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Full text of "Report of the annual meeting"

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f ibrarg of % ptistum 

OF 

COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY, 

AT UlTiU COllMK, CAIBIINI, IA88. 
#ouii)ie)i bs yvCbate suiiscrrptfoii, fn 1861. 



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REPORT 



or THE 



TWENTY-EIGHTH MEETING 



OFTHB 



BRITISH ASSOCIATION 



FOB THB 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE; 



HELD AT LKEDS IN SBFTBUBBR 1868. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

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PRINTKD BY 

RICHARD TAYLOR AND WILLIAM FRANCIS. 

RB» UON OOU|ff| FI4BT BTR«BT. 







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'J 



CONTENTS. 



Objects and Rales of the Association xvii 

Places of Meeting and Officers from commencement , xz 

Treasurer's Account , ,,,.., , xxlii 

Table of Coancil from commencement xxiy 

Officers and Council ,.•• ,.•••,....,..., ^vi 

Officers of Sectional Committees , , ^u|vii 

Correspon^ii^g Meml^rS" * ••••* xx¥iii 

Report pf the Council to the General Committee .,., f. ,.,..„...,,, %im\i 

Bqport of the Kew Committee ,;,,, t.«,*.,«.,M*«f ••.,•••»,•• sa^iii 

Report pf the Parliamentary Committee „.,,,,.*f « f^-^f xxanri 

geeonunaodatioiis for Additional Reports and Researohai in Scuwoe xxjux 

Synopsis of Money Grants ,.m. •»••*. •^•v ....,»,,»..,f*fM*fr* )^UU 

General Statement of Sums paid for Scieqtific JPnrppsew »t t^ •••*•• ^^^ 

Extracts from Resolutbns pf the General Committee .,,.,,M»'r*f»f ^YM 
Arrangement of the General Meetings ,Mf«*f«t. •••#*••. M»rr»if*f*frf lAv^^ 
Address of t}ie President - xUx 



REPORTS OF RESEARCHES IN SCIENCE. 

Pourtb Report upon the Facts and Theory of Earthquake Phenomena. 
By Ro9BaT MaljuBtt • 1 

Report on Obserrations of Luminous Meteors, 1857-58. By the Rev. 
Badsv Powbll, M.A.^ F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Sayilian Professor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford ISY 

On some Points in the Anatomy of the Araneidea, or true Spiders, espe- 
cially OB the internal structure of their Spinning Organs. By R. H. 
Mbadb, F3XA 157 

The Patent Laws.^ — Report of the Committee of the British Association. 
Presented by W. Faibbairn, F.R.S 64 

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IV CONTENTS. 

Page 

On the Lead Mining Districts of Yorksbire. By Stephen Eddt> 
Carlton, Skiptoii 167 

On the Collapse of Glass Globes and Cylinders. By W. Fairbairn, 
F.R.S 174 

Report on the Marine Fauna of the South and West Coasts of Ireland. 
By £. Perceval Wright, M.B., A.B., F.L.S., M.R.LA., Director 
of the Museum, and Lecturer ou Zoology, University of Dublin ; and 
J. Reay Greene, A.B., M.R.LA., Professor of Natural Hbtory, 
Queen's College, Cork. PartL (1858) 176 

On Experiments on the Measurement of Water by Triangular Notches 
in Weir Boards. By James Thomson, A.M., C.E., Professor of 
Civil Engineering, Queen's College, Belfast 181 

Report of the Committee on the Magnetic Survey of Great Britain. 
By Major-General Sabine 185 

Report on Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Substances imported from 
Foreign Countries into the Clyde (inclpding the Ports of Glasgow, 
Greenock, and Port Glasgow) in the jeAts 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856, 
1857. By Michael Connal, Esq., and William Keddie, Esq.^ 
Glasgow 185 

Report of the Committee on Shipping Statistics. Presented to the 
British Association, September 1858 23d 

Notice of the Instruments employed in the Magnetic Surrey of Ireland, 
with some of the Results^ By the Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D.9 M.R.I.A... 260 

Report of Dublin Dredging Committee, i^pointed 1857-58* By Pro<» 
feasor J. R. Kinahan, M.D., M.RJ.A 262 

Report on Crustacea of Dublin District By John Robert Kinahan, 
MJ>., M.RJ.A., Professor of 2k)ology in the Department of Science 
and Art.— Part L Decapoda Podophthalmata 262 

On River Steamers, their Form, Construction, and Fittings, with refer- 
ence to the necessity for improving the present means of Shallow 
Water Navigation on the Rivers of British India. By Andrew 
Henderson, AXCE., M.S.A., F.R.6.S. ....•• 268 

Report of the Belfast Dredging Committee. By George C. Htndman 282 

Appendix to Mr. Vignoles' paper ** On the Adaptation of Suspension 
Bridges to sustain the passage of Railway Trains" (Rept. Brit. Assoc 
857) 293 

Report of the Joint Committee of the Royal Society and the British 
Association, for procuring a continuance of the Magnetic and 
Meteorological Observatories 295 

Description of a Self-recording Anemometer. By R. Becklbt, Assist- 
ant at the Kew Observatory of the Britbh Association 306 



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C0NTBNT8. 



NOTICES AND ABSTRACTS 



OF 



MISCELLANEOUS COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECTIONS. 



MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

Mathematics. 

P«g« 
Address by the Rev, W. Whbwbll, President of the Section 1 

Ber. J. Booth on a General Method of deriving the Properties of umbilical sur- 
hcn of the second order, having three unequal axes, from the properties of 
the sphere •.... 2 

Rev. J. Booth on the Mutual Relations of Inverse Curves and Inverse Curved 
Surfaces 3 

Mr. A. Cati^t on the Notion of Distance in Analytical Geometry 3 

Mr. J. PoPK Hbnnsbsy on Dr. WheweU's Views respecting the Nature and 
Value of Mathematical Definitions 3 

■ on some Properties of a Series of Ae Powers of the 
same Number 4 

Dr. F. A. Sii.JS8TRdM on the Conditions of Equilibrium in a Rotatuig Spheroid 5 

Bir. G. Thubnkll on a Mode of constructing the Rectangular Hyperbola by 
Fdints 5 

Mr. C* M. WiLUCH on a Mode of constructing Tables of Squares and Cubes. 6 

Light, Hbat. 

Mist RosiNA ZoBKLiN ou Heat, and on the Indestructibility of Elementary 
Bodies. (Communicated by W. S. Atbton.) 6 

Sir Datid Brbwstbr on the Duration of Luminous Impressions on certain 
PCMnts of the Retina - 6 

---————— on Vision through the Foramen Centrale of the Retina. 7 

— — ^— — — — on certain Abnormal Structures in the Crystalline Lenses 
of Animals, and in the Human Crystalline 7 

-^— — — on the Crystalline Lens of the Cuttle-fish 10 

■■ on the Use of Amethyst Plates in Experiments on the 
Polarizatioii of Light 13 

IVofcsaor Pbtzvai^'s New Combination Lens 13 

Mr. Hhvrt DiRCKS on an Apparatus for exhibiting Optical Illusions of Spec- 
tral Phenomena , 14 

Rev. J. DufaLB on a New Case of Binocular Vision H 

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Dr. Gladstone and Rev. T. P. Daus on some Optical Properties of Phos- 
phorus • • 15 

Mr. F. Galton a Hand Heiiostat^ for the purpose of flashing Sun Signals, 
from on board Ship or on Land, in Sunny Climates 15 

Dr. J. H. Gladstone on the Fixed Lines of the Solar Spectrum 17 

Rev. W. R. GaovB on the Influence of Light on Polarized Electrodes 17 

Mr. W. M'Cbaw on a New, Cheap, and Permanent Process in Photography. 
(Communicated by Sir David Brewster.) 18 

Sir G. Robinson on Moon Blindness 19 

Mr. Samuel, an early form of the Lenticular Stereoscope constructed for 
the use of Schools, exhibited by 19 

Mr. Norman Pooson on the Ocular Crystal Micrometer, with observations of 
twelve double stars, as evidence of its extraordinary power in measuring 
small angular distances. (Conmiunicated by Dr. John Lee.) 19 

Dr. F. A. SiLJESTROM on the Distribution of Heat in the Interior of the Earth 23 

Mr. B. Stewart's Account of some Experiments on Radiant Heat, involving 
an Extension of Prevosf s Theory of Exchanges 33 

Elbctricitt, MagKbtIbm. 

Mr. J. DatMMOND on the Intensity of the Terrestrial Magnetic Force ^A 

■ on the Development of a Physical Theory of Terrestrial 
Magnetism, an outline of which was submitted to the Dublin Meeting 25 

Mr. C* L. Draper's Memoir on Electro-Magnetism ..ii 25 

Mr. WiLDMAN Wbitbhousb's contributions on the Submarine Telegraph tf 

Mr. J. P. Gasbiot on Induced Electrical Discharges taken in Aqueous Vapour 26 

' on the Phosphorescent Appearance of Electrical Discharges 

in a Vacuum made in Flint and Potash Glass • 86 

Mr. Gbor»b Gorb's exhilMton of Apparatus showing the Correlation of Forces, 
and Exhibition of Heating Effects, by Mechanical Operations, on a peculiar 

Form of Antimony 26 

Mr. W. Ladd on an Improved Induction Coil »..•• 26 

Dr. F. A. SiLJBSTROM en the Magnetic Dip at Stockholm ....•*..., Sf 

Astronomy. 

Mr. Edward Joshua Cooper on the Perihelia and Ascending Nodes of the 

Planets 2? 

Donati'a Comet. — Extracts from Letters received by Mr. E. J. Cooper, from 
Mr. A. Graham 28 

Dr. John Leb on the Results of the Measures of Gamma Virginis for the Epoch 
1868, as determined by Admiral Smyth 29 

Mr. N. Pooson on a New Variable Star (tl. Sagittarii), discovered with the 
5-foot Smythian Telescope of the Hartwell House Observatory. (Commu- 
nicated by Dr. Joilw Lsii.) i .'. 29 

Dr. F. A. BiUESTR^ on the CodsUtution of Comets 30 

Colonel Sykes on the successful establishment, by Astronomer Broun, of a 
Meteorological and Magnetical Observatory at Travancore, at 6200 feet above 
the Level of the Sea i with Results of Magnetical Observations at Trevan* 
drum, as communicated in a Letter from Mr. Broun to General Sir ThomaB 
Brisbane • ii..«. 30 



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Fife 
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Rer. Si BAEitsHAW oil the Mathematicai Theory of 8oatid ...« 84 

Metboroloot. 

Mr. W. R. BowoiTGH on the Formation of HaiU as illustrated by Local Stormfe 15 

Mr. Ji Paek HAnaisoEf, farther Evidence of Lunar Infloence on Temperature 86 

Fhifessor Hbnnbsat on the Decreaae of Temperature over Elevated Ground... 30 
— — — — — ^— on the Heating of the Atmosphere by Contact with the 

Earth's Surface 36 

Colonel Jambs's Note on Refraction •• 38 

Dr. Lbb on the Daily Comparison of an Aneroid Barometer with a Board of 
Trade Barometer by Captains of Ships at Sea 38 

Mr. F. OsLsa on the Construction of a Portable Self-registering Anemometer 
for recording the direction and amount of Horizontal Motion of the Air • 88 

Ber. T. Rankin's Meteorological Observations at Huggate for 1857 •».«*••.•••. 38 

Dr. F. A. Siubstrom's Note on Observations of Temperature • ».•«««••• 89 

Colonel SncBs on the Desirableness of renewing Balloon Ascents in England 
for Meteorological Objects •••«. ••»•*«»•• 39 

Mr. 6. J. Stm ONS on a New Construction of Standard Portable Mouot^dn 
Barometers 39 

Professor Ttndall's Particulars of an Ascent of Mont Blanc 39 

Mr. J. WoLLBY on a fresh Form of Crystallization which takes place in the 
Particles of Fallen Snow under Intense Cold • 40 

Instbumbnts. 

Mr. Wabbamd Cablilb on Dials which give the Latitude^ the line of Nortii 
and South* and Chronometer Time .o..! 41 

CHEMISTRY. 

Address by Sir J. f. W. Hbbschel, President of the Section 41 

Mr. J. Bbdfobd on Colorific Lichens • #. •.•••«••• 45 

Dr. C. W. Binolbt on the peculiar action of Mud and Water on Glass, as 
more especially illustrated by some Specimens of Glass found in the Lake at 
Walton Hall, near Wakefield, the residence of Charlbs Watbbton, Esq... 45 

Mr. F. Cracb Calvbbt on the Expansion of Metals, Alloys, and Salts.. .•••... 46 

Dr. J. Bakbb Edwabds's Note on Nitro-glycerine and other Xyloids 47 

Mr. R. J. FowLBB on a Process for the Estimation of Actinism 47 

Mr. Ai^PHONSB Gaobs on a Method of Observation applied to the study of 
some Metamorphic Rocks ; and on some Molecular Changes exhibited by the 

action of Acids upon them 48 

- on a new variety of Pyro-electric Wavellite 49 

Mr. J. P. Gassiot on Electrical Discharges as observed in hi|^y ratified Car- 
bonic Acid in contact with Potash 50 

Or. J. U. Olaostonb on reciprocal Decomposition between Salts and their 
Acid Solvents 50 

Bfr. Gbobob GLADSTOfrB on a remarkable Deposit of Carbonate of Lime about 
Fossib in the Lower Lias of Diorsetshire • •»..•. .-51 

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TIU CONTBNT8. 

Pigs 

Mr. W. Huoooir on the Alkaline Waters of Leeds 51 

Pr« H. Bbncb Jones, Some Account of Profersor Schonbein's latest Experi- 
ments on the AUotropic Conditions of Oxygen 52 

Dr. Edwin Lankbstbr on an Instrument for Measuring the Constant Intensity 
of Ozone 52 

Mr. J. B. Lawes and Dr. J. H. Gilbbrt on the Annual Yield of Nitrogen per 
Acre in different Crops 52 

Dr. W. Laudbr Lindsay on the Action of Hard Waters upon Lead 54 

On an improved Electric Lamp invented and manufactured by Mr. William 
Habt. (Communicated by Dr. Stbybnson Macadam.) 55 

Dr. Stbybnson Macadam on M. de Luca's Claim to be the Discoverer of the 
Non- Presence of Iodine in the Atmospheric Air, Rain- Water, and Snow 56 

's Note on the Production of a Frosted Surface on 

Articles made of Aluminium 56 

Dr. J. A. Matthibssbn on the Combustibility and other Properties of the 
Rarer Metals 57 

Mr. John Mbecbr on Chromatic Photographs 57 

on the Relation of the Atomic Weights of the Families of 

the Elements 57 

Dr. W. Odlino on the Atom of Tin 58 

Mr. W. H. Pbrkin on the Purple Dye obtained from Coal-Tar 58 

Mr. John Mbrcbr an the Atomic Weights of the Elements of Six Chemical 
Families 59 

Dr. PuoH on a new Method for the Quantitative Estimation of Nitric Acid.... 64 

Rev. J. B. Rbadb on Animal Ammonia, its Formation, Evolution, and Office.. 65 

Mr. R. Reynolds on the Practical. Application of Aluminium 66 

Mr. W. L. Smith on the Choice of Subject in Photography, and the Adapta- 
tion of different Processes 66 

Dr. E. Smith on a new Method of Determining tiie Quantity of Carbonic Acid 
contained in the Air 66 

Mr. W. K. SuLLiYAN on some Double Salts formed with Bichromate of Potash 66 

Professor Voblckbr on the Constitution of the Mineral Portion of Bones, and 
the Analysis of Common Bone-ash, Animal Charcoal, &c 68 

Dr. W. Wallace on the Carbonates of Alumina, Chromic Oxide, and Ferric 

Oxide 69 

— on Chloro-Arsenious Acid, and some of its Compounds 69 

Mr. W. S. Ward's Observations on Dry Collodion Processes 71 

Mr. R. Warinoton on the Source of Ammonia in Volcanic Emanation 71 

Mr. John Water house on an Instrument for maintaining a Water-Bath at 
constant Temperatures 71 

GEOLOGY. 

Address by Mr. William Hopkins, President of the Section 73 

Rev. Dr. Anderson on the Fossil Fishps and Yellow Sandstone 74 

Mr. T. W. Atkinson on the Volcanoes of Central Asia* commencing wilh the 
Baikal, in Oriental Siberia, and extendiog into Mongolia and Chinese Tartary, 
illustrated by a beautiful series of dravrings of the principal volcanic scenes 
described 75 



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CONTBNT8. ix 

Mr. W. H. Bailt on the Fructification of Cyclopteris Nibemica (Forbes), from 
the Upper Deyonian or Lower Carboniferous Strata at Kiltorkan Hill, 
CouDty Kilkenny 75 

————— on two new species of Crustacea (BeUinurw, Konig) from 
the Coal Measures in Queen's Countv, Ireland; and some Remarks on forms 
allied to them '. 76 

Mr. W. Bainbs on the Yorkshire Flagstones and their Fossils 78 

Mr. L. Bakbett on the Atlas and Axis of the Plesiosaurus 78 

Dr.G. P. Bbyan on the Marine Shell Bed of the South Wales Coal Basin, showing 
the presence of Vegetable Remains in the Upper Coal Measures of the District, 
and of Shells and Fish in the Lower Coal Measures, and illustrating the con- 
tinuity of forms of life in different stratifications 80 

Professor Dawson on the Vegetable Structure visible in the Coal of Nova Scotia 80 

fiir. John S. £ny8*8 Photographs of Quarries near Penrhyn, showing the struc- 
ture of Granite 80 

Mr. Albany Hancock's Remarks on certain Vermiform Fossils found in the 
Mountain Limestone Districts of the North of England 80 

Frokaaor Harknbss on the Distortion of Fossils 81 

-—-———— on the Origin of the Breccias of the Southern Portion of 
the Valley of the Nith, Scotland 81 

Plrofessor Thomas H. Huxjlbt's Observations on the Genus Pteraspis 82 

Professor WiLU AM King on the Jointed Structure of Rocks, particularly as de- 
vdoped in several places in Ireland 83 

Mr, J. G. Mabshall on the Geology of the Lake District, in reference especially 
to the Metamorpbic and Igneous Rocks 84 

Mr. William Mathbws's Photographs of the Quarry of Rowley Rag at Ponk 

Hiil,Wal8aD 93 

Mr. C. Moobb on Triassic Beds near Frome, and their Organic Remains 93 

Sir R. I. Mubchison on some Results of recent Researches among the Older 
Rocks ofthe Highlands of Scotland 94 

Professor Jambs Nicol on the Age and Relations ofthe Gneiss Rocks in the 
North of Scotland 96 

Rev. T. W. NoBWOOD on the Comparative Geology of Hotham, near South Cave, 
Yorkahire 96 

Professor Owbn on a New Genus {Dimorphodon) of Pterodactyle, with remarks 
on the Geological Distribution of Flying Reptiles 97 

■ on Remains of New and Gigantic Species of Pterodactyle 
iPter, FUi<m and Pter. Sedpciekii) from the Upper Greensand, near Cam- 
Mdge 98 

Mr. D. Paob on the Skeleton of a Seal from the Pleistocene Clays of Stratheden, 
in Fifeshire 103 

— — 's Farther Contributions to the Palaeontology of the Tilestones or 
Silnrio-Devonian Strata of Scotland 104 

on the Relations of the Metamorphic and Older Palseozoic Rocks 

m Scotland 105 

Mr. W. Pbngbllt on a recently-discovered Ossiferous Cavern at Briiham, near 
Torquay .' 106 

Professor Phillips's Notice of some Phenomena at the Junction of the Granite 
and Schistose Rocks in West Cumberland 106 



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X CONTENTS* 

Psge 

Professor Phillips and Mr. R. Barkbb, Jun., on the Hamatite Ores of North 
Lancashire and West Cumberland ».* * ^w 

Mr. H. C. SoRBY on a New Method of determining the Temperature and Pres- 
sure at which various Rocks and Minerals were fbrmed *07 

— on some Peculiarities in the Arrangement of the Minerals in 

Igneous Rocks ^^^ 

on the Currents present during the Deposition of the Car- 
boniferous and Permian Strata in South Yorkshire and North Derbyshire... 108 

Rev. Francis F. Statham on the Geology of the Scilly Isles 108 

Mr. Thomas P. Tbalb on the Superficial Deposite of the Valley of the Aire at 
Leeds ^^^ 

Rev. Edward Trollopb on the Fens and Submarine Forests of Lincohishire 
and other Localities • H* 



BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY, ikcluding PHYSIOLOGY. 

BOTAIfT. 

Dr. Carrinoton on the Geological Distribution of Plants in some Districts of 
Yorkshire 115 

Mr. W. £. C. Noursb's Researches on the Colours of Leaves and Petals •«.«••• 115 

Mr. N* B. Ward on Suburban Gardens... » lit 

I ■ on some Practical Results derivable from the Study of Botany 118 

Mr. TuFTBif Wbst on the Epidermal Cells of the Petals of Platots ....* lid 

Zoology. 

Professor Allman on the Reproductive Organs of Sertnkafia tamarisca 119 

Mr. Cvthbbrt Collinowood's Remarks on the Migration of Birds 121 

Dr. J. Davy's Observations on the Fishes of the Lake District 122 

Mr. R. L. Ellis on the Cause of the Instinctive Tendency of Bees to form 
Hexagonal Cells 122 

Mr.T. C. Eyton on the Arrangement of Birds 122 

M on the Oyster 123 

Mr. RoBBRT Garnbr on the Anatomy of the Brain in some small Quadrupeds 123 

The Rev. H. H. Hiooiifs on the Death of the Common Hive Bee, supposed to 
be occasioned by a Parasitic Fungus • IB4 

The Rev. T. Hincks on a New Species of Laomedka ; with Remarks on the 
Genera CcMipaiiMiaria and lAunnedea .....i 126 

Mr. Joshua Aldbr on three New Species of Sertolarian Zoophytes. (Commu- 
nicated by the Rev.THOMAi Hicks) , » 126 

Mr. G. M. Humphry on the Homology of the Skeleton 126 

The Rev. H. H. Hiooins on the Liability of Shells to Injury from the Growth 
of a Fungus 128 

Rev. T. Hincks on some new and interesting Forms of British Zoophytes 128 



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OONTBNT8. Xk 

Mi*. C W. PmA.CH on Bome Peeuliar Forms of Spinet found on two Species of 
the Spinigrade Starfishes •••. 128 

Mr. Hbkkt Pbckitt's Notice of a number of Earth-worms and Larvae of an 
indescribed Species found in draining a field upon his Estate 129 

Dr. J. A. Poirma'8 Notes on Myrmecophiious Coleoptera ;.... 12d 

Rer. F. F. Statbam on the Occurrence of Bombyx mori in a wild state in this 
Country ,....% 130 

Mr. A. Stricki^nd on the British Wild Geese 131 

Mr. W. B. Tbgbtmkibb on the Formation of the Cells of Bees 132 

Mr. N.B.Ward on Aquaria 133 

Mr. R. Wabinqton on the Multiplication of Actiniae in Aquaria 1 3ll 

PhtsicJlooy. 

Dr. ACHILI.B FouLLB on some Observations connected with the Anatomy and 
Functions of the third, sixth, and seventh pairs of Nerves and the Medulla 
oblongata 134 

Dr. Richard Fowlbr on the Sensational, Emotional, Intellectual, and Instinc- 
tive Capacities of the Lower Animals compared with those of Man 134 

Dr. G. Hari.by'8 Notes of Experiments on Digestion 136 

•Mr. G. H» Lbwbs, the Spinal Chord a Sensational and Volitional Centre.. •*«..». 135 

Mr. JoHK MiLLiGAN ou the Pressure of the Atmosphere, and its Power in 
modifying and determining Hemorrhagic Disease .«*. 138 

Mr. W. R. MiLNBB on the Influence of various Circumstances in causing Loss 
or Gain in the Weight of the Prisoners in Wakefield Convict Prison .......... 139 

Mr. T. NuNNELBT on the Form of the Eyeball, and the relative position of the 
Entrance of the Optic Nerve into it in different Animals 139 

— ^— — ^— on the Structure of the Retina at the Punctum Centrale, or 
Foramen of ScBmmering 141 

— on the Structure of the Choroid Coat of the Eye, and more 

particularly on the Character and Arrangement of the Pigmentary Matter ... 141 

Dri E. Smith on the Results obtained from an Extended Inquiry into the 
Quantity of Carbonic Acid evolved from the Lungs under the Influence of 
various Agents ..i 142 

' on the Methods hitherto adopted for the Determination of the 
Carbonic Acid contained in the Expired Air, with a Description of a new 
Method 142 

Microscopical Apparatus. 

Mr. C. Brookb's improved Portable Microscope and Case 143 

Mr. Ladd's Microscope with improved Magnetic Stage 143 

BIr. WARiROTt)li'B Additions to his Portable Microscope 143 

GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Address by Sir Roderick Murchison, President of the Section 143 

Mr. T. W. Atkinson's Notes on a Journey through parts of the Alatou, in 
Chinese Tartary 144 

Sr. W.G. Blackib's Notes on the Russo-Chinese Frontier and the Amoor River 147 

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XU CONTENTS. 

Astronomer Broun's Notice of the Kanikars^ a Hill-Side Tribe in the Kingdom 
of Trayancore 148 

Major-General Chesnby on the Extension of Communications to Distant 
Places by means of Electric Wires 148 

Mr. Richard Cull on Dr, Prichard^s Identification of the Russians with the 
Roxolani 148 

Mr. H. CoNTBBARE ou the Physical Geography of the Neighbojiirhood of 
Bombay, as affecting the Design of the Works recently erected for the Water 
Supply of that City * 149 

Mr, J. Crawfurd on the Effects of Commixture, Locality, Climate, and Food 
on the Races of Man 149 

Dr. J. Davy's Observations on the Lake District 149 

Consul DoNOHOB on Pacific Railway Schemes, as communicated by the Earl 
t^Malmeabury to the President of the Royal Geographical Society 149 

Rev. J.DiNOLB on the Configuration of the Surface of the Earth 150 

Rev. G. C. Gbldart, Language no Test of Race 150 

Mr. H. M. Grbbnhow^s Short Notice of the People of Oude, and of their 
leading Characteristics 151 

Colonel H. James on the Geometrical Projection of two- thirds of the Surface 

of the Sphere 151 

Dr. R. G. Latham on the General Distribution of the Varieties of I.>anguage and 
Physical Conformation, with remarks upon the Nature of Ethnologiod Groups 151 

Mr. William Lockhart on the Yang-tse-Keang and the Hwang-ho, or Yellow 
River. (Communicated by Dr. Norton Shaw) 152 

Extracts from a Letter by Mr. William Russell to the President 152 

Mr. C. R. Markham on the Navigation of the Ucayali, an Affluent of the 
Amazons 153 

Dr. S. Muller's Geognostic Sketch of the Western Position of Timor 153 

Capt. J. Palliser and Dr. Hector's Reports to Her Ms^esty's Grovemment 
on the Physical Geography of the Country examined by the Expedition ex- 
ploring the South- Western Regions of British North America 153 

Dr. Norton Shaw on the Geography of British North America, more particu- 
larly British Columbia, Frazer River, &c 153 

Sir R. Schomburok's Letter to Sir R. I. Murchison on the Project of a Canal 
across the Isthmus of Kraw, which divides the Gulf of Bengal from that of 
Siam 153 

M. I. JoBBPH Silbermann OR a Method for the Spherical Printing of Globes. 154 

M. Troton on the Lacustrine Homes of the Ancient Swiss 154 

Mr. A. Whitney on the Formation of a Rdlway from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Ocean, through the British Possessions of North America 154 

Mr. J. S. Wilson's Notes on the Physical Geography of North- Western 
Australia 155 

Mr. J. Spots WOOD Wilson on the General and Gradual Desiccation of the 
Earth and Atmosphere 155 

Mr. Thomas Wright's Notice of the Opening of a Sepulchral Tumulus in 
East Yorkshire 156 



STATISTICAL SCIENCE. 
Address by the President, Mr. Edward BAiNEs,on opening the Section.... 157 



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C0NTBKT8. XIU 

Mr. Edward Baiicks on the Woollen MannfiKitare of England^ with special 
leference to the Leeds Clothing District 158 

Dr. Joseph Batxmak on the Rate of Mortality in the Metropolitan ImproTed 
DwelUngs for the Indostrial Classes 164 

Mr. R. Baxbr on the Sanitary and Industrial Economy of the Borough of 
Leeds 164 

Dr. JosapH Batsmaic on the Degree of Education of Persons tried at the Mid« 
diesex Sessions 168 

——»——- on the Investments of the Industrial Classes 168 

Mr.T. Bazley, Trade and Commerce the Auxiliaries of Civilization and Com- 
fort 169 

Mr. CBARi.Ba H. BnACXBRiDGs's Notes on Self-supporting Dispensaries, 
with some Statistics of the Coventry Provident Dispensary 170 

Mr. Samuel Browk on the Financial Prospects of British Railways • 172 

Pniessor Cairkks on the Laws according to which a Depreciation of the 
IVedous Metals consequent upon an Increase of Supply takes place, con- 
sidered in connexion with the Recent Gold Discoveries 174 

Mr. Edwin Cbaowick on the Progress of the Principle of Open Competitive 
Examinationfl 175 

Mr. J. £. DiBB on the R^try of Deeds in the West Riding 175 

Mr. Jamrs Hkywood on Public Service, Academic, and Teachers* Examina- 
tions V 176 

Mrs. Wii. FiBON on the Importance of a Colonial Penny Postage, viewed in 
relation to the advancement of Science and Christian Civilization 177 

Mr. J. PoPB HsNifBSST on the Causes of the Fall in Price of Manufactured 
Cottons 178 

* on some of the Results of the Society of Arts' Exami- 
nations 180 

Bfr. Robert Hunt's Mineral Produce of Yorkshire in 1857 181 

Mr. JoBN Jambs on the Worsted Manufactures of Yorkshire.... ;. 182 

tar. Jambs KiTsoK, Jun. on the Iron Trade of Leeds 183 

M. CoRRANADBR Marbn ou Free Trade in Belgium 184 

Mr. J. G. Marshall's Sketch of the History of Flax Spinning in England, 
especially as developed in the Town of Leeds 184 

Mr. F. G. P. Nbison on Phthisis in the Army 189 

Mr. William Nbwmarch on the History of Prices of 1857 and 1858 194 

■' on the recent History of the Cr^t Mohilier 194 

Eev.T. W. Norwood on the Race and Language of the Gipsies 195 

Mr. J. H. Sadlbr's Notes on Indian Fibres, illustrated by prepared Specimens. 
(Communicated by Colonel Stkbs) 195 

Mr. Hambr Stanspbld's Essay on Distinctions between Money and Ci^itaU 
Interest and Discount, Currency and Circulating Medium, essential to be 
observed in the Reform of our Monetary Laws 197 

Dr. John Strang on the Sewing Machine in Glasgow, and its Effects on Pro- 
duction, Prices, and Wages 198 

- on Water Supply to Great Towns — its Extent, Co8\ Uses, 
and Abuses 198 

Mr. W. M. Tartt on subjects connected with Crime and Punishment 199 

Mr. R. Valpt's Brief Review of the Operations in the Bank of England in 1857 201 



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XIV CONTENTS. 

Mr. H. Walkbe on the Hesalts of Free TVade ••. 901 

MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

President's Address, on the Progress of Mechanical Science • 20]. 

Mr. W. Bridgbs Adams on a new Method of Constructing the Permanent 
Way and Wheels of Railways i03 

Mr. W. J. Arm iTASB on a few Facts connected with the Manufacture of Pig 

Iron in the neighbourhood of Leeds 004 

Mr. W. H. Bartholombw on Steam Tugs employed on the Aire and Calder 

Ni^vigation t 0M 

Mr. G. Baylby's Description of a Floating Dry Dock 206 

Rer. Dr. J. Booth on an Instrument for describing Spirals 207 

Mr. 0. Bhodricx on the Roof of the New Town Hall of Leeds %0T 

Mr* J. Buckton's Notice of some of the Articles shown in the Mechanical 
Section of the Leeds Exhibition of Local Industry 208 

Mr* W. E. Carrbtt on some modern Appliances for Raising Water ...,•#• 208 

Mr. Robert Colb's Account of Lewii Paul and his Iijrention of the Machine 
for Spinning Cotton and Wool by Rollers^ and his claim to such inven* 
tion, to the exclusion of John Wyait 209 

Mr. H. CoNYBBARB ou Ru Apparatus for laying down Submarine Telegraphic 

Cables 209 

Mr. CooMBB on Expanding Pulleys ».., 209 

Mr. Alfrbd Crosskill on Reaping Machinery #••,»•» 209 

Mr. J. Eldbr on Double Cylinder Expansion Marine Engines,,,,! ti>f it*t«« 211 

tit, F. Galton's Description of a Hand Heliostat 211 

Mr. Joseph G^ynn on the Economy of Water Power • 21i 

Mr. J. HoPKiN8oi« on the Cause of SteAm*boiler Ezplosioni, and Means ef 
Prevention ^ ,...„.,....,., %i% 

Mr. E. Jones on the Drainage of the Metropolis f*«ftr ,m..,.„»m 2i| 

Mr. D. Joy on the Application of Mechanical Power to the Bellows of Orgpma 219 

Mr* John Mackintosh on the Application of Combustible Compounds to be 
used 'm War , 2U 

■ on Constructing and Laying Telegraph Cables.*. ...». 2U 

Mr. J. Maclean on the Submersion of Electric Cables >.»... .t.*Mfffft» 3)fi 

Vice-Admiral Moorsom on the Performance of Steam VesselB« the Functions 
of the Screw, and the Relations of its Diameter and Pitch to the form of the 

Vessel 21S 

Mr. Joseph John Murphy on a proposed Floating Lighthouse.. , 219 

Mr. William Naylor on a newDouble-acting Steam Hammer f...,f» ,.,,. 918 

Mr. J. O'Neill on a plan for giving Alarms in Passenger Trains 819 

Mr. Jambs Oldham on the Gresham Buoy, for recording the Loss of Missing 
Ships at Sea 219 

Mr. G. Rbnnie on the Construction of Floating and Fixed Batteries 220 

Mr. T, J. Silbbrman on a Universal Printing Press 220 

" » ■ ■ ' ^ ' on a Universal Cock 221 

Mr* R. Bhith on a Wreck Intelligencer 221 



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CONTENTS. XV 

Mr. S. Smith's Remarks oo the Bursting of Guns and Cannon 221 

Hod. J. Wbathxrbd on Ck>mbined Steam ..,,„ 222 

Mr. C. F. WnrrwoRTH on Recent Improvements in Railway Signals 223 

Mr. R. P. Williams on an Instrument for setting out Curve Lines 223 



APPENDIX. 

Obology* 
Mr. E. Charlbsworth on some remarkable Yorkshire Fossils, including the 
aniqiie Plemitwamri in the Museum at York, with pictorial restorations by 
Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins 223 

Mr. W. Prk GBX^T on an Ichthyolite found in the Devonian Slates of East 
Cornwall 223 

on the Trilobite found at the Knoll Hill, Newton Abbott... 224 

Ptotefor Ro«sB« on th« discovery of Strata of supposed Permian age in tha 
interior of North America, by Mr. Meek and other American Geologists ••• 8S4 

Mr. J. Wollby's observations on the Arrangement of Small Stones on certain 
bareLerdsin Northern Localities 224 

BOTANT. 

Mr. J. H. Da^is on the Plants of the Oolitic Moorlands 2^ 

Ikbbx 225 



ERRATA. 

Page 85, line 21, /or south, read north. 

Page 85, line 33, /or contracted, read contorted. 

Page 90, Ime 30, /or illustrated, read more fully given. 

Page 92, line 13, omit and. 

Page 92, line 14, /or rudimentary, read sedimentary. 



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LIST OF PLATES. 



PLATES I. to XV. 



Illustrative of Mr. Robert Mallet's Report on the facts and theory of Earth- 
quake Phenomena. 

PLATES XVL and XVIL 

Illustrative of Mr. R. H. Meade's paper on some Points in the Anatomy of 
the Araneidea, or true Spiders, especially on the Internal Structure of 
their Spinning Organs, 157« 

PLATE XVIIL 

Illustrative of Mr. Stephen Eddy's paper on the Lead Mining Districts of 
Yorkshire. 

PLATES XIX. and XX. 
Illustrative of Mr. R. Beckley's description of a Self-recording Anemometer. 



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OBJECTS AND RULES 

OF 

THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS- 

The Association contemplates do interference with the ground occupied by 
other Institutions. Its objects are, — To give a stronger impulse and a more 
systematic direction to scientific inquiry, — to promote the intercourse of those 
vrho cultivate Science in different parts of the British Empire, with one an* 
other, and with foreign philosophers, — to obtain a more general attention to 
the objects of Science, and a removal of any disadvantages of a public kind 
which impede its progress. 

RULES. 

ADICISSION OP MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATES. 

All Persons who have attended the first Meeting shall be entitled to be* 
eome Members of the Association, upon subscribing an obligation to con- 
form to its Rules. 

The Fellows and Members of Chartered Literary and Philosophical So« 
cieties publishing Transactions, in the British Empire, shall be entitled, in 
like manner, to become Members of the Association. 

The Officers and Members of the Councils, or Managing Committees, of 
Philosophical Institutions, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem« 
hers of the Association. 

All Members of a Philosophical Institution recommended by its Council 
or Managing Committee, shall be entitled, in like manner, to become Mem- 
ber« of the Association. 

Persons not belonging to such Institutions shall be elected by the General 
Committee or Council, to become Life Members of the Association, Annual 
Subscribers, or Associates for the year, subject to the approval of a General 
Meeting. 

COMPOSITIONS, SUBSCRIPTIONS, AND PRIVILEGES. 

LiFB Members shall pay, on admission, the sum of Ten Pounds. They 
^lall receive gratwtouily the Reports of Uie Association which may be pub« 
lished afler the date of such payment. They are eligible to all the offices 
of the Association. 

Annual Subscribers shall pay, on admission, the sum of Two Pounds, 
and in each following year tlie sum of One Pound. They shall receive 
gratmtousfy the Reporu of the Association for the year of their admission 
and for the years in which they continue to pay w'UhotU intermission their 
Annua! Subscription. By omitting to pay this Subscription in any particu- 
lar year, Members of this class (Annual Subscribers) lose for that and all 
fstmre years the privilege of receiving the volumes of the Association gratis : 
but they may resume their Membership and other privileges at any sub- 
lequent Meetii^ of the Association, paying on each such occasion the sum of 
One Ponnd. They are eligible to all the Offices of the Association. 

AsaociATSfl for the year shall pay on admission the sum of One Pound. 
They shall not receive gratuitously the Reports of the Association, nor be 
cfigible to serve on Committeesi or to hold any office. 

*®^* D git zed*by Google 



••• 



XVm RULES OP THE ASSOCIATION. 

The Association consists of the following classes : — 

1. Life Members admitted from 18dl to 1845 inclusivci who have paid 
on admission Five Pounds as a composition* 

2, Life Members who in 1846| or in subsequent years, have paid on ad* 
mission Ten Pounds as a composition. 

8. Annual Members admitted from 1881 to 1889 inclusive, subject to the 
payment of One Pound annually* [May resume their Membership after in- 
termission of Annual Payment. J 

4* Annual Members admitted in any year since 1889, subject to the pay* 
ment of Two Pounds for the first year, and One Pound in each following 
year. [May resume their Membership after intermission of Annual Pay- 
ment.] 

5. Associates for the year, subject to the payment of One Pound. 

6. Corresponding Members nominated by the Council. 

And the Members and Associates will be entitled to receive the annual 
▼olume of Reports, gratis^ ox to purchase it at reduced (or Members') price, 
according to the following speciBcation, vis. : — 

1. Gratis, — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a compo- 
sition for Annual Payments, and previous to 1845 a further 
sum of Two Pounds as a Book Subscription, or, since 1 845^ a 
further sum of Five Pounds. 
New Life Members who have paid Ten Pounds as a com- 
position. 
Annual Members who have not intermitted their Annual Sub- 
scription. 
f . At reduced or Members* Prices^ viz. two-thirds of the Publicadon 
Price. — Old Life Members who have paid Five Pounds as a 
composition for Annual Payments, but no further sum as a 
Book Subscription. 
Annual Members, who have intermitted their Annual Subscrip- 
tion. 
Associates for the year. [Privilege confined to the volume for 
that year only.] 
5. Members may purchase (for the purpose of completing their sets) any 
of the first seventeen volumes of Transactions of the Associa- 
tion, and of which more than 100 copies remain, at one-third of 
Che Poblieation Price. Application to be made (by letter) to 
Messrs. Taylor & Francis, Red Lion Court, Fleet St., London. 
SttbscriptioBs shall be received by the Treasurer or Secretaries. 

MEBTINOS. 

The Association shall meet annually, for one week, or longer. The place 
of each Meeting shall be appointed by the Genera] Committee at the pre- 
vious Meeting ; and the Arrangements for it shall be entrusted to the Offi- 
cers of the Association. 

GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

The General Committee shall sit during the week of the Meeting, or 
longer, to transact the business of the Association. It shall consist of the 
following persons : — 

1. Presidents and Officers for the present and preceding years, with 
authors of Reports in the Transactions of the Association. 

f . Members who have communicated any Paper to a Philosophical Society, 
which has been printed in its Transactions, and which relates to such subjects 
as are taken into consideration at the Sectional Meetings of the AssocifttioB* 

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BULBS OP THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 

5. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, altogetheri not exceed- 
iDf three in number, fVom any Philosophical Society publishing Transactions. 

4. Office-bearers for the time being, or Delegates, not exceeding three, 
iirom Philosophical Institutions established in the place of Meeting, or in any 
place where the Association has formerly met. 

5* Foreigners and other individuals whose assistance is desired, and who 
are specially nomiDated in writing for the Meeting of the year by the Presi- 
dent md General Secretaries. 

6. The Presidents, Vice-Presidento, and Secretaries of the Sections are 
tg-^fficio members of the General Committee for the time being. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEES. 

The General Committee shall appoint, at each Meeting, Committees, con- 
titting severaUy of the Members most ronversant with the several branches 
of Science, to advise together for the advancement thereof. 

Tlie Committees shaU report what subjects of investigation they would 
ptfticularty recommend to be prosecuted during the ensuing year, and 
broo^t under consideration at the next Meeting. 

The Committees shall recommend Reports on the state and progress of 
particular Sciences, to be drawn up from time to time by competent persons, 
for the infomiatkm of the Annual Meetings. 

COMMITTEE Of RECOMMENDATIONS. 

The General Committee shall appoint at each Meeting a Committee, which 
shall receive and consider the Recommendations of the Sectional Committees, 
sod report to the General Committee the measures which they w^ould advise 
to be adopted for the advancement of Science. 

AD Recommendations of Grants of Money, Requests fbr Special Re- 
Mrehes, and Reports on Scientific Subjects, shall be submitted to the Com- 
mittee of Recommendations, and not taken into consideration by the General 
Committee, unless previously recommended by the Committee of Recom- 
meodations. 

lOCAL COMMITTEES. 

Local Committees shall be formed by the Officers of the Association to 
•ssist in making arrangements for the Meetings. 

Local Committees shall have the power of adding to their numbers those 
Members of the Association whose assistance they may desii^e. 

OFPICEBS. 

A President, two Or more Vice-Presidents, one or more Secretaries, and a 
Treasurer, shall be annually appointed by the General Committee. 

COUNCIl. 

In Ae intervals of tlie Meetings, the affan-s of the Association shall be 
managed by a Coundl appointed by the General Committee. I'he Council 
may also assemble for the despatch of business during the week of the 
Meeting. 

PAPESS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

The Author of any paper or communication shall be at liberty to reierve 
bis right of property therein. 

ACCOUNTS. 

The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annualJy, by Auditors 
app^'iQted by the Meeting. 

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S II I 8S-»-Sa 8 3 g 







n* Table diowing the Names of Members of the British Aaeodaticm who 
hiave served on tho Council in former years. 



^cltod, Sir ThoniBS D., Bart, F.RS. 
Acland, Profenor H. W., M.I>„ PJELS. 
Adams, J. Couch. M.A., F Jt.S. 
AduQSQD, John, Eeq., F.L^. 
AiMfie, BcT. Gilbert, D.D., Master of Pom- 
broke Hall, Cambridge. 
%,O.B^D.CLL.,F.K.S.,AstronomerRoyaL 
Aliion, Profcewr W. P., M.P., F.B.S.B. 
fKW.J.CBsq. 
AndenoD, Prol Thomas, MB. 



Ansted, Profeesor D. T., M.A^ F.B.S. 
Irgjll, George Douglas, Duke of, F.RI3. 
Amott, Neil, M.D., F.B.S. 
Ashburton, William Bingham, Lord, D.C.L. 
Atkinson, Bt. Hon. B.,Iiora Mayor of Dublin. 
Babbage, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.B.a 
Babington, C. C, Em., M.A., F^.S. 
BaUj, Francis, Esq., F.RS. (deceased). 
Baker, Thomas Barwick Lloyd, Esq. 
Balfour, Professor John U. M.D., F.B.S. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



Baricer, Cfeorge, Esq., FJtJS. (deoeased). 

Bell, Profeeaor Thomas, Pres. L.Sm F.B.S. 

Beeohey, Bear-Adminl, FJft.S. (deoeased). 

Benffough, George, Esq. 

Benuam, Gborge, Esq^ F.L.S. 

Biddell, George Arthur, Esq. 

Bigge, Charles, Esq. 

Blakiston, P^n, M.D., F.R.S. 

BoUeau, Sir John P., Bart, F.R.S. 

Boyie, RtJEon. D., Lord Justioe-Gen». (dec«>). 

Bradj,The Bt. Hon. Maziere, M.B.IJl., Lord 
Ciianoellor of Ireland. 

Brand, William, Esq. 

Breadalbane, John, Marquis of^ E.T., F.R.S. 

Brewster, Sir David, K.H., D.C.L., LL.D., 
F.R.S.,Principal of the United College of 
StSalvatorandStLeonard, St Andrews. 

Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M., Bart, 
KC.B., G.C.H., D.C.L., F.RS. 

Brooke, Charles, B.A., F.B.S. 

Brown, Bobert, D.C.L., F.RS. (deceased). 

Brand, Sir M. I., F.B.S. (deceased). 

Buckhind, Vejy Rer. William, D.D., F.R.S., 
Dean of Westminster ^eoeased). 

Bute, John, Marquis of, KT. (deceased). 

Carlisle, George Will. Fred., Earl of, F.R.S. 

Carson, Eer. Joseph, F.T.C.D. 

Cathcart,Lt-Gen.,Earlof, KC.B., F.R.SJB. 
(deceased). 

Chalmers, Rer. T., D.D. (deceased). 

diance, James, Esq. 

Chester, John Graham, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Christie, Profiassor S. H., M.A., F.R.S. 

Clare, Peter, Esq., F.B.A.S. (deceased). 

Clart Rev. Prof., M.D., F.R.S. (Cambridge.) 

Clark, Henry, M.D. 

Clark, G. T., Esq. 

Clear, William, Esq. (deceased). 

aerke, Mi^or S., K.H., R.E., F.R.S. (dec^). 

Clift, William, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Close, Very Rer. F., M JL, Dean of Carlisle. 

Cobbold, John Cheralier, Esq., M.P. 

Colquhoun, J. C, Esq^ M.P. (deceased). 

Conybeare, Very Rer. W. D., D^an of tlan- 
daff (deceased). 

Cooper, Sir Henry, M.D. 

Corrie, John, Esq., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Cram, Walter, Esq., F.R.S. 

Currie, William Wallace, Esq. (deceased). 

Dalton, John, D.C.L., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Daniell, Professor J. F., F.R.S. (deceased). 

Dartmouth, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.R.S. 

Darwin, Charles, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

Daubeny, Prof. Charles G.B., M.D., F.R.S. 

DelaBeche, Sir H. T., C.B., F.R.S., Director- 
Gen. QeoL Burr, United Kingdom 



Derlmishire, Mllliam, Duke of, M.A., F.R.S. 
Dickinson, Joseph, M J)., F.R.S. 
Dillwyn,LewisW., Esq., F.RS. (deceased). 
Drinlcwater, J. R, Esq. (deceased). 
Dude, The Earl, F.RS. 
Dunraven, The Earl of, F.R.S. 
Egerton,Sir P. de M. Grey, Bart,M.P.,F.RS. 
Efiot, Lord, M.P. 

Ellesmere, Francis, Earl of, F.G.S. (doc^). 
Enniskillen, William, Earl of, D.C.L., F.Ra 
Estcourt, T. G. B., D.C.L. (deceased). 
Faraday, Professor, D.C.L., F.RS. 
Fitiwilliam, Hie Earl, D.C.L., F.RS. (dec*). 
Fleming, W., M.D. 
Fletcher, Bell, M.D. 
Foote, Lundy £., Esq. 



Forbes, Charles, Esq. (deoeated). 

Forbes, Prof. Edwa^ F JUSL (deoeMed). 

Forbes, Prof. J. D., F.RS., See. R&B. 

Fox, Robert Were, E^., F JtS. 

Frost, Charies, F.SjL 

Gassiot, John P., Esq., FJtS. 

GKlbert, Daries, D.C.L., F.Ra (deoeoaed). 

Gourlie, Wiilisjn, Esq. 

Graham, T., M JL., F.RS., Master of the Mint. 

Gray, John E., Esq., Ph.D., F.RS. 

Gray, Jonathan, Esq. (deceased). 

Gray, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Green, Prof Joseph Henry, D.C.L., FR.8. 

Greenough, G. B., Esq., F.RS. (deceased). 

Griffith, Sir R Griffith, Bt, LL.D., M.RI.A. 

Grore, W. R, Esq., MJL, F.RS. 

Hallam, Henry, Esq., MA., F.RS. (dsc*). 

Hamilton, W. J., Eso., F.RS., For. Sec. G.S. 

Hamilton, Sir Wm. R, LL.D., Astronomer 

Royal of Ireland, M.RI.A., F.RA.a 
Hancock, W. Neilson, LL.D. 
Haroourt, Rer. Wm. Vernon, MX, F.RS. 
Hardwicke, Charles Philip, Earl of, F JEL& 
Harford, J. S., D.C.L., F.RS. 
Harris, Sir W. Snow, F.RS. 
Harrowby, The Earl of, F.RS. 
Hatfeild, William, Esq., F.G.S. (deceased). 
Henry, W. C, M.D., F.RS. [CoL, Belfiui. 
Henrr, Rer. P. S., D.D., Presidentof Queen's 
Henslow, Rer. Professor, M.A., F.L.S. 
Herbert^ Hon. and Very Rev. Wm., LL.D., 

F.L.S., Dean of Manchester (dec*!). 
Herschel,Sir John F.W., Bart,D.C.L., F.Ra 
Heywood, Sir Benjamin, Bart, F.R.S. 
Heywood, James, Esq., F.R.S. 
HiU, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.G.S. 
Hincks, Rev. Edward, D.D., M.RLiL 
Hinds, S., D.D., late Lord Bishop of Ncnrwidi. 
Hodgkin, Thomas, M J). 
Hodgkinson, Professor Eaton, F.R.S. 
Hodfson, Joseph, Esq., F.RS. 
Hooker, Sir William J., LL.D., FJI.S. 
Hope, Rev. F. W., BLA., F.RS. 
Hopldns, William, Esq., MA., F.RS. 
Horner, Leonard, Esq., F.RS., F.G.S. 
Hovenden, V. F., Esq., MjL 
Hutton, Robert, Esq., F.GJS. 
Hutton, William, Eiq., F.G.S. 
Ibbetson,CaptL.KBo6oawen, KRE.,F.G.S. 
Liglis, Sir R H., Bart, D.C.L., M.P. (dec*). 
Inman, Thomas, M.D. 
Jacobs, Bethel, Esq. 

Jameson, Professor R, F.RJ3. (deceased). 
Jardine, Sir William, Bart, F.RS Jl 
Jeflreys, John Gwyn, Esq., F JLS. 
Jellett, Rev. Prof. 
Jenyns, Rev. Leonard, F.L.S. 
Jerrard, H. B., Esq. 
Johnston, Right Hon. William, late Lord 

Provost of Edinbui^h. 
Johnston, Prof.J.F.W.,M.A.,F.RJS. (dec*). 
Keleher, William, Esq. (deceased). 
Kelland, Rev. Professor P., MjL 
Kildare, The Marquis of. 
Lankester, Edwin, M.D., F.RS. 
Lansdowne, Hen., Marquis of, D.C.L.,F.RS. 
Larcom, Lt.-Colonel, RE., LL.D., F.RS. 
Lardner, Rev. Dr. (deceased). 
Lassell, William, Esq., F.RS. L. & R 
Latham, R G., M.D., F.Ra 
Lee, Very Rev. John, D.D., F.RS.E., Prin- 



I«,Bobert, MJ3.. P:B.S. 

Leferro, &^^ Bon. OharlM Shaw, late 

£^peaker cff the "ELoaae of Commont. 
Lemon, Sir Charles, Bart, F.B.S. 
liddoU, Andrerw, 'Eaq. (deceased), 
lindley, Profeesor John, Ph.D., F.B.8. 
liatowel. The Sari of. [Dublin (dec^). 

Lloyd, Bev. B., I>.3>., Provoetof Trm. Coll., 
Lloyd, Bev. B:., I>.D., D.C.L.,F.B.S. L.&E. 
LondedboTOugh, Jjord, F.RS. 
Lubbock, ^r John W., Bart., M.A., F.RS. 
LaW, Her. Thomas. 
Lytil, Sir Charles, MJL, F.RS. 
MacCidlagh, Prof., D.C.L., M.RI.A. (dec«>). 
HaoDonnelUBer. R, D.D., M.RIjL, Pto- 
Toat of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Ifacfariane, The Very Rev. Principal (dec**). 

HacGee, William, M.D. 

MacLeay, William Sharp, Esq., F.L.S. 

MacNem, Profeesor Sir John, F.RS. 

Malahide, The Lord Talbot da 

Mak»lm,Vice-Ad. Sir Charles, K.C.B. (dec^). 

Maltbj, Edwwd, D.D., F.RS., late Lord 
Bishop of Durham (deceased). 

Manchester, J. P. Lee, D.D., Lord Bishop of. 

Maj, Qiarles, Esq., F.RA.S. 

liejnell, Thomas, Esq., F.L.S. 

Middkton, Sir William F. F., Bart 

Miner, Profeaor W. A., M.D., F.RS. 

limier. Professor W. H., M.A., F.RS. 

Moillefc, J. D., Esq. (deceased). 

Milnee, R Mondrton, Esq., D.C.L., M.P. 

MogBTidge, Matthew, Esq. 

Moody, I. Sadleir, Esq. 

Moodj, T. H. C, Esq. 

Ifoodj, T. F., Esq. 

Morlej, The Earl of. 

MoBekj, Ber. Henry, M.A., F.B.S. 

Moant-Edgecumbe, EmeetAugustus,Earl of. 

Morcfaison, Sir Boderick I.,a.C. StS., F JtS. 

KetU, Patri<^ M J)., F JLS.E. 

Kkol, D^ M.D. 

Kicol,BeT.J.P.,LLJ). 

Northampton, Spencer Joshua Alwyne, Mar- 
quis o^ y.P.RS. (deceased^. 

Horthumberland, Hufh, Duke of, £.G.,M JL, 
P.RS. (deceased). 

Ormerod, G. W., E^., MjL, F.G.S. 

Qrpen, lliomas Herbert, M.D. (deceased). 

Orpen, John H., LLD. 

O^, Foiled:, Esq., F.RS. 

Owen, Professor Bichd.,MJD., D.C.L,FJl.S. 

Oxford, Samuel Wilberforoe, D.D., Lord 
Bishop oS, FJLS., F.G.S. 

Pahnmton, Yisoount, G.C.B., M.P. 

Peaoodc, Very Ber. G., D.D., Dean of Ely, 
F3.S. (deceased). 

Pa^BtHonJ3irR3art,M.P.,D.C.L.(dec<i). 

Peodarres, E., W. Esq., F.B.S. (deceased). 

Phillips, Professor John, M.A.,LL.D.,F.RS. 

Pigott, The Bt Hon. D. R, M.B.I.A., Lord 
ChiefBaron of tiie Exchequer in Ireland. 

Pdier, G. R, Esq. (deceased). 

Powell, Ber. Professor, M.A., F.B.S. 

Prichard, J. C, M.D., F.RS. (deceased> 

Bajosi^, Trobnor William, M.A. 

Bansome, George, Esq., F.LS. 

Bflid, Mai..Gen. Sir W., K.C.B., RE., F.RS. 
(deceased). 

TVJt^K«n, tt, Hon. Lord, M.P. 

Bemue, Geoige, Ebq., FJlJS. 

Bemde, Bir Jolm, FJLS. 

BiebaidsoD, Bir John, MD., CJB., F.R.S. 

BMOao, Bffv.Froi^ JJLD^ F.RS. (dec"). 



Bobinson, Ber. J., D.D. 

Bobinson, Ber. T. R, D.D., F.RA.S. 

BoMson, Sir John, SecRSJSdin. (deceased). 

Boche, James, Esq. 

Boget, Peter Mark, M.D.. F.RS. 

Bonalds, Francis, F.B.S. 

Boeebery, The Earl of; KT., D.C.L, F.RS. 

Boss, Bear-Ad. Sir J. C, B Jf ., D.C.L, F.B.S. 

BoBse, Wm., Earl of. MA., F.B.S., M.B.I jL 

Boyle, Prof. John F., M.D., F.RS. (dec«»). 

Russell, James, Esq. (deceased). 

Bussell, J. Scott, :^, F.B.S. [V.P.RS. 

Sabine, Maj.-Gen., BJL, D.C.L, Treas. & 

Sanders, William, Esq., F.G.S. 

Scoresby, Bev. W., D.D., F.B.S. (deceased). 

Sedgwick, Bev. Prof. Adam, M.A, F.RS. 

Selby, Prideaux John, Esq., F.B.SJB. 

Sharpy, Professor, M.D., SecRS. 

Sims, Dillwyn, Esq. 

Smith, Lieut-Colonel C. Hamilton, F.RS. 

Smith, James, F.B.S. L & E. 

Spence, William, Esq^F.RS. 

Stanley, Edward, D J)., F.B.S., kte Lord 

Bishop of Norwich (deceased). 
Staunton, Sir G. T., Bt, m:.P., D.C.L, F.B.a 
St David's, C.Thirlwall,D.D.,LordBiahop of. 
Stevelly, Professor John, LL.D. 
Stokes, Professor G. G., SecRS. 
Strang, John, Esq^ LLD. 
StricUand, Hu^E., Esq., F.B.S. (deceased). 
Sykes, Colonel W. H., M.P., F.B.S. 
Symonds, B. P., D.D., Vice-Chanoellor of 

the IJniversi^ of Oxford. 
Talbot, W. H. Fox, Esq., M.A. F.RS. 
Tayler, Bev. John James, B.A 
Taylor, John, Esq., F.B.S. 
Taylor, Bichard, Esq., F.G.S. 
Thompson, William, Esq., F.LS. (deceased). 
Thomson, Professor WUliam, M.A., FJLS. 
Tindal, Captain, B.N. 
Tite, William, Esq^ M.P., F.B.S. 
Tod, James, Esq., F.B.S.E. 
Tooke, Thomas, F.B.S. (deceased). 
Traill, J. S., M.D. (deceased). 
Turner, Edward, M.D., F.B.S. (deceased). 
Turner, Samuel, Esq., F.RS.,F.G.S. (dec^). 
Turner, Bev. W. 
5^dall, Professor, F.RS. 
Vigora, N. A., D.C.L, F.LS. (deceased). 
Vivian, J. H., M.P., F.B.S. (deceased). 
Walker, James, Esq., F.B.S. 
Walker, Joseph N., Esq^ F.G.S. 
Walker, Bev. Professor Bobcrt, M.A, F.B.S. 
Warburton, Henry, E8q.,M.A., F.B.S.(dec*»). 
Washington, Captain, B.N., r.B.S. 
Webster, Thomas, M.A, F.B.S. 
West, William, Em., FJLS. (deceased). 
Western, Thomas Burch, Esq. 
Whamcliffe, John Stuart,Lord,F.B.S.(dec^). 
Wheatstone, Professor Charles, F.RS. 
Whewell, Bev.WilUam, D.D., F.RS., Master 

of Trim'ty College, Cambridge. 
Williams, Prof Charles J. B., M.D., F.B.S. 
Willis, Bev. Professor Bobert, MX, F.B.S. 
Wills, William, Esq., F.G.S. 
Wilson, Prof. W. P. 
Winchester, John, Marquis of. 
Woollcombe, Henn', Esq., ]^.S.A (deceased) 
Wrottesley, John, Lord, M.A., PresJtS. 
Yarborough, The Earl of, D.CX. 
Yarrell, William, Esq.. F.LS. (deceased). 
Tates, James, Esq., M. A, F.B.S. ) O I p 

Yates, J. B., Esq., F.S. A, F Jft.G.S. (de^^ '"" 



OFnCERS AND COUNCIL, 1858-69. 

TRUSTEES (PERMANENT). 
SiA Roderick I. UuB0Bi80N,0.C.St.S.,P.R.8. M^jor-General Edwailo Sabinb, 
John Tatloa, Esq., F.R.S. D.C.L., Treas. & V*P.R.S. 

PRUIDENT. 

RICHARD OWEN, M.D., D.C.L., V.P.R.8., F.L.S,, F.G.8.. 

Superintendent of the Nttoril Hiitory Departments of the British Ifaseam. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

The Lord Montkaolb, F.R.S. The Rev. William Whbwbll, D.D., F.R.S., 

The Earl of Ripon, F.R.G.S. Hon. M.R.I.A., F.6.S., F.R.A.S., Master U 

The Rt. Hon. M. T. Baimbs, M.A., M.P. Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Sir Philip db M. Grbt Eobrton, Bart., jAicB8GARTHMARSHALLyEsq.,M.A.,F.G.S« 

M .P., F.R.S., F.G.S, R. Moncktok Milnb8, Esq., D.C.L«| M.P. 

PRESIDENT ELECT. 

HIS ROTAL HIGHNESS THB PRINCE CONSORT. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS ELECT. 

The DuKB OF Richmond, K.G., F.R.S., Pre- Sir R. I.MuRCHigoN,G.C.St.S.,D.C.L.,F.R.8., 

sident of the Royal Agricultural Society. and Director-General of the Geological Sur- 

The Earl of Abbrdbbn, LL.D., K.G., vey of the United Kingdom. 

K.T., F.R.S. The Rev. W. V. Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S. 

The Lord Provost of the City of Aberdeen. The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D., F.R.S., Di- 
Sir John F. W. Hbrscbbl, Bart., D.C.L., rector of the Armagh Observatory, Amiagh. 
M.A., F.R.S. A. Thomson, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., Convener 

Sir David Brbwstbr, K.H., D.C.L., F.R.S., of the County of Aberdeen. 
Principal of the United College of St Sal* 
vator and St. Leonard, St. Andrews. 

LOCAL SECRETARIES FOR THE MEETING AT ABERDEEN. 
Jambs Niool, F.R.S.E., P.G.S., Professor of Natural History in Marischal College and 

University of Aberdeen. 
Frbdbrick Fullbr, M JL., Professor of Mathematics in Vnitersity and King's College of 

Aberdeen. 
John F. WHm, Esq., King Street. 

LOCAL TREASURERS FOR THE MEETING AT ABERDEEN. 
John Anous, Esq. Nbwbll Burnbtt, Esq. 

ORDINARY MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
Babington, C. C, M.A., Latham, R. G., M.D., F.R.S. SHARPBT,Profes8or,Sec.R.8. 
F.R.S. Ltbll, Sir C, D.C.L., F.R.S. Stkbs, Colonel W. H., M.P.y 

BBLL,Prof., Pres.L.S.,F.R.S. Millbr, Prof. W. A., M.D., F.R.8. 
Fairbairn,William,F.R.S. F.R.S. Titb, William, M.P., F.R.8, 

FrrzRoT,RearAdmiral,F.R.S. Portlook, Mi^or - General, Walkbr, Rev. Prof., F.R.8. 
Gassiot, John P., F.R.S. R.E., F.R.S. Wbbstbr, Thomas, F.R.8. 

Grovb, William R., F.R.S. Price, Rev. Prof., F.R.8. Wrottbslbt, Lord, F.R.S. 
HoRNBR, Leonard, F.R.S. Rbnnib, Gborob, F.R.S. Tatbs, Jambs, M.A., P.R«S. 

HurroN, Robert, F.G.S. Russell, J. S., F.R.S. 

EX-OFFICIO MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 
The President and President Elect, the Vice-Presidents and Vice-Presidents Elect, the Ge- 
nend and Assistant-General Secretaries, the General Treasurer, the Trustees, and the Presi- 
dents of former years, viz. Rey. Professor Sedgwick. Sir Thomas M. Brisbane. The Marquis 
of Lansdowne. The Duke of Devonshire. Kev. W. V. Harconrt. The Marquis of Bread- 
albane. Rev. W. Whewell, D.D. The Earl of Rosse. Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart. Sir 
Roderick I. Mnrchison. The Rev. T. R. Robinson, D.D. Sir David Brewster. G. B. Airy, Esq., 
the Aslaronomer Royal. General Sabine. William Hopkins, Esq.. F.R.S. The Earl of 
Harrowby. The Duke of ArgylL Professor Daubeny, M.D. The Rev. H. Lloyd, D.D. 

GENERAL SECRETARY. 
Major-Gbnbral Edward Sabine, R.A., D.C.L., Treaa. & V.P.R.S., F.R.A.S.I 
13 Ashley Place, Westminster. 
ASSISTANT GENERAL SECRETARY. 
John Phillips, Esq., M.A., LL.D., F.R.8., Pres.G.S., Reader in Creology in the University 
of Oxford ; University Museum, Oxford. 
GENERAL TREASURER. 
John Taylor, Esq., F.R.S., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames Street, London. 
LOCAL TREASURERS. 
William Gray, Esq., F.G.S., York, Robert P. Greg, Esq., F.G.S., Manehetter. 

C.C.Babington,E8q.,M.A.,F.R.S.,C;ami^rM%re. John Gwyn Jeffreys, Esq., F.R.S., Swamea, 
William Brand, Esq., Edinburgh, J. B. Alexander, Esq., Ipmnch, 

John U. Orpen, LL.D., Dublin, Robert Patterson, Esq., M.R.I.A., Be{ftt$t 

WilUam Sanders, Esq., F.G.S., BrittoL Edmund Smith, Esq., HulL 

Robert M' Andrew, Esq., F.R.S., LitmpooL Richard Beamish, Esq., F.R.S., CMtenkmrn, 
W. R. Wills, Esq., Birmmgham. John Metcalfe Smith, Esq., Leeds, 

Professor Ramsay, M.A., ukug^w. Digitized by CjOOQIC 

AUDITORS. ^ 

James Yates, Esq. Dr. Norton Shaw. Robert Hotton, Eaq. 



OFFICXRS OF 0XCTIONAL COHMITTBB8. XXYU 

OFFICERS OF SECTIONAL COMMITTEES PRESENT AT THE 
LEEDS MEETING, 

SBOnOH A. — MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS. 

iVewfcii/.— Rev. W. Whewdl, D.D., V.P.R.S. &c. 

Vice'Prttideni9. — G. B. Airv, M.A., D.C.L., AstFonomer Royal ; Rev. A. Barry« 
BLA. ;• Sir D. Brewster, K.H./LL.D., F.R.S. ; Rev. Dr. Lloyd, F.R.S. ; Rev. Pro- 
fessor Walker, M.A., F.R.S. ; Lord Wrotteslcy, V.P.R.S. 

Secre/oriet.— Rev. S. Eamshaw, B.A. ; H. J. S. Smyth, M.A. ; Professor StevcUy, 
LL.D.; Professor Tyndall, F.R.S. ; John Pope Hennessy, Esq. 

SECnON B. CHEMISTRY AND MINERALOOT, INCLUDING THBIR AVrLICAXIONB 

TO AGRICULTURE AND THE ARTS. 

Prewfarf.— Sir J. F. W. Herschel, Bart..D.C.L.,M.A.,F,R.S. 

VuX'Pretidents. — ^The Rev. W. Vernon Harcourt, M.A., F.R.S. i Professor 
Faraday, D.C.L., F.R.S. ; J. P. Gassiot, V.P.R.S. 

Secrrforiet.— J. H. Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S. ; W. Odling, M.B., F.C.S. ; Richard 
Reynolds, F.C.S. 

SECTION C. — GEOLOGY. 

Pretufca/.— Wm. Hopkins, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Ffce-Pran<fc»<s.— Mjyor-General Portlock, LL.D., F.R.S. ; Earl of Ennbkillen, 
F.R.S. ; Sir P. de M. Grey Egerton, Bart., F.R.S. ; Professor Ramsay, F.R.8. 

Secre/flnet.— Professor J. Nicol, F.G.S. ; H. C. Sorby, F.R.S. ; E. W. Shaw, 
Eeq. 

SECTION D. ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY, INCLUDING PHYSIOLOGY. 

Prefidm/.— C- C. Babington, M.A., F.R.S. 

Viee-PrmdenU.—Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. ; Sir John Richardson, M.D., 
LLD., F.R.S. 

SeereUiries. — E. Lankester, M.D., F.R.S. ; Henry Denny, A.L.S. ; Dj. Heaton j 
Dr. E. Pfercival Wright, M.R.I. A. 

SUB-SECTION D. PHYSIOLOGICAL SCIENCE. 

Prmdent. — Sir Benjamin Brodie, Bart., D.C.L., Pres.R.8. 
Fiee-PresidenU.'-ThomBA P. Teale, F.L.S.; Dr. Hodgkin ; Dr. Chadwick; 
Samuel Smith, Esq. • 

Secretery.— -C. G. Wheelhouse, Esq. 

SECTION E.— GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

Pretident. — Sir Roderick Murchison, G.C.St.S., D.C.L., F.R.S., President of the 
Royal Geographical Society, &c. 

Ftcc-Pre»ufci»/«.— Major-GeneralChe8ney,D.C.L.,F.R.S.; John Crawfurd,F.R.S.; 
Rear-Admiral FitzRov, F.R.S. ; Rev. W. F. Hook, D.D. ; Sir H. C. Rawlinson, 
K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Sir John Richardson, C.B., M.D., LL.D. 

Seeretariea. — Dr. Norton Shaw ; Thomas Wright, F.S.A. ; Francis Galton, Esq. ; 
P. O'Callaghan, Esq. ; Richard Call, Esq. 

SECTION F. — ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 

Prmdeut, — Edward Baines, Esq. 

Ftce-Prewcfeii^.— Colonel W. H. Sykes, M.P., F.R.S, ; James Heywood, F.R.8. | 
W. Scrope Ayrton, F.S.A. ; Darnton Lnpton ; Sir James Kay Shnttieworth, Bart. 

Sear Ha riet, — ^William Newmarch, Esq. ; John Strang, LL.D. ; Professor Caimes ; 
Captain Fishbonme ; Thos. B. Baines, B.A. ; Samnel Brown, F.S.S, 

SECTION O. — MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 

P^wdwrf.—William Fairbaim, F.R.S. 

Fiee-PreMdemtt.—J. G. Appold, F.R.S. ; Sir P. Fairbaim, Mayor of Leeds ; J. 
Glynn, F.R.S. ; J. Kitson, C.E. ; Professor Rankine, LL.D., F,R.S., Pres. Inst. 
i^, Scot.; G. Rennie, F.R.S. ; J. Scott Russell, F.R.S. ; T. Webster, M.A., 
F.R.S. i General Wilson. 

Secretencf.— J. C. Dennis, F.R.A.S. ; I. Dixon, Esq. ; H. Wright. Esq. 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



jcxvui 



REPORT — 1858. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Professor Agassiz, Cambridge, Massa* 

ehuteiU. 
M. Babinet, ParU. 
Dr. A. D. Bache, Washington. 
Professor Bolzani^ Kazan, 
Barth, Dr. 

Mr. P. G. Bond, Cambridge, U.S. 
M. Boutigny (d'Evreux). 
Professor Braschmann, Moscow. 
Chevalier Bunsen, Heidelberg, 
Dr. Ferdinand Cohn, Breslait. 
M. Antoine d'Abbadie. 
M. De la Rive, Geneva. 
Professor Dove, Berlin. 
Professor Dumas, Paris. 
Dr. J. Milne-Edwards, Parts. 
Professor Ehrenberg, Berlin. 
Dr. Eisenlohr, Carlsruhe. 
Professor Encke, Berlin. 
Dr. A. Erman, Berlin. 
Professor Esmark, Chrisiiania. 
Professor G. Forchbammer, Copenltagen. 
M. L^n Foucault, Paris. 
Prof. E. Freray, Paris. 
M. Frisian!, Milan. 
Professor Asa Gray, Cambridge, ILS. 
Professor Henry, JVashinglon, U.S. 
M. Jacobi, St. Petersburg. 
Prof. A^ Kblliker, Wurzbwg. 
Prof. De Koninck, Liege. 
Professor Kreil, Vienna. 
Dr. A. Kupffer, St. Petersburg. 
Dr. Lamont, Munich. 



Prof. F. Lanza, Spoleto. 

M. Le Verrier, Paris. 

Baron von Liebig, Munich. 

Professor Loomis, New York. 

Professor Gustav Magnus, Berlin. 

Professor Matteucci, Pisa. 

Professor von Middcndorff, St. Petersburg, 

M. I'Abb^ Moigno, Paris. 

Professor N ilsson, Sweden. 

Dr. N. Nordensciold, Finland. 

M. E. Peligot, Paris. 

Viscenza Pisani, Florence. 

Gu stave Plaar, Strasburg. 

Chevalier Plana, 7\trin. 

Professor Pliicker, Bonn. 

M. Constant Provost, Paris. 

M. Quetelet, Brussels. 

Prof. Retzius, Stockholm. 

Professor C. Ritter, Berlin, 

Professor H. D. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor W. B. Rogers, Boston, U.S. 

Professor H. Rose, Berlin. 

Herman Schlagintweit, Berlin, 

Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin, 

Dr. Siljestrom, Stockholm, 

M. Struv^, Pulkowa. 

Dr. Svanberg, Stockholm. 

M. Pierre Tchihatchef. 

Dr. Van der Hoeven, I^den. 

Baron Sartorius von Waltershausen, 

Gottingen. 
Professor Wartmann, Geneva. 



Report of the Council of the British Association as presented 
TO THE General Committee at Leeds> September 22nd, 1858. 

1. With reference to the subjects referred to the Council by the General 
Committee at Dublin, the Council have to report as follows: — 

a. The General Committee passed the following resolution, viz. : — 

^ That it is of great importance to the progress of Science that the Mag- 
netic Observations which have already added so much to our knowledge of 
terrestrial magnetism, should be continued. That the influence of the Asso- 
ciation will be well employed in attaining this object, and that it is desirable 
to obtain the cooperation of the Royal Society. That a Committee be ap- 
pointed, consisting of the President, the Rev. Dr. Robinson, and Major-General 
Sabine, to request, on tlie part of the British Association, the cooperation of 
the President and Council of the Royal Society, and to take in conjunction 
with them such steps as may appear necessary, including, if it be thought 
desirable, an application to Government." 

A copy of this resolution was transmitted soon af>er the Dublin Meeting 
by the President, Dr. Lloyd, to Lord Wrottesley, President of the Royid 
Society, accompanied by the following letter : — 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



REPORT OF TUB COUNCIL. XXIX 

*« Not. 6, 1857. 
" My Lord, — At the Meeting of the British Association which was held 
at Dublin in Aagust last, a Resolution was adopted proposing the continuance 
of the system of Magnetical Observations which was commenced under the 
auspices of the Royal Society and of the British Association in 1840; and a 
Committee, consisting of the President of the Association, Rev. Dr. Robinson, 
and General Sabine, was appointed, to request the cooperation of the Presi- 
dent and Council of the Royal Society in the endeavour to attain this object, 
and to take in conjunction with them such steps as may appear desirable for 
that end. If this proposal should commend itself to your Lordship's judg- 
ment, and that of the Council of the Royal Society, I have to request, on the 
part of the gentlemen above named, that you will be pleased to nominate a 
Committee of the Royal Society to confer with them, and to take such further 
steps in conjunction with them as may seem expedient. 

" I have the honour to be, My Lord, 

" Your most obedient Servant, 
(Signed) « H. Lloyd." 

« To the Eight Hon. the Lord Wrottesley, P.R.S:' 

In consequence of this letter, the President and Council of the Royal 
Society appointed a Committee, consisting of Sir John Herschel, Bart., the 
Rev. Dr. Whewell, the Rev. The Dean of Ely, and the Astronomer Royal 
(who had been members of the Committee of Physics, by whom the former 
Report on terrestrial magnetism in 1839-40 had been drawn up) to consider 
the progress and present state of Magnetical Investigation ; and to take, in 
conjunction with the Committee appointed by the British Association, such 
steps as should appear advisable for its further prosecution ; including, if it 
should be deemed desirable, an application to Government. 

The mode of proceeding pursued by the two Committees has been hitherto 
that of independent deliberation, with occasional intercommunication by 
correspondence. The conclusions which have been arrived at by the two 
Committes being, it is understood, substantially the same, a united Meeting 
has been appointed to take place at Leeds, in the present week, at which a 
joint report may be drawn up, and may be presented to the General Com- 
mittee at its meeting on Monday next, when such further steps may be 
taken in reference to the subject as may appear desirable. 

b. The General Committee assembled at Dublin directed that '<an appli- 
cation should be made to Her Majesty's Government to send a vessel to 
examine and survey the entrance to the Zambesi River in South Africa, and 
to ascend the river as far as may be found practicable for navigation." 

The President, and the Committee to whom the charge of this application 
was entrusted, having placed themselves in communication with Dr. Living- 
stone, presented the following Memorial to the Earl of Clarendon, Her Ma- 
jesty's Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs : — 

** Dr. Livingstone's successful travels in Africa, and the account which he 
has giYen of them at public meetings in the metropolis and in several of the 
principal provincial towns of the United Kingdom, have excited throughout 
the coontTT a strong desire to obtain more full particulars regarding the 
prodoctions, capabilities, and accessibility of that portion of the globe. 

" The Zambesi River appears by Dr. Livingstone's account to furnish means 
of communication with the interior of Southern Africa similar to those which 
the Quorra and Binue have been found to afford in Central Africa. The 
oljeet of the present application is to bring under the consideration of Her 
Mije8ty*8 Government Uie expediency of availing themselves of the oppor- 

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XXt REPORT — 1858. 

tunity of t)r. Livingstone's return to Afrtca, to employ a suitable vessd in the 
ensuing season to obtain, with his assistance, a more correct knowledge than 
we now possess, of the facilities which the Zambesi would afford for com- 
merce, and of the extent to which its waters may be navigable ; and ako to 
procure a more exact knowledge of the natural productions of the country, 
and of the availability of the supplies of coal and other mineral subetanoet 
which are stated to exist in the vicinity of the river." 

Early in November the Committee, accompanied by Dr. Livingstone, were 
favoured with a personal interview by Lord Clarendon, who was pleased to 
express a warm interest in the proposed Expedition, and promised that it 
should receive the favourable consideration of Her Majesty's Government 
The expectation thus raised has been fully realized ; a vote of money was 
moved by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and sanctioned by the House of 
Commons ; and the Expedition has since sailed, having had the advantage of 
receiving ^om the Royal Society, on Lord Clarendon's invitation, suggestions 
as to the scientific objects which the Expedition may be made to subserve, 
without Interference with its primary and immediate purpose, and having 
been fumbhed at the Observatory of the British Association at Kew, with 
scientific instruments, and with personal instruction in their use. 

e. The General Committee, at Dublin, directed that application should be 
made to Her Majesty's Government ^* to send a vessel to the vicinity of the 
Mackenzie River, for the purpose of making a series of Magnetic Observations 
with special reference to the determination of the laws now known to rule 
the magnetic storms." The General Committee entrusted this application to 
the President, assisted by a Committee named in the Resolution. A Memorial, 
setting forth the grounds and object of the application, having been prepared 
by the Committee, was presented to Lord Palmerston on the 31st of October, 
with a request from the Committee to be favoured with an interview. 

The Memorial was as follows : — 

** Among the most important results of scientific research during the last 
twenty yeats, is the addition which has been made to our knowledge of Ter- 
restrial Magnetism. The variation of its direction and intensity dependent on 
the observer's position on the globe, have been ascertained with a precision 
which already affords material assistance to the seaman ; and those variations 
which are connected with the hour of the day, or season of the year, have 
been also carefullv investigated. But, as always happens in real progress, 
the advance which has been made has shown new ground which ought to be 
explored. Without referring to the magnetic influence, which we have now 
reason to believe is exerted on our planet both by the sun and moon, a still 
more interiesting fact has recently been established. It has long been known 
that the earth's magnetism is affected by sudden disturbances, occasionally 
so great as even to interfere with its practical applications ; but it has been 
very recently discovered that these magnetic storms (as they have been called) 
are themselves subject to periodic laws. Their study is evidently of the 
highest importance towards the discovery of the physical causes which are 
engaged in producing magnetic phenomena, and a fortunate circumstance 
has pointed out one method of pursuing it. During the years in which Her 
Migesty's Ship 'Plover' was stationed at Point Barrow, as a part of the 
squadron which was searching for the traces of Sir J. Franklin, and bis noble 
companion^ her officers, under the superintendence of their gifted com- 
mander R. Maguire, made a valuable series of magnetic observations, the more 
precious from their peculiar position, and the great care with which they were 
conducted. On reducing these and comparing their results with those ob- 
tained at Toronto, the most famous of the British Magnetic Observatories, 

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BBPOftT OP THB OOONCIL. JOOLl 

some very remarkable facts were elicited respecting the magnetic storms. 
At both stations they occur simnltaneously ; but with the significant differ- 
ence that their directions are opposite. This indicates so clearly the relation 
of these disturbances to a point somewhere between Point Barrow and 
Toronto, that it appeared to the Physical Section of the British Association, 
when discussing at its late Meeting these observations, of high importance 
to have them continued and extended. For thb purpose a location in or 
near Mackenzie River appears the most suitable, as very well situated with 
respect to the other two, and as easily accessible without any extraordinary 
risk, or chance of long detention. The same instruments are available ; and 
as there are many officers in Her Majesty's Navy perfectly competent to use 
them, it is confidently expected that the result would be alike beneficial to 
tliis department of Physical Science, and honourable to our country." 

No reply having been received to this communication, the following letted 
was addressed, on the 4th of January, by the President, to G. C. Barrington, 
Esq«, private Secretary to Lord Palmerston :— 

"Ja]iiury4, 1858. 

** Sir, — On the Slst of October I communicated to Lord Palmerston a 
resoliition adopted by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 
Btaking i^llcation to Her Majesty's Government to send a vessel to the 
vicinity of the Mackenzie River, for the purpose of obtaining in that region 
eertain observations, which recent discoveries in Terrestrial Magnetism had 
proved to be of high importance to science ; and I enclosed at the same time 
a Memorial, setting forth in detail the grounds of the application. 

*^ At the time for making the necessary preparations for such an expedition 
has DOW fully arrived, I trust I shall not be deemed unreasonable in recalling, 
tlirough yon, his Lordship's consideration to the subject. 

^ In reference to this part of the question, I beg to enclose a letter froni 
Captain Magaire, who commanded H.M.S. * Plover in the same seas in 1852, 
1855, 1854>, and who is probably the best authority on the subject. It will 
be seen from it, that there is still sufficient time to equip a vessel for the 
fbrthctnning season. As respects the kind of vessel required, and the nature 
of the equipment, the same officer writes as follows, in a letter dated the 5th 
of November lemtf addressed to General Sabine : — 

^ * One of the despatch gun-vessels will answer very well. There are also 
many sailing-sloops now lying idle— such as the * Frolic' and ' E^i^gle,' or 
nMmy others, that might be made available at a trifling expense. The strength- 
ening need not be much ; and a very small auxiliary steam-power, sufficient 
to propel the vessel two or three knots in a calm, would suffice to carry her 
through the land-water of the north coast from Point Barrow. The shores 
from thence to the Maekensi^ afford, in every part, an ample supply of drift- 
wood fit for steaming purposes*' 

*^ As I believe that one of the chief objections, on the part of Her Majesty's 
Government, to further expeditions to the Arctic Seas, is the danger to tiie 
lives of the seamen employed in the service, I think it right to add^ that an 
expedition to this locality will be attended with ne unusual risk, — and that, 
on the other hand, it majf afford important support to the gallant crew who 
are now engaged in the final search for the traces of the FrankHn Expedition^ 
if the commander should be indneed by circnmstanees^ which are not iaaK» 
probable, to push his vessel westward. 

'' I have the honour to be. Sir, 

*^ Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) "H.Lloyb." 

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xxxii RBPORT— 1858. 

To thid letter the following reply was received : — 

" Downing Street, Jan. 22, 1858. 
«• Sin, — In reply to your letter of the 4th instant, I am desired by Lord 
Palmerston to acquaint you that Her Majesty's Government do not think it 
advisable to take the steps recommended by you. 

« I am. Sir, 
" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) *' Gerald Ponsonby/* 

'' Rev. Dr. Lhydr 

2. The General Committee at Dublin having placed £.500 at the disposal 
of the Council, to be employed in maintaining the establishment, and pro* 
viding for the continuance of special researches at the Kew Observatory, the 
Report of the Committee to whom the Council have confided the superin- 
tendence of the Kew Observatory is herewith annexed, testifying to the great 
and still increasing public utility of that establishment. The General Com- 
mittee will recognize with pleasure, in the contribution of £150 received from 
the Royal Society, for the purchase of improved tools for the workshop of the 
Observatory, a fresh evidence of the readiness of the President and Council 
of that body to aid the objects of the Kew Observatory, by special grants 
from time to time for particular purposes. 

S. Since the communication made by the President and Council of the Royal 
Society to the General Committee in Dublin, relative to the formation of a 
« Catalogue of the Philosophical papers contained in the various scientific 
Transactions and Journals of all Countries " (printed copies of which com- 
munication were distributed amongst the members of the General Committee 
in Dublin), this important work has been commenced under the auspices and 
at the expense of the Royal Society. It is purposed that it should include the 
titles (in the original languages) of all Memoirs published in such works, in 
the Mathematical, Physical, and Natural Sciences, from the foundation of the 
Royal Society to the present time : the titles to be so arranged as to form 
ultimately three catalogues, — one chronological, or in the order of the me- 
moirs in the several series, — one alphabetical, according to authors* names,-— 
and, lastly, a third, classified according to subjects. The superintendence of 
this work has been undertaken by the ofiUcers of the Royal Society, assisted 
by a Select Committee of the Fellows. 

4. The Council have added to the list of Corresponding Members of the 
Association the names of the following foreign gentlemen, who were present 
at the Dublin Meeting, and made communications to the Sections, viz. : — 

Dr. Barth. Viscenza Pisani, Florence. 

Professor Bolzani, Kazan. Gustavo Plaar, Strasburg. 

Antoine d'Abbadie, Paris, Herman Schlagintweit, JSerlin* 

Professor Loomis, New York. Robert Schlagintweit, Berlin. 

5. The General Secretary has informed the Council that he communicated 
to Hb Royal Highness The Prince Consort the resolution of the General 
Committee at Dublin, viz. : — 

** That application be made to His Royal Highness The Prince Consort for 
permission to elect him President of the British Association for the year 1 859/* 
and that he had received in reply the following letter : — 

*' Balmoral, Sept. 17, 1857. 
" Sir, — I have communicated to His Royal Highness ITie Prince Consort 
your letter of the 13th inst, expressing, on the part of the Committee of the 
britidh Association, the wbh that His Royal Highness would allow himself 

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REPORT OF THE KBW COMMITTEE. XtXUl 

to be Bominated as President of the Meeting which it is proposed to hold at 
Aberdeen in 1859. 

*< His Rojal Highness cannot bat feel gratified at the wish thus expressed 
by the Committee^ though he is sensible that his own proficiency in scientific 
sobjects is scarcely such as to entitle him to such a distinction. If, therefore, 
he expresses his readiness to comply with the wishes of the Committee, he 
begs that it may be considered merely as an expression of the deep interest 
which he takes in the advancement of science in this country, and as a mark 
of the high sense which he entertains of the importance and usefulness of the 
Association. 

^ His acceptance of the Presidency must also be considered, to a certain 
degree, conditional — depending upon his being in Scotland at the time pro- 
posed for the Meeting. 

'' His Royal Highness s time is not his own, and it is impossible for him, 
at this distance of time, to say whether the call of other duties may not be 
such as to prevent his attendance. 

*' I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your most obedient Servant, 

" C. Grey." 
« To Mc^r-General Sabine:* 

6. The Report of the Parliamentary Committee of the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science has been received by the Council, and is 
herewith presented. 

Repcrt qfthe Kew Committee of the British Association far the 
Advancement of Science, for 1857-58. 

Since the last Meeting of the Association, a set of Magnetical Instruments 
have been prepared, at the request of the Council of the Royal Society, and 
the constants determined for the Expedition of Dr. Livingstone to South 
Africa. Capt. Bedingfield, R.N. and Messrs. Livingstone and Baines, who 
accompany Dr. Livingstone in this Expedition, received instructions at the 
Observatory in the use of the instruments. 

At the request of Capt Washington, R.N., Hydrographer of the Admiralty, 
similar instruments were prepared for the Oregon Boundary Commission, 
and instructions in their use were given at the Observatory to Capt. Haig, 
R^., and Lieut Darrah, R.E. 

Detailed written instructions for both Expeditions, supplementary to those 
contained in the Admiralty Manual, were furnished by Mr. WeUh. Such 
instructions necessarily occupied the time and attention of Mr. Welsh and 
his assistants ; but as, in the opinion of the Committee, instructions for the 
correctly manipulating with instruments with which gentlemen appointed to 
a particular service are not often previously acquainted, is an essential fea- 
ture in the practical working of a physical observatory, the Committee have 
considered it desirable tliat such assistance should be afforded ; and it will 
be in the recollection of the Council that, in their last Report, the Committee 
stated that several gentlemen, some of whom were connected with foreign 
Governments, had received similar instruction. 

An application having been received from M. Secchi of the Collegio Ro- 
mano, on the part of the Roman Government, for Magnetical Instruments, 
these instruments have been prepared at the Observatory and forwarded to 
Rome. They consist of an Observatory Bifilar Magnetometer and Balance 

1858. « 

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Magnetometer^ similar to those employed in the British Colonial Obserrafto- 
riea, a Unifilar Magnetometer, and a Dip Circle. 

Application has also been received from the Rev. Alfred Weld for Mag- 
netics and Electrical apparatus for the Stonyhurst College ; these are in 
course of preparation, and Mr. Weld has received instructions in the nse of 
the magneticiJ instruments. 

Two Dip Circles by Barrow^ furnished with Dr. Lloyd's apparatus for the 
total force, which were sent to the Observatory preparatory to their being 
forwarded to the Austrian and Russian Governments, were carefully examined 
and adjusted. 

An extensive series of observations made with various dipping-needles and 
circles, have confirmed the results previously obtained at the Observatory as 
to the value of the Magnetic dip. 

The Self-recording Magnetometers have been in regular action since the 
1st of January, and have performed satisfactorily ) some difficulty arose in 
the manipulation of the Bidance-magnet, but this has been surmounted, and 
this instrument now performs with as much accuracy and delicacy in its 
action as either the Declinometer or Bifilar Magnet 

The Photoheliograph erected in the dome of the Observatory was fully 
described in the last Annual Report; it has been repeatedly at work since the 
beginning of last March, and excellent photographic pictures of the solar 
spots and faculse%rere obtained. Certain alterations have been made by 
Mr. Welsh in order to regulate the time of exposure of the collodion plate 
to the sun's action ; with these alterations the instrument gives very good 
results, but certain improvements in the arrangements of the secondary mag- 
nifying lens are under consideration, with the view of avoiding the depicdon 
on the collodion negative of the inequalities in the glasses which compose it 

The Committee recommend that arrangements should be made for the 
appointment of a competent Assistant, who will undertake the taking of the 
photographs and the preparing of a certain number of copies for disSbution 
to some of the principal British and Foreign observatories. 

George Whipple has been engaged to assist in the general work of the 
Observatory at a weekly pay of ten shillings. 

Mr.Beekley's arrangement of the Anemometer described at the CheHenhaof 
Meeting of the Association has been adopted and carried out in an apparatus 
made by Mr. Adie for the East India Company. This anemometer having 
been mounted at the Observatory, remained for some time, and was found lo 
perform satisfactorily ; it was shown to many persons, and examined by 
Admiral FitzRoy, General Sabine, and Mr. Osier, members of the Anemo- 
meter Committee. Certain modifications since suggested by Mr. Beckley, 
have been adopted in two instruments constructed by Mr. Adie for Adnriral 
FitzRoy's department in the Board of Trade. 

The verification of Meteorological Instruments has been continued on the 
same plan as in previous years. The following have been verified since the 
last meeting of the Association to the 1st of July : — 

Bard- Thermo- Hydro- 

neters. meters, meters. 

For the Admiralty 75 

For the Board of Trade 60 126 

For Opticians and others 86 142 150 

Total 22] 268 150 

Among the hitter are indiided 50 barometers SEnd 150 hydn^ineteni ftr 

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BBPORT OF THk KEW COMMITTBB. XXXV 

the United States, and 6 barometers and 6 thermometers for the Portuguese 
GoTemmenL 

Mr. Welsh is at present completing (he Magnetic Survey of Scotland, for 
the expense of which £200 has been received by the Committee from the 
Admiralty. 

The Committee finding it desirable that the workshop of the Observatory 
should be famished with a superior lathe and planing machine, authorized 
their Chairman to apply to the Council of the Royal Society for the sum of 
£150 ; this amount was immediately awarded from the Donation Fund, and 
a very superior lathe, by Whitworth, and a planing machine have been pur- 
chased at a cost of £149 ?«• 

The present as well as the former Annual Reports of the Committee, show 
the practical scientific objects for which the Observatory has for so many 
years been used, and at no former period was it in so effective a state as at 
present ; the valuable tools that have (by the liberality of the Royal Society) 
been placed in the workshop, enable Mr. Beckley to repair and make appa- 
ratus and ihsiruments of the most complex and delicate construction ; much 
of this work would otherwise have been sent to different workshops in the 
Metropcte; entailing not only great loss of time, but often a want of accu- 
racy in the construction : the value of such arrangements in the Observatory 
can be easily appreciated by scientific observers. 

On ihe ^th of last April, the Committee presented an estimate of the 
expenditure for the present year, a copy of which had been previously for- 
warded by the Chairman to the President, whose reply, addressed to General 
Sabine, the Committee now present as a part of their Annual Report. 

" Trinity College, DubKn, December 7, 1857. 

"Dbar Sabine, — I have received from Mr. Gassiot the Financial Report 
of the Kew Committee, which I hope may soon be laid before the Council. 
I< appears firom it that the expenditure of the Observatory is likely to increase 
with the increased activity of the establishment, while part of the income — 
thai, namely, derived from the verification of meteorological instruments — 
will probably diminish in future years. 

" I am not sufficiently acquainted with the working of the Observatory to 
say, from my own knowledge, how far an augmentation of the existing staff 
18 necessary. But if the Council should judge that it is — as stated in the 
Report of the Committee — they will have to consider from what external 
source provision may be made for the increased expenditure ; for I presume 
that it will not be thought prudent, that the Association, with its fiuctuating 
and uncertain income, should augment its grant beyond the present amount* 

** Upon this point I may remark, that the President and Council of (he 
Royal Society have already evinced their sense of the value of the Observatory, 
by making a liberal grant to it for a special object ; and that it is therefore not 
improbalne that they may be willing to contribute permaTienify to its support. 
Its objects are at least as clearly allied to those of the Royal Society, as to those 
of the British Association; and if it should be deemed that those objects 
have been in great measure attained, and that the establishment has proved 
itself deserving of permanent maintenance, it would seem expedient to place 
it on a more Med basis than the present. 

" I win only add, that believing, as I do, that the Observatory has already 
done much, and is capable of doing more, for the advancement of physical 
science, I should deplore the restriction of its efficiency, by insufficient pecu- 
mary means, as a loss to science. 

" Believe me, sincerely yours, 

« To Gmierol Sabine, RJi^ ^rc" ** H. Lloyd.;! ^i^ 

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XXXVi REPORT — 1858. 

The following is a Statement showing the expense of the last two years ; 
an additional Assistant is now indispensable as a Photographer ; and as tbe 
work of the Observatory increases, and its capabilities for the purposes of 
science become further developed, the probable future expenditure canuot 
be fairly estimated at less than £800 per annum. 

Statement. 

1857. 1858. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Salaries 397 5 .... 471 8 

Apparatus: — 

Materials, Tools, Ac 28 10 7 . . . . 59 6 4 

Ironmonger, &c 66 9 4 .... 19 13 5 

Stationery, &c 24 9 8 20 11 

CoalsandGas 19 2 .... 47 10 8 

House Expenses 17 10 4 20 11 8 

Porterage and Petty Expenses . . 5 19 3 6 12 4 

Rent of Land 21 21 



£580 4 4 .... 676 18 5 

The above is the actual expenditure, but the real annual increase in salaries 
is about £61 : the difference in the above statement arises from the termination 
of the financial year being one month later than last year. In the detailed 
statement of receipts and expenditure, it will be observed that the amount 
received for verification of meteorological instruments has decreased, arising 
from the circumstance that the Meteorological department of the Govern- 
ment is now well provided with a store of instruments for its use. 

As the financial position of the Observatory will probably be brought 
forward by the Council at the General Meeting of the Association at Leeds, 
the Committee suggest that the time has now arrived when strenuous efforts 
should be made to obtain such an amount of pecuniary aid as would ensure 
the permanent efficient working of this practical physical Observatory ; for 
although the establishment is conducted with the strictest economy, tbe 
necessary work connected with the Observatory unavoidably creates a cor- 
responding increase in the amount of the annual expenditure. 

John P. Gassiot, Chairman. 
Kew Observatory, 

10th September, 1858. 

Report of the Parliamentary Committee to the Meeting of the British 
Association at Leeds, in September 1858. 

The Parliamentary Committee have the honour to report as follows : — 
That on their representation the late President of the Board of Trade had 
so far acceded to the suggestions of the President and Council of the Royal 
Societv, supported by the British Association, as to consent to the construc- 
tion of one Anemometer with Dr. Robinson's Revolving Cups, which would 
be erected at Bermuda. We believe, however, that another instrument of 
the same description will be erected at Halifax, at the cost of the Board of 
Admiralty. These Anemometers are to be constructed on a principle devised 
by Mr. Welsh of the Kew Observatory, and they will cost about £50 each. 

We are happy to be enabled to add, that the late President of the Board of 
Trade, on a representation made to him by us of the insufficiency of the 



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/ 









o 

H 

a: 




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xxxviii REPORT — 1858. 

accommodations and Staff at the Meteorological Department of the Board 
of Trade, consented to the appointment of two additional clerks and of a 
working optician, to be permanently attached to that Department ; and, more- 
over, supplied more enlarged accommodations; so that, upon the whole, 
Admiral FitzRoy, who so ably presides over this Meteorological Depart- 
ment, expresses himself as satisfied with the present arrangements, and hope- 
ful as to the future success of an institution which cannot fail to be pro- 
ductive of vast benefit to science. 

We regret extremely that the application to the Government "to send the 
Expedition to the Mackenzie River was unsuccessful ; but we anticipate an 
important accession to our scientific knowledge from the Expedition to the 
Zambesi River, which was sanctioned, and sent out under the able conduct 
of the enterprising and distinguished Livingstone, for this Expedition was 
well supplied with the necessary instruments properly tested at Kew, and 
comprises those who are fully competent to use them. 

We have been again in correspondence with Mr. Patterson, of Belfast, in 
reference to the cost of appointments of new Trustees to Museums and 
other Scientific Institutions. It appears that a clause in the Literary and 
Scientific Societies* Act, extends the facilities given by the 13 and 14 Vict, 
c. 28, or the Religious Societies* Act, to Scientific Societies; but that 
the clause giving such facilities applies to real estate only. There may be 
some technical difiiculties in the way of including personalty, but the subject 
will not be lost sight of. 

The appointment of the Right Hon. Joseph Napier to the office of Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland, has unhappily caused another vacancy in our body. 
There are now therefore two vacancies, one of which we recommend should 
be supplied by the election of the Right Hon. Sir John Pakington, M.P. for 
Droitwich. 

A Memorial having been presented to the Government on the subject of 
the proposed severance from the British Museum of its Natural History Col- 
lections, signed by 114 persons comprising the most eminent promoters and 
cultivators of science, the same was moved for in the House of Commons by 
Sir Philip Grey Egerton and produced. We know of no measure which 
might be adopted by the Government or Legislature, which ifrould inflict a 
deeper injury on science, than the removal of these Collections, if unhappily 
carried into effect. 

We remain of the same opinion which we expressed in our last Report, 
that no convenient opportunity has -yet occurred to submit to the consider- 
ation of the Legislature the twelve Resolutions of the Council of the koyal 
Society ; but we consider that it is difficult to over-estimate the importance 
of having ascertained and embodied in these Resolutions the opinions of the 
most distinguished living cultivators of science on its desiderata. They con- 
stitute a perpetual record to which reference may always be made by any 
Member of the Government or Legislature, who is sincerely desirous to pro- 
mote all such measures as tend to encourage scientific research, and by so 
doing to advance the most important interests of his country. 

Wrotteslby, Chairman* 

September 13, 1858. 



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RSCOHMBNDATIONS OF THB OBNBRAL COMMITTBB. XXXIX 

Recommcndationb adopted by the General Committee at the 
Leeds Meeting in September 1858. 

[When ConuDittoM are appcdntad, the lf«mb«r int named it regardad as the SeoreUnr of 
the Gomimtt^ iBxec^t tbvra be t UMoiilci npmuMitio*.] 

That the Plirliamcntarj Compiutite, now oonsiatiDg of 



The Lord Wrottesley 
TheE^u^of RQ9$e 
The Duke of Argyll 
Jke Pu^ orlieTon^liire 

The Earl or Harrowby 



Sir Philip EgertOD, BarU 
l^igli^ Hon. J, Nupier 
Lor^ S^nley 

f. J. Cooper, ^Isq. 
iscouQt Gode^ica 
Sir John Pakington, BeMrt., 



have authority to expend a sum not exceeding £§0 ia ptomoting an Act of 
Parliament to faeilitate the appointment of New Trustees of the Property 
of Scientific Institutions. 

That the sum of £500 be placed at the disposal of the Council for main- 
taining the Establishment at Kew Observatory. 

That a sum of £200 be placed at the disposal of Professor Wilson of the 
Melbourne University, in aid of his proposed scheme for establishing a Re- 
flecting Telescope, with a speculum of 4 feet diameter, for the Observation 
of the Southern Nebulas ; on the understanding that the Local Government 
of Melbourne, Victoria, and other sources, will defray all the remaining cost 
of carrying the proposal into effect 

That Colonel Sy kes, Lord Wrottesley, Professor Faraday, Professor A^eat- 
stone. Dr. Lee, and Professor TyndalC be appointed a Committee to confer 
with the Kew Committee as to the expediency of arranging further Balloon 
Aaoents, and (if it should be judged expedient) to carry Uiem into effect; 
and that a sum of £200 be placed at their disposal, if it should be required 
for this purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Professor Maskelyne, Mr. Hardwich, 
Mr. Llewellyn, and Mr. Hadow, be requested to continue their Researches 
on the Chemical Nature of the Image formed in Photographic Processea; 
and that the sum of £10 be placed at their disposed for the purpose. 

That Professor Voelcker be requested to continue his Field Experiments 
and Laboratory Researches on the Constituents of Manures essential to 
Cultivated Crops ; and that the sum of £25 be placed at his disposal for the 
poroose. 

That Professor Sullivan be requested to furnish a Report on the Sokibi- 
fitj of Salts at Temperatures above that of Boiling Water, and on the mutual 
Action of Salts in Solution ; and that the sum of £30 be placed at his dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Alphonse Grages be reauested to continue his Experiments oa 
the Chemico-Nkchanical Analysis of Minerals; and that the sum of £10 be 
placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Sir R. I. Murchison, Mr. Page, and Pro* 
fessor A. C. Ramsay, be requested to direct Mr. Robert Slimmon to pursue 
his Researches in I>eveloping the Fossil Contents of the Upper Silurian 
Rocks off Lanarkshire ; and tfadit the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal 
Ibr the purpose. 

[The speciBEiens collected to be given in the first place to the PuUio 
MoKum in Ecfinburgh ; the duplicates to be then presented to the PuUic 

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Xl REPORT — 1858. 

Museum in Jermyn Street, London, and to the Public Museum in Dublin, 
in connexion with the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom.] 

That Mr. Robert Mallet be requested to continue his Experiments on 
Earthquake Waves at Holyhead ; and that the balance of last year's grant 
of £50 (being a sum of £25) be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That Mr. Hopkins, Mr. Sorby, Professor A. C. Ramsay, and Mr. Robert 
Mallet, be requested to conduct a series of Experiments on the Expansion 
and Contraction of various Rocks by changes of temperature in relation to 
Physical Geology ; and that the sum of £50 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. Robert Patterson, Professor Dickie* 
Professor Wyville Thomson, Mr. G. C. Hyndman, and Mr. E. Weller, be 
requested to finish their Report on Dredging in the North and North-east 
Coasts of Ireland ; and that the sum of £20 be placed at their disposal for 
the purpose. 

That Dr. Kinahan, Dr. Carte, Professor J. R. Greene, and Dr. E. P. 
Wright, be requested to continue their Report on " Dublin Bay Dredging ;** 
and that the sum of £15 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Professor J. R. Greene and Dr. E. P. Wright be requested to finish 
Professor Greene's Report on British Discoid Medusidse ; and that the sum 
of £5 be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. P. Wright and Professor J. R. Greene be requested to draw 
up a Report on the Irish Tunicata ; and that the sum of £5 be placed at 
their disposal for the purpose. 

That Dr. E. P. Wright, Professor J. R. Greene, Dr. Kinahan, and Dr, 
Carte, be requested to draw up the second part of their Report on the Marine 
Fauna of the South and West Coasts of Ireland ; and that the sum of £10 
be placed at their disposal for the purpose. 

That a Conmiittee, consisting of Thomas Allis, Sir W. Jardine, Bart., 
and Mr. T. C. Eyton, be requested to investigate the Osteology and Com- 
parative Anatomy of Birds; and that the sum of £50 be placed at their 
disposal for the purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. R. M* Andrew (London), Mr. G. C. 
Hyndman (Belfast), Dr. Dickie (Belfast), Mr. C. L. Stewart (London), 
Dr. Collingwood (Liverpool), Dr. Kinahan (Dublin), Mr. J. G. Jeflfreys 

a.oiidon), Dr. £. P. Wright (Dublin), Mr. L. Barrett (Cambridge), and 
r. L. Worthy (Bristol), be requested to act as a General Dredging 
Committee ; and that the sum of £5 be placed at their disposal for the 
purpose. 

