to writing, 
he had a good taste in literature and was no mean poet, 
and once wrote a novel entitled Kate Greville, He was 
also one of the Managing Committee of the Authors' Club. 

Brought up among artists, he displayed a great know- 
ledge of pictures. The Colliers are an old Devonshire 



OBITUAEY NOTICES. 49 

family who have always been famous m art, and the 
Hon. John Collier, a brother of the deceased peer, main- 
tains the tradition. 

He was a most conscientious head of the family, and 
always endeavoured to keep in touch with all its members. 

He became a life member of the Association in 1892,. 
and was its President in 1908 for the meeting at Newton 
Abbot. 

He married Mary, third daughter of J. A. Hardcastle,. 
Esq., of Woodlands, Beaminster. 

Lord Monkswell died on 22 December, 1909, and was 
interred at Beaminster, Dorset. 

WnxiAM Edward Mugford. Mr. Mugford was the 
son of William and Catherine Mugford, and was bom in 
Exeter on 10 July, 1861. He was educated at the Prac- 
tising School in connection with the Exeter Diocesan 
Training College, and at the University College, Exeter,^ 
where he distinguished himself in science and carried off 
many prizes, including the Tucker prize, awarded to the 
best student in Science of the year. With the intention 
of entering the legal profession, he was articled, in 1895^ 
to Mr. Andrew, of the firm of Roberts and Andrew, 
solicitors, of Exeter, and passed the intermediate law 
examination, but his health failing he proceeded no 
further in qualifying for the profession, and entered the 
Bishop's Registry, where he was Chief Clerk for fourteen 
years. He had an intimate and thorough acquaintance 
with the numerous original documents connected with 
the diocese in the Bishop's Registry, and possessed a 
special knowledge of local pedigrees, and this knowledge 
was invariably at the service of all interested in anti- 
quarian and genealogical research, both at home and 
abroad. 

Mr. Mugford joined the Association in 1901, but never 
contributed any papers. He was, however, a frequent 
contributor to Devon Notes and Queries, and in 1907, in 
conjunction with the Rev. O. J. Reichel, he translated and 
edited "' An Old Exeter Manuscript " for that pubUcation. 
His most valuable work, however, was the issue, in col- 
laboration with the Rev. Sub-Dean Roger Granville, of 
the first part of Abstracts of the Existing Transcripts of the 
Lost Parish Registers of Devon, 1 696-1 644. For this work 
he sorted and tabulated the whole of the Devon Tran- 

VOL. XLH. D 



50 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

scripts in the Bishop's Registry and compared them with 
a large number of parish registers. 

From early boyhood he was a great sufferer from 
asthma, and bore his complaint with great fortitude. His 
a^miable nature endeared him to his many friends. 

He succumbed, after a few days' illness, to an acute 
attack of bronchitis on 14 January, I9I0, and was buried 
in the Higher Cemetery at Exeter. 

Sir George Newnes, Bart. The career of Sir George 
Newnes is too well known to demand more than a passing 
notice in our Transactions, He was the son of the Rev. 
Thomas Mold Newnes, a C!ongregationahst minister of 
Matlock, and was educated at Silcoates, near Wakefield, 
and at the City of London School. He began life in the 
fancy goods business, first in London and afterwards in 
Manchester ; but the foimdation of his fortune was laid 
by the happy inspiration which prompted him to start 
the pubUcation of the well-known paper called TU-BUs. 
He was subsequently interested in many pubUshing and 
journalistic ventures, including the Strand Magazine and 
the Westminster Gazette, and was for some years actively 
associated with George Newnes (Ltd.). 

He joined the Association in 1906, but took no active 
part in its work. In 1876, he married Priscilla Jenny 
Hillyard, the daughter of a Nonconformist minister, who 
survives him, and he is succeeded in the barone'tcy by his 
only son, Frank Newnes. He died on 9 June, 1910, at his 
residence, Hollerday, L3niton, in his sixtieth year. 

Rev. D'Oyxey William Oldham. Mr. Oldham was 
the younger son of Joseph Oldham, j.p., of Strawbridge, 
in Hatherleigh, by Frances Elizabeth, only daughter of 
the Rev. Philip T. Nind, and was bom on 10 February, 
1846. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, where 
he took the B.A. degree in 1868, and proceeded to M.A. 
in 1876. At Oxford he was distinguished for his remark- 
able musical abilities, and also became known as an 
authority on ecclesiastical architecture and archaeology. 
He entered Holy Orders, and was ordained priest at 
Exeter in 1870. His first curacy was at Modbury, 1870-2, 
whence he went to St. Sidwell's, Exeter, where he re- 
mained till 1876. In the winter of 1876-7 he was ap- 
pointed assistant chaplain of St. Paul's, at Cannes, in 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 51 

France, and in the latter year he became Rector of Ex- 
bourne, where he served for thirty-two years, greatly 
beloved by his parishioners, and where his architectural 
and archaeological knowledge gave him congenial employ- 
ment in the restoration of St. Mary's, the parish church 
of Exboume. He discovered the ancient screen of 
this church stowed away in a bam, and restored it to 
its original position, and devoted particular care to 
the old records found in the old parish chest, which he 
arranged and had well boimd. These form a very valuable 
collection, among them being forms of special services 
used in the church from 1625 to 1705 on various occa- 
sions ; such as, "A Prayer to be used on Thursday, 
December 3rd, 1702, to be said after the General Thanks- 
giving for the late happy recovery of Thy servant, his 
Boysd Highness," and " a Form of Prayer and Thanks- 
giving to Almighty God for the late glorious success in 
forcing the enemie's lines in the Spanish Netherlands by 
the Arms of Her Majesty and the AUies under the Com- 
mand of the Duke of Marlborough," dated 1706. All but 
the title-pages of this very interesting collection are 
printed in Old English type. 

By the death of his brother, Mr. Ernest Joseph Oldham, 
B.A., J.P., in 1901, he succeeded to the extensive Straw- 
bridge estates in the parishes of Hatherleigh, Monk- 
okehampton, Petersmarland, and elsewhere, which had 
come to the Oldhams through the Arscotts and Moles- 
worths from the possessions of the Abbey of Tavistock, 
and became Lord of the Manors of Hatherleigh and of 
Twigbear, and head of the family of Oldham, which in 
early times gave, in one of its branches, an eminent 
Bishop to the See of Exeter. 

He joined the Association in 1901, and contributed the 
following papers to the Transctctions, viz. Church Dedicor- 
turns in Devonshire^ in 1903 ; Private Chapels of Devon : 
Ancient and Modern, in 1906 ; and The Story of a Woodland 
WeUy in 1908. 

In April, 1896, Mr. Oldham married Dora Louisa, the 
youngest daughter of Arthur Louis Laing. He died in 
December, 1909, in the sixty-fourth year of his age, and 
was buried at Exboume amid many tokens of the esteem 
in which he was held. 

Thomas Tubnsr. Mr. Turner was one of the oldest 



52 OBITUARY NOTICES. 

and most esteemed residents of Cullompton. He was a 
barrister by profession, and the second oldest magistrate 
in the Cullompton Division. He came to reside in that 
town in 1850, and married, in 1856, a daughter of Dr. 
Gabriels, of the same place, and celebrated his golden 
wedding in 1905. His wife predeceased him in 1907 at 
the age of eighty-eight. 

Mr. Turner was a staunch Churchman and Conservative^ 
and a generous subscriber to all deserving objects in the 
town, and among none will his loss be more felt than the 
poor. 

He joined the Association in 1880, and would have been 
one of the Vice-Presidents for the Cullompton Meeting in 
1910 but for his untimely death. He was also a member 
of the Royal Meteorological Society. 

He died in March, 1910, at the age of ninety-two, and 
was interred at Cullompton. 

Rev. George Ferris Whidborne. The Rev. G. F. 
Whidbome was bom at Plymouth in 1846, being the son 
of the Rev. George Ferris Whidbome, whose ancestor. Sir 
Richard Whidbome, was one of the men of Devon who 
provided ships to repel the Spanish Armada, and was one 
of the founders of Newfoundland. He was educated at 
Clifton College, and was Scholar of Corpus Christi College,, 
Cambridge, at which University he graduated in Honours, 
B.A. in 1868, M.A. in 1872. He was ordained deacon in 
1881, and priest in 1882, by the Bishop of London ; was 
curate of St. Pancras, London, 1881-6, and of St. Paul's,. 
Onslow Square, 1886-8 ; Vicar of St. George's, Battersea, 
1888-96, and succeeded to The Priory, Westbury-on-Trym, 
Gloucester, in 1894, residing there for seven years. He 
was a Life Governor of the Church Missionary Society, a 
Hyndman Trustee, a member of the Islington Trust and 
of the Church Trust ; he was also one of the founders and 
for many years honorary secretary of the National Pro- 
testant Church Union, and took a great interest in the 
work of the National Church Union. 

Mr. Whidbome was well known as a geologist, and since 
1876 had been a Fellow of the Geological Society, and for 
many years a member of the Council, contributing many 
papers to that Society's Journal. He was also a Fellow 
of the Royal Geographical Society ; a member of the 
Council of the Paleeontographical Society, and several 



OBITUAEY NOTICES. 53 

times its Vice-President ; and also a member of the 
Victoria Institute. He became a life member of the 
Devonshire Association in 1873. Between the years 1888 
and 1898 he pubUshed three volumes on the Devonian 
fauna of the south of England. 

Mr. Whidborne was a great traveller, and among other 
countries had visited Canada with the British Association. 
He was also a member of the Athenaeum and National 
Clubs. 

In 1889, he married Margaret, elder daughter of Charles 
Harcourt Chambers, barrister-at-law, and had issue three 
sons and four daughters. 

Mr. Whidborne was well known for his religious and 
philanthropic work, and though a scientist he always in- 
sisted that there was nothing in the teachings of science 
incompatible with the existence of a Supreme Being. 

He died at his seat, Hammerwood, East Grinstead, 
after a short illness, from the effects of influenza followed 
by pneumonia, on 14 February, 1910, 



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT, 

JOHN D. ENYS, Esq., J.R, F.O.S., 
26th JULY, 1910. 



When called upon by my friend Mr. Robert Bumard to 
accept the oflSce of President of the Devonshire Association, 
I hesitated for some time, as I have had only one chance of 
seeing how the work was carried on, and also because I 
have small knowledge of Devonshire matters. 

I was informed that the President, in his address, 
was not confined to a Devonshire topic. Under these 
circumstances I venture to address you on a subject in 
which I have long taken an interest, namely, the Churches 
of the West, and their development from the ancient 
chapel to the present form which is so common in Cornwall 
and the parts of Devonshire adjoining. 

I shall have to repeat much of what I have written 
and read before the Royal Institution of Cornwall some 
years ago, and elsewhere. The subject is, I trust, of suflS- 
cient interest to bring before a more diversified audience 
than I have hitherto had. 

The earhest buildings of which we have remains are the 
small chapels or churches on the north coast of Cornwall. 
The most interesting is that of Perranzabulce, which came 
to Ught in 1836 in consequence of the sand which had long 
preserved it being blown away. Mr. William Michell 
carefully uncovered the old building, which was foimd to 
be some 29 feet by 16 feet outside, with a low stone seat 
running along the west and north walls, such as is shown 
in the north transept at Tintagel church. A round- 
headed doorway was in the south wall, with a small 
window on its east side, and a small door was on the left 
of the altar. A stone altar was found, and under it were 
three headless skeletons, one of large size, and one said 



MB. J. D. EKYS' PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 55 

to be that of a woman ; the heads were placed near the 
feet of the bodies. Over the altar was a slight recess. 
Since the date of the discovery a great part of the building 
has been destroyed. 

The doorway on the south was ornamented with a zig- 
zag of rough form, one stone of which is preserved in 
the Museum at Truro. The door had also three rudely 
carved heads, one at the top, the others at the spring 
of the arch - head ; these heads were also preserved in 
the Museum at Truro, but are to be replaced in the old 
building when restored and covered in for protection. 
The door was about seven feet high. 

The Rev. William Haslam placed a large slab of granite 
over the old altar, and had inscribed on it " St. Piran." 

There are other small churches of early date scattered 
about the Cornish coast. 

Of Norman churches none remain in anything like a 
complete state. Mr. Edmund H. Sedding has recently 
brought out a book on Norman remains in Cornish churches, 
and records traces of such work in over a hundred churches. 
Four of these have remains of Norman arcades : St. 
Germans, Morwenstow, St. Bruard, and Lelant. Norman 
fonts and those of Transition date number over seventy. 
Norman doorways number about twenty-seven. These 
remains show that in Norman times churches of that style 
existed. 

Of Early English date there are a few remains of great 
interest. Decorated work is rare, but a few good windows 
exist. 

The great majority of the Western churches are purely 
Perpendicular in style, and I will try to point out the 
cause of this. 

First, we have the old churches of small size, about 
30 feet by 16 feet. Then comes the cruciform church, 
of which few remain perfect, followed by the churches so 
common now of two aisles of equal length, with a transept 
on the north or south side, and finally of three aisles of 
equal length. 

In the churches of Manaccan and Zennor, the change is 
shown in a most interesting manner. When the north 
wall was taken down to build the arcade which took its 
place, and was carried out to the end of the chancel, the 
roof of the chancel being narrower than the new arcade, 
an interesting feature was introduced ; the chancel roof 



56 MB. J. D. SNTS' FBBSIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

was carried by the use of a bracket placed on the new 
arcade, and so preserved. There are about the same 
number of churches which retain the north transept as 
of those that retain the south. 

Two features are wanting in most of the Western 
churches, namely, the clerestory and the chancel arch. 

Spires are rare. At Lostwithiel is a very beautiful one. 
J^ne old towers are common, built for strength, and con- 
tain some fifty-two medieval bells. 

Outside, these churches show no sign of a chancel 
except the old rood staircase projecting as a tower. 
Inside, the grand screens mark out the chancel in an im- 
pressive manner. Devonshire still has many fine screens 
to show. Cornwall has fewer, though signs of them re- 
main in many churches. 

At Altamun, near Laimceston, there is a screen, and the 
commimion rail also runs across the whole chiuxjh, placed 
there about the middle of the seventeenth century. The 
altar also stands free from the walls of the small chancel, 
which is evidently an addition, as the work is not bonded 
to the older work. 

I will now turn to what I think has been the cause 
of so many churches having numerous signs of fifteenth- 
century work. 

In 1893 was published by Francis Aidan Gasquet a work 
on The Great Pestilence, a.d. 1348-9, known subsequently 
as the Black Death. 

The Black Death came from the East, where, in China, 
13,000,000 are said to have died, and in Cairo some 10,000 
to 15,000. These figures can only be reports. The pestilence 
reached Venice and Marseilles about the same time, and, 
crossing France, reached England in 1348. It is said 
to have first appeared at Melcombe Regis, or Weymouth. 
It quickly spread along the coast, carried by the shipping, 
and along the old pack-tracks inland. Deaths were 
sudden ; a man was well in the morning and dead at 
night. 

Some indication of the number of deaths can be arrived 
at from two sources : — 

1. The registers of the Bishops' presentations to vacant 
benefices ; these do not record vacancies amongst the 
curates and chaplains, which would probably double the 
number of vacancies caused by death. 



MR. J. D. BKYS' PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 67 

2. The Patent Bolls, recording the presentations to 
Crown livings, not only the King's own, but those to 
which he appointed as guardian of minors ; also those 
belonging to alien houses which he seized during his 
foreign wars. He also appointed to Uvings which were in 
the gift of Bishops or Abbots who were dead. 

First, taking the appointments of the Bishops, a great 
increase took place in a very short time. Bishop Grandis- 
son's Register at Exeter is said by PrebendaryHingeston- 
Randolph to be well kept and full of particulars before the 
fatal time, but after that " the entries are made hurriedly 
and roughly, in striking contrast with the neatness and 
regularity of the rest of the Register." 

Some incumbencies lasted only a few weeks. An ap- 
pointment was made to Fowey, at the mouth of that 
river, in March, 1349 ; a week later to St. Winnow, higher 
up ; and on March 22nd the pestilence reached Bodmin, 
a Uttle further north of the same river higher up. It is 
estimated that at Bodmin 1500 persons died. 

The Prior of Minster, Wilham de Huma, died April 26th, 
1349, and the house was so impoverished by the death of 
tenants and labourers, that it could not support both its 
own members and the chaplains they were bound to find 
to do the work of the parishes, as neither the Prior nor his 
brethren spoke EngUsh, this being an aUen priory. 

It is recorded that the Bishop of Exeter never left his 
<liocese. 

The coast towns suffered heavily. 

At St. Nicholas', Exeter, the Prior died in March, 1349, 
His successor, John de Wye, was admitted on the 26th of 
that month, but died almost immediately. The next 
Prior was not installed imtil June 7th, and the house was 
found in a deplorable state. 

At Pilton Priory two superiors died within a few weeks 
•one of the other. 

At the Cistercian Abbey of Newenham, the register 
records that " in the time of this mortality, or pestilence, 
there died in this house twenty monks and three laymen." 

In January, 1349, the Bishop of Bath and Wells felt 
•constrained to address a letter of advice to his flock. 
** We command you — rectors, vicars, and parish priests — 
to give out to those who shall happen to be taken ill, that 
in articuh mortis, if they are not able to obtain any priest. 



58 MB. J. D. ENYS' PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 

they should make confession of their sins even to laymen ; 
if a man is not at hand, to a woman." But should any 
recover, they were to repeat the confession to a priest. 

Secondly, the Patent Rolls. In 1348, from January 
to May, the King presented to 42 hvings, and to 36 during 
the next four months. From September to the close of 
the year, 81 presentations were made. From January 26th 
to the end of May, 249 as against 42 ; from June to 
September, 1349, 440 as against 36 ; September to January, 
205. So the King presented, from January 26th, 1349, 
to same date 1350, to 894 livings. 

In parts of England near London returns show that 
land was of no value, as all the tenants had left their 
holdings. Mills could not be worked, as the millers were 
dead, and no com was grown to be brought to be ground. 

Now to apply this to the subject I have in hand. The 
country is said to have gone out of cultivation, and did 
not recover in a shorter period than 160 years. You may 
imagine the effect this loss of population would have 
on the buildings of the country districts in particular. 
The churches would be neglected and soon show weak- 
ness ; in many parts most of them would become complete 
ruins. 

As the country recovered, so would the churches be 
looked after. Those parts which were most in ruin would 
be taken down, and such parts as could be restored would 
be repaired; and as in the fifteenth century the Per- 
pendicular style was predominant, you have the cause of 
the present prevalence of that period of art. 

A church of this date has two aisles with a transept 
of an earUer date (at least as far as the walls are con- 
cerned), or the more common form of three aisles of equal 
length. In a few cases I have met with a chancel, but as 
they are not bonded to the old work, they are additions 
of a later date. 

Foreigners — using the word as I have often heard it 
used formerly (and well expressed in Hudihras in the 
description of a bear-fight, " and foreigners from other 
parishes ") — ^are often struck with the deep West-country 
lanes. 

It has struck me that they could be easily accounted 
for by the fa«t that when the old pack-tracks were widened 
to allow of the traffic by wheeled carriages, there were two 
courses only to be adopted — either to fill up the deep 



MB. J. D. ENTS' FBESIDENTIAL ADDBESS. 59 

tracks worn by the mules or horses, or to cut down the 
sides to the level of the deep ruts, the latter course bemg 
the easier. 

This is mentioned in a previous volume of our Trans- 
actions.' 

In many places in the West the old pack-tracks still 
remain, unused, as ditches overgrown with vegetation. 
To show how short a time has gone by since these lanes 
were used, I was told by an old Devonshire coachman at 
Enys that his father used " to pa«k cloam to Exeter." 
I also many years since attended the funeral of an old 
connection of my mother's, at Penzance, who had told 
me she remembered the first wheeled carriage that had 
entered Penzance. 

Ihiring my residence in New Zealand I was often directed 
to run up such and such a creek or stream as far as I could, 
and take up a leading spur and follow the corresponding 
spur to the valley on the other side, or continue along the 
ridge of the hill till I came to a spur of the hill leading to 
a crossing-pla«e to the next valley. 

Such roads or tracks were guided by the fords across the 
streams, avoiding the valley as often too swampy to be of 
use for a road. Here we laave a cause for the old roads 
so often going up and down hills and not following the 
lower ground, which is now, through drainage, made 
available for our present roads. 

Some time since I noticed, during a drive of some miles 
in a district near the sea, that all the direction posts 
pointed to one spot, and on looking at a map it was evident 
that that spot was the first place where the stream was 
safely fordable above where it entered the sea. All 
streams are as a rule fordable at their mouths. ^ '^ 

In looking over the Victoria History of Devon I examined 
the Ust of birds, and found that one bird shot in South 
Devon is not included. 

This bird, known as the Wandering Pie, was sent to 
Mr. Rodd, and is now in the museum of birds formed by 
Mr. E. H. Rodd and left to his nephew, Mr. F. R. Rodd. 
A letter from Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph records 
the fact, and is at Trebartha Hall, with the bird. 

In the volume of Transactions of the Devonshire Associa- 
iicn for 1887 is given a Ust of paintings by the Devonshire 
marine painter Thomas Luny. I can add to this Ust four 



60 MB. J. D. BKTS' FBESIDENTIAL ADDBBSS. 

in my possession, all of small size.^ My father gave another 
to Admiral SuUvan, which was shown at the Naval Ex- 
hibition in London. 

1. A ship under sail, heading to the spectator's left side. 

2. A ship sailing to right. 

3. A ship to left, close-reefed, only foresail and mizen ; a 
dismasted ship to right. 

4. A ship to left, close to £kidystone Lighthouse, under 
hght sail ; dirty weather. 

Sir Charles G. Sawle has a " Battle of Copenhagen," by 
Luny, at Penrice, near St. Austell, and several at his 
London residence. 

Might I suggest that some one should do for Devon- 
shire what I have attempted for Cornwall ? — ^that is, get 
together prints, sketches, and photographs of the different 
houses of interest in the coimty. It is curious how many 
of different dates may be collected. 

I have one Cornish house as it appeared in. the seven- 
teenth, eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries. 

Sketches can often be copied from old estate maps, 
where rude drawings show what a house was like at the 
date of the map. 

A collection of portraits of Devonshire men would be of 
value, and once started would soon reach a considerable 
number. High-priced prints can be photographed to one 
size, and thus make the collection more easily obtained 
and more easy of preserving. 

Li one case I formed a set of photographic copies of a 
Comishman, and found he had been painted by four 
painters in oil and one in water-colours. Three of these 
have been engraved in different sizes and used to illustrate 
several books. A bust of him exists, which has also been 
engraved. 

A collection of engravings of plax^es also serves a useful 
historical purpose. 

Some years ago I asked at a meeting of the Royal 
Listitute at Truro if any one could help me to find some 
record of what the old cavalry barracks at Truro were 
like, as they had long been destroyed, and Barrack Lane 
alone surived to help to point out their position. Next 

^ These pictures were probably bought by John Enys, who had serred in 
the Navy. He died in 1802. 



MR. J. D. BNYS' FBESIDENTIAL ADDRESS. 61 

morning a bookseller told me he had a new engraving of 
Truro to show me, and on seeing it I at once found I had 
obtained what I wanted. They consisted of a long row of 
stables only. Shortly after another bookseller died, and 
stowed away in his stock ^ss the original copper plate of 
this engraving (with two others of Truro church) in the box 
in which they were sent down from London by coach, with 
the cost marked of the charge made by the coach. 



TWENTY-NINTH REPORT OF THE BARROW 
COMMITTEE. 

Twenty-ninth Report of the Committee — consisting of 
the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Dr. Brushfleld, Mr. B. 
Burnard, Rev. J. F. Chanter, and Mr. R. Hansford 
Worth (Secretary) — appointed to collect and record facts 
relating to Barrows in Devonshire, and to take steps, 
where possible, for their investigation. 

Edited by R. Hankfokd Wokth, Secretary of the Committee. 
(K(ra<l ut Culloniiitou, 27tli July, 1910.) 



RINGMOOR — PLYM VALLEY. 

In August, 1909, a stone circle on Ringmoor in the 
Plym valley was re-erected. This, which we will call 
Brisworthy Circle, was formerly marked on the six-inch 
Ordnance Survey as a hut, an error corrected in the latest 
edition. The stone row on Ringmoor is now also to be 
found on the Ordnance, but the Rev. H. H. Breton, vicar 
of Sheepstor, has discovered a hitherto unknown very 
perfect kistvaen, and there is in addition a small cairn, 
both of which are within sight of the stone circle, and 
neither shown on the map. 

The kistvaen is situate long. 4° 1' 16^'^ W., lat. 50** 18' 
24i"N., and the cairn long. 4° 1' 17rW., lat. 50° 28' 
lel" N.; both should be entered on sheet CXII, S.E., 
six-inch survey. 

Time did not permit the re-excavation of the kistvaen, 
which had been opened at some unrecorded period, 
but a plan and view are given herewith, and the following 
notes. The kist is 3 feet 1 inch long, 1 foot 9 inches 
wide within, and 1 foot in depth to present grass floor, 
the direction of its length is N. 50° W. The cover-stone 
has been thrust to one side, and still partly overhangs the 



LEGIS LAKE 




R H Wof(TH.)d09 



SCALE 



Barrow Retort.— To /ace p. C2, 



T WENTY-NIN TH BBFOBT OF THB BABBOW COMMITTEE. 63 

dst, which lies within the remains of a retaining circle, 
:;he internal diameter of which is 14 feet ; the largest 
remaining stone of this circle is 4 feet 10 inches in length. 
3f the barrow which once occupied the circle and covered 
;he kistvaen there is only the slightest trace remaining. 
The distance from the centre of Brisworthy Circle is 
J23 yards, and the bearing from the circle is N. 24° E. 

The cairn above referred to would appear to be more 
5losely associated with Brisworthy Circle ; it is but a low 
nound, ten inches above the general surface level, twenty- 
)ne feet in diameter within the retaining circle of stone 
)f which sUght remains yet exist ; from the centre of Bris- 
worthy Circle to the centre of the cairn the distance is 
ihree himdred and thirteen feet, and the bearing N. 77° E. 

A north -and -south trench was carried through the 
jentre of the cairn, with a slight cross-cut east and west 
it the centre. A section is here given along the north- 
md-south trench. 

Immediately on lifting the turf the stones of which 
:.he mound is formed were bared, and these at the centre 
were found to extend to a depth of twenty inches, or ten 
nches above and ten inches below the general ground 
evel. The surface soil had evidently been skimmed 
iown to the subsoil before the interment was made or 
^he cairn raised. 

A little to the north of the exact centre, under the 
jtones, was found a pit, sunk in the " calm," about two 
:eet in diameter, and from seven to eight inches in depth. 
3n re-excavation the contents of this pit were found 
^o be charcoal mixed with earth. No implements, flint 
lor pottery, and no fragments of bone, burnt or otherwise, 
were discovered. But notwithstanding the absence of 
ihese positive evidences, it appears clear this is an in- 
stance of a very usual form of interment after cremation. 

At various times during the examination of Brisworthy 
IJircle and the associated remains, there were present 
:he Rev. H. H. Breton, Mr. R. Bumard, Mr. Ford, Dr. 
Prowse, Mrs. Hansford Worth, and the Secretary, who 
exercised constant supervision. [R. H. Wobth.] 



TWENTY-THIRD REPORT OF 

THE COMMITTEE ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL 

PROVINCIALISMS. 

Twenty-third Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr, 
J, S. Amery, Dr. Brushfield, Mr, R, Pearse Chope, Mr, 
C, .H. Laycock, Rev, G, D, Melhuish, Rev, 0, J. Reichdy 
Miss Helen Saunders, and Mrs, Rose-Troup ; Mr, C, H. 
Laycock and Rev, 0, J, Reichel being joint Secretaries — for 
the purpose of noting and recording the existing use of 
any Verbal Provincialisms in Devonshire, in either 
urritten or spoken language, not included in the lists 
published in the Transactions of the Association. 

Edited by Charles H. Latcock. 
(Read at Cullompton, 27th July, 1010.) 



In presenting their Twenty-third Report, your Committ^^ 
are pleased to see a still further increase in the number c:^ 
contributions, and what is a yet more hopeful sign, a--^ 
increase in the number of contributors. The Rules an^ 
Regulations of the Committee were reprinted with la^^ 
year's Report, but should any member not have a copy^"^ 
the Editor will be glad to supply him with one on hd-^ 
application. 

The Index and Supplement, published with the las^ 
two Reports, was compiled merely to facilitate reference 
to former Reports, in order that observers might see at^ 
a glance in what sense the various words had been used ; 
it is hoped that future contributors will not be deterred from 
sending in any word, even though recorded in the Index, 
if a fresh use of that word should come to hand. 

CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Each provinciaUsm is placed within inverted commas, 
and the whole contribution ends with the initials of 



DEVONSHIBE VBBBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 65 

the observer. All remarks following the initials are 
Editorial. 

The full address of each contributor is given below, 
and it must be understood that he or she only is re- 
sponsible for the statements bearing his or her initials. 



CONTRIBUTORS. 

Rev. J. F. Chanter, Parrax^ombe Rectory,. 

Barnstaple. 
R. Pearse Chope, 107 Ledbury Road^ 

Bayswater, W. 
Miss Viola Cramp, 4 Ladbroke Terrace, W. 
: Lady Drake, Nutwell Court, Lympstone. 
Miss Henrietta Kitson, Bradley, St. Mary- 
church. 
Miss C. E. Larter, 2 Sumnierland Terrace^ 

St. Marychurch. 
Charles H. Laycock, St. Michael's, Newton 

Abbot. 
Harford J. Lowe, Bame House, Christow. 
: Rev. G. D. Melhuish, Ashwater Rectory, 

Beaworthy. 
: Miss Charlotte L. Peck, Maidencombe 

House, St. Marychurch. 
: Rev. O. J. Reichel, A la Ronde, Lymp- 
stone. 
A. J. P. Skinner, Colyton. 
G. B. Sayery, Silverton, near Exeter. 
: Miss Helen Saimders, 92 East Street, 

South Molton. 
: Miss Mary B. Savery, Silverton, near 

Exeter. 
Gerald D. Woollcombe, Cranmere, Newton 

Abbot. 
: Rev. J. H. Ward, 16 Hartley Road, 
Exmouth. 



J. F. C. 


R. P. C. 


V.C. 


E.D. 


H.K. 


C. E. L. 


C. H. L. 


H. J. L. 


G. D. M. 


C. L. P. 


0. J. R. 


A. J. P. S. 


G. B. S. 


H.S. 


M. B. S. 


G. D. W. 


J. H. W. 


VOL. XTJI. 



66 TWENTY-THIBD REFOBT OF THB OOMMITTEB 

'* Against =by the time that. ' 'Twas early hours in 
the mamin' 'genst he raiched Linnon.' Jan Stewer in 
Western Weekly News, 9 Jan., 1909. R. P. C." 

Common in this sense, also where in literary English 
until would be used, and frequently pronounced ^gin 
with no sign of the final " «<," e.g. " I'll wait yer 'gin yii 
comes." 

The Editor would like to take this opportunity to warn 
students of dialect that comic writers in newspapers are 
by no means always to be relied upon for accuracy. They 
frequently use words, and still more frequently gram- 
matical constructions, which are never heard in the dialect 
which they profess to portray, though they may be found 
in other dialects. Thus a writer in a well-known local 
paper who contributes every week a humorous story, 
supposed to be in Devonshire dialect, almost invariably 
uses the word " mun " for " must," e.g. " You mun go 
'ome." Now this form, though common enough in the 
dialects of the North of England, is never heard in the 
true West - country dialect. Again, the same writer 
always uses " nor " for " than " in comparisons, e.g. 
*' This is better nor that," whereas the West-coimtryman 
would always say " This be better'n that." The writer 
of the above and subsequent contributions, " Jan Stewer," 
is, however, a notable exception, and his writings may be 
safely relied upon as being true Devonshire dialect. 

" Arg, ARGY=to argue. ' They'll bide an' arg an' arg 
till both o'm be black in the face.' Jan Stewer in Western 
Weekly News, 11 Dec, 1909. ' I've a-tried scores o' taimes, 
an' arged an' arged by the hower, to try an' mek 'er alter 
'er 'pinions, but 'er waan't.' Ihid., 1 May, 1909. R. P. C." 

Final " -ue " or " -ew " is almost invariably shortened 
to " y " in the dialect ; value becomes vdUy, continue 
continny, sinew zinny, finewed vinnied, etc. 

In the form arg, the termination is, of course, dropped 
altogether, as so often in the dialect. Cp. car for carry, 
empt for empty, etc. 

" Backsyforb =before-behind, back-way-first. H. K." 

C. E. L. sends the following note on the above : — 

" Servant, middle-aged, pronounces the word ' backy-- 

fore ' without the ' s.' It means, she says, one who is 

behind with her work. ' Oh, you'm a old backyfore,' 

was the term of objurgation or contempt. ' 'Tis one o' 



ON DBVONSHIRB VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 67 

they old words,' she explams, ' what people used seventy 
years agone.' She means she has heard it from her grand- 
father or her mother, but that since she remembers it 
has fallen into disuse. C. E. L." 

Backsivore is still heard very frequently, ^both in a 
literal and a metaphorical sense ; e.g. " Yii've a-putt on 
yer apum backsivore," i.e. wrong side out. 

In its secondary sense it means clumsy, awkward, 
or as C. E. L.'s servant says, " all behind with one's 
work." " He idd'n no giide, he's a proper backsivore sort 
o' chap." 

The word is probably a corruption of back-side-fore. 

The form back-an'-vore is also heard. See 9th Report. 

Hal. has backsevore, the hind part before. Devon. 

"BAiBLB-BACK=a hump-backcd person, used at Ash- 
water. The expression is found in Lorna Doone, chap, 
xxxii. G. D. M." 

R. P. C. informs me that the word is known to him 
in North Devon. The Eng, Dial, Did,, has Bible-back y a 
person with broad, rounded shoulders, and Bible-backed, 
hump-backed, round-shouldered ; used in Middlesex, 
Wilts, and Warwick, but it does not seem to have been 
previously recorded as a Devonshire provincialism. 

" Bate, Bbat. To bum bate. When a field or moor 
is spaded and the turf is heaped up and burnt, to kill the 
weeds and enrich the" land. Perhaps bate is a corruption 
of peat. G. D. M." 

On the contrary, " peat " is the corruption, while 
** beat " is the true old form of the word. 

The process of " beat-burning," " bum-beating," or 
*' bumin' o' bate " ; or, as it is called in other districts, 
" Denshiring," i.e. Devonshire-ing, is well known through- 
out the West Country, and is still practised in some dis- 
tricts, though much less frequently of late than in former 
days. The implement with which the turf is cut in the 
process is called a " beating-axe," " beat-axe," or '* biddix"; 
it is a kind of broad mattock. Sometimes the turf is 
cut by a kind of spade, Uke a large flat knife, which is 
pushed forward by the chest, the process of cutting the 
turf being called " hand-beating." 

" Whare they be shooting o' Beat, hand-beafin^, or 
angle-bowing." Ex. Scold,, 1. 197. 



68 TWBNTY-THIBD REPORT OF THB CX)MBfITTBB 

The turf used for fuel on hearth-fires is not called 
" peat " by the true native, but always either " turves '* 
or " vags." 
Anglo-Saxon b6t=a. remedy, &^n=to repair. 
Hence M. E. beten =to replenish a fire, to kindle. 
" And on thyn auter, wher I ryde or go, 
I wol don sacrifice, and fyres 6ete." 

Chaucer, Knighte's Tale, 1. 2253. 
Hence modem dialect " beat," and literary " peat." 

" Bed =grave. Calling at a cottage in N. Devon, 
an old woman told me she stood in great need of relief. 

I said, ' Apply to Mr. ' ; she callously repUed, * Oh, 

he's no glide, 'tis taime he were put to bed wi' a shovel.' 
I then remembered that in Herrick's Hesperides (1648) 
there occurs the following couplet : — 

' THE BED-MAN, OR GRAVE-MAKER. 

' Thou hast made many houses for the dead ; 
When my lot calls me to be buried. 
For love or pity, prithee let there be 
I' the church-yard made one tenement for me.' 

" The following are the last two lines of the epitaph on 
the tomb of Sir Edward Giles and his wife in Dean Prior 
Church : — 

' These two asleep are : I'll but be undressed 
And so to bed : pray wish us all good rest.' 

J. H. W." 
The expression " Put to bed wi' a showl " is well known 
in the West Country, and it has been recorded in the 10th 
Report, p. 77, but is here inserted for the sake of the 
contributor's interesting quotations. 

See Eng. Dial, Diet., where an example is given of the 
use of this expression from the North of Ireland, '* An* 
she'll may be live happy, in comfort, when I'm put to 
bed with a shovel." 

" Bettermost =best. 'Proper bettermos' volk wat 
use to visit there.' Jan Stewer in Western Weekly News, 
3 April, 1909. R. P. C." 

By the term Bettermost volk is usually implied what in 
polite society is termed the upper middle class ; that 
is, better than the labouring class, but not quite up to 
the highest or best class. The expression is, however. 



ON DEVONSHIBE VBRBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 69 

often used for the latter, or what Hodge would term 
^' rayl ladies an' gin'lemen." 

" BiDDLB=to swell out, to form a bulb. A neighbour, 
looking roimd my garden, on noticing a bed of onions, 
remarked, ' You must thin out they chibbles or they 
won't biddle.' Another villager used the word in the 
same sense. Christow, May, 1910. H. J. L." 

See BiMe, 7th Report. 

The word probably means to swell out so as to become 
like a bitUe or beetle, i.e. a heavy wooden mallet. 

" Blbwth or Blooth= bloom, blossom. Used at 
Ashwater. G. D. M." 

This is really " blowth." Many nouns are formed from 
adjectives and verbs by the addition of th. Cp. wealthy 
health, luidth, and the dialectal highth and dryth. 

Hal. has Blooth =hlossom, Devon. 

" Blind-mopped = blindfolded. 'I daim' go aboiit wi' 
my eyes bline-mopped like zome people do.' Jan Stewer 
in Western Weekly News, 4 Dec, 1909. R. P. C." 

See Blind-mobbed, 8th Report. 

To mop the face means to tie a handkerchief or com- 
forter round it. A girl, who had bad face-ache, said to 
me a short time ago, " I mopped my face well avore I 
went out." 

See Moppy, 10th, and Moppet, 19th Reports ; also 
Mop in present Report. 

Hal. has Mop — to muffle up, and Moppet — a muffler. 

" Blunk=(1) a spark of fire, (2) a flake of snow. Used 
at Ashwater. G. D. M." 

See " Blanks;' 7th Report. 

Hal. has Blunk, v. — to snow, to emit sparks. 

It occurs, in the Ex. Scold, in the form blenky : — 
*' Or whan 'tes avrore or a scratcht ... or whan snewth, or 
blenkeih:'—\. 124. 

Any light flaky body is called a blunk. 

In East Devon the common form of the word is vlank^ 
b and v being interchangeable. 
*' For al the wrecchednesse of this worlde, and wickede dedis 

Fareth as a fUmke of ixiyr, that ful a-myde temese. 

And deide for a drop of water." 

Piets Plow., vii. 334. 



70 TWBNTY-THIED REPORT OF THE COlfMITTSE 

" BoosiE or BuzEY =a rag of cloth dipped in grease 
and lighted. I have heard an old Ashwater man speak 
of them. Also heard in the form Booby. G. D. M." 

Booby is in common use for a torch ; also for a bundle 
of straw used for lighting furze when swaling, or for 
smoking bees. See 14th Report. 

" Braythe or Vrayth =loose, applied to the soil 
(the ' th ' pronounced as in breathing). A neighbour 
desired his gardener, a Devonshire man, to plant some 
shrubs in his garden hedge. The man replied that he 
could only plant beech trees in it, as it was a vrayih hedge, 
and nothing else would grow in it. The word is frequently 
used by hedgers. H. S." 

These are two quite distinct words, both well known 
in our dialect. 

Braythe (really breathe) is certainly applied to the soil 
when " open " and pulverized. 

Vrayth or vreath means literally wreathing or wattling, 
and so comes to be used for yoimg imderwood or brush- 
wood, suitable for wattling and firing ; so that a " vraith 
hedge " would imply a hedge of brushwood usually cut 
for firewood. 

See Vraith, 11th Report. 

" BuTT=to throb. Servant, aged sixty, of a gathering 
in her finger : ' He's been buttin' all night.' C. E. L." 

This use of the word does not seem to have been pre- 
viously recorded. 

It is probably the same as the literary butt of an animal. 

French boter, to push, strike. 

" Caper =(1) amusement, spree; (2) difficulty. 
' Twadd'n a bad caper arter that.' Jan Stewer in Western 
Weekly News, 10 April, 1909. ' Purty faine caper I 'ad 
auver thicky job, I'm blessed.' Ibid,, 27 Feb., 1909. 
R. P. C." 

Very common in both senses, but perhaps rather slang 
than dialect. 

" Caser or KASER=a sieve. An old man at Ashwater 
a few weeks ago spoke of an odX-ca^er and a barley-cewer. 
Small com, fit only for fowls, is sometimes called c<isinge. 
G. D. M." 



ON DEVONSHIBE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 71 

" Gassier, Gazer. Braimton Ghurchwardens' Accounts, 
1554-1610 : 'A cassier to sift lime with. A new cazer — 3d.* 
What was this ? J. F. G." 

The above example from Ashwater shows that this old 
word is still in use in the dialect. 

Hal. has Keezer=a, sieve. Devon. 

" Gatching a zuo=taking a nap. H. K." 
A peculiar use of the verb catch. Gp. "Gatch oflf to 
sleep," 3rd Report. 

Hal. has Zo^=to doze. Devon. 

"GHiLL=to warm. This word, which means to make 
cold or to cool, is in North Devon frequently used to 
express to raise the temperature, as in the expressions : 
' We chill the water we give to our plants,' and ' We chill 
the milk for the children.' H. S." 

This transitive use of the verb to chill is peculiar to 
the dialect, and is used invariably for the literary English, 
" take the chill oflE." See 1st Report. 

" Gholues =part of a fish by the gills. Servant, 
aged about forty-five, of the fishman, ' He cut a piece off 
for the cat, by the choUies.' Is this the same as ' choUers ' ? 
Aug., 1909. G. E. L." 

No doubt it is. See 12th Report, p. 129. 

Same as literary jowl. 

Anglo-Saxon Ceole, the jaw. 

" Glatting = eel-catching. The word is invariably 
used by the men and boys of this parish of Golyton during 
the months of June, July, and August, when ' clatting ' 
is in season. They string ' angle-dogs ' on worst^, 
which is twisted roimd the tapering end of a pole 10 or 12 
feet long, this is then pushed into the beds of the rivers 
Coly or Axe ; when the eels bite, their teeth become en- 
tangled in the worsted, and so they are caught. A straight 
young larch tree is often used for the pole. A fisherman, 
to whom I mentioned the word, thinks it is really ' clotting,' 
because a ' clot ' of worms is used. He tells me the opera- 
tion is also called ' bobbing,' because the pole is bobbed 
up and down. A. J. P. S." 

Common throughout the county. 

Short o usually becomes short a in the dialect. Cp. 
Plot for plot. 



72 TWBNTY-THIBD REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE 

"CLXJM=a farming or garden tool, consisting of two 
or three prongs bent to an acute angle with the haft. A 

* two-toed clum ' is used for earthing up potatoes, and a 

* three-toed clum ' for digging them up. A very useful 
and suitable tool for hill slopes. Christow, May, 1910. 
H. J. L." 

As a verb, clum means to claw or scratch. 

See Scluniy 1st Report, which is the same word with 
initial S added. 

Hence dum as a noun is the usual word for a rake, 
an implement which scratches the ground. I have fre- 
quently heard a garden -rake so called, and still more 
frequently the large horse-rake. 

But the implement mentioned above for digging po- 
tatoes is known to me only as a tatie-digger. 

" CoNKBRBBLL = iciclc. Common about Ashwater. 
O. D. M." 

" CoNKERBBLL (pronoimccd conkible) =axi icicle. * The 

conkibles was hangin' to the orfis a yard long.* Jan 

Stewer in Western Weekly News, 20 Feb., 1909. R. P. C." 

Hal. has Conkabelly an icicle, Devon ; ClinkerbeU, an 

icicle, Somerset. 

The latter is the common form of the word in East 
Devon. 

" Tho' he comes in the snow and in weather za weeld, 
An' tho' clinkerbells roun' en da drap, 
Can 'e show me th' heart o' man, umman, er cheeld 
That don't waarm to the jolly wold chap ? " 

Pulman, Rustic Sketches, Ed. 1871, p. 64. 

" CosTES =costs. Servant, middle - aged, ' It costes 
just so much as a new dress.' C. E. L." 

In the case of all words ending in -st or -sk, when "« " 
requires to be added to form a plural, or for a case or 
verbal inflection, the West-countryman invariably either 
drops the final consonant, that is the " t " or " i," or 
else he makes another syllable of it by adding " -c« " 
instead of simply " s," as in the above example. 

" CoT-HOUSE =a cottage. ' Thur waun't be no palace 
in the land '11 'ave a 'appier Kursmis 'n wat thic there 
cot-'ouze up to Northway wull.' Jan Stewer in Western 
Weekly News, 26 December, 1909. R. P. C." 



ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIAUSMS. 73 

Cot and Cot-house are the usual name for a cottage 
among the rural population of the West of England. 

" And me ne mei nout, withouten swink a lutel kot 
areren, ne nout two thongede scheon habben, withuten 
buggunge." Ancren SiwlCy p. 362. 

" Cradle-land =land held by the custom of Borough- 
English, i.e. that it descends to the yoimgest son, or brother, 
instead of the eldest. A woman said to me at Challacombe, 
a few weeks ago, ' 'Twas cradle-land.' Most of the land 
in Challacombe Regis was held in Borough-English, 
following the custom of most of the manor of Braunton- 
Abbots, of which it was part. I knew what she meant, 
but had not heard the expression before. November 15, 
1909. J. F. C." 

Very descriptive term, referring to the youngest, or last 
to leave the cradle. See Eng. Dial, Diet. 

"CRiPPLY=to walk feebly, to hobble. 'Long arter 
he ciid'n cripply along wi'out two sticks an' two people.' 
Jan Stewer in Western Weekly News, 30 January, 1909. 
R. P. C." 

To walk with diflBculty, like a cripple. 

Most nouns are verbalized in the dialect. 

" Dap = to move quickly. ' There 'e zeed milHons o'm 
[rabbits] dappin' about.' Jan Stewer in Western Weekly 
News, 9 January, 1909. R. P. C." 

Dap implies a quick, bouncing action ; a ball is said to 
€lap when it hops or bounces about. 

As a noun it is used for a slight tap or blow. " I ded'n 
mean ta hurt en, I only gid en a little dap on tha 'aid." 

From this we get the common adjective dapper, meaning 
quick, sprightly, active. " He's a dapper httle man ! 
Zo dapper as a vley." 

" Da YSLIGHT= daylight. 'I sh'U be glad when us be 
startin' be day slight agean.' Jan Stewer in Western 
Weekly News, 20 February, 1909. R. P. C." 

The possessive inflection is retained in the dialect. 

Cp. Bam's-door, the usual dialectal form of the literary 
barn-door. 

' ' Dogberry = Guelder-rose ( Viburnum opvlus) . So 
called at Ashwater. G. D. M." 

More commonly applied to Cornus sanguinea, for which 
plant Viburnum opvlus may possibly have been mistaken. 



74 TWBNTY-THIBD RBPOBT OP THE COIOHTTEE 

'' DoNKBYs'-YEABS. I should like to protest against 
the explanation of this expression given in last year's 
Report (see Vol. XLI, p. 88). In my opinion it does 
refer to the donkey's ears, ' because they'm long ' ; and 
it is a play on the words ear and year. It is just the sort 
of West-country joke that is made and loved, and handed 
on from generation to generation. If it had meant any- 
thing so dull as the long life of a donkey, it would have 
deservedly been forgotten as soon as possible after its 
invention. Its humour kept it aUve. G. D. M." 

"Dork ouT=to pull up (weeds). 'I want 'e to go 
an' dork out they weeds in the front beds.' Said in my 
hearing by a farmer's wife at North Bovey. C. H. L.'* 

"Drool or DREWEL=to dribble or drivel. * Ev'ry 
whip's-while he use to coimt he's money, an' drewel it 
droo he's vingers.' Jan Stewer in Western Weekly Neu>s, 
23 January,' 1909. R. P. C." 

A baby is always said to drool when it lets the saliva 
run from its mouth. 

A secondary meaning of the word, also common in our 
dialect, is to talk foolishly, like a drivelling child. " Us 
ciid'n bide no longer to yer he droolin'," was said to me 
by one who had left a church before the sermon was over,, 
being unable any longer to listen to, what he called, the 
" foolish talk " of the preacher. 

" Drowsens. Braunton Churchwardens' Accounts,. 
1554-1610 : ' Drink and drowsens for the Bel-founder.' 
J. F. C." 

Drowsens were probably tallow candles for the purpose 
of hght, or possibly grease for the sockets. 

Anglo-Saxon dreosan, to drip. 

Hal. has " Drose " and " Drowse " : to gutter, as a 
candle. 

" rAiNTiFiED=faint. * 'Er was soart o' 'aaf faintified.' 
Jan Stewer in Western Weekly News, 21 November, 1908^ 
R. P. C." 

This termination -ified is frequently added to adjectives 
and even to noims, and has the force of literary -ish. 
I remember a woman some years ago coming into a 
chemist's shop at Newton Abbot, when I was there, 
and saying, "I veel a bit ihroatified 's mamin'. Can 'e 



ON DEVONSHIRE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 75 

let me 'ave zome lazenjers [lozenges], plaize ? " She 
meant that her throat was somewhat sore. 

"FuRNiG, FuRNiGGLE=to cheat at cards. ' You'm 
fumiggin', I knaw yii be.' ' Yii've a-fumiggled they 
cards.' Both these sentences were said in my hearing 
by one boy to another at Manaton, while playing a game 
of nap. January, 1910. C. H. L." 

In common use about Moretonhampstead. 

See Eng, Dial. Diet. '^ Fainaigue.'' Also Re-rieg, 14th 
Report. 

" ' GniMS, of the shantel dore.' Braunton Church- 
wardens' Accounts, 1564-1610. This means jambs. 
J. F. C." 

I hardly think the word does mean jambs, as the literary 
jambs of a door are always called the durna in Devon- 
shire. I think it is more likely a variant of gimmacey 
and refers to the " hinges " of the door. 

Hal. has " Jimmers " : hinges. 

" GiNBNA. Braunton Churchwardens' Accoimts, 1654- 
1610 : ' Mr. Vickery [i.e. the vicar] for ginena, 7s. 6d.* 
What was this ? It occurs twice. J. F. C." 

" GoLDBN-SLiPPERS=bird's-foot trefoil, Lotv^ cornicu- 
latvs. Servant, middle-aged, at Torquay. C. E. L." 

This name does not seem to have been hitherto re- 
corded. Ladies'-slippers is a common name for the plant 
in many districts. 

"Grannie's night-cap = the Columbine, Aquilegia vul- 
garis. The common name for this plant in North Devon. 
The South Devon name is Ladies' Purses. C. E. L." 

Friend records this as a Devonshire plant name. 

Britten gives it for Aconitum napellus and Anemone, 
nemorosa. 

" Grass Y-DAiSY= the daffodil. Lent lily. Narcissus 
pseudo-narcissus. The usual name for this plant in the 
village of Silverton, near Exeter. G. B. S." 

This is no doubt really Gracie-daisy, a common name 
for the plant throughout the county. See 11th Report, 
where the meaning is fully explained. 

Long " a " (as in lane) is usually fractured in the dialect, 
becoming "ea" (pronounced as literary ear), so according 



76 TWENTY-THIRD REPORT OF THE COMHTTTEB 

to this rule, "grace" should be pronounced gredce^ as in- 
deed it usually is ; in certain words, however, this long "a," 
instead of being fractured, is sounded as a broad "'a," heard 
in the literary father. Razor is always pronounced rdzzuf 
in the dialect, danger dahnjur, etc. And so in the above 
example, grace becomes '' grace." 

These slight variations of pronimciation may seem 
of small accoimt to the general reader, but to the student 
of dialect they are of the greatest importance, as they 
tend to show how far the present dialect preserves the 
original sounds of the words. 

In the three instances given above, " grace," " razor," 
and " danger," it will be seen at once that the present 
dialectal pronunciation is far nearer to the French, from 
which they are derived, than is their present literary 
pronunciation. 

" Harvest-men =daddy-long-legs. Servant, aged thirty, 
native of Harberton, near Totnes, tells me that this is 
the only name for the insect in that village. May, 1910. 
C. H. L." 

See Tom-long-legs. 

* ' Herding, ad j . = hoarding. Servant, middle - aged, 
* They'm herding pears ' ; that is, pears to hoard or 
keep. C. E. L." 

More usually pronounced wording, 

" HiGH-cocKALORUM=the chief person, one of the 
greatest importance. ' Carr'd aroun' a petition, he did, 
to zend in to the high-cockalorum o' the police.' Jan 
Stewer in Western Weekly News, 12 March, 1910. 
R. P. C." 

Common, but perhaps rather slang than dialect. 

I have frequently heard it said of a man, who has 
vulgarly pushed himself forward and tried to assume 
a position for which he is scarcely fitted, " He wants to 
be thought high-cockalorum o' the place." 

"Hoop=a bullfinch. Used at Ash water, and found 
in very old churchwardens' accoimts. G. D. M." 

A fairly general name for the bird throughout the West 
Country. The word is probably of imitative origin, from 
the call of the bird, whoop. 



ON DEVONSHIBE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 77 

" HoRNrwiNK=the lapwing. So called at Ashwater. 
G. D. M." 

A common name for the " peeweet " in North Devon 
and East Cornwall. 

Probably so called from the long crest, like a hom^ 
which when not raised projects from the back of its head. 

'* HousB-iFiED =like a house. A carpenter at Moreton^ 
hampstead, aged about forty-five, said to me with reference 
to a house I was building, when nearing completion^ 
' He's beginnin' to look a bit more 'ouse-ified now.' He 
meant that it was beginning to look like a dwelling-house. 
August, 1909. C. H. L." 

See FairUified. 

" Kickshaw = entertainment, show. "Tis zome ole 
item 'er've got into 'er 'aid that 'er wants to go to Torquay 
to zome kickshaw or 'nother.' Jan Stewer in Western 
Weekly News, 8 May, 1909. R. P. C." 

It is a word of contempt, impljring that the show,, 
novelty, or invention is of a trumpery order, and not 
worth serious consideration. 

In the Uterary language it is usually appUed to any 
made-up dainty in cookery. 

Literally " something," fantastical or uncommon, with 
no name. 

French Quelque chose. 

" Art thou good at these kickshawses ? " 

Shaks., Twelfth Night, I, iii. 122. 

" Make wise =to pretend. ' Th' ole hipplecrit med 
wise to shod tears.' Jan Stewer in Western Weekly News, 
23 January, 1909. R. P. C." 

Literally, to act in such a manner. " Wise " here means 
way or manner, from Anglo-Saxon loise, way. Cp. Uterary 
like-tme, other-t^^we, etc. 

" Make-wise " is also used adverbially. " He was gwain 
to church make-wise, but wen he got 'bout 'aaf way, he 
turned oflE an' nipped een public wen he thought nobody 
wadd'n watchin' o' en." This was said to me respecting 
a man who had himself told me he was going to church 
one Sunday evening, but for whom the public-house 
evidently had a greater attraction. 

It is also used as a substantive. '' 'Twas jist a make- 
wise on he's part to try an' get zome money out of 'er." 



78 TWENTY-THIRD REPORT OF THE COMHITTBB 

'' Mazzards = damsons. Robert Farrant, aged eighteen, 
a native of Shute, near Axminster, showed me a tree 
which he said was a ' mazzard tree,' and explained to 
me that it bore for fruit a small kind of plum, which 
other folk called damsons, but which they called mazzardSy 
or mazzuns. I told him I was famiUar with a cherry 
called mazzardy but he replied that these damsons were 
what they called mazzuns. June, 1910. O. J. R." 

Mazzard is the common name for the small black cherry, 
PrumLS avium ; it is sometimes also applied to the dwarf 
wild cherry, Prunus ctrasua ; but I have not heard the 
damson so called. 

Prior says the word comes from Latin manzar, ex- 
plained in Pr, Pm. by '' syuriuSy pdignv^,' a wild, spurious 
cherry, Pruntis avium. 

" MiXY-coLOURED = variegated. Servant, middle-aged, 
at Torquay, of a goldfinch, ' He's one o' they mixy- 
coloured birds.' 29 April, 1910. C. E. L." 

Another instance of the euphonic medial syllable 
** y." Cp. Dart-y-moor. 

" MoMMET=a puppet, used as a term of abuse. ' Putt 
down the basket, you re-decklus mommet, you.' Jan 
Stewer in Western Weekly News, 25 December, 1909. 
R. P. C." 

Commonly used for a scarecrow. 

Sometimes pronounced " mommick." 

Mawment, ydolum, simulacrum, — Prompt. Parv. 

Probably from Mahumet, one of the idols of the Sarax^ns. 
The same word as Mahomet. 

" Mop. To mop a cow is to tie something over her 
eyes, so that she cannot see how to break out of a field. 
Used at Ashwater. G. D. M." 

"Moor an' MuL=root and branch. {Mvi rhymes 
with bull.) I have only heard this once, at Ashwater. 
There was no doubt about the use of it or the meaning. 
G. D. M." 

See 1st Report. 

" MoRTE. Braunton Churchwardens' Accounjbs, 1554- 
1610 : ' Morte to grease the bell-collers.' J. F. C." 
Mort means lard or pig's grease. 

The word is still frequently heard in the West Country. 
Hal. has Mort, hog's lard. Devon. 



ON DSYONSHIBE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 79 

" MijTY-HEARTED = Sensitive, soft-heaxted. * To yer 
en tellin' z'mtaimes anybody 'd think he was ter'ble 'ard 
an' onveeUn', but that's aunly he's way, vur railly spaikin', 
Tom's prapper miity-'earted.' Jan Stewer in Western 
Weekly News, 26 June, 1909. R. P. C." 
This is really " moody-hearted." 
Hal. has " Moody-hearted " : melancholy. 

" No TiNO ! ' I ciid'n raid it, no-ti-no ! ' Jan Stewer 
in Western Weekly News, 30 January, 1909. R. P. C." 

No doubt a corruption of " not that I know." 

More usually No-tiruhhy. 

It is one of our characteristic West-coimtry expressions, 
and is heard very frequently. It is used in two distinct 
senses : (1) as a merely emphatic negative, as in the above 
example, where in Uterary English we should say " No, 
indeed," or "Certainly not." (2) In its literal sense, 
where in Uterary English we should say *' Not that I 
know of " ; e.g. " Is it true that Farmer S. is leaving 
next Michaelmas? " " No-tino-by ," i.e. "He may be, but 
I have not heard of it." 

See En-ti, 2nd Report. 

" Other one =any. ' Dick Staddon ded'n take he's 
[wife], 'cuz he had'n got other-wan.' Jan Stewer in 
Western Weekly News, 26 March, 1910. ' He wants so 
much waitin' on as other-wan o' the chillem.' Ihid,, 
7 August, 1909. R. P. C." 

Literally " ever-a-one." 

The negative form nother-one for " never-a-one " is 
equally common. 

" Pardoner, Pardner. Braunton Churchwardens' 
Accounts, 1554-1610. This means a beggar. J. F. C." 

I should have thought it meant a dealer or seller of 
pardons and indulgences. 

'* Pedigree =particulars, story, tale. ' You'll zee all 
th' 'ole pedigree in the Western Weekly.' Jan Stewer in 
Western Weekly News, 22 May, 1909. R. P. C." 

Used only in this sense in the dialect. Foimd especially 
in conjimction with the word rigmarole. '* If 'e can spare 
a vew minutes, I'll tuU 'e the whole rigmarole an' pedigree 
o't," i.e. the whole history of the matter. 



80 TWBNTY-THIBD REPORT OF THE COMMITTBB 

** Pin-tap =top of a hill. Postmistress at Weston, 
Somerset, ' Have 'e been up pin-tap to-day ? ' Is this 
expression used in Devon ? C. L. P." 

Yes, it is one of our commonest expressions ; it is a 
shortened form of " upon the top of." 

*' Pool, or Pull. A pool of com. Used at Ashwater 
a short time ago by a man, who said he had taken a pod 
of corn from the mow to thrash, meaning one of the 
divisions between stiddle and atiddle, N.B. — ^Note this 
meaning of stiddle, which word is also used for the up- 
right posts in a shippen to which the cows are fastened. 
G. D. M." 

These upright posts are usually called zoletrees or zaltrees 
in South Devon. 

Hal. has " Pools " : the spaces on each side of the 
threshing-floor of a bam. Devon. 

*' Prepositions. Such expressions as the following 
are frequently heard in North Devon : ' Where be 'e 
gwain tor 'What be 'e doin' of?' 'What was 'm tellin' 
of ? ' H. S." 

" Pricked =vaccinated. The following appeared in 
a local paper : ' What's the matter with baby ? ' ' Plaiz'm, 
her bin pricked.' Subsequent inquiry proved that the 
child had been vaccinated. G. D. W." 

" PuMMLE-vooTED =lame, limping. ' Soosie wadd'n 
walkin' pummle-vooted same 's 'er was wen they started.' 
Jan Stewer in Western Weekly News, 19 February, 1910. 
R. P. C." 

See Hal. 

Pumple-footed is the more usual form. See 7th Report. 

It means rather club-footed, with some deformity 
of the foot, than merely lame. 

" Rary-mouse (plural, mees) = a bat. Used at Ash- 
water. G. D. M." 

Hal. has " Rere-moiise " : a bat. West. 

Anglo-Saxon hreremtis, from the flapping of its wings, 
from hreran, to agitate. 

" Ream =to stretch. Used at Ashwater. A bullock 
rises on its feet and reams, a sign of good health. G. D. M.'* 
Very common ; pronounced raim. 
Probably derived from Anglo-Saxon rum, space, room. 



OK DEVONSHIBE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 81 

'^ Bba&b-mise. Braunton Churchwardens' Accounts, 
1554-1610 : ' Setting up boards in the great organ to 
keep out the reare-mise.' Are these bats ? J. F. C." 

Yes. See Bary-numae. 

" Ebdmas. ' Green Candlemas, barren Bedmas ' ; 
proverb used by an old Ashwater man, when a cold May 
followed a warm early spring. Does Redmas mean Whit^ 
suntide ? G. D. M." 

" BuDMAS. Braunton Churchwardens' Accoimts, 1554- 
1610. This probably means Whitsimtide, the Bed-mas, 
the colour for Whitsunday being red. I have never 
heard this term before, and it seems rather a good one. 
In this entry it speaks of the four quarter days, on which 
the rents were paid, as All-halland, Candlemas, Budmas, 
and Lammas ; the half or cross quarters they used to be 
called. Bent was due on the full quarter days, Lady-day, 
Midsummer, Michaelmas, and Christmas, but was generally 
paid at the cross quarter, grace being given till that 
time. Though the names are now dropped, the custom 
is still a general one in North Devon. J. F. C." 

I do not think Bed-mas refers to Whitsuntide, but to 
the festival of The Invention of the Cross, which is on 
3 May, and that the word is really Rood-mas. 

This better explains the above quotation, as Whitsunday 
comes as frequently in Jime as in May. 

Again, it is most unlikely that a movable feast like 
Whitsuntide would have been chosen as one of the cross 
quarters. 

"Why, I bot en last Ridmas come twelvemonth, of a 
runabout." Mrs. Palmer, Devonshire Dialogue. 

In the first edition of this work (1837), the Bev. J. F. 
Palmer, in his glossary, says, " I believe Bid-mass to 
be the first of November," but as he gives no authority 
for this statement, Httle importance need be attached 
to it. While in the second edition of the same work (1839), 
the Bev. John PhiUipps of Membury says, " Bidmas or 
Bood-mas day, i.e. Holy-cross Day, September 14th,", 
which seems far more likely. 

Possibly both Holy-cross Day and The Invention of 
the Cross were called Bood-mas in olden days. 

Hal. has ** Ridmas " : Holy-cross Day. Devon. 

VOL. XLH. F 



82 TWENTY-THIRD REPORT OF THE COHMITTBE 

" Rove =a row (of anything). * Puttin' baabies vnr 
shaw, that do bait anything ever I yerd o'. Wat, do 'em 
putt 'em all along in a rauve, same's they do the baistes ? ' 
Jan Stewer in Western Weekly News, 11 September, 1909. 
R. P. C." 

Very common. " I've a-got a faine rove o' kidney- 
baines up," was said to me by a labourer at Moreton- 
hampstead a few days ago. 

The pronunciation rave is also frequent at Moreton. 

Analogous to this is hove for hoe. 

"SAR=to earn. ' Zam Carter's no better'n a cripple 
vur roomatics, an' not abble to sar no more'n 'bout o' 
vive shillins a wik.' Jan Stewer in Western Weekly News, 
25 December, 1909. R. P. C." 

Common both in this sense of " to deserve," and so 
** to earn," and also in its literal sense of " to serve," 
e.g. *' I got to sar the pigs ev'ry momin'," i.e. to give them 
their food. 

Hal. has " Sar " : to serve ; to earn. West. 
" And to sar the lit and the Barra, and melk the kee to 
Challacomb." Ex. Scold,, 1. 409. 

" Ver I wiz bom whum by es zide 
An' went to school, an' sar'd my time." 

Pulman, Btistic Sketches, Ed. 1871, p. 6. 

" ScAT=a blow. ' 'Er gied Mark two dree scats auver 
th' 'aid.' Jan Stewer in Western Weekly News, 29 May, 
1909. ' 'Er started zayin' all manner o' things to be 
nasty like, you knaw, anything 'er ciid think o' that wid 
be a scat vor Kate.' Ibid,, 26 March, 1910. R. P. C." 

Common both as verb and noun. 

See 6th and 13th Reports, where it means to scatter 
or splash. 

It is used metaphorically for a person who has gone 
bankrupt or is ruined, ' 'Ave 'e yerd 'bout poor ole Farmer 
S ? He've gone scat." 

Lastly, it means a sharp shower of rain, same as scud, 

*' SciLLS= scales of a fish. Middle-aged servant: 
* Pilchards 'ave a lot o' scills on 'em.' C. E. L.'* 

Long " a " in the dialect is almost invariably fractured 
into " ea," thus scales becomes scedles, when sounded 
deliberately, but in rapid speech the fracture is thinned 
off to almost short " i " ; that this is so is proved by 



ON DBVONSHIBB VSBBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 83 

Mr. Elworthy's transcription of occasion as ^kizhun, and 
ashamed as 'sMrn^d. 

" Shblf, Shillet =shale. Both names equally common 
at Ashwater. G. D. M/' 

ShiUei is well known throughout the county, but Shdf 
is not known to me in South Devon. 

Hal. has " SheUet " : a sort of imperfect or rotten slate. 
Devon. 

"SHiBBiN=a cow-house. * He zet down a bunnle o' 
straw up agin zome ole tarred shibbins.' Jan Stewer in 
Western Weekly News, 21 November, 1908. R. P. C." 

Shippen [Anglo-Saxon Scy-pen] is the only word for a 
cow-house in Devon. 

It is the tendency in the dialect for all hard consonants 
such as /, p, s, ty sh, and th, to be replaced by their voiced 
equivalents, v, h, z, d, zh, and dh respectively. So according 
to this rule, shippen would be soimded shibbin, as in the 
above example, though in my experience this word far 
more commonly, indeed, almost invariably, retains the 
p sound, and I suspect the above to be merely " writers' 
dialect." 

" Slebp off. a farmer's wife at Shute, near Axminster, 
remarked to me that she had not had very good luck 
with her chicken this year ; ' So many ov em sleeps off,' 
she said. The same word is used of a pear, ' it is sleepy,' 
i.e. going or half rotten. O. J. R." 

See Slope. 

*' Slops =to die away, to rot or decay. A neighbour's 
runner beans failed to show signs of growth after a soaking 
experiment to protect them from pests. On examining 
them he foimd that none had germinated, and told me 
they had all ' sloped off.' Is the term connected with 
' sleep ' ? There is a Midland vulgarism ' Slope it ! ' 
meaning ' get away,' or ' out of the way.' Christow, 
May, 1910. H. J. L." 

Very common, especially applied to fruit, such as pears 
and apples when in that state called by the better educated 
" sleepy," that is, just beginning to decay. 

Slope is the old strong past tense of " sleep," long 
obsolete in the literary language. Cp. Croped for " crept," 
also commonly heard in our dialect. 



84 TWBNTY-THIED REPORT OF THE COlfMITTBE 

" Spickbtty = speckled. Servant, aged forty-five, native 
of Torquay, reading in a letter, * The apples have had the 
blight and have been falling,' to whom I, in comment, 
* Perhaps our apples have been blighted too, and that 
is why they have fallen so.' ' Oh, no,' she said, * they'm 
not spicketty.' ' Do you mean speckled ? ' I said. * Yes.' 
The same servant had previously described a starling as 
-having * its breast all spicketty.' C. E. L." 

Very common. 

A speckled hen is always a " spicketty 'ain." 

It imphes small spots ; while " sparky " or " sparkid " 
rather imply large blotches of another colour, such as 
are found in parti-coloured cows or horses. 

" Stroil = couch-grass, Triiicum repens. C. E. L." 

The only name for this troublesome weed — ^usually 
applied to the roots. In cleaning a field, after the crop 
has been taken off, the first operation is to work out the 
stroil with scuffle, drags, and harrow ; it is then gathered 
up in heaps and burnt, the ashes being afterwards spread 
over the field to enrich the soil. 

Of Scandinavian origin. Cp. modem English siroU, 
formerly sirovle, stroyle (Skeat), to wander. 

The plant is no doubt so called from the wandering or 
creeping nature of its roots. 

" Stroil = strength, agility. 'No more stroil in en than 
a' ole zow.' This was said to me by a mason at Moreton- 
hampstead, aged about thirty-five, with reference to a 
labourer who was being employed as his ' tender,' that 
is, whose business it was to supply him with mortar or 
stones. April, 1910. C. H. L." 

Very common. 

" Tha hast no stroil ner Docity, no Vittiness in enny 
keendest Theng."— £a;. Scold., 1. 209. 

Possibly a variant of Sproil. See 19th Report. Both 
words are equally common, and are generally used with 
a negative construction. 

" SuANT =even, level. We used to have an old gardener 
here (at Lympstone) who had a very neat Devonshire 
expression, which I have not heard others use. Being 
told to make, or rather to continue, a path in a straight 
line, he would say, * Us be boun' to make it suant.' E. D,"^ 



ON DBYONSHIBB VERBAL FBOVINGIAUSMS. 85 

One of our commonest West - country words. See 
7th and 9th Reports. 

It implies evenness, not only in appearance, or to the 
touch, but also of sound ; e.g. a clock ticking unevenly 
or off the beat, is said '^ not to be tickin' suant." 

" Tack = a slap, or blow. ' I'm darned if yii waun' get 
a tack under the yer-'ole in about wan minute.' Jan 
Stewer in Western Weekly News, 9 January, 1909. R. P. C." 

Tckck implies a sharp slap with the open hand. 

To clap the hands is always to " tack hands " in Devon- 
shire. 

" ToM-LONQ-LBGS =the daddy-long-lcgs. I remember 
many years ago, a dear old man on Dartmoor, whom 
I knew well, was sitting by the moor gate watching the 
daddy-long-legs, which in early autumn are in clouds on 
the moor. ' Ees,' he said, ' I b^ a-watchin' o' the Tom- 
long-legges, zometaimes wen things be a lee-dle bit trjdn' 
'ome, I comes up to Down an' I watches the Tom-long- 
legges (pronounced as two syllables) a-jompin' an' a- 
jompin' an' enjoyin' o' theirzels in the sunshine, an' I 
zays to mezel, I zays, eef God A'mighty looks arter they, 
he won't withold vrom this old feller wat's glide vor he.' 
V. C." 

A common name for the insect is " gramfer-long- 



Note the pronunciation legges, more usually leggers, 
the " r " being distinctly heard. A common saying 
on Dartmoor is " Long armers [i.e. arms] be best fighters." 
Cp. To-er for toe. This redundant -er, especially added 
to " toe " or " leg," is very common. 

"TRiG=to prop, to steady. 'An' the hunderds o' 
moto cars 'n carriages an' pairs, an' coaches all trigg'd 
up in long lines.' Jan Stewer in Western Weekly Netvs, 
19 June, 1909. R. P. C." 

This would imply that the vehicles were drawn up in a 
line with stones or blocks of wood placed behind and 
under one of the back wheels to trig them, or keep them 
from running backwards. 

Cp. literary " trigger." 

As an adjective, trig means neat, tidy, well-dressed. 



86 TWENTY-THIBD REPORT OF THE COSOOTTBE 

" Upright one =exactly one o'clock. * Dinner wid 
be sarr'd upright wan, an' if he wadd'n there he'd ha' 
to dii same's the rest.' Jan Stewer in Western WeeUy 
News, 29 May, 1909. R. P. C." 

This is a very common expression in the dialect ; it 
implies that the minute-hand of the clock is standing 
upright when pointing to the hour, i.e. to the figure XII. 

" 'Twas upright zix wen I lef work," was said to me 
by a labourer at Moretonhampstead not long since. 

" Upstanding = tall, erect, well-made. 'My days! 'er 
was a prapper upstandin' maid, 'er was.' Jan Stewer in 
Western Weekly News, 13 February, 1909. R. P. C." 

The word implies that the person has a good physique, 
and also that he holds himself well and makes the most 
of his figure. " He's a fine, tall, upstandin' chap," was 
said to me by a publican at Torquay of his son, who was 
seeking a situation as groom. 

" ViNNiED =peevish, cross, bad-tempered. ' No caal 
vor yii to get vinnied, Jan.' Jan Stewer in Western WeeJdy 
News, 8 January, 1910. R. P. C." 

Literally sour, mouldy, mildewed. 

Common in both literal and metaphorical sense. 

The word is really finew'd, and is found so spelt in early 
literary writers. 

Anglo-Saxon finie, decayed, mouldy. 

The transition from finew^d to vinnied follows the general 
rule of the dialect, initial " f " of a word of Anglo-Saxon 
origin becoming v, and final ew becoming y, Cp. zinny for 
sinew. 

" Voitch =to trample. Used at Ashwater. ' To voitch 
a bed of onions is good for the plants.' G. D. M." 

Probably a variant of Pocich, a word very commonly 
used with the same meaning. 

They are no doubt both onomatopoeic words, from the 
sound of the feet trampling on the moist earth. 

See Poached, 4th Report. Also Palch, 22nd Report. 

" Vore =a groove. ' Wen they'm puttin' in taties 
they makes a vore.' ' What is a vore ? ' 'A groove, or 
furrow.' C. E. L." 



ON DBVOKSHIBB VBBBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 87 

Vore is, of course, a furrow, always so pronounced in the 
dialect. 

" Freres folowen my vore fele tyme and ofte." 

Piers Plow., vii. 118. 

Anglo-Saxon furh. 

Note grove, the invariable pronunciation of groove in the 
dialect. 

" Want-heap =a mole-hill. ' They wid'n look much 
more'n a want-'eap.' Jan Stewer in Western WeeUy 
News, 16 January, 1909. R. P. C." 

Heap is used always in the dialect for the literary 
" hill " in these compound words. A dung-hill is always 
a dung-Aeop. 

For loarU^a. mole, see 11th Report. 

" Wild Y-GO= unruly. 'He's a wildy-go boy; nobody 
can't manage en.' C. E. L." 

See " Wildego,'' 22nd Report. 

Perhaps, after all, the word means simply one who goes 
wild, like a wild thing, the " y " termination having the 
force of like, as in the ^^ dampy lane." See 22nd Report, 
p. 79. 

" WiTHNESS =width (the first syllable rhymes with 
pUh). ' I s'poase you'd like vor en to be 'bout a eighteen 
inch in withness.' This was said to me by a labourer 
at Moretonhampstead, aged sixty, with reference to a 
wall he was building for me. September, 1909. C. H. L.'* 

This is an interesting word. It shows a development, 
due probably to the spread of education. 

The true dialect form is vnde-ness, still heard frequently. 
Cp. Deepness for depth. 

This old man had probably become familiar with the 
literary tvidth, but was loath to drop the termination 
-ness, which he had used from his youth, and so uncon- 
sciously formed a new word. 

" Word or Wooed =to hoard. ' He niwer 'ad'n 
gone in vur woordin' up he's money.' Jan Stewer in 
Western Weekly News, 23 January, 1909. R. P. C." 

Always so pronounced. 

After dropping the aspirate, ^odrd, the fractured diph- 
thong od produces the sound of initial '' t<;." 

Cp. the pronunciation of hterary " one," wun. 



88 TWENTY-THIRD REPORT OF THE COMMITTEB 

'*YEAT=gate. Braunton Churchwardens' Accounts, 
1664-1610. J. F. C." 

This pronunciation of gate is very common in dialects 
of the North of England at the present day, but in Devon- 
shire the present pronunciation is geat, with a distinct 
*' g " sound. 

'* YEELE=ai8le. Braunton Churchwardens' Accounts, 
1654-1610. J. F. C." 

Aisle is no longer so pronounced, indeed, the usual word 
is " alley." 

** Zawny =a fool, simpleton. ' The gurt zawny lookin' 
sauft, wai' the shoulders o' en up auver 's yurs, an' he's 
gurt scammel-'ucks takin' up all the rawd.' Jan Stewer in 
Western WeeUy News, 22 January, 1910. R. P. C." 

More usually ^vritten and sounded ** zany." 

Common in Shakespeare and other \iTiters. 

Skeat has " Zany " : a buflfoon. Ital. " Zanni " : a 
familiar form of Giovanni , John ; used to mean " a sillie 
John, a gull, a clowne, foole, simple fellowe in a plaie." 
Florio. 

" Sayings. The following were used by an old servant 
at Torquay : (1) ' You can't stand between the oak an' 
the rain, where the Devil can't go.' She used the saying, 
without the last clause, to deprecate the attitude of a girl 
who was inclined to go to Church gatherings on week- 
days, and to chapel on Sundays. On my questioning, 
she said, ' Oh, it's a very old saying ; I've often heard my 
gramfer say, " You can't stand between the oak an' the 
rain, where the Devil can't go." ' Whether the words were 
' oak ' and ' rain ' really, or ' hope ' and ' rein,' she proved 
to be unable to tell me. All my inquiries she met by an 
attempt to prove the practical impossibility of the position 
indicated, i.e. the trying to ' hold with ' two opposed sets 
of people or ideas. On the question of why you could 
not stand between the oak and rain, and why the Devil 
could not go there, I could not get her to throw any light, 
nor even to see that Ught was needed, save for my obtuse- 
ness of inability to receive the teaching. C. E. L." 

This is, of course, " between the oak and the rtnrf.'* 
Long " i " is now usually sounded " ai " in the dialect, 
drive is always '' draive,'' and final "d" following "n" 



ON DBVONSHntE VERBAL PROVINCIAUSMS. 89 

is usually dropped, hence rind at once becomes rain\ It 
would be impossible, we may suppose, even for his Satanic 
Majesty to get between an oak and its rind, hence the 
force of the saying. 

" (2) Of any one who has fine clothes but dirty face or 
boots : ' Wearing them clothes is like puttin' cream on 
pilchard pie.' C. E. L." 

"' (3) Of a person with a small face appearing in a big 
hat : ' She'm like a snail under a cabbage leaf.' C. E. L." 

" (4) Description of a loquacious person : ' Her'll tell 
more by an inch o' candle than her'll do all her lifetime.' 
€. E. L." 

" The sum of all philosophy impressed by a mother 
upon her young daughter on first going into service : 
'Don't 'e never know nothing, that's how I managed 
when I first went out ; when the mistress asked me about 
things, I never know'd nothing.' The importance of 
' never knowing nothing ' strikes one as a forcible com- 
pendium of negative virtue ! C. E. L." 

" * Tidd'n fiin'rals ; what be talkm' about ? They'm 
auvez like that.' On hearing church bells, which the one 
to whom this remark was addressed had taken to be the 
minute bell. C. E. L." 

" Of a very talkative person : ' He would talk the 
fifth wheel of a cart off.' Nurse, aged about twenty-five, 
native of South Devon, in 1859. V. C." 

This probably means that he was such an inveterate 
talker that he would talk away what did not exist, if 
that were possible. 

C. E. L. sends the following quotation : " Wherefore, 
after this vision aforesaid, I had such comfort in Christ, 
that when jongleurs or minstrels came at my father's 
bidding to steal my heart from God, then I cared as httle 
for their words as for the fifth wheel of a waggon." Trans- 
lation from The Chronicle of Brother Salimbene (1221- 
1288), p. 63, by G. G. Coulton, m.a. 

" Servant, speaking of having been very tired : ' I 
was as beat as batty.' ' What is batty ? ' I asked. ' Oh, 
"'tis what they say, as beat as batty,' repeating the phrase. 
Who or what can ' batty ' be ? C. E. L." 

It may be meant for batter, which requires to be beaten 
in its preparation, but it is far more Ukely that it is merely 



90 DEVONSHIBE VERBAL PROVINCIALISMS. 

an alliterative phrase, of no particular meaning. A large 
percentage of these similes, so commonly used as super- 
lative absolutes in the dialect, are alliterative, e.g. '"As 
right as rain." 

*' A woman, declaiming against artificial manures, 
said to me : ' I don't like these-yur artificial manures ; 
they goes in at one ear and out of the other.' M. S." 
" ' Stir with a knife 

Stir up strife.' C. E. L." 
" ' No heart can think nor tongue can tell 

The virtue there is in pimpernel.' C. E. L." 
This probably refers specially to its use as a specific for 
the eyes. 

" Man : ' You save up money, an' I'll ax 'e to marry me.' 
" Girl (contemptuously) : ' Do 'e think I got zaJt in my 
eyes that I should ever fancy you ? ' C. E. L." 
" ' Wash Friday, wash for need. 

Wash Saturday, sluts indeed.' C. E. L." 
" ' You'm stammerin' this momin' ; you'll zee a stranger.*! 
C. E. L. " 

" ' All's well that ends well, as the peacock said when 
he looked at his tail.' C. H. L." 

'* My wife, inquiring at the village shop for a brush, 
was told by. the lady proprietor that they would be getting 
some in stock later on, but not in this month, as nobody 
bought brushes in May. On making further inquiry upon 
the matter, the prejudice was confirmed by the adage : 
' If you buy a brush in May, you will sweep one of the 
family away.' Christow, May, 1910. H. J. L." 



THIRD REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON 
CHURCH PLATE. 

Third Report of the Committee — consisting of Mr, Maxwell 
Adams, Mr, J. S, Amery, Rev. G, Goldney Baker, Dr, 
Bnishfield, Rev. Chancellor Edmonds, Mr. T. Cann 
Hughes, Sir Roper LetKbridge, Rev, 0, J, Reichel, Mr. 
A. J. V. Radford, Mr, Harbottle Reed, Mr. George E. 
Windeatt, and Rev. J. F, Chanter (Secretary). 

(Read at Callompton, 27th July, 1910.) 



RURAL DEANERY OF SOUTH MOLTON. 

The present Rural Deanery of South Molton consists 
of twenty-four parishes, twenty-three of which are ancient 
ones, and Chittlehamholt modem. In all of these the 
Church Plate has been personally examined by Rev. J. F» 
Chanter, Hon. Secretary of the Committee, whose report 
we append. 

This Rural Deanery is almost entirely composed of 
countiy parishes, the only town being South Molton^ 
It had been hoped that in the smaller and more remote 
churches some pre-Reformation plate might have been 
preserved, but not a single specimen has been brought 
to light. At the great pUlage one silver chalice was left 
in twenty of the parishes, and two each at South Molton, 
North Molton, and Chittlehampton, but all have dis- 
appeared. Indeed, taken as a whole, the plate in this 
deaneiy is the least interesting of any that has as yet 
been examined. In only one parish is there anything 
beyond the ordinary run, viz. Kingsnympton. Here 
there is a set of the Elizabethan age, a good standing 
cup with cover of the reign of Elizabeth, and a very 
elaborate and massive eighteenth-century set, given 
by the owner of Kingsnympton Park to commemorate 
a deliverance from smallpox, as well as a fine bowl for 
alms, given by Sir H. Northcote. 

Another noticeable feature in the deanery is the large 



92 THIRD REPORT OF THE 

proportion of eighteenth-century plate, and the frequency, 
with which the vessels are engraved with texts from the 
Holy Scriptures — ^in some cases almost covered with 
texts and crosses, and in one case a crucifix. In all of 
these cases the influence of a somewhat remarkable 
character can be traced : Lewis Southcombe, the non- 
juring Rector of Rose Ash. Indeed, the influence of two 
North Devon clerical famihes,Southcombes and Melhuishes, 
is seen in a majority of the parishes of the deanery, and 
much of the plate was presented by them. 

Plate with Exeter marks is very widespread, and is 
found of every period, from the sixteenth century to 
the nineteenth. A large proportion of the Exeter marks 
are ones that are not recorded in Cripps's Old English 
Plate, or in the more recent work on English Goldsmiths 
and their Marks, by F. S. Jackson ; and as the work of 
this Committee progresses it will, no doubt, lead to great 
modifications and changes in what has been published 
on the subject of Devonshire goldsmiths' marks. 

One modification I would call attention to, the mark of 
an EUzabethan goldsmith, J. Cotton. Hitherto this 
has been given as an Exeter mark. The mark used by 
him is " I. CoToJV." The Exeter mark of an X crowned 
is not found on any of his work. The only Elizabethan 
goldsmith of this name was not an Exeter but a Barn- 
staple man. He worked at Barnstaple from 1568 to 1601. 
So far three of his chaUces have been noted, and there 
seems to be a distinct type in the chahces made by the 
Barnstaple goldsmiths, the bowls being much more 
conical than those made by the Exeter goldsmiths. This 
is specially noticeable in the Loxhore and Charles chalices. 
In the detailed Ust that follows I have called chalices 
of this stamp as being Barnstaple style. 

Domestic plate given for church purposes is found 
in several parishes in this deanery, and is somewhat 
varied. Standing cups are foimd at Kingsnympton and 
Filleigh, a taster and dish at Chittlehampton, a porringer 
at Mariansleigh, salvers in several parishes, a large tray 
at South Molton, various articles seeming to have been 
used as patens in different parishes. There are Eliza- 
bethan chahces in eight parishes, four only of which have 
their covers, and one EUzabethan cover exists with a 
later chalice. They are all probably the work of Devon- 
shire craftsmen ; two have the marks of I. Ions, two of 



GHTJBCH PLATE COBOHTTBB. 9^ 

T. Matthew, one J. Cotton, one perhaps Peter Quick, 
one has initials " T. C," and the other is without any 
marks, though it has the ornamentation peculiar to the 
work of T. Matthew. The North Molton chalice, which 
has the letters " T. C." repeated twice, has ornamentation 
of a type quite unusual for EUzabethan work ; instead of 
the usual foliated bands there are elephants, dragons,, 
cockatrices, locusts, grasshoppers, birds, etc. 

The oldest paten apart from chalice covers is 1684 at 
Charles, though there is a piece of secular plate of 1637 
used as a paten at Chittlehampton. 

Silver flagons are found in fourteen parishes, the oldest 
being at Molland of the date 1682. There are also two 
pewter ones, two electro-plate, and two silver and glass. 
Alms dishes are found in fourteen parishes of silver, the 
oldest being Chittlehampton, 1664, and two of pewter. 
Finally, I must call attention to the loss of pewter vessels 
in this deanery. I only found four pieces, two flagons and 
two alms bowls. In many parishes there was a belief 
that some of the old pewter was still in the parish, but 
in whose care was unknown. As church property they 
should be properly cared for and preserved as interesting 
relics of a former age. 

J. Frederick Chanter. 



DETAILED LIST OF PLATE. 
ANSTBY EAST. 

Chalice. — Early eighteenth-century style as Fig. No. 24 
(Cripps), pattern of 1707; height, 7i in.; bowl, 4i in. 
deep, 3i in. diameter ; foot, 3J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker's, Lo. with key and fleur-de-lis 
(Nathaniel Lock, entered 1698); (ii.) Britannia; (iii.) 
lion's head erased; (iv.) date -letter, 1712 (London). 
Weight, 7 oz. 1 dwt. 

Chalice Cover. — Plain plate on stand, IJ in. high, 4J in. 
diameter. Marks as on chalice ; weight, 3 oz. 11 dwt. 

Paten. — ^Plain plate with gadroon border on stand ;. 
1} in. high, 5| in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, Fl. with crown (William Fleming,. 



94 THIRD REPORT OF THE 

entered 1697) ; (ii.) Britannia; (iii.) lion's head erased; 
(iv.) date-letter, 1706 (London). Weight, 2 oz. 13 dwt. 

Flagon. — ^Tankard shape. 12 in. high, 4^ in. diameter 
at head, 7 in. at base. 

Marks : (i.) EI with crown (John Elston) ; (ii.) Bri- 
tannia ; (iii.) lion's head erased ; (iv.) castle ; (v.) date- 
letter, 1703 (Exeter). 

Inscription : "Ex dono Thomae Hill nuper de Mil- 
Terton Gen$ ecclesiae parochiali de East Ansty Com. 
Devon. Anno Dom. 1703." 

ANSTEY WEST. 

Chalice, — ^A rather poor specimen of Late Elizabethan 
with concave Up and usual foliated band. Height, Q^ in.; 
stem with plain knop ; bowl, 3^ in. deep, 3i in. diameter ; 
foot, 3^ in. diameter. 

No marks, but ornamentation on foot similar to that 
used by T. Matthew. 

Paten. — ^Plain on stand ; is of two different dates, 
stand being older than top. Diameter, 6 in. ; foot, 2\ in, 
diameter. 

Marks on top portion : (i.) maker, I. E. ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) Uon passant ; (iv.) castle ; (v.) 
date-letter, 1721 (Exeter) 

Marks on foot : (i.) castle ; (ii.) I. P.; (iii.) S. 

Inscription : " William Newton, Warden, 1725." 

Flagon. — ^Tankard shape. Pewter, 12 in. high, by S. 
Hall, London. 

Alma Dish. — Pewter. 8J in. diameter. 

BUCKLAND EAST. 

Chalice. — Modem mediaeval pattern. 6 J in. high ; 
bowl, 3^ in. diameter, 2| in. deep ; foot, 4^ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, I. F. (Isaac Foligno) ; (ii.) leopard's 
head ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) Queen's head ; (v.) date- 
letter, 1875 (London). 

Inscription : " Deo Sacrum E. Buckland Church, I. B. 
Kerslake, Rector, 1822, remodelled 1881." Weight, 7 oz. 
1 dwt. 

Patens. — 1. Modem mediaeval pattern, gilt ; S^in. diam. 



CHUBCH PLATE GOMMITTBB. 96 

Majrks and inscription as on chalice. Weight, 3 oz. 
3J dwt. 

2. Plain on stand. 2 in. high, 6 in. diameter ; foot, 
3} in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. W. & Co. Lt. (J. Whipple & Co.) ; 
(ii.) leopard's head ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 
1905 (London). 

Inscription : " Presented by Old Boys Devon County 
School West Buckland." 

Flagon, — Electro-plate. 8^ in. high. 

BUCKLAND WEST. 

Chalice. — ^Late Elizabethan. Height, 6J in. ; bowl 
with band of dotted ornamentation, 3| in. diameter, 
2| in. deep. 

Marks : (i.) ornament ; (ii.) T ; (iii.) MATHEV inter- 
linked. 

Paten. — Electro-plate. 6i in. diameter. 
Inscription : " West Buckland, Devon, 1866." 

FlagoTia. — 1. Pewter. 14 in. high. 
2. Electro-plate. 
Inscription as on paten. 

CHARLES. 

Chalice. — Elizabethan. A good example of what I 
have called the Barnstaple pattern, and very similar 
to the Loxhore chalice. Height, 6f in. ; bowl with foliated 
band high up and new internal rim, 4^ in. deep, 3| in. 
diameter ; foot with foliated band, 3} in. diameter. 

Marks : quite indistinct except letter P. 

Chalice Cover. — ^Flat dome-shaped. No button. 1 in. 
high, 4 in. diameter. 
No marks. 

Paten. — An almost bowl-shaped plate on stand of very 
rough workmanship. 2J in. high, 5 in. diameter; foot 
flat, 2^ in. diameter. 

No marks. 

Inscription : "G. G. Rec^ I. S. H. M. CW. 1684." 

CHITTLEHAMPTON. 

The plate here is a somewhat curious collection, all, 



96 THIRD REPORT OF THE 

with the exception of the chalice, being secular plate 
presented to the church. 

Chalice. — ^Almost Elizabethan in style. 9 J in. high; 
bowl has straight sides with slight lip, 4^ in. diameter, 
5 in. deep ; circular foot, 4} in. diameter, with Matthew 
style of ornamentation. 

Marks : (i.) crowned X in circle ; (ii.) (^; (iii.) I MOV 
in oblong ; (iv.) crowned X, as (i.). ~ 

Inscription : pricked " I. G. I. H. 1638. C. W." 

Tester, — ^A curious small bowl with elaborate flat handle. 
Bowl, 4| in. diameter, 2 in. deep. 

Marks : (i.) maker, S. R. cinquefoil below ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1664 
(London). 

Inscription : " Deo et Eccles. dedicavit G. Williams 

V de CheUnton An. D. 1743." 

Dish. — Oval, fluted, with rim. 9 in. length, 6 J in. breadth. 

Marks : (i.) maker, T. M. in monogram (Thomas Maundy); 
(ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) 
date-letter, 1627 (London). 

Inscription : pricked " F. G." 

Flagon. — ^Tankard-shaped. 12^ in. high, 8} in. to rim« 

Marks : (i.) maker, M. L. (Mary Lofthouse) ; (ii.) 
leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date- 
letter, 1743 (London). 

Inscription : " Deo et Ecclesise dedicavit G. Williams 

V de ChiUnton Ann. 1743." 

CHITTLEHAMHOLT. 

Chalice. — ^Usual Early Victorian style. 8J in. high ; 
bowl, 4^ in. deep, 3| in. diameter ; foot, 3} in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, C. R., G. S. (Rawlins and Sumner) ; 
(ii.) leopard's head ; (iii.) Hon passant ; (iv.) Queen's head ; 
(v.) date-letter, 1837 (London). 

Inscription : " IHS ", cross and nails in halo. The 
gift of Lord and Lady RoUe to the Chittlehamholt Chapel, 
rebuilt in 1838. Weight, 9 oz. 2 dwt. 

Patens. — 1. Plain on stand. 3 J in. high, 9 in. diameter ; 
foot, 4 in. diameter. 

Marks : as on chaUce. 



CHURCH PLATE COMMITTBB. 97 

Inscription : as on chalice. Weight, 14 oz. 11 dwt. 

2. Silver-gilt, modem mediseval. 5^ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) H. H. & Co. ; (ii.) lion passant ; (iii.) 
anchor ; (iv.) date-letter, 1898 (Birmingham). 

Flagon. — ^Victorian style. 8 in. high; 3 J in. diameter 
at lid, 5| in. base. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice. 

Weight, 21 oz. 17 dwt. 

Alm8 Dish. — ^Plain plate. 9 in. diameter. 

Marks and inscription : as on chalice. 

Weight, 9 oz. 1 dwt. 

Breads Box. — ^Height, IJ in., 3 J in. by 3 J in. 

Marks : (i.) maker ; (ii.) lion passant ; (iii.) anchor ; 
(iv.) date-letter, 1882 (Birmingham). 

CREACOMBE. 

Chalice. — Early eighteenth - century style — a rather 
curious piece, both for its inscriptions and shape, having 
the appearance of the bowl and foot being of different 
ages, the bowl being very small and out of proportion 
to the foot and stem. Height, 6^ in. Bowl, 3 in. deep, 
2| in. diameter ; foot, 3 in. diameter ; stem with knop. 

Marks: (i.) maker, £1 crowned (John Elston, Exeter); 
(ii.) Britannia ; (iii.) Uon's head erased ; (iv.) castle ; 
(v.) date-letter, 1718 (Exeter). Foot has also castle 
mark. 

Inscription : " Deo et ecclesiae viz Parochiae Creacomb. 
hauc caUcem. in honoris et amoris fivrjfioavvov perpetuum^ 
auxit obtuhtq Ludovicus Southcombe de Rose Ash. A.D. 
1718. Drink ye all of it. This is my blood." Weight, 
5 oz. 

Paten. — Plain on foot. IJ in. high, 4 J in. diameter; 
foot, 1| in. diameter. 

Marks : as on chaUce. 

Inscription : " This is my body." 

Flagon. — ^Plain tankard shape. 9 in. high ; 2| in. 
diameter at head, 4| in. at foot. 

Marks : (i.) maker, E. B., J. B. (E. & J. Barnard) ; 
(ii.) leopard's head ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) Queen's 
head ; (v.) date-letter, 1867 (London). 

VOL. XLH. Q 



98 THIRD REPORT OF THE 

Inscription : " This is my blood. Presented to the 
Church of S. Michael, Creacombe, by William Thomas 
Southcombe and his sisters Elizabeth and Jane, 1858." 

Alma Dish, — Plain plate. 7J in. diameter. 

EL E 

Marks : (i.) B. ' (Edward, Edward, jr., John, and 
J.w, 
William Barnard) ; (ii.) leopard's head ; (iii.) lion passant ; 
(iv.) Queen's head; (v.)' date-letter, 1846 (London). 

Inscription : " Parish of Creacombe, 1855. I.H.S." 



FILLEIGH. 

Chalices. — 1. Baluster stem pattern, gilt. CJ in. high. 
Bowl conical, 3^ in. deep, 3^ in. diameter ; foot, 3} in. 
diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, W. C, with heart below ; (ii.) 
leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date- 
letter, 1638 (London). 

Inscription : " Deo et ecclesise de Filleigh d.d. Robertas 
Chichester de Halle Arm. 2nd die Aug. 1865. Poculum 
manufactum. A.D. 1638." 

2. Secular cup. 7^ in. high. Bowl egg-shaped, with 
sides fluted half-way, 4^ in. deep, 3^ in. diameter at 
mouth, round baluster stem, circular foot with gadroon 
«dge. 

Marks : (i.) 9 *> (ii-)> (iii-)> ^^d (iv.) as (i.). 
Arms : Azure a bend engrailed argent cottised or, 
with supporters and a baron's coronet (Fortescue). 

3. Secular cup with very short stem. 5i in. high. 
Bowl with beaded edge, 4i in. deep, 3} in. diameter; 
foot square, with beaded inner circle, 2| in. across. 

Marks : (i.) maker, R. H. in oval (Robert Hennel) ; 
(ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) 
date-letter, 1781 (London). 

Inscription : '* This cup, mournfully consecrated to its 
present holy use on the 9th of July, 1827, when Susan 
Viscountess Ebrington on her death-bed received from 
it her Last Communion, was presented to Filleigh Church 
by her husband on the 30th of July, 1828, being the 
anniversary of her lamented death." 

Patens, — 1. Plain plate, with beaded edge. 9 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, R. E. E. B. (Rebecca Emes, Edward 



CHUBCH FLATS COMMITTBE. 99 

Barnard) ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; 
(iv.) King's head ; (v.) date-letter, 1813 (London). 

Inscription : " Filleigh Church. Bequeathed by J. B. 
Kerslake, Rector. Oct. 1822." 

2. Modem mediseval gilt. 6i in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. W. C. W. ; (ii.) leopard's head ; 
<iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1904 (London). 

Inscription : " Presented to S. Paul's Church, Filleigh, 
by Rev. Ernest G. Beckwith, M.A., Rector, 1891-1906." 

Spoon. — Apostle spoon, modem imitation. 

Marks : (i.) maker, H. W. & Co. ; (ii.) leopard's head ; 
(iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) Queen's head ; (v.) date-letter, 
1895 (London). 

KNOWSTONB. 

The ancient plate belonging to this parish was destroyed 
by a fire at the Vicarage in 1890. The chalice was in 
character very similar to the present one, which was 
formerly part of a second communion set belonging to 
the neighbouring parish of Molland. 

Chalice. — Low, broad cup with short stem and small 
knop close to base of bowl. 6| in. high ; bowl, 4 in. deep ; 
4J in. diameter. 

Mark : T. R. in shield, with or Q over. 

Inscription : " Richard Elworthy, Churchwarden, 1664." 

Paten. — ^Plain, on stand, with gadroon edge. 2 in. high, 
7 J in. diameter ; foot, 4 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, I. C. with crown over (James Chad- 
wick) ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; 
<iv.) date-letter, 1696 (London). 

Inscription : '^ As often as ye eat this bread and drink 
this cup ye do shew forth the Lord's death till he come. 
1 Cor. xi. 26." On a cross : — vertical limb, " This do in 
remembrance of me. S. Luke xxii. 19 " ; horizontal 
limb, "Lord, thou knowest yt I loue y®. S. lo. 21, 13. 
Deo et Ecclesise in Dono 1696." 

Flagon. — ^Tankard shape, finger-plate to lid is an angel. 
10 1 in. high ; 9 in. to head ; 4^ in. diameter at Ud, 6} in. 
at foot. 

Marks : (i.) maker. Pa (Thomas Parr) ; (ii.) Britannia ; 
{iii.) lion's head erased ; (iv.) date-letter, 1700 (London). 



100 THIRD RBPORT OP THE 

Inscription: " I.H.S. Molland, Devon, 1701. This 
do ye as oft as ye drink it in remembrance of me/' on 
a Calvary cross : — vertical limb, " Drink ye all of it. 
St. Matt. xxvi. 27 " ; horizontal limb, " For this is my 
blood." 

Alms Dish. — Replica of paten, but with gadroon border 
round foot instead of top. 

Marks : (i.) maker, 6. L. in monogram ; (ii.) leopard's 
head ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) Queen's head ; (v.) date- 
letter, 1889 (London). 

Inscription : " Presented by the Bishop and Clergy 
of the Diocese of Exeter to Knowstone Church, together 
with a flagon, chalice, and paten purchased from the 
parishioners of Molland, to replace the Church Plate 
destroyed by fire in the Vicarage. John Matthew, Preben- 
dary, Vicar, Easter, 1890." 

MARIANSLBIGH. 

Chalice. — ^Wine-glass pattern, with long, slender stem. 
8i in. high. Bowl, with slight lip, 3| in. deep, 3J in. 
diameter ; foot, 3 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, W. C. with heart below ; (ii.) leopard'& 
head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1630 
(London). 

Chalice Cover. — Plain Elizabethan style, with dotted 
ornamentation. 1^ in. high, 3^ in. diameter. No marks. 

Porringer. — ^Fluted. 2| in. high, 3f in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) J: S. with label (John Elston, Exeter) ; 
(ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.)- 
castle ; (v.) date-letter, 1732 (Exeter). 

Alms Dish. — Georgian salver. 1 in. high, 44 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, W. T. ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned;. 
(iii.) Hon passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1764 (London). 

Inscription : " Donum Custodis et Collegii Vicariorum 
de Choro Ecclesiae Cathedralis Exon Dom**** Joanni 
Richards Civ prsedict. 1766. Donum supradictum Jo- 
hannis Richards in usum hujus altaris Anno MDOCLXI."* 

Weight, 177 oz. 

MBSHAW. 

Chalice. — Stem is style of Edwardian cups with flange 
close up under bowl. 7 in. high. Bowl, 3| in. deep, 4 in., 
diameter ; foot, 3| in. diameter. 



CHTTBCH FLATS COMMTTTBE. 101 

Marks : (i.) mckker, &i, JZf in monogram ; (ii.) leopard's 
he€id crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter» 
1693 (London). 

Inscription: " Meshott in Devon, 1693" (pricked). 
" Drink ye all of this." 

Chalice Cover, — Shaped like lid of a kettle. 2J in. high, 
41 in. diameter. No marks. 

Paten. — Plain, on stand. IJ in. high, 6 in. diameter. 

Marks : as on chaUce. 

Inscription : " Meshott in Devon, 1693 " (pricked). 
*' Take, eat, this is my body." 

Flagon. — ^Temkard-shaped. 10 in. high, flat lid. 4^ in. 
diameter at lid, 6} in. at foot. 

Marks : as on paten and chaUce. 

Inscription: "Meshott in Devon, 1693" (pricked). 
*' For this is my blood of the new testament." 

Alma Dish. — Plain plate. 7 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. H. in oblong (Joseph Hicks) ; 
(ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) Hon passant ; (iv.) 
castle ; (v.) date-letter, 1802 (Exeter). 

Inscription : '* J. Oliver, Minister ; J. Foxford, Ch. 
Warden, 1803." 

MOLLAND. 

Chalice. — Early Georgian style, with angular knop. 
7f in. high. Bowl 6 in. deep, 4 in. diameter ; foot, 4| in. 
diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, W. L. with dot imder (William Lukin) ; 
(ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) 
date-letter, 1726 (London). 

Weight, 12 oz. 16 dwt. 

Inscription : " Ex dono Johannis Courtenay, Armiger." 

Arms : Or, three torteaux, with a label (Courtenay), On 
a shield of pretence ; arg. three lozenges in fesse (Gifford), 
supporters and crest of Courtenay. 

Paten. — ^Plain, on stand. 2i in. high. 8 in. diameter ; 
foot, 2} in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, N. S. in double oval ; (ii.) Uon's 
head crowned. 

Weight, 11 oz. 7 dwt. 

Inscription and arms as on chaUce. 

Flagon. — ^Tankard shape. 13 in. high. 4f in. diameter 
at lid, 7iV in. at base. 



102 THIBD REPORT OF THE 

Marks : (i.) maker, I. B. in double oval ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1682 
(London). 

Weight, 63 oz. 16 dwt. 

Inscription and arms as before on Chalice. 

Alms Dish, — ^Plain plate with raised rim. 
Mark : W. I. in shield indented on top. 
Weight, 9 oz. 7 dwt. 
Courtenay crest. 

MOLTON NORTH. 

Chalices. — 1. A fine example of Elizabethan style, 
with IJ in. ornamental band, differs from the usual foUa- 
tion, consisting, as it does, of various animals, birds, and 
insects, such as locusts and grasshoppers ; round the base 
are six semicircles with fohage and dotted ornamentation. 
7f in. high. Bowl, 4J in. deep, 4i in. diameter ; stem 
with knop, base ^^ in. diameter. 

Mark : (i.) T. C. ; (ii.) T. C. 

Weight, 11 oz. 

Inscription : " NORTH MOLTON." 

Cover. — 2| in. high, 4| in. diameter. Button with 
cinquefoil ornamentation — ornamentation is very curious, 
consisting of six semicircles with foUation, elephant, 
dragon, cockatrice, etc. 

No marks. 

Weight, 3oz. 10 dwt. 

2. Cup lOi in. high. Bowl, 6| in. deep, 4i in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, R. H. ; (ii.) leopard's head ; (iii.) 
lion passant ; (iv.) Queen's head ; (v.) date-letter, 1876 
(London). 

Inscription : " The gift of Maria Langdon, Ap. 10th, 
1887." 

Paten. — Plain, on foot. 2 in. high. 8| in. diameter; 
foot, 3^ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, £1 with crown (John Elston) ; 
(ii.) Britannia ; (iii.) lion's head erased ; (iv.) castle ; 
(v.) date-letter, 1714 (Exeter). 

Weight, 11 oz. 16 dwt. 

Inscription: "N.M., 1716." 

Flagons. — A pair of tankard shape. 10 J in. high; 
domed Uds, 3| in. diameter at lid, 5^ in. at base. 




ELIZABETHAN' CHALICE. NORTH MOLTOX. 



Ciu'Rcii Platk Kki*ort.— To /(ur jmgr 102, 



CHURCH PLATE COMMITTBE. lOS 

Marks : (i.) maker, T. F. (Thomas Foote) ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) castle ; (v.} 
date-letter, 1723 (Exeter). 

Inscription: "S.C.W. B. B., I.F.V., W. S. G. S. W. 
N. Molton." 

Weight, 29 oz. 6 dwt., and 29 oz. 18 dwt. 

Alma Dish. — Basin. 4 in. high. Bowl, 3 in. deep^ 
8i in. diameter ; foot, 4| in. diameter. 

Marks : maker (i.) T. F. (Thomas Foote) ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) Uon passant ; (iv.) castle ; (v.) 
date-letter, 1723 (Exeter). 

Inscription as on flagons. 

Weight, 16 oz. 8 dwt. 

MOLTON SOUTH. 

Chalices. — 1. Late Elizabethan pattern, with usual 
foUated band, has a curious Up, almost like an addition. 
Height, 7 J in. Bowl, 4^ in. deep, 3i in. diameter ; foot, 
3^ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, I N S in oblong ; (ii.) in a double 
concentric dotted circle, what appears to be a bull's 
head, with star between horns. This is a mark I have not 
seen before. 

2. A modem replica of 1. 

Marks : (i.) makers', E. E. B. J. W. (E. E. J. and W. 
Barnard) ; (ii.) leopard's head ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) 
date-letter, 1836 (London) ; (v.) King's head. 

Patens. — 1. Modem mediseval pattern. 6 J in. diameter. 

Marks: (i.) maker, T.C. E.G. in square; (ii.) leopard's 
head ; (iii.) Uon passant ; (iv.) Queen's head ; (v.) date- 
letter, 1873 (London). 

Inscription : " I.H.S." in centre, " Draw near with a 
true heart in fuU assurance of faith," in mediseval letters 
round vine ; under the paten, " J. C. R. S. Churchwardens, 
1873." 

2. A repUca of above, except inscription, which is, 
" Faith without works is dead." 

Flagon. — ^Tankard shape. A handsome and massive 
piece. lOf in. high, 4i in, diameter at Ud ; 7i in. at 
base. 

Marks : (i.) maker, I.C. with crown over (James Chad- 



104 THIRD REPORT OF THB 

wick) ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; 
(iv.) date-letter, 1692 (London). 

Inscription on lid : '' For this is my blood, drink ye all 
of this. S. Matt." On front, " The cup of blessing which 
we bless, is it not ye communion of the blood of Christ ? 
1 Cor. X. 16. I.H.S. Ex dono viri reverend! et pia me- 
moria dom Johannis Cruse hujus ecclesise, Curionis in- 
tegerrimi An. Dom. 1692." 

Alma Bowl. — Plain. 6i in. diameter, 2f in. high. 

Marks : (i.) maker, W. B. in oblong (William Browne) ; 
(ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) Uon pass€Uit ; (iv.) 
castle ; (v.) date-letter, 1749 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " Richard Gay and Henry Snow, Church- 
wardens of South Molton, 1760." 

Salver, — Square with incurved comers and hollow- 
shaped rim on four feet. IJ in. high, 8 J in. square. 

Marks : (i.) maker, E. C. in double oval (Edward 
Comock) ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) Uon passant; 
(iv.) date-letter, 1726 (London). 

Inscription: ''S.+M. 1727." 

NYMBT BPISCOPI OR BISHOP's NYMPTON. 

Chalice. — Baluster stem pattern. Height, 9 in. ; bowl, 
with slight lip, 4| in. deep, 4 in. diameter ; foot, 4J in. 
diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. S. in oval (James Stevens) ; (ii.) 
leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) castle ; 
(v.) date-letter, 1736 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " + I.H.S. Bishop's Nymett." 

Weight, 19 oz. 2 dwt. 

Patens. — 1. Plain, with gadroon border on stand. 
2J in. high, 8 in. diameter ; foot, 3| in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, I. C. with crown over (James Chad- 
wick) ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; 
(iv.) date-letter, 1694 (London). 

Inscription (pricked) : '' T. E. Vic. H. Z. and R V. 
Churchwardens, 1694." 

Weight, 8 oz. 18 dwt. 

2. Modem mediaeval pattern. 5^ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, F. W. ; (ii.) leopard's head ; (iii.) 
lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1900 (London). 



CHURCH PLATE COBOHTTBE. 105 

Flagon. — ^Tankard shape, dome lid. ISJ in. high, 4 in. 
<liameter at lid, 7i in. at foot. 

Marks : (i.) maker, C. W. T. W. in oval (Thomas Whipham 
and Charles Wright) ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; 
(iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date letter, 1760 (London). 

Inscription : " Price 19 guineas, ten of which were gener- 
ously given for the honoiu: of God and use of his Church 
by Mr. Edmund Saunders of Aller in this parish. 1760." 

Weight, 64 oz. 1 dwt. 

NTMBT REGIS OR KINOSNYMPTOK. 

The church plate in this parish is much the finest in 
the deanery, and will compare favourably with that in 
any large town, there being no less than three distinct 
.sets with dates ranging from the sixteenth century to 
the eighteenth. The set presented by James BuUer, Esq., 
in 1766, in thanksgiving for deliverance from small- 
pox, is quite magnificent for the age. It consists of chaUce 
with cover or paten, flagon and alms dish, all silver-gilt 
und with repouss6 work. They are the work of Magdalen 
Feline, and are described more particularly in the de- 
tailed Ust appended. 

Since I made my notes, much of the plate has been sent 
Away for safety to the South Kensington Museum, where 
it is now on view. 

Chalices, — 1. Elizabethan style, decorated with small 
engraved band of foUage. 7 in. high. Bowl, 3^ in. deep, 
3f in. diameter ; foot, roimd, 3f in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) I ; (ii.) IONS. Although the work of a 
well-known Exeter craftsman, it does not, like most of 
his plate, bear the city mark. 

2. A massive standing cup, with cover of silver-gilt, 
engraved with flowers and foliage, llj in. high. Bowl 
is peculiar shape, like a vase in a stand, 4 in. deep, 3 J in. 
diameter ; foot, circular, covered with scroll-work in 
Elizabethan style. 

Marks : (i.) makers, double-headed eagle displayed ; 
(ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) Hon passant ; (iv.) 
<late-letter, 1601 (London). 

The cover is 4 in. in diameter, 3 in. high. 

3. Silver-gilt cup and cover, with repouss6 work, wine- 



106 THIBD BBFORT OF THE 

glass style. 8 in. high. Bowl, 3^ in. deep, 3} in. diameter ; 
foot, circular, 3 J in. diameter. 

Marks: (i.) M. F. in lozenge (Magdalen Feline, entered 
1753) ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passcmt ; 
(iv.) date-letter, 1766 (London). 

Inscription : " Jacobus BuUer Armiger sanitatem et 
varioUs Insitytys sibi et liberis suis et plus octoginta 
hujus parochise Nimet Regis incolis restitutam pie re- 
colens hunc calicem cum Lagena et Patina Deo Serva- 
tori dedicavit, 1766." 

Arms : party per pale, Baron, Sable on a cross argent 
five eagles displayed, Femme, Sable two bars ermine, three 
Maltese crosses in chief. 

Patens. — 1. A domed chaUce cover of Elizabethan 
date and style. If in. high, 3| in. diameter. It does not 
match the Elizabethan chalice, and belonged originally' 
to a larger vessel. 4^ in. diameter ; foot has Tudor 100a 
engraved. 

Marks : none. 

2. Cover to standing cup described as No. 2. 

3. Cover to chaUce No. 3, plain silver-gilt on standi 
with rim fitting cover. 

Marks : as on chaUce. 

4. Plain, on stand. 1^ in. high. 7 in. diameter;. 
foot, a later addition of very rough workmanship^ 3jt in* 
diameter. 

Marks : (i.) in shield XON over IV ; (ii.) as (i.) ; (iii,). 
crowned X with pellets in angles in dotted circle. 

Flagon, — Tankard-shaped silver-gilt, with repouss^ work. 
11^ in. high. 3^ in. diameter at Ud, 6^ in. at foot. 

Marks : as on Chalice No. 3. 

Inscription : as on ChaUce No. 3, except " banc lagenam 
cum calice et patina," etc. 

Arms : as on Chalice No. 3. 

Alma Bowls . — 1. A handsome silver-gilt repousse dish». 
with representation of the Last Supper; on the table 
are shown Chalice No. 3 and Paten No. 3, and on the 
ground the flagon. 

Marks : as on ChaUce and Flagon No. 3. 

Arms : as on chalice and flagon. 

Inscription : as on ChaUce No. 3, except " patinam cum 
oaUce et lagena," etc. 




ALMS DISH. KIN'GSNYMPTON. 
A.I). 1756. 



Church Plate Rkpokt.— To fact page 106. 



/^ 



CHURCH PLATE COMMTTTBE. 107 

No. 2. Bowl with scalloped edge and fluted sides. 
2| in. high, 8| in. diameter ; foot, 4 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, P. E. with mullet over ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) Kon passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1671 
(London). 

Inscription : Sir H. N. Bt., W. T., Wardens, 1733." 

KYMET ST. OEOBGE OR GEOROENTMFTON. 

Chalice. — ^Elizabethan style. Barnstaple pattern (see 
introduction). Band high up, not fohated, short stem, 
with a knop that is a small rim. Height, 6| in. Bowl, 
4i in. deep, 3| in. diameter ; foot, 3i in. diameter. 

Marks: (i.) I; (ii.) CoToK (J. Cotton, goldsmith, 
Barnstaple, 1668-1601). 

Weight, 13 oz. 9 gr. 

Chalice Cover, — Ehzabethan style to match chalice* 
1 in. high, 4^ in. diameter. No marks. 

Paten. — ^Plain plate on stand. 1 in. high, 6 J in. diameter ; 
foot, 2 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) I. F. in shield indented on top ; (ii.) a sort 
of cogwheel. Mr. H. D. Ellis considers this a S. Devon 
mark. 

Inscription : " Deo Sacrum." 

Alms Dish. — Old pewter basin. 9J in. diameter* 
made by Richard Cuming, device a Lamb and flag. 

ROSE ASH. 

Chalice. — Silver-gilt, Early Georgian style. 8^ in. 
high. Stem with knop, bowl with slight lip, 4 in. diameter, 
4J in. deep ; foot, 4 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, £1 with crown over (John Elston) ; 
(ii.) Britannia ; (iii.) lion's head erased ; (iv.) castle ; 
(v.) date-letter, Q 1716 (Exeter). 

Inscription : a crucifix, " He that eateth my flesh 
and drinketh my blood hath eternal life. Pro peccatis 
suis et totius mundi sic Deus dilexit mundum. This is 
my blood of the new testament shed for you and for many. 
Deo et Ecclesise Sc. Altari Rose Ash hunc calicem in 
perpetuam laudion amoris sui et gratitudinis memoriam 
humillime offert restituit MDCCXVI Ludovic South- 
comb senior Rector." 



108 THIRD BSPORT OF THE 

Paten. — 1. On stand, gilt. 1^ in. high, 6 in. diameter. 