That a Committee, consisting of Dr. Daubeny and.Dr. Lankester, be re- 
quested to assbt Dr. Voelcker and Professor Buckman in their Researclies 
on the Growth of Plants; and that the sum of £10 be placed at their dis- 
posal for the purpose. 

That Professor J. Thomson be requested to continue his Experiments on 
the Measurements of the Discharge of Water through V-shaped Orifices ; 
and that the sum of £10 be placed at his disposal for the purpose. 

That the attention of Proprietors of Steam-vessels be called to the great 
importance of adopting a general and uniform system of recording facts of 
performances of steam- vessels at sea under all circumstances, and tliat the 
following Noblemen and Gentlemen be requested to act as a Committee to 
carry this object into effect, with £15 at their disposal for the purpose, and 
to report to the Association at its next Meeting : — Admiral Moorsom ; the 
Marquis of Stafibrd, M.P. ; the Earl of Caithness ; Lord Dufierin ; Sir James 
Graham, M.P.; William Fairbaim, F.R.S.; J. S. Russell, F.R.S.; J. Kitson, 

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BECOHMENDATIONa OP THB OBNERAL COMHITTBB. xU 

CE. ; W. Smith, C.E. ; J. E. M'CoDnell, C.E. ; C. Atherton, C.E. ; Professor 
Sankine, LL.D.; J. 11. Napier, C.E.; Henry Wright (Secretary). 

Involving Applications to Government or Public Institutions. 

Resolved, — That application be made to the Sardinian Authorities for 
obtaining additional facilities to scientific men for pursuing their researches 
on the summits of the Alps. 

That the Right Hon. M. T. Baines, M.P., Viscount Goderich, M.P., 
Mr. Wm. Fairbaim, Mr. James Hey wood, General Sabine, and Mr. T. Web- 
ster, be appointed a Committee for the purpose of taking such steps as may 
be necessary to render the Patent System of this country, and the funds 
derived from inventors, more efficient and available for the reward of men- 
lorious inventors and the advancement of Science. 

That a Committee, consisting of Mr. W. Hopkins, Mr. R. Mallet, and 
General Portlock, be requested to represent to the Meteorological Depart- 
ment of the Board of Trade the desirableness of connecting with its arrange- 
ments a system for the observation and record of Oceanic and Littoral 
Earthquakes and of the occasional occurrence upon the coasts of Great Sea 
Waves, and, if practicable, of bringing such into immediate operation. 

That it is highly desiraUe that a series of Magnetical and Meteoro- 
logical Observations on the same plan as those which have been already 
carried on in the Colonial Observatories for that purpose under the direction 
of Her Majesty's Board of Ordnance, be obtained, to extend over a period of 
not more than five years, at the following stations : — 

1. Vancouver Island. 

2. Newfoundland. 

S. The Falkland Isles. 

4. Pekin, or some near adjacent station. 

That an application be made to Her Majesty's Government to obtain 
the establbhment of Observatories at these stations for the above-mentioned 
term, on a personal and material footing, and under the same superin- 
tendence as in the Observatories (now discontinued) at Toronto, St Helena, 
and Van Diemen's Land. 

That the observations at the Observatories now recommended, should be 
comparable with, and in continuation of, those made at the last-named Ob- 
servatories, including four days of term observations annually. 

That provision be also requested at the hands of Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment for the execution within the period embraced by the observations of 
magnetic surveys in the districts immediately adjacent to those stations, 
viz. of the whole of Vancouver Island and the shores of the Strait sepa- 
rating it from the main land, — of the Falkland Isles, — and of the immediate 
neighbourhood of the Chinese Observatory (if practicable), wherever 
situated, — on the plan of the surveys already executed in the British posses- 
sions in North America and in the Indian Archipelago. 

That a sum of £S50 per annum, during the continuance of the ob- 
servations, be recommended to be placed by Government at the disposal of 
the General Superintendent, for the purpose of procuring a special and 
scientific verification and exact correspondence of the magnetical and me- 
teorological instruments, both of those which shall be furnished to the 
several Observatories, and of those which, during the continuance of the 
observations for the period in question, shall be brought into comparison 
with them, either at Foreign or Colonial Stations. 



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Slii BBPORT — 1858, 

That the printing of the Observations in exten90 be discontinued^ but 
that provision be made for their printing in abstract, with discussion, but that 
the Term Observations, and those to be made on the occurrence of Magnetic 
Storms, be still printed in extenso ; and that the registry of the observations 
be made in triplicate, one copy to be preserved in the office of the General 
Superintendent, one to be presented to the Royal Society, and one to the 
Royal Observatory at Greenwich, for conservation and future reference. 

That measures be adopted for taking advantage of whatever disposition 
may exist on the part of our Colonial Governments to establish Observa- 
tories of the same kind, or otherwise to cooperate with the proposed system 
of observation. 

That in placing these Resolutions and the Report of the Committee 
before the President and Council of the Royal Society, the continued co- 
operation of that Society be requested in whatever ulterior measures may be 
f^ouisite. 

Thiit fbe President of th? British A^ciatio^ be requefite^ to apt v^ 
C9|yu9CtklP Witl^ the Pr^^icient of th^ f^Qyf^ Sqci^tF' and vUh the Meq^der^ 
pf tl^fi t^Q CoTOflfiittees, iq »uy ^t^p^ wj^ich appear fl^e^a^ry fo? the apcona- 
)4^hni^f)^ of th^ Ql^eqts <^We ^te^. 

Thai ^^ wrjy ^omwHwicatiQH h^ «w4e ^f t^is pfq^e^nre tq ^is ^9^ 
HwrtPW <h^ PriDQ^ Cftftsort, th« Pre»idefjt el^t Qt th^ pr^|isfe i\^09ialion 
(or It^e ending ;^r, 

f|iques^4 tQ rtfi ig[ipQi^^ift^ of ^vtborizij^g f^rti^er ^e^^Vchej^ Oft ^9 
depth, temperature, and ^pwifift gr*Y»ty 0^ the S^a, wq^q €flJ<pw»lWi« rela- 
tion to the communications betw^eu 4i^tant shcires by means of Electric 
Telegraph Cables. 

Tl^at Mr. A. Cayley, F.R.S., be requested, in oontinuatioq of his Report 
on the Recent Progress of Theoretical Dynamics, to make a Report tm the 
History of certain i^pecial Problems of Dynamics. 

That Mr. H. I. S. Smith, M.A., of Balliol College (Oxon), be requested 
tq draw up a Report on the Theory of Numbers. 

Tfhat Mr. Webh be requested to draw up an aeeouttt of the Self- 
recording Magnetical Instniments at the Kew Observatory, and to present 
it to the next Meeting of the Association. 

That Professor Owen be requested to prepare a Report upon the Crania 
of the Native Tribes of ^he Nepal Hills, in his possession, forwarded to him 
by Mr. Bryan Hodgson. 

That Mr. Foster be associated with Dr. Odling to earry out a recommenda- 
tion of the Dublin Meeting for a Report on Organic Chemistry. 

That Dr. Lankester be requested to bring under the notice of the Kew 
Committee his new Ozonometer. 

That the consideration of the Kew Committee be requested to the best 
means of removing the difficulty which is now experienced by Oficers pro- 
ceeding on Government Expeditions and by other Scientific travellers, in 
procuring instruments for determinations of Geographical Position, of the most 
approved portable construction, and properly verified. That the interest of 
Geographical Science would be materially advanced by similar measures 
beiug taken by the Kew Committee in respect to such Instruments, to those 
which have proved so beneficial in the case of Magnetical and Meteorological 
Instruments. 



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BBCOMMENDATIONe QF THP OBVIBAL COMMITTBB. xllU 

Commur^icaiioHS to be printed entire among the Htports. 

That a CommuDication by R. H. Meade od the Anatomy of the SpinniDg 
Organs of the Araneidse or true Spiders, be printed in full, and illustrated in 
the Reports of the British Association. 

That a Communication by Mr. Eddy, regarding the Lead Mines of York- 
shire, be printed entire among the Reports. 



Synapiis of Grants of Money appropriated to Scientific Objects by the 

General Committee at the Leeds Meeting in September IS5S, with 

the name of the Member y who alone , or as the First of a Committee, 
is entitled to draw for the Money. 

£ s. d. 
Parliamentary Committee. 
The Lord Wrottbsley. — For promoting an Act of Parlia- 
ment to facilitate the appointment of New Trustees of the 

property of Scientific Institutions 5Q 

Eew Observatory. 

At the disposal of the Council for defraying expenses 500 

Mathematical and Physical Science. 

Wilson, Prof.— Telescope at Melbourne 200 

Sykes, Colonel.— Balloon Ascents 200 

Chemical Science. 

Maskblynb, Prof. — Chemistry of Photc^raphy 10 

VoBLCKBR, Prof. — On Constituents of Manures 25 

Sullivan, Prof.— Solubility of Salts SO 

Gagbs^ Mr. A. — Chemico-Mechanical Analysis of Minerals, , 10 6 

Geology. 

MuRCHisoN, Sir R. I — Fossils in Upper Silurian Rocks 20 

Mallet, R., C.E.— Earthquake Waves 25 

Hopkins, William.— Effect of Temperature on Rocks 50 

Zoology and Botany. 

Patterson, R. — Dredging Coast of Ireland 20 

Rinahan, Dr. — Dredging in Dublin Bay 15 

Grbbmb, Prof.— Report on British Medusidae 5 

Wright, Dr. E. P.— Report on Irish Tunicata 5 

WriOht, Dr. E. P. — Report on Marine Fauna of Ireland 10 

Allis, Thomas — Osteology of Birds 50 Q 

M* Andrew, Robert— General Predging 5 

Daubeny, Prot— Growth of Plants 10 

Mechanical Science. 

Thomspn, James, C.E. — ^Discharge of Water 10 

MoojisoM, Admiral. — Performance of Steam Vessels 15 

Total.... iei265 



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xUv 



REPORT — 1858. 



1834. 



Tide Discussions 



£ 8. d. 
20 



1835. 



Tide Discussions C2 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

£167 



General Statement of Sums which have been paid an Account of Grants for 
Scientific Purposes, 

£ 9. d. 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 21 II 

Vitrification Experiments 9 4 7 

Cast Iron KxperimenU 100 

Railway Constants 28 7 8 

Land and Sea LeTcl 274 1 4 

Steam-vessel;}' Engines 100 

Stars in Histoire Celeste 331 18 6 

Stars in Lacaille 11 

Stars in ll.A.S. CaUlogue CIO 6 

Animal Secretions • 10 10 

Steam-engines in Cornwall 50 

Atmospheric Air 16 10 

Cast and Wrought Iron 40 

Heat on Organic Bodies 3 

Gases on Solar Spectrum 22 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions, Inverness and Kingussie 49 7 8 

Fossil Reptiles 118 2 9 

Mining Statistics 50 



1836. 

Tide Discussions 163 

British Fossil Ichthyology 105 

Thermomctric Observations, Sec, 50 
Experiments on long-continued 

Heat 17 1 

Rain Gauges 9 13 

Refraction Experiments 15 

Lunar Nutation 60 

Thermometers 15 6 

ie:434 14 



1837. 



Tide Discussions 284 1 

Chemical Consunts 24 13 6 

Lunar Nutation 70 

Observations on Waves 100 12 

Tides at Bristol 150 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 89 5 3 

Vitrification Experiments 150 

Heart Experiments * 8 4 6 

Barometric Observations 30 

Barometers 11 18 6 



ir918 14 6 



1838. 

Tide Discussions 29 

British Fossil Pishes 100 

Meteorological Observations and 

Anemometer (construction) ... 100 

Cast Iron (Strength oQ 60 

Animal and Vegetable Substances 

(Preservation of) 19 1 10 

Railway Constants 41 12 10 

Bristol Tides 50 

Growth of Plants 75 

Mud in Rivers 3 6 6 

Education Committee 50 

Heart Experimento 5 3 

Land and Sea Level 267 8 7 

Subterranean Temperature 8 6 

Steam-vessels 100 

Meteorological Committee 31 9 5 

Thermometers 16 4 



£956 12 2 



1839. 

Fossil Ichthyology 110 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 63 10 

Mechanism of Waves 144 2 

Bristol Tides , 35 18 



d6l595 11 



1840. 

Bristol Tide 100 

Subterranean Temperature 13 13 6 

Heart Experiments 18 19 

Lungs Experiments 8 13 

Tide Discussions 50 

Land and Sea Level 6 II 1 

Stars (Histoire Celeste) 242 10 

Stars (Lacaille) 4 15 

Stars (Catalogue) 264 

Atmospheric Air 15 15 

Water on Iron 10 

Heat on Organic Bodies 7 

Meteorological Observations 52 17 6 

Foreign Scientific Memoirs 112 1 6 

Working Population 100 

School Statistics 50 

Forms of Vessels 184 7 

Chemical and Electrical Phseno* 

mena 40 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 80 

Magnetical Observations 185 13 

~£r5"46~16~~4 



1841. 

Observations on Waves 30 

Meteorology and Subterranean 

Temperature 8 8 

Actinometers 10 

Earthquake Shocks 17 7 

Acrid Poisons 6 

Veins and Abforbents 300 

Mud in Rivers 5 

Marine Zoology I5 12 8 

Skeleton Maps 20 

Mountain Barometers 6 18 

SUrs (Histoire Create) 185 



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OBNBBAL STATEMENT. 



xlv 



£ «. d. 

Sun(UcaiUe) 79 5 

Stmrs (Nomenclature of) 17 19 6 

Scan (Cmtalogue of) 40 

Water OD Iron 50 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness 20 

Meteorological Observations (re* 

doction of) 25 

Fossil Reptiles 50 

Foreign Menhirs 62 

Railway Sections 38 1 6 

Forms of Vesseb 193 12 

Meteorological Observations at 

Pljmouth 55 

Magnetkal Observations 61 18 8 

Fislies of the Old Red Sandstone 100 

Tides at Leitb 50 

Anemometer at Edinburgh 69 1 10 

Tatmlating Observations 9 6 3 

Races of Men 5 

Radiate Animals 2 

X1235 10 11 

1842. 

Dynamonietric Instruments 113 11 2 

Anoplura Britannis 52 12 

Tides at Bristol 59 8 

Gases on Light 30 14 7 

Chronometers 26 17 6 

Marine Zoology 1 5 

British Fossil Mammalia 100 

Statistics of Education 20 

Marine Steam. vessels* Engines... 28 

Stars (Histolre Celeste) 59 

Start (Brit. Assoc. Cat. of) 110 

Railway Sections 161 10 

British Belemnites 50 

Fossil Reptiles (publication of 

Report) 210 

Forms of Vessels 180 

Galvanic Experiments on Rocks 5 8 6 
Meteorologi<^ Experiu.cnts at 

Plymouth 68 

Constant Indicator and Dynamo- 

metric Instruments 90 

Force of Wind 10 

Light on Growth of Seeds 8 

Vital Statistics 50 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 8 1 11 

Qnestioos on Human Race 7 9 

iei449 17 8 



1843. 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 

Stars 2 

Redoction of Stars, British Asso- 

elation CaUlogue 25 

Anomalous Tides, Frith of Forth 120 

Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions at Kingussie and Inverness 77 12 8 

Meteorological Observations at 

Plymouth 55 

Wbcwell's Meteorological Aoe- 
aoiiieter at Plymouth 10 



£ t, d. 

Meteorological Observations, Os- 
ier's Anemometer at Plymouth 20 

Reduction of Meteorological Ob- 
servations 30 

Meteorological Instruments and 

Gratuities 39 C 

Construction of Anemometer at 

Inverness 56 12 2 

Magnetic Co-operation 10 8 10 

Meteorological Recorder for Kew 
Observatory 50 

Action of Gases on Light 18 16 1 

Establishment at Kew Observa- 
tory, Wages, Repairs, Fumi' 
ture and Sundries 133 4 7 

Experiments by Captive Balloons 81 8 

Oxidation ofthe Hails of Railways 20 

Publication of Report on Fossil 

Reptiles 40 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 147 18 3 

Registration of Earthquake 

Shocks 30 

Report on Zoological Nomencla- 
ture 10 

Uncovering Lower Red Sand- 
stone near Manchester .......•• 4 4 6 

Vegetative Power of Seeds 5 3 8 

Marine Testacea (Habits of) ... 10 

Marine Zoology 10 

Marine Zoology 2 14 11 

Preparation of Report on British 

Fossil Mammalia 100 

Physiological Operations of Me- 
dicinal Agents 20 

Vital Statistics 36 5 8 

Additional Experimenta on the 

Forms of Vessels 70 

Additional Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Reduction of Experiments on the 

Forms of Vessels 100 

Morin*s Instrument and Constant 

Indicator 69 14 10 

Experiments on the Strength of 

Materials 60 

£1565 10 2 

1844. 

Meteorological Observations at 

Kingussie and Inverness 12 

Completing Observations at Ply- 
mouth 35 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 25 8 4 

Publication of the British Asso- 
ciation Catalogue of Stars 35 

Observations on Tides on the 

East coast of Scotland 100 

Revision of the Nomenclature of 
Stars 1842 2 9 6 

Maintaining the Establishment in 
Kew Observatory 117 17 8 

Instruments for Kew Observatory 56 7 3 



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ilti 



EBPOltl* — 1858. 



£ 

Influence of Light dn Plants 10 

Subterraneous Temperature in 

Ireland 5 

Coloured Drawings of Railway 

Sections 15 

Investigation of Fossil Fishes of 

the Lower Tertiary Strata ... 100 
Registering the Shocks of Earth- 
quakes 1842 23 

Structure of Fossil Shells 20 

Radiata and Mollosca of the 

^gean and Red Seas 1842 100 

Geographical Distributions of 

Marine Zoology 1842 

Marine Zoology of Devon and 

Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Corfu 10 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 9 

Experiments on the Vitality of 

Seeds 1842 8 

Exotic Anoplura 15 

Strength of Materials 100 

Completing Experiments on the 

Forms of Ships 100 

Inquiries into Asphyxia 10 

Investigations on the Internal 

Constitution of Metals 50 

Constant Indicator and Mbrin's 

Instrument, 1842 10 

iS981 

1845. 
Publication of the British Associa- 
tion Catalogue of Stars 351 

Meteorological Observations at 

Inverness SO 

Magnetic and Meteorological Co- 
operation 16 

Meteorological Instruments at 

Edinburgh 18 

Reduction of Anemometrical Ob* 

servations at Plymouth 25 

Electrical Experiments at Kew 

Observatory 43 

Maintaining the Establishment in 

Kew Observatory 149 

^or Kreil's Barometrograph 25 

Gases fVom Iron Furnaces 50 

The Actinograph ^ 15 

Microscopic Structure of Shells. . . 20 

Exotic Anoplura 1843 10 

intaUty of Seeds 1843 3 

Vitality of Seeds .«1844 7 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 

talityinYork 20 

Bartiiqutke Shocks 1 843 15 

£830 



t. 













17 


6 








11 



10 









10 














3 








12 8 



14 6 
18 11 

16 8 
U 9 



17 8 




14 8 



9 9 



1846. 
British Assodation Catalogue of 
Sturs ..M.M.MM.M 1844 811 15 



£ f . d. 

Fossil Fishes of the London Clay 100 
Computation of the Gaussian 

Constants for 1839 50 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 146 16 t 

Strength of Materials 60 

Researches in Asphyxia.. 6 16 2 

Examination of Fossil Shells 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1844 2 15 10 

Vitality of Seeds 1845 7 12 3 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall 10 

Marine Zoology of Britain 10 

Exotic Anoplura 1844 25 

Expenses attending Anemometers 11 7 6 

Anemometers' Repairs 2 3 6 

Atmospheric Waves 3 3 3 

Captive Balloons 1844 8 19 3 

Varieties of the Human Race 

1844 7 6 3 
Statistics of Sickness and Mor- 
tality in York 12 

£685 16 



1847. 
Computation of the Gaussian 

ConstanU for 1839 50 

Habits of Marine Animals 10 

Physiological Action of Medicines 20 

Marine Zoology of Cornwall ... 10 

Atmospheric Waves 6 9 

VitaUty of Seeds 4 7 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 107 8 

£208 5 



1848. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 171 15 11 

Atmospheric Waves 3 10 9 

Vitolity of Seeds 9 15 9 

Completion of Catalogues of Surs 70 # 

On Colouring Matters 5 

On Growth of Plants 15 ^ 

£275 1 a 

1849. 
Electrical Observations at Kew 

Observatory 50 6 0* 

Maintaining Establishment at 

ditto 76 2 5 

Vitality of Seeds 5 8 I 

On Growth of Plants 5 

Registration of Periodical Ph«- 

nomena 10 

Bill on account of Anemometrical 

Observations 13 9 

£159 19 6. 



1850. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Obserratory 255 18 

Transit of EtrthquakeWaTCS... 50 



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GENlftAL BTATBMSNT. 



xlTii 



Periodical Phenomena 15 

Meteorological Instrument, 

Azores 25 

£345 18"^ 
1851. ■■^■■■■^ 
Maintaining the Estahlishment at 

Kew Obterratory (includes part 

orgrantin 1849) 809 % 3 

ThcoiryofHeat 80 1 1 

Periodical Phsnomena of Animals 

and Plants 6 

Yitalitjr of Seeds 5 6 4 

Influence of Solar Radiation 30 

Ethnological Inquiries 12 

Researches on Annelida 10 "O 

£391 9 7 
aaaBasBOSBS 
1853. 
Maintainhig the Establishment at 
Kew Obtenratory (including 

Maace of grant for 1850} ... 838 17 8 
Experiments on the Conduction 

of Heat 5 2 9 

Influence of Solar Radiations ... 20 

Geological Map of Ireland 15 

Researches on the British Anne- 

Uda 10 

Vitality of Seeds 10 6 2 

Strength of Boiler Plates 10 

£304 6 7 

1853. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew ObserYatory 165 

Encsimenta on the Influence of 
Solar Radiadon 15 

Reteardies on the British Anne- 
lida. ^ 10 

Dredging on the ^ast Coast of 
Scotland 10 

Ethnological Queries 5 

£205 

1854. 
Mdniainihg the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory (Including 

balance of former grant) 330 15 4 

Investigations on Flu 11 

Eftcts of Temperature on 

Wrought Iron \^ fS ^ 

Rcgbtrackm of Periodical Phe- 

ooasena 10 

British Annelida 10 

Vitality of Seeds 5 2 8 

Conduction of Heat 4 2 

£380 19 7 

1855. 
MdAtiftnfaig th^ Estat>li8htkienf tft 

Kew Observatory 425 

Earthquake Movements 10 



£ a. d. 

Physical Aspect of the Moon 11 8 5 

Vitality of Seeds 10 7 11 

Map of the Worid .' 15 

Ethnological Queries 5 

Dredging near Belfast 4 

£480 16 4 



1856. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 
Kew Observatory :— 

1854 i 75 01 ... ^ ^ 

1855 £500 0/ *^* ® • 

Strickland's Ornithological Syno- 
nyms 100 

Dredging and Dredging Forms... 9 13 9 

Chemical Action of Light 30 

Strength of Iron Plates 10 

Registration of Periodical Phsino- 

mena „ 10 

Propagation of Salmon 10 

£734 13 9 

1857. 

Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 350 

Earthquake Wave Experiments 40 

Dredging near Belfast 10 

Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Investigations into the Mollusca 

of California 10 

Experiments on Flax • 5 C( 

Natural History of Madagascar. • 80 Q 

Researches on British Annelida 25 

Report on Natural Products im- 
ported into Liverpool 10 

Artificial Propagation of Salmon 10 

Temperature of Mines 7 8 6 

Thermometers for Subterranean 

Observations 5 7 4 

Life-Boats I < fl 

£507 15 4 



1858. 
Maintaining the Establishment at 

Kew Observatory 5(i^ 

Earthquake Wave Experiments^ 35 
Dredging on the West Coast of 

Scotland 10 

Dredging near Dublin 5 

Vitality of Seeds ^50 

Dredging near Belfast 18 tS i 

Report on the British Annelida... 85 
Experiments on the production 

of Heat by Motidta in Fluids... 20 
Report on the Natural Products 

imported into Scotland 10 

£618 18 8 



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xlviii REPORT — 1858. 

ExtrcuUsfrom Resolutions ofihe Oeneral Committee, 

Committees and individuals, to whom grants of money for scientific par- 
poses have been entrusted, are required to present to each following meeting 
of the Association a Report of the progress which has been made ; with a 
statement of the sums which have been expended, and the balance which re- 
mains disposable on each grant 

Grants of pecuniary aid for scientific purposes from the funds of the Asso- 
ciation expire at the ensuing meeting, unless it shall appear by a Report that 
the Recommendations have been acted on, or a continuation of them be 
ordered by^the General Committee. 

In each Committee, the Member first named is the person entitled to call 
on the Treasurer, John Taylor, Esq., 6 Queen Street Place, Upper Thames 
Street, London, for such portion of the sum granted as may from time to 
time be required. 

In grants of money to Committees, the Association does not contemplate 
the payment of personal expenses to the Members. 

In all cases where additional grants of money are made for the continua- 
tion of Researches at the cost of the Association, the sum named shall be 
deemed to include, as a part of the amount, the specified balance which may 
remain unpaid on the former grant for the same object. 



General Meetings* 

On Wednesday, Sept. 22, at 8^ p.m., in the Town Hall, The Rev. Humphrey 
Lloyd, D.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.L.&E., V.P.R.I.A., resigned the office of Presi- 
dent to Richard Owen, M.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., Corr. Memb. Inst of France, 
who took the Chair and delivered an Address, for which see page xlix. 

On Thursday Evening, Sept 23, a Conversazione took place in the Town 
Hall. 

On Friday Evening, Sept. 24, at 8| p.m., in the Town Hall, John Phillips, 
M.A., LL.D.9 F.R.S., Pres. Geol. Soc. of London, delivered a Discourse on 
the Ironstones of Yorkshire. 

On Monday Evening, Sept 27, at 8 J p.m., The President of the Meeting, 
Professor Owen, delivered a Discourse on the Fossil Mammalia of Australia. 

On Tuesday Evening, Sept 28, at 8A p.m., a Conversazione took place in 
the Town Hall. 

On Wednesday, Sept 29, at 3 p.m., the concluding General Meeting took 
place in the Town Hall, when the Proceedings of the General Committee, 
and the Grants of Money for scientific purposes, were explained to the 
Members. 

The Meeting was then adjourned to Aberdeen*. 
♦ The Meeting is appointed to take place on Wednesday, the 14th of September, 1859. 



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ADDRESS 

BY 

RICHARD OWEN, M.D., V.P.R.S., D.C.L., F.L.S. btc, 

SuP8iUliTi»i>lUT OF Tire NATURAL HiaTOBT DsPARTMBNTS, BRITlSn MUSBUM. 



Gbktlbmen of the British Association, 

Wb are bere met, in this our 28th annual aBsembly, having accepted, for 
the present year, the Invitation of the flourishing town and firm seat of 
British manafacturing energy, Leeds, to continue the aim of the Associa- 
tion, which is the promotion of Science, or the Knowledge of the Laws of 
Nature ; whereby we acquire a dominion over Nature, and are able so to 
apply her powers as to advance the well-being of society and exalt the con- 
dition of mankind. It is no light matter, therefore, the work that we are 
here assembled to do. 

God has given to man a capacity to discover and comprehend the laws by 
which His universe is governed ; and man is impelled by a healthy and 
natural impulse to exercise the faculties by which that knowledge can be 
acquired. Agreeably with the relations which have been instituted between 
our finite faculties and the phenomena that affect them, we thus arrive at 
demonstrations and convictions which are the most certain that our present 
state of being can have or act upon. 

Nor let any one, against whose prepossessions a scientific truth may jar» 
confound such demonstrations with the speculative philosophies condemned 
by the Apostle; or ascribe to arrogant intellect soaring to regions of 
forbidden mysteries the acquisition of such truths as have been or may 
be established by patient and inductive research. For the most part, the 
discoverer has been so placed by circumstances, rather than by pre- 
determined selection, as to have his work of investigation allotted to 
him as his daily duty ; in the fulfilment of which he is brought face to 
face with phenomena into which he must inquire, and the result of that 
inquiry he must faithfully impart. The course of natural as of moral 
truth is progressive : but it has pleased the Author of all truth to vary the 
fashion of the imparting of such parcels thereof as He has allotted from time 
to time, for the behoof and guidance of mankind. 

Those who are privileged with the faculties of discovery are, therefore, to 
1868. d 



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I REPORT — 1858. 

be regarded as preordained instruments in making known the power of God, 
without a knowledge of which, as well as of Scripture, we are told that we 
shall err. 

Great and marvellous have been the manifestations of this power imparted 
to us of late times, not only in respect of the shape, motions, and solar 
relations of the earth, but also of its age and inhabitants. 

In regard to the period during which the globe allotted to man has revolved 
in its orbity present evidence strains the mind to grasp such sum of past time 
with an effort like that by which it tries to realize the space dividing that 
orbit from the fixed stiurs and remoter nebulaa. Yet» during all those aeras 
that have passed since the Cambrian rocks were deposited which bear the 
impressed record of Creative power, as it was then manifested, we know» 
through the interpreters of these ^ writings on stone,* that the earth was 
vivified by the sun's light and heat, was fertilised by refreshing showexv, and 
washed by tidal waves. 

No stagnation has been permitted to air or ocean. The vast body 
of waters not only moved, as a whole, In orderly oscillations, regulated, as 
now, by sun and moon ; but were rippled and agitated by winds and storms. 
The atmosphere was healthily influenced by Its horizontal currents; and by 
ever-varying clouds and vapours, rising, condensing, dissolving, and falling 
in endless vertical circulation. With these conditions of life, we know that 
life itself has been enjoyed throughout the same countless thousands of years ; 
and that with life, from the beginning, there has been death. 

The earliest testimony of the living thing, whether shell, crust, or coral in 
the oldest fossilifbrous rock, is at the same time proof that it died. 

At no period has the gift of life been monopolized by a few contemporary 
individuals through a stagnant sameness of untold time; but it has been 
handed over from generation to generation, and successively enjoyed by the 
myriads that constitute the species. And, herein, we discern the greater 
beneficence and wisdom ; that, through death, whether sudden or preceded 
by a brief decay, the individual enjoys the varying phases of life, — ^healthy 
assimilative growth, active youth, and vigorous maturity, with the procreative 
faculties and instincts to boot And as life rises in the scale, even to the 
present highest form, foreknowing of his end, death b still the condition tm 
which are enjoyed man's purest pleasures, — the reverential love of parents— 
the holy affections of wedlock — the fond yearning towards offspring. 

It has further been given us to know, that not only the individual but 
the species perishes ; that as death is balanced by generation, so extinction 
has been concomitant with creative power, which has continued to provide a 
succession of species ; and furthermore, that, as regards the varying forms 
of life which this planet has witnessed, there has been **an advance and 
progress in the main." 

Geology demonstrates that the Creative force has not deserted this earth 
during any of her epochs of time ; and that in respect ■ to no one class of 



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udmilB has the maniftBstattoii of that force been limited to one epoeh. Not 
a spedeB of fbh that now lives, bnt has come into being during a oompara- 
a^iAj reeent period : the existing species were preceded by other species, and 
these again by others still more different from the present No existing genos 
of ftshes can be traced back beyond a moiety of known creative time. Two 
entire orders have come into being, and have almost superseded two 
other Gfd«n sfaice the newest of the secondary formations of the earth's 
craat. 

The axiom of the continuous operation of Creative power, or of the 
mdaiiied becoming of living things, is here illustrated by the class of fishes, 
because that daas is exempt from the application of some exterminating 
caases alfeethig terrestrial and air-breaihing animals. 

Bnt the creation of every dass of such animals, whether Reptiles, Birds, or 
Beasts, has been successive and continuous, from the eariiest times at which w« 
have evidence of their existence. The reptiles of the coal measures, the great 
birds that impressed the Connecticut sandstones, and the marsupial mass^ 
mals of the 8tonesfield and Pnrbeck Oolites, came into being long before 
the Cycloid fishes were created and antmor to the apparition of any 
known existing gpee\eB of aquatic animaL Spedes after species of land 
aBATouds, order after order of air-breathing reptiles, have succeeded each 
other; creation ever compensating for extinction. The soceessive passing 
away of air-breathing species may have been as little due to exeeptioiial 
▼iofence, and as nuich to natural law, as in the case of marine plants and 
aa imal s. It fe true^ indeed, that every part of the earth's surfiMse has been 
submerged ; but successively, and for long periods. Of the present dry 
kmd diffieroit natural continents have difierent faunas and floras ; and the 
faflsil remams of the plants and animals of these continents respectively 
show that they possessed the same peculiar characters, or characteristio 
fiaek$f during periods extending far beyiHid the utmost limits a( human 
hietmy. 

Siidi, gentlemen, is a brief summary of facts most nearly interesting us^ 
wUdi have been demonstratively made known respecting our earth and its 
inhabitaiits. And when we reflect at how late and in how brief a period of 
historieal time the acquisitioa of such knowledge has been permitted, we 
nmst fod that, vast as it seems, it may be but a very samll part of the 
patrinoay of truth destined for the possession of future generations. 

The certain knowledge of the very shape of the earth dates not so far back 
by some centuries as that epoch marked by the revelation, amongst other 
divkie troths, of the responsibility of man for the use of the talent entrusted 
le him ; and we may wdl bdieve that it has been mainly under the sense of 
this respeaaibility that men have submitted thewselves to that patient endu- 
nmee of the labour of investigaticm, experimeat, comparison, inveution, and 
the pondering on results, often to the utmost reach of mentd teaaionr by. 
which the present knowledge of the Divine powes has been acquired. 

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lii BBPOBT— 1858. 

In reviewing the nature and results of our proceedibgs during the last 
twenty-seven years, and the aims and objects of our Association, it seems 
as if we are realizing the grand Philosophical Dream or Prefigurative Vision 
of Francis Bacon, which he has recounted in his < New Atlantis.' 

In this noble Pftrable the Father of Modern Science imagines an Institu- 
tion which he calls *^ Solomon's House," and informs us, by the mouth of 
one of its members, that " the end of its Foundation is the Knowledge of 
Causes and Secret Motions of Things ; and the enlarging of the bounds of 
Human Empire to the effecting of all things possible." 
. Amongst the means and instruments to this great end. Bacon imagines 
laboratories situated at the greatest attainable distances, vertically, in regard 
to the atmosphere , — some sunk 600 fathoms deeper than the deepest natural 
cave; others pUtced on towers set upon high mountains, <*so that the van- 
tage of the hill with the tower is in the highest of them three miles at leasf 
In the depths he conceives might be carried on the producing of new arti- 
ficial metals* by compositions and materials left at work for many years, in 
imitation of natural mines ; also observations on the formation of figured 
fbisils ; and he speculates upon the influence of these cold depths in the curing^ 
of certain \liseases and the prolonging of human life, as it seems by a super- 
induced torpidity. In the higher regions of the air are to be carried oa 
observations of the heavens, and of divers meteors — wind, rain, hail, and 
falling stars. 

<< We have also,'* he writes, ^'spacious houses where we imitate and demon- 
strate meteors, as thunders, lightnings, snow, hail, and rain. We have, also, 
instruments which generate heat only by motion." 

Next come arrangements for the appliance of water-power and of winds 
to set a-going divers motions : — ^ engine-houses, where are prepared engines 
and instruments for all sorts of motions, some swifter than any known to the 
rest of the world, and other various motions for equality, fineness and subtilty : 
—a mathematical house, where are represented all instruments, as well of 
geometry as astromomy, exquisitely made. We have also sound-houses, where 
we practise and demonstrate all sounds and their generation, as by divers in* 
struments of music ; and those that imitate all articulate sounds and letters, 
and the voices and notes of beasts and birds. We have also the means to conrey 
sounds in trenches and pipes in strange lines and distances." Then come the 
perspective-houses, ** where we make demonstrations of all light and radiations 
and of all colours ; and out of things uncoloured and transparent we can 
represent unto you several colours, both as rainbows and as single. We make 
artificial rainbows, halos and circles about light, and represent all manner 
of reflexions, refractions, and multiplication of visual beams of objects. These 
multiplications of light we carry to great distances, and make so sharp as to 
discern small points and lines. We procure means of seeing objects afar off*, 
as in the heaven and remote places, representing things afar off* as near. We 
* Davy, Herachel, Aluminium. 



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ABDBBSS^ lilt 

hKwe who glasses and means to 'see minute bodies perfectly and distbctl j, 
as the shapes and odoars of small flies and worms» which cannot otherwise l>e 
seen ;" also ** observations on blood and sap not otherwise to be seen." 

In regard to natural history. Bacon imagines huge Aquaria, of both salt 
and fresh water, for the use and observation and geoeration offish and fowl, 
** where we make trials upon fishes. We have also parks and enclosures of 
all sorts of beasts and birds, which we use not only for view and rareness, but 
likewise for dissections and triab ; tlmt thereby we may take light what may 
be wrought upon the body of man. 

** We have also large and various orchards and gardens, wherein we do not 
so much respect beauty as variety of ground and soil : in these are practised 
all conclusions of grafting and inocuhiting ; and we make, by art, trees and 
flowers to come up earlier or later than their seasons ; we also make them 
by art much greater than their nature, and their fruit greater and sweeteri 
and of different taste, smell, and colour." 

Lastly, as one important means of efibcting the great aims of the *' six days- 
coH^e," certain of its members were deputed, as '< merchants of light," to 
make ^ circuits or visits of divers principal cities of the kingdom." 

This latter feature of the Baconian oi^nisation is the chief characteristic 
of the ** British Association ; " but we have striven to carry out other aims 
of the 'New Atlantis,' such as the systematic summaries of the results of 
different branches of science, of which our published volumes of ^ Reports' 
are evidence ; and we have likewise realized, in some measure, the idea of 
the * Mathematical House * in our establishment at Kew. 

The national and private Observatoriesi the Royal and other Scientific 
Societies, the British Museum, the Zoological, Botanical, and Horticultural 
Gardens combine in our day to realize that which Bacon foresaw in distant 
perspective. Great beyond all anticipation have been the results of this organi* 
sationy and of the application of the inductive methods of interrogating Nature, 

The universal law of gravitation, the circulation of the blood, the analo« 
goiis course of the magnetic influence, which may be said to vivify the earthi 
permitting no atom of its most solid constituents to stagnate in total rest ; 
the development and prepress of Chemistry, Geology, PalsBontology ; the 
inv^itions and practical applications of gas, the steam-engine, photography, 
tdegraphy :-i-such, in the few centuries since Bacon wrote, have been the 
rewards of the fdthful followers of his rules of research. 

We can hardly appreciate the swift of progress of human knowledge unless 
we go back, for an instant, to the period whice I have chosen as the starting- 
point in thb survey. 

Bacon's treatment of the Copemican theory shows the importance of pure 
observation in the establbhment of natural truth, and places in a strong light 
the incompetency of the highest intellectual power, of itself, to reason up to 
truth, even when it is so plain as it now appears to us in reference to the 
true nature of the apparent movements of the sun in respect to the earth. 

The wdl-known passages from the * Thema Cceli/ and the essay * On the 

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Kv RBPOBT^^1658. 

Cause of the Tides/ together with the fling *<at those few oarmen which 
drive the earth about*," are strongly indicative of the state of Bacon's mind 
— the philosophical mind of his time — on the great question then agitating 
it, as to the movemento of the heavenly bodies. 

A mass of observations of their apparent movements had been accumula- 
ting from the periods of Hipparchus and Ptolemy to that of Copernicus. 
The nature and cause of those observed movements had to be exfdained. 
The Alexandrian astronomer had given an explanation in harmony with the 
apparent motions. Copernicus suggested another, contradictory of the ap* 
parent motions, but more in harmony, through certain reasons assigned^ with 
what he believed to be their real nature. 

These reasons wanted proofs from observation; but the proofe after- 
wards came, and were the fruit of the more commonly possessed inventive 
faculty rather than of the rarer power of abstract thought. Great» trulj, it 
the gift to mankind when the two faculties coexist in a commanding intellect I 

Galileo invented a perspective glass by which he discovered the four smaU 
bodies which revolve about Jupiter in different periods of time. The analogy 
which this visible system of Jupiter bore to the solar system, as conceived bj 
Copernicus, gave what Herschel calls the ^* holding turn" to the opinions 
of mankind respecting the heliocentric system. Galileo's next discovery 
more decidedly confirmed the truth of that systeuL He observed that Venus 
in the course of her revolution assumed the same succession of phases which 
our moon exhibits in her monthly circuit The opponents of Copernicus had 
objected that Venus did not appear four times as large as she should do when* 
according to his system, she is four times as near us ; but Galileo furnished 
the true reason : the dark side of Venus is toward the earth when she is 
nearest it. But with all this, Bacon's acceptance of the Copemican system 
never went further than as respected the movements of Venus and Mercury 
fiUbovit the Sun. 

. My motive in here referring to such trite facts in the History of Astro- 
jiomy is to impress upon all who sympathise with scientific progressi or 
merely wish us <good speed,' the importance of direct observation of Nature. 
The two results of Galileo's direction of his telescope to heavenly bodies 
were of more value than the subtlest of the olyections of Bacon or of the 
excuses of Bruno. 

In 1631 Kepler witnessed the transit of Mercury across the sun's disk: in 
16S9 Horrox saw the like transit of Venus: and these observations were of 
a higher kind than Galileo's. His might be called a chance trial of the phe- 
nomena of the skies; the English astronomer planted his telescope at the very 
hour, when, according to the Copemican hypothesis, he had calculated that 
Venus in her orbit would pass between the sun and the earth. Kepler's 
observation of the elliptical form of the orbit of Mars definitely cast out the 
eccentrics and epicycles of Ptolemy, and made the Copemican explanation 
easier than it had seemed to Copernicus himself. 

* Difcovrse ' Is Praise of Knowledge.' 



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The ioaotkmt of the heavenly bodies being thui determioedy there remaiDed 
their oavse, or their la¥rs. Kepler's successive approximations to an accurate 
determination of the orbits of the planets^ and to the ratios of their mean 
distanees firom the sun to the times of their revolutions^ which matliemati- 
eians now express bj saying that ** the squares of the periodic times are in 
the same proportion as the cubes of the distance," became an important 
prelude to Newton's discovery of the law of the sun's attractive force* 

Without stopping to trace the concurrent progress of the science of mo- 
tion, of which the true foundations were laid, in Bacon's time, by Galileo, it 
will serve here to state that the foundations were laid and the materials 
gathered for the establishment, by a master-mind, supreme in vigour of 
thought and mathematical resource^ of the grandest generalisation ever pro- 
malgaled by science-*-that of the universal gravitation of mutter according to 
the law of the inverse square of the distance. 

The same century in which the < Thema Coeli' of Lord Verulam and the 
* Nonoius Sidereus' of Galileo saw the lights was glorified by the publication 
of the * PhilosophisB Naturalis Principia Matheraatica' of Newton. 

Has time, it may be asked, in any way affected the great result of that 
masterpiece of human intellect ? There are signs that even Newton's axiom, 
or the terms in which it was enunciated^ may not be exempt from the restless 
law of progreas. 

The mode of expressing the law of gravitation as being " in the inverse 
proportion of the square of the distances," Involves the idea that the force 
emanating from or exercised by the sun must become more feeble in pro* 
portion to the increased spherical surface over which it is diffused. So, in- 
deed, it was expressly understood by Halley. 

The aUest historian of Natural Science has remarked that ** future dis- 
coTeries may make gravitation a case of some wider law, and may disclose 
something of the mode in which it operates*." The difficulty, indeed, of 
conceiving a force. acting through nothing from body to body has of late 
made itself felt ; and more especially since Meyer of Heilbron first clearly 
expressed the principle of the * conservation of force.' Newton, though 
apprehending the necessity of a medium by which the force of gravitation 
should be conveyed from one body to anotherf, yet appears not to have 
poesessed such an idea of the indestructibility of force as that which, now 
poosessed by minds of the highest order, seems to some of them to be in- 
compatible with the terms in which Newton enunciated his great law ; viz. 
of matter attracting matter with a force which varies inversely as the square 
of the distance. 

Faraday has offered the following comment on this received expression 
of the idea of gravity : — *' Assume two pai*ticles of matter, A and B , 
in free space, and a force in each or in both by which they gravitate 

* WheweU, History of the Inductive Scienoes. 
t See Newton's Third Letter to Bentley. 



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Ivi 



RBPORT~1658« 



towards each other, the force being unalterable for an unchanging dis- 
tance, but varying inversely as the square of the distance, when the 
latter varies. Then, at the distance of 10 the force may be estimated 
as 1 ; whilst at the distance of 1, i.e. one-tenth of the former, th« 
force will be 100 : and if we suppose an elastic spring to be introduced 
between the two as a measure of the attractive force, the power com- 
pressing it will be a hundred times as much in the latter case as in the 
former. But from whence can this enormous increase of the power come ? 
If we say that it b the character of this force, and content ourselves with 
that as a sufficient answer, then, it appears to me, we admit a creaium 
of power, and that to an enormous amount ; yet by a change of condition^ 
so small and simple as to fail in leading the least-instructed mind to think 
that it can be a sufficient cause, we should admit a result which would 
equal the highest act our minds can appreciate of the working of infinite 
power upon matter ; we should let loose the highest law in physical science 
which our faculties permit us to perceive, namely, the conservation of force. 
Suppose the two particles A and B removed back to the greater distance of 
10, then the force of attraction would be only a hundredth part of that they 
previously possessed ; this, according to the statement that the force varies 
inversely as the square of the distance, would double the strangeness of the 
above results ; it would be an annihilation of force : an effect equal in its 
affinity and its consequences with creation^ and only within the power of Him 
who has created." 

If we suppose the different modes of force, which we call Might,' *heat,* 
< gravity,' to act in all directions, as emanations from a centre, with a force 
which is the same in every part of the line, throughout space, the law of the 
* inverse squares ' would be a necessary consequence of the fact that, at double 
the distance, only one-fourth the number of such • lines of force * would im- 
pinge or act upon the * illuminated,* * heated * or « attracted ' body *. 

This may be understood by the subjoined diagram : — 




* Westminster Review, No. XXVIL 

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ABDBX88* IvU 

So mndi in illastration of the present phase of scientific thought in refer- 
eioe to the Newtonian axiom. 

The progress of knowledge of the fomi of all-pervading force, which 
ve call, from its most notable e£Pect on one of the senses, 'light/ has not 
been \e» renkarkable than that of gravitation. 

Galileo's discovery of Jupiter's satellites supplied Romer with the pheno* 
mena whence he was able to measure, in 1676, the velocity of light. Des- 
cartes, in his theory of the Rainbow, referred the different colours to the 
different amount of refraction, and made a near approximation to Newton's 
capital discovery of the different colours entering into the composition of the 
Inminoas ray, and of their different refrangibility. Hook and Huyghens, 
about the same period had entered upon explanations of the phenomena of 
l^ht conceived as due to the undulations of an ether, propagated from the 
laminoos point spherically, like those of sound. Newton, whilst admitting 
that soch undulations or vibrations of an ether would explain certain phe- 
nomena, adopted the hypothesis of emission as most convenient for the 
mathematical propositions relative to light. The discoveries of achromatbm, 
of the laws of double refraction, of polarization circular and elliptical, and 
of depolarization, rapidly followed, realizing more than Bacon conceived 
might flow from the labours of the 'perspective house,' and, with later ad- 
vances in optics, have made renowned the names of Dollond, Young, Mains, 
Fresnel, Arago, Biot, Brewster, Stokes, and Jamin. 

Some of the natural sciences, as we now comprehend them, had not ger- 
minated in Bacon's time. Chemistry was then Alchemy : Geology and Pa- 
ksontcJogy were undreamt of: but Magnetism and Electricity had begun to 
be observed, and their phenomena compared and defined by a contem- 
porary of Bacon, in a way that claims to be regarded as the first step toward a 
scientific knowledge of those powers. It is true that, before Gilbert*, the 
magnet was known to attract iron, and the great practical application of 
magnetized iron — the mariner's compass — had been invented, and for many 
years before Bacon's time had guided the barks of navigators through track- 
less seas. 

Gilbert, to whom the name ' electricity ' is due, observed that that force 
attracted light bodies, whereas the magnetic force attracted iron only. 
About a century later the phenomena of repulsion as well as of 
attraction of light bodies by electric substances were noticed ; and Dufay, 
in 17S3, enunciated the principle that '* electric bodies attract all those that 
are not so, and repel them as soon as they are become electric by the 
vidoity of the electric body." 

The conduction of electric force, and the different behaviour of bodies in 
contact with the electric, leading to their division, by Desaguliers, into con* 
doctors and non-conductors, next followed. The two kinds of electricity, at 
first by Dufay, their definer, called < vitreous ' and * resinous,' afterwards, by 

* De Magnets (1600), 



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Mil RB»oiiT^1658. 

Franklin, * poftitlfe ' and * negatiTe/ fonned an important st^p, whioh led to a 
brilliant series of experiments and discoveries, with inventions, such aa the 
Leydeo jar, for intensifying the electric shoclck But whilst the miyority of the 
applications of these degrees of mastery over the electric force was calculated 
to amuse or surprise, the instantaneous transmission of electricity through an 
-extent of 6000 feet, demonstrated by Sir W.Watson, together with Franklin's 
discovery of the electric state of the clouds, and of the power of drawing 
off such electricity by pointed bodies, was a brilliant beginning of the appli- 
cation of this subtle science to the discovery of the well-being and needs of 
mankind. Superstitious ignorance might well shrink from playing, as the 
American philosopher with his electric kites seemed to be doing, with lighl- 
ning,^-might gaze with alarm at the Russian Professor * collecting on his eleo- 
tricd rod the awful charge of the black thunder*cloud,-^might deem the 
globe of fire which leapt from the rod upon the head of the experimenter 
and atruck him dead as a judgment for tampering with a force that man's 
instinct, in all ages, has referred to a direct expression of the power and 
will of Deity. But tiie cultivator of God's intellectual gifls sees rather, 
in the application of the lightning-conductors which now guide harmless to 
the earth the dangerous electricity of the clouds, the predestined fruit and 
reward of the laborious and dauntless application of those giPts^ agreeably 
with the rule of right reason, to the unfolding of natural phenomena. 

To hide from the lightning and tremble at the thunder, as the immediate 
manif^tation of offbnded Deity, is the superstition of the savage ; to recog- 
nise that both phenomena are under the control of a law, and operating to 
beneficial ends, is the privilege of the sage. This it is which begets a true 
and worthy feeling of i^verence for the Lawgiver. 

When the knowledge of the law gives the mode of diverting from the 
well-manned sliip and the crowded hall the destructive influenoe of the 
electric bolt, we then worthily adore the beneficence that has imparted ao 
much of the power*interpreting talent as brings that reward for its enjoined 
use. The philosopher, in the course of his hazardous experimental 
researches, may incur a fatal result ; but he becomes then, not the sacrifice 
for presumptuous espial into divine and forbidden mysteries, but the true 
* martyr of science.' His death has contributed to save tke lives of thousands 
^of his fellow*creatureB and to allay the distressing fears of millions. 

Magnetism has been studied with two aims, — the one to note the numerical 
relations of its activity to time and space, both in respect of its direction and 
intensity, the other to penetrate the mystery of the nature of the magnetic 
force. 

In reference to the first aim, my estimable predecessor adverted, last year, 
to the fact that it was in the Committee-rooms of the British Association 
that the first step was taken towards that great magnetic organization which 
has since borne so much fruit. Thereby it has been determined that there 



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. A0IMUI88. Uk 

are peciodiod ciamgeg of the magaelic elemeots depending on the boui^ of 
the day, the season of the year, and on what seemed strange intervals of 
about eleven years* Also, that besides these regular changes there were 
others of a more abrupt and seemingly irregular character-^Humboldt's 
* magnetic storms' — which occur simultaneously at distant parts of the 
earth's surface^ Major-General Sabine, than whom no individual has done 
lax^e in this field of research since Halley first attempted ^* to explain the 
change in the variation of the magnetic needle," has proved that the magnetic 
storme observe diurnal, annual, and decennial periods. But wifh 
irliat phase or phenomenon of earthly or heavenly bodies, it may be asked» 
has the magnetic period of ten years to do? The coincidence which 
points to, if it does not give, the answer, is one of the most remarkable, un- 
expected, and encouraging to patient observera. 

For thirty years a German astronomer, Sohwabe, had set himself the task 
of daily observing and recording the appearance of the sun s disk ; in which 
time he found that the spots passed through periodic phases of increase and 
decrease, the length of the period being about ten years. A comparison 
of the independent evidence of the astronomer and magnetic observer has 
shown that the decennial magnetic period coincides both in its duration 
and in its epochs of maximum and minimum with the same period observed 
in the solar spots. 

A few weeks agO| during a visit of inspection to our establishment at KeW| 
I obeenred the successful operation of the photoheliographic apparatus in 
depfcling the solar spots as they then appeared. The continued regular 
reoord of the macular state of the sun's surface, with the concurrent raagnetio 
observations now established over many distant points of the earth's surface^ 
will ere long establish the full significance and value of the remarkable, and^ 
in reference to the observers, undesigned, coincidence above mentioned* 

Not to trespass on your patience by tracing the progress of magnetism 
from Gilbert to Oented, I cannot but advert to the time^ iSOTy when the 
latter tried to didcover whether electricity in its most latent state had aaj 
efiect on the magnet, and to his great result, in 1820, that the conducting- 
wire of a voltaic circuit acts upon a magnetic needle, so that the latter tends 
to place itself at right angles to the wire. 

The ablest physicists in Europe, and Ampere especially, devoted them- 
selves, immediately on the promulgation of this capital discovery, to the 
analysis of its conditions. Ampere, moreover, succeeded, by means of a 
delicate apparatus, in demonstrating that the voltaic wire was affected by the 
action of the earth itself as a magnet. In short, the generalization was esta- 
blbhed, that tnagnetism and electricity are hut different effects of one common 
cause. This has proved the first step to still grander abstractions — to that 
which conceives the reduction of all the species of imponderable fluids of 
the chemistry of our student days, together with gravitation, chemicity*, 
♦ • Elective* or * molecular attraction.' 



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bl BBPOET— 1858« 

and neuricity*, to interchangeable modes of action of one and the same 
all-pervading life-et»ence. 

Galvani arranged the parts of a reeently-mutilated frog so as to bring a 
nerve in contact with the external surface of a muscley when a contraction 
of the muscle ensued. In this suggestive experiment the Italian plulosopher, 
who thereby initiated the inductive inquiry into the relation of nerve force 
to electric force^ concluded that the contraction was a necessary conse- 
quence of the passage of electricity from one surface to the other by means 
of the nerve. He supjiosed that the electricity was secreted by the brain* 
and transmitted by the nerves to different parts of the bodyy the muscles 
serving as reservoirs of the electricity. Volta made a further step, by show^ 
ing that, under the conditions or an*angements of Galvani*s experiments, the 
muscle would contract, whether the electric current had its origin in the 
animal body, or from a source external to that body. Galvani erred in 
too exclusive a reference of the electric force producing the contraction 
to the brain of the animal : Volta in excluding the origin of the electric force 
from the animal body altogether* The determination of * the true' and * the 
constant' in these recondite phs&nomena has been mainly helped on by the 
persevering and ingenious experimental researches of Matteucci and Du 
Bois Reyroond. The latter has shown that any point of the surface of a 
muscle is positive in relation to any point of the divided or transverse section 
of the same muscle ; and that any point of the surface of a nerve is positive 
in relation to any point of the divided or transverse section of the same nerve« 
Mr. Baxter, in still more recent researches, has deduced important conclu« 
sions on the origin of the muscular and nerve currents, as being due to the 
polarized condition of tiie nerve or muscular fibre, and the relation of that 
condition to changes which occur during nutrition. From the present state 
of neuro-electricity it may be concluded that nerve force is not identical with 
electric force, but that it may be another mode of motion of the same com- 
mon force : it is certainly a polar force, and perhaps the highest form of 

polar force : — 

** A motion which inay change, but cannot die ; 
An image of some bright eternity." 

The present tendency of the higher generalizations of chemistry seems to 
be toward a reduction of the number of those bodies which are called 
* elementary ; ' it begins to be suspected that certain groups of so-called 
chemical elements are but modified forms of one another. • 

An important step in the elimination of the chlorine and bromine group 
from the category of simple bodies or elements has very recently been made 
by Prof. Schonbein. He, at least, adduces strong reasons, from analogy, 
for regarding those substances as * oxy-compounds,' or what the Professor 
terms ' Ozonides ;' chlorine being, according to this view, the peroxide of 
murium=MuO+0- The researches on which this conclusion is founded 
have recalled to my mind the cautious terms in which my venerable Teacher 
* Force ascribed to a nervous fluid* 



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of CbemiBtryy Hopb, alwayn introduced Davy's then new hjrpotbesis ; and 
I now better appreciate the celebrated Edinburgh Professor's disinclination 
to abandon the old doctrine of the compound nature of chlorine^ &c« 

Organic chemistry becomes simplifi^ as it expands; aud its growth has, 
of late, proceeded, through the labours of Hoffmann, Berthelot, and others, 
with unexampled rapidity. The results of the recent experiments of M. Ber- 
thelot have more especially tended to reduce the various and numerous 
ternary oxygenated organic substances into a small number of iiindamental 
groups. The important power of synthesis has grown with this growth. 
Since Wohler, in 1828, succeeded in artificially producing < urea,* Kolbe 
has similarly, by tlie combinations of inorganic elements, produced acetic 
acid and the new organic radical * methyL' Berthelot has formed glycerine, 
the basis of animal and vegatable oils and fats, and has also formed grape- 
sugar. It 18 true, that in the latter synthesb the contact of putrefying animal 
matter is requisite ; although such matter contributes none of its constituents 
to the new compound, nor undergoes any appreciable change in the process. 
Berthelot has very recently shown that cholesterine is a true alcohol, analo* 
gous to 6thal ; and that, treated by acids, it b transformed into corresponding 
ethers, similar to other 6thilic ethers. 

A substance resembling camphor has been this year made by the action of 
licids, t.g^ the chorhydrie, upon essential oil of turpentine. By treating this 
substance with strong alkali it is changed into a liquid carburet of hydrogen ; 
bul^ if feeble alkalis are employed or slightly alksdine salts, a solid carburet 
is obtained identical with camphor. By oxidizing the artificial camphor, 
ordinary camphor is obtained ; by adding hydrgoen to such ordinary cam- 
phor, the camphor of Borneo is obtained. M. Berthelot has thus realized 
the synthetic preparation of camphors. 

An important series of alcohols and their derivatives, from amylic alcohol 
downwards ; as extensive a series of ethers, including those which give their 
peculiar flavour to our choicest fruits ; the formic, butyric, succinic, lactic, 
and other acids, together with other important organic bodies, are now 
capable of artificial formation from their elements, and the old barrier divi- 
ding organic from inorganic bodies is broken down. To the power which 
mankind may ultimately exercise through the light of synthesis, who may 
presume to set limits t Already natural processes can be more economically 
replaced by artificial ones in the formation of a few organic compounds, the 
'valerianic acid,' for example. It is impossible to foresee the extent to 
which Chemistry may not ultimately, in the production of things needful, 
iopersede the present vital agencies of nature '' by laying under contribution 
the accumulated forces of past ages, which would thus enable us to obtain in 
a small manufactory, and in a few days, effects which can be realized from 
present natural agencies, only when they are exerted upon vast areas of 
land, and through considerable periods of time *." 

« FtankUad, Lecture, Royal InstitutioD, May 28, 1858. 

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izii RBPORT«*«1658. 

8ioee NIdpoe, Henehel, Fox Talbot, and Daguerre bud the fodndattont 
of Photography, year by year some improvement ia made» some advance 
achieved, in this most subtle application and combination of discoveriea in 
Photioity, Electricity, Chemistry, and Magnetism. 

Last year M. Poiteven's production of plates in relief, for the purpose of 
engraving by the action of light alone, was cited as the latest marvel of 
photography. This year has witnessed photographic printing in carbon. 
M. Pretsehi's method is as follows : — 

** A photograph or engraving is placed on the prepared plate, and a nega- 
tive taken in sun-light The glass is then placed in water with a little 
alcohol, and the darkened parts are rendered soluble, while the other parts 
are insoluble, so that in a few minutes we have a picture represented not 
only by light and shadow, but by the unequal thickness of the gelatine on 
the glass. When the plate is dry, soft gutta-percha is pressed upon the 
picture till it hardens. The gutta-percha has consequently an image the 
reverse of the first. After rubbing it over with bronse powder or black<p 
lead, it is placed in a solution of sulphate of copper, and an electrotype plate 
taken fVom it, in the usual way, with a voltaic battery. From this plate 
others can be readily taken, and, as in ordinary copperplate printing, thou* 
sands of copies can be thrown off. ^ By this process,' says Mr. Hunt, ' pic- 
tures, in which the most delicate details are very faithfully preserved, and 
the nice gradations in light and shadow maintained in all their beauty, ave 
now printed from the electrotype plate, obtained fVom the photograph. The 
process of photo-gal vanography is evidently destined to take a very higli 
position as a means of preserving the beauties of nature and art.' " 

M. Nidpce de St. Victor has succeeded in reproducing the colour of the 
original on metallic plates ; though he cannot fix it. Unfortunately tfaeae 
lovely * heliochromes ' vanish like the breath from the mirror. 

M. Delarue has obtained photographs of the moon in which the details of 
its illuminated surface are well defined — the cone in * Tyeho,' the doable 
cone in < Copernicus,' and even the ridge of * Aristarchus.' A pkotograpk 
of the planet Jupiter has been obtained in which the belts are very wdl 
marked and the satellites distinct 

The portrait of a 13-inch shell has been secured while in full flight, a few 
feet after it left the mortar ; and, in effecting this, Mr. Scaife has obtained 
a representation of phenomena in the development of the smoke too trans* 
itory for the eye to ascertain when they occur. The photographic eye is, in 
fact, more sensitive than the living one : it can receive and register irapres« 
sions too fine for human vision, until made visible by increased light and 
developing agents. Hence, photography may superadd a new defining fune? 
tion to the highest attainable telescopic power* 

Photography is now a constant and indispensable servant in certain im» 
portant meteorological records. Applied periodically to living {dants, photon 
graphy supplies the botanist with the easiest and best data for judging of 



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ABSBMS. tzli 

ihmr rmfte of growtli. It givet to the loologift aoeonUe repMtentatioiis of 
the meet eomplex of his tubjeets, and of their organixation, even to micro^ 
•eopie details. 

Hie engineer at home ean aaoertain by photographs transmitted by sno- 
eessive mails the weekly progress, brick by briok, board by board, nail by 
nail, of the most complex works on the Indian or other remote rail-roads. 
The physician etm register every physiognomic phase accompanying the 
aocess, height, decrease, and passing away of mental disease. 

The humblest emigrant may carry with him miniatures, such as Dow conld 
not have equalled in the perfection of their finish, of scenes and persons 
which will recall and revive the dearest affections of the home he has left. 

In its lowest application photogn^phy becomes an instrument of the 
criminal police. 

The first practical application of th^ electro»magnetie discovery was, as it 
should be, to the direct service of the philosophic inquirer : it was such an 
applioaftion of a delicate compass-needle as would show, by its deflection, 
the strength of the voltaic current. The possession of Schweigger's < gal* 
vanometer ' enabled the philosopher henceforth to detect and measure the 
Biinatest eleetro^ynamic actions. It led to the discovery by Seebeek 
of the oonversion of heat into that kind of action ; in short, of thermo- 
electridty. 

On Faraday's demonstration — the cooverse of Oersted's — ^that magnetism 
eould produce electricity, and on the brilliant series of discoveries of that 
most eiemplary investigator of natural law% I need not dwell, in the pr^ 
seoee of ao many who are bettor qualified than myself to comprehend and 
illastrate them. 

Remote as such profound oonceptions and subtle trains of thought seem 
to be firom the needs of every«day life, the most astounding of the practical 
augmentations of man's power has sprung out of them. Nothing might 
seem leas promising of profit than Oersted's painfully-pursued experiments, 
with hia little magnets, voltaio pile, and bits of copper-wire. Yet out of 
these ban come the electric telegraph I Oersted himself saw such an appU- 
oatioB of his convertibility of electricity into magnetism ; and Schilling suo- 
oessfully applied the principle to the instantaneous communication of signs 
through distances of a few miles. The unrivalled resources of Wheat- 
stone's inventive genius have made it practicable for all distances^ as we 
have lately seen in the submergence and working of the electro»magnetic 
cord connecting the Old with the New World. 

Whoever has been engaged in the delioato physical and chemical expe- 
riments required in the present state of natural philosophy, will know how 
small is the expectation of success on the first trial of a new experiment in 
the laboratory. Only the experienced manipulator realizes how hard it is to 
foresee every condition requisite for success: but it is he who bears the 
brav^t heart under failures, well ivwured that through them are acquired 



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IxiV REPOaT— 1858. 

the conditions of succeasy and that every cause of failure, well ascertained. 
Is an encouragement to the repetition of the triaU Every practical phy- 
sicist, therefore, was prepared to expect a certain number of instructive 
failures in the attempt to carry out the grandest philosophical experiment 
on record — the most stupendous which mortal mind ever ventured to pro- 
pose to itself. Our surprise is, that the failures were so few, — the success 
so speedy. But the persevering and determined men who achieved this 
success, temporary as it has been, were animated by the spirit in which Lord 
Bacon tells us experimental philosophy should be entered upon: — "For 
there b no comparison,*' he writes, " between that which we may lose by 
not trying and by not succeeding ; since by not trying we throw away the 
chance of an immense good, by not succeeding we only incur the loss of a 
little human labour." 

On the 6th of August, 1858, the laying down of upwards of 2000 nautical 
miles of the telegraphic cord, connecting Newfoundland and Ireland, was 
successfully completed ; and shortly after, a message of thirty-one words was 
transmitted in thirty-five minutes along the sinuosities of the submerged hilb 
and valleys forming the bed of the great Atlantic This first message 
ended by expressing — "Glory to God in the highest: on Earth 
Peace, Goodwill towards Men." Never since the foundations of the 
world were laid could it be more truly said, " The depths of the sea praise 
Him I" 

More remains to be done before the far-stretching, thought-bearing engine 
ean be got into full working order; but the capital fact, viz., the practica- 
bility of bringing America into electrical communication with £urope has 
been demonstrated ; consequently a like power of instantaneous interchange 
of thought between the civilized inhabitants of every part of the globe 
becomes only a question of time. The powers and benefits thence to ensue 
for the human race can be but dimly and inadequately foreseen. Some 
results stand out more prominently than others. 

The investigator of. natural laws manifests his success by the degree in 
which he elicits and substitutes latent natural force for manual labour in effect- 
ing his purpose. Sennacherib, as we see on the slabs from Nineveh, added the 
lever to traction in the transport of the colossal symbolic statues of his majesty ; 
but the power by which he worked both mechanical adjustments was slaves 
stimulated by the stick. Hundreds of human beings were sacrificed in the 
operation. Watt achieved an equal effect by the scientific eduction and 
direction of the latent force contained in a few pounds of coaL 

If this test be applied to the present state of the science of governing 
peoples, it would seem to show but little progress therein. The conscription 
committee of France for 1858 proposed a levy of 100,000 men, because 
less would not suffice to keep up the requisite army of 500,000 men ; 
Europe being at peace. Even the United States of America have pro- 
gressively increased their standing army to a present total of 17»000 men. 



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ADDRESS. IXV 

The pfobability of a further augmentatioD of the military force of the 
Federal GovernineDt, in reference to a possible rupture with the Mother^ 
country, must be greatly diminished by an ocean telegraph. And we may 
confidently hope that this and other applications of pure science will tend to 
abolish wars orer the whole earth ; so that men may come to look back 
upon the trial of battle between mUunderstanding nations, as a sign of a 
past state of comparative barbarism ; just as we look back from our present 
phase of civilization in England upon the old border* warfare* 

Bacon, commenting on the History of the Works of Nature, as it presented 
itself to him, describes it as a chaos ** of fables, antiquities, quotations, 
frivolous disputes, philology, ornaments, and table-talk." Since his day the 
chief steps, by which Natural History has advanced to the dignity of a 
science, are associated with the names of Ray, Linneeus, Jussieu, Buffon, and 
Cuvier. 

By the two former the phenomena were digested and classified, according 
to artificial but conveniently applicable methods ; of necessity the precursors 
of systems more expressive of the natural affinities of plants and animals. 

To perfect the natural system of plants has been the great aim of botanists 
since Jussieu. To obtain the same true insight into the relations of animals 
has stimulated the labours of zoologists since the writings of Cuvier. To 
that great man appertains the merit of having systematically pursued and 
applied anatomical researches to the discovery of the true system of distri- 
bution of the animal kingdom : nor, until the Cuvierian amount of zootomical 
science had been gained, could the value and importance of Aristotle's 
* History of Animab ' be appreciated. The Greek philosopher, in this de- 
partment of science, had advanced far beyond his systematic depreciator. 
Bacon, who could not, in fact, in the then state of natural knowledge, com- 
prehend his discoveries. Such was the low state of Zoology in the in- 
terval between Aristotle and Cuvier, that there is no similar instance, in 
the history of science, of the well-lit torch gradually growing dimmer and 
smouldering through so many generations and centuries before it was again 
fimned into brightness, and a clear view regained, both of the extent of 
ancient discovery, and of the true course to be pursued by modem research. 

Rapid and right has been the progress of Zoology since that resumption. 

Not only has the structure of the animal been investigated, even to the 
minute characteristics of each tissue, but the mode of formation of such 
constitoents of organs, and of the organs themselves, has been pursued from 
the germ, bud, or egg, onward to the maturity and decay of the individual. 

To the observation of outward characters is now added that of inward 
organization and developmental change, and Zootomy, Histology, and Em- 
hryok^y combine their results in forming an adequate and lasting basis for 
the higher axioms and generalizations of Zoology properly so called. 

Three principles, of the common ground of which we may ultimately 
obtain a dearer insight, are now recognized to have governed the construe- 

1858. e ^ 

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Ixvi EBPORT— 1858. 

tion of aDimals :— unity of plan, vegetatiye repetition, and fitness for purpose. 
The last, alone, has of late been questioned: but, in reference to such struc- 
tures as are exemplified by the flood-gates of the heart and the lens of the 
eye, I find my own powers of conception and expression such as to leave me 
no other mode of understanding myself, or of being intelligible to others, 
than by using the terms <aim,' • end,' * purpose,' or * design,' in regard to the 
relation of the first instanced structure to the course of the blood in the 
circulatory system ; and of the second to the convergence of light in the act 
of vision. 

The independent series of researches by which students of the Articulate 
animals have seen, in the organs performing the functions of jaws and limbs 
of varied powers, the same or homotypal elements of a series of like seg- 
ments constituting the entire body, and by which students of the Vertebrate 
animals have been led to the conclusion that the maxillary, mandibular^ 
nyoid, soapular, costal and pelvic arches, and their appendages sometimes 
forming limbs of varied powers, are also modified elements of a series of 
essentially similar vertebral segroents,-^mutually corroborate their respective 
conclusions. It Is not probable that a principle which is true for Arikmhaa 
should be false for Fsr/efrfioto ! the less probable, since the determination of 
homologous parts becomes the more possible and sure in the ratio of tbti 
perfection of the organisation. 

The last proposition may be tested by a study of any single set of organs 
with a view to determine their homologies. 

Take, for instance, the teeth, or the organs properly so called, which IM« 
peculiar to the vertebrate anUnals. One cannot trace any particular tooth, 
as one may a bone, from Fish to Fish i they are too numerous and too ani- 
form. In Reptiles we may point to the maxillary poison-tootii of a Rattie- 
snake as answering to that in a Cobra ; the bomologieal relations of Uie 
teeth being only predicable in a genend way, as premaxilkry, maxillary^ 
mandibular, palatine, in the rest of that class. But when we come to tlM 
Mammalia, we find, save ki a few inferior groups resembling fishes (e. g. 
Ceiae§d) or resembling reptiles (Bruta)^ that the teeth have such deter- 
minate characters, from relative position and development, as to enaMe the 
anatomist to trace each individual tooth from species to species, and indicate 
it, throa^iout that large proportion of the class which has been called 
^ diphyodont,' by a determinate name and symbol. 

And here I would repeat, what I have elsewhere expressed, that each yesr^e 
experience strengthens the conviction that the right and quick progress of the 
knowledge of animal structures, and of the axioms deducible therefrom, w\\\ 
be mainly influenced by the determination of homologies and by the conoo^ 
mitant power of condensing the propositions relating to homologized parts, 
by means of definite single substantive names, and their equivalent signs oi^ 
symbols. 

In my work on the < Archetype of the Skeleton,' I have denoted most of the 



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• ADDRliS* ktii 

feonet bf httmerals, vhicb, when adopted, tnay take ihe place of tiamcd ; for 
then all propositions respecting the centrum of the occipital vertebra might 
be predicated of ' 1 ' as intelligibly as of < basioccipital/ The name appears 
lo be now generally accepted, and why not the symbol ? The symbols of 
Ae teeth are as definite as those of the bones ; and, in the absence of single 
mnnes, more useful, since they render unnecessary the repetition of the com« 
pound deflnitiotts ; they harmonize conflicting synonyms, serve as a universal 
language and express the writer's meaning in the fewest and clearest terms. 
The entomologist has realised the advantage of signs, such as ^, $, ftc for 
male, female, neuter, and the like ; and the time is come when the anatomist 
may avail hltnself of Uiis powerful instrument of thought, instrtietion, and 
discovery^ from which the chemist, the astronomer, and the mathematiciftn 
have obtained such important resttlts. 

To Willltm ShUrp Macleay, author of the < Horm Rntomologicee/ belongs 
the merit of first clearly defining and exemplifying, in regard to the similarities 
observable between di£fbrent animals, the distinction between those thAt in* 
dicate 'affinity' and thofte that indicate * analogy' or representation. Thhi 
distifletioa has been weO illustrated by Vigors in the class of Birds, and has 
been ably discdftsed by Swainson in reference to other classes of animals* 

* Afllnity,'as first defined by Macleay in contradistinoiion fVom 'atialogy,' 
signifies the relationship which one animal bears to another in Iti Struc* 
tore, and Is the doser as the simflarity of structure is greater. Swainson 
iUostrste« this idea by comparing a goatsucker with a swallow And with i 
bat: with the one its relation is inHmaki with the other mnoUt the goat- 
sucker baa affinity with the swallow, analogy to the bat 

But the idea of the foregoing intimate relation of entire animalsi eaHed 
« affinity/ is different fnm the idea of the answerable relation of parts of 
odmak called < homology.' Animals, however intimately < affined,' are never 
the aatne in the sense in which homologous parts are so esteemed : they 
coold nerer be called by the same name, in the way or sense in which a bone, 
lor ezalnple, of the fore-limb, is called * humerus ' in the goatsucker^ swallow^ 
and bat. 

There i0» indeed, a sameness in the idea of * analogy,' as applied by the 
Zoologiat to animals, and by the Anatomist to their parts. The goatsucker le 
related by analogy to a bat, because, as Mr. Swainson remarks, ** it flies at the 
same hour of the day, and feeds in the same manner} " and the membranous 
tingof the bat isanalogoasto the membranous parachute of the dragon, because 
it serves to sustain the body in the air. That is to say, * ftinction '—ft shnikr 
icIatioiMliip to a terthim quid — in the above instance airr-is the groundwork 
for predieatihg analogies in regard to parts as well as wholes ; more eqpe- 
eiaHy when, as hi the case of the wings of the dragon and bat^ they are not 
komc^ogous parts. 

The ctady of homologous parts in a single system of organs — the bonef 
«*haa maiaiy led to the recognition of the plan or archetype of the highest 

e2 

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kviii REPORT — 1858. 

primary group of animaK the Vertehrata. The next atep of importance will 
be to determine the homologous parts of the nervous system, of the muscular 
system, of the respiratory and vascular system, and of the digestive, secre- 
tory, and generative organs in the same primary group or province. I think 
it of more importance to settle the homologies of the parts of a group of 
animals constructed on the same general plan, than to speculate on such re- 
lations of parts in animals constructed on demonstratively distinct plans of 
organization. What has been e£Pected and recommended, in regard to homo- 
logous parts in the VertebrcUOy should be followed out in the Artieulaia and 
MoUusca, 

In regard to the constituents of the crust or outer skeleton and its append- 
ages in the ArticukUOy homological relations have been studied and deter- 
mined to a praiseworthy extent, throughout that province. 

The same study is making progress in the Mollusea ; but the grounds for 
determining special homologies are less sure in this subkingdom. The 
vegetative functions here predominate; and just as the organs of these func- 
tions are less satisfactory subjects of homological determination than those of 
the animal functions in the Vertebrate province, so the Molluscous province 
is a less favourable field for homological demonstrations than either the 
Articulate or Vertebrate provinces, in which the animal functions predomi- 
nate over the vegetativor 

So far as homologies can be determined, within the limits in which such 
determination can be most satisfactorily carried out, the foundation will be 
securely laid for a superstructure of higher generalizations in regard to parts 
homological or answerable throughout the animal kingdom generally. 

The present state of homology in regard to the ArHcuUUa has sufficed 
to demonstrate that the s^ment of the crust is not a hollow expanded homo- 
logue of the segment of the endoskeleton of a vertebrate. There is as little 
homology between the parts and appendages of the segments of the Verte- 
brate and Articulate skeletons respectively. The parts called mandibles, 
maxillae, arms, legs, wings, fins, in Insects and Crustaceans, are only * analo- 
gous ' to the parts so called in Vertebrates. 

To express finitely the clear deideas now possessed of their essential di- 
stinction, will require a distinct nomenclature. The same remark is appli-^ 
cable to other systems of organs. The so-called < lungs ' of the spider are 
analogous to, not homologous with, our Mungs : ' the tracheae of insects are 
not homologous with the bird's trachea and its ramifications : the gills of 
the lobster are not the homologous parts of the gills of fishes. No compara- 
tive anatomist now supposes that the heart of the lobster is homologous witb 
that of a fish ; or either of these organs with the heart of a snail. The name 
in each group is simply expressive of similarity of function, and of connexions 
limited by and solely related to such function, as of the heart with a vein 
and an artery. A most extensive field of reform is becoming open to the 
homologist in that which is essential to the exactitude of his science—^ no- 



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ADDBBBS. Ixix 

aenclature equivalent to express his convictions of the different relations of 
nmilitode. Most difficult and recondite are the questions in face of which 
the march of homology is now irresistibly conducting the philosophic observer. 
Such, for instance, as the following : — Are the nervous, muscular, digestive, 
ctrcolating and generative systems of organs more than functionally similar 
in any two primary provinces of the animal kingdom ? Are the homologies 
of entire systems to be judged of by their functional and structural con- 
nexions, rather than by the plan and course of their formation in the 
embryo? 

In the develi^ment of animals the vitellus is observed to have different 
relations to the embryo. But such difference is not always or absolutely 
associated with a difference of plan of structure : the Cephalopods show a 
higher development of the same fundamental plan of structure as that of the 
Gasteropods, but the vitelline phenomena of their development resemble 
those of Vertebralu^ not those of Oasterapoda. 

Even in the last-named restricted molluscous group there are striking 
differences in the vitelline relations of the embryo. In most the embryo 
early encloses the vitelline mass ; in some, as in Limax^ much later : and 
there is what may be termed a temporary vitelline sac. 

The yolk undergoes a complete segmentation in placental Mammals, the 
embryo of which is formed out of the whole vitelline mass, as it is in the 
whelk, the oyster and the star-fish. The bird, the crocodile and the cuttle- 
fish resemble each other in the embryo rising out of the yolk, assimilating 
only a portion, and leaving the rest as an appendage until the period of birth, 
or for a short time afler. 

It may be doubted, therefore, if embryology alone is decisive of the 
question whether homology can be predicated of the alimentary canal in 
animals of different primary groups or provinces. The armadillo (Das^pus) 
and the woodlouse (Oniscus} wre good subjects for illustrating this question. 
In bothy the alimentary canal begins at the fore part and terminates at the 
hind part of the body : in both, an oesophagus precedes a stomach, as this 
precedes the part of the canal receiving the biliary secretion ; in both, the in- 
testine follows to terminate at the vent. 

Besides the sameness of function, the homologist, confiding in the 
diaracters of connexion and relative position, would retain the names * ali- 
mentary canal,' * mouth,' * gullet,' * stomach,* * gut,' to express his ideas of 
the veritable answerable character of the parts compared in Oniscus and 
Dti^fpus: bnt he who believes embryology alone capable of affording a solid 
basis for determining homologies*, will infer that the different relations of 
the yolk and the intestine in the embryos of the vertebrate and articulate 

^ " Embryology affords farther a test for homologies in contradistinction to analo- 
gin. It shows that tme homologies are limited respectively within the natural boundaries 
qC the great hranches of the animal kingdom."— Agassiz, Nat. Hist, of the United States, 
4ts, 1857, vol. i p. 86. 



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Jxxj report— 1858. 

fipimals'*, establish that the so-called alimentary canal U an e98eDtiaUy difier* 
ent part in the mammal and the insect. 

The almost annular ossified segments of the skin of the armadillo, arranged 
so as to overlap and allow the body to be contracted into a ball, are, on the 
basis of connexions and relative position, homologous with the almost annu- 
lar chitipous segments of the skin of the wood-louse, which present the same 
arrangement for permitting that insect to roll itself into a ball. B^t, accord- 
ing to the embryological basis, there can be no true homology between the 
parts compared ; this relation being limited respectively within the natural 
boundaries of the gres^t branches of the animal kingdom. 

The zoologist may learn from the above instances the phase a^ which the 
philosophical study and comparison of animal structures has now arrived^ 
and I shall not pursue the disquisition further on the present occasion. 

It is significant, however, of the lower value of embryological characters^ to 
note that the great leading divisions of the animal kingdom, based by Cuvier 
on comparative anatomy, have merely been confirmed by Von Baer's later 
developmental researches. And so, likewise, with regard to some of the 
minor modifications of Cuvier's provinces, the true position of the Cirripedia 
was discerned by Straus Durkheim and Madeay, by the light of anatomya 
before the discovery of their metamorphoses by Thomson. 

If, however, embryology has been over- valued as a test of homology, the 
study of the development of animab has brought to light most singular and 
interesting facts, and I now allude more especially to those that have been 
summed up under the term * Alternate-generation/ ' Partbenogenesisi* 

* Metagenesis,' &c. 

John Hunter first enunciated the general proposition (many pf the facts 
being known long before his time), that '' the propagation of plants depended 
on two principles, the one that every part of a vegetable is ' a whole,' so that 
it is capable of being multiplied as far as it can be divided into distinct 
parts ; the other, that certain of those parts become reproductive organs, and 
produce fertile seeds.*' Hunter also remarked that '' the first principle ope- 
rated in many animals which propagate their species by buds or outtii^s ; " 
but that, whilst in animab, it prevailed only in <* the more imperfect orders^** 
it operated ip vegetables " of every degree of perfection." He suggestively 
remarks, however, that 'Uhose degrees are few in comparison with the 

* animal,' and that the least perfect ' aniipal' is probably op a par with the 
most perfect * vegetable^ .* " Subsequent progress has shown that what 
seemed « probable' when Hunter wrote is not exactly true. The special 
conditions of organisms or living things, which we call 'vegetable' and 

* animal,' rise by degrees and divei^e from a general organic character or 

* " TUe alimentary canal is formed in a very diflferent way in the embryos of the two 
typea ; and it would be as unnatural to identify them, as it would be still to oonaider giU« 
and lungs as homologous among Vertebrata.''— Agassiz^ qp^ 4nt., p. 86. 

t Physiol. Catal., p. 5. 



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ADDBS|i«. IxXi 

bpais: fund tbe degree of progress at which ^animality' can be predtcatedi 
is ' OD a par' with that at which * vegetality' can be predicated. Then follow 
other steps of ooniplezitj> by which plants and animals diverge from each 
other as they rise iu the scale of perfection. 

The experiments of Trembley on the freshwater polype, those of Spal- 
laosani on the Naiads, and those of Bonnet on the Aphides, had brought to 
light the phenomena of propagation by fission, and by gemmation or buds, 
external and internal, in animals, to which Hunter refers. Subsequent research 
has shown the unexpected extent to which Hunter*s first principle of pro- 
pagation in organic beings prevails in the animal division. But the earliest 
formal supersession of Harvey's axiom, * omiie vivum ab ovo,' appears to be 
Hunter 8 proposition of the dual principle above quoted. Bacon readily 
accepted, as, indeed, it was congenial with his physiological philosophy, the 
doctrine current in his day of tbe spontaneous origin of worms, insects, eels, 
and other ' creeping things.* But this doctrine receives no countenance from 
the modification of the Harveian dictum introduced by tbe great Englbh 
physiologist of the hist century. 

The experiments of Redi, Malpighi, and others, had progressively con< 
traoted the field to which the < generatio sequivoca' could with any plausibility 
be applied. The stronghold of the remaining advocates of that old Egyptian 
doctrine was the fact of the development of parasitic animals in the flesh, 
brain and glands of higher animals* But tbe hypothesis never obtained 
currency in this country ; it was publicly opposed in my < Hunterian Lec^ 
tores,' by the fact of the prodigious preparation of fertile eggs in many of 
the supposed spontaneously developed species ; and in then suggesting that 
tbe * Triekma spiralis* of the human muscular tissue might be the embryo 
of a larger worm in course of migration, I urged that a particular investiga- 
tion was needed for each particular species*. Among tbe most brilliant of 
recent acquisitions to this part of physiology have been the discoveries which 
have resulted from such special investigations. Kuchenmeister and Von 
Siebold have been the chief labourers in this field. I may instance a few 
of their results. 

ne ^ thread* worms' (Fihria) of certain insects, which present no trace 
of sezuai organs, were supposed to be spontaneously developed in those in^ 
seeta. The little worms i|rere, however, by special and due research, seen to 
wind their way out of the caterpillars they infested. Von Siebold placed 
these free Filarim in damp earth, into which they soon bored : in a few 
weefc4 lie found that the sexual organs were developed in them, and that 
they laid hundreds of eggs. Early in spring the young worms were hatched 
and began to creep about Von Siebold took some young caterpillars of 
the moUi {Yponommtta eucm^fmella)^ m which were no parasites : he placed 
them in the soi^ earth in which the young Ftlaria had been hatched ; and 
in twenty-four hours most of the caterpillars were infested by the young 
* Haaterisn Leotives, Nported in * Msdiosl Timei.' 



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Ixxii BEPOBT — 1858. 

thread-worms, which had bored their way through the sod skin into their 
interior. 

The long hair-worm of fresh-waters ( Gardius aquaticus)^ vulgarly cou- 
ceived to be the result of a metamorphosis of the hair of a horse's tail, passes 
its early life as a parasite in the body of an insect. 

But many entozoa acquire their full or sexual development, not as free 
worms, but within the body of another animal, and of a species distinct from 
that in which they had passed the early or larval stage of their existence. 

The trematode parasite of a water-fowl produces eggs, from each of which 
is hatched a ciliated infusorial-like young. These young escape into the 
water, and there swim about by their vibratile cilia, like Infusoria ; some of 
them enter the body of a water-snail ; but they are merely the locomotive 
envelope of a differently-shaped smooth-skinned organbm, resembling in its 
simple uniform granular structure a Gregarina ; and the function of that 
ciliated envelope was to introduce the Gregarina into the body of the water- 
snail. So introduced, the growth of the gregariniform parasite proceeds, and a 
progeny is seen to arise in its interior, by the development of several of the 
contained germ-cells into embryos : it proves, indeed, to be a mere cyst for 
such, as the infusorial larva had been a cyst for it. The embryos gradually 
acquire the form of a Cercaria, These escape from the cyst, bore their way 
out of the snail, and disperse themselves as free swimming tadpole-like 
animalcules in the water. No sexual organs exist in these ' CercaruB,* any 
more than in their animated ^coat* the Gregarina^ or in their ciliated 
^great-coat* the infusorial embryo. After the larval CercaritB have passed 
some time in the water, first creeping and then swimming about with great 
restlessness, they either enter directly the body of a water-fowl, or bore 
their way into some aquatic insect, or they may fail in both these instinctive 
efforts and remain in the water. In any case they undergo a metamorphosis. 
The Cercaria gathers itself up into a ball and exudes a mucous secretion 
from its surface, which soon hardens ; and, since the worm, inside this mucous 
mass, turns round without stopping, it invests itself with a kind of egg-shell : 
during this process the tail is cast off. 

Should this process take place within the body of an insect, the encysted 
Cercaria might be introduced into the body of an insectivorous bird or beast. 
In the act of digestion by the engulpher the body of the insect is destroyed, 
together with the capsule of the cercarian pupa ; but this by virtue of its 
vitality remains unharmed, and is thus transplanted into a sphere fitted for its 
further change into a sexual entozoon of the Trematode or * fluke-worm' order. 

Then again commences the strange and complex genetic cycle from the 
Harveian point — the impregnated ovum. 

Three different species of animal may contribute — two are essential — to 
the successful progress of the ordinary and parthenogenetic processes of pro- 
pagation manifested by the three distinct forms of Infusory, Gregarina and 
Cercaria, intervening between the egg and the perfect parasitic fluke-worm. 



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ADDRESS* Ixxiil 

This instance (a knowledge of which is due chiefly to the researches of 
Voo Siebold) I have thought it requisite to quote, in order to convey some 
idea to my non-physiological auditors of the singular complexity of powers 
and arrangements tending to the ultimate right lodgement and well-being of 
a seemingly insignificant noxious little parasite. 

The sum of the recent researches on the generation of the Entozoa teaches 
that to the success in life of the majority of these internal parasites, two 
different species of much higher organized animals are subservient ; and that 
theee two species stand in the relation of prey and devourer. 

The habits of the prey favour the accidental introduction (as when a slug 
crawls over the droppings of a thrush) of the eggs of the birds' intestinal 
parasite. These are hatched in the slug. The slug in its turn is devoured 
by the thrush ; but the parasitic passengers are not digested — only the coach 
is dissolved, and the larvae, thus set free, find in the warm intestines of the 
bird the appropriate conditions for their metamorphosis and full develop- 
ment 

In like manner, the Bhynchobotkria of a cuttle-fish are the larve of the 
TBtrarkynehus or four-tentaded tape-worm of a dog-fish. The encysted 
leilesa Trumwphanu of the liver of the char becomes the free and perfect 
Tritmopharus of the gut of the pike. The Liguia of a herring becomes a 
Tama only when introduced into the interior of a cormorant The bladder- 
worm (C^sOcercus fcuciolaris) of the mouse's Hver becomes the tape-worm 
(Tania crassicoUis) of the cat The Ct/sticercus pisiformis of the liver of 
the hare becomes the Ttenia serrata of the dog and fox. 

Dr. Kiichenmeister of Zittau first proved, experimentally, by feeding 
animials with Cysticerei (Hydatids of the flesh and glands of herbivorous 
animals}, that they became T€BfiUB (intestinal tape-worms) in carnivorous 
animals* The results of these instructive experiments were published in 
1851 *. They have been successfully repeated, amplified, and scientifically 
explained, in regard to every particular and step of the progress, by the 
indefatigable and accurate Von Siebold f. The part which Parthenogenesis 
plays io the changing scenes of entozoal life is acutely diicemed and clearly 
explained in this work. 

Since the time when it was first dbcovered that plants and animals 
eoold propagate in two way^ and that the individual developed from 
the bud might produce a seed or egg, from which also an individual 
might spring capable of again budding, — since this alternating mode of 
generation was observed, as by Chamisso and Sars, in cases where the 
budding individual differed much in form from the egg- laying one— the 
subject has been systematized:!:, generalized, with an attempt to explain its 

• Gmubiirg's Zeitschrift fur Klinische Vortrage, 1851, p. 240. 
t Ueber die Band- und Blasenwurmer, &c. Svo. Leipzig, 1854. 
t Steensimp (J.)» ** Ueber den Generationswechsel oder ^e FortpflsDzung darch abwech- 
Gtneration," Kopenh. 1842. Svo. 



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\xnv BBpoilT**-1868. 

priqoiple*, and greatly adyanoedt, etpecially, and id a highly interostiog 
manner, in Von Siebold's late treatise, entitled '< Wabre Parthenogenetb bei 
Sohmetterlingen und Bienen,** in which the yirgin-produotion of the male or 
drone-bee is demonstrated. 

Von Siebold, having subjected tb the closest microscopic scrutiny and 
experiment the conclusion to which the practical Bee-master Dzierson had 
arrived, relative to the cause of Queen-bees with crippled wings producing 
a swarm exclusively of drones, has demonstrated that the male-bee is pro- 
duced from an egg which has been subjected to no influence save that of the 
maternal parent ; whilst such egg, if impregnated, would have produced a 
female or worker-bee. 

Von Siebold has established the same most interesting phase of partheno- 
genesis in certain Lqndapteray e. g. Soknobia lickenellay S, clathrMOf Psyche 
kelixf and he calls this phase emphatically ' true parthenogenesis.' 

Bonnet's famous experiments on the parthenogenetic Aphides have been 
repeated and confirmed by myself^ and others. Hartig§ has shown the 
same property in the genera Cynips and JpopkyUuSt which explains the fact 
of the appearance of Cynip$ hgnicola in vast numbers in the south-west of 
England during the present and preceding summers, but all of the female sex. 
The little crustaceans of the genus Daphne have long been known tq produce 
agamic eggs, A newly-hatched female isolated in a tumbler will produce a 
brood of the same sex, whence a second brood will issue, to perhaps the sixth 
generation. Mr. John Lubbock, in an admirable paper in the < Philosophical 
Transactions' for 1857, has repeated the experiments of Jurine, and added 
many valuable facts. He has pointed out the precise relations between the 
agamic and ephippial eggs. The young from any one brood of agamic *egg« 
are all of one sex, which usually is female s but in one instance Mr, Lubbook 
observed that they were all males. His memoir will well repay a eareful ttady. 
I had previously stated the grounds for concluding that there was no essential 
distinction between buds and eggs, and for anticipating that every gradation 
would be found between them : and many steps in that series have hotik since 
supply by Lubbock, Leidy, and Von Siebold. 

Gsertner has given an abridged account of experiments, showing that 

* Owair, '< On PsrthsiiogeBeut, or the Sueeeiiifs Pfoduotioii ef Procratiipg IndiviiUuik 
from a single Ovum/' 8yo. London, 1849. 

lb, ** On Metamorphosis and Metagenesis/' 8to. 1857. 

Prosch (V), " Om Parthenogenesis og Generationsvexel/' ICiobenhavn, 1851. 

t Lnhbock (J.), <• An Acoonnt of Two Methods of Reproduction in Daphnia," Ac, Phil. 
Trans. 1857, p. 79. 

Garus (J. Victor), " Zor niiheren Kenntnissdet Generationswechsels,'' Sto. Leipsig, 1849. 

Leuckart (K.), *< Ueber Metamorphose ongeschlechtliche Vermehrung, Generations- 
wechsel/' Zeitschrift fur Wissensch. Zoologie, vol. iu. 1851. 

Gegenbanr (U.), " Zmr Lehre vom Generationswechsel und der Fortpflanznng bei Meduaen 
und Po^ypsn," 8vo. Wurzburg, 1854. 

t Partheno^eiiesis. § Germar's Zeitachrift, vol. iL p. 178. 



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fonie planU have tbe power of producing ' agamio' or fertile but uDpollenized 
feeds : e« g. Zea Mays^ Cannabis sativas Spi^Mcia okracea^ Mercuriaks 
offUffa ; and if doubt may yet attend the results of the experiments on these 
and other plants which Giertner cites^ none, I believe, is now entertained by 
botanists of the germinative power of the seeds, independently of any action 
of pollen, of the Ccelobogyne iUc^folia* This plant, a native of Moreton Bayi 
Australiai is dicecious like the rest of the order (Euphorbiace^B) to which it 
belongs. A female plant was sent to the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew 
some years ago, where it may now be seen in full vigour ; but year after year 
this pistil-bearing individual has formed its flowers and fertile seeds as per** 
fectiy reproductive as if its staminiferous mate was blooming in the next 
parterre. No male plant has yet, in fact, been introduced. 

M. Lebocq has recorded in the * Comptes Rendus de TAoad. des Sciences/ 
Qec. J 856, the same phenomena in Trinia vuigamfMenmrialis annwh and 
some other phmts. 

The now well- investigated phenomena of parthenogenesis in Hydrazoa 
have resulted in showing, as in the analogous case of Eniozoa^ that animals 
difiering so much in form as to have coustituted two distinct orders or classes^ 
are really but two terms of a cycle of metagenetic transformations — the 
acalephan Mfdum being the sexual locomotive form of the agamic rooted 
budding polype, just as the cestoid Tasnia is of the cystic Hydatid. 

In Hgdrozoa (Hydroid Polypes or Sertularians) the young are propagated, 
as 10 plants, by < buds, and also, as in most plants, by 'germs' or * seeds:' 
these latter are contained in * germ-sacs* projecting from the outer surface, 
which is another analogy to the flowering parts of plants. The germ-sac 
contains either bare-eyed paedus^a, or medusoid germs in small closed ' sporo« 
sacs.' Both medusB and medusoids contain either the eggs or the pollen«* 
like zoQsperms. The germ-sac may be 'simple' or 'compound,' the latter 
containing a special organ or process of the ' cssnosarc,' from whose sides 
bud out the iporosacs or medussd. 

The first acquaintance with these marvels excited the hope that we were 
«bout to penetrate the mystery of the origin of diflerent species of animals; 
but as &r as observation has yet extended, the cycle of changes is definitely 
dosed* And, since ope essential step in the series is the fertilized seed or egg, 
the Harveian axiom, ' omae vivum ab ovo,' if metagenetic phases be ascribed 
to one individual, may be still predicated of all organisms which bear the 
oomistakeable characters of Plants or of Animals. 

The closest observations of the subjects of these two kingdoms most 
hvooraUe to dear insight into the nature of theur beginning, accumulate 
Sfridenee in proof of the essential first step being due to the protoplasmic 
matter of a germ-cell and sperm-cell ; the former pre-exiBting in the form of 
a nucleus or protoplast, the latter as a granulose fluid. In flowering plants 
it is conveyed by the pollen- tube, in animals and many flowerless plants by 
locomotive spermatozoids. 



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IxXVi REPORT — 1858. 

In regard to lower living things, analogy is but hazardous ground for con- 
clusions. The single-celled organisms, such as many of the so-called ani- 
malcules of infusions, which are at a stage of organization too low for a definite 
transfer to either the vegetable or animal kingdoms, offer a field of obser- 
vation and experiment which may yet issue in giving us a clearer insight 
into the development of the organic living cell. 

Whether an independent free-moving and assimilating organism, of a 
grade of structure similar to, and scarcely higher than the * germ-cell,' may 
not arise by a collocation of particles, through the operation of a force ana- 
logous to that which originally formed the germ-cell in the ovarian stroma, 
is a question which cannot be answered until every possible care and pains 
have been applied to its solution. 

The changes of form which the representative of a species undergoes in 
successive agamically propagating individuals are termed the * metagenesis* 
of such species. The changes of form which the representative of a species 
undergoes in a single individual is called the * metamorphosis.' But thb 
term has practically been restricted to the instances in which the individual, 
during certain phases of the change, is free and active, as in the grub of the 
chaffer, or the tadpole of the frog, for example. 

In reference to some supposed essential differences in the metamorphoses 
of insects, it had been suggested that stages answering to those represented 
by the apodal and ao-ephalous maggot of the DipterUy by the hexapod larva 
of the Carabif and by the hexapod antenniferous larvae of the Mdoe were 
really passed through by the orthopterous insect, before it quitted the egg*. 

Mr. Andrew Murray t has recently made known some facts in confirma- 
tion of this view. He had received a wooden idol from Africa, behind the 
ears of which a Blatta had fixed its egg-cases, after which the whole figure 
had been rudely painted by the natives, and these egg-cases were covered by 
the paint. No insect could have emerged without breaking through the case 
and the paint ; but both were uninjured. In the egg-cases were dbcovered, — 
1st, a grub-like larva in the egg ; 2nd, a cocoon in the egg containing the 
un winged, imperfectly -developed insect; Srd, the un winged, imperfectly* 
developed insect in the egg^ free from the cocoon, and ready to emerge. 

Such observations tending to remove supposed exceptions and anomalies, 
and to illustrate and establish the common law to which they can be reduced, 
are of the highest value in Natural History. 

Microscope. — The microscope is an indispensable instrument in embryolo- 
gical and histological researches, as also in reference to that vast swarm of 
animalcules which are too minute for ordinary vision. I can here do little 
more than allude to the systematic direction now given to the application of 

* Owen, *' On Metamorphosis and Metagenesis/' 1851, and '' Lectures on Invertebrata," 
8vo, 1855, p. 424. 

t " On the Metamorphosis of Orthopterous and Hemipterous Insects," Bdinb. Phil. 
Journal, 1858. 



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ADDRBBS. IXXvi) 

the microsoope to particular tissues and particular claiises, chiefly due, in 
this country, to the counsels and example of the Microscopical Society of 
London. 

A very interesting application of the microscope has been made to the 
particles of matter suspended in the atmosphere ; and a systematic continuation 
of such observations by means of glass slides prepared to catch and retain 
atmospheric atoms, promises to be productive of important results. 

We now know that the so-called red-snow of Arctic and Alpine regions is a 
microscopic single-celled organism which vegetates on the surface of snow. 

Cloudy or mbty extents of dust-like matter pervading the atmosphere, 
such as have attracted the attention of travellers in the vast coniferous 
forests of North America, and have been borne out to sea, have been found 
to consist of the * pollen ' or fertilizing particles of plants, and have been 
called ^ pollen showers.' 

M. Daneste*, submitting to microscopic examination similar dust which 
fell from a cloud at Shanghai, found that it consisted of spores of a confervoid 
pknt, probably the Trichodetmium erythrcswny which vegetates in, and im^ 
parts its peculiar colour to, the Chinese Sea. 

Decks of ships, near the Cape de Verd Islands, have been covered by such 
io-caUed 'showers' of impalpable dust, which, by the microscope of Ehrenberg, 
has been shown to consist of minute organisms, chiefly ^ Diatomacese.' One 
sample collected on a ship's deck 500 miles off the coast of Africa, exhilnted 
numerous species of freshwater and marine diatoms bearing a close resem- 
blance to South American forms of those organisms. Ehrenberg has recorded 
numerous other instances in his paper printed in the ' Berlin Transactions ; ' 
but here, as in other exemplary series of observations of the indefatigable 
microscopist, the conclusions are perhaps not so satisfactory as the well- 
observed data. 

He speculates upon the self-developing power of organisms in the atmo- 
sphere, affirms that dust-showers are not to be traced to mineral material 
from the earth's surface, nor to revolving masses of dust material in space, 
nor to atmospheric currents simply ; but to some general law connected with 
the atmosphere of our planet, according to which there is a ' self-development' 
within it of living organisms, which organisms he suspects may have some 
relation to the periodical meteorolites or aerolites. The advocates of pro- 
gresave development may see and hail in this the first step in the series of 
ascending transmutations. The unbiassed observer will be stimulated by the 
rtartling hypothesis of the celebrated Berlin Professor to more frequent and 
regular examinations of atmospheric organisms. Some late examinations 
of dost-showers clearly show them to have a source which Ehrenberg has 
denied. Some of my hearers may remember the graphic description by 
Her Majesty's Envoy to Persia, the Hon. C. A. Murray, of the cloud of 
impalpable red dust which darkened the air of Bagdad, and filled the city 
* Annales des Sciences Naturelles, B^r. 4. Botaidqae, t. L p. 81. 



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Ixxriii - report— 18B8, 

with a panic. The specimen he collected was exaodiiied bj tt\j successor 
at the Royal College of Surgeons, Prof. Quekett ; and that experienced 
microscopist could detect only inorganic particles, such as fine quartz sand, 
without any trace of Diatomacese or other organic matter. Dr. 1 awson has 
obtained a similar result from the examination of the material of a shower 
of moist dust or mud which fell at Corfu in March 1857: It consisted for 
the most part of minute angular particles of a quartzose sand. 

Here, therefore, is a field of observation fof the microscopist, which has 
doubtless most int^esting results as the reward of persevering research. 

Many * dust-showeta ' consist in greater or less proportions of mitsroscopic 
organisms, but not all. To determine the source of these organisms Is the 
legitimate aim of such researches. It must be remembered, also, that the 
expression 'spontaneously dereloped' in the atmosphere, may only mean 
what is meant when it was formerly applied to the internal parasites of matl 
and animals, viz. Ignorance of the true mode of origin. And since per- 
severing observation and experiment, in regaitl to tape-worms and ascarides, 
have thrown such new and unexpected light upon their origin and migrations, 
so the like result may reward similar labours applied to the parasitic * dust* 
showers ' of the atmosphere. 

Mkrogeology. — The microscopic organisms hitherto observed in the oldest 
fossiliferons deposits, Silurian Greensands, for instance, ar^ spicula of 
SjxmguB^ siliceous PolycysHnetBy and calcareous Foraminijkm. 

Ehrenberg has discovered that the substance of the greensands In stratified 
deposits, flrom the Silurian to the Tertiary periods inclusive. Is compost of 
the casts of the interior of the microscopic shells of Poh/cysHnea and An»- 
ntmifera. The soundings which have been brought up Arom various parts 
of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, eonsist chiefiy of similar microscople 
polythalamous shells, mingled with a greensand composed of casts of Fora* 
minifira. Thus the mode in which a deposit was made at the bottom of the 
deep primeval ocean of the Silurian period, is illustrated by that which the 
microscope has demonstrated to take place under similar conditions at the 
present day. 

The earliest indubitable evidence of diatoms has been obtained from the 
Eocene strata ; and the forms here determined have been fbr the most paft 
identified with existing species. Exotic species are not distinguishable from 
the British ; difference of climate seems not to affect or relate to spedfid 
difference, and the same exemption from such influence through the mdmite 
size and simple structure of the Diatomaceae, seems ia have been the chief 
condition of their geological longevity as species. 

To specify or analyse the labours of the individuals who of late years have 
contributed to advance zoology by the comprehensive combination of the 
various kinds of research now felt to be essential to its right progress, would 
demand a proportion of the present discourse far beyond its proper and 
allotted limits. 



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ADDBBBH. bodx 

Tet I shall not be deemed invidious if I eite one work as emitiently ezem^ 
plary of the spirit and scope of the investigations needed for the elucidation 
of any branoh of Natural History. That work is the monograph of the 
Chelonian Reptiles (Tortoises, Terrapenes and Turtles) of the United States 
of America, published last year at Boston, U.S., by Professor Agassie. 

I dte it, not wholly on account of its intrinsic merits, but also because it 
affords me the opportunity of expressing, on the part of naturalists, the ad- 
mhration of, and deep sense of gratitude to, the great and liberal people whosci 
perception of the intrinsic value and dignity of pnre science has enabled the 
distingaished author to enrich zoology by a work unparalleled in the 
oompleleness, perfection, and consequent expense of its greiphic illustrations. 

*' We bad fixed," writes Agassiz, " upon five hundred subscribers as the 
number necessary to enter upon the publication with safety : — at this moment 
it stands at twenty*five hundred, — a support such as was never before offered 
to any scientifio man fbr purely scientific ends, without any reference to 
government objects or direct practical aims'*'.'' 

G^offrapkieal DiiiribuHan of Plants. — Observations of the characters of 
plants, the record of such observations by the Linnsean and subsequently 
improved artifices of description, the application of this power to comparison, 
and dednetidis from the results of such compari9ons,-^have led to the 
recognition of the natural groups or families of the vegetable kingdom, and 
to a dear scientifio comprehension of that great department of living Nature. 

TUs phase of botanioal science gives the power of ftirther and more pro- 
fitable generalizations, such as those teaching the relations between the par- 
ticolar plants and particular localities. 

The enm of these relations^ forming tiie Geographical Distribution of 
FlantSy rests, perhaps at present necessarily, on an assumption, viz. that eadi 
spedea bas been created, or come into being, but once in time and space; 
and that its present diffusion b the result of its own law of reproduction, 
under the diffusive Or restrictive influence of external circumstances. These 
dremnstanees are chiefly temperature and moisture, dependent on the distance 
firom the source of heat and the obliquity of the sun's rays, modified by alti- 
tade above the sea-level, or the degree of rarefaction of the atmosphere, and 
of ihe power of the surface to radiate heat. Both latitude and altitude 
are Ibrther modified by currents of air and ocean, which influence 
Ab diatdbntion of the heat they have absorbed. Thus large tracts of dry 
land produce dry and ^treme climates, while large expanses of sea produce 
humid and equable climates. Botany, in short, at this phase becomes inti- 
mately related to dimatdogy ; and the traveller, the meteorologist, and the 
naturalist reciprocally aid each other in the acquisition of a knowledge of 
fhntffil general laws. Agriculture affectA the geographical distribution of 
pints, both directly md indirectiy. It diffuses plants over a wider area of 

* Agassiz, '* Monograph on North American Testadinata," 4to, Boston, 1857, Pre£Me« 
p. aSL vol i. Of the 2500 Snbsdibers only 20 are Extra-american. 



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htxx RBPOaT — 1858. 

equal climate, augments their productiveness, and enlarges the limits of their 
capacity to support different climatal conditions. Agriculture also effects 
local modifications of climate. The clearance of forests, by diminishing the 
cooling influence of evaporation from leaves, increases the temperature* 
When, by the spread of thorough drainage over Britain, the surface-water is 
at once carried off, instead of remaining on the surface until slowly dispersed 
by evaporation and atmospheric currents, such prompt removal of the raw 
material of mist and cloud may be reasonably expected to be attended with 
a greater average annual amount of solar liglit and heat 

Certain species of plants require more special physical conditions for 
health ; others more general conditions ; and their extent of diffusion varies 
accordingly. Thus the plants of temperate climates are more widely diffused 
over the surface of the globe, because they are suited to elevated tracts in 
tropical latitudes. 

There is, however, another law which relates to the original appearance, or 
creation, of plants, and which has produced different species flourishing under 
similar physical conditions, in different regions of the globe. Thus the plants 
of the mountains of South America are of distinct species, and for the most 
part of distinct genera, from those of Asia. The plants of the temperate 
latitudes of North America are of distinct species, and some of distinct 
genera, from those of Europe. The CactecB of the hot regions of Mexico are 
represented by the Euphorbiaceoi in parts of Africa having a similar climate. 

The modes of generalizing the observations on the geographical distribution 
of indigenous plants are various. 

One is by dividing the horizontal range of vegetation into zones, bounded 
by annual isothermal lines, as, 1, the equatorial ; % tropical ; 3, subtropical ; 
4, warmer temperate ; 5, cooler temperate ; 6, subarctic ; 7, arctie ; 
8, polar zones: with temperatures progressively falling from an annual 
isotherm of 79®'3 Fahr. to one of 36^-5 for the month of July. 

Another mode is the classification of plants according to the regions of 
altitude; as into those of, — 1, Palms; 2, Tree-ferns; 3, Myrtles; 4, Ever- 
greens ; 5, Deciduous trees; 6, Conifers; ?» Alpine shrubs; 8, Alpine herbs. 
But the corresponding altitudes in different countries have frequently dif- 
ferent, though analogous or representative, species. The presence or other* 
wise of snow on the mountain-tops also influences the character of the plants 
at corresponding altitudes. Thus, forests of tall Conifers flourish in the 
Himalayas at regions of altitude where only stunted specimens of tropical 
plants are found in the mountains of Sumatra. 

A third, and perhaps more truly natural mode of expressing the geogra^^ 
phical distribution of plants, is by regions defined by the proportion of plant- 
species peculiar to them. When one half, at least, of the known species are 
peculiar to a certain space, it constitutes a ^ phytogeographic ' r^ion, accord- 
ing to Schouw. In it, also, a fourth part of the genera must be either pecu- 
liar, or so predominating as to be comparatively rare in other regions ; and 

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ADDRSSS. Ixxxi 

tlie indiTidiial (kmilies of plants most be either peculiar to» or decidedly pre* 
dofninate in, sach region. 

So defined, the surface of the earth has been divided into twenty-five re- 
gions, of which I may cite as examples that of New Zealand, in which Ferns 
predominate, together with generic forms, half of which are European, and 
the rest i^proximating to Australian, South African, and Antarctic forma : 
and that of Australia, characterized by its Eucalypti and Epacride^, chieO;- 
known to us by the researches of the great botanist, Robert Brown, the 
founder of the * Geography of Plants/ 

Of the heaths, or heath-like shrubs, some genera. Erica, or true heath, for 
example, characterize the Cape of Good Hope and Europe ; other genera 
the Cape and New Holland; others again, as Epacris, LUtanthe^ and Leuco* 
pogan, are characteristic of Australia. 

The vegetable kingdom has been classified into many such physiogno- 
mical groups. The latest botanical st^itistics make 213,280 species ; but the 
best informed botanists believe that we are still acquainted only with a small 
proportion of existing plants. 

Geo^apkical ZHstrilnUion (^Jnimals. — Organic Life, in its animal form, 
is much more developed, and more variously, in the sea, than in its vegetable 
form. 

Observations of marine animals and their localities have led to attempts 
at generalizing the results ; and the modes of enunciating these generaliza- 
tions or laws of geographical distribution are very analogous to those 
which have been applied to the vegetable kingdom, which is as di- 
versely developed on land as b the animal kingdom in the sea. Certain 
horizontal areas, or provinces, have been characterized by the entire assem- 
bUge of animals and plants constituting their population, of which a consider- 
able proportion is peculiar to each province, and the majority of the species 
have their areas of maximum development within it. 

Of such provinces of Marine Life, that much-lamented, far-seeing, and 
genial philosopher, Edward Forbes, has provisionally defined 25. 

The same physical conditions are associated with a certain similarity be- 
tween the animals of difierent provinces. Where those provinces are proxi- 
mate, such likeness is due to the identity or close affinity of the species ; but 
where the provinces are remote, the resemblance is one of analogy, and spe- 
cies of different genera or families represent each other. 

A second mode of expressing the ascertained facts of the geographical 
distribution of marine animals is by tracts called * Homoiozoic Belts,' bounded 
by dimatal lines, which are not, however, parallel with lines of latitude, but 
undulate in subordination to climatal influences of warm or cold oceanic 
currents, relations of land to water, &c. Of these belts. Professor E. Forbes 
has defined nine : one equatorial, with four to the north and four to the south, 
which are mutually representative. 

But the most interesting form of expression of the distribution of marine 
1858. / 



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life is that which parallels the perpendiooUr distributton of pUnUu Edward 
Forbes, availing himself of the valuable results of a systematic use of the 
dredge, first showed that marine animab and pUints varied accordiog to the 
depth at which they lived, in a manner very analogous to the changes in the 
forms and species of vegetation observed in the ascent of a tropical rnoun* 
tain. He has expressed these facts by defining five bathymetrical zones, or 
belts of depth, which he calls,*-*!, Littoral; % Circumlittoral; S» Median < 
4, Infra-median ; 5, Abyssal. 

The life-forms of these zones vary, of course, acccnrding to the nature of 
the sea-bottom ; and are modified by those primitive or creative laws that 
have caused representative species in distant localities under like physical 
conditions, — species rdated by analogy. 

Very much remains to be observed and studied by Naturalists io difierent 
parts of the globe, under the guidance of the generalizations thus sketched 
out, to the completion of a perfect theory. But in the progress to this, the 
results cannot fail to be practically most valuable. A shell or a sea-weed, 
whose relations to depth are thus understood, may afford important in- 
formation or warning to the navigator. To the geologist the distributloQ of 
marine life according to the zones of depth has given the clue to the deter- 
mination of the depth of the seas in which certain formations have beea 
deposited. 

By the light of these laws of geographical distribution we view with quite 
a new interest the shells, corals, and sea-weeds of our own shores. We traee 
tiie regions whence they have been invaded by races not aboriginally b^ 
longing to our seas; we obtain indications of irruptions of sea^^mrrents of 
dates anterior to the present arrangements of land and water. Thus, part of 
our marine fietuna has been traced back to the older pliocene period, part to 
the somewhat newer period of the red-crag, part to the still more recent 
glacial period — all these being anterior to the constitution of the ' Celtic 
Province,' as it is now displayed. 

With regard to the class of Fishes, some &miUes, the Sharks (Squaloids), 
Herrings (Haleooids), and Mackerel-kind (Scomberoids), are cosmopolitan. 
The Lab3rrintliodonts are United to the Indian Ocean; the Goniodonts to 
the rivers of South America; the Lepid0$iei to those of North America ; tha 
PoUfpteri to those of Africa. The fish called CAo^a is restricted to the Lake 
Baikal, and the blind *Amblyop$is ' to the Mammoth cave : just as the Pro- 
teus amongst amphibious reptiles is eoofined to the ca?erns of Carinthia. 

The class of animals to which the restrictive laws of geographical distri- 
bution might seem least applicable is that of Birds : their peculiar powers of 
locomotion, associated in numerous species with migratory habits, might seem 
to render them independent of every influence save those of climate and of 
food, which directly affect the conditions of their existence* Yet the 
long- winged Albatros is never met with north of the equator; nor does 
the Condor soar above other monnteins than the Andes. The gecgra- 



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pilfcal vfmge of its E^jfepe^n representative, the stroog-viiiged Lammer* 
gefefy 18 ^iiaoilftrly restricted. The Asiatie PhcuianieUB and Pawmida are 
f^res^Qted by Turkeys (Afeleagris) io America ; by the Guinea-fowl (iVti- 
mkkh /iffthihtf, Pkasidus) in Africa ; ^d by the Megapodidmy or Mound- 
birds, in Australia. Several genera of Finches are peculiar to the Gali4)agos 
Islani^ ; the richly and fantastically ornate Birds of Paradise are restricted 
to )^ew Guinea and some neighbouring isles. Mr. Sclater, who has contrl* 
bated the latest summary of facts on the dbtribution of Bird;^ reckons 17 
families as peculiar to America, and 16 families as peculiar to Europe, Asia, 
and Africa. Some species have a singularly restricted locality, as, the Red- 
grouse ( Teirao scoticus) to the British Isles ; the Owl-parrot (Nesiar pro* 
duetHs) to Philip Island, a small spot near New Zealand. 

When birds have wings too short for flight, we marvel less at their re- 
sM^oted range ; and particular genera of brevipennate birds have their peeu- 
liar continents or islands. The long- and strong-limbed Ostrich courses over 
the whole continent of Africa and conterminous Arabia. The gei^us of 
three-^d Ostriches (Rkea) is similariy restricted to South Anoerica. The 
Emeu (Dromaius) has Australia assigned to it The continent of the Casso- 
wary (Oasuarius) has been broken up into blands induding and extepdipg 
frtMB the south-eastern peninsuhi of Asia to New Guinea and New Britain. 
The singular nocturnal wingless Kivi {Apieryx) is peculiar to the islands pf 
New Zealand. 

Other specie^ and genera, which seem to be, like the Jpieryx, as i^ w^ 
Blocked with feathers and rudiments of wings, have wholly ceased to exist 
vithiii the D)emory of man in the islands to which they also were respectively 
restrfctedy The Dodo (Didus ineptus) of the Mauritius, and the Solitaive 
(Pesopkapi soktaria) are instances. 

In New Zealand also there existed, within the memory of the A|aori apces- 
try» huge birds having their nearest affinities to the still existing 4p^sfy^ uf 
that ijilaad, but generically distinct from that and all other known bird^ \ 
have proposed the name of Dinamis for this now extii^t genius, of which 
more than a dozen well-defined species have come to my knowledge, all pecu- 
liar to New Zealand and the last-discovered the strangest, by reason qt the 
dephailtine p|N^>ortions of its feet. 

A tridactyle wingless bird of another genus, ^pypmU^ second only to the 
gigantic Dinfimis in size, appears tp have alsp recently become extinct — ^if 
it be extinct-r-in the Island of Madagascar. The egg of this bird, vfrhich 
may hay^ suggested to the Arabian voyagers attaining Madagascar frpm t|)^ 
^ed Sea the idea of the Roc of their romances^ would hold the contents of 
6 eggs of the Ostrich, 16 eggs of the Cassowary, and 148 eggs of the common 
JowL 

The laws of geographical distribution, as affecting mammalian life, have 
been reduced to great exactness by observations continued since the time f^f 
Bnffon, who first began to generalize, just a centpry ^go, \n that way,QptUig th^ 

: /2 



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Ixxxiv REPORT — 1858. 

peculiarities of the species of South American animals ♦. The most import- 
ant extension of this branch of zoology has been due to recent researches 
and discoveries of extinct species of the class Mammalia; and it is chiefly 
in relation to the modifications of zoological ideas produced by palaeontology 
that a few brief remarks will here be made. 

The Quadrumana, or order of Apes, Monkeys, and Lemurs, consist of 
three chief divisions — Catarhines, Platyrhines, and Strepsirhines. The first 
family is peculiar to the * Old World ; ' the second to South America ; the 
third has the majority of its species, and its chief genus (Lemur), exclusively 
Sn Madagascar. Out of 26 known species of LemuricUs, only 6 are Asiatic 
and S are African. 

The Catarhine monkeys include the Macaques, most of which are Asiatic, 
a few are African, and one European ; the Cercopiiheques, most of which are 
African, and a few Asiatic ; and other genera which characterize one or 
other continent exclusively. Thus the true Baboons {Papio) are African, 
as are the thumbless Monkeys (Co/o6tt«) and the Chimpanzees {Troglo* 
dyies). The Semnopitheques, Gibbons, and Orangs are peculiarly Asiatic. 
Palaeontology has shown that a Macaque, a Gibbon, and an Orang existed 
during the older tertiary times in Europe ; and that a Semnopithecus exbted 
in miocene times in India. But all the fossil remains of Quadrumana in the 
Old World belong to the family CaiarhifUh which is still exclusively confined 
to that great division of dry land. The tail-less Macaque (Inuus sUvanus) 
of Gibraltar may have existed in that part of the Old World before Europe 
was separated by the Straits of Gibraltar from Africa. Fossil remains 
of Quadrumana have been discovered in South America; they indicate 
Platyrhine forms : a species, for example, allied to the Howlers (MyeeUs)^ bat 
larger than any now known to exist, has left its remains in Brazil. 

Whilst adverting to the geographical distribution of Quadrumana, I would 
contrast the peculiarly limited range of the Orangs and Chimpanzees with 
the cosmopolitan powers of mankind. The two species of Orang (PUheeus) 
are confined to Borneo and Sumatra ; the two species of Chimpanzee ( Tro* 
ghdytes) are limited to an intertropical tract of the western part of Africa. 
They appear to be inexorably bound by climatal influences regulating the 
assemblage of certain trees and the production of certain fruits. With all 
our care, in regard to choice of food, clothing, and contrivances for artifi- 
cially maintaining the chief physical conditions of their existence, the 
healthiest specimens of Orang or Chimpanzee, brought over in the vigour of 
youth, perish within a period never exceeding three years, and usually much 
shorter, in our climate. By what metamorphoses, we may ask, has the 

* The first enandation of the principle of Geographical Disiributioa merits reprodactton. 
Buflbn was treating of the camiyoroos animal which travellers in South America had called 
the * Lion' : — **\jtpuma n'est point un lion, tirant son origiue dcs lions de Fancien conti- 
nent ; c'est nn animal particnlier a TAm^rique, comme le sont aussi la plnpart des animaux 
de ce nouvean continent."— Tom. ix. p. 13, 1758. 



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ADDBS88. IXXXV 

aliegfid bamanized Chimpanzee or Orang been brougbt to endure all 
clioiateB ? Tbe advocates of * transmutation ' have failed to explain them. 
Certain it is that those physical differences in cerebral, dental> and osteolo* 
gical structure, which place, in my estimate of them, the genus Homo in a 
disdoct group of the mammalian class, zoologically of higher value than the 
' order,' are associated with equally contrasted powera of endurance of dif- 
ferent climates, whereby Man has become a denizen of every part of the 
globe from the torrid to the arctic zones. 

Climate rigidly limits the range of the Quadrumana latitudinally : crea- 
tional and geographical causes limit their range in longitude. Distinct genera 
represent each other in the same latitudes of the New and Old Worlds ; and 
aiso^ in a great degree, in Africa and Asia. But the development of an 
Orang out of a Chimpanzee, or reciprocally, is physiol(^ically inconceivable, 

The order Ruminantia is principally represented by Old World spe- 
cies, of which 162 have been defined; whilst only 24 species have been 
diaooTered in the New World, and none in Australia, New Guinea, New 
Zeahmd, or the Polynesian Isles. 

The Camelopard b now peculiar to Africa; the Musk-deer to Africa and 
Ana : out of about 50 defined species of Antelope, only one is known in 
America, and none in the central and southern divisions of the New World. 
The Bison of North America is distinct from the Bison of Europe. The 
Mosk-ox alone, peculiar for its limitation to high northern latitudes, roams 
over the arctic coasts of both Asia and America. The Deer-tribe are more 
widely distributed. The Camels and Dromedaries of the Old World are 
represented by the Llamas and Vicugnas of the New. As, in regard to a 
former (tertiary) zoological period, the fossil Camelida of Asia are of the 
genus CameluSf so those of America are of the genus Aitchenia. This geo- 
graphical restriction ruled prior to any evidence of man*s existence. 

Pftlieontology has expanded our knowledge of the range of the Giraffe : 
during miocene or old pliocene periods, species of CamelopardaUs roamed in 
Asia and Europe. Passing to the non-ruminant Artiodactyles, geology has 
also taught us that the Hippopotamus was not always confined, as now, to 
African rivers, but bathed, during pliocene times, in those of Asia and 
Europe. But no evidence has yet been had that the Giraffe or Hippo« 
potamos were ever other than Old World forms of VngtUata. 

With respect to the Hog-tribe, we find that the true Swine (Sus) of the 
Old Worid are represented by Peccaries {Diooij^les) in the New ; and geo- 
logy has recently shown that tertiary species of Dicotyles existed in North as 
weU as South America. But no true Sus has been found fossil in either 
division of the New Worid, nor has a Dtcotyles been found fossil in the 
Old Worid of the geographer. Phaoockcerus (Wart-hogs) is a genus of the 
Hog-tribe at present peculiar to Africa. 

The Rhinoceros is a genus now represented only in Asia and Africa ; the 
ipeciea being ^distinct in the two continents. The islands of Java and of 

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Ixxxvi RBi»()ftt— 1858. 

Sumatra hav^ each their peculiar species; that off the latter beibg t#o- 
homed, as all the African Rhinoceroses are. Three or more species «f 
two-horned tthinocerod formerly inhabited Europe— one of thein warmly 
dad, for a cold climate; but no fossil remains of the genUs hAve been tbet 
with save in the Old World of the geographer. Onfe of the earliest fonns 
of European Rhinoceros was devoid of the nasal weapon. 

Geology gives a wider range to the Horse and Elephant kinds than was 
cognizant to the student of living species only. The exbting EqmeUB and 
EkphanHd€B properly belong to the Old World; and the Elephants are 
limited to Asia and Africa, the species of the two continents being qoite 
distinct The horse, as Buffon remarked, carried terror to the eye of the 
indigenous Americans, viewing the animal for the first time, as it proudly 
bore their Spanish conqueror. But a species of Equns coesusted with the 
Mega^ierinm and Megalonyx in both South and North America, and perished 
apparently with them, before the human period. 

Elephants are dependent chiefly upon trees for food. One species now 
finds conditions of existence in the rich forests of tropical Asia ; and a second 
species in those of tropical Africa. Why, we may ask, should not a third be 
living at the expense of the still more luxuriant vegetation watered by the 
Oronooko, the Essequibo^ the Amazon, and the La Plata, in tropical 
America ? Geology tells us that at least two kinds of Elephant (MicuUxbm 
Andium and Mast, ffumbokkii) formerly did derive their subsistence, along 
with the great Megatherioid beasts, from that abundant source. Nay more ; at 
least two other kinds of Elephant (McutadonohwHeus and Ekphas texianm) 
existed in the warm and temperate latitudes of North America. Twice aft 
many species of Mastodon and Elephant, dbtinct from all the others, roamed 
in pliocene timiss in the same latitudes of Europe. At a later or pleistocene 
period, a huge elephant, clothed with wool and hair, obtained its fbod fVom 
hardy trees, such as now grow in the 65th degree of north latitude ; and 
abundant remains 6f this Ekphas primigenins (as it has been prematurely 
called, since it was the last of our British elephants) have been found Id 
temperate and high northern latitudes in Europe, Asia, and America, This^ 
like other Arctic animals, was peculiar in its family fbr its longitudinal 
range. The Musk Buffalo was its contemporary in England and Europe^ 
and still lingers ih the northernmost parts of America. 

I have received evidences of Elephantine species from China and Australia, 
proving the proboscidian pachyderms to have been the most cosmopolitan of 
hoofed herbivorous quadrupeds. 

We may infer that the general growth of large forests, and th<e absence of 
deadly enemies, were the main conditions of the former existentse of Ele* 
phantine animals over every part of the globe. We have the most pregnadt 
proof of the importance of Palaeontology in rectifying and expanding ideas 
deduced from recent Zoology of the geographical limits of particular forms of 
anirnab, by the results of its application to the proboscidian or ElephantiAe 



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htuif* But suoh Ktroipeelive views of life in remote periods id man j im- 
^ortaot instonees confijrm the zoologist's deductions of the originally re- 
sirictad range of particular forms of mammalian life. This is the case with 
resipect to that singular group of quadrupeds forming the Order BrutAi Linn., 
or EOBNTATAt Cuv. If a zoological province be defined by the proportion 
of genera and species peculiar to it^ South America must be assigned as such 
[»t>vince for the Bruta ; three out of five of the genera, and a much larger 
■proportion of the species, being peculiar to that continent The Sloths 
{Bradypu8)i the Anteaters (Afyrmecophaga), and the Armadillos (Dasj/pus), 
are the South American genera, or rather families, of Bruta referred to* The 
scaly Anteaters or Pangolins (Manis) are represented by long-tailed species 
ID Africa, and shorter-tailed ones in Asia. The Orycteropus is represented 
by a single species in South Africa. 

Fossil remains of the order BrtUa have been discovered in tertiary beds in 
Europe and in America. The European fossil was a large Pangolin, and the 
discovery shows the natural extent of that province, now imperfectly divided 
into Europe^ Asia, and Africa, to which the 3£aim-form of BrtOa is and has 
been peculiar. 

Geology also extends the geographical range of the Sloths and Armadillos 
from South to North America ; but the deductions from recent rich discoveries 
of huge terrestrial forms of Sloth, of gigantic Armadillos, and large Anteaters, 
go to establish the fact that these peculiar families of the order Bruta have 
ever been, as they are now, peculiar to America ; that several genera, in- 
chiding the largest species, have perished ; and that the rangie of their still 
existing diminutive representatives has been reduced to the southern division 
of the 'New World.' 

In no other region of the globe than America — that to which the Slothai, 
Anteaters, and Armadillos are now peculiar — has any fossil relic of an animi^ 
of thoee families been found : and if it be objected to this evidence of the 
primeval limitation of those families to America, that it is chiefly ' negative,* I 
would remark, that bones of the Megatherium are as likely to catch the eye 
as thoee of the Elephant ; and would ask, if Megatherloids had co-existed with 
Elephants in other continents, as Elephants did with them in America, why 
have not their remains been found elsewhere ? The positive and abundant 
evidence, however, of the remains of gigantic Sloths and Armadillos in South 
America is most conclusive of the original location of these unmigratory 
beasts in the New World. 

Australia, which in extent of dry land merits to be regarded as a fifth con- 
tinent, has a more restricted and peculiar character of aboriginal mammalian 
population than South America. It is emphatically the ^ province ' of those 
quadrupeds the females of which are provided with a pouch for the trans- 
port and protection of their prematurely born young. 

One genus of MartupiaUa {Didelphys or Opossums, properly so called) is 
poeuliar to America, and is there the sole representative of the order. A 



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Ixxxviii REPORT — 1858. 

small Kangaroo> and a few Phalangers> exist in islands that link the 
Malayan Archipelago with the Australian world. All the other marsupial 
genera, indeed everj known genus save Dide^fhys^ are found in Australasia, 
compnsing New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania. 

' The Kangaroos, Potoroos, Wombats, Koalas, Phalangers, Petaurists, Dasy- 
ures, and marsupial quadrupeds of insectivorous and carnivorous habits 
distinguished only by scientific names, here perform the parts assigned to non- 
marsupial Mammalia in the Old World. No existing marsupial quadruped 
has been found native in continental Asia, in Africa, or in Europe. 

Of the Australasian marsupials the species of New Guinea are distinct, and 
some of them subgenerically, from those of Australia proper. 

Certain genera, as Tarsipesy ChosropuSf Phascolarctus^ are peculiar to 
Australia; other genera, as Thylacinu9 and Sarcophilus, the largest and 
most destructive of carnivorous marsupials, are peculiar to Tasmania. 

No nmrsupial fossil has been found in the pliocene or pleistocene deposits 
of £urope, Asia, or Africa. In America, only representatives occur of the 
peculiarly American genus Diddphys. In the formations of these recent 
tertiary periods, and in the limestone caverns, of Australia, abundance of 
mammalian fossils have been found, and, with the exception of a single tooth 
of a Mastodon, every one of them has proved to be a marsupial species. 
Many belong to the genus of Kangaroos {Macropus)^ some to that of Poto- 
roos {Hypsiprymnus) ; a few to the Wombats (Phascolomys), Dasyures (Da* 
syurus), and other existing genera. Some of these fossils have shown that the 
Thylacintis and Sarcophilus formerly inhabited Australia as well as Tasmania. 
Others exhibit the carnivorous or Dasyurine modification of the marsupial 
type in species equalling the Leopard and the Lion in size ; and the latter 
with modifications of the camassial teeth of generic value. We now know 
that there once existed in Australia species of Wombat equalling the Tapir 
in stature ; and species most nearly allied to Macrcpusy but with characters of 
Phascolomys and PJiascolarctus combined, which rivalled the Ox and Rhi- 
noceros in bulk. The skull of the Nototherium presents the strangest pro- 
portions and features hitherto seen in the mammalian class: that of the 
Diprotodon is 3 feet in length, and combines the scalpriform incisors of the 
Wombat with the double- ridged molars of the Kangaroo. 

The sum of all the evidence from the fossil worid in Australia proves its 
mammalian population to have been essentially the same in pleistocene, if not 
pliocene times, as now ; only represented, as the Edentate mammals in South 
America were then represented, by more numerous genera, and much more 
gigantic species, than now exist 

But geology has revealed more important and unexpected facts relative to 
the marsupial type of quadrupeds. 

In the miocene and eocene tertiary deposits, marsupial fossils of the 
American genus Didelphys have been found, both in France and England ; 
and they are associated with Tapirs like that of America. In a more ancient 



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ADDRB88. Ixzxix 

geological period^ remains of marsupials, some insectivorous, as SpalacO' 
thorium and TricanodoHy others with teeth like the peculiar premolars in 
the Australian genus Hypsipryrnnus^ have been found in the upper oolite of 
the Isle of Purbeck *. In the lower oolite at Stonesfield, Oxfordshire, mar- 
supial remains have been found having their nearest living representatives in 
the Australian genera Myrmecolnus and Daayurus* 

Thus, it would seem, that the deeper we penetrate the earth» or, in other 
words, the further we recede in time, the more completely are we absolved 
from the present laws of geographical distribution. In comparing the mam- 
malian fossils found in British pleistocene and pliocene beds, we have often 
to travel to Asia or Africa for their homologues. In the miocene and eocene 
strata some fossils occur which compel us to go to America for the nearest 
representatives. To match the mammalian remains from the Englbh oolitic 
formations, we must bring species from the Antipodes. 

These are truly most suggestive facts, unrecognized until science looked 
abroad upon the world. If the present laws of geographical distribution 
depend, in an important degree, upon the present configuration and position 
of continents and islands, what a total change in the geographical character 
of the earth's surface must have taken place since the ' Stonesfield slate' was 
deposited in what now forms the county of Oxfordshire I 

These and the like considerations from the modifications of geographical 
distribution of particular forms or groups of animals warn us how inadequate 
must be the phenomena connected with the present distribution of land and 
sea to guide to the determination of the primary ontological divbions of the 
earth's surface. Some of the latest contributions to this most interesting 
branch of Natural Hbtory have been the result of endeavours to determine 
whether, and how many, distinct creations of plants and animals have taken 
place. But, I would submit, that the discovery of two portions of the 
globe, of which the respective Faunas and Florae are different, by no means 
affords the requisite basis for concluding as to distinct acts of creation. 

Such conclusion is associated, perhaps unconsciously, with the idea of the 
historical date of creative acts : it presupposes that the portion of the globe 
so investigated by the botanist and zoologist has been a separate and primitive 
creation, — that its geographical limits and features are still in the main what 
they were when the creative fiat went forth. 

But Geology has demonstrated that such is by no means the case with 
respect to the portions of dry land now termed continents and islands. The 
incalculable vistas of time past into which the same science has thrown 
light are also shown to have been periods during which the relative positions 
of land and sea have been ever changing. 

Already the directions, and to a certain extent the forms of the submerged 
tracts that once joined what now are idands to continents, and which once 
united now separate or nearly disjoined continents by broad tracts of conti* 
* These fossils are due to the researches of Messrs. Biodie and Beckles. 



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t6 BBVOttV-*-1668. 

Bulijf begin to be laid down in geologioal mapi, addressing to thd ejre i 
successive and gradually progressive alterations of the earth's surface. 

These phenomena shake our confidenoe in the conolusion that the Apteryx 
of New Zealand and the Red-grouse of Enghind were distinct creations ia 
and for those islands respectirely. Always, also* it may be well to bear in 
mind that by the word * creation/ the zoologist means * a process he knowa 
not what.' Science has not yet ascertained the secondary causes that ope- 
rated when *' the earth brought forth grass and herb yielding seed after its 
kind>" and when " the waters brought forth abundantly the moring creature 
that hath life." And supposing both the fiE^^t and the whole process of th* 
so-called * spontaneous generation ' of a fruit-bearing tree, or of a fish, were 
scientifically demonstrated, we should still retain as strongly the ideui which 
is the chief of the < mode ' or < group of ideas ' we call * creation,' tIb* that 
the process was ordained by and had originated from an all-wise and power* 
ful First Cause of all things. 

When, therefore, the present peculiar relation of the Red-grouse (TWrtM 
scoHems) to Britian and Ireland — and I cite it as one of a large class of in*- 
stances in Geographical Zoology — is enumerated by the soologist as evidence 
of a distinct creation of the bird in and for such islands, he chiefly espresses 
that he knows not how the Red-grouse came to be there, and there eaolu^ 
sively ; signifying also> by this mode of expressing such ignorance, his belief 
that both the bird and the islands owed their origin to a great first Creatiira 
Cause. 

And this analysis of the real meaning of the phrase * distinct creation ' haa 
led me to suggest whether, in aiming to define the primary aoological pro* 
▼inees of the globe, we may not be trenching upon a province of knowledge 
beyond our present capacities ; at least in the judgment of Lord Bacon, oom^ 
menting upon man's efibrts to pierce into the * dead beginnings of things.' 

This at least is certain, that, being aware of former operations requiring 
to be Well understood before we can draw conclusions as to other facta 
related to the unknown operations, one writes to no purpose in affirming 
conclusions without such preliminary knowledge. 

Thus, the changing level of the land part of the earth's crust, throughout 
geologioal time, leads to the recognition of the present shape and size of con- 
tinents and islands as being recent and temporary. 

We feel that there have been phenomena attending, for example, the actual 
flow of continuous ocean between Ireland and Newfoundland, the nature 
and succession of which should be known in order to enable us to compre- 
hend the causes or conditions of the present diflerences between the Flora 
and Fauna of those islands respectively : and so of every other part of dry 
land now circumscribed by sea. 

All affirmations as to the time, place, and kind of origin of the organisms 
of a so circumscribed land, in the absence of a knowledge of the causes and 
eonditiona of such cireun»eriptioo, must be guess-work. 



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ABDBB89. Hi 

It is il part of soand knowledge to be able to recogaiae the suljeota r6* 
gardliig which we have not, at present, the basis of true assertion* 

On the few occasions in which I have been led to offer observations on 
the probable cause of the extinction of species, th^ chief weight has been 
given to those gradual changes in the conditions of a countrj affecting the 
due supply in sustenance to animals in a state of nature, I have also pointed 
out the characters in the animals themselves calculated to render theiti most 
obnoxious to sueh extirpating influences ; and on one occasion * I have ap« 
plied the remarks to the explanation of so many of the larger species of par^ 
dcular groups of animab having become extinct, whilst smaller speeies of 
equal antiquity have remained. 

In proportion to its bulk is the dificulty of the contest which, as H living 
organized whole, the individual of such species has to mtuntain against thd 
sarfounding agencies that are ever tending to dissolve the vital bond and 
subjugate the living matter to the ordinary chemical and physical foreefl» 
Any changes, therefore, in sueh external agencies as a species may have 
been originally adapted to exist in will militate against that exbtenee in a 
d^ree proportionate, perhaps in a geometrical ratio, to the bulk of the 
speoiea. If a dry season be gradually prolobged, the large mammal will 
suffer from the drought sooner than the small one ; if such alteration of 
elimate affect the quantity of vegetable foodj the bulky Herbivore will first 
feel the effects of stinted nourishment; if new enemies are introduced, the 
large and conspicuous quadruped or bird will fall a prey, whilst the smaller 
^leeies conceal themselves and escape* Smaller animals are usually^ i^0| 
more prolific than lai^r ones. 

'* The actual presence, therefore, of small species of animals in countries 
where larger s|)ecie8 of the same natural families formerly exisied, is not the 
coDsequenee of any gradual diminution of the size of such species, but is the 
result of circumstances, which may be illustrated by the fable of the * Oak 
and the Reed ;* the smaller and feebler animals have bent and accommodated 
themselves to ehanges which have destroyed the larger species." 

Accepting this explanation of the extirpation of species as true, Mn 
Wallaeef has recently applied it to the extirpation of varieties ; and, assu- 
ming, as is probable, that varieties do arise in a wild species, he shows how 
such deviations from type may either tend to the destruction of a variety, or 
to adapt a variety to some changes in surrounding conditions, under which 
it is better calculated to exist, than the type-form from which it deviated. 

Ko doubt the type-form of any species is that which is best adiypted to 
tiie eonditioas under which such species at the time exists ; and as long as 
those conditions remain unchanged, so long will the type remain ; aU 
varieties departing thei*efrom being in the same ratio les6 adapted to the 
environing conditions of existence. But, if those conditions change, then 

•On the Gcntw DhMmit (part iv.), Zool. Ttsm. vol. iv. p. 15 (Fcbnwtty 1859), 
t Proceedingi of the Limiean Society, August 1858, p. 57. 



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xcii BBPOBT— 1868. 

the variety of the species at an aoteoedetit date and state of things wil 
become the type-form of the species at a later date, and in an altered state 
of things. 

Mr. Charles Darwin had previously to Mr. Wallace illnstrated thb prin- 
ciple by ingenious suppositions, of which I select the following : — ** To give 
an imaginary example from changes in progress on an island: — ^let the 
organization of a canine animal which preyed chiefly on rabbits, but some- 
times on hares, become slightly plastic ; let these same changes cause the 
number of rabbits very slowly to decrease, and the number of hares to in- 
crease ; the effect of this would be that the fox or dog would be driven to 
try to catch more hares : his organization, however, being slightly plastic, 
those individuals with the lightest forms, longest limbs, and best eyesight, 
let the difference be ever so small, would be slightly favoured, and would 
tend to live longer, and to survive during that time of the year when food 
was scarcest; they would also rear more young, which would tend to 
inherit these slight peculiarities. The less fleet ones would be rigidly 
destroyed. I can see no more reason to doubt that these causes in a thou- 
sand generations would produce a marked effect, and adapt the form of the 
fox or dog to the catching of hares instead of rabbits, than that greyhounds 
can be improved by selection and careful breeding'*'.'' 

Observation of animals in a state of nature is required to show their 
degree of plasticity, or the extent to which varieties do arise: whereby 
grounds may be had for judging of the probability of the elastic ligaments 
and joint-structures of a feline foot, for example, being superinduced upon 
the more simple structure of the toe with the non-retractile claw, according 
to the principle of a succession of varieties in timef. 

Observation of fossil remains is also still needed to make known the ante- 
types, in which varieties, analogous to the observed ones in exbting species, 
might have occurred, so as to give rise ultimately to such extreme forms as 
the Giraffe for example i^. 

This application of palaeontology has always been felt by myself to be so 
important that I have never omitted a proper opportunity for impressing the 
results of observations showing the " more generalized structures " of extinct 
as compared with recent forms of mammalia. 

But, in pointing out how local changes might affect large quadrupeds, I 

* Proceedings of the Linnean Society, August 1858, p. 49. 

t " The powerful retractile talons of the falcon- and the cat-tribes have not been produced 
or increased by the Tolition of those animals ; but among the different Tarieties which oc- 
curred in the earlier and less organized forms of these groups, ihoie aiwayt tumived kmgeH 
which had the greate$t faeiUtie$ for teizmg /Atftr/rr«y/'— Wallace, p. 61. 

t ** Neither did the giraffe acquire its long neck by desiring to reach the foliage of the 
more lofty shrubs, and constantly stretching its neck for the purpose ; but because any va- 
rieties which occurred among its antetypes with a longer neck than usual at onee secured a 
freth range ofpaeture wer the eame grmmd ae their shorter-necked companioni, ami on the 
first scarcity t^food were thereby enabled to ontUoe /Aem."— lb. p. 61. 



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ADDAB48. XCtii 

luhre refrained from speculftUog on dwarf- varieties sarviving each influeDces 
as being the origin of existing representatives of extinct giants. A small 
sloth coexisted with the Megatherium, a small armadillo with the Glyp- 
todoDy the Apteryx with the Dinornis. 

The aboriginal laws of geographical distribution of plants and animals 
have been modified from of old by geological and the concomitant climatal 
changes ; but they have been much more dbturbed by man since his intro- 
duction upon the globe. 

The serviceable plants and animals which he has carried with him in his 
migrations have flourished and multiplied in lands the most remote from the 
habitats of the aboriginal species. Man has, also, been the most potent and 
intelligible cause of the extirpation of species within historic times. 

He alone, with one of the beasts which he has domesticated — the dog — is 
truly cosmopolitan. The human species is represented by a few well-marked 
varieties; and there is a certain amount of correspondence between their 
localities and general zoological provinces : thus the Australian variety of 
man is as well-marked and circumscribed as the Australian fauna generally ; 
the Papuans of New Guinea present the same difference from, with degree 
of affinity to^ the Australians, as we find in comparing the respective faunae 
of Papua and Australia. But, with regard to the alleged conformity between 
the geographical distribution of man and animals, which has of late been 
systematicaUy enunciated, and made the basis of deductions as to the origin 
and distinction of the human varieties, I would submit the following remarks 
as affecting the system referred to*. 

Using Blumenbach's term in the sense of the later terms < Indo-European* 
and ' Aryan,' we find the * Caucasian ' race extended from Iceland to the 
month of the Granges. There is no corresponding distinction in the animals 
and plants of the Europseo- Asiatic continent, which is bisected by the ob- 
lique line dividing the Mongolian from the Caucasian varieties of mankind. 
The Persian fauna extends into Tartary ; the Himalayan into Thibet. 

Aa two primary varieties of mankind exist in one great zoological province 
ID the Old World, so a third great variety extends over at least two zoolo- 
gical provinces in the New World. All authors divide the North American 
or * Nearctic ' from the South American or ^ Neotropic ' region, whatever 
class of organic life they may treat of geographically; but the red or 
copper-coloured American is the same, physically and linguistically, to the 
Gctent of the characteristics of a primary race, from the 60th degree of 
north latitude to the 53rd degree of south latitude. 

The Lc^ps of Arctic Europe differ lingnbtically and physically, as a race, 
from the Norwegians and Swedes : the zoological province is essentially one. 
As such it extends over the same parallels of latitude in America, where the 
Mongolian Esquimaux and the American Chippawas inhabit 

* Agaariz, in Gtiddon and Noti't * Types of Mankind,' 1854 ; and ' Indigenous Races of the 
Earth,' 1857. 



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xciv RSFORv<^1658. 

The Hottentoto and Caffires are more distinct, linguistically and physieallyy 
Ihan the fonner are from equatorial Negroes, or the latter from the Nubians ; 
yet they both inhabit one well-marked soologioal province, South Africa. 

Two varieties of mankind — the Papuan and Malayan — inhabit Bomee 
and other blands at the eastern part of the Indian Archipelago; these 
islands forming one and the same zoologieal and botanical province. 

Not less than twenty colours have been (bund requisite to indicate in a 
map of the British Islands the different varieties and sub-varieties of the 
human race that have contributed to its miscellaneous population. 

Other facts of the same kind might be cited, afiecting the conformity of 
the distribution of man with that of the lower animals and plants, as abso- 
lutely enunciated in some recent works. Nor can we be surprised to find 
that the migratory instincts of the human spedes, with the peculiar endow- 
ment of adaptiveness to all climates, should have produced modifications 
in geographical distribution to which the lower forms of living nature have 
not been subject. It is only since man began to exercise his privilege and 
power, that the geographical laws in regard to the lower animab of existiog 
species have begun to be blotted out. 

Ethnology is a wide and fertile sul^ect, and I should be led far beyond 
the limits of an inaugural discourse were I to indulge in an historical sketch 
of its progress. But I may advert to the uniform testimony of different 
•ii^^esses — to the coneurrence of distinct species of evidence — as to tbe 
much higher antiquity of the human race, than has been assigned it in 
historical and genealogical records. 

Mr. Leonard Homer sagaciously discerned the value of the phenomena of 
the annual sedimentary deposits of the Nile in Egypt as a test of the lapse 
of time during which that most rocent and still operating geological dynamie 
had been in progress. In two memotrs communicated to the Royal Society 
in 1855 and 1858, the results of ninety-five vertical borings through the 
alluvium thus formed are recorded. 

The Nile sediment at the lowest depth reached is very similar in eomposi- 
tion to that of the present day. In the lowest part of the boring of the sedi- 
ment at the colossal statue in Memphis, at a depth of 89 feet from tbe mw- 
hce of the ground, the lM>ring-instniment b reported to have brought up a 
piece of pottery. This M r. Horner inlers to be a record of ihB existence 
of man 18,871 years before a.p. 1854; <<of man, moreover, in a state of 
civilization, so far, at least, as to be able to fashion day into vessels, and to 
know how to harden them by the action of a strong heat*." 

Prof. Max MiiUerf has opened out a similar vista into the remote past 
of the history of the human race by the perception and applicalion of 
analogies in the fbrmati<m of modem and ancient, of living and dead lan- 
guages. 

« Proceedings of the R07SI Society, Feb. 11, 1858, vot ix. p. 128-484. 
t 'Oxford EsstyB,' 1857. 



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Ffom ditf rdalions tneeidMe iMtween the six Bomaooa dialetUf ItalitB^ 
Wallachian, Rhoetian, Spanish, Portuguese, and French, an antecedent eom- 
BOD 'mother^tongue' might be inferred^ and consequently the matenee of 
t mot aoterior to the modem Italiaoa, Spanish, French, &c«, with oondusiona 
as to the lapse of time requisite for such divisions and migrations of the pri« 
mitive stock* and for the modifications which the mother-language had 
udefgooe. Historj and preserved writings show that such common 
mother^raoe and language have existed in the Roman people and the Latin 
tongue. 

But Latin^ like the equally ^dead ' language Greek, with Senscrit, Lithu* 
•niati, Zend, and the Gothic, Slavonic and Celtic tongues, can be similarly 
shown to be modifications of one antecedent common language ; whenee ia to 
be infened an antecedent race of men, and a lapse of time sufficient for their 
mlgratioB over a traek extending from Iceland in the north*weot to India in 
the umth'tMBt, and for all the above-named modifications to have been eita^ 
blished in the common mother ' Arian ' tongue. 

The study of the animal kingdom has its practical results of national iiQr 
portance in relation to sources of food and beasts of traction and burden. 
Acts of Parliament relating to Fisheries, in order to realize their aims, must 
be based on physiological and zoological data. Animal physiology, the most 
importa^it ground of successful medicine and surgery, is closely bound up 
with the right progress of zoology, of which, indeed^ with zootomy^ it is a 
branch. The great instrument of zoological science, as Lord Bacon pointi 
put, is a Kuseum of Natural History. 

Every civilized atate in Europe possesses 9uch it Museum. Thajt of Eng« 
land has been progressively developed to the extent which t^e restrictive 
circumstances under which it originated have allowed. The public is no^ 
fully aware, by the reports that have been published by Parliament, by re- 
presentationa to Government, and by articles in Reviews and other Periodi- 
cals, of the present condition of the National Museum of Natural History 
and of its most pressing requirements. 

Of them the most pressing, and the one essential to rendering the cclleo 
tions worthy of this great empire, is * space.* Our colonies include parts of 
the earth where the forms of plants and animals are the most strange. No 
empire in the world had ever so wide a range for the collection of the various 
forms of animal life as Great Britain. Never was there so much energy and 
intelligence displayed in the capture and transmission of exotic animab by the 
enterprbing traveller in unknown lands and by the hardy settler in remote 
colonies, as by those who start from their native shores of Britain. Foreign 
Naturalists consequently visit England anticipating to find in her capital and 
in her National Museum the richest and most varied materials for their com- 
parisons and deductions. And they ought to be in a state pre-eminently 
conducive to the advancement of a philosophical zoology^ and on a scale 



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3tCVi REPOBT— 1858. 

commensurate with the greatness of the nation and the peculiar national 
facilities for such perfection. 

But, in order to receive and to display zoological specimens, space must be 
had ; and not merely space for display, but for orderly display : the galleries 
should bear relation in size and form with the nature of the classes respect- 
ively occupying theia. They should be such ''as to enable the student or 
intelligent visitor to discern the extent of the class, and to trace the kind and 
order of tlie variations which have been superinduced upon its common or 
fundamental characters." In the British Museum one gallery permits this to 
be done in r^ard to the class of Birds. ** To show how the mammalian type 
is progressively modified and raised from the form of the fish or lizard 
to that of man ; to illustrate the gradations by which one order merges 
into another; to impart to the visitor, by the arts of arrangement and juxta- 
position, a knowledge of his own class akin to that which he derives 
from the collection of birds, would require a corresponding Mammalian 
Gallery*." 

The same is to be said of the classes of Reptiles and Fishes, and of the 
Molluscous, Articulate, and Radiate Provinces. 

An osteological collection is as indispensable to the illustration of the Ver- 
tebrata as a conchological one is to that of the Mollusca. Nor should the 
size of any of the skeletons be a bar to the obtainmeut of adequate space for 
the Osteological Collection in the National Museum of Natural History. 
The very fact of the Whales being the largest animals that now exist, or 
have at any period lived upon the earth, is that which makes it more 
imperative to illustrate the fact and gratify the natural interest of the public 
by the adequate and convenient exhibition of their skeletons. 

In like manner, in the Palaeontological collections or galleries of Fossil 
remains, the restoration of every extinct species, however bulky, should be 
carried out where practicable. 

The locality of such adequately-sized Museum concerns the administrator 
and the public convenience. Reasons for its association with Ethnological 
Antiquities and the National Library have been assigned in a memorial to 
H. M. Government, and by the Deputation of cultivators of Science to the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and these reasons have been commented on io 
a late Number of the ' Quarterly Review.' 

I am most concerned in advocating the pressing necessity of adequate space 
for the National Museum of Natural History, wherever administrative wisdom 
may see fit to locate it. And, wherever that Museum may ultimately stand, 
it is the duty of the Representative of Associated British Science here to 
urge that the Curator of each class of animals should have assigned to him 
the charge of delivering a public course of lectures on the characters, prin- 
ciples of classification, habits, instincts, and economical uses of such class. 

* " Report to theTrostees of the British Museum from the Superintendent of the Natoral 
History Departments, 7th Janoary, 1857," Parliamentary printed Paper, 379, p. 23 (1858). 



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ADDBBflS* XCVU 

Tbe most daborate and beautiful of created things — those manifesting 
lilSe — have much to teach — much that comes home to the business of roan, 
and also to the highest elements of his moral nature. The nation that 
gathers together thousands of corals, shells, insects, fishes, birds, and beasts, 
and rotes the requisite funds for preparing, preserving, housing and arran* 
ging theoi, derives the smallest possible return for the outlay by merely gazing 
and wondering at the manifold variety and strangeness of such specimens of 
Natural History. 

The simplest coral and the meanest insect may have something in its 
history worth knowing, and in some way profitable. Every organism is a 
cha r acter in which Divine wisdom b written, and which ought to be 
expounded. Our present system of opening the book of Nature to the 
masses; as in the Galleries of the Britbh Museum, without any provision for 
expounding her language, is akin to that which keeps the book of God sealed 
to the multitude in a dead tongue. 

Finally, in reference to a National Museum of Natural History, I would 
respectfully solicit the attention of the Administrator to the successful 
working and unprecedented progress of the National Botanical Esta- 
blishment at Kew, of the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, 
and of the Museum of Practical Art at South Kensington, in reference to 
the rdations of the eminent Directors of those establishments to Govern- 
ment For this opens the question, whether in the event of acquiring, in 
whatever locality, the element essential to a National Museum of Natural 
History — space — any intermediate organization, unknown in the public esta* 
blishments above cited, be really needed in the case of Natural History, in 
order to afford Parliament and the public the requisite guarantee of the 
good condition of the Collections, and the efficient discharge of the duties 
and functions of the National Museum of Natural History. 

The sciences promoted by the statistical Section F., although bearing more 
inmiediately than any others on the prosperity of nations and the well-being 
of mankind, had no existence in the time of Bacon. 

We look in vain for any evidence, for example, of a dear conception of 
Sanitary Science, or the doctrines preventive of disease, in the writings of 
that great philosopher and politician. The only approach to Statistics which 
we find in the * Historia VitsB et Mortis,' for example, is a collection of in- 
stances of longevity ; and the main aim of that Essay seems to have been the 
extreme prolongation of particular or individual life, not the insurance of 
average longevity to the species. Some remarks ou the advantage of pure 
air are congenial with the aims of the modern sanitary philosopher ; but he 
fimte no evidence of Bacon's conception of its importance to the masses, 
or of the means of ensuring it to populous cities, for prevention of plague 
and pestilence. Sanitary science, as a great power for mankind, in the 
Baeonian sense, is of very recent growth : and, whether we consider the pre- 
sent evidence of its potency where it has been rightly applied, or the present 

1858. ff _ 

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xcvili REPORT— 1858. 

evidencse of the miserable results of its neglect, we must be stimukled to use 
every eflTort to promote its progress and impress its importance on all wko 
may aid therein. 

Long after Lord Bacon's day, the plague, the ferer of the * black assise* 
and the like visitations, which drove Courts and Parliaments and Royal 
Societies from town to country, were met only by rude quarantine imprison* 
ments of the sicjk, which greatly aggravated the sum of mortality. Aeei* 
dents, such as the fire of London, subliming much old and vested filth, and 
followed by wider streets and better dwellings, produced resulU which 
opened the eyes of a few thinkers to the relation between eertain pkyaical 
conditions and the non-return of the plague. 

Now, however, these relations have been comprehensively investigated ; tke 
diseases produced or aggravated by preventible conditions are well known ; 
the most efficient and economical modes of prevention have been the subject 
of successful and convincing experiment. But men are slow to act where 
thp profitable result is not direct Health, we call, with cuckoo-^ry, the 
greatest blessing ; but practically it is daily sacrificed to ambition, wealthy 
pleasure, and a hundred aims in which duty takes no necessary part. That, 
however, is an affair of individual free-will with which abstract science has 
no business. 

But in reference to inevitable aggregates of mankind, the nation is con- 
pemed in the science which seeks their especial bodily well-being. Fleets, 
armies, manufactories, workshops, the localities in towns where wage-peofrfe* 
congregate, — such are conditions of citizens in which it behoves the State^ 
to the utmost constitutional extent of its power, to apply the ascertained 
means of preventing disease and death. 

Perhaps the most exemplary instances of the value and economy of 
sanitary science are afforded by the records of the British Navy, espedaDy 
since the period of Capt. Cook, whose name, were I to select one, as a prime 
promoter of the science, would be that which I should adduce with highest 
yeneration. Some of the Arctic Expeditions, also, illustrate in an exemphuy 
degree the value of preventive measures in maintaining health under difficult 
and depressing circumstances. 

Our armies have yet to receive the benefit of what is now known in the 
prevention of death by disease. To what extent they have to benefit by it 
has been made plain by the results of recent investigations, in whicli 
the testimony of Florence Nightingale shines forth as the beacon which 
lights to better measures. 

>* I ventore to propose this term u finse from th« oli!i«Blioai that have been mad* <« 
'< lower ord«n," " hmnbler daiset," ** poorer classes/' *' working disses," '' laborning popa- 
lation/' &c. The two former are a reflection on those who are so designated ; and the two 
latter are an implied reflection on all other classes, as if left to a life of vacant tnoccopatioii. 
They are ii^vrionsly misleading terms. The true spedlo character oi the gnat daas in 
qaMkkm is aeea by the Natmallst to be '< payment by wages" ; it is the " w^ge-dssa." 

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ADD^BSS* XCIX 

Tte iwtilto of the laboure of the Sanitary Commifsioiiers in the Crimea, 
aidioiigh the applicatioo of their preventive acienee was an after-!thought» 
uA bte, most liave convinced the most sceptical of military men of its 
inporlanae. It became one of the elements of the ultimately superior oon« 
ditioB of the English part of the Allied army*. 

How laige a proportion of loss in the French force was due to the abtCBoe 
of aegiect of preventive measures, we learn from the recent ^ Relation Medico* 
ckivoigicale de la Campagne d'Orient ' of M. Scrive, the head of the Medical 
DiqiartmeBt of the French army during that campaign ; and from the admi« 
nUe paper on the same subject by Dr. Gavin Milroy» Menher of 
the Sanitary Coounission to the British Army in the East To cite our 
Dsighbour's case, in which the organization of the land-serviee haa a high 
Fqrateb out of a force which averaged during a period of twenty months 
101,000^ upwards of 198>000 men were sent into hospital, t. s. at the rale of 
ftom 9000 to 10,000 per month. About one^fifth of theae admissions wera 
from wounds and mechanical injuries; the rest were from disease. The 
deiths in the hospitals at Constantinople amounted to 28,000; dsewhei% 
SI in the camp and the field-ambulances, the deaths were 2M00, exchtthrse 
of 7500 shun m action. Of the 28,400 deaths under treatment, aboat 
4000, or a seventh part of the whole, arose from gnn-shot wonads and 
aeeideptSj the other aU-sevenths being the result of disease. The ofi&oial 
reterai giye % total loss from all causes during the whole Crimean eamjiaiga 
af 7(\000: it is believed to have exceeded that figuie by 10,000. 66,000 
mea, ^t of 309^268, sent from France and Algeria, were invaUded fai eoa% 
sequence of disablement from wounds or the effect of disease. 

Dr. Sprive points out ihs^ if the buildings at Gallipoli had been inspeated 

* Thoe results cannot be better stated than in the words of Miss Nighting^e, in an ||^ 
fell lor ttie oTganiza:don of a preventiye administration! founded on the sanitary history of 
IhsfiliiiM eanpalgB. 

" it iib" alls aqn, '' a eomplete example— -faistmy does aot sfbid its mpaSt^^ tm an^r, 
after a gnat disaster adsing from n^lect, having been broi^t into the hi^^eiit iftstasf 
heahh and efficiency. It is the whole experiment on a colossal scale. In aU other eiampjbei^ 
file last step has been wanting to complete the solution of the problem. We had, ia the 
)M sera montiis oi the Crimean campaign, a mortality among the troops of 60 per cent, 
pv samuBiy trook dksssp atoner-a rate of mortaHty which exceeds that of the gmt plagttflp 
<tf Londoot '^ * higliei ratio than the mortality of the cholera to the attacks; thai it la 
ny, there died out of the army in the Crimea an annual rate greater than ordinadljc die ia 
time of pestilence out of the sick. We had, during the last six months of the war, a mor- 
tritty amcnig our met not much more than among our healthy Guards at home ; and a mor- 
taity aaMBig cm troops^ in the last five months, two4hirds only of what it is among our 
tmops at home. The mortality among the troops of the Une at hon^, when sonscte4 sa il 
oas^ to be, accoEding to the proportion of different ages in the senrice, has beea^ oa a» 
iversge of ten years, 18*7 per 1000 per annum, and among the Guards, 20*4 per 1000 ysx 
mnm. Comparing this with the Crimean mortality, for the last six months of our occu- 
pMioB, m tod that the deaths to admis^ns were 24 per 1000 per annum ; and during the 
Kit fie sMBlbSt ^i^ Janaary to May 185^, the mortality among the tio^pa cUnal w ias # 
11*$ per 1000 per annnm. Is not this the most complete expepment in 9H[apjg hjigjua^ *' .* 

9^ 



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C REPORT— -1858. 

and made fit for the purpose before they were occupied as an hospital, « 
regiment of active young soldiers might have been saved. 

At Varna, a Turkish barrack within the walls was prematurely occupied as 
an hospital : it had to be abandoned after great loss of life. Fewer men fell 
in the unsuccessful attack upon the Malakoff on the 18th of June than suc- 
cumbed in the rash attempt to use, as an hospital, a place which had not been 
previously fitted for one. And the time and labour required by the Sanitary 
Inspector to efffect their fitness are as nothing compared with the prelimi- 
nary approaches to the Malakoff, and with the delay and impediments caused 
by the prostration of a large proportion of effective force by disease. 

Witliout consulting the medical staff, it was determined to move from 
Varna to the notoriously malarial region on the south of the Danube, 
called the Dobrudscha. On the 20th of July the first division of the army 
moved from Varna; on the 26th the cholera broke out Hundreds of men 
were struck down at once, and died within a few hours after being seized : 
in one regiment 800 men were attacked within twenty-four hours, and 
most of them died on the spot Appalled by the blow, the commanding 
officer retreated, as from before an overwhelming force ; but, ere he could 
reach the healthier locality, one-third of the division had perished, and num- 
bers reached the coast only to expire on the beach. 

No enemy had been encountered save that one, of whose power and pre« 
ienoe sanitary science had in vain forewarned the commander. On the 
return of the first division to Varna, a force of 12,000 had been reduced 
to 7000; the yictims including two general officers and seven medical 
officers* 

Not to weary by other special instances of the effect of neglectmg pre- 
ventive preparatory sanitary measures, I may sum up by the statement that 
one pestilence, in the marshes of the Danube, within two months, out of an 
army 55,000 strong, and before a shot had been fired, had destroyed as many 
men as were slain by the enemy in the field during the twelve months from 
the landing in the Crimea to the capture of Sebastopol, and when the 
army averaged double the above number of men. 

That this pestilence, or its fatal effects, might have been, in an important 
degree, prevented by practicable applications of sanitary science is the convic- 
tion of the ablest medical officers of the French and English armies ; and 
this conviction was substantiated by the results of the Sanitary Com* 
mission which operated in the English lines before SebastopoL These au- 
thorities concur in the conclusion that three-fourths of the losses of an army 
in the field are not from the enemy or from unavoidable casualties of service, 
•'but from diseases which are more or less under control." "Of these,** 
writes Dr. Milroy, " typhus and scurvy are two of the most formidable, and 
the most easily preventible. They are the inevitable products of certain 
well-ascertained conditions, and they may be generated at will as surely as 
any salt or other compound may be formed by the chemist in his laboratory. 

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ADDBB88. CI 

And yet it waa these very evib which bat two years ago brought the noble 
army of a mighty natioD, at the close, too, of a glorious campaign, to almost 
the Terge of destnictioD.** 

I may allude to one other point which sanitary science would suggest to 
the administrator in reference to the clearly-ascertained effects of too little 
pure air, and too much foul air inspired continuously during a given 
period. 

The skilled soldier being of a given value when landed healthy and strong 
in the Crimea or at Calcutta, query, whether it be more economical to carry 
1000 in one ship, landing 500 sick, enfeebled, and prepared to fall into 
and engender epidemics, or to carry the 1000 in two such ships, and land 
them healthy and fit for action ? The same administrative question applies to 
barracks and hospitab* 

One noble use and adequate application of so vast a triumph of naval 
architecture as Mr. Scott Russell's < Leviathan ' would be its carrying troops 
in good condition as regards health, for which its capacity especially fits it. 

When authority becomes impressed with a conviction stimulating to action 
of the importance of sanitary science, it will insist on the possession, by the 
army medical officers, of the elements of that science as well as of the prin- 
cipWa of practice in the cases of disease and the treatment of wounds. But^ 
in order that an army may bene6t by the doctors' knowledge of preven« 
tire medicine, authority should direct preliminary examinations and reports 
of sites for encampment, — of buildings for barracks and hospitals, — of 
clothes for extreme climates, and the like, and should command that such 
reports be acted upon, where no urgent circumstances or inevitable move- 
ments preclude the adoption of the means for the prevention of decimating 
fevers and choleras. 

Bonaparte's military science was characterized by the rapid concentration 
of his forces upon a given point. A like success and superiority may attend 
the oonmiander who keeps the greatest proportion of his men in good work- 
ing trim. The healthier the man the longer and quicker will he march. And 
the care which foresees and provides for the efficient fighting order of a 
force is quite compatible with the most intrepid handling of that force in the 
field of battle. 

As to the dense populations in civil life, the number of towns in England 
in which the sewage is rapidly, efficiently, and economically carried off by 
water-power and hydraulic apparatus, constitute so many experimental 
demonstrations of the success attending a proper unintermitting water-supply 
and co-adjusted system of tubular drainage. Lancaster, Penrith, Alnwick, 
Barnard Castle, Rugby, Croydon, Ely, are instances in which aVe demon- 
strated the diminution of fever and other causes of untimely death, — the 
augmentation of the cleanliness and comfort of the wage-classes, — the eco- 
nomy in the wear of all washable articles through the supplies of pure water, 
—collateral and unexpected economies in regard to fire-insurance, from the 



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Cti RBPOET — 1858. 

power of rapid extinction of conflagration which the unintermitting systeHi 
affordi, — the purity of the atmosphere in formerly foetid courts and alleys, — 
these and other inestimable material advantages have resulted, and will result 
with progressively increased benefit as time goes on. 

Lord Bacon observes, in his suggestions for an inquiry into the causes of 
death, — ^' And this inquiry, we hope, might redound to a general good, if 
physicians would but exert themselves and raise their minds above the sordid 
considerations of cure; not deriving their honour from the necessities of 
mankind, but becoming ministers to the Divine power and goodness both in 
prolonging and restoridg the life of man ; especially as this may be efiected 
by safe, commodious, and not illiberal means, though hitherto unattempted. 
And certainly it would be an earnest of Divine favour, if, whilst we are joar- 
neying to the land of promise, our garments, these frail bodies of ours, were 
taot greatly to wear out in the wilderness of this world." 

Amongst his special topics of inquiry are these : — 

'< Inquire into the length and shortness of men's lives according to the 
times, countries, climates, and places in which they were bom and lived." 

** Inquire into the length and shortness of men's lives according to their 
food, diet, manner of living, exereise, and the like. With regard to the air 
in which they live and dwell, I consider that ought to be inquired into under 
the former article concerning their places rfiUtode" 

Now these inquiries have in our times been made chiefly in the fbmi and 
by the authority of Sanitaiy Commissions; in the successful working of 
which the name of Edwin Chadwick stands foremost 

By these commissions it has been shown, as a general result, that nearly 
one-half the prevalent diseases are due to one or other form of atmospheHe 
impurity ; impurity from decomposing faecal or animal and vegetable mattier» 
within and without human habitations, and beneath the sites of towns, and 
atmospheric impurity from over-crowding. 

For the prevention of the diseases arising from these causes, the sanitary 
physician must direct his requisitions not to the apothecary, but to the pro- 
fessor of new arts, which are only partially created, — the art of the sanitary 
architect and the art of the sanitary engineer. The latter has already beea 
officially shown how he may collect water from natural and artificial springs^ 
eonvey it into houses unintermittingly fresh, and without stagnation, and by 
its means remove from houses, through self-cleansing drains and self-clean- 
sing sewers, constantly and before noxious decomposition can commedoe, all 
fifecal and waste animal and vegetable matter. 

In model dwellings, where the sanitary conditions have been as yet 
applied only in a rudimentary manner, the death-rate has, in fact, been 
steadily kept down to thirteen in a thousand, or much less than one-half 
that which prevailed in London when Bacon lived, or little more thaa 
one-half of the death-rate which prevails there now. In fact, it is proved 
to be practicable to make those garments— the fhdl bodies of the po|iir- 



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. ADDB»8. cUi 

lalHm-^Ul8t full ted yean» or probably one-third longer, in the wildemea* 
of tbiB world. 

In our time physicians have ably exerted themselves in aid of the sanitaiy 
engineer and adminbtrator. Their general sentiments have been long ex* 
prened in such terms as those of Dr. Willis of Kelso :— " It is impossible to 
avoid the eonclasion that much more might still be accomplished could we 
be indboed to profit by a gradually extending knowledge, so as to found 
upon it a more wisely directed practice. When man shall be brought to 
acknowledge (as truth must finally constrain him to acknowledge) that it is 
by his own hand, through bis neglect of a few obvious rules, that the seeds 
of disease are most lavishly sown within his frame, and diffused over com- 
munities ; when he shall have required of medical science to occupy itself 
rather with the prevention of maladies than with their cure ; when govern- 
ments shall be induced to consider the preservation of a nation's health an 
object as important as the promotion of its commerce or the maintenance of 
its conquests, we may hope then to see the approach of those times when, 
after a life spent almost without sickness, we shall close the term of an un- 
barassed existence by a peaceful euthanasia.'* 

It is to the landlord, — to the representative landlords and owners of habi- 
tations, — in parliament, to whom exhortations are now required to be 
addressed, to raise their minds above ** the sordid considerations " of the ex- 
penses of cure, that is^ of the expenses of those sanitary works of combined 
drainage and water-su|^ply, which it id their province to provide. 

It is rightr however, to state that advances in well-directed practical ap- 
plications of sanitary science are advances in economy ; that two houses and 
two toums may receive constant supplies of water at the expense formerly 
incurred for supplying one on the intermittent system, with its stagnancy and 
poflutioiis in house cisterns and large storage reservoirs. It remains for the 
legislature and local administrations to make prevalent that which is proved 
to be practicable for the public good, and to ensure that good at the econo- 
■ical rate at which particular instances afford demonstrations that it is 
ichievable. 

Agricultut^ has of late years made unusual progress in this country, and 
aitich of that progress is due to the application of scientific principles ; chiefly 
of those supplied by chemistry, in a less degree of zoology and physiology : 
iOBie minor help in regard to the more effectual abatement of noxious insects 
has been had fix>m entomology ; recent discoveries of the metamorphoses, 
metagenesis, and the course and modes of transmission of internal parasites, 
have afforded a rational explanation of some traditional precautionary rules 
of herdsmen, in reference to the * rot ' in sheep, from fluke-worms and hydatids ; 
and more direct power of preventing epizootics will doubtless be obtained 
from entozoology. 

Geology now teaches the precise nature and relations of soils, a knowledge 
ef great practical importance in guiding the drainer of land in the modifi- 



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civ REPORT — 1858. 

cations of his general rules of practice. Palseontology has brought to light 
unexpected sources of valuable manures, in phosphatic relics of ancient animal 
life, accumulated in astounding masses in certain localities of England, as, 
for instance, in the red-crag of Suffolk, and the greensands of Cambridge. 

But enormous quantities of azotic* ammoniacal, and phosphatic matters 
are still suffered to run to waste ; and, as if to bring the wastefulness more 
home to conviction, these products, so valuable when rightly administered, 
become a source of annoyance, unremunerative outlay, and disease, when, as 
at present in most towns, imperfectly and irrationally disposed of. 

For the most part, thought is taken only how to get rid of these pro- 
ducts in the easiest and quickest way. The metropolitan authorities have 
hitherto carried the chain of reasoning no further. They have turned them 
into the Thames, the receptacle nearest at hand ; but in so doing have failed 
in their prime intention. The metropolis is not even rid of its excreta ; but 
they have returned upon it and accumulated, with increased noxious and 
morbific power, on the strands of the valley that bisects it ; appealing, as is 
notorious, summer after sununer, to the very legislature itself, with uninter- 
mitting and importunate odours, compelling the attention of the possessors 
of lands and houses to this important subject* 

Now here I would beg leave to remark that, in the operations of Nature, 
there is generally a succession of processes coordinated for a given result : 
a peach is not directly developed as such from its elements ; the seed would, 
a priori, give no idea of the tree, nor the tree of the flower, nor the fertiUzed 
germ of that flower of the pulpy fruit in which the seed is buried. It is 
eminently characteristic of the Creative Wisdom, this far-seeing and prevbion 
of an ultimate result, through the successive operations of a coordinate series 
of seemingly very different conditions. 

The further a man discerns, in a series of conditions, their cordination to 
produce a given result, the nearer does his wisdom approach — though the 
distance be still immeasurable — to the Divine wisdom. 

One philanthropist builds a fever-hospital, another drains a town. One 
crime-preventer hangs the man, another trains the hoy. One financier 
would raise money by augmenting a duty, or by a direct tax, and finds the re- 
venue not increased in the expected ratio. Another diminishes a tax, or abo- 
lishes a duty, and through foreseen consequences the revenue is improved. 

Quarantine exemplifies only the first step in the progress of thought, bearing 
on the prevention of a dreaded distemper. It is a system which might keep 
out contraband goods or uncertified strangers, but it is powerless against 
the gaseous factors of plague, cholera, or yellow fever. No European 
country suffers more from such maladies than Naples or Portugal, where 
quarantine regulations are most stringent 

Agriculture, let me repeat, has made and is making great and encouraging 
progress. But much yet remains to be done. Were agriculture adequately 
advanced, the great problem of the London sewage would be speedily solved. 



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ADDBB88* CV 

Can it be snppoAed, if tlie rural difltricts about the metropolb were in a con« 
dition to avail tberoselTet of a daily supply of pipe-water not more than 
equivalent to that which a heavy shower of rain throws down on 2000 acres 
of land, but a supply charged with 30 tons of nitrogenous ammoniacal prin- 
ciplesy that such supply would not be forthcoming, and made capable of 
being distributed when called for within a radius of 100 miles? I believe 
Ihaty were the call made as loudly as it undoubtedly would be under the 
exigencies of a more advanced stage of agricultural mechanics, the skill of 
our engineers, with the constructive powers of our machine-makers, both 
earried to a d^ree of perfection which the world never before saw, would 
speedily and successfully meet the call, and leave nothing but the rainfall of 
the metropolis to seek its natural receptacle — the Thames. 

To send ships for foreign ammoniacal or phosphatic excreta to the coast 
of Peru, and to pollute by the waste of similar home products the. noble 
liver bisecting the metropolis, and washing the very walls of our Houses of 
Farliament, are flagrant signs of the desert and uncultivated state of a field 
where science and practice have still to cooperate for the public benefit* 

To promote this cooperation, effectual aid may be given by a recently 
established kindred Association, through the advancement of the legislative 
and administrative sciences. For it is the present condition <of those social 
sciences which forms the chief obstacle to the practical application of 
Sanitary science* Of thb science, it may be confidently averred that, be- 
ndes providing means for the relief of town-populations from excessive 
sickness, it has, in a sufficient number of instances, provided means for the 
prevention of the pollution of rivers as well as for applying the nuinure of 
towns to fertilize the land. ^ 

The application of those means now rests with the Legislator and Ad«- 
ministrator, and involves questions which are not within the province of 
the British Association*. 

Some of our sciences are deeply concerned in one progressive step, — the 
uniformity of standard in measure and weight throughout the civilized 
world ; in urging on which step, energetic and unwearied efforts are now 
being made by a Committee of our fellow-labourers of the Royal Society of 
Arts, amongst whom the name of the prime promoter of this and kindred 
reforms, Mr. James Yates, deserves especial and honourable mention. 

Chemistry is more concerned in the uniform expression of the results of 
her delicate balances amongst her cultivators of differeut countries : Natural 
History is no less interested in the use, by all observers, of one and the same 
scale for measuring, and of one set of terms for expressing the superficial 
dimensions of her subjects. Practically, I may state that I have found the 

* Serrioet on three succenive Sanitary Commissions, on the First ConsoHdated Metro- 
l^oHtan Sewers Commlssioti, and at the Board of Health, have led me to enter at undoe 
kigth on Sanitary matters, and are pleaded in exoase. 



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eri BBPOBT^1868. 

French mdtre» and its Babdivisions down to the millimetre* adequate to giT^ 
all the needM data of this kind for comparison of saperficial dimensions in 
the varied and extensive range of objects to ^ich mjr business and pursuits 
have led me to pay attention. Of the hindrances to progress and incon- 
veniences of the 'foot,' the ' inch/ and its duodecimal parts or lines,— rarely 
the same in any two countries, — I have elsewhere spokeii and argued. 

The whole sul:ject of a uniform system of weights, measures, and current 
coin, will occupy the attentiota of a section of the Association for the Advance- 
mtsnt of Social Science, which will meet at Liverpool shortly after the termi- 
liation of the present Meeting. This b by no means the only point at which the 
Natural and Social Sciences touch and react on each other with mutual 
advantage. The proximity of the periods of the annual assemblage of th6 
promoters of these respective sciences, together with the occurrence of both, 
this year, in the North of EngUmd, is favourable to the fruition of such 
ildvantages, by facilitating attendance at both Associations : and in future 
years^ the conditions of time and place of meeting, making it easy f6r A 
Member of the British Association to attend also the Association f6r Socihl 
Science, and reciprocally, might, with a view to mutual advantage and 
cooperation, be a subject worthy of the consideration of the respective Coun- 
cils of those Bodies. 

In reference to the relations now subsisting between the State and 
Science my first duty is to express our grateful sense of such measure of 
aid, cooperation, and countenance as has been allotted to Scientific Bodies* 
Enterprises and Discoveries; more especially tb acknowledge how highly we 
prize the sentiments of the Sovereign towards odr works and aim% mani- 
fested by spontaneous tribute to successful scientific research, in honourable 
Titles and Royal gifts, and above lUl, in the gracious expressions accom- 
panying them, with which Her Majesty has been pleAsed to distinguish some 
of our Body. Happy are we, under the present benignant Reign, to have, 
in the Royd Consort, A Prince endowed with exemplary virtues^ and with 
such accotnplishments in Science and Art as have bnabled His Roy^ High- 
ness effectually, arid on some memorable occasions, in the most importatit 
degree, to promote the best interests of both. W^ rejoice, moreover, ih the 
t)r6spect of being favoured at a future Meeting by the Presidency of the 
Prince Consort ; and that, ere long, this Association may give the oppor- 
tunity for the delivery of another of those 'Addresses,' pregnatit with 
deep thought, good sense, and right feeling, which have placed the name 
of PritaCe Albert high in the esteem of the Intellectual Classes, find have 
engraven it deeply in the hearts of the humblest Of Her Majesty's sutjects. 

On the part of the State, sums continue to be voted in aid of the ttaeans 
independently possessed by the British Museum and the Roya^ Society, 
whereby the Natural History Collections in the first are extended, and the 
piore direct scientific aims of the latter Instittttien are adnino^ Thd 



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ADBRfeisd. evil 

Botanical Grardens and MoMum at KeW) and the Museum of Practical Geo- 
togj in Jermyn Street, are examples of the National Policy in regard to 
Science, of which we can hardly over-estimate the importance. Most highly 
and gratefully also do we appreciate the cooperation of the * Board of TVade ' 
with onr Meteorologista, by the recent formation of the Department fo^ the 
collection of meteorological obeerrations made at sea. 

Bat not by wdrds only would, or does, Science make return to Govern- 
menta fostering and aiding her endeavours for the puUic weal. Every prac« 
tidll application of her discoveries tends to the same end as that which the 
enlightened Statesman has in view. 

The steam-engine in its manifold applications, the crime-decreasing ga^ 
lathp, the lightning iconductor, the electric telegraph, the law of storms and 
rttlei for th^ mariner*'d guidllnce in them, the power of rendering surgical 
operations painless, the measures for preserving public health and for pre- 
irentibg or mitigating epidemics, — such are amobgst the more important 
practical results of pure scientific research with which mankind have beeii 
bleased and States enriched. They are evidence unmistakeable of the close 
affinity between the aims and tendencies of Science and those of true StAte 
politcy. In proportion to the activity, productivity, and prosperity of a cOdi- 
tiiiinity is its power of responding to the calls of the Fitiance Minister. By 
a fiu'-aeeittg one, the man of Science will be regarded with a favourable eye, 
act less for the unlooked-for streams of we^th that have already flowed, bat 
fbr thote that may in future arise, out of the applications of the abstract 
tMtto to the discovery of which he devotes himself. 

This may, indeed, demand some measure of faith on the part of the prac- 
Ucal Statesman. For who that watched the philosophic Black experimenting 
oil the abstract nature of Caloric could have foreseen that his discovery of latent 
h^t would be the stand-point of Watt's invention of a practically operative 
gteam engine I HOw little could the observed of Oersted's subtle arrafage- 
tnettt^ folr converting electric into magnetic force have dreamt of Wheat- 
stone's application of such discovery to the rapid interchange of Ideas now 
ijbdly pnUstised between individuals in distant cities, countries, and continents I 
Some medical contemporaries of John Hukteh, when they saw him, as 
they thoiight, wasting as much time in studying the growth of a deer's horn 
as th^y would have beitowed upon the symptoms of their best patient, com- 
pssiionated, it is said, the singularity of his pursuits. But, by the insight so 
gamed itttO the irapid enlargement of arteries. Hunter learnt a property of 
those vessels which emboldened him to experiment on a man with aneurism, 
and so to iiitroduce a new operation which has rescued from a lingering and 
painful death thousands of his fellow-creatures. Our great inductive physio- 
kigi^ in his dissections and experiments on the lower animalsj was *' taking 
tight what may be wrought upon the body of man." 

The prodttetion of chloroform is amongst the more subtle experimental 
icsitlts Of modem chemistry. The blessed effects of its proper ethibition ii) 



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pviU RBPOBT— 1858. 

the dimioation of the sam of human agony are indescribable. Bot that 
divine-like application was not present to the mind of the scientific chemist 
who discovered the ansBsthetic product, any more than was the gas-lit town 
to the mind of Priestley or the condensing* engine to that of Black. 

These unexpected {^plications of pure Science, fraught with such incal* 
culable influences on the well-being of peoples, ought to weigh with the 
Minister to whom may be submitted an enterprise in Science which only a 
nation can undertake, or the considerations of a scientific establishment 
which none but a nation can support, Much of the improvement in refined 
machinery, and the tools for making it, grew out of the requirements and 
teaching of Babbage during the construction of his Calculating Machines* 
Such collateral result, alone, has made a manifold return for the sum granted 
in aid of the realization of that philosopher's great idea. So rare a combi- 
nation of analytic, inventive, and constructive faculties is seldom given to 
man ; and the generation witnessing such a mind in operation would be wise 
to secure the full result of its peculiarly directed enei^y. 

In proportion to the facilities and rapidity of exchange and transit of 
goods, of men, and of thought, trade and commerce expand ; and with their 
expansion grow the receipts under the heads of Customs and Excise. Every 
application of pure mathematics and astronomy to the making voyages safer 
and speedier,— every observation by such instruments as the Establishment 
of the British Association at Kew perfects for their purpose, giving to the 
mariner fore-knowledge of storms, and teaching him their course and lines 
of greatest intensity, — becomes an important condition in enabling a country 
to bear the burthen of taxation. 

The steps in the series of this relation have been so plain that national 
encouragement has long been given to Astronomy. As clear a perception 
of the same relation and tendency of discoveries in Chemistry, Electricity, 
Electro-magnetism, and other sciences, led Herschel, long ago, to ask ^ Why 
the direct assistance afibrded by Governments to the execution of continued 
series of observations should be confined to Astronomy ? " 

Faithfully is the State served by that Science. Most exemplary are 
those observations made, and every astronomical duty bearing on the 
interests of society, discharged, in the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, the 
good repute of which grows and spreads year by year under its present 
indefatigable Chief. Year by year, almost, arises the necessity for some addi* 
tional instrument to meet the ever-expanding relations and requirements of 
Astronomy and Meteorology. 

But to make use of fitting instruments b one thing, to make them fit for 
use another. To perfect that fitness and extend it to the instruments of all 
observatories, to maintain a standard of excellence whereby comparison of 
results shall be most productive of truth, are the special functions of our 
kindred establishment at Kew. There, as in the mathematical and engine 
liouses of the * New Atlantis,* we seek to render our instruments unrivalled 



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ADDRX8S. ax 

*fer eqiiaKiy» fineneBs, and subtilty" of operation. No expense, time, or 
pthu bave been spared by this Association to bring the exquisitely eon- 
itnicted and ingeniously adljusted mechanisms required to give us cognizance 
of the operations of the mysterious influences pervading our earth and atmo* 
sphere to tbeir utmost attainable exactitude of performance* 

To prepare, to adjust, to test, verify, and rectify those instruments for the 
•se of voyagers and travellers are labours that have grown out of the im- 
portant function of the * Kew Observatory/ 

These labours have been cheerfully performed whenever and by whom* 
soever required ; as, recently, at the request of the Admiralty and Royal 
Society in aid of the Commission for determining the Or^on Boundary, and 
in the Second Expedition of Livingstone to the Zambesi. Not only have 
philosophical instruments been prepared and constants determined, but the 
voyagers have received, at Kew, practical instructions in their use. 

The reputation of the accuracy of the instruments at our establbhment is 
DOW snch that requests are received from difierent Foreign States for a like 
application of the resources which it commands. The United States, Russia, 
Austria, Portugal, the Pkipal States for the ' Collegio Romano,'— all hare 
testified, by such applications for the preparation and acyustment of philo* 
sophical instruments, that the establishment, originated and oiganized by the 
British Association, fulfils a national scientific want. Our * Report ' this 
year will show that the Admiralty, the Board of Trade, and other Home- 
institotions give the same testimony. 

With the growth of its reputation and experience of its utility, the labours 
carried on at Kew have necessarily multiplied ; and the expense of the esta- 
blishment cannot be this year less than £800. 

Were the duties of -the Kew Observatory superadded to those performed 
at Greenwich, such expense would fail, in the ordinary course, upon the State. 
Hitherto it has been borne by the British Association, and to that extent 
cripples our power of lending the helping hand to other scientific work. 

We have to thank the Government for the use of the building at Kew. 

Such pecuniary aid as has been added to the sums allotted from our sub- 
scriptions has been received from a kindred self-supporting Scientific Asso- 
ciation. The Royal Society liberally voted the amount required for the 
purchase of the "Whitworth's Lathe and Planing Machine," now doing 
eflBdent work at the Observatory. 

In the late location, by liberal permission of the Government, of the Royal, 
Linnsean, and Chemical Societies in contiguous apartments at Burlington 
House, we hail the commencement of that organization, recommended by 
the British Association at their fin»t meeting, from which the most important 
results of combination of present scattered powers, and of a system of intellec- 
tual cooperation, may be confidently expected. '* The combined advantages, 
including at once the most powerful stimulus and the most efiUcient guidance 
of sdenUfic research," have appeared to an eminent member of our Body 
** to be beyond calculation.** 

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^ RBPQ«lV-rl858. 

1^0 locality iq the Metrapolis unites so many elements of oonvenience for 
8Voh a coQcentrattoa a^ Burlington House. If, to the application of other 
Siuentific Sooietiee than the three now there located, the reply should be 
given ^^ that the State is not called upon to provide room for individuab who 
may choose to combine for the ei^joyment of a special intellectual pursuit," 
we may rejoin that such Associations seek no selfish profit, but impart the 
r^ults of their combined labour freely for the public weal. We might 
urge that the small amount of support needed for the enterprises and 
establishment of Science, — scarce equal to the product of the tax upon 
discorery and invention paid under the existing * Patent Laws * — would be a 
good investment on the part of a Nation ; and that, viewing sucb estaUiah- 
mepts and the prosecution of abstract physical truth in regard only to their 
mittenal results, these might assure a Minister disposed to invest in what 
might seem to him the Lottery of Science, that the prizes are neither few 
nor aim^r-nay, some are incalculably great 

It now only remains for me to express how deeply I feel the honour ooih 
ferred on me by the position in which, through your kindness, I am now 
placed ; how highly I esteem the opportunity afforded me of addressing ao 
distinguished and influential an audience in this most noble Hall ; and how 
sincerely I thank you for the patience and favour with which you have 
^pec^ived this Address. 



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REPOETS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



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REPORTS 



ON 



THE STATE OF SCIENCE. 



The present, Foarth, and probably last Report on Earthquakes that I shall 
have the honoar of presenting to the British Association, has for its objects 
the discnssiotl of the great catalogue of earthquakes printed in several prece- 
ding volumes of its ^ Transactions,' the last portion of which only appeared in 
type in 1855^ and the completion, as faK'as possible, of the complement of the 
other desiderata mentioned at the conclusion of the First Report (1850)« 
The pressure of other occupations, with some uncontrollable circum^tancesi 
have delayed for nearly three years its appearance: the delay, however, 
has not been without advantage ; it has enabled me more fully to grasp 
additional conditions and difficulties, before unnoticed, of some branches of 
the subject, and to derive advantage from the contemporaneous labours of 
the few physicists who are engaged in Seismology ; foremost amongst whom 
stands M. Perrey of Dijon. 

The reader will with advantage refer to the conclusions of the Second 
Report (1851), as to the construction of the catalogue which constitutes 
the Third (1854), before perusing the present ; as well as to the concluding 
note of that Report, in which it is stated that the catalogue commencing at 
1606 B.C., and originally proposed to be extended in its tabular form to the 
end of 1850 a.d., was concluded at the end of the year 1842, from which 
period up to 1850, and indeed later still, the catalogues of Prof. Perrey 
supply all that is needful, though it is to be regretted that they are not 
tabulated for more convenient reference. But although the British Asso- 
ciation CcUalogue concludes with 1842, the discussion of facts has been 
extended to the end of 1850, the base of induction for the last eight years 
being supported by the labours of Perrey. 

The whole base of induction therefore for such conclusions as are here 
to be attempted, — embracing between 6000 and 7000 separate recorded earth- 
quakes over every known part of the globe, both on land and ocean, — the 
character of the facts given, — their scantiness as to information of scientific 
value, — ^the methods, or rather the want of all method, in their observation, 
and other causes, mentioned in the Second Report, — I think justify me in 
stating my conviction, that nearly all that can be drawn from the collection 
and discussion of such records has now been done, and that the labour of 
collecting and calculating further and future Seismologues will be in a great 
degree thrown away, unless the cultivators of science of all countries, — in 
conjunction with the scientific bodies and the scientific departments of the 
diief civilized governments of the world, — shall unite in agreeing to some 
one uniform system of seismic observation, and record and transmit the results 
1858. B 



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2 REPORT — 1858. 

periodically to a central bureau for discussion. What has been done for 
astronomy and for terrestrial magnetism, is beginning to be done for meteor- 
ology, and through the suggestive labours of Maury, Bache, and others, 
for maritime discovery, ought to be done now for seismology, whose chief 
requirements could be readily added to those already supposed to be system- 
atized from Lieut. Maury's proposals, as well as to those long in course in 
the astronomical, magnetic, and meteorological observatories of the world. 
The spread of the net of telegraphic wires rapidly over the whole earth offers 
facilities for the observation of earthquake phenomena, in which time always 
enters as so important an element, never before possessed. We shall revert 
to this in treating of seismometry. 

Before proceeding to the discussion of the British Association Catalogue, 
I propose giving some account, in a connected form, of the discussions by 
Professor Perrey, of his own local or partial catalogues, and of the conclusions 
he has thence drawn ; as well as referring to some minor catalogues, more 
or less completely discussed by their authors : amongst the latter, Mr. Milne's 
valuable contributions escaped my notice when preparing my first report. 
Perrey's labours in generalizing (as far, perhaps, as can from the data h% 
safely done) the facts of several great seismic kingdoms, and announcing 
their results, form a valuable prelude to the still larger base of generalization 
finally here discussed, and extending to the whole known globe. The di§^ 
eussed catalogue memoirs of Perrey, to which I have had access, apply to 
the following localities : — 

In the European Hemisphere — 

The Scandinavian Peninsula and Iceland. 

The British Islands. 

The Spanish Peninsula. 

France, Belgium, and Holland. 

The Basin of the Rhone. 

The Basin of the Rhine. 

The Basin of the Danube. 

The Italian Peninsula. 

Algeria and Northern Africa. 

The Turco-Hellenic Peninsula, with Syria. 

And in the American Hemisphere-— 
The Basin of the Atlantic. 
Canada and the United States. 
Mexico and Central America. 
The Antilles. 
Chili and La Plata. 
Cuba, by M. Poey. 

In addition to which, Perrey has combined and discussed together*- 
Europe, with the adjacent regions of Africa and of Asia. 
The North of Europe and of Asia — 
viewing the three continents in the light of two parallel Austral and Boreal 
zones. 

The general method adopted by Perrey has been, after an introductory 
physico-geographical sketch of the region, and the catalogue itself of earth- 
quakes, to discuss them numerically and graphically. 



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r Seasons, months^ 
[days. 



ON THB FACTS AND THEIimT OF BARTHQUAKB PHENOMENA. 



OocMUmtlly abo with tefereDoa to lunatioiuk 

r With reference to direction, 
Id space j ue. horizontal direction, of 
[ Bhock* 



^With reference to sup- 
posed derivative or 
mean horizontal direc- 
tion of shook. 



And lastly, as to relative intensity, or dynamic value of the shock in each 
direction, which he arrives at on the assumption that this, in an^ given 
rhumb, is proportional to the number of shocks observed in its direction in a 
given period, a supposition whioh^-mlthough perhaps not without some value, 
as admitting of one mode of regarding the relations of distant seismic regions 
not otherwise possible — ^admits of the gravest doubt whether it have any 
real natural basis. 

We shall consider the results in the order above. Near as Norway and 
Sweden are topographically, to the British Islands, it is not with these, but 
with Iceland and the intervening band of the Northern Ocean that the 
Scandinavian peninsula i^ ip. coonexioa as a seismio region ; very few ex- 
amples occur of simultaQ^QUS actioa between the former; but seldom has 
there been any marked convulsion in Iceland without commotion. in Nor* 
way, &c., and vice versd. Scandinavia itself, one of the most remarkable 
masses of land in slow process of elevatioki in the world, also shows its con- 
nexion with interpdl action ; and were it not that Iceland is pierced with 
numberless vents, brol^en . and shattered in every direction by volcanic 
action, that admits of po ce)9sation or consolidation above, there can be no 
doubt that the destructive power of earthquakes would be manifested in the 
northern peninsula to a far more serious extent and intensitv. 

That Greenland, at least the east coast, and the Faroe Islands are shaken 
frequently, is highly probable, though I am not aware of any such recprd. 

The following is the result of Perrey's chronology of this region : — 



Table I.-* 


•-Earthquakes 


of Scandinavian Peninsula and Iceland. 


Century 

A.D. 


^ih datM of month or day. 


OfSeaaon. 


Of 
Year 


Total, 


•-» 


1 


1 


1 

< 


ST 


6 

1 




-8 


1 


»2 

1 

Q 


1 


1 


1 








XII. to xvri. 

XVIIL 


3 
13 
17 


Z 

7 

XI 


1 

9 
11 


1 

7 

13 


2 
7 
7 


"a 

6 


••• 
9 

8 


"*5 

8 


"s 

10 


10 


**8 
11 


6 


"i 


3 

1 


19 
13 


28 
111 
113 


XIX 




Totals 


33 


20 


21 


16 


10 


17 


13 


18 


17 


19 


17 


2 


4 


32 


252 






Winter 
74 


Spring 
39 


Sommer 
48 


Autumn 
53 



On examining this Table, Perrey remarks the same preponderance of 
earthquakes in the winter half of the year, that is evident from many of bis 
other calculations for various regions. Here, for the si^ months of winter^ 
there are 129 shocks, and but 91 for the summer half year. 

Perrey is also of opinion, from the general result of his researches, that 
there is a preponderance of shocks at the equinoxes and summer solstice, 
which he denominates the <' Critical Epochs" of the yeATt It is so fpr 
Scandinavia. 

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4 RBPOBT— 1858. 

The total Dumber of earthquakes given with dates is 25% representing by 
twelve the mean annual number. He tabulates the proportional number for 
each month thus : — 



Table II.— Scandinavia. Relative frequency throughout the year. 



1-85 



112 



1-18 



t 



0-75 



0-90 0-56 



0-95 



0-75 



I 



1-01 



I 



0-95 



I 



i 



1-06. 0-95 



III 



^2 



Winter 1-88 

Spring 0-73 

Summer 0*90 

Autumn 0^ 

And at the two months of each sobtice and equinox — 

March and April 0*94 

June and July 0*74* 

September and October 0*95 

December and January 1 *S6 

As to general direction of the observed or horizontal dement of shook — it 
has in most instances traversed a line, with more or less divergence, stretch- 
ing away from Iceland ; and there can be little doubt that this is the real 
line of propagation of the original pulses. 

Perrey, however, conceives that a mean or chief resultant direction of shock 
for each given seismic region may be calculated in the following way. Taking 
the mean frequency of shock =1, he finds for the eight principal rhumlM 
proportional numbers, as for example in the present case : — 

Table III. 

Rhumb, or direction ReUtire frequency in 

of shock. direction. 

N. to S 0-73 

N.E. „ S.W 1-09 

E. „W 0-73 

S.E. „ N.W 1-09 

S. „ N 1-09 

S.W.„ N.E 1-45 

W. „E 109 

N.W.„ S.E 0-73 

Then, considering the cause of movement in any given direction to be pro- 
portional in intensity to the number of times that it has acted in each ob« 
served direction, viz. as proportional to the preceding numbers, he treats 
these as the forces themselves given in magnitude and in direction, and 
compounds them for a single resultant according to Lambert's formula. 

This process gives for Scandinavia a genertd resultant direction of pro- 
pagation of S. '22° 30' W., and with an intensity or force represented by 

If we study this presumed direction with the Mercator chart before us, 
we find that the line is not very wide of that forming the general length of 

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ON THE FACTS AND THSORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 5 

the great Scandinavian chain, and is in fact nearly a nonnal to the actually 
obienred directions of shock. 

It is a fact observed in many other seismic mountain chains, as well as 
along the lines of great valleys and river-courses, that the main directions 
of propagation of shock are along the lengths of the chains, valleys or river- 
courses ; and a very obvious explanation why this should frequently be the 
ease suggests itself, namely, that the solid materials of the earth are less 
shattered and discontinuous, and more homogeneous in these directions 
than in those transverse to the ranges and valleys, &c. ; but how far this is in 
any way connected in nature with Perrey's conclusion admits still of doubt ; 
and indeed it is manifest that any attempt to calculate a general or mean 
resultant, from the horizontal component of shock oft/y, must be at least 
incomplete, and, from other reasons that will be given when treating of 
seismometric instruments, may be said to be at present impossible. I should 
by no means wish, however, altogether to reject this ingenious method of 
discntnon in tbe present state of our knowledge. 

Perrey's results are subjoined for — 



Table IV.^ — Earthquakes of the British Islands and Northern Isles. 





Earthquakes with date of month 




It 


TotaL 


flS 


^ 


. 










, 


5 

§ 


^ 


1 


1 


Q 


s 

5 


£ 


S 


a, 


►» 

s 


1 


i 


< 


1. 
3i 


O 


1 


1 


u 




XI. ... 


... 


... 


2 


2 


1 


••• 


•«■ 


1 




... 


1 


... 


1 


8 


XII.... 


i 


..• 




1 


It* 


... 


••• 


1 


2 


... 


... 


2 


4 


11 


XIII... 


2 


1 




•1. 


1 


1 


.*. 


... 


I 


... 


... 


2 


6 


15 


XIV. .« 


.•• 


••• 




... 


1 


>•• 


1 


... 


... 


... 


1 


• •• 


1 


4 


XV. ... 


... 


•«• 




••• 


... 


•.. 


... 


... 


1 


... 


•«« 


... 


••• 


1 


XVL. 


1 


2 




1 


2 


••• 


•*• 


1 


... 


... 


... 


1 


... 


8 


xvu.. 


3 


••• 




••• 


... 


1 


... 


... 


2 


3 


1 


2 


2 


14 


XVIIL 


5 


4 


7 


5 


3 


2 


3 


5 


6 


6 


8 


8 


1 


63 


XIX... 


9 


9 


10 


7 


8 


6 


5 


11 


12 


8 


11 


12 


2 


110 


Totals. 


21 


16 


19 


16 


16 


10 


9 


19 


24 


17 


22 


28 


17 


234 




White 


r 


Spring 


Summer 


A 


ntumn 




56 




42 


52 




67 







The number occurring in §pring and summer together is but three-fourths 
that of autumn and winter united, the relative number for the four seasons 
being-—' 

Winter I'OS 

Spring ••• ••.». (yjS 

Summer ..•••••.. 0*96 

Autumn 1*^ 

And the two months of the critical epochs-* 

Winter sobtice 1*28 

Spring equinox 0*96 

Summer solstice 0*53 

Autumnal equinox 1*13 

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6 BBPomi^— 1858* 

The rslstiye numbers as to horizontal direotion i--' 

5. toN 048 

K „W 1-70 

S*E. „ N.W ....078 

6. „ N 0-73 

8.W. „ N.E 1-46 

W. „ E Vi6 

from whioh^ by the preceding method, Perrey oomputes a mean horiiodtal 
direction of 

S. 89^5' W. to N. 39^5' E., 

which is about the line of direction of Looh Ness and of the Caledoniaa 
Canal. 

This is certainly, however, not the general or mean horisontal direction 
of British earthquakes, which appears to be one from south to north, veering 
more or less to the east or west, but having on the whole a direction passing 
through the probable focus of the Lisbon earthquakes and of the Canary 
Islands. I am not aware that any attempt has been made to ascertain 
the angle of emergence of the wave of shock for any British station, except 
indirectly by myself, in my " Memoir on the British Earthquake of November 
1852" (Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. vol. xxii. part 1) at Dublin, which was from 
25^ to 30^ inclined to the horizon ; and assuming the origin to have been 
even somewhere between Great Britain and Lisbon, the depth of focus must 
have been very sreat ; that earthquake extended over the greater portion 
of the British islands, the maximum dbturbance on the surface being about 
Shropshire* 

Mn David Milne, in one of a series of very able papers on British earth- 
quakes in the < Edinburgh Philosophical Journal,* vols. xxxi«-xxxvi., which 
I regret not having noticed in mv Second Report as prominently as they 
deserve, expresses his conviction (as it appears to me, however, from very 
insufficient grounds) that all British earthquakes have had an origin of 
dbturbance immediately beneath Great Britain, and not at some distant 
point beyond, his chief reasons being, 1, that with few exceptions they 
affected only certain portions of the island; % that there was id all the 
districts affected some spot where the concussion and attendant noise were 
greater than uny where else, and that they diminished with their distance 
from this spot ) 8, that the shook and the noise moved simultaneously from 
this spot. 

A reference (o the Catalogue will show that theu are by no means the 
general prevailing facts \ and If they had been so, they do not prove tho 
point, for reasons to be gathered from the Second Report. In the absence 
of any knowledge of the angle of emergence, it is a very incomplete state- 
ment of fact when Milne says, that '* out of 1 10 shocks recorded in England, 
31 originated in Wales, 31 along the south coast of England, 14 on the 
borders of Yorkshire and Derbyshire, and 5 or 6 in Cumberland." " These 
facts," he adds, << seem to show that the seat of action cannot be very far 
down in the earth's interior." Locally variable surface-disturbance, and eve& 
none at certain localities, within large areas exposed to seismic action, are 
amongst the most common phenomena of observed earthquakes even of the 
greatest extent and intensity, and arise, amongst other reasons, from the 
heterogeneous and dislocated niaterials of the earth s crust perturbing the 

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ON THB FACTS AND TH90BT OF BAATHaUAKB PflENOlf BNA. f 

dasUe wave. A oonsldarable number of shocks^ recorded in Scotland, have 
been stated to have had a horizontal direction more or less from west to east; 
and this is by no means incompatible with the general prevalent direction from 
sonth to north already mentioned ; nor has it been unnoticed elsewhere^ that 
bng ranges of hills of hard elastic rocks, with deep intervening valleys, change 
the general horizontal course of the wave of shock reaching their flanks into 
one mainly felt along the line of the chain. The little shocks for long 
periods almost continuously felt in and about Comrie in Scotland, have all 
had a general direction from west to east ; but these, like the similar phe- 
nomena long carefully observed by Prof. Merian at Basle in Switzerland, 
those at East Haddam in Massachusetts and eliewhere, I omit from consi- 
deration here, as very doubtfnlly belonging to the class of earthquakes 
proper at all, and perhaps no more than tremors, more or less forcible 
at the surface^ due to the fracturing of rocky masses below, by the gradual 
processes of elevation or depression of the land* Excluding thesci our 
records, so far as they go, point to the south*to-north general direction 
as given. 

Milne has discussed, with reference to period of the year, the circumstances 
of 139 Scottish and 116 English earthquakes ; and the result squares pretty 
closely with Perrey's« 

Hm following b Milne*B Table ; — 

Tabls V. 

SooUand* Eogland* TotaL 

Jsausry «..«.. 14 11' 



Febmiry 14 13 

March «.. 12 10 

April 9 10 

May 8 4 

#11116 ••«.••••••«•«•• 4 *•••••<*•••« 9 

July M... 6 6' 

Aagnst «... IS 9 

S^ptembar 12 15^ 

October 14 11' 

Nofember 20 12 

DaesBbar. lb 7 

139 116 



* 74. Winter months. 

'44. Spring months. 

58. Siunmer months. 

79. Autumn months. 



He notices abo the fact, which we shall find has not escaped Perrey (' Me- 
moir on France')i that the period of the year at trhich seismic action appears 
to be greatest, is that when both the actual height of the barometric (solumn 
is the minimum, and the range of its oscillations the greatest in the year ; 
and he has put with clearness the enormous total effect in the increase or 
diminution of pressure over large areas> doe to such changes in atmospheric 
pressure, as a possible (he deems a certainly) connected cause in the produc- 
tion of earthquakes. 

Proceeding now to the Spanish Peninsula, oomprehending all west of the 
Pyrenees and the ocean washing the shores of Portugal, the following are 
Perrey's results : — 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



a 



REPORT — 1858. 
Table VI.— Earthquakes of the Spanish Peninsula. 





Earthquakes with date of day or month. 


'S . 




1 


1 


• 


i 


i, 


5? 


i 


# 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1^ 


Total. 




& 


S 


< 


S 


»? 


^ 


< 


CO 


^ 


^ 


^ 






XI. ... 




... 




... 


... 






... 






... 




3 


3 


XII. ... 


1 


1 


... 


1 


... 






... 






... 




1 


4 


XIII.... 


... 




••• 


... 


... 






••. 






1 




2 


3 


XIV.... 


1 




3 


... 


1 






... 






••. 




3 


8 


XV. ... 


..« 




... 


1 


... 






... 






... 




3 


4 


XVI.... 


2 




... 


1 


... 




3 


... 




1 


... 




3 


10 


XVII... 








.•• 


• •• 


2 


... 


2 


i 


2 


1 


1 


1 


10 


XVIII. 


11 


8 


7 


8 


4 


6 


5 


9 


2 


9 


13 


8 


3 


93 


XIX.... 


10 


5 


6 


7 


4 


6 


10 


5 


9 


11 


7 


5 


... 


85 


TotaL 


25 


14 


16 


18 


9 1 14 


18 


16 


12 


23 


22 


14 


19 


220 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




55 


41 


46 


59 







Taking the mean monthly frequency =1, the relative monthly frequency, 
and that according to season, are as follows : — 





& 


:§ 


t 

< 


1 


i 

a 
•-> 


1 


1 

0-95 


1 

0-71 


1 
1-37 


1 

1-31 


0*84 


1-49 


0-84 


0-95 


1-07 


0-54 


0-84 


107 


Winter 
1-09 


Spring 
0-82 


Summer 
0-91 


Aatumn 
117 



or in autumn and winter together, 114 earthquakes against 87 in the spring 

and summer. 

As respects observed horizontal directions, the ratios were — 

N. to S 0-S8 

N.E. „ S.W 0-76 

E. „ W. 2-67 

S.E. „ N.W 0-76 

S. „ N 1-91 

S.W.„ N.E 0-38 

V^. „ E 0-76 

N.W,„ S.E 0-38 

which, by the method of calculation already given as adopted by Perrey, 

gives for the mean horizontal direction — 

E. 31° 5& S. to W. 31° 5& N. 

This deduction appears to agree tolerably well with the actually recorded 
directions of shocks in Portugal and Spain, whose focus seems to be beneath 
the sea, between Lisbon and the Azores, all of which, as well perhaps as the 
Canaries, are connected as one seismic region. Perrey states, that in the 
Pyrenean chain, taken separakly^ not only is the preponderance of seismic 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 9 

action in the winter reversed, so that shocks are more frequent in summer 
than in winter, and those in summer and spring together are to those in 
autumn and winter as 2 to S, but the observed horizontal direction is dif- 
ferent, being most usual in the main line of the chain. 

If this be so, it would either be explicable as a case of deflected wave, like 
that already mentioned with regard to the general north and south line in 
Great Britain, becoming a south-west and north-east one in Scotland, the angle 
of deflection in the present instance being small ; or it would indicate that 
some of the shocks of the Pyrenees have connexion with the Mediterranean 
seismic region. 

Spain, includuig Portugal, in its external configuration, with its vast 
table-land of the two Castiles, rising nearly 2000 feet above the sea, is 
perhaps the most interesting portion of Europe, not only in this respect, 
but as a region of earthquake disturbance, where the energy and destroying 
power of this agency have been more than once displayed upon the most 
tremendous scale. 

It may be worth while to place here the tables of the progression of the 
shocks of the t^o great Lisbon earthquakes of 1755 and 1761, as collected 
by Milne (Edinburgh Phil. Journ. vol. xxxi.) from various sources, 
although the chief result has been already discussed in the Second Report 
The time given in the Tables is reduced to Lisbon time ; the distances in 
d^prees of seventy miles English each. 