Marks: as on chahce. 

2. Plain, on stand. 1| in. high. 7} in. diameter; 
foot, 2J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, £1 with crown over ; (ii.) Britannia; 
(iii.) lion's head erased ; (iv.) castle ; (v.) date-letter, 
C 1703 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " This is my body given for you ; do this in 
remembrance of me." On a cross : — ^horizont€d limb, " We 
preach X crucified. 1 Cor. vi. 25 " ; vertical limb, " Jesus 
X and him crucified. 1 Cor. ii. 2 " ; " I am crucified with 
Christ. Gal. ii. 20. Deo et ecclesise Sc. Altari Parochle 
Rose Ash, Ludovic Southcomb, Rector, A.D. 1703." 

Flagon, — Tankard-shaped, with spout, which is a 
later addition. 11^ in. high. 4 in. diameter at lid, 6^ in. 
at base. 

Marks : (i.) maker, B. A. (Edward Bamett) ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, D1719 
(London). 

Inscription : " + IHS. The cup of blessing which we 
bless, is it not the communion of ye blood of Ch"*" ? 1 Cor. 
X. 16. Deo et Ecclesiae Sc. Altari Rose Ash MDCCXX. 
Lud. Southcombe, Rector." On a cross : — horizontal limb, 
" Drink ye all of this. S. Matt. 26, 27, 28 " ; vertical limb, 
*' For this is my blood." 

Spout has marks : (i.) J. S. ; (ii.) Uon's head erased ; 
(iii.) F. 

Alma Dish. — Saucer or Bowl, with scalloped edge. 
IJ in. high, 7^ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, — W. ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; 
(iii.) Uon passant ; (iv.) date-letter, fg; 1756 (London). 

Inscription : " Give alms of thy goods and never turn 
thy face from any poor man and the face of the Lord 
shall not be turned from thee." 

BUMONSLEIGH. 



Chalice. — Low, broad, conical stem, with no boss or 
knop. Height, 6| in., bowl, 4 in. diamgt^^3| in. deep. 

Marks : (i.) mfi^er, Ayjfii^m. ohf ^Y:^ leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) Hon f ^^(il V^» N1808. 

(London). 



owl, 4 m. diam0H|^3| m. deep. 
Ajii^Jn oW^ "%.) leopard 
F ^kA^y N|ter,Nl80i 



CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 107 

No. 2. Bowl with scalloped edge and fliiU'd hhIvh. 
2| in. high, 8} in. diameter ; foot, 4 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, P. E. with mullet over ; (ii.) loopard^H 
head crowned; (iii.) lion passant; (iv.) date-letter, 1G71 
(London). 

Inscription : Sir H. N. Bt., W. T., Wardens, 1733." 

NYMET ST. GEOBGE OR GEOROENYMFTON. 

Chalice. — ^EUzabethan style. Barnstaple pattern (hi?« 
introduction). Band high up, not foliated, short sU;m, 
^th a knop that is a small rim. Height, 0| in. i^owl, 
4^ in. deep, 3| in. diameter ; foot, 3] in. diamet<;r. 

Marks : (i.) I ; (ii.) CoToIV (J. Cotton, goldsmith, 
Barnstaple. 1568-1601). 

Weight. 13 oz. 9 gr. 

Chalice Cover, — Elizabethan .style to match chalic^;. 
1 in. high. 4^ in. diameter. Xo marks. 

PtMien. — ^Plain plate on stand. 1 in. high, 51 in. diamet/;r ; 
foot^ 2 in. diameter. 

M^rks: (i.) I.F. in shield indented on top; Hi,} a .Vift 
of cogwheeL Mr. H. D. Ellin con.sider.s this a S. iMvon 
mark. 

Inacripcim : " Deo Sacrum." 

Alm^ Dish, — Old pewter ba«in. 9^ in. diam^vr. 
made- by Bichard Cuming, device a Lamb and flac?. 

Efj^Z AJiK. 

Chalia. — jjilver-gilt. Early G^^jryi-ir: -':yi^. •^i .-'.. 
higk. Stem with knop. bowl -jrith -liyr.: I:p * .r.. d.Afr-i**>^r. 
4i"iii. de«^ : f"jOt. * in. fiLi.m^T,f:r. 

M^rk* : L maker. £[ with cro^KT. ;vrr J\rs. £L-r.,r. 
(ii.i Brriaocia : iii. lior.- h^^id rr*.-^ .t -*.-r:r»' 
(v.' dA5rf?-jftCTKr. y 17U Eir-rrr . 

perwcaani iaadii^n imj'.rj* -^1: rr £rir.~:iix.-> ^:i»tm»\r'jjuxi 
ccob iwnmr B«cCi;r 



108 THIRD REPORT OF THE 

Paten. — 1. On stand, gilt. 1^ in. high, 6 in. diameteor. 

Marks: as on chaUce. 

2. Plain, on stand. 1} in. high. 7} in. diameter; 
foot, 2J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, £1 with crown over ; (ii.) Britannia; 
(iii.) Uon's head erased ; (iv.) castle ; (v.) date-letter, 
C 1703 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " This is my body given for you ; do this in 
remembrance of me." On a cross : — ^horizontal limb, " We 
preach X crucified. 1 Cor. vi. 25 " ; vertical limb, " Jesus 
X and him crucified. 1 Cor. ii. 2 " ; "I am crucified with 
Christ. Gal. ii. 20. Deo et ecclesiae Sc. Altari Parochic 
Rose Ash, Ludovic Southcomb, Rector, A.D. 1703." 

Flagon. — ^Tankard-shaped, with spout, which is a 
later addition. 11^ in. high. 4 in. diameter at lid, 6^ in. 
at base. 

Marks: (i.) maker, B. A. (Edward Bamett); (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) Uon passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1)1719 
(London). 

Inscription : " + IHS. The cup of blessing which we 
bless, is it not the communion of ye blood of Cb^ ? 1 Cor. 
X. 16. Deo et Ecclesiae Sc. Altari Rose Ash MDCCXX. 
Lud. Southcombe, Rector." On a cross : — horizontal limb, 
*' Drink ye aU of this. S. Matt. 26, 27, 28 " ; vertical limb, 
" For this is my blood." 

Spout has marks : (i.) J. S. ; (ii.) Uon's head erased ; 
(iii.) F. 

Alms Dish. — Saucer or Bowl, with scalloped edge. 
IJ in. high, 7 J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, — W. ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; 
(iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, fg; 1765 (London). 

Inscription : " Give alms of thy goods and never turn 
thy face from any poor man and the face of the Lord 
shall not be turned from thee." 

RUMONSLEIOH. 

Chalice. — Low, broad, conical stem, with no boss or 
knop. Height, 6^ in., bowl, 4 in. diameter, 3} in. deep. 

Marks : (i.) maker, A. K. in oblong ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) Uon passant ; (iv.) date-letter, N1808. 
(Iicmdon). 



CHURCH PLATE COMMITTEE. 109^ 

Inscription : " Romansleigh ex dono Gulielmi Partridge 
A.M. hujus ecclesiae Rectoris A.D. 1808." 

Paten. — ^A silver waiter on three legs. If in. high^ 
8 J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. L. ; (ii.) lion passant ; (iii.) castle ; 
(iv.) King's head ; (v.) date-letter N1809 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " I.H.S. This is my body that was given 
for you. Mark 14 chap. 22 v." 

Flagon, — ^Electro-plate. Modem mediaeval pattern. 

Alms Dish, — Plain. 1 in. high, 8J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. L. ; (ii.) lion passant ; (iii.)- 
eastle ; (iv.) King's head ; (v.) date-letter, 1809 (Exeter). 

Inscription : ''He that hath pity on the poor lendeth 
unto the Lord. Ptov. 19 chap. 17 ver." 

SATTERLEIOH. 

Chalice. — Late Georgian style, stem with knop. 7i in. 
high ; bowl, 3^ in. diameter, d| in. deep. 

Marks : (i.) 7^ ^. in irregular double oval ; (ii.) 
leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) Hon passant ; (iv.) date- 
letter, 1766 (London). 

Inscription: ''The gift of William Melhuish, Esq., and 
Mary his wife to Satterleigh parish. 1766." 

Paien. — ^Plain, on stand. 1^ in. high, 4} in. diameter. 

Marks : as on chalice. 

Inscription : as on chahce. 

Flagon. — ^Plain tankard shape, with domed cover. 8J in. 
high. 3^ in. diameter at lid, 4| in. diameter at foot. 

Marks : as on chalice. 

Inscription : as on chalice. 

TWITCHEN. 

Chalice. — Egg-shaped bowl on short, conical stem,, 
with no knop. 5J in. high ; bowl, 4 in. deep, 3^ in. di- 
ameter ; foot, 3t in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. P. (perhaps Joseph Pearse, entered 
1748) ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; 
(iv.) castle ; (v.) date-letter, 01787 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " Rev. C. Chilcott, Vicar. N. Molton. 
Richd. Tapp. Ch.Warden, 1788." 



108 THIED REPORT OF THE 

Paten, — 1. On stand, gilt. 1^ in. high, 6 in. diameter. 

Marks : as on chalice. 

2. Plain, on stand. IJ in. high. 1\ in. diameter; 
foot, 2\ in. diameter. 

Marks: (i.) maker, j6l with crown over; (ii.) Britannia; 
(iii.) lion's head erased ; (iv.) castle ; (v.) date-letter, 
C 1703 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " This is my body given for you ; do this in 
remembrance of me." On a cross : — horizontal limb, " We 
preach X crucified. 1 Cor. vi. 25 " ; vertical limb, " Jesus 
X and him crucified. 1 Cor. ii. 2 " ; " I am crucified with 
Christ. Gal. ii. 20. Deo et ecclesise Sc. Altari Parochiae 
Rose Ash, Ludovic Southcomb, Rector, A.D. 1703." 

Flagon, — ^Tankard-shaped, with spout, which is a 
later addition. 11^ in. high. 4 in. diameter at lid, 6^ in. 
at base. 

Marks: (i.) maker, B. A. (Edward Bamett); (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1)1719 
(London). 

Inscription : " + IHS. The cup of blessing which we 
bless, is it not the communion of ye blood of Ch**" ? 1 Cor. 
X. 16. Deo et Ecclesise Sc. Altari Rose Ash MDCCXX. 
Lud. Southcombe, Rector." On a cross : — horizontal limb, 
" Drink ye all of this. S. Matt. 26, 27, 28 " ; vertical limb, 
*' For this is my blood." 

Spout has marks : (i.) J. S. ; (ii.) lion's head erased ; 
(iii.) F. 

Alms Dish. — Saucer or Bowl, with scalloped edge. 
IJ in. high, 7 J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, — W. ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned; 
(iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, fj 1755 (London). 

Inscription : '' Give alms of thy goods and never turn 
thy face from any poor man and the face of the Lord 
shall not be turned from thee." 

RUMONSLBIGH. 

Chalice, — Low, broad, conical stem, with no boss or 
knop. Height, 6J in., bowl, 4 in. diameter, 3i in. deep. 

Marks : (i.) maker, A. K. in oblong ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) hon passant ; (iv.) date-letter, N1808. 
(London). 



CHURCH PLATS COMMITTEE. 109^ 

Inscription : '' Romansleigh ex dono Gulielmi Partridge 
A.M. hujus ecclesiae Rectoris A.D. 1808." 

Paten. — ^A silver waiter on three legs. If in. high^ 
8J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. L. ; (ii.) lion passant ; (iii.) castle ; 
(iv.) King's head ; (v.) date-letter N1809 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " I.H.S. This is my body that was given 
for you. Mark 14 chap. 22 v." 

Flagon. — ^Electro-plate. Modem mediaeval pattern. 

Alms Dish. — ^Plain. 1 in. high, 8J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. L. ; (ii.) lion passant ; (iii.)- 
castle ; (iv.) King's head ; (v.) date-letter, 1809 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " He that hath pity on the poor lendeth 
unto the Lord. Ptov. 19 chap. 17 ver." 

SATTERLEIGH. 

Chalice. — Late Georgian style, stem with knop. 7i in. 
high ; bowl, 3^ in. diameter, 3| in. deep. 

Marks : (i.) ^ ^. in irregular double oval ; (ii.) 
leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) Uon passant ; (iv.) date- 
letter, 1766 (London). 

Inscription: "The gift of WiUiam Melhuish, Esq., and 
Mary his wife to Satterleigh parish. 1766." 

PcUen. — ^Plain, on stand. IJ in. high, 4| in. diameter. 

Marks : as on chalice. 

Inscription : as on chaUce. 

Flagon. — ^Plain tankard shape, with domed cover. 8i in. 
high. 3^ in. diameter at lid, 4| in. diameter at foot. 

Marks : as on chalice. 

Inscription : as on chaUce. 

TWTTCHEN. 

Chalice. — Egg-shaped bowl on short, conical stem,, 
with no knop. 5J in. high ; bowl, 4 in. deep, 3^ in. di- 
ameter ; foot, 3t in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. P. (perhaps Joseph Pearse, entered 
1748) ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; 
(iv.) castle ; (v.) date-letter, 01787 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " Rev. C. Chilcott, Vicar. N. Molton. 
Richd. Tapp. Ch.Warden, 1788." 



110 THIBD REPORT OF THE 

Paten, — ^Plain, on stand. 2 in. high, 6 in. diameter; 
foot, 2t in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, A. M., E. P. in quatrefoil (M. Amott 
and Edward Pocock ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; 
(iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, F1721 (London). 

Inscription : " John Buckingham, Warden, 1723." 

Flagon, — ^Tankard shape, plain. 8J in. high, 3J in. 
diameter ; at foot, 4^ in. base. 

Marks : (i.) maker, T. C. (perhaps Thomas Clarke) ; 
(ii.) leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) Uon passant ; (iv.) 
castle ; (v.) date-letter, n 1737 (Exeter). 

Inscription : " The gift of Aldred Sanger, 1737." 

Alms Dish. — Plain plate, with beaded rim. 6| in. 
diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, ^ ^ / (ii.) lion peussant ; (iii.) 
King's head; (iv.) /. 2", 

WARKLEIGH. 

Chalice. — Elizabethan style, with stem somewhat 
shorter than usual in the chalices by its maker. Usual 
foliated band three-quarter way up the bowl, dotted 
ornamentation round fine, bold knop, and other usual 
Matthew ornamentation. 6^ in. high ; bowl, 4| in. 
diameter, 3J in. deep. 

Marks : (i.) ornament ; (ii.) T ; (iii.) MATHEV mter- 
Unked. 

Chalice Cover. — Usual Elizabethan style. With foli- 
ated band. 1| in. high, 4^ in. diameter; button orna- 
mented with concentric rings. 

Marks : as on chalice. 

Paten. — Plain, on stand. 2J in. high, 8^ in. diameter ; 
foot, 3J in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, ^. S. (John Elston) ; (ii.) leopard's 
head crowned ; (iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) castle ; (v.) 
date-letter, VI 723 (Exeter). 

WITHERIDOE. 

Chalices. — 1. Early Georgian style, with somewhat 
long stem and small knop. Height, 1\ in. ; bowl, with 
Bhght lip, 3| in. diameter, 3J in. deep ; foot, 3J in. di- 
ameter. 



CHURCH PLATE COMMITTBB. Ill 

Marks : (i.) maker, Sfi, S. in oval (Philip Elston) ; (ii.) 
leopard's head crowned; (iii.) lion passant; (iv.) castle; 
(v.) date-letter, w 1744 (Exeter). 

Weight, 8 oz. 16 dwt. 

2. Gothic type, a copy of the Combe Pyne chalice. 
7f in. high. Stem with good boss ; bowl, 4^ in. diameter, 
2f in. deep ; foot hexagonal, 5^ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, J. W. F. C. W. ; (ii.) leopard's head ; 
(iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) date-letter, 1897 (London). 

Inscription : " Richard Melhuish 1798. Bertha F. de 
Gex. John Peter Benson 1898." 

Patens. — 1. Plain, heavy plate. 7 in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, ^. S. in oval ; (ii.) leopard's head 
crowned ; (iii.) Hon passant ; (iv.) castle ; (v.) date- 
letter, 1744 (Exeter). 

Weight, 9 oz. 2 dwt. 

2. Modem mediaeval, 6 in. diameter. Nettlecombe 
style. 

Marks and inscription as on Chalice No. 2. 

Flagon. — ^Modern glass and silver bands and handle. 

Alms Dish. — ^Plain plate, 9^ in. diameter. 

Marks : (i.) maker, G. S. in square device under ; (ii.) 
leopard's head crowned ; (iii.) Hon passant ; (iv.) King's 
head ; (v.) date-letter, B1797 (London). 

Inscription : " The gift of Richard Melhuish, Esq., 
April 6th, 1798." 

Breads box. — Old silver snufiF-box. 

Marks : (i.) maker, P. C. ; (ii.) leopard's head crowned ; 
(iii.) lion passant ; (iv.) Sovereign's head ; (v.) date- 
letter, 1793 (London). 

Inscription: "D.G." Crest. 



SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 

Second Report of the Committee — consisting of Miss Rose 

E. Carr-Smithy Honble. Mrs. CoJborne, Sir Alfred Crofir 

Miss C. E. Larter, Mr. C. H. Laycock, Dr. H. O. Peacock, 

Miss C. Peck, Dr. A. B. Prowse, Mr. C. E. Robinson, 

Mr. A. Sharland, Miss Helen Saunders, Mr. T. Wain- 

torighty and Mr. W. P. Hiem (Secretary), with power 

to add to their number — for the purpose of investigaiing 

matters connected vrith the Flora and Botany of Devon- 

shire. 

Edited by W. P. Hiern. 

(Read at CaUompton, 27th July, 1910.) 



In the First Report of the Committee an exact definition 
was proposed for a precise deUmitation between Watson's 
vice-coimties III (South Devon) and IV (North Devon). 
Since Watson's time two parishes, Chardstock and Hawk- 
church, in his vice-county IX (Dorset) have been, in 1896, 
transferred to Devon. At the same time Churchstanton, 
in vice-coimty III, was transferred to Somerset. There 
are now 460 civil parishes in Devon. 

For the convenience of botanists the following table is 
supplied, referring in alphabetical order each civil parish, 
whether rural or urban, to its botanical district ; indicating 
the direction of its drainage, whether to the north or 
south coast of the county ; and giving the number of the 
vice-coimty. 

The botanical districts are: (1) Barnstaple, (2) Tor- 
rington, (3) South Molton, (4) Exeter, (5) Honiton, (6) 
Torquay, (7) Plymouth, and (8) Tavistock. 



SECOND BBPOBT OF THB BOTANY OOMMITTBB. 113 



Xaine of Ru«l (R) 

Civil P«1.h, Urb.*(U.X 

Abbotsbickingtoa ... B. . 

Abbotsham R. . 

Abbotskerawell R. . 

Alphingtou R. .' 

Alversdiscott R. . 

Alwington R. . 

Arlington R. . 

Ashborton U. . 

Ashbnry R. . 

Ashcombe R. . 

Ashford R. . 

Ashprington R. . 

Ashreigney R. . 

Ashton R. . 

Ashwater R. . 

Atherington R. . 

AvetonGifford R. . 

Awliflcombe R. . 

Axminfiter R. . 

Axmouth R. . 

Aylesbeare R. . 

Bampton U. . 

Barnstaple U. . 

Beaford R. . 

Beaworthy R. . 

Beer R. . 

Belstone R. . 

Bere Ferrera R. . 

Berrynarbor R. . 

Berry Pomeroy R. . 

Bickington R. . 

Bickleigh 

{Plymptou Union) R. . 
Biokleigh 

(Tiverton Union) R. . 

Bicton R. . 

Bideford U. . 

Bigbury R. . 

Bishopsnympton ... R. . 

BiabopBtawton R. . 

Bishopsteignton .... R. . 

Bittadon R. . 

Black&wton R. . 

Black Torrington ... R. . 

Bondleigh B. . 

VOL. XLH. 



Number 

of D.TOD 

Botuiio.1 
Diftriot 


Diaini to 

North (N.) 

or Booth (8.) 

Cout. 


W.tion'* v.-c. 

III. 8. Dmron, 

IV. N. Devon, 
IX. "Dorset.' 


. 2 


. N. . 


IV 


1 


N. . 


IV 


6 


. S. . 


in 


< 4 


. S. . 


m 


. 2 . 


. N. . 


IV 


1 


. N. . 


IV 


1 


. N. . 


IV 


6 


. S. . 


m 


. 2 . 


. N.&S. . 


. IV 


4 


. S. . 


ni 


1 


. N. . 


IV 


. 7 


. S. . 


ni 


3 


. N. . 


IV 


. 4 


S. . 


m 


. 2 


. S. . 


. IV 


1 


N. . 


IV 


. 7 . 


. S. . 


III 


. 6 . 


. S. . 


. m 


. 6 . 


. s. . 


. ra 


. 6 . 


. s. . 


m 


. 6 . 


. s. . 


ni 


. 4 


. s. . 


IV 


1 


. N. . 


. IV 


. 2 


N. . 


IV 


. 2 . 


. N.&S. . 


IV 


. 5 . 


. S. . 


m 


. 2 


. N. . 


IV 


. 8 . 


. S. . 


m 


1 


. N. . 


. IV 


. 7 . 


. S. . 


. Ill 


6 


. S. . 


. m 


. 8 


. s. . 


. in 


. 4 


. s. . 


m 


. 5 . 


. s. . 


m 


1 


. N. . 


IV 


7 . 


. s. . 


m 


3 


. N. . 


IV 


1 


. N. . 


IV 


. 6 


. S. . 


m 


1 


. N. . 


IV 


7 . 


. S. . 


in 


. 2 . 


. N. . 


IV 


. 3 


. N. . 


IV 



114 SECOND BBPOBT OF THB BOTANY OOBOflTTBB. 



Name of Ru«l (R.) 

Civil Parish. Urban (U.X 

Bovey Tracey R. . 

Bow R. . 

Bradford R. . 

Bradninch R. . 

Bradstone R. . 

Bradworthy R. . 

Brampford Speke ... R. . 

Branscombe R. . 

Bratton aovelly ... R. . 

„ Fleming ... R. . 

Braunton R. . 

Brendon R. . . 

Brentor R. . , 

Bridestowe R. . 

Bridford R. . 

Bridgerule, East R. . . 

West ... R. .. 

Brixham U. . , 

Brixton R. . . 

Broadclist R. . , 

Broadhembury R. . . 

Broadhempstone ... R. . . 

Broadwoodkelly .... R. . . 

Broadwoodwidger . . R. . . 

Brushford R. . . 

Buckerell R. .. 

Buckfastleigh, East . U. . . 

West . R. . . 

Buckland Brewer ... R. . . 

Mlleigh .. R. .. 

„ in the Moor R. . . 

„ Monachorum R. . . 

„ tout Saints R. . . 

Budleigh Salterton . . U. . . 

Bulkworthy R. . . 

Bnrlescombe R. . . 

Burrington R. . . 

Butterleigh R. . . 

Cadbury R. . . 

Cadeleigh R. . . 

Chagford R. .. 

ChaUacombe R. . . 

Chardstock R. . . 

Charles R. . . 

Charleton R. . . 



Number 
of DeTOD 
Botanioa 

District. 


Dimint to 

North (N.) 

or South (&) 

Coast. 


Watwn't T.-c, 

III. aDeron, 

IV. N. Devon, 
IX. "Donet." 


6 .. 


S. • • 


m 


3 


N.&S. .. 


IV 


2 


N. .. 


IV 


•4 


S. .. 


in 


8 .. 


s. .. 


rv 


2 


N.&S. .. 


IV 


4 .. 


S. .. 


m 


5 .. 


S. .. 


m 


8 .. 


S. .. 


IV 


1 


N. .. 


IV 


1 


N. .. 


IV 


1 .. 


N. .. 


IV 


8 


S. .. 


m 


8 


N.&S. .. 


IV 


6 


S. .. 


m 


2 ., 


S. .. 


IV 


2 .. 


S. .. 


IV 


6 .. 


S. .. 


m 


7 .. 


S. .. 


in 


4 


S. .. 


in 


4 .. 


S. .. 


m 


6 


S. .. 


m 


2 .. 


N. .. 


IV 


8 


S. .. 


IV 


3 


N. .. 


IV 


5 .. 


S. .. 


m 


7 


S. .. 


m 


7 .. 


s. .. 


m 


1 


N. .. 


IV 


2 .. 


N. .. 


IV 


6 .. 


S. .. 


ni 


8 


s. .. 


m 


7 .. 


s. .. 


m 


5 ., 


s. .. 


m 


1 .. 


N. .. 


IV 


4 .. 


s. .. 


m&iv 


3 


N. .. 


IV 


4 


S. .. 


m 


4 


s. .. 


ra 


4 


s. .. 


m 


6 .. 


s« 


m 


1 


N. .. 


IV 


5 .. 


s. .. 


IX 


3 .. 


N. .. 


IV 


7 .. 


S. .. 


m 



SECOND REPORT OP THE BOTANY COMMITTBE. 116 



Name of ^^^^^^ 

Civil P^rirti. Vt\^(U.). 

Chawleigh B. • 

Cheldon B. • 

Cheriton Bishop .... R. . 

„ Fitzpaine . . R. . 

Cliittlehamholt R. . 

ChittlehamptoD .... R. . 

ChiTelstone R. . 

Christow R. . 

Chudleigh R. . 

Chulmleigh R* 

Churchstow R. • 

Chursfcon Ferrers ... R. . 

dannaborougli R. . 

dawton R. . 

Clayhanger R. • 

Clayhidon R. . 

Clovelly R. . 

Clyst Honiton R. . 

„ Hydon R. . 

„ St. George R. . 

„ St. Lawrence . . R. . 

„ St. Mary R. . 

Cockingt^n R. 

OoffinsvvoU R. . 

Colatoa Raleigh R. . 

Coldridge R. . 

Colebrooke R. . 

Colyton R. . 

Combmai-tin R. . 

Compton Gifford ... R. . 

Cookbury R. . 

Coombpyne R. . 

Coombe Raleigh .... R. . 

Comwood , R. . 

Comworthy R. • 

Coryton R. • 

Cotleigh R. . 

CountiBbury R. . 

Creacombe R. . 

Crediton Hamlets ... R. . 

Town U. . 

Cniwys Morchard ... R. • 

Cullompton R. - 

Colmstock R* 

Dalwood R. • 



Number 
of Devon 
Botanical 
District. 



Drain! to 

North (N.) 

or South (&) 

Coast. 



3 


. N. .. 


. 3 . 


. N. .. 


6 


. S. .. 


. 3 . 


. s. .. 


3 


. N. .. 


. 3 . 


. N. .. 


. 7 . 


. S. .. 


4 


, S. .. 


6 


. s. .. 


. 3 


. N. .. 


. 7 . 


. s. .. 


6 


. s. .. 


3 


. s. .. 


. 2 


. s. .. 


4 


. N.&S. .. 


4 


, S. .. 


1 


. N. . . 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 


4 


. s. .. 


. 5 . 


. s. .. 


4 


. s. .. 


. 5 . 


. s. .. 


. 6 . 


. s. .. 


6 


. s. .. 


. 5 . 


. s. .. 


3 . 


. N. .. 


3 . 


. s. .. 


. 5 . 


. s. .. 


. 1 . 


. N. .. 


. 8 . 


. S. .. 


. 2 . 


. N. .. 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 


. 7 . 


. s. .. 


. 7 . 


. s. .. 


. 8 . 


. s. .. 


. 5 , 


. s. .. 


. 1 


. N. .. 


. 3 . 


. . N. . . 


. 3 . 


. N.&S. .. 


. 3 . 


. S. .. 


4 . 


. N.&S. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


4 . 


. S. .. 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 



WatMin'a v.-c., 

III. 8. Devon, 

IV. N. DmroD, 
IX. " Dorset •• 

IV 
IV 

in 
111 

IV 
IV 

m 
m 
m 

IV 

m 
m 

IV 
IV 

IV 

m 

IV 

ui 
in 
m 
m 
III 
in 
in 
in 

IV 
IV 

ni 

IV 

ni 

IV 

ni 
ni 
in 
in 

IV 

in 

IV 
IV 

in 
in 

IV 

in 
in 

m 



116 SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEB. 



Name of Rural (R) 

Civil Partth. Urba^ScU.). 

Dartiiigton B. . 

Dartmouth U. . 

Dawliflh, East U. . 

West R. . 

Dean Prior R. . 

Devonport U. . 

Diptford R. . 

Dittisham R. . 

Doddiscombsleigh . . R. . 

Dolton R. . 

Dowland R. . 

Down St. Mary R. . 

Drewsteignton R. . 

Dunohideock R. . 

Duiikegwell R. , 

Dunsford R. . 

Dunterton R. . 

East Allington R. . 

„ Anstey R. . 

„ Buckland R. . 

„ Budleigh R. . 

„ Down R. . 

„ Putford R. . 

„ Stonehouse .... U. . 

„ Worlington ... R. . 

Egg Buckland R. . 

Eggesford R. . 

Ermington R. . 

Exboume R. . 

Exeter U. . 

Exminster R. . 

Farringdon R. . 

Farway R. . 

Feniton R. . 

Fillcigh R. . 

Fremington R. . 

Frithelfitock R. . 

Georgeham R. . 

Georgenympton .... R. . 

Germansweek R. . 

Gidleigh R. . 

Gittisham R. . 

Groodleigh R. . 

Great Torrington ... U. . 



Number 
of Devon 
Botanical 
District 



Diainti to 

North (!U 

or South (8.) 

Coast. 



. 7 . 


. S. .. 


. 6 . 


. S. .. 


. 6 


. s. .. 


. 6 


. s. .. 


. 7 . 


. s. .. 


7 


. s. .. 


. 7 


. s. .. 


. 7 . 


. s. .. 


4 


. s. .. 


. 2 


. N. .. 


. 2 . 


N. .. 


3 


. N. .. 


6 


. s. .. 


4 


. s. .. 


. 5 . 


. s. .. 


6 


. s. .. 


8 


. s. .. 


. 7 . 


. s. .. 


3 


. N.&S. .. 


. 3 . 


. N. .. 


, 5 . 


. S. .. 


1 


. N. .. 


. 1 . 


N. .. 


. 7 . 


. S. .. 


3 


. N. .. 


. 8 . 


. S. .. 


. 3 


. N. .. 


. 7 


. S. .. 


. 2 . 


. N. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


4 


. s. .. 


. 6 . 


. s. .. 


. 5 . 


. s. .. 


. 5 . 


. s. .. 


. 3 


N. .. 


. 1 


. N. .. 


2 . 


. N. .. 


1 


. N. .. 


3 


. N. .. 


. 8 . 


. S. .. 


6 


. S. .. 


. 6 


. s. .. 


1 


N. .. 


. 2 . 


. N. .. 



Watson'K v.-c.^ 
IIL & Devon. 
IV. N. Devon, 
IX. "Dorset"^ 

m 
m 
m 
m 
ni 
m 
in 
m 
m 

IV 
IV 

IV 

m 
in 
m 
m 

IV 

in 

IV 
IV 

m 

IV 
IV 

m 

IV 

m 

IV 

ni 

IV 

m 
m 

ni 
ni 
m 

IV 
IV 
IV 

IV 
IV 
IV 

m ' 
m 

IV 
IV 



SECOND BSPOBT OF THB BOTANY OOMMITTSB. 117 



Nam* of 
Civil Parish. 



Rara](R) 
Urban (U.>. 



Haccombe with 

Coombe B. 

Halberton B. 

HalweU R- 

HalwiU R. 

Harberton R. 

Haiford R. 

ELarpford R. 

Hartland R. 

EEatherleigh R. 

Hawkchurch R. 

Heanton Pnnchaidon R. 

Heavitree U. 

Hemyock R. 

Hennock R. 

Highampton R. 

High Bickington ... R. 

„ Bray R. 

H^hweek U. 

Hittdsleigh B. 

Hockworthy B. 

Holbeton B. 

Holcombe Bumell . . B. 

„ Bogus ... B. 

Hollacombe B. 

Hohie B. 

Holsworthy U. 

,, Hamlets . . B. 

Honiton U. 

Horwood B. 

Huish B. 

Huntsham B* 

Huntshaw B. 

Huxham B. 

Iddesleigh B. 

Ide B. 

Ideford B. 

Hfraoombe U. 

Hsington B. 

Instow B. 

Inwardleigh B. 

Ipplepen B. 

Ivybridge U. 



Jacobstowe 



B. 



Number Dnini to W.tMn'a v.-c., 

of Dvran North (SA III. S. OsTon, 

Botanical or South (&) IV. N. I)«ron, 

DMrict Cowt. IX. "Dotwt." 



m 

m&iv 

m 

IV 

in 
m 
in 

IV 
IV 
IX 
IV 

m 
m 
ni 

IV 
IV 
IV 

ni 
m 

IV 

m 

in 

m&iv 

IV 

in 

IV 

IV 

m 

IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 

m 

IV 

ni 
ni 

IV 

in 

IV 

IV 

in 
m 

IV 



6 


. S. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


.. 7 . 


. S. .. 


.. 2 . 


. S. .. 


.. 7 


. S. .. 


.. 7 . 


. S. .. 


.. 5 . 


. S. .. 


.. 1 . 


. N. .. 


.. 2 


. N. .. 


.. 6 . 


. S. .. 


.. 1 . 


. N. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


4 


S. .. 


6 


. s. .. 


.. 2 


. N. .. 


.. 2 


. N. .. 


.. 1 . 


. N. .. 


.. 6 


. S. .. 


.. 6 


. s. .. 


4 


. N.&S. .. 


.. 7 . 


. S. .. 


.. 4 


. s. .. 


.. 4 . 


. N.&S. .. 


.. 2 . 


. S. .. 


.. 6 


S. .. 


.. 2 


. S. .. 


.. 2 


. N.&S. .. 


.. 6 . 


. S. .. 


1 


N. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. ,. 


.. 4 . 


. S. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. .. 


.. 4 


. S. .. 


.. 2 


N. .. 


4 . 


. s. .. 


.. 6 . 


. S. .. 


.. 1 


. N. .. 


.. 6 . 


. S. .. 


.. 1 


. N. .. 


2 . 


. N. .. 


.. 6 . 


. S. .. 


.. 7 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. .. 



118 SECOND BBPOBT OF THE BOTANY COMKITTBB. 



Name of Bural (R.) 

Civil Parish. urba'^n (U.). 

KeUy R. . 

Kenn B. . 

Kennerleigh B. . 

Kentisbefl^ B. . 

KentiBbury B. . 

Kenton B. . 

Kilmington B. . 

Kingsbridge and Dod- 

brooke U. . 

Kingskerwell B. . 

Eangsnympton B. . 

Eangsteignton B. . 

Eangston B. . 

Kingswear B. . 

Knowstone B. . 

Lamerton B. . 

Landcross B. . 

Landkey B. . 

Langtree B. . 

Lapford B. . 

Lewtrenchard B. . 

lifton B. , 

Idttleham (Bideford 

Union) B. . 

Idttleham and Exmouth 

(St. Thomas Union) U. . 

littlehempstone .... B. . 

Little Torrington ... B. . 

Loddiswell B. . 

Loxbeare (with Cal- 

verleigh) B. . 

Loxhore B. . 

Luffincott B. . 

Lundy Island B. . 

Luppitt B. . 

Lustleigh B. , 

Lydford B. 

Lympstone B. , 

Lynton U. 

Malborongh B. 

Mamhead B. . 

Manaton B. . 

Mariansleigh B. 

Marldon B. 



Namber 
of Devon 
Botanical 

District. 



Dimins to 

North (N.) 

or South (8.) 

CkMt. 



. 8 . 


. S. .. 


4 


S. .. 


3 


. a. .. 


4 


s. .. 


1 


N. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


. 5 . 


. s. .. 


7 


. s. .. 


6 


. s. .. 


3 


. N. .. 


6 


s. .. 


7 


s. .. 


6 


. s. .. 


3 


. N.&S. .. 


8 


. S. .. 


1 


N. .. 


1 


. N. .. 


2 


. N. .. 


3 


. N. .. 


8 


. S. .. 


. 8 


. S. .. 


1 


. N. .. 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 


7 


S. .. 


2 


. N. .. 


. 7 


. S. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


1 


. N. .. 


2 


. S. .. 


1 


N. .. 


. 5 


. S. ,. 


6 


s. .. 


8 


. N.&S. .. 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 


1 


. N. .. 


7 


. S. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


6 


s. .. 


3 


. N. .. 


6 


. S. .. 



WatMD'a T.4., 

III. 8. Deron, 

IV. K. Devon, 
IX. "Donet." 

IV 

m 
m 
m 

IV 

ui 
m 

m 
m 

IV 

m 
m 
m 

IV 

in 

IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



IV 

in 
m 

IV 

III 

IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 

m 

m 

ni& 

m 

IV 

in 
m 
m 

IV 

ni 



IV 



8BOOKD BBPOBT OF THB BOTAinr COMMITTBE. 11^ 



NamA of 
Ci\il FftriBh. 



Rural (R.) 

or 
Urban (U.). 



Number 
of Devon 
Botanical 
Distaict. 



Drains to 

North (N.) 

or South (8.) 

Ckiast. 



Maitinhoe 

Marwood 

Meuystow 

Mary Tavy 

Meavy 

Meeth , 

Membury 

Merton 

Meahaw 

MUber 

MUton Abbot 

„ Damerell . . . 

Modbury 

Holland 

Monkleigh 

Monkokehampton . 

Monkton 

Morohard Bishop . . 

Morebath , 

Moretonhampstead 

Morleigh 

Morte-hoe 

Musbury 



R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
U. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 
R. 



Nethereze R. 

Newton Ferrers .... R. 

„ Poppleford.. R. 

St. Cyres ... R. 

St. Petrock . R. 

„ Tracey R. 

Northam U. 

North Bovey R. 

Northcott Hamlet . . R. 

North Huish R. 

Northleigh R. 

Northlew R. 

North Molton R. 

„ Petherwin ... R. 

„ Tawton R. 

Nymet Rowland .... R. 

Oakford R. 

OffweU R. 

Ogwell R. 

Okehampton U. 

,, Hamlets R. 



.. 1 . 


. N. .. 


.. 1 


. N. .. 


.. 8 


. S. .. 


.. 8 . 


. S. .. 


8 . 


. s. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. .. 


.. 5 . 


. S. .. 


.. 2 


. N. .. 


.. 3 . 


. N. .. 


6 


. S. .. 


.. 8 . 


. s. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. .. 


.. 7 


. S. .. 


.. 3 


. N.&S. ,. 


.. 1 . 


N. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. .. 


.. 5 . 


. S. .. 


.. 3 . 


. N.&S. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


.. 6 


. S. .. 


.. 7 . 


, S. .. 


1 


N. .. 


.. 5 . 


. S. .. 


4 . 


. S. .. 


.. 7 . 


. s. .. 


.. 5 . 


. s. .. 


.. 3 


. s. .. 


1 


. N. .. 


1 


. N. .. 


.. 1 


K .. 


.. 6 . 


. S. .. 


.. 2 . 


. s. .. 


.. 7 . 


. s. .. 


.. 5 . 


. s. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. .. 


.. 3 . 


. N.&S. .. 


.. 8 . 


. S. .. 


.. 3 . 


. N. .. 


.. 3 . 


. N. .. 


4 


.8. .. 


.. 5 . 


. S. .. 


6 


. S. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N.&S. .. 



Wataoiia v.-c., 
III. 8. Drvon, 
JV. N. Devon, 
IX. "Doniet." 

IV 
IV 
IV 

ni 
m 

IV 

in 

IV 
IV 

in 
in 

IV 

in 

IV 
IV 
IV 

m 

IV 
IV 

m 
in 

IV 

in 

m 
m 
III 
in 

IV 
IV 
IV 

III 

IV 

in 
ni 

IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 

IV 

m 
in 

IV 
IV 



120 8BOOND BBPOBT OF THB BOTAKY COMMITTBB. 



N«n« of Rur^(B.) 

CiTil PtaWu UrbiS^CU.). 

Otterton R. 

Ottery St. Mary U. 

Paignton U. 

Pancrasweek R. 

Parkham R. 

Parracombe R. 

Payhembury R. 

PeterB Marland R. 

Peter Ta\y R. 

Petrockstow R. 

Pilton, East U. 

„ West R. 

Pinhoe R. 

Plymouth U. 

Plympton Maurice . . R. 

„ St. Mary. . R. 

Plymstock U. 

Plymtree R. 

Poltimore R. 

Portlemouth R. 

Poughill R. 

Powderham R. 

Puddington R. 

Py worthy R. 

Queensnympton .... R. 

Rackenford R. 

Rattery R. 

Revelstok© R. 

Rewe with Upexe ... R. 

Ringmore R. 

Roborough R. 

Rockbeare R. 

Romansleigh R. 

Roseash R. 

Rousdon R. 

St. Budeauz R. 

„ Giles-in-the-Heath R. 

„ Wood R. 

„ Leonard R. 

y, Mary Church ... U. 

„ Nicholas U. 

„ Thomas U. 

Salcombe U. 

y, R^^ .... U. 



Number 
of Devon 
Botanical 

Diatriet. 



Drains to 

North (N.) 

or Soath (&) 

Coast. 



.. 6 . 


. S. .. 


.. 5 . 


. S. .. 


6 


. S. .. 


2 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 1 


. N. .. 


.. 1 


, N. .. 


4 . 


.8. .. 


.. 2 . 


N. .. 


.. 8 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. .. 


1 


. N. .. 


.. 1 


N. .. 


4 


. 8. .. 


.. 7 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 7 . 


8. .. 


.. 7 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 7 


8. .. 


4 


8. .. 


4 


. 8. .. 


.. 7 . 


. 8. .. 


3 


8. .. 


.. 4 


.8. . . 


.. 3 


. N.&8. .. 


,. 2 


. 8. .. 


.. 3 . 


. N. .. 


.. 3 . 


N. .. 


.. 7 . 


8. .. 


.. 7 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 4 


. 8. .. 


.. 7 


8. .. 


.. 2 . 


N. .. 


.. 5 . 


8. .. 


.. 3 . 


. N. .. 


.. 3 


. N. .. 


.. 5 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 8 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 8 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 2 . 


. N. .. 


.. 4 


. 8. .. 


.. 6 


. 8. .. 


,. 6 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 4 


. 8. .. 


.. 7 . 


. 8. .. 


.. 5 . 


. 8. . . 



Wataon'a t.-c, 

III. 8. DOTOn, 

IV. N. Dena, 
IX. "Donat' 

m 
m 

m 

IV 
IV 
IV 

m 

IV 

in 

IV 
IV 
IV 

m 
m 
in 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 
m 
in 

IV 
IV 

IV 

IV 

m 
m 
m 
ni 

IV 

m 

IV 
IV 

m 
m 

IV 
IV 

m 
in 
in 
m 
in 
in 



SECOND RBFOBT OF THB BOTANY OOMMITTBB. 



121 



Name of Ruml (R.) 

Civil P»ri.h. UrbiJoJ.). 

gioTd Courtenay B. . 

, Peverell . . R. , 

, Spiney ... R. . 

ford R. , 

srieigh & Wark- 

gh R. . 

>n U. . 

gh Prior R. . 

bear R. . 

petor R. . 

pwash R. . 

Ion R. . 

tord R. . 

wdU R. , 

ngford R. . 

rooke R. . 

B R. , 

ary R. . 

outh U. . 

rton R. . 

>on R. . 

bon R. . 

b Brent R. . 

Huish R. . 

Weigh R. . 

h Milton R. . 

Molton U. . 

Pool R. . 

Tawton R. . 

on R. . 

irton R. . 

srton R. . 

dand R. . 

deigh English . . R. . 

»f Pomeroy . R. . 

9 Canon R. . 

Fleming R. . 

Gabriel R. . 

dnteignhead ... R. . 

asiham R. . 

) Rivers R. . 

Ueigh R. . 

ford R. . 

>mbe R. . 

ibridge R. . 



Number 
of Devon 
BoUnical 

District. 



Drains to 
North (N.) 
or South (8.) 

COMt. 



. 2 . 


. N. .. 


. 4 


. S. .. 


. 8 


. S. .. 


3 


. N.&S. .. 


. 3 


. N. .. 


. 5 


. S. .. 


8 . 


. S. .. 


2 


. N. .. 


. 8 


. S. .. 


. 2 


. N. .. 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 


. 7 


. S. .. 


. 1 


N. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


. 3 


. s. .. 


. 5 


. s. .. 


. 5 , 


. s, .. 


. 5 . 


. s. .. 


4 


. s. .. 


. 7 . 


. s. .. 


. 8 . 


. N.&S. .. 


. 7 . 


. S. .. 


. 7 . 


. S. .. 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 


7 


. s. .. 


3 


. N. .. 


. 7 . 


. s. .. 


6 


. N.&S. .. 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 


6 


. N.&S. .. 


6 


. S. .. 


. 5 . 


. S. .. 


3 


. S. .. 


. 3 


. S. .. 


4 


. S. .. 


. 7 


. S. .. 


. 6 . 


. S. .. 


6 


. S. .. 


. 7 . 


. s. .. 


1 . 


N. .. 


4 


. s. .. 


. 8 . 


. s. .. 


. 2 . 


. N.&S. .. 


. 1 


. N. .. 



Watson's v.-c, 

III. 8. Devon, 

IV. N. Devon, 
IX. "Dorset" 

IV 

m&iv 
m 
in 

IV 

m 
m 

IV 

ni 

IV 

in 
m 

IV 

in 
ni 
m 
m 
ni 
m 
ni 

IV 

m 
in 
in 
ni 

IV 

ni 
rv 
in 

IV 

in 
ni 
in 
ni 
in 
ni 
in 
in 
in 

IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 
IV 



122 SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTAJSTT COMMTTTBE. 



Nmmeof Rural (R.) 

Ci.il Parish. Urb^nCU.). 

Sydenham Damerel . B. 

Talaton R. 

Tamerton Foliott ... R. 

Tavistock Hamlets . . R. 

„ Town .... U. 

Tawstock R. 

Tedbum St. Mary ... R. 

TeigDgrace R. 

Teignmouth U. 

Templeton R. 

Tetcott R. 

Thelbridge R. 

Thombury R. 

Tixoi verton R. 

Tkrowleigli R. 

ThruBhelton R. 

Thurlestone R. 

Tiverton U. 

Topsham R. 

Torbryan with Den- 
bury R. 

Tormoham U. 

Totnes U. 

Trentishoe R. 

Trusham R. 

Twitchen R. 

Uffculme R. 

Ugborough R. 

Uplowman R. 

Uplyme R. 

Upottery R. 

Upton Hellions R. 

„ Pyne R. 

Venn Ottery R. 

Virginstowe R. 

Walkhampton R. 

Washfield R. 

Washford Pyne R. 

Weare Giffard R. 

Weleombe R. 

Wembury R. 

Wembworthy R. 

Werrington R. 

West Alvington .... R. 



NiimbM- 
of Devon 
Botanical 
District. 


Diaira to 

North (N.) 

or South (8.) 

Cant. 


Wat«>n*ft T.<., 

III. 8. DoTon, 

IV. N. DmroD, 
IX. "Donet' 


.. 8 . 


. s. . 


m 


6 


s. . 


m 


8 . 


s. . 


m 


8 


. s. . 


m 


.. 8 . 


. s. . 


m 


1 


N. . 


IV 


6 


s. . 


m 


6 


s. . 


m 


6 


. s. . 


nr 


4 


. s. . 


IV 


.. 2 . 


s. . 


IV 


.. 3 . 


. N. . 


IV 


2 . 


N. . 


IV 


4 


. S. . 


m 


6 


. s. . 


m 


8 


. s. . 


IV 


.. 7 . 


. s. . 


in 


.. 4 


. s. . 


. mftiv 


4 


. s. . 


m 


6 


. s. . 


m 


6 


. s. . 


m 


7 . 


. s. . 


m 


1 


N. . 


IV 


6 


. s. . 


m 


.. 3 . 


. N.&S. . 


IV 


4 


. S. . 


III 


.. 7 . 


. S. . 


ni 


4 


. S. . 


IV 


.. 5 . 


. s. . 


m 


.. 5 . 


. s. . 


m 


.. 3 . 


. s. . 


m 


4 


. s. . 


m 


.. 5 . 


. s. . 


m 


.. 8 . 


. s. . 


IV 


.. 8 . 


. s. . 


m 


4 


. s. . 


IV 


.. 3 . 


. N.&S. . 


IV 


.. 2 . 


N. . 


IV 


1 


. N. . 


. IV 


.. 7 . 


. S. . 


m 


.. 3 . 


N. . 


IV 


.. 8 . 


. S. . 


IV 


.. 7 . 


. S. . 


m 



SECOND BEPORT OF THB BOTANY OOBOOTTBIB. 123> 



Name of 
Civil PariHh. 



Rural (R.) 

or 
Urban (U.). 



Number 

of DsTOtl 

Botanical 
Dtotrict. 


Dntn* to 

North (N.) 

or South (S.) 

Cowt 


Watson'a r.-c, 

III. a Devon, 

IV. N. DeTon, 
li "Dorset' 


.. 3 . 


. N.&S. . 


IV 


.. 3 . 


N. . 


IV 


1 


N. . 


IV 


.. 1 


. N. . 


IV 


.. 8 . 


. S. . 


. m 


.. 2 . 


N. . 


IV 


.. 6 


S. . 


m 


8 


. S. . 


in 


4 . 


. s. . 


m 


6 


. s. . 


m 


5 


. s. . 


m 


.. 4 


. s. . 


ni 


.. 3 . 


N. . 


IV 


.. 3 . 


. N.&S. . 


IV 


.. 5 . 


. S. . 


ni 


.. 6 . 


. S. . 


m 


.. 5 . 


. S. . 


m 


6 


. S. . 


m 


.. 7 . 


. s. • . 


ni 


.. 1 


. N. . 


. IV 


.. 3 . 


. N.&S. . 


IV 


6 


. S. . 


m 


.. 2 . 


. N. . 


IV 


.. 7 . 


. S. . 


ni 


.. 3 . 

L • 1 


N. . 


IV 



WestAnstey R. 

9, Buckland B. 

„ Down R. 

WeeUeigh R. 

Weston PevereU .... R. 

WestPutford R. 

Whimple R. 

Whitchurch R. 

Whitestone R. 

Wideoombe-in-the- 

Moor R. 

Widworthy R. 

Willand R. 

Winkleigh R. 

Witheridge R. 

Wiihycombe Raleigh R. 

Wolborough U. 

Woodbury R. 

Woodland R. 

Woodleigh R. 

Woolfardisworthy 

(Bideford Union) . R. 
Woolfardisworthy 

(Grediton Union) . R. 

Yaroombe R. 

Yamscombe R. 

Yealmpton R. 

Zeal Monachorum . . R. 



Calverleigh, an ancient parish, is now united with 
Loxbeare. 

Denbury, an ancient parish, is now united with Tor- 
bryan. 

Dodbrooke is united with Kingsbridge. 

East Teignmouth and West Teignmouth were united, 
as from 1 April, 1909, into one civil parish, to be called 
the parish of Teignmouth. 

Ezmouth belongs to the civil parish called Littleham 
and Exmouth. 

Honeychurch, an ancient parish, is now included in 
Sampford Courtenay. 

Honiton Clist. See Clyst Honiton. 



124 SECOND BEPORT OF THE BOTANY OOMMITTXa. 

Maxland. See Peters Maxland. 

Marychurch. See St. Mary Church. 

Newton Abbot is not a civil parish ; the Urban District 
consists of the three civil parishes of Highweek, Bfilber, 
and Wolborough. 

Nymet Tracey is another name for Bow. 

Pennycross is another name for Weston Peverell. 

St. Mary Down. See Down St. Mary. 

Stonehouse. See East Stonehouse. 

Torquay is mostly in the parish of Tormoham ; the 
borough of Torquay consists of the civil parishes of Tor- 
moham and St. Mary Chiurch. 

Torrington. See Great Torrington. 

Warkleigh, an ancient parish, is now united with Satter- 
leigh. 

Upexe. See Rewe with Upexe. 

West Worlington, an ancient parish, is now included in 
East Worlington. 



SXOOND BEPOBT OF THB BOTANY COMMITTXB. 125 



k 



1,^ 
I* 






1== 



I I I I *" I I I 





& 


ss 


2 1 ** 1 22 




1 1 I "» 1 1 1 -^ 




1 


1 =5 


$ SSSSS 


• - • . - . • 


1 




SSiSS^ 




1 


CO -^ 


-^ 1 <N 1 €0 




B 


5g 


Mill 




CO 


€0 CI 


lo r* c^ Oi i-H 






ss 


SS !3 S9 





ioiococo«^io«^^ 






n H 



s 

I 

S3 



M O o ^ 5 

H M Eh PM H 



S^ 



^ 



^ 



!S 



O 

H 



126 SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY OOMMITTBB. 

RECORDS. 

1. Barnstaple Botanical District. 

Papaver hybridum L. Braimton. 

Oeranium pratenae L. Kentisbury and Trentishoe. 

Linum uaiUUisaimum L. Braunton and Georgeham. 

Mdilotua alba Dear. Pilton (Mr. A. Sharland) and Sherwill. 

Trifclium squamosum L. Fremington, Ashford, Abbotsham, 

and Braunton. 
T, glomeratum L. Heanton Punchaidon. 
T. fUiforme L. Bishopstawton (Mr. R. Taylor) and Braimton. 
Rvbua acLxatilia L. Countisbury. 
Caucalis latifolia L. Barnstaple (casual). 
Onaphalium sylvaticum L. Morte-hoe and Brendon. 
Hieracium grandidena Dahlst., probably. Stoke Rivers. 
MenyarUhes trifoliata L. High Bray. 
Cuacuta trifolxi Bab. Braunton. 
Linaria vulgaris Mill. Westleigh ; the state called Pehria 

(Mr. A. Sharland). 
PlarUago maritima L., var. recurvata F. N. Williams. Braimton. 
LittoreUa uniflora Aschers. Braunton and Northam. 
JSciUa vema Huds. Hartland; Maton, Obs. ii. p. 64 (1797). 
J uncus effusus L., «/. inflexus L., and «/. diffusvs Hoppe ; all 

three close together. Fremington (Mr. A. Sharlajid). 
Carex pendula Huds. Monkleigh. 
JSdaria glauca Beauv. Hfracombe (casual). 
Lepturus fUtformis Trin. Braunton, Bideford, Northam, and 

Fremington. 
NiteUa ghmerata Chevall. Braimton. 

Cfiara vulgaris L., and var. C. longibracieata Kiitz. Braimton. 
C. contraria A. Br. Braunton. 
Chroolepus aureum Kiitz. Braunton and Bishopstawton (Mr. 

F. A. Brokenshire). 
HypoxyUm concerUricum Grev. Lynton. 

The following list of mosses for the Barnstaple district 
has been sent by Miss C. E. Larter : — 

Pleuridium axiUare Lindb. Loxhore, in 1906. 
DicraneUa secunda Lindb. Lynton, in 1902. 
Fissidens pusiUus Wils. Berrynarbor, Nov., 1906. 
AcauUm muiicum C. M. Ck)mbmartin, Jan., 1907. 



SECOND BEPOBT OF THE BOTANY COIOOTTEE. 127 

• 

PoUia bryoides Mitt. Ck>mbmartin, Jan., 1907. 

P. minutula Fiimr. Combmartin. 

Tortula muralis Hedw., var. rupeatris Schultz, 1903 (E. M. 

Holmes). 
Barbtda unguicvlata Hedw., var. cuapidata B. & S. Berry- 

narbor, June, 1908. 
Zyffodon conoideus Hook. & Tayl. Benynarbor, Oct., 1908. 
Orthotrichum diapkanum Schrad., var. aqtiaticum Davies. 

Berrynarbor. 
Funaria ericeiorum Dixon. Challacombe, Aug., 1908. 
Bryum erythrocarpum Schwseg. Combmartin, March, 1907. 
B. atropurpureum Web. & Mohr. Ck>untisbury (Mr. C. A. 

Briggs). 

B, murale Wils. 

Leptodon Smithii Mohr. Braunton, 1903 (E. M. Holmes). 
Eurhynchium circinatum B. k S. 

E. megapolitanum Milde. Georgeham, 1903 (E. M. Holmes). 
Hypnum cupressiforme L., var. ericetorum B. & S. Countis- 
bury (Mr. C. A. Briggs). 
Also the hepatic : — 
ChUo8cyphu8 paUescena Nees. Combmartin (Miss C. E. Larter). 

Miss Larter also records the following lichens for the 
Barnstaple district ; none of them were so included in 
the Devonshire Victoria County History. 

CoUema nigrescena Ach. Combmartin. 

C. pvipoaum Ach., in 1903 (E. M. Holmes). 
Lichina confinis C. Ag. Berrynarbor, in 1905. 
Baeomycea rufua D. C. Combmartin. 
Cladonia coccifera Schoen. Combmartm. 
Parmelia exaaperaia Nyl. Combmartin. 

P. phyaodea Ach. Combmartin. 
P. tiliacea Ach. Braunton, in 1903 (E. M. Holmes). 
Stictina aylvatica Nyl. Combmartin. 
Phyacia eroaa Leight. Lee-on-Sea, in 1903 (E. M. Holmes). 
P. tenella Ach. Watermouth, March, 1900. 
Lecanora atra Ach. Combmartin, Feb., 1906. 
li. irrubata Nyl. Berrynarbor, Nov., 1908. 
L. ochracea Nyl. Saunton, in 1903 (E. M. Holmes). 
Lecidea petrcea Wulf. Benynarbor. 

Endoearpon hepaUcum Ach. Berrynarbor, Sept., 1903 (E. M. 
Holmes). 



128 SECOND BEPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTBB. 

2. ToREiNOTON Botanical District. 

Teesdalia nvdicavlis R. B. Great Torrington. 

Lepidium campestre R. Br. St. 6iles-in-the-Wood. 

8deranihu8 annuua L. Okehampton. 

Trifolium glomeratum L. Great Torrington. 

Pyrus tomUnalis Ehrh. Great Torrington. 

Datura Stramonium L. Abbotsbickington (Rev. H. H. Harvey). 

Bumex jmlcher L. Sampford Courtenay. 

PotamogeUm jmaiUua L. St. Giles-in-the-Wood. 

Garex veaicaria L. Weare Giffard. 

Nardus stricta L. Beaford, Holsworthy, Belstone, and Oke- 
hampton. 

Aira flexuosa L. Belstone, Roborough, and Okehampton. 

Molinia ccertUea Moench. Roborough, Petersmarland, and 
Sampford Courtenay. 

Molinia casruUa, var. major Roth. Belstone (Miss C. E. 
Larter). 

Melica nutans L. {M. uni flora Retz.). Little Torrington, High 
Bickington, and Dolton. 

Poa nemoralis L. Great Torrington. 

Briza media L. Great Torrington. 

Featuca pratensis Huds. Bridgerule, East (Rev. W. Moyle 
Rogers). 

Bromus ramoaua Huds. Petersmarland and Sampford Cour- 
tenay. 

Asplenium lanceolatum Huds. Belstone. 

Chroolepus aureum Kiitz. St. Giles-in-the-Wood (Mr. F. A. 
Brokenshire). 

3. South Molton Botanical District. 

BanuncuXus penicillatus Hiem. Down St. Mary, Lapford, and 

Chulmleigh. 
B. arvensis L. Crediton Hamlets. 
HeUeborus viridis L. South Molton. 
Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Chittlehampton. 
Beseda lutea L. South Molton. 
Sagina svhvlata Presl. Molland. 
Alsine rubra Crantz. Bishopsnympton. 
Malva pusiUa Sm. Chulmleigh. 

Omithopus perpusiUv^ L. North Tawton and Bishopsnympton. 
Prunus domestica L. Mariansleigh (Miss H. Saunders). 



SECOND RBPOBT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 129 

Spircea Ulmaria L., var. dentuiata Boenn. Between Molland 

and South Molten (6. C. Druce). 
Subus Idceua L. North Molton, Roseash, East Anstey, and 

West Anstey. 
R. 8uberectu8 Anders. South Molton. 
J?. j>Ucatu8 Weihe & N. East Anstey. 
R, carisiensis Rip. & Genev. West Buckland. 
R. Drejeri G. Jensen. East Anstey (Rev. E. S. Marshall). 
Oeum rivale L. South Molton. 
Rosa 8pino8%88%ma L. South Molton. 
Pyrua communis L. Chittlehampton, Georgenympton, and 

North Molton. 
Epilobium obscurum x palustre = E. ligvlatum Baker. South 

Molton. 
CerUaurea Cyanus L. Georgenympton. 
Alectorolophtts hirsiUus All. Knowstone (Rev. W. Moyle 

Rogers). 
Salvia Verbenaca L. South Molton. 

Satureia Calamintha Scheete. North Molton and East Buck- 
land. 
Quercus Robur L. North Molton. " The Flitton Oak," said 

to be over 1000 years old, and referred by J. C. Loudon 

to the sub-species Q. sessiliflora Salisbury^ really belongs 

to the sub-species Q. peduncidata Ehrh. 
Heleocharis mtUticaulis Sm. Bishopsnympton. 
Scirpus seiaceus L. Satterleigh and Warkleigh, Kingsnympton, 

and Chulmleigh. 
Carex ptdicaris L. Charles, Kingsnympton, and North Molton. 
C. viUpina L. North Tawton and South Molton. 
C. panicvlata L. Chulmleigh, Lapford, Zeal Monachorum, 

Georgenympton, and Bishopsnympton. 
C. Ooodenovii Gay. North Molton and South Molton. 
C- pilulifera L. East Anstey. 
C, fvlva Host. South Molton. 
C. hdodes Link. North Molton, South Molton, Bbhopsnymp- 

ton, Satterleigh and Warkleigh, Chittlehampton, Wink- 

leigh, and Chulmleigh. 
Nardus striata L. East Anstey, West Anstey, and Molland. 
Agrostis setacea Curt. East Anstey. 
A. canina L. North Molton and West Anstey. 
A. pumila Lightf. Chittlehampton. 
Botrychium Lunaria Sw. South Molton. 

XLH. I 



130 SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTBB. 

'Ophioglossum mUgcUum L. Charles and South Melton. 
NiteUa opaca Ag. Bishopsnympton, Charles^ and Chittle- 
hampton. 



4. ExKTBR Botanical District. 

CasUdia alba Wood. Sampford Peverell, Halberton, and 

Bradmnch. 
MyosoUm aquaiicum Moench. St. Thomas. 
Mcenchia ereda Gaertn., Meyer & Scherb. Mamhead. 
Al8iv£, rubra Crantz. Mamhead. 
Pmnua insititia L. Tiverton. 
P. Ceraaus L. Christow (Rev. W. Moyle Bogers). 
Bom leucochroa Desv. Trusham (Rev. W. Moyle Bogers). 
R. stylosa Desv., var. pseudo-rusticana Cr6pin. Doddiscombe- 

leigh and Trusham (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers). 
Lyihrum Salicaria L. Tiverton. 
Sedum album L. Brampford Speke (not native). 
Saxifraga tridactylites L. Christow. 
Oenanthe Lachenalii Gmel. Topsham. 
Caucalis latifolia L. St. Thomas (casual). 
Smymium Oltbsatrum L. Halberton and Ashton. 
Comus sanguinea L. Halberton. 
ValerianeUa olitoria Poll. St. Thomas. 
Hieracium umbeUatum L., var. Upton Pyne (W. G. Maton, 

Observ, West. Count i. p. 93 [1797J). 
Scutellaria galericvlata L. Tiverton. 
CerUuncvlua minimus L. Tiverton. 

Plantago Timbali Jord. Ashton (Rev. W. Moyle Rogers). 
Daphne Laureola L. Topsham. 
Salix pentandra L. Halberton. 
Popvlus canescens Sm. Upton Pyne. 
Carex vul/pina L. Halberton. 

Oastridium kndigerum Gaud. Ashton (Rev. W. Moyle Bogers). 
Melica nutans L. (M. unifiora Retz.). Halberton. 
SderocMoa rigida Link. Halberton. 

Eurhynchium megapolitanum Milde. Silverton, Feb., 1908 
(Mr. G. B. Savery, per Miss C. E. Larter). 



SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMTTTEB. 131 



6. HoNiTON Botanical District. 

JRanunctdus truncatus {Batrachium truncatum Dumort.)- Little- 
ham and Exmouth. 

R. scderatua L. Clyst St. George. 

R. sardoua Crantz. Littleham and Exmouth (Mr. F. A. Broken- 
shire). 

Palaver dvbium L. Axminster (Mr. A. Sharland) and Salcombe 
Regis. 

Sinapis nigra L. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 

CocMearia anglica L. Axmouth, Clyst St. George, and Bud- 
leigh Salterton. 

Alyasum maritimum Lam. Budleigh Salterton. 

SUene anglica L. Lympstone. 

Sagina ciliata Fr. Lympstone. 

Mcdva moachata L., and var. laciniata Lej. Axminster (Mr. A. 
Sharland). 

Hypericum dodea L. Axminster (Mr. A. Sharland). 

Oeranium Ivjddum L. Axminster (Mr. A. Sharland). 

Linum angustifolium Huds. Chardstock (Mansel-Pleydell). 

Rhamnua Frangula L. Chardstock (Mansel-Pleydell). 

Oenista iindoria L. Chardstock (Mansel-Pleydell). 

Q, anglica L. Chardstock (Mansel-Pleydell). 

THfclium striatum L. Sidmouth, and Littleham and Exmouth. 

T. scabrum L. Littleham and Exmouth, and Seaton. 

T. stibterraneum L. Littleham and Exmouth. 

T. fragiferum L. Littleham and Exmouth. 

Vida tetrasperma Moench. Clyst St. George, Axminster, and 
Sidbury. 

Sedum Tdephium L. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 

Oeruinihe Lachenalii Gmel. Lympstone. 

SHaua flavescens Bemh. Hawkchurch and Axminster. 

Carduvs tenvdflarus Cuirt. Axmouth and Seaton. 

C. aeatdoa L. Salcombe Regis, Beer, Axmouth, and Brans- 
combe. 

Crepis taraxacifolia Thuill. Littleham and Exmouth (Miss H. 
Saunders). 

Myoaotis acorpioides L. Axminster. 

Lasiopera viacoaa Hoffm. & Link. Budleigh Salterton. 

JSatureia Galamintha Scheele. Axminster. 

Lyaimachia Nummtdaria L. Axminster and Salcombe Regis. 

Limonium vulgare Mill. Littleham and Exmouth. 



132 SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTSB. 

Habenaria viridis R. Br. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 

H. virescens Druce. Axminster (Mr. A. Sharland). 

Allium vineale L., var. brdbiferum Syme. littleham and 

Exmouth. 
PotamogeUm perfoliatus L. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 
P. densus L. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 
P. inierrupttis Kit., /3. scopariua Fryer. Clyst St. George. 
Scirjms sylvaticus L. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 
8. lacustris L. Sowton and Clyst St. Mary. 
Carex pallescena L. Chardstock (Mansel-Pleydell). 
C. fvlva Host. Chardstock. 

C, distana L. Budleigh Salterton, and Littleham and Exmouth. 
Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. Axminster (Mr. A. Sharland). 
Agroaiis vulgaris With., var. A, pumila Lightf. Axminster 

(Mr. A. Sharland). 
Melica nvians L. {M, uniflora Retz.). Chardstock (Mansel- 

PleydeU). 
Catabrosa aquatica Beauv. Axminster (Mr. A. Sharland). 
Hordeum nodosum L. Axminster and Hawkchurch. 
Equisetum maximum Lam. Axmouth and Axminster. 
Polypodium PJiegopteris L. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 
Lastrea m^ntana T. Moore. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 
If. spinulosa Presl. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 
Ceterach officinarum DC. Chardstock (Mansel-Pleydell). 
Csmunda regcUis L. Hawkchurch (Mansel-Pleydell). 
Botrychium Lunaria Sw. Hawkchmxsh (Mansel-Pleydell). 
Ophioglossum vulgatum L. Chardstock (Mansel-Pleydell). 

6. Torquay Botanical District. 

Corydalis davicvlata DC. Lustleigh (Miss C. E. Larter). 

Brassica oleracea L. St. Mary Church (Miss Rose E. Carr 
Smith) and Dartmouth. 

Draba prcecox Stev. Torquay ; fully out, 17 February, 1910 
(Miss C. E. Larter). 

Viola svhcamea Jord. St. Mary Church (Miss Peck). 

F. hirsuia Schultes. St. Mary Church (Miss Peck). 

F. Foudrasi Jord. St. Mary Church (Miss Peck). 

Silene maritime x lati folia. Slopes towards Broad Sands, just 
intermediate (Major A. H. WoUey-Dod). 

Erodium cicutarium L'Herit. Torquay ; seems almost the 
latest plant to cease flowering in the autumn, and one of 
the first to open in the new year ; on 20 January, 1910, 
some newly-opened blossoms were seen (Miss C. E. Larter). 



SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 133 

Omithapus perjmaiUus L. Dunsford (Miss Peck), Dawlish, West 
(Miss (^rr Smith), and Milber. 

Bosa eriostyla Rip. & D6s6gl. Bovey Tracey and Chudleigh 
(Major A. H. WoUey-Dod). 

B, DesegUsei Boreau. Trusham ; named vdth doubt by D6s6- 
glise ; possibly R. leacochroa Desv. (Major A. H. WoUey- 
Dod). 

B. ovata Lej. Hennock (Major A. H. WoUey-Dod). 

JR. stylosa Bart., var. psevdo-rusiicana Cr6pin. Torquay (Major 
A. H. WoUey-Dod). 

B. virginea Ripart (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

Oenothera biennis L. (Honble. Mrs. Colbome). 

Adooca Moachatettina L. Highweek (Miss Rose E. Carr Smith). 

Galium VaiUantii DC. Teignmouth (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

Chrysanthemum segetum L. Torquay ; flowering on 17 January, 
1910 (Miss C. E. Larter). 

Petasites fragrans Presl. Naturalized everywhere in the neigh- 
bourhood of Torquay, and was flowering freely in waste 
places by 6 January, 1910 (Miss C. E. Larter). 

Senecio erucifolius L. St. Mary Church (Miss Peck). 

Lactuca Serriola L. By the railway at Newton Abbot and 
Teignmouth (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

Omphalodes vema Moench. Dartmouth ; growing in profusion 
in a private wood attached to Woodlands House (Mr. 
R. M. Mihie). " Found by Mrs. Taylor at Teignmouth, 
among the rocks. Perhaps it exists nowhere else in 
England. It is not noticed either by Hudson or Wither- 
ing " (R. Polwhele, The History of Devonshire, i. p. 83, 
1797). It is perfectly established in five Cornish stations : 
F. Hamilton Davey, Flora of Cornwall, p. 311 (1909). 

Echium plantagineum L. Dartmouth and Kingswear ; a single 
plant on the Dartmouth side of the river, and two or three 
plants on the Kingswear side (Mr. R. M. Milne). 

Primula veris L. Torquay ; strikingly abundant in the neigh- 
bourhood (Miss C. E. Larter). 

Limonium binervosum C. E. Salm. Brixham (Major A. H. 
Wolley-Dod). 

Qymnadenia conopsea R. Br. (Honble. Mrs. Colbome). 

Iris tuberosa L. Kingskerswell (Miss Kitson). 

Bomulea Columnce Seb. & Maur. Dawlish, West ; abundant 
in 1909 (Honble. Mrs. Colbome), and fairly so in 1910. 
In favour of golf on the Warren, it is contended that crows, 
and not human collectors, are the destroyers of the plant ; 
that the former dig up and devour the corms by the 



134 SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTBB. 

hundred, and that the plants survive on the greens mainly 

because people, being constantly about, prevent depreda- 

tiojis by the birds (Miss Rose E. Carr Smith). 
Juncus 8vimodvlo9U8 Schrank. Stoke Gabriel (Major A. H. 

WoUey-Dod). 
Scirpus sylvaticua L. Kingskerswell (Miss Peck). 
Agrostis nigra With. Paignton (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 
Fontinalis squamosa L. Fingle Glen, August, 1904 (Miss C. £. 

Larter). 
Lophocolea alata Mitt. Torquay, June, 1909 (Miss C. E. Larter). 
Madotheca platyphyUa Dumort. Torquay, February, 1910 

(Miss C. E. Larter). 
M. IcBvigata Dumort., var. Thuja Nees. Babbacombe, May, 

1909 (Miss C. E. Larter). 
Bostrychia scorpioides Gm. Dawlish, West. 
Hypoxylon concentricum Grev. Dartmouth. 

Miss Larter records the following Lichens for the Tor- 
quay district ; none of them were so included in the 
Devon Victoria County History. 

CoUema auriculatum Hoffm. Torquay (E. M. Holmes). 

Cladina rangiferina Nyl. Torquay, in 1880. 

Cladonia coccifera Schoen. Torquay. 

C. squamosa Hoffm. Manaton (M. J. Hunt). 

C. squamosa, sub-species adspersa Nyl. Moretonhampstead, 

in 1904. 
Pertusaria velata Nyl. Fingle Bridge (E. M. Holmes). 
Endocarpon hepaticum Ach. St. Mary Church, February, 1910. 

Dr. H. G. Peacock records the following Fungi for the 
Torquay district ; none of them were so included in the 
Devon Victoria County History. 

Basidiomycetes. 

aqabicace^. 

Amanita phalloides Link. Milber. 
A. pantherina Quel. Milber. 
A. ruhescens Pers. Milber. 
Amanitopsis vaginata Roze. Milber. 
Lepiota procera Qu61. Cockington. 
L. cristata Qu61. Milber. 
Tricholoma rutilans Qu61. Cockington. 



SECOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 135 

r. stdphureum Qu61. Aller Vale (Abbotskerswell). 

T. album Qu61. Ugbrooke. 

T. grammopodium Qu61. Cockington (Chudleigh). 

Clitocybe nebtUaris Qu6I. Chudleigh. 

C. geotropa Qu61. Chudleigh. 

CoUybia butyracea Qu61. Chudleigh. 

C. dryopkUa Qu61. Chudleigh. 

Mycena jmra Qu61. Milber. 

Jf . polygramma QaHL Milber. 

PhUeua cermnua Qu61. Milber. 

EfUoloma aericewm Qu61. Milber. 

Clitapilua pruntdus Qu61. Milber. 

Nclanea paacua Qu61. Milber. 

Inocybe pyriodora Qu61. Milber. 

/. euihelea Qu61. Milber. 

Hebdoma crustuLiniforme Qu61. Milber. 

Agaricua campestria L. Milber. 

A. arvenais Schreff. Milber. 
Stropharia asruginoaa Quel. Milber. 
Hypholoma subkUerittum Qu61. Milber. 
H. faseiculare Qu61. Milber. 
Paathyrdla gracilis Qu61. Milber. 
Cortinariua {Myxacium) elatior Fr. Aller Vale. 
Oomphidiua viwMua Fr. Aller Vale. 
PaxiUus invclutus Fr. Aller Vale. 
Ladarius blenniua Fr. Milber. 

Zr. ru/tM Fr. Milber. 
Zr. svbdulcis Fr. Milber. 
Buasula nigricans Fr. Milber. 
£. adusta Fr. Marldon. 
i?. dejfca Fr. Milber. 
J?, drimeia Cooke. Marldon. 
JR. xerampdina Fr. Haccombe. 
JR. vesca Fr. Milber. 

B. cyanoxantha Fr. Milber. 
JR. heieropkyUa Fr. Milber. 
i?. /a<e?w Fr. Milber. 

JR. emetica Fr. Milber. 
B. ochroletica Fr. Marldon. 
CanihareUys aurantuicus Fr. Milber. 
C tubcsformis Fr. Milber. 
Marasmius peronatus Fr. Cockington. 



136 SECOND RBPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 



POLYPORACEJE, ETC. 

Polypoma melanopua Fr. Milber. 

P, sulphureua Fr. Milber. 

P. hetvlinua Fr. Milber. 

Fomea applanatiia Karst. Cockington. 

F. vhnariua Cooke. Milber. 

Polyaiictua versicolor Fr. Milber. 

P. ahieiinua Cooke. Milber. 

Porta vulgaris Cooke. Milber. 

Hydnum repandum L. Milber. 

H. auriscalpium L. Milber. 

Irpex obliquus Fr. Milber. 

CraiereUus comvcopioides Pers. Aller Vale. 

IthypIuiUus impudictts Fisch. Aller Vale. 

Lycoperdon echinaium Pers. Milber. 

L, excipuliforme Pers. Milber. 



7. Plymouth Botanical District. 

Eanuncvlus parviflorus L. (Honble. Mrs. Colbome). 
TMaspi arvense L. (Honble. Mrs. Colbome). 
Teesdalia nvdicaulis R. Br. (Honble. Mrs. Colbome). 
Sagina Beuteri Boiss. Bigbury (Rev. E. S. Marshall). 
Hypericum maculatum Crantz (Honble. Mrs. Colbome). 
Omithopus perpusiUus L. Harford and Revelstoke. 
Onobrychis vicice folia Scop. (Honble. Mrs. Colbome). 
Prunus Padus L. Berry Pomeroy ; perhaps not truly wild 

(Honble. Mrs. Colbome). 
Potentilla procumbens x Tormentilla (P. suberecta Zimmeter). 

Plympton St. Mary (Rev. E. S. Marshall). 
Oeum rivale L. Totnes (Miss Vivian). 
Bosa tomenteUa Leman. Plympton St. Mary (Major A. H. 

WoUey-Dod). 
JR. arvatica Puget. Yealmpton (Major A. H. WoUey-Dod). 
JR. syntrichostyla Ripart. Yealmpton (Major A. H. Wolley- 

Dod). 
P. ohtusifolia Desvaux. Ermington (Major A. H. WoUey-Dod). 
P. corytnhifera Borkhausen. Plymouth (Major A. H. Wolley- 

Dod). 



SBOOND REPORT OF THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 137 

E, urbiea L^man. Yealmpton and Plymouth (Major A. H. 
Wolley-I>od). 

jR. aemiglabra Ripart. Yealmpton (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

jR. coUina Jacquin. Plymouth (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

jR. hemitricha Ripart. Devonport and Brixton (Major A. H. 
WoUey-Dod). 

R. lucandiana D&^lise & Gillot. Brixton (Major A. H. Wolley- 
Dod). 

jR. corii folia Fries. Yealmpton and Plymouth (Major A. H. 
Wolley-Dod). 

B, arvenais Huds., var. acabra Baker (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

B. btbracteata Bastard (dibracteata) in DC. Fl. Fr. v. p. 537 
(1816) {ribracteata). Revelstoke (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

jR. atylosa Desvaux (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

B. leucochroa Desveaux. Yealmpton (Major A. H. Wolley- 
Dod). 

B. EglanUria L. Plymouth and CJomwood. 

B. fcstida Bastard. Yealmpton. 

Sedum album L. (Honble. Mrs. Colbome). 

Peirosdinum segehim Koch. Newton Ferrers and Brixton. 

Anihemis nobilis L. (Honble. Mrs. Cblbome). 

CefUaurea Scabiosa L., with white flowers (Honble. Mrs. Col- 
bome). 

LathrcBa Squamaria L. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. Humphreys). 

Statice jmbescens link. Stokenham (Mr. G. C. Druce). 

Typha anguatifolia L. Slapton (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

Thelephora laciniata Pers. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. G. Peacock). 

Stereum hirstUum Pers. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. G. Peacock). 

Clavaria cristata Pers. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. G. Peacock). 

Scleroderma wlgare Homem. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. G. 
Peacock). 

Cyathus vemicostis DC, probably. Berry Pomeroy (Dr. H. G. 
Peacock). 



8. Tavistock Botanical District. 

Alsine rubra Crantz. Shaugh Prior. 

Tilia cordata Mill. Buckland Monachorum. 

Hypericum calycinum L. Bere Ferrers ; grows and flowers in 

great luxuriance along the top of the southward hedge of 

a lane (Sir A. Croft). 



138 SECOND REPORT OP THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 

Geranium versicolor L. Bere Ferrers ; firmly established and 
flowers abundantly every year, mostly in shady places 
(Sir A. Croft). 

O, lucidum L. Petertavy. 

Rvbua svberectua Anders. Shaugh Prior. 

Rosa tomenteUa L6man. Bickleigh and Weston Peverell (Major 
A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

B. arvatica Paget. Egg Buckland (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

R. syrUrichosiyla Ripart. Weston Peverell (Major A. H. Wolley- 
Dod). 

R. malmundariensis Lejeune. Egg Buckland (Major A. H. 
WoUey-Dod). 

R. Suberti Ripart. Egg Buckland (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

R. latebrosa D6s^lise. Weston Peverell (Major A. H. Wolley- 
Dod). 

jR. aspemata D6s6glise. Tamerton Foliott and Egg Buckland 
(Major A. H. WoUey-Dod). 

R. vinacea Baker. Tamerton Foliott (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

R. dumetorum Thuillier. Egg Buckland (Major A. H. Wolley- 
Dod). 

R. platyphyUa Rau. Tamerton Foliott and Weston Peverell 
(Major A. H. WoUey-Dod). 

R. coUina Jacquin. Tamerton Foliott (Major A. H. Wolley- 
Dod). 

R, canina L., var. concinna Baker. Tamerton Foliott (Major 
A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

R. hemitricha Ripart. St. Budeaux (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

R. arvefosis Huds. (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

R. arvensis, var. scabra Baker (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

R. stylosa Bastard (Major A. H. Wolley-Dod). 

R. Uucochroa Desvaux. Weston Peverell (Major A. H. Wolley- 
Dod). 

R, Eglanteria L. Tamerton FoUott, St. Budeaux, and Bickleigh. 

R. psevdO'CUSpidata Cr6pin. Bickleigh. 

Onaphalium sylvaOcum L. Shaugh Prior. 

MeliUis MelissophyUum L. Bere Ferrers ; this plant, though 
generally rare, grows in profuse abundance in two or three 
lanes, facing south, east, and west, where on 30 May» 
1910, it was coming into flower in hedges, literally by the 
thousand, in certain spaces of the hedge so thickly crowded 
that little else could be seen, forming a striking and un- 
usual sight (Sir A. Croft). 

The common English name of this handsome plant is 



SECOND BBPORT OP THE BOTANY COMMITTEE. 139 

*' bastard balm," and another name for it, which appears 
in garden-literature, is " Barnstaple balm " ; it is doubt- 
ful whether the latter name is merely a corrupt form of the 
former, or is fitly employed with reference to the historical 
record that in the eighteenth century Wm. Curtis collected 
a large-flowered variety of the species by the roadside at 
Hall, near Barnstaple. 

Bynchoapora alba Vahl. Shaugh Prior. 

Sdrpus cespitosua L. Shaugh Prior. 

8. aeiaceus L. Bere Ferrers. 

Eriophorum vaginatum L. Lydford. 

Carex paUeacena L, Bickleigh. 

C. helodes link. Shaugh Prior. 

C. rostrata Stokes. Shaugh Prior. 

C. vesicaria L. Tavistock. 

Caiabrosa aqaatica Beauv. Weston Peverell. 

Tetraplodon mnioides R. & S. Lydford. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF 
THE COMMITTEE ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 

Twenty-eighth Report of the Committee — consisting of 
Mr. J. S. Amery, Sir Alfred W, Croft, and Mr. R, 
Hansford Worth (Secretary) — appointed to collect and 
tabvlate trustvxyrthy and comparable Observations on 
the Climate of Devon. 

Edited by R. Hansford Worth, Secretary of the Committee. 

(Read at Cullompton, July 27th, 1910.) 



No change has taken place in the stations recorded since 
the last Report. 

Mr. Charles Barran's observations at Berry Pomeroy for 
the year 1909 fail to show much difference between day 
and night rainfall ; the figures are — nights, from 7 p.m. 
to 7 a.m., 21*67 inches ; days, from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m., 
20*89 inches. The advantage is with the nights, but their 
excess is slight. 

The general impression left by the weather of the year 
1909 was distinctly unfavourable, the summer in especial 
being regarded as both wet and cold. But the popular 
view in such matters is not always accurate. The tempera- 
ture, it is true, was on the whole rather low, rising, how- 
ever, for a short period in August in such a manner that 
at Torquay (Livermead) the maximum of 83*3® (9 August) 
was 2*2° in excess of the previous highest registered at 
that station since its commencement in 1896. As to rain, 
taking the year as a whole, the fall at Druid, Ashburton, 
was 6 per cent below the average of the forty years 1866- 
1905 ; and at Exeter the fall was 12 per cent below the 
similar average for that station. 

At Druid the rainfall for January was less than half 
the average ; for February it was about one-seventh of 



REPORT ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 141 

the average ; for March it nearly doubled the average ; 
for April it was normal ; May was decidedly, dry ; June 
slightly on the wet side ; July, August, and September 
were distinctly dry ; October approached double the 
normal rainfall ; November fell to less than one-third the 
normal ; and December was wet. Hence, if we found our 
definitions of wet and dry on the experience of previous 
years, our complaints would appear to indicate that our- 
selves, and not our skies, had changed. 

The absence of rain in the earUer months of the year is 
well shown by the Berry Pomeroy record ; at that station 
from 19 January to 1 March only 0*47 inches of rain fell, 
and the greater part of that (0*33 inches) fell on one day, 
9 February. 

At Woolacombe an abnormal fall was registered for 
28 September, the actual hour being 2 a.m., or thereabouts, 
on 29 September. Three inches fell in three hours. The 
total for the day was 3*13 inches. 

At Torquay (Livermead) the air was unusually dry at 
9 a.m. on 11 April, the humidity being 41 per cent ; and 
again at 6 p.m. on 12 May, when the humidity was 40 per 
cent. 

The best thanks of the Committee and of the Associa- 
tion are due to the Observers, whose assistance renders 
possible the preparation of this Report. 

The names of the Observers or the Authorities, and of 
the Stations, with the heights above Ordnance-datum, are 
as follows : — 

8TATI0K. BLKVATION (f««t). OBSERVER OR AUTHORITT. 

Abbotskerswell (Court Grange) 150 ... Mrs. Marcus Hare. 

Ashburton (Druid) . 684 ... J. S. Amery. 

Barnstaple (Athenaeum) 25 ... Thomas Wain wright. 

Bere Alston (Rumleigh). . 124 ... Sir Alfred W. Croft, m.a., k.c.i.e. 

Brandis Comer . 400 ... G. V. Corbet. 

Cnllompton . . . 202 ... Murray T. Foster, F.R.Mrr.Soc. 

Devonport Watershed : — 

Cowsic Valley (weekly) 1352 ) 

DeviPs Tor (near Bear- ■ F. W. Lillicrap. 

down Man) (monthly) 1785 J 
Exeter (Devon and Exeter 

Institution) . . . 155 ... John E. Coombes, Librarian. 
Holne (Vicarage) . . 650 ... The Rev. John Gill, m.a. 

Huccaby .... 900 ... R. Bumard, P.8.A. 
Ilfracombe . . . 20 ... M. W. Tattam. 

Kingsbridge (Westcombe) . 100 ... T. W. Latham. 



142 TWENTY-EIGHTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OP THE 



BLSTATIOH (foetX 



oMBBTBa om AUnOUTT. 



Newton Abbot (The Chest- 
nuts) . . . . 100 
Okehampton (Oaklands) . 505 
Plymouth Observatory . .116 

Plymouth Watershed : — 
Head Weir (Plymouth 

Reservoir) . 720 

Siward's Cross (weekly) 1200 

Postbridge (Archerton) . 1200 

Princetown (H.M. Prison) 1359 

Roborough Reservoir . . 548 
Rousdon (The Observatory) 516 
Salcombe (Holm Leigh) . 137 
Sidmouth (Sidmount) . . 186 
South Brent (Great Aish) . 500 
Castle Hill School (South- 

molton) . . . 363 

Tavistock (Stetsford, Whit- 
church) . . . 594 
Teignmouth Observatory . 20 
Teignmouth (Benton) . . 320 
Torquay Observatory . .12 
Torquay (Livermead House) . 30 
Torquay Watershed : — 

Kennick . . .842 

Laployd . . 1030 

Mardon . . . 836 

Torrington, Great (Enfield) . 336 
Totnes (Berry Pomeroy) . 185 
Totnes (Northgate) 
Woolacombe (N. Devon) . 60 



... E. D. Wylie. 

... Maj.-Gen. E. H.Holley,R.A.,J.P. 

... H. Victor Prigg, A.M.I.C.B., 
F.R]fn.Soc. 



> Frank Howarth, M.i.as. 

... E. A. Bennett. 

... W. Marriott, P.RMrp.Soa 

(A88T. 8so. RoT.MsT.Soe.>. 
... Frank Howarth, ili.c.b. 
... Lady Peek. 
... V. W. Twilling, M.B. 
. . . Miss Constance M. Radford. 
... MissC. M. Kingwell. 

... W. H. Reeve. 

... E. E. Glyde, F.R.Mrp.8oc. 

... G. Rossiter. 

... W. C. Lake, m.d. 

... Frederick March, P.R.MR.8oe. 

... Edwin Smith. 



} 



S. C. Chapman, m.i.c.e. 



George M. Doe. 
,.. Charles Barran, j.p. 
.. H. Lovejoy. 
.. R. N. Kivell, for Miss Chichester. 



CX)BfMITTEB ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



143 



JANUARY, 1909. 



ON6. 



lUmPALL. 



PAUL J!f 
j4 BOtTM. 



5 



TEMPBRATURE IK SCRBEK. 






I 

I 

3 



rawell 
ti . 

,e. 
on 
Joroer 

on 
or 



ton 

I Obs. , 
iWUhd. 

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m 

;ii 

DeTon} 



LlSefaoo] 

LlUOltOtl) 

bcbtirtih) 
lUiOba. 
ith 

B«nt0tt) 

wmbd. 
k. 

d, 

m 

Qbe 



ini. 


ins. 






2>00 


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2.6S 


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12 17 


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■39 


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'^7 


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5.0S 


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10U6 


4^65 


.., 


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1-77 


30 


10 jib 


730 







► ., 


15» 


33 


12 


U 


!'*» 


.60 


10; 


17 


333 


*74 


10 iJi 


3.11 


•34 


2I17 


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12 ro 


1,67 


.40 


12 


IS 


3 12 


■47 


10 


16 


1.92 


30 


12 


18 


2-81 


.52 


10 


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2,80 




... 


... 


4.95 


1.04 


10 


ifr 


4.67 


i.tS 


10 


17 


2.37 


-33 


S 


'7 


1.36 


^35 


12 


<5 


2,32 


'44 


12 


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1.62 


.28 


iH 


ie» 


3^43 


-83 


10 


17 


3.03 


■57 


IG 


17 


3.70 


-38 


10 


17 


l.4t 


43 


12 


IS 


ri8 


50 


12 


17 


I.S7 


*56 


C2 


n 


1.60 


■48 


13 


H 


>*9J 


^38 


t2 


'% 


2.ce 


36 


12 


i» 


2.01 


39 


12 


t8 


*-34 


■53 


IS 


20 


1.58 


■45 


12 


'4 


197 


*^i 


12 


14 


1,90 


■ 38 


10 


J7 



39-6 
39 9 
39^5 



37*9 
39-8 



440 



41.8 



35-7 



38.fi 
41.7 
40. t 



37-4 

3S.7 
40,6 

40*3 
41.0 

41.4 



42.7 



d.g. 


ileg. 


36.3 

36,0 

33.0 


44-4 

46.0 

46-7 
46.0 


34.2 


44.7 


36-0 


44.8 


40^3 


4^8 


37-4 


47. s 


32:6 


♦i.'a 


38.1 
35-9 


45.S 


33.0 


44-6 


3S.3 

37. S 


44 4 
467 


36.6 
I7'3 


4';^7 

47*1 


36.7 


47-7 

... 

z 


39-4 


46.8 



40-4 

41.0 

41-4 

39-0 
39 S 

40.4 



43-5 



42-5 



37-0 



40.2 
42.4 
40,9 

38-8 

39-8 
42. J 

41.3 
42.3 

42.2 



43^ J 



deg. 

2KS 

24.0 

21,0 
15.0 

^S5 



37,8 



36.0 



30. s 



234 

28,3 

»3-9 



19.S 

23.0 
26.8 

37. s 
38.1 

26.9 



19.0 



2S.0 



deg. 

52.0 
52.0 
52.0 
S5-0 

51,0 

S2-0 



5^2 



52.0 



4ji!7 



50.3 

52.2 

Si-7 



49. r 
52.7 

52.1 
54^3 

54*0 



47.0 



52.0 



»9 



83 



93 



0-10 

7.9 



7-4 



6.7 



7.1 



;,o 



7-s 
71 



hours. 



76. 
42^7 



51,0 89 7,0 



6 
10 



79.0 



15 



80.3 
81,1 
66.1 



7.0 

6.4 fia 

7*3 i "^ 
7*0 , 76, 1 



go 



6,0 



7^8 



144 



TWBMTTY-BIGHTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



FEBRUARY, 1909. 



HAIKFALL. 



0.53 
0.69 

0.43 
o.6t 
D.76 
1.40 



Abbotskerawcll 
Ashburton » 
BanistApl* , 
B«[rt Alston 
Brandb Comer 
Gowaic Vftlkj 
OuIbmptoD 
DeviraTor 
Exeter 
Holne 
Huec&bj * 
nfrocombv . 
Kiiigsbndj|£a 
Newton Abbot . 
Okehumpton 
Pljmout^ Obi^ . 
PlraoatUWUbd. 

Held Weir . 

Siwtrd'a Cross , 
Pofttbridge 
Princetown . 
Roborough 

(8. DcTOD) 
RousdoD . 
SalcoBibc . 
Sidmoath , 
South Brent 
CoBtle Hill School 

(SouthmoltoB) 
Taviatock 

(Whitchureh)l 0.75 
Teignmouth Oba- 0.53 
Teignmouth | 
(Benton) 
Torquay Obs. ., 
Torquay 

{Livermead), 
Torquay Wtrahd* 

Eennick , 

L^jJoyd , 

Majiion , 
Torrington 
Totnu 

(EterryPonnjroy) 0,47 
Totnea . .050 
Woolacomhe . 0*39 



0,59 
o.3o 
0.40 
1.02 
083 

, 0.47 

., 0.7J 
0.43 

0,83 

'■47 

0.62 
0.17 
0,63 
o^3S 
0.99 

a 63 



0-43 
0.44 

0^46 

0.7a 

0.6S 
0165 



a4 aogiti- 



3 



.50 

-»3 

.46 
■54 



■30 
.70 
,4s 
^30 
.40 

39 
'5° 

3^ 

^54 

■35 
M 

43 

.63 
.3^ 

■52 

■30 
»37 

36 

^43 
•39 
.47 
'33 

*33 
^33 



TEMPERATURE IN 8CnB£N. 



uius% 



^ 

M 



deg. 
3 -" 
7i 39-0 
6 38 I 

si 38.8 

4 



36. S 
39- S 



43,7 
3 
3 
4 
51 40.2 



33-4 



s 3S.0 



40.4 
39.6 



35-2 

3S.2 

39.7 

39.3 
40. S 

41.6 



I 



41,4 



dag. 


^^i?^ 


34. s 

32- S 
34^0 
28.5 


44-S 
46.1 
46,2 
46-S 


^9 


459 


33-7 1 45-2 

... 1 ... 


37-6 


45-7 


3S-9 


46.4 


30- 1 39-9 


330 43-9 
35-7 4S2 
34^0 45-3 


1 
3>-o]44.9 


33-^ 
35^8 


44.4 
46.1 


34-4 

35^S 


« 


34-S 


47^2 


36.7 


45-9 



deg. 

39^5 
39.3 
40.1 

37-0 
38^4 
394 

41-7 



41,2 



3SO 

3^'^5 
40-5 
39-7 

38.0 



dog. 

26.6 
21.0 
24.0 
15.0 



. 1 



(l«g. % 



S0.9 

52-5 
54-0 

57-0 



20,3 I 53» 
H-o SSS 

30,2 S2.8 



57.0 



32.7 



234 

37.8 
24.8 



18.8 



3S.S j 22,9 



41.0 

39.9 
41.2 



2S.2 

26.6 

26.0 



41.0,35.7 



17.0 



41.4 29.8 



S3 



48.0 



84 



So 



»3 



i5 
I 

9 



040 
6.4 



6.« 



6.6 



4-9 



»9 54 



53-3 87 7.0 



523 
54*4 

529 
54.7 

55-a 



5J-0 



S2.6 



»3'6.2 
7915.6 

82 6.6 



S'O 



hours. 



1317 
95.0 



129.0 



S3. 1 84,6.41 I4a3 
S1.7 85!5.li 135.8 
54.3 82:6.7^ J08.7 



si's-s 



II5.1 

T33.6 



125 2 



COBfMITTEB ON THE CLIMATE OF DEVON. 



145 



MARCH, 1909. 



BAT:!fFALL, 



rATtOKS, 



& 

a 



FALL [H 

34 SQoaa. 



I 



TSMPEEATURB IK SCREEN. 



h 



i 



o 

e 



a 



I 



% 0-10 bours. 



takerswell 

iiTton . 

Alston 
lis Comer 
ic Vall«j 
mpton 
'■Tor 



ombe. 
ibfidge 

DB Abbot 
mtpton 
>ittb Oba. 

mthWtshd, 
id Weir 
*rd*8 Crosa . 

trogh 

(S. Devon) 
Ion . 
aba . 
nth . 

Bnnt 

HillScbcwl 

.nthnjolton) 

i0ck 

Hiitchnrch) 

[Donth Oba. 

month 

(Benton) 
»y Oba, 

livetmead) 
M.J Wtrahd. 
nick. 
)o^d . 
don B 

I 
yPora*ro>')| 

combe 
L.XLII. 



ins. 
7.29 
7-99 
4-99 
5-97 
49S 
5.50 
5 54 
6.40 

I.91 
9.44 
J'So 
7.06 
6.39 
6.94 
6,u 

S.14 
tt,to 

8.S7 
U.S4 



6.69 

4' 99, 
10.76] 

S'40 

7-01 
5.S6 

5-43 
55 J 

6.Q5 

8.47 

I36 
5,06 

6.72 

6.7a 

4-27, 



itjs, 

1^34 
.67 

i.ia 

I AS 
1,67 
1,96 

^98 
2.S5 
1.851 
1.48 

1.2)0 
t.64 

1,19 

2.23 

'■3S 

1,27 

i.So 

1.70 
1,51 



8,22 
8,23 

31 24 
^5 

36 

36 



1.63' 8 

2.341 S 

3.90 8 

t.50 s 



1.41 
i.3« 

K20 



I 



deg. 

39 7 
4a I 

40.7 



39-5 
41.0 



42.9 



4^7 



3+6 



33^7 
41-S 
40.3 



36.8 

39*4 
403 

40.6 
4t,S 

43-4 



41.7 



deg. 

34-9 
34-7 
35^4 
305 

32.6 
353 

3^3 



deg, 

44-3 
45-9 
46.9 
46*0 

4S-9 

471 

46.3 



36.4 47.0 



30.6 



32S 
3^S 
34-3 



31-5 

32.6 
36.2 

35-0 
36- o 

35*8 



dcg. 

39.6 
40*3 

4M 
3S.0 

39-3 
41 I 

4a-3 



4! 7 



39.6 35-1 



43-7 
45-7 
45-3 



44 5 

44*2 
46.8 

46.3 
47.1 

49 7 



37-2 



K 



459 



deg. 

si's 
2a o 
22 o 

II.O 

^5 

aio 



25.0 



1 8. 9 



3S.6 3a 7 
4 [.I 36.0 
39-8 22,0 



2S,o 

38-4 
4I-S 

4<x6 
41,6 

4^,7 



41.6 



13-7 

16.4 
35-3 

24-6 
24.9 

34.0 



17.0 



27.0 



dcg. 

54-7 
53-9 
56.0 
54-0 

56." I 

56,0 

55^ a 



S50 



47.3 



53-9 
53*7 
54^8 



53.0 

52-4 
55-7 

57*1 
56.0 

S8.6 



5a o 



554 



6.6 
76 



T'S 



8^ 



86 



93 



89 

S8 
S6 

Sr 
83 

84 



7 5 
7-2 
7.8 



8,0 

7^8 
7-1 

8.0 

7-0 



80^4 

79- r 



7 



83 



6.6 



82 



7-1 



990 



II 



M 



9J 7 

J 13.0 
lot. 8 



105.3 
106.7 



9 
8 

7 



»i4 3 



146 



TWBNTY-EIOHTH RBPOBT (THIRD SEBIES) OF THE 



APRIL, 1909. 





R11KFALL. 


TEMPERATURE IK SCRKKN, 




^ 

S 






1 
1 


TALL IN 






ULTRKMM. 




STATIOKa 


»4BOUIl«. 


1 


i! 


1 


1 


1 


^ 
1 

^ 


j 


« 


E 


^ 




1 


i 


S 




iWi 


ins. 


1 


deg, tlc^. dcg. 


d^S^ 


d«g. 


deg. 




hotiri. 


AbboUkerswell , 


3. 16 


.&> 


22 in 


... 1 *.. 












Aah burton - 


3^i9 


1.2W 


21 IS 


50-4 


43-1 


54.8 


4S.S 


34-5 


69.5 


7S 6^0 


... 


Bams ta pie - 


2,50 


.45 


12 16 


491 


41.J 


S«-« 


48-7 


31.0 


70.2 


7S 6.1 


... 


Be re Alston 


1^73 


.66 


«!i4 


Sao 


42.9 


57-' 


SO'O 


33.0 


6S.0 


' J 


.., 


Brandifi Comer , 


3-^6 


.61 


22 


17 


... 


36.0 


5«-3 


47-0 


25.0 


73-0 




218.9 


Cowsjc Vallej . 


4^ SO 


w*. 


..* 


... 


... 


w*-, 












.,. 


CaUompton 
Dotil'aTor 


3.94 

4.ao 


.so 


as 


:i 


S0.8 


40.0 


58.3 


49^1 


3f'2 


7"3-9 


72 


«•« 


177.8 


Rivtia' 


1. 91 


'SS 


22 


IS 


5^6 


ViVs 


57-4 


49*6 


35-0 


67.0 






..+ 


B^lm 


til 


1,50 


22 


15 












..« 






... 


Hm3«»by . 


i'#S 


22 


IS 


.*. 


4.t 








, ' 






" 


lifracombe . 


2,72 


■ 44 


*3 


16 


S<>-9 


44.6 


SS-o 


49*8 


35"^ 


63.8! 


82 


e"? 




KingabridM 
Nowton Abbot . 


a. IS 
a.09 


*67 
.67 


22 
22 


12 
12 




... 














-- 


Okehampton 


I. SO 


.6§ 


22 


M 


.«. 


.+ . 


**• 


!" 




. + . 








Plymouth Oba, . 

riyinouthWtalid 

^eadWeir . 


3.00 


■45 


.9 


16 


50.9 


43-8 


S6.7 


so-s 


36.0 


72.0 


78 


6.0 


17^0 


4.14 


M4 


22 


16 




















Si ffftrd'B Cross, 


4-40 


























Poatbridgo . 


6,19 


1,40 


22 


IS 






,., 






... 








RoborougK 

(3* Devon) 


S7S 


I.6S 


21 


16 


43-6 


391 


49^7 


4^^ 


2U 


643 


84 


6:i| ... 


i-93 


.76 


22 


14 












^ 




1 


Eousdon . 


1.9S 


.4a 


'9 


IS 


4^.0 


41.2 


s^'s 


47.Q 


31^6 


6^\ 


78 


6.7 1 U0.9 


fialcombe * 


1,91 


'^1 


22 


12 


SO-4 


436 


53^7 


48.7 36.3 


66. s 


74 


6.1 185. 1 


Sidmouth - 


2.07 


J6 


22 


14 


49-8 


4*. I 


545 


4S.3 


3^4 


63-6 


76 


6,9 196.3 


South Brent 


3.25 


l.IO 


22 


13 


















Ca»tlo Hill School 








J 








... 


... 




**' 


... 


(Si>uthmo:ta») 
Tavistock 


4.60 


1. 16 


aj 


iS 


46.2 


38.6 


SS-4 


46.9 


1&8 


71^9 


79 


7.0 ., 


(Whitchurcli) 


1.15 


I.OO 


22 


16 


50.1 


41 4^54^9 


48.1 


35-0 


7^3 75 


6.S: ... 


TeSgntnouth Ob», 
Teagnraouth 


.so 


22 


J] 


49 7 


43^2 |S6.I 


49.7 


3^6 


60.0 


74 


5*2 j 193 4 


{B«ntott) 


urn 


^57 


22 


n 


S0.6 


43-0 iSS^ I 


49.1 


36-6 


68.8 


76 


7.2 


Torquiy Oba, . 
Torqujy 


1.87 


.69 


21 


11 


SI-2 


44.0 


S6,2 


SO. I 


3S.0 


67,9 !?* 


S^o[ iW*J 


(Liv^nneftd) 
Torqujky WtrshdL 


a,03 


'73 


22 


12 


52.0 


4>J 


56,6 


49^7 


34-4 


699 


74 


... 1 .., 


Konnick . 


2,65 


r.14 


23 


16 


... 


'" 
















Lftployd . 


ti; 


I.2S 


22 


17 


.,. 


















Mftrdon 


1.19 


22 


II 




















TorriniftoD 
Totnes 
(B<ny Pomeroy) 


2.99 


■7J 


^3 


... 


.,. 


.,* 


... 


28.0 


63-0 


,.* 




!'. 


a. 29 


1. 00 


22 


12 
















... 




Totnet 


a47 


*94 


22 


[2 




















Woolicombe 


..58 


'45 


33 


17 


496 


43^4 


54.9 


49>i 


3*6 


66:4 


79 


i:o 


207-0 



OOMMITTBB OK THB CLDCATB OF DSVON. 



147 



MAT, 1900. 





RAINTALU 


TEMPERATURE IN SCREEN. 


Ok 


s 

Ok 

1 








i 


oftBATnr 

FALLW 
t4H0UBa. 


1 


MBAM. 


KXTMMS. 


t 


noxs. 


\' 


i 
1 


1 


1 


i 

1 


! 


& 




1 


1 


1 


jerswell . 
on • 

to*. . 

(ton 

Comer . 
Galley . 
tfton 
tar 
• • 

r 
•be. 

A^bot ! 
pton 
til Obe. . 
iiWtsbd. 
Weir . 
i'«Cro«. 
tae 
«wn 

LDevon) 
1 . 

Ji . 

t«nt 

ill School 
Junolton) 

'k 
itehnnsh) 

mth Obe. 
mth 

(Benton) 
Obe. 

Tarmeed) 
Wtrehd. 
ck. 

fd. . 
in . 
»n 

Pemeroy) 

mb^ 


ine. 
1.28 
1.43 
1.75 

\\n 

4.70 

1.35 
2,30 
1.08 
2.06 

1.04 
i.ti 
1.99 

I.OO 

1.89 
2.16 

3.61 

3.26 

1-37 
t.i6 

113 

\-M 

1.95 

1.95 
1.09 

1.03 
a9o 

0.99 

1. 10 

1. 11 

1.19 
1.17 
1.48 


ins. 

.78 
.94 
.53 

I.OO 

.60 

•43 
1.20 
1.08 
.75 
•30 
.43 

'■.11 
.76 

i.'Ss 
••45 

:ll 

•34 
1. 16 

.47 
.42 

.40 

.48 
I. II 

•44 

■il 


26 

26 
26 

26 

24 
26 
26 
26 

11 

26 
25 

26 

26 
26 

26 

?5 

24 

26 

26 

25 
24 

24 
24 

24 

26 
26 

25 

25 

26 
26 


6 

I 

8 
6 

7 

6 
7 

7 
7 
7 
6 

5 
7 

8 

7 
7 

8 
8 
6 
8 
8 

9 

7 
6 

6 
7 

7 

7 

7 

9 

10 

6 

6 

10 


deg. 

54.5 
55.2 
55.7 

^':} 
57.0 

54.4 
... 

55-5 

48.8 

5^.0 
54.8 

53.1 

51-7 

55.0 
54.8 

54.0 
55.3 

55^6 
55-3 


deg. 

44.8 
45-2 
45.0 
37.3 

41.0 
4*5'3 

47.2 
45.9 

41. 1 

43.4 
45.3 
43.9 

41.3 
43. > 

45-8 

44.S 
46.0 

43.6 
46.S 


deg. 

6o.'2 
61.3 
63.4 
64.S 

62.9 
59.8 

6v;3 

SB'S 

57V6 
59.6 

61.6 

60.6 
60.2 

59.0 
59-9 

60.6 

6;i:4 


deg. 

s».s 

53-5 
S4-a 
50.5 

SaVs 

54-1 

si'8 

s'3-6 

48.3 

50.5 
5J.a 
S1.8 

51.5 

51.8 
53.0 
51.8 

53-0 
52.1 

53.4 


deg. 

36.0 
33.0 
31.0 
24.0 

30.5 
35-0 

39.2 
33.0 

331 

34.1 
34.0 
35.0 

28.7 

30.0 
36.8 

36.0 
32.9 

... 
29.0 

39.0 


deg. 

74.'3 
75.2 
75.0 
79.0 

8ii:4 

74^5 

73*4 
73.0 

69.3 
69.0 

72.1 

76.1 

75.0 
72.0 

72.6 
73.2 

74.5 

74.0 
73.0 


% 

64 
65 

ei 

79 
71 

70 

72 
70 
77 

73 

67 
71 

70 
67 

69 
69 


0-10 

3.3 
4.3 

4'.'8 

4.2 
3.'5 

4.0 

4-9 

5.0 

4.8 
3.5 

5.3 
3.0 

3.5 


hours. 

290.8 
283^9 

314.0 

305.2 

33i^8 
292.6 

303.3 
315.1 

... 

... 
312.0 


2 


4 



I 









148 



TWENTY-EIGHTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



JUNE, 1909. 





RAINFALL. 


TEMPERATURE IK BCRBKN, 


1 




', 






I 


ajtHATzar 

FAtt, EH 
94 BOTFEA. 


1 

1 


HEANl. 


itsrsmtm. 


i 


iTATIONBL 


Is 


1 


1 


i 


1 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


AbboUkerawell . 
Aahbnrtou . 
BarDfitapla ^ 
Bflre Abton 
Brand u Corner . 
Cowaic VftUey . 
Cullomptou 
DeviFa Tor 
Eieter 
Hohie 
Huecahy , 
Ilfracombe , 

Newton Al>bcit . 
Ok«]»mptoii 

Plymoutli Ob«. . 
FlymouthWtshd. 

[lead Wfiir , 

giward'a QtQS» . 
Poetbridge 
Princetown 
Eoborougb 

(S. DeTon) 
Houadon . 
Salcomhe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brefit 
Castle Hill School 
(Soutbmolton) 
Tavistock 

(Whitchurch} 
Taigmnouth Oba, 
Teign mouth 

(Benton) 
Torquay Oha. . 
Torquny 

tLivenne*d) 
Torquay Wtnhd. 

Kan nick 

Laployd . 

Mardon . 
Torrington , 
Totnea 

(Berry Pomaroy) 
Totnes 
Wootacombe 


ins. 

q 

4.56 
3.7a 
3.10 
2,83 

a. so 
2.74 

l& 
"1 

3^78 
2.S1 

3*05 

a.99 
3-75 
340 
4*19 

3 39 

4.53 

4.t6 

199 

2.6S 
4-04 

4- IS 

4-34 

4^43 

3.SS 
2.40 


ins. 
t.62 

SO 

':?! 

■54 
.67 

:li 

1. 31 

*59 
•-■ 

.?2 
-77 

137 

K2I 
,41 

I. II 

I. as 
1,22 

1.36 

.91 
• 91 

.68 

1.12 

uto 

.40 


3 
3 

1 

3 

23 

3 

2a 

32 

3 
3 
3 

6 

3 
3 

6 
3 
3 
3 

3 

3 

6 
3 

3 
3 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 

3 
3 
3 


16 

;? 

^5 

12 

is 

16 
16 
14 

12 
16 

'9 
13 
'3 

13 

Ve 

IS 

12 
16 

\l 

IS 

13 
16 

18 

IS 
j6 

20 
17 
19 
IS 

14 
t6 
13 


deg, 

1^6 
61.2 
56.9 

57^1 

57"7 

55-7 

,., 

sis 

57.2 
56.2 

535 

1^1 

56. 3 
57-3 

57.9 


deg, 

4^:2 

4S.6 
423 

47*4 

49*7 

... 

57,3 

49.2 

".\ 
451 

4S.0 

46.1 

46.6 
50.0 

48.» 
49-7 

48.7 


deg. 

60.6 
66.3 
62.9 

63-9 

6+1 

si"?! 
62.9 

SS.8 

60.2 

60,3 
61.9 

6..S 
62.3 

63.1 
59^4 


deg. 

54-4 
54-9 
SS-8 
S3'S 

55-7 

56*9 

54-9 

56:1 

50.5 

53^2 
54-8 

56.0 

54^9 

56.0 

55*9 
54^7 


dcg, 

43.9 
39*<? 
42,0 
36-0 

3^8 
44-0 

46:5 
44*0 

4v;8 

440 
42.4 

35*« 

41.1 

43*7 

42,5 
44*2 

42*8 

36.0 
4J6.0 


deg. 

69^3 
66.3 
72.D 
73*0 

72-1 

73.0 
62:5 

73^0 

6^:6 

__ 

68.0 

§;; 

67*3 

70-9 
70.9 

7K0 

71-3 
73,7 

... 
71-0 

67,0 


% 
S2 

75 
73 
73 

So 
Bi 

81 

?i 

79 
74 

75 
73 

77 
79, 


6:9 

7^9 

6.8 

4^9 

Ji 

7*7 
7*0 
6.0 

u 

6*0 


houra, 

t83.8 
139.5 

194*0 

164.4 
196,7 

: 144.3 
162. 1 

i7iV4 

*»* 

191-S 


5 
4 

1C 

4 
4 

2 

4 

4 

S 



OOMMITTBE ON THE CUMATB OF DEVON. 



149 



JULY, 1909. 





RAINFALL. 


TBMPERATURB IN SCREEN. 


Ok 


i 

Ok 

t 


, 






1 


omxATwr 

FALL IH 
t4H0U1tB. 


1 

i 


MXAJIB. 


STTMHS. 


1 


noNa 




1 


1 


1 


1 


i 




1 


1 


J 

1 


erswell . 
on. 

pi,. . 

iton 

Comer . 
^Talley . 
iton 
For 

r . 
ibe. 

idee . 
Abbot . 
pton 
thObe. . 
iiWtshd. 
Weir . 
i's Cross . 

ge 
wn 

\. Devon) 

• • 

h . . 

rent 

ill School 

hmolton) 

itohnrch) 
luthOba 
>nth 

(Benton) 
Obs. . 

▼ermead) 
Wtrshd. 
ck. . 
yd. . 
m . 
on 

Pomeroy) 

mbe 


ins. 

2.55 
2.83 

3.60 

6.50 
2.85 
4.30 
1.54 
390 
4.19 

3.73 

5.78 
6.13 
6.09 
7.57 

4.89 
3.30 
3.12 

6.03 
3.51 

4.71 
2.00 

2. II 
2.19 

2.30 

2.22 
2.29 
2.41 
1.79 

1.96 
3.01 
2.03 


ins. 
1-34 
1.25 

•71 
1.34 

.67 

•94 

1.34 
•33 

2.04 
.96 

.74 
1.78 

1.98 

1.50 
2.28 

1.77 
1.74 
I-3I 
1. 14 
2.85 

'77 

% 

.87 
I. II 

1.19 

:S 

.66 

.54 

1.70 

1.53 

.57 


27 
27 

9 
27 

9 

27 

27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
27 
9 
27 

27 

27 
27 

27 
27 
27 
27 
27 

9 

27 
27 

27 
27 

27 

27 

27 

27 

9 

27 

27 

9 


10 
II 

22 

15 
19 

19 

9 
14 
18 
22 
16 
12 
16 
15 

24 

20 
23 

20 
13 
17 

\l 

24 

22 
9 

II 
12 

10 

16 
13 
14 
19 

10 

13 
20 


deg. 

61.0 

59.3 
00.7 

61:4 
62.0 

59.9 
59.9 

53-7 

6a8 
S6.5 

60.8 
61.5 

62.4 

si-7 


deg. 

52.9 
45.0 
54.4 
50.0 

5*3.0 

54.'8 

56.0 
54.0 

49.6 

51.9 
53.6 
53.4 

Si.i 

51.4 
55.5 

54.8 
54.2 

54.9 


deg. 

67.'5 

71.5 
66.6 
65.0 

68.2 

68.6 

62.3 
66.3 

so 

63.6 

64.5 
65.8 

63.6 

63.4 
67.0 

66.9 
67.3 

68.1 
62.0 


60.2 

&'s 

57.5 

60.6 
61.7 

59.1 

6i;.*2 

54.'2 

5'7V8 

59.1 
59.6 

57.4 

57.4 
61.3 

60.0 
61.1 

61.2 
5*8.5 


deg. 

48.3 
45.0 
45.0 
39.0 

45.4 

49.0 

51:8 
49.0 

44.3 

47.0 
47.8 

43.8 

r. 

48.8 
50.2 

48.4 

42.0 
50.0 


deg. 

73.0 

71.5 
74.0 
73.0 

754 

75.5 

65.'2 
7*4.*o 

65.2 

70.0 
71^8 
73.4 

71.8 

70.9 
75.4 

76.2 
739 

74.9 

71.0 
66.0 


% 

82 
82 

74 

83 
83 

89 
80 

90 

87 

73 

75 
75 

75 
8i 


0-10 

8.0 

7.'5 

7.3 
6.'9 

7.3 

7.4 
7.2 
7.7 

8.0 

6.0 
7.9 

5^o 
7.4 


honrs. 

154.9 
167.4 

194.0 

211.1 
219.4 
182.3 

211.0 
233.3 

161.5 


5 
3 

13 

I 
I 
2 

I 

... 
8 



150 



TWBNTT-EIQHTH BEPOBT (THIBD SERIES) OF THE 



AUGUST, 1909. 





RAINFALL, 


TEifPKBATUBK IN SCllBEN. 




4 


1 


1 




}( 


oms*T»*T 

TkLL IH 
34IIOtIM. 


1 


n%Mm. 


ElTUEVn, 


i 


BTAnOMS. 




1 


1 


1 


1 


i 

s 

1 


a 




1 


1 


i 


AbbotskersweU . 
Ashburton . 
Barnstaple . 
Bere Alston 
Brandis Comer . 
Oowsic Valley , 
Oullompton 
DeTil*sTor 
Exeter 
Holne 
Huccaby . 
Ufraoombe. 
Kingsbridge 
Newton Abbot . 
Okehampton 
Plymouth Obs> , 
PlymouthWtahd, 

lead Weir . 