Progressive rate of the shock, Lisbon earthquake of 1st November, 1755* 



Localities. 


Moment 
observed 
of shock. 


Distance 

from 

presumed 

origin. 


Time from 

impulse to 

arrival. 


Observations. 


Presumed focus, lat 30°, 
long, ir W 


h m 
9 23 

9 24 

9 30 

9 32 

9 38 

9 50 

9 48 

9 46 

9 43 

9 55 

10 1 

10 3 

10 23 

10 27 

10 42 

10 30 

9 58 

10 6 

10 42 

11 43 


O ' 

30 

1 30 

1 30 

2 30 

4 

5 

5 30 

6 
6 
8 30 

12 30 

13 
13 30 
15 
15 30 
17 

17 

18 
20 


m 8 
••* 

I 
7 
9 
15 
27 
25 
23 
20 
32 
38 
40 
60 
64 
79 
67 
35 
43 
79 
140 


At sea, 

PortugaU 

Spain. 

Madeira; 

[certain.) 
Derbyshire (not 
Uncertain. 

Uncertain. 


A ship at sea, in lat. 38°, 
long. 10°47'W 


Cokffei 


Lisbon 


Oporto 


Ayamonte ........ T..tt.... ..tt- 


Cadiz 


Tanner and Tetnan 


Madrid 


Gibraltar 


Panchal .t«......t....t...trtTt. 


Portsmouth... ..•• 


Hmvre 


Rftdinflr ,.. 


Yarmooth 


Byam Edge 


Durham .........---..r*. *••*... 


Amfftfrdam •• ••••t........ 


Loch Ness 


HAmhmnrh 





Much uncertainty attends many of the statements as to time ; and at 
several localities there is evidence that the shocks arrived much more 
rapidly than at others, in relation to distance. Thus at Cork two shocks 
were felt at 9^ 33". 

The longitudes are from the meridian of Greenwich. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



10 EBFOET^1858« 

ProgreMive rate of the shock, Lisbon earthquake of Sltt Mareh, 1701* 



Locdity. 



MomeDt 
observed 
of shock. 



Distance 

from 
presumed 

origiii. 



Time from 

impulse to 

arrival* 



Obaenratioiis. 



Presumed focus, lat 43°, 
long. 11*^ W 

Ship at sea, in lat. 43% not 
many leagues from coast of 
Portugal 

Ship in lat 44*^, and about 80 
leagues off coast 

Corunna 

Ship Ut. 44'' 8', and 80 
leaffues W.N.W. of Cape 
Finisterre 

Lisbon 

Madeira 

Cork 



h m 
11 51 



11 52 

11 54 
11 51 



At I 



30 

1 45 
8 30 



Loch Ness, between 



Amsterdam, between . 




3 
4 

10 



30 

30 





9 30 
11 



15 15 



7 

9 

15 

20 



r20 01 


and 


49 


r84 0' 


and 


L114 oj 



Uncertain. 
Uaoertaiii. 



The great sea- wave of the shock of 1755 appears, from the recorded 
periods of arrival, to have travelled from its point of origin to the following 
places at the rates given in miles English per minute, according to Milne ; 
assuming the transit rate uniform for the whole range of translation, which, 
however, is not possible : — 

Plymouth • 2*1 miles per minute. 

Kinsale » 2-7 9, 

Mount's Bay 2*7 „ 

Cadiz S^ n 

Funchal 8*7 „ 

Ayamento 5*0 „ 

Lisbon 5'5 „ 

Antigua 6*0 „ 

Barbadoes 7*3 „ 

and that of the shock of 1761, as follows :— 

Sciliy Isles and Mount's Bay • . . . 20 miles per minute. 

Dublin 2*1 „ 

Kinsale < 2*7 „ 

Barbadoes • 7*4 „ 

I place these results of Milne's discussions of the imperfeot materiab at 
his command, rather for convenience of reference to future investigators, 
than as attaching much value to them beyond rude and provisional ap« 
proximations*. 

* For the same reasons I transcribe the f<^owing notice, which has appeared while these 
sheets have been printing : — 

** Direction and velocity of the earthquake in California of the 8th and 9th Xannary 1 A(7. 
By Dr. John B. Trask." SiUiman's Journal, Jan. 1858, vol. xxv. p. 146. 

** The precise time of out of the shocks wm obtaiasd with tolsraUe a#oiinsy in five 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



ON THB PACTS AND THIOMY OF AABTHQUAKB PHBNOMBNA. 11 

We proceed now to FVanoe^ Belgium^ and Holland, the limitf of which 
Perrey fixes somewhat arbitrarily, at bounded on the south by the Medi- 
terranean and by Spain, on the west and north by the Atlantic and Northern 
Oceana, as far as the Zuyder Zee, on the east bv the Rhine and Alps, bot 
comprising within it Geneva, in the basin of the Rhone, and Basle, Manheim, 
Frankfort-on-the-Main, and some other cities dose to the right bank and in 
the basin of the Rhine. 



Table VII— 


•Earthquakes 


of France, Belgium, and Holland. 




Century. 


Barthquakcs with date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 


U 

h 


TotaL 




. 














J 




i 


i 


Is 


M 




1 


1 


i 


1 


1 


1 


i 


1 




1 


I 











nr 


^^ 




... 




.*• 


..J ... 


... 


... 


... 




. 


... 


... 






V 


•>• 


... 


• •• 




... 


1 


... 


... 


... 


1 


... 


... 


... 




1 


VI 


••• 


•.» 


• *• 




••• 


l! ... 


... 


... 


*•■ 


•*. 


1 


... 


... 


3 


e 


VII 


... 


!•« 


... 




..• 


... 


».. 


••* 


... 


••• 


.•• 


,,. 


... 


••• 


••• 


••• 


VIIL 


... 


.». 


• ■• 




... 


• •• 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


*•• 


... 


IX. 


4 


2 


1 




%»» 


• •• 


... 


,,, 


3 


1 


.*• 


4 


3 


... 




21 


X. 


1 
••• 


1 


2 




2 


... 


2 


*.« 


\ 


3 


2 


1 


... 


*•• 




2 

16 


XI 


xu 


3 


••• 


1 


2 


2 


1 


... 


1 


... 


..1 


*•• 


1 


... 


*.. 




12 


xin 


1 


1 


1 


• .• 


••• 


1 


1 


... 


1 


... 


... 


1 


... 


• •• 




9 


XIV. 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


... 


2 


1 


2 


1 


1 


1 




21 


XV. 


... 


1 


••• 


2 


... 


1 


1 


2 


1 


■ •• 


3 


1 


... 


1 




14 


XVI. 


7 


6 


5 


4 


5 


2 


3 


2 


6 


4 


2 


5 


3 


... 




61 


XVII 


13 


16 


4 


4 


7 


3 


7 


3 


8 


4 


6 


11 


•.. 


... 




91 


XVIII. ... 


26 


20 


17 


26 


11 


18 


17 


15 


13 


18 


23 


28 


1 


• *• 




237 


XIX 


'\ 


17 


21 


13 


13 


8 


15 


17 


15 


17 


21 


25 


1 


• «• 




211 


TotaL... 


83 


64 


53 


55 


42 


36; 47 


40 


50 


48 


60 


78 


9 


2 


35 


702 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




200. 


133? 


137. 


186. 











localities eastward of San Francisco, the greatest error in time of the clocks being 3^ 4^, 
and the least (/ 22'^ The time, being all reduced to that of San Frandsco, ghres the fol- 
lowing results : — 



Locality. 


Lai. 


Long. 


lime of shock. 


Elapsed 
time. 


Velocity 
permin. 


San Frandsco 

Sacramento 

Stockton .......... 


o 1 

37 48 

38 32 
37 52 
35 00 
32 42 


o / 

122 25 
121 23 
121 34 
118 46 
117 13 


h. m. s. 
8 13 30 
8 20 00 
8 23 00 
8 45 00 
8 50 00 


m. s. 

00 

7 30 

9 30 

32 30 

36 30 


miles. 
0-0 
6-6 
65 
6-0 
7-0 


Tenon ..•••...••.••. 


San. DiflRO .•••---t'r- 





or, for the average of the tve obserrations, 6*2 mUes per minute, or 545*6 feet per second. 
The author says, this closely approximates to Prof. Bache's results as to the rate of the 
earthquake at fimoda on 23id December 1854 (Amer. Ass. for Advancement of Sdcaioe, for 
that year) ; but he appears here to confound rate of sea- wave with that of ^arth-wave o^ 



shiM^.' 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



13 



REPORT — 1858. 



And for the two months at each critical period of the year — 

Dec. and Jan., Winter Solstice 161 

June and July, Summer ditto 83 

March and April, Spring Equinox 108 

Sept. and Oct^ Autumnal ditto 98 

As respects horizontal direction, the relative numbers are, — 

N. to S 1-50 

N.E. „ S.W 0-43 

E. „ W 1-88 

S.E. „ N.W 0-59 

S. „ N 1-02 

S.W.„ N.E. 0-96 

W. „ E 0-91 

N.W.„ S.E 0.69 

which, by Perrey's method of calculation, gives for the mean general hori* 
zontal direction,— 

N. 71° 27' E. to S. Il"" 27' W. 

To this he not only, in the case of France, confesses that he does not 
attach much weight, but also states that each century will not give the same 
mean resultant 

The actually observed districts of shock have been mainly along the 
lines of the valleys of the Rhine and Rhone, and in an inferior degree along 
those of the Loire, Seine, Garonne, and Mouse (the Pyrenees being 
viewed as part of the Spanish region), the tendency being to a direction in 
length of the valley, others across these. When the physical and geological 
features of France and the Rhine basin are recalled, it can scarcely be 
doubted that they constitute a natural independent seismic region, with 
centres of disturbance connected probably at great depths with the extinct 
Tolcanic countries of central France and of the Rhine. The almost continual 
slight disturbances of St. Maurienne, lasting for more than fifteen months at 
one time, appear quite analogous to those of Comrie and East Haddamu For 
the specialities of these and other questions of the French system, however, 
the memoir itself of Perrey must be consulted. 

Tlie basin of the Rhone has been consigned to a separate memoir. The 
precise limits assigned to the district are not stated ; but we must assume 
them to extend somewhat vaguely beyond the actual catchment of the 
liver^ The results are given in 

Tablb YIII. — Earthquakes of the Basin of the Rhone. 



Centmy. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


^f 



TotaL 




. 














.s 




1 
» 


1 




•-> 


1 


1 


1 

< 


1 


•-» 




1 




1 




XVI. 


1 




1 




2 


1 






3 






1 


1 


10 


XVII 


6 


3 


1 


1 


3 


3 


... 


1 


6 


1 


... 


2 


2 


29 


XVIIL ... 


7 


5 


6 


6 


3 


5 


7 


4 


4 


8 


6 


7 


3 


71 


XIX 


12 


12 


8 


3 


3 


2 


2 


4 


6 


6 


8 


14 


1 


81 


Total ... 


26 


20 


16 


10 


11 


11 


9 


9 


19 


15 


14 


24 


7 


191 


Winter 


Spring 


Smnmer 


Autumn 




62 


32* 


37 


53 







Digitized by VjiUUy li:! 



ON THS PACTS AND THflORV OP BABTHQUAEB PHENOMENA. 13 

presenting considerable similarity to the results for France as a whole* 
Tlie following are the proportional numbers for the months : — 



r 


£ 


1 


i 


* 


•-» 


1 


1 


i 


1 


J§ 


^ 


1-69 


1-31 


1-06 


0-66 


0-71 


0-71 


0-59 


0-59 


1-24 


0-98 


0-92 


1-57 



Or, for Winter 1-35 

„ Spring 0^9 

„ Summer 0*81 

„ Autumn 1*16 

and for the two months each of 

Winter Solstice 1*53 

Spring Equinox 0*81 

Summer Solstice 0*61 

Autumn Equinox 1*05 

and as to direction, following hb usual method, Perrej arrives at a mean 
general horizontal resultant, — 

S, 9° 44' W. to N. 9^ 44' E. 

This is not far from the general line of the course of the Lower Rhone ; 
but Perrey remarks that numerous examples occur of shocks whose alleged 
horizontal moyements were orthogonal to the river-valley, and to the 
meridian. 

We pass on to the basin of the Rhine, which, in its entire extent, com- 
prehends, in fact, a large portion of Switzerland, but whose precise limits 
Perrey does not define. 



Table DL 


— Earthquakes of the Basin of the Rhine and Switzerland. 


Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 


It 




Total. 




. 














i 


1 


^ 


^ 


i! 


Is 




r 


1 


1 


1 




^ 




i 


1 


^ 




II 




IX 


3 


2 


1 


2 

1 


... 


1 


*•• 




1 




... 


5 


1 
••• 




2 

1 


19 
2 


X. 


XI. 




2 


1 


•*• 


2 


... 


... 




... 




... 


i 


... 




2 


9 


XII. 


2 


••• 


..• 


■•• 


... 


1 


.«• 




... 


••. 


... 


... 






5 


8 


XIII 


1 


... 


.*• 


... 


..• 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


••• 




1 


3 


XIV 


1 


1 


3 


1 


3 


2 


1 




2 




1 


... 


1 




1 


18 


XV 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


... 


... 


3 


2 


... 




... 


12 


XVI 


4 


5 


4 


5 


3 


2 


2 


2 


6 


3 


5 


6 


... 




5 


52 


XVII 


21 


14 


11 


6 


10 


5 


8 


6 


9 




8 


12 


• •• 




6 


120 


XVIII. ... 


15 


12 


10 


9 


6 


12 


11 


10 


8 




17 


20 


... 




2 


141 


XIX 


15 


17 


13 


12 


11 


6 


12 


11 


10 


17 


24 


25 


... 




... 


173 


ToUl... 


62 


54 


44 


37 


36 


30 


35 


30 


36 


36 


58 


71 


2 


1 


25 


557 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




160 


103 


101 


165 











Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



14 JIBP0»T~1B68. 

The autoinn and winter together here present a tiumber, having nearly 
the same ratio to that of spring and summer together, as 3 s S* 

And at the critical periods of the year, of two months each, we have 

Winter Solstice ISS 

Spring Equinox 81 

Summer Solstice 65 

Autumnal Equinox 72 

while, as respects horizontal direction, 

S. toN 0-78 

N.E „ S.W 0-44 

E. „ W 1-33 

S.E.„ N.W. 0-89 

S. „ N. 2-00 

S.W.„N.E Ml 

W. „E. 0-78 

N.W.„S.E. 0-67 

and, by calculations on before-given principles, a mean general horizontal 
direction of 

S. 7** 9' E. to N. 7° 9' W. 

which corresponds pretty well with the general direction of the river valley. 
Observation, however, indicates, in most of the localities upon its banks, 
frequent and wide occasional departures from such direction ; and, indeed, 
in Uie broken country forming a large portion of its length it is improbable 
it should be otherwise. 

The basin of the Danube. — This vast tract of country has been left very 
ill-defined as to its limits by Perrey, as respects the subject of his research. 
His catalogue shows that he does not limit himself precisely to the catch- 
ment of this mightiest of European rivers, but, in fact, includes something 
like the whole of that vast tract of country between a line on the north, 
reaching from Prague to Kherson ; and on the south, from Venice to Con- 
stantinople, and even occasionally stretching beyond these limits. 





Table X. — Earthquakes of the Basin of the Danube. 






Century, 


Etrthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 


1^ 


TotaL 


•-» 


6 

1 


■ 

1 


1 

< 


1 


45 

g 


1- 


i 

p 


1 


1 




1 




^"1 


V.toXV... 


1 


1 


... 


... 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 










... 


11 


19 


XVI 


3 


1 


... 


... 


3 


4 


1 


1 


3 


... 


i 


1 


i 


... 


16 


35 


XVH 


2 


4 


1 


... 


... 


1 


2 


3 


... 


... 


2 


5 


... 


... 


11 


31 


XVIII. ... 


11 


10 


4 


8 


8 


6 


6 


9 


1 


7 


5 


8 


2 


... 


4 


88 


XIX. 


U 


15 


9 


8 


12 


8 


16 


11 


11 


16 


10 


12 


1 


1 


1 


145 


Total... 


31 


31 


14 


16 


23 


19 


26 


25 


16 


23 


18 26 


4 


1 


43 


318 


Winter 


Spring 


Siunmer 


Autumn 




76 


60 


67 


67 











Perrey remarks^ that although the total number of shocks recorded appears 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



ON THB FACTS AND THJftOKT OV BAKTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 15 

gnat, it is rery small in proportion to the enormoni area embraoed-^Doarly 
ten times that of the basin of the Rhone ; and he justly concludes, that, 
were it not for the penury of records in those regions, so much of which 
b semibarbarous or thinly inhabited, the total number in it would be far 
greater than he gives. While the general character of shocks here is not 
that of great intensity, instances are to be found of some» of disastrous power. 
The relative numbers are for 

Winter Solstice l-SS 

Spring Equinox 0^0 

Summer Solstice 1*05 

Autumnal Equinox 0*91 

aod as respects horizontal direction, the results are,*- 

N. toS 1-33 

N.E. „ S.W 0-50 

E. „ W 1-33 

S.E. „ N.W 0-50 

S. „ N M7 

S.W. „ N.E 1-00 

W. „ E 1-33 

N.W.„ S.E 0-85 

from which Perrey obtains a mean general horizontal direction of 

W. 2° 39' N- to E- 2« 39' S. 

Thk is i^in very much the line of the Lower Danube itself, which, faow« 
ever, over so vast an area, and fed by yast rivers poured into it on the 
nordiem side between great flanking ranges passing more or less north and 
south, can in reality exercise little or no influence ; and too much stress 
most not be laid upon any observation as to line of direction^ even when the 
azimuth surface may be reliable. This applies to every earthquake country ; 
uninstructed observers are very liable to mistake the direction of movement, 
by confounding the direct effects of the shock with those due to inertia of 
bodies moved. In the Danube basin, it must at present remain undecided 
whereabouts the centre or centres of disturbance proper to the region are 
to be found. On the north, the Carpathians probably are above the centre 
for those whose horizontal direction is more or leas north and south ; but 
whether the shocks from east to west, and veering towards the north or 
oooasionally to the south, have their origin in the Caucasus, or beneath the 
eastern extremity of the Euxine, or are also in connexion with the great 
seismic energies that so powerfiiUy and frequently display themselves in 
Syria and the south-east, indeed all over Asia Minor, yet requires to be 
mvestigated. 

In the region of the Italian Peninsula, Perrey includes the whole of Italy 
and the mass of the Alps, exclusive of Savoy (which is included in the 
basin of the Rhone), with Sicily, Malta, Sardinia, &C., reaching into the 
eentre of the Mediterranean Sea ; and, on the north, all the localities whose 
watersheds are not into the Rhone, Rhine, or Danube, For the con* 
ventional limits which Perrey has fixed for himself in deciding upon the 
itolatUm in point of time of each distinct earthquake, often in this region 
continuing for many days with little interruption, the memoir itself must h^ 
oooanlted. 



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16 



BBPOBT — 1858« 



Table XL — Earthquakes of the Italian Peninsula, with Sicily, Sardinia^ 

and Malta. 



Century. 


Earthquakes inth date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 


If 


TotaL 


1 


1 


1 


s 




»n 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 
^ 


1 

B 

1 


11 

^1 


1^- 

CO 


IV. 












... 


... 


... 




... 










6 


6 


V 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 




1 


... 


4 


5 


VI 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


•«. 






1 


... 




... 


... 


1 


3 


VII 


•*• 


... 




..< 


••. 


••• 


•*• 




... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


... 


1 


VIII 


••. 


.•• 






... 




••. 




... 


... 






... 


.•• 


2 


2 


IX 


... 


... 




1 


... 


1 


... 




... 


... 


... 




••• 


... 


3 


6 


X 


... 


... 




••. 


... 


*.. 


... 




... 


... 


... 




•1* 


••• 


3 


3 


XI 


1 
2 


1 
1 




1 


... 


... 


... 




... 


1 


... 


1 


1 


... 


3 
12 


7 
18 


XII 


XUI 


1 


... 




2 


1 


..• 


... 




1 


... 


1 


1 




... 


8 


15 


XIV 


3 


1 




... 


1 


1 


•*. 




3 


... 


2 


3 




••• 


6 


20 


XV. 


... 


1 


1 


... 


1 


... 


... 


1 


... 


1 


... 


6 


... 


... 


7 


18 


XVI 


2 


... 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1 


2 


... 


2 


2 


1 


... 


15 


32 


XVII 


10 


15 


14 


15 


4 


13 


8 


7 


10 


4 


6 


3 


2 


1 


9 


121 


XVIIL ... 


45 


41 


43 


29 


38 


46 


21 


31 


24 


44 


31 


30 


2 


1 


12 


438 


XIX 


37 


39 


38 


35 


32 


24 


33 


36 


23 


41 


22 


29 


... 


... 


1 


390 


Total ... 


101 


99 


98 


84 


80 


86 


63 


77 


63 


92 


64 


77 


7 


2 


92 


1085 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




298 


250 


203 


233 











M. Perrey, having obtained access to the woric of Muratori and other 
documents, produced a supplement to this memoir, the result of which he 
has given in 

Supplemental Table XII. — Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, and 

Malta. 



Century. 






Earthquakes with date of Day or Month 









Total. 


•-» 


1 


1 


i 


1 


i 

•-> 


t 


< 


1 


1 


1 


1 


VIII 


.•» 


... 


... 


... 


..* 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


.(• 


1 


1 


IX. 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


••• 


.•• 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


X 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


.*• 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


3 


3 


xr 


... 


••» 


... 


1 


... 


... 


... 


... 


2 


..« 


... 


... 


2 


5 


XII 


4 


... 


... 


1 


2 


1 


... 


1 


... 


1 


... 


... 


12 


22 


XIII 


2 


... 


... 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 


... 


2 


3 


1 


11 


26 


XIV 


5 


5 


6 


2 


4 


2 


4 


1 


6 


3 


1 


6 


6 


51 


XV 


5 
1 


2 


4 


2 

1 


3 

1 


3 

1 


1 


10 
... 


5 


1 


4 
... 


5 


2 

1 


47 
5 


XVI 


XVII 


... 


... 


2 


4 


•«. 




1 


... 


1 


i 


... 


... 


... 


9 


XVIII. ... 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


3 


2 


2 


1 


4 


1 


... 


1 


20 


XIX. ...... 


7 


5 


10 


8 


8 


10 


8 


10 


4 


4 


4 


10 


... 


88 


Total ... 


25 


13 


23 


23 


20 


21 


18 


25 


19 


16 


13 


22 


39 


277 


\ 


Vintei 


p 


Spring 


Summer 


A 


utum 


n 






61 




64 


62 


_..l 




51 









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ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. l7 

lo the first of these> the winter and spring earthquakes together are to 
the rammer and autumn together 

as 6 : 5. 
Id the supplemental table taken alone, however, the winter season has lost 
its preponderance, and autumn shows the smallest number. 

The number in winter and autumn together, however, still slightly ex* 
eeeds that for spring and summer, in the ratio of 9 : 8. 

While this shows the usual doubtfulness of generalizations from partial data, 
the result rather tends to awaken increased attention to the very prevalent 
excess of seismic action in the winter half-year, shown by so many cata- 
logues, and here sustained, though by a supplement, that, taken alone, some- 
what departs from the principle. 

As regards direction, he finds 

N. toS 0-82 

N.E. „ S.W. 1-08 

E. „ W i-94. 

S.E. „ N.W. 1-29 

S. „ N 1-29 

S.W. „ N.E 0-40 

W. „ E 0^1 

N.W. „S.E 0-28 

and the mean general horizontal direction of resultant 
S. 72^ 27' E. to N. 72° 27' W. 
Observation by no means accords with any such general mean direction. It 
has repeatedly indicated movements in Italy and Sicily in every azimuth— 
perhaps with some greater prevalence of those from north to south, and the 
reverse ; but the fact appears to be that these regions have their centre of dis- 
turbance almost directly beneath, and hence, as is the case in South America, 
and the Moluccas, Philippines and Sunda Islands, the emergence of the wave 
generally makes an extremely large angle with the horizon ; and the horizontal 
component is ill-suited to easy observation. The most fearful earthquakes 
with which this region has been visited, and whose force has reached 
France, Germany, Holland, and England, and into Africa, are said to have 
had a point within their immediate cincture where the shock was absolutely 
verticd, as in the Riobambe earthquake recorded by Humboldt 

The memoir of Perrey on Algiers and Northern Africa is brief; and he 
laments that the want of information, and of access to sources of it not 
attainable, prevented his collecting a sufficient number to found any ge- 
neralization upon. The following results alone he is able to tabulate : — 

Table XIII.— Earthquakes of Algeria and Northern Africa- 



Earthquakes with date of Month. 


U 
^l 




Total. 


1 


1 


1 


^ 
^ 


i 

^ 


i 


>* 

1 


} 


1 


i 

s 


i 


1 


5 


2 


6 


7 


3 


2 


2 


5 


1 


4 


8 


1 


17 


63 


Winter 
13 


Spring 
12 


Snmmer 
8 


Aatumn 
13 



1858. 



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18 



RBPORT-^1898. 



The want of further historic information upon this region is much to be 
regretted. It has been, since anything has been recorded of it, known as 
subject to earthquakes. Cities, the sites of bishoprics in the ancient Christian 
church of Africa, were thus demolished, and now astonish the traveller 
amidst rocky solitudes by acres of hewn stone on the sites of prostrate 
edifices that mark the past magnificence of Carthaginian and Roman rule. 
And at the present day, earthquakes are frequent and serious, afi the many 
edifices erected by the French since they have been in possession of Algeria, 
and since thrown down, demonstrate. 

Whether, as a seismic region, Northern Afk-ica have a centre of dis- 
turbance of its own, and if so, whether this exists deep within the little- 
known recesses of the Atlas chain, or beneath the southern verge of the Me- 
diterranean basin, or whether its disturbances are only derivative, and have 
their centre either in the volcanic region of the Canaries or amongst the 
towering peaks of Abyssinia, all yet remains to be dbcotered. No infor- 
mation worthy of any confidence has reached me as to the general horizon- 
tal direction of shocks in this region. How much to be desired is it, that 
the government of the Emperor of the French would systematize seismo- 
scopic observations in their African possessions I 

The last of Perrey*s European series now comet before us ; and in the 
following table he has given the results for — 

Table XIV. — Earthquakes of the Turco- Hellenic Territory, Syria, the 
^gaean Islands, and Levant 



Century. 



Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 



I 



8- 



I 



With date of 
Season only. 



§1 

S.S 



I* 



Total 



IV 

V, .... 
VI 

VII. .. 

VIII. .. 

IX 

X* .... 
XI 

xn. .. 
xiii. .. 

XIV. .. 
XV..... 
XVI. .. 
XVII... 
XVIII. 
XIX. .. 



i! 



2 
3 

5; 9| 10 13 
16; 10 16 15 



12 



23 
10 
27 

8 
12 

f 

5 
18 
23 
13 

8 

11 

22 

53 

124 

197 



Total 



40 35 31. 30j 37| 35 



35 40 40 



34 33 33 



134 



570 



Winter 
106 



Spring 
102 



Summer 
115 



Autumn 
100 



This vast region embraces the Turco-Greek peninsula, from Trieste to 
Constantinople southward of the Balkan range, the Greek Archipelago and 
Asia Minor to Bagdad, with a portion of Syria and the Levant 

Perrey remarks, that the number of facts he has been able to collect are 



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ON THE FACTS AND THfiORT OF EARTfiQUAKB PHENOMENA. 19 

fewer than the known seismic character of the region warrants, and rightly 
attributes this to want of record, and to the want of communication in these 
mrts of the world. He also remarks (what has been pointed out in the Second 
Report as applying to Antiocb, &c.) that here seismic energy appears to have 
been in various localities extremely paroxysmal in its action, with long periods 
of intermediate cessation. In the Turco-Greek peninsula, earthquakes have 
long been both frequent and formidable. 

For the four critical periods of the year he finds 

Winter Solstice 73 

Spring Equinox 61 

Summer Sobtice « • • 70 

Autumnal Equinox « 74 

PouqueviUe (• Voyage eti Gr^ce') has given some very singular facts and 
speculations as to the time of year of earthquakes in Epirus, &o^ in re* 
latioB to the rains. They need inquiry and confirmation. 

In analysing the horizontal direction of shock, Perrey has deemed it 
proper to separate the region under three sub-districts, in consequence of 
the brc^en character of the Greek peninsula^ and the very diverse orieniaikm 
of the CMMlstSy river-courses, and mountain-ranges throughout all its partsi 



Diiectkuu. 


AdriAtie. 


Constantiiiople. 


SonTTna. 


Total. 


N.toS. ... 


4 


2 


2 


9* 


N.E. to S.W. ... 


... 








E.toW. ... 


2 


t.. 




8t 


S.E. toN.W. ... 


1 






1 


S. toN. ... 


4 


1 


1 


6 


S.W.toN.E. ... 


1 


... 


... 


1 


W. toE. 


3 


... 


... 


3 


N.W. toS.fi. ... 


2 


1 


1 


5t 



These figures are meagre enough. By the usual method, Perrey calculates 
a rae«i general horiaontal direction of shock, 

N. SAT 37' W. to S. 34° 37' E. 

The deduction, however, is plainly in this instance of little value. Many 
shocks in this region have been described as approximating to vertical ; and 
this is to be anticipated from one having a centre of disturbance almost in 
its midst with active volcanic action. AH its eastern end, Syria, &c., how- 
ever, has some separate centre of disturbance^ either in connexion with the 
eastern chains of Asia Minor, which appear to abound in igneous forma- 
tions or with the Southern Arabian centre ; while Constantinople, the Dar- 
danelles, and the western and southern shores of the Euxine may also be in 
connexion with the Caucasian centre of action. 

We have now completed Perrey's European series. He passes to the 
American by the discussion of the basin of the Atlantic, viewed as com- 
prehending all from Iceland on the north to Tristan d'Acunha on the south, 
and on the east and west everything between the shores of the continents of 
the New and Old Worlds. 

Within this oceanic expanse no less than five great and probably con- 
neeted eentfes of volcanic action exist : Iceland, the Azores, the Canaries, 



* Indading once for Aleppo. 
t Inchiding onee for ThMsis. 



t Including once for Latakia. 



c 

Digitized by 



toogle 



20 REPORT — 1858. 

the Cape de Verds, the West India Islands, and the great submarine volcanic 
region first noticed by M. Daussy, besides many other points, as Ascension, 
St Helena, St. Paul's, &c., at which extinct volcanic phenomena are visible. 
The number of observations, however, as yet recorded of earthquake-shocks 
within the basin is so very small, that Perrey has been only able to collect fronx 
130 to 140 instances between the years 14*30 and 184*7> or about three a 
year on the average ; so that he does not deem the basis large enough to 
warrant any numerical discussion. The observations of M. Daussy, " Sur 
Texistence probable d'un volcan sousmarin situ^ par environ 0° SCr de lat. 
S. et 22° O' de Ion. ouest," published in vol. vi. p. 512, ' Comptes Rendus 
de TAcad^mie' (1853), have, however^made this one of the most interesting 
seismic regions on the globe. 

M. Moreau de Jonn^ (< Comptes Rendus/ vol. vi. p. 302) has given two 
recorded observations on board French ships, the * Ctesar' and the * Syl- 
phide,' which render the exbtence of a submarine volcanic tract on the bank 
of Bahama highly probable ; but M. Daussy has collected and given obser- 
vations of shocks received by vessels at sea at various periods, but all within 
a given limited area, which renders the existence almost certain of a vast 
active volcanic suboceanic area in the basin of the Atlantic, nearly midway 
between Cape Palmas on the west coast of Africa, and Cape St. Koque on 
the east coast of South America, or in the narrowest part of the ocean between 
these continents. This vast disturbed and perhaps partially igneous ocean- 
floor can be no less than nine degrees in length from west to east, and from 
three to four degrees in breadth from north to south. The following are the 
observations given by Daussy; and the relative positions of the several 
recording ships are given in the diagram (fig. A.) : — 

1 7th Oct 174.7.— The ship * Le Prince,' Bobriant : two shocks. Lat 1° 35' S. ; 
long. 20^ 10' W. 

5th Feb. 1754. — The ship * Silhouette,' Pintaul : one shock, with trembling. 
Lat. 0** 20' S. ; long. 23° lO' W. 

13th April 1758 — The frigate * Fiddle,' Lehoux : several shocks. Lat. 
0°20'S.; long. 23° 10' W. 

3rd May 1 761 . — The ship * Le Vaillant,' Bouvet : saw an islet of sand above 
water, in lat 0° 23' S. and long. 21° 30' W. 

3rd Oct. 1771 — The frigate 'Le Pacifique,' Bonfil: one shock and trem- 
bling. Lat. 0° 4*2' S., and long, by estimation, 22° 47' W. An agi- 
tated sea, and no bottom found on sounding. 

19th May 1806.— M. de Krusenstem (ship's name not given). Lat. 2° 4?3' S., 
and long. 22° 55^ W. Saw columns of smoke twelve or fifteen miles 
to the N.N.W., which he and Dr. Horner attributed to volcanic sub- 
marine eruption. 

18th Dec. 1816.— The ship 'The Triton,' Proudfoot: in lat 0° 23' S., and 
long. 20° 6' W., passed over a shoal of about three miles from east to 
west, and one mile from north to south. Twenty-six fathoms water, 
with bottom of brown sand. 

12th April 1831.— The ship ' Eagle,' J. Taylor: in lat 0° 22' S., and long. 
23° 27' W., the sea being perfectly calm ; one violent shock: the rudder 
was powerfully shaken, and a muffled sound was heard from beneath. 

Nov. 1832.— The ship «La Seine,' Le Maire: in lat 0° 22' S., and 

long. 21° 15' W. Under easy sail ; one powerful shock. 

9th Feb. 1835. — The barque * The Crown,' of Liverpool (captain's name not 
given) : lat. 0° 57' S., and long. 25° 39' W. When going six knots, 
was thought suddenly to have struck on a coral rock and to have 

Digitized by ^OOQlC 



&> 



% 






R 



%• 






_ 

• 

• • • 



^ 






22 BSPOBT — 1858. 

grated over it; but on souDding directly after, found 185 fathoms 

water. 
28th Jan. 1836. — The ship 'Pliilantrope de Bordeaux/ Jayer: inlat.0°4?0'S., 

and long. 22° 30' W. Violent shock and trembling for three minutes. 
13th & 16th March 1836 The American ship * St. Paul,' of Salem (captain's 

name not given), being ten miles to the west of the * Philantrope,' 

perceived the same shock. 
in 1836 Captain Fergusson, of the ship ' Henry Tanner,' presented to 

the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, through F. L. Huntley, Esq., 

volcanic ashes or cinders, like black pumice, which he had found on 

the surface of the sea when much agitated, in lat 0° 35' S. and long. 

18° 10' W. 
In a previous voyage Captain Fergusson, in lat 1° 35' S, and long. 

23° 5' W., was alarmed by a violent shock, accompanied by a great 

noise, as if he had struck upoq a rock, but could find nq bottom on 

sounding. 

Some other instances are said to be found in the * Sailing Instructions for 
the Azores ' by Tofino, translated by M. Urvoi de Portzampare, in the 
* Annales Maritimes de France,' which I have not been able to consult. We 
possess enough, however, to indicate that a submarine volcanic tract is in 
activity beneath the Atlantic, as large in area as Great Britain, and that the 
bottom of the ocean there is rendered uneven in the extreme, immense 
protrusions taking place in deep water. How desirable would it be that 
some British ships were commissioned to examine this tract more perfectly, 
especially to obtain accurate soundings and sectional lines of the bottom 
from east to west and from north to south, and, if possible, to obtain^ by 
dredging or otherwise, good specimens of the material of the bottom, and 
also observations of the temperature of the sea at various depths I 

Our knowledge of the distinguishing marks of suboceanic and subaerial 
volcanic ejecta, of the chemical reactions producing mineral species, under 
the conditiops (so vaguely understood as yet) of high temperature and great 
pressure in presence of water, might receive important accessions, if such 
specimens from the bottom could be obtained from thence (or from other 
similar positions), while our ideas of the extent to which local ocean cur- 
rents may be produced and maintained by the local heating of the deep sea 
immediately above such volcapic tracts might be enlarged, and other trains 
of future research suggested. 

Above all, how forcibly does the existence (so far almost unnoticed and 
unknown) of this vast volcanic and seismic submarine region indicate the 
desirableness of having henceforth a well-arranged system of scientific ob- 
servation and mode of daily entry in the log-book made part of the duties 
of ships of every civilized maritime nation, and having such entries referred 
to a special office (with us, probably, in connexion with the Admiralty or 
with a revivified Board of Longitude) for extract, record, and discussion I 
That certain classes of observations could not be made on board our ships 
at present, although the zeal of our officers of the navy and of some of the 
mercantile marine might be counted on, is certain ; but it is equally so that 
very many of the highest value to cosmical science could be made and re- 
corded, if thjB system were once arranged, the classes of observation deter- 
mined on, properly ruled and arranged log-books prepared, and the making 
certain observations (to be determined on by the central board beforehand 
in each instance) made matter of duty. Navigation and commerce would 
gain, eventually, quite as much as, by the small sacrifice of time and labour^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Oir THS FACTS AND THSOBT OF KAKT^QUAKB PHBNOHENA. 23 

tbef thus gave to science. I venture respectfully to commend it to our own, 
to the AmMrican, and to all European governments. 

lo his memoir on the Earthquakes of the United States and Canada, 
Perrey auty ba said to include the whole northern continent of America,, 
with the exception of Mexico and Central America, to which he has de- 
Toted another ipeiy^oir. 

The two following tables, XV. and XVI., give the results of his discus- 
sion: — 

Table XV. — Earthquakes pf the United States and of Canada. 



Century. 


Evthqaakes with date of Day or Month. 




Total. 


1 


1 


1 


4- 


1 


1 


1 


i 

< 


1 


. 


i 


J 


XVII 

XVIII. ... 

XIX. 


8 

4 


1 
9 
4 


"d 
s 


"s 

3 


3 
3 


1 
8 


6 
4 


"i 

6 


3 


1 
7 
2 


7 


12 
S 


4 

6 
5 


10 
88 
51 


Total ... 


14 


14 


12 


6 


6 


4 


10 


14 


8 


10 


19 


i; 


15 


149 


Winter 
40 


Spring 
16 


Summer 
32 


Autun)Q 
46 



Here the number of ^arthqqakes in autumn and winter are to those of 
summer and spring as 88 to 4*9, or nearly as 2 to 1 ; and for Perrey's critical 
periods: — 

Winter solstice 31 

Spring equinox 18 

Summer solstice ....••• 14< 

Autumnal equinox ,.,. , 18 

Peri^y wbolly di0putes the verity of Humboldt's conclusion (* Cosmos,' t. i. 
p. 549, trad* P- M* Fays) that earthquakes are most frequent at the equi« 
Qoies, and declares that the results of all his memoirs prove the contrary. 

He discusses from his catalogue the relative number of shocks in each 
State of the Union ; but this is comparatively of less importance to science 
than to fooial life. He has not been able to ascertain the northern limit of 
seismic action, but sees ground to believe it has reached Greenland more 
than once, but that frequent shocks pass no further north than the Canadas. 
The only records with direction of motion given are twelve in number, 
viz,,— 

N.W.toS.E 6 

W. „ E 3 

N.E. „ S.W, 2 

E. „ W 1 

and calculating, upon his already known method, the mean direction from 
this narrow base, he finds it 

N. 31^ 54f' W., to S. 31° 54' E.; 

hat he confesses his own opinion, derived from a broad view of all the facts 
and the topographic character of the country, to be, that the prevailing 
direction is from north to south, or the contrary. 



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24 



REPORT — 1858. 



The vertical compoDent of motion has only been given in one instance 
here ; but there is every reason to presume that the angle of emergence of 
the seismic wave all over the northern continent of America is steep. 

Table XVI. — Earthquakes of Mexico and Central America* 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 




Total. 


1 


1 


1 


t 

< 


15- 


6 


t 


< 


1 

GO 


1 


1 


1 


XVI 

XVII 

XVIII. ... 
XIX 


i 


"i 

2 
2 


'2 
4 
2 


3 
2 


"6 


2 


"2 
2 


"i 

1 


"s 

1 


1 
3 


1 
2 


3 


5 
3 
6 

1 


6 

7 

24 

30 


TottL ... 


8 


5 


8 


5 


6 


5 


4 


2 


4 


4 


3 


3 


15 


67 


Wmter 
16 


Spring 
16 


Summer 
10 


Autumn 
10 



The steep emergence of the wave is most remarkable in Mexico, where, at 
Acapulco, it is frequently felt as a directly vertical pube from beneath (as 
at Riobamba). 

Perrey does not attempt, from his materials, a full discussion of the hoii- 
zontal component of motion. The prevailing impression in Mexico is that 
the direction of shock is parallel to the chain of the Cordilleras. Some, how- 
ever, of the most remarkable shocks have apparently moved at right angles 
to the preceding. 

The truth is, in a wide region situated close to, and no doubt in great part 
close above, vast centres of disturbance, whose pulses reach the surmce gene- 
rally with large angles to the horizon, there must be horizontal components 
in every azimuth, and only distinguishable in one more than another, as the 
accidents of the originating blows, of the heterogeneous formations through 
which they are transmitted, and the opportunities of exactness of observa- 
tion, &c. vary. 

Perrey concludes this memoir with a rdsumi of the labours of Arago, Von 
Buch and Berghaus, on the volcanoes of Mexico and the Andes. 

In his memoir on the Antilles, Perrey includes Cuba, which has also been 
the subject of research to M. Poey, now stationed at the Observatory of 
Havanna — with Hispaniola, Jamaica and Porto Rico in the greater, and in 
the lesser isles Antigua, Barbadoes, St Christopher's, Guadaloupe, Mar- 
tinique, Granada, Trinidad, St. Thomas, Santa Cruz, Dominica, St. Vin- 
cent, Tobago, and St Lucia, &c. In discussing the copious materials at his 
disposal in this vast region, Perrey has found it necessary to adopt certain 
conventional licences with reference to some of the very prolonged earth- 
quakes, whose slight but continuous shocks have often (as at Comrie and 
East Haddam) lasted for a great length of time, reckoning each month of 
such shocks as equivalent to one great earthquake. 

In the following table, XVII., he has given the distribution in time : — 



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ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 25 

Table XVIL— Earthquakes of the Antilles. 



Ceutury. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With Season 
only. 


1-^ 


TotaL 


t 
s 


£ 


1 


t 

•< 


5r 


►-> 


^ 

•^ 


1 

< 




1 




1 




1^ 


XVI 






... 










1 


... 












1 


XVII 


... 


i 


i 


it i 


i 


i 




... 


... 


... 






•t. 


10 


16 


XVIII. ... 


6 


7 


3 


4 3 


5 


la 7 


9 


10 


5 


3 


... 


..* 


13 


85 


XIX 


9 


8 


19 


12 12 


10 


9 


16 


12 


10 


13 


12 


1 


... 


2 


145 


Total ... 


15 


16 


2S 


17 


16 


16 


20 


23 


2S 


20 


18 


15 


1 




25 


247 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autumn 




54 


iV 


65 


53 











Contrary to the result usual for Europe, the number of shocks in summer 
here seems to preponderate ; and in the critical periods we have — 

Winter solstice 30 

Spring equinox 40 

Summer solstice 36 

Autumnal equinox 42 

or for autumn and winter together 108; spring and summer 114,— a result 
equally contrary to what has been found so uniformly for Europe, and to 
the preyatent belief of the inhabitants of the islands themselyes, who deem 
the equinoxes the dangerous times. 

Representing by unity the mean degree of frequency, and by 12 the 
whole number of earthquakes given with date of month, we find for each 
month the following proportional number : — 



•^ 


£ 


1 


t 

< 


5? 


i 




^ 


1 


1 


1 


1 


0*81 


0-87 


1-25 


0-92 


0-87J0-87jl-09 


1*25 


M9 


1-09 


0:98 


0-81 


0^8 


0-89 1-18 


0-96 



As regards horizontal direction of shock, his data give* 

to W 

„ N 



E. to W 9 

S. „ N 5 

N. „ S 3 

W. „ E 2 

N.E. „ S.W 2 



from which, by his usual method, he deduces a mean horizontal direction— 
E.22°5'S.toW.22^5'N.; 

and it is worthy of remark, that Deville gives, as greatly disturbed in 1843> 
the zone running parallel to the great circle of W. 35° N. to E. 35° S., 



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36 



EBPOBT — 1858. 



or E. S5° S. to W, S5" N., which is about parallel also to Perrey's mean 
direction. It must not be forgotten, however, that, in 1812 and in 184*3, 
shocks wer^ observed at right angles to this, and in some cases, as in 1770, 
in all azimuths ; and also that the prevalent opinion of the inhabitants of the 
West Indian Islands is, that they (lave a general north and south horizontal 
direction, thus coming within the scope of the general direction of similar 
phenomena on the northern and southern continents of America. 

M. Poey, of the Observatory, Havanna, has published, in the * Nouvelles 
Annales des Voyages' for 1855, a memoir and supplement upon the earth- 
quakes of Cuba, separately, with copies of which he has obligingly fpr- 
nished me. It would be out of place in this Report to discuss M. Poey's 
views pis to the connexion between cyclones, or other storms, and earth- 
quakesi, or as to the physical causes of the impulse producing shocks. As 
regards the first, it may, however, be remarked in passing, that violent and 
sudden locfil change of barometer-pressure must (as I have indicated in a 
former report) be viewed as a possible inducer of such reactions beneath the 
surface as fnay possibly result in earthquakes ; and that as respects the part 
which water, under heat and pressure, may play in its spheroidal state, I 
h^ve also indica^d fully as much as the present state of our knowledge will 
sustain. As respects the statistic results of M. Poey's labours, they are 
embraced in the following table, which combines the facts of both memoir 
and supplement : — 







Table XVIII. 


— Earthquake 


is of Cuba. 










Bgrtbqoaket with Oate of D»y or of Month. 






















, 








C^^qry- 


»-» 


£ 


i 


t 

< 


i 


« 

§ 




1 

< 




1 


1 
§ 


1 




Total. 


XVI 


... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


! 


4 


4 


XVII 


... 


i 


... 


... 




... 


... 






... 


... ■ ... 


... 


4 


XVIII. ... 


... 




... 




... 


... 


... 






... 




2 


2 


XIX 


4 


B 2 


3 


3 


4 


5 


2 


6 


5 


6 ; 4 


3 


50 


Total ... 


4 


7 


2 


8 


8 


4 


5 


2 


6 


5 


6 


4 


9 


60 


Winter 


Spring 


Sammer 


Antamn 




13 


10 


18 


15 







Cuba, therefore, appears to show 28 earthquakes in the winter and autumn, 
and 23 only in the sammer and spring. 

The surface of this single island is, however, perhaps too small to attach 
much importance to its isolated discussion*. 

The last of Perrey's monographic memoirs is that on Chili and La Plata, 

* While this Report has been passing through the press, I have received firora M. Pocy a 
copy of his later and more elaborate " Chronological Catalogue of Earthquakes in the West 
Indies, from 1 530 to 1857, extracted from 'rAnnuaire de la Society M^t^rologiqae de Prance,' 
torn. V. p. 75, S^nce da 25 Mai, 1857," and regret that the limits of a foot-note preclude 
the possibility of analysis of his valuable memoir. 

Of a total of 690 earthquakes, he finds that 142 occurred in winter, 156 in spring, 187 
in summer, and 154 in autumn,— thus so far corroborating Perrey's result deduced from 
a ampler base. 

^ very complete Seismic Bibliography for the Antillet concludes M. Poey's i 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON THS FACTS AND THBOEY Of BABTHaUAKB PHBNOMBNA. 27 



or the region lying between the western slope of the Andes and the 
from the 25° to the 45^ south latitude, between the Desert of Atacama on 
the north, and the Archipelago of Chonos on the south. 

The following table contains his numerical results for a region, however, 
in which shocks of greater or less intensity are almost of daily oc- 
currence : — 

Table XIX. — Earthquakes of Chili and the basin of La Plata. 





Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


^ . 




Century. 




H 


Tottl 




t 

1 














i 

CO 




1 
1 


g 




1 


.g 


i 


^ 

S 


»-» 


>-> 


1 


1 


1 







XVI. 

XVIL.:.... 

XVIII. ... 

XIX. 


"i 

14 


i 

1 

10 


1 

1 
14 


"i 


'i 

1 

19 


n 


10 


i 

15 


i'e 


1 

9 


27 


"i 

8 


4 

6 
8 
8 


5 

9 

16 

170 


Total ... 


15 


12 


16 


8 


21 


12 


16 


16 


16 


10 


27 


9 


16 


194 


Winter 
43 


Spring 


Summer 
48 


Autumn 
46 



From thb table he has omitted several earthquakes, whgse period has 
been prolopged to several weeks or even months, by a ppnvention like that 
adopted here with regard to the memoir of Comrie, &e. 

A table of earthquakes noticed as occurring in Peru from a.d. 1810 tp 
1835, by M. Castelnau, was presented to the Academy of Sciences in 
ISI-T, by Arago (' Coniptes Renaus,' 2 Nov. 1847) ; but the catalogue itself is 
not given, and I am not aware that it has appeared elsewhere. 

M. Lambert, mining engineer of Chili, in a memoir on the causes of 
earthquakes in Chili and Peru (*Ann. de Chlm. et de Phys.,' t. xlii. 
pp. 392-405), published in 1829, mentions that the Chilians vulgarly 
divide their year into three seasons or '* temporadas," ^nd that oqe of these, 
the first, composed of January, February, March, and April, is called " tem- 
porada de los tremblores,'' or earthquake season ; on comparipg the facts of 
his catalogue, with the popular belief however, Perrey finds the facts pal- 
pably contradict it. 

As to the prevalent horizontal direction fiere, Perrey makes no attempt 
to discuss it, contenting himself with the remark, that the popular belief 
is universal in the region, that it follows the chain of the Cordillera. In a 
country, however, having so little of its observed surface (for the great 
sandy deserts are nepirly ynknown as respects our inquiry) of a level cha- 
racter, with a general seaward slope from the great ftentral axis, and with 
the origin of disturbance so closely beneath, that many of the most for? 
midable earthquakes have emerged almost vertically over considerable 
tracts, the attempt to fix a prevailing horizontal direction would be 
nugatory. 

Finally, we come to the two last of Perrey's memoirs which have been 
referred to — those in which he has brought under one view many of the 
facts of his monographs, and graphically discussed the results in tables 
for all Europe, witJi the adjacent parts of Africa and of Asia, and for the 
north of Europe with the north of Asia, viewed as one great boreal band. 
The results of the former are given in the following Table :— < 



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28 



REPOET — 1858. 



Tablb XX. — R6sum6 of the Earthquakes of Europe, and of the adjacent 
parts of Asia and of Africa, from A.D. 306 to 184*3. 



Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With date of 
Season only. 


It 



Total. 


1 


1 


1 


t 


s? 


, 


% 


i 




1 


1 
1 


1 


1 




l6 

feo| 




•-» 


& 


^ 


< 


:5 


•-• 


►5 


< 


S 





Z 


W 


CQ 






IV 














1 






1 




2 


8 


I 


12 


21 


V 


1 


"i 


... 


3 
2 


2 


2 

1 


1 
2 


1 


2 

2 


"3 


'2 
2 


3 


3 

1 


... 


11 
11 


25 
31 


VI 


VII 








1 




1 


... 


2 


... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


6 


10 


VIII 


2 


2 


1 


1 


i 


... 


... 


... 


... 




... 


... 


i 


... 


8 


11 


IX 


4 

1 
1 
8 


2 

"i 

2 




1 
1 
1 
3 


1 

"2 
3 


1 

"i 
2 


"2 


1 

2 
3 


2 
1 
4 
3 


2 
2 
3 


1 
3 

1 


6 
1 
3 
4 


5 
1 
1 
3 


1 


10 

8 

19 

34 


86 
17 
51 

68 


X. 


XI 


XII 


XIII 


8 


2 




1 


5 


... 


2 


... 


1 


,, 


2 


5 


4 


... 


27 


55 


XIV 


1 


1 




... 


3 


4 


3 


2 


4 


3 


4 


4 


2 


2 


22 


58 


XV. 


.. 


1 




1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2; 7 


... 


I 


17 


41 


XVI 


10 


5 




8 


10 


4 


2 


3 


9 


3 


6, 10 


8 


... 


31 


110 


XVII 


21 


16 


15 


13 


6 


9 


10 


3 


14 


3 


10 


17 


1 


1 


41 


180 


XVIII. ... 


77 


53 


45 


52 


36 


49 


49 


49 


32 


62 


55 


62 


14 


4 


21 


660 


XIX 


99100 


90 


59 


55 


55 


74 


78 


72 


92 


60 


78 


6 


I 


6 


925 


Total ... 


228189 


172 


147 


126 


131 


148 


147 


147 


176 


148|2^ 


48 


11 


279 


2299 


Winter 


Sjring 


Summer 


Autumn 




589 


442 


526 











Autumn and winter still preponderate thus for entire Europe. As regards 
the ^' critical periods" of the year, the results are — 

For XIX. Century. For the whole period. 

Winter solstice 177 253 

Spring equinox 151 170 

Summer sobtice 129 150 

Autumnal equinox 164 159 

and for the half year, and XIX. century only — 

Autumn and Winter 527 

Spring and Summer 394 

and for the whole period of nearly 15^ centuries — 

Autumn and Winter 1165 

Spring and Summer 857 

or about as 1 : 0*75. 

The mean anntial number of earthquakes in Europe, &c., deduced from 
the data of the ten years between 1833-1842, while it was everywhere at 
peace, and intelligence well conveyed, Perrey finds to be nearly 33 per 
annum. He considers that one-fifth more may probably have occurred 
that have not come to his knowledge, so that the mean annual number 
would be 40, or between 4 and 5 per month. 

The remainder of this memoir is occupied with remarks upon very nu- 
merous and interesting secondary phenomena, recorded of the earthquakes 
referred to in the catalogue dispvissed. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ON THB FACTS AND THEORY OF BARTHQUAKB PHBN0M8NA. 29 

lo the last memoir — that in which Perrey dbcusses the earthquakes of 
lorthern Europe and northern Asia together — he expresses with some 
aation his own belief that the preponderance of seismic phenomena in the 
mter half-year above the summer half, in the ratio above given, is worthy 
of acceptance as an empiric law for Europe at least, but doubts whether it 
naj be extended to the other hemisphere. 

The geographical limits of this sebmic region are somewhat arbitrary, 
reaching from the Elbe on the west to the extremity of Kamtschatka on 
the east; bounded on the north, in Europe, by the Baltic and White Seas, 
but in Asia reaching to the Arctic shores ; and on the south, in Europe, by 
a great circle passing north of the Carpathian Mountains to the Euxine, the 
Caucasus and the Caspian, and thence by the Desert of Gobi to the Sea of 
Okhotsk — a va^t tract, containing many important mountain-chains, though 
principally distinguished, as Perrey remarks, by its immense plains and low 
table-lands. 

The eight following tables give not only his numerical results for this 
region, but a general comparative view of the numerical results of nearly 
the whole of his memoirs, for which I have somewhat extended some of the 
tables, and changed their order slightly. 



Table XXI.- 


-Earthquakes of the Northern Zone of Europe. 




Centory. 


Earthquaket with date of Day or Month. 


Season only. 


It 

1^ 


Total 


3 

1 

•-> 


t 


1 


1 

< 




•^ 


>-> 


-§ 


1 


1 


1 


J 


1g 
1^ 


CO 


VULtoXVI. 


2 


1 


1 


1 


3; ^ 


1 


2 


1 




1 




... 


2 


8 


25 


XVII 


3 


5 




1 






1 


1 




2 


2 


•». 


... 


4 


19 


xviu 


10 


7 


i 


4 


4 1 


2 


5 


4 


4 


3 


5 


1 


... 


... 


54 


XDL 


1^ 


5 


4 


5 


6| 3 


2 


4 


2 


9 


7 


6 


... 


... 


... 


65 


Total... 


27 


18 


9 


11 


13| 6 


5 


12 


8 


13 


13 


13 


1 


2 


12 


led 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Autanm 




54 


80 


25 


39 













Table XXII.— 


Earthquakes 


of the Northern Zone of Asia. 







Century. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With Season 
only. 




Total. 




i 

1 


g 

1 


:^ 


s 


1 


i 

>-> 




< 


1 


1 


1 
o 

Z, 


1 




It 
fl 


xvui 

XIX. 


3 

4 


6 
6 


2 
6 


1 
4 


1 
4 


3 


1 
5 


2 
7 


2 
6 


2 
3 


1 

4 


3 
5 


1 


... 


7 


32 
57 


Total ... 


7 


12 


8 


5 


5 


3 


6 


9 


8 


5 


5 


8 


1 


... 


7 


89 




Winter 
27 


Spring 
13 


Summer. 
23 


Autumn 
18 



Digitized by ^OOQlC 



so 



RiftPORt— 1858. 



Tablk XXIII. — Earthquakes of the Northern Zone of Europe and of 

Asia together. 



Centmy. 


Earthquakes with date of Day or Month. 


With Season 
only. 








►» 


















1 


1 




3§ 


TotaL 




r 




1 


t 


i 


i 


# 


1 




1 


II 


boS 






►^ 


Pb« 


S 


< 


s 


*-> 


►5 


< 


CQ 


o 


55 


Q 


CO 






VIII. to XVI. 


9 


1 


1 


1 


8 


9 


1 


d 


1 




1 




i*. 


2 


8 


2ft 


XVII 


8 


5 




1 


1 




... 


1 


1 


... 


2 


2 




... 


4 


20 


XVIII 


i;^ 


13 


6 


5 


5 


i 


3 


7 


6 


6 


4 


8 


2 


... 


7 


86 


XIX 


16 


11 


10 


9 


10 


6 


7 


11 


8 


12 


11 


11 


... 




... 


122 




Total ... 


34 


30 


17 


U 19 


9 


11 


21 


16 


18 


18 


21 


2 


2 


19 


253 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


AutumH 




81 


44 


48 


57 








1 



Table XJQV. — General Result as to Mensual Relative Frequency of 

Earthquakes. 



Regiom. 



t 



s 



I 



Europe (the whole) ... 
France and Belgium... 

Italy and SaToy 

Baain of the Rhone ... 
Basin of the Danube.. 

Scandinavia 

Europe, Northern Zone 
Asia, Northern Zone... 
Both Zones united 



1-36 
152 
116 
1-69 
1-38 
1-85 
219 
1-04 

1-78; 



Ml 
117 
113 
1-31 
1-38 
112 
1-46 
1-78 



107 
0971 

1-27 
106^ 
0-62; 
118 
0-73 
119 



1-67 0-89 



0-95 
1-01 
105 
066 
0-71 
0-75 
0-89 
0-74 
0-84 



0-85 
0-77 
0-96 
0-71 
Ml 
0-90 
105 
0-74 
0-94 



0-81 
0-66 
0-96 
0-71 
0-84 



0-87 0-95 
0-86 0-73 
0-94 0-94 
59 0-59 
116 



0^89 1-02 
0-91 0-88 



0-56 0-95 
0-49 0-43 
044 
0-47 



Ml 

0-73 

0-98 

0-89 1-33 

0-58; MO 



0-76 
1-24 
0-71 
101 
0-66 
M9 
0-84 



0*93 1*21 
1-09, 1-43 
0-76 0-94 



113 
098 
102, 0-80 M6 



I 0-92 



0-96 
105 
074 
09i' 



106 
1-05 



1-67 



0-95 
105 



0-74 1 19 
0-94 MO 



34-32 
7-02 

10-83 
1-91 
318 
2-52 
1-63 
•80 
2*52 



Table XXV. — Result as to Relative Frequency in Season. 



Region. 


Winter. 


Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


Europe (the whole) ... 
France and Belgium ... 
ItalT and Savov. ........ 


118 
1-22 
119 
1-35 
113 
1-38 
1-49 
1-33 
1-41 


0-87 
0-81 
0-99 
0-69 
0-89 
0-73 
081 
0-67 
0-76 


0-90 
0*83 
0-88 
0-81 
0-99 
0-90 
0*69 
M8 
0-84 


105 
113 
0-94 
M6 
0-99 
0-99 
1-05 
0-89 
0*99 


Basin of the Rhone ... 
Basin of the Danube... 
Scandinavia 


Europe, Northern Zone 
Asia, Northern Zone... 
Both Zones united ... 



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ON THB FACTS AND THBORT OP BARTHQUAKB PHENOMENA. Si 

Tablb XXVI. — Result as to Relative Frequency at the Equinoxes and 

Solstices. 



Region. 


Winter 
Solstice. 


Spring 
Equinox. 


Summer 
Solstice. 


Autumnal 
Equinox. 


Europe (the whole) .*. 
Fnnce and Belgium ... 

Italy and Satoy 

Basin of the Rhone ... 

Batin of Danube 

ScandinaTia *. 


1-26 
1*43 
1-02 
1-53 
1-33 
1-36 
1-74 
1-20 
1-48 


0-99 
0-96 
113 
0-81 
0-70 
0-94 
0-87 
1-04 


0-82 
0-73 
0-93 
0-61 
1-06 
0-74 
0-48 
0-72 
0-68 


0*93 
0-87 
0-92 
1-05 
0-91 
0-96 
0-91 
104 
0-98 


Europe, Northern Zone 
Asia, Northern Zone... 
Both Zones iinited ... 



T'ablb XXVII. — Result as to Relatire Directions of Horisontal 
Component of Shoclc. 







^ 




^ 




M 




^ 






CO 


^ 


1^ 


^fH 


a 


e 


H 


09 


t 


Region. 


S 


B 


B 


a 


s 


S 


B 


B 




» 


i 


H 


^ 


« 


i 


^ 


^ 

» 


H 


Europe (the whole) ... 


1-67 


0*65 


1*65 


0*67 


112 


0*88 


0*88 


0-60 


464 


France and Belgium ... 


1-60 


0*43 


1*88 


0-59 


1*02, 0*96; 0*91| 0-69 


149 


Italy and Savoy 


1*09 


0*91 


2*26 


0*91 


109 0*51 0-87 0-29 


110 


Basin of th« Rhone ... 


1*30 


0*87 


1-80 


0*66 


1*88! 112 M2| 0*87 


48 


Basin of the Danube... 


1*83 


0*60 


1*33 


0*00 


M7i 100 1*83 0-83 


48 


Scandinavia 


0*73 


1*09 


0*73 


109 


109 1*45 1*09 0-73 
207 000, 1*98 0-59 


22 


Europe, Northern Zone 


119 


0*60 


1*48 


0*30 


27 


Asia, Northern Zone... 


2*35 


l-SSi 


0*94 


0*47 


0*47 0*94 0*00 0*94 


17 


Both Zones united ... 


1*64 


1*09 1*27 


0-36 


0-43' 0*86 109 0*78 


44 



Tablb XXVIII Result as to Comparative General Resultant HoriEontel 

Direction and Intensity. 



Region. 


Resultant Horizontal 
Direction. 


Intensity of 
Resultant. 


Europe (the whole) » 

France and Behrium 


E.33°42'N. 
N. 71° 27' E. 
S. 85**51'E. 
S. 9°44'W. 
W. 2° 39' N. 
S. 22^ 30' W. 
S. 17°45'W. 
N.23°48'E. 
N.23°55'B. 
8.39'' 5'W. 
E.81'»56'S. 
S. 7° 9'E. 
N.34°37'W. 
N.31°54'W. 
E.22° 5'B. 


0-61 
0*56 
215 
1*23 
066 
0*94 
0-23 
314 
1*06 

? 

? 

? 

? 

? 

2 


Italy and Savoy 


Basin of the Rhone 


Basin of the Danube 


Scandinavia 


Europe, Northern Zone 


Asia, Northern Zone. 


Both Zones united 


British Islands 


Spanish Peninsula i 

Basin of the Rhine 


Turco-HcUenic Territory 


Mexico and Central America ... 
TheAntiOet , 





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32 REPORT — 1858. 

There remains to be noticed, of M. Perrey's labours, his discussion of the 
periodicity of the earthquakes of his annual catalogues for IS^^, 1845, 
1846, and 1847, with reference to the phases of the moon's motions, published 
in ' M6m. de 1' Academic des Sciences de Dijon,' 1848, 1849, part des 
Sciences, p. 105, &c., and also presented to the Institute of France at a 
later period. 

The result he arrives at, as respects these four years, is, that the number of 
earthquakes occurring at the Perigees (when the tides are highest and 
lowest) are, to those occurring at the Apogees, as 47 : 39, — a conclusion 
which, independently of the assumptions by which it is; arrived at, must be 
as yet accepted with caution upon so narrow a base of induction, although 
possessing more than enough probability^ from physical considerations, to 
induce further inquiry. 

The Academy of Sciences (Paris) appointed a commission to report upon 
M. Perrey's communication ; and the following translation of its report 
('Comptes Rendus/ tom. xxxviii. 12 Juin, 1854) will give a tolerably dear 
notion of his views^ which here rest upon a larger base than in his Memoir 
as first published : — 

'* The Academy has commissioned us, MM. Liouville, Lam6, and myself, to 
draw up a report on a paper presented by M. Alexis Perrey, Professor in the 
Faculty of Sciences at Dijon, on the 21st March 1853, ' On the Connexion 
which may exist between the occurrence of Earthquakes and the Moon's 
Age,' and on a note also presented by him on the 2nd January last, ^ On 
the occurrence of Earthquakes in connexion with the Moon's passing over 
the Meridian.' 

" At the time of the presentation of the paper of March 1853, M, Arago 
had been appointed a member of the commission. The lamented death of 
our illustrious associate, since that date, left a vacant place in our commis- 
sion ; and before the presentation of the note of the 2nd January 1854, M. 
Lam6 was appointed to it. 

^< M.Arago, whose attention nothing escaped which relates to the physics of 
the globe, pursued with sustained interest the researches of M. Alexis Perrey. 
The Academy has not forgotten the care which he constantly took to draw 
its attention to the notes which the learned Professor at Dijon addressed to 
him from time to time within the last few years, in consequence of the in- 
quiries he was engaged in on the subject of earthquakes. M. Arago made 
particular mention, at several meetings, of the connexion which the author 
had already traced between the occurrence of earthquakes and the moon's 
age. 

<< The cause of the interest which belongs to this subject is easily explained. 
If, as is generally believed in the present day, the interior of the earth is, 
owing to its high temperature, in a liquid or melted state, and if the globe 
has but a comparatively thin solid crust, the interior, being deprived of 
solidity, is compelled to yield, like the superficial mass of the ocean waters, 
to the attractive force exercised by the sun and moon, and it acquires a 
tendency to swell out in the direction of the rays of these two bodies ; but 
this tendency meets with a resistance in the rigidity of the solid crust, which 
occasions shocks and fractures of the latter. The intensity of this force 
varies, like the tides, according to the relative position of the sun and moon, 
and consequently according to the moon's age ; and we must also observe 
that as the tides ebb and now twice in the course of a lunar day, at those 
hours which agree with the passing of the moon over the meridian, so the 
direction of the attraction exercised upon a point of the interior globe must 
change twice a day> according as the point recedes or approaches the 

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ox THE FACTS AND THBOBT OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 33 

meridian, the plane of which passes through the centre of the moon. With* 
oot entering into longer details, we can easily conceive that, if the fusion of 
the interior mass of the globe plays a part among the causes of earthquakes, 
then its influence may become evident by a necessary connexion, capable of 
observatioD, between the occurrence of earthquakes and the circumstances 
which modify the moon's action upon the entire globe, or upon a portion of 
it, namely, its angular distance from the sun, its real distance from the earth, 
ind its angular distance from the meridian of the place, or, in other words, 
the moon's age, the time of perihelion, and the hour of the lunar day. 

" These considerations, which occurred to M. A. Perrey, doubtless in- 
spired him with the idea of the two works which we have been commis- 
sioned to examine, at the same time that they assisted in attracting the 
interest of M. Arago and many other learned men to the results which he 
obtained ; but they also suggest that the essential object of the inquiries on 
which we are commissioned to report ought to be, to ascertain the precise 
date, according to the lunar day and month, of every earthquake the 
record of which history has preserved, and even of each of the shocks 
of which these earthquakes consisted. We can easily imagine the immense 
toil which such a research would demand, and understand that M. Alexis 
Perrey having already devoted several years to it without bringing it to a 
termination, has yet been enabled at different intervals to obtain such par- 
tial results as M. Arago deemed worthy of the encouragement and attention 
of the Academy ; and that the learned Professor at Dijon is impatient, before 
encountering the labours of still more years, to learn whether the Academy 
approves of the course which he has hitherto pursued. The necessity the 
author feels for the support and direction of the Academy explains why he 
has, upon several occasions, submitted to it results which naturally could 
not be complete, and which are not entirely so even in the paper and note 
which we are commissioned to examine. In the paper presented on the 
21st March 1853, ' On the Connexion which may exist between the occur- 
rence of Earthquakes and the Moon's Age,' the author has devoted the first 
chapter to the calculation and numerical changes of the rough results of 
observation. 

^ He has supposed four possible methods of calculation. In the first, 
already followed in the memoir presented to the Academy May 5, 1847, 
the author considers as a day of an earthquake each day upon which a 
shock has been felt, whether in a single country, or in two or more coun- 
tries at the same or at different hours, separated from each other by spaces 
in which the motion was not experienced. Then noting, according to the 
knowledge of the period, to which day of lunation each day of earthquake 
corresponded, he arranges all the days which belong to the first day of 
lunation, then all those which correspond to the second day, the third, the 
fourth, &c. ; and he constructs a table composed of thirty lines, each line 
indicating the number of earthquakes which belong to the corresponding day 
of lunation. Now these numbers vary one day with another, and they vary 
nearly in accordance with the same law, both in a table comprising a total 
of 2735 days of earthquake, the result of researches carried on during the 
years from 1801 to 1845, drawn up by the author and presented to the 
Academy May 5th, 1847; and in a new table containing a total of 5388 
days of earthquake, embracing the result of extensive researches carried on 
from 1801 to 1850. 

" In both tables the number of earthquakes corresponding to the days 
close to the Syzygies, is generally a little more considerable than that which 
corresponds with the days close to the Quadratures. In the second method 
1858. D 

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34 BBPOBT — 1858. 

of calculation, the author regards earthquakes experienced in different regions, 
separated by regions where the shock is not perceptible, as distinct one from 
the other, and reckons as an earthquake every percussion felt in a separated 
region. This new method of calculation increases the number of earth- 
quakes in the 1st table from 27S5 to 304«1, and in the 2nd table from 
5388 to 6596. The same law is again apparent in these two new tables, 
and also in the four other tables which the author forms by dividing the 
half century between 1800 and 1850 into two intervals, each of a quarter 
of a century, and by successively applying the first and second methods 
of calculation to the earthquakes of these two intervals. 

<'In the third method of computation, M. Alexis Perrey regards every shock 
of which an earthquake is composed as a distinct phenomenon, and registers 
it separately ; but he does not possess the documents necessary for this plan, 
because the number of shocks in each earthquake has not been accurately 
noted. The author has hitherto contented himself with considering in this 
manner the Table of 931 shocks felt in South America, chiefly in Arequipa, 
published by M. Castelnau in the 5th volume of hb * Journey through the 
Central Regions of South America.' This table, without leading to results 
identical with those furnished by the other two methods, exhibits the fun* 
damental relation already manifested. Lastly, in the fourth method of 
computation, the application of which would often be very difficult, and 
which has not yet been attempted by M. Alexis Perrey, we are to con* 
sider as an unique phenomenon the number of shocks consecutively felt in 
the same country during an interval preceded and followed in the same 
country by periods of tranquillity. 

*' To the nine tables formed by one or other of the three first methods of 
computation the author has added a tenth, formed by Uie first method. 
This only embraces four years, from 1841 to 1845, and contains but 4^ 
days of earthquakes. In spite of this comparatively limited number, the 
proportion of the figures appears the same. In all these tables we observe 
% marked preponderance in the number of earthquakes which take place 
upon di^s close to the Syzygies, over those which occur at the Quadra* 
tures. However, it is but a general law which can be observed in the state** 
ment of figures of which the tables are composed ; and there are numerous 
exceptions. In order to weaken the force of these anomalies, and more 
clearly to exhibit the fundamental law, M. Alexis Perrey divides the 29j\ 
53 1. of which the lunation is composed, into 12ths, 16ths, 8ths, — and forms, 
by proportionate calculations applied to the ciphers of his different tables 
constructed on the solar days, the numbers which correspond to each frac- 
tion of lunation; he displays in all these new tables (excepting some 
anomalies of detail) the law of the predominance of earthquakes at the 
Syzygies, and thus confirms more and more his conclusion, that, for half a 
century, earthquakes have been more frequent at the Syzygies than at the 
Quadratures, M. Alexis Perrey has also studied, in the more or leas exten- 
sive registers which assisted him to draw up his different Tables, the ques* 
tion, whether there exi:its any connexion between the occurrence of earth- 
quakes and the variable distance of the moon from the earth in traversing 
the different portions of her elliptical orbiL For this purpose he has cal- 
culated in each of his registers, and according to the different modes of 
computation employed to draw up the above-mentioned tables, how often 
earthquakes have occurred two days before and after, and upon the day of 
the moon's perigee and apogee ; and be has shown, in the numbers thus ob* 
tained, that the total corresponding to the perigee, in which the moon is 
nearest the earth, is greater than that corresponding to the apogee^ in which 

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ON THK TACTS AXB THSOEY OF BABTHQUAKS PHRNOMSXA* S5 



•JieiBAft bergreaftertdiateMe: tkea, in order to conpftre Uie results, be lias 
taken the difierence of tbe totab tiias obcained and dirided it bj their sam, 

which has^Ten him the qnotieiits ,ti* ^ iTT ilT I^* iR' T^j' ^*»ch are 

all gremter than ^ and the last almost equal to ^- 

" The apparent reralt Dpsm thk i% that the difference between the aneqoal 
attractioo exercbed bj the moon at her greatest and nearest distance has a 
sensible infloaioe ar& the ooearreoce of earthquakes. Id the note on the 
^oocurrence of Earthquakes in connexion with the passiDg of the Moon 
over tbe Meridian,' which he presented to the Academj January % 1854s 
M. Alexis Perrej djaeoiscs the questioo, whether the division of the shocks 
of earthquake during a lunar daj is, like the tides, connected with the 
passa^ of the moon over tbe superior and inferior meridian. For this 
method of investigation he could onlj avail himself of the 824 shocks felt at 
Arequipa, which are registered with day and hour in the above-mentioned 
table of AL de Casteloau. By means of proportional calculations, which 
must have occupied a considerable time, he has calculated to which hour 
afler tbe passage of the moon over tbe meridian, each of these shocks cor* 
responds. He thus formed a 1st table (which he afterwards changed by 
dividing it into sixteen equal portions, grouped side by side, to form eighths^ 
containing the 24 hours 50 minutes and a half of which a lunar day gene« 
rally consists. 

" By these two methods ^notwithstanding some marked anomalies which 
could not but exbt in so limited a number of facts as 824), the results 
obtained in both arrangements manifest the existence, in the length of a lunar 
day, of two periods of maximum for the occurrence of shocks, and two of 
minuma i u The two periods of maximum occur at the hours of the passing 
of the moon over the superior and inferior meridians ; and the periods of 
minimum fall about the middle of tbe intervals. 

** M. Alexis Perrey has thus succeeded, by the simple analysis of cataloguss 
which he had previously drawn up, in proving, by three different and inde* 
pendent methods, the influence which the moon possesses in the production 
of earthquakes : — 

" 1st. That earthquakes occur more frequently at the Syzygies. 

" 2nd. That their frequency increases at the Perigee, and diminbhss at 
the Apogee of the moon. 

^* 3rd. That the shocks of earthquake are more frequent when the moon 
is near the meridian than when she is 90 degrees away from it. 

" But the numerical tables from which these three propositions are derived^ 
present some anomalies ; and the author has omitted nothing to endeavouc to 
account for them, and to prove the law which is revealed at their first in* 
spection. He first conceived the idea of constructing graphically the num- 
bers contained in the tables, so as to obtain by the usual method a poly* 
gonal line analogous to those by which barometrical observations are usually 
represented, in which the eye catches at once the general course of pheno* 
mena in the midst of anomalies which tend to conceal it. We are tempted 
to regret that he has not further developed this graphical part of his worki 
which would have bad the great advantage of displaying at a glance the 
direct result of his researches ; and that he has not even annexed to his me« 
moir any of the lines which he constructed. But M. Alexis Perrey con- 
sidered that he would obtain still more certain results by employing calcu- 
lation ; and to this arduous task he devoted the 2nd Chapter of his principal 
paper, and the Second Part of his note of the 2nd January, 1884. It would 
be difficult for us to follow the author step by step in these analytical discu*' 

d2 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



36 REPORT — 1858. 

sions ; we will restrict ouMelves to the observation, that, in order to repre- 
sent the result of his work, he has employed a formula of interpolation of 
this kind : — 

«^=M-f- A sin (<+a) + Bsin (2*+/3)+C sin (3/+y)+ . . ., in which M, 
A, B, C, &c. are always coefficients of the same nature as ^ ; a, /3, y, &c^ 
are always angles, and t a variable angle dependent on the lunar motion, which 
will be equal to degree for the new moon, to 90 degrees for the first 
quarter, to 180 degrees for the full moon, &c. He then adapts this for- 
mula to the numerical tables deduced from observation, and determines the 
particular truths which it contains. By means of the formula thus ob- 
tained, the author was enabled to draw up numerical tables corresponding 
to those deduced from observation alone, and in which the law of the phe- 
nomena appears disconnected from the principal anomalies which tended to 
obscure it in the first tables. The numbers contained in these new tables 
are carefully arranged, and form regular curved lines, in which the law is 
clearly manifest These curves have a marked resemblance to each other, 
although they are not entirely alike — which could not be, for they are only 
approximative— and each bears the stamp of the group of figures which it 
represents. The resemblance of these curves is essentially increased by the 
fact that each presents two principal maxima corresponding to the Syzygies, 
and two principal minima corresponding to the Quadratures. We are thus 
brought back to the conclusion so evident by M. A. Perrey's toil, — that, for 
half a century, earthquakes have been more frequent at the Syzygies than at 
the Quadratures. 

'^The Academy fully conceives the importance of this conclusion, and 
appreciates the labour the author has taken to collect nearly 7000 observa- 
tions on the first half of this century. This number, however, is very small 
for the solution of a question of this nature ; and it is very desirable to have 
it increased, either by collecting all future observations from year to year, 
or by going back to past centuries, as the author has already commenced 
doing." 

These views of Perrey have found support in the opinions enunciated 
by M. Zantedeschi as to the probable existence of a terrestrial as well as 
an oceanic tide, one in which the solid mass of the earth's crust, and the 
liquid or semiliquid nucleus beneath (if indeed it exist in any such state) is 
supposed to be an ellipsoid, with a major axis perpetually following the move- 
ments of the moon and sun. To what extent such a change of form is possible 
in the solid material of our planet under the constraint of the same forces that 
produce the oceanic tides (and whose elevations must in so far act against 
such change of form), it is for physical astronomy to determine. But even 
if its existence be admitted, and the change of level of a given point on the 
earth's surface were proved to amount to many feet — to far more, in fact, 
than the total elevation of the greatest ocean tide- wave, it is difiicult to con- 
ceive how it even then could be a direct or immediate cause of earthquakes. 
Such change of form would be probably quite insignificant as compared 
with the earth's total mass ; so that the flexures or changes of form produced 
by it in the solid crust would probably be far within the elastic limits of its 
materials, and, hence, the occurrence of fractures or dislocations due to such 
a train of causes impossible. 

If it ultimately prove a fact that there is a real relation in epoch between 
earthquakes and the ocean tides, or the moon's and sun's position in respect 
to the earth, the phenomena will probably be found in relation, only through 
the intervention of changes in terrestrial temperature^ or in the great circu- 

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ox THB FACTS AND THBORY OP EARTHQUAKB PHENOMENA. S/ 

ktions upon or within our planet, of itd electrical, or magnetic, or thermic 
currents, or the conversion of these into each other reciprocally, and not to 
the direct action of the variable attractive forces of our primary and our 
satellite. To some such conversions of force into heat, developed at local 
foci, it would appear much more probable that all volcanic phenomena are 
due, than to a universal ocean of incandescent and molten lava beneath our 
feet, with a thin crust of solid matter covering it, the present or historical 
existence of which is not only not proven, but for which no argument of 
weighty probability has been, as I conceive, advanced. 

In the present state of our knowledge of the obscure relations between 
the internal mass and actions of our planet with the cosmical forces that 
act upon it both within our own atmosphere and from the abysses of 
space beyond, and in our comparative ignorance even of the terrestrial 
phenomena themselves, no speculation, however hazardous or hardy, that 
is based upon a natural hypothesis, need be regretted : such views in the 
beginning of every separate road of inductive science are eminently sug- 
gestive, and, although in themselves false, may point towards truth. It is only 
in this aspect that a memoir by Dr. C. F. Winslow, M.D., * On the Causes 
of Tides, Earthquakes, Rising of Continents, and Variations of Magnetic 
Force,' requires notice. The communication appears to have been made to 
the Academy of Sciences of San Francisco, California, by the author, in 1854* 
or 1855. I have met with it only through a printed copy, for which I believe 
I am indebted to the author. 

That our satellite does actually influence the magnet directly, has been 
discovered by Herr Kreil, of the Vienna Royal Observatory (see *Phil. 
Trans.,' 1857> and *Proe. Roy. Soc.,' vol. vii. pp. 67-75). General Sabine, 
in the introduction to vol. iii. of ' Magnetic and Meteoric Observations made 
at Toronto,' p. 9, states — " The decennial solar period of ten or eleven years, 
in connexion with the solar spots, proved to connect itself with the magnet- 
ism of the earth, but not with other cosmical phenomena" (see * Phil. Trans. 
185%' Art Vlll.) ; that is to say, I presume, not with such cosmical phe- 
nomena as have bad their laws already ascertained. Again (p. xi.), the 
author adds — <* The solar diurnal variation appears to be wholly irrecon- 
cilable with the hypothesis which attributes the magnetic variation to 
thermic causation." 

We find, then, that both sun and moon influence, with other and more 
occult forces than those that address sense and eye, our planet, and that these 
all incessantly modify the conditions and relations (mutual and to things on 
the surface) of every grain of matter in the inmost recesses of its nucleus. 
While every cosmical force is thus, as soon as its laws are discovered, found 
to be correlated to every other, all mutually convertible, and capable of 
disappearing and reappearing ** by measure, number, and weight," as mere 
brute power or mechanical force, it is not too much, at least, to affirm 
the advancing probability, that a distinctly (though irregularly) periodic 
phenomenon, such as earthquakes, will be found intimately related to them, 
possibly with no very long or intricate intermediate chain of causation. 

As regards the periodicity, &c., of those solar spots which admit of con« 
sideration in relation to the two paroxysmal maxima and two minima in each 
century (noticed hereafter), Humboldt may be referred to (* Cosmos, ' vol. 
iii. p. 291). iSchwabe of Dessau, whose works the illustrious author quotes, 
observed the solar spots from 1826, and, during the whole period, found three 
maxima (average number 300,) and two minima (average number 38,) the 
period being about ten years, or the tenth part of a century. Wolf of Berne 
(< Comptes Rendosy' voL xxx.) considers the period of the minima as de- 

^ Digitized by LjOOQIC 



38 BBPOBT — 1858, 

finite, but that the maximum varies, being on an average five years after the 
minimum, and that nine minimum periods exactly make up each century ; 
adding, that all the notable apparitions of solar spots on record agree with 
this rule. Other papers on this subject will be found, with details in the 
«Ast. Nach.* and * Pogg. Ann.,* from 1850; and in * Silliman's Journal,' 
vol. XXV., some remarks of Reichenbach are worthy of attention* He ob- 
serves that the period of Jupiter is ir86 years, and that there are certain 
coincidences between the planet's periodic returns and those of the solar 
spots, — adding that their conjoint magnetic effects upon our planet, in rela- 
tion to the magnetic periods above referred to, cannot but be great See also 
' Gilbert's Annalen,' vols. xv. and xxi., for Ritter's memoirs on the sul^ect ; 
and << Hansteen on the Relations between Earthquakes and the Aurora>" in 
' Bull, de FAcad. de Bruxelles,' 1854, t. xxi. 

I am myself indebted to my friend Dr. Robinson, Astronomer Royal, 
Armagh, for much of my information upon the subject, which connects 
itself with our own in relation to the preceding reflections, and through the 
singular point of coincidence as to periodic recurrences in both — the one 
presenting traces of being in time a submultiple of the other. But at present 
this must all be taken for what it is worth, and no more* 

It may be suitable to remark here, that the movements of the inclination 
magnetometer as well as of the barometric column, of which several have 
been of late years recorded as occurring at the time of earthquakes, are 
most probably merely mechanical and due to the shock movements direct 
This has been ascertained by Kreil at Vienna, and Padre Secchi at Rome 
(see also Perrey's <Mem. Europe and Africa,' p. 11); and such appears to 
have been Humboldt's view (though expressed with some qualification) 
at the date of publication of ' Cosmos.' 

The following is a translation of Zantedeschi's expressions of his own views 
as to the occurrence of a terrestrial, or rather terrene Hde^ probably better 
named, if it exist, the elastic tide : — 

'^ On the Influence of the Moon upon Earthquakes, and on the Conse- 
quences probably derivable as to the Ellipsoidal Figure of the £larth and 
the Oscillation of the Pendulum. By M. b\ Zantedeschi." Comptes Rendus^ 
Stance du 2 AoiU, 1854-. 

" I have thought for a long time that the form of the earth cannot always 
be the same, but that it presents an incessantly changing elliptical form, 
that is to say, having a continued tendency to become protubejrant in the 
directions of the radii vectores of the two luminaries which attract it, the 
sun and the moon. I have always believed that a direct proof of it might be 
obtained by determiuing a point in the heavens at the epochs of the spring 
tides, and at that of the Quadratures. This point must appear lower at the 
epochs of the high tides and of the Syzygies. The Imperial Obsiervatory of 
Paris, with the means that it has at its disposal, could prove if this diflerence 
be observable, and especially now, that, thanks to the labours of M. Froment» 
dividing has been made so exact as to admit of measuring with the greatest 
precisian a diflerence of 3-^th of a millimetre between two consecutive 
xisihle horizontal lines. 

^* I have always assumed that a compensation pendulum of such a length 
that it exactly beats seconds at the epoch of the quadratures and of the neap 
tides, must beat more slowly at the epoch of the spring tides, from the 
trani>it of the moon over the meridian of the given place, and at the epoch 
of the syzygies ; and, taking from this fact that the variations of the force 
of attraction upon the mass of the earth are continuous, I have conclucled 
{jcom it the necessity for astronomy to take account of these times ^ and 

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ON THB VAOTa AND THBOBT OF BABTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 39 

htmtk I find the explanation of certain leaps of astroDoroical clocks of which 
the learned have not hitherto been able to discern the cause. I believe 
that one day we shall have the equation of time in functions of the varia- 
tions of intensity of the planetary attractions, and of the regular oscillatory 
BOTements of the earth, as we now have the equation of time in functions 
of the motions of translation and of rotation of the earth itself. I say the 
regular eacillatory motions, because, as for the irregular movements, we 
cannot submit them to rule, and we are enabled to account only for the 
extraordinary concomitant phenomena presented by the atmosphere, by the 
earth, and by certain species of animals. The irregular motions which we 
call earthquakes, happen more frequently, it has been observed, either at 
the epoch of the Syzygies rather than at the epoch of the Quadratures, or 
oftener at the epoch of spring tides than at that of the neaps. This important 
observation is found in the works of Georges Baglivi and Joseph Toaldo. 

The first, in his ^Storia Ronmni Terras Motus, anni 1703,' says, '^In 
singulis lunse aspectibus, sen quadraturis, potissimum in plenitudine ejusdem 
seu totaii <^po«tione cum sole, certo suocedebant terrse motus, frequenter 
paululum prsBcedebant ipsos aspect us." — Georgii Baglivi Opera Omnia^ 
Bassani, 17S7» p. 415, Editionis Venetiarum, 1752, p. 326. 

Toaldo, speaking generally of earthquakes, says, " the late M. Bouguer 
in the account of his voyage to Peru speaks much of earthquakes, so fVe- 
quent in that country. He mentions with doubt the assertion of a Peru- 
vian ' savant,' that earthquakes have certain fatal and marked lines when 
they occur at low water. On the other hand, Chauvalon, in his voyage to 
Martinique, notes particularly the earthquakes which took place at the 
time of high water ; and the earthquake which destroyed Lima on the 28th 
of October, 1746, occurred at three o'clock in the morning, at the instant of 
high water (ora della prima acqua). Thus we remark in other countries 
tiiat these phenomena may themselves depend on the cosmical causes of the 
action of the sun, and especially of the moon." (Giuseppe Toaldo, * Della 
Vera Influenza degli Astri, etc., Saggio Meteorologico,' Padova, 1770> 
p. 190.) I hope that the Academy of Sciences will well receive these do- 
cuments and these ideas, which tend to augment the merit and the value 
of the very important studies of M. Perrey. 

Edmonds, also, has endeavoured to show that many formidable earth- 
quakes are found to have occurred the day after the moon is in her first 
quarter (' Joum. Poly tec Spc Cornwall,' Note 158 ; Sabine's ' Cosmos'). 



Before dbmissing the subject of other earthquake catalogues, the follow- 
ing labour as to Indian earthquakes should be noticed. In the 'Journal of 
the Royal Asiatic Society/ vol. xii. n. s., for 1843, Lieut. R. Baird Smith, 
B.E., made one of the most extensive contributions to our slender stock of 
oriental earthquake annals. He divides India into nine earthquake tracts, 
partly on physical grounds, partly arbitrarily, viz. — 

1. Central Himalaya; 

2. Lateral Himalaya, including — 

a. Cabul, 

b. Jellallabad, 
c Cashmere, 
d, Nepaul, 

sw Assam; 

3. The Solymaun Mountains, 
4*. The Aromlli Mountains, 



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40 REPORT — 1858. 

5. Delta of the Indus, 

6. The Vindhya Mountains, 

7. Delta of the Ganges, 

8. East Coast Bay of Bengal, 

9. Eastern Ghauts; 

and under these divisions describes more or less fully a total number of 
162 earthquakes, which he finally tabulates, by date and place only. The 
epoch of his catalogue commences nominally at a.d. 1505; but almost the 
whole of the catalogue refers to the 19th century, and comes down to the 
year 1842. 

After his remarks upon the earthquakes of the first region (p. 1039), he 
observes, " The hot springs, I believe, owe their high temperature to in- 
ternal chemical action extensively distributed ; and the earthquakes are due 
to the convulsive efforts of the elastic matter generated by this action in 
escaping from the interior of the earth." ..." To define the nature of this 
action, while ignorant of the chemical nature of the springs, would be in 
vain;'* .... but . ..." I cannot resist the conviction that both are due to 
one and the same origin." . . . • " There are no active volcanic vents yet dis- 
covered in the Himalayas, but abundant hot springs and trap dykes, and 
evidences of disruptive action." 

In the same vol. p. 741, a translation, by A. Sprenger, of the Arabic 
MS. in the Imperial Library at Paris, of a work of As. Soyuti on earth- 
quakes, is given. The original work is entitled, * Kashf as salsalah an 
wass az Zalzalah,' ue. "a clearing up of the history of earthquakes." It 
contains a catalogue of about 120 earthquakes in Western Indiai Persia, 
and Caubul, and extending to Arabia, Syria, and Egypt It certainly, how- 
ever, scarcely warrants its title, and contains few facts of scientific value. 

Again (p. 907), a small catalogue of earthquakes in Upper Assam occurs 
< — the authors, Capt. Hannay and Rev. N. Brown. The chief statement 
of importance to be found in it is their opinion, that in this region the hori- 
zontal direction of shock seems to be mainly from S.W. to N.E. 
• Since the publication of former ^ Reports,' some monographs of single 
earthquakes have appeared ; but reference is here only to catalogues. 

While these sheets have been passing through the press, the work of Dr. 
Otto Wolger, with catalogues of the Swiss earthquakes, has appeared, and 
demands notice for the extreme accuracy and care with which the volumes 
have been produced, — * Untersuchungen iiber das Phanoroen der Erdbeben 
in der Schwitz,' von Dr. G. H. Otto Wolger, Gotha 1857, 1858, 3 vols. 8vo. 
The first, *' Chronic der Erdbeben in der Schwitz," also embraces a discussion 
as to the periodicity, locality, and extent (Ausdehnung) of the Swiss earth- 
quakes, with the results graphically reproduced. 

The second contains the geology of the Canton of Wallis, in which so 
great a number of rapidly recurrent feeble shocks have been so long recorded. 

The third, * Geschichte der Erdbeben (im Wallis) des meteorologischen 
Jahres 1855,* together with a chronicle of those in the Swiss Cantons and 
adjacent parts of France. 

There is an excellent though small map of the Canton of Wallis, showing 
the points of observation of the many small shocks that have become identi- 
fied with the name of Pignerol as a centre — and in several instances showing 
the horizontal directions observed — which quite bear out the observations to 
be found further on, as to the effects of surface in perturbing the general 
emergent direction of the wave of shock. 

The work of Dr. Wolger is entitled to the study of physical geologists. 

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OM THB FACETS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PUBNOMENA. 41 

Perfaapsy like most men who carefully and lovingly perfect their subject, he 
attaches a too preponderant value to the limited district of which he treats. 

Having so far considered the labours of others as to the distribution of 
etrthqaakes in time, some remarks remain to be made on their distribution 
in space by foreign authors. The seismic map of Berghaus in his < Physical 
Atlas,' is the most important attempt of this sort emanating from abroad. 
The following are Perrey's remarks upon this map (' M6m. de TAcad^mie 
des Sciences de Dijon,* t. iv. ann^e 1855, p. 57) : — 

^ M. Berghaus, of Berlin, has devoted map No. 7 of the geological part 
of his beautiful Physical Atlas to volcanic and seismic manifestations. 
Greenland is very slightly coloured, and is included in the circumference 
of a circle of percussions, the centre of which is in Iceland. This state- 
ment does not appear to me to be at all supported by facts. The author 
appears to have outstripped observation; for the commotions in Iceland 
constitute an almost local phenomenon ; rarely ever* is the island simul- 
taneously shaken in its entire extent, and the shocks are only of moderate 
intensity." 

It may be added, that observation points out that the connexion as to 
earthquake commotion is between Iceland and Norway, and not between 
Icdand and Greenland. Of the latter country, however, in this respect we 
know but little. 

As to Greenland, I do not know whether any earthquake has occurred 
there but that of November, 1755. That was violently felt ; it caused a 
terror so much the greater, as shocks of this nature were completely un« 
known. However, it is probable that they are occasionally felt. 

The 22nd of September, 1757, there was a violent hurricane, the wind 
from the south, accompanied by hail and rain ; the lightning was terrific, 
but without thunder. It was generally believed that a shock of earthquake 
was felt. (Provost, < Hist. G6n. des Voy.' t. ix. pp. 23 & 209.) Earthquakes, 
the author adds, are rare in this country. 

Two years after, in September, 1759, at New Herrnhut (Greenland), the 
house of Siehlenfels experienced shocks like an earthquake, although it was 
very low and had walls four feet thick. The houses around suffered severely : 
the roofs were split ; and the boats drawn up on shore were carried away 
by the hurricane, which was felt at a distance. This storm was preceded 
and followed by igneous meteors, one of which set 6 re to the house. On 
Christmas Eve a similar phenomenon occurred at noon. (Provost, L c, 
U xix. p. 208.) 

These are the only facts that I can quote relative to this country, 
which, I repeat, notwithstanding its contiguity to Iceland, ought not, in my 
opinion, to be placed within the sphere of the volcanic and seismic action of 
that island. 

M. Berghaus has marked the Azores and Canaries with a darker shade ; 
and this memoir will contribute to confirm the author's idea of also co- 
louring the ArchipeUgo of Cape Verd and the Antilles. But it leaves all 
the rest of the basin uncoloured; and surely it is difficult not to admit 
some shading, however slight, in latitudes distingubhed of late by M« 
Daussy. Let us again repeat, that earthquakes, which ought to form an im- 
portant part in the study of terrestrial physics and physical geography, have 
hitherto been too much neglected. They have been resigned to geology, 
to which, in my opinion, they only indirectly belong. 

But to continue. Algeria bears, on M* Berghaus's map, a very dark shade, 
which the note I published in our last * Memoirs' does not justify. Yet the 

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43 RBPOBT— 1858. 

Ulustrioufl phyiioiBt \rhoin I have just quoted includes the Azores and 
Canaries in the seismic region of the Mediterranean. 

They would seem to form the western part of an axis which extends to 
Hindostan with variable shades, and thus unites the Atlantic with the great 
volcanic chain of the Sonde (Sunda), which, as we know> is connected by 
the Japanese and Kurile Islands with the Aleutian Archipelago, and by this 
chain to the grand volcanic range of the two Americas. This idea is in- 
genious, but is it true ? It is a point that I cannot at present discuss. Yet 
we must admit that the Azores, and even the Canaries, seem to form a part 
of the sphere of subterranean convulsions, the centre of which is almost 
parallel to Lisbon ; and to be at the western extremity of that great seismic 
zone which proceeds by the peninsulas of Spain, Italy, and Greece, to the 
volcanoes of Asia Minor, and which there joins the central chain of Asia. 
It is, in fact, within this zone, extending towards the north as far as the Car- 
pathian Mountains, that the principal centres of earthquakes and the most 
remarkable seismic axes in Europe are to be found. Extending to the 
west along the 4fOth parallel, this zone reaches the United States of Ame- 
rica, where it embraces New York and Boston, which M. Berghaus has per- 
haps marked with a rather too dark colour, though earthquakes are not rare 
there ; and thence it proceeds to Kentucky, Tennessee, and Missouri, where 
the phenomena of the year 1811 demand a darker shade in M. Berghaus's 
beautiful map. M. Berghaus draws a linear region in Arabia, from Medina 
to Yemen, along the east coast of the Red Sea. Can this be a partial 
axis of convulsion ? Is it independent of the Mediterranean zone ? Or it 
it united to it by a second axis — the Syrian axis, parallel to the east coast 
of the Mediterranean ? But the countries near to the Isthmus of Suez ap- 
pear little subject to earthquakes ; can there be a solution of continuity 
between these two axes ? or does the space which divides them, and where the 
phenomenon has, so far, been so rarely remarked, constantly present a pecu- 
liarity verified more than once in America? In the New World (at Ca- 
raccas, for example) certain regions of small extent have been observed to 
enjoy a complete calm while the neighbouring country experienced fright- 
ful catastrophes. 

The historians of these disasters have characterized this unconvulsed part 
of the soil by a picturesque expression, namely, *' a bridge has been formed." 
The probable physical explanation of this phenomenon of ** the bridge" has 
been given in a former Report (2nd Report, p. 309), by the author of this, 
based upon the view that toial reflection of elastic impulses may occur under 
certain suitable conditions. 

Perrey continues, '* No simultaneous convulsions at both extremities of 
thb Syro- Arabic linear region have been recorded. However, if we recall 
that the Himalaya Mountains are very subject to subterranean convulsions ; 
that the Alps, and especially the Pyrenees, are frequently shaken, the Cau« 
casus-range still of^euer, and that the Andes are almost always in a state of 
commotion ; must we not regret that we possess no information coneemiog 
the phenomena in the high Ethiopian chain ? is it not to be desired that 
travellers in Africa should make observations upon a matter so interesting 
to science? 

*^ During the last few years Abyssinia (strongly marked in M. Berghaus's 
map) has been the study of numerous French explorers. Several narratives 
of their vast and useful labours have appeared ; but I do not find one word 
about earthquakes ! The Academy of Sciences' has just eiven new instruc- 
tions to M. kochet (d'H^ricourt), about to undertake a third expedition to 
ttot cQuntry^ ; and the phenomenon is not even mentioned by M^.DnpemgrJ 

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ON THB FACTS AND THKOBY OV BAmTHQUAKB PHBNOMBNA. 4S 

Quite recently, again, I felt the same painful surpriae at reading the instruc* 
tioQs given to M. Raffenel. 

'' DoeB Abyssinia form an axis of conynlsion perpendicular to the Arabic 
axis? or is it the eastern extremity of an unique axis formed by the great 
Ethiopic chain, and crossing the African continent at its greatest breadth ? 

*< Id nearly the same latitude as Abyssinia, but on the western coast of 
Africa, we find the sources of the Senegal and Gambia vivtdiy coloured in 
M. Berghaus's map. What evidence has the author for this statement? 
With respect to this r^ion, I am only acquainted with the two following 
descriptions drawn from M. Walcknaer's collection." We read, at t vi. 
p^ 181, '* The aspect of the mountains Nikolo and Bandeia prove that this 
country has been the theatre of volcanic eruptions. Earthquakes are very 
frequent ; and shortly before M. Mollieu's visit, one of the most violent had 
occurred, the shocks of which had been felt as far as Timbo.*' And further 
on, p. 184, '^ The mountains, covered with ferruginous stones and cinders^ 
which enclose the valley in which are the sources of the Senegal and Gambia, 
lead Mn MolUeu to believe that they occupy the crater of an extinct volcano. 
This traveller was at the source of the Gambia, April 8, 181 8.** 

It is useful to compare this passage with the following, extracted from 
the same collection, t. xii. p. 356 ; — ** There is no record in Senegal that 
any portion of the colony has ever experienced an earthquake." 

Without seeking to justify the accuracy of M. Berghaus, it may not 
be uninteresting to remark that the Antilles and the Republic of Guate- 
mala lie under the same parallel of latitude (about 15° N.) as Abyssinia and 
the sonrces of the Gambia. 

Can there be an axis, or rather an immense zone, of convulsions parallel 
to the Equator ? Often convulsed in the western counterforts (the Archi« 
pelagoi of Cape Verd and the Canaries), Africa suffers also in the S.E., 
in the great southern chain of Madagascar. I find in M. Segu6rel de la 
Combe that ^* earthquakes are very frequent in Madagascar. When they 
occur, the natives leave their houses and commence beating the walls with 
their hands. They do not allege any reason for this conduct but custom.'* 
(* Voy. a Madagascar et aux lies Comorres,' t. i. p. S.) 

Let me add this remark from an ancient traveller in Madagascar : '^ Hap* 
pily earthquakes are here completely unknown." (Le Gentil, ' Voy. dans 
lea Mers de Tlnde,' U ii. p. 367 •) 

If we subjoin to these contradictory statements the few facts which we 
possess, we shall justify M. Berghaus's not having coloured the south of 
Africa. 

*< 1786, August 4, 6*35 a.m., in the Isle of France, two violent but harm- 
less shocks. The motion was horizontal and vertical. The barometer was 
not affected. Earthquakes are of rare occurrence. The voleano in Bour^ 
bon, active from the 5tb of June previous, emitted much lava upon this day, 
but the island was not sensible of any shocks." (P6ron, * Voy. aux Terres 
Australes,' 2nd edit, t L p. 134; < Eph^^r. de Manheim,' 1788, p. 397.) 

1809, 8th of January, the island of Penguin, close to the Cape of Good 
lii'i)e, was swallowed up by an earthquake. I am unacquainted with this 
iskind, and I only find this circumstance related in an anonymous work 
entitled * Memorial de Chronologic,' t ii. p. 932. 

Here, again, relative to another earthquake of the same year, 1809, are 
the details communicated by M. Barchers, Minister of Stellenbosch (country 
of the Hottentots), to Campbell (end of November 1812), concerning the 
^rst of the earthquakes which occurred three years previously ^-^ 

" Xk^ church of Pi^l was then vacant The governor begged me to preaeir 

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44 BBPORT— 1858. 

there once a month. On Saturday, the ere of the day on which I had to go 
there, I felt extremely ill and dejected. On Sunday morning my wife and I 
set out When I reached Paarl, I was very weak, and asked for some water; 
but it was lukewarm, and I could not drink it I was told it had been 
brought from the fountain. I sent my slave, but what he brought was hot. 
I went thither myself, and found it was really the case. We could not 
imagine the reason. Whilst 1 was preaching, I felt so giddy that I scarcely 
knew what I was saying. 

** After the sermon, I spoke of this sensation to several of my friends, who 
declared that they abo experienced it« We returned to Stellenbosch on the 
following morning. The whole of that day my family and servants and 
myself felt very unwell ; the dogs also shared in our uneasiness. 

<* At 10 o'clock we were all alarmed by a noise like that caused by nume- 
rous carts rolling through streets. We did not know what it was; but 
all my family were terrified. A great light shone into the room. Supposing 
that a thunder-bolt had burst 1 exhorted them not to be alarmed, as the 
lightning had passed, and the danger was gone. Whilst 1 was speaking, the 
same noise which we had just heard was again repeated, and we all trembled. 
* Oh r cried I, * 'tis an earthquake ; let us all go into the garden.' We felt, 
to use a Scriptural expression, that * there was no more life in us.' A third 
shock followed ; it was less violent than the first two. The noise was dreadful, 
not only owing to its loudness, but also to its nature. 1 can only describe 
it as a sort of groaning, or piteous howling. The dogs and birds testified 
their fear by their crie^. The night was calm, not a breath of wind stirred 
the air ; but I remarked a number of luminous meteors. I observed small 
clouds in various quarters, but their aspect presented nothing new. Every 
one endeavoured to keep close to me ; alarm was excessive ; 1 said what I 
could to allay it At last we ventured to return to the house, and endeavoured 
to sleep to recover ourselves ; but the effort was vain." (Walckenaer, * Collect, 
des Relat. de Voy. en Afrique,' t. xviii. p. 275.) 

1810, in the depth of winter an earthquake occurred at the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

1811, 2nd June, five minutes before 12 o'clock noon, another earthquake 
took place. The heat was greater than usual at this season, the thermometer 
was 16^*8 R. A thick mbt filled the atmosphere, yet did not obscure the sun's 
rays ; not the least breeze dbturbed the air. The inhabitants, who greatly 
dread subterraneous shocks, were reminded by these symptoms of the earth- 
quake of the preceding year. M. Burchell was busy indoors with prepara- 
tions for a missionar}' journey, when suddenly a noise like an explosion 
shook the entire house. Three or four seconds afterwards a second peal 
like thunder produced another shock ; at the same instant a singular motion 
and vacillation in the atmosphere was apparent, whilst the sky continued 
perfectly serene. M . Burchell ran out to discover what had occurreil ; he 
saw all the inhabitants running out of their houses in great alarm, pale and 
trembling, not conscious what they were doing, the women either screaming 
with terror, or motionless and incapable of speech. Af^r the second shock, 
the trembling of the atmosphere had ceased, and the temperature a little 
cooled. The people gradually regained their composure, observing that no 
more shocks followed. Many houses were injured, and walls split. 

This earthquake took place five minutes before noon, during the Cape 
winter ; the preceding year it occuiTed during the night in the height of 
summer : so this phenomenon is not limited to any time of day or year. 

M. Burchell saw the trace of electricity in all the preceding symptoms, 
and can only explain the earthquake as an explosion of electric matter. 