Siward'sCiosa. 
Postbridge . 
Prinoetown 
Roborough 

(S. Devon) 
Ronsdon . 
Salcombe . 
Sidmouth . 
South Brent 
CastleHill Sobool 

(Southmolton] 
TaTistock 

(Whitchm^h) 
Teignmouth Ob& 
Teignmouth 

(Benton) 
Torquay Obs. 
Torquay 

(Liyemieftd) 
Torquay Wtwhd, 

Kennick . 

Laployd . . 

Harden . 
Torrington 
Totnes 
(Berry Pomcroj) 
Totnes 
Woolacombe 


iiis, 

I.S8 
2.39 

;:y 

2*34 
2.36 
2.47 

2^39 
t^5S 
2.17 

2,03 
3.10 

4-55 

tn 

2.40 

3,S4 
3.16 

2.39 

2.64 
1,70 

1.93 
1.78 

..6S 

a.48 
a. so 
1.98 


ins, 
^64 
.76 
Si 

,62 

-S9 

ilos 
44 
,68 
.60 
►SS = 

t 

.70 

.62 

■:Sf 

.62 

■72 

.90 

1,16 

,61 

:IS 

*44 

1,02 

■S8 


17 
17 
20 

34 

24 

17 

M 

17 
17 
20 

17 
24 

»4 

20 

20 
20 

24 

17 
24 

17 
2d 

ao 

^4 
17 

17 

34 

17 

17 
17 
17 
20 

17 
t7 
20 


10 
9 

>5 
iJ 

'5 

13 
9 

II 

•i 

10 
10 
11 

14 

J3 
12 

9 

14 

9 

16 

14 
10 

9 

II 

12 

'3 
12 

13 
13 

6 

9 

11 


64.3 

6a. 
61.9 

6^.6 
63:2 

... 

S9.'3 

6t.9 
64.4 

62.7 
6j.6 

64.S 

64.7 

6S.6 

62.0 


deg. 

as 

... 
S4.O 
57a 

54-3 
53 7 

494 

51.9 
SS6 

54^8 

55-4 

54.2 

.., 

55-9 


deg. 

69.9 

69.2 
70.3 
74.3 

7a.V 

•lis 

67.'3 

70.7 

... 

64.'$ 

69.6 
69.3 

69.7 

69.8 

SI 

71.2 
-.* 

67V6 


dcg. 

62:5 
605 
61.9 
60.0 

6a.o 
62.9 

6^2 

62.9 
S8.V 

f^ 

62.0 

59-6 

60.7 
62.7 

62.8 
62.6 

62.7 
6^.^ 


47^1 
44.0 
44*0 
38.0 

414 

45-0 

50.8 

47'° 
■** 

457 

47'4 
44^5 

39-9 

43-3 
47*9 

46^9 
48.7 

4^9 
4ao 


d«g. 
si":9 

82,4 
S2.0 
87. s 

iio 
il\t 

rig 

So!o 
Si.o 
So.S 

84.3 

»3^9 
79^1 

83.6 
S1.9 

83.3 

So!o 
8ro 


% 

73 
77 

7^ 

■»■ 
79 

7S 

77 

74 
72 
7i 

86 

78 
71 

6S 
70 

72 

.i. 

78 


0-10 

4-1 
4*7 

4^8 

4*7 

4'S 
4-7 
5-5 

5-0 

3^0 

S-o 
S-S 

4^5 


hours, 

23eko 

235-5 

257/0 

•«* 

272.5 
249.2 

26^:3 
3733 

24^7 


1 

2 

7 

3 
2 

t 

2 
I 

■;; 

2 



OOlfMITTSB OK THB OUMATB OF DEVON. 



151 



SEPTEMBEE, 1909. 





EAIKFALL, 


TSHFAAAXURE IN 80RBSN. 


s 


i 

• 


, 






1 


0«*T1«T 
94 BOGKt. 


1 


ItKJUtS. 


BTBSH^ 


If. 


'^Tioira, 


4J 


1 


1 


1 


i 


1 


1 




1 


1 


1 
1 


takenwell . 

Alaton 

|3« Corner . 

icV*lley . 

mptou 

'sTor 

r 

1 

ombe . 
(bridge . 
on Abbot . 
unpton 

outh Ol>8. . 

outhWuhd, 

id Weir . 

pajd'aCroBs, 

ridge . 

et©wii 

rough 

(S, Devon) 
Ion 

mbe , 
&tith . 
I Brent 
•HillSohool 
mthmolton) 
took 

ffhitchtiroh) 
month Oba. 
isnoutli 

(Benton) 
i»j Obe, 

(Krermeid) 
aj Wtrshd, 

>lojd , 
rdon , 
ngton , 

!« 

ly PomeroyJ 

m 
(oombe 


1.30 

1:11 

r.tii 

1.96 
3.40 
1.27 

1.04 

3.46 
1.77 
r.13 

! 1 63 
1 0.89 

1 2.2S 
3-5 ( 

J- so 

i^SS 
3^37 
1.65 

2.49 

3-12 

1. 59 

.., 

1.49 

..58 

iM 
a. 14 
1.88 

J.37 

1.77 
1.S6 
4.18 


ins, 
.76 

.95 

.29 
.60 

"57 

"38 

.43 

'55 

3,J4 

M 

,29 

,S3 

:ii 
:lt 

■ so 

1, 1 1 

^41 
.71 

-79 
.69 

^58 

^53 
■5» 
■49 
>7S 

J7 
SO 

3^13 


10 
10 

30 

4 

;8 

28 

4 
10 
28 
10 
10 

4 
30 

4 

4 
4 

30 
29 

10 

10 

4 

28 

4 
10 

10 
10 

!0 

JO 

10 

10 

28 

JO 
23 


13 

:^ 

12 
II 

"5 

14 

14 

n 

13 

13 
12 
12 
14 

13 

"16 

13 

II 

14 

13 
TS 

n 
15 
12 

f3 
t4 

14 
19 

1? 

14 

12 
13 
13 


deg. 

sis.* 
S6-9 
5S* 

S"s'8 

S6"4 

S8.3 
57.'3 

s'"-7 

5*S.'4 
56.* 

Sa.9 

1^1 

S6-S 
57' 

S8.8 
57-6 


d.g.; 

49-9 
48.7 
48.2 

46.0 
4^.9 

So.o 
s"3-'3 

49*6 

47.0 

48.^2 

49-7 
49^2 

46.3 

47*3 
St.o 

49^9 
S0.3 

S2."a 


deg. 

62.5 
<i43 

63."8 

63:2 

61,0 

! 
62.8 

60.9 
62.2 

62.2 

61.3 

61.6 
62.S 

63,5 

62.7 

64-0 
61.4 


deg. 

55*5 

55-4 

53- 5 
SS-4 
56.6 

57-1 
56.2 

53.1 

54.^6 
56-0 
55' 7 

S3.8 

54^7 
56,8 

S6.2 
56,8 

57 1 

57-0 


d»g. 

43-9 
39.0 
40.0 

34,0 

3&.0 
42-0 

47-9 
430 

39^1 

41*5 

41,0 
36*6 

3S.6 

39*8 
42.4 

42,1 

43*9 

41.6 

jlo 

45-2 


deg. 

69.0 
67.0 

71*0 

7^5 

68;o 

6V;3 

eSio 

63:2 
69.0 

67.1 

68,8 
68-0 

70,8 
68,3 

71.7 

66'o 

67.0 


% 

82 

81 

83 

%l 

82 
81 
83 

89 

y 

86 
83 

8d 

77 


o-io: 

ill 

6,9 
6,9 

6.2 

7,3 

71 
7,6 

7.0 

6,9 

7,0 

8,0 
6.0 

6."2 


hour». 

117.6 
116, s 

141^0 

13S''2 

iS^'9 
I4S3 

144*3 

148.7 

13**0 


3 
5 

II 

5 
4 
3 

4 
5 



152 



TWENTY-BIOHTH REPORT (THIRD SERIES) OF THE 



OCTOBER, 1909. 



CTATlOira. 



RAlNFALt. 



TALL iit 
a4 ftQPltA. 



5 

s 



I 



TEMPERATHRE JN 8CRBEN. 



I- 



s 



^ 



Aahburton . 
BamBtaple , 
Ber« Alslon 
Bmntlia Cora or , 
Cowaie Valley . 
Callompton 
Devil's Tor 

Holne 

Huccaby . 
Illjacombe . 
Kingsbrid^e 
NcTvtoji A^bot , 
Okehampton 
Flynioutli Oba. . 
PlynionthWtahd. 

H«ftd AVeir . 

8iwoM'sCro«i. 
PoatbriJge . 
Princetown 
Roborough 

(S. Devon) 
Eousdon , 
Satcombo , 
Sidmouth . 
South BraTit 
CaBtkHillScbL 

(SouthmoltonJ 
Tavistock 

(Wbitehoi^h) 
Teignmouth Oba, 
TeignmoQth 

^Benton) 
Torquay Obs, 

(Uvennesd) 
Torquay Wtrahd, 

Kenniok * 

Laployd * 

Marion , 
Torringtoo - 
Totnea 

{Boiry Pomeroy). 
Totnea 
Woolscomb« 



inn. 

S.79 

10.60 

5^90 

7.50 

Kii 

14.00 

6,07 

10-50 

4.61 

12,50, 

12.52 

7.29 

9.20 

7.42 

6.59 

12.19 
14.40 

15-37 
16. S4 

9.12 
5.51 
791 
5-40 
1344 

7,26 

10,07 

5^22 

5.11 

&64 



.S5 

71 

1.40 

2,10 

99 



10 27 

10 27 
IS 26 

26 26 

36 38 



^5 137 

IS '25 
1.32 is/ae^jj 



92 
1,72 

1^44 

2.21 
I 94 

1,07 

.Si 

1-37 

2.09 

1.03 

J* 24 

.Si 

.SS 
.85 



26 
IS 
^5 

10 

'5 
10 

^1 

26 
26)2 

10 r 2; 



7,26 1 M 



S.]€| 
8^90 
8591 

7*58! 



J. 52 



9-65 1. 14 

9*^9 » '4 

6.S1 .8S 



deg. 

S2.8 
S3^4 
S2a 



S2.6 
53-7 



deg. 

47^6 
4S.7 
47-2 

45-5 
45>'s 



47*3 58-7 



51.8 



53-6 48.3 



48.4 



52.2 
54-3 
53-9 



49.9 

sue 

S3-3 

53*S 
54^9 



44*7 



46.4 
49^3 



d^g, 

56.9 
58.2 
56.7 
58.0 

5S9 



58.'i 



5S.9 



51.S 



56.3 
57' i 



dog, 

52.2 

53-4 
519 

SI'S 

52.2 
S4VS 



S^-6 



48.3 



47.7 S7*8 



44.0 



48,1 

49.1 



55-4 48. 3 



55^ 6 j 50*5 



54' 9 



48.3 sSid 



578 
S8.9 

59- 1 



deg, 

25. o 
27.0 
20.0 

2i"8 

2S.0 
38,2 



30.0 



64.0 
64.0 

66.0 

mis 
64.7 

65.0 



29.0 584 



Si-4 393 fi6.i 

S3.5 31-6 1 637 

52.8 29.5 66.2 

50.3 22.7 63.0 

50.0 29.0 61,5 



S3-S 

53-0 
540 

53*7 



57*7 S4-1 



3I.O 

34-1 
31*3 

30.8 



66.5 

69.0 
67.3 

69.0 



22.0 62,0 



3^.3 



63.6 



86 



87 



89 



95 



0*10' hours. 



6.0 

7-3 



M 



7.6 



7.0 



7-1 



8li 
79/6 



107.0 



7-51 9G.4 
6.8 1 nS.j 

7*1 95*4 



79 



70 

7-5 
6.0 

7.1 
6,$ 



6.6 



108,0 
11S.7 



IG 



96^3 



13 



OOMHITTBB ON THE CLIMATB OF DEVON. 



153 



NOVEMBER, 1909. 





RAINFALL, 


TEMFERATOaE IN SCREEN. 


n 


i 


1 






i 


QmUTESt 
fALL EM 


1 
1 


WEANS, 




t. 


;atio^b. 


\i 


i 


i 
1 


1 


1 


1 

1 


s 




1 


1 


1 
1 


trtoti . 
teple , 

laplxin 

t 
1 

tnnb*, 
ibrid^t 
Ml Abbot . 

Ml&Ob^ . 

ootbWtahd. 
■d W«ir , 
F^d'i Cross, 

etown 
niDfb 

ion . 
Bib* . * 

1 Brfint 

EumscbfK)] 

DQtbniolUi]) 
ioek 

Vbitebnr^h) 
anoutb Obs. 
immiUi 

(BoDtoit) 
uiyOb«, . 

tSrermead) 
»y WtrftbiL 
loiok. . 

rdon . 

igtoii 

• 

ry PoMiCToy) 

m 

icombd 


itiH. 

il 

1.S4 
a.09 

1,90 

1.26 
2.20 
C^49 

2-34 
2-15 
15' 
K74 
0.97 
2.16 

2.01 

3^35 
3^53 
326 

1^52 
0-94 

2.44 

..37 

i.So| 
a6?i 

0.60 
1.08 i 

1 
i.i4| 

1^33 1 

'34i 
2.07 

I.St 

I.i2, 
2.00 


.45 
.74 
.46 

'47 

^38 

^S3 
27 

1 

,62 

1-77 

l,Og 

5^ 

'41 
.64 

*87 
,6j 

.28 

.24 
'54 

■5i 

'43 
49 
-4^ 

'43 

'5* 


29 
29 

30 
.29 

1z9 

!■■■ 
,29 

I29 

39 

*3 
29 

29 
29 
29 

29 

29 
29 
39 

fl 

29 

29 

19 

a9 
29 

29 
29 
29 

29 
29 

"5 


It 
u 

16 

13 
13 

U 

7 

to 
12 
i6 

to 
to 
II 

10 

IS 

14 
'3 

IS 
10 

IT 
10 
tt 

II 

II 

12 

14 

to 

7 

14 


43.'8 
41.4 

39S 
42.0 

47"3 
43.1 

3S.'7 

42.0 

43-9 
42.9 

38.7 

412 
43' S 

43.4 
43-9 

44-8 

.„ 


deg. 
38.7 
35-3 

32.ii 

33B 
36,9 

42.7 

38V4 

34.6 

36.6 

38.4 
37 I 

3+7 

36.2 
38.2 

37' S 
39-2 

37-8 
41.9 


48.^ 
49-3 
4S.3 
49.0 

491 

48-3 

49.3 

44.2 

47' "8 
490 

49-4 

4S.1 

47' 1 

49.6 

48.9 

50,6 

49-7 


43-4 
+2-5 

41-8 
40. s 

4V.3 
4^6 

41,3 

44-3 

■" 

39-4 

42.2 

43-7 
43-3 

41-4 

41^7 
439 

43-3 
44-9 

44-4 
4SV8 


d«g. 

3a9 
21.0 

24.0 
12,0 

22;3 

26;o 

3*'4 

2S,0 

27.$ 
58.0 

27.6 

19.6 

26,J 
29.4 

29.1 
29-5 

13.0 

1 

33^01 


d.g. 

56."8 
57.0 
57.0 
56.0 

^3 
S9'0 

56^4 

59,0 

5^9 

57^9 
57-3 

56,0 

58,3 
59^0 

S8.3 

58-6 
57-8 


% 
.., 
U 
84 

::: 

si 

81" 

85 

92 

87 
86 
86 

87 

S41 

St 
83 

84 

-1 

.J 
...1 
Si. 


040 
6.S 

5a 

5-8 
53 

7 

4.8 

S-S 
4.0 


124.9 
96.3 

127.0 

140,9 

12|.S 

Ii4l'4 
I iS'8 

104.0 


«.* 
6 
.<. 
5 

a 

3 
1 
3 

5 
3 

7 



164 



TWBNTY-BIOHTH BBPOBT (THIBD SBBIBS) OF THB 











DECEMBER, 1909. 
















BAIHFALL. 


TBKPIBATURK IN SCREEN. 


1 

a 


i 


s 

1 






i 


dAKAtsvr 

r*H. Hi 
X4 RocniL 


1 
ji 




nmEm 


ft 


CTATIOOT. 


!■• 


1 

M 


1 


i 


i 
1 


i 

3^ 


1 




i 
& 


1 


1 


AbbotftkereweU . 

Ashburtou » 
]3«ni8taple . 
Bexo Alston 
Brandis Conier , 
CftW»ic ValJey , 
OuUoiiipton 
Dtva^i Tor 
Bxeter . 
Hobi* 
Huocsbj , 
Ilfracomba . 
Kiflgabridf!* 
Kewton Ablxjt . 
Okeh&mptou 
Plymouth Oba. . 
PlyrnouthWtahd. 

aeadWeir , 

8iwArd*BCrosa, 
P<wtbHdg« 
PrJDcetom 
Roborongb 

(8. Dtron) 
Bo\iidoti . 
SftleombA . 
aidmonth . 
Soutb Brent 
Cwtle Hill School 

(Southmolton) 
Ttviitock 

(WMtcbureh) 
Tdgnmouth Ob«, 
Toigiimoath 

(BentonJ 
Torquay Obs, , 
Torquiy 

{iSTermsftd) 
Torquay Wtr«hd, 

Ken nick . 

Laployd 

Hard on . 
Tonington 
Totncs 

(B^rry Pomoroj) 
TotEes 
Woolaoombe 


in». 

!l 

6.3S 

6.23 

10,70 

6,40 

M.43 
8.68 

6.07 
7*«S 

7- 17 
6,14 

8.97 
10,30 
11.16 

7-99 
5.56 
6.34 

5-^3 
11^35 

S.2S 

8^39 
S-33 

5*9 
S.91 

6.37 

7*30 
7^04 
734 
6*37 

7-91 
8.33 
SSI 


iU8. 
2.1$ 

r.jo 
3- IS 

■s 

.87 

I-3S 
1.70 

1,65 

2-33 

1*53 

1-32 

M9 
2.05 

.81 

1,79 
179 

1198 

3.03 

3.87 

2.68 

2.83 

1. 13 

1.06 


31 
31 
31 
2t 
23 

31 

31 

31 

31 
lO 
31 
16 
21 
31 

31 

31 

31 

21 
31 
2t 
31 
32 

3 

31 
St 

31 
3t 

31 

31 
11 
21 

2 

3t 
21 
10 


23 
23 

2S 
33 

as 
»4 

18 

35 

31 

as 

13 
33, 
11 
33 

as 

23 

as 

24 
33 

31 
20 
14 

36 

H 

30 

19 
3t 

31 

a? 
^5 
as 
a4 

31 

22 
36 


dag. 

40.8 
41.8 
4!-3 

39.6 
40.7 

45-* 
419 

37:6 

4^S 
4a. 7 
40.8 

39.4 

39.4 
43.3 

41-7 
42.4 

4a.9 
43^8 


369 

36.6 
36*7 
35- 7 

34.4 

3S-5 

40-7 

33-7 

37- S 
3S-7 

35<> 

3S-4 
37-9 

37.2 
38.P 

37-1 

40.0 


deg. 

4S.'7 
47.1 
46.1 
46-0 

46.6 

45."? 

48.0 

4M 

4X8 

46.0 

47-3 
46.9 

4S-9 

44.0 
4>.0 

48. 1 
48.2 

47.S 


deg. 

413 
41.8 

41.4 
40-S 

40-5 

40.1 

44V3 

42.5 

38*"3 

40.7 

43.4 
41 3 

40.5 

39.7 
42.9 

43.2 
43^1 

42.6 
437 


deg. 

37.7 
13.0 
34^0 

30. 

*9'S 
33.0 

3a.o 
asio 

a3-9 

2S.6 
15.6 

19.9 

a3^i 

as- 3 

16.0 
24.4 

aao 
30.0 


dog, 

S19 
S4^<i 

S3*o 
530 

54-9 

55>5 

S5-0 
54-0 

49-1 

54-1 
52.9 

SS*3 

S4-0 

5' 7 

544 

54-1 

S4-3 

S4-9 

48^0 

54.4 


% 

94 
87 

83 
90 

94 

88 

89 

90 

92 

93 
86 

«4 

87 

87 
83 


0-iO 

6.0 

7^5 

i\ 

7-7 
7*7 

6^8 
6^6 

U 
8.0 
t:l 
^1 

i;8 


boun. 
SM 

siVo 

7+8 
65.4 
67.4 

62V6 
6V.V 

61. o 


fl 
I] 

II 

9 

IG 

!*■ 

■ 41 

■ •H 
13 



COMMITTBB ON THE CLIMATB OF DEVON. 



165 







SUMMARY 


FOR THE YEAR 


1909. 












HAINFALU 


TflKFERATURE JN BCREEN. 


1 




1 






1 


□KSATBtT 

TALL IK 
1« KOPM. 


1 


11 U Hit, 


■XTPtrHIl, 


t 


»HS. 




i 1 1 


1 


i 

■a 


i 


& 




1 


1 


1 


raw«ll . 
n . 

Is. 
son 

JorucT » 
mBmj . 
sou 
W 

a * 
•» < 

^>ot ! 

iiWtBhd. 

Weir . 
!'• Cro«i . 

WB 

t Devon) 

L * 

h. . 

r«it 

ill School 

limoltcm) 

ijtclmrch.] 
lUthOU 
mth 

(Benton) 
Obi, , 

rwrmead) 

WtTBhd. 

ton 

Ponj«roy) 


ins, 
42.96 

47-99 

33*45 
39^23 

64.05 
34*44 
S3- SO 
28.11 

57- 76 
56.22 
34*00 
44*29 
3368 
43.38 
35-24 

44*79 

41.49 

47*& 
31.01 

30.82 

33-78 

3604 

41-34 
41*58 
41. 9t 
37- "5 

4356 

43.40 
34^77 


2-55 

3,50 

1.55 
1.77 
1-30 

3- 15 
3- '4 

2.14 

2.04 

1.85 

1,78 

1.98 

2,21 
3-33 

1,85 

1*74 
1*37 
1-49 
2.S5 

1*35 

1-79 
1.80 

1,98 
2.02 

X02 

2,87 
2.68 
a. 90 
1,50 

2.05 

2.06 

3*13 


8/3 

2l/l2 

8/3 

2l/t2 

26/jO 

21/12 

2t/I2 
2i/jZ 
3J/I2 

^8/9 
37/7 

V^ 
8/3 

27/7 
37/7 

15/10 
31/13 

21/12 

27/7 
26/10 
21/12 

27/7 

8/3 

21/12 

21/12 

21/12 

ai/12 

21/12 

21/12 

8/3 

8/3 

21/12 
21/11 

2S/9 


169 
182 

201 

i8s 

208 

156 

iSj 
199 
177 
173 

li? 

207 

202 
200 

1S7 
218 
203 

159 

169 
169 

175 
223 

202 
202 

2q6 

157 
164 
194 


49.8 

49-5 
49*5 

49-4 
S0.5 

Si"7 
50*7 

44*7 

48:5 
5o.| 

49-8 

46.4 

48.8 
SO.o 

SO. 2 
Si-o 

51*7 
sag 


deg. 

43*5 
42.1 

% 

40.9 
43.3 

46.7 
44*3 

40.1 

42.1 
44*2 
42,9 

40.2 

41.7 
44.6 

43-5 
44.7 

43-7 
45.7 


deg. 

54*8 
56.1 
5^*1 

56-7 

5K9 
56.4 

54*8 
56*5 \ 

S0.1 

53*7 
55*3 

54*7 

54*1 
56.1 

SS-6 

5^-4 

57.2 
SS.'o 


deg. 

49*1 

49 ' 
49*6 

47-7 

48.9 
49"S 

50.7 
5^4 

45*1 

47*9 
49*7 
49-1 

47-S 

47*9 
50.3 

49*6 
50.6 

50.5 
50-3 


deg. 
11.8 

2O.0 
21.0 

n.o 

i6:s 

23."o 
27:8 

35*0 

,.. 
18.9 

20! 7 
25.6 

22,0 

... 

13*7 

16.4 
«S.3 

24.6 
M.9 

»4.0 
17.0 


\ ■" 
I81.9 

82.4 
S2.0 
87.8 

88:8 

83.0 

8i.6 
8j.o 

80.0 
Si.o 
So. 8 

84-3 

83*9 
79*1 

83-6 
81.9 

83*3 

... 

8ii.o 
8i.o 


% 

83 

?^ 

So 

82 
Si 

87 

83 

Si 
82 

85 

84 
79 

78 
78 

79 
79 


0-10 

SA 
6.8 

6.6 

7.0 

7.0 

5*4 

5-7 


houra. 

I75i6 

1543.* 

... 

1864.0 

1853*5 
I99S5 

1758.0 

1857-0 
1938.7 

1830.3 


si 

LI 

109 

Si 

55 

so 
64 



A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON.^ 

BY MURRAY T. FOSTER. 

(Read at Collumpton, 27th July, 1010.) 



Situated as Collumpton is on one of the main roads 
from the West and on the principal one from Exeter to 
Wellington and Taunton, it is strange that so Uttle in the 
way of history can be found relating to all the events 
which must have happened either in the town itself or 
on account of the passing of all manners and conditions 
of people through it before and since the time of Alfred 
the Great, when by his will, dated a.d. 872, he bequeathed 
the town and lands of Columtune to his son Ethelward. 
The town itself is built on the slightly sloping side of 
a fertile valley watered by the river Culm, which rises 
in the Blackdown Hills just within the borders of Somerset 
and sixteen miles from the town. The houses are mostly 
of brick and slated, although some still remain of cob or 
stone and thatched. It does not now only consist, as an 
account of 1809 says, " principally of one old street badly 
paved and the centre much disfigured and obstructed by 
some old shambles," the bad paving having been replaced 
by bricks and the shambles having disappeared. The 
one long street remains, it is true, but the houses for the 
most part are clean and smart in appearance, and the side 
streets and recently built terraces add considerably to 
the beauty of the town. The parish is some seven miles 
long, with an average of about three miles in breadth, and 
has an acreage of 7928 ; the census of 1901 showed a popu- 
lation of 2919. 

The red marl sandstone and conglomerate of Taunton 
vale extends through the Culm valley, but the hills sur- 
rounding the town are of transition nature. From Knowle 
Hill to the S.E. of the town we get a magnificent panoramic 
view of Sidmouth Gap, the Blackdown Hills to Somerset, 

^ Collumpton is adTisedly so spelt by the autlior of tliis paper. 



A SHORT HISTORY OP COLLUMPTON. 157 

Exmoor, Dartmoor, and Haldon, and practically the whole 
of the houses of the town can be seen stretching beyond 
the river and railway. The average rainfall is thirty-three 
inches a year, and extremes of cold and heat are rarely 
observed. One remarkable feature of its climatology is- 
the absence of severe thunderstorms, it having the repu- 
tation of being one of the most favoured districts in the 
kingdom. 

The origin of name and mode of spelling. 

The mode of spelling the name of the town has changed 
very often since King Alfred spelt it Columtune ; and 
although the position of the first two vowels has been 
with the "o" first and "u" second, as above, yet there 
have been periods of years in which these in changed 
order have found popular favour. The principal periods 
of deviation from CoUumpton to CuUompton have been 
from 1060 to 1080, from 1600 to 1700, from 1760 to 1790, 
and from 1836 to the present time. 

One hardly wants to enter into a controversy as to the 
respective merits of "o..u" or '*u..o" in this place; 
various authorities have their own arguments and modes 
of derivation. In Domesday Book of King William I 
it is Colitone, and in Exeter Domesday it is Colum and 
Curemtone. 

Tradition says the word is derived from C!olumba or 
Saint Columba ; he may possibly have visited this part. 
One writer suspects that the name is derived from (^Im, 
a swift-running stream, although it would need a con- 
siderable stretch of imagination to think the Culm such 
a river. Another writer is disposed to think that the 
word means Colombs (camUum) ton, which is Anglo-Saxon 
for a homestead or settlement. 

In A Restoration of the Ancient Mode of Bestowing Names 
on Hills y Rivers, etc,, by G. Dyer, 1805, Culm is derived 
from Culmen, a height, the river having its source in the 
hills above Culmstock. Others suspect it comes from 
Sancta Columba or lona, and in Columb John, think the 
two words are united, Columb-Ion, the sacred word for 
dove. The owner of the land of Colum- John in 1223 was 
John de Cuhn, but as Colum only was the name in Domes- 
day, Colum took the adjunct John from the possessor of 
the parish, and not from Ion, as Mr. Polwhele imagined. 



168 



A SHORT mSTOBY OF OOLLUMPTON. 



Moreover, in an alphabet of ancient arms in Sir Wm. 
Pole's collection for Devon we have those of Colin of 
Golinstoke; hence it appears that this river might ori- 
ginally have been named Colen or C!olin, and that it 
has from time to time become Colum, Colun, and lastly 
Culm. Below is a very short list of different spellings : — 



Columtune, 872. 

Colitone 1080. 

Colum, 1080. 

Curemtone, 1080. 

Columpton, 1278. 

1406. 

1436. 

1549. 
Colompton, 1290. 

1623. 

Culuntuna, 1066. 

Cullompton, 1698. 
1764. 

1778. 

Columton, 1662. 

Culmton, 1638. 
Culumbton, 1686. 

Culuntim, 1100. 



King Alfred the Great. Will preserved 
in Newminster Abbey. 

Domesday Book of King William I. 

Exon Domesday Book. 

Exon Domesday Book. 

Gift deed of Amicia, Countess of 
Devon, to Buckland Abbey. 

Confirmation of above by Isabella de 
Fortibus, Countess of Devon. 

Licence of Bishop Lacy to the dedi- 
cation of the Church. 

Name of William Vivian, Bishop of 
Hippo, WiUiam Columpton. 

Taxatio Ecclesiastica, Pope Nicholas 
IV, Bocland. 

John Trott's will in Registry of Pre- 
rogative Court of Canterbury. 

A deed gift by WiUiam I to Battle 
Abbey. 

Deed transfer of land in parish. 

MS. Deed relating to town water- 
course. 

England's Oazateer suggesting its 
proper mode of spelling. 

Tombstone of Abraham Turner in 
the Church. 

Rev. Thos. More's History of Devon. 

Camden's Britannia. Map in original 
edition. 

Deed gift from Battle Abbey to St. 
Nicholas Priory (Dugdale). 



The old Roman road from Seaton runs to Hembury 
Fort and thence by CoUumpton to Bampton and Molland. 

Another Roman road came from Somerset to Exeter 
called the Portway, and passed through the town. 

During the Octarchy the place was held in the Royal 



A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMFTON. 169 

Demesne. A Collegiate Church was founded at a very 
early period by one of the Saxon monarchs, which was 
annexed by WiUiam I to the Abbey of Battle, Sussex. 

The Manor and HiUersdon. 

In the Conqueror's time the manor was held by Godwyn, 
and after him by Othelyne. King Richard I gave it to 
Richard de CHfford, and King John in about 1199 gave 
it to his brother Walter de CUflford. The Earls of Devon 
held it for years, and Amicia, Countess of Devon, in 1278 
gave it to the Abbot and Convent of Buckland. This was 
confirmed by Isabella, daughter of Amicia, and by King 
Edward I in the eighth year of his reign. It was then 
surrendered into the King's hands at the dissolution of 
the monasteries, and was held by Sir John St. Leger, 
Knight ; then it came to Thomas Risdon, and was after- 
wards for many years in the HiUersdon family, who eventu- 
flJly gave up residing there in favour of a more beautiful 
estate elsewhere. The manor then came to Francis 
Coleman, David Sweet, J. Baker, and W. C. Grant, the 
father of the present owner. No courts have of late years 
been held, but the lord of the manor had the right of 
appointing the town crier, and he also exercised some 
manorial rights over the fishing. Formerly he held the 
power of Ufe and death. 

The house at HiUersdon is a large and handsome brick 
buUding embeUished with free-stone, and consists chiefiy 
of a porte-cochire and colonnade of the Roman Doric order, 
and was completed in 1848 by W. C. Grant, Esq. The 
floor of the entrance hall is of tesseUated pavement. Be- 
yond the haU is a vestibule subdivided by pilasters sup- 
porting a gaUery on eUiptical arches. 

Handeta and Old Manors of the Parish. 

Padbrook, formerly caUed Paddesbrooke, Ues just off 
the main Exeter road, about three-quarters of a mUe from 
centre of the town. It belonged to the Courtneys, Earls of 
Devon, and after the attainder of the Marquis of Exeter it 
came to the Crown, and then passed to the famiUes of 
Bassett, Rowswell, and Dunscombe ; now it belongs to the 
Wyndham estate. 

Langford, two miles S.E. The manor of Langford be- 



160 A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLXJMPTON. 

longed to the family of that name, and Su* Roger de Lang* 
ford, Eaiight, was Sheriff of the County in King Henry Ill's 
reign. He was succeeded by many of his descendants, 
until Edward Langford, having no male heir, left it to 
Corpus Christi College, Oxon, to which it still belongs. 

A charter for a market was granted in 1334, and a three 
days' fair at the festival of St. James. 

There used to be a chapel at Langford, and remains of 
this are to be found at Langford Barton. In 1860 a number 
of cut stones were discovered in a field opposite the farm, 
which may possibly have belonged to the old chapel. 

ChaJdon or GJudvedoriy one and a half miles S.E., be- 
longed to a family of that name, and now to Richard 
Sanders. 

Weaver, two miles E., is a small hamlet on the little 
stream of the same name, formerly spelt Wever, meaning 
the fall of a lesser water into a greater. Some two or three 
old houses there are interesting. The property now belongs 
to H. G. H. New, Esq., and others. 

MvUerton, one and a half miles S.E., is also a smaU 
hamlet containing about seven or eight houses ; three of 
these houses have the appearance of ancient chapels, and 
may possibly have been at one time used as such. 

AUer, two miles E. The manor of Aller Peverell be- 
longed to the family of Peverell of Sampford Peverell, 
afterward to Sir William Ashthorpe, who conveyed it to 
Margaret, Duchess of Clarence. Kings Henry VII and VIII 
held it, the latter selling it to Richard Moore of Collumpton, 
and he sold to Loosemore of Tiverton, and so to Sir William 
Pole in 1630. 

In December, 1336, being the Sunday next after the 
Feast of St. Nicholas, the Prior and Convent of St. Nicholas, 
Exon, granted to Sir Oliver de Dinham licence to make a 
water-course within his manor of Aire Peverell in Col- 
lumpton parish; for which Ucence the said knight agreed 
to pay the convent one penny for ever at Christmas, and 
to be at the whole charge of keeping the said water-course 
in good repair, and to have but a moiety of the fishing 
there. 

Aller now belongs to WiUiam Wyndham, Esq. 
Neiulands, one and a half miles E. This was the land of 
William Fumeaux in King Edward I's time, and after- 
wards came into the Walrond family of Bradfield. Amongst 
the five prebends granted St. Nicholas Priory is mentioned 



A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 161 

Hindand. Does this possibly mean Newiland ? On 
August 28, 1438, a licence was granted to John Wakond, 
Esq., by Bishop Lacy, to have divine service performed 
"infra mansiones suas de Newlande in parochia de Col- 
umpton de Bradevyle in Uflfculme parocMa, et de Bovegh 
in parochia de Branscombe." 

MoorAayes, one and a half miles N.E. The manor of 
Moorhayes had been for sixteen generations the property 
and residence of the family of Moore in 1630. In 1711 
George Moor died without male heir ; his only daughter 
married John Blackmore, and the manor continued in the 
family of Blackmore imtil 1905, when John Blackmore died 
and the property came to a relative, Mr. Wm. Blackmore 
Salter, whose son, Mr. A. W. Salter, resides there. 

A very old and interesting house. Another house, now 
used as part of the farm buildings, appears to have been 
a chapel at one time. 

KingsmiU, three-quarters of a mile N.E., belonged to 
Walrond, but now belongs to F. Sellwood, Esq. John Lane, 
the donor of Lane's Aisle in Collumpton Church, was bom 
there, and Justice Sir John Pratt also Uved there. 

Kingsfordy two miles N.E. A portion of the land is in 
C!ollumpton parish ; the most part, being in Kentisbeare, 
belonged to Henry de Kingsforde in King Henry Ill's 
reign. 

Ponlsford or Ponsford, formerly Pontesford, about two 
miles W. of the town, was held by PhiUp Bassett, and in 
1419 was included in the list of possessions belonging to 
Hugh Comrtenay, fourth Earl of Devon. It is now owned 
by William Wyndham, Esq. 

Colebrook, one mile W. This Uttle hamlet was probably 
the old Luttockshele, and one of the five prebends ; and 
although there is now no estate of that name known in 
the parish, yet there was here an ancient mansion with 
chapel attached. The lands in the time of King Edward III 
belonged to Sir Selvin Souththorpes, and successively to 
the famihes of Raleigh, Dinham, Hidor, and Whiting, and 
then to Walrond. It was appropriated soon after the 
Conquest to the St. Nicholas Priory, although King 
WiUiam I had granted it with the four other prebends to 
Battle Abbey. 

However, at the dissolution it was sold to the Corpora- 
tion of Exeter. 

For many years now it has been in the Palmer family. 

VOL. XLII. L 



162 A SHORT HISTORY OP COLLUMPTON. 

The last Mayor of Bradninch, Mr. Henry Palmer, resided 
at " Fairfield," the house adjoining Colebrook Court. 

The Church is dealt with by Rev. E. S. Chalk, m.a., 
in another paper. 

Old Hotiaea of the tovm. 

Hardly any part of the town has escaped the ravages of 
fires at one time or another in its history, and in conse- 
quence there are not many old houses of special note. 
Some of the houses near the Church in Gravel Walk and at 
Pye Comer have handsome porches or heavy carved oak 
doors, and a few houses have one or more rooms nicely 
panelled in oak, and others still have the old carved oak 
beams ; but standing out conspicuously amongst all are 
the " Manor House " and the " Walronds " on the west 
side of the High Street, and each deserves notice. 

The Manor House, situated at the comer of Tiverton 
Lane and High Street (now called Fore Street), is built in 
the Elizabethan style. This makes it probable that al- 
though it bears the date of 1603 on a panel on the right 
top comer of front, the original building was of the six- 
teenth century, and that it wsrs refurbished by T.T., 
the initials under the date, at the later time ; probably also 
these initials, which occur again in the corresponding 
panel on the left of the front, were those of Thomas Trock, 
An early occupant of the house. On a lead cistern head 

o 17 

of a rainpipe are the letters (L) ^r™, (R) and date ,g 

this most likely being the date of a reconstruction of the 
house, for the original structure evidently consisted only 
of the front part, in which there were three rooms, with 
passage on the ground floor, and three above opening one 
into the other, and above again the attics in the gables. 
The spiral staircase, of which only the upper part remains, 
descended to the hall or kitchen. The back part of the 
house, with the north wing, is of brick, and is of later 
date — ^no doubt, the 1718 of the rainpipe — whilst the 
front is of stone. 

The name " Manor House " was given by the late 
Mr. J. S. Upcott in 1860. It still appears in the rate- 
book as part of Sellicks. A William Sellocke was one of 
the earlier owners, whilst following him are Bernard 
Wright, surgeon ; John Garret, 1785 ; William Tanner and 



A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 163 

Robert Baker, 1791 ; William Upcott, 1828 ; and the 
family of the present owner and occupant from 1842. 

The windows in the front of the house on the ground 
floor are flush with the wall ; above is a pent, slated, with 
soffit ending in a moulding. The first-floor windows pro- 
ject, resting on variously carved scroll brackets, and the 
angle mulUons are decorated with small attached Ionic 
pilasters and scroll heads. Above again is the upper 
projectmg story, and four projecting windows, one in 
each gable. The doorway is covered by a barrel-shaped 
lead-roofed porch, with two scallop shells, one enclosing 
the other, and branches of olive and fruit on the soffited 
ceiling; it rests on brackets supported by Doric pillars 
and panelled stilts. The hall to left is panelled with large 
Queen Anne oak, its ceiling moulded and cross beam, and 
there is an open fireplace. The first-floor rooms, now 
consisting of four, were originaUy three only, one having 
been divided ; all had oak beams. The attics are ap- 
proached by the spiral staircase. Three of these are ceiled. 
Nearly all the original roof timbers remain. At the back 
of the house is a delightful old garden running parallel 
to Tiverton Lane for about two hundred yards. 

" The Walronds " is a fine Elizabethan mansion built 
of flint and masonry in the Tudor style, and consists of 
a central block and wings. It was begun by Sir John 
Petre, Knight, m.p., in 1603, and completed in 1605. 
Over the oak mantelpiece in the dining-room is an im- 
paled shield of the arms of the Petre family, with initials 
and date 1605. The house passed into the Portman 
family, and about 1790 was occupied by Edmund Wal- 
Tond of Bradfield, from whom it took its name. It was 
next acquired by the Bakers, and purchased by Rev. 
John Sydenham of CoUumpton from this family. It 
passed to the late F. Burrow, Esq., ll.d., in 1890, who 
had it restored. 

The entrance hall has massive black oak partitions 
on either side, composed of boards roughly fashioned 
with axe or adze. On the right an oak door leads to the 
dining-room, which is twenty-three feet by eighteen feet. 
The walls from floor to ceiling are lined with panelling of 
dark oak, and the ceiling has a cornice and frieze. There is 
a wide, open fireplace, a large movable iron grate, and over 
this is the shield of arms alluded to above. The drawing- 
room is in the north wing, and is also panelled with dark 



164 A SHORT HISTORY OP COLLUMPTON. 

oak, and has a carved frieze under a cornice nmning round 
the room. Below each of the three windows is a bench. 
The mantelpiece is beautifully carved with details of fruit 
and leaves, and the ceiling decorated in plaster. Within 
the panelling is a secret cupboard, and during the repairs 
in 1890 a number of antique bottles were found, one labelled 
" Acqua di Felsina and Belogna." 

To the left of entrance hall is the Ubrary, formerly the 
** Justice Room." It has a very massive oak door. The 
main staircase is of old oak panelled on one side ; the 
balusters are carved. The bedroom over drawing-room is 
approached by a passage, and has a moulded ceiling and 
a very handsome cornice. The state bedroom is in the 
other wing, and is the finest room in the house. It is ap- 
proached by an arched doorway of oak, richly carved and 
ornamented. The ceiling is adorned with bosses sur- 
rounded by heads of cherubs. Over the fireplace is a 
shield of arms similar to that in the dining-room ; it has 
the date 1605. The kitchen, scullery, and smaller attic 
rooms all have much oak panelling. A secret staircase to 
the attics has been stopped up. The staircase from the 
kitchen is spiral, and made of oak blocks attached to and 
radiating from a massive oak newel, and at intervals are 
fixed wooden handles to assist upward or downward 
progress. 

There is one other old house which should be mentioned, 
the John Trott's Almshouses ; but unfortunately the only 
remains are the internal woodwork, and the front entrance, 
though blocked up, shows the stone moulded jambs and 
carved spandrils of Tudor style. 

The old oak beams and moulding of the bar ceiling 
in the Half Moon Hotel are very fine. 

The Water-course. 

The greatest boon ever conferred on the town was the 
grand ^t of its Water-course, in 1356, by the Abbot of 
Bokland ; and throughout the 550 years since this splendid 
stream was brought into the town, nothing has conduced 
more to its cleanliness or to its good healthy character, 
and naturally Collumptonians are very jealous of all the 
rights in connection with this water. The stream rises 
at Cioombe Farm, about two and a half miles due W. from 
the town, and about a mile nearer the town it is joined by 



A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLTJMFTON. 166 

another little stream from Hillersdon ; and nmning through 
several meadows it comes to a pond just outside Short- 
lands. This pond is very useful in case of fire, when an 
increased flow of water can be sent into the main streets. 
After leaving Shortlands it begins to be divided up, part 
flowing down in the New Street direction, and part through 
the " Walronds " property. The main stream, however, 
is taken to the highest point of the old High Street, now 
called Fore Street, and from there is sent in open channels 
at the*sides of the streets to all parts of the town ; nearly 
every court has its little running stream. 

Until quite recently the necessary business in connection 
with the water-course was managed by a Committee, 
chosen at a meeting of the inhabitants, and a Water 
Bailiff. Now the Parish Council, acting under the District 
Council at Tiverton, are the authorities governing this 
matter. The original deed is still preserved by the Parish 
Council at the bank, and is quite legible. The seal at- 
tached is somewhat chipped, but the name of Amicia, 
foundress of Buckland Abbey, is quite distinctly seen. 

A translation of the deed is as below : — 

"Know all men, present and to come, that we, Thomas 
Abbot of Boklande, and of the Convent of the same place, 
Have given, granted, and by this our present writing have 
confirmed to our whole Homage of Columpton, leave to have 
a course of clear wholesome water between the ditch of Were- 
mede, the land of my Lord the Earl of Devon, and the land 
of Thomas Vacie, imto the High Street of Columpton, over 
all our domain and the land of our tenants for ever, without 
the hinderance of us or our successors. In testimony whereof 
our common seal is himg to these presents. These being 
witnesses : Thomas Gambon, Thorn. Facie, William Fomeaux, 
William Whitemore, John Rooke, Henry Chopyn and many 
others. Given at Boklande, the sixth day of May in the year 
of the reign of King Edward the Third, since the Conquest of 
England, the twenty-ninth." 

Controversies and contentions of all descriptions have 
raged round the question of rights in connection with the 
water-course, and in nearly all the old minutes of meet- 
ings there are clauses similar to that of October 2, 1835 : 
" From observations made by persons then, it was deemed 
advisable not to delay any longer the actual measures for 
preserving the water, so a Club was formed and a bill 



166 A SHORT HISTORY OP OOLLUMPTON. 

issued stating its object and soliciting contributions. 
1. To preserve the water-course and pathways from every 
obstruction and encroachment. 2. To keep them in a 
proper state of repair. 3. To have the water brought 
in its proper channel to Fore Street, and then equitably 
distributed to the diflEerent parts of the town." And as 
a result of all these protests, demands, and threats, it is 
most satisfactory to be able to state that the inhabitants 
have been successful in holding and maintaining that which 
was given them so long ago. 

Old Local Customs. 

Amongst many old local customs, the most important 
was in connection with the water-course. A meeting of 
any or all the inhabitants was called for the purpose 
of viewing the stream and following its course from the 
main street to its source. This was called " possessioning 
[not a dictionary term, but quite a good explanatory one] 
the town leat or lake." At Coombe, ale, cider, and cakes 
were partaken of, and many novices were ducked in the 
muddy pond, and all the way along the stream any 
obstruction was ruthlessly destroyed. This custom has 
not been carried out for some years now ; " more's the 
pity," many CoUumptonians think ! 

Dog- whipping, apparently, was a necessity, and the 
post of " Dog-whipper " was an additional office for the 
Parish Clerk. One would think that a considerable dis- 
turbance would be caused in church by this method of 
ejecting the canine visitors. Below are a few church- 
wardens' entries : — 

1669. Paid John Land ye Doggwhipper 
1671. For John Lane Doggwhipper . 

For a shift for John Lane 
1726. The Doggwhipper his year's salary 

Whipping of another kind was also on occasion resorted 
to. In 1628 a false accusation having been made against 
a deacon of Exeter, Dr. Petersen, one of his accusers, 
called Travers, was fined by the Star Chamber, and he 
was directed to ask forgiveness. Another man. Frost, 
was fined £500, and set in the pillory at Exeter ; while 
Catherine Bampton, a woman implicated, was committed 



£ 


s. 


<f. 





2 








8 








4 





1 









A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 167 

to the Fleet. She was then to be carried to the country, 
and well whipped at Collumpton, and through the City 
of Exeter, and then committed to the house of correction 
for a year. 

A carious custom, existing for many years, is still in 
vogue. On St. Thomas's Day any poor person is allowed 
to go begging from door to door. Some of the older 
tradesmen used to put out some shillings' worth of coppers, 
and as each appUcant turned up, he or she was given 2d. 
Indiscriminate charity of this kind is, however, on the 
decrease. 

Bevels were held in diflferent parts of the town. The 
Duck Street one was a noted annual event on Oak Apple 
Day. The street was lined with fairing stalls, and both 
children and grown-ups towards evening had a gay old 
time. Then another similar gala day was made of Whit- 
Monday, when the " Mayor of Boot Quarter " was chosen. 
This was held in New Street, and " Boot " was the name 
of the inn there. Probably this was the head-quarters of 
the fun. Collumpton used to be a great centre for wrestling, 
and once the championship of the West was contested 
here. 

Bull-baiting and cock-fighting were great sports up to 
the beginning of last century. The Higher and Lower 
Bull-rings are still important places in the town, and 
notwithstanding the recent attempts to call them High 
Street and Fore Street respectively, they remain the 
Bull-rings to the old Collumptonian. The last bull- 
baiting was in 1805 or 1806. 

Cockpit Hill indicates where this barbarous sport was 
indulged in years ago. The old stocks are still preserved 
in the Sessions House. They used to be in the south-west 
comer of the churchyard. 

Cloth Manufacture. 

Friezes and plain coarse cloths were made in Devon- 
shire up to the reign of King Edward IV, when Antony 
Bonville, an ItaUan, taught the method of making kersies^ 
These were succeeded by white serges, called long ells, 
cloth druggets, and duroys. These and other woollen 
goods were manufactured at Tiverton, Collumpton, 
Crediton, and other places, and brought to Exeter and 
sold to merchants, who dyed, pressed, or dressed them, and 



168 A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 

when finished sold them for export to Italy, Spain, Ger- 
many, or Portugal. As indicated by the population, which 
at the last census in 1901 was 2919, as compared with 3813 
in 1831 and 3909 in 1841, the dying out of the woollen- 
making trade in small places affected the numbers of 
inhabitants here, Collumpton having just about a thousand 
less now than seventy years since. In 1612, after a de- 
structive fire at Tiverton, many woollen workers came 
here, and in 1753 a riot at the same place, caused by the 
actions of a certain merchant called Grime, was joined in 
by workers from Collumpton. They attacked his house 
and destroyed the serges, and carried him oflF on a pole. 
He was rescued by special constables, but a Bradninch 
man was killed in the mel6e. In December of 1816 Mr. 
Upcott arranged to employ forty to sixty weavers from 
Tiverton, and as many spinners as should require work, 
they having suffered so much from the almost total 
failure of the woollen trade and agricultural scarcity 
in that part. The large buildings at Shortlands were 
quite a hive of industry in the palmy days of this woollen 
trade. Now there is none of this ; and although the 
greater part of these premises remains, they are apphed 
to a totally different use. 

Bells and BeU Foundries. 

Just near the Shortlands lane is the site of Thomas 
Bilbie's bell foundry, established in 1746, and one of 
the most noted in the country. The inscriptions on the 
bells in the Church are interesting. 

1. Thomas Bilbie fecit 1781. 

2. Gloria in Excelsis 1746. 

3. God save the King 1746. 

4. Thomas Bilbie of Cheswick cast us 1746. 

5. Mr. John Martin, Mr. Wright, Mr. Antony Heathfield. 

6. Mr. Philip Martin, Mr. Thomas Heathfield, Mr. Henry 
Criuys. 

7. Mr. Humphrey of RuU, Mr. James Cross at Venn, and 
C. H. and W., the Rev. John Wilcock, Mr. Thomas Denham, 
Thomas Blackmore, John Salter of Kingsmill, Mr. Ben Wright, 
Surgeon, Mr. William Brown, " God send us good luck," 1746. 

8. Me resonare jubent, pietas, mors, atque voluptas. Thos. 
Stone, Frans. Webb, C. H. Ward, Richard Beavis, Esq., 
Richard Harward, and Richard Wills, Esq. 

** Bilbie the founder, Bush the hanger, 
Heathfield the man that rings the tenor." 1781. 



A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 169 

Thomas Bilbie is said to be buried in the porch under 
the tenor bell. Relatives of his lived in the house next to 
the Manor House for many years. 

Following Bilbie came WiUiam Pannel, and his bell 
foundry was at a house in the " New Cut," now known 
as " Methodist Court." The last bell cast by him was in 
the possession of his sister, a Mrs. Gaul, living at Pye 
•Comer. This was bought by Mr. Joseph Foster, and in 
1901 sold to the present Mr. Justice Eve at Bovey Tracey, 

Coins and Tokens, 
The following is a hst of coins and tokens : — 

WALTER CHALLIS OF 
CULLUMSTON 1651 W.S.C. 

TBOSTRAM CLARKE (man making candles) 

IN COLLOMTON. T.A.C. 

lOHN HARRIS IN HIS HALFPENNY 
CULLOMTON 1666 I.M.H. 

HENRY HOPPING CARRIER IN 1666 (a packhorse) 

COLLOMTON HIS HALFPENNY. H.D.D. 

JOHN MODFORD 1667 (a woolpack) 

IN COLLOMPTON HIS HALF PENY. I.M.M. 

WILLIAM SKINNER (3 Flcurs-de-Hs) 

OF COLLVMSTON W^S. 



Fairs and Markets. 

The market was originally granted in 1278 to Baldwin 
de Insula, Earl of Devon, to be held on Thursday, to- 
gether with a fair for three days at the Festival of St. 
John the Baptist. In 1317 the Abbot and Convent of 
Buckland had the grant of a market to be held on Tuesday, 
together with a fair of three days at the Festival of St. 
O^rge. 

Various alterations from the above days have been 
made, and many indentures drawn up convejdng the 
rights in connection with the markets to diflferent owners. 

The market was formerly held in the Shambles, a 
long, narrow, wooden structure roofed over and standing 
on the east side of Fore Street, just below where the 
present so-called Market House now stands. The Com 



170 A SHOBT mSTOBY OF OOLLUMPTON. 

Market was also held in the same place, and a bell in a 
little turret on the top of the Shambles used to summon 
the farmers every Saturday for barter. This was also 
used as an alarm in case of fire. As large a number as 
thirty butchers used to expose their meat for sale on a 
Satiuxlay, mostly brought in from the country. In 1811 
the inhabitants determined to do away with the Shambles, 
as it was considered to be a pubUc nuisance. This was 
done, and the present Market House built, a most in- 
convenient structure for the purpose. It was used as a 
meat market until declining prosperity of the town in 
connection with the weaving trade caused the butchers 
to sell at their own houses. It is now used as a dwelling- 
house and ordinary shop, and the yard for storing the 
hurdles used in the Higher Bull-ring, on the first Wednes- 
day in every month, for the sheep or cattle at the market. 
The fairs have been held on the ordinary market days 
in May and November, and used to be well attended by 
all classes of vendors of goods, who placed stalls along the 
sides of the Fore Street. The pleasinre fair extended into 
the Thursday, but for the last few years these customs 
have been declining, until now only one or two sweet 
stalls are set up. 

Fires. 

In common with all other places, CoUumpton has suffered 
severely by fires, and many are recorded. One in 1725 
occurred in the Church tower. The churchwardens* 
accouQts have the following entries : — 

£ s. d, 
1725. Two pounds of Candells when the 

Fire was in the Tower . . 11 

Pd. the men for watching in the 
Tower when the fire was there 7 

In 1798, during the public rejoicings on account of the 
defeat of the French squadron destined to invade Ireland, 
seven houses were burnt down, having been set on fire by 
a rocket falling on a thatched roof. In 1839 was the 
Great Fire. It was on a Sunday, and started about mid- 
day at the Boot Inn, kept by WiUiam Walters, just op- 
posite the end of New Street. A very strong south wind 
was blowing, and with the greatest rapidity one house 
after another caught and was quickly gutted. Both sides- 



A SHOKT HISTORY OF COLLTJMPTON. 171 

of New Street, and one side of Crow Green, and many 
houses in the Higher Bull-ring on the west side, from 
Tiverton Lane, in all some 264 houses, were destroyed* 
Lots of the furniture was stored in the Church. 

An interesting churchwardens' account comes from 
Camborne, which says that 

"In 1682 collected by Wm. Trewarthen and John Vincent, 
churchwardens the 4th June, 1682, for the Releife of 
the Inhabitants of the Towne of CoUompton who have 
received a great loss by flfire, the sum of Twelve shillings 
and sixpence, which were paid unto John Collins, Rector 
of our parish." 

The Charities. 

Few towns of a similar size can boast of more charities 
appUcable to so many and varied purposes. The greater 
number were bequeathed during the early part of the 
seventeenth century, a period undoubtedly of great 
prosperity and open-heartedness. A report on these 
charities was made in 1820 and in 1823, and the recent 
one *of 1905. The present income from them is about 
£200 a year. Four are devoted to gifts of bread weekly ; 
four to provisions of linen ; four are money gifts ; one, 
that of John and Henry Hill, for provision of coats for 
poor men, is one of the richest, producing about £65 a 
year, and some forty coats and cloaks are provided. 

Two charities are for rehgious books ; one for food, 
fuel, clothing, or blankets, to be provided by means 
of a fund accruing from any balance of income of the 
Victoria Hall, given to the town as a Jubilee Memorial 
in 1897 by the late Frederick Burrow, Esq., ll.d. ; but 
up to the present time only once has it been possible to 
carry out the donor's wishes, most of the income having 
been expended in the upkeep of the building. 

The Almshotises is a unique charity, founded by John 
Trott, who declared in his will of 28th January, 14th 
Henry VIII, "that his executors and overseers should, 
with the remains of such goods as he had then, and with 
the debts owing to him, purchase lands as well for the 
maintenance of a priest for ever to celebrate within the 
Church at Collumpton, as also for the rehef of six poor 
men to have their habitations in an almshouse, which he 
willed to be built in that town, and that the same poor 



172 A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 

men should have to their sustentation sixpence apiece 
by the week." The priestly maintenance fee and the six- 
pence a week each have disappeared, but the present 
almshouses stand to commemorate John Trott's gift. 
They had fallen into very bad repair when, in 1883, James 
Martin left £400 to be used to restore them. This was 
forthwith done, and an extra room added. In 1895 the 
Parish Coimcil took their management in hand, and ex- 
pended small sums on the necessary upkeep. But in 
1904 the attention of the Local Government Board was 
called to this expenditure, and the Council were sur- 
charged £14 7s.,' as almshouses were not parish property. 
A year later Frank Sellwood, Esq., gave a sum of £100 
in Government of Newfoundland stock, the dividends 
from which are used to pay such sums as are necessary 
to keep the houses in repair. Among the churchwardens' 
accounts are found : — 

£ s, d. 

1670. For cleaning Almshouse chimney 14 

To repairs Almshouse . 4 17 2 

1672. For a rope for Almshouse bell . 10 

1701. Work done at Almshouse. . 10 



The most important charity is that of George Spicer, 
being the rent from a farm called Coombe, the place 
where the town water rises, the rent from which is £75 a 
year, and is used for the binding of apprentices with 
premiums of £12 10s. This is deposited in the trustees' 
bank until the apprentice's time is out at the age of twenty- 
one, the interest accruing being paid the master. Usually 
about four to five boys are annually bound. This charity 
was founded in 1624. 

What will be a splendid charity when it is realized is 
that of Edward Mortimer HiU, who bequeathed by wiU 
dated November 21st, 1890, to trustees the residue of 
his real and personal estate upon trust for sale, and directed 
that after the death of his wife his trustees should raise 
the sum of £3000 out of such part of his residuary trust 
fimd as could legally be bequeathed for charitable purposes, 
and after investing it in Consols transfer it to the Vicar 
and Churchwardens of Collumpton to apply the income 
for the benefit of the poor, under certain conditions. Mr. 
Hill's widow is still living. 



A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 173 

CivU Wars. 

Collumpton was visited by various sections of the 
troops during the civil wars. His Majesty with soldiers 
was here on September 20th, 1644, and on October 16th^ 
1645, Sir Thomas Fairfax marched from Honiton to 
Collumpton, where Lord Millar was with 300 dragoons 
and some infantry, who on his approach quitted the town. 
Strong parties pursued them, and took some prisoners. 
A council of war was held, and Major-General Massey 
was directed to advance with his horse and the brigade of 
foot, under the command of Colonel Weldon, to possess 
the town of Tiverton. .They attempted this, but unsuc- 
cessfully attacked the Castle there. Sir Thomas moved 
from Collumpton with some 7000 men, leaving some horse 
and foot at Bradninch, Silverton, and Culm John, and 
succeeded in forcing the King's troops across the Exe. 

The following churchwardens' accounts of 1685 are 
interesting : — 

£ s. d. 

Payd ffor Ringing when the Duke of Albe- 
marle came with his Army to the Towne 06. 06 

Payd ffor Ringing when the Duke of 
Monmouth was defeated . . . 08. 06 

Payd for Ringing when the newes was 
brought us of Monmouth's taking . . 10. 00 

Payd Thomas Percy for watching the 
prisoners in ye Church and cleening the 
Church after them . . . . 04. 00 

On November 5th, 1688, the Prince of Orange landed 
at Brixham with 6000 horse and 10,000 foot. He entered 
Exeter on November 9th, his army being augmented at 
every place, and advanced northward, leaving a small 
force at Tiverton, Collumpton, and Honiton. 

Nonconformists of the Town. 

Nonconformity has always been well represented here^ 
although now there are not quite so many sects as formerly* 

The Quakers had a meeting-house in 1837, and the 
small burial ground was not used after that date. Many 
prosecutions of Friends for breaches of the Conventicle 
Act during the years 1660-65 were brought against them 
at Collumpton, although George Fox in 1663 had a quiet 



174 A SHOKT HISTORY OF COLLUBfPTON. 

meeting in the town, contrary to their expectations. 
In 1661 fifteen persons were taken from the meeting and 
committed to prison. 

The IndependerUs held their first meetings in the White 
Hart Assembly Room, under the superintendence of 
the Rev. George Payne, d.d., on Easter Sunday, April 
11th, 1830, and the services continued there until the 
following year, when the chapel and burial ground in 
Tiverton Lane were completed, at a cost of about £300. 
The ground was given by Edward Brown, of CoUumpton. 
The first pastor was Jonathan Glyde, appointed in 1832. 
Other ministers were : — 



1834. 


Charles Hickman. 


1834. 


Barzilliai Quaife. 


1836. 


James Richards. 


1841. 


Thomas Sturges. 


1843. 


James Twinbull. 


1843. 


James Dyer. 


1843. 


Owen Owen. 


1846. 


WiUiam Kent. 


1847. 


John Herbert. 


1852. 


Adolphus D. Salmon. 



For many years previous to 1881, when the chapel 
und groimd were purchased by a sjmdicate of CoUumpton 
gentlemen, the building was used as a meeting-place by 
various Nonconformist bodies. It was named the Assembly 
Room, and used for public meetings and entertainments, 
and in 1897 the late Frederick Burrow, Esq., ll.d., 
who had bought the whole of the shares, handed the 
property over to the Parish Council to hold in trust for 
the inhabitants, and any balance of profits to be dis- 
tributed as a charity, as already related. The name was 
changed to Victoria Hall. 

The Unitarians. — CoUumpton Church was one of the 
places in Devon from which ministers were ejected in 
1662, the sufferer here being WiUiam Crompton, m.a., 
who continued with his people many years after he had 
quitted his living. He preached in a dwelling-house for 
some years after the Revolution. 

The meeting-house was buUt in 1695, and remained 



A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 175 

until 1814, when it was taken down and the present 
chapel erected on the same spot. Adjoining the chapel 
are schoohx>oms and burial ground, now, of course, 
•closed. 

Following WiUiam Crompton, m.a., in 1662, are these : — 

1698. Richard Evans. 

1745. Robert Glass. 

1748. Thomas Chapman. 

1751. Thomas Hook, 

1754. Samuel Morgan. 

1794. John Davis. 

1825. Matthew Lee Yates. 

1830. Nicholas Samuel Heinekier. 

1847. William Rawlinson. 

1862. Joseph Aikin. 

1867. John Omer Squier. 

1870. Charles F. Biss. 

1872. James Cooper. 

1875. WiUiam Saltmarshe Smith. 

1882. Alexander Stradling. 

1885. L, Lloyd Jones. 

1895. Supplies from Western Union. 

1901. Jeffery Worthington, b.a. 

This chapel is the recipient of several endowment 
funds. 

The Wesleyans, — This body was formed somewhere 
between 1740 and 1750. Collumpton is first mentioned 
in Mr. John Wesley's journal September 9th, 1748, 
where he appointed to meet Mr. John Slecomb, and 
came from Crediton with that object. In 1750 Mr. 
Wesley says : " I came to Collumpton, I preached in 
a little meadow near the town '' ; and again a year 
later he says : " Reached Collumpton, preached in a 
little meadow at the end of New Street." He remarks : 
** I observed one circumstance, which I had not observed 
elsewhere : the people did not come close to me, but 
stood in a half-moon some yards oflF, leaving a con- 
siderable space in the midst, and the very children be- 
haved with remarkable seriousness ! Here I rested the 
Sabbath, and attended the Church service in the even- 
ing." And the Vicar preached for his particular edifi- 
cation. The schoolrooms were built in 1765, and the 



176 A SHOBT mSTOBY OF COLLUMPTON. 

present ones in 1883. The burial ground was first used 
in 1806 ; it had been unused for many years before 
being built over. The old chapel, built in 1764, was 
replaced by a new one in 1806, but in consequence of a 
fire in 1872, which did considerable damage, it had to be 
almost entirely renewed. 

The Baptists. — This rehgious society was probably es- 
tabhshed about 1700, and met for worship in a dwelling- 
house in Collumpton as a branch of the Baptist Church of 
Upottery, and continued thus for forty years. In 1743 a 
meeting-house was erected, where the present one stands, 
and ministers from Prescott conducted the services. The 
first pastor was Nicholas Gillard, in 1751, and he remained 
nearly fifty years. The Rev. Augustus M. Toplady, then 
Vicar of Broadhembury, when about to leave his Hving, ad- 
vised " his people to attend the ministry of Mr. Gillard, in 
case their future Vicar should not be a man of God." In 
1816 the chapel at Sainthill was built, and a society there 
formed mostly from members who had transferred from 
Collumpton. In 1858 the chapel here was almost entirely 
renewed ; and during the pastorate of Rev. Benjamin 
Miller, the new school, class, and lecture-rooms were built 
at a cost of £700. The Baptist denomination have derived 
considerable benefit from the proceeds of letting and selling 
a piece of land near the chapel, given by the late Frederick 
Burrow, Esq., ll.d. 

LIST OF MINISTERS. 

1751. Nicholas Gillard. 

1801. Mr. Rumson. 

1804. James Viney. 

1807. Robert Humprys. 

1831. Mr. EUiott. 

1833. Mr. Amery. 

1840. Mr. Chapman. 

1842. Uriah Foot. 

1869. Joseph Forth. 

1872. Benjamin Miller. 

1891. J. Home. 

1900. J. Butler. 

1905. J. Beaupre. 

1909. W. Bonsor. 



A SHOBT HISTOBY OF C0LLX7MPT0N. 177 

The Brethren. — ^The Brethren also have a meeting-house 
in Fore Street, which was built in 1870, to which they 
moyed from their place in Higher Street, where services 
had been held for six years. 



T?ie National Schools^ 

The educational needs were not neglected at the be- 
ginning of last century, for in 1816 two schoolrooms — one 
for poor boys and the other for poor girls — ^were erected 
on land belonging to the Rev. Walter Gray, m.a., a former 
Vicar of the Church, who gave the land in 1822, the in- 
struction to be in reading, writing and arithmetic, and, 
in addition for the girls, needlework. The trustees were 
the Rev. Walter Gray, Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart., 
and Francis Huyshe, and their respective heirs, if members 
of the Church of England ; also Rev. John Templer, 
Rev. William Barker, and Rev. James Townsend Lewes, 
and their successors, i.e. a Vicar of CoUumpton, a Rector 
of Broadclist, and a Vicar of Halberton for the time being. 
The cost of building and equipping the schools was £500, 
made up of a gift by Henry Bratton, Esq., £200 ; a 
donation from a fund left by a Miss E. Pryor for benevolent 
purposes, £200 ; and a grant of £100 from the National 
Society. Church of England principles were to be taught, 
and parts of the premises were to be used as residences for 
the master and mistress. If at any time the schools were 
neglected or the principles of the Church of England 
teaching were perverted, the trustees were empowered 
to sell the ground, buildings and premises, and at their 
discretion apply the money to some other charity to 
carry out similar objects. The general upkeep was main- 
tained by voluntary subscriptions, school fees and Grovem- 
ment grants. The present schools were erected in 1872, 
costing £2315, this sum being raised by voluntary sub- 
scriptions, grants, church collections, and the amount 
from sale of the old school premises. The schools now 
come imder the head of non-provided or denominational 
schools. 

The Volunteers. 

The CoUumpton Company of Volunteers was one of 
the first few raised in England for the defence of the king- 
VOL. XLn. M 



178 A SHORT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 

dom during the latter part of the eighteenth century. 
They were enrolled in 1794, clothed a year later, and 
gradually increased in strength until three companies 
were quartered in the town, thanks very largely to the 
eflForts of Captain Jarman. The whole of the volunteers 
in the Hundred of Heyridge were formed into one regiment, 
and called the Heyridge Regiment, numbering 1200 men. 
The head-quarters were at the Old Workhouse, in Metho- 
dist Court, and the powder magazine in the same building. 
For ball practice the companies met at the Quarry, and 
sham fights and other manoeuvres were held at Hembury 
Fort. During the peaceful times subsequent to 1806 
enthusiasm in these worthy fighters diminished and the 
numbers dwindled, until in 1810 the companies were 
disbanded by order of the War Office ; some, however, 
joined the miUtia. 

Again in 1859 Collumpton responded loyally to the call 
for volunteers. After many meetings, general and com- 
mittee, in the latter part of that year and beginning of 
1860, in March many men joined the company, and drills 
were commenced. The company was called the Upper 
Culm Vale Volunteer Rifle Corps, 5th Devon, and Mr. 
John N. Walrond was elected Captain. Colours were 
presented by Mrs. Huyshe of CUst Hydon. The armoury 
was in a room where the present Parish Room stands, 
and the powder magazine was in an orchard belonging 
to the late Mr. Thomas Webber. The range was first 
at Fairfield and then at Sutton. The company has been 
in existence ever since, and generally has had a full 
complement. It has had its name changed several times. 
It has been known as 5th Administrative Battalion Devon- 
shire Regiment, 5th Devon Rifle Volimteers, A Co. 3rd 
Volunteer BattaUon Devonshire Regiment, and now, 
under the Territorial Scheme, when all transferred their 
services, G Co. 4th Devonshire Territorials. The ranges 
since the Sutton one have been at Upton, Herons, and the 
present one is at North HiU, Blackdown. The commanding 
officers since Captain Walrond were Captain C. R. Collins, 
Captain A. W. Leigh, Major J. Foster, Captain Bidwell 
and Captain G. G. Gidley. 

In 1909 a Cyclist Company was also established here 
in connection with the 7th Devon Cyclists. They have 
their drill hall in the Old Workhouse, where the Heyridge 
Volimteers had their head-quarters. 



A SHOBT HISTORY OP COLLUMPTON. 179 

Societies, 

Of the many societies in the town established for benefit 
purposes the following are the principal ones : — 

lie Collumpton Benevolent iSiendly Society, estabUshed 
July Ist, 1850. 

The Foresters, Court '*Chevy Chase," October 31st, 1869. 

The Sick and Rational, 1883. 

The Rechabites. 

The Pioneer, 1909. 

National Deposit, 1909. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF COLLUMPTON'S 
HISTORY. 

872. Collumpton mentioned in King Alfred's will. 

877. King Alfred probably passed through the town on his 

way to besiege Exeter. 
1067. King William I probably passed through the town on 

his way to besiege Exeter. 
1066 to 1070. The Church mentioned in several deeds as 

being given to Battle Abbey with its Five Pre- 
bends by King William I. 
1070. The Church mentioned in deed of Battle Abbey granting 

it to St. Nicholas Priory, and the Manor granted 

to Baldwin, Sheriff of Devon. 
1073. The gift of the Church confirmed by Bishop Osbern to 

St. Nicholas Priory. 
1120. King Henry I gave the Church to Bishop Wm. Warel- 

wast. 
1127. Hillersdon Manor belonged to William de Hillersdon. 
1190. The Manor granted by King Richard I to Richard de 

Clifford. 
1200. The Manor granted by King John to Walter de Clifford. 
1216. Richard Walrond was Lord of Bradfield. 
1225. Sir Roger de Langford, i^ght, was Sheriff of Devon. 
1239. A dearth of three months in the West of England 

followed by a plague. 
1269. Bishop Bronescombe of Exeter taxed Collumpton 

Vicarage. 
1278. Market and Fair granted by Baldwin de Insula. 
1278. Amicia, Countess of Devon, gave Collumpton Church 

to Buckland Abbey. 
1317. The Abbey of Buckland had a grant of a Market and 

Fair in Collumpton. 



180 A 8HOBT HISTORY OF COLLUMPTON. 

1323. William Garland gave Aller Peverell to his son. 
1329. Sir John Dinham sold Luttockshele to John Hidon. 
1336. Leave to make a water-course through their lands at 

Aller Peverel was given Sir Oliver de Dinham by 

the Prior of St. Nicholas, Exeter. 
1334. A charter for a Market and Fair granted to Langford» 
1346. William Fomeaux held Newland. 
1366. The water-course granted the town by the Abbot of 

Buckland. 
1361. Thomas de Pilton, Vicar, excommunicated for forgery. 

1419. Pontsford belonged to Hugh CJourtney, Earl of Devon. 

1420. Date of erection of Nave and Aisles of Church (P. C. 

Delagarde). 
1436. Feast of the dedication of Church altered in date. 
1438. Licence granted to John Walrond to have divine 

service performed at Newlands. 
1470. Date of erection of the Chancel and Clerestory of 

Church (P. C. Delagarde). 

1622. John Trott's Will leaving money for foundation of 

Almshouse. 
1627. Abbot of Buckland granted to Thomas Bowden some 

lands at Stonyforde Brigge. 
1636. William Vivian, Bishop of Hippo, was Vicar. 
1638. The Town mentioned as celebrated for manufacture of 

Karsie stockings. 

1645. Date of commencement of building the tower. 
1649. The tower finished. 

1661. King Edward VI leased the Rectory and Church to 

Sir J. Moore, Kt. 

1662. Lane's Aisle completed. 

1663. Queen Elizabeth granted the advowson, etc., to R. 

Freke and J. Walker. 
1601. March 28, The Register of Baptisms commences. 
1601. April 4, The Register of Burials commences. 
1601. April 18, The Register of Marriages commences. 
1606. Sir J. Acland gave 52s. per annum to the poor. 
1606. John Manning gave land to value of £10 per annum to 

the poor. 
1620. Wm. Bone gave 4d. weekly to four poor persons. 

1623. Roger Hill gave lands, the rents to be laid out in cloth 

for the poor. 

1624. George Spicer's charity founded. 

1626. John Hill gave 62s. yearly in bread for the poor, 

1626. Catherine Bampton publicly whipped. 

1626. Two men hanged at Whitedown. 

1635. Aller Peverell belonged to Sir John Pole, Bart. 

1644. Sept. 20, Part of Charles I's army passed through. 

1646. Oct. 15, General Fairfax drove Lord Millar out of the 

town. 



A SHORT HI8TOKY OF COLLUMPTON. 181 

1667. Peter Atkins's charity founded. 
1657 to 1662. Great persecution of Quakers. 

1660. Sir Charles Pratt bom at Careswell. 

1663. George Fox, Quaker, preached in town. 

1664. John and Henry Hill charity founded. 

1666. Two tradesmen issued local coins. 

1667. One tradesman issued local coins. 

1679. John Lane, Tiverton, gave 9d. weekly to two poor 
persons at Ck)llumpton. 

1684. Public rejoicings on proclamation of James U. 

1685. Duke of Albemarle with his army here. 

1685. Prisoners taken at Sedgemoor confined in the Church, 

en route for Exeter. 

1688. Part of William Ill's army stationed here. 

1688. The third and great bells cast. 

1688. Public rejoicings on proclamation of William m. 

1694. Margery Arundell's charity founded. 

1695. Unitarian Chapel built. 

1706. Public rejoicings on news of the battle of Bamillies. 

1716. Public Meeting to repair the water-course. 

1719. Peter Newte's charity founded. 

1738. Cloth riots at Tiverton, in which the people of CoUump- 

ton joined. 

1746. Other bells cast. 

1748. John Wesley preached at CoUumpton. 

1756. The Church fire-engine brought to the town. 

1764. Wesleyan Chapel built. 

1794. The Ist Company of Heyridge Volunteers raised. 

1795. Riots in consequence of scarcity of wheat. 

1798. Seven houses burnt during rejoicings at the defeat of 

French fleet. 

1806. New Wesleyan Chapel built. 

1810. Manor belonged to David Govett of Hillersdon. 

1812. Tower illuminated in honour of the battle of Salamanca, 

1811. Shambles removed and Market House built. 

1814. June 23, Public rejoicings at general peace in Europe. 

1815. New Unitarian Chapel built. 

1816. National Schools erected. 
1830. Independent Chapel built. 
1832. Cholera epidemic. 

1839. The Great lire in Collumpton. 

1849. The restoration of the Church commenced. 

1849. Town Hall and Lock-up built. 

1854. The Independent Chapel closed. 

1859. The Volunteer Company started. 

1861. The Volunteer Fire Brigade established. 

1863. 1300 persons dined in the streets on the marriage 

of the Prince of Wales. 

1868. Last open election. 



THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOMPTON. 

BY THE REV. EDWIN S. CHALK, M.A. 
(Read at Callompton, 27th July, 1910.) 



This great Church, planned by two master minds, is a 
singular achievement for a single generation of a small 
trading community. 

In the Church of CuUompton the patriotic yet truthful 
inhabitant can claim a monument of the very first order 
in dignity, beauty, and religious feeling expressed. In 
particular the tower stands as the finest west tower in 
the diocese, and the roof of Lane's Aisle can hardly be 
excelled. 

We first hear of the Church as Collegiate, and in this, as 
in almost all respects, the foundation resembled the sister 
Church of St. Peter, Tiverton. The rivalry of the two 
towns is exactly mirrored in the two beautiful structures. 
The one grew up under the immediate shadow of a baronial 
castle, the other in the more distant, but equally potent 
influence of a great religious house. Later the two towns 
•have one industry. Nor was it until after the Armada 
that Tiverton, with a superior force of water, definitely 
passed Cullon\pton in the race for the great woollen 
industry, which made Devonshire and Norfolk the richest 
shires in England, and planted this beautiful country 
thick with no less beautiful churches. 

From Dugdale we learn that WiUiam the Conqueror 
presented the five Prebends of Colebrooke, Hineland,. 
Wiever, Esse, and Upton to Battle Abbey in Sussex. 
Now we know from King Alfred's will that Cullompton 
belonged to that King, and was left to his son, and it is. 
therefore a justifiable surmise that estates supporting 
five priests were found by the Conqueror, and that he 
merely continued a more ancient benefaction. As an 



THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOMPTON. 183 

instanoe of the antiquity of manorial, if not parish, boun- 
daries, we find that lOneland, now Henland, is still in 
the parish of Cullompton for Church purposes, though a 
lone house in about 200 acres of land, isolated in the 
parish of Kentisbeare, and more than two miles from the 
Cullompton border. 

King Henry I gave the Church to Bishop William 
Warelwast of Exeter (1107-37) and his successors ; yet 
the presentation went then or shortly afterwards to the 
Priory of St. Nicholas, in Exeter, which was connected 
with Battle Abbey. The Priory held the presentation 
in 1181, when Bishop Bartholomew discharged WiUiam 
the Vicar from the annual payment of a shilling to the 
Cathedral fabric. We do not know wh^a the prebendal 
system was dropped, yet many have noted that the 
Qiurch still stands in a quiet close of a collegiate 
atmosphere, and as at Tiverton the Church land nms 
straight down to the river brink. 

Again, as at Tiverton, there was the usual dispute 
between the secular clergy who did the work and the 
distant Exeter monastery which consumed the tithes ; 
but here the dispute was settled in favour of the monastery, 
for 28 August, 1269 (12 Henry III), Bishop Bronescombe 
taxed the Vicarage and assigned all altarage (cUtalagium), 
a tithe of hay and decent manse to the Vicar, and gave 
the rest of the benefice to the monastery. The house 
uniformly presents to the Vicarage, or at least preserves 
the original patronage in all known cases until its disso- 
lution in 1536, only nine years after the building of Lane's 
Aisle. The last Prior, WiUiam of Cullompton, yielded 
quietly for a pension of £20. 

There seems to have been a local Guild of St. Nicholas 
valued at £5, and at the Dissolution, 2 April, 1540, Giles 
and Leonard Keylway were granted all that messuage and 
capital mansion lately belonging to the Guild of Nicholas 
at Cullompton. John Kaleway died 29 February, 1530-1, 
and is buried in or near the Church. 

Dedication. — ^The Dedication of the Church has been 
almost uniformly to St. Andrew, but once at least we 
find St. Mary as patron saint; such variations were not 
uncommon. 

I translate the following from page 117 of the third 
volume of Bishop Lacy's Register (Hingeston-Randolph): — 



184 THE CHUECH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOBfPTON. 

" Edmund by divine mercy Bishop of Exeter to his beloved 
Children in Chnst, to Sir Thomas Dalynton perpetual Vicar of 
the parish Church of Columpton in our diocese and to the 
parishioners of the same, Greeting, Grace, and Benediction. 
Whereas on your parts a humble supplication was made to me. 
seeing that the aforesaid Church has hitherto been held to have 
been dedicated on the Eve of St. Andrew, and seeing that the 
Feast of such Dedication, owing to various hindrances attaching 
to that Season, has been deprived of its befitting service, of my 
grace and favour to deign to alter the day of the dedication 
merely of the aforesaid Church to another day, namely to the 
Monday after Michaelmas : WE therefore have acceded to 
your just petition, and have thought good for the greater ad- 
vancement of religion to cause the aforesaid dedication day to 
be changed to the Monday after Michaelmas, to the intent that 
the dedication day of the same Church may, with its octave, 
be freely observed, and God's service be more laudably done 
in the same : and by the tenor of these presents we grant 
special Ucense to you, both Vicar and parishioners, to keep, 
celebrate, and observe the dedication day of the aforesaid 
Church on the aforesaid Monday, and with the intent that we 
may more readily arouse the minds of the faithful to fulfil the 
-above, out of the Infinite Mercy of God Almighty and the Most 
Glorious Virgin Mother who bare Him, and with confidence in 
the merits and prayers of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul 
and all Saints, We by these presents grant in Grod's mercy to 
all our parishioners and others, whose diocesans shall have 
taken account of this our indulgence, and who have truly and 
with contrition repented them of their sins and take part in the 
daily office in the Sacred Church on the said Monday, forty days' 
indulgence. In witness of this we have set our seal to these 
presents. Given at Chudleigh 24th September, 1436, and in 
the 16th year of our translation." 

We have no reason to suppose that this document had 
any connection with a new fabric for the Church. The 
new arrangement was soon found to be inconvenient, 
and the Bishop a few years later allowed a reversion to the 
old date. 

FABEIC OP THE CHURCH. 

The Church stands a little space back from the main 
street, but the tower is a conspicuous landmark through- 
out the large parish. As the rivalry between the towns 
of CuUompton and Tiverton was obviously keen, the 
foUoMong dimensions have a certain value : — 



THE CHUBCH OP ST. ANDREW, CULLOBiFTON. 185 

Area of Church, 4621 feet. 

Length of Church, including Tower, 126 feet. 

Tiverton, 141 feet 2 inches. 

The towers are aknost identical in height. Splendid 
•architectural drawings of the Church were made by 
Hajr^ard in 1849. "niey are, however, not to be trusted 
implicitly in small details, though the measurements seem 
^u)curate. 

CHANCBL AND NAVE. 

Exterior. — The chancel was pulled down and rebuilt 
in 1849. The ground drops rapidly from west to east, 
and the three windows are high above the ground. The 
side windows are of three lights, and the last window 
of five. This last is crossed by a transom ; the two 
<»ntre mullions are carried up to the arch. There are 
two plain buttresses at each comer, with three set-offs 
apiece. 

Interior, — A glorious roof coloured in blue, crimson, and 
^old or yellow, runs the whole length of the Church ; 
the interspaces are of pale blue powdered with golden 
stars. It is a cradle roof of twenty-four bays, included 
between four-centred arch principals pierced with quatre- 
foils. The bays are subdivided with moulded ribs and 
purlins into square panels. Each panel is braced saltire- 
wise. At every intersection is a carved boss with foliage 
in the angles. A rich cornice runs along each wall-plate, 
and at the ends of the principals are angels holding the 
arms of England, save for two who hold a book, and two 
the instruments of crucifixion (?). The first principal from 
the west, the seventh, eleventh, and seventeenth are of 
larger design in every detail. 

The chancel roof was recoloured, gilt and restored in 
1849. Half the expense was borne by the Vicar, WilUam 
Sykes, and half by a casual resident, William Froude, 
who also inserted the iron stringers to prevent the clerestory 
walls from spreading. He was the engineer who under 
Brunei superintended the construction of the G.W.R. 
main line, and he had an exaggerated notion of the vibra- 
tion Ukely to be caused by the passing of the trains. 

Chancel. — ^He pulled down the chancel, which also 
seemed to have been in a dangerous state with unworthy 



186 THB CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOBiFTON. 

and recent round-headed windows. A large square tomb 
was then destroyed, but its inscription was preserved in 
a new brass, and runs as follows : — 

*' Here lyes deposited in trust 
With the cold earth, which one day must 
Return refined from the dust. 
With tears thou mav'st and grief dispence 
For Southcote ' reader * who went hence 
Vested with youth and innocence. 
But kinder heaven has granted to survive 
His sister, who alone doth keep alive 
All that on earth imbellisheth the fame 
Of Southcote's family, except the name.'* 

The nave and chancel are of one construction, and are 
carried on five pairs of piers with returns. 

Piers : — 

I. Returns in chancel : string foUage carving in 
capitals. 

II. Screen Piers : rough flowing carving seemingly 
rather scamped, as the capitals are invisible from the 
greater part of the Church. 

III. South Pier : capitals, a human heart at each 
comer, two male and two female figures with interlocking 
arms. 

North Pier : four angels holding stiflE scrolls, their 
bodies are forcibly turned to the right. 

IV. Rough foliage carving. 

V. South Pier : as south pier of III, save that the 
women have wimples, and each figure has but one arm,, 
the left. 

North Pier : two heads of bearded kings and two heads, 
of women with double-peaked head-dress. These may be 
portraits; between the heads is foUage carving and two- 
birds eating acorns. 

VI. South Pier : four bearded heads, two with caps ;. 
between them is foUage carving. 

North Pier : foUage carving. 

VII. Returns against the tower. 
South : a face between foUage carving. 

North : two recumbent bearded figures with a hand on 
the head of each other. 

The reredos was erected about forty years ago at a 
considerable cost. Unfortunately Caen or similar stone 
was employed, and the effect is dismal in the extreme^ 



THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOMPTON. 187 

The strong colouring of the roof, screen and new carpet 
blanch the ansemic tints. The reredos concealed a white- 
washed wall. 

The lofty pulpit also is much to be deplored. It was 
erected in 1849, or shortly after. The carving is lifeless, 
and is rendered completely disagreeable by a thick coat 
t)f varnish. The reading-desk below preserves some good 
ancient panel work, also disfigured with varnish. 

Above each arch is a clerestory window of three Ughts 
with a depressed arch. The timely obstinacy of the people 
of Cullompton prevented the zealous Froude from pulling 
down the whole clerestory in 1849. Thus Cullompton 
was saved from the fate which befell Tiverton in 1864. 

The clerestory, as well as the eastern bay of the north 
aisle, is built of stone of a cinnamon colour. 

There are many interesting inscriptions in the Church. 
Those in the sanctuary are chiefly to the Cockram family. 
I copy the following, as there is a doubt about the date : — 

" Hie jacet Roger Stockman quondam vicari de wys forde q 
obiit XVQ die decembr ciii aie propiciet deus. Amen." 

In a circle in the middle, " 1471." 

The great east window is filled with stained glass, 
" the gift of Henry Hill, of London, bom in Cullompton, 
May 16, 1812." The subjects are:— Upper Ughts: The 
Sower, The Lost Sheep, St. Andrew, St. John, The 
Good Samaritan, the Pharisee and PubUcan. Lower 
lights : Abraham and Isaac, the Scape Goat, The Brazen 
Serpent, Adam with a skull and cross-bones on his arm, 
Naaman and Gehazi. 

The north chancel window is filled with stained glass 
" in memory of WiUiam Gabriel, died Oct. 23, 1870, aged 
83. Charlotte Gabriel, died Dec. 6, 1866, aged 80. Alfred 
Edmund Gabriel, died at St. John's, Newfoundland, 
Oct. 26, 1874, aged 46. The loving parents and brother 
of E. F. Turner. I. Sick and ye visited me ; II. Naked 
and ye clothed me ; III. In prison and ye came unto me." 

The south chancel window is filled with stained glass 
"in memory of Lewis aged 8 years, who deceased at 
Achurch Rectory, Northants, Jan. 12, 1868, and Ernest 
James, 10 years, who deceased at Cullompton Vicarage, 
May 15, 1877. The eldest and youngest beloved sons of 
the Revd. Lewis F. and Mary H. Pott«r." 



188 THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOMPTON. 

The subjects are : I. Jacob and Joseph ; II. Joseph as 
Lord of Egypt ; III. Jacob blessing his grandchildren. 

THE SCREEN. 

Odgoiha. — Under the tower and at either side of the 
great door are two large masses of oak, the one about 7 feet, 
the other about 6 feet in length and 3 feet in thickness. 

They are strongly carved in the fashion of rocks be- 
strewn with skulls and bones, and the mortise holes of 
the crosses are still sharply cut. They are doubtless the 
foundations of the rood, which was probably removed 
from the screen by the King's order in 1649. 

The present screen runs right across the Church, and 
although the carving is not of the highest order, it is of a 
boldness necessary for so great a church ; all the bays are 
. alike. It was most unmercifully handled by well-wishers 
in 1849, who repainted the whole in oil-paint, and clogged 
and coarsened the carving. Coloured drawings of the 
screen before this daubing show it to have been a singularly 
green screen, while the glaring blue which is largely re- 
sponsible for the present unhappy eflFect was, of course, 
entirely absent. The screen was evidently built for the 
Church, though there are two small gaps at the ends, now 
filled up. There are three bays with a central door for 
each aisle. The pillars are allowed to protrude. The nave 
has five bays with a central door. The original cornice 
seems to have been of two courses, with a fringe below 
and above, and the super-comice may have been a kind 
of parapet for the rood. The same tracery is found in 
most of the windows. The original rood beam is preserved 
above, and is beautifully carved with leaf-carving. The 
northern terminal is the half-figure of a girl, the southern 
the half-figure of a boy. The achievement of Queen 
Victoria is clumsily fastened on this beam, and the tinc- 
tures are not properly appUed. Behind is an iron staple, 
which may be the support of the ancient rood. 

WEST GALLERY. 

A fine Jacobean gallery has been woefully spoilt by 
the painter and grainer. It runs from the north aisle 
wall to the buttress of Lane's Aisle, and is carried on 
four oak pillars about ten feet in height ; the lower por- 
tions are cut square, the upper are fluted columns with 



THE CHURCH OP ST. ANDREW, CULLOBIPTON. 18^ 

Doric capitals. The beam above the pillars has very 
ghallow leaf-carving. There are twenty-nine panels in 
the front and five and a quarter at the side. The panels are 
framed with semicircular arches, with square columns- 
supported by small round pillars or bearded figures. At 
the side are pillars, but in front, leading from the souths 
we have a double pillar, three men holding nails ; a 
double pillar, a man holding a saw between two men 
holding nails ; a double pillar, two men holding books,, 
one with a bird below ; a double pillar, a belted man with 
a candle, a man in a cape and gown (a clergyman ?), 
another with a Communion Cup in the left hand ; a 
double pillar, one hatted and two hatless men with staves ; 
two double pillars, a clergyman in a short surpUce (?)^ 
with an angel on his shoulders, a man writing a book ; 
five double pilasters. Above most of the double pillars- 
are square grotesque heads in the wooden parapet of 
shallow carving. There may possibly be a considerable 
amount of history behind tWs design. 

TOWER. 

The greatest glory of the town and Church is the tower,, 
which is said on good grounds to be the finest in the 
diocese. From the parapet to the ground it measures 
100 feet, and the pinnacles are nearly 20 feet higher^ 
It was obviously built to equal in proportions and to 
excel in beauty the sister tower of Tiverton. It is built 
of local stone of rich red with white, probably Beer stone, 
string-courses; set-oflFs and enrichments. It is divided 
by these four string-courses into five stages, of which the 
upper four are nearly equal. 

There are four comer and four intermediate pinnacles. 
Those at the comer are sUghtly higher, and are topped 
with gilt vanes ; the intermediate pinnacle on the west 
is surmounted with a gilt royal crown. The pinnacles are 
crocketed, and each is flanked by four minor pinnacles 
on square pillars tied to the main upright. At the base 
of each pinnacle is a human grotesque. 

The parapet has a square battlement between each 
pinnacle, and is of Beer stone carved in flat panels and 
pierced quatrefoils. The uppermost stage or belfry is Ut 
by four windows of Beer stone in each face ; the west 
window alone is protected by a dripstone with round 



190 THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOBiFTON. 

terminals. Each window is fairly deep-set, and is filled 
with the most exquisite carving in Beer stone. Each is 
divided by a transom, and the bulk of the aperture is 
filled with four panels fretted in reticulations, or in a griUe 
with ten small squares set lozenge-wise in the openings. 
These grilles are found only in the lower panels of the west 
and north faces, and in one of the lower eastern panels. 
They are incorrectly shown in the fine architectural 
drawings made in 1849. 

The unique grace and distinction of this marvellous 
tower reside chiefly in these windows and pinnacles, which 
are, as it were, the eyes and hair in a beautiful head. 
The four starveling Caroline pinnacles and the iron louvres 
of Tiverton serve as an object-lesson to show how a tower 
of the same mass may be ruined. On all sides save the 
N.E., where is the staircase, there are two buttresses, which 
run up to the base of the parapet. 

Buttresses. — ^The four buttresses at N.W. and S.W. 
angles have four double set-offs surmounted by gro- 
tesques; the bases of the other four are masked by the 
main building, and have but three. Each grotesque is 
of an animal, face downward, issuing from an engaged 
crocketed pinnacle set edge-wise on the buttresses. These 
grotesques are exceptionally good. The lowest in the 
right-hand buttress on the west has disappeared. 

A large clock face is set in the third stage, and is framed 
in a stone frame with crocketed pinnacles with an acute- 
angled gable filled with leaf-carving. At the bases of the 
two pinnacles are grotesques. TMs is the work of one 
Norman of Hfracombe about the year 1874 ; but the 
parishioners were disappointed with the effort to imitate 
the old work. It is not known when the clock was in- 
serted, but in 1849 there was no clock face or surrounding 
carving. 

The enrichments of the tower are said to have been the 
gift of John Manning and his wife Katherine in the time 
of Edward VI. 

On the west face are the remains of a Crucifixion. Our 
Lord's figure is destroyed, and the two saints at the foot, 
said to be St. Andrew and another, are headless. These 
and the following sculptures are enclosed between pilasters 
of spiral work which show, I think, some influence of 
the Renaissance. Above this subject is an inscription 
which I have not been able to decipher. On the dexter 



THE CHUECH OP ST. ANDREW, CULLOMPTON. 191 

fflde is the boy King Edward VI, with orb and sceptre ; 
on the sinister, St. George, much defaced. 

The tower west window is of the pattern seen in most 
of the north windows, but the muUions are necessarily 
higher. 

A course of large quatrefoils enclosing alternately a 
square and a blank shield runs round three sides of the 
tower between the buttresses, window and staircase. 
On either side of the west window are (dexter) the arms 
of Edward VI, within a garter, and (sinister) the arms of 
Bishop Voisey, surmounted by a mitre ; both have sup- 
porters and both are much defaced. 

The Royal Arms are supported by a Welsh dragon and a 
lion (?). The Crown above is a circlet surrounding a cap ; 
above, again, are two badges, one seemingly a rose. 

The inscription below the Royal Arms begins, " In the 
yeare of our Lord God," and that below Voisey's, " XXXIX 
began to buylde." It woidd seem, then, that the 
middle of the inscription is found above the crucifixion. 
Oliver read it to state that the tower took four years to 
build, the last two of Henry VIII and the first two of 
Edward VI. 

The framed enrichments on the north and south faces 
are sculptures of a tree flanked by two figures ; both, and 
especially that on the north, are much defaced. They 
may represent Adam's fall and the Incarnation. The 
west doorway is of strong moulding, without ornament 
or pilasters. There is a dripstone with two human heads 
(defaced) for terminals. The last string-course is continued 
above the doorway in a square head ; the spandrils are 
filled with quatrefoils within a circle and compressed flat 
panels. 

On the south side of the tower there is a window of two 
Ughts with perpendicular heads of three cusps. Above is 
a quatrefoil, on the dexter side a framed shield, a chevron 
between three bells for Manning (?), impaling a bend. On 
the sinister side one and four fretty, two (?) and three a 
chain (?) impaling one (?) and four a bend cotised for 
Whiting (?), two (?) and three a chevron. 

In the will of Roger Stockman, priest, we have " Lego 
novo turri de Collumpton," as much as will pay for one 
foot square, 18 November, 1645. In the Church is the 
tomb of Roger Stockman, priest, 17 December, 1471 ; 
if there is no mistake here, these were namesakes. 



192 THB OHUBCH OF ST. AKDBBW, CX7LLOMPTON. 

We find a mention of the clock in the churohwaxdens^ 
accounts of 1686 : — 

*^ Spent in a meeting of the Parishioners 
about Prescott's bargain to keep the 
Clock and cheames in repair for 8 even 
years 02. 3." 

The tower arch within is composed of four lines of flat 
panels without pilasters or supports ; it is almost wholly 
hidden by the organ. 

NORTH AISLB AND MOOBE'S CHAPEL. 

Exterior. — ^The north aisle is of local red stone, Ut by six 
side windows and two end windows of Beer stone. These 
windows are of four lights, and are so large that the but- 
tresses and an outside staircase nearly fill what is left of 
the side wall. The staircase between the easternmost or 
Moore's window and the next window to the west takes 
the place of a buttress. It is lit by a very small window 
of carved Beer stone ; it leads to the screen and northern 
leads. 

The date of Moore's Chapel is approximately known 
(c. 1500), and it is highly Ukely that the rest of the aisle 
is of the same date, as all the windows are nearly of the 
same height, though the ground slopes rather sharply 
eastward. 

Windows. — 1. East window of north aisle : this seems 
to have been recut and rebuilt at the restoration in 1849. 
The window is divided about midway by a transom, and 
the arches of the four lights have six cusps apiece. The 
upper tracery is of the same design found in the west 
window of this aisle, and the east window of the south 
aisle. As in all the windows of this Church, the fronts 
of each main light are continued in a perpendicular line 
to the edge of the main arch. The spandrils in the heads 
of these three windows are each filled with three pairs of 
cusped panels. 

2, 3, and 4. Eastern windows of north wall : these have 
four lights with arches of four cusps, the spandrils are 
filled with four pairs of cusped panels, a pair of compressed 
quatrefoils, and twelve small segments. 

5. The next to the west differs in having a cross transom, 
below it are four windows with arched heads with four 



THE CHX7BCH OF ST. ANDREW, OULLOMPTON. 193 

strong cusps apiece. The top light is filled by four cusped 
panels, two and two, divided by a transom. The main 
mullions have small moulded capitals. 

6. As 2, 3, 4. 

7. As 5, but without main transom and capitals. 

8. West window of north aisle as 1. 

Buttresses, — ^There are two buttresses at either end of 
the aisle and six against the side wall. They are plain,, 
with three plain set-offs of Beer stone, and terminate in ' 
dwarf pinnacles flush with the battlements. 

Parapet. — ^The roof is masked by a parapet with square 
battlements, three to each bay. The narrow openings 
between the dwarf pinnacles and the battlements are 
filled with small cusped panels. This is not a happy 
arrangement, as the outline is clogged. The parapet and 
battlements are covered with pierced quatrefoils. Im- 
mediately below the parapet is a string-course running 
completely round the aisle, set thickly with single leaves 
cut square. At the head of all the buttresses, save three 
at the end of the aisle, are large grotesques, all beasts save 
a bird at the north-west comer. 

The head of the staircase emerges above the main 
parapet and is hexagonal. It is crowned by a miniature 
parapet of similar design. On the western face are three 
grotesques. 

Doorway. — ^There is a fine arched doorway in the western 
wall. The mouldings are shallow, and in Ueu of pilasters 
are twenty-five leaves cut square set at intervals. Above 
is a deep dripstone. 

Interior, — The eight windows are of grey or clear glass. 
Within they have Beer stone pilasters and shallow moulded 
arches. 

Roof, — The roofs of both north and south aisles are 
nearly alike. There is a long central rafter running the 
whole length of the Church. This is crossed by fifteen 
others which divide the whole surface into twenty-eight 
squares. Each square is filled with a lattice of six small 
rafters. At the juncture of the main rafters are large 
leaden bosses a foot square. At the juncture of the smaller 
rafters are small leaden bosses six inches square. Most of 
these are in situ. As there are 15 large bosses and 274 
small in each aisle, the weight to be supported is con* 
siderable. The bosses are painted yellow, and the panels 

VOL. XLH. N 



104 THB OHUBGH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOMPTON. 

in crossed stripes of red and white on a blue ground, with 
a border of black spots on a white ground. 

ForU. — ^The font stands near the disused north aisle 
door. It is octagonal, with a parapet of pierced quatrefoils 
and a base of flat panels. The history of these poor and 
seemingly modem fonts is obscure. They seem to belong 
to the time of Pugin, or they may be old fonts recut and 
ruined. 

Moore! 8 Chantry. — ^Moore's Chantry consists of the last 
bay of the north aisle. The ancient family of Moore was 
domiciled at Moorehays, which is still the property of its 
descendants. It is an ancient thatched dwellmg in a wet 
situation at the juncture of the Kentisbeare stream with 
the Culm. 

If we can date this chantry c. 1500 we can date the 
main body of the Church. It is divided from the north 
aisle by the great screen, and from the chancel by a par- 
close of rather poor and spindling work. 

There are four bays to this parclose, each of four Ughts, 
save the first left open for the doorway. The bays are 
square-headed, and the tracery has degenerated into a 
succession of obtuse angles. The cresting is heavy and 
markedly raked forward. It consists of standing angels 
with feathered arms and legs and four wings. They hold 
wide shields. This cresting is reduplicated on either side. 

I. More. Ermine, on a chevron sable, three cinquefoils 
ai^ent, impaling Gambon of Moorstone : — Argent, a fess 
between tliee human legs, couped at the thigh sable. 

II. More and Botour. Sable, on a chevron between three 
cranes, argent, five gouttys gules. 

III. More and CUvedon. Argent, three escallops gules, 
a bordure engrailed sable. 

IV. More and Stowell. Gules, (in chief ?) a cross of 
lozenges argent. I cannot identify the chief as separate 
coat. 

V. More and Boys or de Bosco of Halberton. Argent, a 
chevron gules between three trees eradicated vert. 

VI. Kirkham of Blagdon impaling More. Argent, three 
lions rampant gules, a bordure engrailed sable. 

VII. Walrond. Three bulls' heads cabossed, sable, 
homed, or, impaling More. 

VIII. More and Trobridge of Trobridge. Argent, on a 
bridge of two arches, gules, through which water is flowing 
towards the base, a pennon fljong towards the sinister 



THB CHXJBOH OF ST. ANDREW, C5XJLLOMPTON. 196 

on a staff surmounted by a fleur-de-lis. Here the bridge 
only is shown. 

High and ancient box pews run round the north and 
east sides of the chapel. I believe that the Walronds of 
Bradfield are still responsible for the repairs of this chantry. 
I subjoin a short and unverified pedigree from Vivian : — 

William de la Moor 



Nicholas de la Moor=d. of Ralph Hill John de la Moor= 

of Raadon. d. and heir of 



Gamhon. 



John Moore of = Elizabeth, d. and heir of 



Moorhayes. 



Henry Botour of Exeter, 
Eaq. 



William Moore of = Jane, d. and h. of Stawell 
Moorhayes. I of Gothelston (?). 



John Moore of = Elizabeth, d. and co-heir of 
Moorhayes. John Clivedon of Wil- 

Probate of Will, ! land. 
19 Mar., 1509-10. 1 

William More, 4 th son = Dorothy, d. of Trow- Richard More, n.D.= 

Executor of his bridge. Margaret, d. of 

father's Will: John Walrond, 

died 8 Dec. ,1581. of Bradfield. 

This makes it probable that the screen is of Elizabethan 
date. 

Floor inscription : — 

'* Hie jacet mast (?) Hiifrid More armiger dns de moreheg illi 
ecclie special bnfactor et Agnes uxor ejus q pdc Hufrid obiit 
30 die Agsti 1637 quo aiabu propicietur Deus." 

Border inscription : — 

" Orate pro (animabus Johannis ?) More (militis ?) et 
Elizabeth uxor (ejusdem ?) q quidam Johannes obiit VTI (?) 
die mns Januarii (?) a dni MCOCCCIX pdicta (dna) Elizabet 
obiit die Mai (?) A. D. M. D. qu aiab propiciet deus. Amen." 

The above are without the screen. 
Within is : — 

" Here lyeth the body of George More of Morehayes Esq. (?), 
who departed this life the (?) day of February Anno Domini 
1669 " (i.e. N.S. 1670). 



196 THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDREW, CUIJiOMPTON. 

" Abo here lyeth the body of George son of y« above (?) 
George More of Morehays, who dyed y« 7'^ of No 1711." 

Floor inscription in north aisle : — 

Border : — 

"Hie jacet Willm More genos ac Maurici(?) More frat 
ejusde nee non Dorathea ux pdict Willi ac ? Rccd Willi & 
Dorathea Ubi q quid. Wilt ab ac luce migravit die decbri A.D. 
MCCJCXXJXVni q aiabu propiciet Deus. Ame." 

Within the screen are : — 

" Here lyeth the body of John More son of Richard More, 
Gent, of this parrish, who departed this life the 30 of June> 
1658." 

(Here are three pairs of matrices of very small brasses.) 

" Also here lyeth the body of Richard More, Gent, who 
departed this life the 8 day of June, Anno Dom. 1674." 

"In Memoriam Richard! Peck ? ? Hujus ecclesiae fidi 
pastoris et Uxor ejus charissisme Susannae qui obiit 14th Aug. 
Anno Domini 1637. 

(Four lines undecipherable.) 

" Who to each member measurd faithfully 
His full allowance who in reason due 
Refresht Christ's flocke with waters which hee drew 
From the pure wels of life who with the bread 
Of branles truth Gods people strengthened 
Who sought their good not goods not theirs but them 
Who countermind hels every strata^m 
Whose life preached doctrine and his doctrine life 
Who peace all knew but ♦ ♦ strife 
Who words were rules which ♦ ♦ ♦ 
As to each rule his life gave example 
Whose grace infus'd of parts ♦ ♦ ♦ 
A phoenix from his ashes ♦ ♦ ♦ " 

Chancel. — HaJf-stone : — 

*' Hie jacet Dns Johannes Webber — Propiciet Deus." 

East end of north aisle : — 

" Hie jacet Johannes Kyng quondam de Ck)lompton Mrct (?> 
et Johana uxor ejus (ultma ?) ? obiit ? ? nono die Octobris 
A.Dm. MC(XJCLXXI. (quorum aibu propiciet Deus Amen ?)." 

"Here lyeth Henry Blackmore of Newland yeoman who 
[broken] the day of July Anno Domini 1590 ? " 



THE C5HURCH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOMPTON. 197 

The ifxM paintings now concealed. 

At various times these frescoes had been partly un- 
covered, but had been washed over again, because, as 
one vicar said, the people foimd them too distracting. 

The most elaborate paintings were in the older part of 
the Church between the north windows. One was perfect, 
and represented St. Christopher in a red and blue robe 
fording a stream alive with fish and a mermaid. In his 
hand is a twisted green pole. The Christ Child has the 
right hand raised to bless, and the left hand holding an 
orb and cross with a pennon of St. George. Below we 
read, " Orate pro bono statu Jofiis Browke and et JoHne 
exoris ejust." A small axe may have symbolized the trade 
of a butcher. John Brooke, Lord Cobham, died 4 Hen. 
VIII. Another in a mutilated state showed St. Michael 
weighing souls with a brown imp in the lighter balance. 
A third figure of a young Pope was also found. The span- 
drils were filled with grotesques in red and white. 

A few words and letters were deciphered above the 
arches of the northern piers, and the figure of St. Clara was 
discovered between the two clerestory windows. 

In Lane's Aisle were foimd arabesques in red and white, 
also some labels and remains of inscriptions in English of 
a part of 1 Corinthians xiii. 

They were finely reproduced by the Exeter Diocesan 
Architectural Society in 1849. 

THE SOUTH PORCH AND AISLE. 

SoiUh Porch, — ^Against the south wall and buttress of the 
tower is built a plain porch, with a south doorway of 
shallow mouldings in which are twenty-six square-cut 
flowers. The buttress encroached on the square of the 
porch, but there is a considerable space filled with masonry, 
which may have been the site of a staircase removed when 
the tower was built. A square-headed window of two 
lights recently glazed is set in a chamber above the porch 
roofed with a poor modem roof. The wooden roof below 
this room is of the pattern of those in the aisles. The outer 
doorway is closed by heavy latticed gates of wood. The 
parapet battlements are of Beer stone, and are composed 
of pierced quatrefoils. The south aisle is entered by an 
ancient door in the right of the porch. This has been un- 
fortunately painted, as have the other original doors of 



198 THE CHUBCH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOMPTON. 

the Church. The original aisle was probably the exact 
coimterpaxt of the north aisle, but when John Lane built 
in 1526 the wall of all but the easternmost bay was taken 
down. 

Eastern Bay. — ^This bay has a window in the south and 
a window on the east of the design of the majority of the 
other windows, save that the east window is compressed 
and some tracery is omitted to make room for the vestry 
wall. Below the south window is a narrow priest's door, 
with a square head over spandrils fiUed with carved 
leaves. It is set awkwardly under one side of the window, 
and can hardly have been original, though seemingly of 
the sixteenth or early seventeenth century. The parapet 
battlements and string-course below are of one pattern 
with those of the porch. 

The eastern bay of this aisle is largely built of that 
cinnamon-coloured stone of which the tower of Kentis- 
beare is built. It is said to come from Hockworthy. 

lane's aisle and chapel. 

John Lane, wool merchant, Head-borough or Bailiff of 
the town, presumably under the Lord of the Manor, was 
fired by the example of his fellow-merchant, John Green- 
way of Tiverton, who in 1617 built a south chapel and 
aisle at St. Peter's, Tiverton. He surpassed his rival in 
the interior but not in the exterior of his work. 

Exterior, — The chapel is about 70 feet long, and is 
practically a glass house with buttresses. At the west is 
the only window of six lights in the Church. The tracery 
is singularly successful. A double arch springs from the 
centre mullion, as in most of the other windows of the 
Church, and the upper lights are filled with six large 
cusped panels, quatrefoils, trefoils, and small segments. 
There are five side windows and one east window ; the 
last three are about nine inches higher than the other 
two, and there is a sUght variation in the tracery in con- 
sequence, but otherwise they are all of the prevalent 
pattern of the Church. There are small grotesques as 
terminals to the dripstones ; one has been removed to 
make room for the down-pipe. 

Below the windows and from buttress to buttress nms 
the following inscription : — 

** In honor of God and his Blessed mother Mary Remeb the 
Boulis of John Lane w a pat nSt & ave men and the sawle of 



THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDBBW, CULLOICPTON. 19& 

Thomsyn his wi£Ee to have in memory with all other ther 
ohyldren ft frendis of youre awne chyryty which were fowndem 
of this (Thapell & here lyeth in Sepulther The yere of pwer 
Lorde God a thousant five hundrith syx and twynth God of his 
grace on ther boyth sawles to have mercy and finally bring 
tiiem to the etemall glory. Amen for Chryty." 

Frieze. — ^Lane's frieze is highly interesting because its 
best carvings are copied directly from Greenway's work at 
Tiverton. Those nearly or wholly identical are marked 
with an asterisk. I may be allowed to refer to the photo- 
graphs of Greenway's frieze published in my History of 
St. Peter's, Tiverton, as they preserve the design of carving 
almost unique and rapidly perishing. 

West side : — 

♦1. The Baptism in Jordan. 

2. Commission to Apostles ? 

3. Supper at Bethany ? 

4. (?) Entry to Jerusalem ? 

South side : — 

♦(?)5. Christ before Pilate. 

6. The Mock Adoration ? 

7. The BuiBfeting. 

8. Scourging ? 

♦9. Christ bearing His Cross. 
♦10. Crucifixion (mutilated). 
♦11. The Descent from the Cross. 
♦12. The Entombment. 

♦13. The Harrowing of Hell. This is a particularly 
interesting treatment. Hell is portrayed as 
the yawning head of a monster from which 
emerge two souls, to whom our Lord is preach- 
ing. 
♦14, Resurrection. 
♦(?)15. Ascension. 
16. Pentecost. 

Between the sacred subjects are small and mun- 
dane ornaments, as a swan, tuns of wine, leaves, and 
the like. There are large four-footed grotesques at the 
head of each buttress and window. Above each window 
and at either end of the chapel are the familiar mono- 
grams. Some of these are pierced, and the jackdaws have 



200 THE CHURCH OF ST. ANDBEW, CULLOBfPTON. 

carried in waggon-loads of sticks on to John Lane's priceless 
inner roof. The lead down-pipes are good and dated 
1724. The parapet has battlements above each window 
and buttress, and is composed of quatrefoils containing 
small leaves, etc. At the angles are small panels, and at 
the S.E. angle a simdial. 

Staircase. — ^There is an octagonal staircajse in the comer, 
between the chapel and south aisle, leading to the leads 
and the screen. It balances the similar staircase on the 
north, but has no carved parapet. It is lit by two small 
windows, and has a frieze and a winged grotesque. 

At Tiverton there are twenty-one subjects. 

BvUresses. — There is a buttress at the comer, east and 
west, and six side buttresses. They all run to the bottom 
of the frieze mentioned above, and have four set-oflfs of 
Beer stone. They are greatly enriched, as follows : — 



1. WEST 

BUTTBESS. 

2nd set-off. 

Pedestal for 
statue. 

J. L. and an- 
chor. 

Ship with sail- 
or hoisting 
sail. 
Circles. 

J. L. crossed. 

3rd set-off. 
Grotesque 

(mutilated). 
5. 

2nd set-off. 
The same. 
The same. 
Ship at anchor. 

Sheep shears. 

Grotesque 
(mutilated). 



2. SOUTH 
BUTTRESS. 

The same. 
The same. 



3. 

The same. 
The same 



4. 

The same. 
The same. 



Ship under full Ship lading or Ship anchor- 
sail, unlading. ing. 



Merchant Sheep-shears. Merchant Mark, 

Mark ; J. L. inverted. 



The same. 



The same. 
The same. 
Ship on a lee 

shore. 
Monogram. 

Grotesque 
lion (?) 



The same. 



The same. 
The same. 
Ship sails 

furled. 
Merchant 

Mark. 
(Grotesque 

disappeared). 



The same. 

8. EAST 

BUTTRESS. 

The same. 
The same. 
1 master sail 

furled. 
Monogram. 

Grotesque 
(mutilated). 



John Lane's merchant mark occurs frequently ; and as 



THE CHUBCH OF ST. ANDREW, CTJLLOMPTON. 201 

there has been much wild writing on the subject, it may 
be well to say that the common form of the mark 4 or 4^ 
is simply a hurried cross made on a wool bag. The differ- 
entiations were, of course, numerous among the various 
merchants. 

Interior. — ^The foimders he buried before the site of 
their altar, and this inscription may still be read : — 

"Hie jacet Jolis Lane Meter hui» q« capelle fimdator cum 
Thomasia uxore ejus q diet Johes obiit xv^ die Februarii anno 
<lni mitto CCOCCXXVIII " (N.S. 1529). 

This is now ungratefully covered in part by a seat. 

The roof of the chapel is borne on foin: piers and two 
returns, with their northern sides engaged in buttresses. 
AU are of Beer stone. The buttresses are of four stages, 
with five set-offs. The two lower stages are filled on two 
•or three sides with shallow niches containing the figures 
•of men. 

1. Easternmost (two sides), four bearded men in gowns. 

2. (Three sides) four boys and two bearded men. 

3. (Three sides) five bearded men in capes and cloaks, 
■and one boy with long hair. 

4. (Three sides) five bearded men and three boys. 

6. (Three sides) four bearded men, one woman (?), 
and one boy. 

6. (Two sides) two bearded men and two boys. 

All the above twenty-eight figures hold scrolls. 

The four engaged piers and two retimis have plain 
pilasters with separated capitals of conventional foUage ; 
from these six piers springs the finest late fan tracery 
roof for many a mile. There are foin: full and two half 
fans on each side, and to the full fan are nine ribs. A 
straight rib nms the length of the chapel roof, and is 
•crossed by other straight ribs at right angles which divide 
the roof into eight squares and two half-squares at either 
■end. The spaces between the fans are filled with flat 
panels in three ranks. The edge of the fan is a rib of two 
segments of a circle. The remnant spandrils are beauti- 
fully managed. The fans have demi-angels at their 
bases. On the north the first four and the last hold Lane's 
trade mark, a bag of wool combined with a merchant mark 
and cross. The fifth holds a scroll. On the south side 
the first holds a pair of sheep-shears ; the second a shield 



202 THE CHUBOH OF ST. ANDREW, CULLOBIPTON. 

bearing crossed spears and the crown of thorns ; the third 
has the trade mark; the fourth the column and crossed 
spears ; the fifth the pierced heart, hands, and feet of our 
Savioin: ; the sixth the trade mark. 

The most marvellous carving of all is found in the five 
pendants at the juncture of the central ribs. They are 
alike in general design. In each are foin: angels set angle- 
wise, holding shields, their wings touch the roof, and their 
feet rest on roimd floral bosses. There is a hollow space 
behind them, and they have recently been freed from 
whitewash. Beading from the east we find : — 

I. Four shields with the pierced heart, hands, and feet 
of our Saviour. One foot has been erased. The pierced 
heart is on the boss below. The five wounds. 

II. East : shield, a screw, a hammer, wedge, ring, and 
cord ; South : Judas' hand with the bag between two 
swords and above a feather (?) ; West : a Celtic cross ; 
North : a hand holding nails. 

III. Central pendant. East : ring and merchant mark ; 
South : monogram J. L. ; West : rope circle containing 
two hammers and a plane (?) ; North : sheep-shears in a 
circle. 