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ON THB FACTS AND THEORY OF BARTHQUAKB PHENOMENA. 45 

On the moraiDg of the 19th another shock was felt, but uoaccompanied 
by explosion or other consequences. A slight sound was heard, which 
appeared to travel from N. to S^ and lasted about three seconds. (Walcke* 
naer, loc. ciL i. xx. p. 20-22.) 

To these facts we may subjoin the following : — 

181 ly 7th June, at the Cape of Good Hope a violent shock of five 
minutes ; the houses tottered, and even the vessels in the bay felt the shock* 
(J. D. 14th Nov. ; M. U. 15th Nov. 1811.) 

1818, on the night between the 28th Feb. and 1st March, in the Isle of 
France, a hurricane similar to that of 1716 ; it is alleged that shocks of 
earthquake were felt. (J. D. 21st June 1818.) 

1821, 9th March, in the Island of Bourbon a slight shock. The erup- 
tion of the volcano, which had commenced on the 28th February, still 
continued. (C. P. t. xxxiii. p. 404 ; Garnier, Meteor, p. 124.) 

1840, 7th July, in the Isle of Bourbon, earthquakes recorded without 
detail by M. Meister in the Annalen fiir Meteor* und Erdmag., ler cahier, 
p. 161. 

1844, 21st Feb., 8 p.m., in Isle of Bourbon, shocks and terrible wind 
(communic. de M. Meister.) 

If we add to these five or six earthquakes the eruptions of the volcano in 
the Island of Bourbon in 1708, -51, -G^, -74, -86, -87, -91, -93, and 1800, we 
shall have all the manifestations which I can quote of the interior activity of 
the globe in the south of the African continent. So this part of Africa appears 
little subject to subterranean commotions. But is it the same with the 
interior of the country ? It would be very interesting to learn this. 

Johnston, in his Seismic Map (Phys. Atlas, No. 7, Geol.), lightly tints 
the southern extremity of Africa, leflt untouched by Berghaus. 

To these remarks of Perrey may be added, that both Berghaus's and 
Johnston's seismic maps alike labour under two most important defects. 

First, a hard and rigid line, often of an extremely irregular figure, limits 
strictly and definitely the supposed boundary of seismic commotion in each 
assigned region. Two physical misconceptions are involved in this : first, 
that forces emanating from a centre, of the nature of earthquake shocks, can 
have any definite boundary ; secondly, that a line drawn upon the earth's 
surface around any centre of impube, and through a number of points at 
which the horizontal elements of shock are alike (suppose those at which 
these elements become insensible without the help of instruments, which 
would be the boundary line in a popular sense), can possibly have, when 
embracing large areas, a highly irregular though closed curvilinear figure* 
The curve traced through such a line of points must circumscribe a space 
either nearly circular or slightly elliptic ; all irregularities due to variation 
of surface vanish over such vast spaces. 

Irregular curved areas are alone possible on the assumption of more than 
one impulse propagated from the same origin simultaneously, of which we 
have as yet no evidence. 

The second defect common to both those maps, and possibly difficult to 
be avoided from their small scale, is the absence of any positive and in- 
variable, though conventional principle of application of the dq^ih of tifU in 
colouring, which shall determine, by its depth, the intensity and frequency 
of seismic action at given centres. 

The principles adopted with the seismic map attached to this report will 
be explained further on. 

Berghaus's maps (3 Abtheil. Geol. No. 7 und No. 9) give an exceed- 
ingly imperfect notion of the whole east of China, and indeed of the Sunda. 

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46 REPORT — 1858. 

and Philippine Island groups, including Luzon, incomparably the most im- 
portant and interesting earthquake region on the face of the earth. Berg- 
haus's maps, S Abtheii. Geol. No. 8 und 10, '^ Specialia vom Vulkan Giirtel,'' 
&c., are worthy of all commendation, save as respects the outline of seismic 
regions already adverted to, and here repeated even in a more dbtorted 
form. 



Such have been the results of previous labours as to the distribution in 
time and space of earthquakes. I proceed to those deduced from our own 
researches. 

At the conclusion of the Second Report (1851), the principles upon 
which the British Association Earthquake Catalogue itself was compiled have 
been described ; it remains now to describe the methods by which it has 
been discussed, and to state the results. 

The collection of an earthquake catalogue is a work essentially of a sta- 
tistic character, and partakes of all that disadvantage and incompleteness 
that belongs to the collection of facts not the result of choice and experi- 
ment, but presented to us, through various and imperfect observations, from 
many places and through long-lapsed periods, during which all the conditions 
of observation have suffered much change, so that the facts that are presented 
for record, and those of which no account is given, are alike subject to 
certain contingent or accidental modifying conditions, but of such a nature 
as to defy our making them part of our discussion. 

So in a work which proposes to collect under one view the transmitted 
observations of the whole human race, and of all historic time on this 
particular subject, the conditions of human observation \tne\t enter into 
the results, and our earthquake record is at once an account of these phaeno- 
mena, and of the rise, progress, and extension of human knowledge and 
observational energy, and also of the multiplication and migrations of the 
human familv and its progress in maritime power ; in a word, at every mo- 
ment the indeterminate extent to which man has fulfilled his great destiny 
of " replenishing the earth and subduing it," affects every continuous record 
of his observations or his arts. 

The method of discussion followed was that of numerical analysis as to 
time, and topical analysis as to space, from which curves graphically repre- 
senting the results have been projected by the usual methods. 

One conventional arrangement has been found inevitable. It refers to 
the cases of long-continued slight shocks or tremors, occurring almost daily, 
as at Pignerol in 1808; St. Jean de Maurienne in 1859; Comrie, in Perth- 
shire, 18S9-1847; and Ragusa in 1843-1850. In these the slight shocks 
recorded for each month of the disturbed period are grouped as forming one 
earthquake at the locality. Had not some such arbitrary rule been adopted, 
these comparatively insignificant, though frequently repeated exhibitions 
of seismic force (if they be such) would, when introduced in the curves, 
have given, at certain points of time, a false elevation to the abscissse, while 
the phenomena themselves are not of a character materially to modify our 
r^ults even if excluded. 

The conclusions possible from the still vast mass of facts here brought to- 
gether, however, will, as a first generalization, be found, I apprehend, not 
unimportant. 

They may be classed under two great heads ; viz. the relation of seismic 
energy to time and to space, or the distribution ^f recorded earthquakes 
in eaeh. Andy firsty— » 



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ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE P'HENOMENA. 47 

Of Seismic Energy in relation to Time, 

Plates I. II. III. IV. V. and VI. cany down the stream of time the whole 
series of observations from 2000 years before the Chrbtian era to the year 
1860. 

In all these chrono-seismic curves the ordinate is that of epochs and must 
not be confounded with one expressing in anywise the duration of each 
shock or separate seismic effort. The abscissa is that of seismic intensity, 
which has been assumed proportional to the number of coincident seismic 
efforts, without taking any account in the curve of the variable intensity of 
different efforts. This is a source of uncertainty that would not have been 
avoided, but rather the tendency to error increased, by any conventional 
law of enlargement of the abscissa that could have been devised to suit the 
vague proportion of greater or less in earthquake narrations ; but the means 
are given to the reader of applying such corrective as the information admits, 
by placing along the line of time down to the year 1750 the letter G above 
each epoch at which an earthquake of undoubtedly great and destructive 
intensity has been recorded, and the letter S above all those that were so 
circumstanced as to have been followed by the influx of " great sea waves.*' 
This notation might have been carried on further, but that after the year 
1750, when observations rapidly multiply, the number of earthquakes re- 
corded as being ^* great " are so numerous, that to distinguish their epochs 
thus would have involved the extension of the ordinate to a new and incon* 
veniently enlarged scale. For the first three centuries of historic time 
(according to our commonly accepted chronology) it will be seen that there 
are no earthquake records, and that, while between a.c. 1700 and a.c. 
1400 there are a few scattered facts, there is again from a.c. 1400 to a.c. 
900, nearly a period of five hundred years of perfect blank, followed again 
(with a few exceptions) by another blank from a.c. 800 to a.c. 600. Even 
in the succeeding century, but two earthquakes are recorded ; so that, in 
fact, the record of any value for scientific analysis may be said to commence 
at the five hundredth year before the Christian era. 

It is only in the first century prior to our era that the curve shows that 
observations may be at length deemed even continuous, every previous cen- 
tury being interrupted by lengthened lacunae. 

From the commencement of the Christian era downwards to the present 
day, the abscissae continually increase in closeness and magnitude, and at the 
first casual glance suggest the idea that earthquake energy has increased 
over the whole earth during the course of ages in a fearful manner. Wt 
shall see, however, reason to correct any such conclusion. 

Although periods of thirty and forty years occur in the second and third 
centuries of our era without the record of a single earthquake, it did not 
seem advisable to affirm as certain the want of all observation, by the sub»- 
stitution here of lacunae for the continuity of the curve. 

The end of the third century first gives evidence of numerical increase; 
and the increase thence is steadily progressive up to the year 1850. 

It is not, however, until the seventeenth century that the increased number 
of earthquakes becomes strikingly remarkable, increasing still more in the 
eighteenth, and presenting a far greater number in the first half of the 
niueteenth than in both the preceding centuries taken together. 

Yet this vast and rapid expansion, in the three last centuries es|)eciallyi 
affords no proof whatever that there has been a corresponding, or even any 
increase in the frequency of earthquake phenomena. Our chrono-seismio 
curve i% in (act» not only a record of eartbquakcsy bot a record of the ,ad- 

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48 REPORT — 1858. 

vance of human enterprise, travel, and observation. The epochs of printing 
and the Reformation are those of the first great expansion, while the dis- 
covery of the new world, the voyage to India round the Cape, and the vast 
accessions of European colonization and commerce of the last 150 years, 
connect themselves as causes with the two latest curves. We have traced 
at once the history of a physical law and that of human progress. How far, 
then. Is it possible to disentangle these elements, so as to arrive at a con* 
elusion as to whether seismic energy over the world is progressive, constant, 
or retrogressive ? To do so perfectly is perhaps impossible; the elements 
by which the rate of observational knowledge has been determined are too 
complex and too imperfectly known to render any attempt to fix its rate of 
expansion in time probable. Even the area of observation itself, the land 
and water known to history at given epochs, can be but vaguely sketched ; 
as vaguely also the number of observers, and the determination of the human 
mind towards observation. (See Appendix I.) 

This much is certain, however ; — that up to, and even beyond the Christian 
era, no record of earthquakes exists for any portions of the earth s surface, 
except for limited areas of Europe and Asia, and a still more restricted 
patch of Northern Africa, and, if Kaempfer is to be credited, for Japan, of 
which, however, we know nothing for certain. Yet, of the enormously 
larger areas of the then outer and unknown world since discovered, it is not 
to be supposed but that there was a proportionate (perhaps even for the 
"New World" a more than proportionate) amount of earthquake energy, 
though not recorded or even known to mankind. 

If, however, the curve of total energy (Plate VII.), in which the facts of 
all the preceding are condensed into a single line, be examined and com- 
pared by a broad glance with the great outlines of human progress, the con- 
clusion appears sufficiently warranted, that during all historic time the amount 
of seismic energy over the observed portions of our world must have been 
nearly constant To assume that earthquake disturbance has been con- 
tinually on the increase^ would be to contradict all the analogies of the 
physics of our globe. These analogies might lead us to suppose that, like 
other violent presumed periodical actions, tliey were getting spent, and that 
the series of earthquake shocks would be found a converging one. Were 
this so, however, to any considerable extent, we should not find the vast 
expansions of results which the last 300 years present ; or, although the ex- 
pansion might be absolutely large, its divergence would not present such 
decisive features of progressive increase. The results due to the number of 
observers would be more or less balanced by the increasing paucity of events 
to observe and record ; but this appears conclusively to lead to the deduc- 
tion we have made, namely, that if the curve of total energy be closely 
examined century by century, it will be found that, at periods of social torpor 
and stagnation of observational energy (and this is so even far down the 
stream of time), the number of earthquakes remains nearly constant, or with 
a very slight but nearly uniform increase. Thus, from the eleventh to the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, the abscissae are -almost equal, the crests of 
the curves being nearly all ascribable to single great earthquakes, which made 
themselves felt over vast areas. Their expansion just keeps pace, so far as can 
be judged, with that of contemporaneous human progress ; but if the series 
was really a distinctly converging one, at such periods we should find the 
abscisssB decreasing also. On the other hand, we find the increase In the 
number of recorded earthquakes always coinciding with the epochs of in- 
creased impulse and energy in the march of the human mind. 

We therefore conclude that our evidence, such as it is^ indicates a general 

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ON THB FACTS AND THBOBY OF BARTHQUAKB PHBNOMBNA. 49 

aDiformity in the occurrence of earthquakes as distributed over long epochs 
of time. Setting aside (as contradicted by all other sources of analogy and 
information) the supposition that this, or any other phenomenon of occa- 
sional disturbance^ has an increasing development upon our planet, we have 
two remaining alternatives ; — either that seismic energy is getting gradually 
spent and is dying out — this, the evidence before us appears sufficiently to 
contradict ; or that, upon the whole, during our short and most imperfect 
acquaintance with it, it has remained pretty uniform throughout historic 
time, taking one long period with another. Vet, could we extend our view 
beyond the short limit of man's history to the vast past duration of that of 
our globe itself, it might be found that seismic energy is really a slowly 
decreasing force. 

A condusion thus appearing at the first glance even contradictory to the 
presented results from which it is drawn, may bear a certain boldness of 
aspect, for which I hope to find that the observations preceding, as to the 
true character of all earthquake records, and of the sort and amount of stress 
that may be laid upon them, will be held a justification. 

But while such uniformity or insensibly slow decadence may be the fact 
through time taken as a whole; there is also evidence of irregular and par- 
oxysmal energy in reference to shorter periods ; that is to say, not only (as 
all know) do earthquakes occur at some times, and not at others, in any 
given spot ; but, taking the whole area of observation together (in which 
there is no moment, perhaps, or but a very brief one, wherein there is not an 
earthquake somewhere, or more than one), it will be found that there are 
epochs when they occur in greater numbers or intensity, either in the same 
or in several places within a limited time, — t.e. periods of paroxysmal 
energy. 

If we omit from our view all the curves of earlier periods and less ample 
observation, and limit our consideration to those of the last three centuries and 
a half, t.e. from a.d. 1500 to 1850, this paroxysmal character becomes 
evident at a glance, and increasingly so in the last century and a half (the 
epoch of all human history the most replete with discovery), wherein the 
number of recorded observations is so great, that it was necessary for clear- 
ness to double the scale, of the ordinate of the diagram (Plate VI.) in rela- 
tion to the preceding ones. On examining these curves, they seem to 
justify the following deductions : — 

1. While the smallest or minimum paroxysmal interval may be a year 

or two, the average interval is from five to ten years of comparative 
repose. 

2. The shorter intervals are in connexion with periods of fewer earthquakes 

— not alwcn/s with those of least intensity, but usually so. 

3. The alternations of paroxysm and of repose appear to follow no 

absolute law deduciblefrom these curves. 

4. Two marked periods of extreme paroxysm are observable in each 

century— one greater than the other — that of greatest number and 
intensity occurring about the middle of each century, the other 
towards the end of each. 

This is one of the most remarkable facts that these curves seem to point 
to: from about the fiftieth to the sixtieth year of each century, both the 
number and intensity of earthquakes will be observed suddenly to shoot up ; 
again, during the last quarter of the three complete centuries another but 
less powerful paroxysm is apparent. The paroxysmal power at these two 
epochs in each century far exceeds any other paroxysms within their limits* 
1858. B 

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50 BSPOmiv^^lSfttt. 

Within the first period (in the 18tii century) we find the greftt Lisbon 
earthqualce ; within the second, in the same century, the great Calabrian 
one. We find (referring to the Catalogue itself) eartliquakes in great num- 
bers, and many great one» — in the Mediterranean basin in the middle of 
the 17th century, and the great Jamaica earthquake in its latter decade ; 
and in the 16th century, its middle period was marked by great earth* 
quakes in China and in Europe, and the latter period by numerous shocks, 
and most of them severe, as at the Azores, &c. Whether the latter half of 
our century shall show the like, remains to be seen $ from its commencementi 
howeveri it presents no paroxysmal period comparable to that between 
1840 and 1850« 

While this general resemblance of the curves of these latter centuries 
admits of no doubts I would forbear from foundine anything thereupon be- 
yond this ;-^that within this time there seems to elapse a period of about a 
century between each of the vety greateit paroxysms (number and intensity 
together) of earthquakes, and a like period between two other consecutive 
paroxysms, of which the second is the next greatest observable, although 
far below the first in power ; that a period of thirty to forty year^ seems 
to occur between the first and very greatest paroxysm, and that next in 
power below it; and that in the middle period (especially in the l7th and 
18th centuries) the number of earthquake^ is greatest that crowd into a 
very brief time (four or five years), while at the latter period the number 
is thickly spread over ten or twelve years* 

Upon the whole, the forms of the curves appear to indicate a compara- 
tively sudden burst of seismic energy at each great paroxydm^ and (by 
their fiat tops or more sloping lines to the right hand) a more gradual 
subsidence, as if the train of causes required time to regain, after one spent 
paroxysm, their energy and regimen, which, when restored, were suddenly 
put into action, and which, onoe developed, were slow in being wholly 
expended and relapsing into repose. 

The occurrence of such epochs at the middle, or towards the end of our 
purely arbitrary subdivision of duration into Oenturied, must be of coune 
only accident. The interval of duration hehimn one epoch and the next^ 
is that alone which can have a cosmical basis. 

We may then provisionally afiirm the probability of two periods of earth* 
quake maxima — a greater and a less alternately— ^as occurring in a hundred 
years, for the last three centuries of history at least. The existence of 
some periodic maxima in remoter centuries can hardly be doubted, although 
the epochs of the two maxima have a secular movement, and do not fall in 
the same place in the older times. Anterior to the 16th century, however, 
the general curves of time (Plates 1. 11. and III.) are, through paucity of 
observations, not sufficiently " prononc^es" to enable thb to be asserted from 
them, or to warrant the graphic representation of the epochs of occurrence 
of such paroxysmal periodic maxima for the whole even of the Christian era. 

In Plate VII. fig. % the periods of paroxysm (number and intensity) are 
summed and grouped for each successive century of our era. The 1st, 
5th, 9th, 12th, ana 18th centuries are those of greatest seismic develop- 
ment, while the 1st and 2nd centuries a.c, and the Srd, 7th, 10th, and 
lith centuries of our era, are times of comparative repose. The numerical 
value of the paroxysmal centuries (as we may term them) increases, though 
not regularly, as the present time is neared, and is modified, without doubty 
by the same conditions of observation that afiect the expansions of the later 
curves of time. We dare not base any generalization upon it 

Numerically, we find the following arerage ratios of earthquakei for the 

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ON THB FACTS AND THSOET O* SARTHQUAKB PHENOMENA. 51 

iuce^ttiTe historic groups, of time extendtug over the whole reoord of the 
catalc^ue : — 

Table XXIX. 



Histoilc Grotip. 


lUtio per Month. 


Ratio per Tear. 


2000 to 1000 B.C 


000033 
0-0045 
0-0185 
0-545 

1*450 
2-610 


0-004 
0-054 
0-222 
7-740 

17-370 
35-310 


1001 B.C. to Christian era ... 

A.D. 1 to A.D. 1000 


A.O. 1001 to A.l>. 1850 

A.D* 1551 to A.D, 1860 *. 


A.D. 1701 to A.D. 1850 





^ These numbers are absolute as well as proportional ; nothing can more 
distinctly show the relation between the expanding areas of our curves of 
time and the increase of observation. 

Sir Charles Lyell, at p. 4-28 (* Principles of Geology/ 7th edit.), calcu- 
lates, upon approximate data, the average number of actual eruptions of 
Volcanic matter at 2000 per century, or 20 per annum, — a result which har- 
monizes sufficientlv with the preceding, and gives support to the commonly 
received view of the connected nature of volcanic and seismic phenomena. 

This connexion receives further conBrmation from the facts recorded by 
t*errey (* Mem. on Chili,' p. 201), as to the long duration there, of many 
earthquakes of a character much more violent anadecisive than the tremors 
long continued, at Comrie, East Haddam, &c. He mentions earthquakes 
in 1647, 1730, 1751, 1819, 1822, and 1833, each of which lasted, with little 
intermission, for several months, and which, from other sources of In- 
formation, seem to have been in some instances contemporaneous with pro- 
longed activity of the neighbouring volcanic regions. 

0/ Seismic jBltiergy in relation to Season, 

I DOW proceed to such disotusions as the data will admit, of the relatioot 
between seismic development and the time of year. In Plate VIII. are given 
the curves of mensual seismic energy obtained from the entire period of the 
catalogue^ thirty«two centuries. 

The northern and southern hemispheres of observations have been 
sfepttfHted fbr the following reasons. The total number and value of the 
observations in each, present great disparity between them respectively* 
We are enabled graphicallv to present 5879 observational results for the 
northern^ and but 22S for the southern hemispheres ; and> for convenienoey 
the vertical or seismic abscissa of the former is on a scale which bears to 
that of the latter the ratio of 100 : 1 ; the ordinate of time, which extends 
to the cycle of an entire year, and is divided and marked for the twelve 
months in order, ie the same for both figures. As the monthsi in fact, ln« 
voive or contain the seasons of the year, and Indeed all other divisions of 
otif solar revolution, and as the latter are unlike for opposite hemispheres^ 
otid are hereafter to be compared^ such subdivision is necessary. 

Examining figs. 1 and 2, Plate VIII., we find in the northern hemisphere 
tiie anfiual paroxysmal minimom in July, in the southern it appears to be 
in March. The duration of this miaimum in the northern extends, with no 
v«ry oonslderable fioctttatioB, over nearly two months, and suddenly riigg 

B 2 

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52 REPORT — 1858. 

in July; in the southern the minimum is more suddenly arrived at, and as 
suddenly abandoned, and Jit extends over less than one month. 

If we take May and June as one minimum in the northern, we have 
a second but very much lower one in September, and the corresponding 
second minimum for the southern hemisphere in August 

The annual paroxysmal maximum for the northern hemisphere is di- 
stinctly in January, and for the southern in November. 

January and March are second maxima in the southern, as August and 
October are in the northern. 

Whatever be the irregularities month by month however, the prepon- 
derance of seismic paroxysm for the whole twelve months lies amongst those 
that form the winter of our northern hemisphere. 

In Plate IX. figs. 1 to 6, curves are drawn for mensual energy, for several 
corresponding periods for the northern and southern hemispheres. Figs. 1 
and 2 indicate these for the whole period before, and for sixteen centuries 
after the commencement of our era. Here the northern minimum falb 
in July, and a second minimum in October, while the southern mini- 
mum falls in April, and the second before September, approximating thus 
to accordance with the curves of the whole catalogue, but less " prononc^es." 
Then for later but shorter observed periods, figs. 3 and 4 give the mensual 
energy for a.d. 1700 to 1800, and figs. 5 and 6 for a.d. 1800 to 1850, being 
the half century in which, for convenience of comparison, the ordinate of 
time is double the scale of the other figures, the whole twelve months being 
represented by an ordinate of equal length in all. 

In the eighteenth century, then, we find in the northern hemisphere the 
minima less distinct, occurring in July and September, and the maximum in 
January, with a second maximum between October and January ; and in the 
southern hemisphere, the minima about March and September, and the 
maxima in May and December. 

Again, in the first half of this nineteenth century we have (fig. 5) the 
northern minimum in June, a second but less marked minimum between 
November and December, and the maximum again in January and Fe- 
bruary; while in the southern hemisphere we have (fig. 6) the seismic 
minimum in March, and a second but much less marked one between July 
aud August, and the maximum in November, with feeble indications of a 
second slight one in June. 

Such are, then, the results of our monthly discussion. Comparing both 
hemispheres, they show several points of general agreement, and some of 
decided want of accordance. Little comparative weight can be ascribed to 
the few observations as yet made in the southern hemisphere, where so large 
a proportion of the earth's surface is covered by the ocean, and where so 
little of the land has, until a very late date, been the subject of observational 
^ record at all. It would seem warrantable therefore not to permit any such 
unaccordant phenomena between the two hemispheres to obscure the strong 
presumption which the facts otherwise support, that there really is a seismic 
paroxysm in the months forming the end and commencement of the civil 
year. It may not have a natural or cosmical basis, it nua/ possibly be one of 
the accidents inseparable from an observational catalogue ; but both this 
extended catalogue, and nearly all the partial catalogues of others, indicate 
it as a fact, and one not absolutely without some extraneous support in the 
present state of our knowledge. 

When we group the consecutive months into four seasons, spring, summer, 
autumn, and winter, and reproduce the curve of seismic energy for the whole 
year, and separately for each hemisphere and for the whole period of the 

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ON THE FA0T8 AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 63 

catalogue, the same relation of scale as before (figs. 1 and 2, Plate VIII.) 
being maintained between the northern and southern abscissae, we find 
some of the apparent anomalies disappear. In fig. 1, Plate X. the curve of 
season for the northern hemisphere assumes a very regular forni) and gives 
a decisive minimum for the summer season (in May and June), and an 
equally clear maximum for the winter season (in December and January). 
In fig. % Plate X. the corresponding curve for the southern hemisphere, 
however, still shows two maxima and two minima, the maximum at the 
ciommeneement of winter, with second maximum at midsummer; the 
miniuia in spring and autumn assuming the months constituting the re- 
spective seasons reversed in the two hemispheres. It must be borne in view, 
however, that the base of induction for this hemisphere is from only 22S 
observations, against 5879 in the northern ; that if the southern curve had 
been drawn to the same vertical scale as the northern, it would have ap- 
peared to the eye as almost a straight line ; so that very little weight is to 
be attached to the discordance it appears to present to the corresponding 
curve, its necessarily exaggerated scale falsely addressing the eye. 

In fig. 3, Plate X., the two curves preceding are combined, but to the 
same scale of vertical or of sebmic abscissa ; and the result shows how little 
in reality the data that we possess as yet for the southern hemisphere are 
capable of modifying the facts we have for the northern. The southern 
curve, in fact, scarcely alters to the eye the preceding northern one ; and 
the new curve of season for both hemispheres presents still the winter maxi" 
mum and summer minimum. 

In fig. 5, Plate X., a curve has been obtained for the whole period of 
the catalogue and for both hemispheres, representing graphically all recorded 
earthquakes occurring near or at the equinoxes and solstices (the critical 
epochs of Perrey and others) within a limit of twenty days, t. e. ten days be^ 
fore and ten days after each equinox and solstice. The base of induction is 
moderately large, the catalogue containing the following numbers : — 

Vernal equinox (March 10 — 30) 310 

Summer solstice (June 11 — July 1) 254 

Autumnal equinox (Sept. IS— Oct. 3) 249 

Winter solstice (Dec. 1 1—31) 318. 

This we may call the equinoctial and solstitial curve of comparative seismic 
energy. It indicates a distinct maximum about the winter sobtice, and an 
equally distinct minimum rather before the autumnal equinox. Taking the 
average of the whole year for any lengthened period, it may admit of much 
doubt, whether there is any real seismic paroxysm at the equinoxes and sol- 
stices, although a clear preponderance is shown by our catalogues at two out of 
the four annual epochs at which all are recorded ; yet, from the accordance 
of Perrey's results with those given by this much larger base of induction, 
we cannot put aside the possibility that the fact may have a cosraical basis. 

The most direct connexion in such case that we should expect to find, 
with other ascertained periodical phenomena, would be with the annual 
march of the barometer. In fig. 4, Plate X., the annual curves of mean 
mensual barometric pressure are laid down to the same scale of ordinate for 
time as the equinoctial and solstitial seismic curve below {^g. 5), giving the 
variation in atmospheric pressure for places in several and distant latitudes, 
Macao, Havanna, Calcutta, Benares ; and in Europe, Halle, St. Petersburg, 
Berlin, Paris, and Strasburg, — the curves themselves having been reduced 
from those of MM. Buch, Dove, and Kaemtz. 

On comparing these barometric curves with the seismic one, an obvious 

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54 BKP0BT-^1858» 

0imilarity addresses the eye. Is there any real reiatioQ, however? In 
the First Report (1850), p. 68, &q^ I have treated of the relations of 
atmospheric pressure with earthquakes, and at p,78 have indicated a possible 
link of connexion of a direct character between thein> and shown how it is 
conceivable that local increase of barometric pressure, and diminution simuU 
taneously elsewhere, may conspire with other conditions to bring on voloaqio 
aption, and hence earthquake; and Perrey has hinted, in his memoir on France, 
p. 98 (4to), at some relation between his seismic mensual curves for Italy and 
Europe, having a minimum in November, and Dove's barometric curves, 

?;iven in Pogg. Ann. for 1843, pp. 177, 201, which show something analogous 
guefque chose ^analogue). Here we observe (comparing figs. 4 and S) the 
barometric minima very closely correspond with the seismic minima, and 
vice versdn Bearing in mind the fact, that> as the sun gets nearer the zenith 
with the advance of spring and summer, the barometer falls, and that taking 
the whole earth together, the atmospheric pressure is less over those portiona 
of its surface where it is summer, and greater over those where it is winter; 
and that these differences of pressure are greater In general as the latitude 
is lower, so that simultaneously that hemispheric surface of the globe which 
is at the time most heated by the sun is also least pressed upon bv the 
atmosphere, and vice versa ; it seems warrantable to presume a oosmioal and 
even a possibly direct connexion between the two phenomena; and this 
receives, again, some support* from the fact (though not without large 
exceptions), that on the whole the great earthquake bands of the world pass 
through low latitudes, where these barometric and thermic fluctuations are 
most developed. 

It would be worse than useless, however, to speculate minutely upon the 
physical relations of those facts, in the present imperfect state of our know- 
ledge of their connexion. 

The attempts which I have made to ascertain an absolute relation in 
number, from any discuasion of the Catalogue, between the recurrence of 
seismic paroxysm at the equinoxes and solstices, and at an equal period of 
twenty days throughout the whole range of time, have been nugatory ; it is 
impracticable to extricate a result, in which any confidence could be reposed, 
from the observational expansion and irregularities with the advance of 
time. 

We must not be discouraged, however, that after the vast labour bestowed 
by so many, upon cataloguing earthquakes and discussing the results, we 
find these do not bring us even to the threshold of positive knowledge, and 
that the main reward of toil so far, is the having cleared away rubbish, and 
at length ascertained how far lists of facts, such as have been hitherto com^ 
piled from the best available materials, are of any further use. General 
Sabine, in his Introduction to vol. iii. of the * Magneticai and Meteorological 
Observations made at Toronto,' p. vii., when narrating the former state of 
magneticai science as compared with its present position, says, " a few of the 
German observers had begun to note the disturbance of the horiaontal force ; 
but as yet no conclusions whatsoever as to tlieir laws had been obtained :" in 
the words of the Report, " the disturbances apparently observe no law," Such 
may almost be said, as to our present knowledge of the distribution of 
earthquakes in time and in space, as referable to any natural law. Wet 
know how the position of terrestrial magnetism has become altered aince 
the time referred to above by one of its best promoters ; let us ei^pect the 
same for seismology, and await with hope the rich flood of light that its 

1" See also Myhi^ British Sarth^uskes, KcUa- Phil, Joora. vol im. 

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ON THB FACTS AND THHOBT OV BABfTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. Sfl 

kwf, when onoe reaehed, mutt ahed upon terreitml physica. The period 
of mere oataloguiog (like that of foasil.list maicing in the earlier geology) 
wema now paat ; we must give it up, and, in the words of Hersohel, << we 
must BOW grapple with the palpable phenomena, seeking means to reduoe 
their features to measurement, the measures to laws, the laws to higher 
generalizations, and so, step by step, adrance to causes and theories." 
(Address, Camb. 1845.) 

Many cases are recorded in the Catalogue of Earthquakes, of shocks 
oeourring at two very distant places upon the earth's surface, but felt simul- 
taneously, or nearly so, at both. The coincidence in time is, for all very 
distant places, rendered extremely doubtful, from errors of observation and 
of docks, and of their reduction for difference of longitude when the places 
are not on the same meridian. 

Milne also has collected several such instances ; for example**- 

February 1750... England and Italy. 

March 1750... England and Italy. 

May 1 750. . . England and Calabria. 

August 1750... England and European Turkey. 

February 1756.. England and Central France, Holland and the Rhine. 

November 1756... Scotland and Malta. 

January 1768... Shetland and Central England. 

December 1789... Edinburgh and Florence. 

February 1816. ..Great Britain and Sicily. 

September 1 833... England and Peru. 

August 1 884... Scotland and Italy. 

September 1834... England and Peru. 

In these, however, the coincidence in time cannot be assured within several 
hours ; and it must be admitted, with Mylne, that the probability of any» 
thing more than mere coincidence is extremely slight. 
In 1840-41 he found three shocks of this character : viz. 

March 1840 Scotland and Germany. 

June 1841 Terceira and St Louis. 

July 18^41 Scotland and France* 

(Edin. Phil. Journ. xxxi, to xxxvi.) 

A few such instances, that possess a closer approximation in time and 
some additional probability of actual coincidence, have been extracted from 
the Catalogue, and have been drawn in the diagram (Plate Xbis^ to scale,-^ 
those which had horizontal components of motion in the meridians N. to S. 
or S. to N. being placed at the right and left sides of the great-circle section 
of the globe ; and those with horizontal movement E. and W. or W. and E., 
placed above and below. 

Right lines connecting the supposed distant points of coincident shock by 
chonk of the circle, would probably pass through the origin or centre of 
disturbance common to both places on the surface. The origin might be 
deeper to any extent, and pombiy sonmohat nearer the surface, at least in 
the casej of the longer chords. Were any reliance to be placed upon these 
ooincidences, some of them would thus give a depth of origin of about 800 
miles below the surface. None of those, however, that appear to have any 
satisfactory evidence of a real connexion in time and in origin^ suggest a 
depth for the latter of even one-tenth that amount. All our other know* 



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66 REPORT— 1858. 

ledge, both of seismic and volcanic phenomena, leads to the conclusion of 
foci very much nearer the existing surface ; and the diagram may be re- 
garded as conclusive evidence that these presumed coincident earthquakes 
at very distant points, even if proved simultaneous, are unconnected, and 
have different origins. 

In the most singular case on record, that of Ochotzk and Quito, places 
nearly antipodal, the common origin would actually be in, or not remote 
from, the earth*s centre ; and it is not conceivable that the shock, which, if 
sufficiently powerful, must in such cases be felt nearly simultaneously over 
the whole globe, should have been confined to the two extremities of a single 
diameter. 

In recapitulation, it may be convenient to give in numbers^ for occasional 
reference, a few of the salient results of the distribution in time, already 
graphically dbcussed : — 

No. of No. of 
Earthqaakes. Years. 

Total number of recorded earthquakes up to a.d 58 1700 

Total number from a.d. to end of the ninth century . . 197 900 

Total number from the beginning of the tenth to the 

end of the fifteenth century 532 600 

Total number from the beginning of the sixteenth to 

the end of the eighteenth century 2804- 300 

Total number from beginning of nineteenth century to 

the end of the year 1850 3240 50 

Total Catalogue 6831 

The number of great earthquakes (t.e. those, as already defined, in which 
whole cities and towns have been reduced to rubbish, many lives lost, &c.) 
have been but imperfectly exhibited graphically, and not at all for the later 
centuries, from their too frequent recurrence making their notation diflUcult 
or confused ; they are here given numerically. 

Number of great earthquakes from third century b.c. to beginning of 
our epoch 4 

Number of same from a.d. to the end of the ninth century 15 

Number from beginning of the tenth century to the end of the fifteenth 
century 44 

Number from beginning of the sixteenth century to the end of the 
eighteenth century 100 

Number from beginning of the nineteenth century to 1850 53 

Total 216 

If we double the last number but one, to embrace the entire 100 years, the 
correspondence between the results for the two last periods is remarkably 
close, viz. 100 and 106, — and although the series is still an expanding one, 
yet as the numbers for the 16th and 17th centuries are not large; it is 
probable that for the last 150 years at least, our news of all great earthquakes 
have been complete, and the cataloguing of them perfect, showing that at 
present we may calculate upon 1'37 — say 1*4, or nearly 1^ recurrences of 
great and disastrous earthquakes every year, at some one or more places on 
the cartirs surface, or one great earthquake disaster every ^Ju months* 



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ON THE FACTS AND THBOBt OF BABTHQUAKB PHENOMENA. 57 
Tbe total number of earthquakes, classed by months, is as follows : — 





Northern. 


Southern. 


Seasons, 
North. 


Seasons, 
South. 


J&nu&ry 


627 
539 
503 
489 
438 
428 
415 
488 
463 
5J6 
473 
500 


19 
14 
9 
17 
20 
19 
18 
12 
17 
25 
32 
21 


1669 
1355 
1366 
1489 


42 

56 
47 

78 


February 

Mart:h 


April 


May :.:. 


Jane 


July 


August 


September 

October 


November 

December 

Totals 


5879 


223 


5879 


223 



Total of Catalogue for both hemispheres capable of meusual 

classification 6102 

Total of unclassed, except as to annual date «... 670 

Total number catalogued 6772 

of which, there are recorded by season only — 

Spring 6 

Summer 7 

Autumn 7 

Winter 5 



Total. 



25 



January, February, and March have been taken for the spring of the 
Northern Hemisphere, and for the Southern, July, August, and September. 

From the commencement of Catalogue to a.d. 1700, the recorded earth- 
quakes in the northern hemisphere are to those in the southern, 940 : 21, 
or as 44*3 : 1. Again, from a.d. 1700 to 1800, the northern are to the 
southern, 1883 : 57, or 33 : 1 ; and from the year 1800 to 1850, or conclusion 
of the Catalogue, the northern are to the southern, 3076 : 145, or 21*2 : 1, — 
a further indication of the effect upon any such statistic record, of the march 
of human discovery, the last fifty years having brought into play the vast 
seismic regions of the Southern Ocean and South Pacific, before all but un- 
knoi^n. The observed earthquakes in the Southern Hemisphere may now 
be estimcUed at from 43 to 50 per century, or one every two years* (See 
Appendix, No. II.). 

DistribuUon in space* 

Such are, perhaps, all the legitimate conclusions that we can now come 
to on the distribution in historic time ; and we now proceed to the discussion 
of the Catalogue, with respect to their distribution in space upon the surface 
of our earth. The method adopted, was that of graphically reproducing 
the area of each recorded earthquake by the superposition of coloured tints 
upon a large Mercator's map of the world. The map chosen for use was 
that arranged by J. Purdie, and published by Laurie, London, 1851, — the 
dimensions being 75 inches by 48 inches, which admitted^ from its large 



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98 BSPORT«^1858. 

size, of parfeot eleameM and accuracy in the laying down the most complex 
localities, and those in which the shocks are most numerous. This has been 
reproduced to a much reduced scale (Plate XI*)* to accompany the present 
Report ; but although executed with much skill and care, by the lithographer 
and engraver, I find with regret that its small bize has rendered a perfectly 
accurate transcript of the original impracticable, and that a very imperfect 
notion of the latter is conveyed by the reduced map. 

Strictly, the limits of every earthquake are completely indeterminate ; and 
were our globe perfectly solid, homogeneous, and elastic, no limits but its 
own could be assigned to any shock from whatever centre originating. The 
practical limit (so to speak) is, however, where the movement has become 
insensible without instrumental aid ; for such have been all the observations 
dealt with in our Catalogue. This frequently embraces enormous surface- 
areas ; but these seldom, perhaps nowhere, are symmetrically posited round 
the centres, or presumed centres, of disturbance. 

We are not concerned here with any of the smaller or local circumstances 
that modify, in different radii traced from any seismic centre, the effects, 
and the directions and distances, to which they are sensibly transferred, but 
merely with some of the greater and constant conditions (for the same region) 
in which some of the great natural features of the earth's surface perma- 
nently modify or limit the transference and area of transfer of earthquake- 
waves transmitted from adjacent centres. Thus, along the whole chain of 
the South American Andes, the propagation of shock is greatly more 
towards the west than to the eastward,— -the highest crests and intermediate 
valleys forming a rude sort of limit, beyond which, to the eastward and into 
the heart of the table-land of the continent, shocks felt with destructive 
effect down to the shores of the Pacific are propagated with greatly di- 
minished force, or rather are so felt upon the surfkce. 

Again, to take another large example, the Northern Indian earthquakes, 
whose origin is in Nepaul and along the central Himalayan axis, are pro- 
pagated southwards and westwards into the great plain of India, far more 
than northwards into th^ enormous mass of table-land of Central Asia. 
We are at this moment not concerned with the causes of this, but simply 
with the fact, that in these examples, and in several analogous instances, it 
is a matter of observation that certain great natural features of the earth's 
surface and material) do modify the forms of the surface-areas shaken, 
and render them unsymmetrical, shortening the radii in one direction, 
lengthening them in another; so that the area, which in a more homo* 
geneous mass would approach a circular or elliptic form, tends to an elon- 
gated, linear, or irregular outline. 

In laying down, then, the forms and sensible area of shock of each earth- 
quake catalogued (and often necessarily, from the imperfect data alone 
afforded), the following rules were adhered to :^* 

P. When the form and sensible limits of the shaken area were ascertain- 
able from the narratives, they were adopted. 

2^ When these were wanting, as in the great mass of cases recorded, then, 
as respects form, the physical, geological, or other conditions of 
each area, known to modify the distant propagation of shock, were 
attended to. 

S°. As respects sensible area, when this could not be ascertained for 
any one diameter of the shaken area, from the narratives, certain 
arbitrary conventional rules (founded upon a natural basis, however) 
were resorted to. 



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ON THE FACTS AND THHOBT OV lABTHQUAKB PHENOMENA. 59 

The method of eoloaring therefore wm tfait. The whole of the recorded 
earthquakes of the Catalogue were subdivided preliminarily, with as careful 
a judgment as possible, into three great classes :-— 

I''. Great earthquakes, being those in which, over large areas, numerous 
cities, &c„ were overthrown^ multitudes of persons killed, rocky 
masses dislocated, and powerful *< secondary effects" produced. 

2°. Mean eai tbquakes, or those which, although perhaps having a wide 
superficial area, were recorded to have produced much less destruo-" 
tive effects upon cities, &c^ and little or no changes upon natural 
objects, and scarcely any loss of life. 

3^ Minor earthquakes, limited to those which, although sensible and 
producing in their full development some effects (fissures, &c.) upon 
buildings, did not affect natural objects at all, and left few or no 
traces of their occurrence after the shock. 

Of the first class, the great Lisbon shock of 1755 may be taken as a 
familiar type. Of the second, examples are frequent over Central Europe 
and the Mediterranean basin, Southern Asiatic Russia, &c. And of the 
third class we find notices almost daily from every quarter. 

As respects the very smallest development of this class, namely, the con-* 
tinuous tremors of Comrie, Pignerol, &c. &c., they were grouped mto single 
shocks upon the same method as described previously for their discussion as 
to distribution in time. 

To distinguish these three classes upon the map, three different inten** 
slties of water-colour tint were prepared — all from the same colour (red 
ochre and Indian yellow). The first and most intense having been decided 
to designate the first class, that for the second was obtained of one-third 
the intensity, by dilution with three volumes of water ; and the third by 
dilution of the second with three volumes again, — the intensities of the 
three tints being therefore as the numbers 1, J-, and h or 9» 3i and 1. A 
single wash or application of the tint relative to its class, upon the given 
looailty, designated each earthquake when laid down on the map; and 
the form or boundary of the tint, when not to be had historically, being 
ruled by physical considerations as already briefly described, the exlerU or 
ntperJUneU area of the tint (when not derivable from the narratives), was 
arbitrarily fixed by the following rule : — 

4<>* The extreme radius of great earthquakes (1st class) was assumed equal 
to 9^ or about 540 geographical miles ; that of the 2nd class at 3% 
or 180 geographical miles ; and that of the 3rd at a tingle degree, or 
60 geographical miles. 

These were determined from the consideration that our records give, 
when viewed with a broad glance and apart from physical and local limiting 
conditions of a powerfullv disturbing character ; i. e. when the area of dis- 
turbance has had a sensible surface-boundary approaching to an irregular 
circle or ellipse, — ^a sensible diameter of about 1000 to 1200 miles for great 
earthquakes, and about 400 for those of our second class, those minor 
ones of the third seldom extending to above 100 or 150 miles in diameter. 

In the case of the enormous surface-areas of the first class, however, it 
has rarely been necessary, in the later years of the catalogue period, to 
make use of this convention at all, the historic boundaries being usually 
attainable. These in many cases comprise areas of surprising extent : thus 
the great Nepaul earthquake of 1833 extended sensibly over 7^ lat by 

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60 BBPORT — 1858, 

15^ long., a surface four times that of Great Britain, and twice and a half 
that of France. 

The Cutch earthquake of 1819 extended from £. to W. 5^ and from 
N. to S. 6^, though its dimensions in latitude are rather ill-defined. (' Asiat. 
Joum.' vol. xii. n. s.) 

The Lisbon (1755) earthquake, and a few of those of the Malayan and 
Calabrian groups, and of South America, were sensible in certain surface- 
radii or great circles over 18% or perhaps even 20° ; but these are the extreme 
developments of our first class, and their limits historical, and therefore not 
affecting the preceding conventions. Some earthquakes recorded in the 
catalogue it was necessary to omit laying down upon the map at all, inasmuch 
as no sufiicient data could be gathered to fix a probable local surface centre, 
nor any information as to the comparative energy of the movement For 
example, some earthquakes (though but few) will be found catalogued as 
" in China,*' " in Libya," &c., with scarcely any particulars given. These 
omissions are not sufiSciently numerous to affect the main result. 

Besides these inseparable elements, volcanic and seismic phenomena, an- 
other intimately related phenomenon has been marked, as far as the data 
enable it Those tracts of the earth's surface which have been presumed, 
with more or less probability, to be in slow process of subsidence to a 
lower level, are marked by blue tints, the boundaries of which are un- 
defined to a great extent. These embrace the coral tracts of Darwin, the 
west coast of Greenland, and a small tract of the southern shores of the 
Baltic All minor subsiding areas close to or in the midst of volcanic centres 
(such as the shore of Italy near Naples) are unnoticed, as such changes of 
level, due to the immediate action of adjacent valcanoes, are almost per- 
petual, and, in proportion to its state of activity, &c., common to every such 
area over the globe. 

On examining the Mercator map (Plate XII.), then, upon which, subject 
to the above rules, the whole Catalogue has been graphically represented by 
tinting, it is to be remarked that — 

1. The whole of the earth's surface known to be subject to earthquakes 

will be found tinted more or less intensely. 

2. The most deeply tinted surfaces mark the places where either the 

number, or the intensity, or both, of successive earthquakes are the 
greatest. 

8. Whether at any one point the depth of tint be due to number or to 
intensity, and the relation between these, may be found by reference 
to the Catalogue itself. 

4. The shading-off or evanescence of tint towards the extreme sensible 
limits of the seismic (coloured) regions over the whole map is due 
(not to shading or evanescence of colour in the artist's sense, but) 
to the superposition of tints only upon the principles already ex- 
plained. Hence it follows (admitting the two conventions made, as 
to intensity and area, and the partial extent to which these in- 
fluence the results historically gotten), that the tinting upon this 
seismographic map does as truly represent, over our earth, the known 
seismic regions in form and extent, and the relative intensities and 
successive developments of seismic action therein, as the contour 
lines of a contoured map represent the forms of irregular suriaces, 
and the rate of inclination of the slopes and valleys by their ap- 
proximation or separation; or as truly as (upon certain engraved 
maps, eg. Irish Railway Commission of Ireland and some German 
ones) the relative heights and rapidity of rise of mountain chains aro 

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ON THE FACTS AND TH90BT OP BARTHQUAKB PHBNOlfBNA. 61 

graphically represented by multiplying the engraved lines that pro- 
duce the shades (or tints) in the joint ratio of the heights and rates 
of slope, i.e. as the sines of the angles upon a given base. 

I therefore venture to present this map as more than a mere picture — as 
being, in fact, a first approximation to a true representation of the distri- 
bution of earthquake forces, so far as they are yet known, over the surface 
of our world. 

The volcanoes (including fumaroles and solfataras) are shown by black 
dots, and all that are known to be in activity, or are recorded to have been 
80, or from other evidence may be presumed to have been so, within the 
historic or late geologic periods, have been represented, from the authorities 
of Johnston, Berghaus, V. Hoff, Daubeuy and others. 

The exactitude of the number of volcanic vents along the great lines of 
foci, is, however, less important to our object than the marking in of isolated 
volcanoes. 

Let us now examine our map in detail, and see what it can teach us, taking 
for the starting-point of our seismic survey the meridian of Greenwich, the 
central point nearly of the dry land, and passing eastward in our review. 
But first let us notice some points in the physical features of the earth's sur- 
face. Of the 111,000,000 of square miles of ocean (in round numbers) 
covering three-fourths of the surface of our globe, the greater part is to us a 
blank, so far as direct observation is concerned, the exceptions being the 
Atlantic with a part of the Southern Ocean from about 10^ S., northwards, 
and of the Northern Ocean up to nearly 70° N., — nearly all other marine 
seismic observations being in connexion with centres upon adjacent land. 

We see these enormous pelagic areas, consisting of irregular, saucer- 
shaped, shallow depressions, bounded by fiowing coast-lines which, by the 
connecting points of oceanic banks and islets, we can generally unite into 
closed curves, forming thus distinct but inosculating basins — of which the 
Northern and Southern Pacific together form the largest example. Those 
vast but comparatively very shallow depressions may, when viewed in indi- 
vidual detail, be subdivided into smaller shallow concavities by banks and 
shallows below the ocean surface. But each great oceanic saucer, bounded 
by the existing continents and their fragmentary outliers, presents an almost 
continuous fringe around, of mountain-chains and volcanic foci. Thus, start- 
ing from Mount Elias, long. 141° W., lat 60°, at the northern extremity of 
the Pacific, we find a scattered chain of volcanoes along the west coast of 
North America, with a continuous bounding coast line of mountains. South 
of the gulf of California, the Mexican and Central American volcanoes, with 
those of the South American Andes, carry on a closely linked chain, sJmost 
to its southern extremity. Here the volcanoes of Tierra del Fuego trace the 
line on towards that of Graham's Land, where it plunges into the unknown 
r^ons of the Antarctic continent 

Returning to the extreme north again, from Mount Elias, we have the 
almost unbroken line of mountain and volcano of the Aleutian Archipelago ; 
carried down through the great elevated peninsula of Kamtschatka, the Kurile 
Isles, Jesso, Japan, the Philippines ; and to the north of New Guinea by its 
volcanoes and those of N^w Britain, the Solomon Isles, Egmont, New He- 
brides, New Caledonia, and New Z^and, to the Antarctic ice again at the 
Balleny Islands and Buckle Volcano — a connected belt, with the exception 
of the unknown Antarctic region, round its vast pelagic circuit. Within 
this the subordinate or secondary basins are marked, though lets distinctly, 
by lines of volcanic foci : thus from Japan to New Ireland through the 
llfidrone IsUnds, a distinct though sparse line of volcanoes cuts off the basin 

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62 , RBPOIt1v^l858. 

(nearly one^half the area of Africa) bounded on the north by Japan, and on 
the west by the Phih'ppines. 

From lat. 30° S., a sub-oceanic crest-line of shallows appears to spur off 
eastward from the volcanic foci of New Caledonia and New Zealand, and, 
trending westward and a little northward through the Tonga» Society, Mar- 
quesas, and Gallapagos Islands, connected by continuous banks, joins the Cen- 
tral American group of volcanoes, thus cutting the great ocean basin 
nearly into two secondaries, each of which is probably in a less marked man- 
ner subdivided, — the northern sub-basin, by a line through Christmas and 
the Sandwich Islands, to some point of the volcanic group of the Audrea- 
nofsky Islands in the Atlantic Archipelago, making in its course a wide 
sweep to the east and north through an almost continuous chain of isles and 
banks; and the southern sub-basin by a line from the Society Islands 
through Easter Isle and Juan Fernandez, and combining with the great 
Chilian volcanic chain at its eastern extreme. 

A vast iissure (noticed by Humboldt), and marked by an almost continuous 
line of volcanic vents, extends in a direction nearly east and west, right across 
Mexico, between lat. N. 18° and 19^ It is nearly 500 miles in length* Its 
main direction, if produced, bears upon the volcanic island of Rerillegigedo, 
and, as Humboldt also thinks, probably extends to Mouna Roa, in the Sand- 
wich Islands. The Mexican extremity of this enormous crevasse probably 
marks the continental end of one of the great dividing ridges of the sub- 
basins of the Pacific. 

Within the great Pacific Basin will be found (tinted blue) most of those 
great areas of probable subsidence indicated by Darwin"". These bands will 
be observed occupying the great sub-basins of the ocean, not very distant 
from great volcanic lines, and although not (with our present imperfect 
knowledge of soundings) quite free from the suspicion of occasionally inter- 
secting such lines (e. g. Marquesas and Society Islands, Ladrone, and New 
Guinea), yet, on the whole, keeping surface positions intermediate to the 
volcanic cinctures aiiyoining or around them. 

Less distinctly we may trace the cincture of mountain- and volcanic chain 
around the shallower Atlantic basin, and, through it, upon the submarine 
elevations dividing its sub-basins. Thus, starting from Iceland ; the Ferro 
Isles, Scotland, and the mountains of Wales and England (with the breach 
of the English Channel, a narrow line in relation to the scale of our present 
survey), Uie Hhenish-German chains, the French and Western Alps, the 
Pyrenees, to Cape Finisterre and the coast of Portugal, connect bv the 
Azores, and by innumerable submarine rocks and shoab, across to New- 
foundland. Here the lines to the northward may be pronounced unknown^ 
until, returning back to Iceland, we find it approximates to the point we 
left through the great igneous and abrupt coast-line of Greenland. 

In connexion with this oceanic basin, we have two probably subsiding 
tracts of land — the one in Davis*s Straits, the other in the Baltic-^both tinted 
blue. 

The Central Atlantic forms a well*marked basin girded with volcanoes and 
mountain-ranges. Leaving the last stated boundary-line at Newfoundland^ 
and going again eastward to the Azores, thence through Madeira to the 
Canary Isles, the Cape de Verds and including the great sub-oeeanic vol- 
oanio region between 15° and 80° long. W., and lat. 3° N. to 10° S., going 
westward by the island of Fernando Noronha to Cape St. Roque on the ex* 
treme east of the South American continent, returning to Newfoundland, 

* SeS Dans oa Areas of Subsidence in the Pftciiic Aii. Amef. GeoL, Albany, 1845, aftd 
Scba. PhiU Jeom. (New), vol. 36. p. 941. 



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ON THB FACTS AND THBOftY OV SABTHQUAKB PHENOMBNA. 69 

we trace the line southwards through the several chains of the United States 
down into Georgia* where, with the comparatively narrow breach of Lower 
Florida* it is carried on by Cuha and the whole chain of volcanic islands of 
the West Indies to Trinidad and the South American continent again* 
The Oulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea form a smaller but separate basin* 
In the southern Atlantic we can trace a dividing ridge through South 
Ascension — the great suboceanic tract just referred to — North Ascension^ 
St. Helena* and probably to Cape Negro on the African west coast, and 
thence to the Cape of Good Hope* and returning westward by Tristan 
d'Acunha, thence S.W. to the Isle of Georgia (lat« 55° S.) and through the 
Falkland Islands to the volcanoes of the southern point of South America i 
but this, like the sub*basins, through the scattered indications which alone 
we yet have in the vast southern portion of the Eastern or Indian Ocean west 
of Australia, is uncertain. 

There is little doubt that Australia, on its northern existing coast-line, was 
once united \?ith New Guinea and the Aru Islands west and south of it 
(Wallace, Silliman*s Journal, vol. xxv.), and possibly with much of the land 
outlying to the west of that vast and now isolated continent ; if not, the 
intermediate seas would be much deeper than they are, and the west coast of 
Australia with its mountainous chains would bound an ocean basin whose 
western boundary would be marked by a line of volcanoes from New Guinea 
to New Zealand and the Southern Sea. 

The seas of Ochotsk, of Kamtschatka, of Japan, and, above all, the Chinese 
and Malayan Seas with Borneo in the midst, form so many distinct basins, 
small relatively to the vast areas we have been reviewing, but distinct and 
strongly marked. In the Chinese Sea we have a probable tract of subsiding 
land, tinted blue upon the evidence of Darwin* The bay of Bengal, well- 
marked all round northward from Sunda* and belted with volcanoes to the 
Ganges, and with mountains near the coast thence to Ceylon, joins probably 
Western Australia by a suboceanic ridge, indicated through the rooks of 
Greville and Compton, the Island of Apaluria with the adjacent submarine 
volcano of 1789, and the ocean shallows and soundings, about 100° W» 
lon^. and 20° to 25° S. lat. 

The separate basin of the Arabian Sea is equally distinct, from Cape 
Comorin along the Malabar coast, all highly mountainous, Beloochistan to 
the mouth of the Persian Gulf (itself a small basin), thence by the Arabian 
coast-line to the volcanic region at the mouth of the Red Sea, and into 
Abyssinia with its characteristic and enormous crater-form lake of Tzana 
(though as yet not possessing any earthquake record), and thence through 
regions scarcely known upon the East African coast, crossing to the Comoro 
Islands (volcanic) and to the mountainous regions of Madagascar, — the vol* 
canio islands of Bourbon, Mauritius and Rodriguez, the Nazareth and Saya 
banks, the Chagos Archipelago and the Maldive and Laccadive Islands^ 
completing the cincture with the Malabar coast again. 

Along the great band of these islands, and thence trending westwards by 
the Saya bank, lies one of the great tracts of oceau'-floor which Darwin haa 
shown to be probably subsiding (tinted blue)* Assuming that this really is 
a band of subsidence, it would be more probable that the volcanic girdle 
takes a wider sweep to the south and west of this band, and, leaving the 
Island of Rodriguez, makes for the volcanic centre marked in the ocean at 
long. 90° £., lat* 10° S*, and thence turns northward to join Ceylon, Cape 
Comorin and the volcanic region of Pondicherry. 

Leaving the great ocean and great continent, we trace smaller basins 
(or rather saucers, for their extreme shallowness in relation to their surfaoe- 
areanast never be lost iighl oQi where larger portions of the elevated mQlui*. 

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64 . RBPOBT — 1858* 

tain-ciDcture, studded here and there with volcanic vents, are found un&ub« 
merged and inland (t. e. where the basin within its boundary is partly land 
and partly water), thus: ^tna, Lipari, and Vesuvius, the Apennine chain, 
the southern and western Alps, the Pyrenees, and the great tableland and 
axial chains of the Spanish peninsula, with the mountains of Northern Africa, 
on through Pantellaria and Sicilv, form one such basin. Closely connected 
with this is the adjoining basin of the iEgean with the volcanic Greek Islands : 
the Black Sea, with the volcanic regions of Armenia and the Caucasus, form 
a distinct basin extending on the north far into Russia ; the Caspian, with the 
Sea of Aral and the plain of Tartary embracing Persia, another, having its 
own volcanoes near the former sea, while Central Asia, so little known, seems 
probably divisible into several vast saucer-like areas, north of the great table- 
land, of which the great lakes and the Altai chains, with their imperfectly 
described volcanoes, probably mark some parts of the cinctures, but which, 
in the absence of knowledge as to relative level, it would be premature to 
attempt to trace. Many of these basins further on to the north appear no 
longer bounded by closed curves upon land, but to open out along the great 
river- courses which run northward and become lost to our knowledge in the 
icy solitudes of northern Asiatic Russia. 

Northern Europe presents us with the great Scandinavian, German, and 
Russian saucer, whose features have been made so clear to us by the labours 
of Murchison and others ; while, further north and west, a distinct oceanic 
basin appears in the Northern Sea, of which the Norwegian chain, Shetland, 
the Ferro Islands, Iceland, the west coast of Greenland, and the volcanic 
islands of Jan Mayen, are the marked boundaries. 

North America, so far as its surface has been ascertained, is divisible into 
several well-marked shallow basins, the most obvious being those of the 
Mississippi ; of the Arctic Highlands ; the two deserts east and west of the 
Rocky Mountains (lat. 30^ to 40° N.) ; and of the great lakes, to which may 
be added hereafter Labrador and the North of Canada with Hudson's Bay ; 
the eastern talus of the great Atlantic slope falling into the boundary of the 
Atlantic basin. Enough, however, has probably been stated to indicate 
that, viewed upon the broadest scale, the surface of our globe consists, as 
respects its present solid surface, of a number of saucer-like depressions, 
when large, having sUso convex central areas, all having plan outlines 
approximating to extremely irregular ovals or other closed curves, and 
bounded by mountain-chains or mere rounded or flat-topped ridges or eleva- 
tions of the solid sphere, greater or less. Where three or more of these inoscu- 
late, the point between the junction is most frequently a group of mountains 
or a high tableland, or both, — as, for example, the knots (Cusco and others) 
of the South American Andes, upon which the suboceanic ridges abut. 
The greatest of these saucer-like concavities either form or subdivide the 
beds of the ocean, but other such shallow basins can be traced upon the 
existing land, and embracing seas or parts of seas, or great lakes, or river- 
courses within them, but still enclosed by girdling chains of mountains or 
the precipitous flanks of tablelands, which latter in their full development 
are the pedestab of the greatest mountain-chains. Amongst the wide- 
sweeping curves that indicate the dividing crests (if we may use such a 
word to designate elevations often, especially in the subdividing ridges of the 
oceamc sub-basins, so very low in relation to the areas they separate) of these 
vast oceanic basins, it appears impossible to trace any approach to parallelism^ 
or, indeed, that such an arrangement could exist. 

We do, however, remark, that it is along these girdling ridges, whether 
mountain-ranges or mere continuous swelling elevations of the solid, which 
divide these basins beneath the ocean surface one from the other, that all 

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ON THB PACTS AND THfiOBT OW BARTHQUAKB PUBNOMBNA. 65 

the Tolcanoes known to exist upon the earth's surface are founds dotted 
along these ridges or crests in an unequal and uncertain manner. 

And as our oceans and greater seas are bounded, and below their water- 
surface subdiyidedy by these ridges, along the lines of which the volcanic 
foci are found ; so, as long observed, it is a fact that all active volcanoes are 
comparatively close to the sea, or to some large body of water; indeed, 
they could not present the phenomena they are known to do, without a 
supply of water, and nearly always of sea- water, more or less constant and 
plentiful, derived from this propinquity. (See Trans. R. L Acad. vol. xxi. 
pp. 98, 99.) 

However different, then, may have been the train of forces upon which the 
elevation of the mountain-chains and other relatively raised lines of the pre« 
sent surface have depended, from those which now produce the ejections 
thrown up by volcanic action, the latter seem to follow upon the traces of 
the former ; and we shall find that the earthquake generally does so likewise. 
The distinction long made, into linear and circularly grouped or clustering 
volcanoes, I conceive has no foundation in nature. By far the largest pro- 
portion of all the volcanic vents over the whole earth are found arranged 
along the flowing lines of mountain-chains. 

The so-called clusters or circular groups never are found covering surface- 
areas larger, if so large, t)r more widely apart, in any single group, than those 
-within which volcanic vents are found that undoubtedly belong to linear ar- 
rangements (Mexico for example). 

Keariy all the clusters or circular groups of volcanoes are situated in the 
ocean, and far from continental land ; they stand on, and are connected with 
each other, by oceanic plateaux, rounded submarine ridges, shallows, rocks, 
and islands, and by similar connexions with points of continental coasts^ 
either mountainous or volcanic. The conclusion seems justifiable, that 
these clusters or groups are the only visible points, '* few and far-between," 
situated along sub-oceanic linear volcanic ranges, along which the open 
vents are probably much fewer than along equal lengths on land, but still 
marking as truly as the most thick-set linear vents the great lines of fracture 
of the earth's crust Were this the proper place, much might be adduced 
in support of this view of volcanic distribution. 

The connexion between volcanic and seismic effort is so obvious, although 
the nature of their connexion has been so little understood, that we are 
prepared to find the deepest tints of the seismic map fringing off from those 
great mountain-ranges where the volcanic foci stand close in rank ; but it 
was not before so apparent that, along the elevated ridges or mountain- 
ranges that gird and divide the great surface-basins, even when not volcanic, 
or when volcanic foci are rare and widely separated, the earthquake is still 
found to range in broad bands, following the general line of the crest. 

Upon a very much minuter scale of survey than we are now occupied with, 
such would seem dependent upon the physical fact, that the earth-wave 
will be best and furthest propagated through the most solid and elastic line 
of material, that is, in the axial line of mountain-chains and valleys, as is 
found to be the case ; but the indication of our map is a far more extensive 
one, and points to some different and deeper cause. Thus, to resume our 
seismic survey of the Map, Iceland, Ferro, Shetland, and the south-west 
coast of Norway, neariy to Christiania, form a broad band of seismic con- 
nexion, which would probably run on to Greenland, and along its coast to 
Jan Mayen, did we know anything of their earthquake history. 

The fact (if it be so), that the west coast of Greenland, in Davis's Straits, 
b sinking graduallTi would in nowise conflict with the probability of 
1858. 9 

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66 MPORT-^1858. 

seismic action, or even elevation of the opposite eastern coastt which, it is 
extremely probable, may be slowly rbing, just as the Scandinavian peninsula 
is doing ; and it does not seem a disproportioned supposition, that all three 
changing leveb are due to the prodigious scale of volcanic action going on 
at Iceland. 

The Swedish system is another band stretching north-west from the 
great lakes to Kola Bay in Russian Lapland ; and future observation may 
probably include in it the parallel chain of the Dofirefels Mountains. To 
the south we mark the broad band whose extremities are Portugal and the 
Azores, always in seismic sympathy with each other, and with which the 
band of the Canaries is in relation through Madeira, and is also more 
distinctly connected with the earthquakes of Barbary and Morocco. 

From Tunis, a narrow but intensely marked seismic band stretches up 
through Sicily and Italy, sends off a spur to the west through the Alps of 
Piedmont and Southern France, along the whole line of the Pyrenees, 
and to the northern coast of Spain ; and widening out over the central Alps, 
so as to cover a large area of central Southern Europe : extending east and 
west from Lyons to Vienna, it again contracts in width at about the latitude 
of Strasburg, and stretches away northwards over the whole Rhenish 
mountain system, and becomes nearly evanescent upon the low plains of 
Holland and the coasts of the North Sea, where, though infrequent, earth-^ 
quakes are not unknown. 

Over the great plain of Central Europe, and far into Southern Russia to 
the north of the Euxine, the want of observations with distinct dimensions 
renders any attempt at precise boundary nugatory. Were our records better, 
the Carpathians would no doubt stand out in stronger tint than the well- 
inhabited country of Poland and the Vistula, where the greater frequency of 
seismic records deepen the tint from Cracow up towards Riga. Better ob« 
servations would no doubt also mark with a deeper tint a band of connexion 
along the Balkans and line of the Danube, between the Austrian Alps, so 
frequently shaken, and the Bosphorus, where the neighbourhood of Con* 
stantinople shows itself abnormally intense, from the reiterated records of 
earthquakes there that have been collected century after century at that 
ancient seat of splendour and civilization. Thus it is that the disturbing 
causes that we have remarked as affecting the Catalogue follow into its dis- 
cussion in space as well as we have seen they do into that of time. 

A broad but somewhat ill-defined seismic band stretches from the Greek 
Archipelago to Constantinople, spreads over a large portion of Asia Minor, 
and is carried through Palestine, on to the valley of the Lower Nile and the 
coasts of the Red Sea, extending further south along its Arabian shore. 
From the Gulf of Scanderoon, by Aleppo and Mosul to Lake Van, and 
the south of Ararat to Shirvan and Baku upon the Caspian, a wide band 
of great and long-continued energy extends, which probably joins into the 
Caucasus and is connected with the seismic system of the Ourals in the 
distant north. 

Again, from about the parallel of Bagdad, a broad but ill-defined seismic 
band stretches nearly due east through the whole of Persia, Khorassan, and 
to the Hindoo Koosh, sending off a narrower band along the shores of the 
Persian Gulf. About Cabool the Persian band joins into the vast seismic 
area of Northern India — a band, whose northern boundary is the Hima* 
layan chain, and which stretches nearly parallel to it from Cabool to Cal- 
cutta and to the Gulf of Cutch. Beloochistan appears exempt, but probably 
only because hitherto without observation or record. Leaving the vast and 
Strongly agitated seismic system of Central Asia, of the boundaries of which 

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ON THB PACTS AND TH«ORT OF BABTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 67 

po little 18 yet known beyond the general fact that northwards the seismic 
bands appear to follow the great river-courses, or more probably the great 
axes bounding them^ — and passing also the so frequently convulsed Chinese 
empire, which appears to have two chief seismic centres about Pekin and 
Canton (these cities have been the centres of observation for a\\, or nearly all, 
the Chinese records of earthquakes that we possess, and hence one reason of 
the depth of seismic tint around them ; but it is also to be observed that two 
of the great volcanic dbtricts of the << Fire Hills and Fire Wells" of China are 
situated within the tinted or shaken regions adjacent to the two capitals)^ 
with a third more central volcanic region, of which I am not aware that any- 
thing is known seismically, — and remarking the apparent exemption of Cochin 
China, for which there are no records, — we at length arrive at the greatest and 
most formidable earthquake- and volcanic region upon our globe. Stretching 
in a vast horse-shoe, convex to the south, from Burmah and Pegu, and sur- 
rounding the great island of Borneo, with an intervening belt of sea, and 
reaching round to Formosa on the north-west, we have an almost continuous 
girdle of volcanoes and lofty mountains. Every bland of the group, in- 
cluding Java and Sumatra, Celebes and Mindanao, b shaken with earth* 
quakes the most formidable and frequent ; and we can point to n(f spots upon 
the whole earth's surface upon which seismic energy is exhibited with an 
intensity equal to that of Luzon and Sumbava. 

Nothing even in South America or Mexico appears to rival the grandeur 
of volcanic energy and resultant seismic action here. In 1815 the thunder^ 
ings of Tomboro, in Sumbava, were heard nearly 1000 miles away (through 
the earth no doubt). The ashes, or, more correctly, the finely-divided tum^ 
dust, floating in the air, made mid-day into darkness 800 miles away in Java» 
and were precipitated at sea even a thousand miles from the point of ejec- 
tion, while whole tracts of country, with inhabited towns, have suddenly 
become engulphed and disappeared during periods of truptiov, whieh over 
a large portion of the chain, from one extreme to the other, are almoai 
continoous. 

It will be remarked that the seismic tint is both more intense and rela^ 
tively more circumscribed in itrea along the bands that surround the linear 
volcanic vents, where they cluster thick, than along mountain-chains or 
ridges that possess few or no volcanic vents. This no doubt arises from the 
centres of impube in active volcanic lines being situated at a comparatively 
small depth, in fact, coming from the actual bases of the crater, or not far 
beneath ; and hence the horizontal propagation is not so great for a given 
force of impulse as where its centre b situated deeper, and the expbsive 
effort rendered abortive to rupture the solid crust above. The intensity of 
tint in the former case b due to repetition of effort, as well as to occasional 
intensity of impulse. 

An earthquake in a non-volcanic region may, in fact, be viewed as an 
uncompleted effort to establbh a volcano. The forces of explosion and 
impube are the same in both ; they differ only in degree of energy, or in the 
varying sorts and degrees of resistance opposed to them. There b more 
than a mere vaguely admitted connexion between them, as heretofore com* 
monly acknowledged — one so vague, that the earthquake has been often 
stated to be the cause of the volcano (Johnston, ' Phys. Atlas,' Geology^ 
p. 21), and more commonly the volcano the cause of the earthquake, neither 
view being the expression of the truth of nature. They are not in the rela** 
tion to each other of cause and effect, but are both unequal manifestationa 
of a common force under different conditions. 

Further north we have the somewhat lesa terribly but yet deeply* 

f2 



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68 REPORT — 1858, 

coloured seismic bands of Japan, the Kuriles, and Kamtschatka ; and, pass* 
ing to the opposite shore of the PaciAc, we are presented with the deeply- 
coloured seismic bands of Mexico and the South American Andes, whose 
influence reaches far out into the ocean, but eastward or landward is 
checked by the great chain. The reason of this fact, which has been before 
alluded to, is not hard to And. The general section of the South American 
continent, from west to east, consists of a comparatively low-lying narrow 
littoral border-country on the Pacific; then the immense chain of the 
Andes rising in successive ranges to the axial peaks, and beyond these a 
vast plateau — the elevated land of the great continent — reaching over to 
near the western coast, where some lower ranges of mountains terminate 
the Atlantic shore and bound its basin. This is rudely shown in the accom- 
panying figure (1). 




Now if a shock be transmitted from any oriein within the great chain, 
and below the level of the great tableland, a6, as from a point Xy the 
transmitted elastic wave in the direction xs, reaching the surface after a 
very short transit, will, in accordance with the well-known law of elastic 
bodies, have its amplitude increased (just as the last billiard-ball of a line 
of touching balls, is that which is projected when the first of the line is struck 
by the blow of a propelled ball), and more powerfully shake all surface* 
objects at s than others situated at a, although at an equal radial distance 
from the centre of effort, — the free movement of the elastic wave being 
here reacted upon by the elastic mass of the tableland which blocks its way 
until compressed. Objects on the tableland, at an equal distance from 
the origin, may (dependent upon its depth) receive the shock (even if 
of only equal amplitude) at such an angle of emergence as will give a less 
power of overthrow to the horizontal component of the wave*s transit. 
There will in every case be a reflected wave back from the mass of the 
tableland — an earthquake echo — producing at «, or along the littoral border, 
a second shock, with a line of direction nearly the same, but with a direction 
of motion reverse to the first, one shock only being felt on the tableland. 

To return, the seismic band of the Andes, at the extreme north of the 
continent, and at Trinidad, inosculates with that of the West India Islands, 
which sweeps round the Caribbean Sea, and appears, so far as records go, 
to transmit its movements further into the Atlantic, than into the former 
sea ; if so, that probably arises from causes quite analogous to those already 
explained for South America — a shallower sea-bottom to the westward, on 
the Caribbean Sea, thus playing the part towards the deeper bottom of the 
Atlantic that the tableland plays towards the littoral slope of South America. 
The North American records have been too few and ill-defined as to boundary 
to produce as yet any very distinct conclusions from the tints, which prove, 
however, that its western and southern seaboard are by no means free from 
earthquake. This has in great part arisen from the great want of orographic 
delineation on nearly all (even the largest and best) maps of the United States, 
which omit all heights and natural features. The Califomian system west of 
the Rocky Mountains, that of Upper Missouri, of the Mississippi,, and that of 
the northern lakes and basin of the St Lawrence, form the chief and separate 
regions in which earthquakes have been so far observed most frequently* 

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ON THB FACTS AND THEORY OF BABTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 6ff 

Future observation will probably show a connexion between the great sub-* 
oceanic seismic tract of the South Atlantic and the South American conti* 
nent on its western sea-board^ between Cape Roque and La Plata. It does 
not appear so far to have any connexion with the opposite African coast be- 
tween Cape Palmas and the Bight of Biafra. A better knowledge will also pro-* 
bably widely extend the seismic boundary of the Cape of Good Hope along 
both the east and west shores of Africa to the northward, and bring within it 
the great island of Madagascar, as to which nothing is so far known. New 
Zealand (unhappily for its future progress) will afford one of the best regions 
in the world for the study of volcanic and seismic phenomena in their con^ 
iiexion« 

The earthquake-baud of Western Australia, at present so small in propor-> 
tion to its vast surface, will probably be found to reach much further towards 
the interior, and embrace Van Diemen's Land and a considerable stretch of 
the southern coast to the eastward. It remains yet to be observed whether 
even the small surface explored of the east side of the Great Island is sub* 
ject to earthquakes or not Abyssinia too, though not affording the record 
of a single earthquake, is too closely united with the seismic region of Arabia 
and the mouth of the Red Sea, to be probably perpetually in repose. 

There are great untinted spaces upon our map. The northern and south- 
em polar regions, immense tracts in North America and in Northern and 
East Central Asia ; surfaces in South America nearly as large as all Central 
Europe ; the whole African continent except the northern edge and southern 
point; nearly the whole of Australia, and almost the whole of the bed of the 
great ocean, are perfectly unstudied and unknown to us, as respects their 
seismic condition. They appear white, and hence free from earthquake, upon 
the map, but only because there are no observations. 

Future researches will probably, however, show that all these vast tracts of 
land are traversed by earthquake-bands presenting generally the features 
that we recognize elsewhere, and that the ocean-bed, far from the continents, 
although always much less disturbed, for equal extent of surface, than the 
land, and especially than the coast, of the great oceans, is also traversed by 
earthquake-bands continuous with and tracing out their shallowest contours* 

Had navigation been, in times past, as frequent and constant in the Pacifio 
and Southern Indian oceans as it has been in the narrower Atlantic, especially 
north of the equator, the former would roost probably present, over very much 
of their vast surfaces, light sebmic tints such as almost the whole Atlantic 
presents, included as it is within the range of movements transmitted from 
both its western and eastern borders, and sdso from the foci within its bosom, 
connected by seismic lines so closely adjacent, t. e* with subobasins so com- 
paratively small in area. 

Imperfect as are our observations on land, they are much more so upon 
the surface of the great ocean that covers three-fourths of our globe ; so 
that only a very rude approximation, and from very partial data, can be 
made towards the solution of the question, What is the relation of seismical 
energy beneath the land and the ocean ? 

The result of Perrey's, memoir * On the Basin of the Atlantic,' (Dijon 
M^m.) assigns, for a period from 14-30 to 1847, or 417 years, a total of only 
about 140 shocks ^or three shocks per annum) observed over an area of 
about 24 millions or square miles. If we contrast this with the only tolerably 
well-observed portion of the dry land, the great European area, we find 
thereon at the least 40 shockn per annum observed upon an area of 1,720,000 
square miles, or (allowing for regions included, but never observed), say, 
li500,000 square miles* There occurs therefore annually in the Atlantic 

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fO »BPOliT— 1858. 

basin one ihock for every 8,000,000 sqaare miles of surface, and, in the Euro- 
pean area, one shock for every 37,500 square miles of surface ; so that within 
these large areas the seismic energy beneath the land is to that beneath the 
ecean^floor as 213 : 1 nearly. The annual number of observed European 
earthquakes is certainly below the actual number that occur ; and although 
the Atlantic is the only oceanic surface of our globe over which there can 
be a pretence even to correct observation, yet its recorded numbers must 
be very far indeed below the truth, and immeasurably lower in proportion 
than for Europe. Making, however, every allowance for imperfect inform- 
ation in the pelagic area, the disparity of relative numbers is such, as to 
warrant our estimating, with some confidence, that the seismical energy is 
manifested with much greater power for equal areas upon the dry land than 
upon the ocean-bed. 

Should it ultimately prove a fact, as rendered probable from the beautiful 
investigations of Darwin, that there are great areas of gradual subsidence now 
in motion beneath the Pacific, it may still happen (though it is not probable) 
that seismic or even volcanic bands may traverse such areas of subsidence, 
without materially affecting their general downward movement. Although 
many portions of the earth's surface now show evidences of vertical insta- 
bility, either slowly, or per saltum occasionally, rising or sinking, these effects 
are all comparatively insignificant in extent. The great formative forces, 
whatever they were, upon which the elevated land of the great continents and 
the depression of the ocean-beds depended, have ceased sensibly to act The 
function of the volcano and the earthquake in the exbting cosmos is not crea- 
tive, but simply preservative ; and vast as they appear to eye and sense, their 
effects are very small in relation to the totality of the great terrestrial machine. 

If, however, such large areas of oceanic subsidence as have been supposed 
really exist, they will most probably be found situated almost centrally within 
the oceanic snb-basins, and hence surrounded but not traversed by seismic 
bands. 

There is one fact, which is shown by the relative positions, upon this map, 
of the greatest volcanic areas upon our globe (and these the most active) and 
of the blue-tinted areas of probable subsidence, that is worthy of fixing our 
attention. 

It will be observed that the blue bands of probable subsidence are tole- 
rably adjacent to the greatest seats of volcanic activity, and that the latter 
generally have subsiding areas at more than one side. Thus, in the Pacific, 
the blue band is along the great volcanic girdle from Celebes to New Zealand, 
and thence stretches between (and at one point may cut through) the line 
of suboceanic volcanic girdles, from the New Hebrides to the Marquesas. 

Again, the great volcanic horse-shoe girdle of Sumbava is between the^ 
blue (subsiding) area in the China Sea north of Borneo, and the blue coral 
bands north of Australia, which whole continent, or at least its western and 
northern parts, may probably be subsiding also. Lastly, in the north we have 
Iceland and its volcanic system, between the sinking coasts of Greenland and 
those of the Baltic. 

If we admit, then, as certain, that these vast tracts are subsiding, we can 
scarcely withhold our belief that the subsidences are due to and are the 
equivalent in bulk of the solid ejecta and exhalations of these various great 
volcanic areas respectively. 

The assumed area and extent of subsidence of those supposed subsiding 
tracts are, however, I apprehend, greatly overrated ; this, however, is not the 
place to pursue their consideration. 

From all that has preceded (here and in former Reports), it |s plain that 

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ON THE FACTS AND THBORt OF BARTHQUAKB PHENOMENA, fl 

aothiog like one or more great general horizontal directions of seismic move- 
ment can exist upon any very large tracts of the earth's surface ; and that if 
it be even possible to assign, as proposed by M. Perrey, a general horizontal 
component for limited areas, the method does not admit of extension. The 
normal type of an elastic wave in a homogeneous solid, is only varied, so far 
as observation yiet goes, by the accidents principally of material and surft^ce, 
whether the area of disturbance be great or small. 

Nor does the seismic intensity in any part of the world, so far as originating 
impulse is concemedy seem connected with the superficial character, to the 
greatest known depth, of the geologic formations, beyond what connexion 
is necessarily inferential from the seismic bands (where they exist) foliowingy 
on the whole, the lines of mountains and ridges that separate the surface- 
basins of the earth, whether volcanic or not While, therefore, the seismic 
waves diverge, from axial lines that are generally of the older rock forma- 
tionSf and often of crystalline igneous rocks or actively volcanic, they pene- 
trate thence formations of every age and sort, even to plains of the most 
recent post-pleistocene clavs, sands, and gravels ; and occasionally, by the 
secondary efforts of great shocks, these loose materials are shaken or caused 
to slip and gather up into new forms (as in the Uilah Bund at the mouths 
of the Indus, &c.), and so the earthquake has come to be mistakenly viewed 
as a direct agent of elevation. Its true cosmical function is the very opposite : 
It is part of the dislocating, degrading, and levelling machinery of the sur- 
face of our globe, while the part of the volcano is restoration and renewal. 
Both are, however, not creative but conservative (strange as it may sound), 
and suited to the period of man's appearance and possession of the earth. 

Viewing as a whole, and in a single glance, the distribution of seismic 
energy over the whole globe, it presents (so far as we yet know) a vast loop 
or band round the Pacific, a more broken and irregular one around the 
Atlantic, with subdividing bands and a vast broad band stretching acrosa 
Europe and Asia, and uniting them. 

Thus an apparent preponderance of seismic surface seems to lie about the 
temperate and torrid zones, both northern and southern; bat extended 
observation is yet required in high latitudes, and particularly in the Antarctic 
ones, before we dare venture to affirm that there is a real preponderance 
extending over any one or more great climatic bands or zones of the earth's 
surface. 

Tiie following are perhaps the most general conclusions that are at pre* 
sent justifiable:-* 

1st The superficial distribution of seismic influence over existing terrestrial 

space does not follow the law of distribution in historic time ; it is not 

one of uniformity. There is this resemblance, which, however, is 

not a true analogy, — that as the distribution is paroxysmal in time, 

so it is local in space. 
2nd. The normal type of superficial distribution is that of bands of variable 

and of great breadth, with sensible seismic infiuence extending from 

5*^ to 15° in width transversely. 
3rd. These bands very generally follow the lines of elevation which mark 

and divide the great oceanic or terr-oceanic basins (saucers) of the 

earth's surface. 
4th. And in so far as these are frequently the lines of mountain-chains^ 

and these latter those of volcanic vents, so the seismic bands are 

found to follow them likewise. 
' 5tlu Although the sensible influence U generally limited to the average 



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72 BBPOBT— 1858. 

width of the seismic band, paroxysmal efforts are occasionally pro« 

pagated to great superficial distances beyond it. 
6th. The sensible width of the seismic band depends upon the energy de« 

velopedi and upon the accidental geologic and topographic conditions 

at each point sdong its entire length. 
7th. Seismic energy may become sensible at any point of the earth's sur-» 

face, its efforts being, however, greater and more frequent as the 

great volcanic lines of activity are approached. 
8th. The surfaces of minimum or of no known disturbance, are the central 

areas of great oceanic or terr-oceanic basins or saucers, and the 

greater islands existing in shallow seas* 

The fact that certain low-lying river-basins, such as the Mississippi and 
the Ganges, are the seats of earthquake disturbance, does not conflict with 
the last proposition. In these cases, the impulse is propagated into the plain 
from the band of the bounding ridges; and when these are very large 
in relation to the basin, the breadth of the seismic band may overlap its 
whole surface, — as for example in the basin of the Ganges, where the seismic 
banks of the Himalaya and Vindhya mountains cover the whole plain of 
Northern India. 

We have thus extracted all the information that our Catalogue, or indeed 
any further cataloguing of earthquakes, seems capable of giving us ; future 
research must take a more distinctly physical character. I therefore proceed 
to some observations upon instrumental seismometry and the construction 
of seismometers, upon which our future progress must much depend. 

Twelve years ago, at the period of the author's paper (Trans. R. I. Acad* 
vol. xxi. 1846) ^' On the Dynamics of Earthquakes," the construction of seis* 
mometric instruments appeared a comparatively easy matter ; there did not 
seem to be much difficulty in producing even a self-registering instrument 
that should give every element of the earth-wave at the surface, whose nor- 
mal velocity of propagation was then assumed to be extremely great, to 
approximate to that theoretically due to the elasticity of solid rocky media, 
and not to vary very materially in direction of propagation during its transit 
from the origin, to any distant point of the earth's surface. 

It is only at a very recent period that experiments and observations as to 
the actual pheenomena, the velocity and direction of shock, &c. have begun to 
show the real difficulties of the subject ; and as these are apparently not very 
generally recognized, I propose pointing some of them out here, prior to 
indicating the limits within which for the present, it appears to me, we must 
be content to restrict our seismometric aims and instruments, and describing 
what form of instrument, and in what localities placed, would appear, with 
our existing knowledge, the best to give us some information — approximate 
only, and incomplete without doubt, but yet such as can be made a safe basis 
for a future higher step with more reflned and comprehensive instruments. I 
shall avoid as much as possible (as out of place in this Report) any mathe- 
matical treatment of the subject. The antecedent history of seismometers is 
in brief as follows : — 

All the instruments hitherto devised or set up may be divided into two 
great classes: — 1, observational^ those whose motions must be observed and 
recorded after each shock ; 2, se^-registering^ which record their own past 
movements however repeated, and admit of their observation at any subse* 
quent period within certain limits. Each of these classes is again divided 
into two sorts;— a* instruments dependent upon the movements by displace- 



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ON THE FACTS AND THtiiOBT OF BARTHaUAKE PHENOMENA, 79 

ment of liquids; b. those dependent upon the partial displacements of 
solids. Of the first class> there have been — 

1 (a). That of Cacciatore of Palermo, long in use in Sicily. It consists of a 

wooden circular dish about 10 in. diameter, placed horizontally and 
filled with mercury to the brim-level of eight notches that face the 
cardinal points and the bisecting rhumbs between, and are cut down 
through the lip of the dish, equally in width and depth all round. 
Beneath each such notch a small cup is placed, to receive such mer^ 
cury as may be thrown out of each notch by an oscillatory displace- 
ment of the main mass of mercury, due to a general oscillation of the 
whole system. Either the volume or the weight of mercury found in 
each cup is supposed to measure the value of the displacement, and 
hence of the shock in its direction in azimuth. 

2 (a). The wooden or other bowl of molasses, or other such viscid liquid, 

suggested for use by Mr. Babbage. 

3 (a). A cylindric tub with chalked or whitewashed sides, and partially 

filled with some heavy and permanently coloured liquid of deep tint. 
(Mallet, Admiralty Manual, sect vii. p. 218.) 

4 (a). Tubes partially filled with mercury, I -shaped, with the horizontal 

and open limbs directed to the cardinalpoints, for the horizontal com- 
ponent of shock; and (J-shaped for the vertical component, — both 
sets being provided with marking Indices, to show previous displace- 
ment of the mercury. (Mallet, Admiralty Manual, sect. vii. p. 214-.) 

5 (f>). The oldest, probably, of seismometers, long set up in Italy and southern 

Europe. A pendulum, free to move in any direction, carries below 
the bob a stile partly immersed in a stratum of dry fine sand spread 
to uniform thickness over the concave surface of a circular dish 
placed beneath, marked to the cardinal points, whose centre is 
beneath the point of suspension of the pendulum when at rest, and 
whose concavity is that of a spherical segment of a radius equal to 
the length of the pendulum and stile, plus rather more than the 
depth of the stratum of sand. It was supposed that the stile would 
mark a right line when seen in a plane vertical to the sand-bed, and 
in the direction of the shock. 

6 (b). The inverted pendulum, held vertical when at rest by its forming 

part of a spring at the base (like the watchmakers* noddy), armed 
with a chalk tracer or pencil above the bob, marking a line or lines 
upon the concave lower surface of a dish in form like that of the 
preceding. Thb was understood to be one of the instruments adopted 
by the observers of the repeated shocks of Comrie, &c, and the in- 
vention, in its improved form, of Prof. J. Forbes. (Phil. Trans. Edin^ 
vol. XV. part 1 ; Trans. Brit Ass. 1841 -42.) 

7 (b). The inverted spring and ratchet pendulum seismometer, proposed In 

1854 by Robert F. Budge, Esq. of Valparaiso, in a letter (12th Marcl^ 
1854) to Mr. Patterson of Belfast, and obligingly forwarded by him to 
the author. Four cylindrical or square rods of spring steel, each carry* 
ing a spherical bob (an iron shot) at top, are fixed vertically. Each i^ 
provided with a ratchet, finely cut upon the rod, and a pall, the planes 
of motion of the four palls passing through the cardinal points, so that 
each spring pendulum is free to make one semiosciUation only in ita 
own direction, or that of its ratchet and pall, and be arrested there 
by the latter until its position of displacement be observed and it be 
released. Thus, in the figure (2), /> W is the spring pendulum (which| 
it may be remarked, would be better a flat ribbon of spring steel. 

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74 BBPORT— 1858. 

the broad dtmension being traosverse to the arc of vibration, than 
eitherroundor square as proposed), Wthe yj^ g. 

bob, r the ratchet and pall. If we suppose 
this to be in the N. and S. vertical plane, 
a shock from the S. may bring the pen- 
dulum into the position p m, when the 
pall will fall into that r n, and detain the 
instrument in its new position until the 
angle npW can be observed. 

The main object proposed by the author 
of this modification of the inverted pen- 
dulum was, that the observable movement 
of the instrument should be as nearly as 
possible that of the horizontal component 
of shock, without being perplexed with 
indications due to subsequent abnormal 
motions of the instrument. 

8 (6). The pendulum seismometer of Santi. 

Two pendula suspended close to the faces 
of two walls, ranging in vertical planes 
traversing through the cardinal points, __^ 

are free to oscillate in those planes only. *" ^ ^ 

Each is provided with a clialk tracer, which marks the arc of oscil- 
lation N. and S. or E. and W., or vice versd as to either, upon the pre- 
pared face of the wall. This has been long in use in Italy. The length 
of the horizontal chord of the arc traced is assumed to be equal to 
the horizontal component of shock in the direction marked, and inter- 
mediate movements are to be obtained from comparison of the lengths 
of both cardinal chords by the known laws of compounded motions. 

9 (^). A vertical inverted spring pendulum, formed of an elastic rod (wood 

or cane), with bobs of iron shot, is fixed within a hoop, with certain 
extemporaneous means of marking its oscillations in any plane, or 
more than one, for horizontal component Such pendula, fixed hori- 
zontally in a wall, or in two N. and S. and E. and VV. walls, may be 
used for vertical element, or a shot hung from a spiral spring of wire 
(Mallet, Admiralty Manual, sect. vii. p, 217, 218.); these were in- 
tended for extemporaneous use. The spiral spring arrangement has 
had several different proposers, some anterior to the above. 

Such are the principal instruments of the first class, used or proposed. 
In addition to which may be noticed the balanced circular dish, or wheel- 
formed seismometer, suggested, I believe, by Professor J. Forbes and Col. 
James, R.E., — a disk of cast-iron or other metal with a heavy rim, upon a 
central point of suspension slightly above the centre of gravity, and provided 
with a central tracing-stile, either above or below. The sensibility and power 
of horizontal recovery or stability of this instrument are nearly identical 
with those of the common balance. It is liable to all the objections that 
apply to pendula, whose properties in oscillation it still partakes of; and it 
is difRcult to see any one special advantage offered by it. 

Of the second class, or self-registering seismometers, the number is much 
more limited. 

1 (a). The first completely self-registering seismometer proposed, the author 
c believes to have been that invented by himself, an account of which 



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ON THB FACTS AND THBOBT OF BABTHQUAKB PHBNOHBNA. f 9 

was read to the Royal Irbh Academy in June 1846 (Trans. R. I. A^ 
xxi. p. 107). It consists essentially of five fluid pendula, — glass tubes, 
partially filled with mercury, four for horizontal, and one for vertical 
elements of the shock. The displacement of the mercurial columns 
breaks contact, in an otherwise closed galvanic circuit, which, acting 
upon some simple contrivances, cause a pencil to trace a line upon 
ruled paper, whose length is proportionate to the time that contact 
remains broken, or to the amplitude and altitude of the earth-wave. 
The ruled paper, placed upon a cylinder, is maintained in motion 
by a clock ; tne position of the commencement of the pencil line 
traced on the moving paper, therefore, gives the moment in time, of 
the arrival of the wave, or initial instant of shock. The displace- 
ment of the mercurial columns is dependent upon inertia, and on 
the relative mass of mercury in the adjacent limbs of each bent 
tube. 
2 (a). Professor Palmieri, of Naples, has, some time since, constructed an 
instrument, in point of general principle, very similar to the pre- 
ceding, and which has been at work, as he informs me, with satis- 
factory results, at the Royal Meteorological Observatory upon Vesu- 
vius, and for a considerable period. His instrument consists of two 
distinct systems, one for vertical, the other for horizontal, or rather 
undulatory movements. The former consists of a clock, constantly 
going, and registering date and time, A galvanic circuit, which 
includes an electro-magnet, remains always unclosed, except at the 
instant of the arrival of a vertical movement of the whole instrument, 
when one pole of copper or platinum wire, held suspended from a heavy 
bob at the lower end of a spiral spring — as in 9 (6), last sentence — 
close over the surface of a mercurial cup (the other pole), drops by 
inertia, and making good the contact, establishes the electro-magnet s 
action, and by it stops the clock and rings a bell. The range of ver- 
tical movement is, I believe, deduced from the direct motion of this 
contact-maker. 

The system for horizontal (?) or undulatory movements consists of 
a similar clock and galvanic arrangement, and of four U-shaped 
glass tubes, open at both ends, and containing equal vertical columns 
of mercury. The vertical planes of two of these (j -tubes are N. and 
S. and £. and W. ; those of the other two in intermediate rhumbs. 
Close above, but not in contact with, the mercurial surface in one 
limb of each tube, is held suspended a platinum pole, the mercury 
itself being the other pole of the open circuit. Upon the surface of 
the mercury in the opposite limb a small float rests, connected by a 
silk cord over a pulley in a vertical plane, with a little counterpoise, 
slightly heavier than the float. If, now, such a movement be given 
to any one or more of these U -tubes as shall kant it over or throw it 
out of plumb, and so alter the relative levels of the opposite surfaces 
of mercury in the two limbs of the tube, the U-tnbe that shall in- 
cline towards the limb that contains the platinum galvanic pole will 
then make contact, and at the moment of doing so will stop the clock 
and ring a bell as before. 

The amount of displacement as to level of the two surfaces of 
mercury in the opposite limbs will be made observable by the 
distance to which the small float shall be found elevated above the 
surface of the mercury in the oj^posite limb. A description of thia 
instrument has been given, but without a figure, in De la Rive'ii 

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7$ • BBPORT — 1858. 

* Treatise on Electricity and its Applications/ English edition, voL 
ill. p. 508*. 
3 (If). The Ia«t self-registering instrument to be noticed is that of Herr 
Kreil of Vienna, of which an account appeared in 1855. This in- 
genious and simple instrument can hardly be made intelligible more 
briefly than in the author's own words, which I translate (with the 
addition of a word or two) from the ' Sitzungsberichte der Kais. Akad. 
d. Wissensch.' Band. xv. p. Ill, Heft for March 1855 :— 

« A good sebraometer is a desideratum still to be devoutly wished for. It 



Kg. 3. 



a 



should not only show the commencement 
of the stronger, but also of the weaker 
shocks, as well as their duration, direction, 
and strength, — a task which is too great for 
a self-registering apparatus. Therefore 
every idea towards the improvement of 
such instruments must be welcome ; and 
on this account I venture to bring forward 
the following design (fig. 3). Let de he 
a rod of wood or metal suspended at a, 
which at d is fastened to the elastic 
spring <;, like the pendulum of a clock, and 
therefore can swing in the plane of this 
spring in a vertical direction. Let a 6 be 
a second spring upon the first vertical 
one, which permits the bar of the pen- 
dulum, citf, to swing in the plane of the 
spring c, i.e. at right angles to the former 
vertical plane. The bar d e and the 
weight fastened to it can therefore swing 
in every direction, without its being per- 
mitted to turn on its own axis of vertical 
length, and as if there were but a thread 
or thin wire at b. The cylinder f g h i 
contains clockwork, which obliges it to 
turn round upon the bar of the pendulum 
(as its perpendicular axis fixed with reference to rotation) once in 24- hours. 
It is covered with paper or other material, which can be marked on without 
great pressure. It contains on the lower edge the numbers of the hours, 
which can move behind an index m, fastened to the plate A A which is 
fixed to the axis of the pendulum. Upon a neighbouring pin, o /?, is an 
elastic and thin arm of brass, o n, which carries a pencil at n, which, by 
means of a screw (spring ?), can be pressed against the cylinder and removed 
from it It is in firm contact with this, and marks upon it an uninterrupted 
line 80 long as the pendulum remains at rest; if, however, this begins to 
swing, in consequence of the whole system being shaken, this line will be 
broken, and strokes produced which will have a horizontal direction if the 
pendulum swings in the plane of n o, but will be perpendicular and cross- 
ways if swinging in the plane perpendicular to n o. The force and length of 

* Since this report was commenced, I have myself had the advantage of seeing this 
instrument, and conversing with its distinguished inventor, as to its principles and construc- 
tion. Prof. Palmieri informed me that it had heen arrested by the celebrated shock of 
16th December 1857, and bad given indications that he deemed satisfactory. [R. M., May 
1858.] 




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ON THB PACTS AND THBORT 09 BARTHQUAKB PHBNOMENA. 77 

this stroke will give an approximation to the strength of the shocks. The 
middle of the stroke, or, if they are vertical, the end of the uninterrupted 
line, gives the time of the commencement of the shock. The strength and 
direction of the shocks may also be approximated if the (as respects rota- 
tion) fixed plate A t^/ have an annular recess, filled with quicksilver until 
its surface reaches the holes sssy made in the cylindrical sides. At the 
first motion of the pendulum, the quicksilver will be shed out through these 
holes into a dish divided into the same number of compartments as there are 
holes, like those already in use in many existing instruments of this kind 
(Cacciatores)". 

Such are the chief seismometers hitherto proposed. They all involve in 
some form the principle either of the solid or of the fluid pendulum, the 
latter term being applied to the oscillations of liquids in tubes or other such 
vessels ; and have disadvantages, both theoretic and practical or constructive, 
which render their indications inaccurate. 

£very pendulum sebmometer has a time of oscillation due to its length, 
which in the case of the solid pendulum is 



Vs' 



and in the case of the oscillating liquid 



'-'VW- 



I being the length of the pendulum and of the oscillating column of liquid 

respectively ; but if P = the period of the earth-wave or shock, then when- 

p 
ever T=P, or n ^ P, or — , the indication of the instrument will be in excess 

n 

of the horizontal component of the wave's motion ; when, on the contrary, T 
represents no function of P, it may be much less than it. 

The amount of error depends also upon the velocity of movement of the 
horizontal component of the wave. If this be considerable, the solid pen- 
dulum, whether hanging or inverted, acted on by gravity or elasticity, is at 
the first moment left behind ; as the rod becomes more oblique, the pen- 
dulum is dragged along, and acquires a velocity (in a direction which ap- 
proaches to horizontal) greater than that due to the arc through which the 
pendulum has fallen in the time. At the end of the wave's forward move- 
ment, then, the pendulum is thrown forward too far ; and at the end of the 
return movement of the wave, it moves beyond the range of the latter, by a 
•mall arc due to its proper motion. This objection applies, though with less 
cogency, to the fluid pendula, and in their case to both the vertical and hori- 
zontal components of the wave. 

These discrepancies of indication will vary whenever the velocity and di- 
mensions of the earth- wave become altered ; and as for the same instrument, 
T varies with sin' X (X being the latitude), it is obvious that even two per- 
fectly similar instruments at stations north and south of each other, will not 
give strictly comparable results for the same earth-wave. 

These are but examples of one or two points of theoretic difficulty, to 
which others might be added, and which affect these instruments prin- 
cipally as indicators of the dimensions of the earth-wave. Some of these 
theoretic disturbances may be eliminated by calculation from the results ; 
but there are also some apparently insuperable difficulties, of a practical or 
constructive nature, which affect all solid pendula as reliable indicators even 

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78 BBPO|lT««-l856. 

of the direction of surface-transit (horizontal component) of the earth-wave* 
However finely suspended the pendulum — if acted on by gravity only, or, 
however constructed if by elasticity or by elasticity and gravity, it is found 
impracticable to produce an instrument that shall make even the second half 
of its very first complete vibration strictly in the plane of the original dis^ 
turbance, t. e* in that of the wave's transit. If, for example, any one of the 
Fig. 4. 




instrameuts 5 (6), 6 (6)> or 7 (^)> be caused to make a semivibration by a 
movement of the nature of one horizontal jerk, and strictly in one vertical 
plane a b (fig. 4), the trace made will in most instances be found thus ; cd, the 
first semivibration, is made sensibly in the pkne of movement, but the re- 
turning complete vibration de/^& found diverging from it through a sensible 
angle c de. If the vibration of the instrument be sufiered to continue, its trace 
rapidly becomes an extremely elongated ellipse, whose excentricity constantly 
diminishes, as well as the actual dimensions of both its axes, until the in^ 
strument comes to rest, after tracing thus a mass of elliptic spirals, from 
which nothing certain can be gathered as to direction in some instances— 
in which, at best, it is only possible to arrive at a probable direction of 
originating impulse, by drawing a mean major axis through all these closed 
curves. 

Constructively, this evil arises not only from the nature of the suspension, 
if a pendulum of gravity, or, if one of elasticity, from the form, material, 
&c. of the suspending or supporting spring ; but also, in both sorts, from the 
fact that it is practically impossible that the point of suspension (or, in the 
spring, its centre of resistance), the centre of oscillation, and the resultant 
of the various opposing forces of the stile or tracing-point, shall lie in one 
vertical plane, and that that plane shall always coincide with that of the wave's 
movement; and hence lateral divergence of the pendulum and elliptic spiral 
oscillation. But it is also partly due to the nature of the earth-wave motion 
itself, which is never a purely normal one, but always more or less disturbed 
by small transversals ; so that the initial movement impressed upon the pen- 
dulum is really not exactly that of the wave's transit Before entering fur- 
ther, however, upon the subject of the actual perturbations of the superficial 
earth-wave, as now known, and their effects in relation to seismometers, somt 
remarks may be advbable as to the special objections which I have either 
observed or experimentally ascertained in respect to each particular arrange- 
ment of the seismometers already described. 

1 (a). The Cacciatore mercurial dish. — If the earth- wave emerge with a 
considerable angle from the horizon, and large velocity, the mercury 
first surges up at the side of the dish towards which the earth-wave 
is in transit, and in the direction opposite to its motion; it then, 
after spilling out some of the mercury, commences its return oscil- 
lation, moving in the same direction as the earth-wave, and spills out 
another portion at the opposite side of the dish. The sum of the weights 
so espilled out, taken at either side of a diameter transverse to the 
earth-wave*s vertical plane of transit, will vary with every change 
in the angle of emergence, or in the velocity or in the dimenaioof 

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ON THB FACTS AND THEORY OF lEARTHaUAKB PHENOMENA. 79 

of the earth-wave* Small transversal vibrations, arriving almost 
along with the earth-wave, as well as the effeeU of the form of the 
dish, and of its delivering-spouts or adjutages, disturb the initial 
simple surge of the mercury across the diameter of the dish, and pro- 
duce reflected and other secondary surge movements of the mercury, 
which traverse round the circumference of the dish, and «pill out 
more mercury in irregular gulps. The final result is, that no reliance 
whatever can be placed upon its final indication, as to the plane of 
the earth-wave transit having passed through the centre of gravity of 
that semicircle of cups which jare found to contain the most mercury. 
The result is not materially different if the line of transit of the earth- 
wave be perfectly horizontal. This instrument gives no information 
whatever beyond a most uncertain approximation to the direction 
of the horizontal component of the earth-wave transit. 

2 (a). The same objections generally apply to this fonn of instrument, and 

one in addition, viz. that a viscid liquid like molasses must always 
give indications short of the truth as to excursion in the dish due 
to any given shock, and the more so as it is more tenacious and 
approaches nearer to a solid ; and as we have no correct means of 
measuring viscidity, even assuming it constant for the same liquid, 
nor any certainty that the specific gravity of such liquids remains 
constant (it is certain molasses will not remain of the same density 
in any climate for any considerable length of time), so observations 
made through their means at different times and places can never 
be comparable. 

3 (a). The same objections that applv to 1 (a^ apply to the tub of coloured 

water, but in a mitigated degree, tne diameter being large, the 
volume and depth of the liquid great, and the cylindrical sides of the 
tub free from any apertures or inequalities. The initial surge gives 
a much more distinct indication of direction than in either of the 
preceding instruments ; and it does not very frequently happen that 
a diameter may not be found approximating, with tolerable certainty, 
to the plane of earth-wave transit But in cases where the normal 
wave is preceded or accompanied by very appreciable transversals, 
those violent tremors that are now known as the frequent ac- 
companiments of the actual shock — the water-tub seismometer will 
give no indication, or an uncertain one, unless watched and re- 
marked as to transit-direction at the instant of the occurrence of the 
shock. 

4(a). Tubes partially filled with mercury give almost unobjeotionable 
indications as to directum of transit. Their evils are too great 
delicacy or sensitiveness, for the observation of that class of earth- 
quakes of mean power, which are the most important to be studied, and 
by which they are completely deranged occasionally, while they are 
continually being disturbed in such a seismic region by small tremulous 
movements that are unimportant to notice. As respects their indi- 
cations of velocity and dimensions of the wave, they are liable to the 
objections already noticed as applicable to all pendula. 

5 (b) and 6 ip). The main disadvantages of these constructions, viz. the 
suspended and the inverted solid pendulum have been already 
pointed out ; it may be added here, however, that with the inverted 
pendulum of Forbes, the supporting spring is more or less crippled 
down, by a sharp vertically (or nearly vertically) emergent shock, which 
gives a lateral movement (greater or less) to the pendulum^ as though 

Digitized by ^OOQlC 



80 REPORT — 1858. 

from a horizontal originating motion, so that the instrument gives in 
such cases an absolutely false indication* 
7 (b), Mr. Budge's inverted spring pendulum, restrained to a single semi- 
oscillation in one plane, offers some decisive advantages over any 
other form hitherto proposed of the pendulum seismometer. The 
whole length of the pendulum is elastic ; and the rod being light, 
the whole weight by whose inertia it is bent may be considered as 
in the ball or bob. If 2 be the moment of resilience of the rod, and 
the deflection be not very great, the angle trpn=:0, then — 

S(L tan a-ft)=?il, 
3 

L being the length, and b the horizontal ordinate of deflection of the 
pendulum. It is plain that although, like every other elastic rod, 
thb will have a time of vibration of its own, and be therefore liable 
to part of the theoretic objections made to the simple pendulum on 
the same account, thb form of pendulum will be "brought up" 
much more nearly within the true limits of the earth-wave amplitude 
in its horizontal component. 

Perhaps the ratchet and pall may not be the best mode, practically, 
of arresting its movement at the end of its first semioscillation, with 
sufficient delicacy, and other methods are obvious that may be ap- 
plicable ; but if the elastic rod be a flat plate of sufficient breadth in 
relation to its thickness, and each rod or pendulum (of the four) be 
so placed, with reference to the cardinal points, that its broadest 
dimension shall be transverse to its normal plane of flexure, it is then 
obvious that practically we may neglect any flexion of the rod edge- 
ways, the four rods in section being posited thus (flg. 5)-* 

N. 
Fig. 5. 

w.-J— 



+ 



and that thus we obtain a flexure, for each pendulum, practically 
limited to its own vertical plane of oscillation, and so can obtain, for 
any intermediate line of wave-transit between the cardinal points a 
good approximate resultant direction from the two adjacent com- 
ponent deflexions. Perhaps a flat ribbon- like rod of tempered steel, 
whose section should be a rectangle, with sides having the proportion 
of about 30 : 1, would be better than an elastic wooden lath ; and in 
either case, it is probable that a tape or silk ribbon, fastened at the 
side r,and passing with friction through a small horizontal slot in the 
elastic rod, so as to be stretched by its deflexion and pulled through, 
would be the best and simplest mode of registering the deflexion, or 
the angle 6. 

While this appears to me the best of the solid-pendulum arrange- 
ments, I do not wish to be understood as recommending any one of 
the class. 
8 (6). Santi's arrangement is of course subject to the objections made to all 
pendula« It possesses some advantage in separation of the results in 



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ON THE FACTS AND THflOBT OP BABTHQUAKB PHENOMENA* SI 

different azimuths, and therein in clearness of indication ; but it also 
has special disadvantages of its own. If, for example, the line of 
earth-wave transit l>e from S. to N., and the £• and W. pendulum 
be set up at the S. side of its own wall, it will tend to be thrown 
off or out from the wail by the shock ; if placed on the N. side of 
its own wall, its friction will be increased on its suspensions, 
and tracing-point, by its being thrown in or pressed against the 
wall ; and if the line of earth-wave transit be, say N.W. and S.E^ 
both pendula will be either thrown out from or pressed in against 
their respective walls, according to which side of the N. and S. walls 
they be fixed at This source of variable inaccuracy might perhaps 
be eliminated by a double set of pendula, viz. one at each of the 
opposite sides of the N. and S. and of the £. and W. walls, which 
would thus be oppositely affected (in excess and in defect) by this 
source of error. 
9 (b). What has been already stated, with reference to errors common to all 
pendula, and the remarks inade under 7 (b) as to the superiority of 
elastic over simple pendula, render it needless to enlarge on those 
which were only proposed as extemporaneous instruments, and for 
which they will be found convenient and useful, and not more in- 
accurate than much more elaborate ones. 

Referring now to the second class, or self-regulating instruments, — the 
disadvantage of the one 

^ (a), proposed by the author is of the same character as that of 4 (a) of the 
first class, tIz. too delicate a sensitiveness to small tremulous shocks, 
which derange the composure of the instrument, without its giving 
decisive indications. The galvanic recording part of the apparatus 
was all that could be desired, and is of course applicable to other 
forms of instrument as respects the displacement portions. Indeed, 
apparatus identical in all its main characteristics has been since 
brought into successful and constant use by Professor Airy, Astro- 
nomer Royal, for the registration of astronomical and other kindred 
observations, and also by several experimenters abroad. An account 
of many such arrangements will be found in De la Rive's < Treatise 
on Electricity.' 

2 (a). The same remark, I think, may apply to Professor Palmieri's seis- 
mometer, with this addition : the movement of the mercury, equal 
columns of which are contained in the opposite legs of each U-shaped 
tube, depends in his instrument wholly upon the U-tube being canted 
over more or less in its own plane, so as to throw the legs of the tube 
out of plumb. This, Professor Palmieri (if I do not misunderstand him) 
considers an inevitable consequence of the transit of the earth-wave 
at the instrument, conceiving the earth's surface to suffer, in every 
case, such a sensible heaving undulation, as to rock the instrument 
upon it, like a ship upon a heavy ground-swell. I must confess to 
entertaining great doubts that, in the great majority of earthquakes, 
any such sensible undulation (enough, at least, to produce a sensible 
throwing out of plumb of the -tubes) can occur, although I 
have no reason to doubt that, from its delicate sensitiveness, con- 
tact will be broken, and the instrument act in so far, by some of 
the violent jars or jerks that it may receive. This peculiarity con- 
stitutes, in fact, the essential difference in arrangement between 
the author's seismometer and Prof. Palmieri's. In the former the 

^Q^- Digitized by ^O&glC' 



eS BBPOET — 1858» 

masd of the mercury is in unequal columns in each tube, so that 
its displacement is dependent solely on inertia ; it therefore sympa- 
thizes with the movement of the earth-wave, emergent in whatever 
way ; in the latter, the correctness of indication of the instrument de- 
pends not at all on the inertia of the mercury, but simply upon the 
alteration of relative surface-level in the opposite legs of the (J -tubes, 
when the latter are thrown more or less out of plumb by the sup- 
posed undulation of the earth's surface at the transit of the shock. 
S (6). Kreil's ingenious instrument is not devoid of some serious objections. 
It partakes of those common to all pendula ; and these will be further 
perplexed when the annular dish hi k I is filled with mercury, which 
will form a second (fluid^ attached pendulum with a time of oscilla- 
tion of its own, and differing largely from that of the pendulum which 
suspends it. Very little value, however, can be attached to the indi- 
cations to be afforded by the very small amount of mercury that can 
be caused to spill out, owing to the very small arc of oscillation that 
the whole instrument can be afforded to make by construction. The 
most serious objection, however, lies in the method of flexible sus- 
pension adopted for the whole pendulous part of the instrument, viz., 
by two thori thin plates or ribbons of tempered steel, whose respective 
vertical planes are at right angles to each other, the object being to 
allow of oscillation in any direction, but prevent rotation upon the 
vertical axis. Whenever a somewhat energetic disturbance shall 
be given to a pendulum so suspended — so as to cause oscillation in 
a vertical plane, diagonal to the crossing planes of the two suspend- 
ing ribbons, torsion of each of these arises, and violent twisting 
movements (by jerks) of the pendulum itself result, producing sudden, 
jerking, rotatorv oscillations of the bob (the cylinder containing the 
clockwork, &o.) round the axis of the pendulum. These must of 
course interfere with and derange any true results as indicated by 
the tracing-pencil, which must also record all such accidental 
moments, and probably derange tlie rate of the clock. 

There does not appear, however, to be any insuperable difficulty in 
devising another mode of suspension for the instrument, that might 
at least remove this defect. 

Sudi are some of the main objections to the sebmometric instruments 
themselves, hitherto proposed. It remains to consider the difficulties intro- 
duced by the nature of the movements we require to observe and record 
with them, as they actually take place in nature. What we want to find 
is the true direction of emergence of the normal earth-wave, with its dimen- 
sions and velocity, at a given point upon the earth's surface. This, were the 
earth a perfectly homogeneous elastic solid, though much easier, would still 
be attended with grave difficulties ; one of these, which must ever remain 
instrumentail^ insuperable, consists in the fact that the emergent wave on 
leaving the free outlying stratum of the earth's surface, differs both in dimen- 
sions and in velocity from the same wave in the previous parts of its deep 
transit. Future and more perfect knowledge of the laws of imperfectly elastic 
bodies in wave-transmission will, it may be expected, enable us to calculate 
the latter from the observed final part of the transit 

Far, however, from being homogeneous, every portion of our earth's crust 
that we are acquainted with consbts of various '^ couches," or masses of 
materials, differing in elasticity, density, and degree of discontinuity, in the 
character^ directions, and openness or closeness of the discontinuant fissures. 

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ON THB PACTS AND THBORY 09 BABTHQUAKB PHBNOMBNA. 88 

IB wetness or dryness, in temperature, and in many other ways. Stratifica* 
tion and lamination, with their transverse master-joints, affect the elasticity 
of whole mountain-ranges and profound masses of the land, and cause it to 
differ in different directions. 

The mass beneath our feet is very often not even approximately solid. 
Vast beds and cavernous recesses occur, empty, or filled more or less with 
water, sometimes with lava, ignited rock, and steam at enormous temperature 
and tension ; and, for anything we as yet knoWy seismometry may require to 
deal with depths and masses where the solid has passed, with exalted tem- 
perature, into the imperfectly liquid state. 

Again, the surface of our earth is everywhere more or less uneven, and, 
viewed over large areas, such as earthquake-transit is concerned with, is 
ribbed with rigid mountain-chains, often intersecting or abutting on each 
other, channeled by valleys, river-courses, deep estuaries, and l^ys, exca- 
vated into basin-shaped hollows often long and narrow, sometimes filled with 
unconformable rock or with loose and incoherent detrital material, and inter- 
sected to unknown depths by dykes, veins, and faults. The result of these 
differences and disturbances of internal structure and superficial features is to 
produce perturbations in the surface emergence of the earth wave, often of the 
most amazing and perplexing character ; and it is not until the nature and 
extent of these have been realized to the mind, that we shall be enabled to 
choose the best form of seismometric observation, to determine upon the only 
proper sites for the establishment of instruments, and to see within what 
limits our first researches must be confined. 

Let us notice, then, a few examples of striking surface«>pertnrbaiioiiy of 
direction, of the great earth-wave, already on record. 

Savi (* Relazione di Fenomeni presentati dai Terreraoti di Toscana^ dell' 
Agosto 1846,' p. 32-44) and Pilla (*Istoria del Tremuoto che ha devastato 
paesi della Costa Toscana il d) 14 Agosto, 1846,' p. 48-54) have both recorded 
examples of horizontal apparent movement of the earth*wave in directiom 
orthogonal or even actually opposite to each other, and at points within very 
limit^ distances from each other, while, on tiie whole, there was no doubt 
of a ruling general direction of horizontal movement over the whole region* 
I can merely refer to their relations, as scarcely admitting of oondensation 
intelligibly. 

M. Perrey, in his * Memoir on the Earthquakes of France, Belgium, and 
HoUand ' (M6m. Cour. de I'Acad. Roy. de Bmx. torn, xviii.), under date of 
5th July, 1841, has recorded a still more remarkable instance of surftioe* 
perturbation, which the small map (Plate Xll.) of the northern and part of 
the central region of France, with outlines of the departmental divisions, illas* 
trates. Those departments in which this shock was felt are marked bynumerals 
referring to the following table. The directions of the horizontal component 
of the shock, as observed at the several places named, are shown on the map 
by a short thick arrow. A few other places where the shook was felt, but 
direction not observed, are marked by a large dot, and the name referred to 
by a letter. A few large towns, and the general range of the hilly country 
(running mainly in a N.W. and 8.E. direction) between the two great seats of 
disturbuice, are marked in mainly as general guides of position to the Bje, 
This earthquake was sufficiently powerful to disturb furniture, move objects 
visibly, and affect docks, ^c, and was variously reported to have lasted in 
different places from two or three, to ninety seconds of time. 



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84 



BBFORT — 1858. 



Number 
on Map. 


Department. 


Locality. 


Direction of Horisontil Component r 


1. 

2. 

3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 


Seine 


City of Paris 

Sevres •• 


N.E. to S.W. ; three shocks. 

W. to £. ; three shocks. 

N.E. to S.W. 

Direction not given. 

W.toE. 

N.E. to S.W. 

S. to N. ; seven shocks. 

N. to S. ; three shocks. 

N.toS. 

W.toE. 

N. to S. 

S.toN. 

More than one shock ; direction not given. 

Vertical (soulevement) ; two shocks. 

One shock ; direction not given. 

S. to N. ; three shocks. 

r No record of the shock having heen felt in 

\ either of these departments. 

Three shocks; direction not given; very severe. 


Seine etOise 

Loiret 


Chevrense 

Longjumeau, m... 

Rambouillet 

Grignon 

Orsay 


Meulan 


Nogent 


Loire et Cher 

Indre et Loire 

Indre 


Quincay 


Caumacre 


Lange 

Le Blanc, n 

Bourges 


Cher 


Eure et Loire 

Seine et Marne ... 
Eure \ 


Chartres, j7... 


Donnemaire 


Oise 

C8te-d*0r 


Bligny-sur-Ouche. 





Here, then, we have two very limited but separated earthquake districte— one 
around Paris, the other more widely spread around Tours— and a third to 
the S.W., stretching into C6te d'Or, in which we have the observed or hori- 
zontal direction of shocks from N. to S., from S. to N., from W. to E., and 
from N.E. to S.W., and in one place said to be verticd. In the Paris dis- 
trict the extreme distance apart of the places of observation does not exceed 
SO English miles, the average being under 15 English miles. 

In the Tours district the extremes are under 70 English miles apart, and 
the average distance under SO miles. The central part of one region is not 
more than 150 miles from that of the other; and neither district is more 
than about 70 miles distant from the axial line of the chain of hills that 
separates them, and in the prolongation of which to the S.W. the third 
district is widely spread, taking the general line of axial direction. 

Making every abatement that imperfect observation can justify, there 
remains abundant proof, in this example, that even in places within view of 
each other as to distance, but situated over heterogeneous formations, and in 
a country of broken and irregular surface, the superficial direction of shock 
may present anomalies at first sight apparently admitting of no analysis, and 
in any case incapable of giving any direct information as to prevailing direo* 
tion, or position of focus, by mere seismometric observations. 

The third and last example we shall take from India, as one not devoid of 
a larger interest also. In the map (Plate XIV.) a very rude outline is 
given of the geological formations of India, in a merely seismic relation 
however, t. e. with reference to relative hardness, density, and elasticity of 
the rocky masses, — thus distingubhing them only into the six great divi- 
sions of crystalline or granitoid, old stratiform, secondary (from carboni- 
ferous to cretaceous), tertiaries, alluvial plains, and some igneous porphyries, 
diorites, &c In the colouring of this I have to acknowledge the kind as- 
Bistanoe afforded me by Professor Phillips. This map has been fully de- 
scribed in " Second Report on the Facts, ^c" (Brit Assoc. Trans, for 1851, 
p. 313 et 8eq,)y where it should have appeared originally, but was, at a late 
moment, prevented by an accident connected with its completion. I shall 
therefore, referring the reader to the former report, merely notice here the 
facts as relating to seismometry. 



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ON TH£ FACTS AND THBORT OF BARTHQUAKB PHBNOMBNA. 65 

The great earthquake of 1819, which extended its influence right across 
thb peninsula from Calcutta to Cutch, and during which the Ullah Bund was 
elevated, and the Runn of Cutch submerged— the former a low mass of sand 
and clay seventy miles long, about fifteeu miles wide, and elevated about 
10 feet ; and the latter an area of subsidence of about 2000 square miles — 
had a great general line of horizontal propagation of shock, as shown by the 
heavy red line, of nearly from W. to E^ a few degrees to the S.E. ; yet at 
Calcutta it was felt from N.E. to S.W., and at many places along this immense 
line — situated between the Aravulla and Vindhya chains of mountains, as 
for example at Rampura — the great shock was felt in directions quite trans- 
verse to the principal l^ie. 

So also the general line of horizontal direction of the great earthquake of 
1833, whose origin was far beneath the Himalayas to the £. and N., had a 
great general direction about that shown by the long red arrow line. At 
Katmandu, in the mountains, the shocks were more directly E. to W., and 
also (reflected shocks probably) from the ranges to the N., which had a 
direction neariy N.E. to S.W., while in the great plain of the Ganges the 
observed directions were various, and, without a more complete knowledge of 
the geology and surface-configuration of the country, perfectly unanalysable, 
in some places N. to S., and at others, sixty miles off, from E. to W. 

While we must regard many of these observations as deserving of little 
stress as to accuracy, enough remains to prove that perturbations in the 
main directions of emergence at the surface of the normal earth-wave, due 
to heterogeneity of structure in depth, and to inequality of surface, prin- 
cipally, are of such a nature, as to render a special choice of district neces- 
sary in attempting any seismometrical researches (even with perfect instru- 
ments) which have in view the determination of the position of the focus 
of disturbance. This choice, according to our present knowledge, must be 
determined by the following conditions :— 

1. The whole surface-area of observation, and to as great a depth as 

possible, must be uniform in geological structure. 

If of stratified rock, not greatly shattered and overthrown, but 
(viewed largely) level or rolling only. The harder and more dense 
and elastic the formations, the better, but neither intersected by 
long and great dykes, nor by igneous protrusions of magnitude, nor 
suddenly bounded by such formations. 

2. The surface must not be broken up into deep gorges, and rocky ranges, 

and valleys. Seismometry, in a high and shattered mountainous 
country, can scarcely lead to any result but perplexity. If the surface 
be deeply alluvial all over, it is less objectionable than valley-basins, 
and pans of deep alluvium, with rocky ribs between them. 

3. The size of the area chosen for observation must bear a relation to the 

force of the shocks experienced in it. Moderate shocks are (dtoays 
best for observcUiont andf in large areas of the most tmiform character 
of formation and surface^ will give the most trustworthy incUcations. 

4. If several seismometers be set up in the area, they should be all 

placed on corresponding formations, either all on rock, or all on deep 
alluvium. The rock, when attainable, is always to be preferred. 
Three seismometers, at as many distant stations, will be generally 
found su^cieuty if the object be chiefly to seek the focal situation and 
depth. 

Having now cleared the way by stating the difficulties of seismometric 
observations, 1st, as respects the instruments themselves, 2nd, as respects 

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96 BSPORT — 1856* 

their local emplaoement, it remains to describe the instrumeDts that appear 
to me the best calculated for the attainment of the objects we can at present 
propose to ourselves in seismometry, and to point out how such may best be 
applied ; as also some indirect methods of arriving at the most important and 
interesting primary result, that we are entitled to expect in the first instance 
from such researches, namely, an approximation to the actual depth of focus 
within the earth, from which earthquake^impulses are propagated to the 
surface. 

Were it possible to construct a perfect seismometer, it should record 
simultaneously, 1st, the movements) both horisontal and vertical, of the 
elastic wave itself, viz., the excursion or amplitude, the altitude, and the 
maximum velocity in the coordinates a?, y, and j?,--« being vertical ; 2nd, the 
movements of translation of the ** advancing form *^ or wave itself at its 
etnergence upon the earth's surface, with the velocities in the correspond- 
ing coordinates w^y y,, and z^. 

These involve alone twelve equations of condition ; and we tufume that 
the elastic medium (the earth) through which the wave is transmitted, is 
homogeneous, in density and elastic modulus; and that the final wave- 
movements, of the free outlying stratum at the surface, obey the same laws 
as do those of the successive " couches *' beneath. 

Generally, we must assume the elasticity perfect, and that the vis tnoa of 
any particle in motion, Ant, is determinable from, its velocity at its position of 
equilibrium* From the general equation of wave*motion 



paces 



(x <«-'->)' 



we have the velocity at any point where a^ is the intensity, X the amplitude, 
a the transit-rate or velocity of propagation, x the abscissa, and t the time. 

At the position of equilibrium v=a, and the vis viva of the particle Am 
during the whole undulation is Amcfiy and proportionate to a*. The wave 
we must suppose emanating from a central point, and propagated outwards 
in all directions alike, in imaginary, concentric spherical '' couches." The 
vis viva must remain constant during the whole propagation. The velo- 
city of propagation a is also constant ; and ths mass of the medium in wave" 
frncHoH at any moment of the translation is the same; so that, if r=the 
radius of any such spherical '^ couche," the work done in it by the wave 
is proportionate to r^xa'^f and constant for the whole transit, a* being 

OC a-T. As, therefore, the mass in simultaneous undulation is constant, the 
r* 

thickness of each imaginary successive ** couche " must decrease as r^ ; and 

so the displacing power of the wave diminishes also as r*, and the work done 

by the wave within any such '* couche" of determinate thickness=2^A9na*, 

-»«or M, being the mass In simultaneous undulation, s^Mo*. 

The wave at its origination, starts in any radius, with one normal and two 

transversal vihratioiis, the separate determination of which would require a 

corresponding increase in the number of equations for or, y, and z ; and in the 

recorded facts by the instrument It is obvious, then, even with the utmost 

shnpiiflcations we can assume as to the molecular condition of the medium 

(the earth), that practically we mast be content with a seismometer that shall 

record only some of the more important conditions of the earth-wave, and in 

such a manner as shall enable us, indirectly, to arrive at others. And in 

considering the relative importance of the several dements, the maximum 

velocity of the wave at its point of emergence upon the surface, with the 

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ON THB FACTS AND THBOBT OP BABTHQUAKB PHBNOMBNA. B7 

direotioos in or, y, and t, or the horisontal oomponent» (x and ^) of the 
direction of motion and the vertical component z, will be found the most 
Taloable. 

These are determinable by one instrument ooly. By two or more such, 
at separate and moderately distant places, the velocity of propagation or 
transit-rate a may be found ; and by combining the results obtained by both, 
in calculation, each may be made to check and control the other, and for a 
given seismic region (apart from serious perturbations of internal forma- 
tion) we can obtain the point upon the surface, vertically above the origin 
of the wave, and approximate to the depth of the origin itself, or of Uie 
focus of disturbance, below the earth's surface. 

One or other, of two distinct seismometric arrangements, may be adopted, 
both dependent upon similar principles, — the second being of a simpler and 
less expensive chiuracter, but not susceptible (as a single instrument) of indi- 
cations as accurate as the first, yet, as respects applicability to determi- 
nations of time (as one of several, set up in a given seismic area), quite as 
exact. 

I proceed to describe the construction of both, their principles and action. 

The first instrument is exhibited in PI. XV. figs. 1, 2 & 3. Fig. 1 is a 
lateral geometric elevation of the instrument, whose length is placed in the 
direction N. and S., as seen in plan in fig. 2, — a precisely similar instrument 
being placed at right angles of azimuth to it, or with its length £. and W. 
The same letters of reference apply to similar parts in all the figures. Fig. 2 
represents both the N. and S. and £• and W. instruments as placed in posi- 
tion, w w being part of the external wooden shell or wall of the seismic ob- 
servatory, which may best be always of wood, or such material, and circular 
in form. 

In figs. 1 and 2, a a is a cast-iron tabular bar, whose upper surface is 
hori^ntal, and whose long parallel edges are either N. and S. or £• and W. 
It is attached to a rigid cylindrical vertical bar of wrought iron, b 6, which 
passes freely, but wiUiout shake, through bored holes in the top and bottom 
collars of the heavy cast-iron frame oc^ which is firmly bolted by its bottom 
flanch to the heavy stone floor of the observatory; or, if the latter can be so 
placed, to the natural solid rocl^when levelled to form its floor. Beneath 
the frame c e is a pit, pp^ for convenience of access to the bottom of the 
instrument. Upon the vertical bar 6, a collar is fixed of wrought iron, A, 
between which and the lower bored collar of the frame c e, a spiral spring, 
s^ is placed, having its axis coincident with that of the bar b. 

This spring sustains, when at rest, the weight of the bar and table a a, and 
of all resting upon it, and is so acyusted as to resistance, that such forces in 
the vertical direction, as it mav be expected the instrument will be exposed 
to at any time, shall not be able to compress the spriug to such an extent, as 
to bring the lower surface of the table a a, into contact with the top part of 
the frame cc, A vertical *^ feather,** let into the bar b, prevents it, or its 
superior attachments, from altering Uieir position with reference to the frame 
cc^hj turning round the vertical axis of the bar b in its collar-bearings. 

A small sliding index, not shown in the figure, also moves in a longitudinal 
groove at the opposite side of the bar 6, and, being placed in contact with 
the top of the frame c e, when the whole is at rest, indicates the extent of any 
vertical depression of the bar by and of its load, by compression of the spring 
e. A buffer collar of vulcanized india-rubber is placed at /, above the iron 
eollar ^ as a precaution against ajar, in case of the sudden removal of part 
of the load on a a by any accident 
. Upon the upper side and centre of the lengthy of the tabular bar a a, is 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



b8 RBi>Oii*r — 1858. 

cast a hollow quadrilateral prisnii g^ which will be called ^^ thehlock^^ proyided 
with four " lugs" to receive the pivot-screws «, n, «, n. The table aoy sup* 
ports two similar cast-iron inclined planes t, t, having for their entire length 
the trough-shaped section as shown in fig. S. These planes are fixed to 
the table aa^ by the pivot-screws n^n^ and by the adjusting-screws m, m 
beneath, so that by means of the latter, the inclination of either plane may 
be altered or fixed, being otherwise free to rotate in a vertical plane, 
within certain limits, round the pivot-screws n, n^ so as to alter the angles 
of inclination. 

Upon each of these inclined planes, is placed a large heavy ball, formed of 
a hollow sphere of hard gun-metal, of about 0*3 of an inch in thickness, 
truly spherical and polished outside, and filled up solid with lead. These 
balls are adjusted in diameter, to the breadth and form of the inclined planes 
(as in fig. 3), so as freely to roll along, with but two points of contact. 

When the planes 2,t are adjusted at equal inclinations, the balls B, B, rest 
at their lowest ends, and are laterally in contact with, and supported by, the 
hard wood stops r, r, driven (from outside inwards) through, and well-fitted 
in, corresponding rectangular horizontal "slots*' in opposite sides of the 
block Qy — the end of each wood stop being curved to fit the surface of the 
balls, in a horizontal great circle, and so that the plane of the stop passes 
through the centre of gravity of the ball. Through each wood stop there 
pass the c— and c-f extremities of a galvanic conducting-circuit of thick 
copper wires, placed at about an inch apart, where they pass parallel to each 
other, through the wood stop, with their extreme ends coinciding with the 
surface of the stop next the ball, and being amalgamated ; so that while ever 
the ball reposes in contact with the wood stop, the galvanic circuit remains 
completed^ through the hall^ between the ends of the wires, but is broken 
the moment the ball is removed from contact with them. 

For one complete seismometer there are two such instruments as have 
been thus described, — one placed, as in fig. 2, in a N. and S., and the other 
in an £. and W. direction, as respects their length, and having thus four 
inclined planes and balls, each with its own distinct galvanic circuit from 
one common battery. A clock placed in the observatory carries round a 
cylinder with ruled paper, and each of four pencil markers continues to 
describe an unbroken line thereon so long as the balls are in contact with the 
blocks (or wood stops and galvanic poles); but (by an arrangement pre* 
cisely similar to that described for my fluid pendulum seismometer — Trans* 
Roy. Irish Acad. vol. xxi. p. 107) the moment any ball ceases to be in con- 
tact with the block, and for as long as it is so, the pencil is withdrawn, and 
leaves a break in the otherwise continuous line traced by the rotation of the 
paper. No part of this clockwork registering-arrangement is shown in the 
Plate, as several modifications of it are practicable, and no one in parti- 
cular is essential to the principle of the seismometer before us. 

To illustrate the mode of action of the instrument, — returning to fig. 1, 
suppose it to be the N. and S. one, and adjusted so that the bar b is tmly 
vertical, the parallel sides of the inclined planes t and t truly in diredunii 
their angles of inclination to the horizon the same. Then if the arrow Q 
represent the direction of emergence of an earthquake-wave (supposed here 
to be in the plane of the meridian, and from S. to N.), at the first instant 
that the wave reaches the instrument, the bar ^, and table a a, with all they 
carry, will commence to descend and to compress the spring e by their inertia, 
with a velocity dependent upon the vertical component of the wave, which 
carries up the frame c c vertically. Also at the first instant of arrival of 
lkfae wave, the ball B,, in virtue of its inertiai will move off .from the block 



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ON THB FACTS AND THSORT OV EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA* 89 

towards C, ; and the indant of its depariurcy by breaking galvanic contact of 
the poles at its stop, marks thai of the commeticement of the shock. But the 
whole instrument is carried forward by the horizontal component of the 
shock, and then moves back again ; the ball B is therefore carried forward 
also, ui^^ by the block at r, and is caused to roll up along the inclined 
plane a certain distance, say to C, where it comes to rest, and, reversing its 
motion, rolls back again by gravity, and returns to rest in contact with the 
block and galvanic poles of its own stop. The ball which first moves, which 
we may call the Time Ball (as indicated in time by the pencil trace on 
the clock-cylinder paper), will always be that at the side from which the 
shock arrives. We neglect any accouot of its subsequent motions. The 
other ball, which we may call the Element Ball, by its movements gives 
us the elements of the wave. The instrument records tlie whole time that it 
is out of contact with the block g, viz. that of its excursion up and down 
the inclined plane t. If, in place of the wave having emerged at some angle 
to the horizon from S. to N., it had come at the same or at any other angle 
of emergence between vertical and horizontal, in the reverse direction or 
from N. to S., then the action of the balls also would have been reversed, 
B becoming the Time Ball, and being left behind, and thus noting the mo* 
ment of arrival of the wave ; and B^ being thrown up along the inclined 
plane t, giving its elements. 

Again (referring to fig. 2), if the wave emerge at some azimuth between 
N. and S. and E. and W., suppose from the S.W., with any angle of emergence, 
then by the vertical component the springs of both the N.S. and E.W. instru- 
ments will be compressed (and nearly alike). The time balls B, of the N.S. and 
B, of the E.W. instruments will be left behind, as before, (and both at the 
same instant will break contact with the block); and the element balls B and 
B will be thrown forward upon their respective inclined planes, as before — to 
equal distances in the case of the exactly intermediate azimuth here supposed, 
but to unequal distances if this azimuth be more to the W. or to the S. 
The instrument records the simultaneous excursions of both balls B and B, 
giving the total time (as before) that each ball is out of contact with its own 
block or stop ; and if the direction of the wave-movement be reversed as re« 
spects the instrument (suppose, from some point of N.E. towards S.W.), then 
tberespectivemovements and functions of the balls will also reverse themselves^ 
B and B being left behind, and B, and B, thrown forward, &c. 

The general size and strength of the instrument must be determined with 
reference to the degree of violence of the earthquake-shocks to be anticipated 
in the seismic region it is intended for. The very greatest, and the very 
smallest perceptible shocks, are alike unsuited for useful measurement. The 
dimensions of the instrument^ as shown by the scale of the plate, are such as 
1 consider fitted to ensure its functions, under the effects of those shocks of 
mean intensity (such for example, as those common in the Mediterranean 
basin, or in those of Hungary and Austria), and with moderate vertical angles 
of emergence, which are those best to observe in the existing state of our 
knowledge. 

The most important points of precaution of a constructional character to 
be noticed are the following : — The balls should be of lead chiefly (the sur- 
face being formed, for hardness and smoothness, of gun-metal), to reduce 
their proper elasticity as much as possible. The inclination of the planes t, i 
must be small, probably never exceeding 15°, and the length and inclination 
so adjusted by experiment, to the maximum time of wave-oscillation in the 
district of observation, that the whole time of rolling up and down of the ball 
shfiJl be considerably longer in duration. Their bearing-edges must be per- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



90 RBPOBT— 1858. 

fecUy parallel and smooth ; and the length of the planes most be such, as to 
make it highly improbable that anj baU, in its excursion under shoek» can 
reach the upper end. A wood stop is fixed at this point to arrest the ball, 
should it ever chance to reach it; and bejond this a stout net (like the purse of 
a billiard-table) may be fixed to a separate support (from the floor), to receive 
the ball, if upon an extraordinary occasion thrown out of the instrument. 

It is assumed that any alternate alteration of the incliaation, of the inclined 
planes t\ «, by actual surface^undulatioth carrying the whole Instrument with 
it at the passage of the earth-wave, may be neglected, ue. that, for example, 
a wave passing in a direction from S. to N. will not sensibly lift up the S. end 
(of the N. S. instrument) first, and then the N.end, and so first mcrease the 
inclination of the plane of B, and reduce that of B, and then vice versd ; 
and that whatever amount of tiUing may thus occur will so momwtarily 
afiect the inclined planes, and in opposite directions, as not to interfere 
with the proposed movements of the balls. 

This assumption b justified by the fact that the value of X, the amplitude 
of the earth-wave in the nonnal, is always great in relation to its altitude, 
and in the case of oblique surface-emergence its horizontal component is of 
still greater length ; so that the angle of slope of either face of the emergent 
wave with the horizon, is practically imperceptible in moderate shocks ; and, 
further, any tilting that can occur takes place in opposite directions sue* 
cessively, so as nearly to compensate. 

The vertical spring e must be delicate and sensitive, at the first instant of 
its compression, in proportion to the movement by inertia of the large mass 
that it carries, and its range, proportioned to the degree of steepness of 
emergence to be expected in Uie region of observation. 

The whole vertical component is absorbed by this spring, and may be mea- 
sured by its compression ; but it is important that it shall give way sensitively, 
at the first moment of shock, in order that neither of the balls shall have any 
tendency to rise from the inclined planes that support them^ and that its resili- 
ence shall not be too lively, so as not to produce rebound upon the restoration 
from compression. In certain seismic regions, where great steepness of 
emergence may be looked for, the vertical component will probably be best 
met by the depression of a conical float with the apex downward, fixed to 
the lower end of the bar bb, into a cylindrical vessel of water placed beneath 
the instrument ; but this must be matter of experiment in such regions. 

Were the whole instrument rigidly fixed to the ground, the latter as well 
as the materials of the instrument and bail highly elastic, and the velocity 
of emergence of the wave, in its vertical component, very great, it is obvious 
that time would not be afforded to the ball B, merely to roU up along the 
plane ; it would be throtan up obliquely from it, and, describing a short tnyec- 
iory, would fall back again upon the plane a little higher up, and then re- 
peat a still shorter trajectory, or begin to roll upwards. But the ball b very 
inelastic, the rate of emergence of the wave is not very great in its vertical 
component ; and the effect of thb upon the instrument b spread over a still 
longer time by the interposition of the spring e. 

If ^=the time of the wave in seconds, - will be nearly the instant of its 

maximum velocity v, in feet per second ; thus the condition that shall ensure 
the ball B rolling only, and not being projected, is that the vertical compo- 
nent of V shall be less than 



r=S2|. 



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ON TBB FAOTS AND THIOBT OF BABTHQUAKB PHENOMENA. 91 

Unksfy potsibly, in the case of nearly vertical emergence, and from the most 
Bolidy and elastic crystalline rock, an ample latitude, ^, is secured by the ver- 
tical spring. 

We will now consider the movements of the element balls B and B^ along 
the planes t, t, due to the horizontal component of motion, taking the two in- 
struments (vis. the N. S. and £. W. seismometers) together, and assuming the 
horizontal component in any azimuth 0* 

The blocks g r (N. 8.) and g r (£. W.) move forward horizontally, and 

force on the balls B and B^ before them until the instant, A when the blocks 

have acquired their maximum velocities, with that of the wave,t^; the balls then 
part company from the blocks, and continue to move up along the respective 
inclined planes t, t, sliding for the first Indefinitely short moment, and theni 
with a certain reduction of velocity due to the friction of the planes which 
produce the change of motion, roUing up along them. Thb initial sliding 
velocity will be 

For the ball B ... V=r sin 6 ; 

For the ball B, • . . V=t; cos 0. 

As soon as the sliding is converted into rolling motion by friction, these 
velocities will become 

-- v sin 6, and - v cos 0. 

7 7 

Assuming that the change takes place almost instantly after the balls have 
begun to move from the blocks, «• e. that gravity has not had time perceptibly 
to alter the velocity up the plane, and neglecting the small efiects, due to the 
elastic compression of the balls and blocks themselves, and also supposing 
that the lots of velocity of the ball, by conversion of its sliding into rolling 
motion by friction, is less than the diminution of velocity of the block (in the 
same short time), in returning from its maximum velocity to rest, the balls 
B and B, will be retarded by forces — 

For B =gBiah 

7 

For B, -^ cost, 

t being the conunon inclination of the planes. 

The ball B will therefore ascend upon its plane to a vertical height 



(f^ "'"«)'_ « «. 



10 Ug 

7^ 



we have therefore 

V sin 6 



So abo the ball B| will ascend to the height 

9 cos 6= 4 /I 
V i 



therefore 

tanO 



V H'' 



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92 REPORT — 1858, 

or. if ^=32. V=y^f|8 (H_H')= V- 89-6 (H-H'). 

This calculation assumes that the sliding is converted into rolling motion in 
an indefinitely short time, as it would in fact be, if the adhesion of the balls 
were large, and the inclination of the planes i small ; but if the inclination 
of the latter be considerable, as 15^ or upwards, a more exact determination 
is necessary. 

Let, as before, the horizontal components of the velocity with which the 
balls begin to move, be v sin 0, and v cos 0, Z the velocity in the vertical, 
and the inclination of the planes i now large. 

The initial velocity of ascent parallel to the planes will be. 
For the ball B . . . . . . . . vsin cost + Z f^in t, 

and For the ball Bj v cos cos t + Z sin i. 

Let be the coefficient of frictional adhesion, of the balls to the plane; 
then they will ascend the planes to the heights, 

j> TT ^(rsinO cost-f-Z sint)* 2tant+50 

2^ 2 tan 1+70 

« TT _(t? cos cos 1 4- Z sin i)* 2 tan t+5<b 

x3|. • • • Jrli — • — 1 — — — • 

* ^ 2ff 2tant+70 

V and are known if the value of Z be given ; and this may be ascertained 
experimentally from the compression of the vertical spring; or, as sug- 
gested by my friend Dr. Harte, to whom I have been indebted for these 
equations, a second pair of experimental inclined planes and balls might be 
used, with an inclination greater than t (say 2i), from the observed movements 
upon which, two more equations could be got, the four equations being then 
more than enough, to determine v, Z and 0. 

But the nature of the instrument is to record the values of H and H^ in 
terms of the whole time that the balls B and B are out of contact with the 
block gr, t. e. of their rolling up, and down, the inclined planes, — this time 
being given, by the lacune in the pencil-trace made upon the revolving cy- 
linder of paper carried along by the clock. The time of the balb' ascending 
to the highest point reached on the plane will be independent of adhesion ; 
and calling it t, we have. 

For the ball B ^^t>giDfl cos.+Zsint. 

g sin t 

FortheballB, , ^t^cosO cost+Zsint, 

g sin i 
The time of descent back to the starting-point, due to the heights H and H', 
will be a little, but inappreciably, less £an this. 

The entire time of the double oscillation of each ball, therefore, or its 
movement up and down the plane, as recorded by the instrument, is, 

p^rg T^ t; sine cos t+Z sin t A ^ / 2tan« + 5» \ 
^"nt V V 2tant+7^/' 

and p^^g ^^ t;co8eco8t+Zsint ' A . / 2 tan i4-50 \> 

' " ' ^8>n» V V 2tani+7^/ 

the coefficient ^ being always =tan a, the angle of sliding for the surface- 
material of the balls upon that of the inclined planes. 



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ON THB FACTS AND THBORT OP BABTHQITAKB PHBNOHBNA. dS 

Reverting now to the time balls 6,, BS those which, being left behind, record 
the instant of the arrival of the shock at the instrument, — it has been stated 
that we have no occasion to determine their subsequent movements; it 
may be well, however, to clear our notions generally as to what these will 
be. Rotation is almost instantly communicated to these balls by adhesion 
with the moving planes on which they rest. The block moves off horizon- 
tally (in the direction of the wave) from the ball, which rolls thus with a 
retarded motion up the inclined plane in a relatively opposite direction. The 
block attains its maximum velocitrv V» and, coming to rest, reverses the direc* 
tion of its own motion, and now follows back after the ball that it had left 
behind, which it ma^f overtake, and striket with a relative velocity equal to 
the sum of its own velocity and that of the ball, or to their difference, depend- 
ent upon the state of motion of the ball at the moment of impact. The 
impact calling forth elastic force from ball and block, the former will be 
thrown up along the inclined plane ; but the extent of this movement, or 
whether it occur at all, will depend upon the dimensions and velocity of the 
wave itself (resolved into the line of movement on the inclined plane) and 
upon the elasticity, &c of the ball and block. These we have no occasion 
to pursue further : the actual movements of these balls, B, and BS how« 
ever, will be found recorded in time also, by their own pencil- tracers on the 
cylinder ; but the only indication that concerns us, is the first instant of 
broken contact, as already explained. 

A single seismometric observatory, such as has been now described, set up 
within a given region of disturbance, is capable of giving the elements, neces- 
sary for the calculation of the position of the seismic focus, but without the 
power of controlling the accuracy of the results, except in so far as coinci- 
dent repetitions may confirm or refute them. But if three stick seismome- 
tric observatories be set up within the region chosen, in positions that shall 
form the angles of a triangle with respect to each other, at moderate distances 
apart (from 15 to 80 miles), and these be all connected by galvanic wireS) 
so that the whole of their records shall be made upon a single paper cylinder, 
moved by a single clock in one of the three observatories, we then have a 
further control, and an independent method of obtaining, both the hori- 
zontal component of direction, and the surface- velocity, from which, by 
methods yet to be stated, the depth of origin may be calculated without 
direct ascertainment of the vertical component in Z. The cylinder must in 
this case carry twelve pencil-tracers, four leading from each observatory. 

This leads us to the second and somewhat simpler form of seismometer 
proposed by me, and shown in figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7 (of Plate XV.). In some re- 
spects, the principles of this instrument are the same as of that just described : 
like the former, it is a double instrument, each instrument having two move- 
able balls; but their action is different. Fig. 4* represents, in elevation, one 
of tliese instruments (let us suppose, that N. S.) as seen looking eastward, 
and the upper part of which is seen in plan in fig. 5. ssis the floor of the 
observatory within which the two similar instruments are placed, f ^ is a 
shallow and flat-bottomed dish or basin of some feet in diameter, and about 
nine inches in depth, formed by a circular wooden curb or rim secured to 
the floor. 

In the centre of this, there stands up vertically a very stiff pillar or upright, 
rigidly secured into the floor, and which may be either of hard stone, hollow 
cast iron, or of hard wood, but best of the second* Its upper end is formed 
of wrought or cast iron in the form shown ; and into it are secured the vertical 
supports of hardwood, s^s, which are placed with their parallel and vertical 
axes in the plane of the meridian or at right angles thereto, and areprepared. 

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94 1IBP0BT--I85e. 

80 88 to 8upport the balU 6 and B, upon their upper ends, which are sUghtly 
hollowed to the 8ame curve as the surface of the balls, as seen at full size in 
fig. 7« The balls, when in this position, rest against and are steadied by the 
hollow stop over the axis of the vertical pillar, b in figs. 4, 5, and 6. 

The balls may be common cast-iron cannon shot, chosen of good sphe* 
rical form and of equal weight ; and each ball is in metallic connexion at one 
point of its surface with a galvanic-circuit wire, of which it forms one pole, 
marked ety — the supports «, «, and the stop 6, being all of hard wood or other 
insulating material, as pottery or glass. The height of the central column 
should be such, that the centre of gravity of each of the two balls, when on 

their supports, may be some submultiple of 82 ffe.=^ (say 8 feet '=2^)> for 

facility of calculation. 

The shallow basin ^^ is subdivided in two semi*circular separate areas, by 
a wood division, dy equal in depth to the outer rim, this division crossing in 
the diameter which lies at right angles to the plane of the supports «, «, — t. e. 
being east and west for the north and south balls* and vice vmd in the other 
instrument Each segment of the shallow basin is lined within its outer rim 
and bottom with sheet-lead, which is at one point of each in metallic con« 
tact with the other pole of the galvanic circuit marked E^— . 

The two segments of the dish are filled up to the level of the surround* 
ing rim, with a bed of damp sand, pressed uniformly and *< struck off" level 
to the rim by a straight edge, so as thus to present a uniform bed 9 inches 
deep, the bails B, B« being 6 inches in diameter and 8 feet above it. While 
the instruments (i. e. that N.S. and E.W.) are thus prepared, the galvanic 
circuit remains constantly broken, the poles formed by the balls being in* 
sulated from the other poles formed by the sand-beds, the lead lining, &c* 
Suppose now, in fig. 4', an earthquake-wave to emerge from S« to N. in the 
direction of the arrow ; the ball B, is ieft behind as in the former instrument, 
topples off its slender support s, and commences to fall to the surface of the 
sand. The moment it strikes the sand, it makes contact with its own circuit, 
and as the time of its fall can be exactly calculated and is constant (neglecU 
ing the small resbtance of the air), thb ball (as before) marks the precise mo* 
ment of the arrival of the shock at the instrument. The other ball B is 
urged forward by the movement of the whole instrument in the direction of 
the arrow, or that of the wave's emergence, being supported by s and ft, until 
the instrument acquires its maximum velocity v as before. This ball is then 
thrown off from its support with this velocity, and, describing a small trajec- 
tory in air, falls to the bed of sand, and in its turn makes contact with its own 
galvanic circuit. The ball partially buries itself in the damp sand at the 
spot it falls upon, without change of position from any elastic effort, all such 
being absorbed by the '' deadness " of the sand. If the shock has been in 
the plane of the meridian, the place where it shall land on the sand-bed will 
also be in that plane, say at B'. 

Then the horizontal distance from the centre of its support s to the centre 
of the ball, measures the horizontal component of the velocity, this space 
being described by it during the time of its descent through eight feet. The 
difference in time (as shown upon the ruled paper by the pencil-tracers and 
clockwork as before) between the instant of B^ and of B leaving their sup- 
ports, is almost exactly = ~, or half the time of the wave. 

The same explanations will apply to the other, or £. and W. instrument ; 
and if the azimuth of emergence B be somewhere between N. 8. and E.W., 
all four balls will be displaoedi and the obUquHy ^idbYMr of each of the balls 

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ON THB FACTS AND THttOBY OV SABTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. OT 

B (N. and S.) and B (E. and W.) from their respective cardinal and yer* 
tical planea, will indicate the actual azimuth of the horizontal component of 
the earthquake wave — giving this indication in two ways, each controlling 
the other, — viz. by direction of throw as stated, and by distance of horizontal 
traject, which will be proportionate to sine and cosine 0, 

The stop by it should be remarked, is hollowed at contact with each ball, 
so as to embrace 90^ of its horizontal great circle ; so that in case 6=45^ 
from the meridional or the £. and W. planes, the balls cannot slip aside, but 
must be thrown in the same direction, the extreme angles of the stop then 
passing through the plane of motion and centre of gravity of the balls. 

Figs. 5 and 6 show in plan the relative positions of the N. S. and £.W. 
instruments, the upper portions alone being represented, and not at the ne- 
cessary distance apart 

These iustruments singly, then, give us the velocity of the wave and its 
direction in azimuth with considerable accuracy ; but their full value would 
only be ensured by placing three such seismometers within a given district 
(as already stated for the former instrument) and connecting them all by 
galvanic wires, so that the indications of the three shall be recorded by a 
single clock register. We then have the time of arrival of the shock at each 
seismometer given with perfect accuracy, from which both its horizontal 
velocity and azimuth may be computed; and the relative positions and 
distances apart of the several seismometers being known, the true direction 
of emergence of the wave, and the point of the surface vertically over the 
origin, and the depth of the focus itself may be computed. The two following 
methods of computing these are due to Professor Haughton, of Trinity 
College, Dublin, who communicated them to the Geological Section of the 
British Association at Dublin, on the occasion of this report being read, and 
from whom I have received them for publication here. 

The determination of the " coseismal line" — a term first used by me at the 
suggestion of Sir John Herschel, to signify, the crest of the simultaneously 
emergent earth-wave upon the earth's surface at any moment of its progress 
— is the same thing as determining the direction of its motion on the surface, 
a horizontal tangent to the coseismal line at any point being always ortho- 
gonal to the dircQtion of motion. 

Givm the Times of cm Earthquake Shock at three places^ to determine its 
iforizontal velocity and Coseismal Line, 




Let A, B, C, denote three stations at which the time of arrival of the earth* 
quake shock is determined by the seismometers or other meansi and let 

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96 



BEPORT — 1858. 



o, bf e, denote the distances between them ; let v denote the unknown hori- 
zontal velocity ; and let ^ denote the unknown angle made by the coseismal 
lines xAXyi/Bi/y with the line A B joining the first two stations ; and t^ ^, t^ 
be the times of the observed shock at A, B, C, respectively. 
Letting fall the perpendiculars p and q, we find, 

p c sin <& 

q _, fl sin (B— O) 

Equating these two values of v, we find 

c(t^—t^ sin*=a(^j— <i) sin(B— *). 
Expanding, and solving for tan $, we finally obtain 



tan $= 



(0 

(2) 



(3) 



<h-Q'^<^i-K) COS B 
Having found $ by means of this equation, we can then determine v from 
either (1) or (2). 



Given the Horizontal Veiodiy of an Earthquake at any two points^ and lis 
absolute velocity ; to find the position of the focus from which it has 
proceeded. 




Let A and B be the points under consideration, and for simplicity suppose 
them to lie at opposite sides of the unknown focus F, and in the same vertical 
plane passing through F. [These suppositions are only made to simplify the 
figure, but do not in any way diminish the generality of the result.] 

Let AX be the space moved through on the surface of the ground at A 
in the unit of time, and eoual v the horizontal velocity, and let BY be the 
velocity at B and equal vK Letting fall the perpendiculars AP and BQ ; 
PX and QY will denote the spaces described by the earthquake in a radial 
direction (FX or FY) ; they are therefore equal and each is the absolute 
velocity of the earthquake =V. Hence 

(1) 

(2) 



cos AXF=Y 

V 

cos BYF=y. 



Therefore since v, v\ V are all known quantities, the angles A X F and 
B Y F are also known, and therefore the lines X F and Y F may be drawn, 
and their intersection F will give the required position of the focus. 
Corol. 1. If the position of the point O, at the surface, from which the 

earthquake appears to radiate, be known ; one velocity will 

determine the depth of the focus. 



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ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 97 

Cor<^ 2. Independently of any diminution in the absolute velocity of the 
earth-wave, the apparent horizontal velocity will diminish rapidly, 
approaching indetinitely the limit V. This is evident from the 
geometrical considerations arising from the fact that PX is 
always equal to QY. 

It is obvious, then, that by the establishment of these very simple and in- 
expensive seismometers, and connecting them galvanically (as respects their 
registration) by methods now become both familiar and simple, we may get 
good first approximations to one of the most important questions of the 
physics of our globe — a knowledge of the depth from which earthquake 
impulses arrive. 

Simple and inexpensive, however, as the apparatus recommended is, its 
establishment in the only way in which it can be of much real use, namely 
by connected distant stations, involves the choice of seismic areas fitted for 
the purpose, and the support and aid of governments, if not for outfit, at 
least for appointment of observers, and police protection of stations and wires. 
It is to be hoped that even these may not be withheld as the advancing know* 
ledge of the importance to physical geology of seismic research becomes better 
understood and diffused. Meanwhile a still simpler form of rough seismo- 
meter, suited to the resources of distant and isolated observers, may be with 
advantage, perhaps, pointed out, — and also an indirect method, by which the 
depth of earthquake origin may be approximated, without the use of seismo- 
meters of any sort The form of seismometer about to be described is most 
applicable to seismic districts where the angle of wave-emergence is not 
steep, t. e. where the shocks are usually nearly horizontal. 

If any homogeneous, parallelepiped, or rectangular prism, standing on 
end, upon a level surface, be upset by its own inertia, the supporting sur- 
face being suddenly moved beneath it, in the direction of its own plane (as 
by the horizontal component of an earthquake shock), it may be shown 
that the velocity of the surface must be 



v.=|,V?TFx(l^) 



where a is the altitude of the solid, b its diameter of base, and 6 the angle 
formed by the side and a line drawn throbgh the centre of gravity to the 
extremity of the base, and V«=^A. 

This velocity is independent of the density or nutterial of the solids 
because the oversetting force, being its own inertia, is always proportionate 
to the density. With a given velocity Y, therefore, it is possible to as- 
sign the dimensions a and b such, that it shall be ^t^ overset; and with 
this velocity another solid, having 6 greater, shall remain unmoved, — as- 
suming always that friction upon the supporting surface gives sufficient 
adhesion to cause the solid to upset, and not to slide (partly or wholly) 
without upsetting. 

If in place of a square prism like a wall, the solid be a right cylinder, such 
as a pillar, the diameter of whose base, as before, is b ; then 

Y,^15i^« Xi/ Vil+P(l -cos 0) ; 

and from this very simple expression for the horizontal velocity, for which I 
am indebted to my friend Professor Haughton, it is easy to construct a seis- 
mometer of the greatest simplicity, that (in the absence of better means) 
shall give, within a narrow limit, the actual velocity of shock. 

1858. « 



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98 



RBPORT-— 1858. 



Let there be constructed two similar sets of right cylinders, say each set, 
six to twelve in number, all of equal height (a) and of the same sort of 
material, but varying in diameter in each set, with a uniform decrement 
from the greatest to the least. 

Convenient dimensions for earthquake observations of mean intensity, will 
be such, that the cylinder of largest diameter shall have its altitude equal to 

three diameters, or 6=^, and that the cylinder of least diameter shall have 
3 

its diameter one-third of that of the greatest one, or ^=^ Any number of 

cylinders of intermediate diameters may be interpolated between ; and the 
greater the number, the more accurate the instrument becomes. A series of 
six to ten in each set will, however, be sufficient for any purpose. For 
observation of shocks of extreme violence, larger diameters, in proportion to 
altitude, should be chosen for all the cylinders. 

The material of the cylinders is not important, cast iron, stone, pottery, or 
other substances at hand, whose arrises will not crumble away by being 
overthrown, may be used ; but no material will be found more convenient 
than some hard heavy wood, of uniform substance, straight grain, and equa- 
ble specific gravity, from which the cylinders can be formed in the lathe, 
and their bases brought perfectly square to the axis with facility. 

Upon any horizontal and solid floor let two planks be placed, as in fig. 6, 
with their directions in length respectively lying N. and S. and £. and W., 

Kg. 6. 



-xa 




each plank to be about 3 inches in thickness, and in width equal to the dia- 
meter of the largpst cylinder, and its length such that the set of cylinders, 
when placed upright and equidistant thereon, shall have a space greater than 
the altitude between each. Thus, if the cylinder of largest diameter have 
b=0-5 of a foot, the length of plank will, for a set of six, as in the figure, 
be about 12 feet. These base-planks being^a^c?, level, and solid, the floor is 
to be levelled up to their upper surfaces with dry sand, and the two sets of 

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ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 99 

cylinders adjusted to their places, one set running in an east and west, and the 
other in a north and south direction, so that in whatever direction the hori- 
zontal component of shock may move, the overthrown cylinders, of one or the 
other set^ shall fall transversely to the lengths of either of the plank bases, and, 
lodging on the sand-bed, remain exactly in the position as to azimuth in which 
^ey were overthroion. If now a shock of any horizontal velocity capable of 
overthrowing some of the cylinders, but not all of them, arrive, it will throw 
down at once all the narrower ones, and up to a certain diameter of base. 
For example, suppose a N. and S. shock, of such velocity as to overthrow 
W 6, W 5, and VV 4, leaving W 3, W 2, and W 1 standing ; then V will 
have been greater than the velocity due to the overthrow of W 4, and less 
than that due to the overthrow of W 3, and, within those limits, may be 
found from the preceding equation. The cylinders here overthrown, W 6, 
W 5, and W 4, will be found with their axes lying N. and S., at rest upon 
the sand-bed. The cylinders N 6, N 5, and >f 4, will be also overthrown % 
but in this case they will fall in the line of their own plank bases, and may 
roll and so give no indication as to direction of shock in azimuth. Hence the 
necessity for two sets of cylinders ; one set, however, will be sufficient, if 
space enough be provided between the cylinders, and if each be placed 
upon a cylindrical and separate basis of a diameter equal to its own, and in 
height equal to the depth of the sand-bed. 

This form of instrument, then, is capable of giving approximate deter* 
minations of — 

1st. The velocity of the horizontal component of shock, neglecting the 
vertical component, which may be done where the angle of emergence is not 
great. 

2nd. The azimuthal direction of the horizontal element of shock. 

Srd. Its absolute direction of primary movement, viz. the direction of 
translation of the wave, which always coincides with the direction of mole- 
cular movement of the elastic wave itself, in the first half of its complete 
phase: e.^., if the wave show a N. S. azimuth, by the line of direction of axes 
of the overthrown cylinders, and these be thrown to the northward, then the 
wave has traversed from S. to N. 

4th. The exact time of the transit of shock may be also indicated if the 
narrowest cylinders, N 6 and W 6 be connected with a clock, so as to stop 
it at the moment of overthrow by the very simple means which I have 
pointed out in the 'Admiralty Manual* (art. " Earthquake," sec. vii., p. 208, 
2nd edit.), inasmuch as, by hypothesis, the narrowest cylinders will be always 
overthrown. 

A single cylinder or prism, however entirely distinct from either seismo- 
metrical set, and of even less stability as respects shock, may be with 
advantage adopted as the means for stopping the clock by the above method, 
which is capable of giving the time to within 0*1 of a second. 

It is obvious that the application of the principles involved in this form 
of seismometer to observations made upon the recent overthrow of walls, 
columns, or other such objects to be found in regions which may have been 
visited by earthquakes, is capable of giving also approximate measures of 
velocity and direction of shock. This class of seismic observation will, I 
hope, be found more fully developed elsewhere. 

In conclusion, one other method of indirect seismometry remains to be 
explained, which does not require the aid of any seismometric instrument. 
The facts upon which this method depends have been alluded to in the Re- 
port on Earthquakes of 1850, p. 35. It has been long observed that, in 
(sxkntioe surfaces of country Uiat have been exposed to the effects of shock. 



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100 



RBPORT-^lSdS. 



cerisAn zones or areas uf surface, more or less irregular, present themselves, 
.'within which the destructive eifects upon buildings and other objects capable 
of overthrow are manifested much more intensely, than upon similar objects 
situated upon other portions of the superficies of the country. These zones 
of maximum disturbance (as yet ill observed) have been remarked to run in 
curvilinear directions of surface, to approach more or less, according to the 
means of (t. e, the objects afforded for) observation, to closed curves, and to 
be wholly distinct from those variations of destructive agency, irregularly 
par9emi over large shaken areas, which depend upon differences of geologic 
surface-formation, configuration of country, &c., construction of buildings, 
and many other conditions, which modify the direction and effects of the 
shock at points often very little removed from each other, and the analysis 
of which, and extrication of the true primary movement from the entangle- 
ment of such minor phenomena, constitute the greatest difiiculty of earth- 
quake observation. The physical conditions which give rise to such zones 
of maximum disturbance are easily explained. 




Referring to fig. 7> let A' A be the horizou (which we may assume a 
right liqe) cut by a Tertical plane passing through a great circle of the earth, 
and through A, the centre of impulse of the earthquake. The blow from 
this origin is propagated outwards in all directions, through the elastic mass 
of the earth (here assumed homogeneous), in spherical concentric shells, 
which the circles 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. denote, at similar phases of the wave. The 
elastic wave starts from the impulse with one normal and two transversal 
vibrations. Its vis viva must remain constant, and (in the same medium its 
dimensions being very great) the velocity of translation also. The mass in 
wave-movement, at any moment of its transit, is therefore the same, and the 
thickness of each successive spherical shell decreases from the centre of im- 
pulse as the square of its mean distance. This is the measure of the normal 
excursion of any particle, from any given phase of the wave, in its passage out- 
wards, to the recurrence of the same phase, and is also the measure of the nor- 
mal intensity of the shock, or that in directions AB, AC, AZ, &c. Neglect- 
ing for the present the effects of the transversal wave, the normal intensity or 
direct overthrowing power of an earthquake shock varies inversely as the 
square of th^ distance from origin. But the turfo/oe capability of the shock 

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ON THE FACTS AND THEOEY OF fiARTHilUAKE PHENOMENA. 101' 

to overthrow buildings, &c. depends not only upon its intensity, but Upon 
the direction of its movement with respect to the horizon* A shock per- 
fectly vertical has no tendency to overturn the walls of a house, though it 
may bring down the roof or floors. Now it is obvious from the figure, 
that as the wave passes outwards from the origin. A, it reaches the earth's 
surface vertically at B, the point in the prime vertical, pA, directly over 
the same; and that as it travels outwards, it emerges at the surface with 
angles more and more nearly horizontal ; the angle of emergence being the 
same at all points of any coseismal line, all such lines being, on the as- 
sumption of homogeneity, concentric circles round B (like those upon a 
pond into which a stone has been thrown). 

So far as the direction of wave-motion is concerned, therefore, its power to 
overturn buildings is greater the further it has travelled, or the greater the 
radius of the coseismal circle from B ; but its energy has been shown to be 
inversely as the square of the distance (not upon the earth's surface, but in 
the normal). Hence it follows that there must be some given distance upon 
the surface around B at which the combined effect, of most advantageous 
direction and lessened energy, ft^hall produce the most destructive effects 
upon buildings, &c., or a point, C, intermediate to B and Z, or U supposed at 
any indefinite distance, at which the shock will be, in this respect, a maximum. 
The radius BC will then describe a coseismal circle upon the earth's sur- 
face, which will be a zone of maximum disturbance. 

Conversely, if we can trace by observation of the shaken country such a 
zone, or ascertain three points in its circle, we can find the centre of the 
circle or the point B, which is plumb over the centre of impulse beneath ; 
andif we have ascertained the angle of emergence that produces the maximum 
effect (and which is a constant), we can then calculate the depth of the centre 
of impulse, A, beneath the earth's surface. 




Ueferring to fig. 8, let A be, as before, the centre of impulse ; B the 
point upon the earth's surface (supposed a plane), in the prime vertical /^A, 
directly above it. It is required to find a point, C, at which the horizontal 
overthrowing effects of an impulse in the direction AC, whose intensity 
varies inversely as the square of the distance, shall be a maximum. 

Produce AC to rf, and complete the parallelogram of forces,/ d being 
parallel to the horizon. 



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102 REPORT— 1858. 

Let BA=a, the depth of origin ; 

BC=r, the radius where the horizontal force is a maximum 
AC = the normal due to this radius. 

The angle Cdc=BAC=a. 

Then the force at C in the direction AC is - . , , ; and that in the direc- 
tion of the horizon b sin 6 x -s — ^; and as 



sin 6=- 



we have \^a^+r^ : r : : 1 



I r r 



■^ a maximum. 



and a'+r' \^a'+r' (a'+r")^ 

DiflTerentiating, (a'-f r*)* x dr^iia'-^t^)^ x 2r*=0. 

^_ a _ av^ 
V2 2 

The angle CAC is therefore very nearly 70° 81' 43", which is the angle 
of the cone whose base in the horizontal plane limits the zone of maximum 
disturbance; and as the angles at B are right, the angle of emergence 
BCA=54'» ^i' 9", and the sides of the triangle, BC : BA : AC, are to each 
other in the ratios of 

1 : \/2 : ^^3. 
Hence we arrive at the very simple practical rule. 

Having found the coseismal zone of maximum disturbance by observation, 
or three points in it, and the centre of the circle passing through them, the 
depth below the surface, of the origin or centre of impulse, will be the dia- 
gonal of the square whose side is equal to the radius of the given circle. 

Within certain approximate limits, then, the application of this rule is 
capable of giving some information upon that great object of research, to 
which, above all others, seismological investigation points, namely, the depth 
beneath our surface from which such impulses reach us, and, by consequence, 
that at which active volcanic forces are in operation within our planet. 

This method can scarcely be applied in very mountainous regions, unless 
both mountain- formations and seismic energy be developed upon a grand 
scale, as in Mexico and South America ; and in every case the observer will 
find himself encumbered and perplexed by the interference of many minor 
circumstances of disturbance to mask and render difficult his observations. 
These, however, should not prevent our bearing the method in mind when- 
ever favourable conditions present themselves for its use. 

In the present state of the theory of wave-movements in elastic solids, it 
cannot be said to be experimentally certain, that the energy of the wave, in 
the normal, does diminish with the square of the distance. Another view of 
the primary conditions of its motion would make it diminish directly as the 
distance, in which case it may be proved that the angle CAC of the 
coseismal cone of maximum disturbance will be 90^ and constant, and hence 



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ON THB FACTS AND THEORT OV BABTQQUAKE PHENOMENA. 10& 

tbat the depth of the origiD (upon that hypothesis) will be always equal to 
the radius of the circle of maximum disturbance. It would be out of place 
here to enter further into the physical discussion of this question, except by 
referring to Herschel (art, ** Light," * Encyc. Metrop.' vol. iv. paragr. 18. 
p. 578) and to the various papers of Cauchy, Wertheim, Stokes, Airy, 
Haughton, and Maxwell on the subject. 

I have stated that in the preceding investigation the effects of the transver- 
sal wave are neglected. In the observation of actual earthquake phenomena, 
this may probably be safely done as respects all points that are at consider- 
able distances from the centre of disturbance. The normal and transversal 
waves, starting at the same instant, appear to travel with unequal velocities. 
They part company ; and their distance becomes greater^ and the interval 
larger between their arrivals, the further they have both travelled. Were 
we enabled, therefore, to ascertain the precise velocity of the normal wave, 
and the exact interval of time between the arrival at a distant point of the 
normal and transversal waves, we could still by another method arrive at the 
distance from which they had come, and therefore at the depth of the origin 
of impulse, if the angle of emergence at one point were known. According 
to Cauchy, the velocity of transit of the normal is to that of the transversal 
wave as ^3:1 in media of unlimited mass; and Wertheim's modified for- 
mulae for elastic bodies fix it as 2 : 1. My own experimental observations 
with the seismoscope have proved to me that the separation of the two waves 
can be noticed, and the interval of time measured upon even very moderate 
ranges of wave-transit, not exceeding a few miles ; and the observations of 
earthquake shocks indicate that one cause of the tremors that usually succeed 
the main blow, is the later arrival of the normal wave, whose amplitude at 
considerable distances from the origin is always small. 

However this may be, it is certain that in all earthquakes the real mis- 
chief and overthrow, at places pretty far removed from above the centre of 
impulse, are done by the blow from the normal wave, which appears to 
come first ; hence the main observable efiects are those of the normal, and 
we axe justified and enabled, in such localities^ to neglect the transversal. 
Bat within a considerable circle of area, whose boundary is evanescent, and 
whose centre lies at the point B (figs. 7, 8), right above the origin, the 
actual effects of the transversal wave are very formidable, and can never be 
neglected. 

The ground beneath an object so situated, such as a house or pillar (as 
the distance from the origin to the surface is the minimum range of emer- 
gence, or shortest possible, and therefore its energy the greatest), is almost 
at the same instant thrown nearly vertically upwards by the normal wave, 
and at the same moment rapidly forced forwards and backwards horizontally 
in two directions orthogonal to each other ; and this combined movement, 
which is that called *' vorticoso** by the Italians and Spanish Mexicans, is 
one that nothing, however solid and substantial in masonry, &c., can long 
withstand. 

Hence it follows that, within the zone of maximum disturbance which we 
have treated of, and occupying its central region, we shall always find an 
area, more or less circular, also of great overthrow and destruction, though 
presenting entirely different characteristics as to the manner of overthrow of 
the buildings, &c. This middle region may therefore be sought for as a 
further directrix to the point B over the centre of impulse. It may be 
necessary to remark that this combined movement, due to the two transver- 
sal waves, and limited to a region closely above the prime vertical passing 
through the centre of impulse, must not be confounded by any misconcep- 

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104 BfiPOBT — 1858. 

tion of the phrafte '^ vorticoso," with that false notion of vorticose shock, 
such as was presumed to have twisted the Calabrian obelisks, &c., the real 
nature of whose displacement I indicated in 1846. (Trans. Roy. I. Acad, 
vol. xxi. part 1. See aUo 1st Report Trans. Brit. Assoc. 1850, pp. 33, 34.) 

In conclusion, I would repeat my conviction that a further expenditure 
of labour in earthquake catalogues of the character hitherto compiled, and 
alone possible from the data to have been compiled, is now a waste of scien- 
tific time and labour. The main work presented for seismologists in the 
immediate future, must consist in good observations, with seismometers ad- 
vantageously placed at sufficiently distant stations, and galvanically connected 
as to time ; and in the careful observation of the traces left by great shocks 
(when of recent occurrence) upon buildings and other objects artificial and 
natural, with a view to determining the nature of the forces that have affected 
them, aided by the resources of the physicist and mathematician. 

Amonsst the unknown regions of our world, as respects the recurrence of 
earthquakes and their phenomena, the most prominent are Central Africa, 
Abyssinia, Madagascar, Northern Asia, and the north-west of North Ame-^ 
rica. For observations of the last, the new settlements about being formed 
at Vancouver's Island will, no doubt, ofier great facilities, as well as future 
access to the great Aleutian chain of volcanoes and their seismic zone. 

I reserve for the Appendix a few observations, upon great sea waves and 
certain ill-understood phenomena^ which could not systematically find place 
in this Report 



APPENDIX. 

No. I. 

(P. 48.) The following table of some of the men and events upon which the 
progress of human knowledge and discovery and the diJQ^on of mankind have 
depended, may serve to illustrate the relations that these bear to the expand- 
ing character of the catalogue : — 

Date. 

A.C. 

Tarda for spreading ships' sails inyented 1200 

Silver money. — ^Anchors. — First sea fight 700 

Amber and tin carried by Phoenicians from the Saltdc and England to the Levant. . 600 
The sounding-line used at sea. — Mi^ in use. — Multiplication table. — Moon^s 

eclipses calculated. — Pythacoras 500 

Trireme galleys in use. — The Duming-lens known 400 

War ohiuiots in Qnal. — Arrack Inrought firom India into Europe. — Electricity 

notioed.— Hemp, oordMe (?), and sails (?).— Aristotle 300 

Clepfff dra.-^Ballist». — Silver coin at Some. — The olive. — Chinese waU. — Hannibal 200 
LucuUus introduces cleansing soap from Ghaul— sal-ammoniac from Egypt. — Solar 

year fixed ^. 100 

Christ born. — Seneca. — Strabo. a.». 

First see voyage to India, probably 3 

Stained-glass windows — ^the Tine-^Saw-miUs—Monachism— all in Qenmany 300 

The Western Empire.— Public lights at Antioch.— Church bella 400 

The dark ages commence. 

Franks Christianized. — Silk-worms in Europe 500 

"Eiope, — Quill pens. — ^Latin disused. — ^Mahomet 1 600 

Charlemagne names the days and months SOO 



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ON THE FACTS AND THSOBT OP BARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 105 

Oxford and Cambridge ITniTersitiee.— -Fiwt book.--AlfVed the Great 900 

Arabic notation iu Europe. — ^Wheel clocks in use. — The first crusade 1100 

The three last crusades.— The su^ cane in Sicily. — Coal as fuel. — The corporation 

of London. — ^The Popish inquisition. — Saladin 1200 

"Bngliwh parliaments.— English in our law courts. — Gunpowder. — Cannon.— Mari- 
ners' compass. — Printing. — Engraving. — Oil painting. — Coaches. — Roger Bacon. 
— Wiclif.— Tamerhine 1400 

America. — Columbus^s four rojages, from 1492-100-4.— Cajw of GKkkI Hope. — 
Indian Sea.— Vasco di Gama, 1499.— John and Sebastian Cabot, 1497.— Public 
road and bridges through Western and Southern Europe. — Lutlicr. — The Ee- 
formation 1500 

Logarithms. — ^Watches. — Barometer. — Toloeoope. — Meroator. — Italian book-keep- 
ing. — Jupiter's satellites disooverod. — Copernicus. — Galileo. — Magelliaen's 
Yoynfle, 1520.— Drake's voyage, i:>80 1600 

Boyai Society. — Newton. — Sextcmt — Chronometers. — Greenwich Obsorvatorj-. — 
Tea into Europe. — Clive. — Penn.— South Sea Company. — Cod and herring 
fisheries. — Semaphore. — ^New style calendar 

Anson's voyage (1*44) 

Cook's last voyage (1779) i i7nA 

LaPerousorr7V. ^ ^^^ 

Vancouver (1795) 

Watt's steam engme (1796) 

Napoleon. — ^Nelson. — Embassies to China and Japan. — Vaccination. — Gas lights. \ 

— Life-boats. — Public docks. — Public coaches and diligences. — Newspapers 1800 
abundant ^ to 

Steam navigation. — ^First steam-ship 'Savana' crosses the Atlantic, 1819. — Bail- | present 
way svstem, 1820. — Electric tJ^graph, 1830. — Law of tides — of storms. — date. 
Qoldm California — in Australia > 

No. n. 

(P. 57.) From the interest that belongs to observations of earthqttakes in 
the Sonthem Hemisphere, hitherto so seldom recorded, I append the following 
extracts ttom the letter of an intelligent Mend, referring to the New 
Zealand shock of 1854-55, written very soon after the event. The writer is 
a dvil engineer, 

TJie New Zealand EartTiqudke, 

"Wellington, 23rd January, 1855. 
" Whilst sitting reading and talking at 8.50 p.m., I felt the house (which had bocn shaking 
with the occasional N.E. gusts so usual at Wellington) give a very oxtraordiuary shake, 
which seemed to continue, and was acoompanied by a fearfiU noise. I at once jumped up, 
rushed, as well as the violent motion would permit me. into the front garden, the motion 
increasing in violence, accompanied by a roarmg as if a Urge number of cannon were being 
fired near toother, and by a great dust caused by the falling chimneys. The modon at first 
was a sharp jerk back and forwards in a N.E. and S.W. direction, increasing in extent and 
rapidity, until I got into the garden — say 25 seconds ; it was then succeeded by a shorter 
■nd qmcker motion at ri^t angles, for neariy the same time, still increasing, bnt appearing 
to be perfoctljjT in the plime of the horixon. This was followed by a continuation of both, 
a sort of vorticose motion, exactly hke the motion fell iu an ill-adjusted railway carriage 
on a badly-hud railway at a very high speed, where one is swayed rapidly from side to ia.Se, 
This was accompanied by a sensible elevatory impidse ; it gradually subsided ; and the 
above, conatittiting the first and greatest shock, lasted altogether, I should sar, 1' 2(V'or 1^' 
ai Wellington, The earth continued to vibrate all night like the panting of a tired horse, 
with occasional shocks of some violence, decreasing in frequency and vic^ence towards 
morning, and nearly all in the N.E. S.W. direction, some of them a single ierk back and 
forwards like that of one railway CMTiage toucliing anotlier, but generally Uiev were 
fk^lowvd by a vibralion gradually decreasing. These lasted, with increasing intertafe, until 
I left Wemngton on the i 1th ApriL For the first week aAer the first riioek, the vibration 
never wholly ceaaed. All the brick buildings in Wellington were overthrown, or so injured, 
as to necessitate their removal ; the Hutt Bridge was thrown down ; the hill -sides oppodte 
Wellington were very much shaken, as evidenced by the many bare patches with whi(^ 
tk»y ipsre cbeqiured fully to tiie extent of one-third of their surface, whence trees had boeih 

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106 REPORT— 1858. 

shaken off: this range, partioularly its lower portion, appeared to haye been the moat 
shaken. It is called the Simatuka Ban^e, and divides Port Nicholson and the basin of 
the Hutt from the Warumrapa Valley, where the earthquake was felt with greater violence 
than at Wellington, the ground having opened in many places 8 or 9 feet, and sunk in one 
place for 300 yards square to a depth of 8 or 9 feet. The cracks are very frequent, and 
at first were of considerable depth (deemed un&thomable, because people could not see 
their depUi), perhaps 15 or 20 feet in depth, and extending for many hundred yards. 
Flouf hed ground and mud, dry river- or pond-beds were thrown up into all sorts of un- 
dulations Hke a short cross sea, the ridges in some cases 2 feet in height, the prevailing 
direction of cracks and ridges being generally at right angles to the apparent line of force, 
"NJE. S.W. The strata about Wellington and the Kimatuka are a sort of shale and clay- 
slate, idl broken into pieces not bigger than road-metal, with yellow day joints ; and m 
places where the overlying clay has been cut through by roads, one can see the cracks 
caused by former earthquakes mled up by a different-coloured material. I should mention 
the great sea-wave whion came in immediately after the first shock, about 5 feet higher than 
the highest tide inside the harbour, and 12 feet higher outside ; the tide (t. e, water-surface) 
continued ebbing and flowing every 20 minutes during the ni^ht, and was most irregular 
for a week, ebbing further than ever known before. After that time it became more regular ; 
and now the ebb and flow is the same as before the earthquake; but since that, it does not 
come at high-water within 3 or 4 feet of its former height, proving that the whole south- 
em part of the northern island has been raised, the elevated portion commencing at 
Wangamer, on the west coast, and going round to Castle Point on the east, where it 
termmatee. The vertical elevation is greatest at the Bimatuka Range, outside Port Nichol- 
son, and becomes nil at the above-mentioned points. The shock was felt at Nelson 
almost as badly as at Wellington, slightly at Canterbury and Ahurii. It was most vioLmt 
on the sides of hills at those places, and least so in the centre of the alluvial plains. 

" 1^ great shock continued at any one point longer, the further it had diverged frt^m its 
apparent centre of action opposite Wellington, and became less violent, the motion being 
BU>wer and not to such an extent This I think plainly proves (if any thing were wanting to 
prove) Mr. Mallet's wave theory : any person of the sGghtest perception experiencing the 
shock and comparing the statements of persons who had felt it in different places could 
come to no other conclusion. I do not think the thermometer or barometer was affected ; 
I had no opportunity of observing myself; but so I heard ; nor was the compass acted on 
more <^an was due to the motion. 

" The captain of the vessel I went in to Ahurii was outside Port Nicholson, lying-to in a 
gale, and thought his vessel had struck, and was dragging over a reef of rocks ; the next 
morning he passed hundreds of dead fish all of one sort, a species of ling, whose habit it is 
to lie on the oottom. The shook was also felt by the * Josephine Willis,' 150 miles off the 
coast. I only regret, time and want of means prevented my making more accurate obser- 
vationB, and even giving you those I did make m greater d^baiL W. C. B." 

[The direction of primary shook mentioned by the writer is in the line of the mountain- 
chain, reaching from the interior down to Wemngton, and also in that pointing to Ton- 
guro and other volcanic cones. — ^KM.] 

No. m. 

BIBLXOaBAPHT OF EABTHQUAKEa 

At tlie period of publication of tlie Second Report on Earthquakes, it was 
my intention to have prepared a complete Bibliography of Earthquakes, the 
want of some such index having been much felt by myself, at former periods. 
Subsequently, however, I found that my friend. Professor Porrey, of Dijon, 
had had such a work in progress for some years ; and he has since publi^ed 
his Bibliographical Catalogues in the ' M^moires de I'Acad^mie Imp. de Dijon,' 
vols. xiv. and xv. 2nd ser., for 1865-56, which contained, in alphabetical 
order, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven different works on Seis- 
mology. Even yet, however, the store of literature in this speciality are not 
completely taken stock of. I have hence deemed it best simply to publish, 
in the foUowing lists, such works as I have found in the several European 
libraries named at the head of each separate list, along with one in which 
works, that from various sources have met my eye, are collected. The ma- 
terials thus given will be, I should hope, of some present service to scientific 

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ON THE FACTS AND THBOBT OF BABTHQUAKB PHBNOMBNA. 107 

trayellers abroad; and such portions as are now can be intercalated with 
future editions of more perfect catalogues, such as M. Perrey's. The following 
is the order of the library lists : — 

1. British Museum. 

2. Boyal Society of London. 

3. Trinity CoU^e, Dublin. 

4. Eoyal Library, Berlin. 

5. Naturforschenden Freundo of Berlin. 

6. Eoyal School of Mines, Berlin. 

7. Library of the University of (Jottingen. 

8. Royal Library of Munich, Bavaria. 

9. Eoyal Library of Dresden, Saxony. 

10. Library of Gand, Belgium. 

11. Library of the Mineralogical Museum, Naples. 

12. Works on Seismic and Volcanic Subjects from various sources. 

Library of the British Museum, 

Yerhail Tan do Groote Aertheninghe binnen Mantua in Lolio 1619. 4to. Antwerpen. 

No date. 
Aoooont of the late Earthqua][6 in Jamaica. 8to. London, 1693. 
Supplement to the Biahop of London's Letter on occasion of the late Earthquake. 8to. 

London, 1750. 
Serious TlK>ughtB on the Earthquake at Lisbon. 8yo. London, 1755. 
Befleotions, ^ysical and Moral, upon the uncommon Phenomena which have happened 

from the Earaiquake at Lima to the present time. Sto. London, 1756. 
A diort and pithie Discourse concerning the engendering, tokens, and effects of all Earth- 
quakes in generalL By T. T. 4to. London, 1580. (Black letter.) 
A most true relation of a very dreadfull Earthquake which began upon the 8 December, 

1612, and still continueth in Munster, in Ghrmanie. 4to. London, 1612. (Black letter.) 
Yera Belatione del Spayenteyole Terremoto nelle proyinde di Calabria dtra et ultra. 

4to. Boma, 1638. Also editions in Latin, Neap. 1638; Angl., London, 1638. 
Sopra il Terremoto Ledoni tre. 4to. Spoleto, 1732. 
Strange News from the North, containing a true and exact relation of a great Earthquake 

in Cumberland and Westmoreland. 4to. London, 1650. 
Belatione dell' horribile Terremoto scffuito nella cittA di Bagusa et altre della Dalmatia et 

Albania. 4to. Yen. 1667. Alter edit angl., 4to, London, 1667. 
Stranfle News from Italie ; being a true relation of a dreadfull Earthquake in Bomania 

ana the Marches of Anoona, April 14, 1672. Trans, from the Italian. 4to. London, 

1672. 
A relation of the terrible Earthquake at Weet Brummidge in Stafifordahire, January 4, 

167&-6. 4to. London, 1676. 
Strange News from Lcmster in Herefordshire ; being a true narration of the opening of 

the earth in divers places thereabouts. 4to. London, 1679. 
Strange News from G^ordshire ; bein^ a truo and faithful account of a wonderful and 

drradfiil Earthqudce that happened m those parts, September 17, 1683. Folio. 
A time and exact relation of tne Earthquake at Naples, June 5, 1688. Transl. from the 

Italian. 4to. London, 1688. 
A tarue and unpartial Account of the strange and wonderful Earthquake which happened 

in most parts of the City of London, 8 September, 1692. Folio. 
A Fhiloeophicid Discourse of Earthquakes, occasioned by the late Earthquake, September 

8, 1692. By C. H. 4to. London, 1692. 
A true and perfect relation of the Earthquake at Fort Boyal in Jamaica, 7 June, 1692. 

Folio. London. 
A full Account of the late dreadful Earthquake at Fort Boyal in Jamaica, June 22, 1692. 

In two letters frx)m the minister of that place. Folio. 
A sad and terrible relation of the dreadful Earthquake which happened at Jamaco [sic]. 

12mo. London, 1692. 
A Fractical Discourse on the late Earthquakes, with an Historical Account of Frodigiee 

and their various efEects. By a Beverend Divine. 4to. London, 1692. 
Epirtola ad Begiam Societatem Londlnensem, qua de nuperis tememotibus disseritur et 



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108 BBPOtit — 1858. 

rend 6oram caussD ernuntor. 4to. London, 1093. Presses to aoootint for eArthquAkes 
oociming on astrological grounds. 

An account of the late terrible Earthquake in Sidfy. Done from the Italian copy printed 
at Borne. 4to. London, 1693. 

The Earth twice shaken wonderfully; or an analogical Discourse of Earthquakes. By 
I. D. E. [Eouffional], French minister. 4to. London, 1693-94. 47 pages. 

The General History of Earthquakes. By R. B. 12mo. London, 1694. 

A full and dismal Account of an Earthquake that happened in Batavia, 28 February, 
1700. 12mo. London. 

A true and particular Eelation of the Earthquake which happened at Lima, the capital of 
Peru, the 28 October, 1746; with a description of Callao and Lima befote their 
destruction, and the Kingdom of Peru in general. 8to. London, 1748. (Erased in 
Catal.) 

Istoria ae' Fenomeni del Tremoto ayvenuto nelle Calabrie e nel Yaldemone nell' anno 
1783, porta in luce dalla Reale Accademia delle Scienze e delle Belle Lettere di Napoli. 
Fol. Nan. 1781. 

Dreadful IN ews, or a true Relation of the great, violent, and late Earthquake, which hap- 
pened the 27 March Stilo Romano last, at Callabria in the Kingdom of Naples. London, 
i638. Gives a Ust of 30 towns and cities overthrown, and 50,000 people killed. 

A full Account of the great and terrible Earthquake in Germany, Hungary, and Turkey, 
one of the greatest and most wonderful that ever was in the world. Tronslaled from 
the Dutch of Leopold Wettersheint de Hodensteen, by Richard Alcock. 4to. London. 
Date illegible. Refers to Cardan's opinions of earthquakes, in " De Subtilitate." 

A Narrative of the Earthquake and Fire of Lisbon. By Antonio Pereira, of the Congrega- 
tion of the Oratory, on Eire-witness thereof. Translated from the Latin. 8vo. London, 
1756. 

A true and exact Relation of the lato prodigious Earthquake and Eruption of Mount j^tno, 
or Mount GKbello, as it came in a Letter to bis late Majesty from Naples, by the Right 
Hon. Earle of Winchclsea, Ambassador at Constantinople. 4to. London, 1<>69. 

Dolorosa Tragoedia rcpresentota nel regno di Catania, &c. 4to. Catania;, 1095. 

Del Tememoto dialogo di Jaeomo Antonio Buoni, Medico Ferrarese. Distinto in quatbro 
ffiomote. 4to. Modcna, 1571. 59 pages. A digest in the usual fashion of all old know- 
ledge ; and a large catalogue, with approximate dates of earthquakes. This catalo^e is 
very copious and valuable. Ten signs of earthquakes enumerated. Catalogue continued 
to A.D. 1010. 

Del Terramoto Dialogo del Signor Lucio Maggio, Gentil huomo Bolognese. 4to. Bologna» 
1671. 

Bridges' Annals of Jamaica. (The great Jamaica Earthquake.) 

Some Considerations on the Causes of Earthquakes. By S. Hales, D.D., F.B.S. 8vo. 
London, 1750. 

William Stukoly, M.D., The Philosophy of Earthquakes. 8vo. London, 1750. With Part II. 

A Philosophical Discourse of Earthquakes, occasioned by the late Earthquake of 8 Sept. 
1692. By C. H. 4to. London, 1693. 

Vera relatione del Spaventevole Terraemoto succosso alii 27 di Marzo, su le 21 hore nelle 
Provincie di Calabria citra et ultra. 4to. Roma, 1638. 71 pagc^. 

Oratio in reoentem Terra motum QcrmanioB utriusquo terrorem, anno 1640, 4 Aprilis, 
post tertiam matutinam. A Ion Haleno Canonico. 4to. Col. A^^. 1640. 41 pages. 

Tmttato universale di tutti U Terremoti occorsi e noti nel mondo con li casi m&usti 
ed'infelici preesagili da tali Terremoti. 4to. Nell* Aquila, 1652. 146 pa^ 

A Catalogue of Earthquakes from the earliest Times of the Jews and Phyhstines down to 
that when the Emperor Henry IV. made war with Pope Pasquale II. (Vide date.) 
Few precise dates ^ven ; chiefly a mass of churchmen's superstition. 

Relatione del horribile Terremoto semiito nella citt4 di Ragiisa et altra della Dalmataa 
et Albania il giomo delli 6 Aprile, 1667. 4to. Venctia, 1667. Only a letter. 

M. Kircher, Mundus Subterraneus, Ub. 4. There is much information as to Earthquakes. 

Tremble Terre, oil sont contenus see causes, signes, cffets et remedes. Par Louys du Thoum, 
Docteur et Avocat, &c. k Bordeaux. 8vo. 1616. Discusses all the causes, kinds, signs, 
presages, and supernatural remedies of the Ancients. A learned book in its time and way. 

Del Terremoto Dialogo del Sig. Ludo Maggio di Bologna. 8vo. Bologna, 1624. Trans- 
lated into French, and published at Paris, 8 vols., 1675. 

Reflections, Physical and Moral, upon various uncommon Phenomena from the EartJi- 
quoke of Lima, &c. 8vo. London, 1756. 

Ragionamento del Dottor Signor Gaspare Paragallo, intomo alia cagione de* Tremuoti. 
4to. Napoli, 1689. 151 pages. 

pominici Bottom de immani Trinacriss Tememotu Idea historico-physica ; in qua non 



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ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 109 

eolmn ooncuflsioneB taranBacte reoenBentur, sed noTiwimsB anni 1717. .4to. Messanse, 1718. 
131 pa^. 

Lettera scientifica intomo alia oagione de' TerrsDmoti. Scrifcta dal Dottore GHrolamo GKuntini, 
all* Uluat Sig. Cayal. Giuseppe Bidolfi. 4to. Firenze, 1729. 40 pages. 

Practical Befleotdoiis on the late Earthquakes in Jamaica, England, SidUv, Malta, &c^ anno 
1692. Bj John Shower. 1693. (A Presbyterian minister.) 

A Form of Prayer ordered by the Queen and Privy Council (for the Earthquake noticed 
bv Spncer), 1 May, 1580. 

A short and pithie Discourse concerning the Engendring, Tokens, and Effects of all Earth- 
quakes in general ; particularly applied and conferred with that most strange and terrible 
Worke of the Lorid within the citie of London, &c., &c. 4to. London, ISS). — Catalogue 
of Books bequeathed to the Bodleian Library by Richard Gough, Oxford, 1814, p. 209. 

A Sermon occasioned by the late Earthquake in London. By Samuel DoolitUe. 4to. 
London, 1^02.— Bid. p. 210. 

The right Improvement of alarming Providences ; a Sermon preached at Cheshunt in 
Hortfordshiro, March 18th, 1749-^, on occasion of the two late Eaurthquakee. By John 
Mason, A.M. London, 1750. 

The Scripture Account of the Cause and Intention of Earthquakes ; in a Sermon preached 
at the Old Jewry, March 11, 1749-50, on occasion of the two shocks of an Earthquake, 
the first on February 8th, the other on March 8th. By Samuel Chandler. London, 1750. 

Bay's Physico-Theological Discourse of the Deluge (209 pages) ; and Dr. T. Bobinson's 
Ijetter to Bay, 22nd Sept 1692. Both relate to the great Jamaica Earthquake. 

A Discourse of Earthquakes, as they are supernatural and premonitory signs of a nation, 
by the author of the Fulfilling of the Scriptures. By Eobert Hemming. 8yo. London, 
1693. 

A Chronological and Historical Account of Earthquakes from the beginning of the Christian 
period to 1750, with an Appendix of those felt in England ; wit£ a Preface and Index. 
By a Gentleman of the Umversity of Cambridge. 8vo. Cambridge, 1750. 

A further Account, by the same Author, of the memorable Earthquake of 1756, Trith a 
Belation of that of Lisbon ; together with an Abstract of Father Gfor^*s Narratiye of the 
rise of a New Island in the Bay of Santorini, in the Archipelago, in 1707, and an 
Appendix, giving an Account of an Auto da F6 at Lisbon, by an jSye-witness. 8vo. 
Cambridge, 1756. 

The History and Philosophy of Earthquakes, from the remotest to the present Times, col- 
lected from the best wntcvs on the suqject, wit^ a particular Account of the Phenomena 
of the ereat one of Nov. 1, 1755, in various parts of the globe. By ft Member of the 
Boyal Academy of Berlin. With an Index. London, 1757. 

Observations on Three Earthquakes ; their Natural Causes, Kinds, and manifold Efieets 
and Presages : occasioned by the last which happened, the 8 of Sept. 1694, in the Kingdom 
of Naples in Italy. Bv I. D. E. (L de Eoufflonal), French Minister. 4to. London, 1694. 

A Belation of the dreadful Earthquake which happened at Lima and the neighbouring 

gort of Callao, on the 28th Oct. 1746 ; published at lima, and translated from the 
panish, with a description of those towns before their destruction, &o., &o. Also an 
Appendix, containing a full Account of the Earthquake at Port Koyal, Jamaioai in 
1692. In Two Letters, written by the Minister of the place. 8to. London, 1748. 

Library of the Boyal Society ^ London, 

Bylandt, B^um^ pr^liminaire de ronyrage snr la thtorie dee Yoloans. 8ya Naples, 1833. 
PhiUippus Beroaldus, De Terrtemotu et Pestilentia, cum annotamentis Qaleni 4to. 

Ai^torati, 1510. 
Noel Andr^, Th6orie de la Surface actuelle de la Terre (Earthquakes?). 8td. Paris, 1806. 

Library of Trinity College, Dublin^ 

Barth Keckermannus, De Magno Tememotu Sept 8, intra 2 et 3 noctis horam, 1601. 

4to. Heidelberg, 1602. 
From the Collection of Bound Pamphlets :— 

Medical Tracts. FF. n. 23. Several narratived. 

Tracts on Earthquakes. (lib. Fag.) H. 11. 26. 

Hottinger Analecta. Hebrew Earthquakes. BB. 11. 57. 

Pamphlets on Earthquakes. P. 11. 5o. Seyeral namitiyea^. 



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110 REPORT — 1858. 

Boyal Library at Berlin. 

Vulcane; Geologie; aUyemeine Schriftm, 

GDhom. Ittigius, Lucubrationes academicae de montium incendiis. 8vo. Lips. 1671. ^ 
Job. Henr. Mullerus, press, (resp. Jo. Leonh. Andre»), Piss, inaug. de montibus igniyomie 

sive Yulcaniis. 4to. Altdorfii, 1710. 
W. Hamiliton, Observations on mount Vesuvius, mount Etaa, and other Volcanos, in a 

series of letters addressed to the Boyal Society. New edition, c. 6 tabb. 8vo. London, 

1774. 
BeobachtungBn iiber den Yesuv, den Aetna u. andere Yulkane ; in Briefen an die B. 

Qrossb. Soc. d. Wiss. Aus dem Engl. c. mappa et 5 tabb. an. 8vo. Berlin, 1773. 
AdhBBc : — 

1. Ejusd. Neuere Beobachtungen iiber die Yulkane Italiens und am Bhein ; in 
Briefen nebst Bemerkungen des Abta Giraud Soulavie. Aus dem Franz, von 
G. A. B. (Bucker), mit ^merk. c. mappa. Frankf. und Leipzig, 1784. 

2. Ejusd. Campi Phlegrsi: Observations on the Yolcanos of the two Sicilies, as 
they have been communicated to the Boyal Society of London, in English and 
French, c. 54 tabb. aen. ooL Fol. Naples, 1776. 

3. !EJjusd. (Euvree complettes, comment^es par Giraud-Soulavie. 8vo. Pans, 1781. 

B. E. Basp6, Account of some German Yolcanos and their productions, with a new hypo- 
thesis 01 the prismatioal basaltes. c 2 tabb. sen. 8vo. London, 1776. 

Cosm. Oolllni, Betrachtungen iiber die vulkanischen Berge. A. d. Franz, iibersetzt, 

c tabb. een. 4to. Dresden, 1783. 
Faigas de Saint-Fond, Min^ralode des Yolcans. c. 3 tabb. sen. 8vo. Paris, 1784. 
Frz. von Beroldingen, Die YuUiane aelterer und neuerer Zeit, physikalisch und mine- 

ralonsch betrachtet Th. 1, 2. 1 vol. Mannh. 1791. 
Carl Wilhelm Nose, Beitrage zu den YorsteUungsarten iiber vulkanische Ckgenstande. 

8vo. Frank£ a. M. 1722. 
Adhsc: — 

1. Fijusd. Fortsetzunff der Beitrage, ib. 1793. 

2. „ Beschluss der Beitrage, ib. 1794. 

8. „ Beschreibung einer Sammlung von meist vulkanischen Fossilien die 
D^odat Dolomieu im Jahre 1791, von Maltha aus nach Augsburg und Berlin 
rersandte. Fol. Frankf. a. M. 1797. 
Le Prince Dimitri de Gallitzin, Lettre sur les Yolcans k ^ons. de Siimmermann. 8vo. 

Brunswick, 1797. 
0. N. Ordinaire, Histoire Naturelle des Yolcans, comprenant les Yolcans soumarins, oeux 
de boue et autres ph^nom^nes analogues, c. mappa. 8vo. Paris, an. x. 1802. 

C. Lippi, Fii il fuoco, o Facqua che sotterro Pompei od Eroolano: Scoperta fatta nel 1810. 
Pnma edizione italiana, c. 1 tab. 8yo. Napoli, 1816. 

A. T. Humboldt, Ueber den Bau und die Wirkimgsart der Yulcane in verschiedenen 

Erdstrichen. 8vo. Berlin, 1823. 
Sammlung von Arbeiten auslandischer Naturforscher iiber Feuerborge und verwandte 

Phiinomene. Deutsch bearbeitet von J. Nomerath und J. P. Pauls. Bd. 2. Elberfeld, 

1825, c 3 tabb. et tit:— T. T. Baffles, Die Vulkane auf Java; L. A. Necker, iiber den 

Monte Somma ; und C. Daubeny, iiber die Yulcane in der Auvergne. A. d. EngL und 

Franz, fibers, mit Anm. von J. Noggerath und J. P. Pauls, c 3 tabb. lith. 8vo. 

Elberfeld, 1825. 
Poulett Scrope, Considerations on Yolcanos. c. tabb. 8vo. London, 1825. 
W. H. 0. B. A. Ton Ungem-Stemberg, Werden und Seyn des vulkanischen Gebirges. 

a 8 tabb. 8vo. Carlaruhe, 1825. 
H. Abich, Yues illustratives de quelques Ph^nom^nes g^logiques, prises sur le Y^suve et 

TEtna pendant les ann^ 1833 et 1834. c 10 tabb. lith. FoL Paris et Strasbourg, 

1836. 
Geologische Beobachtungen iiber die vulkanischen Erscheinungen und Bildungen in 

Unter- u. Mittel-Italien. Band, i Lief, i., c 3 mapp. und 2 tabb. Uth. 4to. Braunschw. 

1841. 
A. de Bylandt-Palstercamp, Thtorie des Yolcans, torn. 1-3. 3 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1835. 
„ ,» „ Atlas. 17 tabb. Uth. 1 vol. fol. Paris, 1836. 

Walter, Ueber die Abnahme der yulkanischen Thatigkeit in historischen Zeiten Pro- 

gramm. Berlin, 1843. 
Aneebunden : — 
Andr. Schumann, Yersuch einer Theorie des Erdvulkanismus : Progr. 4to. 
Quedlmb. 1842. 
0. W. Bitter, Beechreibong m«rkwurdiger Yulkane* Neue Ausgabo ohno Eupfer. 8vo. 

Breelao, 1847. 



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ON THB PACTS AND THEORY OP EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. Ill 

Geologie; Vulcane {Deutschland). 

Ign. T. Born, Sendschreiben, uber einen ausgebrannten Yulkan be! Eger. 4to. Prag. 1773. 
Schreiben uber einar aosgebrannten Yulkan bey der Stadt Eger in Bohmen. 4to. 

Prag. 1773. 
Jo. StSnuiger, Die erloechenen Yulkane in der Eifel and am Niederrhein. c. 2 tabb. lith. 

8to. Mimiz. 1820. 
Neue Beitrage zur Qeechichte der rheinischen Yulkane. a 2 tabb. lith. Svo. Mains. 

1821. 
H. J. Tan der W^ok, Uebersicht der rbeiniachen und Eifeler erloachenen Yulkane, nnd 

der Erhebungs-Qebilde, welche damit in geognoetiBcfaer Yerbindung stehen* 8to. 

Bonn, 1826. 
Sam. Hibbert, Ejstoiy of the extinct Yolcanoe of the basin of Neuwied, on the Lower 

Bhine. o. 1 mapp. 7 tabb. et multis fifg. 8yo. Edinb. 1832. 
Carl Thomae, Der yulkamsohe Boderberg mi Bonn. Mit einem Yorworte ron J. Noggerath. 

c mi^pa et 3 tabb. lith. 8to. Bonn, 1835. 

(Frankreich,) 

'FauMB de Saint-Fond, Becherches sur lee Yolcans 6teintB du Yiyaraia et da Yelay. o. 20 

tabb. ien. Fol. Grenoble, 1778. 
SouloTie, Chronolone physique dee £ruptionB dee Yoloans 6teintB de la France mdridionale. 

c 5 tabb. 8vo. Pans, 1781. 
Lacoete, Obfiervations sur les Yolcans de TAuvergne. (201 pagg. et 196 pagg. notes.) 

8to. Clermond-Ferrand, an. xi 
G. Poulett Scrope, Memoir on the Geolo«;7 of Central France; indudii^the Yoloanio 

Formations of Auveivne, the Yelay, andthe Yiyarais. 4to. London, 18^. 
, Maps and Plates to the Memoir on the Geology and Yolcanio Formations of 

Central France. 19 tabb. an, 1 toI. fol. 
Am^dto Burat, Description des Terrains yolcaniquee de la Franoe Centrale. c. 10 tabb. lith. 

8fo. Paris, 1833. 

(liaUen,) 

Alb. Fortis, Delia YaUe Tukanioo-marina di Bonca nel territorio Yeronese. o. tabb. sen. 

4to. Yenezia, 1778. 
Sdpion Breislak, Essais min^ralogiqnee sur la Solfatare de Pozzoolo. Trad, du mscr. ital. 

par Fran9. de PommereuL 8vo. Naples, 1792. 
Antonio Bmifon, Compendio istorico degli inoendii del monte Yesuvio, fino all^ ultima 

eruzione accaduta nel meee di Giufno 1698. c. tab. 8to. Napoli, 1701. (Deest titulus.) 
Gasp. Paragallo, Istoria naturale del monte YesuYio. 4to. Napoli, 1705. 
Ignazio Sorrentino, Istoria del monte Yeeuvio. libb. 2, 4to. Napoli, 1734. 
]£stoire du mont Y^ure. Traduite de PitaHen de 1' Academic des Sciences de Naples, 

par Duperron de Castera. c. 2 tabb. sen. Svo. Paris, 1741. 
Gio. Mana della Torre, Storia e Fenomeni del Yeeuyio. c. 10 tabb. en. 4to. Napoli, 1755. 
, esposti dalla sua origine sino al 1767 : c Sup- 

plemento (39 pagg.). c 10 tabb. em. 4to. Napoli, 1768. 

, Histoire et Ph^nomdnes du Y^re. c. tabb. 8vo. Naples, 1771. 

, Gcschichte und Naturbegebenheiten des Yeeuvs von den aeltesten 

Zeiten bis zum Jahr 1779. A. d. Ital. von L***. c. 2 tabb. »n. 8vo. Altenburg, 1783. 

f Gabinetto Yesuviano. Ed. 3. 8vo. Napoli, 1797. 

(Ant Yetrani J, D Prodomo Yesuviano, in cui oltre al nome, origine, etc. del Yesuvio sen' esa- 

min6 tutti i sistemi de' filoeofi, etc. 8vo. Napoli, 1780. 
Mattia Yalenziani, Indice spiegato di tutti le produzioni del Yesuvio, della Solfatara, e 

d'Ischia. 4to. Napoli, 1783. 
Dissertazione della vera raccolta o sia museo di tutte le produzioni del monte Yessuvio. 

(12 pagg., sine titnlo.) 4to. 
(Jo. Nepom. Graf von Mittrowski), Phisikalisohe Briefe iiber den Yesur und die Gegend 

Ton NeapeL 8vo. Lei^zi^, 1785. 
Gins. Gioeni, Saggio di Litoloffia Yesuviana. 8vo. Napoli, 1791. 
, Yersnch einer lithologie des Yesuvs. A. d. ItaL von Leop. T. Fichtel. Svo. 

Wien, 1793. 
F. Monticelli e N. Corelli, Prodromo della Mineralogia Yesuviana. Oristognosia. Textus 

1 voL, 19 tabb. 1 vol. Napoli, 1825. 
Tbeodoro Monticelli e Nicola Corelli, Prodromo della Mineralogia Yesuviana, ToL 1, 

Oristopoeia. con 19 tavole. 4to. Napoli, 1843. 
John Amdio, Sketches of Yesuvius, with short Accounts of its Principal Eruptions, o, tabb. 

lith. coL Svo. Naples, 1832. 
— — , 4 e, tabb. lith. nigr. Svo. London, 1833. 



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112 REPORT — 1868. 

n Spettatore del Veeuvio o de* campi flegrei : Giomfde oompilato da F. Cassola o L. Pilla. 

Fasc. 1. nn. 1-3, Luglio a Deoembre 1832; faac. 2. nn. 1-2, Gennaro ad Aprile 1833. 

1 vol. 8vo. Napoli, 1832, 1833. 
Adh»o: — 

Bulletino G^logico del Vesuyio e de* campi flegrei. Compilato da L. Pilla, Nob. 1-2, 
la'H. 
Joan. Bapt. Masculus, De inccndio Vesuvii excitato xvii. Kal. Januar. anno 1631, cum 

Chronologia superionim incendiorum. c. 2 tabb. an. 4to. Napoli, 1(J33. 
Jul. Cas. Eecupitua, De Vesuviano Incendio nuntius. 4to. Neapoli, 1632, 

^ . 8vo. Neapoli, 1632, et denuo 1633. 

Copia eines Schreibens aufs Neapolis, darinnen bcrichtct werdcn etliche crscliWickliche 

Wunderzeitungen, welche sich in 1631 Jahre, mit einem brenncndon Bcr'^Q Vcsuyio 

genannt zugetragen. 4to. Neapoli, 1632. 
Erechreckliche Wunderzoichon und grosses Erdbebcn so sich anno 1631, nicht wcit von 

Neapolis bcgeben (2-folio). 4to. 
Die Feur eyferige Zom-Rutho Gottes auff dem brcnnonden Berg Vcsuvio in Campania. 