IV. East : shield, crossed scourges and pillar ; South : 
our Saviour's head on a cloth (Veronica) ; West : pillar 
and crossed spears ; North : crossed ladder and spear. 

V. On all four sides the fieece with two crossed spears 
behind. The workmanship of this boss is not so good as 
that seen in the others. 

It is very striking to notice that the roof does not 
fit the windows and external buttresses. Some have 
sought for deep meaning in this, but a slight mistake in 
the plan is probable. Between the windows (save the 
second and third) are large brackets. The first has a 
cherub, the other two angels holding the trade mark. 
These must have been intended for statues, the heads of 
which must have accentuated the failinre in a marvellous 
design. The monumental tablets now serve a useful 
purpose. 

The remains of a stone screen are still engaged in the 
two eastern pillars and return. This screen probably 
rendered a bracket unnecessary between the second and 
third windows. 

We cannot leave this transcendently beautiful work 
without some expression of gratitude and amazement. 



THE CHUBGH OF ST. ANDREW, OULLOMPTON. 20S 

The mixture of trade, art, and religion is incomprehensible 
to .us, but the feeling of admiration must remain dominant. 

The east window of Lane's Chapel is filled with stained 
glass in memory of Charles Hill of London, bom in Cul- 
lompton, 6th December, 1817, deceased 10th December, 
1877. There are eight subjects from the Acts of the 
Apostles. 

The next window on the south side " is erected by his 
nephews aud nieces in loving memory of Henry Hill, 
bom in this town 18 May, 1812, died at Brighton, 1st 
April, 1882." There are here also eight subjects from the 
Acts. 

The great west window " is in loving memory of Edward 
Mortimer Hill, who died 5 February, 1892. This window 
is erected by his widow." Above are figures of St. Am- 
brose, King David, Zacharias, St. Mary, B.V., Simeon^ 
and St. Augustine. Below are incidents in their Uves^ 
and the opening words of their great Christian hymns. 

The middle window of Lane's Aisle is fiUed with stained 
glass " to the memory of Elizabeth Frances Turner, who 
died 28 Feb. 1907 ; erected by her husband." The sub- 
jects are the Evangelists and their symbols. 

PRE-REFORMATION VICARS OF CULLOMPTON. 

Patrons. — ^Prior and Convent of St. Nicholas, Exeter, 
until 1536. 

1181. WiUiam, perpetual Vicar (Chartulary 

of St. Nicholas Priory). 

1231. Jocelyne (witness to a deed). 

26 Jan., 1233-4. Gilbert de Wey. 

12 March, 1322-3. Henry Seymour, deacon. He killed 
Maurice Potter, who had attacked 
him by night with extreme violence. 
The Uving was sequestered by the 
. Archdeacon of Exeter, but Bishop 
Grandisson, then at York, orders an 
inquiry. 

1327-8. A commission was ordered on 16 June,. 

1328, the living was sequestered 15- 
April, 1329. On 26 April, 1332, he 
received Ucence for non-residence to 
visit Rome on matters touching hi& 
conscience. 



204 THE GHUBOH OF ST. ANDREW, CXJLLOMPTON. 



17 Jan., 133a-4. 
9 Oct., 1349, col- 
lated by lapse. 



10 Nov., 1361. 

4 Jan., 1361-2. 
13 Feb., 1371-2. 
24 Nov., 1375. 

4 July, 1410. 

24 March, 1414. 
26 Jan., 1433-4. 

8 August, 1443. 
28 June, 1461-2. 

26 August, 1480. 

20 July, 1622. 

26 April, 1528. 
20 August, 1549. 



John de Bromlegh. 

Peter de Moleys, Confessor, 1354-5. 

Thomas de Pylton convicted of forg- 
ing Papal letters and seals, and was 
excommunicated, but had the au- 
dacity to attempt to exercise his 
priestly office. Grandisson orders a 
republication of the sentence and 
enforcement of penalties, 21 Novem- 
ber, 1361. 
On resignation of Thomas de Pylton, 

Robert Carpenter. 
Robert Tholy, aUve March, 1369. 
Stephen Hendre, on whose death 
Robert Bimiel, on whose death 
William Sechvil, He exchanged for 

Rector of Sherwill with 
Edward Fysshacre, on whose death 
Thomas Dalyngten (see above concern- 
ing dedication day). 
Robert Wylle, on whose death 
John Webber (his tombstone is in the 

chancel). 
John Coryngdon. 
Oxenbrigge, on whose resignation 
Richard Toilet, patron pro hac vice 

John Calwodeley. 
Robert Peryns. 
William Vivian, Bishop of Hippo. 



VESTRY. 

The vestry is a quaint, low structure in the angle of 
the south aisle and chancel. It is Ut with a square-headed 
window of two lights in the south, and a perfectly square 
window with a grille on the east. There is a battlemented 
parapet of quatrefoils carved in Beer stone. There is no 
•exterior door. 

The registers are well kept, and date from 1601. 

Baptisms, 28 March, ^ 
Marriages, 14 April, >1601. 
Burials, 18 April, J 



THE CHURCH OP ST, ANDREW, CULLOMPTON. 205' 

The burials from 13 June, 1645-6, to 13 August, 1678, are 
wanting. 

churchwardens' accounts. 

Among other interesting entries in these accounts not 
elsewhere cited are : — 

1671. For new layinges of Mr. Lane's £> s. d, 
tomb and putting in the brass .006 

1674. For Washinge the Church Lyninge 

and Cleaninge the place . .080 

1680. Payd for two silver cupps with 

covers double gilted . 16 2 

1688. Payd for a Booke of Prayer for the 
deliverance of the Prince of 
Orange 10 

1703. For a Prayer book after ye great 

storme 10 

(Storm of 26 November, 1703.) 

" Such as of late o'er pale Britannia passed,'' 

Addison's Campaign. 

1725. In expenses at Tiverton about the 
bojrs that made a disturbance 
in the Church . . . .024 

1734. Payment of Boy Whipper. 

1749. Journey to Exeter to prevent the 
Dean Ruller from presenting 
the roof of the Church . .060 

Such is the fabric of a great Church, the product seem- 
ingly of laymen at the dawn of the Reformation. We 
may deplore that, while a few of the more recent additions 
have not been without beauty, much, if not most, of the 
later additions have been artistically disastrous. If we 
look for the plain expression of religious feeling since 1549, 
we must look for it in the great achievements of our race, 
the English Bible and Prayer Book. 

Note. — The monumental inscriptions which are not 
found above have been recorded by the late Mr. Foster 
in his MS. '* History of Collumpton," now in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Murray T. Foster, of Fore Street, CuUompton. 



THE VICARS OF CULLOMPTON SINCE THE 
COMMONWEALTH. 

BY THOMAS OANN HUGHES, M.A., F.S.A. 
(Read at CullomptOD, 27th July, 1910.) 



The Vicar of CuUompton immediately preceding the 
Commonwealth was 

William Crompton. 

He was a distinguished Puritan divine, eldest son of 
Rev. William Crompton, incumbent of S. Mary Magdalene, 
Launceston, and was bom at Little Kimble, Bucks, on 
13 August, 1633, was admitted into Merchant Taylors' 
School in 1647, and became a student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, in 1648. He was subsequently appointed Vicar 
of CuUompton, but was ejected for Nonconformity at the 
Restoration. He continued his ministry at CuUompton 
and also at Exeter. Amongst his works were the foUow- 
ing:— 

1. ** An useful Tractate to further Christians of these Dan- 
gerous and Backsliding Times in the practice of the most 
needful Duty of Prayer." London, 1659. 8vo. 

2. ** A Remedy against Idolatry, or a Pastor's FareweU to 
a beloved Flock in some Preservatives against Creature- 
worship." London, 1667. 8vo. 

3. " Brief Survey of the Old Religion." London, 1672. 8vo. 

4. " The Foundation of God and the immutability thereof 
laid for the salvation of His Elect." 

His father was described as "a useful minister in 
Bamistable upon whose exclusion (occasioned by a divi- 
sion between Mr. Blake, the Rector, and him) it was ob- 
served that town dwindled both in riches and piety. This 
fion of his continued with his people after his ejectment 



WICABS OF CULLOlfPTON SINCE THE COMMONWEALTH. 207 

and spent many years among them without that encou- 
ragement he deserved. For some time before he died, 
wMch was in 1696, he was totally disabled from his be- 
loved work by a fistula in his breast." Mr. Crompton 
preached in a dwelling-house for some years after the 
Restoration. About 1695 the congregation built a meeting- 
house which remained till 1815. In his vicariate the 
parish acquired its paten. On this the hall-marks are a 
Hon rampant, a leopard's head crowned, and the letters 
B. N. It bears the following inscription : — 

"" Mrs. Rachael Speed daughter of Mr. Hugh Speed deceased 
gave this plate to the service of the Church at Colompton as 
her dying legacy for a perpetuall testimonie of her then well 
wishes to the prosperity of that Society 24 July 1658." 

William Crompton was buried at CuUompton. The 
register contains the following entry in the burials : — 

" 22 July 1696. Mr. William Crompton (affidavit received 
27 July)." 

This may mean that he was buried in woollen. 

1662-81. John Gilbert. 

This vicar was presented on 4 February, 1662, by 
Thomas Gorge of Heavitree and Rose his wife, relict of 
Roger Mallack of Exeter. There is considerable difficulty 
in identifying this vicar. He may have been John Gilbert 
who matriculated at Wadham College, Oxford, on 1 April, 
1656, aged eighteen, and was a scholar of that college in 
1656, and was then described as of clerical parentage, and 
of Bourton-in-Dimsmore, in the cqimty of Warwick — 
B.A. 12 October, 1658 ; M.A. 3 July, 1661. He may be 
the man licensed (at the age of twenty-five) to marry 
Emma Blagrave, of the city of Oxford, widow (aged 
twenty-one), at East Hampstead, Berks, on 12 July, 1663. 
In this vicariate two existing chahces were given to Cul- 
lompton in 1680. 

1681-1719. Samuel Dickes. 

Presented on 4 August, 1681, by PhiUp Marshall, of 
Crediton, by permission of the patron, Rawlin Mallack, 
of Cockington. He was son of the Rev. John Dickes, who 
was Vicar of Crediton from 1650 to 1689, and he matricu* 



208 VIGABS OF OUIJX)BIPTON SINGE THE COMMONWEALTH* 

lated at Wadham College, Oxford, on 16 June, 1665, 
and was a servitor from 1665 to 1668, and graduated from 
S. Mary Hall in 1669. His son was John Dickes, of Wad- 
ham, who matriculated (aged seventeen) on 14 March, 
1691-2, and graduated B.A. m 1695, and M.A. in 1698. 
In the Parochial Accounts of S. Neot's, Cornwall, appears 
the following entry, contemporaneous with this vica- 
riate : — 

" A Brief was issued in 1681 for Columton in 

Devon . . . . . 00 13 1.*' 

Dickes was buried at CuUompton on 5 May, 1719. 

1719-33. George Dabby (ob Debby). 

This vicar was presented on 20 September, 1719, by 
John Salter in trust for William Sellick, of CuUompton, 
who pinrchased the living from Sir Thomas Pratt. He was 
son of Jenning Darby, of Chard, Somerset, gentleman, 
and matriculated (aged seventeen) at BaUiol College, 
Oxford, on 7 March, 1704-5, and graduated B.A. in 1708. 
No further trace of him can be found. 

1733-56. John Willcocks. 

This vicar was presented on 27 May, 1733, by King 
George II, who was patron by lapse. A fine flagon, still 
amongst the church silver, was presented in his vicariate 
in 1737, Henry Fry and Francis Webb being church- 
wardens. The parish books contain this entry : — 

" Pd. by Mr. Willcocks order to Wm. Towell suflFerer 

by fire . . . . . . 2s. 6d/^ 

No other trace of this vicar can be foimd, xmless he is 
the same person as the John Willcocks, Vicar of Exboume, 
whose will was proved at Exeter in 1758. 

1756-77. Thomas Manning. 

This man was a son of the Rev. Henry Manning, of 
Silverton, Devon, and matriculated (aged eighteen) at 
Exeter College, Oxford, on 13 December, 1749, and gradu- 
ated from Merton College in 1753. He was collated as 
vicar on 6 September, 1756, by the Bishop (Greorge Lav- 
ington) by lapse of time. 



ticabs of ctjllompton since the commonwealth. 209 

1777-1814. John Verbyaed Bruton. 

Fourth son of Joseph Bruton (or Brutton), of Cullompton, 
lawyer (" causidicus "), was bom at Cullompton and en- 
tered Blundell's School, Tiverton. In his eighteenth year 
he matriculated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, on 
3 July, 1761, and Sn the following year was chosen a 
Blundell's Scholar, and a Blundell's Fellow in 1767. 

He was presented to Cullompton by Alice SeUick and 
Edward Manley on 19 December, 1777, and died, as vicar, 
in 1814. There is a tablet to his memory on the south 
wall of the church, with the following inscription : — 

*' Sacred to the memory 
of the Revd. John Veryard Brutton upwards of forty years 
Vicar of this Parish who died April 9th 1814 aged 80, in whom 
were united unaflFected piety, benevolence to the poor and aU 
the social virtues that could adorn the man." 

Bruton was baptized in the parish church of Cullompton 
on 11 January, 1742. 

1814-19. Walker Gray. 

This vicar was the eldest son (and only child by the 
first marriage) of Walker Gray, citizen and vintner of 
London, by Frances Holden, daughter of Jeremiah Harman 
of Stoke Newington and of the City of London, banker. 
He was bom at 4, London Street, Fenchurch Street, in 
the parish of All Hallows, Staining, on 27 February, 1788. 
His parents were members of the Society of Friends. He 
was admitted a Pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge, 
on 3 July, 1807, and graduated M.A. in 1815. He married, 
in Jime, 1813, Emily, third daughter of the Rev. Thomas 
Daniel, Vicar of Henbury, near Bristol, who presented him 
on 9 November, 1814, to the Cullompton living. The 
school at Cullompton was erected on land belonging to 
him. By an Indenture of Feoffment, dated 22 February, 
1822, and enrolled on 13 March, 1822, the school was 
conveyed to the following Trustees: (1) Walker Gray; 
(2) Sir Thomas Dyke Acland ; (3) Francis Huyshe ; (4) 
Rev. John Templer (Vicar of Cullompton) ; (5) Rev. 
William Barker (Rector of Broadclyst) ; and (6) Rev. 
John Townshend (Vicar of Halberton). 

He was admitted M.A. ad eundem of the University of 

VOL. XLII. o 



210 yiOABS OF 0X7LL01CPTON SINCB THB OOMMOKWBALTH. 

Oxford on 21 June, 1832. On leaving Cullompton, in 
1819, he became curate of Henbury aforesaid, and a 
silhouette portrait of him is preserved by the present 
Sector of Henbury (Canon Way). 
He is described by the rector as 

" a tall grey-headed man, with a ruddy complexion, who 
always wore his hat at the back of his^ead. He was a fine 
old-fashioned preacher, and I can picture him now in his black 
gown and bands sitting in the Vicarage pew on a Sunday 
evening till sermon time came. His sermons would now be 
thought very long, seldom under an hour." 

In the British Museum are two books (or pamphlets) 
by him : — 

1. *' A Discourse on Confirmation, being the substance of 
two sermons deUvered in the Parish Church of Cullompton." 
Tiverton, 1816. 

2. '' The Excellencies of the English Church : a just claim 
to the attachment of all her members." London, 1827. 

He died at Henbury on 6 October, 1845, and a memorial 
tablet with the following inscription was erected in Henbury 
Church close to the steps leading into the organ chapel : — 

'* Sacred to the memory of 
The Rev: Walker Gray 
For nearly Thirty Years 
Curate of this Parish. 

Bom February 26th, 1788 ; died October 6, 1845." 

His will was proved on 21 November, 1845. He left no 
children. The will contains the following local gifts : — 

1. To Frederick Leigh, of Cullompton, £50. 

2. To his godson, Charles Gray Hill, " the whole of my 
property at Cullompton in the County of Devon " (i.e. a house 
and premises in Church Lane, two pews in the church, and a 
Deed Poll in the Exeter Road), ** or, if previously sold, £500 
in heu thereof." 

He was Fourth Wrangler whilst at Cambridge, and in 
addition to the works already mentioned published at 
Bristol in 1824 a Funeral Sermon preached at Northwick 
Church, Gloucestershire, on 3 March, 1822, wherein he is 



yiGABS OF CULLOMFTON SINCE THB COMMONWEALTH. 211 

described as " Minister of Aust and Northwick." Two 
sermons printed on his death are still extant : — 

1. By the Rev. Canon Way, Vicar of Henbury. 

2. By the Rev. John Hencocks, Vicar of Clifton. 

1819-30. John Tbmpler. 

Son of James Templer, of London. Matriculated at 
Exeter College, Oxford, on 4 July, 1805 (aged seventeen) ; 
B.A. 1809, M.A. 1818 ; presented on 9 September, 1819, 
by the Rev. Walker Gray. Mr. Templer died as vicar, 
and the following inscription may be found in the church- 
yard : — 

" Beneath 
Repose the Remains of 
John Templer 
Vicar of this Parish. 

Obit. Dec. 14, 1829." 

He cannot have been " Vicar of Teigngrace, 1832," as 
stated in Foster's Alumni Oxonienses. 

1830-34. John Hodge. 

Son of John Hodge, of Honiton Clyst. The following 
entry appears in that Register : — 

*' John the son of Mr. John Hodge and Ann his wife was 
baptized June y« 30^^ 1752." 

He matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford, on 17 De- 
cember, 1770 (aged eighteen). He was curate of Honiton 
Clyst from 1780 till he came to Cullompton. He was 
presented on 12 June, 1830, by Sarah Templer, widow. 
He died on 10 October, 1833, and is said to have been 
buried at Honiton Clyst, but the present vicar (Rev. H. B. 
Clark) can, discover no trace of any tombstone in the 
church or yard bearing his name. 

1834-57. William Sykbs. 

Second son of Sir Francis William Sykes, Baronet, bom 
26 September, 1800, at Basildon Park ; educated at Eton 
under Dr. Keate, 1814^18; admitted to Sidney Sussex 
College, Cambridge, on 2 April, 1818 ; B.A. 1824, M.A. 



212 VIOABS OF CULLOMPTON SINCE THE COMMONWEALTH. 

1829; M.A. (ad eundem) Oxford, 6 April, 1848. He 
married on 7 December, 1821, Anna Maria, daughter of 
Edward Galtey, of Harefield House, Lympstone, Devon. 
He was presented on 20 December, 1834, by Richard 
Benyon de Beauvoir. He died in 1876, and is buried at 
BasUdon. A full-length portrait of him is in the possession 
of his son, Rev. Johii Heath Sykes, of Haselor Vicarage, 
Alcester. 

1867-61. Robert Pinckney. 

Eldest son of Robert Pinckney, of Amesburj^ Wilts. 
Bom at West Amesbury on 6 March, 1827 ; educated 
privately, and matriculated at S. John's College, Oxford, 
on 6 April, 1848. He married Marianne Adelaide Macreight 
in 1864 at Cholderton, Wilts. He was curate at Seaton 
and Beer ; Vicar of Chilfrome, Dorset, 1861-9 ; Rector 
of Hittisleigh, 1869-70; Vicar of HighcliflFe, Hants, 1871- 
80 ; Vicar of Hinton Admiral, Hants, from 1880 till his 
death in 1886. His widow possesses a portrait of him. 
He was buried at Hinton Admiral, and on his grave is 
inscribed : — 

" Robert Pinckney, 

some time Vicar of this Pcudsh. 

Died March 13, 1886, aged 69 years." 

1861-64. Edward William Turner Chave. 

Eldest son of Rev. Edward Chave, of Exeter. Matricu- 
lated at Worcester College, Oxford, on 29 May, 1837 (aged 
eighteen) ; B.A- 1841, M.A. 1844, B.D. and D.D. 1869. 
Was curate of Brent Tor from 1841 to 1843 ; Rector of 
S. Pancras, Exeter, from 1846 to 1860 ; and was pre- 
sented to Cullompton in August, 1861, and left in Novem- 
ber, 1864. He became Vicar of S. Anne's, Wandsworth, 
in 1866. 

1864-72. Francis Bazett Grant, 

Son of James Lewis Grant, of Maidstone. Educated at 
Eton. Matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, 21 October, 
1813 (aged eighteen); B.A. 1817, M.A. 1822; deacon, 
1819; priest, 1820. Rector of Shelton, StaflFordshire, 
from 1846 to 1864; died 13 August, 1872; and was 
buried in Cullompton Cemetery under a tombstone in- 
scribed as follows: — 



VIOABS OF CULLOMFTON SINCE THE COMMONWEALTH. 213 

"Sacred 
to the Memory 
of 
Francis Bazett Grant, M.A., 
late 
Vicar of Cullompton. 
Died August 13th, 1872, 
aged 76 years/* 

1872-87. Lewis Francis Potter. 

Graduated B.A. Trinity College, Dublin, 1861 ; M.A. 
1856. Was assistant chaplain of Leicester Gaol, 1863-4 ; 
curate of S. Mary, Lambeth, 1864-7 ; curate of Thorpe 
Achurch, 1867-60; rector, 1860-72. Presented to Cul- 
lompton by Mr. B. Selwood in August, 1872 ; transferred 
to the Rectory of St. Leonard's-on-Sea in 1887. A tomb- 
stone with the subjoined inscription is to be seen at Cul- 
lompton : — 

" In loving memory of the Rev. Lewis Francis Potter, 
for 14 years Vicar of this Pcudsh, 
who fell asleep in Jesus at St. Leonard's-on-the-Sea 
On November 6, 1887." 

1887-92. John Gbrrard Davies. 

Bom at Dorchester on 27 September, 1834. Son of John 
and Jane Davies. Educated at Dorchester Grammar 
School. Scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge ; B.A. 
1867, M.A. 1860. Curate of S. Mary, Weymouth, 1868-60 ; 
curate of Holy Trinity, Dorchester, and Chaplain of the 
Dorset County Hospital, 1860-7 ; curate of S. Stephen 
and S. Martin, Exeter, 1867-9. Married on 7 September, 
1870, to Emily Williams, youngest daughter of Lt.-Col. 
Joseph Williams. Rector of S. Lawrence, Exeter, 1869- 
76; Rector of AUhallows, Goldsmith Street, 1876-6; 
Rector of Holy Trinity, Exeter, and Chaplain of Wjm- 
ward's Hospital, 1876-87 ; Prebendary of Exeter, 1885 ; 
Rural Dean, Christianity, 1884-6. Died at Cullompton 
22 November, 1892 ; buried in S. Leonard's Cemetery, 
Exeter, with the following monument : — 

" Sacred to the memory of 
John Gerrard Davis, 
Prebendary of Exeter and Vicar of Cullompton, 
who fell asleep in Jesus November 22nd, 1892, 
aged 68." 



214 VIOABS OF OUIXOMFTON SINCB THB COICMONWXALTH. 

1893-1904. Gbobqb Fobbesteb. 

Still living. Late Exhibitioner of S. John's College, 
Cambridge ; B.A. 1859. Curate of Morebath, Devon, 
1869-61 ; curate Fareham, 1861-3 ; curate Selworthy, 
Somerset, 1863-5 ; curate All Saints, Langham PlfiK^e, 
1866 ; curate S. Paul, Clapham, 1866 ; vicar, 1873-90. 

Chables Habbis. 

The present vicar, to whom the writer's cordial thanks 
are due, as to Mr. Percival Lucas, of London ; Miss Har- 
fordy of Henbury ; Mr. Ernest Axon, of the Manchester 
Free Library, and others. 



THE HUNDRED OF SULFRETONA OR 
HAIRIDGE IN EARLY TIMES. 

BY BEY. OSWALD J. BEICHEL, B.O.L. & M.A. ; F.S.A. 

(Read at CuUompton, 27th July, 1910.) 



I. Oeneral remarks on the Hundred, the townshipa^, and 
the tithings. 

1. The extent of the Hundred of Sulfretona or Hairidge 
in Domesday times is not open to much doubt. In fact, 
there are only two Domesday estates, as to the rightful 
inclusion of which there can be two opinions — the one hide 
with a mill in Upex (W. 198, p. 194 ; Vict. Hist. 426), and 
the i virgate in Horescoma (W. 866, p. 706 ; Vict. Hist. 
606) appurtenant to Bradninch. Both of these estates 
come after others in the Hundred of Sulfretona, and in 
each case they are followed by estates in Budleigh Hun- 
dred. They must, therefore, be looked for either in 
Hairidge or in Budleigh Himdred. Now, seeing that 
neither of them can be easily located in Budleigh Hundred, 
and both of them are appurtenant to manors in Hairidge 
Himdred, there can be very little doubt that they them- 
selves belong to Hairidge Hundred. 

2. The name of the ancient Crown lordship out of which 
the outland Hundred of Hairidge was created, when 
estates were " booked " by the King to individual thanes 
{Trans, xxxiii. 667, 670), is Sulfretona, and this name ap- 
pears to have been the one by which the Himdred was 
known in the earliest times. In the Geldroll of 1084 it is 
still called the Hundred of Sulfretona (p. xxviii.). Mr. 
Whale has adhered to that name in his analysis of the 
Domesday estates as they were in 1086 {Trans, xxviii. 
408 seq.) Two centuries later, in the Hundred Roll of 
3 Ed. I., the Himdred is called Harigg, from the place 



216 Tffitf HUNDBED OF SULFRBTONA 

where the Hundred-courts were held, and ever since, with 
many variations in spelling, it has borne this name. 

Mr. Whale, in Trans, xxxii. 646, gives an extra^jt which 
clearly explains this change : " There is a certain place in 
the aforesaid Hundred of Harigge, on the boundary be- 
tween Branege (Bradninch) and Collumpton, where of old 
the Hundred [court] used to be held, which place is called 
Harruge (now Whorridge Faxm in Collumpton), whence 
the name took its origin. And the lord of the Himdred from 
concession of the abbot of Bocland [owner of the Hundred 
by gift of Amice de Red vers in 1291] as of his own right 
and that of his predecessors used to hold his court in the 
manor of Collumpton and have there his judgments both 
of felons and brea^jh of assize. And the tenant in Silverton 
shall jBnd one beadle to serve the baihff of the Hundred 
for making summonses, attachments and distraints in two 
parts of the Hundred. And in Uke manner he shall find 
a house, stocks, fetters for the feet, locks and one man to 
take custody of the prisoners of the Himdred with the 
help of the tithing men who shall have taken them prison- 
ers. And there is in the Hundred a certain moor called 
Kentilsmore which is common for pasture and annual 
cutting of firewood and other things growing there for 
fuel, so that no one shall open (cultivate) the land. If 
any one does this he shall be attached by the bailiff of 
the Hundred, and it shall be settled in the Himdred 
[court]." 

3. The document from which the above extract is taken 
contains also the following remarks as to the tithings of 
the Hundred of Harigge : " There are 3 lawdays and 3 
fifteen days, to wit at Christmas, after Easter and after 
Michaelmas. And the tithing of Fynneton shall come to 
the 3 fifteen days only and shall present nothing. And 
the baihff of the Hundred once in a year after Michaelmas 
ought to enter the tithings of Talleton and Fynneton and 
hold his view. And all tenants of lands and others shall 
come before him and present and he shall have from each 
of them one penny " (Whale in Trans, xxxii. 646). 

The pecuUar position of Feniton, one of the coimt of 
Mortain's estates, is further shown from the presentment 
of the Hundred jury in 1274 (Hund. Rolls y 3 Ed. I., No. 18, 
p. 71) : ** Robert le Peytevin [the then lord of Feniton] they 
say has a certain Uberty [franchise or prerogative] by 
virtue of which they cut off the heads of condemned men 



OB HAIBIDOE IN EARLY TIMSS. 217 

in that manor " [instead of hanging them]. Talaton was 
4kIso a privileged place as being the*l)i8hop's estate. 

4. The townships ( ViUae) in the Himdred are returned 
in 1316 as the five following (Feud. Aids, 382) and one 
borough : — 

HUNDRED OF HARRIG. 

tl66] Hugh de Courtney is lord of the Himdred of Harrig. 
In the same is the borough of Bbadenygge (Brad- 
ninch) and the lord thereof is Richard Lovel. 

£167] Township of Silfeeton (Silverton) with Payhbm- 
BYRi and Fynaton (Feniton) ; and the lord of 
the same is Humphrey de Bello Campo (Beau- 
champ). 

:[168] Township of Plymptrue (Plymtree), Colmp Mona- j 

CORUM (Monk Culm), Upexe and Nitherbxe 
(Netherex), its members, and the lord thereof is 
Bartholomew de Clyvedon. 

1 169 J Township of Thorverton with Cadebyry (Cad- , ^ . 
bury), Wellesbearb (Wellton ?) and Kbntelbs- ' i^i/JjtO 
BBARE (Kentisbeare), its members, and the lords j 
thereof are the dean and chapter of blessed Peter 
of Exeter. 

{170] Township of Taleton with Wodebyarb (Wide- 
beare), Alrb Pevbrel, and Bikbleoh (Bickleigh), 
its members, and the lord thereof is John de 
Wrockeshale. 

In addition (adhtic) THORVERTON. 

[171] Township of Childon (Chilton Fumeaux), with 
Carswille (Karswell), Pauntesforde (Pons- 
ford) and Colmpton (Collumpton), its members ; 
and the lord of the same is the abbot of Boklonde. 

6. Hooker, in his Chorographical Synopsis (Harleian 
MSS., 6827, p. 102), gives the following list of parishes, or 
rather estates, in this Hundred, and the payments due 
from them, by way of tenths and fifteenths, at such times 
as the same become due. This he gives in three columns. 
"Those which are not parishes are here put in itaUcs : — 

Amount 
Amount due. Deductions. payable. 

1162] Thorverton . . . 36/8 . . 4/8 . . 32/- 
[163] Cadburye . . .8/- . . 3/4 . . 4/8 

In this parysh dwelleth Furse. 
1164] Cadeleigh . . .9/- . . 12/- . . 8/- 

In this parysh dwelleth Will"- Courtney. 



218 THB HimDBBD OF SULFBBTONA 





Amoan 


66] AUer PevereU . . 28/2 . . ml 


28/2 


66] Bykley . . .10/- . , nil 


10/- 


In this parysh dwelleth Carewe. 




67] Upp Exe . .1 20/ fi/o 

68] Nether Exe . .P'" •• ^'^ •' 


13/4 


In this parysh dwelleth Lympenny. 




69] Sylverton . . . 22/8 . . 2/8 


20/- 


70] Oollumpton . . . 53/- . . 6/8 


46/4 


In this parysh dwelleth Moor of Moorhayes 


and Kellaway of Kingswell. 




71] Panaford ... .12/- . . nil 


12/- 


72] Plymtre . . .6/8 . , nil 


6/8 


In this parysh dwelleth Ford. 




73] Carawea . . .7/- . . ml 


7/- 


74] B[iW}odbeare (Wide- 




beare) . . . 12/- .. nil 


12/- 


76] Kentisbeare . . . 20/- nil 


20/- 



In this parysh dwelleth Waldren of Wood. 
76] TaUaton . . . 35/- . . nil . . 36/- 

In this parysh dwelleth M3rtchell and Channon. 
77] Payhembrye . . 23/- . . nil . . 23/- 

Iq this parysh dwelleth Willoughbye. 
78] Shyldon . . . 26/8 nil . . 26/8 

79] Monckcolombe . . 29/- . . 8/- . . 21/- 
80] Bradnyche . . . 46/- . . nil 46/- 

In this parish dwelleth Sentle (Sainthill ?) 
and Hobbs. 
81] Hamlet of Lottocke Hde 3/4 . . nil . . 3/4 
82] Hamlet of Upton -1 a/q •*;! aia 

83] and Euwre (? Weaver) J ^'^ " ^ " ^'^ 
84] Fenington . . . 21/- . . nil . . 21/- 
86] Broadhembury . .41/4 .. nil .. 41/4 

23 17 2 33/- 22 4 2 

II. The different Domesday estates contained in the 
Hundred. 

The Domesday Hundred consists of two parts : — 

1. The inland Hundred, or ancient Crown lordship of 
Silverton, which, properly speaking, is extra hundredal 
and has no representation in the Hundred court ; and 

. 2. The outland Hundred, or Hundred proper of Silver- 
ton or Hairidge, consisting of all the tithings or estates 
owing suit and service to the court of the Hundred. 



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228 THE HX7NDRBD OF 8ULFRETONA 



III. Some remarks on the iderUifications and early 
descents of the places named. 

1. It will be seen from the above list that, without in- 
cluding the royal demesne or inland of Sulfretona, the 
number of hides in this Hundred — 66 hides virgates 
3 ferlings*^ — already exceeds the 62 hides assigned to it 
in the Geldroll. Clearly, therefore, as stated in Trans. 
xxxiii. 670, the royal demesne or inland formed no part 
of the Himdred or outland court in this case. The cases 
of Shebbear referred to in Trans, xxxiii. 687 and of Plymton 
are quite exceptional. 

How, then, can we reconcile our total as made up from 
Domesday with the total named in the Geldroll ? In the 
first place, I think we must take the statement '* the 
bishop has a hide of land which Ulnod formerly held " as 
appljong to acreage and not to assessment. This hide of 
land, 120 acres with the mill, really belonged to and was 
included in the assessment of Upex. It is only named 
distinctly because it brought in such a large return. 
Similarly in W. 866, p. 706, the i virgate of land which 
William Capra held in Horescoma with two viUagers seem- 
ingly refers to an areal virgate detached from but included 
in the assessment of Bradninch. It is also possible that 
the same remark appUes to several of the smaller estates 
in Domesday which are described as a J hide, a virgate, or 
i virgate of land, in which no particulars are given of the 
distribution of assessment between the lordship and the 
villagers. The explanation which is here oflFered is that 
several estates, although recorded in Domesday, were 
grants made out of the lordship or inland Hundred after 
the assessment of the Himdred had been fixed. The geld 
from such estates would be gathered by the King's reeve, 
and not by the fee-gatherers or Himdred-men. They be- 
longed, in fact, to the inland and not to the outland 
Himdred. Excluding the mill in Rew and the \ virgate 

•3 In Trans, xxxiii, 684 the total is giyen as 3 vir^^ates more, viz. 55 hide* 
3 virgat«s 3 ferlinss, because the assessment of Laiige/ort, W. 96, was taken at 
the full amount of 1^ hides, and Hiele 2 virgates was erroneously included. 



OB HAIBIDOB IN EABLY TIMES. 229 

of Owlacombe for the reason stated, and applying this 
suggestion, we have : — 

Hide 

W. 198, p. 194, the mill in Rew abeady referred to 1 
W. 865, p. 706, Owlacombe, an outlier of Bradninch, 

already referred to 2 

Also — 
W. 296, p. 290, Estochelia in this Hundred . .010 
W. 448, p. 480, the second Ponsford . .020 

W. 449, p. 482, Kmgsford 2 

W. 855, p. 696, Orway Porch 2 

W. 1029, p. 1104, Bum 10 

W. 1030, p. 1106, Yard 10 

W. 1143, p. 1037, Radewei 2 

Total 3 2 

If these are deducted from our total of . . 55 3 

3 2 

There remain 52 1 

an amount which agrees with the Geldroll within 1 ferling. 

2. A difficulty still remains. The King's exemption of 
If hides in the Geldroll is as yet not accoimted for. It is 
suggested that this exemption must be looked for, and, 
indeed, nowhere else can be foimd save among the estates 
held in 1086 by Baldwin the sheriff. And of these estates 
William the Swarthy, called William de Aller from his 
place of abode, was clearly in possession of Aller in 1084, 
because in that year he was in arrear in respect of 1 virgate. 
His estates, therefore, are out of the question ; but the 
two estates of Payhembury (W. 445, p. 476), 2 hides, and 
Langford (W. 446, p. 478), IJ hides, which in 1086 were 
held by Rainer the house-steward, may very well have 
been in the King's occupation, or of the sheriff as his 
representative, two years previously. If so, they will fully 
account for the King's being excused from paying geld in 
respect of IJ hides, the equivalent of one-half their total 
assessment. 

3. Silverton was one of the estates assigned by Henry II. 
to the earl of Devon, of whom it was held by the family of 
Valletorta. Reginald de Valletorta died seised of it in 

/ 1246 (A.'D. Inq. 30 Hen. III. No. 11). His brother RaJf, 
who succeeded him, sold it on 5 June, 1249, to Thomas 
Corbet, saving the interest for her life of Joan, who held 



^Cri^^flilt^ /£^JJ 



^cfrt^(oa4 



*?^^^?Jf**^30 THE HUNDRED OF SULPRETONA 

' / . it in dower and had remarrie d William Courtney (Devon 
ff J^^**^^^ Fine, No. 466, in Devon and Com. Itec. Soc.). Sir Thomas 
A***r Corbet presented to the rectory on 22 August, 1272 (Episc. 
Reg., Bronescombe, 181). 

In 1274 the manor was held by Peter Corbet, together 
with the assize of bread and beer {Hund. Rolls, 3 Ed. I. 
No. 18, p. 70). Peter Corbet also held it in 1285 (Feud, 
Aids, 321), and in 1322 (Stapeldon, 260), and in 1328 
{OrandissoUy 1263) Lady Beatrice Corbet presented to the 
rectory. In 1316 Humphrey de Beauchamp was lord of 
the "township of Silverton" (Feud. Aids, 382; Lysons, ii. 
450) ; and in 1364 the King presented to the rectory "by 
reason of his guardianship of the land and heirs of the late 
John de Beauchamp of Somerset who held of the King in 
chief" (Grandisson, 1496). 

4. Thorverton, described as " ancient demesne of King 
Henry grandfather of King Henry [III.] the present 
King's father " (Hund. RoUs, 3 Ed. I. No. 18, p. 70), must 
also have formed part of the Domesday Sulfretona, since 
it is not otherwise mentioned in the great survey. By 
Henry it was given to the monks of Mermoster, i.e. of 
the greater monastery (majus monasterium, or Marmouiier) 
of St. Martin of Tours (Testa de Nevil, 1362, p. 1946, in 
Trans, xxxvii. 416, says by WiUiam I.), and was held by 
John Wyger of that monastery by the payment of 10 
marks yearly for the support of two chaplains ministering 
in the church of St. Peter of Exeter, to keep up that service 
for ever (Inquis. Ed. I. No. 266, p. 152 ; Lysons, ii. 504). 
In 1246 Roger de Hele quitclaimed to the monastery i hide 
of land in Thorverton (Fine No. 450 in Devon and Com. 
Rec. Soc). In 1263 the rector, Richard de Chippestable, 
being broken down with age and illness, Richard de 
Banifelde was appointed rector (Bronescombe, 185), with a 
special provision that he was to act as Chippestable's 
guardian. The rectory was appropriated to the dean and 
chapter of Exeter by bishop Quivil on 3 March, 1283^ 
(Bronescombe, 377). 

6. Collumpton, or rather the north manor of Collump- 
ton, also formed part of the Domesday Sulfretona, since 
it was ancient demesne, and is not otherwise mentioned in 
Domesday. In 1200 it was given by King John to Walter 
de ChflFord, his brother (Charier Rolls, 1 John, No. 162), 
and afterwards to the earl of Devon (Hund. Rolls, 3 Ed. I. 
No. 18, p. 70). In 1262 Baldwin de Lisle died seised of the 



OB HAIBIDOE IN BABLY TIMES. 231 

overlordship of it {Inquis. Hen. III. No. 564, p. 173), after 
having enfeoffed Amice, countess of Devon, of it for life, 
and Amice had there assize of bread and beer (Hund. RoUe, 
I.e.). In 1291 the manor was given by Isabella de Fortibus, 
countess of Devon and Albemarle, to the abbot and con- 
vent of Buckland Monachorum. The boimdaries of the 
manor are set forth in the Charter (OUver, Mon. p. 383 ; 
Trans, vii. 358). In 1303 the abbot of Bocland held 
"Cohnpton together with the Himdred " (Feud. Aids, 368), 
i.e. the emoluments of the Hundred court, and he con- 
tinued to hold them until the dissolution. 

6. Before the gift to Buckland Abbey Pedbrook had 
been aUenated, and was held separately by Walter de 
Padekebrok for ^ fee of the Honour of Plymton (Testa, 
660, p. 1816). In 1303 Pedbrook, then written Pydeles- 
brok, uV fee, was in the King's hand owing to the death 
of the earl of Cornwall (Feud. Aids, 368). Afterwards 
Jocelin de Hele held in Culentona the land of Paddokes- 
broke, which yields with the appurtenances 10 shillings 
(Somerset Records, pp. 154, 155, quoted by Whale in Trans. 
xxxvi. 360). 

7. The Geldroll, p. xxviii. A. 3, shows bishop Osbem 
allowed an exemption of 3f hides in respect of his lordship 
in this Himdred. Inasmuch as Talaton was his only estate 
in this Himdred, the lordship must have been greater in 
1084 than m 1086. The tenant of Talaton under the 
bishop was in 1274 Hugh Peverel of Sampford Peverel, 
who had the assize of bread and beer there (Hund. Rolls, 
3 Ed. I. No. 18, p. 71). In 1285 the same Hugh Peverel 
held it of the bishop (Fend. Aids, 337) for f fee (ibid., 321). 
In 1303 John de la Ryvere and John de Wrockishele were 
the tenants (ibid., 368) ; in 1316 John de Wrockeshele 
(ibid., 382) ; in 1346 John de Brygham (tftid., 424) ; and 
in 1428 John Hull and Ahce Fraimceys (ibid., 487, Lysons, 
ii. 469). 

8. Southcot or Englishhayes, within the manor of Tala- 
ton, was granted by WilKam Peverel to John le Engleys 
and Matilda his wife on 28 June, 1238 (Devon Fine, No. 
294 in Devon and Com. Rec. Soc), and continued in that 
family for several generations (Lysons, ii. 470). It after- 
wards passed to Thomas Creedy (Devon Not. and Qu. v. 175). 

9. The Geldroll xxviii. A. 2 allows to bishop G[eoffrey 
of Coutances] an exemption of 1 virgate in respect of his 
lordship in this Hundred. This exemption is accounted 



232 THI HT7NDBBD OF STJUnUBTOKA 

for by Netherex, of which Drogo acted as steward. Oliver 
de TVacy, who succeeded to bishop GeofiErey's Honour of 
Barnstaple after several previous lords, bestowed Netherex 
on Stephen le Flemeng before 1196 (Devon Fine, No. 1 in 
Devon and Com. Bee. Soc), and Stephen le Slemeiig . 
before 1241 bestowed it on Bichard de Cmey, who in 
that year held it for 1 fee (Testa, 80, p. 176a). In 1285 
Bichard de Lucy, Walter de Weytefeld, GeofErey de 
Lecomb, WiUiam Sender, and Nicholas Beys held it 
of Bichard le Flemeng, who held it for 1 fee of Heniy 
de Tracy (Feud. Aids, 322) of the Honour of Barn- 
staple. In 1303 the heir of Netherex held it for } fee (ibid., 
368) ; in 1346 Geoffrey Malherbe, William Henton, 
Bichard Corbjm, and Bichard Molyns were the holders, 
and it is described as parcel of the 8 fees for which Baldwin 
de Flemeng was charged for rehef (ibid., 425).** In 
1428 the freeholders were William Somayster, Thomas 
Clapleston, [William Drewe], Thomas B[u]sterd, and 
Bobert [Poyer] (ibid., 481). 

10. In 1241 Henry de Tracy held Upex for } fee in lord- 
ship (Testa, 81, p. 176a). He died seised of it in 1274 
(A.'D. Inq. 2 Ed. I. No. 32). In 1286 Mauger de St. Aubyn 
held the township of Opexe for 1 fee for life of the heiis 
of Henry de Tracy (Fend. Aids, 322). In 1303 Joan de 
Hastynges held it for \ fee (ibid., 368). In 1346 Margaret 
Martyn held the same of James de Audele, who held it <rf 
the Honour of Barnstaple (ibid., 425) ; and in 1428 Bichard 
Hankeford was the freeholder (ibid., 487). 

^ The 8 fees for which I^ldwin le Flemeng was chargeable for relief m 
frequently mentioned in the list of 1346 (Feud. Aids, 386, 411, 418, 416, 420, 
425). One of them was representeti by Ash Rogus \ fee, Button and Hazoo 
\ fee {ibid., 439). As regards the other 7, Baldwin was held charaeable (« 
5^ in Bratton, Highbray, and Bray (in Cornwall ; ibid., 437), and his aonaitfi 
heir, Simon Flemeng, for If fees in the Hundreds of B[r]auntou, Shirwell,aii<l 
Fremington (ibid., 439). In 1086 Erchcnbald (the Fleming) held the followiBg 
estates of the count of Mortain : Bratton Fleming, which Testa, 914, p. 1844i 
returns as 2^ fees with members ; Helc Satchville, Stockleigh Fraunceyt, tf^ 
Culleigh, which Testa returns as 1 fee ; Alverdiscot 1 fee, Wibbery J, Oroyd« 
in Georgeham 1, and Bray in Cornwall, which Fetid. Aids, 203, retams u 
1 fee; total, 7 fees without Highbray. In 1116 Erchenbald, Simon's iod. 
held 7 fees (i.e. the above, without Highbray) of the earl of Oomwall (TYbW- 
xxxiv. 571 ; Black Book, 131) ; in 1186 and 1200 Stephen le Fleming heldibe 
same (SciUagcs Com. 61, 120); in 1212 Archemand (TArchebold) le FiemenK 
(ibid., 539), who also held them in 1234 (Trans, xxxiv. 667 ; Testa, p. 187fl). 
In addition to the above, Baldwin le Fleming also held Highbray fin* l^ftM 
in 1241 of the Honour of Barnstaple (Tesla, 31, p. 1766) ; but m 1S46 it ii 
stated, I suppose in error, that not only Highbray, but also Hele Poor 1 fee, 
Hele Godvng i, Roborough 1, Middleraarwood J, Meshaw ^» Netherex i, tnd 
Lamford {, all formed part of these 8 fees. 



OB HAIBIDGE IN EABLY TIMES. 233 

11. The Geldroll, p. xxviii. A. 4, shows the abbot of 
Battle allowed an exemption of 1 hide in respect of his 
demesne in this Hundred. This hide is represented by 
Ciolitona or Collumpton, and ^ subsequently by the five 
prebendal estates in Collumpton, viz. Upton, Henland (in 
Kentisbeare), Colbrook, Weaver, and Ash (Oliver, Jfon. 
113). St. Nicholas Priory exercised the patronage of the 
vicarage in place of Battle Abbey, and in 1266 presented 
to the vicarage Gilbert de Rya {Bronescombe, 80, 126). 

12. The Greldroll, p. xxviii. A. 6, shows Alvered le Br6ton, 
the count of Mortain's butler, allowed an exemption of 
1 virgate in respect of his demesne in this Himdred. In 
previous papers {Trans, xxviii. 477 ; xxxvi. 361) this was 
taken to represent Hiele (W. 1142, p. 1037 ; Vict. Hist. 
535), and Hiele was consequently located in Hairidge 
•Hundred. In so doing it escaped notice that Alvered can 
have had no demesne in Hiele because Hiele was held of 
him by a tenant, Wihuenec, who was also tenant under 
Alvered of Ashbury and Spry in Stowford. In the After- 
death Inquest of Hugh de Courtney (1 Ric. II. No. 12, 
p. 2) among fees held of the Honour of Plymton is a group 
held by Robert fitz Payne which were aforetime John de 
Mandevil's ; and in this group we find all Wihuenec's 
estates, Hele Poure i fee, Spry i, Ashebury J. This collo- 
<;ation places it practically beyond doubt that we have all 
along been wrong in our identification of this Hiele, and 
that Wihuenec's Hiele is no other than Hele Poure, now 
known as Giffard's Hele in Meeth in Shebbear Himdred, 
the Domesday representative of which has hitherto baffled 
our search {Trans, xxix. 265). Chitterleigh supplies the 
1 virgate of demesne in respect of which Alvered was 
allowed his exemption. 

13. From its position in Domesday between Chitterleigh 
and Bickleigh, both of which are in the Hundred of Hair- 
idge, there can be no doubt that Estochelia must also be 
in the same Himdred. Before the Conquest it was in the 
same ownership as Chitterleigh ; but whereas the count 
of Mortain had given Chitterleigh to his butler, Alvered 
le Breton, he kept Estochelia in his own hand. It was 
therefore probably, as the name implies, in some com- 
manding position. Mr. Whale proposed to identify it with 
Leigh and Fursden in Cadbury, in which case it may be 
the Little Kidel and Furesden held for J fee by William 
Briwere {Testa, 1604, p. 200a, in Trans, xxxvii. 449). 



234 /THB HUNDRED OF SULFBBTONA 

14. Bickleigh most probably went with the other estates 
of Alward the EngUshman to the Honour of Odcombe in 
Somerset (Trans, xxxviii. 348). On 6 July, 1228, Huward 
de Bikelege was lord, and received a surrender of 1 virgate 
there (Devon Fine, No. 184 in Devon and Com. Rec. Soc.). 
In 1274 WiUiam de Bikelegh was lord. The Hundred jury 
then presented that Roger de Pridias (Prideaux), eight 
days after he was removed from office, had seized twenty- 
two cows and one bull, the property of WiUiam de Bikelegh, 
for a debt to King Henry, and had driven them off to Corn- 
wall, and was there keeping them to the loss of WiUiam 
de Bikelegh valued at 100 shillings. Bickleigh was after- 
wards the estate of the Puddingtons. Sir Hugh de Court- 
ney presented to the rectory in 1337 *' by reason of the 
minority of John, son and heir of John de Poimtyngtone " 
{Oraruiiason, 1316), and in 1344 John de Podyngtone pre- 
sented (ibid., 1346). 

16. Feniton was one of the 4 fees (three of them in 
Devon) which William Mala Herba held in 1166 of Drogo 
Young of Montacute (Black Book, p. 94). In 1241 WiUiam 
Malherb held Feniton and Wambemeford in Cotleigh for 
3 Mortain fees of WiUiam de Montacute (Testa, 362, p. 
179a). In 1274 Robert le Peytevin was in possession of 
Feniton, and had there assize of bread and beer (Hund. 
Rolls, 3 Ed. I. No. 18, p. 71). In 1303 WiUiam Malerb was 
lord (Fevd. Aids, 367). In 1343 Geoffrey Malherbe held 
the advowson and presented to the rectory (Grandisson, 
1342). The same Geoffrey m 1346 held Feniton for i fee 
of Wilham de Montacute (i6td.,424) ; and in 1428 WiUiam 
Malerbe (ibid., 487). 

16. Charlton or Chaldon in CoUumpton (Lysons, ii. 128) 
was erroneously described in previous papers as being in 
Plymtree. The tenant BreteU was, as Dr. Round has 
pointed out, BreteU de St. Clare (Trans, xxxviii. 360, n.23). 

17. Rainer Baldwin's house-steward held of Baldwin 
Payhembury, afterwards held for J fee, and he also held 
Week Lan^ord in Germansweek i fee, Kigbear in Oke- 
hamton J, Greenslade in North Tawton J, and Newland J, 
Marsh and Upcot in Rockbear with Dotton in CoUaton 
Raleigh 1, Langford in CoUumton \, and Townbarton in 
Tedbum \ — a total of 4 fees. These 4 fees were held in 
1166 by Roger de Langford (Black Book, 119). In 1241 
Roger Giffard held Payhaumbire and Seghlake \ fee (Testa, 
514, p. 1806) of the Honour of Okehamton. Before 1272: 



OB HAIBIDGE IN BARLY TIMES. 235 

there were disputes between Thomas de Wymundeham, 
rector, and the abbot and convent of Ford, the patrons of 
the vicarage, probably as to the tithes on Uggarton and 
Codaford. When the bishop on 6 June, 1272, collated 
Master Nicholas de Honetone to the rectory on Wymunde- 
ham's resignation, " he handed to him all the writings and 
litigious documents which had passed between the said 
Thomas and the abbot " (Bronescombe, 161). In 1286 
Philip GiflFard held the township of Payembre for J fee of 
Mathew Giffard, who held it of Margery de Nonant, who 
held it of the Honour of Okehamton {Feud. Aids, 321) ; 
in 1303 Philip Giffard (ibid., 368). In 1346 John Prodhome 
[of Upton Prudhome], John Hemyok, and the prioress of 
Polsloe held J of J fee in Payhembery, and the prioress of 
Polsloe i of the said i fee in free, pure, and perpetual 
alms, which Philip GiflFard, Walter de Stapeldon, and the 
prioress of Polsloe aforetime held ('Aid,, 424). In 1428 
the prioress of Polsloe, John Malerbe, and the heir of John 
Whit^Ti were the freeholders (ibid., 481 ; Lysons, ii. 386). 

18. Langford i fee was part of the 4 fees enumerated 
above which Roger de Lan^ord held in 1166 of Robert the 
King's son (Black Book, p. 119), i.e. of the Honour of Oke- 
hamton. In 1241 it was held by Richard de Langford 
(Testa, 521, p. 1806). In 1285 Roger de Langford held 
Langeford of Aure (Aller) Peverel for J fee (Feud. AidSy 
321) ; in 1303 the heir of John Langeford (ibid., 368) ; 
in 1346 Thomas de Langheford (ibid., 424) ; in 1428 the 
heir of Langeford (ibid., 481, 487). The virgate missing 
in the assessment is probably the 1 virgate in Colun 
(W. 1035) held by Fulcher (see No. 43 below ; Lysons, ii. 
127). In 1244 a ferling of land in Langford was sold by 
Richard de Chiswill and the daughters of Warin de Cumbe 
to Andrew de la Wodelande (Devon Fine, No. 420 in 
Devon and Com. Rec. Soc.). 

19. From Feudal Aids, 368, it appears that one of the 
Ponsfords was a member of Kentisbeare Mauger manor, 
and the other a member of Kentisbeare Prior. Kingsford 
and Sainthill or Blackborough were also members of one 
or other of these two manors, and likewise Aller, from 
which William the Swarthy took his name of William de 
Aller (GeldroU, p. xxviii. B. 3). All of the above were held 
in 1166 by Mathew de Alra villa of Robert the King's son 
for 3 fees (Black Book, p. 119). In 1241 Henry, son of 
Henry, and the heir of Hugh de Bolley, held 3 fees in Kent- 



236 THB HUNDRED OF SULFRBTONA 

elesbere, Paimtesford, K}mgesford, and Cotteshegh (Testa y 
617, p. 1806) apparently of Fumeaux, successor in title to 
Mathew de Alravilla. 

20. On 20 June, 1249, Hamelin de Bolay impleaded the 
prior of Christchurch for not discharging his feudal dues 
to Ralf Haringod, the overlord of Kentisbeare Prior and 
Ponsford (Devon Fine, No. 478 in Devon and Com. Rec. 
Soc.). In 1285 Mauger, son of Henry, and the heirs of 
James de Bolley held the township of Kentelesber with 
members for 1^ fees, whereof Mauger holds his share 
[1 J fees] of the heirs of John de Mohim, who hold of Alan 
de Fumeaus ; and the heirs of James de Bolley hold their 
share l\ fees of the prior of Gresturch (Christchurch), who 
holds of RaJf Herigaud, who holds of Alan de Fumeaus 
{Feud. Aids, 322). In 1303 Henry, son of Mauger, held 
1^ fees in Kentelesbere and Pontesford ; and John de 
Cobeham held li fees in the same (ibid,, 368). Henry, son 
of Mauger, is, I suppose, the same person as Henry de 
Kelligreu, who, on 26 December, 1317, presented Hugh de 
Tremur, clerk, to Kentisbeare rectory (Stapeldon, 225). In 
1346 the Treasurer of Exeter and Hugh de Courtney held 
Mauger's share and James de Cobeham, Cobeham's share 
(ibid., 425). John de Penhirgarde** was, however, patron 
in 1361 (Grandisaon, 1474). In 1412 William Stevenes, 
chaplain, to whom the right of presentation had devolved 
from Richard Clopton, being annexed to the manor of 
Kentisbeare, presented (Stafford, 181); and in 1415 Sir 
Edward Courtney, son and heir of Edward earl of Devon, 
for this tum (Stafford, 181). In 1428 William Bonevyle, 
the Treasurer of Exeter, and William Maloysell held f fee 
in Kentisbeare (Fevd, Aids, 483) ; and William Bonevyle 
had succeeded to Cobham's Kentisbeare IJ fees (ibid,, 487 ; 
Lysons, ii. 297). 

21. This Blacheberia appears to be the portion of Saint- 
hill next Blackborough which was given to Ford Abbey 
and afterwards transferred to Dimkeswell Abbey (Oliver, 
Mon. 395). It appears in the earlier documents under the 
name of Freschic or France, probably from the name of 
the tenant. At the dissolution it was called Sainthill. A 
chief rent of 4s. 8d. was then paid by the abbot of Dunkes- 

" Heanton Satchvil was held in 1285 by Mauger, son of John (Feud, Aids, 
829) ; in 1292 by Henry, son of Henry (A.-D. Inq. 20 Ed. I. No. 38) ; in 1346 
by Adam, son of Hugh (Feud, Aids, 412) ; and in 1352 John de Killigrew and 
Joan his wife conveyed it for settlement to John de Penhir^hard (Feet of 
F. Miob. 26 Ed. III.). These support the identification with Killigrew. 



OB HAIRIDOE IN EARLY TIMES. 237 

well to the barony of Okehamton in respect of Sainthill 
and Sheldon (Oliver, 398 ; Trans, xxxvi. 360). 

22. The Geldroll, p. xxviii. B. 3, names William de 
Alra as being in arrear in respect of 1 virgate in this 
Hmidred, which identifies William the Swarthy with 
William of Aller. His successor, as we have already seen, 
was Mathew de Alravilla, who held 3 fees of the Honour 
of Okehamton (Black Book, p. 119). 

23. yor the identification of Colunp and Bemardesmore,. 
refer to Trans, xxxvi. 360. Mr. Whale, in reply (p. 12)^ 
quotes from the Somerset Records , pp. 164, 166 : " All 
Jocelin de Hele's right in the land of Culm called La 
Wetenelond," and " the land of Culm with Bemardes- 
more." Part of Colunp was given to Montacute Priory, 
viz. Monkculm and land in Collumpton. The rest, after- 
wards called Hele, was held in 1286 by Roger de Hele for 
i fee of Simon, son of Rogo, of the Honour of Okehamton 
(Feud, Aids, 322) ; in 1303 by Roger de Hele (ibid,, 368) ; 
in 1346 by Rosa de Hele (ihid,, 426) ; in 1428 by Alice 
Fraunceys, the heiress of Hele, *' which Rosa de Hele 
aforetime held" (ibid., 487; Lysons, ii. 60). Luttekeshele, 
which is mentioned as one of the boimdaries of Collumpton 
Manor in 1291 (Oliver, Mon, 383), may possibly have 
formed part of Bemardesmore in 1086. Lysons, ii. 128, 
states that in the reign of Edward III. Luttocks Hele was 
the estate of Sir Salvin Southorpes, and afterwards of 
Raleigh, Dinham, Hidon, and Whiting, from whom it 
passed to Walrond. 

24. In 1241 the heir of Hugh de Bolley held i fee in 
Blakebergh (Testa, 760, p. 1826). From his family it took 
its name of Blackborough Bolhay. It is otherwise known 
as All Hallows, Blackborough. In 1276 Dame Philippa de 
Bolleghe was in possession and presented to the rectory 
(Bronescombe, 118). In 1329 and 1332 John de Cobeham 
was lord and presented to the rectory (Grandisson, 1271, 
1291). Before 1342 James de Cobeham had succeeded 
him (ibid,, 1339) and held the manor in 1346 (Fetid, AidSy 
426). On the next vacancy, in 1361 (Grandisson, 1421), 
and also in 1374, the bishop collated by lapse (Brantyng- 
ham, 31). John Wyke of Ninehead Court was patron in 
1403, and in 1413 John Blakelake, Roger Tremayl, and 
William Newton (Stafford, 147). In 1428 the freeholders 
of the manor were Richard Cornish (Comu), Thomas 
[Strecche and Walter M]yryfeld (Fevd. Aids, 481), who 



238 THE HUNDRED OF SULFBBTONA 

held i fee in Blakeburgh of William Bonevyll {ibid.y 487 ; 
Lysons, ii. 66). . 

26. The Geldroll, p. xxviii. A. 7, shows Ralf de Pomeray 
allowed an exemption of 1 hide 1 virgate in respect of his 
lordship in this Hmidred. This is represented by the two 
Tales. Henry de Pomeray gave these to his brother 
Joscelin (Ohver, Mon. 346), and on 9 February, 1237, 
GreoflFrey de la Pomeray gave three ploughlands in Tale to 
Ford Abbey (Devon Fine, No. 264 in Devon and CJom. 
Rec. Soc). The gift was confirmed in 1320 by Edward II. 
(Dugdale, Bar. i. 499 ; Lysons, ii. 386). 

26. The successor to Alvered of Epaignes was, as Dr. 
Bound states, his heiress Isabella, married to Robert de 
Candos. Robert died in 1120, and his heiress, Maud, 
brought his fief to PhiUp de Columbers, who was in pos- 
session in 1166 {Black Book, p. 97). At that date Orway 
was held by Robert de Orivee for i fee of PhiUp de Colum- 
bers {Black Book, p. 97). In 1241 Thomas de Orweye, who 
in 1228 also held land in Carswell in Broadhembury (Fine 
172 in Devon and Com. Rec. Soc.), held i fee of Phihp de 
Columbers {Testa, 361, p. 179a) ; in 1286 William de 
Oriveye {Feud, Aids, 322) ; in 1303 John de Orweye {ibid., 
368) ; in 1346 his son John de Orweye, who held it of 
James de Audele {ibid., 424), successor in title to Colum- 
bers ; and in 1428 Thomas Strech {ibid., 487 ; Lysons, 
ii. 297). 

27. The Geldroll, xxviii. A. 6, shows an exemption of 
2 hides allowed to Odo in respect of his demesne in this 
Hundred, and B. 2 that he or his tenants were in arrear 
for other 2 hides for which he or they were chargeable. 
The estates referred to are Broadhembury and Plymtree. 
In 1166 Broadhembury was held by Geoffrey de Hem- 
bury for 1 fee of William de Toriton {Black Book, 124), 
William being nephew of William son of Odo (Dugdale, 
vi. 166); but before his death, in 1223,fi« William de 
Toriton had sold Broadhembury to William Briwere, who 
before his death, in 1227, gave it to Dunkswell Abbey 
{Testa, 1486, p. 1976 ; Trans, xxxvii. 436 ; Charter Rolls, 
i. 2 ; Hund. Rolls, 3 Ed. I. No. 18, p. 70 ; Lysons, ii. 266). 
In 1274 Joan de Ferlingeston held the advowson, and as 
she was a minor in the King's wardship, the King pre- 

*• On 6 May, 1224, A vice, widow of William de Toriton, quitclaimed ^ of 
50/- rent from Broadhembuiy, which she held in dower, to Geoffrey Coffin, the 
tenant (Devon Fine, No. 137 in Devon and Com. Rec. Soc). 



OB HAIBIDQE IN EARLY TIMES. 239 

sented to it (Bronescombe, 120). In 1285 the bishop col- 
lated as being the holder of the advowson (i&u2., 338, 387), 
but shortly afterwards and ever since the patronage has 
been exercised by the dean and chapter (ibid,, 339). 
Bishop Qnivil (1280-91) settled the endowment of the 
vicarage to include '' all the altar-dues, the tithe of hay, 
and apples, mortuaries, the house which the parochial 
chaplain used to occupy with the garden and the next 
house on the east side with a small court and all the glebe 
which Ues outside the close on the south side of the afore- 
said church between the lands of the abbot and convent 
of Dunkeswell and all the assessed rent from cottagers and 
others holding land belonging to the glebe of the said 
church, such rent amounting to the sum of 22 shillings, 
together with power to distrain for this rent whenever 
necessary, saving to the dean and chapter of Exeter, suits 
of court, services and escheats however accruing from the 
aforesaid tenants " (Quivil, 339). 

28. Plymtree was given by Odo to St. Peter's, Glou- 
cester, in 1095 (CharttUary Rolls Series, i. 74), from which 
it was acquired by Nicholas de la Pole before 1160 in ex- 
change for Aylestone in Warwickshire ( Vict. Hist, Warwick, 
i. 280). In 1241 it was held by Aubrea de Botreaux in 
dower of the Honour of Plymton (Testa, 664, p. 1816 ; 
1437, p. 1966, in Trans, xxxvii. 426), and she presented 
to the rectory on 9 April, 1261 (Bronescombey 162). In 
1285 Nicholas de la Lude held 1 fee in Plymtree for life 
of Robert, son of Pagan, who held in chief (Fevd. Aids, 
322). In 1303 William Biscop held Plymtree for i fee 
(ibid., 368). In 1316 Bartholomew de Clyvedon was lord 
of the township (ibid., 382). In 1335 and 1340 Sir WiUiam 
de Pillaunde was lord and patron of the church (Orarir 
disson, 1310, 1328). In 1346 Thomas de Courtney held 
the manor in succession to William Bissop (Feud. Aids, 
425), but the advowson had passed to Thomas Peverel 
before 1393 (Brantyngham, 120), and was held by Margaret 
Peverel in 1417 (Stafford, 195). In 1428 Walter Hunger- 
ford held the manor (Fevd. Aids, 487 ; Lysons, ii. 417). 

29. Hillersdon and Brayleigh were held in 1166 by 
William de Brailega of WilUam de Toriton for 2 fees 
(Black Book, p. 124). In 1241 Roger de Hele and WilUam 
de Hildresdon held Hilderesdon for \ fee, which was afore- 
time 1 fee, of the Honour of Toriton (Testa, 124, p. 176a); 
in 1303 Roger de Hele and Roger de Hillestdon (Feud. 



240 THE HUNDRED OF SULFRBTONA 

Aids, 368) ; in 1346 Roger de Hillerysdon (ibid.,4:25) ; in 
1428 John Bozon (ibid., 487 ; Lysons, ii. 128). 

30. Woodbear was held by Godfrey, who also held Ash 
Thomas (W. 816, p. 864 ; Vict. Hist. 499) and Brigeforda 
(W. 783, p. 842; Vict. Hist. 496), of Goscehn, i.e. of the 
Honoiu: of Gloucester. Presumably this is Grodfrey called 
the Chamberlain, who held two other Brigefordas (Brush- 
ford, W. 406, p. 432, and W. 407, p. 434; Vict. Hist. 452, 
463) of Baldwin the sheriflf. His successor in the three 
Gloucester estates was WilUam *' the Chamberlain of 
London " in 1166, who then held 1 fee of the Honour of 
Gloucester (Black Book, p. 163). In 1241 William de Wode- 
bere held 1 fee in Wodebere, Esse, and Brigeford of the 
Honour of Gloucester through a middle lord (Testa, 270, 
p. 178a). On 13 June, 1249, Roger, son of Richard, sur- 
rendered to WilUam de Widebergh 2 ferlings of land in 
Wydebyer (Devon Fine, No. 617 in Devon and Com. Rec. 
Soc.). In 1286 John de Kilrinton held the tOAvnship of 
Wydibere for 1 fee of Richard de Lomene, who held the 
same of Joan de Campaxvilla (Champemoun, see Trans. 
XXXV. 286), who held of the earl of Gloucester (Fevd. Aids, 
322). In 1303 Juliana de Wodebiu: held in Wodebiu:, Tare, 
and Esse (Ash Thomas) in the Hundred of Halberton ; 
Toyterton (Tittem in Colridge) in the Hundred of North 
Tawton ; and Brittef ord in the Hundred of Winkleigh 
1 fee (ibid., 368). In 1346 William Dauney held the same 
(ibid., 426) ; and in 1428 Roger Baron (ibid., 487). 

31. Hamo, who held Pirswell and Hewish, was also 
tenant of Aulescoma (W. 869, p. 700 ; Vict. Hist. 604) and 
Madescama (Woodscombe in Ouwys Morchard, W. 869, 
p. 710 ; Vict. Hist. 606). All of these were held in 1166 
for li fees by William de Alneto under William de Tracy 
(Black Book, p. 22), i.e. of the Honour of Braneys. On 
26 September, 1198, Azelina de Stures sold Pirswell to 
Humphrey de Stures the tenant (Devon Fine, No. 16 in 
Devon and Com. Rec. Soc.), who on 1 July, 1201, acknow- 
ledged that he held it of Hugh, son of William [de Alneto], 
(Devon Fine, No. 36 ibid.). Before 1241 Pirswell and 
Hewish had passed to Hugh de Wydworthy, and by him 
been sold to Thomas de Orweye, who held them in 1241 
for i fee of the Honour of Braneys (Testa, 808, p. 183a). 
In 1286 William de Orweye held Orweye and Piseweyll of 
the heirs of Hugh de Weydeworth, who held them of 
William de Alneto, who held of the earl of Cornwall (Feud. 



OB HAIRIDQS IN EARLY TIMES. 241 

Aids, 321). In 1303 John de Orweye held Pirswell (ibid.y 
368) ; in 1346 his son John (ibid., 424) ; in 1428 Thomas 
Strech {ibid., 487 ; Lysons, ii. 297). 

32. Colbrook in Bradninch (Lysons, ii. 60, and Whale, 
in Trans, zxxvi. 164), was among the estates given to 
Ford Abbey (Oliver, Mon. 347), which Henry de Tracy, 
son of WilUam de Tracy, confirmed to it "before he V 
recovered his inheritance," viz. in January, 120 9 (Hil. ^/h^^iU^^ 
10 John). The Hmidred Rolls of 3 Ed. 1. (1271) No. ^?^^m^4^ 
10, p. 67, relate "that on Monday next before the feast ^J^fi^^f^ 
of St. Simon and St. Jude, in the 2nd year of the King's /^Mt^iS^^ 
reign, Roger de Pridyeus [Prideanx] by the hand of Alex- 4^ j^.^^'U 
ander de Braneys caused 8 yoked oxen, the property of 

Henry de Kylderinton, with the plough, etc., to be seized 
in Colbrook and drove them off to the earl's peculiar 
of Braneys and there kept them 6 whole weeks tilling 
the earl's land with them." He refused to give them up 
on request, alleging that the seizure was not on his own 
account but on behalf of the abbot of Ford, of whom 
Henry held Colbrook. When the abbot prociured a writ 
from the sheriff Roger treated it with contempt. The 
King's writ Roger treated with equal contempt, and being , 

himself sheriff in the following year refused to submit the 
case to a jury or to let the oxen forth until'Henry had paid 
him 40s. Lysons, ii. 60, places this Colbrook in Brad- 
ninch ; Colbrook in Collumpton was one of the prebendal 
estates (see above. No. 11). 

33. The Greldroll, p. xxviii. A. 8, shows WiUiam Capra 
allowed an exemption of 3| virgates in respect of his 
demesne in this Hundred. As the demesne of Bradninch 
was only 2 virgates in 1086, it is probable that the demesne 
of Cadeleigh was included in the exemption. The sugges- 
tion is here offered that this Cadeleigh may be Little Silver 
in Cadeleigh. It might be Wellton, but that Wellton was 
held of the Honour of Plymton (see No. 44). It appears 
to have been part of the IJ fees held by WiUiam de Alneto 
of WiUiam de Tracy in 1166 (Black Book, p. 122), and 
descended to his son Hugh, whose daughter Alice on 30 
June, 1228, sold it to AUce de Kideleg and William le 
Pruz (Devon Fine, No. 147 in Devon and Com. Rec. Soc.). 
From the last-named it was seemingly purchased by 
William Briwere, i.e. if it is the Little Kidel which is men- 
tioned as his in the division of his barony in 1233 (Tesia^ 
1604, p. 200). 

VOL. XLH. Q 



242 THE HUNDBED OF SULFBETONA 

34. Both the Exeter and the Exchequer books give 2^ 
hides as the assessment of Bradninch ; but as the par- 
ticulars only account for 2 hides it is probable that the 
missing i hide may represent some estate separately 
named in the Survey. Bum (W. 1029) and Yard (W. 1030), 
each of them 1 virgate, have been suggested ; but Bemar- 
desmora (W. 466), 2 virgates, is more Ukely. The assess- 
ment is, therefore, entered here as 2 hides. Upon the 
death of WilUam Capra, Bradninch appears to have been 
given by Henry I. to a WiUiam de Tracy, whose daughter 
and heiress carried it to John de Sudeley, her husband, 
and it descended to their second son, WUUam, who took 
his mother's name of Tracy and held it in 1166 (Black 
Booky p. 121). This William de Tracy took part in the 
murder of St. Thomas of Canterbury, for which deed he 
went into exile and his barony escheated to the King. 
He had previously made over many estates to religious 
houses by way of expiation. William's son, Henry de 
Tracy, the hunchback (le Bozu), bom in Normandy some 
years afterwards, sought to recover his inheritance {Devon 
and Corn. Not. and Qu. vi. p. 63), and succeeded in so 
domg (Inquis. Ed. I. No. 163, p. 96 ; Oliver, Mon. 347), 
but shortly afterwards, in 1219, Henry, the son of earl 
Reginald, purchased the Honour for 1200 marks (Pipe Roll, 
3 Hen. III. ; Dugdale, Bar. i. 610). On Henry's rebellion 
and forfeiture the King, in 1226, gave it to Ralf de Tur- 
bevil (Charter Rolls, 11 Hen. III. No. 53), whose son Henry 
de Turbevil was in possession in 1234 (Testa, 1018, p. 
1876 ; Trans, xxix. 600), but died some time before 1244, 
when Hawise his widow was in possession of one-third of 
the manor and of the homages thereto belonging (Inquis. 
Hen. III. No. 23, 16 Oct., 28 Hen. III.). It was then given 
to William de la Londe, who is already described in 1241 
as being bailiflf of Bradninch (Testa, p. 1826). He died 
without issue (Hund. Rolls, 3 Ed. I. No. 7, p. 66). After- 
wards the King gave it to his own brother, Richard earl 
of Cornwall, with the lady Sanchia in free marriage (Hund. 
Rolls, No. 7, p. 65 ; Trans, xxvii. 198, n. 56). On the 
death of Edmund, Richard's son and successor, in 1300, 
it again came into the King's hand, and on 17 March, 
1337, was with other estates incorporated in the duchy 
of Comwall (Charter Roll, 11 Ed. III. ; Vict. Hist. 662) 
(Lysons, ii. 93). 

36. According to the MS. quoted in Trans, xxvii. 198, 



OB HAIRIDQE IN EABLT TIMES. 243 

n. 56, Bradninch consisted of three parts : (1) the fee, 
(2) the manor, (3) the borough. " The fee consists of free- 
holders holding freeholds of the manor in Devon who 
appear twice a year at the lord's court and present the 
names of deceased freeholders. These have their own 
bailiff. At the manor every tenant appears every 3 weeks 
and takes his holding for an agreed time and is called a 
barton tenant. Customary tenants hold by straighter 
sort than barton tenants. The borough is the district 
within which the lord's charter runs." The After-death 
Inquest of Edmund earl of Cornwall (28 Ed. I. No. 44, 
p. 156 ; Testa de Nevil, p. 1826) gives lists of the fees held 
of the manor of Braneys ; but besides the fees there 
named payments were also made to Bradninch by Clist- 
wick (Clyst St. George) and Hunshaw (MS. 24,770 in Brit. 
Mus., p. 225). The origin of the payment of 208. from 
Clistwick dates from a grant by Henry de la Pomeray on 
1 May, 1205 (Devon Fine, No. 57 in Devon and Com. 
Rec. Soc.). 

36. Poillei's Derta being on the Dart, and, according to 
the sequence in Hairidge Hundred, must be looked for 
south of that stream, since all on the north side lies in 
Tiverton Himdred. Wellton in Cadeleigh seems to be 
most likely, since it lies near the River Dart ; the Welebere, 
held by John de Haleworth for J fee of the Honour of 
Plymton in 1241 (Testa, 656, p. 1816) ; the Wallebere, 
which in 1303 was in the King's hand owing to the death 
of the earl of Cornwall (Feud, Aids, 368) ; the Wellesbeare, 
which in 1316 was imder the township of Thorverton 
(ibid,, 382), and is enumerated among the earl of Devon's 
Plymton fees in A,-D, Inq. 1 Ric. II. Its Domesday 
tenant, Ralf , is called '* son of Joscelm " in Col. Docts. in 
France, p. 235. Mr. Whale, however, identifies it with 
Darwick in Silverton. 

37. The GeldroU, p. xxviii. A. 9, shows William de 
Poillei allowed an exemption of 2 virgates in respect of 
his demesne in this Hundred. Both the 1 virgate of Cad- 
bury and the 1 virgate of Bowley are required to account 
for this demesne. In 1241 Joan Briwere and Baldwin de 
Wayford held ijV fee in Cadebire of the earl of Devon of 
the Honour of Plymton, the same not being included in 
the regular list of Plymton fees (Testa, 853, p. 1836). In 
1262 Cadbury was held for tV fee by Robert de Cadeburi 
of the earl of Devon (Inquis, of Hen. III. No. 564, p. 176) ; 



244 THE HUNDRED OF SULFBETONA 

\)\xt the advowson of the vicarage then belonged to St. 
Nicholas Priory, who presented it on 6 July, 1263 {Brones- 
combe, 121). In 1285 it was held for i fee by William de 
CamparviUa (Champemoun) of Roger de Pridias (Prideaux), 
who held it of Baldwin de Waynyford of the countess of 
Devon (Fetid. Aids, 322). 

38. In the early episcopal registers (Branescombe, 6) is a 
settlement of the vicarage of Cadbury about 1230 : *' To 
all the faithful in Christ," it runs, " to whom this present 
writing shall come, Master Richard Blund, chancellor of 
Exeter and Official of our lord the bishop of Exeter, and 
Master W. de Curiton, Official of our lord the archdeacon 
of Exeter, everlasting health in the Lord. Be it known to 
you all that by authority of lord William [Briwere] bishop 
pf Exeter [1224 to 1244] we have settled (taxasae) the 
vicarage of the church of Cadeberi in this wise : viz. that 
the vicar for the time being shall have the houses situated 
in the ground assigned to Mm on the north side of the road 
leading from the glebe land (aanctuarium) to the church 
together with 4 acres of land in the meadow adjoining, 
and all altar dues together with the tithe of hay and a f idl 
moiety of the sheaf tithes of the whole parish besides 3 
shillings payable yearly by the prior and convent of St. 
Nicholas at Exeter to the said vicar by equal instalments 
at Easter and Michaelmas ; saving to the said prior and 
convent the other moiety of the sheaf tithes of the whole 
parish ; saving to them also all the tithes from the glebe 
land of the said church to them belonging and those from 
the lordship of Bogeley [Bowley] as well small as great. 
But the said vicar shall bear all episcopal burdens on the 
said church and the due and accustomed Archidiaconal 
[levies]. In testimony whereof we have confirmed this 
present writing by setting our seal thereto." 

39. Carsewell, with Delvett or Dulford, a free tenement 
(Oliver, Hon, 313), and also Aller and Sampford, were 
shortly after Domesday the estate of William Peverel of 
Essex (iftid., 313), who was succeeded in them by his son 
WiUiam and daughter Matilda (Testa, 1350, p. 1946 ; 
Trans, xxxvii. 416). Matilda appears then to have be- 
come possessed of the tenant's interest in Carswell, and to 
have founded therewith the priory of Carswell for two 
monks as a cell of Montacute (Oliver, 313). In the time 
of Henry I. William and Matilda granted the lordship of 
these estates to Hugh Peverel (Trans, xxxvii. 416). In 



OB HAIBIDOE IN EARLY TIMES. 245 

1228 Thomas de Orway was tenant of a portion of Carswell 
which he quitclaimed to the priory (Devon Fine, No. 172 
in Devon and Com. Rec. Soc.). A valuation of Carswell 
in 1345 (18 Ed. III.), made by John de Orwey [of Orway], 
WilUam de Fomeaux [of Feniton], Richard atte Forde, 
Robert de CUstwylin (Clyst WilHam), John Lovel [lord of 
Bradninch borough], and others is given in Oliver. 

40. The Geldroll, p. xxviii. A. 14, shows Ralf Paganel 
allowed an exemption of 1 virgate in respect of his demesne 
in this Hundred ; and B. 2 shows that he or his tenants 
were in arrear on 2 virgates more. This is accounted for 
by Aller Peverel. Aller came to Hugh Peverel by grant 
of WilUam and Matilda Peverel in Henry I.'s time (Testa, 
1350, p. 1946). In 1241 Hugh's descendant, Hugh Peverel, 
held I fee of the King in Sanford and Aure (-^er, Testa, 
347, p. 179a). In 1274 Hugh Peverel held the same 
(Hund. Bolls, No. 18, p. 70). In 1285 Roger de Langeford 
held Aller Peverel for i fee of Hugh de Courtney {Feud. 
Aids, 321), who must have held it of Hugh Peverel {ibid., 
328; Lysons, ii. 127). 

41. Bum in Silverton was held in 1241 by Nicholas de 
Bume for i fee of the Honour of Plymton {Testa, 657, p. 
181a). In 1303 it was in the King's hand owing to the 
decease of the earl of Cornwall {Fevd. Aids, 368). 

42. Greenshnch was the estate of Nicholas the engineer 
in 1084. The Greldroll, p. xxviii. A. 10, shows Nicholas 
allowed an exemption of 1 virgate in this Hundred in 
respect of his demesne. In 1241 it was held by Nicholas 
de Greneslingc for 1 fee of the Honour of Plymton {Testa, 
655, p. 1816). In 1285 Stephen de Sto. Albino (St. Aubyn) 
held it for Ufe of Mauger de St. Aubyn by payment of Id. 
a year, and Mauger held it of the heirs of Henry de Tracy 
{Feud. Aids, 322). In 1303 William Thorlock held i fee 
in Grenelinch, Northwill, and Yurdon (Yarddown, ibid., 
368). In 1346 John de Esse and Simon Meryet held 
Threneslynche (Greenslinch) and Yurdon for i fee of the 
Honour of Plymton {ibid., 425) ; and in 1428 William Esse, 
John Meryet, and Richard BoUebury held the same {ibid.^ 
423). In 1274 the Hundred jury reported that Roger de 
Pridias when he was sheriff of Devon seized and im- 
prisoned Henry le Comu of Greneslinch without any in- 
dictment and charged him with trespassing in Bradninch 
park. Henry offered to go to trial, but Roger de Pridias 
refused, and wrongfully obtained from him 46s. 8d. before 



246 THE HUITDRBD OF SULFBBTONA 

he would allow the said Henry out of prison, to Henry's 
damage to the amount of 100 shillings (Hund. BollSy 
3 Ed. I. No. 18, p. 71). 

43. The 1 virgate in C!olun, i.e. on the Culm, is not 
improbably, as was suggested in Trans, xxxvi. 359, the 
missing virgate in Langford (see above, No. 18). White- 
heathfield, on the Culm, and Eveleigh were both Fulcher's 
in 1086, and in 1428, as appears by the Inquisition of 
John r^Tiham (A.-D. Inq. 7 Hen. VI. No. 56, p. 122), 
they were both held by one and the same owner (see 
Tmns. xxxvi. 360). 

44. This Cadeleigh is the principal estate in the parish, 
the two others being Capra's Cadeleigh, held of the Honour 
of Braneys, and Poillei's Derta, held of the Honoiu: of 
Plymton. The chief estate to which the advowson was 
attached was among the estates belonging to the elder 
William Briwere. Joan, the widow of the younger W^illiam 
Briwere, was in possession in 1262, and presented to the 
rectory on 10 April in that year ; but it was aUotted as the 
share of Alice, one of the daughters and eventual co- 
heiresses of the elder William Briwere, who married 
Reginald de Mohun (Dugdale, Bar. 703, 497). In 1274 
the Hundred jury presented that John de Mohun held the 
manor of Cadeleigh in chief of the King appurtenant to his 
barony of Dunster, and that he had there assize of bread 
and beer (Hund. Rolls, 3 Ed. I. No. 18, p. 71). In 1285 
John de Mouhun's heir held Cadelegh for 1 fee of the King 
(Feud. Aids, 321) ; in 1303 another John de Moun (ibid., 
367). In 1340 Hugh II. de Courtney, earl of Devon, pre- 
sented to the rectory (Grandisson, 1328). On his death, 
in 1341, his son Hugh III. succeeded. He held the manor 
for i fee in 1346 (Feud. Aids, 424, 436, 441), and presented 
to the rectory in 1349, 1352, 1360, and 1361 (Grandisson, 
1397, 1422, 1457, 1475). Cadeleigh was one of the estates 
which Hugh III., who died in 1377, settled on his second 
son. Sir Philip Courtney. On Sir Philip's death, in 1406, 
his son Richard, afterwards bishop of Norwich, succeeded, 
and presented to the living in 1407 (Stafford, 152) ; but 
in 1428 Sir Philip the younger held the manor (Feud. Aids, 
487), and in 1438 presented to the rectory (Lacy, 238 ; 
Lysons, ii. 93). 

45. The Geldroll, p. xxviii. A. 12, shows William the 
hostilar allowed an exemption of 2 virgates in respect of 
his demesne in this Hundred. East Raddon, as well as 



OB HAnUDGB IN EABLY TIMBS. 247 

Cadeleigh, are required to make up this amount. In 1276 
died Walter de Bathon, seised of £10 worth of land in 
Estraddon, which he held for 1 fee of Balf , son of Ranulf » 
who himself held it of Plymton castle (Inquis. Ed. I. No. 
165, p. 106). Apparently the £10 worth included the 
Eastraddon (W. 233, Vict. Hist. 431), for which a chief 
rent was paid to the abbot of Tavistock, afterwards en- 
joyed by the prioress of Polsloe. In 1303 the heir of 
Augustine de Bathon held Estroddon for 1 fee of the 
Honoiu: of Plymton {Fetid. Aids, 368) ; in 1346 Margaret 
de Medstede {ibid., 425, 436). She was daughter of Augus- 
tine de Bathon, and wife, and in 1346 widow, of Andrew 
de Medstede. In 1428 Richard Wales was the tenant 
{^id.y 487 ; Lysons, ii. 505). 

46. Blackborough Boty, which was Ralf Boty's in 1086, 
was held in 1241 by another Ralf Baty or Boty, together 
with Esseford (Ashford Peverel in Mamhead), for 1 fee of 
the earl of Devon of the Honoiu: of Plymton {Testa, 864, 
p. 1836), without being included in the regular list of 
Plymton fees. Adam Boty held it in 1303 for i fee, but 
before that it had been held for J fee {Feud. Aids, 368). 
In 1346 James Cobeham, Richard Comb, and John Hole- 
weye were the tenants {ibid., 425). In 1428 the earl of 
Huntyngton (Huntingdon) held it for J fee {ibid., 487 ; 
Lysons, ii. 298). 

47. The Geldroll, p. xxviii. A. 13, shows Godwin de 
Cillemetona or Citremetona (Chittlehampton) allowed an 
exemption of 1 virgate in respect of his demesne in this 
Huncked. This exemption is represented by Colum or 
Culm Reigny, called also Combe Satchvil, and now Sil- 
verton Park. In 1166 Culm Reigny, together with all 
other Godwin's estates, were included in the 9 fees which 
Gilbert de Unfranvil held of the honour of Gloucester 
{Black Book, p. 161), and it was held of Unfravil by John 
Reigny, from whom it took name. In 1241 it was held 
by Robert de Siccavilla (Satchvil) for i fee of the Honoiu: 
of Gloucester {Testa, 269, p. 178a) ; afterwards by PhiUp 
de Satchvil ; and in 1285 PhiUp de Satchvil's heirs held 
it of John de Barry, who held it of John de Umfravil 
{Feud. Aids, 322). In 1303 PhiUp de SatchvU held \ fee 
in Colomp Regny {ibid., 368) ; in 1346 Simon Meryet held 
the same {ibid., 425) ; and in 1428 Philip Courtney {ibid., 
487 ; Lysons ii. 450). 

48. According to the Geldroll, p. xxviii. A. 15, Odo, son 



248 THE HUNDBBD OF SULFRBTONA 

of Edric or Edrit, was allowed an exemption of 3^ virgates 
in respect of his demesne in this Hundred (see Trans. 
xxxvi. 361). This would require both Hemberia and Coda- 
forda to represent it. The late Mr. Whale identified 
Hemberia with Uggarton in Payhembury. In so doing 
he was doubtless right, because Balf de Duna, the successor 
in title to Odo, son of Edric, died in 1249 seised of three 
estates, viz. Dune (Bousdon), Wike (in ^minster), and 
Hugeton (Uggarton, A.-D. Inq. 33 Hen. III. No. 34, p. 6). 
Codaford, as appears from Oliver, Mon. 396, was a tene- 
ment appurtenant to Uggarton. The successor of Balf de 
Dune, Thomas de Dune, gave to Dunkeswell Abbey " all 
the land which he held in Uggatona together with aU his 
holding in Codeford " (Oliver, Mon. 396). 

49, The GeldroU, p. xxviii. A. 11, shows Edwin de 
Buterleio (Butterleigh) allowed an exemption of 2 ferlings 
in respect of his demesne in this Hundred. This repre- 
sents Clyst William (Lysons, ii. 418). 

60. Now that Hiele has been shown to belong to Sheb- 
bear rather than to Hairidge Hundred, the identification 
of the small estate of Badewei appears less certain than it 
formerly did. It has here been identified with Bedway in 
Bew, Badehide (W. 987, p. 896 ; Vict. Hist. 619) being 
generally taken to be Bo'adway in Morthoe. Badewei was 
held in 1086 by WiUiam, who also held Battleford in 
Ipplepen, Grimstone in Blackawton, Grimstonleigh, and 
Morleigh of Alvered the Breton. In 1285 Peter de Fishacre 
was William's successor (Feud. Aids, 317, 324, 332) in all 
of them. 

The general results may be summed up as follows : — 



OR HAUtlDGE IN BABLY TIMES. 



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THE HUKDRBD OF SULFBBTONA 



INDEX. 



Ailward, 222 

Albemarle, Isabella countess 

of, 231 
Alestah, 227 
AU^ in Kentisbeare, 222, 229, 

237- 
AUer Peverd in Collumpton, 

217, 218, 226, 236, 244, 249 
Aller, WiUiam de, 229, 235, 

237 
Aimer, 222, 224 
Alneto, Alice, daur. of Hugh, 

241 
Alneto, Hugh de, 240 
Alneto, William de, 240, 241 
Alnod, 221, 223 
Alravilla, Mathew de, 235, 236, 

237 
Alric, 225 
Aluric; 224 

Alverdiacoty 232, n. 54 
Alvered le Br6ton, 220, 227, 

233 
Alvered of Epaignes, 223, 238 
Alward the Englishman, 220, 

225, 234 
Alwy, 227 

Alwy, Bannesons, 223 
Amice, countess of Devon, 216, 

231 
Ash, Esse Thomas in Halber- 

ton, 240 
Ash, Prebend of, 233 
AahRogua inBraunton,232,n.54 
Aahbury, 233 
Aahford Peverd in Mamhead, 

Esseford, 247 
Audele, James de, 232, 238 
Awlesconibe, 240 
AyleaUme in Warwickshire, 239 

B 
Baldwin the sheriflF, 221, 229 



Baldwin de Lisle, earl of 

Devon, 230 
Bamfeld, Richard de, 230 
Baron, Roger, 240 
Barry, John de, 247 
Bathon, Augustine de, 247 
Bathon, Margaret, daur. of 

Augustine de, 247 
Bathon, Walter de, 247 
Battle, abbot of, 220, 233 
BaMeford in Ipplepen, 248 
Beauchamp, de Bello Campo, 

Humfrey de, 217, 230 
Beauchamp, John de, 230 
Bemardeamora, 222, 237, 242 
Bickleigh, Bikelegh, Bykley, 

BicheUa, 217, 218, 220, 234, 

249 
Bikelege, Huward de, 234 
Bikelegh, William de, 234 
BiUinsmoor in Bradninch, 222, 

237 
Biscop, Bissop, William, 239 
BlaclAorough Bolhay, or AU 

HdOowa, 223, 237, 249 
Blackborough Boty in Kentis- 
beare, 227, 247 
Blakelake, John, 237 
Blackborough. See SainthiU 
Blund, Richard, chancellor of 

Exeter, 244 
Bolleghe, dame Philippa de, 

237 
Bolley, Hamelin de, 236 
Bolley, Hugh de, 235, 237 
Bolley, James de, 236 
Bollebury, Richard, 245 
Bonvil, William, 236, 238 
Booking of estates, 215, 228 
Borgaret, 223 
Botreaux, Aubrea de, 239 
Boty, Adam, 247 
Boty, Ralf , 227, 247 
5ou?fey in Cadbury, 225, 243, 244 



OB HAIBII>GE IN SABLT TIMES. 



251 



Bozon, John, 240 

Bozu, Henry le, de Tracy, 242 

Bradninch, Brane3rs, Branege, 

Bradenygge, Bra<hiych, 216, 

217, 218, 225, 228, 242, 243, 

249 
Brailega, William de, 239 
Braneys, Alexander de, 241 
BraUon Fleming, 232, n. 54 
Braunton Hundred, 232, n. 54 
BrayUigh, 239 

Bray in Ck)mwall, 232, n. 54 
Bretel de St. Qare, 221, 234 
Brigeforda, 240 
Brismar, 221 
Bristold, 225 
Bristric, 223 

BriUeford in Winkleigh, 240 
Briwere, Joan, 243, 246 
Briwere, William, 233, 238, 241, 

246 
Bruahfordy 240 
Brygham, John de, 231 
Broadhembury, Hanberia, 218, 

223, 238, 249 
BtLckland Monachorum, Boc- 

land, 216, 217, 231 
Bum in Silverton, 226, 229, 

242, 245 
Bume, Nicholas de, 245 
Busterd, Thomas, 232 
Butterleigh, Edwin de, 248 
Button in Bratton Fleming, 

232, n. 54 



Cadbury, Cadebyry, Cadabiria, 

217,225,243,249; vicarage, 

244 
Cadeburi, Robert de, 243 
Cadleigh, Cadelia, 217, 226, 246, 

249. See LitOe Silver and 

WeUton 
Camparvilla, Champemoun, 

William de, 240, 244 
Candos, Isabella wife of Robert 

de, 238 
Candos, Maud de, 238 



Candos, Robert de, 238 
Carew of Bickleigh, 218 
CarsweU, 217, 218, 225, 238, 244, 

249 
Catahay, Catteshegh in Kentis- 

beare, 236 
Chaldon, Cherletona in Col- 

lumpton, 221, 234 
Champemoun, Joan de, 240 
Channon of Talaton, 218 
CharlUm. See Chaldon 
Chenteabera. See Kentiabeare 
ChiUon Fumeauxy 217 
Chinneafort. See Kingsford 
Chippestable, Richard de, 230 
Chipping, 226 
Chiswill, Richard de, 235 
Chitilehampion, Citremetona, 

Cillemetona, 247 
ChiUerleigh, Chederlia in Bick- 
leigh, 220, 233 
Chriaichurch, Hampshire, 236 
CiUemetona. See ChiUlehamp' 

ton 
Qapleston, Thomas, 232 
CUflFord, Walter de, 230 
Cliatunck, or Cliat St. George, 

243 
Cliat WiUiam in Plymtree, 227, 

248 
Qopton, Richard, 236 
Clyst Wylyn, Robert de, 245 
Clyvedon, Bartholomew de, 

217, 239 
Cobeham, James de, 237, 247 
Cobeham, John de, 236, 237 
Cochaleacoma. See Coaacombe 
Codaford in Payhembury, 227, 

235, 248 
Coffin, Geoffrey, 238, n. 66 
Cclaton Raleigh, 234 
CoJbrook in Bradninch, 224, 

241 
Colbrook, prebend of, 233, 241 
CoUumpion north manor, Cu- 

lentona, Colun, 216, 217, 218, 

219, 230, 233, 234 
CoUumpton parish, 249 



252 



THB HUNDBBD OF SULFSETONA 



Columbers, Philip de, 232, n. 54 
CcHufi/p. See Hele Payne, 237 
Oombe, Richard, 247 
Conibe SatchvU in Silverton, 

227, 247. See Ctdtn Reigny 
Corbet, Beatrice, 230 
Corbet, Peter, 230 
Corbet, Thomas, 229, 230 
Corbyn, Richard, 232 
Comn, Henry le, 245 
Comu, Richard, 237 
Cornwall, Edmund, earl of, 242 
Coaacambe, Cochalescoma, in 

Feniton, 221 
Courtney, Sir Edward, 236 
Courtney, Hugh de, 217, 233, 

236, 245, 246 
Courtney, Hugh, III, 246 
Courtney, Joan, wife of Wil- 
liam, 229 
Courtney, Philip 246, 247 
Courtney, PhiUp the younger, 

246 
Courtney, Thomas de, 239 
Courtney, Richard, 246 
Courtney, William of Cadleigh, 

217,230 
Coutances, Geo&ey, bishop of, 

219, 231 
Creedy, Thomas, 231 
GruttoM; in Georgeham,232,n.54 
CuUeigh, 232, n. 54 
Cvlm Reigny in Silverton, 227, 

247 
Cumbe, Warin de, 235 
Curiton, master W. de, 244 



Danuick in Silverton, 243 
Dauney, William, 240 
Deria. See WelUon, 243 
Devon, earl of, 230 ; Baldwin 

de lisle, 230 
Dinham, John, 246 
Dinham family, 237 
Dotton in Colaton Raleigh, 234 
Drewe, William, 232 



Drogs, or Drew de Montacute, 

219, 221, 234 
Dulford, Delvet in Broadhem- 

bury, 225, 244 
Duna, Ralf de, 248 
Duna, Thomas de, 248 
Dunkeswell abbey, 236, 238, 

248 
Dunster, barony of, 246 



E 

Edmund, earl of Cornwall, 242 

Edmar, 221 

Edric the Englishman, 227 

Edric, Odo son of, 227, 247 

Edwiurd the presbyter, 227 

Edwin, 221 

Edwin of Butterleigh, 227 

Edwy, 222 

Engineers of the King, 226 

Engleys, John le, 231 

Engleys, l^tilda, wife of John 
le, 231 

Englishhayes in Talaton, 219, 
231 

Esse. See Ash Thomas 

Esse, John de, 245 

Esse, WiUiam de, 245 

Estochelia, 220, 229. See Furs- 
don 

Eveleigh in Faringdon, 246 

Exeter, bishop of, 219 

Exeter, dean of, 217 

Exeter, church of St. Peter of, 
217 

Exeter, treasurer of, 236 ' 

Ezi, 222 



Feniton, Fynneton, Fenington, 
Finatona, 216, 217, 218, 221, 
234, 249 
Ferlingeston, Joan de, 238 
Fleming,Archebold le, 232,n. 54 
Fleming, Flemmeng, Baldwin 
le, 232 



OR HAIItlDGE IN JBABLY TIMES. 



253 



Fleming, Flemanc, Richard le, 

232, n. 54 
Fleming, Simon, 232, n. 54 
Fleming, Stephen, 232, n. 54 
Ford of Plymtree, 218 
Ford Abbey, 235, 236, 238, 241 
Forde, Richard atte, 245 
France in Kentisbeare, 222, 236 
Fraunceys, Alice, 231, 237 
FreschiCy 236. See France 
Fulcher the engineer, 226, 235, 

246 
Fumeaux, Fomeaus, Alan de, 

236 
Fumeaux, William de, 245 
FursdoUy Estochelia in Cad- 
bury, 220, 233 
Furse, 217 

G 

Gamelin, Odo son of, 223 
GeldroU of 1084, 215, passim 
OermansiDeeky 234 
GiflFard, Mathew, 234 
GiflFard, Philip, 235 
GiflFard, Roger, 234 
Gloucester, St. Peter's, 239 
Gloucester, Honour of, 240 
Godebold, 226 
Godfrey the chamberlain, 224, 

240 
Godric, 222, 227 
Godwin, 227 

Godwin de Citremetona, 247 
Gonher, 225 
Goscelm, 224, 240 
Greenslade in North Tawton, 

234 
Oreenslinch in Silverton, 226, 

245 
Grimstone in Blackawton, 248 
Grimstonleighy 248 



H 



Hadimar, 220 



Hairidge, Harigg, Harruge, 

Whoridge Hundred, 215 ; 

tithings in, 216; townships 

in, 217 
Hamberia, See Payhembury 
Hambury, GeoflErey de, 238 
Hamo, 224, 240 
Hanberia. See Broadhembury 
Hankford, Richard, 232 
Hastynges, Joan de, 232 
Haxon in Bratton Flemings 

232, n. 54 
Hazel barton in Rew, 219 
Heierda. See Yard 
Hek Goding in Meeth, 232, n. 54 
Hele LuUock. See Luttocks- 

hele 
Hele Payne in Bradninch, 237 
Hek Poure in Meeth, 232, 233 
HeleSatchvU'mMeeth, 232,n.54 
Hele, Joscelin de, 231, 237 
Hele, Roger de, 230, 237, 239 
Hele, Rosa de, 237 
Hembury, Geoffrey, 238 
Hemyok, John, 235 
Henland, prebend of, 233 
Henry m, 230 

Henry, son of earl Reginald, 242 
Henry, Henry son of, 235 
Henry, Mauger son of, 236 
Henton, William, 232 
Herigaud, Ralf, 236, 
Hewisa. See Onoay Porch 
Hidon family, 237 
HieU in Meeth, 233, 248 
Highbray, 232, n. 54 
Hildresdon, William de, 239 
HiUersdon in CoUumpton, 224, 

239 
Hillerysdon, Roger de, 239, 240 
Hobbs of Bradninch, 218 
Holeweye, John, 247 
Honetone, master Nicholas de, 

235 
Hooker, 217 

Horescoma. See Otdacombe 
Hugeton. See Uggarton 
HuU, John, 231 



254 



THE HUNDRED OF SULFEETONA 



Humfrey, 219 
Hungerford, Walter, 239 
Hunshaw, 243 
Huntingdon, earl of, 247 



Ineguar, Inewar, 221, 225 
Isabella de Fortibus, 231 



John King, 230 

K 

KarstveU. See Carswell 
Kellaway of Kingswell, 218 
Kentisbeare, Kentelesber, 217, 

218, 236, 249 
Kentiabear Manger, 222, 235, 

236 
Kentisbear Prior, 222, 236, 236 
Keniismore, 216 
Kidd, LiiUe, 233, 241 
Kideleg, Alice de, 241 
Kigbear in Okehampton, 234 
Killigreu, Henry de, 236 
Kilrinton, John de, 240 
Kingsfordy Chinnesfort, in Ken- 

tisbeare, 222, 229, 235, 236 
Kingawdl in Collumpton, 218 



Lamford in Cheriton Bishop, 

232, n. 54 
Langford, Langafort, 221, 229, 

234, 236, 246 
Langford, John, 236 
Longford, Richard de, 236 
Langford, Roger de, 234, 236, 

246 
Langford, Thomas de, 235 
Lecomb, Geoffrey de, 232 
Leigh in Cadbury, 220, 233 
Leigh Arthur, Grimstonleigh in 

Morleigh, 248 
Lewin Socca, 227 
Lisle, Baldwin de, 230 
Little Silver, Cadelia in Cad- 

leigh, 226, 241 



Lomene, Richard de, 240 
Londe, William de la, 242 
Lovel, John, 245 
Lovel, Richard, 217 
Lucy, Richard de, 232 
Lude, Nicholas de la, 239 
LuUock'8 Hele, Luttekeshele in 

Collumpton, 218, 237 
Lympenny of Netherexe, 218 

M 

Mainfred, 224 
Malherb, Geoffrey, 232, 234 
Malherb, John, 235 
Malherb, WiUiam, 234 
Maloysell, WiUiam, 236 
Mandevil, John de, 233 
MamunUier, Mermoster, mon- 
astery, 230 
Marsh in Rockbear, 234 
Martin of Tours, 230 
Martin, Margaret, 232 
Medstede, Andrew de, 247 
Medstede, Margaret de, 247 
Merlesoan, 226, 226 
Meryet, John, 246 
Meryet, Simon, 246, 247 
Meshaw, 232, n. 64 
Middle Marwood, 232, n. 54 
Mitchell of Talaton, 218 
Mohun, John de, 236, 246 
Mohim, Reginald de, 246 
Molyns, Richard, 232 
Monk Culm, Colmp Monaco- 
rum, Monckcolumbe, 217, 
218, 237, 249 
Montacute,Drogo Young of ,234 
Montacute, WiBiam de, 234 
Montacute priory, 237, 244 
Moor of Moorhayes, 218 
Moorehayes, 218 
Morleigh, 248 

Mortain, count of, 216, 220 
Myryfeld, Walter, 237 

N 
Netherexe, Nitherexe, Niresse, 
217, 218, 219, 232, 249 



OB HAIKIDQE IN EARLY TIMES. 



255 



Newland in North Tawton, 234 
Newton, William, 237 
Nicholas the engineer, 226, 245 
Ninehead Court, 237 
Nonant, Margery de, 235 
Norman, 222 
NorihvAU in Silverton, 245 

O 

Odcombe in Somerset, Honour 

of, 234 
Odo, son of Edric, 227, 247 
Odo, son of Gamelin, 223, 238 
Ohnar, 220, 226 
Ohiod, Uhiod, 219 
Onoay in Kentisbeare, 223, 238 
Onvay Porch, Hewise, 224, 229, 

240 
Orway, John de, 238, 241, 246 
Orway, Robert de, 238 
Orway , Thomas de, 238, 240, 246 
Orway, William de, 238, 240 
Osbem, bishop of Exeter, 231 
Owlacornhe, Horescoma in 

Bradninch, 216, 226, 228, 229 



Pagan, Ralf, son of, 246 
Pagan, Robert, son of, 233, 239 
Paganel. See Pagan 
ParUesfort. See Ponsford 
Payhemburyy Payhembyri,Pay- 

hembrye, 217, 218, 221, 224, 

234, 235, 248, 249 
Peadbrooky Paddokesbroke, in 

Collumpton, 231 
Penhirgarde, John de, 236 
Peverel, Hugh of Sampford, 

231, 244, 246 
Peverel, Matilda, 244, 246 
Peverel, Margaret, 239 
Peverel, William, 231, 244 
Peverel, William, jimr., 244, 246 
Peverel, Thomas, 239 
Peytevin, Robert le, 216, 234 
Pillaunde, William de, 239 



PirsweU in Kentisbeare, Pisse- 

willa, 224, 240 
Plymtree, Plymptree, Plumtrei, 

217, 218, 224, 238, 249 
Poillei, William de, 225, 243 
Pole, Nicholas de la, 239 
Polsloe, prioress of, 236, 247 
Pomeray, GreoflPrey de, 238 
Pomeray, Henry de, 238, 243 
Pomeray, Joscelin de, 238 
Pomeray, Ralf de, 223, 238 
Ponsford, Pansford, Pantesfort 

in CoUumpton, 217, 218, 221, 

229, 235, 236, 249 
Poyer, Robert, 232 
Pridias, Roger de, 234, 241, 

244,246 
Prodhome, John, 236 
Prus, William le, 241 
Puddington, Pountyngtone, 

Podyngtone, John de, 234 

R 

Raddon Chapd in Thorverton, 

220 
Raddon East, Reddona in Thor* 

verton, 227, 246 
Radewei in Rew, 229. See 

Redvxiy 
Rainald, 234 
Rainer the house-steward, 221, 

229, 234 
Raleigh family, 237 
Ralf Boty, 227 

Ralf, son of Goscelm, 226, 243 
Ralf Pagan or Paganel, 225 
Ralf de Pomerav, 223, 238 
Ranulf , Ralf son of, 247 
Redvers, Amice de, 216 
Redmay in Rew, 227, 248 
Reigny, John de, 247 
Rew, 229, 249 
Reys, Nicholas de, 232 
Richard, earl of Cornwall, 242 
Richard, 226 

Richard, Roger, son of, 240 
Roadway in Mortehoe, 248 



256 



THB HUNDRED OF SULFRBTONA 



Robert, the Ejng's son, 235 

Robert, son of Pagan, 233 

Jtobarough, 232, n. 54 

JSodbfreare, 234 

Rogo, 222, 237 

Rogo, Simon son of, 237 

JeofiAfon, 248 

Rya, Gilbert de, 233 

Ryvere, John de la, 231 



St. Aubyn, Mauger de, 232, 245 
St. Aubyn, Nicholas de, 245 
St. Aubyn, Stephen de, 245 
St. Nicholas priory, 233, 244 
SainthiU, Sentle of Bradninch, 

218 
SainthiU in Kentisbeare, 222, 

236, 236, 237 
Sampfard Peverd, 231, 244, 245 
Sanchia, wife of earl of Com- 

waU, 242 
Satchvil, Sicca Villa, Philip de, 

247 
Satchvil, Robert de, 247 
Sedwin, 221 
Sdake, Seghlake, 234 
Semar, 221 
Sender, William, 232 
Sentle, 218 

Shebbear hundred, 228, 248 
Sheldon, Shyldon,Sildenna,218, 

223, 237, 249 
SUverUm manor, 217, 219, 229 ; 

township, 218, 230; inland 

Hundred, 228 ; parish, 249 
Silverton park, Culm Reigny, 

227 
Sirewald, 224 

ShinoeU Hundred, 232, n. 54 
Somayster, William, 232 
Southorpes, Salvin, 237 
Sauthcot in Talaton, 219, 231 
Spry in Stowford, 233 
Stapeldon, Walter de, 235 
Stevenes, William de, 236 
Stocldeigh Fraunceys, 232, n. 54 
Strathculm in Bradninch, 222 



Stretche, Thomas, 237, 238, 24L 
Stures, AzeHna de, 240 
Stures, Humphrey de, 240 
Sudeley, John de, 242 
Svlfretona. See Silverton 



Talakm, 217, 218, 219, 231, 

249 
Tale in Payhembury, 223, 238 
Tare, 240 

Tavistock, abbot of, 220, 247 
Tedbum town barton, 234 
Thanes as tenants, 226 
Thomas, St., of Canterbury,242 
Thorlock, William, 245 
Thorverton, 217, 219, 230, 249 
Tittem, Toyterton in Ck)lridge, 

240 
Torbert, 220 

Toriton, Avice, widow of Wil- 
liam de, 238 
Toriton, William de, 238, 239 
Tours, St. Martin of, 230 
Townships in Hairidge Hun- 
dred, 217 
Toyterton, See Tittem 
Tracy, Henry de, 232, 241, 

246 ; le Bozu, 242 
Tracy, Oliver de, 232 
Tracy, William de, 240, 241, 242 
Tracy, William de, jimr., 242 
Tremayl, Roger, 237 
Tremur, Hugh de, 236 
Turbevil, Ha\idse, wife of 

Henry de, 242 
Turbevil, Henry de, 242 
Turbevil, Ralf de, 242 

U 

Uggarton in Payhembury, 227, 

236, 248 
Ulmar, Olmar, 220, 225 
Uhiod, Ohiod, 219, 228 
Unfranvil, Gilbert de, 247 
Unfranvil, John de, 247 
Upcot in Rockbear, 234 



OR HAIRIDGE IN EARLY TIMES. 



267 



UpeXy Upp Exe, Olpessa, Op- 
exe, 215, 217, 218, 219, 228, 

232, 249 

VjOan in CoUumpton, 218, 220, 

233, 249 

Upton, prebend of, 233 
Uptcn Prodhome in Payhem- 
bury, 236 

V 

Valletorta, Joan de, 229 
Valletorta, Ralf de, 229 
Valletorta, Reginald de, 229 

W 

Waldren of Wood, 218 

Wales, Richard, 247 

Walrond family, 237 

Wayford, Baldwin de, 243, 244 

Weaver, 218, 249 

Weaver, prebend of, 233 

Week Langford in Germans- 
week, 234 

WeUUm, Wellesbere, Wayles- 
beare in Cadleigh, 217, 226, 
241, 243 

Wetenelond, La, 237 

Weytefeld, Walter de, 232 

Whale, the late Mr., 216, 216, 
231, 233, 237, 241, 243, 248 

WhiteheaihfiM in CoUumpton, 
226, 246 

Whiting family, 237 

Whityn, John, 236 

Whorrtdge farm, 216 

Wibbery, 232, n. 64 

Wichin, 224 

Widebergh, WiUiam de, 240 

Wihuenec, 233 



Wike in Axminster, 248 
William the hostilar, 220, 226, 

246 
WiUiam the Swarthy, 221, 229, 

236, 237 ; or de Aller. See 

AUer 
WiUiam Briwere, bishop of 

Exeter, 244 
WUUam Capra, 224, 228, 240, 

241, 242 
WiUiam the Chamberlain, 240 
WiUianj, tenant of Alvered, 227 
WilUam son of Odo, 238 
William son of Robert de 

Toriton, 238 
WUloughby of Payhembury, 

218 
Winemer, 224 
Wodebur, Juliana de, 240 
Wodebure, WUliam de, 240 
Wodelande, Andrew de la, 235 
Wambemford in Cotleigh, 234 
Wood, 218 
Woodbeare, Widebeare, Wode 

byare, Bodbeare, Wode- 

beare, Wydebyer in Plym- 

tree, 217, 218, 224, 240, 249 
Woodscombe, Madeseama in 

Cruwys Morchard, 240 
Wroekeshale, John de, 217, 231 
Wydworthy, Hugh de, 240 
Wyger, John of 'niorverton,230 
Wyke, John, 237 
Wymundeham, Thomas de, 236 



Yard, Heierda, Yurdon in SU- 
verton, 226, 229, 242, 246 



VOL. XLU. 



TAVISTOCK AS A PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGH. 
Part I.— 1295-1688. 

BY J. J. ALEXANDER, M.A. 

(Read at CuUompton, STth July, 1010.) 



I. — Introduction. 

Few towns in Devon have more remarkable historical 
a.8sociations than Tavistock, and it seems desirable that 
some account of its parUamentary history should be given 
on a plan similar to that followed for Bere Alston in the 
last volume (pp. 162-178). Accounts of this kind are 
important, not only for their local interest, but also for 
the Ught they throw on the growth of our parUamentary 
system. 

The Tavistock record goes back more than six hundred 
years, and has for that reason been more difficult to pre- 
pare than the Bere Alston one. On the other hand, the 
preservation of so many Tavistock parochial documents 
has, to some extent, reduced the burden of additional 
labour.^ 

The late Mr. R. N. Worth, in his Calendar of Tavistock 
Parish Records, gives a list of members, taken from the 
two Blue Books 69 and 69 I. It has been found possible 
to make a few corrections in his list, and some names can 
be added from the later Blue Books 69 II and 69 III. 

A perusal of the four Blue Books is not without interest. 
In the early returns the names are given in a Latinized 
form ; this practice was discontinued at EUzabeth's 
accession. From 1407 the exact dates of the elections are 
generally stated. Many of the older lists of members are 
very defective, and between 1478 and 1629 a gap occurs, 
the names of all the representatives during the intervening 
half-century being unfortunately lost. This interval ex- 

* See Alford's Abbots of Tavistock, pp. 226-228. 



TAVISTOCK AS A PABUAMBNTABY BOROUGH. 259 

tends over the time generally chosen by historians to mark 
the dividing-line between medieval and modem history. 

The consideration of patronage, which so largely de- 
cided the elections for small boroughs, can be briefly dis- 
posed of. The Abbots held the manor till 1539, and from 
then to the present time it has been in the possession of 
the Russell family. The returning officer was the port- 
reeve, chosen annually at the court leet of the manor, 
though in 1661 ^ we read of a " mayor," and twenty years 
later of a "recorder," officials probably created tem- 
porarily to counteract the Russell influence. 

In the earUer Parliaments the members were, according 
to Stubbs,^ generally resident freeholders of their own 
constituencies. A law passed in 1413 (Stat. 1 Henry V, c. 1) 
enforced residence for electors and elected alike. During 
the Tudor and Stuart periods the requirement was probably 
evaded by the conveyance of a freehold or other quali- 
fication to the candidate who sought election. By the 
eighteenth century even this poor pretence was abandoned, 
and there were doubtless many like Spencer Cowper 
(M.P. for Bere Alston 1705-1710, and for Truro 1713- 
1727), who once stated that "' he had never been in the 
borough which he represented in ParUament, nor had 
ever seen or spoke with any of the electors." • In the 
present democratic days there is a tendency to revert 
voluntarily to the earhest practice, preference being pro- 
fessed by many electors for candidates who reside within 
their constituencies. 

It may be interesting to test Stubbs' statement by an 
examination of the list of medieval Tavistock members. 
Five tests, none of them entirely conclusive, can be applied 
to determine the question of residence. Four of these 
are positive : — 

(a) Does the same name appear in contemporary 
parochial documents (as WiUiam de EkkeWorthy, Robert 
Davey) ? 

(b) Does the same surname appear in parochial records 
dated within fifty years or so of the date of the return (as 
WiUiam Iby) ? 

(c) Is the surname derived from a local place name (as 
John de Kyleworth, i.e Kilworthy) ? 

^ Also in 1684 and 1685 (Lysons). 
^ CoTutitiUional Eistory, Chap. XX. 
3 Chandler's Debates, Vol. VIII, p. 168. 



260 TAVISTOCK AS A PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGH. 

(d) Is the surname that of a well-known local family (as 
Walter le Wise) ? 

One is negative, i.e. argues against residence : — 

(e) Does the same name appear shortly before or shortly 
after as representing another constituency (as John Otery) ? 

Between the years 1295 and 1360 twenty-four returns 
are given and twenty-seven names ; of these ten are 
certainly local residents, eight others probably are, and 
we are without information as to the other nine. One, 
William de Ekkeworthy, sat for Plympton in 1332 and 
1336, though before and after those dates he sat for 
Tavistock, and appears to have resided there. Some 
centuries ago it was a common practice for a country 
squire to own a house in some neighbouring town, where 
he might reside during the winter months. 

Between 1360 and 1400 no fewer than forty-nine 
Parliaments were held, and thirty-seven returns for 
Tavistock are extant. These give the names of thirty- 
nine members, of whom at least sixteen are residents ; 
but applying the last of the tests just mentioned, we find 
that thirteen sat for other constituencies, and in some 
cases we have double or multiple returns. In 1362 John 
Wonard was returned for Tavistock, Laimceston, Liskeard,, 
and Totnes, and his colleague, John Hill, for Tavistock, 
Barnstaple, Dartmouth, Exeter, Plympton, and Torrington. 
The "pluralist" member was not uncommon in the 
Western counties between 1360 and 1390. It was then 
the law that each burgess should receive two shillings a 
day for his services, and such a payment pressed severely 
on the smaller boroughs. During the period of depression 
brought about by the disasters of the Black Death and 
the French War, some of the boroughs had, one can well 
believe, the greatest diflSculty in meeting their obliga- 
tions. Torrington in 1369 sought and obtained relief by 
disfranchisemeht ; and the election of the same person by 
two or more places would probably mean a division of the 
expense, for we cannot imagine that a member would be 
permitted to receive more than one salary. This ingenious 
form of evasion may have been a reason for the enact- 
ments of Henry IV and Henry V against non-resident 
members.^ 

^ The Question of "pluralUt*' members requires further investigation, and 
might well be made the subject of a separate paper. A like usage is noted in 
connection with the Scottisn Parliaments (Pinkerton's Hist, of Scotland, I,. 
372). 