Beschrieben durch eincn Deutschen liebhaber der Nalurkiincligung und Gohcinmiss 

Gottes. 1633. 
Istoria delP incendio del Vesuvio accaduto nel mese di Maggio dell* ano 1737. Scritta 

per I'Academia delle Scienze. Ed. 2, c. 2 tabb. aen. 8vo. Napoli, 1740. 
Giovan. Jacopo Zannichelli, Considerazioni intomo ad una piogj^ia di terra caduta nel golfo 

di Venezia, e sopra I'incendio del Vesuvio. 4to. Venezia, 1737. 
GiuB. Mar. Mecatti, Racoonto stor. filos. del Vesuvio. o. tabb. ren. 4to. Napoli, 1752. 
(Andr. Pigonati), Descrizione delle ultimo eruzioni del monte Vesuvio da* 25 Marzo 1766, 

flno A, 10 Dioembre dell' anno medesimo. 8vo. Napoli, 1767. 
( ), Desoriz. dell ultima eruzione del monte Vesuvio de' 19 Octobro 1767. o. tabb. 

8vo. Napoli, 1768. 
(Ghietano de Bottis), Ragionamento istorico dcU' incendio del Vesuvio aocaduto nel mese 

di Ootobre 1767. o. 2 tabb. 8Pn. 4to. Napoli, 1768. 
( ), Ragionamento istorica dell' incendio del' monte Vesuvio che oominci6 nell* 

afio 1770, e d«3le varie eruzioni, che ha oagnionate. c. 4 tabb. an. 4to. Napoli, 1776. 
(Domen. Fata), Dcscriziono del grando incendio del Vesuvio suooeso nell' Agosto 1779. 

8vo. Napoh, 1779. 
Scrip. Breislake Ant Winspeare, Memoria sull' eruzione del Vesuvio, aocaduta U sera de* 

16 Giugno 171M. 8vo. Napoli, 1794. 
Ausfubrlicher Bericht von dem letzfcem Ausbruche dea Vesuvs, am 15 Jun. 1794; die 

Geschichte aller vorherg^gangenen Ausbruche und Betrachtungcn ubor die Ursachen der 

Erdbeben ; von M. A. D. O. Nebst e. Schreiben des Einsiedlers am Vesuv und 2 

Briefen des Duca della Torre. A. d. Ital. c. 2 tabb. 4to. Dresden, 1795. 
Job. Bapt Salvadori, Notizen iiber den Vesuv und dcssen Eruption, 22 Oct 1822. 

Verdeutflcht durch C. F. C. H. c. 3 tabb. lith, 4to. Neapcl, 182;i. 
Teodoro Monticelli, Memorie su le vicende del Vesuvio (1813-1823). (Mit lithogr. 

Tafdn.) 4to. NapoU, 1841. 
T. Monticelli e N. Corelli, Storia de' fenomeni del Vesuvio awenuti negU anni 1821, 1822 

et 182a c 4 tabb. Uth. 8vo. Napoli, 1823. 
Antonius Philotbeus de Homodeis Siculus, JEtna topo^phia incendiorumque Mtaworum 

Historia. Per Nic. Oddum Patavinum in lucem edita. 4to. Venetiis, 1591. 
(Omodei), Deecrittione del sito di Mongibello. Tradotto dal latino da L. 

Orlandini 4to. Palermo, 1611. 
Franc. Ferrara, Storia gcnerale dell' Etna, c 5 tabb. 8vo. Catania, 1793. 
Guis. Recunaro, Storia naturale e generalo dell' Etna. Opera postuma arrioohita da 

Agatino Kecupero. Tom. 1-2, c. tabb. 2 vols. 4to. Catania, 1815. 
Mario G^mmellaro, Memoria dell' eruzione dell' Etna awenuta nell' anno 1809. 2nd ed. 

c. 2 tabb. 8vo. Catania, 1820. 
J. F. Schouw, L'ultima eruzione dell' Etna, descritta in una lettera. c tab. 8vo. (Estratto 

dal giomale encicL, Nap. 1819.) 
Deodat de Dolomieu, Voyage aux lies de lipari, fait en 1781 ; ou notices sur lea Ilea 

.^Eloliennes, pour servir a I'histoire des volcans. 8vo. Paris, 1783. 

, . A. d. Franz, von Ludw. Chon. Lichtenberg. Syo. Leipsig, 1783. 

, M^moire sur lea Ues Ponces, et Catalogue raisoun6 des produits de I'Etna ; 

suivis de la Description de I'firuption do I'Etna, du mois de Juiliet 1787. c. 4 tabb. 

8vo. Paris, 1788. 
, Bemerkungen iiber die Ponza-Inseln, etc. A. d. Franz. Yoa Voigt 8va Leipaigi 

1789. 
Fred. Hoflhiann, Intomo al nuovo vulcano prcsso la cittA di Sciaoca, lettere al Duca di 

Serradifaloo. c. tab. 8vo. Palermo, 1831. 



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Carlo Gemmellaro, Belazione dei fenomeni del nuoTO Tulcano sorto dal mare fra Is ooeta 
di Sidlia e risola di Pantellaria nel xnese di Lu/rlio, 1831. o. 2 tabb. litib. 8yo. Catania, 
1831. ^^ 

Ast6Tl. 

T. S. Baffles, Die Vulkane auf Jara. 8yo. 1825. 

Ant. Henr. yon der Boon-Meech, Disp. geoL inaug. de inoendiis montium igni ardentiam 
insula Jay», eorumdemqoe lapidibus. c. 3 tabb. 8yo. Lugd. Batay. 1826. 

America. 

Al. de Humboldt, Obeeryations g^^osfciques et phyBiques sur les YolcanB du plateau de 
Quito. Trad, de Fallemand par L. Lalanne. (Extr. du tome IG des Amiales des Mines.) 
8yo. Paris, 1839. 

Erdbeben, 

ToL misoell. inscr. Yaria de terree motibus, i. ii 2 yols. 4to. 

Del terremoto dialogo di Jacomo Antonio Buoni medico Ferrareee ; distinto in quattro 

giomate. 4to. M^ena, 1571. 
Jonan Bascb, Von Erdbeben, etliche Tractiit bewiirter Scribenten. 4to. Miinchen, 1582. 
Alex. Achilles, Grundursachen der Erdbebung. 4to. Berlin, 1666, BD. 
Terra tremens : Bericht was Erdbeben seyen, etc. Zusamraengetragen yon M. P. S. A. 0« 

4to. Niimber^, 1760. 
Preyencion espiritual para los temblores de tierra del ano de 1701, Dialogo (sine tit). 4to. 
Bartol. Abbati, Epitome meteorologica de' tremoti. 4to. Boma, 1703. 
Vincenzo Teloni, De' terremoti. 4to. Viterbo, 1703. 
Diego de Torres Villarroel, Tratado de los tremblores y otros moyimientos de la tierra 

namados terremotos. 4to. Madrid, 1748. 
Franc Mariano Nipho, Explicacion physica y moral de las causas de los torremotos. 4to. 

Madrid, 1755. 
William Stukeley, The Philosophy of Earthquakes, Natural and BeUgious. 3rd ed. 3 

ports, London, 1756. 
Juan lAiis Boche, y Benito Oer. Feyioo, Nueyo systhema sobre la causa physica de los 

terremotos. 4to. Puerto de S. Mana, 1756. 
Benito Feijoo, El terremoto y su uso. 4to. Toledo, 1756. 

Ifugo de Barreda, Causa del terremoto Sermon historico-moral. 4to. Burgos, 1756. 
Miguel de San Joseph, Bespuesta a D. Jos. Zeyallos sobre yarios escritos sobre el terremoto. 

Ed. Damian de Espinosa de los Mouteros. 4to. Ghttnada, 1756. 
Fr. Francisco Xayier Gk>nzalc8, Beflexiones critico-thoologicas sobre la causa del terremuoto 

(de Lisboa). 4to. Sevilla, 1757. 
Jon. Gottlob Lehmann, Physicalische Gtedanckenyon denen Ursachen deror Erdbeben und 

deren Fortoflantzung. c. tabb. 8vo. Berlin, 1757. 
E. Bertrand, M^oires Historiques et physiques sur les tremblemens de tcrre. 8yo. La 

Haye, 1757. 
John Michell, Ck>igectures concerning the Cause, and Obseryations upon the Phenomena 

of Earthquakes, c. tab. sen. 4to. London, 1760. 
Gutierre Joaquin Vaca de Ghizman y Mauique, Dictamen sobre la utilidad o inutilidad de 

la excayadon del Pozo-Airou para evitar los terremotos. 4to. Qranada, 1779. 
Friedr. Vries, Von den Ursachen der Erdbeben. 8yo. Utrecht und Leipzig, 1820. 
, Von den Ursadien der Erdbeben und von den magnetischen Erscheinungen. 

Zwei Priaisschriften, c. tab. lith. 8yo. Leipzig, 1827. 
H. GHrard, Ueber Erdbeben und Vulkane. Kn Vortrag gehalten in wissensch. Verein. 

c. 1 tab. 8yo. Berlin, 1845. 
C. E. Ad. Hoff, Chronik der Erdbeben und Vulkan-Ausbriiche. Th. 1-2. 2 yols, 8yo. 

Qotha^ 1840-1841. 

Emzelne Erdbeben, nur chronohgisch geordnet. 

Wunderzeiohen eines erschrecklichen Erdbebens, geschehen 1571, bey Homburg. 4to. 

Prank, a. M. 1571. 
Is. Hedericus, Oratio de borribili tenrnmotu, qui recens Austriam ooncussit. 4to. Helmst» 

1591. 
Henr. Eokstormius, Historic term motuum complurium. 8yo. Helmst. 1620. 
Belacion del terremoto, sucedido 27 Marzo 1638, en Calabria. Traduzida de ital. poc 

Franc de Firmamante. 4to. Barcelona, 1638. 
Beladon del temblor, y terromoto que Dios fiie seryido de embiar k la Ciudad del Cigoo 

a dio do Marco de 1650. (4 pagg. sine tit) Fol. Madrid, 1651. 

1858. X 



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114 HBPOBT— 1858, 

Kurtie und wahrfaafile Relation yon dem eraohrecklichen Erdbeben, welohfie gich im 
. Neapel und benachbarten Orten, inaonderheit zu Benerent, den 5 Junii lG8d bogeben. 

S. L e. a. 4to. 
Gennaro Sportelli, Napoli flagellata da Die con rhombilisamo terremoto accaduto a* einquo 

di Giugno, 1688. Composta in verso sdrucciolo. 4to. Napoli, 1688. 
Nicol. Hopfl&ier, Das orschutterte und bebende Keiseen und Thiiringen, &o. 4to. Leipzig, 

1690. 
Jo. Paul Hebenstreit, De horrendo temo Siculo mota nuper esoiio. Bisp. reep. Phil. 

Geo. Luck. 4to. Jense, 1693. 
Lucantonia Ohracas, Baooonto istorico de' terramoti sendti in Eoma, etc. 4to. Boma, 1704. 
Alfonso Uria de Clanos, Belazione orrero itinerario fiitto per rioonosoere li danni causat^ 

dalli teiremoti, 1703, nella proyincia dell' Aquila. 4to. Roma, 1703. 
Antonio Mongitore, Palermo ammonito, penitente, e grato, nel formidabil terremoto del 

primo Settembre 1726. Narrazione istorica, &c. c. tab. 4to. Palermo, 1727. 
GioY. Ctentili, Osservazioni sopra i terremoti ultimamente aocaduti aLivomo. 4to. Firenze, 

1792. 
JBeseyan Felix Canrasco, Belazion de las ruinas cansadaA por los terremotos en Valencia, 

23 de Marzo, y 2 de Abril de 1748. (sine tit) 4to. 
Carta o diario que escribe D. Jos. Euseb. de Liano v Zapata a D.Jon. Chiriroea y Daga de 

Quito, en que le di cuenta de Lodo lo acaerido, deeole el 28 de Oct de 174o, hasta el 16 

de Feb. de 1747. 4to. Madrid, 1740. 
Beschreibung des Erdbebens, welcfaee die Hauptstadt Lissabon und yiele andere Stadte in 

Portugall und Spanien theils ganz umgeworfen, theila sehr beschadigt hat Mit Kup* 

fern. 4to. Stiick 1. Danzig, 1756. 
Juan Luis Boche, Beladon y obeeryaciones sobre el eeneral Terremoto del 1^ Noyb. de 

1755, que comprehendi6 & la ciudad, y gran Puerto de Sta. Maria, etc. 4to. Puerto de 

S. M., 1766. 
, Belaoion y obflenradoneB sobre el general Terr^noto nel 1755. 4to* Puerto de S. M*t 

1756. 
Gioy. yirenzio, Istoria e teoria de' tremuoti in generale ed in partioolare di quelli dalla 

Calabria, e di Messina de* 1783. 4to. c. 4 tabb. Napoli, 17^. 
Istoria de* fenomeni del tremoto ayyenuto nelle Calabrie, e nel Yaldemone nell' anno 1783. 

Text 1 yol., Tabb. 1 yoL fol. Napoli, 1784. 
Sohreiben des Bitters yon Hamilton an die K Soc der Wissensch. in London, in welcbem 

seine selbst anfestellten physischen Beobachtungen iiber das ibrdbeben in Calabrien und 

Sidlien mitgetneilt werden. A. d. Franz. 4to. Strasb. 1784. 
Adluec: — 
Hiatorische und geographische Beschreibung yon Messina und Calabrien, und me* 
teorologische Beol^htungen iiber das Eidbeben, 5 Homung 1783. o. mappa et 
tab. Strassb. 1783. 
D6odat de Dolomieu, Abhandlung iiber das Erdbeben in Calabrien im Jahfe 1783. A. d. 

Franz. 8yo. Leipzig, 1789. 
Sayerio Landolina-Naya, Belazione del casma accaduto in Marzo 1790, presso a S. Maria 

di Nisoemi nel Val di Noto in Sidlia. Pubblicata nel 1792. Terza eaiz. 8yo. Napoli 

1794. 
Gius. Sayerio Poll, Memoria sul tremuoto de' 26 Luglio dell' anno 1805. 8yo. c. 3 tabb, 

Napoli, 1806. 
Agostius Gallo, De' tremuoti ayyenuti in Sidlia in Febbrajo e Marzo 1823. (22 Seiten.) 8ya 

Palermo, 1823. 
Gust Schueler, Bericht an das f iirstl. Wallachische Ministerium iiber die Erdspaltungen 

und sonstigen Wirkungen des Erdbebens zum 11-23 Januar 1838. (Moldarice, Ger- 

manico et Gallico.) Fol. Boucarest, 1838. 
Jac. Noggerath, Das Erdbeben yom 29 Juli, 1846, in Bhoingebiot und den benachbarteu 

Landem. Mit einer Earte. 4to. Bonn, 1847. 
L. Pilla, Istoria del tremuoto che ha deyastato i paesi della costa toscana il di 14 Agosto, 

1846. 8yo. Pisa, 1846. 

Vulcane und Erdbeben noch nicht geordnet. 

Imm. Kant, Gesohichte und Naturbeschreibung der merkwiirdigsten Yorfalle des Erd- 
bebens, welches an dem Ende des 1755chen Jahres einen grossen Thoil der Erdo crschiit- 
tert hat 4to. Konigsbcrg, 1756. 

J. Steininger, Die erloschenen Vulcane in SiidfrankreiclL Mit Charte und 1 Tafel. 8yo, 
Mainz, 1823. 

Alexis Perrey, Instructions sur robserration des tremblements de ten«. D\jon, le 15 M«9 
1848. 4to. (12 Sdten.) Extr. do I'Annuair© M^t de Fr. 



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ON THB FACTS AND THEQRT OF BABTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 115 

J. Fournet Notes additJoneUfls anx BeoharoheB sur les tremblements de terro du baMin da 

!Rh6ne, de M. A. Ferrey. 4to. (24 Seiten.) Extr. d. Annates de Lyon. 
Alexis Perrey, M^moires snr lee tremblements de terre reseentis dans le bassin du Bhone. 

4to, (82 Siitsa and 1 TafeL) Extr. dee Annales do la Soc. d'Agna de Lyon. 
, dans le bassin du Danube. 4to. (82 Seiten.) Exir. des Annalee de la Boo, 

d'Amcult de Lyon. 
•7^— , Sor ]fi§ fstemhkmeaU de terre de la p^iuDaule Ib^rique. 4to. (54 Saten.) ExtB» 

dee Ann., &a 
~ — , Documents sur les tremblements de terre au Mexique et dans FAm^rique centrale. 

4to. (37 Seiten.) £pinaL Extr. des Annales d, 1. Soc. d'£mulation d. Vos^ 1848. 
, Sur les tremblements de terre de la p^ninsule Scandinaye. (Extr. des voyages de 

ia Oommiis. Scient da Nord an Scand.) 8to. Paris, 1845, (4to, 63 Seiten.) 
, Notice fur les tremblements de terre ressentis k Angers et dans le d^purtement de 

Maine-et-Loire (Extrait, &o,\ Svo. Angers, 1844, (4to, 7 Seiten.) 
-7 — , Doooments sur les tremolements de terre et lee miptions voloauiques dans le bassin 

de Toc^n aUantique. 8yo. Diion. (67 Seiten.) 
, Note sor las taremblements de terre ressentiB ea 1847, (Extr, des M^m. de P Aoad^mie 

de Dijon. 8to.) 4to. 48 Seiten. 
^,M^moire sur les tremblemeatsde terre de la p^ninsuleitalique. (If^moires oour. do 

TAcad. de Belgique, t 21.) 4to. 145 Seiten und 1 Taf. 
^ ^1 M^moires sor les trembl^amento de terre dans le bassin du Bhin. (lb, 1 19.) 4tOf 

117 Seiten und 2 Taf. 
. y M^moires sur les tremblements de terre ressenias en France, en Belgique^ et en Solr 

lande, &e. (lb, i. 18.) 4to. 110 Seiten und 2 TaC 
, Liste des tremblements de terre ressentis en Europe et dans les parties adjaoentes de 

J'Afriqae at de VJkOB, pendant rano^ 1843, (Eitr. dee Comptes ^iod, 1 1 Man, 1844.) 

4to. 11 Seiten. 
-»— ^ NoaTelles zeeberches sor les taremblemanis de tenre fessentis en Europe et dan^ lei 

parties adjaoentes de TAfrique et de TAse, de 1801 & Juin 1843. (Extr. dei Comptes 

Bend. 25 Sept. 1843.) 4to, 18 Seiten, 
^ Note sur les tremblements de terre en 1847. Qbbt, de U 15. dfi» Bulletine de TAead. 

Boy, de Belgique, 8to.) 4to. 15 Seiten. 
• ^1 Liste des tremblements de terre ressenias pendant les ann^ 1845 et 1846, (Extr.dei 

KteL de VAced, de Dijon. 8to.) 4to. 62 Seiten, 
, pendant Tann^ 1844. (Extr. des Mtoi. de TAcad. de Dijon. 8to.) 

4to. 9 8atm, 
YoL misc. inscr. Perrey, Tremblements de Terre. 5 pieces, 1843-1847. 4to. 
„ „ „ „ 13 pieces, 1844-184a 4to, 

Terras moiua, dk mit OrtsbesHmmung $Uhm Uebtr vmier dem Orte, 

Ain erschrockenliche Newe Ze^ttung, so aescbehen ist d. 12 Juni 1542, in Sobgarbaria. J>a 

haben sich grausamer Erdtbidem erhobt s. L 4to. 
Yfitdadeta rebcion dd espantable terremoto sucedido & los 27 de Marso de 1638 en la 

prorincia de Calabria. Impressa en Boma, y traduzida de Italiano en Castellano, por 

Francisco de Firmamante. 4to. Biurcelona, 1638. 
Beladon de las ruinas y extragos causados por los terremotos que se sinti^ron en yarias 

partes del Beyno de Valencia, Yid. Stephan. Felix Carasco, 
Prevendon espiritual para los temblores oc tierra, y otros acddentes repentinos, que con 

ocasion del terremoto del ano de 1701, se imprimid en la Ciudad de Granada, y on este 

presente ano de 1755 se ha ruelto & r^imprimir, dialogo entre el Doctor y Idiota. s. L 

4to. 1755. 
Histoire des txex^Uemens de terre arriy&i k Lima. Yid. Peru, 
Belacion del temblor, y terromoto, del Cuico. Yid. Peru. 
'Wundeneicben eines erscbrecTtlichen seltzamen Erdbidems, gescheben diss 1571 Jars, !m 

Homung, bey Homburg auff der Ohm, im Landt zu Hessen, unnd durch L. M. 

Pfiurhcnn daselbst gantz fldssig beschrieben. 4to. Franckft. a. M. 1571. 
Terra t3*emens: einfaltig, doch kLir, und deutlicher Bericht was Erdboben seyen? woher 

sie kommen ? etc. 4to. Niimb. 1670. 
Beschreibung dee Erdbebens, welches die Stadt Lissabon, 1755, heimgesucht. St 1. 4to. 

Danzig, 1756. B.D.2139. 
Heue ui^ ausfiihrt Nacbricht vcm den^i leither und besonders seit d. 5 Febr. d. PfL in 

Messina u. CalibrieQ sich ereignoten sohrecklichen Erdbeben. SyOf Berlin, 1763. 

B,J}. 1369, 

i2 

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116 REPORT — 1858, 

Books on EartkqtiaJces in the Library Catalogue of the ^* Natwrfureherenden 
Freande*^ in Berlin, 

Beschrdbung des Erdbebens, welches die HauptBtadt Lbsabon theils umgeworfen, theOs 
beschadigt hat. Danzig, 1756. 
On Volcano^ : — 
Mortesagne, Briefe uber den erloschenen Vulkane Ton Vivarais u. Belay. 8vo. Hamb. 1791, 
Wiedeburg, J. C. W., Ueber die Erdbeben und den allgemeinen NebeL 8yo. Jena, 1784. 

lAhrary of ihe School of Mines, Berlin, 

Yinoentius AbariuB Crucius CbnniuB, YesuyiuB ardens, sire exerdtatio medioo-physica ad 

*Ptyoirvp€Tovy id est, motum et inoendium Yesuyii montis in Campania, 16 mensiB De- 

oembris, ann. 1631. libria II. oomprehonsa. 4to. Eom», 1632. 
Teodoro Monticelli, Memorie su le Ticende del Yesuyio (1813-1823). com tiibb. lithogr. 

4to. NapoU, 1841. 
e N. Corelli, Storia de Fenomeni del Yesuyio avyenuti negli anni 1821, 1822, e 1823. 

o. 4 tabb. Hthogr. 8to. Napoli, 1823. 
Sdpion Breielak, Essais min^ralogiques sor la Solfatare de Pozzuole. Trad, da mscr. ital. 

par Fran^. de Pommereul. 8to. Naples, 1792. 
Humboldt, Ueber den Bau und die ^Yirkungsart der Yulcane in den TerBohiedenen 

Erdstrichen. 8vo. Berlin, 1823. 
Sfunmlung von Arbeiten auslandischer Naturforscher iiber Feuerberge und yerwandte 
^ Phanomene. Deutaeh bearbeitet yon J. Noggerath u. J. P. Pauls. Bd. I. & 11. 8yo. 

Elberfeld, 1825. 
A. yon Ungem Sternberg, Werden und Sejn der yulkanischen GMnrges. c. 8 tabb. 8yo. 

Carlsruhe, 1825. 
A. de Bylandt Palstercamp, CTh^rie des Yolcans. tt 1-3, et Adas. 8yo. & foL Paris; 

1835-36. 
C. W. Bitter, Beschreibung merkwiirdiger Yulcane : ein Beitrag zur Physik. Geschichte der 

Erde. Neue Ausgabe. 8vo. Breslau, 1847. 
O.E. A. Hoff, Chronik der Erdbeben und Vulkan-Ausbruche. Th. 1-4. 8vo. Gk)tha, 1840. 
Kurtze und'wahrhafite Belation, Yon dem erschrecklichen Erdbeben, welches sich zu Neapet 

und benachbarten Orten, insonderheit zu Beneyent den 5 Juni 1688 begeben, s. 1. e. a. 

4to. • 
J. Nog^erath, Das Erdbeben yom 29 Juli, 1846, im Bheingebiet und den benachbarten 

Landem. Mit dner Karte. 4to. Bonn, 1847. 
L. Pilla, Istoria del tremuoto che ha deyastato i paeei della <x>8ta toscana il dl 14 Agosto 

1826. 8vo. Pisa, 1846. 
J. Boegner, Das Erdbeben und seine Erscheinungen. Mit einer Eiurte yom Yorbereitungs- 

bezirk des Erdbebens yom 29 JuH 1846. 8vo. Frankf. a. M. 1847. 
A^^ V. Humboldt, Observations g^oenostiques et physiques sur les volcans du plateau de 

Quito. Ihraduit de I'allem. par IJ. Lakume. Svo. Paris, 1839. 
T. S. Baffles, Die Yulkane auf Java. 8yo. 1825. 
J. Steininger, Die erloschenen Yulkane in Siidfrankreioh. Mit 1 Karte u. 1 Tafel. 8yo. 

Mainz, 1823. 
C. Thomae, Der vulkanische Boderberg bei Bonn. Mit einem Yorworte von Noggerath. 

8yo. Bonn, 1835. 
H. Abich, Yues illustratives de quelques ph^nom^nes g^ologiques prises sur le Y^suve et 

I'Etna pendant lee ann^ 1833 et 1834. o. 10 tabb. Uth. Fol. Paris et Strasbourg, 

1836. 
J. S. G. Dinkier, Abhandlung yon denen natiirlichen Ursachen derer Erdbeben. Frankf. 

a. M. 1756. 
0. V. K. (Korber), Die Erdbeben : pnopulare Analyse und Darstellung ihrer physikalisch- 

geologischen Ursachen. Mit 1 Zeichnung. 8vo. Wien, 1844. 
Domen. Tata, Descrizione del grande inoendio del Yesuvio succeso nel Agosto 1779. 8yo. 

Napoli, 1779. 
C. Gemmellaro, Bclazione dei fenomeni del nuovo vulcano sorto dal mare fra la ooeta di 

Sicilia e Tisola di Pantellaria nel meee di Luglio 1831. c. 2 tabb. lith. 8yo. Catania, 

1831. 
3", Michell, Conjectures concerning the Cause, and Observations upon the Ph»nomena of 

Earthquakes, c. tab. »n. 4to. London, 1760. 
F. Kries, Yon den Ursachen der Erdbeben. Preisschrift Heraui^. von der Sooietat der 

Kiinste und Wissenteh. f. d. Provinz Utrecht. 8vo. Utrecht & feipz. 1820. 
H. CHrard, Ueber Erdbeben und Yulkane : ein Yortrag gehalten im wissensoh. Yerein. 

c. 1 tab. 8yo. Berlin, 1845. 



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ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 117 

J. Eant, Q«schichte und Naturbeschreibung der merkwiirdigsten Vorf alien dee Erdbebens, 
welcbee an dem £nde des 17558te8 Jahreis einen grossen Theil der £rde enchuttert bat. 
4to. Konigsberg, 1756. 

Sdureiben d^ Sitter Ton Hamilton an die Konigl. Societat der Wissenacbaften zu London, 
in welohem seine selbet angeetellten pbyaiscben Beobacbtungen iiber das Erdbeben in 
Oalabrien und Sicilien mit^theilt werden. A d. Franc. 4to. Strasb. 1784. 

fi. E. Baspe, Account of some German Yolcanos and their Productions, with a new 
hypothesis of the Prismatical Basaltee. c. 2 tabb. an. 8yo. London, 1776. 

Books on Earthquakes and Vuleanology in the Gfottingen University Lihrary. 

Oposculum Philippi Beroaldi de Terrsemotu et Pestilentii, cum annotamentis Qaleni 

(68 pp. Little more than the opinions of Aristotle.) 
Das enchiitterte imd bebende Meissen und Thiiringcai, oder eine Beschreibung des am 

24 NoTomber, annoch seynden 1690 Jahres, in Meissen und Thiiringen entstandenen 

Erdbebens, u^w. dargestellt. Yon Nicolas Hopp&em, Pfarrem zu Draschwitz, in Stifift 

Naumburg. Leipzig, 1691 (62 pp. Contains accounts of several celebrated Earth- 

quakesV 
Domenici Bottari, De immani Trinacnss terramotu, idea historico-physica. Messanw, 

1718 (131 pp. Mainly occupied by the opinions of the ancient philosophers, Aristotle, &c.) 
P. M. Sfdyatoris Buffi, Panormitani, e tertio ordine S. Francisd, De horrendo terrsemotu 

qui contigit Panormi nocte post Kalend. Sept. 1726, tractatus historicus, &c. lipsisD, 

1727 (34 pp. A German tranidation of this memoir is bound up along with it). 
Gionude e notizie de' tremuoti accaduti nella proTincia di Catanzaro, di D. ^drea de 

Leone, regio uditore di quel tribunale. Napoli, 1783 (67 pp. Merely an account of 

this particular earthquake). 
Bespuesta a la carta dd H^ y 'Bff^ Sefior D. Fray Miguel de San Josef, obispo de Gxiadia^ 

LBaza, del Consejo de S. Mag., sobre yarios escritos a cerca del Terremoto, par el Doct 
. Josef Oevallos, &o, Seyilla, 1757 (96 pp. Principally occupied by moral reflections 
deriyed from ear^quakes, especially the great one of Lisbon). 

Memoria sopra i b^muoti di Miessina accaduti nell' anno 1783. Messina, 1784 (66 pp.). 

Naohrichten Ton den !&dbeben Sud-ItaUens in den letzten Jahren, Sendschreiben an den 
Herm K. W. G. Kiisfcner von Dr. Albrecht von Schonbere. Niimberg 1828 (23 pp. 
An extract from Kastner's Arohiv fur die gesammte Naturlehre). 

Phjsicalische Gedancken von denen Ursachen derer Erdbeben, u. s. w. von D. Johann 
Gottlob Lehmann. Berlin, 1757 (55 pp). 

Des demidree Revolutions du Globe, ou coiyectures physiques sur les causes de la degrada- 
tion actuelle des tremblements de terre, et sur la vraisemblance de leur cessation 
prochaine. Par M. L. Castilhon, 1771 (269 pp. An attempt, and apparently a very 
weak one, to show from various reasons, historical and physical, that earthquakes were 
gradually decreasing in number and violence, and would probably ultimately cease 
altogether). 

Dei Terremoti di Bologna: opusoola di D. Michele AugustL Bologna, 1780 (181 pp. An 
examination of the oonnexK)n between "Terremoti" and "Aeremoti" or meteorological 
phenomena)* 

Le Mdchanisme dee Cieux, et erolication de la Nature des Tremblemens de terre. ParM. 
Val, Math6maticien. Rotterim et la Haye, 1756 (67 pp.). 

Ueber die Erdbeben und den allgemeinen Nebel, 1783. von Johann Ernst Basihus 
Wiedeburg. Jena, 1784 (86 pp.). 

. Bogionamento del terremoto del Nuovo Monte, del aprimento di terra in Pozuolo neU' 
anno 1638. Per Piero GKacomo da Toledo. Napoli, 1539 (28 pp. Chiefly in the 
form of a dialogue, with an odd old woodcut of the eruption in which Monte Nuovo 
was produced). 

Ddl* incendio di Pozuolo. Marco Antonio dei Falconi, all* illustrissima Marchesa della 
Padula. 1538 (41 pp. With the same woodcut as the last). 

Werden und Seyn dee vulcanischen GeMrges. Empirisch dargestellt von W. H. C. R. A. 
vontrncem-Stemberg. Mit 8 Abbildungen. Carlsruhe, 1825 (320pp. Chiefly mino- 
ralogicsl and geoWi(»l). tt -j lu • 

Caiolus CsBsar de Leonhard, Historia antiqua vulcanorum montium. Heidelberg, 
1823 (14 pp. A short and unimportant umversity thesis, referring only to the ancient 
classical authors). ox j ■» 

Sohreiben des Herm Ignatz v. Bom, uber einen ausgebrannten Vulkan bei der Stadt Eger 
InBohmen. Prag. 1773 (16 pp. Not important). , 

Considerations sur les montagnes volcaniques : m^moire lu dans une stance de r Acad6mie 
fiectonvte des Sciences etSelles Letfcres de Mannheim, le 6 Novembre, 1781. Par M. 
Collim. Mannheun, 1781 (59 pp.). 



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118 BBPORT— 1858. 

Van der Wyck, Ueberrioht der ^lemiachen imd Eisaler erloschenen Yulkane tmd der 

Erhebungs-G^bilde. Mannheim, 1826 and 1836 (2 edite. 174 pp. Apparently a very 

good account of the extinct volcanoes of the district of the Bhme, between Cobiens and 

Bonn). 
Hifltorr of the extinct Yoloanoes of the Basin of Neuwied on the Lower Rhine. By Samuel 

Hibbert, M.D., F.It.S. Ed. Edinburgh, 1832 (260 pp., with maps and plates). 
Baspe, BeHarag lur alleraltesten und naturlichen Historie Ton Hessen, u. s. w. Cassd, 

1774 (76 pp. On ibe extinct volcanoes of the neighbourhood of OtMeL), 
Baspe, An account, &c. (A translation of the last-mentioned. 136 pp.). 
fai:ga8 de St-Eond, Min^ralogie des voloans. Fans, 1784 (511 pp.)* 
Ducarla, Du feu souterrain. Paris, 1783 (64 pp.). 
3ok» Stsininger, Die eriotoheoea Yulkane in der S^d und am Nieder-rheine. Mains. 

1820 (180pp.). 

•'— , HCeoB Bdtriige zur Qesohiohte der rheiniscfaen Yulkane. Mains. 1821 ( 1 16 pp.). 

Die Yulkane alterer und neuerer Zeiten, physioalisoh imd mineralogisch betraohtet von 

Franz t. Beroldingen^ 2 Th. Mannheim, 1791 (293 and 406 pp. Apparently a good 

r^sum^ of what hM. been preriously written on the subject). 
Karl Wilhelm Nose, Beitrage zu den Vorstellungsarten iiber vulkanische Q^genstiinde. 

Frankfurt am Mayn, 1792 (467 ppO- 

— ^- — , Forteetaung aer Beitrage, n. s. w. Frankfort am Mayn, 1793 (228 pp.). 

*'*^— , Sammlung einiger Schriflen uber vulkanisohe Gegenstande una den 

Basalt. Frankfurt am Mayn, 1793 (344 pp.). 

C. N. Ordinaire, Histoire Naturelle des Yohmns, oomprenant lee volcans soumarins, oeux 
de boue, et autres phdnomdnes analogues. Paris^ 1802 (842 pp. The subject discussed 
geolog^oally). 

Besides many other books, both on earthquakes and volcanoes, the names of wfakh have 
already besn obtained olsewhere. 

Eoyal Library, Mufddk, 

Qnndinger (A.), Theorie der Yolkan. 8vo* Wien, 1840. 

Kries (F), Over de Oorsaken der Aardberingen. 8vo. Tltreoht, 1820. 

Krii^er (T. G^X Oedanken iiber d. XTrsaohen d. Erdbebens. 8vo. Halle, 1766. 

Gruithuisen (Fr. v. P.), Gedanken iiber die Ursachen der Brdbeben. 1825. 

Qumpreoht (T. E.), Die vulkanisohe Thiitigkeit auf d. Festlande von Africa. Berlin^ 1849. 

Royal Library, Dresden. 

Oommentatiunoula de Terrdnnotu, pronundata a Mariano Weindriohio Professure Phyrfces 

in Qymnasio YratisL YratiBlavi», 1691. 
Disserfcasione soiva le fisiohe e vere cause de* terremoti« del Bg. d& Sootti di Oassano. 

Praca,1788. 

D. Johann Oottlob ErGgers, G«danken von den Ursaohen des Erdbebens^ nebsi sine 
moralisohe Betrachtunf . Halle und Helmstadt, 1766. 

A French Translation of Hales's Considerations on the Physical Cause of Ihrthmiakes. 
Paris, 1751. 

Historisches kritisches Yerzeiohniss alter und neuer Schriftstelkr von dem flrdbebeil. Yon 
M. 0. 0. a. Sdmeeberg, 1766. Small^ and wrath getting, if possible, for the Cata- 
logue of Authors. 

Ohrutlicher grundlicher XTndersioht von den Erdbeben. Yon Jdbasm B ur gower der Aris- 
neyen Doctoren su Sohaffhausen. Qedmokt eu Zurich, 1667^ 

Kurse Besdurdbung des Erdbebens, weldies den 6ten Febmaif 1783, Meesma und einen 
Theil Calabriens betroffen. Aus dem Italienisohen des Herm Michael Toron. Niim- 
berg, 1783. 

Die l^revolutionen, oder Beschreibungmid S^klarung des in Spanien am 21 Min 1829, 
ansgebrochenen groesen Erdbebens. Yon B. A. E. W(eyrioh). Leipsig, 1890. 

Betraditung uber die Ursachen der Erdbeben, 1766. 

Conjectures phyaico-mdcani^ues but la propagation des secousses dans les tremUements 
de terre, et but la disposition des lieux am en ont ressenti les effets. (Probably PariiQ 
1766. — ^Yery remarkable. He speaks of chains of mountains as long levers communi- 
cating the volcanic force applied at one end to the other, the principal effect beingfelt at 
that other, as, when a long row of balls is struck at one end, the last one moves. He sa^ 
also that those forces are not so much felt in the extremities of branch diains, because 
these are composed of more sandy materials, which do not tnmsmit the sboc^ so weU. 
There is also much more about the action of sabterranean bodies of w»ter,&o. The book 
is small, 62 pages. 



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ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF BABTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 119 

Lettre d*an eocl4«iastiquo de Paris k un ourS de proTinoe, ear lee demiers tremblementf 

de tenre. Paris, 1756. 
Lenoni tre Bop» il tremuoto, &c. (No name.) Roma, 1748. 
Uuglucks-Chronica vieler grausamer und erschrecklicher Erdbeben Hamburg. Q^druckt 

bei Thomas ron Wiering, im guldenen A B C, bei der Borse, 1092. 
Also maaj Abhandlongen seen in other libraries. 

ITie Library at Oand, Belcfiwn, 

ffifitoire des anciennes r^yolutions du globe terrestire, aveo un relation ohronologique et 

historique des tremblements de terre arriv^ sur notre globe depuis le (xmmienoement 

de I'to Chr^ennejusqu'^ present 1 yol. 8to. Amsterdam, 1780. 
Dainetus Sennertus, Curator Layiniensis, Epitome Naturalis Sdentias. Amsterdam, Jno» 

Rayerstem, 1651. Terrwmotus in part. 1 yol. 12mo. 
Antonii Ghdatei Lioiensis, &c. Elementorum. Basiliss, per P. Pemam, 1580. Tememotus 

in part 12mo. 
Memoria sull* eruzione del Vesuyio, aocaduta la sera de* 15 GKugno 1794. Di Sdpiona 

Breislak. 1 vol. 8yo. Napoli, 1794. 
Journal historique, g6ographique, et physique de toutes les tremblements de la terre nni<* 

yerseUe, de 1755 jusqu'li 1756. Par M. , de TAcad^ie des Sdanoes et Belles 

Lettres. 8yo, pamphlet, sans nom. 1756. 
X>e Vesuyiano inoendio nuntius, auctore Julio Ceesare Beoupito, Neapolitano. 8yo* Loyani^ 

1639. Terromotus. 

The whole that occur in the Oatalogue JtaisonnS of Uie Library of ihe 
Royal Mineralogical Museum, Naples, 

[Noie.^Tbere is no classed Catalogue of the Bo^ral labrarj at the Musao Borbonioo^ 
and it was found impossible to procure any list of the Earthquake works it maj possess.] 

Giuseppe di Ste£uio, Bagionamento intomo le cagioni del tremuoto. 8yo. Nap. 1783. 

, Bdazione del tremuoto del di 29 Novembre 1732, ayyenuto nel regno dlNapoU. 8yo. 

, accaduto in Napoli, U di 5 Giugno 1688. 4to. Napoli, 1688. 

, del danno cagionato dal tremuoto del di 7 Giugno 1695, nella cittA di Bagnora, 

Onseto, e luoghi yioino Eoma e Napoli 4to. 
Andrea de Leone, Giomale e notizie dei tremuoti aocaduti I'anno 1783. Parte la e 2da. 

Nap. 1783. 
Alberto Nota, Del tremuoto ayyenuto nella proyinoia di S. Bemo. Pinerolo, 1832. 
Leopoldo Pilla, Istoria del tremuoto che ha deyastato la oosta toscana il di 14 Agoeto 

18^. Fig. 8yo. Pisa, 1846. 
Baldassarre Swnpinato, Osseryazioni su i tremuoti. 4to. Catania, 1818. 
Loao d'Qrsi, Deamzione dei tremuoti e delle royine di Calabria. 4to. Nap. 1639. 
Andrea Lombardi, Cenno sul tremuoto ayyenuto in Tito, il 1 Febb. 1828. Fotenza, 1829. 
Gotterdo Zenoni, Memorie storico-fisiche sul terremoto. 8yo. Cremona, 1783. 

y Lezioni sopra il tremuoto. 4to. Boma, 1748. 

^nazio de Partenione, Descrizione del terribile terrem. del 8 Febb. 1783. 4to. Nap. 1784. 
Fivnc. Antonio Grimaldi, Descnz. dei tremuoti aocaduti nelle Calabrie nel 178o. Fig. 

8yo. Nap. 1784. 
Gi^niele Pape, Bagguaglio istorico-fiaioo del tremuoto acoaduto nel regna di Napoli il 26 

Lugliol806. SyoTNapoli, 1808. 
Giuseppe Sayerio Poli, Sid tremuoto del 26 Luglio 1805. 8yo. Nap. 1805. 
Tommaao M<myipiri, Aooenti lagrimeyoli sulle royine di Bostano pel tremuoto della notte 

del 24 Aprile 1836. 8yo. Nap. 1836. 
Midiele Augusti, Dei terremoti di Messina e di Calabria dell' anno 1783. 8yo. Bologna^ 

1783. 
Deod. Dolomieu, Memoria sopra i terremuoti deUa Calabria dell' anno 1783. 12mob 

Napoli, 1785. 
Nioola Zupo, Biflessioni sulle cagioni fisiche dei terrem. aocaduti nelle Calabrie nell* anno 

1783. 12mo. Nap. 1784. 
Procopio €k>linii, L^ttera su i tremuoti di Messina o Calabria del 1783. 12mo. 
Bartolommeo Gondolfi, Sulle cagioni del tremuoto. 12mo. Boma, 1787. 
Francesco Ferraro, Memoria sopra i terremuoti della Sidlia. Fig. 8yo. Palermo, 1823. 
Gioyanni Bottari, Lezioni tre sul tavmuoto. 12mo. Boma, 1733. 
'William Hamilton, Behition des demiers trembL de terre arriy^ en Calabre et en Sicile. 

12mo. Gendye, 1784. 
^Laanot Chracas, Pescrizio dei tremuoti sentiti in Boma» la sera del 14 Gen. e 2 VebU 

ItOd. 4to. Boma, 1704. 



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120 BBPORlv-1858. 

From various Collections and Sources* 

In the Leipsic Book Catalogue for 1844, 2nd part, page 65, a book entitled **Die 

Erdbebene, von v. Korber." 
Description of a Scishiograph or instrument for noting small earthquake shocks (Memoires 

Historiques de TAcademie Royale de Turin) quotes TAbW Caralli, Lettres but U 

M^t^rologie (Rome, 1785), Lettre VI. ; and a periodical called ' Antologia,' nos. ivi 

& xvii., Kome, 1G85. 
Explication physique et chimique dee feus souterrains, dee tremblementa de tcrre, dea 

ouragans, des Eclairs, et du tonnerre. — M. Lemery, in the * Histoire et M6moires de 

TAcad^mie Royale des Sciences,' Memoires pour 1700, p. 101. 
Nota (Alb.), del tremuoto awenuto nella citta e provinda di S. Remo I'anno 1831. 1 

broch. in 8vo, PigneroUe, 1832. (Extracted from the Catalogue of the library of the 
. Boyal Academy of Belgium.) 

Ragor, Von dem Erdbibem, ein grundlicher Bericht, u. s. w. Basel, 1578. 
Bemherz, TerrsmotuB ; das ist griindlicher Bericht yon dem Erdbeben, u. s. w. Kumberg, 

1616. 
Ferrara, Deacrizione dell' JEtna. 
Agatio di Somma, Historioo raoconto dei terremoti della Calabria dell' anno 1638, fin 

anno 1641. Napoli, 1641. 
!PVanc. Ferrara, Campi Flegrei della Sidlia, &c. Messina, 1810. 
Beuther, Compendium Tenwmotuum. Strassburg, 1601. 
Physicalische Betrachtungen von dem Erdbeben, besonders zu Lissabon. Frankfort und 

jjeipzic, 1756. 
Bertrand, Memoires historiquea et physiquee sur les tremblements de terre. A la Haye, 

1757. 
Della Torre, Istoria e fenomeni del Vesuvio. Napoli, 1755. 
Athans Kircher, Mundus subterraneus. 
A Chronological Account of the most memorable Earthquakes from the beginning of the 

Christian period to the year 1750. Cambridge, 1750. 
A. J. Buxtorf, Frediet bei Gtelegenheit des Erdbebens zu Lissabon* Basel, 1755. 
Michele del Bono, Discorso sul I'origine do' tremuoti. Palermo, 1745. 
Lyoosthenes, Prodigiorum ao oetentorum Chronioon. 
Frytschius, Catalogus prodigiorum ac ostentorum. 
ffistoiro des anciennes revolutions du globe terreetre. Amsterdam, 1752. 
Toaldo, Essai m^t^orologique, has a small Catalogue of Earth<^uakee at p. 270. 
Ji Memoir upon Earthquakes in Russia, by M. Philadelphine, Professor of Physica at 
' Tiflis. 
Istoria del tremuoto che da devastate i paesi della ooeta toecana il di 14 Agoeto 1846. Di 

L. PiUa. In 8vo of 226 pages. Pisa, 1846. 
Rapport de Vaseali-Eandi sur les tremblemens de terre du 2 Avril 1808. (Quoted in 
* Perrey's memoir on the Earthquakes of the Basin of the Danube, p. 6.) 
Terra tremens, die zittemd oder bebende Erde. Einfaltig dooh klar und deutlioher Bericht, 

was Erdbeben seven, u. s. w., von M. P. S. A. C. Niimberg, 1670. 
Castelli, Incendio del monte Vesuvio, &c Roma, 1632. 
Sarti, Sa^o di congctture su i terremoti. 
Magnati, Notizie istoriche de* terremoti accaduti ne' seooli traaoorsi e nel preaente. Napoli, 

A Memoir of M. Keilhau, on the Earthquakes of Norway, in the ' Magazin for Natur- 

videnskabeme.' Christiania, 1835. 
A list of Earthquakes in Iceland, in the * Voyage en Islande,' published under the direction 

of M. Gaimard, p. 313. 
Giovanni Vivenzio, Istoria de' tremuoti awenuti nella provinda della Calabria ulterioro e 

nella dtt4 di Messina nell' anno 1783. Napoli, 1788. 
Fr. Kriee, Von den Ursachen dor Erdbeben. Utrecht, 1820. 
P. Merian, Ueber die in Basel wahrgenommenen Erdbeben, u. a. w. Basel, 1834. 
Ordinaire, Hist. nat. des voloans. 

DeU' incendio fottosi nel Vesuvio 16 Dec. 1631. Napoli, 1632. 
Huot, Cours de Geologic. Probably contains a good deal of earthquake information. 
Fr. Nausea Blancicampiani De prsedpuo hujus anni 1528, apud Moguntiam terra motu 
' Responsum. 4to. 25 pp. 

Histoire dee andennes revolutions du globe. Amsterdam, 1752. 
Maria della Torre. Storia e fenomeni del Vesuvio. 
Raspe, De novis insulis. 
DelP incendio di Pozzuolo, Marco Antonio delli Falconi, all' illuBtriadma jSignoraMarcheM 

della Padola, nd 1538. 



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ON THE FACTS AND THBOBT OF KABTHaUAKE PHENOMENA. 121 

Bagionamento del terremoto, del Nuovo Monte, dell' aprimento di terra in Poosoolo 

nuell' anno 1538| e della significazione d'essi, da Fietro Giac. di Toledo. Stamp, in 

^apoli, per Qiov. Sultzbach, Alemanno, a' 22 di Gennaro 1539. 
Fai^as St-Fond, IJee yolcans ^teinte du Yivarais, &c. 
Hamilton's Obaerrationa on Mount VesuTius, &c. 
GlaodiuB Alberioa, De terres motu Oratio, in qua Hybomn pagi in ditione 111. Beip. 

Sem. supra lacum Lemanum, per terras motum oppresai, ni^ria pauds attineitur. 

1585. 
Yon den erschroklichen Erdbidem, was sich dem 1, 2, et 3 Maertren 1584 in der Yogthey 

Aden, den Herm yon Bern zustandig, durch dieee erscfarokliohen Erdbidem b^boa 

imd zugetragen habe. 1854. 
J. Hederid Oratio de honibili et insolito terra motu, qui recens Austriam yehementer oon« 

cussit, et aliquot yidnas regiones agitayit. Hehnfftadt, 1591. 
ZappeU, Hist, dell' inoendio. C. J. 
Bern. Giuliani, Trattato del Yesuvio. Napoli, 1632. 
Gio. Batt. Masooli x. libri de Yesuyii inoendio ezdtato 17 Kalend. Jan. 1631. Neimoli, 

1633. 
H. Pet Escholt, Geologica Norwegica, or Bemembrances concerning that &c., Earth- 
quakes &c., through the south parts of Norway, 24th April, 1657. Englished by 

Day. Collins. London, 1663. 93 pages. 
Gius. Macrino, Trattato del Yesuyio. Napoli, 1693. 

J. Alf. Borelli, Belaadone intomo alia famoea eruzione deU' Etna del 1669. Beggio, 1670. 
The same in Latin, with this title : — Historia et meteorologia inoendii .^Itnoi anni 1669. 
I>on Tomaso Tedesohi, Belazione del nuoyo inoendio fatto de Mongibello 1669. Messina, 

1670. 
N. M. Messina di Molfetta, BeUudone dell' inoendio del Yesuyio nel 1682. Napoli. 
Bottone^ De immani Trinacriss terrss motu idi^ historioo-phys., in qua non solum telluria 

oonoussioneB tninsactee reoensentur, sed noyissimie anni 1717. Messanss, 1718. 
Hopfiaer, Das erschutterte und bebende Meissen, &o. Leipzig, 1691. 
Catonia distrutta. Palermo, 1695. 
Ant. Bulifone, Lettere, nolle quale si da distinto ragguglio dell' inoendio del Yesuyio ac- 

caduto d'Ayril 1694, &o. Napoli, 1694. 
Pairino, Suodnta relazione dell' eruzione del 1696. Napoli. 
Ant. Bulifone, Ck)mi)endio istorico de monte Yesuyio, in cui si ha piena notizia di tutti 

gl'incendi aocaduti in esso in fine a' 15 di Giugno del 1698. Napoli, 1698. 
Gasp. Parragallo, Istoria naturale del monte Yesuyio. Napoli, 1705. 
Jos. valetta, Epistola de inoendio et eruptione montis YesuyiL A, 1707. 
Seferstein, Zeitung far Geognosie, G^l. u« s. w. Weimer. 

Anton. Foglia, Istorioo diMorso del gran terremoto soooesso nel regno di Napoli, &c. 
. NapoU, 1627. 
Yera relazione del pietoso caso sncoesso nelle terre oontenute nella proyincia di Puglia. 

NapoU, 1627. 
Philosoph. Ergotzungen, oder deutliohen Erklarung der Erdbeben. 12mo. Bremen, 

1765. 
Joh. Ft. SeyfSEfft, Algemeine Gesohichte der Erdbeben. 8yo. Frankfurt u. Leipzio, 1756. 
J. G. Boeerus, De Tememotu qui Italiam nuper, primis anni 1703 mensibus afflixit. 4to. 

Stettin, 1703. 
Jac. PhiL Maraldi, Obseryations sur les tremblements de terre arriy^ en Italie depuis le 
' mois d'Ootobre 1702, jusqu'au mois de Juillet 1703. La Hist, de I'Acad. des &denoee 

de Paris, 1704. Hist. p. 8. 
D. Ign. Sorrentino, Istoria del monte Yesuyio, diyisato in due libri, &c. Napoli, 1734. . 
Belazione del tremuoto intesosi in questa oitti di Napoli, ed in aloune proyinde del r^gno, 

nd di 29 Noyembre 1732, ad ore 13 e mezza. 
D. Frano. Serao, Istoria dell' inoendio del Yesuyio, aocaduto nel meee di Maggio dell' anno 

1737. 8yo. Napoli, 1740. 
M. Alexis Billiet, Notice sur les tremblemens de terre de Maurienne. M^m. de Turin, 

2e86rie,t2. 
Belazione giomaliera del tremuoto seguito in Bai]ga I'anno 1746, nel mese di Luglio. 
. Compilata dal dott F. TallinuocL (Communication of M. Pilla to M. Perrey.) 
Oonrcfj^les on Earthquakes. Journal de Physique, an. 10. Pluyiore. 
Catalogue des Tremblements de Terre en Chine. Par E. Biob. Ann. de Chimie, 3 ser. 

ToL ii p. 372. 
Sopra , Sur les petits mouyements apparents obsery^ dans les murs et lee grands instm- 

ments d'obseryatoire de Modena. Par M. J. BianohL 4to. Modena, 1837. 
Ueber das Erdbeben in den Bhein, &a yom Feb. 1828, yon P. C. ISg&a, Pogg. Ann. for 

1828^ part ii pp. 15^176. An importcmt memoir. 



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123 BBPOBT-^ISSS* 

Beather, Oompendiom TemBmotuum. Strassborff, 1601. 

Bernberfs, Temsmotas. (A BegiBter of Earthquidces.) Niirnberg, 1610. 

Dr. Yinoenzio Ma^nati, EarUiquake of Naples, 1688. 

Bertrand, M4m. hist, sur lea tremblemens de terre. La Hiaye, 1757. 

Bertholon, Jour, de Phys., vol. xiv. 

yiyetudo, Istoria e teoria de' tOTremuoti aTvenuti nella proTinda della Calabria, &c., di 

1783-1787. NapoU, 1788. 
Cotte, Tab. Chron. do princip. Fh6nom. M^t^orologiques, &c. Journal do Fbys., toI. Ixt. 

No. IT. 
CATALOaUB OP PERREY'S MEMOIRS. 

The immense and long-continued seismic statistics of Prof. Perrcy are 
scattered throughout a multiplicity of Journals of various LoaQied Societies 
and elsewhere, and many of them with difficulty accessible in Great Britain. 

The author has, at my request, favoured me with the following complete 
Catalogue of his seismological labours, which it may be serviceable to place 
in a collected form for reference. 

Pertey (Alexifl), Ghronique seismique. 1 vol. 8to, MS. Idre redaction. 

•— — > 1» mdme. 9 vols. 4to, MS. 

1 TremblementB de Terre dans les diffiSrents sidles et aux diffSrentee ^poques de 

rann6e. Compt. Rend. 1. 12, p. 1 185-1 187, 21 Juin, 1841. 
J Recherohes historiqnes sur les Tremblements de Terre dont il est fait mention dana 

les bistoriens depuis le lYe ti^e jusqu'i la fin da XYHI^e. Ibid. 1. 13, p. 899-902, 

2 Nov. 1841. 
, Recbercbes sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis k rEurope et dans I'Asie ooci* 

dentale de 306 4 1800. Ibid. t. 19, p. 64-646, 26 Sept 1842. Neuf oahiers seulement 

m'ont 6t6 remis au Secretariat de Tlnstitut. 
, Note sur les Tremblements de Terre aux Antilles. Ibid. 1. 16, p. 1283-1303, 12 Juin, 

1843. 
y Nouvelles Recbercbes sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en Europe et dans les 

parties acUaoentee de TAfrique et de I'Asie de 1801 k Juin 1843. Ibid. 1. 17, p. 608-62d» 

25 Sespt 1843. 
f Migmoires sur les Tremblements de Terre, en France, ea Belgique, et en Holknde, 

depuis le IVe Sidde jusqn'i^ nos jours. 1843. 
^1 M^moire des Sav. £tr. et M^m. Cour. de rAcad^mie de Bruxellee, t. 18i 4to. 

110 pp. et 2 pL avee Suppl. MS. 

1 le mdme. 1 voL 4to, MS. Idre redaction avec addit. MS. de M. Quetelet. 

-^-^^ Liste des Tremblements de Terre ressentis en Europe pendant Tann^ 1843. Ibid. 

1. 18, p. 393-403, 11 Mars 1844. 
""^-f Notice sur lee Tremblements de Terre ressentis 4 Angers et dans le D^p. do Maine 

et Loire. Bull de la Soc. indusbr. d' Angers, i. 15, p. 172 et suiv., 1844. Tir. i part» 

8vo de pp. 7. 
*-'—•, Liste de Tremblements de Terre ressentis ea Europe pendant I'annte 1844. Aveo 

Supplement pour Fannte 1843. M6m. de I'Aoad. de D^on, 1843-44, p. 334-342* et 

oomorend 1 20, p. 1444-1452, 12 Mai 1845. 
, Bur les l>eanUements de Terre de la P^unsule Soandinave. Yovaffee en Soandi- 

natie de la Com. So. du Nord. 6div. Q^g. pb7s.t.l, p.409-46a Tur.&part. Paris, 

1845. 8vo de pp. 65, avec Suppl. MS. 
•-^— , BUf les T'remblements de Terre dans le bassin du Rhone. Ann. do la Soo. d'Agrie. 

de ^on, t. 8, p. 1845. Tir. & part 8vo de pp. 82, 1 pi. aveo notes additionnelles de 

M. Fournel, et SuppL MS. 
, Sur lee Tremblements de Terre dans le bassin du Danube. Ibid. t. 9. 1846. Tir. k 

pKtt, 8vo de pp. 82, aveo Suppl. MS. 
, Note tvde les Tremblements de Terre en Alg^rie et dans FAfiique septentrionale. 

M6m. de FAcad. de D^on, 1845-1846, p. 299-^23. Tir. k part. 8vo de pp. 24^ avee 

Suppl. MS. 
, Sur les Tremblements de Terre aux Antilles. Ibid. p. 325-392. Tir. k part. 8vo 

de pp. 68, aveo Suppl. MS. 
, Liste dee Tremblements de Terre reesentis pendant les amines 1845 et 1846, aveo 

Supplement pour.1644, et indicative Sommaire dee aatfei pbenomeiiei mettodogiquei. 

Ibap.393-479. Tir.apart. 8vodepp.87. 



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ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OP BABTHaUAKB PHENOMENA. 19S 

Terrej (Akns), Mdmoire inr les TremUemeoott de Terre dam le baflon du Bliin. M^m. 
de8 Say. Efcp. et M6m. Cour. de I'Acad. Boy. de Belgique, t. 19, 1847. Tir. i part. 
4to de i>p. 114 et 2 pL, aTec SuppL MS. 

•*-^, La lune exeroe-t-elle une influenoe iur les TiremblementB de Terre? M^m. pr^sent^ 
k FAcad. dee Sdenoee, le 5 Mai, 1847. Oompt. Bend, t 24, p. 822. MS. de 11 pp. en 
lTol.4to; Ipl. • r r FF 

-^ , Note Bor les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1861. Bull, de TAcad. Boy. de 

Bdmqae, t 19, part 1, p. 35a-^96, et Supplement; Ibid, part 2. p. 21-28. Tir. k part. 

J la mdine, ayec Suppl^ent pour les ann6es ant^eures. M^m. de I'Aead. de Dijon. 

2e 8^. t. 2, p. 1-66, 1&2. Tir.ipart 

, M^moire sur les rapports qui peuvent exister entre la fr^quenoe des tremblements 

detarveetl'dtfedelalune. Compt. Bend. t. 86, p. 5d7--540, 21 Mars, 1853. 

1 le m^e, MS. original avec pi. et 1 yol. gr. in-foL oontenant les tableaux des Seooufsee 

. de 1801 4 1850, MS. 

, Note sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1852. BulL de TAoad. de BeLdaoe, 

t 20, no. 5, p. 8^69, 10 Mai, 1853. Tir.&part. ^ . 

, la mdme, areo Supplements pour les ann^es anterieures* M^m. de TAoad. de Diion, 

2e s^r. t 2, p. 7-128. Tir. & part ^ 

, "Soite sur la frequence des tremblements de terre reiatiyement au passage de la lun« 

au meridien. Compt Bend. t. 38, p. 16, 2 Jan. 1854. Ge MS. est relie ayeo le No. 
auquel i'ai encore ^goute les tableaux in^dits foumis k la Commission pour le Bapport 
de M. Blie de Beaumont. 

1 Note sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1853* BulL de TAoad* Boy. de 

Bdgique, t. 21, Idre part, p. 457-495. Tir. A part 

— ^, la mdme, ayeo Supplements pour les aimees anterieures. Mem* de PAoad. de Dijon. 
2e ser. t 3, p. 1-55. tir. A part 

" , C^raolaare rdatiye k rObseryataon des Tremblements de Terre, adressde k tons lea 

y<^rageurs. Bull, de la Soc. de Oeog., 4e ser. t 7, p. 419^-422, Juin, 1854. Tir. k put. 

^— — , Doeuments relatift aitz Tremblements de Terre du Ohili, ayeo Appendioe sur lea 
Tremblements de Terre dans la proyinoe de la Plata. Ann. de la Soa d'Agria de 
Lyon, 1854, 2e ser. t 6, p. 324-436. 8yo de pp. 206, ayec Suppl. MS* 

, Note BUT les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1854, ayeo Supplement pour lea 

annees anterieures. Bull, de 1* Acad. Boy. de Belgique, 1 2^, Idre part no. 6« p. &6-572. 
Juinl865. Tir. Apart 8yodepp.49. r *- , 

1 Sur les Yolcans et Solfatares de Tile de Jaya, renseignement puise dans les observa- 
tions reoentes des HoUandais. Oompt Bend. 1 42, p. 115-116« 21 Jany. 1837* Cost 
la traduction d'on article sur une sobataie prds de l|j. Aray, par M. Benseo, dont M. 
Elie de Beaumont n'a pas ete le nom. 

J Note sur les Tremolements de Terre ressentis en 1855, ayeo Supplement pour les 

ann^es anterieures. lere partie. Supplement, BulL de TAoad. Boy. de Belgique, t 23 ; 
2e part. No. 7, p. 23-68, Juillet 1856. 

, la mSme, 2e wirtie. Ibid, t 24; Ure part.. No. 1, p. 68-128. 

, Eruption du Manna Loir aox lies Sandwich. Ann* des Yoy* Aout 1856| p. 199-229. 

Ceat la traduction de deux lettres de M. Coan, suiyie de quelques remarques sur 
reruptum du Yesaye en 1855. 

, Bxcursion sur quelques Yolcans de Jaya pendant Tete de 1854. Ann. des 't'oy. 

Oct. 1856, p. 36-65. G'est la traduction de diyers extraits du Memoire de M. Te^ smann, 
Bibliograpfaie Scismique. Mem. de TAcad. de D^on, 2e serie, t 4, p. 1-112, 1855 : 
1 5, p. 153-253, 1866. 

y Sat les Tremblements de Terre de la Peninsule Iberique, Aim. de la Soo. d'Agrk. de 

Lyon, 1 10, 1847. Tir. k part 8yo de pp. 60, ayeo SuppL MS. 

f Note sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1847. BulL de T Asad* de Belgique, 

1 5, no. 5, 1848. Tir. k part 8yo de pp. 7. 

•-^ — t la mdme, ayeo Suppl^nsnt pour les annees anterieures. Mem. de TAoad. de Diiotk, 
1847-48. Tir. k part 8yo de pp. 48. Cest une 2e edition, qui pour tons mes cata- 
logues annuels est publiee dans lee Memoires de TAoad. de D\jon, et qui est pLuB com- 
plete que la premiere. 

• ^ Memoire sur les Tremblements de Teire de la Peninsule Italique. Mem. Cour. et 

Mem. des Say. £tr. de Ijl Soc. Belgique, t. 22. Tir. k part 4to de pp. 145, 2 pi. et 
SuppL MS. Lo mSme ayait ete approuy6 par TAcad. des Sciences de Turin qui 
m*ayait yote Timpression ; yoy. Notiae istoricne dei layori della Olasse delle Scienze nel 
oorso dell' anno 1845. Cette notice se trouye dans notre collection. 

1 le mdme, MS. 4to, avec Introductions et Considerations inedites. 

^— -, Doeuments sur les Tremblements de Terre au Mexique, et dana TAmeiriqiie Oentnde. 
Ann. de la Soo. d'^mul. des Yo^ges, 1 6, Se cab* 1847* Tir. k part 8to de pp. 97> «(; 
BuppL MS. 



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124 REPORT — 1858. 

Perrej (AlexiB), Iiutroctions sar rObflerration des Tremblements de Terre. Ann. Matter. 

de France, 1849, p. 290-311. Extr.gr.8vo. 
1 Communication relative k mes recherches r^trospectivee sur lee Tremblements de 

Terre, faite k la reunion de la Soc. Gttelogique k £pinal le 10 Sept 1847. Bull, de la 

Soo. G^L, 2e 8^. t. 4, p. 1399-1400. 
• , Traduction du M6moire de M. B. Mallet, intitule Sur TObflervation des Tremble- 
ments de Terre, avec notes additionnelles du traducteur et suivie de la liste des tremble- 
ments de terre en 1848. Ann. M6t6or. de France, 2e ann. 1850, p. 279-300. Tir. 4 part. 
« , Documents sur les Tremblements de Terre et sur les Eruptions Volcaniques dans le 

bassin de I'oo^an atlantique. M6m. de TAcad. de D^on, an. 1847-1848. Extra 8vo 

de pp. 67, aveo Suppl. MS. 
^— , X^ote sur les Tremblements de Terre ressentis en 1848. BulL de I'Acad. Boy. de 

Bekique, 1. 16, no. 3, 1849. Extr. 8vo de pp. 8. 
1 la mdme, avec Supplements pour lee ann^ ant^eures. M6m. de T Acad, de D^jon. 

Tir. k piurt 8vo de pp. 48. 
, Documents sur les Tremblements de Terre dans le nord de TEurope et de TAsie. 

Ann. Maffn^t et Matter, du Corps des Ing^nieurs de Bussie, an. 1846, p. 201-236. Tir. 

k part. St. Petersbourg, 1849, gr. in-4to, k 2 vol., 1 pi. 
, lee mdmes, suivis aune note sur les Tremblements de Terre en 1848. Ann. de la 

Soo. d'l^uL des Yosgos, t. 6, 3e cab. 1848. Tir. k part 8vo de pp. 71 , avec Supplement 

MS. 
, Sur lee Tremblements de Terre dans les Des Britanniques. Ann. do la Soc. d'Agrio. 

de Lyon. 2e s6r. 1 1, 1849. Tir. ^ part. 8vo de pp. 71, avec SuppL MS. 
, iNote sur les Tremblements de Torre en 1849, avec Supplements pour lee anndes 

1847 et 1848. BulL de T Acad. Boy. de Belg. 1 17, no. 3, 1850. Tir. k part 8vo de 

pp.22. 
^—, la mAme, avec Supplements pour les annees anterieures. Mem. de TAoad. de Dijon, 

ann. 1850. Tir. k yirt, 8vo de pp. 65. 
w— , Sur les Tremblements de terre dans la Peninsule Turco-helienique. Mem. Cour. 

de Mem. des Sav. £tr. de TAcad. de Belgique, t 23, 1850. Tir. k part 4to de pp. 73, 

avec SuppL MS. 
>— , Note sur les Tremblements de Terre en 1850. Bull, de FAcad. de Belgique, 1 18, 

no. 4, p. 291-308. Tir. k part 
f la memo, avec Supplement pour lee annees anterieures. Mem. de TAcad. de D^on, 

2e ser. p. 1-36, 1850. Tir. i part 

, Sur les Trembl^ents do Terre aux Etats Unis et au Canada. Ann. de la Soc-. d'Emul. 

des Voflges, t 7, 2e cah., 1850. Tir. k part 8vo de pp. 62, avec SuppL MS. 



Desiderata — Hi-understood Phenomena^ 8fc. 

Grent Sea- Waves, — Perhaps the best account that has yet been given of the phe- 
nomena of great sea-waves (due beyond question to earthquake or volcanic movement 
of sea-bottom), was communicated by Prof. Bache to the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, and was reprinted along with a paper " On the Tides 
of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean," in 1856, in a separate form by Prof. Bache, at 
New Haven for private circulation, from which the following are extracts. 

On the 23rd of December, 1854, a violent earthquake occurred in the neighbour- 
hood of the Island of Niphon (Japan), the local sea- waves of which wrecked the 
RoBsian frigate ' Diana,' anchored in the harbour of Simoda. A correspondent of the 
'New Yoric Herald,' writing from Shanghae, states, — "At 9 a.m. on the 23rd of 
December, weather clear, therm. 72^ barom. 30^, a severe shock of an earthquake 
was felt on board the frigate, shaking the ship most severely. The shock lasted 
full five minutes, and was followed at quick intervals by rapid and severe shocks 
for thirty minutes." At 9h. 3m. a.m. the sea was observed washing into the bay 
in one immense wave 30 feet high, with awful velocity ; in an instant the town of 
Simoda was overwhelmed and swept from its foundations. "This advance and 
recession of the waters recurred five times ". . . . " by 2h. 30m. p.m. all was quiet." 
The log-book of the ' Diana' states that " the disturbance commenced at 9h. 15m., 
and that the rising and falling of the water in the bay produced a sudden variation 
of depth from less than 8 feet to more than 40 feet, llie frigate was by this laid four 

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ON THE FACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 125 

times upon her side, once in less than 4 feet of water." Commodore M. C. Peny« 
U.S. Navy, states, — "That the whole eastern coast of Japan seems to have suffer^ 
from this calamity. Yedo itself was injured, and the fine city of Osaka entirely 
destroyed. At 3 p.m. a fresh west wind was blowing at Simoda. The agitation 
of the water and the movement of the vessel had become very slow ; barom. 29®*87i 
therm. 10*»-6 Reaum. (=65°-63 Fahr.)." 

From other sources quoted by Prof. Bache, it appears that on the same day 
(23rd Dec.), at Peel's Island, one of the Bonin Islands, there was also (the hour 
not stated) a sudden wave rise of 15 feet above high water, followed by a recession 
which left the reefs entirely bare. The tide continued to rise and fall at intervals of 
fifteen minutes, gradually lessening until the evening. Again on the evening of the 
25th of December (as to which time there is no account of a second earthquake), 
the water rose in like manner 12 feet. 

The United States Coast Survey, so ably superintended by Prof Bache, possesses 
stations of observation furnished with self- registering tide-gaages, at San Diego, 
San Francisco and Astoria, on the Pacific Coast; and Prof. Bache presented to 3ie 
Association the curves traced by those instruments, in which the comparative 
heights and times, and the mean neights and times at San Francisco and San Diego, 
are given; also the tidal curves for both, with the abnormal oscillations superimposed; 
and lastly, three diagrams, in which the tidal level being reduced to a horizontal line, 
the abnormal waves alone are shown, for Astoria, San Francisco and San Diego. 

I can only refer to the original for the full results deducible from these valuable 
observations, and repeat here in brief some of their facts : — 

" The San Francisco curve presents three sets of waves of short interval: the first 
begins at 4h. 12m. and ends at 8h. 52m., the interval being 4h. 40m. ; the second begins 
at 9h. 35m. and ends at 13h. 45m., the interval being 4h. lOra. ; the beginning of the 
third is about 13|h., and its end not distinctly traceable. The crest of the first large 
wave of the three sets occurred at the respective times of 4h. 42m., 9h. 54m., and 
14h. 1 7m., giving intervals of 5h. 12m., and 5h. 23m." 

"The average time of oscillation of one of the first set of waves was 35m., one of 
the second 31m., and one of the third about the same. The average height of the 
first set of waves was 0'45 foot on a tide which fell 2 feet ; of the second 0*19 foot 
on a tide which rose 3 feet ; and of the third 0*19 foot on a tide which fell about 
7 feet ; the phenomena occurring on a day when the diurnal inequality was very 
considerable. The greatest fall of the tide during the occurrence of the first set of 
waves was 0*70, and the corresponding rise 0*60 foot. In the second set the corre* 
sponding quantities were 0*30 and 0*20 foot ; in the third these waves would not have 
attracted general attraction." There is a general analogy in the sequence of the 
waves of the three sets, which seem to mark them as belonging to a recurrence of 
the same series of phenomena. The series itself looks like titie result of several 
impulses, not of a single one, the heights rapidly increasing to the third wave, then 
diminishing as if the impulse had ceased, then renewed and then ceased, leaving the 
oscillation to extinguish itself. If we had a corresponding account of the facts as 
they occurred at Simoda, the subject would lose the conjectural or rather the in- 
complete character that belongs to it. Although there is no account of the place of 
origin of the earthquake, yet its violence on the Japanese coasts and its diminished 
effects at Peel's Island, as well as the times of arrival of the waves at the Japanese 
and Pacific American coasts, prove that it must have been beneath the sea, and not 
far distant from Japan. " Five distinct waves in succession rolled in at Simoda; 
eight are shown by the San Francisco gauge, of which seven were of considerable 
height." It seems not improbable, although this does not appear to have occurred 
to Prof. Bache, that three of the San Francisco waves may have been reflected waves 
only. The highest wave at Simoda was estimated at 30 feet, at Peel's Island 15 feet» 
at San Francisco 0*65 foot, and at San Diego 0*50 foot. 

At San Diego, the gauge shows distinctly the same three series of waves. The 
first begins at Ih. 22m. later than at San Francisco, correcting for difference of 
longitude, and ends 52m. later. The interval is 30m. less than at San Francisco, 
the oscillations being rather shorter than at the latter point. The second begins at 
54m. later than at San Francisco and ends 34m. later. The third begins 
mbout 54m» later than at San Francisco. The average time of oscillation of the 

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IW »»PO»T— 1868. 

Qffst set is 31mM of the second 2Qm„ being thus respectively 4m. and 2m. shorter 
than at San Francisco. The average height of the first set of waves was 0*17 foot 
lower than at San Francisco, and the second as much higher. This fact, taken with 
the difference in the times of oscillation, induces Prof. Bache (o suppose that the 
difierence in the two series was due to interference, which is also suggested by the 
position of San Diego in reference to the islands separating the Santa Barbara Sound 
from the ocean. 

The difference in the periods of tide on the arrival of the waves at each placp 
would tend to jHroduoe discrepancies. The first series at San Diego arrived on a 
rising tide of 4 feet, while at San Francisco it was upon a falling tide of 2 feet The 
second at San Diego arrived at near high water» and was chiefly upon a falling tide 
of 7 feet, while at San Francisco it was upon a rising tide of 4 feet. 

The forms of the waves accord remarkably at both stations^ 

The tide*gauge at Astoria gives less instructive results, the bar at the entrance of 
the Columbia River having no doubt broken up and greatly reduced the waves, even 
if they ariived at the entrance unbroken. The gauge showed a disturbance, but 
irr^ular and confused, which was also apparently preceded by (other) unusual 
oscillations of the water ; and Prof. Bache sees reason to think that the San Diego 
gauge indicates disturbances of the water of an abnormal character pretnoui to the 
great earthquake shock, as well as following it at intervals for several days. The 
normal time for high and low water does not seem to have been disturb^ by the 
superposition upon the tide- wave of the abnormal or earthquake waves. 

From these results Prof. Bache draws the following conclusions as to the rate of 
translation of the great sea* waves of the earthquake. 

The latitudes and longitudes of the staticms are ; — 

Lit. N, Looff.W. TIba, 

San Diego 33 4^ 117 1^ 7 49 

San Francisco 37 48 123 26 8 10 

Simoda ,.... 34 40 121 62 14 44 

Hie distance from San Diego to Simoda is therefore 4917 nautical miles, and from 
San Francisco to Simoda 4527 nautical miles. Assuming the first account of the 
disturbance at Simoda at 9 a.m. or at 22d. 23h. 44m. Greenwich mean time, and the 
first great wave 80 minutes afterwards. Prof. Bache proceeds to calculate the rate. 
There appears to be some typographical errors in the figures, which slightly affiKt the 
result which he arrives at, viz. 363 miles per hour, or 6*0 miles per minute. Cor* 
recting the erroneous figures, the result would appear to be^ — ^the first disturbance at 
San Frandsco was at 23d, 12h. 22m., or 12h. 38m. after that at Simoda, and the 
first great wave at 23d. 4h. 42m., giving the same interval (of 30m.). The distance 
and time therefore give a rate of 368 miles per hour, or 5'966 miles per minute, . 

Assuming the second account (9h. 15m.), the time of transmission when reduced 
would be 12h. 13m., and the rate of translation 370 miles per hour, or 6*20 miles 
per minute. 

Tlie San Diego observations, assuming 9h. Om. as the time of transmission at 
Simoda, give Idh. 50m., which, when reduced, gives a rate of translation of 365 
miles per hour, which is almost identical with Uie corrected reduction of the San 
Francisco observations. 

Although not directly connected with our subject, it is interesting to state that 
Prof. Bache deduces flrom these results a probable mean depth for the Pacific Ocean 
on the paths traversed by these great sea- waves of from 2100 to 2500 fathoms. 
(See also Amer, Joum. of Science, vol. xxi. 2 ser. January 1856.) 

I deem no apology needed for this lengthened abstract of Prof. Bache's communi- 
<»tion, not only because it is, up to the present time, almost the only record of 
scientific pretensions, of the phenomena of earthquake great sea-waves, but as a 
model for those who may be engaged in tidal observations upon British or 
European coasts, of what is needed to make their results connect usefully with the 
requirements of those occupied in seismical inquiry. The extreme value of self- 
registering tide-gauges, and the great importance of multiplying these round our 
own coasts, and upon those of our Mediterranean and antipodal stations, are forcibly 
shown by the vemaek of Bache^ that but for these instruments, the very 



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ON THE FACTS AND THEOBY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 137^ 

oceqrreoce on the North American coast of these sea-wa^es, which had traversed, 
the whole vast breadth of the Pacific, a distance equal to one-fifth of the earth's 
circumference, would have actually passed unnoticed. Had there been a competent 
self-registering tide-gauge at Simoda, we could probably have fixed exactly the spot 
beneath the ocean at which the earthquake disturbance originated. 



There i$ also a class of doubtful great sea-waves, for the investigation of which 
such self-registering instruments would afford precious data. 

It has been many times observed at various stations round our own British coasts 
(as well as abroad), that abnormal tides have occurred, or that solitary waves of 
translation have reached the shore, at abnormal periods, or at uncertain periods of 
repetition^ which could not be conjfounded with any recognized tidal phenomena. 

Such waves have veiy customarily been referred to earthquakes for their origin of 
late years i yet very many examples occur in which there has been no account of 
contemporaneous earthquake, either in the offing at sea, or in any other direction. 
And the question arises, are such abnormal waves always to be attributed to earth- 
quakes (whether observed or uot), or may they possibly be produced by some nodal 
action or other disturbance far ont at sea of waves of oth^ classes, and if so, of what 
nature ? 

It will be advantageous to adduce some examples, and the rather, as I am enabled, 
through the obliging attention of the Commissioners of Public Works in Ireland, to 
state one of much interest and in some detail, of which no full account has yet 
appeared. 

But first we may notice such an occurrence on the coast near Whitby, Yorkshire^ 
copied from the York ' Herald ' of March 8, 1856, for which I am indebted to Mr. 
WUliam Gray of York. 

** York, Mtreh 8, 1656. 

'' Robin Hood's Bay.— On Sunday last, the 2nd instant, at 10 a.m., the tide being 
then about two*thirds flood, the following phenomenon was observed : — ^The rocks, 
which had been bare just previously, were observed to be completely submerged. 
The water then fell back, and again returned, rushing with considerable force over 
the rocks and beach. This was repeated two or three times, the water running up a 
moderately inclined beach the distance of thirty yards. 

" A remarkable phenomenon of the tides was observed at Whitby on the 9nd 
inst. At a quarter to ten o'clock in the morning, being an hour and a quarter 
before high water, the sea suddenly rushed up Whitby harbour, rising in dif- 
ferent places from 18 inches to 3 feet, driving a laden lighter from its moorings, 
and causing much eoinmotion amongst the small craft. It then receded, but was 
followed by other and similar waves, so that the tide appeared to ebb and flow sis 
times in the space of little more than an hour. A vessel, which was entering the 
harbour at the time, was alternately afloat and aground on her passage up, according 
to the level of the water. About midnight of the same day, the harbour-officers 
observed a recurrence of the event, and in the first hour of Monday the rush of 
water appeared to be much more powerful than on Sunday morning. About eleven 
o'clock on Sunday night, Mr. Tose, the harbour-roaster, having observed a mark 
which indicates that the tide was sufficiently high for a vessel then in the roads to 
enter the harbour, went up the lighthouse and lit the gas-signal. On his return to 
the pier, he was astonished to find that though the tide ought to have risen higher, 
it had fallen considerably below the mark. Being afraid the vessel would take the 
harbour, he was about to extinguish the light, when suddenly the tide rose far above 
the mark above referred to. At Staithes and Robin Hood's Bay, the phenomenpn 
was also observed. The rushes of water resembled what are known in some rivers 
as ' bores,' but on a much larger scale. Such phenomena often accompany sub- 
terraneous disturbances, and on some occasions they have been terribly destructive. 
As no earthquake has been felt in these parts recently, it is difficult to account for 
the phenomenon, and it can scarcely be referred to atmospheric causes. It would 
be interesting to learn whether a similar occurrence took place on other parts of the 
poftst. Dr. Young, in his ' History of Whitby ' (page 793)# renuurks, 'To volcanic 



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128 BBPOBT — 1858, 

agency may be ascribed Ibis remarkable pbenomenoo, that on the 17th Jaly, 1761, 
the tide rose and fell at Whitby four times in an hour/ " 

Analogous phenomena have been observed at Pegwell Bay^ on the southern coast, 
during the present year. 

The following documents refer to the observations of such waves made upon the 
coast of Wexfoid, Ireland, in 1854. 

The ' Wexford Independent/ a local journal of the 27th September, 1854, gives 
the following account : — 

"Extraordinary Phenomenon. — ^We are indebted to Mr. William Campbell, the 
professional helmet-diver, who has done so much for the improvement of the new pier 
of Kilmore, by blasting and removing the rocks which impeded its entrance, for the 
following account of an extraordinary phenomenon, witnessed there on Saturday 
evening, Sept. I6th, 1854. 'I was' (writes Mr. Campbell) 'in one of our boats 
seeking after some implements, and not looking seawards, when, on a sudden, I heard 
a mighty rush of water against the back of the pier, and in a moment it came 
sweeping round the pier-head, full 3 feet high and abreast. It was within one hour 
and a hdf of low water at the time. The inner dock was crowded with the small 
sailing craft of the place, and quite dry, the tide being more than four hours 
on ebb. In less than five minutes every boat was afloat, and we had high water. 
In five minutes more the water ebbed again to the lowest spring-tide. This was 
repeated seven times in the course of two hours and a half. St. Patrick's Bridge was 
alternately dry and covered to the extent of a mile, and the sea formed a cascade 
from end to end of it, the influx appearing to come from the east. At the same time 
the sea was not by any means rough nor heaving. Standing on the top of the 
parapet wall of the pier, I could descry two different currents running parallel, and 
counter currents to these quite visible, the discoloured water running east at a rate 
of ten or twelve miles an hour, and the intervening water of the original green hue, 
and stationary. These tide currents were as far out as the shore of the Saltee 
Islands. I can only compare the current to the opening of a sluice gate. There was 
no damage done to any of the craft, more than the bursting of a few warps. Had 
the occurrence taken place at the period of high water, the result would have been the 
complete overflow of the land in the district, and consequent immense loss. We 
have often heard old people of that place say that on the Sunday after Lisbon was 
destroyed by the earthquake df November 1, 1765, the day being remarkably fine, 
the sea at Kilmore suddenly rose and fell in like manner. This occurrence the other 
day has been owing, no doubt, to some similar and distant cause.' " 

The phenomena alluded to in the above paragraph, from the ' Wexford Indepen- 
dent,' are not unknown on the Waterford coast, and are there popularly termed 
' death waves.' It is not very long since two ladies had a narrow escape of being 
washed out to sea at Dunmore, by a sudden wave, which surprised them whilst seated 
at a considerable distance above high- water mark on the beach. 

Repeated instances are on record of such waves upon the north-east coast of 
England and upon the south-west coast of Ireland, as well as in many other places 
(see also Second Report, p. 47-48), and even on the east coast of Africa. 

For the following, I am indebted to the Commissioners of Public Works, Ireland :^- 

" Office of PubUc Works, October 19, 1854. 

•' Sir, — I am directed to transmit herewith a copy of a report which the Board 
have received from James B. Farrell, Esq., County Surveyor of Wexford, respecting 
an extraordinary tidal phenomenon at Kilmore on the coast of that county on the 
16th ultimo. The Board send this report, considering it will be interesting to you, 
on the subject of earthquakes, to which you are giving your attention. 

"To Robert Mallet, Esq." " W. Mooney, pro Sec.'^ 

"Wexford, October 10, 1854. — In compliance with the request of the Com- 
missioners, contained in your note of the 22nd ultimo, I forwarded a newspaper in 
which was an account of the tidal phenomenon at Kilmore. 

" Since then I have made inquiries along the coast, tracing from New Roes round 
by Ballyhack, Arthurstown, Duncannon, Hook Head, Slade, Fethard, Bannow, and 
on towards Carnsore Point. 

"As far as Bannow nothing unusual was observed. The Coast- Gkiard near there. 



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ON THK PACT8 AND THEORY OV EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 129 

althoagh one was, as is customary, od the * look-out ' at the time of the occurrence, 
noted no disturbance. It appears to have been perceived about two miles east of 
this station, near the point indicated by the line A on the accompanying map, 
Plate XIII., and seems to have been confined between thb and the line B. At 
'Ballyhealy,' a little further east, it was not observed. 

" From inquiries into the details of the appearance, I learned from Mr. Campbell 
at Kilmore, that six distinct ridges of water, about 2 or 3 feet high, passed from the 
west towards the east, very much discoloured and carrying with them large quan- 
tities of sea- weed. There was a considerable space between each pair in which the 
water was of its usual colour, and quite calm, as was the sea generally, there being 
no wind to disturb it. 

" These ridges did not proceed m (broken ?) waves, but in continuous lines, and 
passed on apparently unchecked, while the tide rose and receded on the shore within 
them, which it did seven times. It is stated that, at the second reflux, the water fell 
lower than it was ever known h^ the residents there to fall before. 

" It would appear that the ridges maintained their velocity sufficiently to force 
back the ebb, which flows rapidly round Carnsore Point (nearly three knots an hour) 
unto they passed St. Patrick's Bridge, where the ebb-tide regained its motion west- 
ward in 'the shape of the ' cascade ' mentioned by Mr. Campbell in the printed 
account. 

" The disturbance lasted, according to his statement, from 20 minutes past 4 to 
nearly 7 o'clock p.m. 

" On inquiring at the ' Bar of Lough,' I found that at about half-ebb the watch- 
man at the Coast-Guard Station, who was in the watchhouse, which is built on the 
edge of the sea, felt the flo.or tremble under his feet, and at the same time the fire- 
irons and other articles of furniture shook and rattled audibly. He was also startled 
by ' an extraordinary noise ' outside. On going out to ascertain the cause, he found 
that a large wave was forcing back the ebb. "niis was repeated three times. The 
first wave only, however, was accompanied by noise. 

'' A schooner was lying inside the Lough, at the place marked C, from the master 
of which, I learned that his vessel was three times swung round, standing alter- 
nately to the flood and ebb. He was below, when he had the first intimation of it, 
and described his being afiected with a strange sensation, as if he were getting sick. 
This I believe is not uncommon in cases of earthquake. 

" Mr. Lett, R.N., the Coast-Guard officer here, upon whom I called, made to me 
a statement confirming what I had collected by inquiry. 

" There seems little doubt that the whole thing wa<) caused by a slight shock of 
earthquake. 

" From the information I had at Kilmore from Mr. Campbell, I have laid down 
lines on the accompanying map, exhibiting the ridges as described by him, and 
endeavouring to illustrate, by the curved arrows, the action of the ebb-tide upon 
them. " Jambs B. Farrell, Wtotfwd County Surveyor." 

" With reference to the communication addressed to you on the tidal action on 
Wexford coast, I may mention that since it was sent to you, further information 
shows that it extended beyond the limits marked by Mr. Farrell, having, by the 
report of the Coast-Guard, turned Carnsore Point : he has written to the Inspect- 
ing Commander of the Coast-Guard, to request he will follow it up, and ascertain 
how far north the effect was observed. 

*' Yours, dear Sir, faithfully, 
" To Robert Mallet, Esq. " Jno. Radcliffb." 

21 Oct. 1854." 

Referring to Plate XIII., it would appear probable that the primary cotidal line of 
these waves was about in the direction C C of the heavy dotted line, and that the 
change of direction, on approaching the shore about B, was due to the conjoint 
effects, of the meeting ebb tidal-stream round Carnsore Point, of reflection at the 
Saltees, and of inequality of bottom on reaching the inshore shoal- waters. 

An almost identical train of phenomena occurred at the same point upon the 
Wexford shore on Sunday, 12th September, 1841. The account is given by Milne, 
"On British Earthquakes," Edinb. New Philos. Joum. vol. xxxvi. p. 83, and copied 
1858. K 



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130 RBPORT— 1858. 

from a Wexford newspaper : — " The day was misty and dark, wind S.S.W. to S. 
Thunder heard at noon ; wind lulled, and fog became dense. At Kilmore, ten miles 
south of Wexford, and directly opposite the Saltee Islands, about noon, a number of 
short, loud, smothered reports like cannon were heard. The tide had flowed consider- 
ably at the time, and the fishing-boats at the pier were all afloat, when, within the 
space of two or three minutes, the water suddenly receded from the pier, and people 
walked dry-shod where a little before there had been five to six feet of water. 
After a few minutes, again the tide began as suddenly to return ; and, after re- 
suming its level, continued to rise to high water in the usual way. There was no 
extraordinary commotion, only an increased surf. The sky cleared after thunder 
and showers." 

The question, however, here chiefly in point is, whence come these waves? what is their 
origin ? The direction of translation, on entering the wide Bay of Ballyteague, here was 
almost exactlv from the south-west, and if transmitted from a considerable distance, 
the origin of'^ disturbance must have been beneath the deep waters of the Atlantic 
Ocean, and it is scarcely probable that an earthquake blow sufficiently powerful to 
have originated waves so large after so long a transmission, should have occurred and 
not have been generally felt in the South of Ireland, where the hard and elastic cha- 
racters of all the formations are so favourable to the distant transmission of impulses. 
It is equally difficult to assume, as here operative, a condition which upon coasts 
of shoal water and encumbered with banks and bars, may unquestionably originate 
great sea- waves, and which very probably is actually the cause of those of not un- 
frequent occurrence upon the east and south-east coasts of England. 

Almost all great submarine banks are constantly subjected, at the same time, to 
aggregation by deposition, and to partial degradation, by Uie sweeping away of 
material along their bases and flanks, by tidal action, either constant or at certain 
periods of tide. Deposition takes place by vertical, or more or less inclined preci- 
pitation of suspended matter ; Uiis form of degradation, by horizontal removal. 
The conjoint effect b very frequently to increase the steepness of the angle qf slope 
of the degrading flank qf the hank, matter being constantly added on top and re- 
moved from lower down, and with most energy at a level intermediate between the 
surface-water and bottom. 

A time arises, therefore, at which the angle of slope of the bank is increased be- 
yond the limits of repose of the material, whether mud, sand or gravel, or any mix- 
ture of these ; and then a great under- water slippage takes place, and a mass often 
of enormous magnitude at once slides from the top and flank of the bank down into 
deep water, and spreads and levels itself out upon the bottom, to be in its turn swept 
away and replaced by fresh materials and to give rise to another slippage. Thus, in 
figs. 9 & 10, if », s represent the surface of the sea, b, h (fig. 9) the sea-bottom in 

Fig. 9. 




^'"^"'^^^ 



ffv 



transverse section through the flank of the bank in a plane at right angles to the 
stream of abrasion ; then, at the point wher^ the equilibrium of repose of the mass 
is lost, the mass r, n slips and is suddenly transported from its original position to 
A, m. The effect upon the surface of the sea> is at the same moment to originate a 
positive and a negative wave, w and v, whose crests shall more or less approximate 
to the general line of the flank of the bank ; and these will be immediately succeeded 
by two solitary waves of translation, a greater, w (fig. 10), and a less, v, whose mo- 
tions of translation will be opposite. 



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ON THE PACTS AND THEORY OF EARTHQUAKE PHENOMENA. 131 

The magoitade of the wave raised is dependent upon that of the mass of solid 
material that has suddenly changed its place, upon the depth of water in which the 



Fig. 10. 



slippage has occurred, upon the rapidity of the transposition, and in a minor degree 
upon the form and material of the portion of the bank that has slipped. Where the 
depth of water is very great, its effecto at the surface may be quite insensible at the 
place ; but when this low broad flattened wave of only a few inches becomes heaped 
up on shelving shores or tidal estuaries, it may then become very apparent, and 
perfectly so to accurate tide gauges. Where the water is comparatively shallow, 
as it usually is where large and heavy banks occur, there the undulatory effects on 
tiie surface, even at the seat of disturbance, will be considerable. We have then 
a simple mechanism abundantly sufficient to account for the occurrence of some 
such abnormal tide-waves or great sea- waves as have been noticed ; but while thus 
a vera causa, is it the cause of any of those phenomena that have been observed, 
and which do not appear to have been accompanied by earthquakes? This, as well 
as all the hydrodynamic phenomena of such sea-waves, I would commend to the 
careful attention of future observers. (See First Report, p. 61.) 



Stoppage of Rivers. — Throughout earthquake narratives, nothing is more commonly 
recorded amongst the secondary phenomena, than sudden derangements of the ordinary 
and prior regimen of springs, wells, and especially of rivers. Almost all such facts admit 
of simple explanation ; and in the case of rivers, the sudden drying up or stoppage of 
their streams, has been most usually due to sudden damming up by the fall of €l^ris 
of rocks from precipices, &c. across the river-beds, usually at narrow gorges, where 
the damming can easily take place, and whence it is, by the posterior rising of the 
waters, afterwards swept away or gradually removed by floods, &c. ; often also on a 
grander scale, it arises from the occurrence of great landslips (in countries of deep alluvial 
or other little coherent formation), bulging out into the river-beds, and temporarily 
shutting them up, and either forcing the streams iuto new channels, or damming 
them up until the waters produce a debacle and sweep away the obstacle. 

But not a few cases are upon record of sudden stoppages in the ordinary supply 
of water in river streams, not known to have been connected with any earthquake, 
or with any sufficient and explainable cause. Perhaps the phenomena cannot be 
more briefly set forth than by transcribing a notice from ' Chambers's Edinburgh 
Journal' for Jan. 19, 1839, No. 364. p. 412 :— 

" Late Stoppage of Rivers in the South of Scotland. — Most of our readers have 
probably read the accounts which appeared in the newspapers of a simultaneous 
stoppage of the rivers Teviot, Clyde, and Nith, on the 27th of November last ; yet, 
as many may not have heard of it, and few may have paid to it the attention which 
it deserves, we are glad to have the opportunity afforded us of bringing the circum- 
stance under the especial notice of our readers. It has, we are glad to And, been 
taken up, as a subject worthy of scientific investigation ; and in this we have been 
invited to assist, by endeavouring to procure information from any of our readers 
who may be able to afford it. llie phenomenon, it is suspected, is attributable to 
some agent or cause which bad acted over a very extensive range of country, and 
which, probably, produced similar effects, in many other places besides the banks 
of the three rivers above specified. We trust that if such effects were perceived by 
any of our readers, they will be so obliging as accede to the proposal and the request 
with which we conclude the present notice. 

" On the morning of Tuesday, the 27th of November last, about six o'clock, the 
miller of Maxwellheugh Mill, situated on the Teviot, near its confluence with the 
Tweed, perceived a great diminution taking place in the water which flowed through 
his mill-course. At eight o'clock the water altogether ceased to flow. Thinking 
that the sluice had fallen down, or that the cauld [dam] had given way, he went up 

k2 

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132 REPORT— 1858. 

to the cauld, and f oand, mach to his sarprise, that there was hardly any water in 
the river. There were here and there a few pools, where there were hollows in the 
channel ; but there was no longer a running stream. The channel continued dry 
for four or five hours — after which the water began gradually to flow, till the waters 
reached the same level they were at previously. At this place the Teviot is on an 
average about 50 feet wide, and 2 feet deep. 

" ne same phenomenon took place in the Nith, in the parish of Durrisdeer, at 
£nterkinefoot. The channel was so dry, that a person could have walked across 
without wetting his stockings. 

" It was observed also in the Clyde, a little above New Lanark. The extensive 
cotton- mills at that place were for some hours stopped, in consequence of an entire 
cessation of the current. Numbers of fish were caught with the hand, and many- 
persons walked across without wetting so much as the soles of their feet. 

" The above particulars we have taken from the newspapers, and we do not vouch 
for their perfect accuracy ; but we have no reason to doubt it, as the statements have 
not been contradicted. 

" It appears that the same phenomenon has occurred frequently before. In the 
Teviot, it is known to have occurred at least five times between the years 1748 and 
1787. It happened also in the Clyde in the year 1787, and within a few days of its 
occurrence in the Teviot : and it is remarkable, that, in regard to both of these rivers, 
the part of the channel where their waters disappeared, turns out to be the very 
place where they disappeared last month. But there are several other rivers, both 
in £ngland and in Scotland, where the same phenomenon has been observed within 
the last half-century. 

" We feel satisfied that our readers will share with us an extreme anxiety to 
discover, if possible, the cause of this singular phenomenon : and we will now ex- 
plain to them in what way they can be instrumental in assisting in this discovery. 

" The first object should be to obtain a minute and accurate account of all the 
facts apparently connected with the phenomenon, at the places where it was observed. 
We are happy to learn that steps have been taken for this purpose by persons well- 
qualified for such an inquiry. But as it is just possible, that even they may not have 
gathered up all the circumstances calculated to throw light on the subject, our readers 
in these quarters would do well to note down, ere it fades from their memories, any 
thing particular which they observed. 

" We may now allude to the different theories which have been started to account 
for the phenomenon, because they will immediately show the importance of 
gathering together as many facts as possible. It is by facts alone that these theories 
will be confirmed or refuted. 

" Some persons ascribe the phenomenon to a severe frost which occurred on the 
morning of Nov. 27, and which, it is said, froze up the streamlets and springs that 
supplied the rivers where the phenomenon was observed. We cannot see how, on 
any philosophical principles, the effect here stated would follow from such a cause. 
But, even if it were sufficient to produce it, then the same phenomenon should have 
occurred in the Tweed, the Jed, and all the rivers wheffe the frost reached. More- 
over, it should be observed every winter, and it ought to have been very strikingly 
observed last winter. Besides, the waters should, after the frost gave way, have 
risen considerably above their usual level> which, it is said, was not the case. 

" We have adverted to these inferences from the theory just mentioned, in order to 
show how its truth or falsehood may be tested ; and many of our readers may be in 
possession of facts which will supply this test. 

" Another theory has been proposed, which, we confess, appears much more pro- 
bable. It is suggested, that a fissure may have been formed under or across the 
channels of the above rivers, into which their waters found their way. The current 
would thus cease to flow in its ordinary channel until the fissure closed, or was 
filled up by the sediment and water poured into it. The fissure might be either a 
crack across the country, or a local sinking of the ground. It is well known that 
earthquakes frequently produce such effects ; and there are few years in which, in 
some parts of Scotland and England, the shock of an earthquake is not felt. When 
the Clyde stopped in January 1787. a rivulet in the parish of Strathblane, in Stir- 
lingshire, which drove a mill, also disappeared. On the same day, the shock of an 

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OS THE PACTS AND THEORY OF BARTUQUAKB PHENOMENA. 133 

earthquake was very sensibly felt in Glasgow and its neighbourhood. Whether or 
not at either of these places any fissures were observed, into which the streams 
flowed for a time, we have been unable to learn. That there are fissures, or alijn 
(as the geologists call them), which everywhere intersect the crust of the earth, is well 
known to every collier and miner ; and that there are such fissures in that part of the 
channel of the Clyde, where its waters have repeatedly disappeared (namely, between 
the uppermost fall and Corra Linn), is extremely probable. It might be thought, 
however, that, if a crack was produced, sufficient to allow the waters of a large 
river to escape, it would soon be discovered. But it is quite possible, that, after the 
lapse of a few hours, the crack might close again, and leave scarcely any external 
traces of its existence. Still, we cannot help thinking that some traces should be 
discoverable ; and this b just one of the points on which our provincial readers may 
be able to affDrd information. 

*' We shall conclude by suggesting one or two points, to which, if any of our readers 
would be so obliging as to investigate the subject, their attention may be directed ; 
and we doubt not, other points will occur to themselves : — 

" 1. Have phenomena, similar to those which occurred in the Teviot, the Clyde, 
and the Nith, on the 27th of November last, been observed^ on the same day, or 
about the same time, in any other rivers in Great Britain ? 

" 2. If so, at what hour were they first observed, and how long did they continue? 

" 3. Where is the highest place, in the course of the river, where its waters dis- 
appeared? 

"4, Was any crack, or fissure, or sinking, or disturbance of the ground, visible at 
that place ? 

'* 5. Was the shock of an earthquake felt, anywhere, about the period above 
mentioned ? 

" 6. Was there much or any ice on the river, or its tributaries, where the aforesaid 
phenomenon occurred ? 

" 7. When the water began to flow again, did it rise to a higher level than it had 
been at previously ? 

"8. Is there any appearance of a slip, fault, dyke, or trouble in the strata, at or 
near the place where the waters began to disappear ? 

" 9- Has thb phenomenon, or anything similar to it, been observed in former 
yearH — and when ? 

" We may also repeat the queries 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, with regard to the stoppage 
of the Teviot, Clyde, and Nidi ; for on the subjects of those queries with regard to 
the phenomenon of the 27th of November, we are as yet uninformed." 

See also some analogous facts mentioned by Perrey in his memoir " On the Elarth- 
quakes of £urope, and adjacent parts of Africa and Asia, from 1801 to 1843 " 
(Comptes Rendus, Sept. 1843, last page but one of the memou*). Most of these phe- 
nomena have occurred in the winter and in higher latitudes ; and although there are 
considerable difficulties in the way of the frost theory of accounting for them, and I 
incline to the view that it will hereafter be found to be the true one, yet there is 
sufficient to induce the question — Can it be po$sible that partial or local elevations, 
with or without fractures or earthquake, uSae place occasionally, and to such an 
extent as to change the levels of portions of the earth's surface, and for a time 
derange the flow of rivers, or other such main chanDels of drainage ? 

Those who embrace the views of Von Bnch and Humboldt, &c., and admit the 
possibility of bounoujffU domes of trachyte, will be prepared to find no difficulty in 
imagining such comparatively small surfaces elevated and swollen up, by the assumed 
elastic forces beneath, so as to produce new and extemporaneous water-sheds ; and 
although I cannot join in such views, the subject appears to me worthy of more exa- 
mination at the hands of Vulcanologists and Seismologists. 



NauBea at the moment of shock, — This curious effect of earthquake shock upon 
human beings, and if accounts are to be credited, also upon some domestic animals, 
is deserving of more attention than it has yet received. 

The fact itself, as respects human beings, admits of no doubt. I have direct 
testimony of the boys of a large boarding-school being suddenly awakened at night 
by one of the North American shocks, and the greater number suffering from imme- 

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134 REPORT— 1858. 

diate sense of nausea, amoanting to vomiting in many cases. In the late earth- 
quake at Naples (Dec. 1857) many instances were related to me by the sofferers. 
The question arises. Is the nausea an effect of the sudden disturbance of the 
nervous system by alarm, &c., or is it due to the movement itself, and analogous 
to sea-sickness ? There are great difficulties in the way of either solution. Those 
most likely to suffer severely from nervous alarm^ do not seem to be those most usu* 
ally affected. The direct movements are very generally too sudden, sharp, and of 
too little duration, to admit of the second explanation. The facts, however, require 
to be more numerous, and to be scientifically collected and classified as soon after 
the occurrence as possible, and are commended to such physiologists as may be 
favourably circumstanced for the observation in earthquake regions. 



Indirect estmation of the force due to tfie shock, — In our ignorance of the precise 
nature of the originating impulse, whether of one or of more than one sort, or of the 
degree of force at the centre of impulse necessary to transmit a wave, sensibly, to a 
given distance through the common formations of the earth's crust, any trustworthy 
observations, of the distance to which the very analogous blow produced by fired 
mines, or other masses of gunpowder, has been sensibly conveyed, are not to be 
at present neglected. The 2nd Report gives exact information as to the distances to 
which such impulses from fired powder, even of a feeble character, may be conveyed 
through the worst conducting material (sand), and made instrumentally sensible. 

I have collected since that period a few occasional notices of the explosions of 
large masses of gunpowder, and of such facts as may be found, of the magnitude and 
distance of the impulse conveyed, which I here transcribe for reference. It would 
be very desirable that officers of engineers entrusted with demolitions, or requiring 
to explode very large masses of powder, would endeavour to provide for obtaining 
observations as to the precise radius of the superficial area at which the ground 
shock became insensible without the aid of instruments, and that such observations 
were accompanied by a general account of the nature of the geological formation, 
and of the physical features of the country around. 

"The Monster Blast at Furness.— The monster blast of gunpowder at Furness 
Granite Quarry took place on Wednesday afternoon, with complete success. The 
charge consbted of no less than three tons of gunpowder, and was deposited in two 
chambers— one and a half ton in each. The shaft was 60 feet in depth, and the 
chambers in which the powder was placed were 17 feet long. The charge was 
ignited by a galvanic battery, and lifted an immense mass of rock, computed to have 
been between 7000 and 8000 tons. The flame belched out on the seaward side, 
and was well seen by a large concourse of spectators from Inverary, the watering 
places of the Clyde, and a party of excursionists from Glasgow, on board the ' Mary 
Jane.' The report was not loud, but deep and hoarse, and the ground in a very wide 
circle was strongly agitated." — Glasgow Constitutional, October 5, 1852. 

The ' Journal de Turin* of the 29th ult. has, under the head of "latest intelligence," 
the following paragraph : — "Turin, 11*45 a.m. Two successive shocks have been 
felt like those of an earthquake. The powder magazine of Borgo Dora has ex- 
ploded. The popiilation is hurrying to the scene of disaster. The rappel is being 
beaten. All the faubourg is on fire. A barrack has fallen down. Two hundred 
deaths are spoken of."— Saunders's Newsletter, May 1852. 

It is quite probable that both in this case and in that of the magazine at Mayence, 
which subsequently exploded, information might still be obtained as to the weight of 
powd^t.to^'tCnd tne extreme distance to which the shock was felt. 

fmprovement of the Port of Brest. — The ' Moniteur de la Flotte ' states that M. 
Verrier, engineer, charged with the work of clearing away the Rose Rock, which 
obstructs the entrance of a part of the harbour of Brest, called the Penfield, made 
an experiment a few days ago, which was perfectly successful. One of the convicts, 
covered with a diving-dress, descended to the rock at half-tide, and deposited a box 
full of gunpowder, to which were fitted two gutta-percha tubes, also similarly filled. 
As soon as the man had come up, a light was applied to the tobes, and shortly after 
a loud cracking noise was heard, and a large column of water, with fragments of 
stone and a quantity of sand and mud, were thrown up to the height of 20 feet. 
The commotion was so great, that the Bastion de la Rose, which stands near. 