TAVISTOCK AS A PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGH. 261 

Between 1400 and 1478 fifty elections took place, and 
thirty returns for Tavistock are preserved. As this was a 
period of constitutional activity there is no reason to sup- 
pose that the town was ever without representatives, but 
several returns are undoubtedly missing. There are 
thirty-eight names, most of which in view of the enact- 
ments referred to must have been those of local people, 
though there are one or two exceptions. Two are of 
national importance : John Fortescue, the famous Lan- 
c€istrian lawyer, who was tutor to Prince Edward, the 
ill-fated son of Henry VI ; and Richard Edgcumbe, one 
of the Lancastrian leaders at Bosworth Field ; both of 
them ancestors of leading West-coimtry famiUes. The 
names of Britt, Cruwys, Wyse, and Fitz are also famiUar 
to the county genealogist. The use of local knowledge in 
deciphering names is iUustrated in the case of John 
" Hevychurch " (1478), which obviously should read 
" Honychurch " ; possibly " Benteleghe " (1420) should 
be *' Bradeleghe." 

Only one return is given between 1478 and 1639, but it 
is a mistake to suppose, as some have done, that the borough 
was disfranchised at any time during the Tudor period. 
Two missing returns (1646 and 1663), which have been 
found since the first Blue Book was pubHshed, both con- 
tain members for Tavistock. 

In 1639 John Russell, progenitor of the ducal house of 
Bedford, became lord of the borough, and at this point 
the history of modem Tavistock may be said to begin. 
The character of the representation was considerably 
changed. Local names occasionally occur, but far more 
frequently do we find those of relatives, personal friends, 
or poUtical associates of the noble patron. 

Among the sixteenth-century representatives we find 
Peter Carew, who with Lord Russell was concerned in sup- 
pressing the western insurrection of 1649 ; Edward 
Underbill, who is said to have saved Francis, after- 
wards second Earl of Bedford, from drowning in the 
Thames ; Nicholas Throckmorton, a sturdy Protestant 
charged with complicity in Wyatt's rebellion (1664); 
Nathaniel and Edward Bacon, half-brothers of the famous 
essayist ; Michael Heneage, the antiquary ; Anthony 
Ashley, a companion of Drake in one of his expeditions ; 
and John Glanville, the Tavistock attorney who was the 
first of his profession to become a judge. The representa- 



262 TAVISTOCK AS A PABUAMBNTABY BOROUGH. 

tion, on the whole, seems to have favoured that advanced 
type of Protestantism which was soon to manifest itself 
in the Puritan movement. 

In 1624 and five times subsequently, John Pym, the 
great parliamentary leader, was elected for Tavistock. 
His colleague, on the last two occasions, was William 
Lord Russell, afterwards fifth Earl and first Duke of 
Bedford. Unfortunately no facts relating to Pym's 
election have been preserved beyond the statement that 
he owed his return to the Earl of Bedford's support. 
It is not improbable that he paid an occasional visit to 
the place, as he had many local connections. Of his four 
children the elder son Alexander, an officer of the division 
of horse under the Earl of Bedford's command in the Parlia- 
mentary army, died unmarried ; the younger son Charles 
(1619 ?-1671) was M.P. for Bere Alston and subsequently 
(1660) for Minehead ; the elder daughter PhiUppa, wife 
of Thomas Symonds, of Whittlesea, had a daughter Lucy 
married at Buckland Monachorum in 1655 to Francis 
Luttrell^ of Dimster (Charles Pym's colleague at Mine- 
head) ; the younger daughter, Dorothy, married Sir 
Francis Drake, second baronet and M.P. for Bere Alston, 
but left no descendants. 

The relationship of Pym to the Drake family is of some 
importance. During the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries the Drakes owned a large amount of property 
in Tavistock, and between 1640 and 1734 a member or 
relative of the Drake family was returned for one of the 
Tavistock seats no fewer than fourteen times. It is 
probable that the owners of Buckland Abbey looked upon 
themselves as entitled to share with the Russell family 
the representation of Tavistock, as they did that of Bere 
Alston with Majoiard and his descendants. There is 
little doubt that if the memoirs of the successors of the 
famous admiral are ever published, considerable light will 
be thrown upon the rise and progress of the Whig party 
in the West. 

The Lord Russell of 1640 was the first of the name to 
sit for Tavistock. When in 1641 he succeeded his father 
as Earl of Bedford, his younger brother John became 
member, and during the Civil War threw in his lot with 
the King ; the Earl gave a hesitating support to the 

* Lyt^'s History of DunsUr^ Vol. I. From them is descended Mr. Hugh 
Fownes Luttrell, M.P. for the Tavistock Division 1906 and 1910. 



TAVISTOCK AS A PABLIAMENTABY BOROUGH. 263 

Parliament at first, but soon withdrew from the conflict 
altogether. While Pym was helping to direct affairs at 
Westminster, John Russell was with the King at Oxford, 
and was consequently '^ disabled " in 1644, shortly after 
Pym's death. The two new members, Crymes and Fowell, 
were, like their Bere Alston colleagues, Francis Drake 
and Charles Pym, excluded in 1648 by " Pride's Purge." 

Under Oliver Cromwell, who anticipated by two cen- 
turies some of the provisions of the Reform Acts, Tavi- 
stock, like most small boroughs, was disfranchised, but 
its privilege was restored in Richard Cromwell's Parlia- 
ment. 

During the latter part of the seventeenth century the 
increasing power of the House of Commons in controlling 
taxation, in determining Grovemment appointments, and 
even in settling the succession to the Crown, caused a 
keen competition for seats in Parliament, while at the 
same time ideas of toleration and fairness to opponents 
had not yet become prevalent. Hence we may expect to 
find that during the sixty years that followed the death 
of Cromwell many bitter election contests occurred, often 
followed by petitions alleging glaring illegaUties and 
flagrant corruption. In the placid, prosperous times of 
the first two Georges, politicians seem to have become 
perhaps not less corrupt in intention, but certainly more 
decorous in action. The influence of such men as Wal- 
pole, if not in all respects good, did much to restrain violent 
and vindictive methods in politics. 

Tavistock, though on the whole free from the evil 
traditions which cling around many of the western 
boroughs, had its share of keen contests. During the 
sixty years just mentioned no fewer than thirteen election 
petitions or controversies referring to this borough came 
before the House of Commons. This number must not 
be regarded as a proof of electoral depravity ; in the first 
place, petitions were not decided in those days on any 
basis of judicial impartiality, but usually on political 
considerations,^ and were therefore often lodged by de- 
feated candidates whose party happened to be at the 
time dominant in the House ; in the second place, most 
of the Tavistock petitions related to the voting qualifica- 
tions of electors and not to personal corruption. 

Only eight of the petitions came to a determination ; 

1 Morley'i fFalpoU. p. 284. 



264 TAVISTOCK AS A PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGH. 

the other five were disposed of by that time-honoured 
method for avoiding disputes, reference to a committee. 
Out of the eight determined the petitioner succeeded in 
five instances, but only once on the allegation of bribery. 

Some of the reports of these petitions as given in the 
House of Commons Journals are of considerable interest, 
and from the number of names and descriptions of voters 
which they give constitute an important addition to the 
parochial records. 

Residence was always a necessary quaUfication for a 
vote, but as to the remaining requirements four distinct 
decisions are on record. In 1660 the return was made on 
behalf of the *' freeholders and inhabitants." 

The most curious of the petitions is that arising out of 
the election to the Pensionary ParUament in 1661. The 
candidates were Lord William Russell (the '* patriot "), 
George Howard of Fitzford, and Sir John Davie. In 
the first instance Davie and Russell were returned by 
the portreeve. Howard, on the strength of an indenture 
signed by the ** mayor," petitioned and was awarded 
Russell's seat. Then Russell petitioned on the ground 
that some of those who had voted were not *' freeholders 
by inheritance." His petition was upheld, and on a 
scrutiny the election was decided in favour of Russell 
and Howard, so that the returns in this contest represent 
all the possible selections of two out of three candidates. 

In 1686 Sir James Butler, John Beare, and Edward 
Russell (brother of the " patriot ") were the candidates. 
The two former were returned, and on this occasion the 
Bedford interest seems to have suffered a complete ecUpse. 
A shrewd guess may be hazarded as to the reason. Payne 
Fisher, in his dedication of an epitaph on the Earl of 
Ossory (1681), calls Butler the "Recorder of Tavistock,"^ 
and there is httle doubt that the constituency, hke many 
others, had been manipulated in the interest of the Court 
party. Russell petitioned, but in a Parhament where 
the opposition to the Court numbered *' not above forty " 
members' the petition wa,s of course ignored. 

Of the many members whose names have been pre- 
served, twenty-five have had their careers sketched in the 
Dictionary of National Biography. They are : — 

Ashley, Sir Anthony (1661-1627), clerk of the Privy 
Council. 

» Wood's Fasti. ^ Burnet 



TAVISTOCE AS A PARTJAMENTABY BOROUGH. 265 

Bacon, Sir Edward (d. 1618), third son of Sir Nicholas 
Bacon (1609-1679) ; sheriflf of Suffolk 1601. 

Bacon, Sir Nathaniel (d. 1622), second son of Sir Nicholas 
Bacon (1609-1579) ; sheriflf of Norfolk 1699. 

Carew, Sir Peter (1614-1676), soldier ; of Mohim's Ottery. 

♦Edgcumbe, Richard (d. 1489), statesman ; sheriflf of 
Devon 1487 ; ancestor of the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe. 

Fitzpatrick, Richard (1747-1813), general, politician, and 
wit ; grandson of first Earl Gower ; secretary at war, 
1783 and 1806. 

Fortescue, Sir John (1396 ?-1486 ?), lord chief justice and 
author ; ancestor of Earl Fortescue. 

Fox, Charles Richard (1796-1873), numismatist. 

OlanviUe, Su: John (1642-1600), judge of common pleas; 
a native and resident of Tavistock. 

Orant, Sur John Peter (1774-1848), chief justice of Cal- 
cutta. 

Orey, Charles, Lord Howick and second Earl Grey (1764- 
1845), statesman ; leader of the opposition 1807 ; prime 
minister 1830-1834. 

Heneage, Michael (1640-1600), antiquary. 

Neville, Richard Neville Aldworth (1717-1793), states- 
man ; under secretary of State (1748) under the 
fourth Duke of Bedford. 

PhiUimore, Sir Robert Joseph, first (baronet (1810-1886) ; 
scholar and judge. 

Ponsonby, George (1765-1817), lord chancellor of Ireland; 
leader of the opposition 1808. 

♦Pym, John (1684-1643), statesman and parliamentary 
leader ; champion of the rights of the Commons. 

Rigby, Richard (1722-1788), politician ; paymaster of the 
forces 1768-1782; secretary to the fourth Duke of 
Bedford. 

Russell, Lord Edward (1805-1887), admhral; fifth son of 
the sixth Duke of Bedford. 

♦Russell, John, sixth Duke of Bedford (1766-1839) ; lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland 1806. 

Russell, Lord John, first Earl Russell (1792-1878), states- 
man, third son of the sixth Duke of Bedford ; prime 
minister 1846-1862 and 1865-1866. 

Russell, WiUiam, fifth Earl and first Duke of Bedford 
(1613-1700), son of the fourth Earl, created Duke 
1694. 

♦Russell, William, Lord Russell (163^1683), the "pat- 



206 TAVISTOCK AS A PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGH. 

riot " ; son of the preceding ; exeouted on a charge of 
high treason. 

Throebnorton, Sir Nicholas (1515-1571), diplomatist ; 
ambassador to France 1560 ; Ralegh's father-in-law. 

Underbill, Edward (fl. 153^1562), the "hot gospeller"; 
a sixteenth-century reformer.. 

Vemon, Richard (1726-1800), sportsman and owner of race- 
horses ; secretary to the fourth Duke of Bedford. 

Those marked thus ♦ have their portraits in Tavistock 
Town Hall. 

As compared with the thirty odd credited to Bere 
Alston^ during less than half the ^riod of parliamentary 
representation, the number for Tavistock of national 
celebrities is certainly small. Bere Alston, however, was 
generally a Grovemment pocket borough, and as such 
provided accommodation for distinguished office holders. 
Tavistock, during modem times, was largely under the 
influence of a family whose wealth made them indifferent 
to appointments and whose traditional views tended to 
exclude them from office. Still, the list here given includes 
no fewer than five party leaders, Pym, WUUam Russell, 
Grey, Ponsonby, and John Russell. 

The dates set down in the schedule are those on which 
the elections were held, and the years are reckoned through- 
out in the new style, each year beginning on 1st January. 
The occurrence of errors of one year in dates, even in 
careful historical productions, is a matter of frequent 
experience, and it is too much to hope that this paper 
is free from such errors. 

Many of the identifications of names, particularly the 
earUer ones, are of necessity conjectural, but they are inserted 
for the purpose of inviting further information. 

II. — Schedule of Members. 

To avoid needless verbiage, the following general refer- 
ences are given : — 

(n) Life given in Dictionary of National Biography, 
(p) Pluralist, i.e. elected simultaneously for two or more 
constituencies, Tavistock being one. 

^ Twenty-nine are given in Trans. XLI, pp. 160-181 ; to these should be 
added George Croke (1560-1642), and probably Edward Phelips and Edward 
Montagu. Possibly Robert Hill (d. 1425) should be added to the Tavistock list. 



TAVISTOCK AS A PABUAMBNTABY BOROUGH. 267 

(g) Surname indicating association either of place or of 
:'amily with the locality. 

(r) Name recorded in extant parochial documents (see 
Worth's Calendar, and Devon Notes and Gleanings, Feb. 
1891). 

{s) Elected previously for Tavistock ; further details {ii 
any) imder first election. 

Other letters indicate special references. References 
are also given (under the names of the authors or com- 
pilers) to : — 

Burke, Peerage ; Glanville-Bichards, Records of the 
House of Glanville ; Lysons, Magna Britannia (Vols. V 
and VT) ; Prince, Worthies of Devon ; Bisdon, Survey of 
Devon; Wiflfen, House of Russell; and under Vis. to the 
Heralds' Visitations (various counties). 

EDWARD I. 

1295. Ralph de SatcheviU (a). Walter le Wise (6). 
1306. John le Charter (c). John Screvinur. 

(a) A variant of Sackville. A person of the same name 
was between this date and 1329 eight times M.P. 
for Leicestershire. See also under 1332. 

(6) Probably Wyse (q). 

(c) Possibly John Carchere (Portreeve of Tavistock 1311). 

EDWARD II. 

1320. David de Romeleghe (q). John Bon. 
1324. William de Ekkeworthy (r). William Iby (g). 
1326. John Hay. Roger Stacy (r). 

EDWARD III. 

1330. John Ma^e (a). John Prynce (g). 

1330. William de Eckworthy {s). Maurice Gages (r). 

1332. John de Secheville (r). Roger Byle (6). 

1332. John Dolimers. Adam Boghedoime (g). 

1332. John de Secheville (s), Boger Byle (s). 

1334. Maurice Gages (s). John de Secheville (s). 

1335. Bichard Brokere (c). Bobert Grosse. 

1336. Maurice Gages («). John de Secheville {s). 
1336. Maurice Gages (s). John de Secheville (s). 



TAVISTOCK AS A FABLIAMBNTABY BOROUGH. 



268 

1337. William Stacy (r). 

1338. Maurice Gages (s). 

1339. John de Secheville («). 

1339. Maurice Gages {s). 

1 340. William de Eckworthy («). 

1 341 . Robert Tankard («). 
1344. Ralph Atte Wille (r). 
1346. Ralph Atte WiUe («). 
1348. Ralph Atte WiUe («). 
1348. Ralph Atte Wille («). 
1351. Ralph Atte Wille («). 
1362. John Mille (p). 

1364. Nicholas Whytyng («). 

1355. Walter Langeford (r). 

1367. Walter Langeford (s). 

1368. William Gary (/). 

1360. William Bitelescomb. 

1361. John Wonard (p). 

1362. JohnHiU(pA). 

1363. Walter Langeford («). 
1366. Walter Langeford («). 
1366. Edmond Broke. 

1368. John Hull («). 

1369. John Wilby («). 

1371. Richard Cokelescombe. 

1371. Richard Gokeleecombe («). 

1372. John Hulle (s). 

1373. Walter Langeforde («). 
1377. Walter Langeforde («). 



John Otery {d). 
John de Kyleworth (q). 
WiUiam Eckeworthy(«) 
Robert Tankarde (r). 
John de Secheville («). 
John Popilstone (r). 
Robert Folke (r). 
Maurice Gages (s). 
WiUiam Eckworthy (a). 
Robert Davy (r). 
Thomas Porteioie (q). 
Nicholas Whytyng (p e) 
Elias WUde (p). 
Richard Uppecote. 
WiUiam Paynter {q). 
Walter Langeford («). 
Roger Hikkewode (g), 
Richard Lambome (r). 
John Wonard («). 
John HuUe (s). 
John Bosoun {p k). 
Walter Comu (Z). 
John Wylby. 
John Wonard (s). 
(One name missing.) 
(Only one elected.) 
RobertHuUe, jun.(p m). 
John Wonard (s). 
WiUiam Crokkere {q). 



{a) Probably Magha (r). 

(6) Of Lovecote, M.P. for Launceston 1332 and 1338. 

{c) Possibly Crocker (portreeve of Tavistock 1330). 

id) M.P. for Bristol 1332. 

(e) Son of WiUiam Whytyng, of Sidbury ; sheriff of Devon 
1371 (see also Exeter Accounts of 1369). 

(/) M.P. for Barnstaple 1361, for Devon f362 and 1368. 

(g) Possibly Bykewille (r). 

(A) Possibly of HiU's Court, Exeter, judge of king's bench 
1400. 

{k) Probably the Exeter attorney mentioned in 1369 Ac- 
counts. 

(Z) M.P. for Torrington 1368. 

(m) Possibly of Shilston in Modbury, judge of common 
pleas 1409 (n). 





TAVISTOCK AS A PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGH. 26V 




RICHARD 


II 


1377. 


Walter Langeforde (s). 


Thomas Reymond (p). 


1378. 


Walter Langeforde (a). 


John Wyndoute (r). 


1380. 


John Shepwaisshe (a r). 


John Whitelegh. 


1381. 


John Wonard («). 


Peter Hadleghe (6). 


1382. 


William Thome (r). 


JohnForde(r). 


1383. 


John Sampforde (c). 


Ralph Hunte (r). 


1384. 


John Sampforde (s). 


John Wonard {a). 


1384. 


John Sampforde («). 


Thomas Reymound {a), 


1385 


Roger Page (r). 


Richard Page. 


1386. 


John Trylle. 


John Wyndout (r). 


1388. 


Ralph Hunt (r). 


John atte Pole (d). 


1388. 


John Ford («). 


William Walradene {q). 


1390. 


Walter Millemete (q). 


John Bithewatire (e). 


1391. 


Ralph Hunt (s). 


John Whitham (/). 


1393. 


Matthew Row. 


Ralph Hunte {a). 


1394. 


Ralph Hunte (a). 


John Crokkere (r). 


1395. 


Ralph Hunte (a). 


Walter Dymmoke. 


1397. 


William Wytham {q). 


John Plente (r). 



(a) M.P. for Torrington 1368. 

(6) M.P. for Exeter 1378, and four times subsequently. 

(c) M.P. for Barnstaple 1388. 

id) Same as " atte Wille." See under 1344. 

(e) Same as " atte Wille " and " atte Pole." See note (d). 

(/) Probably Wytham (r). 



HENRY IV. 



1402. Ralph Hunte (a). 

1406. John Plente (a). 

1407. John Godfray. 
1411. John Lopynford. 



John Kene. 
Roger Baker. 
William Brit (a). 
John Sechevile (r)» 



(a) WiUiam Brit was M.P. for Launceston 1378. 



HENRY V. 



1413. William May (r). 

1414. WiUiam May {a). 

1419. Richard Secheville (r). 

1420. Richard Sechevylle (a). 



John Julkyne (r). 
John Julkyne (a). 
(One name missing.) 
William Benteleghe(a). 



270 TAVISTOCK AS A PABLIAMSKTARY BOROUGH. 

1421. William May {s). John Fortescu, jun. (n). 

1421. Nicholas Fitz Herberde (6). John Fortescu, jun. (a). 

(a) Possibly Bradeleghe (r). 

•(&) Probably of the Derbyshire family. A person of the 
same name was M.P. for Derbyshire 1447. 





HENRY VI. 


1422. 


Richard Sechevyle («). 


WiUiam Tayle (r). 


1423. 


William Keterigge. 


John Fortescu, jun. (a). 


1425. 


William Keterigge (a). 


John Fortescu, jun. (a). 


1426. 


Alfred Wonstone (a). 


Richard Doble. 


1427. 


Thomas Wyse (r). 


John Fitz (r). 


1429. 


Thomas Tremayne (q). 


John Julkyne (r). 


1431. 


John Dynowe. 


John Fitz (a). 


1432. 


Nicholas Ford (q). 


Walter Person (r), or 
John Fitz (a). 


1433. 


Henry Denbolde. 


Richard SacheviUe (a). 


1435. 


Henry Denbolde («). 


John Julkyn {a). 


1437. 


John Wolston (6). 


John Sprye. 


1442. 


Henry Denbolde (a). 


Richard Tankret. (r). 


1447. 


WilUam Gamone (c). 


William Kyngestone (r) 


1449. 


Thomas Tremayne {a) 


William Cruwys (d). 


1449. 


Henry Denbold (a). 


WiUiam Milforde (e). 


1460. 


Richard Tankret («). 


WiUiam Kyngstone (a). 


1465. 


WiUiam Fresponde (r). 


Robert Langetone. 



{a) M.P. for Totnes 1407, for Barnstaple 1410 and 1411. 
(6) M.P. for Plymouth 1442. 

(c) Probably of Moorston in Halberton (near Tiverton). 

(d) Probably of Cruwys Morchard. 

(e) M.P. for Barnstaple 1467. 

EDWARD IV. 

1467. Richard Edgecombe (n). William Combe (r). 
1472. Sir John Gay (a). Thomas Jenny. 

1478. John Honychurch (r). Nicholas Whytyng. 

(a) Probably of Goldworthy in Parkham. 

RICHARD III. 
No returns foimd. 

HENRY VII. 
No returns found. 



TAVISTOCK AS A PABLIAMEKTABY BOBOUOH. 271 

HENRY Vni. 

Several returns missing. 

1529-1636. (The Reformation Parliament.) 

October, 1529. William Honychurch (a r). 

James Dynham {b). 

(a) Grandson of John Honychurch (1478) ; great-grandson of 

John Julkyn (1414) and John Fitz (1427). (Vis.) 

(b) Probably second son of Nicholas Dynham of Wortham. 

1545-1647. 
20th January, 1546. Peter Carew (n). 

Richard Fortescue (a). 

(a) Of Filleigh (1617-1570), fourth in descent from Sir 
John Fortescue (see under 1421). (Vis.) 

EDWARD VI. 
1653. 
January (or Feb.), 1553. Edward Underbill (n). 

Anthony Lyght. 

MARY. 
1553. 
20th September, 1553. Richard Wilbraham (a). 

Thomas Smyth. 

(a) M.P. for Cheshire 1564 and 1666. 

1664. 
March, 1654. Richard Mayo. 

John Fitz, jun. (a). 

(a) Of Fitzford (1628-1690), lawyer; great-grandson of 
John Fitz (1427) ; grandfather of Lady Mary Howard ; 
mentioned frequently in Tavistock Parish Records 
(see also Prince). 

1664. 
21st October, 1564. John Fitz, jun. (s). 

John Eveleigh (a). 

(a) Of Holcombe in Ottery; married Joan, daughter of 
John gouthcott of Indiho, Bovey Tracey, clerk of the 
peace for Devon. (Vis.) . 



272 TAVISTOCK AS A PARLIAMENTARY BOROUGH. 
1555. 

30th September, 1555. Thomas Southcott (a). 

Richard Mayo («). 

(a) Probably the eldest son of John Southcott of Bovey 
Tracey (see under 1554) ; married Thomasin, niece 
of Sir Peter Carew (see under 1645), from whom 
he inherited Mohun's Ottery ; M.P. for Plympton 
1558 ; died 1600 (Risdon ; Vis.). 

1658. 
January, 1658. George Southcott (a). 

Thomas Browne. 

(a) Probably the second son of John Southcott of Bovey 
Tracey ; M.P. for Lostwithiel 1664 (Vis.). 

ELIZABETH. 
1563-1667. 
December, 1662. Richard Cooke (a). 

Sir Nicholas Throckmorton (n). 

(a) Son of Sir Anthony C!ooke, Bang Edward VI's tutor, of 
Gidea Hall, Essex ; his three sisters married re- 
spectively John Russell, second son of the second 
Earl of Bedford, WiUiam Cecil Lord Burghley, and 
Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper (Wiflfen). 

1672-1583. 
26th April, 1672. Nathaniel Bacon (n). 

Robert Ferrers (a). 
No date given. Charles Morrison (6) vice Ferrers 

deceased. 

(a) A member of a leading Warwickshire family (Vis.). 

(b) Probably relative of Sir Richard Morrison, whose widow 

married the second Earl of Bedford, and whose daughter 
Jane married Lord Edward Russell, eldest son of the 
same Earl (Wiffen). 

1684-1686. 
1st November, 1684. Valentine Knightley (a). 

Edward Bacon (n). 

(a) Son (1567-1618) of Sir Richard Knightley, a strong 
Puritan, andM.P. for Northampton (1584 and 1686), for 
Northamptonshire 1689, for Oxford 1601 ; he himself 



TAVISTOOK AS A PABLIAMBKTABY BOBOIJGH. 273 

was also M.P. for Northampton 1693, for North- 
amptonshire 1604, and for Dunwioh 1614 (Burke). 

1686-1687. 
Sept. (or Oct.), 1686. John Glanville (n). 

Valentine Knightley («)• 
1688-1689 
1st November, 1688. Michael Heneage (n). 

Anthony Ashley (n). 
1693. 

Jan. (or Feb.), 1693. Richard Codrington (a). 

Hugh Vaughan (5), 

(a) Son of Giles Codrington of Dodington, Gloucester- 
shire (Vis.). 

{b) Secretary of second Earl of Bedford (Wiffen) ; resided 
at Exet^ (see will of Anne, Countess of Warwick, 
dated 1604). 

1601. 
October, 1601. Henry Graye (a). 

Walter Wentworth (6). 

(a) Probably the son of Lord John Grey of Pirgo (Essex) 
who was created Lord Grey of Groby and cUed 1614. 

(6) Son of Peter Wentworth, Puritan leader and colleague 
of Sir R. Knightley for Northamptonshire 1686. 

1604.1611. J^^^^ I- 

4th March, 1604. Sir George Fleetwood (a). 

Edward Ihmcombe. 
(a) Of Chalfont St. Giles, Bucks ; died 1620. 

1614. (The Addled Parliament.) 

March, 1614. Francis Glanville (a). 

Edward Buncombe («). 

(a) Of Kilworthy (1681-1639), eldest son of Judge Glan- 
ville (see under 1686); knighted 1626; (Glanville- 
Richards ; Vis.). 

1621. 
14th December, 1620. Francis Glanville («). 

Sir Baptist Hicks (a). 

(a) Of Ilmington, Warwick, M.P, for Tewkesbury 1624 to 

VOL. XLH. s 



274 TAVISTOCK AS A PABUAMBNTABY BOBOUOH. 

1628 ; Gloated baronet 1620 ; Viscount Campden 1628 ; 
• died 1629 ; great-grandfather of first Earl of Gains- 
borough (Burke). 



1624-1626. 
27th January, 1624. 



John Pym (a n). 
Sampson Hele {b). 



(a) Pym is erroneously stated by some authorities to have 

been returned for Calne at this election. 

(b) Of Gnatton, sheriflf of Devon, 1621 ; married to Joan, 

daughter of Judge Glanville (GlanviUe-Richards). 



1626. 
25th April, 1626. 

1626. 
17th January, 1626. 



CHARLES I. 

Sir Francis Glanville (s). 
John Pym («). 



John Pym (s). 

Sir John RadcUffe (a). 

{a) M.P. for Tewkesbury 1614, for Lancashu-e 1621, 1624, 
and 1626. 



1628-1629. 
27th February, 1628. 

1640. 
4th March, 1640. 

1640-1663. 
October, 1640. 

17th June,- 1641. 



Date probably 1646. 



6th December, 1648. 



Sir Francis Glanville («). 
John Pym (s), 

(The Short Parliament.) 
William Lord Russell (n). 
John Pym (s). 

(The Long Parliament.) 
WiUiam Lord Russell (s). 
John Pym (s). 

John Russell (a) vice 
William Lord Russell called to the 
Upper House as Earl of Bedford. 

Elisha Crymes (6). 

Edmimd Fowell (c) vice John Pym 
deceased and John Russell ex- 
pelled as a RoyaUst. 

Both members excluded by 

• "Pride'sPurge"(SomersTracts). 



TAVISTOCK AS A PABUAMENTABY BOROUGH. 275 

(a) Third son (1618 ?-1687 ?) of fourth Earl of Bedford, 
colonel m Charles I's army (Wiffen) ; portrait in Tavi- 
stock Town Hall. 

(5) Of Crapstone (1616-1690), M.P. for Bere Alston 1668 
(see Trans, xli. p. 166). 

(c) Son (b. 1696) of John Fowell, town clerk of Ply- 
mouth ; married Alice, daughter of Sir Francis 
Glanville ; during the Commonwealth resided at 
Harewood, Calstock, and was a magistrate for Devon 
(see Tavistock Parish Register of Marriages) ; a fre- 
quent speaker in ParUament ; candidate for Plymouth 
1660 (Glanville-Richards). 

COMMONWEALTH. 

A portion of the Long Parhament, known as the Rump, 
continued sitting until 1653. OUver Cromwell summoned 
three Parhaments, in none of which was Tavistock repre- 
sented. 

1659. (Richard Cromwell's ParUament.) 

7th January, 1669. Edmimd Fowell (s). 

Henry Hatsell (a). 

A bye-election was held vice Hatsell, who elected to 
serve for Plympton, and two returns were made (13th 
April), one by the portreeve, and one by the sheriflp of 
Devon. The House accepted the portreeve's return, but 
no names are given. John Doidge, grandson of Sir 
Francis Glanville, is stated, but without authority cited, 
to have been M.P. for Tavistock and sheriff of Devon 
(Glanville-Richards). He is not mentioned by Risdon as a 
sheriff, but there are blanks in the Hst for 1657 and 1668. 
Neither is any person named Doidge given in the Blue 
Book as a member. John Doidge was about twenty-two 
or twenty-three years old at this time. 

(a) Of Saltram ; an official of Plymouth during the 
Commonwealth ; M.P. for Devon 1654 and 1656 ; 
father of Judge Hatsell (n). (See Harleian Misc.) 

CHARLES II. 
1660. (The Restoration Parhament.) 

6th April, 1660. WiUiam Russell (n). 

George Howard (a). 



276 TAVISTOOK AS A PABUAMEKTABT BOROUGH. 

Two returns were made ; one by the portreeve on be- 
half of the ^^ freeholders and inhabitants " named Russell 
and Howard ; the other, rejected by the House, was by 
the "burgesses" on behalf of the freeholders alone in 
favour of Russell and Elisha Crymes {a). 

(a) Of Fitzfofd (died 1671). See Trans, xli. pp. 168 and 
167 ; also Trans, xxi., " Lady Mary of Fitzford," by 
Mrs. G. H. Radford. 



1661. 
5th April, 1661. 

17th December, 1661. 



26th March, 1673. 



(The Pensionary Parliament.) 

George Howard {s). 

Sir John Davie, Bart. (a). 

William Russell {s) vice Davie, by 
decision of the House on an 
election petition. For the com- 
pUcated disputes arising out of 
the election, see Introduction. 

Sir Francis Drake, Bart. (6), vice 
Howard deceased. 



(a) Of Sandford (1612-1678), married (1661) Margaret, 
widow of William Kelly and daughter of Sir Francis 
Glanville ; sheriff of Devon 1672 ; succeeded as second 
baronet 1664 (Risdon; Glanville-Richards ; Vis.). 

(6) Third baronet (1642-1718). See Trans, xli. p. 169. 



1679. 
13th February, 1679. 



Edward Russell (a). 

Sir Francis Drake, Bart. (s). 



(a) Fourth son (1643-1714) of the first Duke of Bedford ; 
M.P. for Bedfordshire 1689-1705 and 1708-1713. 



1679-1681. 
19th August, 1679. 

1681. 
19th February, 1681. 



Edward Russell (s). 

Sir Francis Drake, Bart, (s), 

(The Seven Days Parliament.) 

Edward Russell (s). 

Sir Francis Drake, Bart. («). 



1685-1687. 
23rd March, 1685. 



JAMES II. 

Sir James Butler (a). 
John Beare (6). 



TAVISTOCK AS A PABLIAMBKTABY BOROUGH. 277 

Edward Russell was an unsuccessful candidate and 
petitioned. No determination was made on the petition, 
but Butler and Beare continued to sit. 

(a) Said to be natural son of James Butler, Duke of Ormond, 
and Isabel, daughter of Henry Earl of Holland and 
wife of Sir James Thynne of Longleat ; barrister of 
Lincoln's Inn 1667 ; succeeded WiUiam Lord Brounker 
in the mastership of St. Catherine's Hospital ; soUcitor 
and attorney-general to Queen Catherine ; knighted 
1672; D.C.L. Oxford 1677 (Duke of Ormond Chan- 
cellor) ; K.C. 1679 ; married Lady Elizabeth Moore 
(donor of Tavistock Almshouses) 1669, and acquired 
considerable property in Tavistock ; " recorder " of 
Tavistock ; died about 1704 (Le Neve's Pedigrees of 
Knights; Wood's Fasti; Bedford Office Surveys, 1726 
and 1755). 

{6) Of Bearscombe, Kingsbridge; son of John Beare, of 
Barnstaple ; matriculated at BaUiol College 1662, 
aged seventeen ; recorder of Dartmouth in 1686. 



THE TOWN, VILLAGE, MANORS, AND CHURCH 
OP KENTISBEARE. 

BY REV. EDWIN S. CHALK, M.A., 

Rector, 

(Read at GuUompton, mh Jnly, 1010.) 



There are many thousands of English villages, but to the 
people of Kentisbeare there is chiefly one ; a place of so 
strong a native spirit and of so healthy a patriotism de- 
serves some essay towards its history. 

Kentisbeare, pronounced by those who love it Kents- 
beare, is a largish parish, surrounding an ancient manorial 
settlement, 'mown successively as a manor, vill, town, 
and village. It has ever been a sequestered tract, for it 
has the sky-line for boundary on all save its western con- 
fines. The ancient high road from London and Honiton 
to Tiverton and Barnstaple skirts its moor on that side ; 
a Roman road, the Portway, may possibly be traced, inter- 
secting the, parish at Stoford Water, but the evidence 
is slender,, the name Portway, and some mounds now 
destroyed, called Pixey Garden, in Uffculme parish, and 
an eighteenth-century map which gives Stoford as Strat- 
ford Water. Of pre-Roman days, we have only the fossiJjg 
and scoria found in the Blackdowns, and one flint imple- 
ment and two bronze axe-heads, one of them found at 
Kingsford, the Domesday Chinnesforta, a low but strong 
position at the juncture of our nameless stream with the 
Culm. There are several tempting derivations of the 
name — the Knightsbere, Canutesbere — ^but more probably 
the name of the stream was the Ken or Kennet, which fact 
would accoimt for Chennesforta, Kentismoor, and possibly 
Bang's Mill, in the parish of Cullompton, where the stream 
finaUy finds its way into the larger flood. This ample parish 
is of many charms : its general slope is very sharp from 



TOWN, VILLAGB, AND MANOBS OF KENTISBBABB. 279 

the rampart of the Blackdowns, a sparsely inhabited tract, 
which has kept Devon from becoming a mere EngHsh shire. ^ 
The tree-tops in Downlands are above the thousand-foot 
mark. The summit is a flat cap of Greensand, long since 
ransacked for the famous Blackborough scythe stones, 
and from out the base run many tiny springs, which cut 
deep grooves in the soft red sandstone below. The beech- 
crowned downs, the great moor on the crest might well be 
Dorset, but below is a tract of real Devon lanes. 

Our people, too, are of the Devon soil ; the small foot,, 
hand, and features, the absence of red hair, the short, round 
head, a belief in witchcraft, but not in ghosts, are all 
fragmentary evidences that the race is still British, while 
the registers, as far as they run, show that the bulk ol 
the population has only moved in a ten-mile radius. 

Our stream is nameless, for Westcote (1630) is, I think, 
writing loosely when he says, "Here falls in a rivulet 
called Wever, which names a manor or two and springs 
at Kentisbeare." The real Weaver is the next tributary of 
the Culm, but has a separate watershed. 

Pre-Christian daya.—Oi pre-Christian days we have a few 
traces ; on the eve of Whit Wednesday, our spring festival, 
the lads of the village steal out and cut a fine young oak tree, 
which is secretly planted in the square. This is undoubtedly 
a relic of tree worship. A little beyond the Mill Hayes, 
probably the old eastern boundary of the village, is the 
holy well, a pretty fountain which jets from a low red cliff ; 
this is still used for sore eyes, and we have yet a respected 
resident who cured himself of a sharp rheumatic attack 
by lying all along in his clothes in the healing spring. 
Two cottages on the edge of Kentismoor were called Pixey 
Pool. Witchcraft is now mostly white. 

Domesday. — ^In Domesday we find eight manors : two 
called Kentisbeare, Orway, Pissevill, Aller, Blackaberia, 
Blackaberge, and Hevisa, possibly now called HoUis ; . 
Wood is not found. ( 

Manor of Kentisbeare. — ^The Manor lies in a fairly true 
circle round the church and village ; the fresh Uttle stream 
turns two mills at Mill Hayes and Guddef ord, the Domesday 
Mill ; both Manor and Glebe, and the Advowson, have 
been joined with the Manor as far back as is known. Its 
owners, WilUam Le Black, the Maugers, Bolleys, Cloptons, 
Bonviles, Greys, Howards, and Wyndhams, have ever been 
too great to dwell much in the parish. 




280 



THB TOWK, VILLAGS, BfANOBS, 



arryj 



yj 



r-c 



. But we have a few traces of manorial government, and 
its wasteful and communal cultivation ; the common now 
enclosed, the great wood at Aller, the pound, the town-crier, 
and the Wyndham Arms pubUc-house, are all that remains 
of the old system of government, which a parish council 
only partially replaces. 

The village itself boasts three streets — Fore Street, 
High Street, and Silver Street — ^which meet in the square ; 
it consists largely of tradesmen's and labourers' houses, 
and five manor farms, which bear the names of Caroline 
or Jacobean tenants, Buttson's, Ford's, Bishop's, Cotter's, 
and Glimster's ; the mansion house was at Cotter's, 
with its fine plaster ceiling, not at West Hayes, which 
lies just outside the village on the west boundary of 
the Common. It was the birthplace of the famous 
writer and surgeon, Sir Thomas Watson, who was bap- 
tized at Kentisbeare in 1792 ; his father was agent to 
Lord Montrath, and his residence was of no long duration. 
In spite of fires, this village is of a singular beauty ; the 
chequered church tower, the long, low priest's house, the 
roofs of deep thatch, form a quiet picture of ancient rural 
England. 

But the old manorial life must have flourished within 
the parish in Orway, Blackborough Boty, Blackborough 
Bolhay, Wood Barton, and Kingsford. Of these, Lower 
Kingsford is still an ancient farmstead, with thatch four 
feet thick, nestling under a low cliff, in the water meadows. 
Higher ELingsford was burnt fifty years back. The Manor 
of Orway Ues in a sequestered valley ; it is a narrow tract, 
running from the Blackdown heights in a. charming goyle 
down to the farm with its wide curtilages and on to the 
Manor-house of Orway Porch ; the Porch was taken down 
three years since, but an ancient carving of Adam and Eve, 
and a Tudor Rose, alone attest the ancient state of the 
Orways of Orway. Pirzwell lies north of the village and 
Manor, and its three farms still keep the names of old 
tenantry ; there is a tiny fragment of the old Manor-house, 
with its ancient scrap of plaster ceiling. Blackborough 
Boty, now Poncheydown Farm, has nothing ancient, 
save an old farm-house of some beauty and dignity. The 
woods and commons of all these manors can still be traced. 

But the larger current of history is felt in the mingled 
stories of Kentisbeare and of Wood. The Courtneys held 
Kentisbeare in the fourteenth century, but their connection 



/ 



AND CHURCH OF KENTISBBABB. 281 

with the place seems to have been slight ; they give place / /C 
in some yet unremembered way to the Bonvilles of Shute .'v/j:/> ^ ^^ 
and Heryngdon.* Now, the Bonvilles in the next century 
became Yorkist, and the Courtneys staunchly Lancastrian. 
The quarrel is said by local historians to have begun about 
a dog, but when the weak King Henry gave both to Bon- 
ville and Courtney a pledge for the stewardship of the 
Duchy of Cornwall, a quarrel was inevitable. 

The memorable fight of their retainers on Clyst Heath 
must have been felt in our quiet village, when tenants 
espoused the quarrels of their lords in their own persons. 
Bonville was the (Jovemor of Exeter, and Kentisbeare lay 
almost in the way between Shute and that city by way of 
CuUompton. For a whole generation the parish must 
have been f amiUarized with bloodshed ; Lord Bonville's 
son and grandson fell at Wakefield, December 31, 1460 ; 
on 16 February following /old Lord Bonville himself was 
brutally beheaded after Sr. Albans, where, as some think, 
his leg bones are preserved in fetters ; his brother died 
11 February, 1466-7 ; his surviving son in 1494. We g 

can be certain that the tenants were ou t, when we read in ^ 

the news letters of John Stodeley, preserved in the Paston ^f^^^r.^ 
Letters, 19 January, 1463-4 : — 

" Item the Erie of Wiltshire and the Lord Bonville have 
done to be cryed at Taunton, in Somersetshire, that every 
man that is Ukely and willing to go with theym and serve 
theym,* shall have VId a day, as long as he abydethe with 
theym." 

In the same year, our Lord of the Manor was playing 
pirate with the goods of the Mendly Flemings, and in 1466 
his lawyer, Radford, was brutally murdered by Courtney, y /. ,.. /^ 
his godson, near Poughill, in this county. The lot of quiet ' "^ ; ^'^ 
tenants in those days was indeed pitiable, as may be seen 
from the Paston Letters, and the disturbance to the country 
was very great during the long but intermittent struggle. 

The line of the hapless family of Bonville was continued 
in a single child, Cecily, who was swiftly married (before 
23 April, 1476) to Thomas Grey, ElSrI of Huntingdon and 
Dorset, whose mother afterwards married Edward IV. This 
nobleman was imbued with the blood of Prince Edward ; 
he served Edward IV, and was prepared to push the cause 
of his half-brother, Edward V, and was therefore compelled 
to flee by Richard III. Cecily, who built an aisle in Ottery 
Church, bore him seven sons and eight daughters. Thomas 



282 THE TOWN, VILLAGB, IfANOBS, 

succeeded his father, both in his estate and in favour 
of the reigning monarch, though his life was several times 
^ '' in danger. He was buried at Astley, in Warwickshire, 

October, ISSOT His body was after exhumed, and we know 
him, therefore, as a man of 5 feet 8 inches, with broad face 
and yellow hair. 
^f, ; He was succeeded by his third son, Henry, 3rd Marquis 

of ID^brset and Duke of Suffolk, who was a plain, amiable 
man, of some learning, but not greatly esteemed ; he was 
executed on Tower Hill, 23 February, 1663-4, for the abortive 
attempt to place his daughter. Lady Jane Grey, upon the 
throne. We are now in a position to trace the connection 
between the rebellion of the Greys and that of the Carews ; 
Sir Gawen Carew married secondly Lady Mary, rUe 
Wotton, sister of the mother of the Duke of Suffolk ; 
this lady, the great-aunt of Lady Jane Grey, was living 
at Wood Barton in this parish. This mansion had been 
the dwelling, at least from the days of Edward III, of the 
more peaceable family of Whiting ; Nicholas, the first 
I mentioned, founded his family by his learning in law, that 
I keen, brutal, wise, bull-headed English law that was half 
j a blessing and half a secondary means of civil wars in 
England. The law was a second sword in troublous days. 
Wood itself is a pleasant and ample farmstead, facing west, 
and well defended on two sides by the Kentisbeare stream. 
Several of the neighbouring families chose low-lying sites 
for their abode. The Gambons of Moorstone Barton, the 
^^ { ^,^ ^ Moores of Moorhayes, the Walronds of Bradfield, dwelt in 
\,. four homes which lie within a radius of two miles. Whit- 
ing's descendant in the seventh generation was John 
Whiting, the last of his line, for we hear little more of a 
namesake, a herald, bom in foreign parts, who claimed the 
estate. To him we owe probably the whole, certainly a 
great part of our church and screen ; he is not ashamed to 
blazon the arms of the merchant of the staple, to carve his 
fat wool bags on a pillar, nor are we surprised that one 
family, as the Pastons, combined law and arms with the 
shrewdest of trading. The East Devon churches, as was 
St. Paul's in London, are built on the Wool Sack. 

Henry Walrond, of Bradfield, married Whiting's daugh- 
ter. Wliiting died in 1629-30, but the house of Wood was 
let to distinguished tenants a few years after. Sir Gawen 
Carew, the second husband of Lady Mary Wotton, after- 
wards Guildeford, Uved here and brought Kentisbeare 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBBASB. 283 

again into the main current of affairs. Lady Mary lies 

buried in the Church in the Whiting Chapel, though her 

effigy is seen in Sir Gawen's stately monument in the 

Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene in the Cathedral. The 

Wottons were originally a merchant family of London, 

who in true English style brought wealth back to the land ; ^ ^ 

her fathe r married an heiress of the Midland family of W/t'Ou/u^'- 

^Iknap, whose arms are quartered third on a coat of six. 

As Controller of the Household of Henry VIII, he figures 

in all the history of that reign. About this time, Greys, 

Guildefords, Howards, Wottons, Carews, and Wyndhams, . jr 

all meet in Kentisbeare, all of them older families which Hv^^'- ^^ 

had become aggrandized after the sanguinary struggles 'jr(:r\( • 

of the Wars of the Roses. Fresh soil, fresh crops. 

Largely by the aid of these six families, imder the strong 
if cruel rule of the Tudors, England recovered from the 
anarchy of the Civil War and the dismemberment of the 
Angevin Empire. 

The Wottons fill many a page in our National Biography. 
Mary Wotton's brother was that astute diplomat who 
served his country, and perhaps his conscience, imder 
Henry VIII and his three children ; her nephew was Sir 
Henry, poet, diplomatist, and man out of luck ; her sister 
Marchioness of Dorset. 

Sir Henry Guildeford, the fos t husband of Lady Mary, 
was also among our great Tudor statesmen who saw 
England through the throes of the Reformation. He was 
long associated with Sir Nicholas Carew at the Royal Court, 
and like his father-in-law, Richard Wotton, received the 
Garter at a time when there was some merit about 
that distinction ; he died in 1532. It is, indeed, strange 
that Lady Mary rarely mentions the name of Sir Gawen 
Carew, her second husband, and, indeed, styles herself by 
the name of Guildeford ; yet Sir Gawen had played a ' 
very large part in recent English history. I 

We have no record of any estrangement between the two, 
but it must be remembered that Lady Mary died 17 
September, 1558, five weeks before her queen and namesake, 
while even in the early days of Elizabeth Sir Gawen's 
position as a strong Protestant was not wholly secure. 

Sir Gawen Carew himself was the fourth and youngest 
son of Sir Edmund Carew of Mohun's or Moon's Ottery, 
in the neighbouring parish of Luppitt ; his father fell at 
Terwin, in France, fighting in the campaign before Flodden ; 



\ 



284 THB TOWN, VILLAOE, MANORS, 

at Flodden, Sir Peter, with whom Sir Gawen was usucJly 
coupled, made his name by briUiant acts of heroism, 
and by changing armour with Lord Howard of Effingham. 
Sir Peter was imprisoned by the Soots, but was finally 
exchanged. In quiet times, in 1536, we find Sir Gawen 
as wine and timber merchant. The brothers were fully 
pledged by pocket and by conscience to the Protestant 
side, for in 1539-40 Sir Gawen received from the King 
the Augustinian Priory of Launceston, and other valuable 
ecclesiastical property in Cornwall. He was at that time 
in close attendance upon the King in London, and we find 
him among the pensioners drawn up to receive Anne of 
Cleves, the Protestant Queen, in January, 1639-40. Li 
the same year we find the significant licence obtained by 
him to export 14,000 lb. of bell metal, doubtless the spoil 
of many an abbey. In the following year he sells his Kent 
estates, and receives in part pa5rment from the owner, the 
manors of Whitewell, Furway, South Alington, and Skim- 
don in Devon, and Reskere in Cornwall, part of the 
forfeited estates of the Marquis of Exeter. Late in 
Henry VIII's reign, war was again afoot, and we find in 
1646, Sir Gawen, not as a soldier or merchant, but in 
command of the Matthew Gonson, a King's ship of 600 tons 
and 300 men. 

But it was in the troublous days of Edward VI that the 
two brothers, Peter and Gawen, made their mark, in the 
oft-recounted Devonshire Rebellion of 1549. From the 
church accounts of Holland and Morebath, from the 
splendour of the recent West Country churches, we can 
be certain that ChurcEUfe was still very clean and vigorous 
in the west. The tower of Cullompton Church was built 
in the year of this rebellion, 1549. The rebels were chiefly 
of the lower order, led by their parish priests and an 
occasional small gentleman, and as is well known, they rose 
against the new Prayer Book of Edward VI, or rather that 
of his Council, for the rebels professed loyalty to the King, 
and did not desire a return to papal rule. The brothers 
Carew were Sheriffs of the County, and were therefore 
responsible for the King's peace. The original outbreak 
was at Sampford, probably Sampford Courtenay, between 
Okehampton and Crediton. The King's troops were 
engaged in Scotland, and the brothers were instructed to 
pacify the people, who had entrenched themselves in 
bams at Crediton ; after some parley, Carew's armed party 






AND OHUBOH OF KENTISBBABE. 285 

fired a volley, and broke all resistance for the moment ; 
but trouble broke out immediately at Clyst St. Mary, 
about three miles from Exeter. This was said to have been 
occasioned by the tactless Protestant remarks of Sir Walter 
Raleigh to an old woman who loved the old ways. The 
Bishop's registers show that the diocese was seething with 
rehgious tcJk, and though the Roman Catholics have 
shown themselves at times cruel, Protestants have often 
shown themselves highly exasperating. The Carews often 
complained of the weakness of the governing classes, 
many of whom became not imwilling prisoners. For a 
time the brothers were at the end of their resources ; they 
supped and slept at the Mermaid Inn in Exeter, and rode 
off in haste to find Lord Russell. Meanwhile the rebel 
force had become highly menacing, and summoned the vr /.^^ 
city to surrender, and began the tedious siege which is 
perhaps portrayed in a stone carving anciently at Bick- ^ 

leigh Court, but now preserved in the summer house at yi^^ /f:X, 
Bickleigh Rectory. Lord Russell, who, of all men, had 
grown richest from Devon plunder, was at Honiton with a ' 
small guard, without money, and seemingly with httle 
stomach for his duty. It was here that Sir Gawen foimd 
him, after he had ridden to the Manor of Mohun's Ottery 
to raise his tenantry. The Grey tenants at Kentisbeare 
were probably Protestant. Sir Peter had taken the new 
road to London, through Gteorge Hinton in Somerset, 
and had been received with anger and threats of execution 
by the Council. Sir Gawen now solved a difficult situation 
by arranging a war loan with Protestant merchants at 
Honiton, and an army was formed, with which the rebels 
were turned out of their entrenchments at Feniton Bridge ; 
the fighting was very hot, Sir Gawen received a severe 
woimd, and the King's army repaired to Honiton to await 
reinforcements. On 3 August the King's army was again 
en route, and, after severe fighting and a repulse, relieved 
Exeter, 6 August ; Lord Grey, who commanded the German 
mercenaries, said that he had never seen such stiff en- 
counters. Heavy vengeance was taken on the rebels, and 
the heroic and athletic Vicar of St. Thomas was hanged 
upon his church tower. Here was no civil tumult bred 
between jealous nobles, no seething revolution after the 
amputation of half a little empire, such as we saw in the i 
Wars of the Roses, but the genuine outburst of real, if 
ignorant, piety ; yet England owes much to the courage of 



286 THB TOWN, VILLAOB, MANORS, 

the two brothers who saved England from a civil war. 
No part of England is more generally satisfied with the 
Reformation than is Devon. 

Sir Gawen seems to have been a convinced Protestant, 
for the loyalist of 1549 becomes, with his brother, in 
January, 1553-4, a bold plotter against Queen Mary and 
the Spanish match. @ir Thomas Dennys, the Sheriff, 
writes that he dare not attack Sir Peter in his fortified 
manor at Mohim's Ottery. Sir Gawen Carew, at Tiver- 
ton, writes to Dennys to soothe his suspicions, but on 
26 January, 1553-4, the Queen writes to order that Henry, 
Duke of Suffolk, Carew's nephew by marriage (Lord of the 
Manor of Kentisbeare), and the Carews, and Sir Thomas 
Wyatt, should be proclaimed traitors ; three days later 
Sir John St. Leger wrote to say that he had apprehended 
Sir Gawen Carew at Bickleigh CJourt, the house of his 
nephew : Sir Gawen escaped over the wall at Exeter, on 
foot. The evidence of a groom of his is preserved, showing 
that Sir Gawen escaped on foot, and had to cut his boots, 
which were probably better made for riding than for 
trudging the Bang's highway. He seems to have fled the 
kingdom from Weymouth ; his further movements I 
cannot trace, but there is a letter preserved of the Duke 
of Devonshire, dated 23 November, 1665, asking Sir Gawen 
to press the suit of his servant. 

Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk, the Lord of Kentisbeare 
Manor, was beheaded February, 1663-4, as was his daughter. 
Lady Jane Grey ; Lord Howard of EflBngham, a moderate 
man, who had suppressed Wyatt's rebellion in London, 
obtained the manors of Kentisbeare and Blackborough. 

This Lord William Howard, 1st Baron of EflSngham, 
bom c. 1510, was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, 2nd 
Duke of Norfolk. After a stay at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 
under Gardiner, he began life (1631) as ambassador to 
James of Scotland, and in 1634-6 invested that sovereign 
with the Garter. In January, 1631-2 he wins £9 of the 
King " at shovel boairde " — a dangerous pleasure. In 
February, 1634-5, he was again sent to Scotland with 
Barlow, Bishop -elect of St. Asaph, to recommend to 
James V the ecclesiastical policy of his master, to *' in- 
culce, and to harpe upon the spring of honour and proffit." 
In December, 1641, his neck was in danger, for shielding 
his kinswoman, Queen Catherine Howard, but he escaped 
with his life. In 1644 he saw service in Scotland, and was 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBBABB. 287 

at the siege of Boulogne ; from October, 1552, to December, 
1553, he was Lord Deputy and Grovemor of Calais, with 
£100 a year ; on 14 November, 1553, he became Lord High 
AdmiriJ, and 3 February, 1553-4, he saved London for 
Queen Mary ; Wrothesley tells us that he shut Ludgate 
in the face of Sir Thomas Wyatt, and " that night watched 
the Bridge with xn.c. men and brake the drawbridge and 
set rampires with great ordnance therein " ; on 1 March, 
1553-4, he was made Baron of Effingham. His position 
as High Admiral gave him a singular independence, and 
in 1554 he ventured to remonstrate with the Queen for 
her ill-treatment of the Princess Elizabeth. He met King 
Philip at the Needles, and brought him to Southampton, 
though it was feared that he might carry him off to France. 
Li 1556 he was so suspected that he thought of resignation, 
but held on during the brief reign of Queen Mary, and 
was reappointed Chamberlain by Queen Elizabeth ; he 
presented to Kentisbeare and Blackborough under both 
queens. Li 1559 he complains to Cecil of poverty ; later, 
he bought considerable estates in Surrey. He married 
before 1531 Katherine, the daughter of Sir John Boughton, 
of Heddington, Beds, who died in 1535. Their only 
daughter married William Paulet, 3rd Earl of Winchester. 
Before 1536 he married Margaret (died 1531), the daughter 
of Sir Thomas Gamage, Lord of Coity, in the county of 
Glamorgan, who presents to Kentisbeare and Black- 
borough with her husband. By her he had two sons, 
Charles and William, of whom Charles, 2nd Lord Howard 
of Effingham, defeated the Armada in 1588. The 1st Lord 
died 12 January, 1572-3, at Hampton Court, or, as others 
say, at Reigate, where he was buried. The Tudors found 
singularly capable and faithful servants, among whom 
he certainly ranks among the best. The Wyndhams seem 
to have b ought Kentisbeare and Blackborough from the "" 
Crown. 

The Wjnidhams were ancestrally of W5rmondham, in 
Norfolk, but in the days of Henry VIII Sir John Wjnidham 
is found at Orchard Wyndham, on whom devolved all the 
large grants of confiscated lands made to his brother. Sir 
Edmund. Hence the proverb, " Luttrell, Popham, Wynd- 
ham and Thynne ; when the Abbot went out, they came 
in." 

Sir John (1), second son, was knighted at the coronation 
of Edward VI, and married the heiress of John Sydenham, 



■:* 



288 .THB TOWN, VILLAQB, MANOBS, 

of Orchard, now Orchard Wyndham ; his second son» 
Edmund, presented to the Uving ; indeed, the patronage 
was recovered for John, his elder brother, by legal means. 
This John's father had married the heiress of the Wadhams, 
with whom came the Silverton estate and much more. 
His son. Sir John (2), married Jane, daughter of Sir Henry 
Portman. He had ten sons and six daughters, of whom 
the first, John, was the ancestor of the Earls of Egremont, 
and the ninth. Sir Wadham, was a distinguished judge, 
and the direct ancestor of the present Lord of the Manor. 
Eklmimd, of Kingsf ord, Somerset, was a good Royalist, and 
the father of the Colonel Wyndham who saved the life of 
Charles II after the battle of Worcester, and adduced 
the advice of his father to remain faithful though the 
crown " hung on a bush." William Wyndham, grandson 
of Sir John (3) Wyndham, was made a baronet in 1661. 
His grandson, Sir William, 3rd Bcuronet, was Secretary for 
War imder Queen Anne, and ever a devoted Tory. In 
1716 he was arrested for compHcity in the Jacobite rising, 
but was hberated on baU, and never brought to tried. 
Some very interesting accounts of his minority are pre- 
served at Orchard Wyndham : of him Pope said : 

"Of Wyndham, iust to freedom and the throne. 
The master of his passions and our own/' 

He died 17 June, 1740. His son, Sir Charles, succeeded 
by special remainder on the demise of his uncle Algernon, 
Duke of Somerset, to the Barony of Cockermouth, and 
became also 2nd Earl of Egremont (1749). He was at first 
a Tory, but soon became a Whig. He sat for Bridgwater 
and Taunton, and on the accession of Gteorge III was Privy 
Councillor and Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment ; although hostile to Lord Bute he enjoyed the close 
confidence of his sovereign. 

George O'Brien, the 3rd Earl (1751-1837), was also 
a man of mark ; he was in early life a Whig, but later 
inclined to the Tories. He was a great patron of the fine 
arts, and was the first to appreciate Turner, who had a 
study at Petworth ; much of his collection is preserved 
at Orchard Wyndham. He was a noted figure in the world 
of fashion, and in 1782 was noted by the Morning Herald 
for his fondness for street riding. He was a most charitable 
man, and is said, during his life, to have given away 
£1,200,000. On the succession of George Wjnidham, 4th 



AND CHURCH OP KBNTISBBARB. 289 

Earl of Egremont, 11 November, 1837, to his uncle's 
titles and estates, a new and disturbing influence was felt, 
from which our commimity has not recovered. The new 
peer was bom 6 October, 1786, and married 14 November, 
1820, the third daughter of the Rev. WiUiam Roberts, 
Vice-Provost of Eton. A great part of the Egremont 
estates passed to the natural children of his predecessor, 
and he appears to have been seized with a desire to emulate 
the opulence and importance of his cousins. In conse- 
quence, the eight years of his earldom were years of the 
most frantic profusion : he built the large mansions of 
Silverton and Blackborough, the bridge at Kentisbeaxe, 
the Rectory at Silverton, and part of that at Kentis- 
beare and the whole of Blackborough Church ; in ad- 
dition he collected furniture and pictures without regard 
to cost. His steward, a barrister, commonly called 
Counsellor Tripp, discovered that the village of Kentis- 
beare, and much Somerset property, had been let on 
lives by faulty leases ; these he proceeded to recall, with 
the result that great distress was felt in the village, and 
some even were ruined. This spendthrift consumed 
£300,000 in eight years, and the estates are still encumbered 
with mortgage. The portraits and busts of this earl and 
his coimtess are at Orchard Wyndham ; had he Uved 
longer he would have destroyed that ancient home. He 
habitually drove in a coach with four horses. He detested 
smoking, and is said to have refused to promote Mr. 
Roberts to Silverton on the ground that he was a confirmed 
smoker. Lady Egremont survived her husband until 1884. 
Apart from his profusion Lord Egremont appears to have 
been a man of good repute who has been much maligned. 

Social and Economic Life, — Of the earUer social life of 
the place, we know little save by the analogy of other 
places. We note the five classes in Domesday : some three 
or four tenants-in-chief, a few more sub-tenants, villeins, 
bordarii, and slaves or serfs. It is possible that artificers 
were included under the head of bordarii, who were else- 
where called cottars. The economic effect of the Black 
Death must have been deeply felt in the emancipation of 
the labourers, but it was the new Poor Laws, rendered 
necessary by the aboUtion of the monasteries, which did 
most to raise the status, and probably increase the hard- 
ships of the poor. There seems little doubt that the 
Elizabethan Poor Law was not working so ill as the later 

VOL. XLII. T 



290 THB TOWN, VILLAQB, MANORS, 

Georgian development of the same enactments. For 
instance, we leam from the parish registers for 1700-1706 
the trades of all parishioners mentioned therein, and the 
number of paupers, though great, is not so large as we 
find it a himdred years later. In the trades and occupa- 
tions mentioned we find no mention of farmers, dairymen, 
or of the labourer attached to a farm, but only of day 
labourers, about a quarter of the male population ; of 
husbandmen, about 16 per cent; of yeomen, about 8 per 
oent ; wool and worsted combers and weavers, about 
13 per cent. The Orchard Wjnidham accounts of this date 
show that nearly all the Wyndham manors were let on 
Uves, and it is probable that the larger tenants were called 
yeomen, and not merely the freeholders. It is generally 
admitted that the enactments of Charles II, which threw 
more responsibility on the Justices, and also on the over- 
seer, and further parochialized the Poor Law by a reaction- 
ary stringency of settlement, proved a curse to the country. 
Bastardy, pauperism, and idleness increased in the par- 
ishes : Kentisbeare, with a population of about nine 
hundred, had in some years to raise £1000 a year for Poor 
Rate, about three times as much as is raised to-day. It is 
strange indeed to find documents as late as 1703 giving 
leave to a man to take up his residence in Kentisbeare. 
But surely the real reason for the moral retrogression in 
England lay deeper than in peddling bye-laws ; it is to 
be sought in the decline of religion that followed when the 
early Georges depressed the Church to the position of a 
bureau of the State. Wherever I have had an opportunity 
for judging, I have found that commerce, art, industry 
and morals, public and private religion were at their lowest 
under George II : parish papers show a marked decline 
in morals from Caroline to Georgian da^^s. The Poor Laws, 
however, were unspeakably bad ; about the year 1830 
the small parish of Cholesham, in Bucks, was evacuated 
by its parson and the remnant of the rate-payers, as the 
rates were higher than the profits of the land. The more 
simple bucoUc minds at the parish vestries supposed that 
it was a good stroke to pay the labourer out of the rates ; 
he took the money as his right and refused to work ; the 
poor children were balloted for as parish apprentices, and 
the labourers' cottages were built with only two bedrooms, 
as the children were sent oflE to a farm- house at the age of 
eight or nine, " as soon as they could fall over a clot." 



AND CHURCH OF KENTISBEABS. 



291 



This was really a survival, if not a return, of serfdom ; we 
now give free doctor, dentist, schooling, pensions, which 
will, in the end, spell the same thing for good or ill. 

The earlier days after the Napoleonic wars were times 
of great distress : the standard of comfort had risen, sani- 
tation had improved, war had ceased, and the villages were 
glutted with labour, yet wages in 1850 were but 7s. a week. 
It is easy to blame the farmers who were doing well, but 
it is not yet in human nature to give more wages than are 
asked. We have a little glimpse of the feeling of those 
times in a report of a ploughing match dinner, held at the 
" Wyndham Arms " in 1864, with the Rev. J. F. Alleyne 
in the chair. Mr. Thompson, the Rector of Blackborough, 
asked leave to read a letter from a labourer named Orlando 
Hadden, who, by his help, had emigrated to AustraUa. 
Mr. Thompson contrasted his life in the new country with 
the grinding poverty in England, when he came to his 
parson with tears in his eyes, for the dread of starvation 
for his wife and children. Times are still bad with our farm 
labourers. It is true that the old men now say that they 
lived on field turnips and barley meal and kettle broth, 
but the man with a family was not so proportionately 
oppressed as he- is to-day, as all victuals save bread were 
much cheaper. 

Tenure. — Our land at present is held on several tenures ; 
there are a few yeomen, and several large estates split into 
farms held on yearly tenancies. Under most farms is a 
dairy, occupied by a dairy farmer, who usually rents cows 
from the farmer ; this is a complicated system, but it has 
the advantage of enabling the farm labouring man to rise 
with little capital. The number of landowners is nearly 
the same now as it was sixty years ago. 

Yet in the older days there was much left to remind of 
the merry England of Herrick ; if there was little football, 
single-stick lingered till a century ago, but wrestling was 
the popular sport. WiUiam Ayres, parish clerk, remembers 
the last wrestling bout (about 1853) at the " Four Horse 
Shoes Inn " on the Honiton road, which had been built 
a few years before by Bethel Walrond, as a keeper's house. 
Masters, of Broadhembury, played Stone, of Cullompton, 
kicked him unfairly, and apologized ; on a second offence 
he was barred. Masters, however, was crowing over his 
victory when Pratt of Clyst-Hydon, the local champion, 
arrived, threw in his hat, and insisted on a match. Kicking 






7sn 



THE TOWS. VHXAGK. 3tA3?OBS. 



Within wide limiu was allowecL and Pratt proceeded to 
kick hisk opponent deftly in the ** ankle of each knee/' and 
to rain farther blows on his diins ; finalhr, just on the 
call of time, he threw him at his leijBiire, and fell himself, 
neatly and purposely, with his dhow in the pit of his 
adTersary's stomach. This was considered rough bnt 
strict play, thoroughly deserved by Masters' pievioiis 
lapses. The boota of these tough yokels were often har- 
dened by soaking and baking them in bullock's blood. In 
some boots, kicking was baned. Kentisbeare and Black- 
borough were noted fighting villages, but the Rev. J. F. 
AUeyne procured the aid 61 the Lady Egremcmt in ex- 
pelling the rough characters. The wrestling and single-stick 
were doubtless brutal, but the pluck of the men was beyond 
praise ; it would be hard to find men now to stand up to 
each other with cudgels with instructions to ^^ draw blood 
above the chin." 

There was a great deal more poaching than at present, 
but the infamous rabbit trap was not in use. The two 
sworn constables were not wholly inefficient, for they once 
tracked and caught a man who had stolen a "" woolly bird " 
to Nicholas Hajiie. 

The hard lot of the villagers was in part mitigated by 
smuggling. Kentismoor Cottages, which were built about 
seventy years back, formed a great local centre. William 
Ayres fetched white brandy from these from one Coles, a 
paper maker and consistent smuggler. He kept his kegs in 
a cave behind Post Wood Cottage ; on one occasion his 
'' cache " was rifled. The last lot run was hidden by one 
Blackmore, gardener at Croyle, and was brought from 
Beer. The remote farmstead of Halsbeare was the scene 
of a serious afoay between smugglers and Revenue officers ; 
but William and Peter Salter, who were hanged for the 
murder of Revenue officers on 29 March, 1788, committed 
their offence near Honiton. 

Flora and Fauna. — ^The Flora and Fauna of the parish 
are of singular variety ; the hare, otter, badger, and even 
red deer are with us, though the foxhounds dread the 
endless Blackborough earths, that cannot be stopped. 
There is a fair head of game, especially of snipe and wood- 
cock ; black game have recently disappeared. The goat- 
sucker is common to the Blackdowns, and the honey 
buzzard has been seen. 



and church of kentisbeabe. 293 

iKentisbeabe Club. 

One of the great sources of honest pride, thrift, and 
general well-being has been, and is, her splendid friendly 
society, founded by Henry Bray, James Ackland, Henry 
Salter (died 1909), Robert MelUsh, and WiUiam Lane, on 
Midsummer Day, 1843. 

Some of the Rules are worth quoting : — 

Rule I. — ^That this Society shall consist of men of good 
report, who shall behave themselves on all occasions 
religiously, honestly, and soberly . . . thinking that 
constant attendance to Divine Worship is a duty incumbent 
upon all, and that every member of this Society will 
attend some place of worship as often as health and cir- 
cumstances will permit. 

Ride VIII. — ^That no member shall receive benefit from 
the stock whose indisposition shall be owing to fighting, 
quarrelling, or any other misfortune of his own seeking. 

The Society shares out at the end of every seven years, 
which is perhaps a necessity in a purely local society. 
The health of the men is so good, and the management so 
careful, that, unlike many similar societies, the Kentisbeare 
Club continues to grow, and the rare Club funeral is a 
touching sight. 

The Annual Club Walk is on Whit Monday, when the 
members attend Kentisbeare Church, and after, a dinner 
at the " WjTidham Arms." A great majority of the 
working men of the parish are members. In spite of the 
loss of one-half of the population since 1843 the number 
of members reached its highest point, 170, in 1909 ; about 
half of these are parishioners. Devonshire farm labourers 
combined in this way about the year 1703. 



294 THE TOWN, VILLAOB, MANORS, 



II.— THE CHURCH. 

The Church of St. Mary stands in the midst of the Manor 
settlement, on the sharp slope of the hill which flanks 
the village on the south. It is a church completely Per- 
pendicular in style, and is therefore light and thoroughly 
adapted for a modem congregation. The tower and church 
stand well, especially when viewed from the north and 
north-west. As will be seen, the whole edifice is probably 
of late Perpendicular date, and was probably completed 
in the early years of EJng Henry VIII. 

The great entrance is by a north gorch ^ severely plain, 
and therefore mantled in ivy. The ceiKhg is of the same 
pattern as those within, and had originally twelve bosses, 
of which only three and two halves remain ; of these 
three, one bears a Knot, another a Tudor Rose, and 
the third a cross encircle. Martha, daughter of Lord 
Howard of Efl5ngham, Lord of the Manor temp. Queen 
Ehzabeth, married Sir George Bourchier, the third son 
of John, Earl of Bath ; but this seems too late. As for the 
rose, the Greys, Lords of the Manor temp. Henry VII, 
were Lancastrians, while the cross may be the Arms of 
the Ponchardon family, or of that family commemorated 
in the parclose. 

The north door is without pilasters, and, like one of the 
north windows within, is set in a shallow moulded archway, 
decorated with leaves cut square. The door was made in 
1866, locally. The outer gqrcli js framed in an archway 
of shallow moulding with pilasters. On the east of the 
outer doorway is a low flat tomb, the oldest, and only 
tomb surviving before the registers begin. I therefore 

copy the inscription : *' Here tyeth the body of ^ Roger 

Braddon, of Oreway, in this parish, who d^^ed the 19th., 
of Novemb., 1695. Also here tyeth ye body of Mr Lewis 
Brooke Braddon son of ye above said Roger Braddon, who 
died ye 13th., of [March ?], 1696." 

The high tomb on the other side is to Mrs. Pratt, 1781 
or 1787. 

The Chancel. — ^The walls of the chancel are of the same 
small rough stone with the rest of the church : the three 
buttresses in the north were built by the Rev. T. H. Wynd- 



AND OHTJRCH OF KBNTISBBARE. 295 

ham in 1889, at the cost of £92 3s. The eastern gable is 
ornamented by a cross with trifoliated ends. The windows 
are protected by shallow dripstones. 

T^e chancel within is of about the normal size ; its exact 
dimensions can be obtained from the scale plan of the 
church. 

It is floored with stone flags save where the surface is 
covered by pews with boarded floors, the ornamental 
stones, and the tiles of the 8€tcrarium ; the inscriptions 
are given elsewhere. 

The three pews in the south were made, probably at the 
restoration in 1866, for the boys of Mr. Dennis' school 
at Croyle ; the two pews in the north are the old Rectorj- 
pews. A series of five, and a series of four and a half of 
seemingly Jacobean panels, have been rather clumsily 
worked in against the north wall. These five pews are 
wedged against the screen, parclose, and north wall, 
and it is hoped that some better arrangement of chancel 
seats will shortly be made. 

Sacrarium, — ^The eastern end of the chancel is tiled in 
two broad steps ; the Commimion rails are of oak, and of 
the Victorian age. The eastern wall is masked by a costly 
reredos from six to nine feet in height. It was erected in 
1881-2, and has, on a brass, the following inscription: 
" In loving memory of Gteorgiana Mary Alleyne, daughter 
of the Rector of this parish, friends, rich and poor, dedicate 
this Reredos 1881." The whole of the adult population 
of Kentisbeare are said to have testified to their affection 
in this memorial gift. The whole cost was £212, of which 
Mr. and Mrs. Marker gave a considerable part. The main 
reredos is of alabaster, and has five niches. The three 
central panels are canopied ; the midmost panel holds 
a white marble cross on a fretted gold ground of mosaic ; 
the panels on the right and left contain white Hlies in 
mosaic with a ground of gold. The wings above the tiling 
are of Beer stone with two quatrefoils in each. 

The Communion table is of oak, and was seemingly 
placed here in 1882 ; the board has the customary medi- 
aeval five crosses incised. It is covered by a super-frontal 
and carpet of crimson pile worked with alternate white 
lilies and crosses, and by a frontal of the same bearing a 
large foliated cross of white lilies, with circle and monogram 
of gold ; the orphreys are worked with a design of passion 
flowers. The whole was designed and worked by Miss 



'hr 



296 THE TOWN, VILLAGE, MANORS, 

Alleyne, daughter of the Rector, Mrs. H. Wahrond of 
Dulford House, and Mrs. G. M. Marker, of Uffcuhne. A 
Communion table, possibly Jacobean, is in the vestry, 
together with the frontal presented in 1849 by Mr. Richard 
Bowerman, of Uffculme. 

In the sacrarium are also two stools for kneeling, and 
two Glastonbury chairs of normal Victorian design. 

The northern wall is pierced by three Perpendicular 
windows of two lights each. The two western have a 
quatrefoil in the upper light, the easternmost two panels. 
The wall here is some two feet and a half in thickness, 
and as the splay of the windows is not great, the windows 
cannot be seen from the body of the Church ; the first and 
third windows are filled with Victorian stained glass of 
conventional and inoflEensive design. They were probably 
inserted in 1866. The middle window of the north chancel 
wall was filled with stained glass in 1889, and has the 
following inscription : "To the glory of God and the 
loving memory of my dear mother, Sarah Monkton. In 
fond remembrance of my dear friend, Emma Goldstone, 
this window is dedicated by Ann Monkton. 1889." The 
subjects are the Crucifixion and the Descent from the 
Cross ; they were intended to form the third and fourth 
subjects in a series of six between the Agony in the 
Garden, the Flagellation, the Entombment, the Re- 
surrection. The artist was Drake, of Exeter, and the 
cost £30. 

The eastern wall is pierced by a Perpendicular window 
of four lights. The wall here is barely two feet in thick- 
ness, and the window is but slightly splayed ; the inner 
arch of the window is of Beer stone with pilasters, and 
may be original work. The window is filled with stained 
glass ; the four subjects, reading from the north, are : 
(1) Our Lord's appearance to Mary Magdalene. (2) His 
appearance while breaking bread at Emmaus. (3) His 
appearance to St. Thomas. (4) His appearance on the 
lake shore. It has the following inscription : " To the 
glory of God and in affectionate remembrance of his 
parents, and of Sarah, James, Mary, Charles, Henry, and 
of his other brothers and sisters, who have entered into 
life, this window is dedicated by John Forster AUeyne, 
Rector, a.d. 1882." It is the work of Clayton and Bell, 
of London, and cost £200, and can be best seen from the 
gallery. 



AND CHURCH OF KENTISBBAEB. 297 

On either side of the east window are the tables of the 
law, painted in 1866 by the Misses Allejnie on two lancet- 
shaped tablets of zinc ; the lettering is beautifully exe- 
cuted in black, red, and gold. The old tablets of the law 
were upon framed canvas, and are preserved over the 
rectory stables ; they have no artistic value. 

The chancel is partially ht by three oil lamps, in a 
corona of brass, suspended from the roof, placed here 
in 1887. 

The barrel roof of the chancel is ceiled in twenty square 
panels of plaster, four by five feet in length ; the rafters and 
ribs are of oak, and are exposed ; at their junctures there 
are fifteen oak bosses of flat foHage carving ; the western- 
most rib has three bosses of a larger size, and terminates 
in two capitals of oak and marks the division from the 
nave. 

Chancel Inscriptions. 

South Wall. — " To the memory of Anne, widow of the 
Rev. WiUiam Roberts, Vice-Provost of Eton College, and 
Rector of Worplesdon, in Surrey, who died at the Rectory, 
Kentisbeare, Dec. 11th, 1846, aged 76 years, and was 
buried at the south-east angle of this Church. This 
tablet is erected by her children as a testimony of their 
affection to the best of mothers." 

In the same vault with the above are deposited the 
remains of ** Frances Anne, the beloved wife of the Revd. 
R. A. Roberts, Rector of this parish, who died, July 27th, 
1851, aged 49 years. ' Who shall separate us from the 
love of Christ ? ' (Rom. vnl. 66). Also •the remains of the 
Revd. R. A. Roberts, Rector of Kentisbeare, who died 
at the Rectory, March 9th, 1864, aged 67 years." 

NoHh Wall:— 

" To youth, to age alike, this tablet pale, 
Tells the brief moral of its tragic tale, 
Art thou a parent ? Reverence this bier, 
The parents fondest hopes lie buried here. 
Art tnou a youth prepared on life to start, 
With opening talente and a generous heart, 
Fair hopes and flattering prospects all thine own ? 
Lo ! here their end, a monumental stone. 
But let submission check repining thought, 
Heaven crowned its champion ere the fight was fought." 

The hnes above are incised on a scroll which partially 
•conceals an ancient cofl5n. A life-sized boy child of about 



2118 THS TOWN, VILLAOS, MAKOB8, 

gix years has partially withdrawn a pall, below which is a 
butterfly ; at the foot of the coffin are a Bible and a 
Chalice ; the whole, with the following inscription, is cut 
in white marble : — 

^' To the memory of the Revd. George William Scott, 
Rector of Kentisbc^^e, third son of Hu^ Scott, Esquire, 
of Harden. This stone is erected by desire of his afflicted 
parents and brothers and sisters, to whom he was the best 
of sons, and the best of brothers. To the purest piety he 
united a quick and steady judgment, with the most benign 
benevolence, and the strictest integrity, and was exem- 
plary in the performance of his religious and moral duties. 
He bore the sufferings of illness with the resignation of a 
devout Christian, and died at Kentisbeare on the 9th June,. 
1830, in the twenty-sixth year of his age. Beloved and 
regretted by all who knew him." 

" Sacred to the memory of Sarah, widow of the Revd. 
Dr. Tripp, Rector of Spofforth, in Yorkshire, who died 
at the Parsonage in Kentisbeare, on the 14th day of No- 
vember, 1834, aged 75, and was buried in this Chancel. 
* Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord,' Rev. 
chap. XIV. verse 13. 

"This tablet is erected by Charles and Charlotte, her 
affectionate children, in testimony of their respect for a 
beloved parent." [Cross and Anchor.] 

North Wall, — " In memory of Arthur Gore Alleyne, 
eldest son of the Revd. I. [sic] Forster Alleyne, Rector of 
Kentisbeare. He -was midshipman of H.M.S. Cura9oa, 
and died of fever on board that ship Jan. 26th, 1861, aged 
19 years, deeph' regretted by all who knew him. 

" His remains were interred in the English Cemetery of 
Monte Video, S.E. coast of America, where a simple 
monument has been erected over his grave by all his 
shipmates. 

"Also in memorj' of Charles Stuart Forster Alleyne, 
second and only surviving son of the above. Ensign in 
H.M.'s 92nd ((Jordon Highlanders), who died at Kentis- 
beare Rectory, November 15th, 1863, aged 19 years. This 
tablet is erected by their bereaved and most affectionate 
parents. 

" ' The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away, 
blessed be the name of the Lord.' " 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBBARB. 299 

'' In loving memory of Greorgiana Mary Alleyne, eldest 
daughter of the Revd. John Forster Alleyne, Rector. 
Bom April 29th, 1836 ; died March 7th, 1881, at Florence, 
where her body rests. ' Waiting for the coming of Our 
Lord Jesus Christ,' 1 Cor. i. 7." 

Floor, North Side. — " Here lie Mary the first-bom, and 
Richard the eldest son, of Richard Saunders, Pastor of 
this Church, and Mary his wife, 

^^'^y I H- H J August 20th, 1652. 
Richard J ^^ \ April 10th, 1656. 

' Two gemms from high, to parents deare were sent^ 
But were recald, and why ? they were but lent.' " 

'" In spe beatse Resurrectionis hie requiescit depositum 
desideratissimi juvenis Rogeri Rogeri Grubham hujus 
ecclesiae Rectoris fiUi secundi geniti qui obiit 7 bris 16mo. 
A.D. 1699. iEtatis suae 18mo. 

"Etiam Rogeri Grubham patris hujus ecclesise per 44 
annos Rectoris qui obiit 19 die Maii a.d. 1726, et setatis 
suae 76, atque Marise uxoris supradicti Rogeri Grubham 
quae (obiit) May ye 10th, 1727." 

The Screen. — ^The greatest glory of the church is its 
screen, which has been pronounced by the great expert » 
Mr. Bligh-Bond, as perhaps the finest in the diocese ; he 
considers it the prototype of the type which for con- 
venience he calls the Exe valley. There is little doubt 
that the screen was made for the church ; it fits the walls \ 
within three inches, and the arrangement of the two doors, J 

as the third and eighth bays out of ten, points to the same 
conclusion. Its singular beauty is elusive of description^ 
for the type is common, but the freshness of the design 
is unequalled. The top is approached by a Uttle flight of 
stone stairs, anciently lit by a pierced quatrefoil ; the 
platform is quite sound, and was at one time used, long 
after the destruction of the rood under Edward VI, for a 
children's gallery ; the mortice holes may belong either 
to the rood or to this late gallery ; the staircase is closed 
by an ancient painted door. The whole front is sur- 
mounted by three strips of carving between red beading ; 
the first and third are of vine leaves with tendrils and 
grapes, the second of conventional leaves between a wavy 
double band of gilding ; below is a dainty fringe of carved 



300 THE TOWN, VILLAGB, MANORS, 

wood. These are all most artfully coloured in gold leaf, 
and in green, purple (two shades), orange, slate, and 
scarlet distemper ; but the colour scheme is purposely 
capricious. 

Below the fringe, the eleven pilasters branch out into 
most exquisite fan tracery, with seven gilded ribs for each 
pilaster, save for the half-fans at the ends ; there are gilded 
bosses of the most deUcate carving at the intersections of 
the ribs ; the upper sections of the outer ribs are perhaps a 
little stiff, the panels between the ribs are filled with an 
exuberance of device which surpasses description, while no 
photograph can give the worth of every detail. 

The eight bays, other than the doorways, are filled with 
tracery of four lights. In the upper lights of each are four 
pierced panels with cusps, in each of which is a shield 
*' a bouche " ; but in other respects the tracery of each 
light has its individuaUty. Each bay is framed from the 
base in a carving of twined leaves. The base of the screen 
has four panels to each bay, with rounded heads of differ- 
ing design ; below each panel is a pierced quatrefoil en- 
closing a carved leaf. 

The eastern face of the screen is not so fine ; there is 
but one band of carving on top, of gold leaves on a red 
stem ; the cresting above is a poor Georgian thing of 
marbled colour that will not stand washing ; the outer 
ribs are not continued in the fan tracery, and the colouring 
is duller ; the design of the panels between the ribs is 
more geometric. The screen has never been coloured or 
finished where it clashes with the pillar ; the colouring 
of the five northern bays in the eastern face has unfortu- 
nately been removed, and replaced by boiled oil, which 
some would have reserved for the restorers. 

The experiment, at least, shows what a screen owes to 
colour in distemper. 

The doors have disappeared ; the distemper colouring 
is more subdued in the lower parts of the screen, but the 
bottom panels have seemingly been defaced, and bear no 
effigies ; the whole of the glorious ornament of the screen 
is naturaUstic save for the shields. 

Parclose. — ^The parclose has also been barbarously 
treated, but it has never been in the same high artistic 
plane with the screen. Below a tall and mechanical crest- 
ing, and on either side there is a good run of vine-leaf and 
berry carving, much coarsened by varnish ; the four bays 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBEABE. 301 

are all square-headed and have four lights ; the tracery 
is stiff ; the inner side is still touched with crimson ; the 
plain bottom panels carry a Uttle green paint. Five thin 
wooden shields are screwed to the beading below the 
inner cresting. 

I. 1 and 4, Whiting ; 2 and 3, sable, 3 hake fishes 
haurient, argent : Hake of Cullompton. 

II. 1 and 4, Whiting ; 2 and 3, or (?), a Uon rampant, 
sable, crowned (gules ?) : Clevedon, temp. Edw. Ill (?). 

III. 1 and 4, Whiting ; 2 and 3, label of three points, 
vert ; argent, a cross encircle : Ponchardon {?). 

IV. 1 and 4, Whiting ; 2 and 3, Clevedon, as above. 

V. Blank. 

The present vestry door may have been taken from the 
doorway in the easternmost bay of this parclose. 

The Whiting Chapel. — ^The east end of the south aisle 
is formed by the Whiting Chapel, which is fenced from 
the chancel by a parclose, and from that aisle by the screen. 

The founder, John Whiting, and his wife Ue buried 
under a high tomb by the one south window of the chapel ; 
the sides of this monument are of stone in square panels 
crossed by saltires. On the east face we have the shield : — 

1 and 4, Whiting — argent, a bend undy cotized, sable. 

2 and 3, Clevedon — gules, 3 escallops, within a bordure en- 
grailed sable. If this identification be right, the escallops 
have never had their ribs chiselled. 

On the long north face are : — 

I. 1 and 3, Whiting ; 2 and 4, Pauncefoot of Somerset — 
per fesse azure and gules, 2 fleurs-de-Hs, or ; in base another 
of the same, argent. 

II. 1 and 4, Whiting ; 2 and 3, Clevedon. 

III. 2, impaling Pauncefoot. 

IV. The shield in the west face has (1) Whiting, (2) 
Clevedon impaling Pauncefoot. 

At the base is a series of shields repeating the above 
devices with quatrefoils. 

The whole is covered by a black marble slab some six 
inches in thickness, in which are the matrices of the 
fomiders' brasses, which were stolen about 1870 ; but 
Rogers, in his Sepulchral Effigies (1877), says that correct 
rubbings had been made. Whiting appeared as an armed 
esquire, with sword, misericorde and spurs, bareheaded, 
but otherwise in complete armour, small tuilles, with a 
deep skirt of mail between them, and broad-toed sabba- 



302 THE TOWN, VILLAOE, MANORS, 

tons ; Anne Whiting was shown as Joan Greenway at 
Tiverton, in rich attire, with hands raised in prayer. 

At their head is the inscription, running north and 
south : — 

'' ORATE PRO AIABS JOHKNES WHITINQ ARMIOEI £T ANNE 
CONSORT SUE QUI^OBIIT XV° DIE MARCH AN° DMN° MCCCCC"^ 

xxix® QUOR AiBS PROPiciBT DNS AMEN " (Pray for the 
souls of John Whiting, Esquire, and of Anne his consort, 
who (J. W.) died March 16th, 1529 (1630), on whose souls 
may God have mercy.) 

There are four separate brass shields : I and III, 
Pauncefoot ; II and IV (1) and (4), Whiting ; (2) and (3), 
Clevedon. 

At the head of the tomb are the remains of a piscina 
or arched credence. 

The window above the tomb is of the same pattern as 
most of the other windows in the church, and it is highly 
likely that Whiting built the whole or the greater part of 
the present church ; the window was partially blocked 
by a brick wall, until it was restored in 1853 and filled 
with stained glass. In the upper lights are four angels 
of the Nativity. 

The east window has four lights, and is of a somewhat 
different pattern from that of the rest of the church win- 
dows. It contains half a dozen fragments of glass, which 
may be ancient. 

In the north-east angle of the chapel Lady Mary Carew, 
commonly called Lady Mary Guildford, is buried. 

Her epitaph is on a brass let into the post-Reformation 
panelling, which takes the place of the old chapel altar. 
She appears to have been a good Erastian. 

" Here lyeth buried the Lady Mary Guyldford, daughter 
of Sir Robert Wotton of Kent, Knight of the Garter, and 
Controler of the Household, to the most nobull and mighty 
Prince Henry VIII, King of England, France and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith, and immediately Vicar under God, 
of the Churches of England and Ireland, supreme hede, 
and one of his most honourable privy^ counsell, and late 
the wyffe of S' Gawen Carew, Knight, who endyd this life 
XIII day of September, aHb MCCCCCLVIII." 

Her tomb is covered with a plain black marble slab ; 
on the west face there is the following brass shield, with 
six quarterings : — 



AND GHXJBCH OF KBKTISBSABE. 303 

I. (Argent) a Saltire engrailed (sable) : Wotton. 

II. (Argent) on a chief (sable), a lion passant regardant, 
crowned : Bambrough. 

III. On a bend cotized, three crows (or eagles) displayed 
(argent) : Belknap. 

IV. (Or) two bends (gules) : Sudley. 

V. Bendy of ten, or and azure : Mountford. 

VI. Gulea, a fesse, counter compony (sable and argent), 
between six crosses, patto fitchy, three and three of the 
third : Botteler. 

The same shield is repeated on the long south face, and 
there is an empty matrix on the same side ; the pro- 
truding part of the north face is roughly plastered, and 
the tomb may have been moved. 

Along the whole of the east end of the chapel runs a 
dado of oak, about six feet in height ; its position and its 
English texts show it to be of post-Beformation date. 
The organ, erected in 1882, obstructs the whole of the east 
end of the chapel. The tomb of Lady Mary Guildford, 
nde Wotton, is fixed against it, though the series of thirteen 
Walrond shields is complete without those of (XIV) 
Wotton : argent a cross, engrailed sable. This is very 
poorly done, and is a known variant for sable a cross, 
engrailed argent. There is also above (XV) Walrond — 
argent, 3 bulls' heads, cabossed, sable, homed gules, im- 
paling, or, fretty azure : Willoughby of Payhembury. 
Humphrey Walrond, married the daughter of Sir Thomas 
Willoughby, a lawyer ; she was buried at Uffculme, 1556. 
After a very sUght division the other series of shields 
begins. In the middle is an achievement (VII) seemingly 
in clay or wax — Walrond impaling, argent (?), 3 fers de 
moline, or, on a bend, gules, with a crescent for difference : 
Speccot (?).i 

On the dexter and sinister sides are two wooden shields 
(Nos. VI and VIII), slightly larger than the rest. 

VI. 1 and 4, Walrond ; 2 and 3, argent (?), 3 trees 
eradicated vert : De Bosco or Bays of Halberton. 

VIII. 1 and 4, three fers de moline, or, on a bend, 
gules (?) : Speccot. 2 and 3, argent ; a chevron between 3 
hunting horns, sable : Comu of Thombury (?) : Basset (?). 

I. Walrond impaling, argent, 3 Uons rampant, gules, 

* W^illiam Walrond Riarried Ursula, daughter of Humphry Speccot of 
Launcells, co. Cornwall, 17 February, 1636-7. She was buried at Kentisbeare 
10 May, 1698. This alliance dates the series of coats. 



304 THE TOWN, VILLAGB, MANORS, 

within a bordure engrailed, sable : Kirkham of Blagdon 
(see short pedigree). 

II. Wabond impaUng, sable, on a chevron, argent, 5 
tassels (?), of the first, between 3 mullets, sable, pierced 
argent. 

III. Walrond impaUng, gules, two wings in Lure, argent : 
Bamhouse of Kingston (?) : Kentisbeare of Somerset (?). 
But Risdon may possibly mean this coat in his note-book : 
gules, a wyvem, wings endorsed argent : Brent (men- 
tioned as standing in Kentisbeare Church). 

IV. Per pale gules and sable, a lion rampant, ermine : 
Kirkby (?). 

V. Walrond impaUng, argent, 2 bars azure (for barry of 
5, argent and azure), a double-headed eagle, gules : Speke, 
or Walrond of Dorset. 

IX. Sable a bar argent, engrailed, sable, cotized argent 
(the bar has been tampered with), impaUng Walrond : 
possibly Fortescue. 

X. Argent a chevron, sable, between 3 turkey cocks 
in pride, wattled gules, impaUng Walrond : probably 
Yeo. 

XI. Argent a tower (sable) : Oldport (?), impaling 
Walrond. 

XII. Walrond impaling, argent, a fesse between 3 human 
legs couped to the thigh, sable : Gambon of Thoreston. 

XIII. Walrond impaling, argent, a bar within a bordure, 
sable : Knyvet (?). Below are printed Scripture sentences. 

The old ceiling seems to have been removed in 1855, 
and the present roof of semicircular beams, set at intervals 
of a foot, was inserted. 

The pillar between the chapel, chancel and nave is of 
Beer stone ; the capital seems originally to have borne a 
woolsack with merchants' marks at each comer, and 
between them a merchant ship and a coat of arms twice 
repeated, Nebuly, on a chief, a Uon passant regardant. 
Three of the wool-bags and two of the shields have been 
more or less hacked away to make room for the screen. 
The arms seem to be those of the Merchants of the Staple ; 
as these were not private arms, we can understand that 
Whiting did not scruple to cut them away. 

The half-pier in the chancel wall has on its capital such 
carved leaves and a vine as are borne on other pillars in 
the nave. 

The chapel is built of small rough flints and brown 



AND OHUBOH OF KBKTISBEARB. 305 

stones ; the traceries of the windows seem original. There 
is a plain priest's door of narrow moulding. 

Under the south window is a high tomb to Mrs. Mary 
Walrond, daughter of Henry Walrond, Esq., of Bradfield, 
who died at Topsham 7 September, 1743 : " Here interred 
pursuant to her own wish and request. iEtat. 64." 

The popular legend is thus somewhat refuted which says 
that she was not deemed worthy of sepulture within, and 
lies half in and half out of the church. There is a comer 
buttress of white and brown stone. The roof-line of the 
old vestry may be discerned against the east wall. 

The staircase to the rood loft shows three external sides, 
and was Ut by a pierced quatrefoil, now filled up. 

Nave and South Aisle. — ^At the base of the dripstones of 
the eastern window in the north wall are the heads of a 
bearded man in a hat, and of a woman in a high head- 
dress. The fashions seem older than the days of Whiting, 
temp. Henry VII and VIII. At the base of the drip- 
stones of the western window in the north wall are two 
grotesque beasts, head downwards. 

Between each of the south windows, and at the south- 
west angle of the south wall, are buttresses of brown and 
white stone. Much plaster was removed in 1866^ and the 
lower part of the walls cleared. Imbedded in the south 
wall^is a battered stone carving of a human head which 
may be a reUc of the older church. 

The body of the church within consists of a nave and a 
south aisle of equal length, and of height and width almost 
equal with the dimensions of the nave. The aisles or walks 
are narrow and covered with stone flags, and the following 
monumental stones are in the south aisle : — 

"... {Walr)ond . . . qui. obht xxvi^ dib mbnsis 

DBMBRIS (?) ANNO DM MD . . . CUJUS ANIMAM PRO(PICIET) 
DBVS AMBN." 

In the middle there are traces of the lower part of a 
flowing robe. 

Henry Walrond married Agnes, a co-heir of John Whiting, 
c. 1530. The prayer for the dead makes a much later date 
impossible. The last few inches of the stone are hidden 
underneath the step to Waldron's Chapel : — 

^^HBBE (UETH) the BODY OF BOBBBT WESCOMBE, WHO 
BtB{CBASED) MAY THE (?) ANNO DOMINI 1630." 
VOL. XLII. U 



306 THE TOWN, VILLAQE, IfANOBS, 

'* Here lyeth the body of Mr Anthony Merson, of this 
psh. who died the 2l8t day of March, 1711, and also 
Elizabeth, his wife who died April ye 29th, 1715.'' 

The floors are pierced with six gratings for a very in- 
efficient system of heating by hot air. 

The nave and south aisle were completely reseated in 
1866 with strong seats of yellow pitchpine, and they will 
now seat about 280 people at an emergency ; the colour 
is not pleasing ; the bench ends are decorated with shallow 
carving of some Uttle variety. The Rural Dean's reports, 
which date from 1844, bear witness to the bad state of the 
old pews, which blocked the font, which then stood under 
the gallery. I have not heard of the destruction of any 
seating of value. 

In 1882 the pew panelling which runs round the church 
was topped by three courses of brown tiles with a yellow 
cresting. The cost (£25) was borne by the rector, the 
Rev. J. F. Alleyne. 

The nave is lit by two windows on either side of the 
north porch, the south aisle by four windows on the south 
and one window at the west end, which was cut away to 
one- third of its height by the erection of a vestry in 1866. 
All the windows of the nave, the south aisle, the side 
window of the Whiting Chapel, and the tower window, have 
the same Perpendicular tracery and three Ughts apiece. 
The upper lights are filled with cusped panels, four and 
two, surmounted by a compressed quatrefoil. All the 
above windows are of the same dimensions save the west- 
end window of the south aisle, which is truncated, and the 
tower window, the muUions of which are necessarily longer. 
The two westernmost aisle windows present some differ- 
ences of detail. The south windows are set about a foot 
higher in the wall than are the north, because of the 
northerly slope in the ground. The two north windows 
are wider in splay, to catch more Ught. The inner arch 
of the more easterly is decorated with thirty-eight con- 
ventional leaves set at their own size apart ; this is the 
only window thus treated. The other north window, 
partly blocked by the gallery, has a plain arch without 
pilasters. The three more easterly windows of the south 
aisle and the side window of the Whiting Chapel have 
their inner arches of narrow pilasters within shallow 
mouldings which are continued to the apex ; the western^ 



AND CHURCH OF KENTISBBABE. 307 

most window has no pilasters. All these windows have 
been reworked, if not replaced. 

The glass of the middle window of the south side was 
inserted in 1882 by Mrs. Dennis, and presents three scenes 
in the story of the raising of Xazarus, with the following 
inscription : "To the Glory of God this window is erected 
by Anne Sweet Dennis in loving memory of Thomas 
Morrish Dennis, 23 years Rector of Blackborough, bom 
in this parish Feb. 17, 1817, died Nov. 19, 1878." The 
easternmost window of the south aisle has the figures of 
S. Anne, S. Mary B.V., and Dorcas, and has in the top 
Ughts, seemingly by error, '" Mary hath chosen that good 
part." The inscription below is : "To the Glory of God 
and in loving memory of Mary, wife of George Dennis, of 
Croyle, bom July 28, 1816, died Febraary 11, 1887." 
Both these windows are by Drake, of Exeter, and the 
cost of each was £70. 

Between the second and third windows of the south 
aisle, and opposite to the floor-stone of Robert Westcombe, 
is a monument with this inscription : '' Robert Wescombe 
of this parish, clothier, gave to the poore hereof one 
hundred and ten pounds. The hundred pounde to be 
bestowed in land. Anstis his wife to farther his intent 
added to it f oerteene poundes wth which is purchased six 
poundes a yeare out of Berry Parkes of Poole farm to 
remaine to ye use of the saide poore for ever. Shee founded 
this lofte and devised y^ annual profit hereof wth the 
profit of thirty pound more, nowe by her last will devised 
to y« use of y® saide poore for ever. She purchased y© 
church howse for a term of 3 lives for y© impotent poore 
of this pish to dwell in. 'Tis not of glory vaine these things 
are brought to viewe | Its thus recorded here, ye poore 
may have their due | Without obscuring of the founder's 
will I Which in some places is a custom ill | Hee departed 
this life May the third one thousand six hundred and 
thirty. Wee hope his soule to heaven is gone through 
Christ his Saviour's mercy. She perseveers in pious 
workes, in Charity and devotion. Heaven to attaine, for 
evermore, through Christ his death and passion." 

The above is on a slate slab framed in painted stone ; 
at the top is an open book, upon which is a heart on fire. 
On either side are small busts in bas-relief of Robert and 
Anstice Westcombe ; he is seen as a man of middle age 
in a doublet and with hair dressed in cavalier fashion ; 



308 THB TOWN, YILLAOE, MANOB8, 

she is seen as an aged woman in a coif ; the face is thin 
and the nose prominent. Below is a cherub's head. 

Between the next two windows is a painted scroll of 
zinc bearing the first clause of the Magnificat above a 
foliated cross. 

Between the two north windows is a handsome monu- 
ment surmounted by the achievement of the Eveleigh 
family. Crest : a horse's head couped, or, above a torse, 
or and sable, and helmet with visor down. Arms : per pale, 
or and sable, two chevronels between 3 griffins passant, 
wings endorsed, counterchanged ; the whole surrounded 
by a lambrequin. The inscription is on a slate slab, now 
cracked, framed in painted stone ; on either side are two 
marble pillars with Corinthian capitals supporting a pedi- 
ment and resting on two cherubs' heads ; between the 
cherubs is a death's head ; the three heads sustain two 
festoons or swags in stone. In the vestry are two stone 
shields which were until recently fixed to the top of this 
monument : sable, 3 talbots' heads, argent, collared and 
langued, gules. The inscription is : " In memory of 
William Eveleigh, Gent, who died the 23rd of June, 1671, 
and of Johan his wife, who died . And also of Eliza- 
beth their daughter, wife of the Rev. Dr. Nicholas Hall, 
Treasurer of the Cathedral Church of S. Peter in Exon, who 
died the 28th February, 1687. And of William Eveleigh 
their son and Rector of Woolborough, who died the 20th 
January, 1700. Lastly of Mary their daughter, wife of 
John Were of Culmstock, Gent, who died ." 

By the north door is the monument of Edmund Crosse, 
of this parish, clothier. The inscription is on painted 
stone in a stone frame, surmounted by two angels in red 
holding a shield bearing the letters " E. C." on a gold 
ground ; above is a cherub's head. The inscription is 
without date, and is practicallv an extract from Cross's 
wiU. 

Above the north door, on a brass affixed to a slab of 
purple marble, is this inscription : "In ever loving 
memory of Francis Radford, bom at Stowford Water, 
near Kentisbeare, 18 August, 1820, died at his residence, 
26 Pembridge Gardens, London, 6 January, 1900, in his 
80th year. Erected by his son and daughter-in-law, 
Alfred and Blanche Radford." Francis, the son of Francis 
Radford (joiner) and Mary Ann his wife, was baptized 
here Sept. 10, 1820, and ever cherished an affection for 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBEABE. 309 

the church of his baptism and the parish of his nativity. 
As a London builder he had shown great acumen in the 
choice of sites, and was a shrewd judge of the class of 
house suitable to a new neighbourhood ; he largely built 
that quarter of West London now called Holland Park. The 
value of his estate was sworn for probate at £255,617 14s. 4d. 
Mr. Radford had for long been a most generous con- 
tributor to the charities of the parish, and in 1884 gave 
an organ, by WiUis, of London, to the church at a cost of 
£420, and in addition the sum of £625 in South AustraUan 
4 per cents as a maintenance fund and for the salaries of 
the organist and organ-blower. The deed of this munificent 
gift is in the vestry chest, and has been examined by the 
Charity Commissioners. 

At the west of the north wall of the nave is the following 
inscription on a white marble slab framed in an ornate 
niche of Caen stone, with engaged pinnacles and a floral 
cornice in the late Perpendicular style : "In memory of 
EUzabeth Cleve who died xx april mdcccxli aged lxi 
one of the two daughters and co-heiresses of John Pullin 
of this parish also of Abraham Cleeve her husband who 
died m February mdcccxlvh aged Lxvn nephew and 
one of the co-heirs of Mary Drewe formerly Packer 
widow of John eldest son of William Drewe of Crammer in 
Broadhembury. God be merciful imto us. Psalm LXvn.'* 
At the base are these arms : on a bar, 3 mullets — between 
3 antelopes' (?) heads erased, impaling, on a chief wavy, 
3 fleurs-de-lis, 3 eagles displayed, 2 on 1. Crests: (1) an 

antelope's (?) head for (?) ; (2) an eagle displayed, 

on the wings a cross fitch6, on the breast a knot (?) : for 
Drewe. 

The roofs of the church are supported by four piers of 
Beer stone, with one return in the tower and another in 
the chancel wall. The arch mouldings are shallow and 
late, and all, save the larger arch between chancel and 
chapel, are of one size. The piers also are of one pattern, 
save that the bases of the pilasters are slightly higher as 
you go eastward. The capitals of the return half-pier and 
of the next whole pier at the west present flat and rather 
coarse leaf-carving with blank shields ; the next has four 
blank shields, but singularly fine carving of the vine and 
grapes, deeply undercut by a wood-carver. The next 
capital has poorer leaf-carving and a shield above each of 
the four pilfiwsters : North, 1 and 4, Whiting ; 2 and 3, 



SIO THB TOWN, VILLAOE, MANORS, 

CleTedon ; south, Pauncefoot ; east and west, Whiting. 
These coats, described under the head of Whiting's Chapel, 
are strong evidence that the whole church was built in the 
days of Henry VIII. The remaining piers have been 
already described. 

The barrel ceiling of the nave is of six and a half bays of 
nearly square panels of plaster, four in a row ; they are 
divided by narrow oak beams, at the junctures of which 
are twenty-four oak bosses, mostly the gift of Mr. George 
Dennis in 1882 ; the last six, to the east, are larger, and 
one bears the masonic sign of the Wizard's foot. 

On either side of the church hang two hymn-boards, 
each with the inscription : " The gift of Albert and Annie 
Abid, of Dulford House, Cullompton, in commemoration 
of their silver wedding, June 26, 1907." The oak pulpit 
seems to be of early Georgian date ; it is hexagonal, with 
panels beautifully inlaid, and has been barbarously daubed 
with varnish and riddled with nail-holes. The oak reading- 
desk appears to be somewhat later, and is crowded against 
pulpit and screen, as the church had at one time to accom- 
modate several schools, the parishioners of Blackborough, 
the scythe-stone workers, and a larger agricultural popula- 
tion. The stone font is of fine mass, but poor detail ; the 
base is square and the body octagonal, with square panels 
filled with shallow carving of circles containing quatrefoils 
and blank shields ; the cover is of oak, with eight triangular 
panels tapering to a knop ; it was the gift of the Rev. 
J. F. Alleyne. The font itself is seemingly Victorian ; but 
some of the ancient fonts in the diocese are surprisingly 
poor. As late as the 'fifties the font was obstructed by 
pews, and a vicarious pewter basin was used until stolen 
about 1876. 

The inner doors of pitchpine and the outer doors of oak 
were made at the restoration in 1866. 

The barrel ceiling of the south aisle is of ten and a 
quarter bays, each of four oblong panels ; the quarter-bay 
is above the rood-loft, and proves that the rood-loft was 
not an after-thought. At the junctures of the narrow oak 
ribs are thirty-thiee oak bosses of carved foUage ; the 
intersections of the rafters with the wall plate are masked 
by twelve oak figures of angels, each holding a book. The 
last two above the gallery have lost their wings ; while 
the one above the Wliiting Chapel and its fellow opposite 
appear to be the work of another craftsman. 



AND CHURCH OF KENTISBEABB. 311 

Oattery. — ^There is a large west gallery of wood with a 
painted front, which in 1866 was mov^ from before to 
behind the western piers. In the rear it gives upon the 
tower and forms a ringing loft. It is supported by five 
square pillars ; the carving is decadent but effectual. On 
three large white labels are these lines : — 

<* Anstice late wife of Robert Wescombe here 
Built this laft in the Church of Kentisbere 
For the convenient hearing of the Word 
And Praising of the true and living Lord. 
She also gave the proffit of the same 
Unto the poor in memory of her name 
The donors and deceased and all wee 
Who now survive them their Good Acts do see 
Which if they should be quickly out of mind 
Discourage 'twill some piously inclined 
The reason why these lines are set in view 
It is because the poor should have their due.'' 

On the right and left of the first label the four evan- 
gelists are depicted with an angel of Inspiration ; between 
the second and third labels are the arms of W}^dham: 
azure, a chevron between 3 lions' heads couped, or, in a lam- 
brequin, gules and argent, the whole surmounted by a 
helmet, or. Between the last label and the north window 
are the arms of Wabond. At the extreme left is the effigy 
of an aged king in a spiked crown of gold. The gallery is 
dated 1632, with the monograms of the givers ; but a 
small date of 1704 gives the year of the present painting. 
Below the front of the seats are rudely carved ornaments, 
Tudor roses, lions' heads, and a human head in profile ; 
this last might well be the work of an Aztec. 

Tower, — ^The tower, of brown Hockworthy stone, is 
some sixty-six feet in height ; the buttresses and coigns 
are of Beer stone, and the external northern staircase is 
chequered with the same. I have not heard of the like of 
it in the diocese. The two eastern buttresses protrude 
into the nave and are scolloped off just below the ceiling, 
as at Tiverton. The clock chamber is Ut by a narrow 
south window ; and the four belfry windows are of one 
fashion, and preserve something of the Decorated style 
found usually in such windows ; they still possess the 
original stone tracery and louvres. The tower was braced 
by two external bands of iron in 1866. Below the parapet 
are four grotesque beasts at the four angles. The pin- 
nacles are somewhat stunted, and are probably not original. 



312 THB TOWK» VILLAOS, MANORS, 

On the staircase turret is a weathercock — the ^' stag " 
much beloved of the villagers. When it had been blown 
down and afterwards regilt, in October, 1861, by Peter 
Plumpton, of Cullompton, the following memorandum 
was found on a piece of blue paper within the bird : 
*^ Edward Blackmore made the thighs, legs, and feet and 
this under-part new July 16, 1804, and repaired the tail, 
choUies, pipe, etc. etc. ; the original part was made in 
1762." 

The Tower WUhin, — The tower gives upon the church 
through a beautiful €urch of double flat panels of Beer 
stone ; there are six panels in earch rank, and on each 
side between pilasters and their arches. The west window 
preserves most of its original tracery, which is of the 
design predominant in this church. There is a good 
Beer-stone arch on the inner side of the splay without 
supports. The tower door is below the gallery, and is of 
ancient oak framed in an ancient Beer-stone doorway of 
two simple mouldings. On the first floor is the clock and 
old ringing chamber ; above the second floor the bells are 
hung ; and above them is the lead flat, made new in 1866. 
A new church clock was bought before 1866 at the cost of 
about £40, raised by the subscriptions of about sixty 
parishioners and landowners. The old clock had no dials ; 
it is now keeping good time under the voluntary care of 
A. Fraser-Tytler, Esq. 

In the angle of the south aisle and the tower stands the 
vestry, a fine piece of modem masonry in Blackborough 
flint, built in 1866 ; the room is always dry, as the heating 
apparatus is below. On its site the inhabitants of Kentis- 
beare were wont to play fives. It is lit by a stone-mullioned 
window of two lights, with a pierced quatrefoil above, and 
has an exterior and an interior door ; the latter may have 
been taken from the parclose or from the ancient vestry 
which led into the chancel. The vestry contains an ancient 
Georgian Communion table, the centre of the Parish Pfidl 
of 1753, a hanging-press of oak for robes, a rough oaken 
chest for parish papers, and an iron safe for registers and 
the church plate of five pieces : — 

A. ChaUce, 6 J inches in height, 6 oz. 17 dwt., bell-shaped, 
and 3 J inches in diameter ; the bell is engraved " I H S " 
within a circle. The foot has "Ex dono Roberti Tripp, 
Bectoris, a.d. 1837," and hall-marks of that date. 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBBABB. 313 

B. Chalice of like design, but without inscription or 
recognized hall-marks. 

C and D. Patens, weight, 6 oz. 10 dwt. ; diameter, 8 
inches ; height, 3| inches ; hall-marks of 1806-7. 

E. Flagon, weight, 39 oz. ; height, 11 inches. 

A) C, Dy and E have similar hall-marks and engraving 
without inscription. 

The following inscriptions are on loose wooden boards in 
the vestry : — 

" Urial Ford, Christopher Toos, Churchwardens ; John 
Pratt, George kaphill. Overseers 1719." These date and 
belong to the two long tablets, painted in black and gold, 
which give an account of the Parish Charities. They have 
been hung in the wrong order. 

'^ A table containing y^ names of such persons who have 
been benefactors of y^ parish of Kentisbear foUoweth." 
Here follow the benefactions of Robert Westcombe and 
Anstice his wife, Edmund Cross, John Sanders, Osmond 
and Oliver Butson, John Berry (also a Tiverton bene- 
factor), John Facie, William Walrond, Ann Hake, Willy 
of Willand, John Bale, Agnes Hefl&eld, Thomas and Henry 
Butson, William Eveleigh, Robert Merson, John Weslake, 
Anon. 

" The sum total given is £464 3s. 4d. y« Interest thereof 
is to be distributed by y« churchwardens and overseers 
for y « poor of y « said parish to such poor as have no monthly 
pay. Three Poimds of y^ said Interest is to be given in 
bread yearly." 

A small portion of this money has been lost in mort- 
gage, but the rest is duly paid. A full account of all the 
Kentisbeare charities may be had of Messrs, Wyman, of 
London, for 1^. 

Such is our House of God, a place of rare beauty. As 
the days go by its worshippers become fewer, but their 
love for it seems daily to increase. 



^^ THK TOWN, VIIiLAOE, MANORS, 



III —THE BENEFICE OF KENTISBEARE. 

The whole of the church endowments appear to have 
i^mained intact from the days before the Reformation. 

The glebe is more than sixty acres in extent. In 1860 
three isolated plots were exchanged for three pieces of 
manor groimd, which served to roimd oflE the glebe. 
One of the pieces thus given up was a small field of about 
an acre and a half at the comer of the roads to Henland 
and Blackborough ; this was called Sanctuary Meadow, 
and must, by all analogy, have been the endowment of a 
mediaeval chantry. A field of over four acres was added 
at the enclosure of the moor in 1806. 

The bulk of the glebe forms a narrow strip about half a 
mile in length on the ridge above the church ; in the wide 
road which skirts was held the ancient fair of Kentisbeare, 
and the road is still called by the old people Fair Lane. 

Abutting the churchyard is an ancient tenement called 
Priest Hill, which is certainly the mediaeval rectory. It 
stands in about a quarter of an acre of ground, and is 
now let as three cottages. The middle cottage was the 
ancient hall. 

It was re-roofed by the Rev. J. T. Allejue about fifty 
years ago, but it is still largely unspoiled ; there are 
three ground-floor rooms, two of which are panelled in 
very rough oak rather coarsely painted, and there are 
several Perpendicular windows of wood. One of the 
flights of stairs is circular, and there is a fine oak door to a 
bedroom. A passage through which a horse can be led 
runs through the house. The door frame is of ancient 
oak, but the door has been brought from elsewhere. In 
the large linhay of more modem date, which stands at the 
north end, one of the two Salters, the last Kentisbeare 
men hanged, for murder of Revenue officers at Honiton, was 
concealed for more than a week, until betraj^ed by the man 
who brought him food (a.d. 1788). 

The Benefice. — ^At some time before the map of 1765 a 
parsonage house was built upon the glebe near the edge 
of Kentismoor, half a mile from the church ; it appears 
to have been of fair size, with a thatched roof. A large 
tithe bam stood under the fine oak trees now in the field 



AND CHURCH OF KENTISBBABB. 315 

to the right of the rectory drive ; this house stood by 
the pond about a hundred yards west of the present 
house. The present house was in part built in 1841 ; the 
cost was met partly by the last Earl of Egremont, who 
loved building, and who changed the site in a seemingly 
arbitrary manner, and partly by a mortgage of £1000, with 
interest charged upon the benefice. 

During the incumbency of the Rev. J. T. Alleyne five 
more rooms were added to form a substantial and com- 
modious one-storeyed house of some twenty rooms in 
about three acres of ground, with good stabling and 
offices. 

The stately Scotch firs were planted by the Rev. Jere- 
miah Griffiths, about the year 1766. 

Tithe. — ^The Rectorial Tithe was commuted in 1840 for 
£410, of which sum £10 lis. 6d. per annum on Wressing 
Green Farm was redeemed 21 May, 1908 ; there have 
been some minor changes due to the exchange of land, 
the building of the church school, and the extension of 
the churchyard. William Ayres, deceased (1910), aged 
eighty, remembered the tithe in com being taken in kind ; 
he could recall no dispute such as beggared the neigh- 
bouring parish of Plymtree. 

At the taxation of Pope Nicholas IV, 1288-90, the 
annual value of the Rectory of Kentelesbeare (the usual 
thirteenth-century form of the name) was £6 68. 8d. After 
allowing for higher purchasing power of money, it is prob- 
able that this was a low estimate. In the King's books 
(Henry VTII) the annual value was assessed at £27 1 Is. 1 1^.» 
a sum still paid substantially by each new incumbent to 
Queen Anne's Bounty ; the tenth of that sum is annually 
paid to the same authorities in lieu of the King in lieu of 
the Pope. The Reprisals (Ecclesiastical Fees) are bishops' 
or archdeacons' procurations, 6s. 8d.; cathedral dues and 
synodals, 2s. lOd. In 1782 the reputed value was £220 
per aimum {Survey of Diocese of Exeter), The living was 
augmented by the enclosure of the moor, and the present 
value is about £360 per annum. 

Churchyard, — Our village churchyards have often boasted 
but a skin-deep beauty ; therefore, though the decline in 
population had been so sharp and Blackborough church- 
yard had been opened in 1838, it was an act salutary and 
Christian to extend the churchyard in 1898, in commemora- 
tion of the Diamond Jubilee. The Rev. T. H. Wyndham 



316 THS TOWN, VILLAGB, MANORS, 

gave and collected £60, Mr. Francis Radford gave £25, and 
the site, one-quarter of an acre, was given by the Lord of 
the Manor. The whole cost was nearly £130, of which about 
£15 was spent in legal expenses, although the soUcitors of 
all parties concerned showed great courtesy and Uberality 
in abating their charges. 

The yard had been previously augmented by the con- 
secration of the site of the old poor-house, which had 
been the church-house until Agnes Wescombe leased it for 
three Uves for the impotent poor. On the passing of the 
new Poor Law in 1834, village poor-houses were abolished 
in favour of a union workhouse, and shortly after the old 
house was pulled down ; it stood near the north-east 
entrance to the yard, and next to it were the village 
stocks. The earUest written reference to the churchyard 
is found beautifully inscribed on the first page of Bishop 
Bronescombe's Register. On 3 December, 1268, the 
Bishop was at Hamburiton (Broadhembury) ; 6 December, 
Old Dunkeswell ; 7 December, Sildenne (Sheldon) ; 10 
December, Sampford Peverell. At all these places he 
dedicated churches, while on 9 December we read: "Anno 
eodem in crastino conceptionis Sanctae Mariae Dominus 
Episcopus dedicavit iii altaria in ecclesia Kentelesbere et 
cimeterium " (Li the same year on the day after the Feast 
of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin the Lord Bishop 
dedicated three altars in the church of Kentelesbere, and a 
churchyard). 

William Ayres, parish clerk, alleges that the whole of 
the path outside the churchyard is consecrated ground and 
Church property ; there was anciently a gate leading out 
to the *' Wyndham Arms." The present walls by the road 
on the north and by the path on the east were built in 
1866; the rest was put up in 1896. 

There are three noticeable yew trees : one planted by 
Mr. Mills in 1840 (?) on the site of the poor-house ; another 
seemingly about 460 years old, near the north door, which 
well might have been planted when the present church 
was built ; and another, whose branches overhang the 
" Wyndham Arms," which may possibly go back to pre- 
Conquest days. A yew tree is supposed to grow a line or 
one-twelfth of an inch a year in thickness. I tested the 
formula with success of a yew of known date (200 years) 
in the churchyard of St. Peter, Tiverton. 

There is little doubt that the churchyard yew has its 



AND CHURCH OF KBKTISBBABB. 3l7 

roots in ^ pagan past, and is connected with tree worship : 
the yew would be chosen for its longevity ; moreover, as 
its shoots and berries are highly poisonous, its growth 
would be discouraged save in a sacred enclosure not 
usually depastured. 

Rectors of Kbntisbbare. 

DaU of CoUation.—lS Dec., 1308; Edw. II. 
Patron, — ^The Bishop. 

WiLLBLMUS DB CaMPO ArNULPHI 

(William Champemowne). 
(Cause of vacancy (?).) 

W. C. ordained acolyte 21 December, 1308; subdeacon^ 
22 February, 1308-9 ; deacon, 21 March, 1313^14. He was 
non-resident by licence from Michaelmas, 1308, for two 
years, and he also received licence to farm his benefice for 
three more years. 

In 1303 at the examination of Knights' Fees for the 
purpose of a feudal aid for the marriage of the elder 
daughter of King Edward I, Henry, the son of Mauger, 
and John de Cobham, held 1| fees each in Kentelesbear and 
Pentesford ; there was formerly a dispute between them. 
In any case it. was scandalous to institute a layman and 
absentee to a large parish, yet this was the act of the good 
Bishop Stapeldon in the &*st days of his episcopacy : it 
is probable that this rector belonged to a potent family. 

Date of Institution.— 2% Dec, 1317, Edw. II. 
Patron, — Henry de Killegru. 

Hugh de Tremttr. 

(Cause of vacancy not stated.) 

James Trewame had been presented, but was refused ; 
H. de T. presented to patron " cum potestate admittendi 
resignationem Jacobi de Trewame clerici presentati si 
eam facere voluerit alioquin faciendi in dicto negotio quod 
justitia suadebit." H. de T. subdeacon, 22 April, .1318; 
deacon, 17 June; priest, 23 September, 1318. 

Killegru, certainly, Tremur, Trewame, and Penhirgarde 
are probably CJomish names. 



318 THE TOWV, VILULOB, MAKOB8, 

DaUofIngiUuiumorCoUatian.—2SJtJi., 1361-2,Edw.in. 
Patron. — John of Penhirgarde. 

Thomas Poddyvob. 

(Cause of vacancy unknown.) 

DaU of InsiUuiion or CoUation.— Bet March, 1376-7, 
Edw. III. 
Patron.— {^.). William. 

(Cause of vacancy unknown.) 

Mentioned as one of the two confessors for the Rural 
Deanery. 

Date of Institution or CoOatian.—Bet. 13 March, 1395-6, 
Edw. m. 
Patron. — (?). 

John Whateley, m.a. 

(Cause of vacancy unknown.) 

Deacon, received a licence of non-residence to study 
at Oxford. 

Date of Institution.— 22 March, 1406-7, Henry IV. 
Patron. — Richard Clopton, Lord of Manor. 

William Riche (Chaplain). 

(Cause of vacancj-. — On death of J. W.) 

DaU of Institution.— 10 Dec, 1412, Henry IV. 

Patron. — ^WiUiam Steven, chaplain, on whom patronage 

had devolved. ^j ^i 

Walter Symon. 

(Cause of vacancy unknown.) 

A Breve Regium was issued after 28 November, 1412, 
withdrawing prohibition to admit to the benefice pending 
the inquisition into patronage ; the following presentations 
had been made : 1 OctoW, 1412, Walter Symon, by 
John Crokham, of Childerhay. 19 October, 1412, Peter 
Soot, priest, by John Blakelegh and Henry Tremour, 
clerks. 31 October, 1412, James Prank Cheyne, Rector 
of Clare, Tiverton, 1407-12, by Richard Courtenay. 
4 November, 1412, Walter Symon, chaplain, by William 
Stevens, chaplain. 



Al^D CHXJBGH OF KENTISBBABE. 310 

DcUe of Institution. — 2 July, 1416. 
Patron. — Sir Edward Courtenay. 

William Leqh. 

(Cause of vacancy unknown.) 

Who complains about the dilapidations left by Walter 
Symon. 

Date of Institution or Cottation. — (?). 
ron. I ). John Fobstsb. 

(Cause of vacancy (?).) 
Instituted to Blackborough 25 February, 1414-15. 

Date of Collation.— 2 June, 1426, Hen. VI. 
Patron. — ^The Bishop. 

John Bbadefobde. 

(Cause of vacancy, on deprivation of John Forster, 
" propter demerita vitae.") 

Date of Institution. — 19 June, 1430, in person of J. B., 
his lawful proctor, Hen. VT. 

Patron.— Sir William Bonvyll, pro hoc vice after Lord 
Bonvill. T» i-i 

BiCHABD CaKPENTEB. 

(Cause of vacancy, on resignation of J. B.) 

Date of Institution. — (?). 

Patron. — Sir William Bonville, of Clinton, who fell at 
St. Albans, 1460-1. 

John Cbuoge. 

(Cause of vacancy (?).) 

Date of Institution or CoUation. — 13 September, 1457, 

Hen. VI. 

Patron.— {n. ^ „ 

^ ' John Mobton. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of J. C.) 

Date of Instituiion or Collation.— 31 Oct., 1459, Hen. VI. 
Patron.-(1). j^^ ^^^^ 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of J. M.) 



320 THE TOWN, VILLAGE, MANORS, 

Date of Institution or CoUation. — (?). 
Patron.— {!). 

Hbnby Hebfobd. 

(Cause of vacancy (?).) 

Date of Institution.— 7 June, 1471, Edw. IV. 
Patron. — ^William Lord Hastings, Lord Chamberlain to 
Edw. IV., executed 15 June, 1483. 

John Habbyson, capeUanus. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of H. H. (?).) 

Date of Institution or Collation. — 7 June, 1473, Edw. IV. 
Patron.— (t). 

John Habbysbn. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of H. Herford.) 

There appears to be an error between these two entries. 

Date of Institution or Collation. — (?). 
Patron.— C^). 

John Pebson. 

(Cause of vacancy (?).) 

Date of Institution or Collation. — 7 Nov., 1515, Hen. VIII. 

Patrons. — Bishops of London and Salisbury ; John 
Finenys [sic], Robert Throgmorton, William Poyntz, pos- 
sibly trustees for Cicely, Marchioness of Dorset. 

John of Llandaff. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of J. P.) 

Date of Institution or Collation. — 30 March, 1616^ 
Hen. VIII. 
Patrons. — ^The same. 

William Radclyff, capeUanus. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of J. L.) 

The church was probably built in his incumbency. 



AND CHTJBCH OF KSKTISBEABE. 321 

Date of Institution.— 20 Aug., 1639, Hen. VIII. 

Patrons. — John Bonvyll and John Gold, esquires, William 
Legh, yeoman, to whom Cecily, Marchioness of Dorset, had 
given that turn. 

Oakbs. 

(Cause of vacancy (?).) 

Date of Institution.— 2S July, 1545, Hen. VIII. 
Patron. — Henry, Marquess of Dorset. 

William Shbrwill. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of Oakes.) 

Date of Institution. — 4 Sept., 1554. (temp. Queen Mary, 
Patron. — Sir Gawen Caro [sic] for that turn ; original 
patron, Henry, Duke of SuflEolk. (Sir G. C. had in the 
previous year fled after the abortive Courtenay plot ; the 
presentation is mysterious.) 

John Lamb. 

(Cause of vacancy, on deprivation of W. S.) 

Seemingly a reactionary. 

Date of Institution. — 2 Sept., 1560 (temp. Queen Eliza- 
beth). 
Patrons. — John More, of Moorehay (?), John Pollard. 

Thomas Carter. 

(Cause of vacancy, on deprivation of J. L.) 

Instituted to Blackborough 6 May, 1556. 

Date of Institution, — 21 July, 1675. 
Patron. — Sir Gawen Carew, pro hoc vice ; original patrons. 
Lord Howard of Effingham and Margaret his wife. 

Thomas Wakblyn. 

(Cause of vacancy, on the death of T. C.) 

Date of Institution. — 7 July, 1686, Elizabeth. 

Patron. — Edmund Windham, for Sir John Windham. 

Thomas Bychardes. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of T. W.) 

VOL. XLII. X 



^ 



322 THE TOWN, VILLAOE, MANORS, 

DaU of Institution.— 2b July, 1616, Charles I. 
Pixhmi, — Sir Johii Windham, of Orchard. (Patronage 
recovered from Edmund Windham by Royal Warrant.) 

Robert Parsons. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of T. R.) 

Instituted to Blackborough 14 March, 1634-5 ; R. P., 
son of R. P., plebeian ; matriculated at Hart Hall, Ox- 
ford, 1 February, 1604-5, aged seventeen ; admitted as 
armiger 1605, and B.A., Brasenose, 13 April, 1608 ; vic€up 
of S. Decuman's, Somerset, 1611. 

Date of Institution.— % Nov., 1642. 
Patron. — Sir John Windham, died 1645. 

John Parsons. 

(Cause of vacancy, on the free resignation of his father, 
Robert Parsons.) 

Instituted to Blackborough, 13 January, 1642-3. Of 
this John Parsons we read in Walker's Sufferings of the 
Clergy, Vol. II, p. 327, 1724 :— 

*' Kentisbiere Rectory, worth £200 a year. 

" He had been fellow of Wadham College, in Oxford. . . . 
The pretended reason for his sequestration was intemper- 
ance ; but when the value of the Uving is known and the 
person who succeeded him in it (who was one Mr. Richard 
Saunders, Brother to one of the chief Committee men of 
this County) there will be no difficulty in guessing at 
another reason for his ejectment. Major Saimders himself, 
the brother of the intruder, came in person with a party 
of horse to execute the sentence, at which Mrs. Parsons, 
then big with child, was so affrighted that she miscarried 
presently upon it ; and this, together with grief and 
trouble, put an end to her life altogether soon after ; 
which proved a much greater loss to Mr. Parsons than the 
sequestration itself ; for she being an heiress to a great 
estate and dying without a child, the whole was quite lost 
to Mr. Parsons' family, whose children by her would have 
inherited it. Some time after he was driven from Kentis- 
biere, he went to Mary Down, in this County, where he 
was permitted to officiate untiU the Restoration, at which 
time he died possessed of it the year 1673." 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBBARE. 323 

The inscription upon a chancel flag to the two children 
of the intruder, Richard Saunders, is given elsewhere ; 
their death must have been regarded as a piece of 
retributory justice. 

John Parsons matriculated at Wadham College, Oxford, 
as a Scholar 24 October, 1634, aged nineteen. The college 
had been founded by Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham, 
uncle and aunt of Sir John Windham, the patron of the* 
livings of S. Decuman's, Rewe, and Kentisbeare ; he 
became M.A. and Fellow of Wadham in 1640. Another 
intruder was Nathaniel Bjrfield, son of a curate of Strat- 
ford-upon-Avon. 

Daie of Institution,—! Feb., 1672-3. 

Patron, — ^William Wyndham, knight and baronet. 

Nicholas Ives. 

(Cause of vacancy, on the natural death of J. P., 
aged sixty-eight.) 

Instituted to Blackborough 5 March, 1661-2 ; resigned 
8 June, 1675. 

Date of Institution, — 7 Nov., 1681. 

Patron, — ^WiUiam Wyndham, knight and baronet. 

BooBB Geubham. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of N. I.) 

R. G. matriculated at All Souls, Oxford, 30 March, 
1666, " son of a poor man," this declaration was prob- 
ably necessary in order to become a Bible clerk ; aged 
sixteen. B.A. 8 February, 1669-70 ; he died May 19, 
1726, and is buried in the chancel ; his memorial inscrip- 
tion is given elsewhere. His son and namesake matricu- 
lated at Wadham 4 July, 1698, and died in the following 
year. From the Wadham Rent Rolls at Orchard Wynd- 
ham, it would seem that he farmed more than his glebo. 
He was instituted to Blackborough 8 June, 1675, and 
resigned before 13 June, 1681. 

Date of Institution, — 20 July, 1726. 
Patron, — ^William Wyndham, of Orchard. 

EscoTT Richards, m.a. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of R. 6.) 



324 « THE TOWN, VILLAGB, MANORS, 

E. R., son of John of Kentisbuiy (? Kentisbeare), 
matriculated at Balliol, Oxford, 31 March, 1696, 
aged seventeen ; clergyman ; B.A. 1699, M.A. 1702 ; 
Vicar of Old Cleeve, 1706 ; S. Decimian's, 1713 ; Vicar of 
Kittisford, 1716 ; Canon of Wells, 1724 ; Rector of Black- 
borough, 1 Nov., 1712 ; resigned 1736. 

DcUe of Institution or CoOatian. — 28 June, 1742. 
Patron. — ^William Wyndham, of Orchard (probably). 

Cheistophsb Haslam. 

(Cause of vacancy (?).) 

Son of William of Newark, gent. ; educated at West- 
minster School ; matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, 
4 July, 1712; B.A. 1716, M.A. 12 March, 1718-19 ; priest, 
1723 ; Rector of Nettlecombe, 1726 ; Canon of Wells, 1764. 
He was non-resident in 1744. 

D(Ue of Institution or CoUation. — 6 Nov., 1766. Re- 
instituted after cession to some cure unknown 14 Aug., 
1782. 

Patron. — Charles, Earl of Egremont, 1782 — ^Hon. Percy 
Charles Wyndham. 

Jeremiah Griffith. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of C. H.) 

Instituted to Blackborough 7 August, 1756. With this 
rector we regain a slight knowledge of personaUty. He was 
a Welshman, and the son of the Rev. Richard Griffith or 
Griffiths, of Aberhavesp ; he matriculated at Jesus, the 
Welsh college in Oxford, on 5 March, 1732-3, at the age 
of nmeteen ; B.A. 1736 ; M.A. 1739. The Holy Club was 
founded by the Wesleys at Lincoln in 1728. Whitefield 
matriculated in 1728, and Harvey, the author of Tlie 
Meditations among the Tombs, matriculated at about the 
same date and at the same college. Lincohi College is 
almost opposite to Jesus in the Turl. These facts are 
important, as they make clear from what source Griffiths 
received that evangeUcal warmth which is so refreshing 
in his sermons. Some thirty of these discourses, together 
with a diajy and a parish map of 1765, are preserved with 
his great-grandson, Mr. A. Cimningham, of Reading, who 
has kindly allowed me to use these materials. 



AND OHUBCH OF KBNTISBBABB. 



325 



From 1748-61 his sermons were preached chiefly at Mine- 
head and Porlock, where he was probably incumbent ; from 
1755-61 he probably held the three benefices in plurality. 
In his diary he records : — 

" Oct. 29, 1755, presented at Petworth by the Earl of 
Egremont to the Rectory of Kentisbeer in the Coimty of 
Devon : 







£ 8. 


d. 


To Mr. Dussar 


2 2 





To Mr. Norton, the Steward's Clerk 


. 2 2 





To News 


6 





To 4 Livery Servants . 




10 





To Chambermaid 




6 





To Gent. Usher .... 




. 5 





To Housekeeper's Maid 




. 2 





To Hall Tender . 




2 





My Expenses going to Petw. 




. M2 


1 


Horse Hire for Journey 




1 1 





My Expen. coming from Petw. to 


Exon 


. 1 16 


2" 



The complaints of those days against the extortionate 
"vales" to servants are constant, so that we must not 
regard these fees as simoniacal. 

Our rector, bom in the year of the death of Queen Anne, 
exactly illustrates the first dawn of the much-needed 
revival in the oppressed Church of England. Thus it is 
noticeable that he is content to be non-resident for six 
years, and to pay his curate the customary £40 a year, to 
preach the same sermon to town dwellers at Cardiff and 
country folk in Devon and Somerset. But there is a 
fresh ring in many of his sermons, and that Uvely presenta- 
tion of a great part of the gospel which saved England and 
her Church from utter decay ; at the same time we feel 
the flat decorum, the sleepy PhiUstinism, the morbid non- 
apprehensiveness of the Georgian Christian, yet the 
Uving gospel is continually paramount, and even in the 
nadir of Christianity under George II the Kentisbeare 
villagers heard the gospel of the Atonement and not mere 
dry moraUties. 

He is also not blind to the teaching of Easter, of saints' 
days, and, strangest of all, he is just conscious of the need 
of foreign missions. 

He is also seen as a shrewd man of business ; he notes the 
glebe fences and rents, and although non-resident, he 



326 THE TOWN, VILLAOE, MANORS, 

planted the fine Scotch firs which still adorn the rectory 

grounds. 

- On February 12, 1765-6, we read : — 

" Pd Luccombe y* gardener [sic] at Exon for 38 firs 

and three cherry trees at Is. 6d. each . .080" 

The sum of 3s. 6d. spent on the fir trees has borne a 
notable interest ; about eighteen fine sticks survive. He 
let his cottages at 6d. or 8d. per week. It may be sur- 
mised that the thatched rectory house shown in his map 
of 1766 may have been built for him, as the present old 
cottages of Priest Hill form the old parsonage. 

With increasing years his discourses tend to a gloom 
often seen in a Welshman of religious sensibiUties, but 
there is the same kindly practical mind to the last, and it 
was an imgrateful and un-Christian act to cover the 
memorial to so good a man and his wife. They both died 
in the year 1791. 

Date of Institution. — 9 Aug., 1791. 
Patron, — Hon. Percy Charles Wyndham. 

Robert Tripp, m.a. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of J. G.) 

Son of John, of Taunton, armiger, matriculated at 
Exeter College, Oxford, aged seventeen, 17 December, 
1771 ; B.A. 1775 ; M.A. 1778 ; Rector of Rewe ; insti- 
tuted to Blackborough (?) 1791 ; died 1826. A son, Robert 
Henry, was Rector of Blackborough, and died in 1880. 

Date of Institution. — 19 July, 1826. 
Patron, — ^Hon. Percy Charles Wyndham. 

Charles Tripp, d.d. 

(Cause of vacancy, on cession of R. T.) 

Instituted to Blackborough 19 October, 1828, until his 
cession before 3 October, 1830. He was the son of the 
Rev. Dr. Tripp, rector of Spofforth, in Yorkshire, a 
Wyndham benefice. In this instance he was serving as 
the " warming pan " for his successor, whom he in turn 
succeeded ; he is remembered with respect and affection 
both at Kentisbeare and at Silverton. He was also Rector 
of Sampford Brett. 



AND CHUBCH OF KBNTISBBABE. 327 

Date of Institution or CoUation. — 12 Nov., 1826. 
Pairon. — Not recorded. 

George William Scott, b.a. 

(Cause of vacancy, benefice lawfully void.) 

He was the third son of Hugh Scott, of Harden, the 
head of Sir Walter Scott's family ; the epitaph to the 
memory of the young rector was undoubtedly penned by 
Sir Walter Scott two years before he died, although Lock- 
hart makes no mention of it or its subject in his Life of 
ScoU. . 

Sir Walter was on terms of close intimacy with the 
family, and chronicles the marriage of Hugh Scott with 
"a titled German, who was half a Wyndham." Mr. 
Scott is still tenderly remembered for his kindness to 
children, whom he placed on his saddle-bow. He died of 
scarlet fever at the rectory, aged twenty-six. 

Date of Institution. — 30 Sept., 1830. 
Patron, — Hon. Percy Charles Wyndham. 

Charles Tripp, d.d. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of G. W. S.) 

Date of Institution.— % Dec., 1833. 

Patron. — George O'Brien, Earl of Egremont. 

Charles Tripp, d.d. 

(Cause of vacancy, benefice void by his own cession.) 

Date of Institution. — 10 Oct., 1839. 
Patron. — ^The same. 

Richard Arthur Roberts, m.a. 

(Cause of vacancy, on cession of C. T.) 

He was the son of the vice-provost of Eton, the Rev. 
William Roberts, and the brother of Lady Egremont. He 
was a tall but delicate man, usually seen in the saddle. A 
man of artistic tastes ; his portrait is in the National 
Portrait Gallery. The present rectory was largely buUt in 
his time. He was a keen farmer, and was the first to 
introduce mangold into these parts ; the farmers would 
have none of it at first and called it the Gentleman's Cross. 
His epitaph is elsewhere given. 



328 THE TOWN, VILLAOB, MANOBS, 

DaU of Institution.— 2\ June, 1854. 

PcUrons, — ^Trustees of the late Lord Egremont. 

John Fobstbr Allbynb, m.a. 

(Cause of vacancy, on the death of R. A. R.) 

Matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, 12 December, 
1822, aged eighteen ; B.A. 1826; M.A. 1829. He was the 
third son of John Forster Alleyne, esquire, of Westbury, 
in the county of Gloucester ; he married Helen, daughter 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Gore, and by her had two sons and 
three daughters ; two daughters still survive. He is buried 
on the site of the old vestry in the angle of the chancel 
and Whiting's Chapel. He was an incumbent of no little 
mark ; a man of kindly nature, but a strict disciplinarian ; 
he for many years laboured hard and not unsuccessfully 
to raise the moral tone of the neighbourhood. An active 
and generous visitor, and a most mimificent benefactor to 
the church and parish. He died 10 December, 1884. 

Date of InstittUion,— 12 May, 1885. 

Patrons. — ^Trustees of the late Lord Egremont. 

Thomas Hbathcotb Wyndham. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of J. F. A.) 

Youngest son of William, of Dinton, Esq., and now 
Rector of Sutton Mandeville in the same county. He for 
nearly twenty years laboured assiduously for his large 
parish in spite of continued ill-health, and left for a. less 
exacting sphere of work, greatly to the regret of all. . He 
was greatly assisted by his wife in all his labours. " De 
vivis pauca verba." 

Date of Institution or Collation. — 15 July, 1904. 
Patron. — ^William Wyndham, Esq., of Dinton. 

Edwin Spencer Chalk, m.a. 

(Cause of vacancy, on cession of T. H. W.) 

Matriculated at B.N.C. Oxon, 1893, aged nineteen. For- 
merly curate of S. Peter's, Tiverton, author of a History of 
Tiverton Church ; fourth son of Seymour William Chalk, 
late of West Ealing ; married Laetitia Josephine Ward, 
niece of the late rector. 



AND CHUBOH OF KBNTISBBABB. 329 

Schools. — ^Kentisbeare seems to have been later than 
many rural Devon parishes in erecting an elementary school ; 
there were excellent schools of a higher grade, particularly 
that of the Messrs. Dennis at Croyle ; there had been 
another at Downlands, and yet another existed until com- 
paratively recently in the village, kept by Mr. Joseph 
Radford and his sons ; but to supplement these were 
only dame schools, where a few pence a week had been 
charged. A Sunday-school was held at least seventy years 
back in the chancel of the church. Among many for- 
gotten services rendered by the children of the parsonage 
to Church and State must not be forgotten the fi^ 
teaching given here as in many other villages by the 
rector's daughters (the Misses Allejme), who taught regu- 
larly and daily, as will be found chronicled in the books 
of Miss Yonge. 

The largest of such schools was burnt and replaced in 
1873-4 by the present fine building of brick on a fresh 
«ite ; an infant room was added in 1894. The trust deed 
is in an unusual form for a Church of England school ; the 
trustees are the rector and churchwardens, and the rector 
is empowered to use the school for a Church Sunday-school. 
The school is now administered by a final order of 11 
January, 1904, under the Education Act of 1902, by four 
Foundation Managers, of whom the rector is chairman, 
and one is co-opted and elected by subscribers ; a fifth 
manager is elected by the Parish Council, and a sixth 
nominated by the Devon County Council. The following 
persons are still quaUfied subscribers by virtue of dona- 
tions of more than five pounds : Lord Waleran, J. R. 
Salter, Esq., of Exeter, and W. G. Snell, Esq., of 
Orway Porch; Mrs. Abid, Dulford House. The main 
building and schoolhouse cost £875 18s. ; of this sum 
£179 was a grant from the Education Department, and 
the remainder, £696 18s., was the free gift of church 
people. The cost of the infant room was £272 2s. 3d. ; of 
this £15 was defrayed from the general fund, and the 
rest, save about one and a half guineas, was given by 
•church people. The chief benefactors were Lady Egre- 
mont, £300, Rev. J. F. Alleyne, £150, Sir John Wahrond, 
£50, Lord Waleran, £22, W. Wyndham, Esq., £80, Rev. 
T. H. Wyndham, £29. 



330 THE TOWN, VILLAOB, MANOBS, 



IV.— THE MANORS OF THE PARISH OF 
KENTISBEARE. 

The Parish contains ten ancient manors or reputed 
manors, Kentisbeare anciently divided into two parts : 
Kingsford, Aller, Pirzwell, Orway, Hewisa (now HoUis?) 
Blackborough Boty (now Ponchydown), Blackborough 
Bollay (now Blackborough Parish) ; to these may be added 
Wood, now called Wood Barton, which is not mentioned 
in Domesday, and was not, perhaps, strictly a manor-house ; 
also Sainthill, a part of the possessions of Dunkeswell 
Abbey, near by. These manors comprise, or recently 
comprised, nearly the whole of the parish. The mention 
of William Legh, yeoman, in 1539, as a patron of the 
benefice, makes it possible to beUeve that there were small 
portions of land held by small freeholders in the modem 
sense of that word. 

Kentisbeare, — ^In the Exeter Domesday we have the 
following entries : — 

" Balduinus habet mansionem quae vocatur Chentes- 
bera quam tenuit Eduius ea die qua Rex Eduardus fuit 
vivus et mortuus et reddidit gildam pro virga. Hanc tenet 
WiUiam (Niger) de Baldwino. Ibi habet Willelmus ij 
carrucas et ipse tenet (in dominio) ij ferl. et i carrucam 
et villani ij ferl. Ibi habet (Willelmus) iiij bordarios et 
i servum et x agros nemoris et x agros prati et valet per 
annum x solidos et valebat v solidos cum Balduinus 
recepit." 

Translation, — Baldwin (the Sheriff) has one manor called 
Kentisbeare, which Edwy held on the day on which King 
Edward (the Confessor) was alive and dead, and it then 
paid gild for one virgate. William the Black holds his 
manor of Baldwin. William has 2 ploughs there and has 
in demesne 2 furlongs and 1 plough and the villeins have 
2 furlongs. William has there 4 bordarii and 1 serf, 
10 acres of woodland and 10 of meadow and it is worth 
10 shillings a year and it was worth 5 shillings a year 
when Baldwin received it. 

Another Kentisbeare is mentioned in the Domesday 
survey, and one of greater importance. The Saxon tenant 



AND CHURCH OF KENTISBBABB. 331 

had been Norman, who paid geld for i hide ; Baldwin the 
SheriflE was tenant-in-chief, and WiUiam the Black, his 
sub-tenant, had here 4 ploughs 1 virgate and 2 ploughs 
in demesne, 1 virgate and 2 ploughs were the tenants' ; 
the number of villeins was 3, bordarii 5, serfs 2, of cattle 5, 
swine 20, sheep 40 ; there were 10 acres of woodland, 
10 of meadow ; its annual value was 30 shillings, and had 
been 40 shillings. There was a mill returning 5 shillings 
a year. The manor mill is not Millhayes in the village, 
but Goodiford mill about one-third of a mile from the 
village across the ancient common ; it is still worked by 
an overshot wheel as on the day when Edward the Con- 
fessor was alive and dead. It may be surmised that the 
smaller Domesday manor was the isolated farm of the 
Kentisbeare manor now called Mortimores and Hals- 
beare. 

Sir W. Pole, who died in 1636 (p. 183, ed. 1791) states : 
" The manor of Kentisbeare was anciently divided into_^ .y^ 
five m anors, of which three belonged unto the Priory oiWD y/VCfJI/ 
Christ Church in the County of Southampton, of the grant 
of Reginald de Ponchardon, which the said Prior granted 
unto Su- Hugh de Bolhay of Blackbc^gh Bolhay. The U/f 
other manor belonged first unto the Micestors of S' Alan ' 
de Fumeaux and after successively to Henry Fitz Henry, 
Mauger Fitz Henry and Henry Fitz Mauger." 

This is in part corroborated by the following ex- 
tracts. Risdon in his notebook mentions Alan Fumeaux 
of Kentisbeare, knight (<em^. Henry III), and Matthew 
Fumeaux of Kentisbeare, knight, as sheriff of Devon, 4 
Edw. I, 1276. 

1244. — Testa de Nevill: Henry, son of Henry, and the 
heir of Hugh de Bollay, held Kentisbeare, Pauntesford, 
Kyngsford in Catteshegh, 3 knight's fees. 

In the extent of knight's fees, taken the Friday after 
S. Benedict, the Abbot, 8 Edw. I, 20 Jan., 1278-9, we have, 
among other lands, " Kentesber and Pontesford (Ponsford 
in Cullompton) IJ fee held by Mauger son of Mauger." 

In the same year a Writ of Extent was issued to Ralph 
of Sandwich, the King's Steward in Devon, that dower 
might be assigned to Eleanor, late wife of John de Moun, 
(UuM de Mohun. Among knight's fees so assigned was 
li fee held by Henry (a mistake for Mauger ?) son of Henry 
(CaleTidar of Inquisition, Vol. II, p. 177, of the same 
year). 



332 THB TOWN, VILLAOB, MANORS, 

12.84. — ^In 13 Edw. I another writ issued to Master 
Henry Bray, Escheator, and Ralph of Sandwich, to make 
more careful extent and assignment of dower to Eleanor, 
late wife of John de Mohun ; the said Ralph having as- 
signed more of the fees of the said John than she ought to 
have : among other fees so assigned are '' Kentelesberi and 
Pontesford" (Calendar of Inquisition, Vol. VI, p. 353). 

1284-6. Kirbjfs Quest. — ^Mauger, son of Henry, and the 
heirs of James de Bolley hold the vill of Kentesber, with its 
members, for IJ knight's fees, of which Mauger holds his 
part of the heirs of John de Mohun, and they of Alan de 
Fumeaux, and Alan of Hugh de Courtenay, and Hugh 
of the King in chief. The heirs of James de Bolley hold 
the part for IJ knight's fee of the Prior of Grishurch 
<C3hri8t Church ?) and the Prior of Ralph Herigaud, and 
Ralph of Alan de Fumeaux, and Alan of Hugh de Court- 
tenay, and Hugh of the King in chief. I find no mention 
of the manors of Kentisbeare and Blackborough proper 
in the Hundred Rolls. 

1303. — Examination of knight's fees in Devon made 
through Gilbert de Nevill for a feudal aid on the occasion 
of the marriage of the eldest daughter of King Edward I. 
Henry, son of Mauger, holds in Kentisbeare and Pontesford 
li knight's fees. 

Edw, /. — John of Cobham holds in Kentisbeare and 
Ponsford IJ knight's fees. In 1308 the Bishop presents 
to the Rectory. 

1310. Edw, II, — In the Nomina FiZtorwm we have — "The 
Vill of Thorverton, with Cadebury, Wellesbeare (?) and 
Kentesbeare, which are members of the same ; the Lord 
of the same vill is the Dean and Chapter of S. Peter at 
Exeter." 

In 1317 Henry de Killegrue presents to the Rectory. 

Edw, III, 1346. — In the Feudal Aid made for the knight- 
ing of the Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III, we have : 

" Of the Treasurer of Exeter and Hugh de Courtenay 
for one knight's fee in Kentelesbere and Pontysford held 
of the King and of the honour of Okehampton which Henry 
Mauger once held xis. James Cobham 1| knight's fee 
of the same tenant late John Cobeham." Pole notes these. 

1361-2. — In this year John de Penhergarde presents to 
the Rectory. 

1 388( ? ) . — ^In the Inquisitiones Post Mortem, 1 2 Richard II, 
John Cobham holds part of Kentesbeare advowson. 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBBABB. 33$ 

1406-7. Hen. IV, — We have no further names of 
patrons mentioned till 1406-7, when Richard Clopton 
presented. 

Pole continues: "Shortly after (1346) John Frisell 
was seized thereof and made a conveyance thereof unto 
Sir Walter Blewett, Henry Percehay and others to sell 
it to bestow unto charitable uses after his death, and 
Lucia his wife. Henry Percehay (1373) Anno 46 Kinge 
Edward 3 sold it for the uses aforesaid unto Walter de 
Clopton Knight whom Richard his sonne succeeded and 
dying without issue it came unto Willm Maloisell as next of 
kin." Such transactions were often fraudulent. 

1412. Hen. IV. — ^There was a compUcated dispute as to 
patronage in this year between William Stevens, chaplain, 
John Crokem of Childshay, John Blakelake, and Henry 
Toumour (clerks), and Richard. It was decided in favour 
of William Stevens, chaplain. Pole continues : " The 
other part of Sir Hugh Bolhay descended in his line as 
Blackborough Bolhay did." This makes it probable 
that Mortimores Halsbeare, etc., are meant by the second 
manor of Kentisbeare, as they adjoin Blackborough 
Bolhay. 

1415. — Three years after Sir Edward Courtenay pre- 
sents. In 1416 {Calendar Inquisitions, ad qiwd damnum), 
Thomas de Cobeham is mentioned as possessed of the 
manor of Blackborough at Kentisbeare by fine levied. 

1428. — At an inquisition held at Exeter, 6 Hen. VI (p. 453, 
Calendar of Inquisitions), we find William Bonvyll, Imight, 
the Treasurer of Exeter, WilUam Maloysell held two parts 
in a knight's fee in Kentisbury [sic], which parts they hold 
separately, and yet none of them holds a clear quarter, 
and which of old the Treasurer of Exeter and Hugh 
Courtenay once held. Below we have : ** William Bonvyll, 
knight, holds IJ knight's fee in Kentelesbury [sic], formerly 
held by James CJobeham." This is the famous Lord 
Bonvyll, the great Yorkist opponent of the Courtenays. 
These facts bear out Pole's statement, " Both these manors 
became the Ld Bonvilles." 

The Bishop's Treasurer in 1425 (Hen. VI) presents ; Sir 
William Bonvyle in 1430 (Hen. VI) pro hac vice. 

Sir William Bonville, the son of Lord Bonville (created 
1430), presents in 1457, three years before he and his son 
perished at Wakefield, 31 December, 1460. Lord Bonville 
was executed after S. Albans, 18 February, 1460-1. 



334 THB TOWN, VILLAQB, MANORS, 

7 June^ 1471. — ^William Lord Hastings, th^ second 
husband of Lady Katherine Bonville, presents; he was 
Lord Chamberlain to Edward IV until his execution, 
15 June, 1483 ; he probably exercised the right for Cicely 
Bonville, then about ten years of age, the heir-general of 
Lord Bonville. 

7 Nov,y 1615. Hen, VIII. — ^The bishops of London and 
Salisbury, John Finenys [sic], Robert Throgmorton and 
William Poyntz present ; they may have been trustees for 
Cecily, now Marchioness of Dorset. 

20 Avg., 1539. Hen. 7///.— Cicily, Marchioness of 
Dorset, gives the turn of presentation to John Bonvyle, 
seemingly an illegitimate relation, and two others. 

28 July, 1645. — Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset, the son 
of Cicely, presents, and again appears as original patron, 
4 September, 1554, as Duke of Suffolk ; in the same year 
as the execution of his daughter, Lady Jane Grey. The 
new Rector appears to have been a Romaniser, as he was 
deprived in 1560, when John More of Moorhayes and John 
Pollard present. It is probable that the manor passed to 
Lord Howard of Effingham and his wife, who kept in 
favour under all sovereigns after the attainder of the 
Duke of Suffolk. 

Early in the reign of Elizabeth Sir John Wyndham, of 
Orchard, in the county of Somerset, bought the two 
manors of Kentisbeare from the Crown, and they have 
remained with his heirs ever since. Some portion of land 
was conveyed to Edmund and Humphrey, his younger 
sons, and Edmund presents in 1586; and in 1616 the 
patronage was recovered from him by royal brief. From 
the accounts at Orchard Wyndham it would seem that 
part, at least, of his land was the isolated portion of a 
manor at Sainthill. On the death of Thomas Wyndham. 
early in the eighteenth century, it reverted to the older 
line. The Wyndhams were already large landowners in 
Cullompton and Kentisbeare from the heirs of Kelway and 
Gambon, and in Devon at large from the heiress of 
Wadham of Merifield. I append a short pedigree. 

AUer. — In Domesday (Exon) Aurra, in Exchequer 
Domesday Alra ; Baldwin the Sheriff tenant - in - chief, 
Anglo-Saxon tenant Ailward, who paid geld for 1 virgate ; 
the sub-tenant was WilUam the Black, who had 2 ploughs, 
with 3 furlongs and 1 plough in demesne ; the villeins had 
1 furlong ; there were 1 villein, 5 bordarii, 1 serf, 10 acres 



ASH CHURCH OF KBKTISBEABE. 



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336 THE TOWN, VILLAQB, MANORS, 

of woodland, 3 swine ; the annual value was and had been 
10 shillings. 

Aller does not again appear separately ; its present 
acreage is 216 acres, with about 30 acres of wood ; the 
farm is divided accurately in halves, Aller and Aller at 
Green. I have discovered no ancient remains, but Aller 
has been in the name of Harris for at least two hundred 
years. 

Kingaford. — ^This manor has rarely had a separate 
existence. In Domesday (Exon) we have : Chinnesforta, 
tenant-in-chief Baldwin the Sheriff, Anglo-Saxon tenant 
Ezius who paid geld for J a virgate ; sub - tenant William 
the Black, who had there i a plough, 2 bordars, 1 serf, 
4 swine, 10 beasts, 4 acres of woodland, 6 acres of meadow. 
The annual value was and had been 5 shillings. 

It is included with a moiety of Kentisbeare in the Testa 
de Nevill, also Catteshegh, which still survives as a field 
name in both Higher and Lower Kingsford. I find no 
other mention until Pole's summary that Henry de Kings- 
ford held it in King Henry Ill's time ; after this Gregory 
Willington held it ; in King Henry IV's time it came to 
Richard Gambone by Joan his wife. Both Walrond and 
Wjmdham married an heiress of Gambon of Moorstone. 
In 1841 the old occupier of Kingsford was John MUls ; it 
then passed to Sir William Walrond, who exchanged about 
twenty acres with Egremont (Wyndham) Trustees in 1884. 

Higher Kingsford, a fine farm-house, was burnt about 
fifty years ago ; All Hallows, at Blackborough, the old 
seat of the BoUays, was burnt about the same time. 

Kentismoor, — There were seemingly two commons be- 
longing to the ancient manor of Kentisbeare ; of these the 
smaller was a water meadow in the middle of the village, 
which has been enclosed from time immemorial. The 
larger was a tract of about 650 acres, for the enclosure of 
which a special Act of Parliament was obtained in 1800. 

Polwhele, writing a few years before this, mentions in a 
note : " On Kentismoor is a stone which has on one side 
' 16 miles to Exeter,' and on the other, ' 14 miles to Taun- 
ton.' I mention this to show how much nearer a road 
might be made between the two towns " (Vol. I, p. 41). 

Whale's Domesday Survey {Trans. Devon, Association^ 
Vol. XXXII, p. 546) quotes : "There is in the hundred of 
Hayridge a certain moor called Kentismore, which is 
common for pasture and the annual cutting of firewood 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBBABE. 337 

and other things growing there for fuel. So that no one 
shall open, plough or dig the land. If anyone does this he 
shall be attached by the BaiUff of the Hundred, and it 
^hall be settled in the Hundred." By all analogy this large 
tract of land should have been common to the tenants of 
the manor of Kentisbeare alone, as the soil was imdoubtedly 
the property of the lord of that manor, but by custom 
the tenants of all Kentisbeare and Blackborough tene- 
ments, to the number of eighty, together with not a few in 
UflEctilme and Cullompton, had estabUshed common rights, 
and both landlords and tenants received allotments in the 
moor when it was finally enclosed, seemingly in 1806. The 
shape of the moor was fairly regular, save for about 
twenty acres, which had already been enclosed before 
1765, opposite Moorehayes Cottage, a narrow spit of moor, 
on which the Four Horse Shoes tavern now stands, and 

the Domesday manor of Aller. 

Three Commissioners were appointed under the Act : 
Henry Brutton of Cullompton, gentleman, Richard Toller, 
of South Petherton, in the county of Somerset, and Robert 
Abraham, of Woodland, in the county of Devon ; the last- 
named died before the completion of the enclosure. The 
moor to be enclosed was estimated at 900 acres, but on 
perambulation only about 670 acres were found to be 
available ; the commoners of the manors of Dulf ord and 
Kerswell proved that a tract of more than 70 acres was 
not to be included. Tradition says that the dispute 
was settled by a wrestUng match between the champions 
of Kentisbeare and Broadhembury, in which the Kentis- 
beare men were worsted. William Ayres (died 1910, 
aged 80) remembered two old men, James Disney and one 
Trickey, who composed and sang a song of triumph, of 
which these few battered lines were remembered : — 

" And some with picks 
And some with sticks 
And some with their vices (i.e. fists) 
We made them remember 
Our Precessing day.** 

WiUiam Coles was one of the Kentisbeare champions. . - 

A fine British barrow on this part of the moor, sixty [i> ''^v<> 

yards across, was cfiirted away a few weeks ago to enrich the 

neighbouring soil. 

After the perambulation, the Commissioners proceeded, 

with the aid of their surveyor, Thomas Abraham^ of WTiite 

VOL. XLH. Y 



' 






/'.U 



338 THE TOWN, VnXAOB, MANORS, 

Lackington in Dorset, to plan the roads, which are excellent 
for width and straightness, but strangely ill-designed for 
the conveniences of the neighbourhood ; the village could 
without difficulty have been brought nearly three-quarters 
of a mile closer to Cullompton. 

It will be understood that the enclosed land had hitherto 
never been suffered to be tilled or afforested ; thus, while 
we regret the loss of a beautiful square mile of open heath, 
now so rarely seen in Devon, we must remember of what 
service the land has been, especially during the life-and- 
death struggles of the Napoleonic Wars, which directly 
brought about the enclosure. 

The whole proceedings of the Commissioners are de- 
scribed with a beautiful and legal perspicuity upon seven 
large skins ; there is also a map, now in the custody of the 
Rector. The roads were to be maintained by a Kentismoor 
rate ; the expenses of enclosure were met by the sale 
of allotments of land. Poor as well as rich, tenant as well 
as landlord, were equally benefited ; the present rent 
roll and tithe must be now somewhere near a thousand 
pounds a year ; before enclosure it may be doubted 
whether the tract would be worth, in a good year, a thou- 
sand sixpences. When the long task was completed, a 
house was built in what is now called Horn Road, and upon 
its roof still stand the horns of a yoke of oxen used in the 
work of enclosure. 

Hollis is now a large estate of about 170 acres combined 
with Henland, an island of about 200 acres of the ecclesi- 
astical parish of Cullompton. With it is held lower Saint- 
hill and the Beacon grounds, which may have been the 
appanage of the old Burgh of Blackborough. This estate 
has been identified with Havisa in Domesday, but in 1841 
it was called Holways. 

Hevisa, or in the Exeter Domesday Hevvise, was held 
by William Chievre as tenant-in-chief ; the Anglo-Saxon 
tenant had been Wichin, who had paid geld for half a hide ; 
the sub-tenant Hamo had 1 plough, and also was tenant of 
Orway ; he had 7 acres of meadow, and the annual value 
was and had been 5 shillings. 

A large house is shown in the parish road map of 1769, 
though the present fine house seems hardly so old. One 
Parkhouse lived here at the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, and kept harriers ; he, or one of his, on horseback, 
leapt a<;ross the hollow road to Blackborough at the back 



AND CHURCH OP KBNTISBBABB. 339 

of the house. In 1841 it belonged to William Holland ; 
now, in 1910, to Robert Hole. 

Pirzwell, — Exon Domesday : William Chievre, tenant- 
in-chief, has a manor called Pissevilla ; the Anglo-Saxon 
tenant was Aluric, who paid geld for 1 hide and 1 virgate ; 
Hamo was the sub-tenant, and had 4 ploughs ; he had 2| 
virgates and 2 ploughs in demesne, and the villeins 
had the same ; there were 7 (8 Exon) villeins, 4 bordarii, 
5 serfs ; 14 acres of woodland, 8 of meadow, 30 of pasture, 
9 swine, 44 sheep ; its annual value was 40 shillings, and 
had been 30 shillings. 

Pirzwell, in this parish, was likewise the land of Orwey 
(Pole, p. 185). 

Testa de Nevill : Thomas de Oreways holds in Pisewil 
half a fee (c. 1244). 

Edw. I. — In the Placita quo warranto, " Thomas de Or- 
weye holds in Pisewill ^ a fee in the honour of Braneis 
which William de la Lond holds of the King." 

1284-6. Kirby's Quest. —WiOisim of Orweye holds 
Orweye and Pisewell for half a knight's fee of the heirs of 
Hugh de Weydeworthii and these same of William de 
Alneto (Aulney), and the same William of the Duke of 
Cornwall and the Duke of the King : the same William 
holds Orweye for half a knight's fee of John de Columbariis, 
and John of the King in chief. 

1303. Edw. I. — In the Examination of Fees, "The same 
John holds in Py Seville i a fee " : there is no mention in 
the Nomina Villarum. 

1346. Edw. III.— In the Feudal Aid of this year the 
same John de Orweye, for half a knight's fee in Pysewill, 
held of the honour of Tiverton which John his father 
formerly held, xxs. Note the change in the honour. 

1428. — Inquisition into knight's fees (p. 487) : Thomas 
Strech holds half a knight's fee in PysewiU, formerly John 
Orwey's. 

Pysewell. — ^Pole omits the name Strech, but proceeds, 
without dates, to say : " By Alis daughter of John Bellet 
(this manor) descended unto John Drake of Exmouth 
who gave it unto John Drake of Exeter, his younger sonne 
by one of whose daughters it descended unto Nathaniell 
May and hee hath sold it unto Henry Henley of Somerset- 
shire Esquire." In 1772 the manor belonged to the Bamp- 
fyldes of Poltimore. A more detailed account of the 
Orwey family will be found under the manor of Orway. 



340 THE TOWN, VILLAGE, MANORS, 

It will be noted that for centuries the manors of Pirzwell 
and Orway were held together ; it is rather hard to 
account for the great size of the Domesday manor, for in 
1840 Richard Hurley held Pirzwell, about 150 acres : 
however, most of the smaller holdings to-day adjoin 
either or both of these two manors. This Richard, called 
Doctor Hurley, of Gadden, enclosed Pirzwell Common 
about 1835, and thus deprived an old couple, John and 
Mary Watts, of the staple of their livelihood ; Mary Watts 
cut her throat, and was buried at the adjacent cross-roads 
as a suicide. Some coppices were cut down in the neigh- 
bourhood, which were probably the remains of the Manor 
Woods (Recollections of William AyreSy Parish Clerk, bom 
1829). 

Orway. — Orway, Orrawia (Exon), Orrewei (Exchequer 
Domesday), had as tenant-in-chief Alured of Spain ; the 
Anglo-Saxon tenant had been Alwi, who had paid geld 
for J a hide ; the tenant had 3 ploughs, kept 1 virgate 
and 1 plough in demesne : the villeins had 1 virgate ; 
there were 8 villeins, 6 bordarii, 1 serf ; 4 acres of wood- 
land, 5 of meadow ; 100 acres of pasture ; the annual 
value was and had been in receipt 30 shillings ; the 
number of beasts is not mentioned. 

1154-89.— Pole, in his Collections (p. 112), has : " Orway 
in Kentisbeare parish, the dwelling place of one Robert de 
Orway, in Kinge Henry II tyme and him successively 
followed WiUiam, Ralph, Thomas." 

1242.— Anno 27 of Henry III. "John de Orway wch 
married Julian on of the Heires of Robert de Ussewill, 
John Thomas, and John wch died without issue, whom 
succeeded Phillip his sister, wief of Warin de Hampton 
wch had issue." 

Kirby's Quest (1284-6). Edu\ /.—"William de Orweye 
holds Orwey and Piseweyll for half a knight's fee of the 
heirs of Hugh of Weydeworth, and the same heirs of William 
de AIneto (Aulney) and William of the Duke of Cornwall 
and the Duke of the king." 

1303. Edw, /. — Examination of knight's fees : John de 
Orewaye holds there half a knight's fee. 

1346. — Feudal aid for the King's son. 

Edw. III. — " Of John de Orweye for i a knight's fee in 
Orweye held of James de Audele de Stoweye, which John 
his father once held xx shillings." 

1428. Henry VI. — Inquisitions into knight's fees : 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBBABE. 341 

Thomas Streech holds half a knight's fee in Orwey formerly 
John of Orwey's (omitted by Pole). 

Orway, — ^Pole (p. 112) continues : "Phillip (nie Orway) 
wief of Warin de Hampton (of Ash in Trusham ?) had issue 
Jone, wief of John Farindon and Alls wife of John Bellet 
(Belet of Frome ?). Orwey fell into the possession of 
Faringdon and descended in that name unto Lancelot 
Faringdon whoe died (according to Bisdon, in his garters 
at his bedstead) without issue and this land fell in par- 
ticion unto EUzabeth wief of John Drake of Eede which 
gave it unto her husband and hee unto her nephewe whoe 
hath sold it unto Mr. Thomas lies of Exeter." "He 
married Elizabeth Spicer of Exeter" (Polwhele). The 
lands of his manor must have been much whittled down 
since Domesday times. Bethel Walrond held thereof in 
1841, 248 acres; he also held part of the Pirzwell manor. 
These estates were sold about 1888, and now belong to 
H. Campbell Johnston, Albert Abid, Jesse Cottrell, WiUiam 
Gregory Snell, Esqs., the last of whom inhabits the old 
mansion house now called Orway Porch. The Manor Wood 
was probably that now called Knowles ; Westcote observes 
that in the commons is a stone yet pitched called Orway 
stone. It is probable that these manor commons lay on 
the hill above the wood : wood and common are now 
separate. I am told that Moneysland had belonged 
anciently to this manor. 

BUiclcborough Boty in the parish of KerUisbeare. — ^In the 
Domesday survey are two manors called Blacaburga and 
one called Blackeberia ; all of these are now confused 
under the name of Blackborough Boty (now Punchydown), 
and Blackborough Bolhay, now the ecclesiastical parish 
and the manor and glebe of Blackborough. 

On the whole I am inclined to agree with the Rev. 
T. W. Whale's identification of Blacaburga (2) with Black- 
borough Boty, although the Beacon (possibly the mound 
of the old Burg) adjoins Blackborough Bolhay : the 
manors of Kentisbeare and Blackborough Bolhay have 
usually been held together as were Chentesbera and 
Blackeberia in Domesday. 

BUicaburga (2). — The tenant-in-chief was William the 
Doorkeeper (by exchange), the Anglo-Saxon tenant had 
been Lewin Socca, paying geld for 1 hide and 1 virgate ; 
the sub-tenant was Ralph Botinus, and had 3 ploughs, 
1 hide, 1 virgate in demesne ; the villeins had i hide and 



342 THE TOWN, VILLAGE, MANORS, 

I a virgate ; there were 4 villeins, 2 serfs, 12 beasts, 12 
Bwine, 40 sheep, 30 goats ; 12 acres of coppice, 4 of me€uloWy 
100 of pasture, worth 20 shillings, had been 10 shillings. 

In Testa de Nevill, Ralph Boty holds 1 knight's fee 
in Blakebergh and Essef ord : the king apportions Blake- 
burg Boydyn [sic] to daughter of Wm. de Percey. 

Blackborough is not mentioned in Kirby's Quest, and 
all three Domesday manors may be included under the 
members of the vill of Kentelesber belonging to Mauger 
cuid the heirs of James de Bolley. 

1303. — Examination of knight's fees : " Adam Boty 
holds in Blakeburgh Boty i knight's fee, and by the Bolls 
of the chancery J of a knight's fee." 

1346. — ^Feudal aid of James de Cobeham, Richard Comb, 
and John Holeway, for half a knight's fee in Blackeburge 
Boty, held of the honour of Plympton, and once held by 
Adam Boty xxs. 

1428. — ^Liquisitions into Fees : Lord Huntyngdon held 
quarter knight's fee in Blakeburgh Botis, lately James 
Ciobham's. Pole (p. 184) says : " Blakburgh Boty first 
belonged unto the name of Boty after tinder Cobham of 
Blackburgh Bolhay : then unto Bonvill and last after the 
attainder (of Duke of Suffolk, temp. 2 Mary ?) purchased 
by my father, and descended unto myself." Sir William 
Pole died 1636. He also mentions that portion bought (?) 
by Sir John Wyndham. Mr. William Wyndham is still 
possessed of an isolated piece of land in the near vicinity. 

In 1840 Richard John Marker owned this manor, and 
gave the site for the present Sunday-school, "part of 
a garden in the village of Punchidown parcel of the 
manor of Blackborough Booty." The school trust deed 
recites that most of the Punchidown houses had been 
built from the waste of that manor : the house is now 
called Punchidown Farm, but it is strange that so httle 
documentary evidence seems to exist of the tenure of the 
family of Ponchardon (De Ponte Cardonis), which flour- 
ished from Richard I until 20 Edward I at the least. The 
manor, with ample wood and waste in the Blackdowns, 
now belongs to the Bradfield estate. Its probable area is 
250 acres. 

SainthilL — ^This estate belonged to Cistercian Monas- 
teries of Dunkeswell, founded by William de Brewer in 1201. 

In the Taxation of Pope Nicholas (1288-91) Sainthill 
appears as Sanketyl. 



AND CHURCH OF KBNTISBBABE. 343 

In the Valor Ecclesiasticus (temp. Hen. VIII), " Sheldon 
and Synthill, £40 lOs. lOid., with 'perquisites' £1 166. 8d." 
This valuation was after deductions. 

In thje Computus ministrorum Domini Regis, 32 Henry 
Vin, Sheldon et Seynthill redd' oonv' ten' £12 2s. Id. 

Wood.— Pole's CoUectiona (p. 84) bef. 1636 : " Woode, 
the dwellinge of Whyting lieth in this parish. Nicholas 
Whitinge in King Edw. 3 tyme dwelled here. He married 
Marg'et on of the sisters and heires of Thomas Prodhome, 
of Upton Prodhome." 

" Su* Gawen Carewe knt dwelled at Woode but held it by^ 
lease from the heirs of Whitinge and likewise did the lady 
his wief ; after whose death Will^m Walrond of Bradfield 
esq. made his most abode at Woode, holding their moyty 
by lease." 

Samuel Southwood, Esq., who married Frances Wabrond 
before 1763, held lease here, but was not seemingly the 
owner. 

The area of the estate is now 205 acres. 

I subjoin a short pedigree of Whiting. 

[Bisdon] 

Nicholas Whitinge = Margaret, one of the sisters and heirs of Thomas 

>*«A<1 1*1 ^liA lanraa' "Diu^/l )i #\««i A *\f TTv\4'/im Dn^t/lli^mi a A wmna aaviiwA 



Prodhome, of Upton Prodhome. Arms, azure, 
3 lions' heads erased, or. 



Julian, d. of William Holbeame. 



' lerned in the lawes^ 
tcTnp. Edw. III. Alive 
46 Edw. Ill, 1372. 

John Whiting 

Robert Whiting= 

John Whiting= Alis, d. of Nicholas Kirkham (Arms of Kirkham, 
of Blagdon, argent, 3 lions rampant, gules, 
within a bordure engrailed sable). 

Robert Whiting=Isabell, d. and co-heire of John Cliveden (arms 
on John Whiting's tomb). 

John Whiting == Anne, sister and co-heir of Peter Paunoefort (arms 
on tomb). 

I r i ^1 

Agne8=Henry Walrond. 2=Keynes. (3)=Robert Fitz (4) Eli2abeth= 

James. Nicolas Ashford. 

{sine prole. ) 

John Whiting was one of the six esauires who bore the coffin of Katherina, 
Countess of Devon, daughter of Edward IV, buried at Tiverton, 16 November, 
1627. 

Polwhele : ** John Whiting of Wood dying without issue in Henry VII*** 
time, a suit in law commenced between John Whiting his cousin and next heir 
and a herald named John Whiting bom bejond seas who laid claim to this land 
but it was found for John Whiting of Wood." 



344 THE TOWN, VILLAOB, MANOBS, 

Note. — Dulford House, anciently Montrath House, or 
Strawberry Hill. This house was built in the confines 
of Kentisbeare parish, although part of its demesne is in 
Kentisbeare, by Charles Henry Coote, Earl of Montrath, 
Viscount Coote of Castle Coote, and Baron Coote of Castle 
Cuffe. He was bom about 1725, succeeded to the Elarldom 
as 7th Earl 27 August, 1744, and took his seat in the 
House of Lords 19 December, 1753. He was a highly 
eccentric man, with a morbid dread of infectious disease : 
smallpox had ravaged his family. He had as his mistress 
Mary, or Molly Preston, a Kentisbeare girl of humble origin, 
whose wish in life was to inhabit a great house on Straw- 
berry Hill, in her old parish. The Wyndhams, however, 
would not sell. Popular tradition ascribes to this peer the 
face of a pig, but this is probably an exaggeration ; but the 
Annual Register of 1802 tells us that he had five private 
rest-houses between Norfolk and Devon, as he would not 
sleep at an inn. In the Registers of St. James, Westminster, 
we have : Charles, base-bom son of the Earl of Montrath cmd 
Mary Preston, bom 30 July, baptized 6 September, 1761. 

He built a staunch mansion of white brick, with narrow 
windows, engirdled by two lofty walls and a belt of trees. 

He was created Baron of Castle Coote, 31 July, 1800. 
Fifteen other Barons were created on the same day ; this was 
at the time of the passing of the Act of Irish Union. All 
his titles are extinct, save his Baronetcy, the premier 
baronetcy of Ireland. He died in 1802. 

Joseph Lyons Walrond, of Antigua, who came of a 
branch of the Walronds of Bradfield, bought the property. 
He married (1797) Caroline, daughter of Sir Edward 
Codrington, and died in January, 1815, and was succeeded 
by Bethell Walrond, who married Lady Janet St. Clair, 
daughter of the 2nd Earl of Rosslyn. On his death in 
1888 (?) the estate was sold to Mr. Boyle, and soon after 
to All3ert Abid, Esq., of Hyderabad, Deccan, India. 

The Population of Kentisbeare and Blaclcborough, — ^In 
1428 (6 Henry VI), a subsidy commonly called tonnage 
and poundage was raised on the basis of the ecclesiastical 
tenths payable to the Pope ; small places were exempt, 
and thus we read of Blackborough : " Non sunt decem 
personse inhabitantes, domicilia tenentes, in parochia de 
Blackburgh"; that is, ** There are not ten inhabitants, 
being householders, in Blackborough parish." 



AND CHURCH OF KENTISBEABE. 



345 



In 1744 and in 1764, 168 families were returned as 
resident in Kentisbeare. 







Census Returns. 




1801 


Houses. 
141 


Families 
226 


Populatioi 
1042^ 


I. 

) Kentisbeare 


1811 


191 


204 


951 


> and 


1821 
1841 


215 


228 


1143; 
1134 


1 Blackborough 
Kentisbeare 


1841 
1871 






112 
1060 


Blackborough 
Kentisbeare 


1871 
1891 






76 
812 


Blackborough 
Kentisbeare 


1891 
1901 






43 
676 


Blackborough 
Kentisbeare 


1901 

1910 estimated 




58 
621 


Blackborough 
Kentisbeare 


1910 


99 




64 


Blackborough 



It is believed that the population of Henland has been 
returned erroneously to the population of the ecclesiastical 
parish of Kentisb'eare instead of to CuUompton. 

Note. — It is said that as late as the eighteenth century^ 
Cullompton and Kentisbeare were ruled by a High Con- 
stable chosen alternately by each parish. 



THE MANORS, PARISH, AND CHURCHES OF 
BLACKBOROUGH, alias ALL HALLOWS. 

BY REV. EDWIN S. CHALK, M.A. 

(Read at Cullompton, S7th July, 1010.) 



This little parish of 508 acres is comprised in the glebe 
and the ancient Manor of Blackborough Bolhay. It is 
difficult to identify which of the three Domesday Manors — 
Blackburga (2) and Blackaberia — stood for the present 
parish. It is a well-wooded tract, lying on the northern 
slopes of the Blackdowns ; the oidy tenements of im- 
portance are Allercombe (All Hallows' Combe ?), All 
Hallows, Sandfield, Combe Dairy, and Blackborough 
House. The family of Bolley, or Bolhay, lived per- 
manently at All Hallows, vulgarly called Allons, and 
presented to the living in 1274-5 ; but Pole says Sir 
Hamlyn Bolhay lived here temp. Richard I. The arms 
of Bolley were : Argent on a chevron sable, between three 
roundels gules, three besants. Sir John de Cobeham, a 
son of Lord Cobham of Kent, married Amicia, the daughter 
and heiress of James Bolley ; John Cobeham died in 1388, 
and after that the history of the Manor becomes confused 
until in 1458-9 we find it in the possession of the Bonviles, 
in whose line, male or female, it remained until the at- 
tainder of the Duke of Suffolk under Queen Mary. For 
a few years the Manor belonged to Lord William Howard 
of Effingham, but from the later part of the sixteenth 
century has been the property of the family of Wjnidham. 
All Hallows Common is a tract of some eighty acres, 
mostly a flat table land on the summit of the Blackdowns. 
The Manor woods are Blackborough, the Grove and 
CoUeydown. 

The last Lord Egremont, during his eight years of 
tenure of the estate, built Blackborough Church and 
House. The house is a large mansion, with two lofty 



THB 0HX7RCHBS OF BLAGKB0B0X7QH. 347 

towers in the Italian style ; it contains about fifty rooms, 
and is now partially occupied by Miss Dennis. 

The ancient church stood in the present garden of All 
Hallows Farm, and its site and churchyard are exactly 
shown in an exchange of lands between the Manor and the 
glebe in 1854. When the old farm-house of All Hallows was 
burnt and rebuilt about the same time, large stones were 
found belonging to the old church ; a tree marked the spot 
until about the year 1897. 

The earliest mention of the church is found in the 
institution of a rector, 8 January, 1274-5 ; the benefice is 
usually called a rectory and sometimes a chapelry; its 
value is returned at iiis. in the Taxation of Pope Nicho- 
las II, 1288-91, but this is probably apart from glebe. 
I have been unable to discover at what date the old 
church became disused, but it is not held in pluraUty with 
Kentisbeare until 1634-5 ; in a county map of about that 
date it is marked as a church, but there is no mention of 
the p£urish in the inventory of Church goods of Edward VI, 
1553. The Lysons', in 1822, say that " there is not even 
the ruins of a church here." 

On the other hand, we find that the Bishops' Registers 
record institution as a full rectorial cure, and it seems 
that an annual service was held on the site of the old 
church, presumably to prevent the lapse of the benefice 
into a sinecure. 

In the Survey of the Diocese of Exeter, 1782, we find 
the Uttle Uving still charged with £4 first-fruits, which 
shows a value in the King's Books of Henry VIII of that 
sum. " Mr. Ecton calls it a rectory and chapel " (he 
was in the right), " I apprehend it to be a curacy." Its 
reprisals were procurations viid., sjmodals viid., present 
value £60 ; but it is noted that the patron. Lord Egremont, 
paid the curate, John Foster (instituted to rectory, 
30 October, 1736, and died before 7 August, 1756), an 
annual sum of £4. There seems now to have been some 
neglect and confusion. George Wyndham, the last and 
fourth Earl of Egremont, succeeded to the title on 1 1 Novem- 
ber, 1837, and at once proceeded to erect a new church on 
a fresh site close by Blackborough Beacon, 750 feet above 
the sea, on a very wet piece of waste land. A model of the 
church is kept at Orchard Wjnidham. It is said that the 
contractors were caught scamping their work, and that 
the original scheme of a stone church had to be abandoned 



348 THE MANORS, PARISH, 

for the present stucco erection, which is always giving 
trouble for repairs. 

In design it is a very fair specimen of Pugin Grothio in 
the Early English style. It consists of a nave lit in each 
side by four pointed windows, a chancel lit by an east win- 
dow of four Ughts and flanked on each side by small vestries. 
There is a western tower crowned by a spire ; on either side 
are small galleries opening into the church, and between 
them and the tower is the Earl of Egremont's pew with 
a fireplace ; above in the tower - room is an excellent 
parochial library. A good bell was hung in the tower in 
1883 at a cost of £50. 

The church was thoroughly restored in 1894-5, and a 
spire (previously of brick) was replaced by a smaller spire 
of wood with battlements, but without broa^shings ; 
£650 was raised for this work by the energy of the rector, 
the Rev. E. H. G. De Castro, in whose incumbency many 
valuable gifts were made to the church. 

The Kentisbeare Registers and transcripts include the 
inhabitants of Blackborough until the new Registers began 
in 1838. The Communion plate is exceptionally handsome. 
It was presented by the Earl of Egremont, and consists 
of a flagon, two patens, and large chaUces. There is one 
brass within the church to the two sons of the first rector, 
the Rev. — Thompson, who both died in the East. The 
font cover was a memorial gift for an excellent church- 
warden, Mr. John Radford, who died in 1897. 

The foundation stone was laid by the Ven. Archdea<5on 
Moore Stevens, in the presence of 2000 people, but that 
night the huge stone was moved, and the commemoration 
coins stolen in spite of a night watchman. 

Parish. — ^The Domesday Manors, if our identification 
be correct, were inhabited by 3 villeins, 7 bordarii, 1 serf ; 
but we have no further index of population until the sixth 
year of Henry VI (1428), when the parish escaped pay- 
ment of tonnage and poundage because there were not 
ten inhabitants who were householders in Blackborough. 
But the parish met with a strange revival in the eighteenth 
century, when it was found that the greensand cap, which 
is about seventy feet thick, was full of stones unequalled 
for the sharpening of steel. From 1700-6, a Kentis- 
beare rector or his curate enters the trades of the men 
married or buried, and there is no mention of a whet- 
stone man. Blackmore (bom 1825), in his novel of Perty- 



AND GHX7B0HES OF BLACKB0B0X7GH. 349 

crosSy describes the industry as no new thing, though the 
descendants of the whet-stoners would resent, if they ever 
read, the description of the rough ways of their grand- 
parents. As the industry is abnost extinct a short 
account of it may be of service. Level galleries, some of 
them two or three hundred yards in length, were driven 
in the greensand. At the height of the trade there were 
about twenty-four pits in working, employing two to four 
men each, besides women. Every inch of the gallery has 
to be propped up, and the work at the end of the level is 
very dangerous. 

The stones were rough-hewn at the mouth of the pit, 
and were driven in wheelbarrows by lads and women 
to the sheds, where they were finally shaped with a 
strange tool, Uke a stout hammer with a double head 
beaten into blades ; they are still made locally. In 
course of time the Umited district of the stones was 
riddled through and through, and the three pits opened 
during the last six years cut across the old workings con- 
tinually. A considerable number of men lost their 
lives through the sand ^ ruising " in upon them, but 
many more died before they reached the age of fifty by 
the " smeech " or firife powder from dressing the stones. 
The widows of Blackborough came down in a troop for 
parish pay weekly, greatly to the distress of the agricul- 
tural ratepayers. Many fossils were found, and some 
two hundred specimens were classified by the Rev. W. 
Downes, late curate of Kentisbeare, and his collection is, 
I beUeve, in the Museum at Exeter. The dressing of stones 
is still carried on by J. Bookley at the Baptist Manse, 
Sainthill. The old whet-stoners were fond of wrestling, 
were very clannish, and did not love the society of strangers 
in their pubUc-house, the Puncheydown Inn, but morally 
they seem to have been well up to the average and took full 
advantage of the new church and school built for them, 
and also of the chapel at Sainthill. The pits are now 
nearly worked out, the crops are now no longer reaped 
with a scythe, and stones can be made by the compression 
of small Welsh stones. 

Popvlation. — In 1849there were 11 2 inhabitants; in 1872, 
76; in 1901, 58; in 1909, 6^— bo we may hope that the 
downward course is stayed. The inhabitants are still re- 
markable for a strong local affection and neighbourly kind- 
ness. 



360 THE BfANOBS, PARISH, 

School. — ^The school stands in the parish of Kentis- 
beare, but as the rector of Blackborough is the sole 
trustee, I mention it here. The trust deed of 22 Septem- 
ber, 1840, recites: "Whereas the little Parish of Black- 
borough hath been for many ages without a Parish CSiurch 
and the Bight Hon. Earl of Egremont the Patron of the 
Bectory and sole landowner of the said Parish, has lately 
erected a Church within and for the said Parish of Black- 
borough at some distance from the supposed site of the 
ancient Parish Church and nearly at the extreme limits 
of the said Parish and approaching and near to the village 
of Puncheydown in the adjoining Parish of Kentisbeare. 
. . . And the said Earl hath been pleased to accept the 
oflfer of sundry Individuals resident in the neighbourhood 
by Voluntary Contributions to fit and finish the interior 
of the said Church for Divine Worship. . . . And whereas 
the inhabitants of the said village of Puncheydown and 
the inhabitants of other neighbouring villages etc. are 
favoured with accommodation in the new Church. . . . 
And whereas the greater number of the houses and cottages 
in the village of Puncheydown have been built in the 
ancient waste of the Manor of Blackborough Booty 
whereof Richard John Marker is the Principal owner and 
whereas it appears to be the general wish of the religiously 
and charitably disposed respectable inhabitants of the 
immediate neighbourhood that a Sunday School should 
be established near to the said Parish Church of Black- 
borough ... in furtherance of which object the said 
Richard John Marker hath erected in his own land 
the building hereinafter described Now this Indenture 
witnesseth " — ^here follows a conveyance of site and build- 
ings to the rector of Blackborough. " To have and to 
hold for a Sunday School and if it be thought expedient 
for a Day School also for the instruction of the children of 
the poor So as they may be carefully taught therein 
their Duty towards God and their Duty towards their 
neighbour and nothing that can have a tendency to 
render them dissatisfied in that state of life in which it has 
pleased God to place them." (A usual misquotation.) 
The school is used both as a Sunday and a day school 
according to the terms of this deed, and is usually attended 
by about thirty-five children on week-days. The school is 
now administered under a Final Order on 7 March, 1904, 
made under the Education Act of 1902, with the Rector of 



AND GHTJBCHBS OF BLA0KB0B0X7OH. 351 

Kentisbeare as ex-officio manager and three co-opted 
managers; there is also a fifth manager elected by the 
Parish Council and a sixth nominated by the Devon 
County Council. 

Of the three Domesday Manors, Blackeberia and the two 
Blackebergas, Blackeberia and one of the Blackebergas 
have been identified as the Manor of Blaokborough Bolhay 
and All Hallows Chantry, by which the Glebe Farm of 
eighty acres may be meant. 

Blackeberia in ''Domesday,'*^ — Of this Manor Baldwin the 
SherifE was tenant - in - chief , and Norman had been the 
Anglo-Saxon tenant and had paid geld for the half of a 
hide ; William the Black had there one plough and had 
in demesne 1 virgate and 1 plough, the villeins had 1 vir- 
gate ; there were 1 villein, 4 bordarii, 1 serf, 20 acres of 
pasture and 5 of meadow. The annual value was 10s., and 
it had been 5s. 

Blackberga. — Of this Manor Ralph de Pomaria was 
tenant - in - chief , and Alnota had been the Anglo-Saxon 
tenant who had paid geld for the half of a hide. Ralph 
of Felgheres was sub - tenant and had 2 ploughs ; in 
demesne he had 1 virgate and 1 plough ; the villeins had 
also 1 virgate and 1 plough ; there were 2 villeins and 3 
bordarii ; 3 acres of meadow, 20 of pasture, 30 sheep, 
13 cattle, 4 swine, 8 goats. I cannot help thinking that 
this is too large a Manor to stand for the glebe, but of 
course many alterations may have been made. 

Testa de NeviU, 1234.—" Roger le Poer has in Blake- 
burgh T^ of a knight's fee ; the heir of Sir Hugh de BoUey 
J of a knight's fee ; parts of the knight's fees of the Earl 
of Devon, John de Courtenay, in the honour of Plympton." 
In 1274-5 Dame PhiUppa de BoUey presents to the rectory. 
Kirby^s Quest, 1284-6. These manors are probably in- 
cluded as members of the vill of Kentelesber, belonging to 
Mauger and the heirs of James de BoUey. 

Examinaiion of knighVs fees, 1303. — "Philippa de BoUey 
holds in Blakeburgh i of a knight's fee." Pole's Collections, 
p. 90 : *' Blackburgh, the ancient seat of the family of Bol- 
hay, which harboured Sir Hamlyn Bolhay in Richard I's 
reign, and after divers knights of that name, James, the last 
of the male line, transferred the inheritance into the name 
of Cobham, by the marrying of his daughter and heir Amisia 
unto Sir John de Cobham, a younger son of Lord Cobham, 
of Kent *,. from which John and Amisia issued James and 



362 THE MANORS, PARISH, 

Isabel, the wife of John Bampfield (from which Bamfield 
of Poltimore is descended), and EUzabeth, wife of Sir 
Hugh Peverell, from which the Earl of Huntingdon, by 
Hungerford, is descended, and Phihppa, wife of Nicholas 
Inkpen, from whom Walgrave, by Fitchet Hill, of Spaxton 
and Cheniey, are descended. The last of the line of 
Cobham had issue Elizabeth, married to Walter Charlton 
and died without issue." 

John de Cobham presents in 1329 and 1332 and James 
in 1342-3, 1346. In the Feudal Aids of this year we have : 
" Of James de Cobeham for J of a knight's fee in Blake- 
burgh, held of the honour of Plympton, which Philippa de 
Bolhay formerly held, xs." In 1351-2 and 1373-4 the 
patronage lapses. 1388 : In an inquisition for death 
duties of 12 Richard II we find John Cobham dying 
possessed of the Manor and advowson. In 1402-3 and 
1410 John Wyke, of Nenhide, domicellus, presents ; in 
1413 John Blakelake, Roger Tremay, and WiUiam Newton ; 
the Manor of Kentisbeare goes through a similar time of 
doubt or division. In 1414-15 the patronage again lapses. 
In 1427-8, at an inquisition held at Cullompton Tu^day 
before the Feast of St. Paul, it was found that ** Richard 
Comu, Thomas Streche, and WiUiam Meryfield held J of 
a knight's fee in Cobham (alias Blakeburgh), which they 
held separately among themselves, and no one held a clear 
quarter." 

At an inquisition held at Exeter on the Monday before 
Michaelmas, 1428, it was found that Sir WilUam Bonevyll 
held i of a knight's fee in Blakeburgh, formerly James 
Cobham's. From 1458-9 to 1512, at least, the patronage is 
found with the patrons of Kentisbeare, the Bonvilles and 
their heirs. In 1548-9 George Medley presents, and in 
April, 1555, the Crown. In 1556 William Ellsdon, yeoman, 
presents for Lord William Howard of Eflfingham, and his 
wife Margaret. The Manor was probably bought by the 
WjTidhams from the Crown about the year 1562 with the 
Manor of Kentisbeare, but I am not sufficiently a lawyer 
to pronounce on the deeds preserved of about that date. 
John Windham presents in 1595, but the patronage has not 
always been with the eldest of that Une. 

Benefice, — ^The tithe was commuted at £80 per annum ; 
the glebe is of about 70 acres, but is tithe free save for 
a field recently exchanged ; there is no house, although 
the glebe farm was recently called the parsonage. ^ 



AND GHUBCHBS OF BULOKBOBOUOH. '353 



RECTORS OF BLACKBOROUGH. 

Date of Institution. — 8 Jan., 1274-5, Edw. I. 
Patron. — ^Dame Philippa de BoUeghe. 

Stephen de Ufoolm. 
(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

Date of InstitiUion.— After 1 April, 1329, Edw. III. 
Patron. — John de Cobeham. 

James Basset. 
(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

First tonsure, 1329 ; dispensation for non-residence to 
study at Oxford until Michaelmas, 1330 ; engaged to take 
sub-deacon's orders within a year of institution ; receives 
another licence for non-residence and deacon, 13 January, 
1330-1 ; priest, 16 September, 1332. The living was then 
valued at 4s. a year, and seems to have been used as a 
bursary for a young student. 

Date of Institution.— e Dec, 1332, Edw. III. 
Patron. — John de Cobeham. 

William de Tbemblet. 

(Cause of vacancy, on resignation of J. B.) 

Date of In8tittUion.—2 March, 1342-3, Edw. III. 
Patron. — James de Cobeham. 

John Mile de Kynqton. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of W. de T.) 

Date of CoUation.—^O Jan., 1351-2, Edw. III. 
Patron. — Bishop by lapse collates. 

Henby Pbnsyppel. 

Date of Collation.— IS Feb., 1373-4, Edw. III. 
Patron. — Bishop by lapse. 

Robert Hals, priest.. 

VOL. XLII. z 



354 THB MA170BS, PARISH, 

Date of Institution.— 21 Feb., 1402-3, Henry'IV. 
Patron. — John Wyke. 

William Porter. 

(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

John Beks. 

Date of Inatitviion or Collation. — 2 June, 1406, Henry IV, 
and finally 7 Aug., 1410, Henry IV. 
Patron. — John Wyke, of Nenhide, domicellus. 

Thomas Toffb. 

(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

Licensed for non-residence of one year twice. 

Date of Institution. — 16 July, 1413, Henry V. 
Patrons. — John Blakelake, Roger Tremay, William 
tNewton. j^^ Hbanokb. 

(Cause of vacancy, by death of T. T.) 

DaU of Collation.— 2^ Feb., 1414-16 (?), Henry V. 
Bishop collates by lapse. 

JOHK FORSTBR. 

Deprived of benefice of Kentisbeare before 2 Jime, 1426. 

Daie of Institution. — (?). 

Patron. — WiUiam Bonvyle, of Clinton. 

Henry Popb. 

(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

Date of Institution or Collation. — 17 Jan., 1468-9, 
Henry VI. 
Patron.— (1). 

John Alyn. 

Cause of vacancy, on death of H. P., 9 Nov., 1470.) 

DaU of Institution.— 12 March, 1470-1, Edw. IV. 
Patron. — William Lord Hastings, Knight, in minority of 
Cecily, d. of Sir William Bonvyle, of Heryngdon. 

Paschasius Davy. 

(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

After an inquisition into patronage held at Bradninoh, 
6 March, 1470-1. 



AND CHURCHES OF BLACKB0B0X7GH. 356 

Date of Institution.— 2S Oct., 1493, Henry VII. 
PtUron, — ^Thomas, Marquis of Dorset. 

John Dowdbnby. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of P. D.) 

DcUe of Inatitution.— 1512, Henry VIII. 

Patrons. — Sir Robert Throgmorton, Sir Robert Pojnitz, 
patrons acting for the Bishops of Winchester, S^bury, 
and Rochester, George Nevyll, and others. 

John Adams. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of J. D.) 

Ad Rectoriam aut Capellam. 

Date of InstittUion. — 10 Jan., 154S-9, Edw. VI. 
PtUron. — George Medley. 

Edwabd Hopkyn. 

(Cause of vacancy, by statute.) 

Seemingly a Protestant. 

Date of InstittUion. — 10 April, 1655, Philip and Mary. 
Patrons. — ^Philip and Mary (Crown). 

WlUJAM HOLLOBENE. 

(Cause of vacancy, lawful vacancy.) 
Seemingly a Romaniser. 

Date of InstittUion. — 6 May, 1666, Philip and Mary. 
PcUron. — ^William Ellsdon, gent.; original patrons. Lord 
William Howard of Effingham and his wife Margaret. 

Thomas Cabtbb. 

(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

Dead in 1575 ; instituted to Kentisbeare 2 September, 
1660 ; seemingly a " bat." 



3^6 THB ICAHOBS, PABISH, 

DaU of Instiivium or CoOolion.— 1558 (T), EUubetii. 
Patron.— {t). 

Justinian Lancastrb. 

(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

Seemingly a Protestant ; matriculated at C.C.C, Oxon., 
1541, from Hants ; Fellow, 1545 ; B.A., July, 1546 ; Rector 
of Enmore, Somerset, 1558 ; Archdeacon of Taunton and 
Rector of Huish Champflower, 1560; Chawton, Hants, 1568; 
Gatton, 1573; Church Stanton, 1576; Prebmdaiy of 
Wells, 1584 ; Wood {Ath.) supposes him to have been 
made Archdeacon vice John FitzJames, deprived. 

Date of InstUviion.—n Oct., 1595, Ehzabeth. 
Pairon. — John Windham. 

WiujAM Thomas. 
(Cause of vacancy, on death of J. L.) 

Matriculated at Exeter Coll., Oxford, 3 Dec., 1675 ; of 
Devon. 

Date of Institution or Collation. — (?). 
Patron.— (t). 

Nicholas Baobeare. 

(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

Date of Institution. — 14 March, 1634-5, Charles I. 
Patron. — Hugh Windham. 

Robert Parsons. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of N. B.) 

Instituted to Kentisbeare, 25 July, 1616, q.v. 

Date of Institution. — 5 Sept., 1638, Charles I. 
Patron. — Hugh Windham, of Orchard. 

John Parsons. 
(Cause of vacancy, on the free resignation of R. P.) 
Instituted to Kentisbeare, 8 Nov., 1642, q.v. 



AND GHUBCHBS OF BLACKBOBOUOH. 367 

Date of In8tUnt%on.—l3 Jan., 1642-3, CJharles I. 
Patron. — ^Hugh Windham, of Orchard. 

BoBEBT Pabsons, junr. 

(Cause of vacancy, on cession of J. P.) 

Brother of J. P. and son of B. P. above. Matriculated 
at Wadham, Oxford, 30 Oct., 1629, aged eighteen ; B.A., 
Hart Hall, 2 March, 164^3 ; Vicar of St. Decuman's, 1643 ; 
Rector of Bewe (?), 1662 (?). 

DcUe of Institution.— 5 March, 1661-2, Charles II. 
Patron. — ^Hugh Windham. 

Nicholas Ives. 

(Cause of vacancy, benefice lawfully vacant.) 

Instituted to Kentisbeare, 7 Feb., 1672-3. 

Date of Institution. — 8 Jime, 1676, Charles IL 
Patron. — Hugh Windham. 

BooBB Gbubham. 

(Cause of vacancy, on resignation of N. I.) 

Instituted to Kentisbeare, 7 Nov., 1681, 

Date of Institution. — 13 June, 1681, Charles II. 
Patron. — Sir Hugh Windham. 

BiCHABD TbOITE, B.A. 

(Cause of vacancy, on resignation of B. G.) 

Son of WiUiam Troite, of Marshwood, co. Dorset ; 
matriculated at St. Mary Hall, Oxford, 22 March, 1671-2, 
aged seventeen. 

Date of Institution. — 2 Dec., 1696, William and Mary. 
Patr(m. — ^Dame Catherine Wyndham (Sir W. Wyndham 
a mmor). Andbew Debyabd. 

(Cause of vacancy, on resignation of B. T.) 

Dflrfe of Institution. — 1 Nov., 1712, Anne. 
Patron. — Sir William Wjmdham. 

ESOOTT BiCHABDS. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of A. D.) 
Instituted to Kentisbeare, 20 July, 1726. 



368 THB MANORS, PARISH, 

Date of Inatimian.—SO Oct., 1736, George II. 
P(Ur(m. — Sir William Wyndham. 

John Forstbr, b.a. 

(Cause of vacancy, on resignation of E. R.) 

DaU of InHiiution.—l Aug., 1756, George II, 
Patron. — ^Hon. Percy Charles Wyndham. 

Jerbmiah Griffiths. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of J. F.) 

DcUe of InsiUuiion. — 1791, or after, George III. 
Patron, — ^Hon. Percy Charles Wjudham (?). 

Robert Tripp. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death (?) of J. G.) 

Instituted to Kentisbeare, 9 Aug., 1791. 

Daie of /w^/i/M/ian.— llJuly, 1825, George IV. 
Patron. — Hon. Percy Charles Wjudham. 

Robert Henry Tripp. 

(Cause of vacancy, not stated.) 

First son of Robert Tripp, of Rewe, clerk in Holy Orders ; 
matriculated Exeter College, Oxford, 16 Dec., 1818; 
B.A., 1822: M.A.. 1826: perpetual curate of St. Sidwell's, 
182^42: Vicar of Altemon. Cornwall, 1842-79; died 
13 Maivh. 1880. 

Ai^^ of f N.</i/M/iOM.— 2l> Oct.. 1828. 
Patron, — Hon. Pervv Charles \V\-ndliam. 

Charles Tripp, d.d. 

^Caus^^ of vacancy , on cession of R. H. T.) 

Instituted to Kontislvarv. 19 July. 1825. 

/\jM>h.— Hon. lVrx\v Charles \V\^ldham. 
Charuks Bovltbke. 
vCau;!^* of YAoanoY. on cession of C. T.) 
He marritxi a sister ot the last Eari of E g rpmo n t , 



AND CHTJBCHBS OF BLACKBOROUQH. 359 

Dale of In8titnii(m.--2l Deo., 1833, WiUiam IV. 
Patron. — Hon. George O'Brien, Earl of Egremont. 

Charles Tkipp, d.d. 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of C. B») 

Date of In8tUtUion.—3 May, 1839. 

Patron. — Hon. George O'Brien, Earl of Egremont. 

William Cookeslby Thompson, m.a. 

(Cause of vaccuicy, on cession of C. T.) 

Son of Henry Thompson, of Deal, Esq. ; matriculated 
Wadham, Oxford, 25 June, 1816, aged nineteen ; B.A., 
1820 ; M.A., 1824 ; Rector of Wormley, Hants, 1856-60 ; 
Rector of Washfield, Devon, 1860-6. 

DcUe of In8tittUton.—6 Feb., 1857. 

Patrons. — ^Trustees of the late Lord Egremont. 

Thomas Morris Dennis, b.a. 

'Cause of vacancy, on cession of W, C. T.) 

Son of — Dennis, of Kentisbeare ; curate of Kentis- 
beare, 1853-6. 

DcUe of Inatiiution.—i: April, 1879. 

Patrons. — ^Trustees of the late Lord Egremont. 

Arthur Paul Britten, m.a. Camb, 

(Cause of vacancy, on death of T. M. D.) 

Son of Paul Ford Britten, Rector of Cadeleigh, Vicar of 
Hardwicke, Hereford, 1897. 

Date of Institution. — 24 Jan., 1894. 

Patron. — William Wyndham, of Dinton, Esq, 

Edward Henry Gilchrist db Castro, m.a. 

(Cause of vacancy, on cession of A. P. B.) 

Of Queen's College, Oxford; Vicar of Sibdon Garwood 
with Halford and Dinchope, 1902. 



360 .THS OHUBCHBS OF BLACKBOROUQH. 

Daie of Insiituiion.—S May, 1903. 
Patron. — ^William Wyndhain, Esq. 

Thomas Hbathckkte Wyndham. 

(Cause of vaoanoy, on resignation of E. H. 6. de C.) 

Instituted to Kentisbeare, 18 May, 1885; Rector of 
Sutton Mandeville, 1904. 

DaU of Institution.— 16 Sept., 1904. 
Poft'on.— William Wyndham, Esq. 

Edwin Spencer Chalk, m.a. 

(Cause of vacancy, on cession of T. H. W.) 

Instituted to Kentisbeare, July 15, 1904. i^^Assistant 
curates, 1904 : Francis Vyvyan Friend Gljmn Giylk, m.a. 
Camb., P.C. of Sheldon ; Edwin Edwards. 



RALEGH MISCELLANEA. 
Part II. 

BY T. N. BRUSHFIBLD, M.D., F.S.A. 
(Bead at Cnllompton, 27th July, 1010.) 



VI.— THE MASSACRE AT SMERWICK.^ 

As captain of a troop of horse, Captain (afterwards Sir 
Walter) Ralegh landed in Ireland in July, 1580 ; and in 
the following November took an active part in the event 
known in historical works as '' the Massacre at Smerwick.'' 
Whatever share he may have had in that incident has 
been the subject of much adverse criticism, and the main 
object of this paper is to inquire into the facts, as far as 
they are known, with the view to ascertain what justifica- 
tion there was for the statements that have been made 
concerning him. 

The sequence of events which culminated in the massacre 
may be thus briefly told. For several successive years the 
relations between Spain and this country had been greatly 
strained, and although the Spanish King hesitated to 
declare war against the English, he felt at last obliged to 
bow to the pressure of circumstances. 

In 1579 the Desmond Rebellion broke out in the 
province of Munster, in Ireland. Then it was that Pope 
Gregory XIII (who is recorded to have expressed his 
approbation of the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, that took 
place eight years previously) showed his sympathy with 
the movement, by inviting Philip of Spain to assist the 



1 



Brief references to works quoted : — 

¥TOVide= History of England, by J. A. Froude, Vol. XI (1870), 
Edwards =Zt/0 of Sir fF. Jialegh (1868). 

U9jmt^n= Memorials of Youghalt etc., by Rey. S. Hayman (1868). 
Heiine88y=iSrir W. RoUegh in Ireland, by Sir J. P. Hennessy (1888). 
S.P,= State Papers. 



362 RALBOH MISCELLANEA. 

Desmond party, with the ultimate view of invading 
heretical England. Philip was at last probably induced to 
unite with the Pope, owing to his possessions in South 
America being plundered by Drake, and although he 
remonstrated with the English Grovemment respecting 
these acts of piracy, he failed to obtain any redress. The 
agreement between these two great European powers was 
brought to a climax through the energetic advocacy and 
dogged perseverance of Dir. Nicholas Sanders, as thus 
strikingly told by Sir Bennell Bodd : — 

** The moving spirit of the Desmond rebellion was the Jesuit 
Dr. Nicholas Sfmders, the evil genius of Ireland at this crisis. 
For years he had been preaching a Catholic crusade against 
England, which he sought to stimulate by the collection and 
circulation of every Ubellous story which malignity could in- 
vent. More successful at Rome than at Madrid, where pacific 
counsels were in the ascendant, he obtained from Gregoiy his 
own nomination as Legate to Ireland, a consecrated banner 
to serve as the oriflamme of the GathoUc cause, and the ap- 
pointment of a papal general in Sir James Fitzmauricey who 
had already distinguished himself by a massacre of T<^gK«^ 
settlers." * 

In May, 1579, a small preliminary expedition left Ferrol 
for Ireland. It conveyed Sanders, Fitzmaurice, two Irish 
bishops, and a few friars and refugees, etc., and carried 
with them the consecrated banner. One of their first acts 
was to commit murder, for, having taken a Bristol trader 
off the Land's End, they threw the crew overboard. They 
landed at Dingle in Kerry ; but on finding the site un- 
suitable, they moved four miles farther into Smerwick 
Bay, and there commenced to erect a fort. From this as 
a centre they put themselves in communication with the 
leaders of the rebellion in the Munster province. Up to 
that time the 13th Earl of Desmond had been a waverer 
in the cause, but joined it soon after his brother had 
assassinated two English offipers, who were his guests, one 
of whom he stabbed when in bed with his own hand. This 
was commended by Sanders '' as a sweet sacrifice in the 
sight of God." 2 This occurred in August, 1679, and soon 
afterwards Desmond took an active part in the rebellion^ 
and "one Sunday night, in the middle of November; broke 

1 Sir W. Baleigh (1904), p. 26. 

^ Camden, Britannia (1686), p. 209, 



BALBOH MISCELLANEA. 363 

at low water into Youghal, which was then an English 
town. All Monday and Tuesday the Geraldines revelled 
in plunder. The houses of the merchants were sacked, 
and their wives and daughters violated and murdered. 
Everyone who could not escape was killed, and on Wednes- 
day the houses were fired, and not a roof was left stand- 
ing." 1 

The '' soldiery employed themselves in plunder and 
demoUtion. They did not spare even the buildings conse- 
crated to reUgion . . . destrojdng the vestments, chalices, 
and other furniture. They ruined the College ... at 
this time the South Transept [of St. Mary's Church] was 
greatly injured. . . . The Choir, with the two lesser 
Chantries, was desolated." 

Thus " Our Ladye's College of Yoghill," which was 
founded by the 8th Earl of Desmond in 1464, was, in 
1579, destroyed, together with the greater part of the 
church and town, by the 16th * or *' insurgent " Earl. 

Twenty-six years later — ^in 1605 — " the Church and 
College House were almost in ruins . . . these the Earl 
of Cork engaged to repair, and he actually expended 
£2000 in rebuilding them. . . ." ^ 

That the warden's house (Ralegh's future residence), 
with the North and South Abbeys, were at the same time 
plundered, and to a great extent, ruined, is probable 
enough. In Hayman's work there is an illustration of 
the ruins of the Dominican friary (North Abbey), and 
one also of the Franciscan friary (South Abbey) ; the 
latter is dated 1600, and the former apparently belongs 
to the same date. The North Abbey was granted to 
Balegh in February, 1585-6, and in 1587, according to a 
Catholic writer in Thidtre Catholique and Protestant Re^ 
ligion, published in 1620 (quoted by Hayman, 43-4), it 
was demolished, " with the fate of those concerned in the 
work." Hayman adds : " Our readers are free to give, or 
withhold, their credence as they think best." The same 
author attributes the demolition to some of the garrison, 
whom he names, but the name of Balegh is not included. 
Hennessy transcribes this account from Hayman's work, 
and asserts that Ralegh during his mayoralty in 1587 (?) 
" ordered or allowed the destruction of this fine building '^ 

1 Fronde, XI, 216. 

2 15th, according to the D.KB. 

» Hayman, pp. 13-14, 49, 61, 64. 



364 BALBOH MISOBIXAKBA. 

<p. 63). Hennessy here commits an anachronism, as Ralegh 
was not Mayor of Youghal until the following year (1588). 
Probably both abbeys were plundered and left partly in 
jruins at the time of the Desmond Rebellion in 1579. The 
warden's house does not seem to have suffered so much bb 
the rest of the college buildings, as the present walls ace 
evidently those of the original structure. It was inhabited 
by Ralegh in his mayoralty. It may be suggested that 
Desmond and his followers would not tamper with religious 
buildings, but a lawless soldiery, bent on plunder and 
its accompaniments, massacre without caring to inquire 
as to the religion of their enemy. The Catholic army 
of Charles V, in the early part of the same century, 
sacked Rome, and ** for three days . . . indiscriminate 
butchery and pillage raged unchecked ... no age nor 
sex was spared. . . . Monasteries were stormed and 
sacked." ^ 

A year later, in September, 1580, the main Cathdio 
expeditionary force set sail for the invasion of Ireland, 
as thus related by Dr. lingard : — 

'' San Giuseppe, an Italian)[officer, in the pay of the pontiff, 
arrived at Smerwick, from Portugal, with seven himdred meOt 
a large sum of money, and five thousand stand of arms." ^ 

At this time Lord Grey was in camp at Rakele, and 
Ralegh was one of his captains there. Some delay had 
been experienced with victualling the ships that formed 
part of the attacking force, but '' Sanders, Desmond, and 
Baltinglass, had taken themselves off when they heard 
that Grey was coming down." ^ The following brief 
account of the events that took place up to the day of the 
final catastrophe is mainly taken from Hooker's Supply of 
the Irish Chronicles in Holinshed's work (ed. 1808, Vol. VI, 
pp. 436-9). The band of foreign mercenaries entered the 
fort (Fort del Ore) which had been erected by their prede- 
cessors in 1579. At length early in November the English 
under Lord Winter, and the land forces under Lord Grey, 
besieged the fort by sea and land. 

Hooker unfortimately gives no dates when the various 
proceedings took place. He commences by noting that the 
fire from the batteries, of which Ralegh had the ward on the 

* M. Creighton, History of the Papacy (1897), VI, 482-3. 
3 History of England (1828), p. 265. 
» Froude, XI, 287. 



BALBOH MISOBLLAKBA. 365 

first day, was continued for three consecutive days. " The 
fourth daie was captaine Zouohes ward daie. . . . About 
the end of these four daies, the trenches for the full batterie 
were drawne and brought so close to the fort, that now 
they left to dallie anie longer . . . but verie hotlie and 
aharpelie they battered at it on both sides. The enemy 
then desired parl6e," and asked for terms, but Lord 
Grey demanded an unconditional surrender, and to this 
they at last consented, and on the following morning they 
gave up all their arms to an officer appointed for the 
purpose, who then withdrew. Then, " captaine Raleigh, 
together with captaine Macworth, who had the ward 
of that daie, entered into the castell & made a great 
slaughter, manie or the most part of them being put to 
the sword." 

This statement has been adopted by the majority of 
historians as the correct one, but it has been traversed 
by the Rev. A. B. Rowan, in an article entitled " Historic 
Doubts respecting the Massacre at Fort del Ore," etc.^ 

In this he asserts Hooker's account of the slaughter to 
be erroneous, and to be based on the statements made 
in the Annals of the Four Masters ; in Muratori's work ; in 
" the testimony of all Catholic Irish writers " ; and by 
Dr. Leland. In opposition" to these authorities, he quotes 
at length a letter, written by Vice- Admiral Sir R. Bingham^ 
of the Siviftsure vessel, who was engaged in the siege 
operations, and was an eye-witness of all that took place 
during its continuance. This letter is now printed in 
extenso, as it appears in Mr. Rowan's paper, but the copy 
now transcribed has been collated with that in the Cotton 
MSS., from which it was taken, and several important 
errors in it have been corrected. It seems to be a duplicate 
of one, addressed to the Earl of Leicester, that follows it 
in the MS. 

" Sir Richard Byngham to Mr, Ralph Lane. 

" Right worehippful, and my singular good frende, may it 
please you to be Advertised that on Saterday, beinge the 5th of 
November in the aftemone, the Admirall with the rest of the 
fleate which had bene absente with him, came into the harbar 
of Smericke, to which place my Lorde Deputy came that day 
from his campe which lay at the Dyngle, hearing of their 
arryvall heare to conferr with them for the landing of two 

1 In Oent,*$ Mag.,.June, 1S49, pp. 585-92. 



366 BALBGH MI8CSLLAKSA. 

cuUveiyiis out of the Revenge, two out of the Swyftsuer, and 
two out of the Tygar, with a Sagar forth of the Accates, and 
another forth of the Ayde, as allso what powder and shotte they 
might spare for the Batterie of the Fortresse, with all other 
necessarie preparations for the trenche, further to adv)»te 
your worshippe that on Monday, beinge the seventh of this 
present, earlye in the mominge, my Lorde Deputy majched 
with his campe from the Dyngle towarde the enemye, whear 
about none he pitched his tente within cannon-shotte, and in 
the eveninge there was order taken that most of the men forth 
of the shippes should come to labor to begyne the trenche, 
which trenche the first nyghte was wrought one hundred paces, 
and two cullver3ms placed within three hundred paces of their 
forte to dismounte their peaces, which weare readie to play at 
the breake of the Day, and before it was two a'clocke in the 
aftemone they weare aU dismounted. The nyghte followinge 
and the nexte day, beinge Wensday, we came with our trenche 
within six score paces of their curtayne, whear we cast sn£S- 
ciente a-heade for the garde of the warde for that day, which 
Mr. Sowche * [my conche] had. 

" This day in the forenonie about nine or ten of the clocke, 
Mr. Cheicke (Cheke) [my cheeke] was stricken from the forte, 
beinge in the height of the trenche. This same day aboute four 
of the clocke in the aftemone, they came to the poynte of the 
Rampier (which we had beatten in with our cullveiyns) with 
a white banner, bareheaded, and requested a parley, which 
my Lorde granted, in which they weare contented the same 
nyghte to surrender up the place with their lyves and fiJl that 
therein was to my Lord's wiU to have mercie or not mercie as 
he shoulde thinke good, yett for that it was nyghte and no 
tyme to get them forthe they weare by my Lorde respected 
tyU the morrowe, but the best of them taken forthe for gages or 
pledges : and we, that notwithstandinge, followed our trenche, 
which we fynished the same nyghte within three score paces 
of their forte, and so ranne the same all alongst their fn>nte, 
whear we meante to place our batterie, to which we broughte 
the same nyghte two peaces. In the mominge, which was 
Thursday and the tenthe, earlye in the mominge my Lorde 
sente in dyvers gentillmen to take order that suche munitions 
of powder and vittells shoulde be preserved to her Majesties use 
as there was : then order was taken that the coUoneU, with the 
captayns and chief officers, shoulde come forthe and delyver 
up their ensigne with order and ceremonie therto belonginge, 
which done, the bande that had the warde of the day, which 
was Mr. Denny's, then entered : but, in the mesne tyme 
weare entered a number of marryners upon the parte nexte to 

^ Zouch. 



RALBOH MISOBLLAKBA. 367 

the sea, which, with the soldiers aforesaide having possessed 
the place, fell to ryvelinge, and spoylinge, and withall to 
.Jcyllinge, in which they never seaced whilst there lived one, — 
the number slayne might be betwixte four and five hundred, 
but as som do judge, betwixte five and six hundred : They 
had, as I heare, of powder lefte fyftie barrells, — of pykes 4000, 
other furniture of arms, harquebus, morryons, and such lyke, 
to the lyke proporsion, of vittells they had great store, savinge 
that they wanted water, which they had not within ther forte. 
Thus hath my Lorde most worthily achyved this enterprise, 
and so noblelye and lyberaUy dealte with all sortes that he 
hath gyven a great satisfaction and content to all his followers. 
Thus with my hartie commendations unto yourselffe and to M 
the rest of my good frendes, I take my leyve, from Smericke 
Rode the XI of November 1580. 

" Yours most assured, to his pow&, 

"R. Byngham. 
" To the right worshippful, 
and my verye good frende, 
Mr. Ralfhe Lanb, at the 
Court, gyve this." * 

This letter is addressed to Mr. Ralph Lane, who was 
the Governor of Ralegh's colony of Virginia in 1585-6. 
Both it and the one that follows it in the MS., directed 
to the Earl of Leicester, are in the handwriting of 
the same amanuensis. On collating them with the 
printed copy in Mr. Rowan's paper, two important errors 
were discovered and corrected. These corrections are 
shown in italics, and the original words placed in square 
brackets. 

Neither the name of Lord Grey nor that of Ralegh is 
mentioned in it, and it appears to exonerate both of them 
from having taken any active part in or of having coun- 
selled or ordered the massacre to be executed. This, in the 
opinion of Mr. Rowan, was due to *' one of those fierce 
casualties of war, which in all ages have been the inevitable 
result of military licence, and the lawlessness of a soldiery 
provoked by resistance." 

The Admiral's narration is both clear and interesting. 
He took an active share in the siege operations, and from 
the deck of his vessel was an eye-witness of all the occur* 

1 CoUm MS., Titos B, XIII, 824. 



3^ RALEOH fiOSCBLLAKBA. 

i^nec^ between 5 November and 10 November ; and on 
%h^ following day, and while his memory was fresh, wrote 
llie letter transcribed above. With one exception, it is 
absolutely trustworthy ; but the exception is an important 
one* and relates entirely to the commotion which he 
observed was taking place in the fort on that fated 10th 
November. He described what he saw, and attributed it 
lo a number of mariners and soldiers " having possessed 
llie place, fell to revellinge, and spoiling, and withall to 
killinge> in which they never ceased while there Uved one." 
Now had this account been our sole source of information 
on the subject it might have been accepted as being 
pit>bably correct. SuflSce it to say that it is imcorroborated 
by anv* other writer, and is altogether contrary to the 
t^timony of Lord Grey, by whose order the besieged 
iXH^upiers of the fort were slain. ^ From his standpoint of 
view on his vessel it was almost impossible for the Admiral 
to a{K*ertain, from his personal observation, whether the 
ot>miuotion to which allusion has just been made was due 
U> the unauthorized onslaught of a number of infuriated 
ni4dior8 and sailors, or whether it was owing to the orders 
^>f the lx)rd Deputy being carried out, for the massacre of 
ifc^ (ort defenders imder the direction of oflScers appointed 
(k^r tht^ purpose. 

i1\o majority of writers accept the accounts of the whole 
H»Jt iJxt* 5*»t^g® ^^ related by John Hooker (1526-1601), from 
%^h'h «^ brief epitome will be found in the early portion of 
•w^ iHiiH^r, wherein Captains Ralegh and Mackworth were 
^Av^HhI to have acted under the orders of the Lord Deputy. 
M^l tho strongest evidence against the explanation in the 
w. 11^ l>art of Admiral Bingham's letter, that the slaughter 
%^ ^utH^'ted by mutinous troops, is found in the letter of 
VvMxl Urt\V to the Queen, dated on the second day after 
^w^ v>^pture of the fort, from which the following extract 

vv >^^^y^ 12. Camp at Smerwick. Lord Deputy Grey to the 

^^^inM\t straight certain gentlemen in to see their weapons 
yj|i ^iuwrt>8 layed downe & to gard y* munition & vittaile 
Swiv Mt for spoile : Then put I in certeyn bandes who straight 
^ Iv^ ^xtH^ution. There were 600 slayne ; munition & vittale 
'AV^I •Hut^. though much wasted through the disorder of 
v^* ^^4K^H'^H* w^h in y* furie could not be helped. Those that 
* On this subject videposU 



RALEQH MISCELLANEA. 369 

I gave lyfjB unto I have bestowed upon y® Captalnes & gentle- 
men, whose service hath weU deserved." ^ 

Lord Grey thus assumes the entire responsibility of the 
act without blaming or naming any one for having coun- 
selled him to carry it out, and omits all reference to those 
by whom his orders were executed. He felt the slaughter 
to be a dire necessity, and that he would not be performing 
his duty in any other way. He knew perfectly well that 
the garrison consisted of mercenary soldiers, criminals, 
etc., who had been sent by two foreign powers to create 
aji insurrection in a country with which they were at peace ; 
and with whose people, except as co-religionists, they had 
no sympathy, nor were interested in. Lord Grey wrote 
as though he expected to be praised and not blamed for 
causing these filibusters to be summarily executed, in 
accordance with a practice that was by no means un- 
common at that period. Their character is thus described 
by Edwards : "A considerable proportion of those who 
met this fate were brigands and other criminals who had 
been liberated from Italian prisons by Papal order, ex- 
pressly that they might * serve ' in Ireland " (I, 40). 
This is corroborated in the following extract from O'SuUi- 
van's Historice Catholicoe Ibernice Comp.y published at 
Lisbon in 1621 : — 

" Italy was at this period much infested with smaU bands 
of robbers, who, issuing from their liirking places in the woods 
and mountains, plundered the villages by nightly incursions, 
and waylaying travellers spoiled them also. James (of Des- 
mond) supplicating Gregory the Thirteenth the sovereign 
Pontiff to aid the Catholic Chiirch in Ireland, just on the 
verge of ruin, at last obtained from him the pardon of these 
robbers upon condition that they should transport themselves 
with him into Ireland, and of these and some others to make 
up a force of about a thousand men." ■ 

The entire matter has been well summed up by Sir R. 
Bodd in the following brief epitome : — 

"The garrison, uncommissioned soldiers from Spain and 
ruffians discharged from the papal prisons, were deliberately 
invading a foreign country in league with rebels in open in- 
surrection. To such, according to the standards of the day, 
no mercy was due. Moreover, a stem lesson was needed, for 

1 S.P,^ Ireland, Elizabeth, Vol. 78, No. 29 ; vide the Official Dispatch in 
Appendix. 

^ Quoted in Oent,*s Mag., June, 1849, p. 591. 

VOL. XLH. 2 A 



370 RALEGH MISOELLANBA. 

these foreign troops were only the advanced guatd of a more 
formidable invasion. They were consequently regarded and 
treated as bandits " (31). 

The massacre at Smerwick put an end to the Desmond 
Rebellion, and the Earl, who had in the previous year 
ruinated the town of Youghal and murdered its inhabitants, 
became a fugitive in the woods which he had formerly 
owned. It is noteworthy that no other serious attempt 
was made to attack either Ireland or England until the 
invasion of the Spanish Armada in 1588. 

Before proceeding further it is absolutely necessary to 
compare the two accounts respectively of Hooker and 
of Bingham, owing to the extraordinary disparity between 
them as to the time occupied by the siege. Hooker's 
account (undated) affirms that from the commencement 
of the cannonading to the final incident it lasted six days, 
without assigning any time to the preliminaries. Bingham, 
on the contrary, accounts daily for all the details successive 
from the arrival of the fleet on 5 November to the final 
capture on 10 November. Of these six days the firing did 
not commence until 8 November, so that the actual siege 
operations inclusive of the slaughter were completed 
in three days, as compared with six noted by Hooker. 
The comparison^ tends to throw much doubt on all other 
matters related by the latter. The reason is simple enough. 
Hooker relied on hearsay testimony sent to him by various 
persons, and probably at different times. Whereas 
Bingham reported daily all he saw as an eye-witness, 
and recorded his facts on the day following the massacre. 
He shows that the besiegers' fire destroyed the lighter 
artillery of the besieged ; and as they could not escape 
by sea, and the rebel army in the vicinity gave them no 
assistance, they were forced to surrender. 

Gosse {Raleigh, 1886, 11) affirms that Hooker was "an 
eye-witness of the siege," but neither evidence nor prob- 
ability supports this view. He was, like Ralegh, a Devon- 
shire man ; but it is altogether unlikely he could have been 
present on that occasion, as his duties of Citj'^ Chamberlain 
would necessitate his remaining in Exeter ; otherwise he 
would have given some more interesting details of what 
took place, and have omitted those inaccuracies that have 
been pointed out in his narration. 

According to Stebbing,^ " the massacre excited general 

» Sir W. Ralegh (1891), p. 17. 



BALBOH inSCELLANEA. 371 

horror throughout Europe." ^This was probably the case 
in Catholic Europe, and this feeling seems to have been 
reflected by O'Donovan (the Editor of The Four Masters), 
in his assertion that '' Lord Grey's character was branded 
with infamy over Europe " (Oent's Mag,, June, 1849, 
p. 586). This feeling of " horror " was apparently due 
to the fact that a body of CathoUcs had been slaughtered by 
Protestants ; when, however, the positions were re- 
versed, and the Protestants were the sufferers, CathoUc 
Europe appeared to view the matter with the greatest 
complacency, and it would be difficult to quote a Catholic 
writer who regarded such slaughter with any feeling 
akin to that of " horror." Take two instances in demon- 
stration. Eight years prior to the Smerwick incident, " a 
hundred thousand " Huguenots were massacred in France 
under the connivance and guidance of Catherine de Medicis, 
at which " the Spanish King laughed for joy " ; and the 
new Pope, Gregory XIII, ordered a Te Deum to be sung.^ 
Again, in the Low Coimtries, and in the same centurj% 
" Pillage, massacre, and rape . . . had been the regular 
accompaniments of Alva's victories." ^ 

Macvey Napier asserts that the Smerwick slaughter 
" was a fouler and more revolting act than ever stained 
the name of England."^ But that able writer could not 
have read the account of the horrible harrowing of York- 
shire by William I as depicted in Freeman's History of 
the Norman Conquest,^ or he would have modified his 
statement. 

It must be borne in mind that down to the middle of 
the seventeenth century wars were conducted in a more 
murderous manner than they have been since that period ; 
and now in " civilized " countries they are unattended 
with the slaughter of garrisons and of imoffending citizens. 
There was no necessity for Camden to attempt to shield 
the act of Lord Grey in performing what he deemed it was 
his duty to do, by affirming that his soldiers were getting 
short of food, that a large rebel army was in their vicinity, 
etc.* As J. A. St. John aptly remarks: "Instead of 
palliating the crime, the historian would have done better 
to prove by examples that it was altogether in the spirit 
of the times." He then quotes the following from the 

> J. R. Green, History of th/i English People (1880), II, 401-2 ; Froude, X, 
408-10. 2 Motlev, United Netherlands (1904), I, p. 285. 

3 Lord Boom and Sir Jv, Raleigh (1863), p. 88. 
* Vol. IV, pp. 288-94. » Britannia (1685), pp. 214-15. 



372 BALBOH BflSCECUOnBA. 

Sidney Papers, I, 309: "Sir Francis Vere having taken 
a fort in Flanders, put the whole garrison to the sword." 
Again, *' When Mons fell into the hands of the French, 
eight hundred of its defenders were cut to pieces." ^ 

Respecting the complacency with which some of the 
European powers viewed these horrors, the following lines 
in The Times review of Hennessy's work (Nov. 7, 1883) 
may be quoted here: ^'AU blood shed in the name of 
protestation is but a drop in the bucket, compared with 
that which has been shed in the name of Roman Catho- 
licism." 

We pass on to consider the part that is usually assigned 
to Ralegh in the final catastrophe at Smerwick, and while 
some unhesitatingly condemn his supposed share in it, 
others deplore his name being associated with such a 
massacre, as a duty imposed upon him ; while others, again, 
refrain from any adverse comment. And it is worthy of 
notice that he has been more severely criticized by modem 
writers than he was by his contemporaries. Edwards 
affirms it exposed Ralegh '' to censure not unmerited " 
(I, 39), but without giving any reason for his opinion. 
Macvey Napier and Sir Rennell Rodd do not attribute 
any special blame to him, but express regret that he should 
have been associated with it. 

Here is Dr. Lingard'a account : — 

" Sir Walter Raleigh entered the fort, received jtheir arms, 
and then ordered them to be massacred in cold blood." • 

This ambiguous statement seems to throw the responsi- 
bility of the final act on Ralegh. It is further singular for 
making no reference to the second officer (Captain Mack- 
worth), who was Ralegh's colleague in carrying out the 
orders of Lord Grey. 

But the most severe comment on Ralegh's action is 
contained in Studies Re-studied, by A. C. Ewald (1885), 
in a chapter entitled " Westward Ho ! ",^ from which the 
following extract is made : — 

'^ It was Raleigh who, in the massacre of the foreign legion 
at Smerviick in Kerry, took the most prominent part, who 
coimselled no quarter, and who knew no rest till his lust for 
blood had been assuaged by the putting to the sword every 
Spaniard and Italian in the garrison " (166). 

> Life of Sir W, Raleigh (1868), I, 69. 

2 History of England (1823), V, S65. 

» First published in Oent^s Mag. (1883), CCLV, 20-46. 



BALEGH MISCBLLANBA. 373 

This is simply a gross perversion of the occurrence, as 
well as of the character of Ralegh, and is beyond the pale 
of ordinary criticism. It is to be regretted that a popular 
writer should make such loose statements, due perhaps 
to hasty compilation, and to which, no doubt, several other 
errors which appear in his paper are owing. Of these, 
two examples will suffice : — 

(1) He asserts of Ralegh that ''accompanied by his 
colonizing fleet, he took possession of that vast tract of 
country . . . caDed Virginia" (168). Whereas he never 
visited any part of North America. 

(2) Elizabeth refused to make Ralegh a Privy Coun- 
cillor, and yet Ewald affirms that " at home his voice was 
seldom raised in vain at the Council-table " (171), and 
" when taking his seat at the Council-table " (204). It 
is a pity a historical writer should not be more careful 
as to facts. It is noteworthy that Hennessy, in Sir W. 
Ralegh in Ireland — of which Dr. Grosart remarks, " a more 
misleading, lop-sided History has rarely been palmed upon 
the world " ^ — although his work usually misrepresents 
Ralegh's character and actions, refrains from making 
any comment on the Smerwick incident in a chapter (rv.) 
which is specially devoted tp that subject, beyond quoting 
Ralegh's part in it as related by Hooker. Hennessy, how- 
ever, in chapter xni, alludes to him that when '' a dashing 
captain of eight-and-twenty, [he] was putting the un- 
armed men to the sword and hanging the women in Dingle 
Bay " (144). 

The massacre at Smerwick was felt by Lord Grey to be 
a miUtary necessity, and was an act for which he alone 
was responsible. We may now inquire as to the names 
of the officers to whom he delegated the task of carrying 
it out. Four are named as having accompanied the army 
from the camp at Rakele to the scene of action, viz. Zouch, 
Ralegh, Denny, and Mackworth.^ Of these the first named 
is not alluded to by any writer as having taken an active 
part in the assault, etc. Ralegh and Mackworth are alone 
mentioned by Hooker, and on his unsupported testimony 
have been adopted by the majority of authorities. The 
only direct evidence of any one officer having entered the 
fort on 10 November was of Captain Denny, who, as we 
learn from Bingham's letter, entered it when the slaughter 

^ Spenser (1882), I, 481. 

2 Cox, Hut. of Irelaiui (1689), p. 367. 



374 RALEGH MISCELLANEA. 

had already commenced after the entrance of other bands. 
That several bodies of troops were engaged in the affw 
we gather from Lord Grey's letter to the Queen, wherein 
he stated, that after the arms had been given up, ^^ then 
put I in certeyn bandes who straight fell to execution." 

It is obvious that, as the besieged numbered about seven 
hundred, they, though unarmed, would certainly make a 
desperate resistance on learning they were to be slaughtered. 
Moreover, it would necessitate the services of a large 
number of troops to carry out Lord Grey's purpose, placed 
under a leader in whom the latter could put the greatest 
confidence. Such a man was Captain Zouch, who had seen 
good service at Limerick ; had viewed the fort with Lord 
Grey prior to the army's arrival ; had taken part in the 
parley on 9 November, which led to the surrender ; and 
after the fort was razed, his lordship left him in charge 
with 460 men.^ 

That Ralegh was selected to lead the attack is most 
unlikely. He was a jimior oflBcer, having been ixi the army 
in Ireland for only five months, half of which he had been 
under the orders of the Lord Deputy, between whom and 
Ralegh dissensions soon took place, which continued for 
some time afterwards, as pointed out in a letter from 
the former to Walsingham, dated 7 May, 1582, that he 
" likes not Captain Rawleys carriage or company. He 
has nothing to expect from him." ^ 

On the other hand, we possess positive evidence, from 
Bingham's letter, that Captain Denny had charge of a 
band and entered the fort while the slaughter was in 
progress. 

There is no reason to believe that Ralegh either coxm- 
selled, or ordered, or had anything to do with the massacre, 
beyond, with the other officers, obeying the directions 
received from his superior officer. And yet some writers — 
Dr. Lingard and Mr. Ewald, for example — ^have asserted 
it, thereby making him virtually responsible for the 
besieged being slam. 

There is no evidence whatever for attributing to Ralegh 
any duties superior to or different from those of his col- 
leagues ; and had he or any of them demurred or refused 
to obey the orders of the commander, he or they would 
assuredly have been executed under martiaMaw. 

' Official Di«»i>fttch, in Api)endix, vide Oldys, p. 41. 
- S.P., Ireland, Vol. 82. 



BALBGH MISOBLLAKBA. 376 



VII. — ^A Fancy Portrait of Baleqh. 

Amongst the numerous distorted assertions made by 
Sir J. Pope Hennessy in his work Sir Walter Ralegh in 
Ireland, one of the most remarkable is that contained in 
a short chapter entitled " Irish Portraits of Ralegh." It 
consists of an attempt to vilify the latter by affirming 
that his portrait bears a '" striking " likeness in features 
as well as in his actions to that of Ferdinand of Toledo 
(better known to readers of history as the Duke of Alva), 
whose name is associated with the most merciless cold- 
blooded murders of prisoners, in addition to those of un- 
offending inhabitants, during the period of his command 
of the Spanish forces in the wars of the Low Countries. 
Commencing with an allusion to Ralegh and the Smerwick 
massacre, already noted in the previous section, the 
chapter then continues with brief notices of three Ralegh 
portraits, two of them preserved in Youghal, and one at 
Ballynatray ; then follows a description with its scanda- 
lous comments on the suggested resemblance of Ralegh to 
the Duke ; this occupies the latter half of the chapter 
(pp. 144-6), which was certainly written to introduce an 
account of a portrait which is in no sense an " Irish " one 
and is now transcribed in extenso. 

" In a comer of his [Ralegh's] Youghal house is an en- 
graving by Van der Werff , of Amsterdam, that seems to combine 
all his characteristic features — the extraordinarily high fore- 
head, the intelligent eyes, the same large but well-shap^ nose, 
the moustache and peaked beard, ill concealing a too determined 
mouth. The likeness is most striking. But there are other 
accessories in this old engraving that seem to identify it, than 
the mere resemblance of the features, with Ralegh's career in 
Ireland. The knightly personage in armour is shrouded in the 
skin of a wolf ; the wolf's head shows its sharp fangs at the 
top of the picture ; two human skulls are beneath, the eyeless, 
sockets of one being directed upwards to the portrait, with an 
expression, as far as a poor skull can have expression, of re- 
proach and woe. Both skulls rest on the torch and sword, the 
dagger of the assassin and the halter. Surely that must be 
Ralegh ? Examining it closer, however, it is found to be but 
the picture of one of his contemporaries and rivals in glory, 
Ferdinand of Toledo, the foreign coercionist of the Nether- 
lands." 



376 RAUBOH BaSCSLLAKKA. 

The portrait, representing a man in middle life, of which 
a reduced facsimile is given on the adjoining pag?, is t^ken 
from a scarce engraving in the British Museum, and bears 
this inscription : — 

"FERDINAND DE TOLEDE, 

DUG D'ALBE. 

D*un Monarque cruel Ministre impitoyable, 
Vainqueur du Portugal, boureau des Pays-Bas : 
Amateur des gibets autant que des Combats, 
Etdu sang innocent tou jours insatiable. 

Adr*^ van der WerflF pinx.'* 

The painter of this remarkable picture was Adrian Van 
der Werff, a celebrated Dutch artist, who was bom in the 
neighbourhood of Amsterdam in 1659, and died in 1722. 
It was executed many years after the death of the Duke, 
which took place in 1582. It, however, shows that the 
atrocities of the latter during the sixteenth century were 
still viewed with feelings of horror in the Netherlands. 

A very slight amount of observation would at once show 
that the engraving was not intended to be a likeness of 
Ralegh, as the name '"Ferdinand of Toledo" appears 
in large letters immediately below it. This, however, is 
ignored by Hennessy, who affirms that it " seems to com- 
bine all his [Ralegh's] characteristic features," which he 
describes, and then adds " the likeness is most striking." 

The writer possesses a large collection of portraits of 
Sir Walter ; he has also examined those in the British 
Museum Print Room, as well as the Hope Collection in 
Oxford, and none of them bear any resemblance to the one 
exhibited in the engraving. The sole similarity between 
it and that of Ralegh consists in the high forehead, and 
this on comparing it with other likenesses of the Duke is 
pretematundly lofty. The features are harder than those 
of Ralegh ; but the most striking diflFerence between the * 
two is the unusually long beard with its forked end, causing 
the head to appear of undue length. This seems to be the 
distinguishing characteristic of the Duke's portraits, as it 
appears in engravings of him when a much older man. 

For the purpose of comparing the two portraits with 
each other, one of Ralegh, taken from the painting in 
Knole House, Kent, is also given. This is very similar 
to one bv Zucchero in the National Portrait Gallery. 




Sir Walter Ralegh. 
From an Oil Painting in Knole House, Kent. 




}\t^ir..r-\i •'■■■ ]'; 



.« .A)-.?. 







^ / 




Fetdinand of Toledo, Dtske of Alva. 
From a Painting by Adrian der Wtrff. 



RALEGH MISCELLANEA. 377 

This supposed resemblance between their two portraits 
is emphasized by Hennessy, as a fitting prelude to the 
following passage which succeeds it : " There are other 
accessories in this old engraving that seem to identify it, than 
the mere resemblance of the features, with BcUegh's career in 
Ireland.'' This is followed by a detailed description of 
the various means of execution that were employed against 
the unfortimate Netherlanders, with an indication of the 
ferocity of the wolf with which they were employed. 

Of the Duke of Alva's "lust for blood," which Ewald 
wrongly applied to Ralegh, there is unfortunately plenty of 
evidence. He boasted that " during his administration . . . 
18,200 were sent to the stake and scaflfold." ^ One 
example will be sufficient to display the savagery of his 
character. After the siege of Haarlem he ordered 2300 
prisoners to be '* murdered in cold blood." ** Five exe- 
cutioners, with their attendants, were kept constantly at 
work, and when at last they were exhausted with fatigue, 
or perhaps sickened with horror, three hundred wretches 
were tied two and two, back to back, and drowned in 
the Haarlem Lake." ^ 

This dual mode of execution seems to have been pecu- 
liarly Spanish, judging from the following extract from 
a letter from Sir Walter to James I, under date 23 Septem- 
ber, 1618 :— 

" If it were lawfull for the Spanish to murder 26 Englishmen, 
tyenge them back to backe, and then to cut theire throtes, . . . 
and that it may not be lawfull for your Majesties subjects, beinge 
forced by them, to repel force by force ; we may justly say, * 
miserable English.' "• 

Hennessy's work contains numerous aspersions on and 
misrepresentations of Ralegh's life and character ; but 
probably the most oflfensive is that which terms him " one 
of the compatriots and rivals " of " the bloody Alva " in 
all the atrocious murders of which he was the author in 
the Low Countries. 

While Hennessy, without speciaUzing any particular act, 
accuses Ralegh in general terms of crimes and outrages 
committed against the Irish, he makes several allusions to 
that of assassination. Thus : — 

"It is impossible to forget ["forgive " in the Index] that ho 

1 Motley, United Netherlands (1904), 11, 328. 

- Motley, DtUch BipuhlU (1904), II, 483. » Edwards, II, 868. 



378 BALEGH MISCELLANBA. 

[Ralegh] and Sir George Carew taught by their example, tiie 
odious crime of assassination" (146). 

'" The lessons of assassination that Sussex, Carew, and Ralegh 
had taught the people began to be practised by both sides " 

(108). 

This charge has a special chapter devoted to it (chap. x. 
pp. 35-8), headed ''[Ralegh] Practises the Assassination 
of Irish Chiefs," from which these extracts are taken : — 

'' The captains of Elizabeth introduced an infamous system 
as new to Ireland in the days of Ralegh as the English mus- 
kets '' (35). 

After a quotation from Ralegh's History of the 
Worlds in which " lying in wait for blood privily " is 
condemned as " wilful murder," Hennessy proceeds thus : 
" Yet there seems little dovbt that he had previously en- 
couragedy if not practisedy the assassination of the Irish 
landlords and chiefs of his time " (35-6). The chapter 
terminates with the following transcript of a letter ad- 
dressed by Ralegh to Sir R. Cecil, Secretary of State : — 

" Sm, 

"It can be no disgrace if it weare knowen that the 
killinge of a rebel were practised ; for you see that the lives of 
anoynted Princes are daylye nought, and we have always in 
Ireland geven head money for the killinge of rebels, who are 
evermore proclaymed at a price. So was the earlie of Dbs- 
MONDE, and so have all rebels been practysed against. Not- 
A^ithstandinge I have written this enclosed to Stafford, who 
only recommended that knave to me upon his credit. But for 
your sealf , you are not to be touched in the matter. And for me 
I am more sorrye for beinge deceived than for beinge declared 
in practise. 

" Your Lordsliip's ever to do you service, 

"W. Ralegh. 

*' He hathe nothinge under my hand but a passport." * 

This is dated by Edwards October, 1598, eighteen 
years after the Smerwick incident. J. Payne Collier sug- 
gests his letter was written in Ireland, of which there is 
not the slightest shadow of evidence, nor even of proba- 
bility. 

The above letter, with twenty others occupying pages 
151-203, were transcribed from Edwards' Life of Ralegh, 
Vol. II, without the slightest acknowledgment or reference 

^ Hennessy, pp. 38-d ; Edwards, II, 198-9. 



JEtALSQH MiSCfiLLAKSA. 379 

as to the source from whence Sir J. Pope Hennessy ob- 
tained them ; not a very creditable proceeding on his 
part. Edwards had been at a great expense and trouble 
in collecting transcripts of all of the originals or of 
copies of Sir Walter's letters, many of which were pubUshed 
for the first time by him in his work (1868). 

Ralegh's letter relates to the period when the Govern- 
ment granted " head money " for killing rebels who were 
the prominent leaders of the rebellion. 

That the " odious crime of assassination " was, accord- 
ing to Hennessy, " a system," introduced into Ireland 
by Ralegh and other Elizabethan captains, is absolutely 
false. It was practised by the Desmonds. In 1579 John 
of Desmond assassinated an English officer in his bed when 
a guest of his brother ; while the latter, who had been 
captured in an earlier rebellion, had been pardoned, then 
broke his oath, and joined the other leaders of the move- 
ment organized by Sanders, and in November, 1679, 
attacked and ruinated Youghal, and massacred its in- 
habitants. Now Ralegh did not arrive in Ireland until 
July, 1680. So much for the value of Hennessy 's state- 
ment. 

The charges of practising assassination, and of inducing 
others to commit that and other similar crimes, brought 
against Ralegh by Hennessy, are mere assumptions, and 
are not borne out by a single example. The main object 
of the detailed description of the murderous weapons that 
surround Alva's portrait in the engraving is apparently 
for the purpose of intensifying these vague charges. The 
engraving was probably placed in " a comer of the War- 
den's house at the time when it was owned and occupied 
by the author." 

Modem writers, like Ewald, J. P. Collier, and Hennessy, 
have condemned Ralegh for having committed many grave 
faults and crimes which have failed to bear the test of a 
rigid investigation, more especially that of being a 
treacherous murderer, according to the last-named author. 
And the attempt to vindicate him from the charge of 
having practised *' the odious crime of assassination " has 
been the aim of the present writer: 

That Hennessy's work was intended to serve a present 
political purpose was evidently the view of The Times 
review of the work (7 Nov., 1883), as expressed in the 
following passage : — 



380 RALEGH MISCBLLAKBA. 

** We fear . . . that the work will leave an impression that 
Sir J. P. Hennessy has been tempted to use the facts of Ralegh's 
connexion with Ireland as material upon which to base argu- 
ments upon Irish grievances." 

Addition. 

IV. Baleoh as a Place NAMB,(?'rarw.Z).^.,Vol.XLI, 202). 

The writer is indebted to the Rev. J. F. Chanter, rector 
of Parracombe, for the following addition to the list : — 

'" Challacombe Ralegh. The parish of Challacombe con- 
sisted of two manors ; Challacombe Ralegh, the main manor 
comprising the greater part of the parish, and Challacombe 
Regis, the small manor afterwards part of Braunton Abbot's 
manor. The whole parish is called Challacombe Ralegh." 

In Pole's work is this entry : — 

'' Chollacomb, the auncient land of Ralegh of Ralegh ; ft 
by Thomasin, daughter of John Ralegh, y® last of y® howse» 
it descended on CMchester" (409). 



APPENDIX. 
Official Dispatch to Sir F. Walsingham, 11 November, 1680.* 

" The vj"^ of this Monethe my Lorde lieinge in Campe 
betwene Dingley and Swerwicke newes came to his Honor 
of the Arrival of S*^ Willm Winter in the haven of Swer- 
wick with the Revendge the S\^iftesure the Tyger and the 
Merlyon and other Shippes of her Ma*^ & also of three 
barques fraughted from Lymerick and Corke w^ victuelles 
vppon w^h advertism^ his Lo : on the Morrow after m^ched 
towardes the fortes and Comyng w^in vewe thereof the 
Spanyardes dischardged a great peece at a trope of Horsmen 
attendinge his honnor at w^h tyme the M*" of Th'ordnanc 
[Master of the Ordinance] verie narowUe escaped, And the 
vovewarde [sic] Marchinge after my Lo : w% a Smale Company 
drew nere w^hin Dawnger of shott wherevppon xxx^^^ of the forte 
issued f orthe and did skirmishe w*h o^ men that after none, and 
theare great ordnanc and Certayne Moskettes lienge at rest in 
certayne trenches discharged at vs as faste as might be And the 

1 ** Nov. [11] [Wa»k] to S' Frances WaUiugham, knt." 



RALEGH BnSCEIJJLNEA. 381 

Shippes w*h their ordnanc at the fortes duringe w^^h tyme my 
Lo. in psone M' Zouche & other attendinge hime took vewe of 
the fortes, and came w^hin vj score paces of the Rampier, there 
was dischardged out of the fortes above vjc [600] shott that 
after none greate and smale and no man towched on o' syde 
(god be praysed) savinge that a Bullett from the forte after 
grazinge towched Cap^^ Zouche on the legg and brake no 
skine, and of th'ennymyes three slayne of there best Sowl- 
diers, That night two peeces of Ordynance was landed and 
movnted and a trench made by the Sowldyers and manyners 
and on the morrow playde all the daye at the fortes and they 
likewise at vs besydes skyrmishinge betwene them and o' 
Sowldiers and noe Man of o' pte hurte but of them ix of there 
Chefest souldiers and one Cap^"* were slayne w^h two shott of 
o^ Ordjmanc & the night after w% a Rowlinge Trenche we came 
w*^**in vj score of the forte, and on the morrowe after certaine 
of o^ shott were placed in the same trenche where M' Cheike 
showing him selfe was shott in the head w^ a bullett ft is in 
great daunger of deathe. At o^ firste Comynge they ad- 
vaunced iiijo^ Ensignes & the Poopes banner in the middest of 
thinn^ forte w^^ on the viij^ daye they tooke downe and did 
set vpp two other, one all white and an other all black w^^^^ was 
for a token devised betweene Th'erle and then the meaninge 
wherof was that if they fownde theme selves weeke and vnable 
to kepe the fortes then Th'erle and John pmysed to be on the 
movntaynes by w*h m^ m^ m^ m^ [4000] mene and vppon sight 
therof come downe w*h there forces and Remove o^ seidge, but 
in Conclusion they never shewed them selves vppon w<^^ the 
morrowe after the black flagg was taken downe and the White 
lef te standinge w^^ they waved towarde vs makinge an offer to 
pley vppon intelligence wherof geven to my Lo : his honnor 
sent Cap^ Zouch and Cap* Mackworthe vnto them by whome 
they sente from the forte one of their Cheifest Menne 
Called Alexander there Campe M^ [Camp Master] and one 
Plunckett borne nere to Drougheda, and after some conference 
had by my L: w*^ them, his honnor retomed them backe 
willing them to send their Chiefest Cap^'*" w<^^ they did ac- 
cordingly who Comynge to his Lo : after some discourses of 
Taulke offred to yeild vpp the Fortes, Soe as they might be 
licensed to depte w"^ Bagg and baggadge which my Lo. d^d not 
graunte vnto them, Whervppon after his Lo : had declared 
vnto them that vnlesse they wolde simplie yeelde them selves 
w^out Condition his Lo : wolde pceede to the assavlte and 
so they were sent backe to their Collonell where after they had 
remayned som while in Consultacon the Collenell and Cap*®"** 
came forth and yelded to my Lo : Demaundes and leste 
pledges to yealde vp the Fortes the next mominge and brought 
w^ them S*" James Fitzgarrott who was taken by the Seneshall 



382 RALBQH MISCELLANEA. 

and given to them by Therle to be Ransomed at m^fi. . . . 
" The morrowe after beinge the ix^ * of this moneth the 
Fortes were yeelded all the Irishmen and women hanged and 
iiijc [400] and vpwardes of Italyans Spanyardes Bysldns and 
others put to the sworde The ColloneU Capt^ Secretarie 
Camp M"^ and others of the best sorte saved to the nombr of 

xx^^o psones and doctor Saund Cheif man an Englishman 

Plunckett a Frayer and others kept in store to be executed 
after examynacon had of them. It is confessed that v*"' [5000] 
more are loked for daylie to be sente from the pope and the 
Kinge of Spayne to lande here. 

There was fownde in the Fortes good store of mony and 
a great quantitie of bisquett Bacon, Oyle, Fishe, Rise, Beanes, 
Peas, Barley beinge by Computacon victuelles for there Com- 
pany for halfe a yeare There was also found Armor, morrions, 
Callyvers, Muskette, Pyke, swordes, Flaskes, harquebusses of 
Croke, powder sliott, Barrelle of Bulbette and other kind of 
furniture to serve iij™^ [3000] menne And sondry tooles for 
mene of all occupations My Lo : after the Rasinge of the 
Fortes entendeth to repayre to Dingley, and there to fortefie 
and leave Capten Zouche with ccccl"® [450] mene and so to 
come homewardes throughe Connought as it is reported. 
[Marginal note This day was Exected an Englisheman who 
in pencil of pre- served Doctor Sawnders, one Plunckett of whome 
^^This^jay prob ^^^^® ^^ wryten and an Irishe preste their Armes 
11 Noy. See a^^^ Legges were Broken and hanged vppon a 
Fenton.'"] Gallows Vppon the Wall of the Forte. 2 

[Then follows : " The names of the Cheifest soldier* in y« 
forte."] 

1 An error for the 10th. 

'^ S.P., Ireland, Elizabeth, Nov. 1580, Vol. 78, No. 27. 



COUNSELLOR JOHN WERE OP SILVERTON, 
AND THE SIEGE OP EXETER, 1645-6. 

BY THE REV. J. HEALD WARD, M.A. 

(Read at QuUompton, 27Ui Jnly, 1910.) 



At Dunsmore, in the parish of Silverton, are the remains 
of a Tudor manor-house. In one of its rooms is an oma- 
tnental plaster ceiling of Jacobean date,^ and close to the 
house a remarkably fine grange. In the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries Dunsmore belonged to the family of 
Were. It passed to the Whites, then by marriage to the 
Tremletts, and is now the property of the Hon. W. P. 
Dan vers Smith. When the house was restored a short 
time ago, coins of Charles I and Charles II were foimd, 
and a farthing token of 1660, the issuer of which I am 
able to identify as John Yeats, who in 1659 bought a 
parcel of land near the church, of one John King, which 
is still known as King's land. 

The Weres of Silverton were a branch of the Weres or 
Weares of Halberton. They used the same arms — ^Argent : 
a bend wavy, between six crosses crosslet, fitch6e, azure. 

This family was connected v^ith that of Bishop Gilbert 
Bourne, 2 sometime Queen Mary's favourite chaplain, who 
died at Silverton in 1569, a grandson of Richard, brother 
of the Bishop, having married a Weare of Halberton. 
One of the best known of its members was Colonel Were, 
mentioned in Lord Clarendon's History, governor of 
Lyme Regis under the Parliament. He inherited an 
ancestral estate, married Ehzabeth, daughter of Sir 

^ At Pitt, formerly the residence of the Lands, is a very interesting ceiling, 
with sporting subjects (? 1610). There is another at the old " Ohnrch House." 

*'' On refusing to take the oath of supremacy, the Bishop was committed by 
Queen Elizabeth to the gentle custody of Dr. George Oarew, Rector of Silver- 
ton (d. 1583, aged 85), father of George, Earl of Totnes, whose monumental 
effigy is at Stratford-upon-Avon. 



384 COUNSELLOR JOHN WERE OF SILVBRTON, 

Henry Hawley, and was long a magistrate for the county • 
of Devon (d. 1658). Another of the same stock was 
Humphrey Were (d. 1625), of Exeter College, Oxford 
(1585), M.P. for Tiverton (1623-4), and its first Recorder 
{Diary of Walter Yonge, M,P., p. 26). 

Coimsellor John Were (d. 1676), the first of the Duns- 
more line, was the son of the last named, and, like his 
father, a bencher of the Inner Temple. He married, in 
1623, Margaret Dart (d. 1670). One of the earliest entries 
in the Silverton Registers is the baptism (1628) of their 
daughter Margaret (d. 1713), who married John Chichester, 
from which marriage were derived the Chichesters of 
Widworthy and Virginip,. The Counsellor had also two 
sons, John and Thomas, who married two sisters, daugh- 
ters of the Royalist Rector of Silverton, William Cotton, 
Precentor of Exeter (d. 1656). 

John the elder (d. 1677) succeeded to Dunsmore, his 
son and grandson (d. 1734), carrying on the succession. 
Thomas the younger (d. 1683) was of the Inner Temple. 
His only son Thomas (d. 1722) lived at Silverton, at 
\ Dunnixwell, a house of great antiquity, with interesting 
stonework and old oak panelling, recently demolished. 
During the many years Counsellor John Were resided at 
Silverton, he took an active part in parish business. 
We find him filling the office of churchwarden, and the 
ancient and responsible office of collector. In 1633 he 
was elected a feoffee of Blundell's School, his two sons 
being appointed feoffees thirty years later (1663). Like 
his friend and neighbour, Mr. Peter Sainthill, John Were 
strenuously endeavoured to further the Royal Cause. 
In 1638 the famous Covenant was taken, and in 1639 
we find John Were contributing pecuniary aid to the 
King's expedition against the Scots. When the fighting 
began in Devon, Silverton was intensely Royalist. It 
had long had Royal associations. Its Saxon owner was 
King Edward the Confessor. The Manor continued in 
the Crown till it was bestowed by a Plantagenet King 
on one of his favourites — a Beauchamp. A later owner 
of the Manor, Sir Matthew Gumey,^ had fought with 

* Fide Leland, Froissart, Carew, Fuller. This renowned warrior is said to 
have been the prototype of Chaucer's ** verray parfit gen til Knight." He died 
in 1406 at Stoke-sub-Hamdon, aged 96. The Rector of Silverton appears to 
have been with him up to the time of his death, and to have stayed on at 
Stoke, probably serving the *'chaunterie for soules" founded in 1304 by John 
de Beauchamp. 



AND THE SIEGE OF EXETER, 1645-6. 385 

the Black Prince at Crecy and Poictiers. Another, Sir 
Nicholas Wadham, as Captain of the Isle of Wight, had 
accompanied King Henry VIII upon the " Field of Cloth 
of Gold " (State Papers). Bishop Cotton, a prot^gS of 
Queen Elizabeth, who long resided at Silverton, djring 
at the Rectory in 1621, had done his utmost to foster 
loyalty to the Church and Throne, His son and successor. 
Precentor Cotton — " a gentle, humble man of sober and 
grand conversation " — ^was a devoted adherent of the 
King. It was stated by Treasurer Cotton that his father 
" lost £1000 a year and his ecclesiastical estate, by his 
loyalty " (Petition to Charles II). The Chcuinons, the 
Wrejrfords, the Beares, the Skibbowes, one of whom 
attempted (1649) an insurrection against Cromwell, and 
Ambrose Potter, the Royalist lawyer, were among the 
resident landowners on the King's side. It was in the 
house of a Mr. Potter, Charles II told (Oct., 1680) Pepys 
that he had lain when at Exeter. 

In 1643, after an eight months' siege, the city was 
captured (Sept. 4th) by Prince Maurice, and Sir John 
Berkeley, an honourable and capable mail, appointed 
Governor. There at Bedford House the Princess Henrietta 
was bom (June 16th, 1644), her mother within a month 
embarking (July 14th) for France, leaving her infant in 
the charge of Sir John Berkeley and Lady Dalkeith. 
On July 26th the King arrived, and before setting out 
on his victorious pursuit of Essex, held a coimcil of war 
at Bradninch, staying for a day and a night at the house 
of Mr. Sainthill. A Devonshire clergjmaan, Robert Her- 
rick, thus welcomed his Royal patron : — 

"TO THE KING, UPON HIS COMING WITH HIS ARMY 
INTO THE WEST. 

" Welcome, most welcome to our vows and us, 
Most great and universal genius I 
The drooping West, which hitherto has stood 
As one, in long-lamented widowhood. 
Looks like a bride now, or a bed of flowers, 
Newly refreshed both bv the sun and showers. 
War, which before was horrid, now appears 
Lovely in you, brave Prince of Cavaliers 1 
A deal of courage in each bosom springs 
By your access, you the best of Kings ! 
Ride on with all white omens, so that where 
Your standard*s up, we fix a conquest there." 

VOL. XLH. 2 B 



386 COUNSELLOR JOHN WERE OF SILVBRTON, 

The anticipated victory took place at Lostwithiel 
(Sept. 2nd, 1644), where the ever-popular Essex blundered, 
then escaped, throwing, as was his wont, all the blame on 
others. Returning from Cornwall the King appointed as 
Chaplain to the infant Princess, Dr. Thomas Fuller, who 
soon became a favourite. Fuller is described as a man 
of large build, with laughing blue eyes and flaxen hair, 
of a frank and open countenance, always on the look 
out for points of agreement, rather than for points of 
difference, never known to take offence, with whom it 
was impossible to quarrel. In the days of stress and 
anxiety which preceded the capitulation. Fuller's tact, 
strong sense, and sunniness of disposition must have 
been of priceless value. How his sermons must have 
cheered the garrison ! 

Fuller notes the following incident : — 

*' When the city of Exeter was besieged by the Parlia- 
mentary forces, so that only the South side thereof to- 
wards the sea was open unto it, incredible numbers of 
larks were fomid in that open quarter, for multitude like 
quails in the wilderness . . . hereof I was an eye and a 
mouth witness. . . . They were as fat as plentiful, so 
that being sold for twopence a dozen and under, the poor, 
who could have no cheaper, as the rich no better meat, 
used to make pottage of them boyling them down therein. 
Several natural causes were assigned hereof. . . . How- 
ever, the cause of causes was Divine Providence " 
(Worthies), 

Events moved quickly. In February, 1645, the New 
Model ordinance was passed. Soon followed Na^seby 
(Jime 14th), and the fall of Bristol (Sept. 1 1th). The whole 
aspect of affairs had changed. Full of stem confidence, 
the army of Fairfax advanced into Devonshire. On the 
15th of October he was at Cullompton, where a skirmish 
took place. On the 19th Tiverton Castle was taken. 
Thence he marched (Oct. 20th) to Silverton, where a 
council of war was held. As many of the soldiers were 
sick, and wearied by continual marching, it was resolved, 
'* after a long and serious debate," instead of going further, 
to ** straiten Excester." On the 24th, Cromwell, ten days 
after the storming of Basing House, arrived at Oediton, 
where the army of Fairfax that day was. Fairfax in- 



AND THE SIEGE OF EXETEB, 1646-6. 387 

vested the city, occupying positions, first on the east 
side, then on the west. Exeter was held by the valorous 
Sir John Berkeley throughout the winter of 1645-6. 
On the 31st March almost the whole of Fairfax's army 
was quartered at Silverton {Anglia Bediviva). The 
fiame day Fairfax summoned the Governor to surrender, 
who chose Master John Weare [sic] as one of his com- 
missioners to treat with Fairfax. One of the articles 
of capitulation was that the Princess Henrietta should 
be allowed to go to any place in England or Wales that 
Lady Dalkeith might select, and the King approve of. 
Now there is a tradition that one of the King's children 
sought refuge at Dunsmore. May it not have been the 
young Princess? John Were was in the confidence of 
Sir John Berkeley. .His connections, the Cottons, were 
zealous BoyaUsts, all on friendly terms with Fuller. It 
is quite possible that Lady Dalkeith may have made 
Dunsmore a temporary resting-place, before setting 
forth with the Princess to the Palace of Oatlands.^ 

The Silverton RoyaUsts were, as might have been 
expected, heavily fined for what was called their delin- 
quency, among others, John Were and his elder son. 

The following extract is from the State Papers : — 

"committee for compounding. 

"John Were, Senior, Coimsellor at law, Silverton, Co. 
Devon, and John his son. 

" 30th April, 1646. Both petition to compoimd on 
the Exeter articles, being engaged on the King's side, 
and in Exeter during the siege, the father being a Com- 
missioner for the King. 

" 22nd August. Committee for compounding to the 
County Committee for Devon. Notwithstan^g our 
suspension of Were's sequestration, he having paid or 
secured his fine, you on 13th August set his lands at 
Donesmore, Compounded for by him, at £95 a year, to 
Hen. Turpin, of Therverton, for one year, at £60, though 
£100 was then proflPered, refusing to conform to the letters 
of suspension ; we wonder that you express such refractori- 

^ Daughter of Sir Edward VillierSf half-brother to the flrat Duke of 
BuckiDghaiDf Herrick's patron. She escaped (26th July, 1646) ^m Oatlands 
in diigoiae, and taking tne Princess with ner, travelled on foot all the way to 
Dover. Thence they sailed to France. On the death of her father-in-law 
<1648), she became Countess of Morton. 



388 COTTNSBLLOR JOHN WERE OF SILVBRTON, 

ness, and are so ill husbands for the State as to refuse 
almost double the rent you have accepted. A thing which 
if represented to the House will meet with no fair inter- 
pretation. 

" 3rd Sept., 1646. Order for the Committee for com- 
pounding, that as the Coimty Committee still refuse 
compliance, and as Were is yet in possession of the Estate^ 
they authorise him to maintain possession. 

5th Jan., 1648. Were's fine passed at £526." 



(( 



A circumstance in the life of John Were which has 
never before been noticed, is his association with the 
poet Herrick, and it is interesting to think that many 
of the poet's friends must have been well known to him. 
Were certainly knew Sir John Berkeley, and Berkeley is 
one of the poet's heroes : — 

" Stand forth, brave man, since fate has made thee here 
The Hector over aged Exeter. 
Who for a Ions, sad time has weepine stood 
Like a poor lady lost in widowhood.'" 

Were must also have known Sir George Parry, m.p.,. 
Recorder (1644) of Exeter. Herrick honours him with 
some verses. Were, too, must have known Thomas 
Shapcote, a lawyer of some eminence, ^ whose estate was 
at Shapcote, in the parish of Knowstone, and whose 
tomb is in the Cathedral. To him the poet dedicates 
one of his fairy poems : — 

" Shapcote ! to thee the fatry state 
I, with discretion, dedicate. 
Because thou prizest things that are 
Curious and unfamiliar." 

Another West -country lawyer, Counsellor Merrifield 
(d. 1666), had also a fairy poem dedicated to him. Others 
of the Herrickian circle were Sir Thomas Hele, a Devon- 
shire Baronet, who attended Charles I to Oxford in 
1643, and was sometime M.P. for Plympton. Also 
Dr. James Smith, who, Uke Herrick, had sailed in 
1627 to the Isle of Rhe, and, succeeding Martin Blake 

^ A Master in Chancery (d. 1665). His daughter Urith, bap. 1617 at St. 
Martin's, Exeter, married Sir Courtenay Pole, Bart In Shute Church there 
is a fine stained-glass escutcheon, Pole impaling Shapcote {D,A. ^Vans.^ 
XXXIII, p. 724). A Robert Shapcote was M.P. for Tiverton (1646-60), and 
its Recorder 1655. 



AND THE SIEGE OF EXETEB, 1646-6. 389 

at Kings Nympton, eventually became Precentor and 
Canon of Exeter. To James Smith is attributed a fairy 
poem, " King Oberon's apparel," which, judging from 
its style and turns of expression, was, I think, partly, 
if not entirely, the work of Herrick himself (Wright's 
We8t«m7Ury Poets, p. 420). A friend of the poet's Cam- 
bridge days — " his pecuUar friend " — was Prebendary 
Wickes, Vicar of Sherwill, whose unUcensed jocularity 
was so distasteful to the King.^ Another college friend 
was Martin Nansogg, sometime chaplain to Bishop Hall, 
their " leam'd Diocesan." Like Dr. Wickes, he came of 
sn old West-country stock. It is foimd that a Richard 
de Nanshogg was Vicar of Dunsford, near Exeter, in the 
reign of Edward III (Dr. Oliver). The poet's neighbours, 
the Yards of Dean Prior, were connected with the poet's 
own family, and with the Sainthills of Bradninch. 

It has been said that Herrick's best secular verse was 
written previously to 1629, before he Uved in Devonshire 
(Canon H. C. Beeching, Introduction to Select Poems of 
Herrick). But I think that the poet's welcome to Charles I 
(1644) is one of the most beautiful of his poems. 

I wiD now conclude with Herrick's tribute to John 
Were, whom he addresses as his " honoured friend." The 
poet represents him as having a strong sense of justice 
and a feeling heart, as fearless and straightforward, too 
conscientious to pocket illicit gain, and as a lawyer un- 
surpassed. 

TO HIS HONOURED FRIEND, MASTER JOHN WEARE, 
COUNSELLOR. 

" Did I or love or could I others draw 
To the indulgence of the rugged Law — 
The first foundation of that zeal should be 
By reading all her ^aracraphs in thee, 
Who dost so fitly with the Laws unite, 
As if you two were one hermaphrodite. 
Nor courts =^ tliou her because she's well attended 
With wealth, but for those ends she was intended : 

' On the authority of Walter Pope, m.d., f.k.s., Dr. Wickes, or Weeks, 
was sometime Chaplain to Archlashop Laud, and Dean of St. Buriau. In 
Bristol Cathedi-al, of which he was a Prebendary, are some verses in praise of 
his first wife, whose maiden name was Bridget Grenville (d. 1627), aaughter 
of the renowned Sir Richard, of the Rivernje (d. 1591). He married, secondly, 
Grace, sister of Sir Robert Cary, of Clovelly, and of George, Dean of Exeter, 
from whose house she Avas married in Exeter Cathedral, Ist August, 1636 
{Hitl. of Granville Family), We learn from Dr. Oliver that Dean Gary's son 
Edward was presented to the Rectory of Silverton by Sir Edward Wyndham, 
of Orchard Wyndham. 

a "Courts, for euphony. Cp. Burns' " Field Mouse,'' ''Thou saw," etc. 



390 COXTNSBLLOB JOHN WERE OF SILVERTON. 

Which were, (and still her offices are known). 

Law itf to aive to every one hii own,^ 

To shore tne feeble up against the strong, 

To shield the stranger and the poor from wrong. 

This was the founder's grave and good intent : 

To keep the outcast in his tenement ; 

To free the orphan from that wolf-like man, 

Who is his butcher more than guardian ; 

To dry the widow's tears, and stop her swoons, 

By pouring balm and oil into her wounds. 

This was the old way, and 'tis yet thy course 

To keep those pious principles in force. 

Modest I will be, but one word I'll say, 

Like to a sound thaf s vanishing away— 

Sooner the inside of thy hand Siall srow 

Hisp'd* and hairy, ere thy palm shall know 

A postern-bribe* took, or a forked fee ^ 

To fetter justice, when she might be free. 

Eggs I'll not shave :^ but yet, brave man, if I 

Was destined forth to golden sovereignty, 

A prince I'd be, that I misht thee orefer 

To be my counsel both ana chancellor." 

> Cicero, 6, de Fin., 28. 

B Hi8ped=Hiapida8. Bristly, " rough with hairs" (N.E,D.). 

» Postern bribe, i.e. a backdoor bribe (see N.E.D,). 

* Forked fee. ** A fee from both sides in a case " (N.KD.). 

* Anth, Pal,, XI, 898. Here=: ** I'll not gild reEned gold," etc. 



THE MOSSES OF SILVERTON. 

BY G. B. SAVBRY. 
(Read at Oallompton, S7th July, 1910.) 



Under the term " Silverton " I include an irregular piece 
of country stretching from Bickleigh to Brampford Speke 
along the valley of the Exe, and taking in both banks of 
the river ; also the Bum valley, the hill between Butter- 
leigh and Silverton, known locally as Criss Cross, and all 
the land round Silverton as far as the Culm, and reaching 
to the junction of the Culm and the Exe. On the west 
of the Exe not much collecting has been done away from 
the river valley, but a few mosses have been found at 
Thorverton and a little way beyond. The boundaries of 
this area are quite arbitrary, and are merely chosen to 
include the district that has been worked ; the parishes 
of Silverton, Rewe, Nether Exe, Stoke Canon, Brampford 
Speke, Thorverton, Cadbury, Cadeleigh, Bickleigh, and 
Butterleigh all more or less fall within them, but in most 
cases it is merely a small portion of each parish which 
does so, Silverton being probably the only one that is 
completely included. The total length of this district 
from north to south is about six miles, and in the widest 
part it is some three miles broad ; altogether it must 
contain an area of about twelve square miles. In giving 
the records in the list which follows, I have in many cases 
used the names of farms or other landmarks, some of 
which would be difficult to find on a map, so that I think 
it will be well for me to explain their positions before- 
hand. Bickleigh Court is a Uttle below Bickleigh bridge 
on the west side of the river, and about three-quarters 
of a mile lower down there is a chain foot-bridge over 
the river ; another three - quarters of a mile further 
down there are, on the east side of the river, two or 
three cottages, the remnant of a hamlet called Chitter- 



392 THE MOSSES OF SILVERTON. 

leigh, while on the opposite side of the Exe the hillside 
slopes down very steeply to the river, forming a small 
wood, known as Dandyland. The farm of Bidwell lies 
between Dandyland and Thorverton, and on the other 
side of the river is the hamlet of Up Exe. Heazille Barton 
is a short distance from the Culm, and comes into Bewe 
parish, though only a few yards from the boundary of 
Silverton. Within a quarter of a mile of this farm is the 
old Flock Mill, where a good many interesting mosses 
grow ; this, however, is in Silverton parish. Poundsland 
is another farm a little further away from the Culm. The 
old road from Silverton to Butterleigh and Tiverton rises 
steeply after leaving the village, passing Aish Farm in 
about half a mile, and reaching the highest point of Criss 
Cross about a mile and a half from the village. The rough 
field, where a good many of the more montane mosses 
were found, is on the left-hand side of the road a Uttle 
beyond the summit. Coombe is a small valley that runs 
up into the side of Criss Cross from the valley of the Exe, 
and on the hillside above, on the north, is Land Farm. 
Leigh Pool is another similar valley, but steeper, and with 
a small wood in it where the mosses are very luxuriant ; 
especially so are Neckera comjUanaUi, N. pumUa, HomcUia 
trichomanoideSy Porotrichum aiUypecurum, Zygodon viridis- 
^mu3y Cryphcea heteromaUa, Hypnum cupressiforme var, 
resupinatum, and Brachythecium rviabvlum var. longisetuniy 
all of which fruit freely. In this district it is a pecuUarity 
of Porotrichum cUopecurum that it only bears fruit when 
growing at the base of a tree in a very wet place, generally 
at the edge of a stream. Leigh Pool runs parallel to 
Coombe, but about a mile to the north of it. 

In the list which follows I give the stations and habitats 
with considerable detail for most of the kinds, but not, 
of course, all the places where the common species grow. 
In this way it will be possible for anyone who may work 
the district in the future to re-find the mosses which 1 
have collected, and thus get some idea as to whether the 
moss-flora does really gradually change, as has been sup- 
posed, and, if so, what the nature of the change is. Another 
thing which I wish to attempt is to give some idea of the 
relative abundance of the different kinds. It is very 
difficult to judge accurately which are the dominant 
species, but something in this direction ought to be pos- 
sible, and, at any rate, there is no difficulty in knoMring 



THE MOSSES OF SILVBRTON. 393 

which kinds are noticeably rare and evidently not suited 
by the conditions. I think that a fairly complete Ust such 
as this ought to be of interest for comparison with the 
mosses of other locahties ; it is very easy for anyone to 
work carefuUy the district in which he hves, and if a fair 
number of these local surveys could be made, a com- 
parison of the mosses of the different places examined 
would furnish a good deal of information as to the real 
ranges of the various species and the reasons for their 
limitations. A mere hst of the mosses that grow in each 
of the eight divisions into which Devon has been divided 
for botanical purposes would give some information, but 
for a real knowledge of the moss-flora of the county some- 
thing more is required. It is impossible to know from such 
a Ust whether a species recorded is abundant, or whether 
a few stems only have been seen ; all that can be learnt 
from it is that the moss has been foimd in certain divisions. 
Then, again, it is impossible in dividing up a county to 
avoid including in each division a number of different 
kinds of country ; a division may easily contain sea coast, 
marshes, woodland, moorland, and cultivated land ; also 
some of it may be lowland, and other parts considerably 
elevated. A mere list of records does not give any infor- 
mation as to what sort of country the different species 
prefer, though it is often the case that they are quite 
confined to one. 

The country just roimd Silverton, say within two miles 
of the village, has been much more thoroughly worked 
than the more distant parts, which may have only been 
visited once or twice ; but as some interesting kinds have 
been found in these outlying places, I have included them 
in this survey. All the collecting has been done by my 
brother, Mr. Frank Savery, or myself during the last nine 
years ; but in cases of diflSculty my determinations have 
been verified by Mr. H. N. Dixon, Mr. W. E. Nicholson, 
Mr. W. Ingham, or the late Prof. Barker. There appear 
to be no old records for the neighbourhood, Parfitt never 
mentioning any part of it in his Ust. 

Geologically, most of the district belongs to the Permian 
formation, which consists here chiefly of red, earthy gravel, 
with numerous scattered patches of soft, grey trap. About 
Chitterleigh, however, the Culm Measures appear, and 
continue all the way from there to Bickleigh and Butter- 
leigh. The top of Criss Gross is Permian ; but a narrow 



394 THE MOSSES OF SILVEBTON. 

band of the Culm Measures runs from Chitterleigh towards 
Cullompton, and appears to include Aish Quarry. On the 
road to Butterleigh Permian strata again appear soon after 
passing the highest point of Criss Cross. It might have 
been expected that the patches of trap would produce 
interesting mosses, but in reality nothing grows on them 
that is not common on the other formations. The land, 
on the whole, is good for agricultural purposes ; but that 
on Criss Cross and the hills running up to it is poor and 
stony. The elevation varies a good deal ; the lowest 
parts, which are about Nether Exe and Stoke Canon, are 
below the hundred-feet line, while the highest point of 
Criss Cross is rather more than eight hundred feet in 
height. In spite of this considerable elevation, no mosses 
occur which could be considered subalpine ; thus all the 
common moorland species of Rhacomitrium, Orimmia, 
Cynodontium, and Ptychomitrium, which might be ex- 
pected to grow, are absent. The only moss of this group 
that has been found is a single specimen of Hedtvigia 
ciliata, which was growing on a stone by the roadside. 
Marsh plants also are very scarce ; no Sphagnum of any 
sort has been found, and only three varieties of Harpidiovd 
Hypnay and even these merely in a single station each. 
In spite of these deficiencies, the district has proved fairly 
rich ; 179 species and sub-species, and 29 varieties and 
named forms, have altogether been collected. The most 
interesting of all these kinds is Fissidens algarvicus Solms. 
This occurs in three localities near Silverton, but is not 
known to grow in any other place in the British Isles ; in 
all probabihty a careful search would disclose it in other 
parts of Devonshire, but it appears to be a rare kind 
generally. It was first found by Solms-Laubach, near 
Silves, in Portugal, and since then in France and some of 
the neighbouring countries. Husnot, in the Muscologta 
OaUica, describes it as very rare in France, and gives few 
stations for it. It is a very distinct kind, differing from 
all the other small species of Fiaaidena in the very narrow, 
tapering leaves, which are stiff in texture, and give the 
plant rather the appearance of a tiny DicraneUa. There 
is no difficulty in seeing these points with a lens, whilst a 
microscopic examination shows that the leaf -border is very 
wide and slightly thickened, and the leaf-cells are elongated 
and irregularly rhomboid-hexagonal, which is not the case 
in the other small British species. In spite of this, F. algar- 



THE MOSSES OF SILVEBTON. 395 

vicus was in 1882 considered by Husnot to be a variety 
of F. incurvus, and in 1884 Boiday described it under the 
name of F. pvsillvLa var. algarvicus. For habitat it seems 
to prefer an earthy gravel bank that is either rather moist 
or is shaded by grass in summer. The fruit begins to 
ripen about November, and continues till March, but 
during the rest of the year the plant is practically invisible. 
Happily, it reappears regularly every winter. It is some 
nine years since it was first found, and it is still growing 
in exactly the same place over a very limited area, which 
shows no sign of increasing. In the other stations also it 
has reappeared for some years. 

Barbula NichoUoni Culmann, a species which was only 
described in 1907, grows near Silverton, as well as at 
Heazille Barton and Stoke Canon. I believe that imtil 
we found it at Silverton this species had only been found 
between Burpham and Pulborough, in Sussex ; at any 
rate, when Mr. Nicholson wrote confirming my deter- 
mination of my specimens, he mentioned no other locali- 
ties for it. It is rather strange that about Silverton 
Barbula Nicholaoni grows either on stones above gutters 
or on walls, neither of which could ever be submerged 
(the wall, in fact, being a dry .sunny one, facing south), 
for Mr. Nicholson says that in Sussex it grows on the 
walls of sluices and culverts. This difference of habitat 
may be partly due to the damper climate of Devonshire, 
but the fact of its retaining its characteristics under such 
different conditions seems to show, that Barbula Nicholaoni 
must be a fairly well-marked species. It is somewhat 
allied to B. rigidnla, but the leaves are broader in the upper 
part than they are in that species, and the tip is somewhat 
cucuUate ; these differences are quite visible to the naked 
eye, and make it easy to discriminate the two kinds. When 
growing in its moister habitat, on stones above gutters, 
B. Nicholaoni becomes taller, and has rather the appear- 
ance when dry of a coarse form of Barbula lurida. 

Another interesting moss that is fairly common about 
Silverton is Leptodontium gemmaacena Braithw. Here this 
kind invariably grows on thatched roofs, and it is an 
interesting question as to how it existed before thatch was 
used. In the StuderU'a Handbook, L. gemmaacena is stated 
^sometimes to grow on trees, though only very rarely. 
Perhaps this is the explanation, but I have never myself 
seen it growing on trees, and a more likely substitute for 



396 THS MOSSES OF 8ILVBBTON. 

thatch would seem to be decaymg vegetable matter, such as 
reeds or grass. The case of LeptodorUium flexifolium gives 
some support to this theory. The two species often grow 
together on thatch here, very closely intermixed, showing 
that the same conditions suit them both, and it is well 
known that L. flexifolium is also found on peat. I myself 
have specimens which grew both on ordinary peat and on 
decajring grass. It has sometimes been thought that 
L. gemmascens was merely a variety of L. flexifolium, but 
I think this can hardly be the case, as the two kinds fre- 
quently grow intermixed, and no intermediate form of 
any kmd ever occurs ; wherever this intermixture takes 
place L. flexifolium is always very much more abundant 
than the other species — ^I should say in the proportion of 
more than ten to one. For all practical purposes neither 
kind ever fruits on thatch ; L. gemmascens is principally 
propagated by the numerous genmiae on the tips of the 
leaves ; while in L, flexifolium new plants are generally 
formed from the tips of the stems, which become loose 
and fall oflP. The two roofs where L. gemtrvaacena grew 
most abundantly have been pulled down and galvanized 
iron has been substituted, but happily there are still a few 
roofs on which I know that it occurs. 

A few other mosses besides the two species of Lepto- 
dorUium are to be found on thatched roofs. Hypnum 
cupressiform^ is one of the most frequent ; it sometimes 
forms great sheets some feet across and three or four 
inches thick, and is then the variety tectorum Brid. ; more 
often, however, the forms are hardly distinguishable from 
the type, though the variety resupincUum also occurs. 
TortiUa rurcUia and Bryum capillar e are often very abun- 
dant, and I have also gathered Dicranoweisia cirrata, 
Dicranum scoparium, CercUodon purpureus, Camptothecium 
sericeum, and Cryphosa heteromalla. Stubble and clover 
fields in this neighbourhood are not very productive of 
interesting mosses, no species of Ephemerum, Acaulon, or 
the Systegium division of Weisia having been found in 
them. The only mosses that occur at all freely in these 
situations are Archidium alternifolium (always sterile), 
Pleuridium subvlatum, Pottia truruuxtvla (very common), 
Phascum cuspidatum, Funaria faacicvlaris, Bryum atropur- 
pureum, B. erythrocarpumy Barbula fcUlax, B. unguicuiata,* 
B. convolula, Eurhynchium Swartzii, and E. prceUmgum ; 
but I have occasionally found Pottia recta, P. hryoidea, 



THE MOSSES OF SILVERTON. 397 

P. minutuUiy Dicrandla Schreberi, Funaria hygrometricay 
Pleuridium aUemifolium, and Hypnum pdygamum. One 
field near Silverton wa^ planted with grass some four or 
five years ago, and I have been interested in watching 
the gradual change taking place among the mosses grow- 
ing there as the grasses become established. For the first 
year or two the ordinary clover-field mosses predominated; 
Funaria fasciciUaris in particular being abundant ; but 
gradually these have diminished till tUs spring, when I 
failed to find any Funaria, or, in fact, practically any 
acrocarpous moss at all, and the ground was almost 
covered by Eurhynchium Stvartzii ; the only other mosses 
that seemed to be holding their own were E. prcelongum 
and Hypnum polygamum, but even these were rare in 
comparison with E. Stvartzii, In meadows and other old 
grass-land the only kinds that seem to grow freely are 
E. Swartziiy E. prcelongum, Brachythecium nUabvJumy B. 
purum, Hypnum cuapidaiumy and Hylocomium squurrosumy. 
all among the very commonest of mosses. 

The most abundant mosses on stone walls seem to be 
Barbula vinealiSy B. unguiculatay B, convolviay Tortvla 
muraUSy and Camptothecium sericeum ; the first of these 
in particular is so common on some walls a^ almost to 
hide the mortar. Other wall mosses are Tortula ambiguay 
T. aHoideSy Barbula luriday B, revolutay B. rubeUay Orimmia 
pulvinatay Hypnum cupressiformey Brachythecium rutabvlumy 
Eurhynchium tenellumy Bryum capiUare, B, caespiticiumy 
B. murcUCy B, argenteumy Tortula intermediay and Zygodon 
viridissimuSy but these are by no means all that may be 
found. 

Owing perhaps to the damp climate, some of the mosses 
which are usually confined to trees are to be found on 
walls about Silverton ; this is particularly the case on 
the church and on the wall of the churchyard, which are 
somewhat overshadowed by trees, where Zygodon viri- 
dissimuSy Orthotrichum afftnCy 0. tenellum, Tortula Icevipilar 
Leucodon aciuroideSy Leptodon Smithiiy and the hepatic 
FruUania dilatata are all to be found among the ordinarj^ 
wall coverings. Cob walls are not very productive ; 
Barbula mnealiSy B. unguiculatay Grimmia pulvinatay and 
Ceratodon purpureuSy with the addition of Bryum argenteum 
and B, atropurpureum var. gracilentum on the damper 
parts, are the only kinds that really flourish on them. 
The mosses that grow on hedge-banks are so numerous 



398 THE MOSSES OF 8ILVERT0N. 

that it is useless to attempt a complete list, but it may be 
worth while to point out a few peculiarities in their dis- 
tribution. PoUia WiUoni and Tortvla cuneifolia seem to 
have very similar tastes ; a warm, dry hedge-bank where 
the earth is bare — ^at any rate, in winter — suits them best, 
and they are generally to be found together. Webera 
Tozeri is very common on bare, damp hedge-banks, par- 
ticularly on the lower parts above gutters by the roadside ; 
while Schistostega oamundacea prefers the upper and drier 
parts of the banks, where it grows on the loose, crumbling 
soil in the recesses formed by the falling away of the earth 
or the burrowing of rabbits. It might have been expected 
that the apple trees in the numerous orchards would have 
produced some interesting kinds, but as a matter of fact 
nothing at all rare grows on them ; Hypnum cupressiforme 
var. resupinatum is the most abundant, and often covers 
a large part of the trunk and branches ; while Neckera 
pumUa, Tortvla loevipUa, Orthotrichum affiney O. LyeUii, 
and a few other kinds also occur. 

Throughout I use the names and arrangement of The 
StvderUs' Handbook of British Mosses, by H. N. Dixon and 
H. 6. Jameson (2nd edition, 1904). I mark with a star 
those species and varieties which are not recorded for 
South Devon in the Censvs Catalogue of British Mosses, 
published m 1907 in connection with the Moss Exchange 
Club. 

POLYTRICHACE^. 

Catharinea undiUata Web. & Mohr. Very common on 
hedge-banks, on the ground in woods, and by the 
sides of roads. 

Polytrichum nanum Neck. On stony ground by a cart 
track, Criss Cross ; on bare earth in hedge-bank. Cot 
Lane, Silverton. This species seems to be local, and 
is very much less common than the next one, although 
in the Victoria History P, nanum is recorded from all 
the divisions of Devon, and P. aloides only from 
three. 

Polytrichum aloides Hedw. Abundant on bare hedge- 
banks, etc. 

var. Dicksoni Wallm. On clay m hedge-bank above 
a gutter at Bavenshayes, near Silverton. 

Polytrichum urnigerum L. Sterile and local. On a cart 
track across a rough field, Criss Cross. 



THB MOSSES OF SILVBRTON. 399 

Polfftrichum pUiferum Schreb. Sterile and not very com- 
mon. On railway embankment, Chitterleigh ; on the 
roadside and by a cart track, Criss Cross. 

Polytrichum juniperinum Willd. Sterile and not common. 
Railway embankment, Chitterleigh ; hedge-bank, 
Silverton. 

Polytrichum formosMtn Hedw. Common on hedge-banks, 
but does not bear much fruit. In the Victoria History 
this species is only recorded from three divisions of 
Devon ; while P. commune is given for all the eight. 
It seems probable that some of these records for 
P. commune really belong to P. formosum, which 
ought certainly to occur in all the divisions. 

DlCRANACE^. 

Archidium alternifolium Schp. On stony ground by the 
roadside, Criss Cross, c. fr. ; in stubble and clover 
fields, Silverton. 

Pleuridium axillare Lindb. Rare and in very small quan- 
tity. On mud by a ditch, Up Exe ; on mud by a 
stream, Greenslinch. 

Pleuridium svbuUUum Rabenh. On bare earth by cart 
tracks, in stubble fields, etc. ; common, especially on 
Criss Cross. 

Pleuridium alternifolium Rabenh. On bare earth, rare. 
Field near Aish ; cart track, Criss Cross. 

Ceratodon purpureus Brid. On the ground, cob walls, 
thatch, etc., very common. 

DicraneUa Jieteromalla Schp. Common on hedge-banks. 

DicraneUa rufescens Schp. On clay in hedge-bank, Thor- 
verton, c.fr. 

DicraneUa varia Schp. Common on banks and in fields. 

^DicraneUa Schreberi Schp. Sterile and rather rare. On 
shady, damp ground where cinders had been laid down, 
SmaUall Lane, Silverton ; in a clover field near Smallall 
Lane ; damp, clayey ground, Greenslinch (approach- 
ing the variety). 

♦var. elata Schp. On very damp ground by a little 
stream above the wood, Dandyland ; on mud by a 
stream, Greenshnch. 

Dicranoweisia cirrata Lindb. On trees, palings, gates, and 
thatch ; common. 



400 THE MOSSES OF SILVEBTON. 

Campylopus flexvosua Brid. Bare and sterile. On decay- 
ing grass in a rough field, Criss Cross. 

Campylojma pyriformis Brid. Rare, but with a little fruit. 
Chi decaying grass in a rough field, Criss Cross. 

Campylopus fragilis B. & S. Bare and sterile. On decay- 
ing grass in a rough field, Criss Cross. 

Dicranum Bonjeani De Not. In a rough grass field, Criss 
Cross. 

Dicranum scoparium Hedw. Common on hedge-banks. 
A dwarf form grows on thatch at Hayne Farm and 
Up Exe. 

var. paludosum Schp. Criss Cross, teste Prof. 
Barker. 

Dicranum majua Turn. Bare and sterile. Hedge-bank, 
Criss Cross. 

FlSSIDENTACE^. 

Fissidens exUis Hedw. Bare. On earth in a ditch, Criss 
Cross, December, 1902, but never re-found. 

Fissidens viridulus Wahl. Common on earth-banks. The 
capsules are often somewhat curved, and it is then 
difficult to discriminate this species from F. incurvus ; 
also the two sometimes grow intermixed, and inter- 
mediates occur. 

*forma inconstans. Hedge-bank on road to Aish, 
teste H. N. Dixon ; hedge-bank, Poundsland, teste 
H. N. Dixon. In this form the plant is rather larger 
than usual, the fruit is borne on very short radical or 
axillary branches, and the male flowers on similar 
shoots. There is very little difference between this 
kind and the formu inconstans of F. bryoides ; in the 
latter, however, the male flowers when axillary are 
sessile. 

var. Lylei Wils. On damp clay banks, local. In a 
damp hollow near the road from Silverton to Butter- 
leigh, about a mile from the latter, April, 1905, and 
February, 1907 ; Smallall Lane, Silverton, January, 
1907, and February, 1909. Mr. Dixon says that these 
gatherings are very typical. 

Fissidens algarvicus Solms. On damp or shady banks of 
gravelly earth, local. In two stations near Silverton, 
first found in 1901, and since then recurring each 
Avinter ; by a cart track near Leigh Pool, January and 
October, 1908. 



THE MOSSES OF SILVEBTON. 401 

Fissidena incurvua Starke. Fairly common on earth- 
banks. 

var. iamarindifoliiLS Braithw. On loose, earthy 
shale in the railway cutting, Chitterleigh, where it 
has persisted for some years ; by a stream opposite 
Land. A small sterile plant of similar growth, but 
with a border on the double lamina only, from near 
Leigh Pool, may be a parallel variation of Fissidena 
virtdvltis var. Lylei. 

Fissidens bryoides Hedw. On earth-banks, etc., very 
common. 

*forma inconstans. On the railway cutting, Chitter- 
leigh, February, 1907. The fruit is on short branches, 
the male flowers are axillary on old stems. Mr. Dixon 
says of this gathering : '' Appears to be the forma 
inconstans of Fissidens bryoides^ 

Fissidens taxifolius Hedw. On earth-banks, etc., very 
common, but often sterile. 

GRIMMIACBifi. 

Orimmia apocarpa Hedw. Not common. On the walls of 
Silverton Church ; on the stones of Up Exe Weir. 

var. rivularis W. & M. On stones in the Exe at 
. the Chain Bridge and at Up Exe. 

Orimmia ptdvinata Smith. Very common on walls both 
of stone and cob, and on tiles. 

Orimmia orbicttlaris Bruch. Stunted and in small quan- 
tity. On walls at Heazille Barton and the Flock Mill. 

Rhacomitrium acicvlare Brid. On stones in the Exe at 
Bickleigh Court and Up Exe. 

Hedungia ciliata Ehrh. On a stone by the roadside, 
Brithayes, Bickleigh. 

TORTULACB^. 

Phascum cuspidatum Schreb. Stubble fields, earth-banks, 

and roadsides, common. 
PoUia recta Mitt. Local. Only at Chitterleigh, growing 

there on road-scrapings, in stubble fields, and in the 

railway cutting. 
PoUia bryoides JVQtt. Only a few stems in a stubble field 

at Chitterleigh. 
PoUia truncattda Lindb. On earth-banks and stubble 

fields, very common. 
VOL. XLH. 2 c 



402 THE MOSSES OF SILVBRTON. 

PoUia intermedia Fiimr. On hedge-banks, fairly frequent. 

PoUia WUsoni B. & S. Common on sunny hedge-banks. 

PoUia minvMila Fiimr. Only a few stems in a stubble 
field at Chitterleigh. 

Torivla ambigua Angstr. On old walls, fairly common. 

TorttUa eUoidea De Not. On old walls, rather frequent. 

TorttUa cuneifolia Both. Common on sunny banks. 

TorttUa muralia Hedw. On walls, etc., very common. 

Torivla svbtUata Hedw. On earth-banks, common. 

TorttUa anguatata Wils. Local, and seems to prefer the 
alluvial soil near the Exe. On earth among the roots 
of a fallen tree, Nether Exe ; on a hedge-bank, War- 
acre Lane, Up Exe ; hedge-bank on red Permian soil 
at Quarry Orchard, near Silverton (not quite typical). 

TorttUa mutica Lindb. Common on stones and the lower 
parts of trees by the Exe and Culm, and occasionally 
to be found away from streams. It is generally 
sterile, but fruits sparingly on a tree by the Culm at 
the Flock Mill. 

TorttUa lasvipila Schwaeg. Very common on trees, and 
occasionally on walls. 

/' var. lasvipUceformis limpr. A typical form from 
two stations between Silverton and Chitterleigh, teste 
H. N. Dixon ; more or less approaching ordinary 
T. IcBvipila from numerous stations round Silverton. 

TorttUa intermedia Berk. Common on walls. It fruits on 
Silverton Church. 

TorttUa ruralis Ehrh. Abundant on thatched roofs, less 
common on the ground. On thatch it is often fertile. 

TorttUa papillosa WUs. On trees frequent, but often in 
small quantities only. In numerous stations round 
Silverton and at Brampford Speke. 

BarbtUa lurida Lindb. Sterile, and not very common. 
On walls, Silverton ; on trees by the Culm at the 
Flock Mill ; by Up Exe Weir. 

BarbtUa rubella Mitt. On walls, etc., common. 

BarbtUa tophacea Mitt. Damp hedge-banks, not common. 

BarbtUa faUax Hedw. Stubble fields and earth-banks, 
common. 

♦var. brevifolia Schultz. On the top of an old wall, 
' Silverton Park. 

BarbtUa rigidtUa Mitt. Rare ; only on tombstones in 
Silverton churchyard, where it is very fine and fruits 
regularly. 



THE MOSSES OF SILVBRTON. 403 

*Barbula Nicholaoni Chilmann. On stones both by a 
gutter and in a hedge-bank near Silverton, first found 
in 1907, and still growing in the same places ; on a 
dry, stone, retaining wall facing south, and on a more 
shady wall at Heazille Barton ; on a stone near 
Cowley Bridge. In none of these localities is there 
any sign of fruit. ^ 

Barhvla cylindrica Schp. On the ground and on walls, 
very common. 

Barbvia vinealis Brid. On walls, both of stone and cob, 
and on the ground, very abundant, but sterile. 

BarbtUa simiosa Braithw. On damp stones, frequent. 

Barhvla Hornschuchiana Schultz. Not common. On 
earth in a quarry between Silverton and Bickleigh. 

Barbvia revoluia Brid. Not uncommon ; fruits at Silver- 
ton Park on an old wall. 

Barhvla convoluta Hedw. Very common, but generally 
showing some approach to the var. Sardoa B. & S. 

var. Sardoa B. & S. Frequent. Very fine on a 
gravel-bank at Silverton Park, where it fruits freely. 

Barbvia unguicvlata Hedw. On earth and walls, very 
abundant. 

Leptodontmm gemmascena Braithw. On thatched roofs, 
Aish, Hayne, Greenslinch, and Yaldon, all near Sil- 
verton ; also at Thorverton and Bickleigh. 

Leptodontium flexi folium Hampe. On thatched roofs, 

often in large sheets, and with stems more than an 

. inch long ; almost always sterile. Hajntie, Aish, 

Brithayes, etc., all near Silverton ; Thorverton and 

Bickleigh. 

Weisia microstoma CM. Rare. On earth in the railway 
cutting at Chitterleigh. 

Weisia virtdtda Hedw. On earth-banks, very common. 

Weisia mucronata B. & S. Rare. Field opposite Land, 
near Silverton. 

Cinclidotvs Brebissoni Husnot. Local. On trees by the 
Culm near the Flock Mill, c.fr. ; on trees by the Exe 
at the Chain Bridge. 

Cindidotus fontinaloides P. Beauv. Common in the Exe. 

ENCALYPTACB-ffi. 

Encalypta streptocarpa Hedw. On walls, not common. 
Silverton Park ; Butterleigh. 



404 thb mosses of silvbrto|f. 

Orthotrichace^. 

Zygodon virtdissimtis R. Brown. Very common on trees, 
where it frequently fruits, and €Jso grows on walls, 
where it shows some slight approach to the var. 
rupeatris Hartm. 

Ulota Bruchii Homsq)i. On small trees, rare. Silverton 
Park ; Criss Cross. 

Uhta crispa Brid. On small trees, rare. Silverton Park ; 
Dicken's Grove, near Silverton. 

Ulota phyUantJia Brid. Trees and hedgerows, frequent. 

Orthotrichum anomcUum Hedw. var. saxatile Milde. On 
walls and stones, not common. Thorverton Bridge ; 
Cowley Bridge ; Stoke Canon ; Up Exe Weir. 

Orthotrichum leiocarpum B. & S. On bushes and small 
trees in hedges, frequent. 

Orthotrichum LyeUii Hook. & Tayl. Common on trees, 
occasionally on tiled roofs. 

Orthotrichum affine Schrad. Common on trees, less so on 
walls. 

Orthotrichum riwlare Turn. On stones and trees by rivers. 
By the Exe at Bickleigh, Up Exe, and Brampford 
Speke ; by the Culm at the Flock Mill. 

Orthotrichum Sprucei Mont. On trees by rivers. By the 
Culm at the Flock Mill, Silverton ; by the Exe at 
Brampford Speke ; by the Creedy at Cowley Bridge. 

Orthotrichum teneUum Bruch. On elm and ash trees, gene- 
rally some distance from the ground, fairly common* 
On the wall of Silverton churchyard. 

Orthotrichum pulcheUum Smith. Rare, and in very small 
quantity. On a small tree near Dandyland. 

Orthotrichum diaphanum Schrad. On trees, palings, and 
'walls, common. 

SCHISTOSTEGACEiE. 

Schistostega oamundacea Mohr. Dry, dark hollows in 
hedge-banks, fairly common ; fruits occasionally 
about Aish and Coombe. 

FUNARIACE^. 

^Ephemerum serratum Hampe. On mud by a stream in a 
marshy field near Greenslinch, Silverton. 

Physcomitrium pyriforme Brid. On mud by ditches, 
common. 



THE MOSSES OP SILVERTON. 406 

Funaria fctscictUaris Schp. Clover and stubble fields, 

common. 
Funaria hygrometrica Sibth. On the ground, walls, etc., 
"very common. 

BARTRAMIACEiE. 

Bartramia pomiformis Hedw. Hedge-bank8,fairly common. 

PhiUmotis fontana Brid. In marshes, not common and in 
small quantity ; always sterile. 

^PhiUmotis capillaris Lindb. In small quantity on the 
stony roadside and by a cart track across a rough 
field, Oiss Cross. There is no inflorescence on either 
specimen, so that there is some doubt as to their 
identity ; but Mr. Dixon writes : "I think P. capil- 
laris, as far as I can tell from sterile specimens." 

BRYACE-ae. 

Leptobryum pyriforme Wils. On flower-pots and on a 
shady wall in a garden, Silverton ; on mud with 
Physcomitrium pyriforme by a stream in a marshy 
field, Greenslinch, near Silverton (sterile, with barren 
male flowers, and numerous red gemmae on the 
radicles). 

Webera annotina Schwaeg. A few stems among other 
mosses in a rough field, Criss Cross. 

* Webera proligera Bryhn. On shady gravel banks, rare. 
Gravel pit and in the road-cutting, Silverton Park. 

Webera carnea Schp. On road scrapings, etc., not common. 

Webera albicans Schp. Ditches, very common. Very 
damp, clayey gravel bank, Greenslinch, near Silver- 
ton, cfr. 

Webera Tozeri Schp. On the damper parts of the hedge- 

\banks, very common. A little fruit from a very damp 

bank near Aish, and an occasional capsule elsewhere. 

Bryum psevdotriquetrum Schwaeg. A small form ap- 
proaching the var. compactum B. & S. from among the 
ruins at Silverton Park. 

Bryum ccespiticium L. Fairly common on walls. 

Bryum capillar e L. On walls, banks, thatched roofs, etc., 
abundant. 

Bryum Donianum Grev. On the lower parts of hedge- 
banks, very common ; fruits in numerous localities. 



406 THE MOSSES OF SILVEBTON. 

Bryum erythrocarpum Schwaeg. On banks and stubble 

fields, common. 
Bryum atropurpureum W. & M. Roadsides, etc., common, 
var. grctciletUum Tayl. Earthy crevices in rocks by 

the Exe, Up Exe Weir, c.fr. ; on mud by the Exe 

near the Chain Bridge ; damp cob wall, Silverton. 
Bryum muraU Wils. ' On the mortar of walls, frequent, 

but generally in small quantity. 
Bryum argenteum L. Waste ground, walls, etc., very 

common. Generally showing some approach to the 

var. lanatum B. & S. 

♦var. lanatum B. & S. On cob walls, etc., very 

common, teste W. E. Nicholson. 
Bryum roseum Schreb. Local. Hedge-bank near Aish 

Quarry. 
Mnium affme Bland. On banks, not common. Near 

Aish ; Silverton Park. 
Mnium rostratum Schrad. On banks, fairly frequent. 
Mnium undvlcUum L. Grassy banks, verj^ common, but 

sterile. 
Mnium Tuyrnum L. On the ground in woods and on hedge- 
banks, very common. 
Mnium puncMum L. In streams and gutters, sterile and 

not very common. 

FONTINALACEiE. 

Fontinalis antipyretica L. Common in the Exe and the 

Bum. 
Fontinalis squamosa L. In the Exe at Up Exe and Bramp- 
_ ford Speke. 

Cryph^ace^e. 

Cryphcea heteromalla Mohr. Common on trees and hedges, 
occasionally on thatch. 

NECKERACEiE. 

Neckera pumUa Hedw. Common on trees, and fruits 

fairly freely in damp situations, 
var. Philippeana Milde. On a tree in a damp 

hollow between Silverton and Butterleigh, teste ProL 

Barker ; on a tree in Aish Quarry. 
Neckera complanata Hiibn. Trees, hedges, and walls, very 

common ; fruits at Leigh Pool and Criss Cross. 
Homalia trichomanoides B. & S. On trees, common. 



THB MOSSES OF SILVBBTON. 407 

HoOKERIACEiE. 

PterygophyUum liicena Brid. Rare and stunted. On rot- 
ting bark in a swamp, Dandyland. 

Leucodontacejs. 

Lewcodon aciuroidea Schwaeg. Common on trees, occa- 
sionally on walls. 

^forma fctlcata Bonl. On a tree, Bavenshayes Lane, 
Silverton. 

Porotrichum cUopecurum Mitt. In woods and on hedge- 
banks, very common ; fruits in damp situations. 

Leskeace^. 

Leskea polycarpa Ehrh. Common on stones and trees by 

the Exe and Culm. 
Anomodon viticvlosua Hook. & Tayl. On stones and 

bushes in hedges, common. 
LepkxUm Smithii Mohr. Sterile and local. On elm trees, 

Silverton ; on elm trees, Up Exe ; on the roof of the 

church and on the churchyard wall, Silverton. 
Heterocladium heJteropterum B. & S. var. faiUax Milde. On 

a muddy stone in a damp hollow by the Butterleigh 

road, about a mile from Butterleigh. 
Thuidium tamariscinum B. & S. On baooks, very common ; 

cfr. Criss Cross. 
Thuidium recognitum lindb. In small quantity on the 

stony roadside, Criss Cross. 

HYPNACEiE. 

Climacium dendroides W. & M. In a marshy field, Greens- 

linch. 
Camptothecium sericeum Kindb. Trees and walls, very 

common. 
BracJiytheciuin albicans B. & S. On the ground ; common 

on Criss Cross. 
BrcLchythecium rtUabtdum B. & S. On walls, trees, banks, 

etc., abundant. 

♦var. longisetum B. & S. In a marshy meadow, 

Hayne, Silverton, cfr. ; in a damp place, Leigh 

Pool, cfr. 
BrcLchythecium rimdare B. & S. On stones by streams and 

rivers, common. 



408 THB MOSSBS OF SILVBBTOK. 

♦var. chrysophyUum Bagnall. On stones in the 

stream, Bidwell, near Thorverton, teste H. N. Dixon. 
Brtichythecium vdutinum B. & S. On hedge-banks, 

common. 
Brctchythecium populeum B. & S. Not common. Tree 

trunks opposite Land, c.fr. ; trees by the Cuhn at the 

Flock Mill. 
Brachythecium plumoaum B. & S. On stones by streams, 

sterile and not common. Up Exe Weir ; stream 

opposite Land. 
Brctchyihecium cceapitosum Dixon. On trees, roots, and 

stones in damp places, very common. With fruit in 

several places, but generally in small quantity. 
BrcLchythecium iUecebrum De Not. Sunny hedge-banks, 

common. 
Brctchythecium puruin Dixon. Fields and banks, very 

common. Li a rough field near Little Dorweeke, 

Bickleigh, cfr. 
Eurhynchium pUiferum B. & S. On banks, not very 

common. 
Eurhynchium crctssinervium B. & S. On damp stones and 

walls, frequent. 
Eurhynchium prcdongum Hobkirk. Fields, hedgerows, 

etc., abundant. 

var. Stokeaii Brid. Hedge-banks and tree-roots. 

Bablon, near Silverton ; between Silverton and But- 

terleigh ; Butterleigh. 
Eurhynchium Stvartzii Hobk. Fields, hedges, walls, etc., 

abundant ; fruit in very small quantity occurs in 

several stations near Silverton. 
Eurhynchium abbreviatum Schp. Common on hedge-banks 

about Silverton, but does not grow on the higher 

ground. At the top of Kenstone Hill, near Silver- 
ton, c.fr. 
Eurhynchium pumilum Schp. Earth-banks and tree-roots, 

very common ; a little fruit occurs in a few stations 

about Silverton. 
Eurhynchium teneUum Milde. On walls, not very common, 
var. acabrdlum Dixon. On tree-tnmks by the 

stream below Land, near Silverton, cfr. 
Eurhynchium myosuroides Schp. On trees and hedges, 

common. 
Eurhynchium myurum Dixon. On trees and hedges, 

common, particularly so on Criss Cross. 



THB MOSSES OF SILVBRTON. 409 

Eurhynchium striatum B. & S. On banks, very common. 

Eurhynchium ruaciforme Milde. On stones by streams, 
common. 

var. cManticum Brid. On brickwork below a water- 
shoot near Silverton. 

Eurhynchium murale Milde. Bare. On masonry by the 
Culm, just below the weir at the Flock Mill, c.fr. 

Eurhynchium confertum Milde. On stones and stumps, 
very common. 

Eurhynchium megapolitanum Milde. Grassy hedge-banks, 
local. Hajntie ; New Bam, cjr. ; Red Cross, cjr. ; 
Up Exe, cjr, A large form, with long stems and big 
leaves, and often growing in wide sheets. 

Plagiothecium depressum Dixon. On trees, not common. 
Land and Quarry Orchard, both near Silverton. 

Plagiothecium degana SuU. On hedge-banks, not un- 
common. 

PUmiothecium derUiculatum B. & S. Hedgerows, etc., very 
common. 

PUmiothecium ailvaticum B. & S. On banks, not com- 
mon. 

Plagiothecium latebricola B. & S. Rare. On earth and 
decayed leaves, Criss Cross, teste H. N. Dixon. 

Amblystegium serpens B. & S. On trees, stones, etc., very 
common. 

*Amblystegium Juratzkanum Schp. On damp stones, 
common. The form of this moss that grows about 
Silverton is not typical in the direction of the leaves 
and the growth, though the cell structure of the leaves 
seems to be that of A. Juratzkanum. Mr. H. N. Dixon 
says that the Silverton moss is, in his opinion, a form 
of A, Juratzkanum, but that some botanists would 
call it A. serpens, and that it must be considered a 
doubtful form. 

*Amblystegium Kochii B. & S. Rare. In a swamp by the 
Culm at the Flock Mill, Silverton. 

Amblystegium varium Idndb. On damp stones by the 
Culm at Culm John, cjr. 

Amblystegium irriguum B. & S. In small quantity on a 
rock at Up Exe Weir, teste H. N. Dixon. 

Amblystegium fluviatile B. & S. On stones in the Exe at 
Bickleigh and Up Exe. 

Amblystegium fUicinum De Not. On damp ground and 
stones, common. 



410 THE MOSSES OF SILVBRTOK. 

Hypnum riparium L. C!ommon by streams. 

♦var. dongatum Schp. Mr. Dixon says that a large 
aquatic form which grows in the Exe at Up Exe 
belongs to this variety. 
*Hypnum polygamum Schp. Damp fields, local. In a 
damp grass field at Bablon, Silverton; in a clayey 
field, Bidwell, near Thorverton. 
Hypnum (idurumm Hedw. var. polycarpon Bland. At the 
edge of a pond, Stoad Moor, Silverton. 

var. intermedium Schp. In a marsh, Bickleigh, 
teste W. Ingham. 

var. paiemum Sanio. Floating in a pond, Stoad 
Moor, Silverton. 
Hypnum ciipressiforme L. On the ground, walls, trees, 
etc., abundant. 

var. resupinatum Schp. On trees, etc., very com- 
mon, but often showing an approach to var. longirostre 
Schp. Fruits in several places, but generally sterile, 
♦var. longirostre Schp. On a stone, Aish Quarry, 
c.fr. ; Criss Cross, c.fr. ; on stone in hedge, Greens- 
linch, cfr, 

var. fUiforme Brid. On a tree, Criss Cross (not 
quite typical), 
var. ericetorum B. & S. On a bank, Criss Cross, 
var. tectorum Brid. On thatch, GreensUnch, cfr. 
var. elatum B. & S. On stony roadside, Criss Cross. 
Hypnum imponena Hedw. Rare. On a stone in a grass 

field at Coombe, near Silverton, teste H. N. Dixon. 
Hypnum Patientice Lindb. On the roadside, Criss Cross ; 

in a rough field opposite Land. 
Hypnum paluatre Huds. On stones liable to be submerged. 

Culm John. 
Hypnum cordifolium Hedw. In a swamp by the railway,. 

Bickleigh. 
Hypnum cuspidcUum L. Marshes, meadows, etc., very 

common. 
Hylocomium splendens B. & S. On grassy banks, Criss 

Cross. 
Hylocomium lorcum B. & S. Hedge-banks, etc., Criss 

Cross. A little fruit is occasionally borne. 
Hylocomium aquarroaum B. & S. Fields, grassy banks, 
etc., abundant. In a rough field above Coombe, cjr. 
Hylocomium triquetrum B. & S. Common on Criss Cross, 
where it fruits. 



THE MOSSES OF SILVBRTON. 411 

A few mosses have been collected by Mr. Frank Savery 
in other parts of Devon, some of which are new to the 
county or otherwise interesting ; and I think it will be 
well for me to record the more important of these here. 
Those not recorded in the Census Catalogue for the vice- 
county in which they have been found, are marked with 
a star. In Miss C. E. Larter's '* List of Devon Mosses and 
Hepatics," read before the Devonshire Association in 1908, 
my brother and myself were credited with the discovery of 
three mosses which we had not really found. I take the 
opportunity to correct these errors. Among the records 
wldch I sent Miss Larter when she was compiling her 
paper was one of Eurhynchium stricUtUuniy from Chudleigh. 
On re-examination, I found that I had wrongly named 
my specimen, and therefore the record must be cancelled. 
In her list Miss Larter gives '' Dicranum Scottianum Turn. 
Silverton, G. & F. S.", and " Antitrichia curtipendvla Brid. 
Sidmouth, G. & F. S." Both these records are erroneous. 
Neither of them was on the list of mosses found by my 
brother and myself, which I sent to Miss Larter, and I 
can only suppose that the latter must have misread our 
list, which was only a rough one, and oerhaps difficult to 
understand. 

^Andreaea crasainervia Bruch. V.C. 4. Yes Tor, teste 

H. N. Dixon. 
*Archidium aUemifolium Schp. V.C. 4. Blegberry, near 

Hartland. 
^Pleuridium axillare Lindb. V.C. 4. Between Stoke and 

Hartland. 
^Dicranum scoparium Hedw. var. orthophyUum'Bnd. V.C. 3. 

DawUsh Warren. 
*Orimmia avbaquarroaa Wils. V.C. 3. Anstey's Cove. 
*Pha8Cum ciLspidatum Shreb. var. piliferum Hook. & 

Tayl. V.C. 3. Marshes of the Otter, Budleigh Sal- 

terton. 
*Tortula Icevipila Schwaeg. var. Icevipilceformis Limpr. 

V.C. 4. Hartland ; Tiverton. 
*Barbvla Homachuchiana Schultz. V.C. 4. Bampton. 
Weiaia crispata CM. V.C. 3. Budleigh Salterton, V.C. 4. 

Westleigh Quarries, Holcombe Bogus. 
*Orthotrichum pidchellum Smith. V.C. 4. Between Bamp- 
ton and Tiverton. 
*Bryum himum Schreb. V.C. 4. Above Tiverton. 



412 THB MOSSES OF SILVBBTON. 

Thuidium recognitum Lindb. V.C. 4. Westleigh Quarries, 

Holcombe Bogus. 

Form intermediate between T. recognitum and T. 

PhUiberti limpr. V.C. 4. Bampton, teste H. N. 

Dixon. 
*Brachyth€cium coespUoaum Dixon. V.C. 4. By the Exe, 

Bampton. 
*Hypnum exannvlatum Giimb. var. hrachydidyon Ben. 

V.C. 3. Shute Common, near Axminster, teste 

W. Ingham. 
*Hypnum cupresaiforme L. var. mamillatum Brid. V.C. 4. 

Speke's Mill, Hartland, c.fr. 
*Hypnum PatierUice Lindb. V.C. 4. Blegberry and Hart- 
land. 
Eurhynchium striaivlum B. & S. V.C. 3. Anstey's Cove. 



TROWLESWORTHITE AND LUXULYANITE. 

BY ARTHUR R. HUNT. 

(R«ad at CaUompton, 27th July, 1910.) 



The memoir on the Bodmin and St. Austell district adds 
another to the many stores of information recently 
published by the Geological Survey. I have been par- 
ticularly interested in the notes of two rocks, keys of 
the west, as I believe them to be, Trowlesworthite and 
Luxulyanite. 

Trowlesworthite is such a particularly interesting and 
important rock that geologists will probably be pleased 
to recognize the obligation they are under to the dis- 
coverer, that indefatigable observer and collater of signifi- 
cant and suggestive facts, the late Mr. R. N. Worth, f.g.s., 
of Plymouth. 

In 1887 Mr. Worth read a paper on the '^ Igneous and 
Altered Bocks of South Devon," which he followed up 
in 1892 with his '^ Materials for a Census of Devonian 
Granites and Felsites" {Trans. Devon. Assoc., vol. xxiv. 
p. 183). For the latter paper he tells us he examined more 
than 400 specimens, and he gives a descriptive list of more 
than 350 of them. This is one of those papers whose 
value increases with age, because the author alone at the 
date of publication knows the mutual significance of the 
facts he records ; facts which to the inexperienced may 
seem rather of the nature of a set of necklace pearls with- 
out the connecting string. 

With regard to Trowlesworthite, Mr. Worth incidentally 
remarks: "A rock found by myself on Trowlesworthy, 
which has not been traced in situ, and which has been 
named, from its locality, Trowlesworthite . . . produced 
from the ordinary granite of the tor by the replacement 
of mica and a part of the felspar by tourmaline, and of 
the quartz by fiuor. In this rock south-west Devon has a 



414 TBOWLESWOBTHITE AND LUXULYANITE. 

unique petrological possession" {Trans. Devon. Assoc., 1887, 
p. 481). 

In venturing to discuss this question in the light of 
later years I may say that my late friend's reputation 
will be my first care ; and, that for freely discussing his 
evidence I had his unrestricted permission and authority. 

At the commencement of his 1887 paper, Mr. Worth 
acknowledges his indebtedness to Prof. Bonney and Dr. 
Teall for " kind help and advice," but he states his views 
with complete independence, so that in discussing the 
discoverer's views of Trowlesworthite, and of its Cornish 
eousin Luxulyanite, I must not be judged as criticizing 
the opinions of the aforesaid eminent speciaUsts. My 
specimens of both these rocks were given me by Mr. 
Worth himself. 

An important fact is that Mr. Worth does not only 
describe " Trowlesworthite," but also six other varieties 
of the red granites from Trowlesworthy Tor, which are 
very important in connection with the fiuor-bearing 
variety. 

One, we are told, is a red schorlaceous granite, with 
white and black micas ; another is a red schorlaceous 
pegmatite, with irregularly distributed quartz, and not 
much schorl. Trowlesworthite is described as mainly 
composed of red felspar, black schorl, and violet fluor spar. 

It is clear that if schorl were to replace the black and 
white micas, and fluor were to replace the quartz in the 
neighbouring rocks, the result would in fact be the 
variety Trowlesworthite. 

These changes may seem indicated by the exigencies of 
petrology, but the question is whether they may not put 
too great a strain on physics and chemistry. 

There are a good many difficulties in the way of fluor 
replacing quartz in granite. For instance : — 

(i.) Fluor commonly occurs in Umestone rocks, and, 
according to Dana, is even found, though sparingly, in 
coal. Thus very little heat is admissible. 

(ii.) Mr. Worth notices three other occurrences of fluor 
in Devonshire granites, all very late crystallizations. At 
Ivybridge and Gunnislake on joint faces ; and at Lundy 
Island zoning kaolinized felspars. 

(iii.) Quartz is among the last minerals to yield to attack, 
by solution or corrosion ; but in the present assumed case 
the quartz is not even only altered, but the silica is entirely 



TBOWLESWOBTHITB AND LUXULYANTTB. 416 

removed, and replaced by two different substances, viz. 
lime and fluorine. 

(iv.) There is plenty of quartz in my slide of Trowles- 
worthite ; but in no case does it show any indication of 
transition into fluor spar. 

It has not, I think, been noticed what a very remarkable 
case Trowlesworthite presents ; being crystaUized under 
the influence of four of the so-called " mineraUzers," viz. 
hydrofluoric acid, boracic acid, hydrochloric acid, and 
phosphoric acid ; as evidenced by the fluor spar, schorl, 
chlorides, and apatite. 

In the Oeological Magazine for March, 1894 (p. 103, 
fig. iv.), will be found illustrations of the hquid inclusions, 
both in the apatite and the quartz of Trowlesworthite. 
When the early apatite was crystallized, the water was 
free from chlorides, but during the crystaUization of the 
quartz, brine alternated with plain water, or at any rate 
with water showing no indication of chlorides. 

There is abundant proof that the quartz, and the 
acicular schorl, were crystallized in the presence of liquid 
water, acidulated by one, two, three, or four mineraUzers. 
The compact amber-coloured tourmaline, and the apatite, 
may be open to dispute, but there is no proof that even 
in their case the water (which was assuredly present in 
some form) was gaseous while crystallization was in actual 
progress. 

With regard to the amber-coloured idiomorphic tour- 
malines of Dartmoor, I have always affirmed that they 
are original minerals. My appeals ad derum have been 
as serious as I could make them ; though those ad 
populum somewhat jocular. 

In my paper in the Oeological Magazine in 1903, on the 
'.'Crystallization of Granite," having no reputation as a 
petrologist to stake, but being a student of golf, I staked 
my reputation as a golfer that a certain tourmaline crystal 
in the sUde of Luxulyanite, which Mr. Worth gave me, had 
not the most distant connection with mica. That was a 
sincere confession of faith. I may be distraught, but I 
entertain no doubt whatever. 

Luxulyanite is almost universally regarded as nearly 
identical with Trowlesworthite, but the conditions of 
crystallization were very different. In Trowlesworthite 
there are three lime-bearing minerals, viz. oligoclase, fluor, 
and apatite. In Luxulyanite we have orthoclase, no fluor, 



416 TBOWLBSWOBTHITB AND LUXULYANITE. 

and apparently very little apatite. In Trowlesworthite 
we have abundance of chlorides, whereas in some sUdea 
of Luxulyanite they seem to be absent, and in others 
hard to find. Then in Luxulyanite the compact tourmaline 
seems to break up into acicular crystals and stellate 
aggregates, while in Trowlesworthite the compact tourma- 
line is not so severely attacked ; the new tourmaline is 
more rod-like, and the aggregates are less inclined to be 
stellate. 

When I received my final knock-out blow from my 
geological friends in the early nineties, with some twenty 
years of crystallizable problems still solvent in my mind, 
I concluded a paper to the Devonshire Association with a 
quasi-examination paper of forty questions, of which 
. No. 6 runs thus : '^ Compact, typical tourmaline often 
breaks up into needles, rods, and aUotriomorphic crystcJs. 
What are the processes, and how do they differ in each 
case ? " (Trans. Devon. Assoc., 1895, p. 289). 

At that time I had no clue to the answer, but, since 
then, the critical temperatures of my chemical friends have 
laid the foundations, even though there still remain 
countless details to be built up ; and certainly, with four 
acid mineralizers working on one rock, with great variations 
of temperature, it may be difficult indeed to answer the 
question, " What are the processes ? " 

For fourteen years I have stood alone as to the fact 
that compact tourmaline does occasionally break up 
into another variety of tourmaline ; I am, therefore, truly 
glad to find the same opinion held by such an authority 
as Dr. Flett. With regard to Luxulyanite, Dr. Flett 
writes : — 

^' No biotite is found in the rock and it is by no means 
certain that this mineral was originally present ; . . . 
The brown tourmaline is seemingly primary. . . . Evi- 
dently the new tourmaline is being formed partly from 
the felspar and partly from the older tourmaline " (Bodmin 
and St. Austell District, p. 66). 

To all appearances the felspar is dissolved, and the 
acicular tourmaline is newly crystallized from the new 
materials at hand ; but the compact tourmaline seems 
also to be spUt up longitudinally into actual rods or 
needles which go to form part of the new tourmaline. 

One of the old macroscopic specific distinctions of dark 
tourmaline was the '' absence of distinct cleavage " (Dana» 



TBOWLBSWOBTHTTB AND LUXULYAIHTB. 417 

Manual of Mineralogy^ 1864). Yet the brown varieties, 
under the microscope, occasionally show every gradation 
between no cleavage, and the most perfect longitudinal 
cleavage ; indistinguishable from mica, except that the 
extinctions are at right angles to each other. The charao* 
teristic irregular crack-like transverse " pseudo-cleavage," 
is to me one of the best proofs that the crystals in which 
it occurs are primary ; a conclusion often confirmed by 
other evidence, one point being that these transverse 
oracks do not occur in the obviously secondary tourmaline, 
nor the longitudinal cleavage either. 

It will have been observed that both with regard to the 
derivations of the fluor spar and of the tourmaline, from 
quartz and mica respectively, Mr. R. N. Worth mentioned 
them both as accepted facts, without qualification. The 
same assertion, as to the derivation of tourmaline, has 
been repeated for the subsequent twenty-three years ; 
but, so far as I am aware, without any reason for the same 
being given. I have inquired of experts, specially ac- 
quainted with the western granites, if they have ever met 
with a case of tourmaline derived from mica, or could let 
me see a slide. The reply has been in the negative. 

In my friend Mr. Harker's Natural History of the Igneous 
BocJeSf a case of derivation of tourmaline from mica is 
figured, and described as though a fact needing no proof. 
.1 can match that case from Penzance ; but the mica- 
looking patches in my slide are unaltered tourmaUne, 
extinguishing vertically, and not horizontally, with refer- 
ence to the cleavage. I could scarcely believe my eyes, 
so exactly were they like mica, until I had referred the 
specimen to high authority, who summarily dismissed the 
mica. 

In the matter of rock-transformations some geologists 
are apt to overlook the distinctive properties of liquid 
and gaseous H^O ; while others may possibly overlook the 
fact that another step further down will find neither liquid 
nor gaseous HgO, but the divorced partners H and O. 
With respect to this very important temperature, there 
is much indifference among geologists. In his Characterise 
tics of Volcanoes, Prof. Dana mentions in a note that 
" the temperature of the liquid lava (of Kilauea) is 
.nearly that of the dissociation temperature of water — 
1986° F. to 2370° F., according to M. H. St. Claire Deville " 
(toe. cit.y p. 158). 

VOL. XLH. 2 D 



418 TBOWLESWOBTHITB AND LUXULYAHITB. 

The reference of the temperature of dissociation to the 
Fahrenheit scale is probably a clerical error ; as Professor 
Hartley informs me that he himself in 1869 demonstrated 
by ex{)eriment at the Royal Institution that dissociation 
commences at about 1775*^ centigrade. Further, that 
Deville and Debray found the dissociation temperature to 
be 2600® C, and that Bunsen, by quite a different experi- 
mental method, found that a gaseous mixture of hydrogen 
and oxygen in proper proportions to form water did not 
entirely combine, but only one-third of the volume of the 
mixed gases combined, at 2850° C. In other words, two- 
thirds of the water was dissociated at that temperature. 

The plutonic isothermal zone in which the dissociation 
of water begins is a matter of some geological interest 
with reference to what have been described as magmatic 
and '' juvenile " waters ; seeing that below that horizon 
no water could have an assured existence, even as gas. 

In the event of the dissociated gases of water keeping 
together to ordinary lava-temperatures, explosions would 
naturally result ; and it seems possible that some of the 
ordinary volcanic explosions may be due to this cause, 
instead of to the mere expansion of gciseous water, to 
which such explosions are usually attributed. 

In my specimen of Trowlesworthite, a crystal of fluor 
spar associated with quartz is crowded with tourmaline 
microUths which penetrate both minerals indiscriminately. 
Clearly the microliths crystallized out of a solution con- 
taining the components of silica and fluor, which subse- 
quently consolidated and enclosed the microliths. 

A crystal of brown tourmaline breaking up into brush- 
like needles of greenish tourmaline is associated with 
quartz containing occasional cubes of chloride of sodium. 
At the end of the crystal, remote from the greenish brush- 
like tourmaline, there is a slight secondary recrystallization 
of a clear mineral. (See Plate.) 

Dbscmption of Platb. 

Trowlesworthite, crystal of amber-coloured tourmaline, 
altered in a variety of ways. 

The centre of the crystal is well-characterized tourmaline 
with the transverse so-called pseudo cleavage well marked. 

One end of the crystal shows zonal structure, obliterating 
the original transverse cracks. The other end is broken 




CUYSTAl. OF TOURMALINE IX TKOWLESWORTHITE. 



TROWLK8WORTII1TK AND LUXILYASITK. — 7"0 fiiCt p. AVJ. 



TBOWLESWOBTHITE AND LUXULYANITB. 419 

up into a brush-like form by the longitudinal cleavage, 
which in tourmaline occasionally simidates the cleavage 
of mica, except under the polariscope. 

On one side the crystal is eroded by what looks like 
an impure felspar in process of crystallization, just in- 
dicating the twin cleavage of plagioclase. 

In the quartz, Uquid inclusions with chloride cubes are 
abundant, while inclusions of plain liquid also occur. 

In occasional crystals of apatite in the slide the liquid 
inclusions have no indication of chlorides. 

The phenomena exhibited by the aforesaid crystal of 
tourmaline seem quite incompatible with a temperature 
above that of the critical temperature of water. They 
are the product of the actions of liquids and not of gases, 
although of course gases may have been dissolved in the 
liquid. 

Microphotograph by the author. 



CILLITONA: THE LAND OF THE WIFE 
OF HERVIUS. 

BY MISS EMILY SKINNER. 

(Read at Cnllompton, S7th July, 1910. 



The land of Hervei de Helion's wife, Cillitona — which 
she held in the Domesday Hundred of Tiverton, and after- 
wards exchanged — ^has been a subject of frequent con- 
jecture as to its locality. So few women were holders of 
estates that interest has centred round them, and I have 
tried, in my paper, to trace the situation of Cillitona and 
to show, as plainly as I can, why I regard Southwood as 
old CiUitona. 

As the exact locality of this land has never been cor- 
rectly traced, I am venturing, after my exhaustive search 
of the Domesday holders in connection with my former 
papers, to give some of my ideas of its situation. 

Quoting from Trans, xxxii. p. 532 : — 

" The Wife of Hervius holds Esse tone and Hackende in 
exchange for Cillitona." 

Where was this CiUitona ? 

Research has given me the impression that Southwood 
was the land of Hervei Hehon's wife in the Tiverton 
Hundred. 

I know it has been classed as forming part of the old 
Earl of Devon's park ; but that is not correct. The park 
extended to Ashley, on the border of Southwood, but did 
not include this estate. 

There is still a place at Bickleigh, on the same side of 
the Exe, that has the name of Chiliton — which name, 
according to Trans, xxxii. p. 523, indicates a connection 
with a river. Bickleigh, according to Polwhele, had two 
manors and two villages. The manor and village of 
Bickleigh in the northern part, and the manor and village 



CILLITONA. 421 

of Chederleigh in the southern part — in which were 
Bourn, Arnold's Bullards, and Stony Park. Southwood 
is on the steep part of the hill between Ashley and 
Bickleigh. 

Now I will first take the CilUtona {ibid. viii. p. 1080) 
in the Domesday Ust. That, we presume, was the ex- 
changed land, or the original holding, of Hervei Helion's 
wife. In this list it is held by Odo, son of Gamelin (Gamelin 
is a holder in the Tiverton Hundred). CiUitona comes 
before Huntsham and Willand in the list of Gamelin's 
possessions. 

To a student of the old byways, it is not difficult to 
trace that these holdings in those far-off days were not 
disconnected, and that the old roads gave a distinct line 
of conmiunication. 

The path by Yerlstan led from Southwood to Bickleigh 
Ford. From the ford there was a path through Bax 
Woods to Durkshay Lane, Exeter HUl, and the old by- 
way Gogwell Lane to Newte's Hill. This hiU had old 
field -paths to Willand, and on the valley side was Tid- 
oombe Lane, leading through Chevithome to Huntsham. 
The land of Hervei's wife (Cillitona), if situated as I have 
described, between Bickleigh and Ashley, might easily have 
been placed by after changes in the Hundred of Budleigh 
or Harrige. Worth, also on this side of the parish, was 
in the Hundred of Budleigh. This Hundred has always 
been a little confused, as shown on p. 546. 

In Trans, xxxii. p. 536, Mr. Whale shows that South- 
wood passed from the Hundred of Harrige to that of 
Exminster. On p. 236 there is a discussion about South- 
wood, as it is bracketed in Testa de Nevil with Newland 
in Collumpton, held by Philip de Fumellis. It is claimed 
that its original name was Chilleton, and that its Domes- 
day holder was an Odo. Here it is surmised that it formed 
part of the Earl's park, and it is included in Ashley. But 
old landmarks show it did not form part of the park, 
although contiguous to it. There are still three separate 
residences bearing the name of Ashley close together. 
Harding says Ashley Park was bounded on the west by 
Southwood and Custom Wood. The Home Park was 
near the Castle, and the old tything path is still free. 

In Trans, xxxiii. p. 623, the Ashley lordship is re- 
turned at 3754 acres ; but Tiverton's Domesday acres 
were 4474, leaving a difference of 723 acres. 



422 CILLITONA. 

Southwood corresponded in measurement to Cillitona, 
211 acres, and it might have formed part of the land of 
Little Tiverton and Wassefeld, so frequently held of the 
Honour of Plympton. 

In the Pipe RoUs of Henry II (No. 367), William de 
Helion has a fair stallage, for which he rendered the sheriff 
128. 8d. Directly following comes Washfield and Little 
Tiverton (in 332), about a.d. 1163. There is an allusion 
to an escheat in connection with this stallage. 

The Peveril land of West Exe did become an escheat of 
the Crown. 

Long before the Courtenays gave the market to the 
burg, A.D. 1200, there was a market in West Exe. If 
Hervei's wife held Southwood in the days of the Saxon 
markets, comes the question : Did the Helions, in spite 
of the exchange, retain some right for stallage in markets 
and fairs, as it again occurs in 489 ? If so, it helps to 
confirm what I have tried to prove, that Southwood was 
the Cillitona of Hervei's wife. 

If we turn back to Saxon Tiverton, before the Bedvers 
lordship was, and trace the various estates as they were 
appropriated by the Normans, the possessions of Odo, son 
of Gamelin, i.e. CiUitona, Himtsham, Willand — although 
in Mr. Whale's Exon Domesday in separate Hundreds 
— were accessible for their o\^Tier to pass in those days 
from one estate to the others, if we study the old roads and 
byways. One of these early ways has entirely disap- 
peared within my memory, for a portion of Knightshayes 
Park lies over one of the old ways to Huntsham, and a 
new road has been cut. 



DOUBLE DAFFODILS. 

BY MISS HELEN SAUNDERS. 

(Read at ChiUompton, STth July, 1010.) 



In the month of March m this year 1910, 1 bought a bunch 
of common single daffodils or Lent-lilies, gathered in 
Chittlehampton parish, among which I found one that 
was double, but not of the ordinary form of Tdemonius 
plenuSy for it had none of the trumpet or tube-like shape, 
but was nearly flat ; the calyx or five outer segments 
of the perianth being of a pale yellow or primrose colour, 
the next row a deeper shade, but not so dark as the ordinary 
daffodil, and so on to the centre. I made inquiries re- 
specting its habitat and visited the locaUty with the 
person who had sold the bunch ; we found more specimens 
of the rare double variety, and some partially double. She 
remarked that she did not know that double ones grew 
there before her children had gathered some this season, 
which surprised her. These daffodils are also not like 
the common large double daffodils, for they are much 
smaller, some of them having eight pale segments like a 
calyx, with a bright yellow perfect tube full of petals or 
segments. I have submitted some to Messrs. Barr and 
Sons, who write of them as the little double Pseudo- 
Narcissus pleniLSy which they say is always a more or less 
variable plant. The first-mentioned double flower they 
describe as "a chance sport of the Psevdo-Narcissus 
TplenuSj^'* and add that it probably would not come con- 
stant. 

Now, what causes a sport ? Is it not a condition which 
is governed by some natural law ? I understand that 
bulbs do not change, but always produce the same kind 
of flowers, and that varieties are produced from seed 
obtained by crossings with foreign stock. May it not be 
that these flowers, growing far from any others, and not 



424 DOUBLE DAFFODILS. 

being a large community, have been for generations, 
perhaps centuries, crossing and recrossing each other, 
until they have by some law of nature become degenerated, 
and by degrees their reproductive organs have disappeared, 
and thus they have become double flowers ? Some of the 
partially double daffodils had imperfect stamens ; per- 
haps they had not experienced so many generations of 
crossings as those which have lost all appearance of these 
organs, and have become quite double. 

I have consulted authorities on the subject and have 
been referred to various articles written by expert botanists, 
but I have not obtained a direct answer as to how single- 
flowered plants become double. Some gardeners seem to 
succeed by over-nourishing the plants, others by starving 
them ; some select seed from particular parts of the pods 
or collect those grown in particular situations ; but none 
of these methods are satisfactory or certain. 

It is thought by some that flowers are doubled by 
the action of insects at the root of the plant, but that 
does not seem reasonable. I think they might rather 
destroy the flower than make it a thing of more beauty. 
Imported single-flowering plants, which produce only 
double flowers in this country, can easily be understood, 
as they do not bring their insect agents with them, and 
other insects cannot do their work for them. 

If I am correct in considering that these curious double 
daffodils are the result of self-fertilization, or the constant 
crossing of the same stock, I think the mystery of the 
origin of the Narcissus eystettensis, which " has exercised 
the minds of all writers on daffodils for three hundred 
years," is partly solved (Trans,, vol. xxx. p. 199, 1898). 

My thanks are due to Dr. Stapf , of Kew, for his courteous 
reply to my inquiries. 



THE PYCNOGONIDA OF DEVONSHIRE. 

BY T. V. HODGSON. 

(Read at Cullompton, 88th July, 19ia) 



The group of a«nimals collectively known to zoologists as 
the Pycnogonida, the Pantopoda, or the Podosomata, and 
to the less expert as the Sea Spiders, are not sufficiently 
conspicuous, on the British coasts at least, to attract any 
great amount of attention, being sluggish in their habits 
and slender in structure. As they feed largely on those 
animals known as hydroids, they more often than not, 
turn up when the shore coUector is looking for something 
else, or, having brought home a quantity of "scrufiE," 
they are foimd when looking this over. 

The name of Sea Spider is derived from the fact 
that the diminutive though slender and elongated body 
is in the possession of four pairs of more or less lengthy 
legs, and it must be admitted that any one but a zoologist 
might fairly be excused from assigning them to such a 
group. 

As a matter of fact their relationships are by no means 
certain ; they have been bandied about between the 
Crustacea and Arachnida, besides having been regarded 
as a class apart and distinct from either ; but it is now 
generally admitted that the balance of evidence is in 
favour of their being more closely related to the Arachnida 
than to any other group, and the recent discovery of 
species with five pairs of legs has not seriously affected 
the decision. 

The organization of these animals is simple, and at the 
same time it must be admitted as pecuhar. 

They are clothed with a hard chitinous skin, as are all 
members of the great sub-kingdom to which they belong, 
and which they are compelled to moult as they grow. The 
animal is more or less distinctly segmented, and comprises 



426 THE PYCNOGONIDA OF DBVONSHIBE. 

a proboscis, and the body, properly so called, which in- 
cludes the abdomen. The head does not exist as a clearly 
defined structure, but for purposes of convenience I have 
always regarded the head as that part of the body which 
Ues in front of the first pair of lateral processes, but how 
far the proboscis is involved is a complex and technical 
matter. 

Somewhere on the head, and often on or even beyond 
the theoretical border Une, there is usually an elevation 
called the ocular tubercle which carries four eyes, two of 
which are directed forwards, and two backwa'tds. 

The proboscis is usually very large in proportion to the 
size of its owner, in some species it is much larger than the 
body itself, and at the extremity Ues the triangular opening 
which constitutes the mouth. 

The abdomen is very small, and as a rule is a slender, 
rod-Uke structure of a single joint, and often reduced to 
a mere stump. 

The legs are usually long and eight-jointed, provided 
with a terminal claw and sometimes with a pair of sm^U 
aiccessories. These legs are carried on lateral processes of 
the trunk, and the condition of the last two joints especially, 
the tarsus and the propodus, afford useful specific char- 
acters. 

Three other pairs of appendages are associated with the 
animal's economy, but any or all of these may be deficient. 

The first of these is now usually termed the cheliferi, 
though older works speak of them as mandibles, from 
their most conspicuous feature, viz. a pair of pincers Uke 
a minute edition of the large claw of the lobster. This 
pair of appendages lies immediately above the proboscis, 
and at the side of that organ is the second pair, the palps, 
which vary greatly in size and the number of joints. In 
function at least they are feelers, and correspond to antennae 
of Crustacea and other animals. 

The third pair is sometimes deficient altogether, but 
more often it is retained by the male only, as it is to that 
sex that all domestic duties as to the care of the young 
are confined. This pair of Umbs has been called the false 
legs, but recently the more appropriate term oviger has 
come into use. The appendages occur ventrally very 
close to and in front of the first pair of legs and have a 
variable number of joints, the last four of which usually 
bear highly speciaUzed spines, which indicate some par- 



THE PYCNOGONIDA OF DEVONSHIRE. 427 

ticular function. In whatever sex these limbs are de- 
veloped it is only among the males that the eggs are f omid 
made up into packets and carried thereon. The young 
when hatched are in a form quite unHke the parent, which 
they ultimately resemble after a series of moults accom- 
panied by a considerable increase in size. 

During the larval stages the yoimg are closely associated 
with the body of the male parent, but the post -larval 
forms are generally found free, certainly so as they ap- 
proach maturity. Such individuals may be easily recog- 
nized by the incomplete development of the hinder parts, 
but more particularly by the development of the oviger, 
which is the last functional organ to appear. 

Of these Sea Spiders only a Hmited number, thirteen 
species, are to be found on the coast of Devonshire, and 
all of these are among the smaller members of the group, 
none exceeding an expanse of two inches, and most of them 
not half that amount. 

Although they have not been notified from many points 
they may be looked for anywhere between tide-marks, 
where weedy pools with hydrozoa or polyzoa are to be 
found, and it is on* the polyps of these animals that they 
largely feed. The roots of laminaria, with their attendant 
and cosmopolitan collection of animals, is a very suitable 
place to find them. They may extend to deeper water, 
and usually are found either singly or in small numbers. 
The dredge or trawl may, however, pass over what appears 
to be a large colony of them, so that they become con- 
spicuous by their numbers. 

The two figures below will give a better idea of their 
appearance than a great deal of description. 





'"'^^ 



Nymph(^n rubrum, Pycnogonum Httorale, 



428 THB PYONOGONIDA OP DBVONSHIRB. 

In this paper I have not thought it desirable to enter 
into abstruse questions of synonymy. I have considered 
it sufficient to give the reference to the original description 
of each species and only one further reference to a modem 
work where a full and more exhaustive description will 
be found. For those who desire further information, as a 
summary of. this group in temperate arctic regions, with the 
synonymy and bibliography, Canon Norman's paper will 
be found indispensable. All other references deal with 
the occurrence of these Sea Spiders in Devonshire. 

The initials after the localities can readily be identified 
from the references, but C.P. refers to C. Parker, quoted 
by Canon Norman. 

The records of the Marine Biological Association only 
afford a number of localities where these animals have 
been found and memoranda as to breeding, but no in- 
formation which will help to identify the species. 

' PYCNOGONUM. Brunnich, 1764. 

Animal very robust, with strong and short legs ter- 
minating in powerful claws, a thick coriaceous skin, but 
slightly setose and more or less tuberculated. 

Proboscis. Usually straight, smooth. 

Cheliferi. None. 

Palps. None. 

Ovigers. In male only, seven or eight-jointed. 

Genital apertures. In both sexes, on the last pair of 
legs only. 

Only one species of this genus is to be found in British 
waters. 

Pycnogonum littorale. 

Pycnogonum littorale, Stroem, 1762 (15); G. 0. Sars, 

1891 (13). 

Specific characters : — 

Body. Very robust, with lateral processes quite close 
together. Five tubercles on the mid dorsal line, of which 
three are strongly developed ; smaller tubercles on the 
lateral processes. 

Proboscis. Conical, about half the length of the body. 

Colour. Brown, varying in shade to light ydlow. 

Size. Rather more than half an inch long and over one 
inch in extent. 



THE PYCNOGONIDA OF DBVONSHIBE. 429 

This species may be occasionally found between tide- 
marks at low water, but it is more often taken off shore 
by the dredge or trawl, and occurs almost as far as the 
500-f athom Une. 

It is said to attack and feed upon sea anemones, and 
though I have no reason whatever to doubt this statement 
I have not found it under conditions which can be said to 
prove the fact. 

As a rule it is only f oimd singly or in very small numbers, 
but as an example of what may occur the following in- 
cident may be quoted. 

At the beginning of July, 1908, a steam trawler came 
into Plymouth with its trawl covered with several thou- 
sands, if not hundreds of thousands, of these animals, 
which had passed unnoticed by the fishermen ; a few 
days later a similar haul was taken. In both cases the 
locality was the same, some 200 miles W.N.W. off the 
Scillies, the depth of water there being about seventy 
fathoms. 

A large number of these specimens found their way to 
the Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association. 

Plymouth Sound. Also at low water on the Break- 
water. M.B.A. 

Yealm River. M.B.A. 

Start Bay. M.B.A. 



ENDEIS. PhiUippi, 1843. 
Phoxichilua. Auctorum. 

Body. Slender, with widely separated lateral processes, 
usually with a " collar " at the base of the proboscis. 

Abdomen. Quite small, more or less erect. 

Ocular tubercle. Large, with well-developed eyes. 

Proboscis. Large, approximately cylindrical, usually 
spinose. 

Cheliferi. None. 

Palps. None. 

Ovigers. In male only. Seven-jointed, without terminal 
claw. 

Legs.' Long and slender, with powerful terminal claw 
and well-developed auxiliaries. 

Genital apertures. In male, on the three posterior legs ; 
in the female, on all legs. *" 



430 THE PYCNOOONIDA OF DBVONSHIBE. 

This genus has quite recently had its name changed by 
the Rev. Canon Norman, from Phoxichilus, by which it 
is much better known. 

Only a single species occurs in British waters. 



Endeis spinosus. 

PJuUangium srpinosum. Montagu, 1808 (10). 

Phoxichilua spinosv^. Auctorum. G. 0. Sars, 1891 (13). 

Specific characters : — 

Body. Slender, with the lateral processes very widely 
separated ; rather stout and with a spine at the extremity. 

Ocular tubercle. In the centre of the first segment, 
which is scarcely longer than the second. 

Legs. Long and slender, with scattered spines ; propodus, 
with five stout spines ventrally, with a powerful terminal 
claw and two auxiliaries about half the size. 

This species is very common, occurring between tide- 
marks among algae and hydroids ; but as it is not unusual 
with members of this group it is more abundant in deeper 
water and among the roots of laminaria. It may be taken 
singly or in small numbers, but occasionally the dredge 
or trawl may take them in himdreds. 

Size. Nearly a quarter of an inch. 

Extent. An inch and three-quarters. 

Colour. Usually dull green, more or less splashed with 
red. 

South coast of Devonshire. G.M. 

Mouth of Yealm. M.B.A. 

Plymouth Sound. M.B.A. 

Salcombe. M.B.A. 

Oflf Berry Head. A.M.N. 

Starcross. A.M.N. 

Ilfracombe. P.H.G. 

As with many other animals, both of this class and else- 
where, this species is subject to variation. Prof. Grube has 
described certain specimens deficient in spines a;S a distinct 
species under the name of E. (Phoxichilua) Icevis, Authori- 
ties are by no means agreed as to the specific distinctness 
of this form, which many regard as a variety only. I have 
not yet seen it in Devonshire. 



THB PYCNOOONIDA OF DEVONSHIBE. 431 

PHOXICHILIDIUM. M. Edwards, 1846. 

Animal slender, with well separated lateral processes. 
The oephalon projecting very little, if at all, beyond the 
base of the proboscis, which is short and directed down- 
wards. 

Cheliferi. Well developed. 

Palps. None. 

Ovigers. In male only. Five-jointed, and without ter- 
minal claw. 

Legs. Of moderate length ; propodus, with five or six 
stout spines proximally and ventrally ; terminal claw 
powerful, with small auxiUaries. 

Genital apertures. On all the legs in both sexes. 

Only a single species of this genus occurs in British 
waters. 

Phoxichiijditjm fbmobatum. 

Phoocichilidium femorcUum, Bathke, 1799 (12), 
G. 0. ; Sars, 1891 (13). 

Specific characters : — 

Body. Bather stout, with widely separated lateral pro- 



Legs. Powerful, about two and a half times the length 
of the body. The two tibiae sub-equal. Propodus with 
two to six strong spines proximally and ventrally. Aux- 
iliary claws small. 

This species is not a common one, but it may be found 
in shallow waters and occasionally between tide-marks, in 
pools among hydroids and algse. 

South coast of Devonshire. G.M. 

Starcross. A.M.N. 

It is open to question whether the Phalangium ctcvleatum 
of Montagu is to be identified with this species. The de- 
scriptions of a hundred years ago are not expUcit when 
regarded in the light of modem zoology, and it is not easy 
to recognize the animal from such a description. Montagu, 
writing of the marine animals found on the south coast of 
Devonshire, states that " it is not of frequent occurrence 
on our coasts," but does not assign any locaUties. 



432 THE PYCNOGONIDA OF DEVON8HIBB. 

ANAPHIA. Say, 1821. 
Anoplodactyltts. Wilson, 1878. 

Body. Slender, with long and more or less widely 
separated lateral processes, the cephalon projecting con- 
siderably beyond the base of the proboscis, which is 
directed downwards. 

Ocular tubercle. Not always present. 

Cheliferi. Bather feeble. 

Palps. None. 

Ovigers. In male only, six-jointed, without terminal 
claw. 

Legs. Long and slender, with a large terminal claw, 
but the auxiharies are minute. 

Genital apertures. In the male, on a prolongation of the 
second coxa of the last pair of legs ; in the female on all 
the legs. 

Four species of this genus occur in British waters, and 
two of them on the Devonshire coasts. All the species are 
small. 

Anaphia pbtiolata. 

Phoxichilidium petiolcUum. Kroyer, 1844 (6). 
Anoplodadylua petiolatiis. G. 0. Sars, 1891 (13). 

Specific characters : — 

First segment. As long as the three following ones to- 
gether. 

Cephalon. Long and narrow. 

Ocular tubercle. Placed well forward and with four 
well-developed eyes. 

Propodus. With two stout spines and some smaller 
ones ventrally and proximally. 

Size. One-tenth of an inch. 

Extent. About half an inch. 

Not uncommon in shallow water, sometimes in tide- 
pools. 

Plymouth Sound. M.B.A., A.M.N. 

Anaphia virescens. 

Phoxichilidium virescens. Hodge, 1864 (5) ; P. P. C. 
Hoek, 1881 (6). 

I have not yet seen this species. The original description 
of Hodge is quite insuflScient for present-day requirements. 



THB PYCNOGONIDA OF DBVOKSHIRB. 433 

The main characteristic, as quoted by Canon Norman, 
appears to be the very smooth joints of all the limbs. 
T5t. p. P, C. Hoek states that the propodus is very charac- 
teristic. This bears three very stout spines proximally, 
and its ventral aspect is completed by a regular series of 
curved and slightly specialized spines. The auxiliary claws 
are extremely minute. 

Size. Scarcely a twelfth of an inch. 

Extent. A fifth of an inch. 

Ciolour. Green. 

Plymouth. A.M.N. Starcross. C.P. 

PALLENE. Johnson, 1837. 

Body. Smooth, with widely separated lateral processes ; 
the two posterior segments frequently coalesced. 

Cephalon. Elongated, and the proboscis small. Abdo- 
men. Very small. 

Ocular tubercle. With four well-developed eyes. 

Cheliferi. Well developed. 

Palps. None. 

Ovigers. In both sexes, ten-jointed, without terminal 
claw. 

Legs. Rather long, terminal claw short and powerful, 
with well-developed auxiUaries. 

Genital apertures. Male, on the two posterior pairs of 
legs ; female, on all the legs. 

All the members of this genus are extremely small. 

Three species occur in British waters, and two of them 
have been taken on the Devonshire coast. 

Pallene brevirostris. 

Pallene brevirostris. Johnston, 1837 (7) ; G. O. Sars, 
1891 (13). 

Specific characters : — 

Body. Rather stout, with short but widely separated 
lateral processes. The first segment longer than the rest 
of the body and about twice as long as the proboscis. 
The two posterior segments coalesced. 

CheUferi. Short and stout, fingers shorter than the palm. 

Legs. Rather long ; femur and second tibia, sub-equal ; 
propodus, with six stout spines ventrally and proximally. 

Size. About a sixteenth of an inch. 

VOL, XLH. 2 E 



434 THB FYCNOGONIDA OF DEVONSHIBS. 

Extent. Less than half an mch. 

This species is not uncommon in the Soimd and neigh- 
bourhood. It is usually picked out of masses of weed and 
hydroids. Between tide-marks and from shallow water. 

Plymouth Sound. M.B.A., A.M.N. 

Pallene spectrum. 
PcUlene spectrum. Dohm, 1881 (1). 

Specific characters : — 

Body. Rather stout, with widely separated lateral pro- 
cesses. The first segment as long as the rest of the body 
and all the segments distinctly separated. 

Size. About a twelfth of an inch. 

The Rev. Canon Norman, whose work is so freely cited 
here, having obtained this species at Pljnnouth, introduces 
it to*the British Usts. I know no details as to its capture 
at Plymouth, and up to the present I have not come 
across it. 

NYMPHON. Fabricius, 1794. 

Body. Usually slender, and setose only to a limited 
extent, with the lateral processes more or less widely 
separated. 

Ocular tubercle. Well developed. 

Cheliferi. Well developed. 

Palps. Five-jointed. 

Oviger. In both sexes, ten-jointed, with a terminal 
claw and a single row of specialized spines on the four 
terminal joints. 

I^egs. Long, the tarsus elongated ; a terminal claw 
with auxiliaries, which may, however, be extremely 
minute. 

Genital apertures. In the male, on the two posterior 
pairs of legs ; in the female, on all the legs. 

This genus is the largest in the entire group, and there- 
fore, from that point of view at least, the most typical. 

Comparatively recently the original genus was divided 
by Prof. G. 0. Sars into three, Nymphon, Chastonymphon, 
and Boreonymphon, 

Tlie last-named is quite distinct and is an Arctic species. 
Chcetonymphon is separated from Nymphon by a collection 
of rather indefinite characters. It is more robust, with less 
widely separated lateral processes. The legs, as a rule, are 
shorter and the entire animal is more distinctlv setose. 



THE PYCNOGONIDA OF DBVONSHIRB. 435 

Nine species occur in British waters^ but only three of 
these have, up to the present, been found on the Devon- 
shire coasts. 

Nymphon rubrum. 

Nymphon rubrum. Hodge, 1863 (4) ; G. 0. Sars, 1891 (13). 

Nymphon gracile, Hoek, 1881 (6). 

Specific characters : — 

Body. Very slender and elongated, with very widely 
separated lateral processes. Abdomen not extending be- 
yond the posterior pair. First segment equal to the two 
following ones. 

Palps. Last joint twice as long as the preceding. 

Legs. Long and slender, with scattered spinose setae ; 
tarsus and propodus, almost sub-equal ; terminal claw, 
half as long as the propodus with well-developed auxiliaries. 

Size. Nearly a fifth of an inch. 

Extent. Almost an inch. 

Colour. Reddish, with darker marks. 

Not at all uncommon in shallow water, and sometimes in 
tide-pools. 

Plymouth Sound and vicinity. Hooe Lake. M.B.A. 

Starcross. A.M.N. 

Nymphon brevirostre. 
Nymphon brevirostre, Hodge, 1863 (4). 
Nymphon gracile. G. O. Sars, 1891 (13). 

Specific characters : — 

Bk)dy. Robust for the size of the animal, the lateral 
processes rather widely separated. First segment longer 
than the two following ones together. 

Proboscis. Often no longer than broad, but variable. 

Cheliferi. Powerful, fingers short, with numerous short 
teeth. 

Palps. Terminal joint longer than preceding, which are 
together equal to the third. 

Legs. Short; tarsus, short; propodus, three times as 
long or more ; terminal claws, short ; auxiliaries, barely 
half as long. 

Size. Barely an eighth of an inch. 

Extent. Three-quarters of an inch, nearly. 

This species is common and, following the very full de- 
scription given by Prof. G. O. Sars ( 13), it has been identified 
as young specimens of N, gracile. 



436 THE PYCNOOONIDA OF DEVONSHIBB. 

Plymouth Sound. M.B.A., A.M.N. 
Yealm River. M.B.A. 
Starcross. A.M.N. 

Nymphon obacile. 
Nymphon gracile. Leach, 1814 (9) 
Nymphon gallicum. Hoek, 1881 (6). 

Specific characters : — 

Body. Slender, with widely separated lateral processes^ 

Proboscis. As long as first segment. 

Cheliferi. With the chelae slender and elongated. 

Legs. Long, sUghtly setose ; the propodus twice as 
long a;S the tarsus ; auxiUary claws, rather more than half 
the size of the terminal one, which is barely half the length 
of the joint bearing it. 

Size. About a third of an inch. 

Extent. Quite two inches. 

Colour. Breddish. 

The original specimens named by Leach are still pre- 
served in the British Museum. The Rev. Canon Norman 
ha;S cleared up the confusion about this species in pointing 
out that the diminutive specimens that have been pretty 
generally ascribed to this species are really the N, brevi- 
rostre, of Hodge, which has been overlooked ; and that 
N. gallicum, of Hoek, is the mature form of Leach's species. 

This species is not uncommon, and may frequently be 
found both between tide-marks and in deeper water, in 
both cases with algae and hydroids. 

Plymouth Sound. W.E.L., M.B.A., A.M.N. 

Kingsbridge (? Estuary). W.E.L. 

Salcombe. M.B.A. 

Starcross. A.M.N. 

ACHELTA. Hodge, 1864. 
Ammothea. Auctorum. 

The animal is small ; the closely crowded lateral pro- 
cesses giving it a discoid appearance. Segmentation is 
more or less imperfect. 

Abdomen. Elongated, approximately horizontal. 

Ocular tubercle. Well developed. 

Cheliferi. Small and rudimentary, in the adult stage 
reduced to a mere knob. 

Palps. Eight or nine-jointed. 



THE PYCNOGONIDA OF DEVONSHIBE. 437 

Ovigers. In both sexes, ten-jointed, without terminal 
claw, and but few speciaUzed spines. 

Legs. Short, with strong terminal claw and well- 
developed auxiliaries. 

Genital apertures. Male, on the two posterior pairs of 
legs ; female, on all the legs. 

This genus was instituted by Hodge in 1864, for certain 
species which were ultimately shown to be the adults of 
species whose life history, not being fully known, had been 
previously assigned to the genus Ammothea, 

Their identity having been established by Dr. P. P. C. 
Hoek, the law of priority insisted on the adoption of the 
name Ammothea, although established on admittedly im- 
mature forms ; this name has been in use up to the present. 
It has recently been found that Leach's type of the genus, 
Amwjothea carolinensis, should belong to quite a modem 
genus of Antarctic species. Therefore Leach's name must 
be transferred to the modem genus Leionymphon, of which 
A. carolinensis becomes the type. 

A name is now required for those species which modem 
exaictness separated from the original type, and Hodge's 
name comes to the front again. 

Three species occur in British waters, and all of them 
have been found on the Devonshire coasts. 

ACHELIA ECHINATA. 

Achelia echinata. Hodge, 1864(5). 
Ammothea echinata. G. O. Sars, 1891 (13). 

Specific characters : — 

Body. Robust, with the two posterior segments 
coalesced. A spinous tubercle at the lateral margin of the 
cephalon. Two strong spines on the lateral processes. 

Legs. Beset with spines, two pairs on each of the first 
two coxae, the dorsal and distal extremity of the femur 
strongly projecting ; propodus, with three strong spines, 
proximally and ventrally, auxiliary claws, half the size of 
the terminals. 

Common, and generally distributed both between tide- 
marks and in deeper water. 

Plymouth Sound. M.B.A., A.M.N. 

Yeahn River. M.B.A. 

Salcombe. M.B.A. , A.M.N. 

Starcross. A.M.N. Ilfracombe. A.M.N. 



438 THE PYCNOOONIDA OF DBVONSHIEB. 

ACHELIA L^VIS. 

Achdia lasvis, Hodge, 1864 (5). 
Ammothea Icevia. G. O. Sars, 1891 (13). 

Specific characters : — 

Body, Without trace of segmentation. A spine at the 
anterior angle of the cephalon, a prominent one on each 
lateral process and the first coxa of the legs, which are beset 
with coarse setae. The propodus resembles that of A. 
echinata, but the auxiliary claws are small. 

Only found occasionally. 

Plymouth, Eddystone Grounds. M.B.A. 

Starcross. C.P. ^ 

ACHELIA HISPIDA. 

Achdia hiajnda. Hodge, 1864 (5). 
Ammothea longipes. Hoek, 1881 (6). 

Specific characters : — 

Body, With the two posterior segments coalesced. A 
spinous tubercle at the lateral margin of the cephalon and 
another on each of the lateral processes. 

Legs. Beset with coarse setae, but no spines on the first 
coxa ; propodus, with three stout spines proximally, and 
a few stout setae occupy the rest of the ventral aspect. 

Palps. Of nine joints. 

I have not yet come across this species. 

Starcross. C.P. 



REFERENCES. 

1. Dohm, A. Pantopoden des Golfes von Neapd. 1881. 

2. Gosse, P. H. A Naturalist's Rambles on the Devonshire 

Coast. 1853. 

3. Grube, E. " Mitteilungen iiber St. Male und Roscoff u die 

dortigen," Meeres-hesonders die Anndidenfauna, 1871. 

4. Hodge, G. " Description of two new species of Pycnog- 

onoidea," -4nw. and Mag., N. H., 3, vol. xi, 1863, p. 463. 
Also Trans. Tyneside Nat. Field Clvh, vol. v, 1863, p. 281. 

5. Hodge, G. " last of British Pycnogonoidea, with de- 

scriptions of several new species," Ann. and Mag., N. iff., 
3, vol. xiii, 1864, p. 113. Also Trans. Tyneside Nat. 
Field Club, vol. vi, 1864, p. 195. 

6. Hoek, P. P. C. " Nouvelles etudes sur les Pycnogonides,*' 

Arch, de Zool. Exper. et Gen., vol. ix, 1881, pp. 445-542. 



THE PYCNOOONIDA OF DBVONSHIRB. 439 

7. Johnston, 6. ** Miscellanea Zoologica/' Mag. Zool. and Bot., 

vol. i, 1837, p. 368. 

8. Kroyer, H. " Bidrag til kundskab om Pycnogonideme 

eller Sospindleme," Naturalist Tidsak, Anden Raekkes, 
vol. i, 1844, pp. 90-139. 

9. Leach, W. E. Zoological Miscellany, 1814, Pis. 13 and 19. 

10. Montagu, 6. -^ Description of several Marine Animals 

found on the South Coast of Devonshire," Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Lon., vol. ix, 1808, pp. 81-114. 

11. Norman, A. H. "The Podosomata ( = Pycnogonida) of 

the Temperate Atlantic and Arctic Oceans," Linn. Soc. 
Jour. Zool., vol. XXX, 1908, pp. 198-238. 

12. Rathke, J. ** Entomologiske lagttagelser," Skrivt. Natur- 

hist Selsk, Copenhagen, vol. v, 1779, p. 201. 

13. Sars, G. O. " Pynogonidea," Norwegian North Atlantic 

Expedition, 1876-8, 1891. 

14. Stebbing, T. R. R. The Nobodies. Knowledge, February, 

April, June, August, 1902 ; January, July, 1903. 

15. Stroem. Physisk og ecconomisk Beskrivdse over Fogderiet 

Sdndmor, 1762, p. 209. 

16. Journal of the Marine Biological Association : W. Oarstang, 

" Faunistic Notes at Plymouth during 1893-4," vol. iii, 
pp. 210-235. E. J. AUen and R. A. Todd, " The Fauna 
of the Salcombe Estuary," vol. vi, pp. 151-217 ; " The 
Fauna of the Exe Estuary," vol. vi, pp. 295-335. 
R. A. Todd, " Notes on the Invertebrate Fauna of the 
Bays between the Start and Exmouth," vol. vi, pp. 
541-61. E. J. Allen and others, "Plymouth Marine 
Invertebrate Fauna," vol. vii, pp. 155-298. 



ON SOME BOULDERS OF PSEUDO-JASPER FOUND 
NEAR NEWTON ABBOT. 

BY HARFORD J. LOWE, F.G.S. 

(Read at CuUompton, 28tb July, 1910.) 



IrUroduction, — ^The rock masses which form the subject 
of these remarks are met with in yarious places, occasioncdly 
as isolated blocks on the wayside, but are most in evidence 
at Whiteway Barton, Hestow and Well farms, to the 
north-east of Newton Abbot, where the walls and buildings 
are mainly constructed with the material, and where large 
boulders lie about as unmanageable obstructions. In a 
grass field north of Hestow large blocks, partly covered 
by vegetation, are scattered as though brought there by 
human agency for some unaccomplished purpose. Across 
the valley of a small stream from Hestow is the farmstead 
called Well, where the same rock material is met with in 
the walls, in obstructive boulder masses, and protruding 
through the ground surface. Similar rock is seen in situ, 
and the most suggestive position, in a field on the east 
of Ramshom Down, north-west of Newton. There the 
masses lie together, crowning an eminence which forms a 
feature in the landscape. 

General Description, — ^The blocks are generally of an 
irregular spheroidal form, the material is of intense hard- 
ness, though somewhat brittle. The rounded shape they 
assume, and their generally large size, have served to 
preserve them from being broken up or otherwise used. 
The larger blocks, which have defied both the farmer and 
builder, range from three to six and even nine feet in 
diameter, and no hammer can do more with them than 
splinter oflf the angular projections, and thus render them 
still more unmanageable. 

The dominant colour is red, which varies from a reddish 



OK SOME BOXJLDBRS OF PSBUDO- JASPER. 441 

yellow to the rich deep red of jasper. The stone is of very 
fine texture generally, and much veined by pure quartz ; 
the contrast in colour giving it a striking appearance. 
Frequently cavities are met with in the mass, which are 
always lined with quartz crystals ; the facets which ter- 
minate these inward-pointing crystals reflect the light and 
often sparkle like a nest of polished gems. Sometimes the 
fracture faces of the rock show defined patches of varying 
shades, suggesting a breccia composition of broken pieces 
of the same material with slight differences of hue, con- 
solidated again by a cement similar in composition to the 
original material. A closer examination discovers, occa- 
sionally in fissures, instances of another variety of the 
same strong matter arranged in fine parallel layers of 
slightly differing colour, suggesting on a small scale the 
characters of the onyx and its relation thereto. 

Oeological Relationship. — ^The rock masses so far de- 
scribed occur amidst those widely extending shales, grits, 
and cherts that have been given the name of the Culm 
series, and which form in Devonshire the representatives 
of that great geological age termed the Carboniferous. 
At Hestow, Well, and Whiteway Barton junctions occur 
between the Culm and other rocks. At Well and Whiteway 
Baxton, they are inliers of the older Devonian series, while 
at Hestow the red sandy beds of the Permian are met 
with, where these altered rocks in question are exposed 
and protrude through the thinned-out edge of the over- 
lying newer rock formation. Near Ramshom Down the 
rock masses under review occur in the midst of the Culm 
beds, which around are but little altered and so more 
clearly indicate that these peculiar blocks belong to the 
Culm series. 

Microscopic Characters. — ^When examined in thin sections 
by aid of the microscope the rock is found to be constituted 
almost entirely of silica or quartz, which, however, is 
presented in a variety of forms. The ground mass or main 
component of the rock is composed of grains of detrital 
quartz of slightly varying sizes, but for the most part very 
small and stained with iron oxide. In some sections a 
number of minute circular spaces are noticeable. These 
are occupied by radiating crystals of silica in a similar 
manner to those met with in the unaltered Badiolarian chert 
beds of the Culm, and thus declaring the source of some 
of the material. Through the main substance of the rock 



442 OK SOMB BOULDERS OF PSBUDO-JASPER 

veins of clear quartz of varying widths are seen traversing 
it in all directions, the crystals of which are noticeably 
fresh, lie in arranged order, and are often larger than those 
of the ground mass. These veins were evidently formed 
within the rock subsequently to its deposition and original 
consolidation. Nests of secondary quartz are also seen, 
with other irregxilarly shaped concretions of the same clear 
mineral. More rarely another form of silica is met with, 
in which the initial or border stage of crystal development 
is only just reached. This crypto-crystalline or chalcedonic 
condition is usually presented in radiate or fan-like forms 
of needle-shaped crystals, probably mixed with non- 
crystalline or colloid silica, out of which the chalcedonic 
form has segregated. SHght differences in the purity of 
the colloid are sufficient to mark by staining the parallel- 
ism of layers in the immature crystaUization, and so give 
the peculiarity of marking which distinguishes the onyx in 
silica minerals. The 'purely uncrystallized colloid materiel 
can also be detected in the section by its isotropic char- 
acter. 

The Problem and Solution. — ^It will be noticed that the 
composition of the rock is very simple, and mineralogically 
of very Umited interest. Silica in some variety of con- 
dition constitutes the entire mass, which is given varying 
shades of colour by iron staining. But if the blocks in 
themselves and composition are of subordinate interest, 
their distribution and origin have long exercised the 
curiosity of local geologists without anything so far having 
been recorded to account for their erratic mode of occur- 
rence, or respecting their other peculiarities. The problem 
has occupied attention for some time, and been considered 
from several points of view, but only one hypothesis seems 
to comprise all the facts and satisfy their conditions. 

The key to the problem is presented in the heaped 
masses forming a rugged crest to a projecting shoulder of 
Ramshom Down. This is surrounded by Culm material, 
some of which is altered, but most is in the general normal 
condition. The inference is that the masses in question 
are also composed of the same shale, grit, and chert rock 
matter, but very much altered by agencies that acted 
quite locally. The metamorphozing agent must have been 
that of water charged with silica in solution. Prior to the 
operation of the influences which brought about the 
peculiar local changes we are considering, the Culm series 



FOUND NEAR NEWTON ABBOT, 443 

of rook deposits had been subjected to extraordinary dis- 
turbances by both lateral and vertical forces, the former 
of which taking place first had folded and faulted the beds 
to a remarkable degree. Along faults and fissures thus 
made the underground waters would circulate more freely, 
ultimately finding their way to the surface of the land, 
even though the same land might be itself covered by water. 
The next great episode in the geological history of the 
region was the slow but enormous upheaval of central 
Devon by an intrusion of fluid rock material that ultimately 
formed the granite mass of Dartmoor. With the welling 
up of this molten granite into the Culm deposits much 
internal heat would be brought nearer the surface. The 
rock that came in contact with the magma, and even 
within a wide border of proximity, was more or less altered 
by the heat of the enormous mass ; and the subterranean 
waters for even a further distance would be affected in 
respect to temperature and solvent properties. Now 
heated water is a more ready solvent and greater absor- 
bent of mineral matter than cold, which helps to account 
for the unusual amount of secondary quartz found in the 
rocks under notice. 

Inferentially we are led to conclude that these blocks, 
where found, are indications of the localities through 
which the heated water passed or issued. Much of the 
material presents the character of a breccia composed of 
fragmentary portions of the shale, grit, and chert which 
form the main materials of the Culm strata. These pre- 
viously crumpled and shattered rocks would offer little 
resistance to water under any pressure, and fragments 
would collect wherever fissures or spaces were formed in 
the water's course. These collections of debris would be 
ultimately cemented together into masses by the silica- 
charged water, whenever the flow was sufficiently slow, 
and the other conditions prevailed to allow precipitation 
and crystaUization taking place. Some portions of these 
rocks suggest a condition that might have arisen towards 
the end of the period during which they were forming. 
So remarkably and excessively veined are they that it 
would appear they must have been for a long time soaking 
or stewing in the solvent water, so that parts of the original 
rock were gradually dissolved, to be replaced by crystals 
of pure silica in veins and threads of extraordinary intri- 
cacy. In places the dissolved material was carried away by 



444 OK 80MB BOULDERS OF FSBUDO-JASFSB 

the moving water, thus f ormmg fissures and hollows which, 
however, are always lined with rock crystals formed as the 
charged water became slower in movement and more 
saturated with the solvent material. 

An occasional occurrence of the chalcedonic form of 
silica in these masses points to conditions of supernormal 
temperature and pressure in the water solvent. Water 
above 200^ C. more readily dissolves silica and also com- 
bines with it in certain proportions forming a colloid which 
may be a liquid at the higher temperature, but is solid at 
onUnary temperatures (Van Hise). The opal is such a 
form of silica, while agate, onyx, and chalcedony are 
intermediate conditions between the purely colloid and the 
completely crystallized quartz. The crypto-crystalline and 
colloid forms of silica met with in these rock masses sup- 
port the hypothesis that heated water under some pres- 
sure played an important part in endowing them with their 
pecuharities. Van Hise states that silicification is an earth- 
crust process which takes place at some depth, and but 
little near the surface under ordinary conditions, so that 
we must suppose favourable conditions of temperature 
and pressure prevailed during most part of the time these 
masses were attaining their peculiar character. 

To restate our conclusions in general terms : Subse- 
quent to the earth-crust movements which folded and 
faulted the Culm strata, and probably in connection with 
the up-welling of the granite magma therein, much heated 
water was circulating through portions of the upturned 
and fractured material that bordered the newly disturbed 
and rising area. Heat and pressure augmented the solvent 
property of the water, which became charged with silica, 
that it also combined with chemically to a greater or less 
degree, thus giving the water a cementing property where 
conditions of deposition and solidification prevailed in its 
course. The fractured rock and debris along courses of 
such subterranean fiow would in time by silicification be 
consolidated into masses which, by reason of their con- 
stitution and the character of the cementing material, 
would be immune to all the ordinary forces of rock decay. 
Probably the jasperizing processes took place at some dis- 
tance below the surface, and possibly beneath a depth of 
overspreading sea. But during the enormous lapse of 
time since the cessation of the rock-changing operations 
described, newer rock-formations have been deposited 



FOUND NEAR NBWTON ABBOT. 445 

over the localities indicated, and these have again been 
removed by the ever-acting denuding forces of nature. 
The softer rock matter overlying and surrounding the 
silicified areas has been carried away, leaving exposed, 
as we see them now, the resistant masses, standing bare, 
defying time and the elements of decay as hardly any 
other rock material can do. 

As similar or identical conditions would prevail in other 
locaUties bordering the granite area during the period in- 
dicated, probably rock material of similar constitution and 
having a like history can be found in other places round 
Dartmoor. Of instances brought to notice, that of Bramble 
Brook, Trusham, is noteworthy as being the locality from 
which that fine block of jasper was obtcdned that now 
stands in the entrance hall of the Albert Memorial Museum, 
Exeter. 

The pale striped, so-called "ribbon jasper," of Ivy- 
bridge may be mentioned as another instance of rock 
altered under like conditions and by the same process ; 
while that peculiar silicification and deposition of chalce- 
dony, called Beekite, found in and on some of the con- 
glomeratic material of the Permian of Livermead cliflEs, 
near Torquay, may be attributed to the modified operation 
of similar agencies. 



VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIRE CHURCHES. 

BY H. MICHBLL WHITLEY, 

PaH Hon, Seerttary c/ tht Su$$ex ArduBologtcal Soetetjf 
and the Royal ImtUuUon of Cot-nuxUL 

(Read at CuUompton, 28th Jtily, 1010.) 



I. — Introduction. 

In mediseval times, as at the present, there were regular 
visitations of the parish churches, and fortunately there 
still exist some of these returns, which are most valuable 
as giving trustworthy information as to the furniture and 
fittings of the churches, together with the state of the 
buildnigs themselves ; and happily for the Diocese of 
Exeter the Episcopal Registers contain a series of such 
visitations, which have been printed in the original Latin 
by the late Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph, in his most 
valuable work The Episcopal Registers of the Diocese of 
Exeter, these entries being mainly extracts from the Ar- 
chives of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, 

They contain the records of visitations between 1301 
and 1337. 

In addition to these there is preserved at the British 
Museum a portion of a Visitation of Churches in the Exeter 
Diocese in 1442 (Harleian MS., 862, ff. 32-36). 

This document is incomplete. The churches are grouped 
in deaneries, but in many instances their names are omitted, 
and it is therefore not of sufficient importance to justify 
its being printed in full. It, however, throws a great deal 
of light on the poor state of the buildings and furniture at 
that period. 

These visitations were of two kinds, the ordinary and 
the extraordinary ; the date of the former was known 
some time beforehand, and due preparation was made. 
If the bishop did not visit himself he issued letters of 
authority to commissioners to do so. 



VISITATIONS OF DBVONSHIRB CHUBCHBS. 447 

An extraordinary visitation would be made without 
notice, on the occasion of some parish scandal which de- 
manded investigation. 

Certain of the parishioners were chosen and examined 
on oath as to the way in which the clergy performed their 
duties ; or as to any other matters requiring investigation 
with relation to parochial affairs. 

The plate, vestments, books, and furniture of the 
church were examined, and special note taken of any 
defects in the fabric of the building, or in the state of 
the churchyard ; and notice was given that these defects 
were to be remedied within a certain time on pain of a 
heavy fine, to be imposed on those responsible ; generally 
this sum took the form of a contribution towards the 
fabric fund of the Cathedral. 

These documents are therefore extremely valuable, 
especially as early inventories are not very abundant, 
and they give a clear idea of the state of our churches at 
the period to which they refer. 

The ornaments, furniture, and fittings of a parish church 
throughout the diocese were defined by a Sjniod held at 
Exeter, under Bishop Quivil, a.d. 1287, and a translation 
of an extract relating to the same is appended. 

It will be seen by these returns that in very many cases 
the necessary plate, vestments, books, etc., fell far short 
of the requirements of the Synod. 

The pyx should be of silver or ivory, with a lock. At 
Dawlish and Culmstock it was of ivory bound with silver ; 
but at Ashburton and at other churches it was of wood, 
without a lock, and in a disgraceful state, and constant 
complaints were made that both font and crismatory were 
without locks, as required by the statutes of the Synod. 

The books as a general rule were in a bad condition, 
and in many cases unfit for use ; whilst those discarded 
from a monastery were frequently found. With regard to 
the fabrics of the churches themselves, they were often 
in an unsatisfactory condition ; constant mention is made 
of windows without glass, and unroofed chancels, so that 
mass could not be celebrated in wet weather as the rain 
drove through the glassless windows and fell through the 
apertures in the roof on the high altar and even into the 
chalice itself. This was the case at the chapel of Shute, 
Colyton, and here in addition the walls of the chancel 
were ruinous, the door was broken down and without a 



448 VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIRB CHUBOHBS. 

lock, the screen between chancel and nave was destroyed, 
the roof of the bell tower and nave were much diLEipi- 
dated, and the chaplain, having no house, lived in the 
church, " which is disgraceful." 

It is probable that a large number of these churches 
during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were 
thatched, as many are in the present day in Norfolk ; and 
the visitors were constantly reporting that the windows 
were not large enough in the chancel and nave, and con- 
sequently the churches were too dark. Pressure in such 
cases was brought to bear on the rector and parishioners 
to enlarge the windows to remedy this defect ; and it is 
probable that this episcopal desire and order for more 
light was a cause of the larger windows in the Early English, 
Decorated and Perpendicular styles, although especially in 
the latter the wish for ample space for painted glass 
exercised a great influence. 

The conduct of the clergy came lastly under review. In 
the majority of cases it was good, but there were some 
few exceptions. Culmstock was a fortunate parish ; not 
only was the church in good repair and well found in all 
respects, but Sir William, the vicar, and the clergy were 
men of good life and honest conversation, and carried out 
their duties admirably ; but the parishioners complain 
that the vicar delaj'^s too long between matins and mass 
on festival days. At Colyton, in 1330, the vicar was a 
leper. At Marychurch the parishioners complain that 
their vicar spends too much time at Moreton Hampstead, 
and leaves no chaplain in his place ; whilst he turns his 
beasts into the graveyard, who trample it down and foul 
it, and his workmen prepare his malt in the church, and 
the wind in stormy times, getting in through the open 
door, blows oflF portions of the roof. 

The visitations of 1442 tell the same tale, but the fabrics 
were, if anything, in a worse condition than at the former 
period. 

Complaints are still made of the chancels being too 
dark, and that the images are not kept properly painted ; 
in many cases, no doubt, these defects were mainly owing 
to the poverty of the parish, such as is noted at Ck)mwood, 
where both priest and people were very poor. In many 
cases the altars were not dedicated. 

On the whole these visitations bear testimony to the 
efficient supervision exercised by the Bishops of Exeter 



VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIBB OHUBOHES. 449 

over the churches of the Diocese, and the returns them- 
selves are well worth a careful study. 

The necessary furniture, books, vestments, etc., required 
to be provided in every church throughout the Diocese of 
Exeter, are enumerated in the Synod held in Exeter under 
Bishop Quivil, in 1287, which lays down that in every 
church there should be at least : — 

One chaUce of pure silver or silver gilt. 

A vessel of silver or pewter for the visitation of the sick, 
for the priest to wash his fingers in after the Eucharist has 
been received. 

Two corporals, clean and sound, with burses for the 
same. 

Two sets of vestments, one for festivals the other for 
ordinary days. 

Pour cloths for the high altar, two blessed and one with 
a parure or border around it. 

Two smrplices and one rochet. 

A Lenten veil (this was a curtain of white linen hung 
down in all parish churches between the chancel and the 
nave during Lent. The crucifixes and images being also 
veiled with white cloths marked with a red cross). 

A nuptial veil. 

A paU for the dead. 

A frontal at each altar. 

Books for the service of mass. 

A good missal. 

A troper (which contained the words and music of the 
sequences and other musical pieces for special feasts). 

A gradual (which contained the words and music accom- 
panying the service of the mass). 

Books for occasional offices. 

A good manual (a book which contained the offices for 
baptism, marriage, extreme unction, burial, and various 
benedictions). 

Books for the services of the different hours said in the 

choir. 

A legenda ; this was a book of lessons from Holy Scrip- 
tures for matins, arranged in the order for which they 
should be used ; and also from the Hves of the saints. 

VOL. XLn. 2 F 



450 VISITATIONS OF DXVONSHIBB OHUBCHXS. 

PAn antiphoner (a book which contained the music for 
the canonical hours). 

^A psalter (a book of the Psalms, divided as they were 
used at the seven canonical hours for the different days of 
the week. In addition it generally contained a calendar, 
the Canticles, the Athanasian Creed, and the Litany ; and 
after the beginning of the thirteenth century, the Office 
for the Dead is generally added). 

An ordinal (which was a collection of rubrical direc- 
tions for different festivals throughout the year). 

A venitary (a music book for the invitations at the 
beginning of matins, etc.). 

A hjnnnal (which contcdned the hymns sung at pro- 
cessions and vespers, etc., arranged for the different seasons 
and occasions of the year). • 

A coUectare (a collect book, which contained the short 
lessons used at all the hour services except matins, and 
the collects used at the same). 

And a copy of the statutes of the Synod. 

A chest for the books and vestments. 

A pyx of silver or ivory, with a lock, to hang over the 
altar with the reserved sacrament. 

A chrismatory of pewter, with a lock ; this vessel held 
the holy oils, which were blessed on Maundy-Thursday, 
the oil for the sick, the oil used at baptism, and the 
** chrisma " used for confirmation, ordination, etc. 

A pax board, for the kiss of peace. A plate of various 
material, generally with a representative of the crucifixion 
on its face. 

A pyx for the unconsecrated altar breads. 

Three cruets. 

An altar of stone and immovable. 

A thurible, or censer. 

An incense boat, or ship. 

A holy-water vessel. 

A herse for the tenebrse ; a triangular candlestick, with 
twenty-five candles, used at the service called " tenebra," 
the candles being quenched one after the other. 

A paschal candlestick. 

Two crosses, one fixed (for the high altar), the other 
portable (the parish processional cross). 

An image of the Blessed Virgin, and another of the 
patron saint. 



VISITATIONS OP DBVONSHIBB CHUBCHES. 451 

A paschal candle. 

Two processional tapers. 

A canopy over the high altar (the pyx hung beneath this 
canopy). 

A bell for the visitation of the sick and for the elevation 
of the body of Christ. 

A lantern, to bear before the priest when the Eucharist 
was carried to the sick. 

Bells for the dead. 

A pall for the dead. 

A font of stone, well locked (this was to keep the baptis- 
mal water pure and to prevent its use for superstitious 
purposes). 

Glazed windows sufficient in the chancel and choir of 
the church, m ^ 

Willi «^ 

^11. — ^Thb Visitations op Devonshire Churches.^ 

PrCoLEBROOK, 27 June, 1301. — ^The jury say that Sir 
William, the vicar, preaches in his own way, and also on 
Sundays expounds the Grospels as well as he can. He does 
not give them much instruction in the articles of faith, 
the Ten Commandments, and the deadly sins. Nor does 
he sing matins on Holy-days with music, nor say mass daily, 
but only every other day. 

Memorandum : That there were in the church of the 
aforesaid place at the time of the present visitation : A 
very good missal and another good enough. A gradual 
with a troper well written, with good musical notes, another 
old, yet sufficient. No troper by itself. A good manual, 
with a chapter book and collect book, and a solemn and 
common mass in the same volume, and one psalter, a large 
volume with big letters, with a chapter book and collect 
book in the same. A good breviary, with musical notes. 
A legend book for the whole year, in some degree ab- 
breviated, with a psalter in one volume, and in another 
volume a legenda for the seasons by itself. Item, a very 
good antiphoner ; an old antiphoner badly boimd. 

One set of vestments for festivals sufficiently decent, 

^ The returns printed hereafter only refer to the churches and not to the 
lands of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter, which were also included in the 
Tisitations. Some redundant matter which is not essential to the subject 
treated is also omitted. 



452 VISITATIONS OF DEVOKSHIBB CHUBCHES. 

and the other for ordinary days fairly good. The chalice 
sufficiently proper. Only one set of corporals. Three 
fairly good cruets. A silver pyx for the Eucharist, with a 
silver lock, hung over the altar. A decent metal proces- 
sional cross. Two tolerable banners. Three surplices and 
one rochet. A pewter christmatory, without a lock ; and a 
font without a lock. 

Item at the high altar : Three altar cloths all unfit for 
use. A Lenten veil, also two hangings as a covering for 
the pyx. A holy-water vat of lead. Item at the altar of the 
Blessed Mary : a good chalice, two sets of complete vest- 
ments, and four sJtar cloths. The nave of the church is 
badly roofed and likewise the chancel ; and the parishioners 
say the vicar should repair this. 

n. 

WiNKLEiGH, 28 June, 1301. — ^There are in the church the 
following books for matins, namely : One antiphoner, with 
good musical notes, with a psalter. Capitulare and col- 
lectare, hymnal, and venitare. Another antiphoner, not 
of the use [of Exeter]. A defective legenda book of the 
saints. A good legenda for the seasons, with a fairly good 
antiphoner of the saints in a great volume. . • • {A.D.C., 
No. 3673, p. 22).^ 

ni. 

Habbbrton, 30 June, 1301. — ^The books for matins : One 
psalter, venitare, capitulare, manuale, and ordinal, with 
certain sequences in one volume, and a hymnal and hymns, 
as well as certain ordinary masses. Item, another manual 
containing certain masses bound by itself. A legenda for 
the whole year in one volume, of which many leaves are 
torn out by defective binding. An old antiphoner, not 
according to the use [of Exeter], the binding broken to 
pieces. The chancel has been newly built by the Chapter in 
a handsome manner {A,D,C.y No. 3673, p. 23). 

IV. 

AsHBUBTON, 1 July, 1301. [By Robert de Veteri Terra 
(Oldfield) and John de Uphaveme.] — At the present visita- 
tion there were in the church : A fairly good antiphoner, 
and another old antiphoner not altogether of the use [of 

' To avoid repetition the abbreviation A.D.C. is used throughout this paper 
to represent ''Tne Archives of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter." 



VISITATIONS OF DBVONSmBB CHURCHES. 453 

Exeter], with a collectare, capitulare, and hymnal. A 
legenda, according to the seasons, with a corresponding 
antiphoner, much worn and defective. Only one psalter, 
by itself, dirty and badly bound. A good legenda of the 
saints, by itself. A tolerably good ordinal. Item, a missal, 
with go€>d musical notes, but with a corrupt lettering now 
and then. Another old missal not of the use [of Exeter]. 
Only one gradual, by itself, without a troper. A troper by 
itself, hardly good enough. A sufficiently good proces- 
sional. A fairly good copy of the statutes of the Synod. 

Two fairly good sets of vestments complete. Three 
cruets in poor condition and worn out by age. Four sets of 
corporals. A wooden pyx for the Eucharist, without a lock, 
not hanging over the altar. A wooden chrismatory, with a 
lock. Two processional candlesticks of pewter. A small 
cross of metal, which is not good enough for processions. 
But there was another good processional cross. Two sur- 
pUces, with one good rochet. Three paxes. A fairly good 
thurible. A new and decent banner. A good lantern. A 
chalice too small, scarcely weighing half a mark ; and 
another smaller, hitherto belonging to the chapel of Saint 
Laurance. The nave of the church is too dark. The bell 
tower is not wholly roofed with lead now, but is being 
reroofed. 

The parishioners say that the vicar bears himself well 
and honestly in spiritual and temporal matters, and they 
know nothing of any concealed mortal sin (A.D.C.y No. 
3673, p. 23). 



V. 

(1) Stavbrton, 3 July, 1301. — Books for matins: One 
very good antiphoner, with a capitulare, hymnal, and veni- 
tare in one volume. Another good antiphoner by itself. 
A good psalter in large letters, and another psalter, with a 
manual. A sufficiently good ordinal with capitulare, col- 
lectare, and hymnal ; and another ordinal much worn. 
A good legenda for the whole year, and another legenda 
in two volumes, old, rotten, and without clasps, with the 
responses interpolated. 

Books for the mass with the ornaments of the church : 
Item for the mass : A good missal, new, and with the 
musical notes well written. Another old Monastic missal 
badly bound. A good gradual, with a troper. Another 



454 VISITATIONS OF DBVOKSHIBB CHUBOHSS. 

troper, with a processional in the same. A good manual in 
large letters, and a psalter in the same volume. A chalice, 
gilt, sufficiently good. Four sets of corporals with burses 
of woven linen. A pyx for the Eucharist of silver, without 
a lock. Three complete sets of vestments, with six altar 
cloths, one with a border. A cope of silk for the choir, old 
and of little value. A towel for the sacrament, sufficiently 
good. A decent processional cross. Two processional 
candlesticks of latten. An old and much-worn frontal for 
the high altar. Two surplices, with one much-worn rochet. 
Three tolerable cruets. A chrismatory of wood, with a lock. 
The font is a good one and locked. The nave of the church 
is well roofed since the last visitation. The chancel is too 
narrow, and there is a canopy. One holy-water vat of lead. 

The parishioners, on being asked, say that Sir Walter, 
the vicar, conducts himself well and honourably, and in- 
structs them very well in spiritual things ; neither is there 
any defect in him as they assert. 

They know nothing of any hidden mortal sin ; they 
say the value of his vicarage is 10 marcs. 

(2) Visitation of the Church of Stavbeton, made by 
Walter, by divine grace Lord Bishop of Exeter, 1 April, 
1314, in which were found the following defects, that is 
to say : — 

The vestments for festivals are insufficient. The pyx 
for the Eucharist is without a lock. All the altar cloths are 
without borders. The Lenten veil is unfit for use. A 
spurious missal, although handsome. A crismatory of 
wood unfit for use, and without a lock. No censer for 
incense. An image of the Blessed Paul, who is the patron 
of the church, is wanted. The chancel is too narrow and 
dark, and the nave of the church is the same. Wherefore 
the Lord Bishop enjoins the rector, vicar, and parishioners 
to repair the said defects according to what belongs to 
each against the following Feast of Saint Michael, imder a 
penalty of twenty pounds, to be paid to the fabric fund 
of the Church of Exeter, excepting the building of a new 
chancel and the enlarging of the nave. 

VI. 

Seynt Marie Churche cum suis Capellis (St. Mary 
Church), 4 July, 1301. [By Masters Robert Oldfield and 
John de Uphaveme, seneschals of the Chapter.] — ^There 



VISITATIONS OF DBVONSHIBB OHUBOHES. 455 

were in the mother church of the aforesaid place at the 
time of this visitation : — 

A psalter, worn out and unfit for use, with a manual in 
the same book. A legenda complete for the whole year 
in two volumes, with a capitulare, collectare, and hymnal, 
and with an antiphoner inserted in its proper place for the 
seasons. An ordinale unfit for use. The synodal statutes 
su£Biciently good. A missal, with good musical notes, with 
good lettering. A gradual, with a troparium of the gift 
of the Cihapter, not altogether according to the use [of 
Exeter] ; and another gradual, old and decayed. There is 
no manual besides the one in the psalter above mentioned. 

Three sets of vestments, of which one chasuble is good 
enough, and two others not. Only one surplice, old and in 
holes. A rochet barely fit for use. Five altar cloths, 
blessed, of which one has a border, and a sixth unblessed. 
No pyx for the Eucharist. There is, however, a pyx for 
the aitar breads. A chrismatory of wood, with a lock. 
There is no cup for the visitation of the sick. A fairly good 
processional cross and two processional candlesticks of 
pewter. Five sets of corporals, with four worn burses. A 
fairly good pax. A good chalice, gilt inside. And memoran- 
dum : '' The chalice belonging to the chapel of Collaton, 
which is now in ruins, the parishioners thereof (of whom 
some were allotted to St. Mary Church and some to [King's] 
Kerswell) now keep, and refuse to give it up to the mother 
church. The parishioners of the said mother church claim 
it, together with the fund for keeping the church in repair, 
and the timber for the maintenance of the mother church. 
That is just." Four fairly good cruets. A tolerable frontal 
of silk for the high altar. One window in the south wall of 
the chancel is badly glazed and without iron bars ; a 
second with worn-out iron bars and no glass ; a third with 
iron bars but no glass. The roof of the chancel is in a very 
poor condition. The font is without a lock. The nave of 
the church, and also the tower, want reroofing. The troper 
and processional are both very good. 

The parishioners say that they used, until the time of 
the present vicar, to maintain the chancel in all things, and 
were exempt from the payment of tithes to the fund of the 
church ; but this vicar, although he does not keep up the 
chancel, yet receives the tithes and compels them to pay 
them. 

They also say that Agnes Benatrix left five shillings 



456 VISITATIONS OF DBVONSHIBB CUUKGHBS. 

charged on a field of barley, for the keeping up of the 
Church of St. Mary, and the vicar receives this and keeps 
it for his own use. Also Master Roger de Reus left a cer- 
tain sum of money for the same purpose, which the said 
vicar is said to have received in part. 

Also they say that the vicar puts his beasts of all kinds 
into the cemetery, by which it is badly trampled about and 
abominably defiled. Also the said vicar appropriates to 
himself the trees in the cemetery that are blown down by 
the wind, and uses them for his own buildings. 

They also say that the said vicar causes his malt to be 
prepared in the church, and stores up his wheat and other 
things there ; and when his labourers going in and out 
open the door, the wind in stormy times gets ibto the 
church and often blows off portions of the roof. 

They say, also, that the vicar preaches well and exercises 
himself laudably in all things in his office when he is 
present ; but he very often absents himself and spends 
much time at Moreton Hampstead, sometimes for fifteen 
days together, sometimes for eight, so that they have no 
chaplain, except when Sir Walter, the Archdeacon's chap- 
lain, is there, or someone else is found to supply the occa- 
sion. 

The Chapel op Carswillb [Kingskebswell]. — In 
the said chapel there is a sufficiently good missal, and like- 
wise a gradual, with a troper. A tolerably good chalice. 
Two sets of vestments complete, and two sets of corporals, 
with two burses of good silk. Six altar cloths. Two sur- 
plices and one rochet. The pyx for the Eucharist is of 
wood, without a lock. A pewter vessel for the visitation 
of the sick. A processional cross, old and unfit for use, al" 
though the staff is decent. Five cruets. One defective 
psalter. A worn-out antiphoner. There is no ordinal or 
legenda. The font has no lock. A fairly good thurible 
and a lantern. A good banner. The nave of the chapel is 
broken down, but it is being repaired. The chancel roof 
is in bad condition. There are two bells for the dead and 
one for the elevation of the body of Christ. The chancel 
windows are without glass and in a disgraceful state. 

CoppiNSWiLLE. — ^In this chapel is a good missal, with 
musical notes. An old and decayed gradual. A good 
tropar and ordinal. A fairly good legenda, with a psalter, 



VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIBE OHUBCHBS. 457 

but badly bound. A Monastic antiphoner, old and badly 
bound. A manual, with a hymnal, likewise badly bound. 
A fairly good chalice, gilt inside. Two complete sets of 
vestments, and besides these two albs by themselves. 
Nine altar cloths. A fairly good thurible. A chrismatory 
of wood. A pyx for the Eucharist of wood, without a lock. 
Two surplices, and one rochet. A Lenten veil. A pro- 
cessional cross. Two cruets. The canopy over the iJtar 
is much dilapidated. All the windows of the chancel are 
without glass, and too small. Two bells for the dead. 
The roof of the nave is in a bad condition {A.D.C.^ No, 
3673, p. 27). 

vn. 

DouLYS [Dawlish], 6 July, 1301. — On this day there 
were in the church at the place aforesaid the following : 
One great psalter in good characters, with a hymnal and 
troper in the same volume. Another psalter dilapidated 
and of little value. A legenda for the whole year in two 
volumes, with an antiphoner inserted in its place. Item, 
a good antiphoner by itself, containing the statutes of the 
Synod. A fairly good ordinal, manual, capitulare, and 
coUectare in the same volume. Two chalices, both interior 
and exterior gilt, good enough. A misssd, only fairly good. 
A noble gradusd, with a troper ; and another gradual with- 
out a troper. There is no processionale except in the 
graducd. The chancel is handsome and has been newly 
built by the Chapter, but there is no canopy for the pyx. 
The pyx for the Eucharist is of ivory, bound with silver, 
but without a lock. There is a pewter vessel for the visita- 
tion of the sick. The cristmatory is of wood, without a 
lock. There are seven sets of corporcJs. Three complete 
sets of vestments, of which one is a decent one for festivals, 
and another quite sufficient. Two albs, with chasubles. 
Fourteen altar cloths, one of them with a border. A 
sufficiently good fronted for the high altar. Two good sur- 
plices and a third worn out. Three good rochets. A 
metal processioned cross, with a staff too short and unfit 
for use. Two very beautiful processional candlesticks, 
and four of pewter. Two new banners of cloth of silk 
tapestry, underlaid with gold of the gift of the lessee of the 
JMurton. A fairly good pax. A small chest bound with 
iron. The chain of the thurible is broken. The image of 
Saint Gregory at the high altar is badly painted, and one 



458 VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIBB 0HX7BCHSS. 

of the hands is broken off. A leaden hply-water pot. A 
fau*ly good Lenten veil. There is no pall for the dead, and 
the font has no lock. The steps towards the churchyard 
want repairs. 

The parishioners say that although the vicar visits them 
he does not reside personally, but has in his place Sir 
Adam, a chaplain who bears himself well and honestly, 
and teaches them well in spiritual matters. 



vm. 

Upottbry [Uppeoteri MS.], 6 July, 1301.— ^In the 
church of the aforesaid place the antiphoner is old and 
unfit for use. All the rest which appertain to the 
Dean and Chapter do not need any correction. {A.D.C.y 
No. 3673, p. 32). 

Stockb [Stoke Canon], 7 July, 1301. — ^At which time 
there were in the church at the aforesaid place a legenda, 
with an antiphoner, psalter, hymnal, capitulare, and col- 
lectare in one volume, without musical notes. Another 
antiphoner, with musical notes, not of the use. No psalter 
by itself. And be it noticed there is one good breviary 
given to the church by Master Robert at Morten for 
Galfrid, his nephew. Item, a manual, old and defective. 
No ordinal. The chalice of pure silver in every part is 
suflSciently good. A leaden vessel to rinse the hands of the 
priest. A missal, without musical notes, yet fairly good. 
Another missal, old and without clasps. Three sets of 
vestments complete. Two surplices much worn, with an 
old rochet. Ten altar cloths, one with parure, much worn. 
A good gradual, and another old one with a troper. Item, 
a defective troper by itself. One cruet good enough. A 
crismatory, without a lock. The image of Magdalen at the 
high altar is old and too deformed. A decent processional 
cross. Item, a pax board, with a metal plate, on the sur- 
face of which is engraved the image of the Crucifixion. A 
pax, with a stone of green marble. A pyx for the Eucharist 
of ivor\% bound with silver. A Lenten veil. And a fairly 
good banner. No frontal. 

The parishioners say that William, chaplain of the afore- 
said place, bears himself honestly, and they have no com- 
plaint to make of the way in which he discharges his duties 
(A.D.C., No. 3673, p. 30). 



VISITATIONS OF DBVONSHIRB CHUBGHBS. 459 

L^^^ IX. 

Brankbscosibb [Bbanscombb], 11 July, 1301. — [By 
Robert de Vetera Terra (Oldfield) and John de Uphaveme.] 
There are in the church, only one psalter of no value. An 
antiphoner, in the wrong order, and an ordinal and troper 
in the same volume. A complete legenda for the whole 
year, bound in four volumes. A good breviary, although 
the letters are too small. Three bound manuals. A good 
missal, and another not of the use [of Exeter]. A good 
chalice wholly gilt. All other things required are good 
enough with this exception, that the glass in the large 
window in the bell tower is broken out of every part, and 
the small windows in the same tower also want glass ; which 
defects belong to the parishioners to repair. 

The parisUoners say that Thomas, their vicar, bears 
himself well in everything, and freely preaches and visits 
the sick, and does everything diligently which pertains to his 
sacred office. Similarly of the clergy and the parishioners ; 
they knowing nothing of them unless it is good and honest 
(A.D.C.y No. 3673, p. 34). 



Salcombb Bbgis, 12 July, 1301. [By Robert de Veteri 
Terra (Oldfield) and John de Uphavene.] — ^The books for 
matins were lately supplied by the Dean and Chapter, to 
replace those formerly in the church, one good breviary. 
There is there a new psalter by itself. An old and decayed 
antiphoner ; and a legenda in a similar condition, the 
interior decayed through the neglect of the vicar, who 
allowed it to be kept in a damp place. Two fairly good 
chalices. Three complete sets of vestments. Three sets of 
corporals, with their burses. One surplice with a fairly 
good rochet. A crismatory, with a lock. An image of the 
Blessed Virgin, to whom the church is dedicated; old, 
mutilated, and not good enough. A good missal, with 
musical notes. A new and good gradual, with a troper 
and processionale in the same. A new and good banner. 
Another one, old and perished. A fairly good processional 
Cross. 

The chancel is without a roof, but it is being reroofed. 
The canopy over the high altar requires repairs. The pyx 
for the Eucharist is of copper, without a lock. Two fairly 
good cruets. 



460 VISITATIONS OF DBVONSHIRB CHUBGHBS. 

The parishioners say that Robert, the vicar, carries out 
well all the duties that belong to his sacred office. As to the 
other articles, they depose nothing because they say they 
know nothing (A.D.C., No. 3673, p. 36). 

XI. 

Sydbbiby [Sidbury], 13 July, 1301. [By Robert de 
Veteri Terra (Oldfield) and John de Uphavene.] 

On which day there were in the church of the aforesaid 
place one good chalice and another much worn. Four sets 
of corporaJs with burses. Three sets of vestments, of 
which one is much worn, and two chasubles are old. 
Twenty altar cloths, blessed, and two unblessed. A linen 
pall for the canopy at the altar. Three surplices with two 
rochets. Three surplices for boys. A pall for the dead. 
A nuptisd veil of silk. A cloth of tapestry for the paten. 
Another cloth of silk. A linen Lenten veil. An ivory pyx 
for the Eucharist, without a lock, bound with silver, con- 
taining the four gospels. Two decent books. Two paxes 
well painted. Two metal processional crosses, and four 
banners. Four processional candlesticks of pewter. A 
crismatory of pewter, with a lock. A good sacrarium. 
Three bells for the dead. Four cruets and a thurible, all 
fairly good. A vessel for the visitation of the sick. The 
font is well locked. A good missal ; and another fairly 
good, without musical notes. Two graduals, and in one 
is a troper. Two tropers by themselves, of which one is 
a Monastic one, badly bound. 

A legenda for the proper seasons by itself ; and a legenda 
of the saints by itself, badly bound. A good but old 
breviary, without a psalter. Three antiphoners, of which 
two are not of the use [of Exeter]. A fairly good psalter 
by itself ; another unfit for use, with a hjnnncJ, capitulare, 
coUectare, and commemoracione of the saints. A good 
ordinal. A coffer for books ; and two snuffers for candle- 
sticks. The statutes of the S5niod of Bishop Peter [Quivil]. 
The roof of the aisle of the church is in a bad condition, 
the repairs to which have been postponed in the hope that 
Sir Walter, the vicar, will repair the same. Four of the 
parishioners say that Sir Walter, the vicar, carries out his 
duties excellently in all ways, preaches well, and is most 
laudable in the discharge of his sacred office. In like 
manner the clergy bear themselves honestly. They know 
nothing of any mortal sin. 



VISITATIONS OF DBVON8HIBE 0HT7BCHBS. 461 

xn. 

Clyst Honiton, 14 July, 1301. [Visitors, Magister 
Robert de Veteri Terra and John de Uphavene, steward of 
the Chapter.] 

There is no psalter in the church, nor in the antiphoner. 
The legend book is badly bound. The missal is much worn. 
There is no chahce, and everything else belonging to the 
church quite unfit for use. The chancel is ruinous and 
also for the greater part unroofed, so that it is not possible 
to celebrate divine service at the high altar. 

No parishioners were present from whom we could in- 
quire as to the above-written. 

xm. 

CuLMSTOCK, 20 July, 1301. — ^There are in the church 
there three complete sets of vestments. Five altar cloths, 
of which one has a parure. Four altar cloths, not 
blessed. One linen frontal, and another of the same, 
much worn and torn. Four sets of corporals, with 
three linen burses. One fairly good missal, with a 
gradual. Two graduals, with tropers. One troper by 
itself. One fairly good processionale. One fairly good 
ordinale. One venitary. One chalice, wholly gilt, with a 
paten. One ivory pyx for the Eucharist, hanging over the 
high altar, bound with silver, with a silver lock. Another 
pyx of silver to carry to the sick. One vessel of pewter 
for the sick. One pewter crismatory, with a lock. One 
pewter censer for incense. Two pewter cruets. Two 
wooden pyxes for the unconsecrated altar breads. Two 
fairly good metal processional crosses. Two Uttle bells, 
of which one is for use at the mass, the other for the 
visitation of the sick. Two pewter candlesticks. One 
pax. One chest for the vestments, and another for the 
books. One fairly good banner, and one much worn. 
Two cloths for the altar. One pall for the dead. Two 
surplices and one much worn. One rochet, much worn. 
One Lenten veil. One thurible. One wooden lantern. 
One antiphoner, with a legenda for the whole year in two 
volumes. A copy of the statutes of the Synod. Two 
antiphoners, one with a capitulare, collectare, and hjrmnal. 
The chancel is well roofed, with a good canopy and seven 
glazed windows, with good ironwork. One iron to make 



462 VISITATIONS OF DBVOHSHIRB GHURCHSS. 

the altar breads. The font is lined with lead inside and 
well locked. One leaden holy-water vat. 

The jury say : That William, the vicar, is a man of good 
life and honest conversation, and the clergy the like, and 
well teach their parishioners. In the visitation of the sick 
and in baptism of the children, and in all other things 
which belong to their office, with this exception, that he 
delays too long between matins and mass on festival days ; 
they do not know anything else to be reprehended in him, 
and similarly the officials of the place discharge their duties 
well as far as they can see. 

XIV. 

CJoLYTON, 10 July, 1301. — In the mother church are: 
One fairly good psalter, with a collect book and chapter 
book, for the vicar's part, and another for the part of 
the parishioners, old and of no vsdue. An antiphoner 
by itself, unfit for use in such a church. A complete 
legend* book for the whole jesx in two volumes, with 
antiphones interposed, although not altogether of the 
use [of Exeter]. An ordinal too much worn. A fairly 
good martiloge, with hymnsd, chapter book and collect 
book. One good gradual, and another old and defective. 
A missal, with good musical notes and clear letters^ and 
another without musical notes. A worthless manual. A 
fairly good processional cross ; with the following : — 

A large chalice, parcel gUt, and another chalice of the 
same size for the altar of the Blessed Virgin ; a third 
smaller, but sufficient. Five sets of vestments complete, 
but wanting one stole. One fairly good cope for the choir, 
and another old and much worn. A tunicle, with a dalmatic 
of silk. Seven cloths for the frontals, and other ornaments 
of the church. Three banners. A fairly good Lenten veil. 
Five sets of corporals, with one burse of silk, and the others 
of wool. Two decent processional crosses of metal. Two 
small candlesticks of pewter for processions. One worn-out 
surplice, and another worthless. A good rochet. A crist- 
matory of lead, without a lock. Four cruets. No lantern. 
No canopy in the chancel. 

The Chapel of Shute. — In the chapel at this place 
is one fairly good psalter. An antiphoner badly boimd. A 
fair ordinal. Two much-worn manuals. A missal, with 
the musical notes. No gradual by itself. Two fairly good 



VISITATIONS OF DBVONSHIEE CHUBCHXS. 463 

tropers. A fairly good chalice. Two complete sets of 
vestments. A pyx for the Eucharist, of ivory. Nine altar 
cloths, four with parures. A metal processional cross. 
The chancel is unroofed, so that when it rains mass cannot 
be celebrated. There is no canopy over the high altar. 
And there is no glass in the side windows of the chancel. 
Also, the walls of the same are ruinous, and the door 
of the same badly broken and without a lock, and the 
screen towards the nave of the church is all destroyed. 
The bell tower is badly roofed, and the nave of the 
church is in a similar condition. Item, the chaplain of 
the same has no house, but lives in the church, which is 
disgraceful. 

XV. 

. CxJLMSTOCK, 6 August, 1303. — ^The books, vestments, 
and all ornaments of the church, and the necessary, vessels 
enumerated in the last visitation remain in a sufficiently 
good state, with the image of the Blessed Virgin at 
the high altar, and the same Holy Virgin and Saint 
Nicholas at the altar in the northern part of the nave 
of the church, and the image of Saint Katherine at. the 
other altar in the south part. A herse, with the iron- 
work for the tenebrse, and a paschal candle ; all of which 
were mentioned in the aforesaid visitation. There are 
fiJso no apparent defects in the church, nor in its roof, 
or the cemetery and its fence, except there are no fron- 
tals to the altars in the nave of the church, and that 
they know that the silver pyx for the visitation of the 
sick was a short time ago broken. 

The parishioners say : That their vicar bears himself 
honestly in all things, and exercises himself diligently 
enough in all things incumbent to his office. Of hidden 
sins and other secret enormities, they say they know 
nothing. 

XVI. 

CoLATiK Ralegh, 16 February, 1307. [By Magister 
Richard de Morcestre, Canon of the Church of Exeter, and 
William Bond, vicar of the aforesaid Church of Exeter, 
deputed by the Dean and Chapter]. 

The jury say that there are wanting : One legend book, 
price 16s. 8d. Item, one ordinale, price 5s. One vessel 
of pewter (for the sick), price 4d., which the said Master 



464 VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIRB OHUBOHBS. 

Henry (of Somerset, formerly Dean of Exeter, now dead ^) 
carried off. Item, there is wanting one venitare, price 28. 
Item, there is wanting in the chancel of Colleton one narrow 
window, and the ironwork to the same, which could scarcely 
be repaired for 6s. 8d. They also say that there is one 
antiphoner for the seasons and of the saints totally 
worn out ; and one collect book by itself which could 
be bound as they believe for 3s. 

They also say that the chancel of Coletone and Saint 
Theobald were at the time of the death of the said Martin 
Henry, disroofed and were repaired for the present dean,^ 
but they do not know for how much. . . . 

They also say that the same Dean Henry received £40 
from the executors of his predecessor Dean Andrew de 
Kilkenny,* for the repairs of Colleton and Saint Theobsdd's, 
of which he spent only 13s. 4d. on Colleton (A.D.C.y No. 
3673, p. 50). 

xvn. 

Upotbry, 24 August, 1307. — ^Firstly of the ornaments 
of the church an inventory shows that there were two anti- 
phoners and another much worn. Item, that the canopy 
above the high altar was wanting and the chancel was 
badly roofed. The other things which the rector should 
maintain will suffice, and the vicar said that the defects 
and repairs in the ornaments belong to the rector and 
not to him. 

The jury say on their sacred oath that the chancel roof 
will cost at least forty shillings, and the canopy of the 
altars ten shillings. Item, the buttresses of the chancel will 
cost two shillings at the least to repair. . . . Item, the 
chancel of Rouerygge [Rawridge] is in ruins, and they 
know not who ought to repair it, and the walls can scarcely 
be repaired for twenty shillings, and the roof for twenty 
shillings. 

Item, the priest's house at Rouerygge is in ruins and will 
cost to repair ten shillings. Of other things there are none 
that require correction (A.D.C., No. 3625, fol. 1576). 

^ Henry de Somerset, elected Dean on Thursday after the Epiphany, 1302-3. 
His obit was 22 December, 1807. 

' Thomas de Lechlade, who died in the spring of 1309. 

' Andrew de Kilkenny, elected 25 February ; confirmed bjr the Archbishop 
of Canterbury, August, 1281 ; installed 13 March, 1284 ; died in November, 
1302. 



VISITATIONS OF DKVONSHIRK CHUBCHBS. 465 

xvin. 

AsHBUBTON, 3 April, 1314. — ^The Lord Bishop visited 
the Church of Ayspertone, in which were the following 
defects, namely: The pyx for the Eucharist is of wood, 
without a lock, and in every way in a disgraceful state. 
The parures at the high altar are unfit for use. There 
is no nuptial veil. There are no frontals to the altars, 
except at the high altar. The missal is rotten. The 
graduale, troparium, legenda, tempore, antiphonar, psalter, 
and capitulare, are \m&t for use. The ordinale in part 
decayed. The crismatory is of wood and without a lock. 
The windows in the chancel are of wood, except one, 
which is too small. The chancel is badly roofed. There 
is no cope for the choir, tunicle, or dalmatic. There is 
no glass in the windows of the nave of the church. The 
south aisle of the nave of the church is badly roofed. 
The north aisle of the church is ruinous and is being re- 
built. 

Therefore the Lord Bishop ordered that \iindows of 
sufficient size of stone should be made in the chancel, and 
that one of good size should be made in the [east] front 
of the chancel, and that the altar should be moved against 
the wall, and that a vestry be made in the south part of 
the chancel. And he enjoined that all the aforesaid defects 
should be repaired by those who were responsible before 
the Feast of Saint Michael next following, under a penalty 
of £20, to be paid to the fabric fund of the [Cathedral] 
Church of Exeter, excepting the north aisle, which is 
ruinous. 

XIX. 

CuLBiSTOCK, 13 April, 1314. [By Master Richard de 
Colletone, the bishop's commissary.] 

In the church were found the following defects, namely : 
The nuptial veil is totally unfit for use. The venitare is 
unfit for use. The crismatory is without a lock. The 
lantern is worn out. The roof of the nave is in bad con- 
dition. The vicarage is too poor and never was taxed, as 
the vicar says. The glass in the windows of the chancel is 
broken ; and the nave of the church has no glass in it. 

Wherefore the said commission enjoined that all the 
before-mentioned defects be repaired by those who were 
responsible for the same before the next Feast of Saint 

VOL. XLH. 2 G 



466 VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIRE CHURCHES. 

Michael, under a penalty of £10, to be paid to the fabric 
fund of the [Cathedral] Church of Exeter. 

XX. 

Salcombe, 19 May, 1307. [By Masters R. Germeyne 
and J. de Upavene.] 

The pyx for the Eucharist is of copper, and without a 
lock. There is no canopy over the high altar. The cris- 
matory badly painted and without a lock. Two chaUces 
without feet. One set of vestments in a verj^ bad state, 
and there is wanting one set of vestments that were there 
at the last visitation. Only one surplice, with a rochet 
complete, and one surplice of the last visitation is wanting. 
A good missal, but badly bound in the beginning. Two 
good banners. A good gradual. The chancel roof is in 
bad condition. The manuale is wholly worn out. There is 
no ordinale. The glass is broken in one window of the 
chancel. Only one psalter, badly bound. The font is 
badly situated. A chapel of the Blessed Marj^ Magdalene, 
in the western part of the church, was unroofed by the 
fall of an ash tree. There is no nuptial veil. There are no 
frontals, towels, or vessel for the visitation of the sick. 

The parishioners say that the vicar instructs them well 
and keeps the festivals and visits the sick (A,D.C,, No. 
3673, p. 48). 

XXI. 

Brankescombe [Branscombe], 27 May, 1307. [By 
Masters R. Germayne and John de Uphaveme.] 

In the first place the crismatory is unfit for use. There 
are only two corporals, with two burses. The chasuble for 
Sundays is of wool and unfit for use. There is no cope for 
the choir. The chasuble for festivals is in holes in many 
places. Four whole surplices. A good missal and another 
worn out. A good gradual and troper in one volume, 
price 2 marcs. Another old gradual, with the old musical 
notes. A troper, with an ordinal in one volume. An old 
breviary of the ancient use, with a martiloge. Two 
manuals by themselves, and a third, a good one, with a 
collectare and capitulare. Two processionals, one good and 
new, wanting. The guarding {sic] of the saints. A leger.da 
of the saints in two volumes, the beginning and end de- 
cayed. A legenda for the proper seasons, in two volumes, 
decayed at the beginning and end. The vicar gave to the 



VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIRE CHURCHES. 467 

church a new antiphoner, with a psalter, price 5 marcs, 
reserving to himself the right to its use during his lifetime. 
An old, badly bound antiphoner. Only one psalter by 
itself. A breviary, with a psalter written in small charac- 
ters. A copy of the Synodal statutes. A great and long 
roll of music for the organs. One chalice, wholly gilt. 
Another chalice of silver belonging to the chapel. A good, 
new, Lenten veil. The pall for the dead is unfit for use. 
There is no nuptial veil. A good frontal. A good thurible. 
A good banner. Two good processional candlesticks of 
pewter. Two others of iron. Four pax boards. Three 
stoles. An organ given by the vicar. The image of the 
Blessed Mary in the chancel has three rings, whereof one 
is of gold and the others of silver. 

The parishioners say that Thomas, the vicar, bears 
himself well in all things, and freely preaches and visits 
the sick, and diligently discharges all the duties that apper- 
tain to his sacred office. Of the clergy and the other 
parishioners they know nothing {A,D,C., No. 3673, p. 46). 

xxn. 

SiDBTJRY, 28 May, 1307. — There is no linen cloth 
for the canopy over the high altar. Three surplices for 
boys are wanting. There is no lock for the pyx for the 
Eucharist. Five banners. A legenda of the saints^ 
badly bound. The chancel roof is in a bad condition, 
and there is a dispute between the vicar and the parish- 
ioners as to who ought to roof the chancel, and they 
say it is the vicar's duty. The nave of the church is 
badly roofed. 

The parishioners say that Sir Walter, the vicar, in- 
structs them in the faith according to what he knows and 
belongs to him to do, and carries out his duties well and 
honestly ; . . . Nor do they know anything which re- 
quires correction in the parish (A.D,C,, No. 3625, fol. 102). 

XXIII. 

AxMlNSTER, 23 July, 1315. 
There is no vessel of pewter for the sick. 
The rochet and the Lenten veil are unfit for use. 
Only one gradual, of the use of Sarum, the other graduals 
are not according to use. 
The legend book of the saints is unfit for use. 



468 VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIRE CHXJRCHBS. 

Only one antiphoner, of the use of Sarum, and it is 
totally unfit for use. 

One ordinal, unfit for use. 

The pyx for the Eucharist is of silver and too small. 

The crismatory and all the cruets are worn out. 

There is no herse for the tenebra, or paschal candlestick. 

There is no image of the Blessed John the Baptist, to 
whose name the church is dedicated. 
' There is no canopy over the tigh altar. 

The vestry is badly roofed. 

These are the defects which were then found, besides 
those which are written in the other register. * 

Therefore the Lord Bishop ordered that all who are or 
would be interested should repair the aforesaid defects 
which they severally were answerable for before the Feast 
of the Birth of our Lord next following, under a penalty 
of £40. 

XXIV. 

Visitations from Bishop Grandisson's Register, [By 
Master Adam Murymonthe, sen., and Sir Thomas de 
Stapledon, during the month of July, 1330, Commissaries 
of the Dean and Chapter]. 

Clyst-Honiton, 11 July, 1330. — There is a fairlj- good 
chancel with a canopy over the high altar. A copy of 
the Acts of the Synod of Exeter, 1287, is wanting. 
There is no vessel for the visitation of the sick. One 
poor set of corporals. No sufficient surpUce. A nuptial 
veil. There is no pall for the dead. A parochial psalter. 
There is no lock to the chest for the books or candle- 
sticks. The pyx for the Eucharist is of copper and 
without a lock. There is no Synod statute book. The 
missal is ranch worn and unfit for use. The legenda is 
badly bound and without a covering. There is no light 
or bell for visiting the sick. The portable cross is unfit for 
use. All the other ornaments of the church are fairly good. 

The parishioners were enjoined to repair all defects 
before the Festival of Saint Michael, under a fine. 

XXV. 

BucKERELL, 1 1 Julv, 1330, — The chancel is ruinous in its 
gable, and in the greater part, with the whole church ; 
and the bell turret, which stands for its greater part over 
the chancel, is also ruinous. A canopy is wanting over 



VISITATI017S OF DSVOKSHIBE CHUBOHES. 469 

the high altar. All the books are badly bound and some 
decayed and almost worn out. The vicar has to bear is. 3d.» 
the cost of maintaining the matin books, and the Dean 
and Chapter 2s. 3d. 

XXVI. 

Broadhbmbury, 12 July, 1330. — ^The chancel, books, 
and all other ornaments of the aforesaid church are in 
good order and condition. 

xxvn. 

The Chapel of Shute, 13 July, 1330. — ^There are 
there : Four altar cloths, blessed, one with a parure. Two 
fairly good surplices. There is no Lenten veil. A good 
missal. No gradual by itself. The antiphoner is much 
worn and badQy bound. The chancel is in poor condition 
and dark, almost ruinous, and without a canopy. There 
is no Synod book. The door of the chancel is unfit for 
use and almost valueless. The pyx for the Eucharist and 
the crismatory are without locks. The manual is unfit 
for use. No sufficiently good venitare. All the other 
ornaments are fairly good, except there is no lantern (to 
bear before the Host when visiting the sick). There is no 
censer for incense. 

The parishioners say that the chaplain conducts himself 
well in all things. 

xxvni. 

CoLYTON, 14 July, 1330. — ^There are there : Two fairly 
good chalices. Five sets of vestments, one much worn. 
Item, one cope, tunicle and dalmatic, of the gift of Master 
Benedict [de Pastone?]. One much- worn cope for the 
choir. Four altar cloths for the high altar, blessed, two 
with parures. . . . One fairly good surpUce. One rochet, 
much worn. Two missals, fairly good, and another. A 
gradual badly bound. An antiphoner in another missal ; 
none by themselves, fairly good. An ordinal badly boimd 
and taken care of, and the letters obscure. No breviary 
for the vicar. A hymnal, capitulare, collectare in one 
volume, badly bound. One sufficiently good frontal. A 
pyx for the Eucharist of ivory, without a lock. A suffi- 
ciently good chest for the books. A sufficiently good 
cristmatory of pewter, with a lock. There is no paschal 
coniUestick. A pax board. Three cruets. An altar slab 



VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIRE CHITBCHES. 

>rf fiMne. A pyx for the unconsecrated altar breads, and 
IWrlv good censer. A much-worn censer for incense. A 

wd>N. water vat. A sufficiently good herse for the tenebrae. 

'like canopy over the high altar is too small and unfit for 

ujjte. The rest of the ornaments of the church are in a 

good state at present, except there is no lantern (to bear 

before the Host). 
Sir Bobertus de Schirbume, the chaplain of the parish, 

says he has no aid in the services of the church because 

the vicar is stricken with leprosy. 

XXIX. 

Bbanscombe, 14 July, 1330. — ^There is a chalice of silver, 
wholly gilt, sufficiently good. A suitable vessel for the 
sick. Two corporals, with two burses, suitable. Three sets 
of vestments, one much worn. Four altar cloths for the 
high altar, one with a parure. There is no cloth for the 
otSor altars. Two surplices, one much worn. A sufficiently 
good rochet. The Lenten veil and the pall for the dead 
nuftioiently good. The nuptial veil is not good enough. 
One frontal. One sufficiently good missal. A sufficiently 
gKHxl gradual, with hynmal. Item, a suitable troper by 
ituclf. Only one antiphoner. . . . The psalter belonging 
Ui the parish not good enough and much worn. A suffi- 
olontly good legend book. Ordinal, manual, collectare, 
hymnal, and capitulare sufficiently good. A pyx for the 
Kuoharist, with a lock. The canopy above the high altar 
(m fairly good. The books also and all other ornaments of 
iho ohurch are at present sufficiently good. 

T\\v parishioners say the vicar bears himself well in 
M the duties of his cure. 

XXX. 

Salcombe Regis, 15 July, 1330. — There are two chalices, 
\\i which one is not good enough. The cup for the sick is 
s\i pewter and will suffice. Two corporals and two burses, 
fairly good. Two sets of vestments, one much worn. 
ltt>m, three altar cloths for the high altar, much worn 
^\A totally unfit for use. A parure, good enough. One 
(X'ontal, much worn. One sufficiently good surplice, and 
va\e rochet much worn. A Lenten veil, a nuptial yeil, 
ai^il a pall for the dead will suffice. One sufficiently good 
um«m1. One sufficiently good gradual. No troper by 



VISITATIONS OF. DBVONSHIBB OHUBCHES. 471 

itself, but with a gradual. No antiphoner by itself. The 
parish psalter will suflSce. No legend book by itself. 
The statutes of the Synod. Manual, ordinal, capitu- 
lare, coUectare, and hymnal. A chest for the books is 
wanting in the church, but it is said there is one in the 
vicar's house. The paschal candlestick, paschal tapers, 
processional tapers, and herse for the tenebrse will suffice. 
The pyx for the Eucharist is of copper, not locked, and 
totally unfit for use. The font, bier for the dead, lantern 
to bear before the Host and other ecclesiastical orna- 
ments as a whole are sufficient. The glass windows in the 
chancel, as well as in the nave, are too dark. The porch is 
badly roofed. The chapel of the Blessed Mary Magdalen, 
in the south aisle, is ruinous, and the roof in bad condition. 
The coping of the gable is broken and defective, and the 
roof of the whole church is in a bad condition. 

The parishioners say that the cure of souls by Master 
Henry de Galmeton is well provided for, and they also 
say that the vicar bears himself well in all things. 

XXXI. 

SiDBUEY, 15 July, 1330. — ^There is there one . . . There 
are two chalices with patens, six sets of corporals, with 
burses, of which ... are sufficiently good, the others not. 
A cope for the choir. The tunicle and dalmatic will 
suffice. . . . One frontal. . . . surplices. One rochet. . . . 

The parishioners say that the vicar and the other 
ministers of the church bear themselves well in all things 
relating to their cure of souls. 

xxxn. 

LiTTLBHAM, 16 July, 1330. — ^The chancel is in sufficiently 
good repair. There is no canopy over the high altar. 
There are two fairly good chalices. The vessel for the sick 
is of pewter and will suffice. There are six sets of vest- 
ments, one of which is much worn. Four corporals, with 
two sufficiently good burses. Seven altar cloths, blessed. 
One sufficiently good surpUce, with a rochet. Only one 
parure. Two frontals. A good missal. A gradual not 
good enough to use. Two tropers fairly good. A good 
manual. A hymnal, coUectary, capitulsjry, venitary, and 
invitatory in a badly bound antiphoner. There is no 
legenda of the proper saints. Another legenda, badly 



472 .VISITATIONS OF DBVONSHIBB CHT7BCHES. 

bound. A good ordinal. Two sufGloiently good anti- 
phoners. Three psalters, of which one is sufficient by itself. 
A fairly good copy of the Synodal statutes. The chest 
for books and vestments will suffice. The pyx for the 
Eucharist is a sufficiently good one, but it is not hung up. 
A cristomary of pewter, with a lock. A pax board. A 
pyx for the unconsecrated altar breads. Three cruets. 
A thurible. A censer. A vessel for the holy water. A 
fairly good paschal candlestick with candle. Two good 
crosses. A fairly good processional candlestick. There 
are no tapers. A bell for the visitation of the sick, two 
for the dead, and a lantern, all fairly good. A lantern is 
wanting. There is a bier for the dead. A Lenten veil, a 
nuptial veil, and a pall for the dead, all sufficient. 

The glass of the windows of the nave and chancel is 
broken. 

xxxm. 

ToPSHAM, 17 July, 1330. — ^There are two fairly good 
chalices. . . . Three fairly good sets of corporals, with 
burses. Two sufficiently good sets of vestments, fifteen 
altar cloths, nine of which have parures, and five are 
sufficiently good. Two surplices. . . . Two surplices for 
boys. One rochet. The nuptial veil and the parish psalter 
are sufficiently good. A good missal. A good gradual, 
with a troper. A portiforium by itself. No 'sufficiently 
good legenda. A good antiphoner. Three psalters, one 
much worn. A good ordinal. A venitarium, hymnal, 
capitularium, and collectarium, all fairly good. The 
statutes of the Synod. A fairly good chest for the books. 
A crismatory of pewter, with a lock. The pyx for the 
Eucharist is broken and without a lock. A coffer for the 
vestments, with a lock. A [paschal] candlestick. A pro- 
cessional candlestick, with tapers. A bell for [the visita- 
tion of] the sick. Two for the dead. A thurible . . . and 
all the other ornaments of the church will suffice. The 
chancel, with the whole church, is. . . . 

The parishioners say that the steward, bailiff, and 
ministers of the church bear themselves well in all things, 
nor do they know of any rumour of sins requiring correction. 

XXXIV. 

Stoke Canon. — Illegible. 



VISITATIONS OF DBVONSHIBE CHURCHES. 473 

XXXV, 

The Chapel of Norton in Newton St. Cyrbs» 
19 July, 1330. — ^There is a fairly good chalice. Two suit- 
able sets of vestments. A pyx for the Eucharist. A fairly 
good orismatory, with a lock. A sufficiently good missal. 
A gradual, troparium, hymnal, coUectarium, anti^honer, 
two psalters, these, together with all the other things that 
should belong to the chapel, are sufficient, except that 
there is no bier for the dead. 

The parishioners say that the care of souls . . • 

XXXVI. 

Wbstlbigh, 22 July, 1330. — Where the church is visited 
by the Archdeacon. 

The chancel is short, but sufficient, with a canopy. 
There are two sufficiently good breviaries, one with a 
legenda, the other without. A good legenda by itself. 
Two fairly good psalters, except the parish psalter. The 
venitary, hymnal, capitulare, coUectare, and ordinal will 
suffice. 

xxxvn. 

WiNKLBiGH, 23 July, 1330. — Where the church is visited 
by the Archdeacon. 

There is only one antiphoner. A legenda from the Feast 
of St. John to the Feast of St. James the Apostle, the rest 
wanting. The other books belonging to the rectory will 
suffice. 

xxxviii. 

CoLEBROOK, 24 July, 1330. — The chancel is in good 
order, and the whole church well roofed. There are two 
fairly good silver chalices. A sufficient pyx for the 
Eucharist. Three fairly good sets of corporals, with two 
burses. A fairly good vessel for the sick. Two sets of 
vestments. Six altar cloths, blessed, two having parures. 
Two surplices with one rochet. The Lenten veil, the 
nuptial veil, and the pall for the dead are sufficient. 
There is a fairly good missal, a fairly good gradual and 
troper. The manual and ordinal will suffice. The breviary 
is good. There is no sufficient antiphoner. A fairly good 
legenda of the saints. The legenda for the seasons is 



474 VISITATIONS OF DEVONSHIBB OHUBOHBS. 

badly bound and decayed in the beginning. There is no 
venitary or invitatory. The parochial psalter, collectare, 
and capitulare are bound in one volume. One paschal 
candlestick. Two sufficiently good processional candle- 
sticks, with tapers. A herse for the tenebrse. A thurible. 
A censer for incense. A holy-water vat. The crismatory 
and font are furnished with locks, and the ornaments are 
sufficient, except a lantern and bells for the visitation of 
the sick, which are wanting. 

The parishioners say their vicar, Sir Adam, carries out 
his duti^ well in every respect. 



CHRISTIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE a.d. 909. 

BY BBV. J. F. CHANTBB, M.A. 
(Read at Onllomptoii, 28tli July, 1910.) 



Since the last meeting of this Association, the millenary 
or one-thousandth anniversary of the foundation of the See 
of Crediton has been celebrated, and with that foundation 
the written Ecclesiastical History of Devon may be said 
to commence. But that very celebration brings before us 
the fact that there were bishops in Devon before a.d. 909. 
I do not allude to the claims of Bishop's Tawton, which 
rest on no historical basis, but that there was a Christian 
Church in Devon hundreds of years before the f oimdation 
of the see of Crediton — a Church with its bishops and a 
history that goes back certainly 350, possibly 500, years 
before a.d. 909. It is a history which as yet is unwritten, 
and the materials for which are so scanty as to be almost 
non-^2dstent ; indeed, no other coimtry whose population 
spoke the Keltic language is so devoid of material, for 
the hand of ruin has been unsparingly laid upon her 
ancient literature. The Danes destroyed everything down 
to the tenth century, Henry VIII and his mjmnidons 
burnt nearly everything that came after, and the vanishing 
of the Keltic language in the west of England has buried 
all oral tradition. 

Still, of these materials there are yet some fragments 
remaining ; research and industry may bring to light others 
whose existence is unsuspected; and it is surely worth 
while to gather these fragments and seek to piece them 
together so as to get something of a history of this pre- 
historic period — ^a history which will not be chronological, 
and never can become so ; but still it will supples a void 
and help to cast some Ught on a dark page of our county 
history^ 

This is siurely a subject for archaeological research and 



476 CHRISTIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE A,D. 909. 

a fitting one for our county society, for though the sub- 
ject of the origin, progress, and condition of the early 
Church both before and after the coming of Augustine 
has been one that has had a fascination for many minds, 
and is a subject on which much has been written, yet 
nearly every writer on it has almost entirely concerned 
himself with early Christianity in Wales, Ireland, or 
Scotland. If early Christianity in the west of Eng- 
land is ever touched on, it has been with reference to 
Cornwall; Devon, which after all was the main part of 
Damnonia or West Wales, is scarcely ever alluded to ; 
indeed, with the exception of Mr. Kerslake's paper on 
the Celt and Teuton in Exeter^ the land of Devon is, for 
any inquirer on the subject, almost virgin soil. And it is 
surely our province to scratch that soil and see what traces 
or fragments we can recover. It is confessedly a subject 
of much uncertainty and leads us back in a region of con- 
jecture, more or less probable conjecture, rather than clear 
history ; but before we arrive at conjecture there are 
many fragments of clear history scattered here and there 
which I propose to gather together and lay before you, 
and draw conclusions from them. 

But before entering on this task it will be necessary 
first to consider who were the early inhabitants of Devon. 
What was their civiUzation ? On this point we have very 
conflicting views. Mr. R. N. Worth (President's Address, 
Devonshire Association Meeting 1891, p. 26) considered 
that the Devonians, prior to the Roman advent, were 
a people whose speech was Brythonic, the earlier Goidel 
element having been absorbed, and that they were one of the 
most highly civilized races of Britain. On the other hand, 
Elton (Origins^ pp. 137, 138) says there was small racial 
difference between the Silures (who were undoubtedly a 
mixed race of Ivemians and Goidels) and the Damnonii. 
In this he is followed by Professor Sir J. Rhys, Brynmor 
Jones, and nearly everj- other authority. They lay down 
that the inhabitants of Devon in early days, as far as 
they were Kelts at all, were Goidels and not Brythons, 
though at a later period they changed their language from 
GoideUc to Brythonic. Mr. Worth's contention is that 
Sir J. Rhys' hypothesis is based on the Ogham inscriptions, 
and that there are distinct traces of Iri^ influence in the 
west about the date of these inscriptions, and Irish in- 
fluence would supply all the GoideUc features required. 



CHRISTIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D. 909. 477 

But since Mr. Worth's paper Goidelic inscriptions have 
been found much farther east than Devonshire — even as 
far east as Silchester — and evidence can be given that 
these inscriptions are not Irish or the result of Irish in- 
fluence ; and in spite of Mr. Worth's advocacy of the early 
inhabitants of Devon as a very civiUzed and Brythonic 
race, later writers have multiplied evidences that they were 
far behind other parts of Britain. Rhys, in the later 
editions of Keltic Britain, says the Damnonii had no 
coinage of their own. Nor do they appear to have made 
much use of money, and whatever civilization they pos- 
sessed was confined to the tin districts. As regards the 
name Damnonia, he says the positions of the two peoples 
of Damnonii in the north and west suggest that it was a 
collective name of the Goidels in Britain when the Brythons 
arrived. The stem "Dumnon" or **Damnon" yields a 
nominative " Domnui " and a genitive " Domnann." The 
Welsh made " mn " into " vn," so Domnan =Devn ; as the 
Anglo-Saxon, Defenascire =Devonshire. 

And as regards the change of language, he shows how 
the northern Damnonii, who were Goidels, also adopted a 
Brythonic speech {The Welsh People, Rhys and Jones, 1906). 

We are familiar, too, with changes of language in other 
races. And on the same subject Skene observes: "There 
is a fallacy that lurks in many arguments regarding the 
ethnological character of the old Keltic nations based 
upon the modem languages. In arguing from the modem 
languages it is always assumed that the language of each 
branch of the old Keltic races must be represented by one 
or the other of modern Keltic dialects." Professor Boyd 
Dawkins, however, considers that much of Damnonia was 
Brythonic, as the Damnonii who carried the name to 
Brittany were. 

The truth appears to me to be that the people of the 
kingdom of Damnonia comprised both a Brythonic and a 
Goidelic element, and that after the departure of the 
legions all the population around and east of Exeter were 
Brythonic, while those to the north and west of it were 
Goidelic, with a large infusion of Ivemian blood. It was 
these eastern Damnonians who, during the wars with the 
English, formed some of the migratory bands that helped 
to people Armorica and carried the name Damnonia with 
them ; while it was the northern and western Damnonians 
who have left their GoideUc inscriptions. 



478 CHRISTIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D. 909. 

The history of the Damnonian kingdom appears to be 
this. After the death of Aurelius Ambrosias, or Emrys as 
he is called in Welsh, part of his dominions fell to a younger 
son named Constantine, whose nephew, Dyvnal Moelmyd, 
revolted and founded the Damnonian kingdom, which com- 
prised Somerset west of the Mendips, Dorset, Devon, and 
Cornwall. This kingdom reached its highest prosperity 
under Gwrgan Vartrwch, about the year 600. He opposed 
a resolute front to the west Saxons and for a time deflected 
their tide of conquest from the west to the north; he 
granted land to Glastonbury, and his bishop was Mauron, 
or Mawom as he is called by William of Malmesbury ; one 
of his successors was (Jeraint of Longoborth, who had a 
son, CjTigar. We find this Cyngar with both Brythonic and 
Goidelic subjects, for in addition to his Brythonic name of 
CjTigar, he also has a Goidel name, Cunocaros or Docgwm- 
nus. The lolo MSS. tell us that Bangor Cjnigar, supposed 
to be Congresbury, was destroyed by the pagan Saxons, 
and that most of Cyngar's descendants fled to Uancarvan. 
The Brythonic element were the Christian and more 
civilized element of the kingdom of Damnonia, and as they 
were pressed back among their Goidelic fellow-countrymen 
carried their language with them, which gradually sup- 
planted the older Goidelic speech in Western Damnonia in 
the same way as English gradually supplanted it in Devon 
and Cornwall. 

Among the eastern Danmonians of Brythonic stock 
there was, no doubt, a certain amount of Christianity and 
Roman civilization ; but among the western Danmonians, 
which would include the larger part of Devon proper, the 
backwardness in culture which had characterized them in 
Roman times would have been unaltered, and such a people 
were most unlikely to have had Christianity at all wide- 
spread, even if there was any trace of it. 

For Christianity, both before and after the departure 
of the legions, was almost entirely confined to the towns. 
Fastidius, the only British bishop whose writings have 
come down to us, speaks of the Christian settlements as 
being in the midst of a heathen population. The only 
bishops we know of for certain up to the year 500 were at 
London, York, and Lincoln. The visits of Germanus and 
Lupus were to Verularaium and the east of the island, 
never west. True, the cathedral of St. Germans and 
Germansweek seem to point to some connection with St. 



0HRi;3TIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D. 909. 479 

German, and a fragment of a Cornish missal still existing 
claims St. German's relics and preaching for Cornwall ; 
but dedications to him only indicate foundations later 
than A.T). 720, when the custom of dedicating churches to 
saints instead of founders was first introduced into the 
Keltic Church. The claim of the missal is only, as Haddan 
and Stubbs say, an imhistorical legend. Whatever Chris- 
tianity existed around Exeter and east of it, there does 
not appear to be the slightest trace of it in the rest of 
Devon before a.d. 450. 

The next date we have is a.d. 646, the approximate 
date of Gildas ; but even his references to Christianity 
in Damnonia only point to the eastern part. It is true 
that in Western Damnonia, and especially in Cornwall, 
we have a traditional account of various Irish missions, 
some of which are put back as early as the fifth century, 
and St. Hergyth of Chittlehampton has been identified 
with one of these; but the sole authority for this does 
not go back beyond John of TjTiemouth, Capgrave's 
Nova Legenda, and the Martyrology of Grandisson. The 
word used in earlier days to describe these missionaries is 
Gwyddyl or Goidel, and, as Skene says, this term while 
latterly used by the Welsh as synonymous with Irish, was 
formerly appUed to the whole Goidel race as distinct 
from the Brythonic. The old name for the Irish was 
Gwerddoniaid, which is equivalent to a green islander. 
It was only later, when all the Goidel races in Siluria and 
South Wales had become Brythonized, that the word 
Gwyddyl, which is equivalent to a woodman, was applied 
to the Irish. 

Haddan and Stubbs unhesitatingly reject a visit of an 
Irish St. Piran or Kieran to the west of England. They say, 
resting as it does upon Capgrave and ignored as it is by 
earlier Irish legendary lives, it is as apocrjq^hal as the visits 
of St. Patrick. The Cornish Piran of Capgrave is St. 
Ciaran of Saighir in a British dress, and the dates given 
are totally inconsistent with his real life. It is noticeable 
also that St. Brannock, the chief saint on the north coast 
of Devon, is continually called Gwyddyl, or the Irishman, 
and we know in his case that he was not Irish, but a 
Cambrian, probably of Goidel extraction. The Goidelic 
language would undoubtedly have survived later in the 
extreme west than other parts, and so we should naturally 
expect to find Goidelic names for saints thicker in this 



480 GHBISTIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D, 909. 

part than others, and in later times to find them called 
Irish, though they had no connection with Ireland. 

I should therefore reject the theory that the first mis- 
sionaries of Western Damnonia were Irish, and it is only 
because of an assumed identity between such saints as the 
Piran or Kerian of Cornwall and Devon and the Piran of 
Ireland that such an early date as the fifth century has 
been fixed. The Piran or Kerrian of Damnonia may be a 
St. Kieran who came from beyond the east of Damnonia 
and who is said to have been consecrated a bishop in 
A.D. 638, or, as Skene thinks, a St. Ciaran of the sixth 
century. There is also a York tradition given by Matthew 
of Westminster of a Piran, afterwards a bishop, in a.d, 622. 

Leaving aside, then, these Irish missionaries, we have, 
according to all other traditions, the conversion of Devon 
and Cornwall mainly ascribed to Welsh missionaries. 
And when we turn to Welsh Christianity we find that 
the coming of Cunedda and his sons is the real beginning 
of historic Welsh Christianity — ^there may have been a 
certain amount of Goidelic Christianity before that, but 
if so it was so tainted with pagan survivals as to be 
scarcely Christianity, but paganism with a slight leaven 
of Christianity. It was Cunedda's descendants who were 
the founders of all the Christianity of Wales, which will 
give us a date of approximately a.d. 500 as that at which 
Christianity in Wales began to really spread ; and the 
sixth century was the period when all the great Welsh 
monasteries were founded and missionary activity was 
at its height — the latter part of this century, a.d. 684r-601, 
witnessed the foundation of the sees of Uanbadam, 
Llandafif, Llanafanfawr, Bangor, and St. Asaph. The 
last Keltic bishop of London, Theon, is said to have taken 
with him the relies of the saints and such of the ordained 
clergy as survived and retired to Wales in a.d. 622. This 
will bring down the earliest date for the conversion of 
Devon to between 500 and 550, and as near as possible to 
the later date as the most probable. Wales was severed 
from Damnonia in a.d. 577. 

Let us now see what records and traces still exist of 
early Christianity in Devon, and what accounts and names 
of early missionaries have survived. 

I propose to gather together here all that I can dis- 
cover, dividing them into different classes. 



CHRISTIAIOTY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D. 909. 481 

A. 

INSCRIBED STONES AND PROBABLE KELTIC CROSSES. 

I. TecUmpUm. — In the cemetery an inscribed stone. In- 
scription : " Goreus X-" 

Huebner thinks that the cross in St. Andrew style may 
possibly be a later addition {Archasolog. Journal, 1851, 
p. 424). 

II. Ivybridge. — ^The Fardel stone, now in the British 
Museum. A stone with a double inscription, Ogham and 
Latin. 

Ogham inscription : '' Svaqquci Maqiqici." 

This has been read as an abbreviation for '' Svaq Quici 

Maqui Quici " ; or, " Sex Quici filii Quici." 

Latin inscription : ''Fanoni Maquirini Sagranui." 
This inscription may be compared with a somewhat 

similar one at St. DogmaeFs, Pembroke, '^ Sagrani fili 

Cunotami," and Ogham, ^'Sagramni Maqui Cunatami" 

(Archasolog. Camb., 1873, p. 75). 

III. Buchland MonacJiorum, — Now at Tavistock : a stone 
with a double inscription. Ogham and Latin. 

Ogham inscription : " Nabarr." 
An that has been deciphered. 

Latin inscription : " Doburini fabri fili tinabarri " 
{Archceolog, Camb., 1874, p. 92). 

IV. Buchland Monachorum. — ^Now at Tavistock ; in- 
scribed stone : " Sarini fiU Macco Decheti." 

This inscription may be compared with one at Penrhos, 
Llugwy, Anglesey, " Hie jacet Maccu Decceti " (Ann. 
Camb., 1874, p. 92). 

V. Tavistock. — ^Inscribed stone at site of abbey : " Ne- 
prani fiU Conbeui." 

The second name is the earhest known form of the 
Welsh "Cynfyu" (Archasolog. Camb., 1874, p. 333). 

VI. Stowford, Lifton. — An inscribed stone : " Gurgles," 
" Gumglei," or " Gunglel." 

This reading is uncertain ; the latter is that of Mr. West- 
wood ; it is an inscription of the same period as the 
Yealmpton stone (Archceolog. Journal, 1851, p. 424). 

VOL. XLH. 2 H 



482 GHBISTIANTTY IK DSYON BBFOBB A.D. 909. 

Vll. Lustteigh, — ^Inscribed stone, formerly sill to church 
door : " Dettuidoc conhinoc." 

This inscription is probably of the eighth century and 
is perhaps Brythonic. 

Vni. Bowden, To«ne«.— Inscribed stone : " Valci fili V 
. . . aius." 

This inscription is taken from a letter of Browse Trist, 
Esq., A.D. 1744. 

IX. Winsford. — ^Inscribed stone on Winsford Hill. 
Though now in Somerset Exmoor was in Devon formerly. 
" Carataci (N)epus." 

Professor Rhys says this is a formula that is highly 
Gk)idelic — ^it means nephew or sister's son of Caratacus, 
the descent being reckoned on the mother's side {Archceolog, 
Camb.y 1896, p. 29). 

To these, perhaps, I should add two in Dorset, which 
was once probably within the Damnonian realm : — 

(i.) Frampton, — ^Inscribed stone, Latin characters with : 
"Chi Rho" Cross. 

(ii.) Wareham. — Inscribed stone : " Catgug . . . ie fius 
Gideo." 

In Cornwall there are twenty-two which I believe have 
been previously fully described and collected together. 
There has also been found an Ogham inscription as far 
east as Silchester ; it is " The grave of Epicatus, son of 
Muco 4-." In Latin *'Muco " equals *'nepus." Compare 
with Exmoor stone. 

X. — Copplestone Cross, — By some considered Keltic, 
though more probably Anglo-Saxon. 

XI. — Dolton, — ^Parts now made into a font in the church ; 
this is, however, probably early Anglo-Saxon, a.d. 709 
(Trans. Devon, Assoc,, Vol. XXII, p. 197), though the 
sculpture is of a Keltic character. 

XII. East WorlingUm, — Stone with cross on each face. 

XIII. iMstleigh, — Cross. 

There is little in the stones to connect them with Chris- 
tianity, but agreeing as they do with the Welsh and Cornish 
contemporaneous stones in the characters of the letters, 
the contents and form of inscription, in their grammar, 



0HBI8TIANITY IK DEVON BBFOBB A.D. 909. 483 

and in two cases by the accompanying of the Latin words 
with an equivalent in Ogham characters, they eae prob- 
ably Christian because the Welsh and Cornish parallel 
class are demonstrably so. The only hght thrown by 
them is that the Groidehc race who erected them were more 
probably connected with Wales than Ireland, and this 
view is strengthened by the more recent ones discovered at 
Winsford and Silchester. The occurrence so far east is all 
against Oghams being of Irish origin. 

These stones are probably Christian memorials, because 
in pre-Christian days the Kelts disposed of their dead by 
cremation, the burnt ashes being placed in rudely baked 
urns and deposited in the earth, the place being marked 
by a moimd, a circle of stones, a row of stones, or a menhir, 
or a combination of these. When Christianity was intro- 
duced a change in their methods of burial took place. 

(a) They were not burnt. 

(6) No objects were buried with them. 

(c) Burials were in consecrated places. 

(d) Place marked by a cross or inscription. 

B. 

CONTEMPOBANBOnS AND LATEB BECOBDS. 

I. OUdaa. — ^The Welsh historian, a.d. 646, refers in one 
passage to Christianity in Devon. It is : — 

" (M this horrid abomination Constantine the tyrannical 
whelp of the unclean lioness of Damnonia is not ignorant. 
In the habit of a holy abbot, amid the sacred altars, did 
with sword and javeUn murder two royal youths with 
their two attendants." 

II. Aldhelm. — Letter to Gerontius or Geraint, which, 
Bede says, brought many of the Britons to the CathoUc 
celebration of the Dominical Pasch, a.d. 705. 

In the time of William of Malmesbury this letter had 
disappeared, and it was believed that the Britons had 
destroyed it, but it has since been found among letters 
attributed to Winfrith ; the letter was evidently pre- 
served by them. Aldhelm was himself a pupil of Maidulf , 
a Goidel missionary. The address is : — 

" To the most glorious Lord wielding the sceptre of the 
western kingdom whom I as the discemer of hearts is my 



484 OHBISTIAIOTY IK DBVON BBFOBB A.D. 909« 

witness embrace in fraternal charity to King Gerontius 
and also to all the priests of Gk)d dwelling throughout 
the Domnonian realm Aldhelm imworthily exercising the 
office of abbot a greeting in the Lord." 

The letter itselJF is somewhat lengthy to quote; the 
following is an abstract of its contents : — 

(a) A statement of the origin of the letter. 

{b) A statement of reports that the British Christians 
were at variance among themselves and an argument 
for peace. 

(c) A statement of reports that the British rejected 
the circular tonsiure, and an argument that his was the 
tonsure of St. Peter, theirs the tonsure of Simon Magus. 

{d) A still more pernicious offence that they kept Easter 
on a wrong calculation, and that they carried to an 
extreme pitch their scorn for all who differed from them 
— this part is worth quoting in full, as it illustrates 
relationship of British and Saxon Christians : — 

" What a wide departure it is from the CathoUc faith 
and from gospel tradition that the priests of the Demetse 
on the other side of the Severn Sea, priding themselves 
on the nicety of their private and personal living, shrink 
in abhorrence from communion with us. So much so 
that they will not condescend to join us in divine 
service in church nor to take their meals with us side by 
side in friendly fellowship at Table. . . . They offer 
us no friendly salutation, no kiss of holy brotherhood 
is given according to the apostolic precept ... if any 
of us visit them for the piu^ose of taking up our abode 
with them we are not admitted to the society of the 
guild before we have passed forty days in penance." 

(e) A strojig appeal in the name of CathoUcity. 

(/) A declaration that to hold the CathoUc faith is 
not sufficient without the observance of Catholic 
practice. 

[11. References to Devon in early books of Wales. 
(a) Death of Geraint, a.d. 530. 

*' In Longborth Geraint was slain, 
A brave man from the region of Dyvnaint, 
And before they were overpowered they com- 
mitted slaughter." 

Black, Book of Caermarthen, IX, 9. 



CHRISTIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D, 909. 486 

(6) St. Teilo, said to have visited Geraint at Dingevin 
on his way to Brittany during the yellow plague and 
to come back in seventh year, circ. a.d. 590 {Liber 
LandavenaiSy pp. 102, 107.) 

(c) lolo MSS. have a large number of references to 
Damnonia and west country saints. 

(i) They tell us that the royal residence of Damnonia 
was formerly at Gelliwig, and later at Caervynyddawg. 
I am unable to identify these places. 

(ii) Motto of the chair of Dyvnaint in the chair of 
Bleisgawen was: "Nothing is for ever that is not for 
ever and ever." 

(iii) Various accounts of Greraint,. for instance, his 
saying : — 

** Hast thou heard the saying of Geraint, 
The son of Erbin the Just and Generous, 
Short-lived is the hatred of the saints ? " 

(iv) In its calendar of saints various names of many 
to whom there are Devonshire dedications. 

IV. Bede mentions two British bishops as assisting 
at the consecration of St. Chad, a.d. 666. Bishop Browne 
shows that these were Damnonian bishops and not Welsh. 

V. Submission of Bishop Kenstec, a.d. 846: — 

''In the name of God most high and our Lord Jesus 
Christ. 

*' I, Kenstec, elected, though humble and unworthy, to 
the episcopal seat in the Cornish nation in the monastery 
which is called, in the language of the Britons, Dinurrin, 
in the first place confess to thee most holy father, Ceolnod 
Archbishop, that without any doubting I beUeve in God 
the Father Almighty, etc. etc. . . . and I profess to thee 
with all humbleness and sincere devotion, most pious 
and learned prelate, that in all things without any scruple 
of false and frivolous imagining, I am ready to become 
for all the term of my transitory life the obedient poor 
servant and suppliant client of the Dorovemian Church, 
and of thee and thy successors. 

**I, Kenstec, subscribe this with the confirmation under 
my own hand of the sign of the Cross of Christ." 



486 QHBISTIANITY IN DEVON BBFOBB A.D. 909. 

VI. — English chroniclers : — 

(a) William Malmesbury, a.d. 1120: 

(i.) Mentions that a King of Damnonia on the peti- 
tion of Abbot Worgrez, in the year a.d. 601, granted 
to the old church at Glastonbury or Ineswetrin, five 
cassates of land, and that the instrument containing 
this grant has : *' I, Mawom, Bishop, wrote this 
grant. I, Worgrez, Abbot of the place, signed it." 
** Who this king might be, the antiquity of the instru- 
ment prevents our knowing," says William (Oest 
Reg.. 127). 

(ii.) He preserves some ancient names inscribed 
on a pyramid : " Her Sexi " and " Bliswerh," with 
image of regal dignity, etc. (Oest. Reg.y i. 21). 

(iii.) Tells us that a.d. 926 the Britons inhabited 
Exeter with equal privilege with the Angles, and that 
Athelstan then cleansed Exeter by purging it of its 
contaminated race, and fortified it with towers and 
surroimded it with a wall of squared stone {Gest. Reg., 
u. 134). 

(iv.) Tells us St. Bumon was a bishop much talked 
of, with comment "nothing known but the name" 
(Oest. Pont.). 

' (b) John of Glastonbury : 

Records the names of Damnonian bishops not given 

by other writers, St. Conoglas and St. Coventinus. 

VII. Grandisson's ordinate, circ. a.d. 1330. 

In 1330, Bishop Grandisson, when he was compiling this, 
wrote complaining of the neglect and accidents that had 
caused the destruction or loss of the records of the Cornish 
saints, and directed all that remained to be transcribed. 
Unfortunately he has not handed down what then sur- 
vived, but it is evident that at that early period most of 
the records of the Keltic saints and Church had disap- 
peared ; but in his calendar he preserves items of great 
value. 

(i.) St. Brannock's body rested at Braunton, his feast 
had nine lections, and directions are given for its celebra- 
tion if his feast fell on a Sunday. 

(ii.) St. Branwalethri, a martyr son of King Kenem. 
(iii.) St. Kierrian, a bishop and confessor. 



QHBI8TIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D. 909. 487 

(iv.) St. Petrock, who, divinely moved, forsook the 
footsteps of this earthly kingdom and the warfare of 
this worldly life to win by the sweetness of the lonely 
life the glory of the heavenly kingdom ; his day had 
nine lections. 

(v). SS. Branwalader and Mellenus, confessors and 
bishops. St. Branwalader is also commemorated in a 
Winchester calendar, and one at Treguies in Brittany. 
In the Exeter Litany, cited by MabUlon, there is also 
an invocation of him. On January 19, 905, King 
Athelstan translated the body of St. Branwalader to 
Milton. WiUiam of Worcester says before it reposed 
at Branston, eight miles from Axminster. His days 
were Jmie 8, January 19, Jime 6. 

(vi). St. Bumon, several days of commemoration of 
this saint are given : January 5, translation ; August 
30, " depositio " ; October 30, his death. 

(vii.) Commemoration of various other Keltic saints, 
as St. Melanus, St. Gildas, St. Cadox, St. Kywere, St« 
Nectan, etc. 

A Saxon MS. of the Church of Sarum mentions a bishop 
in connection with Mellenus Wilperrizi, which may be a 
corruption of Branwallader. 

VIII. WiUiam of Worcester, a.d. 1478, made a journey 
through Devon and Cornwall and examined the calendars 
of Tavistock, Laimceston, Bodmin, and St. MichaePs Moimt, 
etc. The value of this from an historical point of view is the 
names he gives ; the lives based, as they are, on Capgrave's 
Nova Legenda, are the inventions of an imcritical and credu- 
lous age, eight hundred years after the events, and are not 
only unworthy of credence, but absolutely misleading — 
the Goidel of the early age had long before this time been 
interpreted as meaning an Irishman, a late Welsh use of 
the word. It is this use of the word Goidel that led him 
to confound the Danmonian saints with somewhat similar- 
sounding Irish names. He gives, however, the names of 
several Danmonian bishops of apparently Keltic dates. 
There were however, no doubt, visits of Irish saints to 
their Danmonian brethren, for their activity and love of 
wandering are almost incredible. We may take from him 
such names as Rumon, Conoglas, Kierrian or Piran, 
Carantoc, Withinoc, Bamic, as being probably Danmonian 



488 CHRISTIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D. 909. 

bishops, especially when there is confirmation from other 
sources. 

IX. Leland, — Sixteenth century. 

Our last informant on what had survived of tradition 
in the old monasteries and on their records ; he however 
adds Uttle to William of Worcester, though he is less 
credulous and leaves out much of the absurd legends of 
William. For instance, his whole account of St. Petrock is : 

** Petrocus genere Camber 

XX annos studuit in Hibemia 

reversus est ad suum monasterium in Comnbia 

obiit prid. non Junii " (Vol. VIII, p. 52), 

his disciples being Credanus, Medanus, Dechanus, all 
buried at Bodmin. This latter piece of information is 
probably late monkish apocrypha. 

X. BreviarieSy etc. 

Aberdeen. — Some account of Constantine, and informs 
us his retirement was caused by the imtimely death of his 
daughter. 

Cornish. — Missa St. Grermani (Frag. MS., Bodleian), 
ninth century, claims St. German's preaching and relics 
for Cornwall — a quite unhistorical legend. 

XI. Keltic Dedications in Devon, 

This last source is perhaps the most valuable of all, for 
it shows us first of all that the native Christianity in 
Devon was sufficiently strong to be able to resist the 
levelling process of Anglo-Roman domination. And 
next it is a noticeable point that Keltic churches were not 
originally dedicated to saints then dead, but called by the 
names of their living founders, so the presumption is that 
a church called after a Keltic saint is his own individual 
foundation. The Keltic saints, as I said before, were dis- 
tinguished by their love of wandering — they never re- 
mained long stationary, but moved from place to place, 
dotting their cells wherever they could obtain a foothold. 
So these Keltic dedications are no mere whims of name 
fanciers, but commemorate founders. In the eighth century, 
however, the practice of dedicating churches to founders 
was superseded by dedications to St. Michael. Thus the 
frequent Llanfihangels we find in Wales show the later 
churches, and it is noticeable that they are most frequent 



CHBISTIANITY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D. 909. 489 

in the wildest parts, showing, as we should expect, that 
paganism survived longest in the wildest parts. 

We might be inclined at first to except from this rule 
Keltic dedications found in parishes where the land be- 
longed to an abbey with a Keltic dedication, and think 
the names were given in sympathy with the dedication of 
the abbey. And in Devon there are many of these, 
Petrookstow, South Brent, Zeal Monachorum, all with 
Keltic dedications, were the lands of the Abbot of Buckfast. 
This reUgious house, better known as a Cistercian abbey, 
founded in 1137, was before the Conquest Benedictine and 
of unknown antiquity, and we have every reason to beUeve 
it was a Keltic foundation. 

So Hollacombe and Newton St. Petrock were the lands 
of the priests of Bodmin in Domesday ; the last is certainly 
suspicious, as it is said to have been given to St. Petrock's, 
Bodmin, by King Eadred in a.d. 946, and Bumonsleigh 
doubtless owes its dedication to Tavistock, for Tavistock, 
though with a Keltic name, was a Saxon foundation. But 
monasteries in the Keltic church had a different rationale 
from later ones. In the Saxon and Norman ecclesiastical 
poUty a monastery was a refuge for those who fled from 
the evils and temptations of the world, a haven where 
they might serve God better ; so Bishop Grandisson in his 
description of St. Petrock speaks of him as divinely moved 
to forsake the warfare of this worldly life, and win by the 
sweetness of the lonely life the glory of the heavenly 
kingdom, ascribing to this Keltic saint an idea that was 
entirely foreign to him, for a monastery in the Keltic 
Church was mainly a training - place for missionaries. 
There the converts were gathered for instruction and 
preparation for the Christian priesthood, not that they 
might forsake the warfare of the worldly life, but that 
they might be fitted for that warfare, and fight in the 
world the good fight with all their might. The Keltic 
churches in lands that belonged to a Keltic monastery or 
their successors mark the oflfshoots, perhaps, from the 
abbey — the scenes of the labours of those trained in 
them. 

Let me, then, give a Ust of the Keltic dedications that 
exist or did exist in former times in Devon, for they will 
show us the footsteps of the Keltic missionaries in our 
county ; the ones that still remain, or of which we have 
record, are probably only a part and perhaps a small part 



490 



0HBI8TIANITY IK DEVON BBFORB A.D. 909* 



of those that once existed. With the strengthening of the 
Saxon factor in Devon there must have been a tendency 
to displace the unknown founder by a more fashionable 
dedication, or to alter it into something that sounded 
much alike but more familiar. Thus, many a St. Petrock 
was changed to a St. Peter imder Saxon and Norman in- 
fluence ; the wonder is not that there are so few, but that 
there are so many. 'The following list may doubtless be 
papable of alteration by erasiu^e and addition. I have 
rejected some names given by others. For instance, All 
Hallows, Exeter, given as Keltic by Kerslake, is un- 
doubtedly Saxon ; probably also St. Mary Arches, Exeter ; 
but Zeal Monachorum, now St. Peter, was in all proba- 
bility originally St. Petrock. And with this preface I 
make, I believe, the first offer of a complete list of Devon- 
shire Keltic dedications, including those that show Keltic 
influence. The authorities are chiefly Oliver, Brooking 
Rowe, Bishops* Registers, Wills, Miss Arnold Foster, and 
Thesaurus Ecc. Prov, 1782. 



St. Alban 
St. Brannock 
St. Brandon 

St. Budoc 
St. Bridget 



St. Constantine 
St. Constantine and 

St. Teilo 
St. Cuby 



Beaworthy 

Braunton 

Brendon 

Stokenham 

St. Budeaux 

Bridestowe 

Bridgerule 

Swymbridge 

Virginstow 

Wembworthy 

Dunsford 

Milton Abbot 
Exeter (Cowick) 
Widworthy 



Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Chapel 

Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Chapel 

Parish Church 
Chapel 
Chapel 

Parish Church 
Chapel 
Parish Church 



St. Cyriaeus and St. 

Julitta, or St.Curig Newton St. Cyres Parish Church 
St. Cyriaeus (and St 

Nicholas) 
St. David 



South Pool 
Ashprington 
Ashprington 
Awliscombe 
(Dotton) 
Culm Davy 



Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Chapel 



Chapel 
Parish Church 



CHRISTIANITY IN DBVON BBFORB A.D. 909. 



491 



St. David 

St. Germanus 
St. Helen (Elen ?) 

St. Heligan 
St. Hergyth 



St. Julian 
St. Kierrian 
St. Marina 

(=Morwenna) 
St. Melor 
St. Nectan 



St. Noim 
St. Patemus 
St. Pol de Leon 
(or Pawl Hen) 



St. Petrock 



Exeter 
Thelbridge 
Germansweek 
Abbotsham 
Lundy 
H!artland 
Cfaittlehampton 
Swymbridge 
(Stowford) 
Maker 
Exeter 

Mariansleigh 

Thomcombe 

Ashcombe 

Hartland 

Hartland 

Welcombe 

Bradstone 
North Petherwin 

Churchstow 

Exeter 

Filleigb 

Landkey 

Staverton 

Anstey West 



Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Chapel 
Parish Church 

Chapel 

Parish Church 
Parish Church 

Parish Church 
Chapel 

Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Abbey 
Parish Church 

(from 1608) 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 

Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 



Bamptoa(Petton) Chapel 
Brent, South Parish Church 



Backfastleigh 

Charles 

Clanuaborough 

Dartmouth 

Dunkeswell 

Exeter 



Abbey (anciently) 

Chapel 

Parish Church 

Chapel 

Abbey (anciently) 

Parish Church 



Exeter (Cathedral) Chapel 
Harford Parish Church 



HolleLcombe 
Kenton 
Leigh, West 
Lydford 
Kewton, St. 
Petrock 



Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 

Parish Church 



492 



CHBISTIAKITY IN DEVON BEFORE A.D. 909. 



St. Petrock 



St. Bumon 



St. Sidwell 
St. TeUo 



St. Teilo and St. 

Constantine 
St. Twinnel 
St. Wenn 



Parracombe 

Petrockstow 

Tor Mohun 

Totnes 

Zeal Monachorum 

Bumonsleigh 

Lynton 

Tavistock 

Exeter 

Ide 

Ideford 

Iddesleigh 

Milton Abbot 

Portlemouth 

Hartland 



Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Chapel 
Abbey 

Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Parish Church 

Parish Church 
Parish Church 
Chapel 



To these I ought to add St. Brendon, at Brendon, and St. 
Beuno's cell, at Culbone, which is Cyl-Beuno, or St. Beuno's 
cell. This gives a total of fifty-six parish churches and 
twenty religious houses and chapels ; and to these should 
be added a certain proportion of the dedications to St. 
Peter, as being probably originally to St. Petrock. Also 
a proportion of those to St. Michael. If we take ten per 
cent of these it will add seven more. Again, in Devon 
there are four churches and one chapel dedicated to St. 
Pancras. Miss Arnold Forster considers these are all to 
St. Pancras of Taormina and of Keltic origin. I would 
suggest some connection between St. Pancras at Bousdon 
near the birthplace of St. Branwallader, and St. Pancras at 
Exeter, which is considered a Keltic foundation by Mr