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ON THB PACTS AND THEORY OF BARTHQUAKB PHBNOMENA. 135 

trembled to ita foondfttioo. The mass thus moved has been considerable/' — ^Timee, 
April 17th, 1857. 

The following is the ' Times ' account of one of the explosions at the siege of 
Sebastopol : — 

•"Hiursday, Aug. 30, 1856. — ^The whole of the camp was shaken thid morning 
at 1 o'clock by a prodigious explosion, which produced the effects of an earthquake. 
A deplorable accident had occurred to oar gallant allies as they were pursuing their 
works with accustomed energy. A tumbrel, from which they were discharging 
powder into one of the magazmes near the Mamelon, was struck by a shell from 
the Russian batteries, which burst as it crashed through the roof of the carriage, and 
ignited the cartridges within ; the flames caught the powder in the magazine, and, 
with a hideous roar, 14,000 rounds of gunpowder rushed forth in a volcano of fire to 
the skies, shattering to atoms the magazine, the tumbrels, and all the surrounding 
works, and whirling from its centre in all directions over the face of the Mamelon 
and beyond it 150 ofllcers and men. Masses of earth, gabions, stones, fragments of 
carriages, and heavy shot were hurled far into our works on the left of the French, 
and wounded several of oar men. The light of the explosion was not great, but 
the roar and shock of the earth were very considerable. The heaviest sleepers awoke 
and rushed out of their tents. The weight of powder exploded was about seven 
tons, or 1400 rounds of lOlbs. each." — ^Times, Sept. 13, 1855. 

The following is part of the French account of Uie expedition against Kertch :r- 

" May 26th, 1855. — Fmally, before evacuating Yenikale, they blew up a powder 
magazine, containing about 30,000 kilogrammes of powder : the shock was so great, 
that many houses were destroyed, and vessels anchored ten miles out at sea felt it 
severely." — * Moniteur ' quoted by ' Times,' June 1855. 

And the following of the great explosion in the camp before Sebastopol, on the 
15th of November 1855 :— 

" Shortly after 3 o'clock on Thursday afternoon the whole camp, from Inkermann 
to far beyond Cathcart's Hill, was literally shaken throughout every square foot of 
its area, by the most tremendous explosion that has ever echoed through these 
Crimean hills. A greater quantity of gunpowder itself may have been exploded in 
some of the magazines discharged for the destruction of the buildings and works 
after the abandonment of the ruined city and fortress; but this is doubtful, and 
certainly there were never fired at the same time so great a number and variety of 
deadly and explosive projectiles. The force of the blow from the impelled air, the 
stunning noise, the flashing of the fire, the suffocating smoke, arrested every reason- 
ing faculty, and took away all sense, save the instinctive impulse to fly from the 
source of evil. Among the regiments themselves of the light division, whether in 
tents or huts, a sudden sensation was felt as if of an upheaving of the ground, at the 
same time thst a violent shock was experienced from the concussion of the air. 
Almost instantly followed the load report of the explosion ; not sounding as if a 
single charge or magazine had been fired, and without the ringing tone or decided 
character of a salvo of artillery j but seeming rather as if a number of magazines had 
been discharged, one after the other, so rapidly, that all the reports were blended into 
one. As the thunder of the first report subsided, its place was occupied by the 
sharp cracking sounds of shells bursting high in the air, the rush of fragments falling 
to the ground, and the loud bangs of shells which had been scattered and were ex- 
ploding on all sides. Simultaneous with these, almost from the very commencement, 
was the crushing of wooden huts, splitting of timbers, and noise of falling glass from 
the broken windows. The tents were violently agitated, and sometimes the cords 
or poles were snapped asunder. Then followed a continued succession of minor 
reports, and the roar of flames, and crackling of burning wood, as the fire advanced 
and increased among the huts and artillery stores of the siege train d^p6t8. To say 
that it equalled in violence the combined salvos of a thousand parks of artillery 
might seem extravagant ; and yet the simile would but feebly convey an idea of the 
volume of thundering sound tnat shook the earth for miles around, tearing down 
the most substantial masonry and wooden huts, and levelling tents as by the sweep 
of some invisible giant>arm. I had seen the explosions on and after the 8th of 
September, which so many pens have since described ; but no half-dozen of them 



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1S6 REPORT — 1858. 

together would have equalled this one, either in force or sound. Over an area of 
nearly half a mile from the spot of itsoccurrence, the air was one huge column of powder 
smoke and cast-up earth, up into and athwart which ignited or exploding shells 
and rockets ever and anon darted and flashed by hundreds, spreading destruction to 
nearly everything animate and inanimate, within a radius of more than a thousand 
yards. Heavy siege guns were vnrenched from their carriages and thrown many 
perches from where they had been standing, whilst the carriages themselves were 
torn asunder." — London Express, Nov. 29, 1855. 

The following notices of the Great Blast at Seaford Cliff are extracted from 
' Saunders's Newsletter' of September 15, 1856 : — 

"The great explosion at Seaford. — There has been a great concourse of visitors in 
this little town today to witness the operation of ' blasting,' by the explosion of 
gunpowder, an immense mass of chalk cliff from Uie heights down upon the beach, 
there to form a barrier which may check the drifting of die shingle towards Beachy 
Head and the east. The ground about Seaford for two miles to the west lies low, 
and there is nothing to protect it from the inroad of the sea at high tides but a 
narrow beach bank of shmgle. This barrier is becoming gradually weaker in con- 
sequence of the tendency of the shingle to drift away, and it has become a matter of 
urgent moment that this should be stayed. Close to Seaford, on its eastern side, 
rises a noble line of cliff, in some places 300 feet high, and averaging above 200. It 
was determined to project a huge slice of the cliff on to the beach, with a view 
thereby to constitute a groin for Uie purpose of retaining the shingle and preventing 
its leaving the bay. The operations have been conductml by the Board of Ordnance. 
The spot selected is not much above half a mile to the east of Seaford. At a height 
of about 50 feet above high- water- mark there was driven into the cliff, or excavated, 
a tunnel or gaUery 70 feet long, 6 feet high, 5 feet broad, ascending with a slope of 
1 in 3. At the inland extremity it turned right and left in the heart of the cliff, 
above 50 feet one way and above 60 the other, with a more gentle ascent, the two 
smaller galleries being 4 feet 6 inches high, and 3 feet 6 inches broad, and the three 
being in the form of a capital T. At the utmost end of each of the side or cross galleries 
was a chamber, 7 feet cube, lined with wood ; and in each chamber a charge of no 
less than 12,000 lbs. of gunpowder was deposited ; making the distance of the centre 
of the charge 70 feet from the face of the cliff towards the sea, and about 70 feet 
above high- water mark. The galleries were * tamped,' that is, stopped up, with bags 
of sand, and chalk in bags and loose, to within 50 feet of the mouth, both branches 
being tamped up, and 20 feet down the large gallery. It was not till 12 minutes 
past 3 o'clock, that suddenly the whole cliff, fdong a width or frontage of some 
120 feet, bent forwards towards the sea, cracked in every direction, crumbled into 
pieces, and fell upon the beach in front of it, forming a bank down which large 
portions of the falling mass glided slowly into the sea for several yards like a stream 
of lava flowing into &e water. The whole multitude upon the beach seemed for a 
few moments paralysed and awe-struck by the strange movement, and the slightly 
trembling ground ; everyone sought to know vnth a glance that the mass had not 
force enough to come near him, and that the cliff under which he stood was safe. 
There was no verv loud report ; the rumbling noise was probably not heard a mile 
off, and was perhaps caused by the splitting of the cliff and fall of the fragments. 
There seemed to be no smoke, but there was a tremendous shower of dust. Those 
who were in boats a little way out state that they felt a slight shock. It was much 
stronger on the top of the cliff. Persons standing there felt staggered by the shaking 
of the ground, and one of the batteries was thrown down by it. In Seaford, too, 
three quarters of a mile off, glasses upon the table were shaken, and one chimney fell. 
At Newhaven, a distance of three miles, the shock was sensibly felt The mass 
which came down is larger than was expected ; it forms an irregular heap, apparently 
about 300 feet broad, of a height varying from 40 to 100 feet, and running 200 or 
250 feet or more seaward, which is considerably beyond low-water mark. It is 
thought that it comprises nearly 300,000 tons." 

These meagre and most imperfect accounts, as respects the object here in view, 
will however, it may be hoped, direct future attention to more precise observation of 
the data required. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



A CATALOGUE OP OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 137 



Report on Observations of Luminous Meteors^ 1857-58. By the Rev. 
Baden Powell, 3f.-4.,F.R./Sf.,F.ft.-4.S.,F.G.S., SavilianProfessor 
of Geometry in the University of Oxford. 

During the year which has elapsed since my last Report to the British Asso- 
ciation, I have received a considerable number of communications of meteor 
observations from various observers, especially, as on so many former occasions, 
from Mr. £. J. Lowe, as well as from other friends, to whom I am happy to 
add on this occasion the names of Dr. J. H. Gladstone and Mr. G. J. Symons. 
The last-named observer is the only one who has recorded any remarkable 
number as seen at the August period. He has communicated many seen 
on the lOth of August, 1856, and a still larger number o^oti/ the corresponding 
time in 1858, few, however, on the lOth, but a great number on the 13th. In 
some parts of England the lOth was cloudy. 

Of the various theories which have been proposed to explain the nature of 
luminous meteors, some were alluded to in the Report of last year. At the 
meeting of the British Association at which that Report was presented, a paper 
was also communicated by Mr. Daniel Vaughan, of Cincinnati, U. S., in which 
he proposed another hypothesis which seems to have considerable claims on 
our attention ; it has also been given at large in his recent work entitled 
" Popular Physical Astronomy." 

The main principle of this theory is, that the author conceives the lumini- 
ferons ether diffused through space, but to obedience to the law of gravita- 
tion condensed round large bodies, in a more intense degree in proportion to 
their mass. Hence in our system it is immensely condensed round the sun, 
but feebly round the planets. When in this state of condensation, it is capable 
of being acted upon so as to produce the most intense light and heat As 
existing round our earth, it can only be sufficiently condensed to produce such 
effects by the immense local compression arising from the rapid motion of 
meteorites. Hence their luminosity, even when far above the atmosphere ; but 
on entering it, the compression is so great, according to the author s calcula- 
tion, as to crush them to pieces. 

Tlie details of this theory are given in the Appendix (No. 1), by some 
extracts from the author's work, and also in a letter addressed by him to the 
author of this Report, with the view to correct some misapprehensions of the 
theory which have been entertained. 

In the Appendix (No. 2) there is given a statement which has appeared in 
print, of a very singular luminous phenomenon, the nature of which it is diffi- 
cult to conjecture ; but it has the appearance of being the account of a plain 
matter-of-fact witness, who offers no comment or conjecture. To these, one 
or two other communications have been added. 

List of Meteors observed up to August 1857» by G. J. Symons, M.B.M.S., 
at Camden Town, London. 



Date. 


TuDe. 


Mag. 


Direction. 


Track. 


Remarki. 


1855. 
Dec. 13 

30 


h m 

9 10 p.ni. 

9 Op.m. 


3 
2 


SW.-NW. 
NS.-8B. 




Very near the horizon. 



1858. 



Digitized by LaOOQlC 



138 



REPORT — 1858. 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Direction. 


Track. 


Remarks. 


1856. 
March 6 


h m 
9 48 p.m. 


4 


88B. 


// 




June 411 5 p.m. 


3 


ESB. 


>» 


Very bright though smalL 


Aug. 210 8 p.m. 
3 8 10 p.m. 
7 9 48 p.m. 


2 
3 
3 


NW.-B. 
E.-SB. 
E8B.-E. 


-X5t^ 


r Several small ones not noted. 

Moved very slowly. 
[ Numerous smaller ones. 


9 


10 52 p.m. 


2 


fB. 




Train visible for 10 seconds. 




11 30 30 p.m. 


n 


WNW. 


Train visible for 30 seconds. 


10 


8 a.m. 


3 


NB.-NNE. 






13 a.m. 


3 


NB.~8. 


^^S:* 






15 a.m. 


3 


8B. 


// 






18 a.m. 


3 


WNW. 


> 






28 50 a.m. 


4 


B. 


Ji 






31 a.m. 


2 


B.-8B. 








35 a.m. 


4 


B8B. 


? 






37 a.m. 


4 


8B. 


^ 






1 1a.m. 


2 


SB. 


^ 






1 10 a.m. 


2 


SB. 


\\ 






1 12 a.m. 


1 


SB. 


^\ 






1 13 a.m. 


4 


B. 








1 18 a.m. 


1 


8B. 








1 22 a.m. 
1 24 a.m. 


1 
2 


Close to the 
PolarStarto S. 

SB. 


.-^ 


Train visible for 30 seconds. 




129 a.m. 


3 


8B. 








9 7 p.m. 


9 


N.-8. 


^ 


See note. 




9 15 p.m. 


3 


8B.-W. 


1^ 






9 18 p.m. 


2 


NB. 


\. 






9 25 p.m. 


4 


B. 








9 28 p.m. 


4 


8. 








9 31 p.m. 


3 


S.-NB. 








9 54 p.m. 


3 


B.-8. 


>sr' 






9 59 p.m. 


3 


B.-8. 


>-•• 


Exactly similartotheone preceding 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



A GATALOQUE OP OBSBRVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 139 



Date. 



Time. 



Mag. 



Direction. 



Track. 



Remarks. 



1856. 
Aog. 10 



Sept. 4 
29 
Oct 13 



Nov. 6 

8 
1857. 
April 6 

19 

20 



231 
May 11 
July 14 
15 
24 

25 



26 



h m 

10 5p.in. 

10 12 p.m. 

9 54 p.m. 

U 48 p.m. 

10 30 p.m. 

10 35 p.m. 

11 p.m. 
11 7 p.m. 

10 48 p.m. 

11 28 p.m. 

9 47 30 p.m. 
1 8 a.m. 
9 35 p.m. 
10 10 p.m. 

10 51 p.m. 

11 1p.m. 
11 2 p.m. 
U 15 p.m. 

9 15 30 p.m. 
9 51 50 p.m. 
11 7 p.m. 

10 46 pjn. 

11 34 p.m. 

10 32 pjB. 
10 35 p.m. 
10 49 p.m. 
10 50 p.m. 
10 56 p.m. 
10 56 30 p.m. 
4 a.m. 



3 
3 
2 
2 
1 
2 
3 
3 
3 
1 
1 
1 
3 
4 
5 

2 

(Jin 
opp. 

I 
3 
2 
4 
2 



B.-6B. 
NB.-8. 
NB.-8W. 
B8B. 
8.-W. 
N.-S. 
S. 

a. 

8. 

NB.-NW. 

NW. 

S8W. 

B. 
8W. 

B.-srw. 

88B. 

If .-8. 

MB. 

BNB.-B. 

SB.-B8B. 

8W.-NB. 

Zenith-8sw. 

B. 

8.-N. 

NB.-KW. 

NNW.-8. 

SB. 

NB.-NNW. 

i».-Mirw. 

SB.-lf. 






Across the zenith. 



Across the zenith. 



/f 






i 



Brilliant white. 

From near «Persei to near 9 .White. 

From near Arcturus to near Spica 
Virginis. 

Pale white. 
Across the zenith. 

Train visible for 15 seconds. 



Very slow in its movement 

Across the zenith, only visible fSmr 

abont 5*". 
Train visible for 5 sees. ; very rapid. 

Like Sirius in colonr, but nearly 
double its apparent brilliancy. 
See note. 

Across the zenith. 



Near « Ursse Minoris. 

Train luted 5 seconds. 
Train lasted 2 seconds. 
Train lasted 5 seconds. 



l2 

Digitized by i^jOOQlC 



140 



REPORT — 1856, 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Direction. 


Track. 


Remarks. 


1857. 
Aug. 1 


h m 

8 10 a.m. 


n 


B8B. 


// 


Moved very slowly, varied in lostre. 




45 a.m. 


2 


Zenith-NNB. 


/r 






46 a.m. 


3 


8K.-8SB. 


ss* 




2 


10 2 p.m. 
10 7 p.m. 


3 
2 


NNE.-NNW. 
NNB. 




From near /3 Cassiopeiae to near 

Dubbe. 
From near y Cassiopeiaedownwards 




to 8 p.m. 


2 


N.-8. 


^ 






10 20 p.m. 


2 


N.-W. 


^ 


Very swift 


28 


10 28 p.m. 


3 


N. 


/t 






10 29 p.m. 


4 


W. 


-^ 






10 44 p.m. 


2 


B.-88B. 


^*3N 






10 49 p.m. 


... 


BNB. 


// 


See note. 




10 55 p.m. 


1 


B.-SB. 


i^ 


Rapid motion. 




10 59 p.m. 


1 


8B. 


i:^ 


Train of white Ughc 



Additional Notes. 
1856. 
August 10th, 9^ 7°* p.m. — This meteor passed N. to S., passing within about 
10^ of the zenith, leaving a train of light like luminous vapour, which, in 
spite of the remaining twilight, was visible upwards of a minute. 

1857. 

July 24th, 1 1^* 34.™ p.m. — Remarkable for the extraordinary rapidity of its 
motion. 

August 28th, 10** 49™ p.m. — This meteor appeared (while I was watching 
the constellation) between the stars a and y Cassiopeise, of a light blue tint, 
and apparently double the size of Sirius ; as it passed downwards it increased 
greatly in magnitude, assuming the appearance of an oval disc of a bright 
violet colour, and leaving a train of brilliant gold-coloured sparks. 

List of Meteors from January to September 1858. 

Observed by G. J. Symons, M.B.^f.S., at 27 Queen's Road, 

Camden Town, London. 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Colour. 


Train. 


Direction. 


1858. 
Jan. 14 

30 
Apr.17 

18 
19 


h m 

9 19 p.m. 

10 42 p.m. 
9 13 p.m. 

9 14 p.m. 
1 1a.m. 


=2XV 
2 

3 

1 


blue 

green 
yellow 

white 
white 


none 

red sparks 
none 

none 
none 


Vertically from a pomt 3*" W. of If. 

towards the horizon. 
FromMuaca towards € Andromeds. 
From p UrssB Maioris towards 

eHydne. 
FromvHerculis towards «Htrcalis. 
From « CoronsB Borealis towards 

Spica Virginia. 



Digitized by ^OOQlC 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OP LUMINOUS METEORS. 141 



Date. 



Time. 



Mag. 



Colour. 



Train. 



Direction. 



1858. 
June 1 



h m s 
10 24 30 p.] 

10 51 p.m. 

11 50 p.m. 
13 11 23 p.m. 



16 

Jnl728 



31 



Aug. 1 



3 a.m. 
9 12 20 p.m. 

10 46 p.m. 

26 20 a.m. 

42 a.m. 

1 1 50 a.m. 
1 5 ajn. 

22 25 a.m. 

36 a.m. 
39 a.m. 
42 a.m. 
49 a.m. 
59 20 a.m. 

11 47 p.m. 

11 49 p.m. 

11 (M pju. 

4 a.m. 
6 a.m. 
6 10 a.m. 

32 a.m. 
35 a.m. 



11 48 p.m. 

11 57 p.m. 

9 12 a.m. 

9 41 pjn. 

9 28 p.m. 
11 1 p.m. 
11 1p.m. 



11 7 p.m. 
11 22 p.m. 
11 24 30 p.m. 
1126 10 p.m. 
11 37 p.m. 

11 38 p.m. 
11 42 30 p.m. 
11 44 p.m. 
11 54 p.m. 
9 11 43 p.m. 
1147 p.m. 
1147 10 p.m. 



12i 5 40 a.m. 



2 
2 
3 
3 
2 
2 

1 

2 

1 
3 

1 

2 
2 



3 

2 

1 

>1 

2 



variable. 
1 
2 
2 
2 
3 

2 



white 

white 
white 
white 

bine 

white 

white 

white 

duUyelL 

brill, wh. 

white 
brilLwh. 

yellow 
white 
white 
white 
white 
white 

white 

white 

white 
white 
white 

blue 
white 



whitish 
yellow 

>» 
white 
yellow 
white 
white 
white 



white 
white 
blue 
white 
white 

brilLwh. 

See Note, 
white 
white 
white 
white 
white 

white 



Prom 7 Bootis towards Cor CarolL (Very 

slowly.) 
From y Serpentis towards P Libre, 
none Prom Coma Berenices towards 9 Virginia, 
none Prom € Corons Borealis towards Spica Vir- 

ginis. 
none From 3^ S. of Arctunis towards X Libne. 
broad From Z Ursae Migoris towards r Bootis. 
none From u Lyrse towards « Ophinchi. 
slight From Vega towards € Herculis. (Swift.) 
none From /i towards € Ophiuchi. (Very slow.) 
alight From Altair towards r OphiachL (Swift.) 
none From e Aquilae towards 9 Herculis. 
visible for From y Draconis towards • Corone Borealis. 
(Very swift.) 
Prom P Cygni towards « Ursae Majoris. 
From M HerouUs towurds Arcturus. 
From X Bootis towards Cor CarolL 
Prom P Cygni towards e Urse Maoris. 
From ft Herculis towards Corona Borealis. 
From 9 Herculis towards q Ursae Mijoris. 

(Rather ftiint.) 
Prom p Draconis towards y Bootis. (Very 

bright.) 
From y Draconis towards q Coronas Borea- 
lis. (Swift.) 
Prom e Herculis towards d Ophiuchi. 
Prom p Cygni towards e Delphim. 
From Altair towards Scutum Sobienski. 

(Rapid.) 
From 9 Draconis towards y Serpentis. 
From y Ophiuchi towards p Herculis. (Un< 
dulating course.) 



5 seconds 
none 
none 
none 
none 
none 
none 

none 

none 

ndne 

none 
long and 
brilliant 

white 

none 



none 

slight 
none 
none 
none 
none 
none 



none 

none 

wh. train 

vis. 7 sees, 

none 

none 

none 
none 
none 
none 
none 

none 



From«UrsaeMigoristowardsx Ursae Mijoris. 

Prom f| Cygni towards w Draconis. (Fdnt.) 

From r Herculis towards € Ursae Majoris. 

From d Cassiopeiae towards Capella. 

From Capella towards Castor. 

From a point 10** N. of Vega, at an ansle of 
about SO*' with the horizon, and before it 
had disappeared (certainly within 2 se< 
conds),a small one crossed it in the oppo- 
site dUection, but at a similar angle. 

Prom u Herculis towards y Serpentis. 

From Vega towards m Ophiuchi. 

Prom < Herculis towards m Herculis. 

From 1^ Cygni towards y Ophiuchi. 

From i Aquilae towards Corona Borealis. 
(Paint.) 

From 9 Draconis towards i Bootis. 

Prom Cor Carol! towards Coma Berenices. 

Prom • Draconis towards Arcturus. 

Prom p Cygni towards • Ophiuchi 

From X Herculis towarda p Ophiucht 

From V Draconis towards /i Bootis. 

From V Draconis towards /» Bootis. (Exactly 
in the same track as the forc^ing.) 

Prom P Cygni towards Taurus Poniatowski. 



Digitized by ^OOQlC 



142 



REPORT — 1858. 



Date. 


Time. 


Mag. 


Colour. 


Train. 




1858. 


far m 8 










Aug. 12 


17 30 a.m. 


2 


^hite 


none 


From VeKa towards P Ophinchi. 

From Z Ursae Migoris towards Coma Bere- 

nices. 
From P Herculis towards • Serpentis. 




20 EJn. 


3 


^hite 


none 




21 20 «.m. 


2 


white 


none 




24 30 a.in. 


1 


white 


none 


Fromy Ophiuchi towards Scutum Sobienski. 
From IT Herculis towards u Herculis. 




33 a.m. 


>1 


white 


none 




38 a.m. 


2 


white 


slight 


From ti UrssB Majoris tovrards Arcturas. 




41 20 a.m. 


2nd and 


yellow 


none 


From y towards ilr, ^^ 
then turned towards ( ) y^. 
IT Bootis. (Very ^ .A 






thenlst. 


























slow.) )hM€$nm9 




49 30 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From • Draconis towards y Bootis. 
From y Draconis towards Corona Borealis. 
Prom P Capricomi towards ir SagittariL 




53 10 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 




55 35 a.m. 


>2xl8 


t green 


none 


13 


30 30 8.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From ff Cygni towards e Aquilas. 




34aJD. 


3 


white 


none 


From € Herculis towards v Serpentis. 




36 30 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 






37 40 a.m. 


>1 


white 


slight in 
the mid- 
die of its 
track, but 
fading at 
both ends 


Ftom c Herculis towards p Coronse Borealis. 




41 30 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From y Lyne towards v OphiuchL 




50 30 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 




55 a.m. 


1 


blue 


slight 


From 6 Cygni towards « Lyne. 




58 30 a.m. 


>1 


white 


none 


Prom 1** S. of Vega towards 17 Serpentis. 




1 1 10 a.ro. 


2 


white 


none 


From • Cassiopeitt towards r Cygni. 




1 7 30 a.m. 


I 


white 


none 


From 6 Pegasi towards p Aquarii. 




1 7 45 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From p Aquilse towards I Sagittarii. (Very 
slow.) 1 
From p Aquilae towards I Sagittarii. 




1 10 30 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 




1 1130 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From t Cygni towards e Cygni. 

From p Draconis towards 5^ below Vega. 




1 12 35 a.m. 


3 


white 


none 




1 15 30 ajn. 


2 


white 


nonev 


From « Draconis towards Corona Bornlis. 
(Faint) 

From 3*' N. of Vega towards « Coronae Bo- 
realis. 

From K Cygni towards 9 Herculis. 




1 18 30 a.m. 


-? 


green 


none 




9 55 p.m. 


1 


white 


sUght 




9 57 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From 9 Cygni towards « Aquils. 




10 8 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


Prom « Persei towards/3 Andromedv. (Slow.) 




10 12 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From ft Ursse Majoris towards Aictunis. 




10 17 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From y LyrsB towards « Herculis. 
From Polaris towards Z Aurigse. 




10 19 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 




10 20 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


Prom r Herculis towards € Bootis. 




10 22 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From 3** W. of y Ursae Maoris towards 
Coma Berenices. 




10 24 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From /I Cassiopeia towards Mirach. 




10 45 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 






10 48 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From e Draconis towards Corona Borealis. 1 




10 55 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From ^ Cygni towards < Aquilae. 
From y Draconis towards p Herculis. 




10 57 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 




10 59 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


Prom ^ Ophiuchi towards 6 Ophiacbi. 




11 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From between Vega and y Draconis towards 
/i Herculis. 




11 1p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


Prom i Bootis towards Coma Berenices. 




11 2 p.m. 


1 


red 


vis. for 4- 


From y Ursae Minoris towards Cor Caroli. 




11 5 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From 9 Cygni towards r Herculis. 




11 10 p.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From y Ursse Minoris towards Corona Bo- 
realis. 














1132 p.m. 


variable. 


See 


Note. 


From K Draconis towards Cor Caroli. 



Digitized by ^OOQl€ 



A CATALOOUB OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS MBT£OR8. 143 



Dste. 


•nmc 


Mag. 


Colomr. 


Train. 


Direction. 


1858. 


h m 










Aug. 13 


1137p.iD. 


4 


white 


uone 


From p Ursae Minoris towards Polaris. 
Extraordinarily brilliant ; I never saw so 
smaU an object give so much light. 




11 48 p.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From d Persei towards Pleiades. 


14 


5 a.m. 


4 


white 


none 


From • Persei tovrards 9 Aurigas. 




15 a.m. 


1 


white 


vis. for 3' 


Prom Pohuis towards Castor. 




7 a.in. 


3 


white 


none 


From d Cassiopeiae towards i Persei. 




17 10 a.m. 


1 


white 


slight 


Prom 7 Persei towards y Draconis. 




19 1.01. 


1 


white 


none 


Rrom p UrssB Migoris towards X Ursae Ma- 




23 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


joris. 
Fromy Ursae Minoris towardsiyUrssB Mijoris. 


16 


9 20 pjn. 


2 


white 


none 


From tf UrssB Migoris towards r Bootis. 




9 33 p.m. 


> 1 


white 


vivid wh. 


From • Cygni towards u Aquiln. 
From d Lyras towards p Ophiuchi. 
From f| Pegasi towards • Pegasi. 




10 44 p.m. 


2 


white 


vivid wh. 




10 47 p.m. 


1 


white 


long 




10 51 p.m. 


3 


white 


none 


From < Pegasi towards /S Lyne. 


17 


47 a.m. 


1 


white 


none 


From Polaris towards • Ophinchi. No va- 
riation in brilliancy throoghoat its coarse. 




49 a.m. 


2 


white 


none 


From • Cygni towards e Aquilae. 



Smaller Mereors were observed on every clear evening between August Ist 
and 17th, and numbered from 20 to SO per hour on the 8th, Uth, and 12th. 



Additional Notes on the Meteors of August Sth and ISth. 

August Sth, 11^ 42" SO* p.m. — This meteor (which was the finest of the 
period), when first seen, appeared the size of a star of the first magnitude ; 
after passing somewhat obliquely for about 5^ and in- 
creasing in size, it suddenly threw off a shower of in- 
tensely brilliant green sparks, and at the same instant 
disappeared ; just as the sparks were fading away, it 
reappeared about S° lower, of a pale pink colour, and 
much larger than before ; af^er passing about 4^ further, 
it assumed a globular form and instantaneously disap- 
peared. At this time its apparent diameter was between 
5' and 6'. The accompanying sketch b copied from 
the original in the Observation Book. It must, how- 
ever, be understood that the appearances were really 
fit succession. 

August ISth, 11^ S2°» p.m. — This meteor was remark- 
able for varying from considerably brighter than a first 
magnitude star to less than a fourth at intervals of 
about T". 




^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



144 



RBPORT — 1858. 



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Draco 

Hercules 

Lyra 

Ursa Major 

Ursa Minor 

Aquila 

Bootes 

Ophiuchus 

Perseus 

Cassiopeia 

Pegasus 

Corona Borealis 

Musca 

Cor Caroli 

Coma Berenices 

Serpens ...••*.•........••.• 

Capricomus 

Auriga 


1 


1 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



A CATALOGUB OF OB8BRYATION8 OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 145 



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146 



RBPORT — 1858. 



Older Observations by E. J, Lowe, Esq., 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1853. 
Oct. 31 

Nov. 1 



2 

7 
1854 
Aug. 16 



h m 
8 20 

8 30 

8 40 

8 50 

9 25 

12 30 a.m 

12 31 a.m 

8 57 p.m 

8 25 

9 14 



Small, 3rd mag. 
2nd size, of 1st mag.* 
Similar............ 

2nd size Saturn 
=slst mag.* , 



Colourless 



Yellow . 
YeUow. 



Blue, increased 
in brilliancy. 
Blue 



Streamers * 

Long train 

Tiain 

Broke into separate balls. 
Train 



=to Saturn 

Similar 

=»2ndmag.* 

3 times size of '4 



YeUow. 
YeUow. 
Bluish . 



TaU 

Tail 

Stream left , 



1st mag.*.< 



More orange in 
colour than 

Orange 



Without streak, but broke 
into two balls and dis- 
appeared. 



Rapid 

Slow, duratton 1^ 

sec 
Rapid 

Duration 2 seca. . . 

Duration 1 sec. •. 

Medium pace 

Medium pace 

Duration 0*5 sec... 

Duration 1^ see. 
slow. 



Slow. 



Observations of Luminous Meteors, 



1857. 
Sept 16 11 3 



29 



Oct. 8 



I — 2nd mag.* Blue 



11 3 2 



10 14 30 



In theeven< 
ing* 



==2nd mag.* 



s6 times 1^. From 
the moment it be- 
came visible it in- 
creased rapidly in 
size until it was « 6 
times diameter of 
2^ , disappearing 
suddenly when at its 
maximum bright- 
ness. 



Blue. 



Intense blue, 
very bright. 



2nd&3rdmag. 



Streak, 



Streak , 



No streak left after the 
meteor had vanished. 
No noise heard. 



Slow, duration 0*6 
sec. 

Slow, duration 0*5 
sec 

Duration 1^ sec; 
moved over 11° 
of sky. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



A CATALOGUB OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS MBTBORS. 147 



not inserted in former Catalogues. 



Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


Perpendic. down from under y 

Pegan. 
From y Pisdnm to n Aqoarii... 

Perpendic down from /5 Dcl- 
phinL 


Aurora Borealii ... 


Beeston 


B. J. Lowe 


Mr. Lowe's MS. 




Ibid. 


Id 


Ibid. 


Ibid. 


Id 


Ibid. 










Moved horizontally towards N., 
passing near Capella. 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 










Perpendic down passing imme- 
diately thnmgfa Castor. 




Ibid. 


Id 


Ibid. 










rhroQgfa « to y Arietis 




Ibid. 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 


Perpendic. down throng Bigel 
Prom « to • Ursae Majoris 

Prom Si 14»» 54". decL H^ N. 




Ibid 


Id 


Aurora Borealis ... 
From 8^ tiU 10^, 


Ibid. 


Id 


Ibid. 
Ibid. 


Ibid 


Id 


to Si W^b^r, decL 7^40^ 


lightning in N. 








S., fisding away near ) Librae. 










tVcrots the same Dath...^ 




ihiil 


Id 


Ibid. 


by E. J. Lowe, Esq., 1857-58. 






Passed through m Pegasi »nd fell 
downwards towards the E. at 




Hiffhfield House 
Observatory. 


B. J. Lowe 


M S.comrounication 
to Prof. PowelL 




an angle of 45^ 










This stuted at n Pegasi, and 
followed the same track as 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 


to be connected 








the last meteor. 


with the last. 








N., passing 2*" B. of the star 




Ibid 


Id 


Ibid. 










« Urw Midoris and 2^ 15' B. 










of /3 Ursae Migoris, disappear. 
inR 3^ below and 2*15^^8. of 
iSUnae Majoris. 










V V 1 // ^ 








W 1 i/y 








The preceding edge was drcolar 


^o\l//x 








and well-^efini^ but in every 


X^^'^v^ 








other direction it ended in 










long streaks of light not un- 










like streams of Aurora Bore- 


k 








slis in form, yet very like 


f 








dectric liffht in brightness. 
A lunar halo and faint Aurora 


i 








Y 








Borealis at the time, the 










temperature dl'^'S, wind S., 










and ahnost calm ; clouds few 










cirri orerhead, with a white 










•trstus in the valley. 












Several meteors ... 


Ibid. 


Id 


Ibid. 









Digitized by ^OOQlC 



148 



REPORT 1858. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1857. 
Nov. 13 



h m 
7 59 



- 2^ in size and bright- 
ness. 



Greenish . 



Burst into three balls, and 
left a streak behind. 



Duration 3 ac 
motion alow. 



23 



Dec 7 



19 

1858, 
Feb. 7 



In evening. 
11 37 45 



Twice the size and 
twice the brightness 

of n. 



Yellowish, the 
streak being 
a milky-wh. 



In evening. 



Leaving a streak behind in 
its path, which was very 
brilliant, and which 
lasted nearly 5 minutes 
after the meteor itself 
had vanished. 



10 59 

11 10 

8 3 



6 25 
8 11 



' 1st mag.*... 
= lst mag.*.., 

s2nd mag.* 



Bluish , 
Bluish , 



-2nd mag.* , 

»in size to Saturn., 



Colourless 



Colouriess .. 
Blue 



Leaving a train 

Separate sparks left behind 



April 9 



In evening. 



SmaU 



10 

May 31 

July 21 
Sept 12 



2 a.m. 



=2nd mag.* 



11 30 

11 

8 29 30 
8 30 



—ith apparent dia* 
meter of ([. 



Colourless un- 
til met by a 
coruscation, 
and then 
golden and 
brighter. 

Bine , 



stwicesize '4 



Colouriess .. 



—4 times size of 1st 
mag.* 
4 times size of 1st 
mag.» 



Exceedingly 
brilliant. 

Exceedingly 
brilliant. 



Leaving a streak. 



Train 



Burst into fragments . 



No train 



Leaving a long train in its 

track. 
Leaving a lengthy train in 

its path. 



Rapid ; duration of 
ftlling throngfa 
20'' of space only 
0-2 sec 



Rapid 
Rapid 



Duration 0*3 sec.. 



Rapid 

Slow, duration 2 



Medium rate 



Instantlydisi^pear- 
ed. 



Slow.. 



Duration 0*8 sec.. 
Duration 0*8 sec.., 



Digitized by ^OOQlC 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS O^ LUMINOUS METEORS. 149 



Direction or Altitude. 


General remarks. 


Place. 


Observer. 


Reference. 


MoTcd from • Pegasi to Jupi- 
ter, burst into tbree balls, 
which fell perpendicularly 
down. 




Hiffhfield House 
Observatory. 

Ibid. 


E. J. Lowe 

Id 


to Prof. Powell. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Ibid. 

Mr. Lowe's MS. 

Ibid. 
Ibid. 


Several meteors ... 

The colour of the 
meteor different 
to that of the 
streak. Aurora 
Borealis at the 
time. 

Manymeteor8,e8pe- 
dally about 11 
o'clock. 


Pell almost perpendicularly 

W., starting from a position 
about 2f* perpendicularly un- 
der Japiter, and falling 20^ 


Ibid. ,., 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Passed throuffh Ursa Maior . . . 


Ibid 


Id 


Geminomm. 
Shot horizontally across fi Arie- 
tis from the direction of Ju- 

Fdl down throuirb Aries 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid 


Id 




Ibid. 


Id 


In S.S.E., moYiog downwards 
towards S. at an anele of 50^ 
and passing from about half- 
way between ty and C Hydrse 
to near No. 19 in Argo Navis. 

In aU directions, especially near 
the zenith. 

Horiiontafly in N.W. at an ele- 
vation of 35^ 

Sky overcast, except an opening 
in E.S.E. at 10^ above hori- 
zon. The meteor appeared 
m this opening. 

lnS.it an altitude of 30° mo- 
ving towards S.W. horizon, at 

^ Mingle of 45^ 

Moved from Vulpecula through 

mg down through fi Lyrae to 


The form circular 
and well-defined. 
The meteor came 
frtmi behind a 
dense cloud, and 
had the appear- 
ance of passing 
beneath some 
woolly cumuli ; 
yet probably this 
was a deception. 

Manysmall meteors, 
but their paths 
not noted, as at- 
tentionwas taken 
up with a magni- 
ficent Aurora Bo- 
realis which was 
occurring at the 
time. (See April 
10th.) 

This meteor, when 
it met a corusca- 
tion of Aurora 
Borealis,instantly 
became golden & 
much brighter. 

Nighthot,temp.65° 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 


Ibid 


Id 




Observatory, 

Beeston. 
Ibid 


Id 


Similar in erery re- 
spect to the last. 


Id 







Digitized by V^OOQlC 



150 



RBPORT — 1858. 



Date. 



Hour. 



Appeartnce and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colonr. 



Train or Sparks. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1858. 
Sept. 12 



30 



h m 
8 31 



30 = twice that of Mars Bxceedlngly 
at time of opposi- bright co- 



7 51 



Oct 8 

9 



In evening. 
In eyening. 
7 13 



7 27 



tion. Form circu- 
lar andwell-defined. 



lour, an m- 
tense blue. 



Leaving a slight streak in 
its track. 



Duration 2 i 



■from 2nd to 3rd Colourless 
mag.*, shape elon- 
gate. 



B2nd mag.* 



«> 1st mag.*.. 



Same body seemed to dis- 
appear and reappear 21 
times. 



Tolerablyrapid, da-* 
ration 0*8 sec 



Colourless 



Bluish. 



Streak, 



Long tail, and leaving a 
streak in its track. 



Very rapid 



Motion slow, dart' 
tion 1*15 sec 



Observations of Luminous Meteors 



1857. 
Aug. 25 



1858. 
Jan. 10 

31 



8 30 p.m. Brilliant baU»p 



8 17 pun. 
10 40 p.m. 



Brilliant 



Bright meteor » moon 
and in form of a 
crescent,asif 5or6 
days old; became 
elongated a little, 
and fell roiatmff; 
diameter of circle 
of rotation being 
about 3 times the 
diameter of the 
crescent. 




On bnrstine threw out 
shower of fire and disap- 
peared in about 2 sees. 



alContlnued about 3 
sees., then burst. 



Broke into brilliant reddish 
fragments. 

Threw off large sparks and 
disappeared below hori- 
zon. 




Digitized by LjOOQIC 



A CATALOGUE OF OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METEORS. 151 



Direction or Altitude. 



Path from the Sword-handle oi 
Perseus, moTing downwards 
towurds the N., passing S^ 
aboTe C^iella and almost 
through % Aurig», fieuUng 
away near that star. 

FeU perpendicularly down, or 
rather nearly so, and moving 
parallel with and l*" W. of the 
superior edge of Donati's 
Comet. Had the appearance 
of moving behind some 
opake bo^, as the same 
shaped object disappeared 
and reappeared 21 times. 



)f|Night remarkably 
clear and cloud- 
Day had 
been very hot, 
temp, in shade 
reaching S(f'b, 



Moved as if it had crossed Do- 
nati's Comet, and was first 

I seen near the nucleus on W. 

• side of Comet 

Moved downwards from the 
direction of the star X Dra- 
conis, and crossing the star 
X Urse Majoris. 



from various Observers. 



General remarks. 



Place. 



Observer. 



Observatory, 
Beeston. 




Reference. 



Mr. Lowe's MS. 



Ibid. 



Ibid. 
Ibid. 
Ibid. 



Ibid. 



Deaeended from N. in a curved 

line towards E. 
In N.W. nearly opposite }> 

140<» (about) distant. 




Southsea, 
Portsmouth. 



UttleWoodhouse 
near Leeds. 

Fern's Plat, St. 
Day, Cornwall. 



nearlMr. S. Atkin ofiMS. 
Liverpool, Mr. 
W. J. Hay, 
Chemist to the 
Dockyard, and 
Mr. W. W. 
Hayes. 
W. Braithvraite, 

Surgeon. 
J. Jeffery... 



communica- 
tion. 



Manchester Guard. 

ian. 
Times, Feb. 4, 1858, 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



152 



REPORT — 1858. 



Date. 



Hoar. 



Appearance and 
Magnitude. 



Brightness 
and Colour. 



Train or Spates. 



Velocity or 
Duration. 



1858. 
Sept. 30 

May 4 



Aug. 8 



13 



h m 

8 45 p.m. 



8 45 p.m. 



6 39 p.m. 



Dec 5 



4 45 p.ro. 



Two meteors near to- 
gether. 

Ignited globe 



Bright. 



= v. 



=|}). Uniform until 
ihe moment of ya- 
niihing, when it got 
sensibly smaller and 
disappeared as a 
point. 



Round and larger than 
If, ; then divided 
into two» one Roing 
in advance of the 
other. Both disiq^ 
peared suddenly. 



Brilliant white 



Very brilliant. 
At first light, 
blue, then 
green, and 
finally a red 
point. Shape 
round, no 
change of 
form. 

Bright white.. 



Bright streak left behind, 
lasting about 1 sec. 

Fell down into a farm-yard. 
Exploded with a loud 
report ; incandescent 
fragments flew in differ- 
ent directions ; one hit a 
cow. 

After meteor had passed, 
streak remainedyisible 3 
or 4 sees., having a wavy 
motion,filling up exactly 
the distance between 
Polaris and fi Ursae Min 

Train 12 times the length 
of the meteor ; slightly 
concaye to the horizon ; 
uniform in size ; appear- 
ed to vanish before the 
meteor vanished ; colour 
a whitish red ; sparks 
very few, whitish. 

Train afier disappearance.. 



Instantaneous . 



Neariy 2^ seconds, 
ratherslowerthan 
ordinary meteors, 
and not quite nni- J 
form, appearing] 
to be retarded 
before vanishing. 



Almost instanta- 
neous. 



APPENDIX. 

Ko. 1. — Extracts from the section od Meteorites, d-c, of a work entitled 
*' Popular Physical Astronomj/' by Daniel Vaughan. Cincinnati, U.S., 1858 
(p. 82 ei seq.y 

After mentioning some of the well-known instances of large meteorites, the 
author observes that the average of observations shows about one fall annually 
in the extent of territory including the British Isles and France ; or in about 
y^th of the earth's surface. Chladni calculates that about 700 fall annually 
on our planet. Their mean velocity appears to be about equal, or even supe- 
rior to that of the earth in its orbit. [This result seems at variance with that 
assumed by Mr. Bompas : see last Report] Solid masses moving through 
the air experience or produce a pressure nearly proportional to the square of 
their velocity. This pressure the author calculates, on a mass entering our 
atmosphere with the velocity of a meteorite, would amount to 80 tons to the 
square inch, which would sufiice to crush it into fragments, especially if de- 
scending almost vertically ; when more oblique, the resistance and the chance 
of rupture will be less. 

This the author considers a sufficient cause to account for the seeming ex- 
plosion and noise. 

He next adverts to their luminosify. Some attribute this to the condensa- 
tion of the atmosphere by their velocity. But this he considers untenable, 
as in fact the most luminous meteors are those which move obliquely or even 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



A OATALOOUB OF OBSBRVATIONS OF LUMINOUS MBTB0R8. 15$ 



Direetkm or Altitade. 



fnm near 7 Andromedeto netr 
«LynB« 

Smell of ndphiir 



From Polaria through fi Ureee 
Minoris* Disi^peared behind 



When iint seen about 25^ above 
horizon S.S^. Diiappeared 
li laf' above horizonatS.S.W. 



ThroQ^the xenith from N.E 

ioa:w. 



General remarks. 



No hole found, but 
thestrawdisturb. 
ed and turned up 
where it felL 



Osborne Place, 
Old Trafford, 
Manchester. 

Qualnton,6miles 
N.W.ofAyles- 
bury. 



Stretton, near 
Ledbury. 



Place. 



G. V, Vernon, 
F.K.AS. 



Prof. Powell and 
family* 



Temple Gardens, 
London. 



Near WUIesden, 
Middlesex. 



Observer. 



MS. commnnici^ 
tion. 

Communicated by 
Mrs. Smyth, St 
John's Lodge, 
Aylesbury. 



J. Pope Hennesy 



Mrs. Baden 
Powell. 



Refertnce. 



MS. oomnmnicti* 
tion. 



horizontally. Of this he gives various striking instances. In fact, all the 
large, intensely brilliant meteors, move across tlie sky more or less horizon- 
tally, while those which fall near the perpendicular are always small and in- 
conspicuous. The paths of the large and brilliant meteors of Bononia 1670y 
of 1719 and 1783 in England, were horizontal, while those of Weston, U.S., 
1807, of Benares and of L*Aigle, which were less bright, moved in more in- 
clined paths. He observes that the most extraordinary circumstance is the 
enormous apparent nuignitude of the luminous mass or ball, as calculated from 
the ascertained distance. Thus the Weston meteor was 500 feet in diameter, 
and those of 1719 and 1783 were estimated at half a mile. Yet the quantity 
of matter known to fall has been but very small in comparison. It has been 
alleged that only a few fragments were attracted to the earth while the great 
mass rebounded from the atmosphere, a condition which the author contends 
18 impossible. He is of opinion that the actual solid masses of these bodies 
are very much smaller, and then adverts to the observations of Professor 
Lawrence Smith (of which an account was given in the last Report), who 
has assigned an optical cause for this phenomenon. 

The author, however, dissents from that conclusion, and alleges that the 
effect in the experiments there mentioned, of apparent great enlargement in 
the discs of luminous bodies seen at a distance, is really due not to any cause 
analogous to irradiation, or of an ocular kind, as there supposed, but simply 
to the reflective power of the atmosphere, which he oonsiders to be made out 
' 1858; M 

Digitized by i^JfOOQlC 



iSi HBPOliT— 1858. 

by placing near the luminous body any small reflecting substance, and ob- 
serving at a distance the illumination which it seems thus to spread to some 
distance around. In a word, he considers the effect in these experiments as 
due to illumincUed airy which became visible as distance rendered the glare 
of the bright central point less overpowering to the eye* 

Now this cause he contends cannot produce any effect in the case of 
meteors above the atmosphere, or even its higher rarefied regions. 

** Meteoric stones, fire-balls, and shooting-stars are only luminous at or 
beyond the boundary of our aerial atmosphere, and cease to be so on their 

entrance into the denser air Of the extraordinary illuminating power 

of the fluid which bums around shooting-stars, we may be convinced from 
the vast amount of light which these objects emit, compared with their dimi- 
nutive size. Although some observers, judging from their luminosity, have 
ascribed to them a diameter of from 80 to 120 feet, yet from the manner in 
which so many myriads of them have been lost in the atmosphero during the 
great meteoric showers of 1799 and 1833, we cannot assign to them a higher 
rank than hailstones or drops of rain, so far as actual magnitude is concerned." 
— (jp.Q5.) 

The author is led to his explanation of the luminosity of meteors from the 
theory of the solar light, which assigns to the external photosphere of his 
globe the locality of the luminous emanation ; and this photosphere he con- 
siders to arise simply from the intense condensation upon and near his surface, 
of the lumniferous ether^ the same as the resisting medium, diffused through 
the planetary spaces. He rejects the idea of combustion or chemical changes 
being the source of the sun's luminosity; as these must in time become 
exhausted^ and the supply of light and heat be consequently interrupted. He 
alludesto thequeryof Newton,asto whyand how it was that lucid matter should 
be separated and made to form the sun, while opake matter was distributed 
among the minor bodies of the system. He then adds^ — " But there is no 
neciessitv for this unnatural division of matter; since even if the sun were 
identical in composition with his attendants, yet in consequence of the great 
superiority of his attraction his surface would necessarily become the fpcu4 
In which the ether of space must display its Inciferous properties.**— (p. 98.) 

The same law he conceives to apply to the fixed stars ; he rejects the idea 
of the luminosity being due to any mechanical action on the ether dependent 
on the rotation of these bodies, for then Jupiter and Saturn, by reason of their 
far greater rotatory velocity, ought to be moro self-luminous than the sun. 
He contends that it is due to " the chemical action which may be expected 
to take place in the etherial fluid as it condensed around the great sphere.** 
—(p. 101.) 

He rabes other objections against the theory of Prof. W. Thompson, which 
was briefly described in a former Report, ascribing the solar light to the im- 
pact of innumerable meteors on his surface. 

'< The (etherial) fluid is so much rarefied in the interplanetary domain, 
that no chemical changes can take place between its elements, except where 
it is collected around the largest spheres and compressed by their powerful 
attraction. In obedience to the law of gravity, which exerts a universal 
control over all matter, atmospheres of the etherial fluid are collected around 
the earth and the other large planets, but they are not sufficiently dense for 
chemical action, except in cases where they receive an additional pressure 
from meteoric stones sweeping through them with furious rapidity. When 
these cosmical bodies, on falling to the earth's surface, move in adirection almost 
horizontal, they take a longer course through the verge of the atmospherei 
Bnd the etherial medium is stimulated to chemical activity by the presfure^ 

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A CATALOGUE OF OBSBRVATIONS OF LUMINOUS METB0R8. 155* 

not only from the meteoric mass itself, but also from the particles of air which 
it drives in every direction from its passage. As such a chemical action must 
be attended with a development of heat and light, it is not surprising that 
meteorites are luminous before reaching the confines of the air, and that their 
brilliancy is exhibited on a gigantic scale when their paths are almost parallel 
to the horizon."— (p. 93.) 

In further illustration of these views, and to correct some misapprehension 
which has existed respecting them, it will be desirable here to add an extract 
of a letter to Prof. Powell from Mr. Daniel Vaughan. 

*' Cindnnati, Ohio, October 9, 1858. 

^ I deem it necessary to offer an explanation of the main point of my theory, 
18 the idea I have endeavoured to convey in relation to it has not been cor« 
rectly understood. I therefore take the liberty to say, that I do not r^ard 
meteoric light as due to the presence of a luciferous atmosphere belonging to 
the meteorite itself; for I cannot believe that any appreciable quantity of 
ether or of inflammable gas could be confined around such small bodies, or 
retained by their feeble attractive power after they come in conflict with the 
air. On the contrary, I have maintained that the light arises from the atmo- 
sphere of luciferous ether, which envelopes the earth and which is rendered 
luminous by the powerful compression of meteorites as they move through it 
with immense velocities. 

** In obedience to the law of gravity, the ether of space must be condensed 
about all the large planets ; but it must undergo the greatest condensation 
at the surface of the sun. On this vast body the density is sufliciently great 
to admit an incessant chemical action, giving rise to an unfailing development 
of heat and light ; whereas, in the luciferous envelope of a planet, the same 
phenomenon cannot be expected, except on the fall of meteoric masses. Of 
the extent to which the compression of the ether is increased by falling me- 
teorites some idea may be collected from the fact, that a body flying near the 
earth's surface at the rate of 20 miles a second, would Impart to the air a 
pressure of 150,000 pounds to the square inch, or over ten thousand times 
the ordinary pressure of the atmospbere. We may therefore conclude that 
the etherial atmospheres of the several planets must display its illuminating 
power around the meteoric body, where it is compressed as intensely as it is 
on the sun's surface. 

** A certain degree of compression or density being necessary for chemical 
action in the ether which maintains solar light, it cannot manifest its light- 
producing energy in the wide domains of space, nor even on the planets, except 
in the rare cases of meteoric falls ; and it must make the largest spheres 
above the theatres of its luminous action. My theory, therefore, not only 
accounts for the fact that the planets are not self-luminous, but also gives 
intelligence of the vast size of the fixed stars. — Daniel Vaughan." 

Mr. Vaughan has given some account of his views to the British Associa- 
tion, 1857 ; see Sectional Proceedings, p. 42 : also in some Essays published 
in 1853 and ISSi, and in an article in the American Journal of Science and 
Art for May 1855. 

No. 2. — The subjoined extraordinary statement is copied from the * Times* 
of Dec 4. It bears the appearance of a simple straightforward account of 
fiicty the nature of which seems difficult to conjecture. It is here inserted 
simply in the hope of attracting attention, and that in time some light may 
b^ thrown upon it by other observations. 

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ISer . REPORT— 1858. 

Extract of a letter to the Editor of the Times, Dee. 4, 1858. 
"... Last night (Nov. 30), at 15 minutes to 9, it being very dark and raining 
heavily, I was ascending one of the steep hills in this neighbourhood, when 
Suddenly I was surrounded by a bright and powerful light which passed me 
a little quicker than the ordinary pace of man*s walking, leaving it dark as 
before. This day I have been informed that the light was seen by the sailors 
in the harbour, coming in from the sea and passing up the valley like a low 
cloud....— Jabez Brown." 
Bosctstle, Decl. 

No. 8. Oiiord, Sept. 13. 

At Si p.m. a luminous ball was seen in the region of the sky to the east of 
the moon, and higher than that luminary at the time. It appeared much 
larger and brighter than any star of the first magnitude. It carried with it 



a train or tail like the tail of the comet now visible, and of about the same 
length. First was seen the ball, — then the tail appeared, in a nearly horizontal 
Jiue, then ball and tail disappeared. It seemed as though it came out, ran 
along the sky for a short space, and then entered the sky again. — From a 
Lady in a letter to Professor Phillips. 

No. 4. — The following account of a meteor was communicated by Prof. 
Stevelly to the British Association, Section A, at the Meeting (1858Ji. 

" On Wednesday evening, the 7th of October, 1840, as a number of us 
were returning from a Lecture on Storms, delivered by Mr. Espy in the rooms 
of the Natural History and Philosophical Society of Belfast, as we were 
passing along the east side of College Square, a beautiful meteor appeared 
for a few seconds, almost due south of us, but a little to the west, and so 
bright that you could distinctly read by its light. It was then within about 
20 minutes to 10 o'clock ; the moon was shining, though at the moment ob- 
scured by a cloud ; and afterwards, when I found that others had seen the 
same meteor at a distance, we estimated, as accurately as we could, the alti- 
tude at which it had been seen, and found it at about SO^. On the night of 
Friday, the 9th, or two days after, I travelled to Dundalk by the Dublin mail 
coach, and the guard, Joseph Hill, asked me, had I seen the very brilliant 
flash of light on Wednesday evening, at about a quarter to ten o'clock. I 
told him I had, and inquired from him the particulars of where and how he 
saw it. He informed me of the place, which was about 5i miles out of 
Dublin, where tiie road was very straight, and' tending to the north. He had 
seen it, as he explained, almost overhead, but somewhat to his right hand, 
and it was so bright for some seconds that the entire place around was lighted 
tip so that a person could distinctly read by it It had, therefore, been ver- 
tically over a place about 75 Irish miles from Belfast, and from these data it 

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ON THE ANATOMY OF THB ARANEIDEA. ISJ 

is easy to calculate its altitude above the earth, which must have been about 
45 miles. A few days afterwards, the same guard, Joseph Hill, sent me th6 
following letter and extract from the 'Warder' Dublin newspaper of Satur« 
cbv the 10th, which confirms Hill's accuracy, as the correspondent of the 
* Warder' must have seen it on the opposite side of the place where it had 
been vertical from what we did : — 

Belfast, 12th October, 1840. 

SiRy — I had the pleasure also of seeing this phenomenon the same time 
as Correspondent. I was about 5^ miles on this side of Dublin when it hap- 
pened. — Voursy &c., Joseph Hill, Mail Guard. 

* Extraordinary Appearance intke Sky, — ( From a Correspondent) — About 
a quarter before ten o'clock on Wednesday, at an immense altitude, a white 
ball of fire appeared in the north-eastern part of the sky for a moment, and 
shot downwards, illuminating the whole heavens, and causing an extraordi- 
nary sensation in those who witnessed it before its descent. The ball was 
tinged with a beautiful violet blue.' — From the ^ Warder ' of Saturday, Octo* 
ber 10, 1840." 



On some Points in the Anatomy of the Araneidea, or true Spiders, 
especially on the internal structure of their Spinning Organs. By 
R. H. Meade, F.R.C.S. 

[A Communication ordered to be printed entire among the Reports.] 

It is not my intention in the present communication to enter generally into 
the anatomy of spiders, but to confine myself to an account of the arrange- 
ment and structure of the parts contained in the abdomen ; and more espe* 
cially to describe the glandular organs by which the silk forming their webs^ 
is secreted. 

I was led to undertake this investigation by the hope that an accurate exa- 
mination into the minute anatomical structure of the spinning organs might 
clear up some important differences of opinion as to their functions. Martin 
Lister, Cuvier and others, contend that spiders have the power of forcibly 
ejecting the fluid which forms the silk from their spinnerets ; and are thus 
able to propel a thread to a considerable distance, and in any direction. 
Both the above-named naturalists state that they have distinctly seen them 
shoot out their webs, but Mr. Blackwall (the greatest living authority on 
Arachnology) denies that they have any such power, and says that the tena- 
cious fluid is simply emitted from the extremity of the abdomen by pressing 
it against some fixed point, and then drawn out into a thread by a current of 
air, and wafted to some neighbouring object to which it adheres, or left 
floating in the atmosphere. Should my researches fail to clear up this inter- 
esting question, they may tend to elucidate some other curious points con« 
nected with the functions of the spinning organs, — such as the power which 
spiders have of forming different kinds of threads from the same spinnerets^ 
some of which are adhesive, while others have no viscidity, but simply form 
a framework to support the others. 

I met with considerable difficulties in the course of my investigations, had 
to make numerous dissections, and at last was unable to arrive at satisfactory 
conclusions on many points ; for the organs are so small and delicate, and 
become so brittle when the spiders have been preserved any time in spirits^ 
that it is not easy to separate them. Mv plan has been to dissect carefully 
in water or spirit, under a simple lens, and then to submit each portion sepa- 
rately to the action of a compound microscope. 

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t58 BBPOBT-^1668* 

The abdomen of spiders is covered by a tough iategumenty consistiiig of 
three layers : the external one is a thin transparent homy membrane, nearly 
colourless, but more or less densely covered with coloured hairs ; beneatn 
this lies a soft layer of pigmentary matter^ upon which the peculiar colour of 
the body depends ; for it may be observed, that, when the hairs with which 
the body of a spider is clothed are rubbed off, the integument beneath is 
usually of a dark tint The third or inner layer consists of an expanded 
network of muscular fibres, which are irregularly interlaced, and which must 
enable the spider forcibly to compress the abdomen. The muscles forming 
this layer are very faintly, if at all, marked with transverse strisB (see Plate XVL 
fig. 1). 

At the apex of the abdomen, on the under side, is the anal tubercle, partly 
concealing the opening of the intestinal canal ; and immediately in front of 
it are seated the spinnerets, a group of projecting processes or mammulae 'y 
mostly articulated, and moveable in all directions. Their number is gene- 
rally six, but sometimes they are reduced to four, and, as Mr. Blackwall dis- 
covered, they amount to eight in one family. They are placed in pairs» 
closely grouped together. When six in number, the two anterior and two 
posterior are much larger than the two intermediate ones, which in a state 
of repose are hidden beneath the others (see Plate XVI. figs. 2 and 3). The 
posterior spinnerets are often triarticulate, and have the terminal joints much 
prolonged and very hairy, when they have been called anal palpi, and supposed 
not to take any part in the construction of the webs ; Mr. Blackwell, how- 
ever, demonstrated their true character, showing that they are provided with 
moveable papillae for the transmission of the silk, like the others. The ex« 
ternal anatomy of the spinnerets has been so fully described by Mr. Black- 
wall *, who has shown the number and arrangement of these papillae, which 
vary greatly in different species and on the different spinnerets, that I need 
not dwell further upon them. In Plate XVI. fig. 6, 1 have represented some 
of them, which are like hollow bristles with dilated bases. 

In the spiders belonging to the family of the CinifioricUBy Blk. (the type 
of which is the common Ciniflo (Clubiona) atrox)^ there is a fourth pair of 
spinnerets. They are short, compressed, and inarticulate, and different in 
appearance from all the others. They are seated at the base, and in front 
of the ordinary anterior pair, and have each on the surface an oval flattened 
space perforated with an immense number of exceedingly minute pores, which 
are the orifices of the spinning tubes (see Plate XVI. fig. 5). 

The spinnerets are connected with the surrounding integument by means 
of diverging bands of muscular fibres (Plate XVI. fig. 3), which enable them 
to move in different directions ; these muscles are placed immediately beneath 
the skin, and their expanded extremities are inserted into it so that they are 
separated with it, unless dissected very carefully. 

. In the interior of the abdomen, nearer to the base than the apex, and in 
female specimens opposite the opening of the oviduct, is a fixed spot, pro- 
bably tendinous in character, from which muscular bands radiate in various 
directions, keeping the different abdominal organs in their places. Some of 
these bands are inserted into the integument on both the ventral and dorsal 
surfaces of the body ; others run backwards in straight parallel bundles, and 
pass into the interior of the different spinning mammulas. The last-men- 
tioned fibres are strongly striated (Plate XVI. fig. 7)) while those passing from 
the same point to the skin, like the muscles fixing the margins of the 
spinnerets to the integument, are almost destitute of striae. When the abdo- 

*** Report on the Araxuidea^ British AsMciationibr 1844. 

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ON THS ANATOMY OF TSV ABANBIDBA. If 9 

jnea is opened, a lai^e quantity of adipose matter comes into Tiew» which sup* 
ports and separates the different organs. In recent specimens this tiMue is 
formed into lobules, which are again connected by fine cellular tissue into 
larger lobes (see Plate XVL fig. 8) ; when, however, spiders have been kept for 
some time in spirit, the connecting tissue disappears, the lobules break, up, 
and a mere unconnected granular mass remains. This reservoir of fat is a 
storehouse of nutriment, which enables spiders to bear very long abstinence ; 
and when they have been deprived of food for a long while, the abdomcQ 
becomes small and shriveled. This adipose matter was described by Cuvier 
and others as the liver. The chief organs which the abdomen contains are 
the ovaries (in the female), the intestinal canal, and the glands for the secret 
tion of the silk. The ovaries, which shortly before the deposition of the eggs 
occupy a large portion of the cavity, are seated in the central and posterior 
part ; the intestinal tube runs through it, in nearly a straight direction, from 
the base to the apex ; and the sacs and tubes which elaborate the material 
for forming the webs, are placed in the lower, lateral, and anterior parts. | 
shall confine myself to the anatomy of the last-named structures, merely 
noticing with r^ard to one of the others, that I have generally observed the 
lower part of the intestinal canal to be filled with a whitish turbid excre* 
mentitious fluid, sometimes mixed with black particles*. After having been 
some time in spirit, this fluid is converted into a whitish substance of the 
consistence of mortar. 

The silk-glands, with their excretory tubes, which I shall now proceed to 
describe in detail, are very numerous, and of very beautiful construction. 
They essentially consist of a number of hollow cavities or sacs, of different 
sizes and shapes, each of which is furnished with a distinct duct* None of 
them or their ducts have any communication with each other, but terminate 
separatelv at the extremities of the spinnerets. The nature and construction 
of^ the glands are essentially similar in all the species of British and foreign 
spiders that I have dissected, though they differ greatly in form and number. 
As might be expected, they are most highly developed in the web-spinning 
species ; while in those that hunt for their prey, as the LycossB, they are few 
and small in com^mrison, with the exception of those species which are aero* 
oautic in their young state. They appear to be sinular in the males and 
females. 

When the integument of the lower and front part of the abdomen is re« 
moved, together with a thin layer of fat, and the muscles which move the 
spinnerets, a large bunch of minute vesicles (just visible to the naked eye in 
a large spider, such as Epeira diadema) is brought into view ; these, exa- 
mined by the microscope, are found to be small transparent oval sacs about 
200th of an inch in diameter in Ep, diademoy with fine and exceedingly 
elastic ducts, which proceed in bundles into the anterior and posterior pairs 
of spinnerets ; few, if any, terminating in the intermediate pair. When accu* 
lately examined, these small glands are found to be of two kinds ; the most 
sup^cial, which are fewer in number than the others in Ep, diadema, are 
spindle-shaped, and imbedded in oval capsules of an opake finely granular 
substance, which is brittle and easily rubbed off, when pressed between two 
pieces of glass. I have endeavoured to represent these in Plate XVI. fig. 10 a, 
and fig. 11. The other cells, which are more deeply seated, are exceedingly 
numerous in some species ; they are nearly transparent, l>ut when examined 
by a good glass look as if they were embossed, or covered with little eleva» 

. ' Mr. BlsdcwsU aotioed that the exorement of i^plders often oontaioed these Usck piiw 
tletes, i^ch bad pEeviomly been descrllxed as calculi. 



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i^O BBPOftT— 1858* 

tions. I think this is an optical illusion, and that the appearance is due t6 
the interior being furnished ^rith numerous cavities or hollows (Plate XVL 
fig. 106, and fig. 12). 

In Ciniflo atrox and C.ferox^ and probably in the other species of the same 
family, there are a number of very minute sacs, imbedded in granular opake 
matter, which are not more than a fourth of the size of those which I have 
before described ; they are of a round or pear-like shape, with the appearance 
of a nucleus in the interior, and are furnished with exceedingly minute ducts* 
I found tbem close to the spinarets, beneath the skin, and their ducts pro^ 
bably proceed to the minute orifices on the extremity of the extra pair of 
spinnerets ; but owing to their extreme delicacy, I could not succeed in tracing 
them there ^Plate XVL fig. IS). 

In the middle and even upper parts of the abdomen are a number of tubular 
or bag-shaped cavities, which vary much in shape, number, size, and structure 
in different species; some are hard and cartilaginous in consistence, with 
transparent walls ; these present no appearance of fibres under the micro* 
scope, but when forcibly compressed, crack and break into irregular frag* 
ments. Their ducts seem similar in structure to the body of the sac, being 
hard and brittle. In JEpeira diadema and Ep, quadrata these glands are of 
a large size ; in the former species there are six of them, three being on each 
side; they are somewhat cylindrical in shape, and very much convoluted 
(see Plate XVII. fig. 1 a). I succeeded in tracing one of their ducts into each 
of the six ordinary spinnerets. In Agdena labyrirUhioa they are represented 
by several oval-shaped sacs, of moderate size (see Plate XVII. fig. 1 c), quite 
transparent, and so firm in consistence, that they feel like solid bodies when 
taken between the fingers. 

We now come to a series of membranous sacs, of various shapes and sizes, 
some being large and vermiform, others club-shaped, while others are dilated 
in the middle and furnished with branched caeca. All these different forms 
do not occur in the same individual, but some in one species and some in 
another ; they all appear, however, to resemble each other more or less in 
structure. When any of the larger varieties are minutely examined, their 
walls appear thickened and fibrous. Their inner surface is studded with mi* 
nute cavities or hollows, giving it somewhat the appearance of the interior of a 
piece of human intestine, with its valvuUe conniventes; thus affording an in* 
Creased surface for secretion. When carefully removed from the surround- 
ing textures, they all appear coated externally by soH; granular matter. I 
think it probable that the blood or nutritive fluid which supplies the mate* 
rials for secretion circulates in this coat, which must therefore be considered 
as the cortical part of the gland. These sacs are well seen in Agelena laby^ 
rinthuxh where they are met with of a large tubular or clavate shape. I 
have figured three (Plate XVII. fig. 7), the ducts of which I found terminating 
in one of the elongated posterior spinners ; fully confirming Mr. Blackwall's 
opinion as to the true nature of these anal palpi, as they have been called. 
In Ciniflo ferox I noticed two large branched sacs of a very peculiar form 
(see Plate XVII. fig. 6). 

One of the most interesting parts of the structure of these membranous 
sacs is the formation of their excretory ducts. A transparent and highly 
extensible tube is encircled by a fibrous or muscular coat, which loosely sur^ 
rounds it, and seems to be a continuation of the outer coat of the sac itsdf. 
When the ducts are stretched, which they unavoidably are in their removal 
from the body, this breaks up into circular rings and becomes loose from the 
tube within, which is exceedingly extensible, and stretches out so as to be- 
come much less in diameter than the outer coat. This structure may be very 

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ON THE ANATOMY OF TRB ABANEIDEA. l6l 

plunly seen in Agehna labyrifUhica and Cini/ioferoXf but is still more distinct 
in some large foreign spiders. I have figured a sac and tube taken from a 
large species of OlioSf which I had an opportunity of dissecting through tbd 
kindness of Dr. Gray of the British Museum (Plate XVII. fig. 5 ). The ducts 
from these glands seem principally to terminate in the posterior and interme^ 
diate spinnerets, but I have traced some of them (especially in Cinifioferox) 
into the anterior pair. When dissecting a large specimen of Mygatcy I found 
that the fine ducts proceeding from the numerous small oval glands in the 
vicinity of the spinnerets had all the same structure as those I have described 
(Rate XVI. fig. 126). I have noticed that some of the larger ducts proceed 
parallel with, and are partly imbedded in, the fibres of the muscular bandd 
which extend into the interior of the spinnerets (see Plate XVII. fig. 8). 

I shall now endeavour to draw a few physiological inferences from the facts 
I have imperfectly related. Every papilla or spinning tube is furnished with 
a aeparate duct, so that each thread which a spider spins is secreted by a 
distinct gland having no communication with its neighbours ; and there cad 
be no doubt that different varieties of silk are secreted by the different kinds 
of glands ; but it b exceedingly difficult to demonstrate the fact, as no direct 
experiments can well be made in proof of it Treviranus says that he thinks 
the small glands near the spinnerets of Ciniflo atrox^ the existence of which 
he ascertained (I do not mean the minute ones connected with the additional 
spinnerets), contain a different kind of fluid from that in the large sacs ; but 
they are so small, that I do not think it possible to determine the nature of 
their contents except by the colour, and that must be influenced by the struc- 
tare of the walls of the sacs or glands. 

We have seen that the secreting glands are of very different sizes and kinds $ 
the orifices in the spinnerets, and the spinnerets themselves, are also different ; 
and reasoning upon these facts, and upon some points which may be con- 
sidered as proved, in the economy of the spinning organs, I think we may be 
justified iu drawing certain conclusions, or rather offering suggestions as to 
their uses. 

I have said that in Ciniflo cUrox and allied species there is a distinct pair 
of supplementary spinnerets, furnished with a fine sieve-like surface, for the 
emission of a number of exceedingly delicate threads ; there are also a num- 
ber of very small and peculiar looking cells, apparently connected with these 
spinners; now Mr. Blackwall has distinctly shown that these spinnerets per- 
form a peculiar function, spinning exceedingly fine lines of pale blue silk^ 
which is woven into a flocculus, as he calls it, by a most beautiful comb or 
calamistrum connected with the hind legs*, which flocculus performs a pecu« 
liar office in the webs of this spider. In this case there are a distinct set of 
glands, connected exclusively with a distinct pair of spinnerets, so that it Is 
very easy to determine their functions ; the other glands, however, have not 
peculiar spinnerets to themselves ; therefore there must be a greater uncer* 
tainty in hazarding opinions as to their uses. 

By far the most numerous, and most constant in size and shape, of the 
spinning glands in spiders generally, are the small ones seated near the spin-* 
nerets; these probably secrete the finer threads which form the more deli- 
cate textures of their webs, construct the cocoons in which they enclose their 
eggs, and the retreats in which some of the species conceal themselves. 

I remarked that the hard cartilaginous sacs were peculiarly large and 
numerous in the geometric spiders, as Epeira diadema. 1 would suggest 
that they secrete the adhesive threads, which are spirally fixed upon the 

* Beiearches in Zoology, p. 273* 

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%e2 BBPOBT— 1858. 

framework of elastic filaments first constructed. The common house spider 
(Tegenaria eiviiis) is said to form no adhesive lines, and I have been unable 
to find any of the cartilaginous glands in its abdomen. 

We now come to the consideration of the various shaped membranous sacsy 
ihe ducts of which are much larger than in the cartilaginous kind, and, as I 
have shown, are furnished with a fibrous coat arranged in distinct rings. I 
have no doubt that these sacs form the fluid which constructs all the strong 
Don-adhesive threads spun by spiders, and also the floating lines or gossamer 
of the aeronautic species. In support of the latter assertion, I have found 
that two of the most common among the aerial spiders, viz. Lyco»a saccaia 
pud Thamistu crisiatuSf contain these sacs in great size and number; whereas 
they are erratic species spinning no regular webs, and therefore having no 
other apparent use for them. In most other species of LycossB the spinning 
organs are in a very rudimentary state. 

I have now arrived at the most interesting, but most difficult part of my 
task, viz. the question whether there b anything in the structure of the silk- 
forming organs that will decide the question as to the power of spiders to 
eject their threads to a distance. Looking at the strong fibrous coat on the 
ducts of the membranous sacs, and the fibrous tissue surrounding the glands 
themselves, I think that they must possess a powerful contractile power, which 
may also be increased by the muscular coat of the integument enabling the 
spider to compress its abdomen : may not the striated bands of muscular 
fibres, which run in a parallel direction down the middle of the abdomeq 
quite into the interior of the spinnerets, and surround the termiuation of the 
ducts, also assist in this object ? They are not attached to the tegumentary 
coverings of the spinnerets like the other muscles, and cannot thei*efore be 
for the purpose of moving these processes ; their action must be to draw the 
spinnerets inwards. On examination of the pectoral muscles which connect 
the legs with the cephalothoraz, and which possess great power, to enable 
the spider to perform its various active movements, I found that they pre- 
sented exactly the same microscopic appearances as the deep abdominal 
muscles, being very strongly striated ; I therefore conclude that the latter 
perform some very active functions. 

. In adopting the conclusion that spiders have the power of forcibly pro- 
pelling the silky fluid from their spinners, I know that I am running counter 
to the convictions of Mr. Black wall, for whose opinion on all points con- 
nected with Arachnology I have the greatest veneration. That patient and 
acute observer based his views upon the result of many carefully conducted 
experiments ; he found that spiders, when placed upon an upright stick which 
had its base fixed in water, could not escape when they were covered by a 
glass shade, so as to prevent any movement of the air ; but when left un- 
covered, in the ordinary atmosphere of a room, they emitted a little fiuid 
from their spinnerets, which was drawn out into a tiiread by the slightest 
current of air, and soon became attached to some neighbouring object. I 
think it very probable that a current of air may thus draw out these almost 
imponderable lines in some cases, but I consider that we cannot thus account 
for the formation of their threads under all circumstances and in all places. 
We have also the testimony of Cuvier and others, that spiders sometimes 
eject their threads simultaneously in opposite directions. Cuvier has seen 
this feat performed by a Thomisus*^ and Kirby and Spence quote an obser- 
vation made by an anonymous author, who says he saw a small spider shoot 
out obliquely in opposite directions small threads, which attached themselves 

* BdgDeAniinsL 

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ON THB ANATOMY OF THB ABANBIDBA. 18S 

in die still air of a room, without any influence of the wind, to the objecti 
iowards which they were directed *. 

Spiders are exceedingly sagacious, and vary the expedients which they 
adopt to escape from confinement or to reach a neighbouring object. I was 
much interested lately in observing one (Epeira incUnaia) shift its position. 
It was on a horizontal piece of wood, and wished to reach another piece 
placed about a foot beneath it, and at a short distance from it laterally. It 
Suddenly dropped, spinning a thread as it fell, which of course it had first 
fixed to the wood above. When it had fkllen to a little below the level of 
the ol^'ect which it wished to reach, it stopped itself by catching the line with 
one of its feeU and remained suspended in the air by the thread. It now 
made several violent jerkiog movements, and thus acquired a swinging mo- 
tion, which it managed to increase until it brought itself into contact with 
the neighbouring object: as soon as this was effected, it clambered on to it, 
and walked leiBurely away. 

Explanation of the Plates. 

Plate XVI. 
Fig. 1. Portion of the muscular layer of integument. 
Fig. 2* Spinnerets from a large species of Olios. 
Fig. S. Spinnerets of Epeira diademoy with motor muscles. 
Fig. 4. Portion of one of the same muscles, greatly magnified, showing its 

attachment to the skin. 
Fig. 5* Spinnerets of Cini/h ferox : — a. Extra spinnerets, which form the 

flocculus ; b. Cribriform surface on the same* 
Fig* 6. a, Papill89 or spinning tubes on a portion of a spinneret; ft. Highly 

magnified view of one papilla* 
Fig. 7« Striated muscle from the interior of abdomen :— a. Bundle of fibres i 

b. One fibre, highly magnified. 
Fig. 8* Fat lobules. 
Fig. 9* Interior of the abdomen of Epiira diadema^ showing the silk-glands 

in situ. 
Fig* 10. One of the spinnerets oi Epeira dktdemat with portions of striated 

muscle, and some of the small oval and fusiform glands attached. 
Fig. 1 1 • Two of the fusiform glands, with their granular capsules highly 

magnified. 
Fig. 12. a* Oval gland, from Epeira diadema, showing its embossed appear* 

ance ; b, Ditto, from a large species of Jdygaky showing its duct 

with a fibrous covering. 
Fig. IS. Minute glands near the supplementary spinners in Ciniflo atroxi 

two ordinary glands appear with them. 

Plate XVII. 
Fig* 1* Cartilaginous or hard silk-glands: — a and b. Two varieties from 

Epeira dicuiema; c. Variety from Ageleria labyrinthica* 
Fig. 2. Membranous sac and duct from Agelma labyrinthica* 
Fig. S. A portion of the body of the same, highly magnified. 
Fig. 4. A portion of the duct of the same, highly magnified. 
Fig. 5* X«arge sac from a species of Olios : — a. A portion of the duct of the 

same, showing the fibrous coat 
Fig* 6* Peculiar shaped sac, with branched csBca, from Ciniflo atrox. 

* Introduction to Entomology, 3rd edit, vol i. p. 418, 

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164 H&PORT — 1858. 

Fig. 7* One of the posterior triarticulate spinners from AgeUna lahyrinthicay 

with spinning glands attached. 
Fig* 8. Portions of duct, from spinning glands imbedded in muscle, just as 

thej are entering one of the spinnerets. 



The Patent Laws.— Report of the Committee of the British Associaiioiu 
Presented by W. Fairbairn, F.RS. 

The subject of the Patent Laws has frequently occupied the attention of 
meetings of the Britbh Association, and committees have from time to time 
been appointed for the purpose of considering bow those laws might be 
rendered more efficient for the objects with which they are maintained* 
The Rev, Vernon Harcourt, in the inaugural address at the first meeting of 
the Association, held at York (September 1831), in which he expounded 
the objects and plan of the Association, referred to those laws as an instance 
in which fiscal regulations interfered with the progress of practical science, 
and as failing to give protection to property in scientific invention to the 
same extent as protection is given to every other species of property ; and 
he suggested a revision of those laws as one of the subjects to which a 
scientific association might be justly expected to call public attention ; and 
Sir David Brewster, and others, have on several occasions brought the 
subject before meetings of the Association. 

By the Patent Law Amendment Act, passed in the session of 1852, the 
rights of the inventor to property in the ofikpring of his brain, and in the 
creations of his intellect when embodied in products of national industry, were 
fully recognized ; provisional protection to that property was secured to such 
inventor from the date of his application for a patent ; one proceeding was sub* 
stituted, and one patent issued, extending to the whole of the United Kingdom, 
instead of three proceedings and three patents separate and distinct for each 
of the three countries, England, Scotland and Ireland ; property was created 
and protection obtained for six months by a payment of £5 ; for three years 
by a payment of £25 ; and for the further terms of four and seven years, by 
additional payments of £50 and £100 respectively, instead of by the pay- 
ment of upwards of £300 in the first instance, under circumstances of such 
uncertainty as threw discredit on the whole system ; the specifications of all 
patents are to be printed and published, and sold at extremely low prices ; a 
benefit to the public as well as the inventor, which it would be difficult to 
estimate too highly ; and, lastly, provision was made for the regulation of 
matters relating to patents by commissioners furnished with ample powers 
for the purpose. 

Tbb Act came into operation on the 1st of October, 1852, and the ex- 
perience of the first two years showed that the payments by inventors upon 
the above scale of charges would be at the rate of more than £50,000 per 
annum, without including the further or additional payments for the main* 
tenance of the patents for the further terms of four and seven years, aflter 
the expiration of the first three or seven years respectively. 

At the meeting of the British Association in Liverpool, September 1854» 
a committee, presided over by the Earl of Harrowby, was appointed ^* for 
the purpose of taking such steps as may be necessary to render the patent 
system and the funds derived from inventors more efficient and available 
for the reward of meritorious inventors and the advancement of practical 
science." Thb committee communicated with the Earl Granville and Lord 
Brougham^ to whose exertions and watchful care the passage of the measure 

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ON THB PATBNT LAWS* 16$ 

of 1852 was mainly due; and made a report to the meeting of the British 
Association^ held in Glasgow in the following year, when the subject of the 
tax on inventors and the appropriation of the funds so levied was fully dis- 
cussed ; and another oommitteey consisting of His Grace the Duke of Argyll, 
the Earl of Harrowby, Colonel Sabine, the Master of the Mint (Prof. 
Graham), Mr. Fairbaim and Mr. Webster, were appointed with similar 
powers. The Glasgow Committee addressed a memorial to the Lord Chan« 
cellor (Lord Cranworth), calling attention to the proceedings which had 
taken place at the various meetings of the British Association, to the nume-* 
Toos questions of administration and legislation then adverted to, or which 
might be expected to arise, and suggesting that Her Msyesty should be ad- 
vised, in accordance with the provisions of the Patent Law Amendment 
Act, 1852, to appoint others than the oflBcial commissioners, and to make 
the working of that Act the subject of immediate inquiry. 

At the meeting of the British Association, held at Cheltenham in 1856, a 
committee, consisting of the Earl of Harrowby, Lord Stanley, M.F., Mr. 
Fairbaim, Prof. Graham, the Master of the Mint, Mr. James Heywoodt 
Mr. Commissioner Hill, General Sabine, and Mr. Webster, were appointed 
with like powers; the Earl of Harrowby and Mr. James Hey wood commu« 
Hicated personally with the Lord Chancellor; the Lord Stanley took a warm 
interest in the subject, embodying his views on the necessary alterations in 
a published pamphlet; but up to this time the objects in view have not been 
attained, and it will be for this meeting of the British Association to consider 
what further steps should be taken. 

The printing and publication of the specifications has led to results which 
were hardly anticipated, as to which the following extract from a Report of 
the Commissioners of Patents in 1856, will be reaid with interest : — 

** The Commissioners of Patents have presented complete copies of all their 
publications to such of the government officers and seats of learning as have 
applied for them, and to the principal towns in the United Kingdom, on con* 
dition of their being daily open to the inspection of the public free of charge. 
In their selection of towns for this gift, they have been guided by the num<* 
l>er of applications for patents proceeding from each. 

^ This gift has in most cases laid the foundation of public free libraries 
where none previously existed. In some instances, where the local authori- 
ties hesitated to accept the works on account of the incidental expenses, 
the custody has been solicited and temporarily undertaken by scientific in- 
stitutions, which have modified their by-laws to enable a free admission of 
the public daily to the library in which the works are deposited/* 

The same Report, after enumerating a list of the places which have received 
the works, says, ** it is satisfactory to find that these national records of in- 
vention are especially consulted by that class whose skill in the improvement 
of manufactures is so essential to the maintenance of the commercial pros- 
perity of this kingdom ;" and adds the testimony of the librarians of several of 
the free libraries to the same efiect 

Complete sets of the Commissioners' works have been sent to the Colonies ; 
to many Foreign States ; to the Patent Office, Washington ; to the Aster Li- 
brary, New York ; to the Franklin Institution of Pennsylvania ; to the Public 
Free Library, Boston, U.S. ; and the Honourable Charles Mason, Commis- 
sioner of Patents for the United States, addressing the Commissioners of 
Patents in thb country, writes as follows : — 

** The admirable example you have set in publishing the specifications and 
drawings in full, and putting them on sale at a moderate price, so that all 
caQ easily provide themselves with what they need for private use, will ere 

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166 iiBPdRfi^--1858; 

long, I trast, stimalate our own Grovernment to do the like. Nothing short 
of this in the way of publication can give permanent satisfaction*** 

A free library and reading-room has been opened at the office of the Com- 
missioners of Patents, containing a large collection of works of reference, 
which the same Report states to be numerously attended by professional 
men, the agents of foreign and provincial inventors, and by practical mecha- 
nics and operatives ; and Mr. Woodcroft has collected a large number of 
portraits of inventors and of models, illustrative of the history and progress 
of invention, which it may be hoped, at no distant period, will form a prin- 
cipal object in a national gallery of inventors and museum of inventions. 

These and other undertakings, well suited to promote the advance of prac- 
tical science and the interest of inventors, afford legitimate objects for the ex- 
penditure of the surplus funds levied on inventors ; but when ample provision 
shall have been made for these objects, there will be a considerable annual 
sunplus. 

The amount paid by patentees during the last year was upwards of 
£83,000; and after the commencement of the payment of £100 at the 
expiration of the seventh year, the amount levied on inventors will not be 
found less than £100,000 per annum ; a sum, which, as being levied on 
Inventors and inventions, may reasonably be expected to be expended on 
objects in which inventors have some interest. 

In reference to this branch of the subject, the following questions would 
appear to arise for consideration t — 

1 . Should the present scale of payment be maintained or reduced, so as 
to leave no great surplus beyond what may be necessary for the official 
expenses? 

2. If the present scale be maintained, how should the surplus be appro- 
priated ? 

It appears that the second payment of ^50 before the end of the third 
year is not made in respect of more than about one-fourth of the whole 
number of patents issued, that payment being made on about 500 out of 
2000 patents, so that 1500 are permitted to lapse; the cost of which in 
money to the patentees cannot be taken at less than ^75»000, in addition 
to the expenditure of time and labour on the respective inventions. Can any- 
thing be done to diminish this loss beyond affording every facility for accesB 
to information as to what has been done before, and the improved education 
of the people ? 

In addition to these considerations and suggestions in connexion with the 
new system as recently established, and which are of a fiscal character, 
there are some other questions deeply affecting the interests of inventors 
and the advancement of practical science, which it would not be proper to 
clove this Report without adverting to. 

The Patent Law Reform of 1852 was never regarded as a final measure. 
It was but a first instalment obtained under great difficulty ; it only laid 
the foundation of the superstructure yet to be raised. The following import- 
ant questions of — 1. improved protection to the property so created; 
2. the amendment of existing patents and specifications, so as to save what 
is really new and useful according to the amendment of the Patent Law as 
effected by Lord Brougham in 1835 ; S. the confirmation of an invention 
reinvented and introduced into successful use, according to the principle of 
the confirmation of rights effected by the same noble Lord ; 4. the exten- 
sion of the term of patents which have not yielded adequate remuneration to 
the inventor ; 5. reward to a meritorious inventor, who from causes wholly be- 
yond hii controli has been a great loser byi or derived no benefit from a ineri- 

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ON THX LBAD MINING DI8TRI€T*8 OF TORKBHIRB. 16^ 

torions invention, from which the public have derived great benefit; 6. a 
system of compulsory licences under existing patents, — are questions, all of 
which were omitted advisedly by the promoters of the recent measure, their 
attention being directed mamly to the destruction of the existing, and the 
establishment of a new system of creating property in inventions. 

These, with other amendments and matters of minor importance, which 
the experience of six years of the working of the new system has disclosed, 
will involve further legislation, and the consolidation and repeal of no less than 
sixteen statutes, or part of statutes, an object of great importance to every 
inventor. 

Your Committee now remit this subject to the consideration of the Meeting 
of the British Association, deriving confidence from the belief that the times 
are not unfavourable for further action, and that the town and neighbour* 
hood in which the Association is now assembled may appropriately claim to 
take a prominent part in the consummation of those reforms which have 
occupied the attention of so many previous Meetings. 



On the Lead Mining Districts of Yorkshire. 
By Stephen Eddy, Carlton, Skipton. 

Ik comparison with the vast coal fields and iron-stone beds of Yorkshire, the 
lead-producing district of this county seems trifling ; yet in consideration of 
the large population dependent upon the mining and manufacture of lead, it 
neceflsarily claims our attention. 

I cannot take it upon me to say, when lead mining was first commenced iff 
this county ; but that many veins were discovered and worked to some extent, 
at a very early period, is fully established, both by the Roman explorations 
frequently met with, and the discovery in the vicinity of Greenhow Hill, near 
Pateley Bridge, of two pigs of lead, inscribed with the name of the Emperor 
Domitian, and bearing date a.d. 82. It is not improbable, however, that 
the mines of these districts were worked at a still more remote period by the 
ancient Britons. 

In the earlier age of lead mining, and indeed up to a comparatively recent 
period, the discovery of k vein entitled the party finding it to a grant, or 
licence to work, on a certain length of such particular vein, generally two 
meers ; the roeer being 28, 29, 30, or 32 yards, in different districts, re* 
spectively» The width of the ground granted was confined to a distance of 
8 yards on each side of the vein. This was called the ** Quarter Cord." 

Thus, each vein formed a distinct mine, and from the well-known fact, 
that (though there is, generally speaking, a certain degree of parallelism 
maintained by the msjor part of the veins), in each of our mining fields, 
numerous intersections take place ; the parties pursuing their allotted veins 
frequently found themselves within the quarter cord of the adjacent sett, 
and sometimes on their neighbour's vein. The result of such a system of 
holding, was not only to cramp the energies of the miner, from his not having 
a reasonable extent of ground for works of trial ; but also to involve him in 
constant disputes and litigations with his neighbour. 

The pernicious system of letting ground on a certain vein, with a given 
width on each side of such vein, was however continued to a comparativdy 
recent date ; when parties with capital becoming connected with the mined^ 
and the works being so extended as to render the introduction of machinery 
advisable, the necessity for grants on a larger scale was so apparent, that 
small holders were by degrees disposed of, and the custom of granting Mtti 

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16» BEPORT*-1858« 

(as they are termed) of certain extent, defined by fixed boundaries, which 
has been practised in Devon and Cornwall from a very early period, is now 
almost generally adopted in this county. 

Generally speaking, the various lead mines which constitute such an im- 
portant portion of the mineral treasures of Great Britain, are situated on 
rugged and barren elevations, and in this respect those of Yorkshire are not 
exceptions. 

If we draw an imaginary line from Ilkley, bearing about 12^ West of 
North, for a distance of 35 miles, and then parallel ones to it, through points 
10 miles east and 10 miles west from the centre line, we shall in thb area of 
700 square miles, include the high and uncultivated districts bounding 
Airedale, Wharfedale, Nidderdale, Wensleydale, Arkendale and Swaledale; 
in which I believe all the lead mines in this county, that have been or are 
being worked to any extent, are situated. 

The strata throughout the whole of this area, are (like those of the great 
lead- bearing dbtricts of Northumberland, Cumberland, and Durham, and 
also of Derbyshire) the lower members of the Carboniferous Series. 

Although the same class of rocks prevaib throughout our lead-bearing 
districts, we do not always find each individual stratum to occur, even in 
mines in the immediate vicinity of each other ; and when they do exist, their 
thickness is frequently found to vary considerably. 

It is therefore impossible to make a section, that would correspond with 
every mining district, or even hold good throughout a single mining field. 

Plate XVIII. figs. 1, 2, and S, are sections of the strata sunk through in 
three of the shafts on the Grassington Mines in Wharfedale. From these it 
will be observed, that even in situations so close to each other, the thickness 
of the beds varies considerably. 

The greatest thickness of Limestone yet proved at Grassington is 66 yards^ 
whereas at the Cockhill Mines, near Pateley Bridge, only about 6 miles 
distant, it is found to be at least 180 yards thick. 

In the metalliferous portion of the Carboniferous rocks, we have the 
Rake Vein, the Pipe or Tube Vein, and the lateral embedded, or Flat Vein. 

The first has the appearance of a rent or fissure in the strata, extending 
to a great length, and generally to an unknown depth. The second, or 
Pipe Vein, has the form of an irregular tube, is met with in certain strata, 
(generally Limestone), and dips with the beds, or passes more or less diago* 
nally through them, for a great length. The Flat Vein is seldom met with, 
except in connexion with some Rake Vein, but has always a position con- 
formable to the stratum in which it is embedded. 

The Rake Veins are by far the most numerous in every district, and the 
phenomena presented by them the most varied and complicated. The 
greater portion of our lead ore likewise is obtained from them. 

The longitudinal course, or " bearing,*' of a Rake Vein, is seldom (if ever) 
a perfectly straight line ; but, for the most part, it gives a tolerably direct 
bearing throughout its entire length. 

The downward course of these veins varies considerably in the angles 
formed with the vertical. The " Hade," or inclination, is likewise more toward 
a horizontal position, in the soft or Argillaceous Beds, than in the more hard 
and solid rocks ; and sometimes in passing a seam of Coal or of soft Clay, it 
takes the direction of the stratum for a greater or less distance. (See figs. 
4, 5, and 6.) 

The width of the vein is not uniform throughout its whole length; it 
frequently opens out from a width of a foot or two, to one of as many yards^ 
and then contracts until it becomes a mere thread or joint* 



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ON THE LBAD IIIKINO DISTRICTS OF YORKSHIRE. 169 

At tie Cononley Mine in Airedale, the vein is frequently found to vary 
from an inch or two in width, to five or six yards, and that, within a longitu- 
dinal distance of a few feet The width of a vein varies also with a change 
of strata ; it is much greater in the hard strata, where it has a more erect 
position than in the soft ; it is generally more open in the Limestone than in 
the Gritstone, and very much contracted in the plate or shale. Frequently 
we find the vein to be 4 or 5 feet wide in the Grit or the Limestone, when 
it is scarcely perceptible in the plate. 

The beginning or termination of a vein longitudinally, is seldom explored ; 
where this has been done, the vein is found to ramify at acute angles, and 
the branches quickly terminate. 

A remarkable instance of this recently occurred at the Grassington Mines. 
In these mines, three levels were being driven eastward on the Cavendish 
Vein, at the respective depths of 20, S?^ and 50 fathoms from the surface. 
The 20-fathom level was in a stratum, locally known as the < Top Grit ;' the 
S7 in the ' Bearing or Main Grit ;' and the 5()-fathom level in the Limestone. 

Each level was at the time yielding from 6 to 9 tons of rich lead ore from 
every fathom driven. Many parties who went underground in this mine, after 
some length of such rich ground had been explored, and while the levels 
continued to yield at that rate, concluded that ground was being laid open 
from which immense profits could be made, for many years to come ; and 
they were correct, so far as they had an opportunity of judging ; for, had 
the levels continued to open out such rich ground, no difficulty would have 
been found in making a profit of 40,000/. or 50,000iL a year from these mines. 

Unfortunately a change soon took place. The first cause for apprehen- 
sion noticed, was the wedge-like point of thin beds of Plate, introduced in 
difierent parts of the *< Bearing GriV' in the 37-fathom level. As these became 
more numerous, and of greater thickness, the vein began to throw ofi* 
branches on either side, and in the course of a few fathoms there was not a 
trace of the vein to be seen. As the upper and lower levels (the 20 and 
50) approached the same perpendicular point eastward, the vein in each case 
ramifieid into numerous strings. First, one branch was followed, and then 
another, until they disappeared entirely. At about 60 fathoms eastwards 
from where all trace of this vein was thus lost, a ^* Crosscut '* (that is, a level at 
right angles to the general bearing of the veins) was driven to some consi- 
derable distance both North and South of where it should have been inter- 
sected, had it continued eastward; but without discovering the slightest 
symptom of a vein. 

The Rake Veins are generally found to be ** Fault Veins." As a rule, the 
strata are lower on that side to which a vein hades or inclines, called the 
hanging wall, than on the one upon which it rests, known as the footwall 
of the vein. Thus a vein with the beds on the north side thrown up, will 
hade or underlie to the south. (See figs. 4 & 5.) 

The extent of the throw, or difference of level of the corresponding 
strata, varies from a few inches to 20 or SO fathoms ; and such a difference 
is often met with when veins are in the immediate vicinity of each other. 
The extent of the throw is generally considered to denote the strength of 
the vein. A vein with a difference in the level of the strata of from 6 to 
18 feet, is regarded by the miner with more favour than one with a greater 
or less throw. Such a throw is considered evidence of sufficient strength of 
vein to ensure its continuity at a moderate size, and not such as to destroy 
the effect which certain beds are supposed to produce, when they are found 
in the same horizontal line, on each side of the vein. 

When rocks of a difierent character are brought into the same horizontal 

^^^- Digitized b^LiOOgle 



170 RSPORT— 1858. 

line, that ii, when Gritstone on one side of the vein is opposed to Plate on 
the other, and Limestone to Gritstone, or Limestone to Shale, the veins are 
not often found productive of Lead ores. There are, however, many ex- 
ceptions to this rule. At the Grassington Mines are two parallel veins, 
within 80 fathoms of each other, both throwing the south side down to sach 
an extent, as to cause Plate to be opposed to Gritstone, Plate to Limestone, 
and Gritstone to Limestone, and so on throughout the whole depth explored 
on them. (See fig. 5.) So circumstanced, one of these veins yielded great 
abundance of ore, while the other proved to be totally barren. 

We often find, when the vein occasions a throw of some two or three 
fathoms, that the ore does not extend above the change of strata on the 
hanging side, nor below the change on the lying or footwall ; for instance, 
when the bed of Grit or Limestone is 10 fathoms thick, and the throw of 
the strata is S fathoms, we have only 7 fathoms in height of ore ; but in 
some cases the ore is found to extend the full thickness of the bed with the 
addition of the extent of the throw. Diagram 4 represents a transverse sec- 
tion of such a vein in the Grassington Mines, from which considerable quan- 
tities of ore are now being raised. 

The strata on each side of a vein are not only at difibrent levels, but near 
the vein they have a difierent position, being bent upwards on the one side 
and downwards on the other. As a rule, the strata on the higher side are 
bent downwards to the vein, and on the depressed side from it. Thus, if 
in driving a crosscut southward, in search of a vein ranging east and west, 
we arrive at a point where the beds assume a faster dip, our approach to a 
vein that throws the strata down on the south side, is inferred ; while, if in 
driving northward, the beds curve quickly upwards, we anticipate a veia 
with the north-side strata at a higher level. (See fig. 5.) 

In each of our Lead-bearing districts, the strata consist of numerous 
alternating beds of Plate, Gritstone, and Limestone ; forming the Yoredale 
Rocks of Professor Phillips. 

The veins are found to traverse or pass through all these beds, but gene- 
rally speaking, it b only in certain of them that Lead ore is found ; the 
Limestone being the prevalently productive stratum in some districts, whilst 
in others the principal yield of ore is from the Gritstone. The Argillaceous 
Plates seldom yield ore ; but there is an exception to this in the Cononley 
Mines, where bunches of ore have continued from the surface, to a depth 
of more than 30 fathoms ; although the alternations of Plates and Gritstones 
are exceedingly numerous, and the Plates much thicker than the Gritstone 
beds. 

From these facts it follows, that a rule, by which to calculate on metallic 
products from certain rocks, will not admit of general application ; but we 
may carry it so far as to say, that in a given district, certain beds generally 
are, and others generally are not, productive. 

Many veins, particularly in our more Northern fields, preserve a tolerably 
direct course for a considerable distance. The Old Gang Vein in Swaledale, 
for instance, has been worked for several miles in length, and can be traced 
to a much greater distance in nearly a straight line. 

In our three Northern Mining Fields, — Swaledale, Arkendale, and Wens- 
leydale— ^e veins appear to be more regular in size and direction, and the 
beds preserve a more uniform thickness, than in the three Southern Fields. 
In the former, likewise, the calcareous beds have been the principal sources 
of produce ; whereas, in our Southern ones, the greater portion of the ore 
has been, and still is being produced, from the Gritstone. 

There are other causes by which the productiveness of the veins appear 

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ON THB LBAD MINIKO DI8VBI0TS OF YORKSHIRB. I7l 

to be inflaeneedy that are peculmr to the Mines of oar three Northern Dalei^ 
while certain characteristics more particularly pertain to our Southern Mi* 
ning Fields. We maj> therefore, for all the purposes of this paper> treat the 
Lead Mines of this county, as belonging to two great Mineral DistrictSi the 
Northern and the Southern* 

In each district we have the Rake, the Pipe, and the Flat Veins. The 
ores from the Pipe and Flat Veins are generally found more fusible in the 
furnace, and to yield a higher per centage of lead, than those fVom the Rake 
Veins; and the ores from the Limestones (whether produced from the 
Rake, Pipe, or Flat Vein) are found to be more easily reduced, and to make 
a much better quality of metal for White Lead, than those from the Grit- 
stone. 

Here, I would refer to a correspondence, which took place some few 
months ago, in the columns of the ^ Mining Journal,' on the subject of Slick* 
ensides. It was there asserted that Slickensides had never been met with 
in Gritstone. I am pre^red to meet this assertion, by the production of 
the specimen obtained from the Gritstone in the Grassington Mines; and 
with the exception of one from the same place, which I gave to the late 
Duke of Devonshire, I much question there being a better specimen in the 
country. 

The Slickensides first appeared at the point of junction of two veins, and 
continued their course in a perfectly straight line in the centre of the joint 
vein, for about 70 yards in length ; or they might perhaps more correctly be 
said to have still divided the two veins, forming the North side of the one^ 
and the South side of the other. (See fig. ?•) 

We could have procured specimens from either side, with as good a sor* 
face as the one exhibited, but not so large. It was only from the South 
side that they could be obtained of any size, the other being so cracked 
horizontally, that it was seldom a piece could be broken o^ more than 
an inch or two wide ; in fact, the cracks on Uiis side were almost as nume* 
rotts as the strifls on the surftioe of the North. 

The vein, throughout the whole length in which the Slickensides were 
found, maintained nearly a perpendicular position ; and the strisa were as 
nearly horizontal. In many parts of the vein, we had the Uiickness of a foot 
of solid ore behind each face of Slickenside. 

Many present will no doubt have read or heard of the phenomena reported 
to have attended the laying open of Slickensides in Germany; that the 
miner has at times been much frightened by the loud reports occasioned 
by the explosicms. 

When driving our level in the Slickensides, we genendly worked forward 
on the North side, leaving the South, or strong side, standing for 6 or 8 yards 
in length ; and on more than one occasion, the workmen spoke of the reports 
they heard, sometimes as loud as that of a small pistol. At such times^ 
numerous places could be seen where pieces had been blistered, and blown 
away from the face of the Slickenside ; which presented much the same ap* 
pearance as a wall recently plastered with very imperfectly'slacked lime, but 
on a much larger scale. 

The ore from a vein carrying much Slickenside, requires generally a 
higher temperature, and is altogether more refractory in the furnace than 
that from one free from it. 

As a general rule, the greatest number of veins in each Mining district 
are found to run nearly parallel to each other. There are others &at form 
angles more or less acute, with the predominant direction; which, in the 
Northern District, is a little North of East^ and Sottt)i of West; whilst in 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



172 RBPOBT*— 1858. 

oui^ Southern Fieldflj the general direction is North of West, and South of 
East. 

Where the veins of the more usual line of direction are crossed by 
oblique or ^' caunter " veins, we frequently find the traversed ones to be shifted 
or thrown off their course, and often ramified by those so traversiug ; and 
sometimes they undergo a curvature on one side, near the cross vein. 

As a rule, if the oblique or <* caunter " vein be first met with on the right-^ 
hand side, the shift will be to the left ; and if on the contrary, the heave 
will be to the right ; or in other words, the vein is heaved on the side of the 
obtuse angle formed by the intersecting planes. (See fig. 8 ; A, B, A.) 

To this rule there are however many exceptions, and a remarkable one 
occurred at the Grassington Mines, which is represented by Fig. 8. On 
finding the vein A A shifted, the level, as usual, was turned on the side of the 
obtuse angle, and driven forward on the vein B some considerable distance, 
till, despairing of finding the vein in this direction, and after carefully exami- 
ning the surface, and some old works in the vicinity, we returned to the point 
of intersection, and began a level northward at nearly right angles to the 
traversed vein ; which in course of time was found to be heaved or thrown 
backwards some 50 yards. (See fig. 8 ; A A, B B, A A.) 

In heaves of this class, the veins are consequently lengthened ; while they 
are shortened when thrown or shifted on the side of the obtuse angle* 

The dislocation of one vein by another is likewise indicative of its ante* 
rior existence. 

When one or both of the veins produce ore up to the point at which they 
meet, the yield is often increased by their junction. The extent of the angle 
formed by two veins is looked upon with some interest by the Miner ; the 
more acute it is, the more favourable is their union considered to be for the 
production of metallic Mineral. 

At Grassington, it is found that many of the direct veins are not heaved 
by the oblique or ^* caunter" ones, but are so split or ramified, that it is with 
difficulty they can be traced on the other side of the intersection. The 
usual course in such cases is to go forward on the^'caunter" vein, some fathoms 
beyond the point of Intersection, and drive a crosscut ; when the branches 
are often found to have united, and the vein to be reconstructed. 

When the displacement of the strata is so great as to cause beds of dif* 
ferent mineral character to be opposed to each other, fragments of the en- 
closing rocks form a considerable portion of the contents of the vein. 

The general composition of the veins is Calcareous Spar, Fluor Spar, 
Barytes, and occasionally Calamine. In some districts one of these minerals 
prevails, in others another. 

A vein enclosed by regularly stratified Gritstone is productive, almost 
entirely, of Galena, which forms the principal yield of Lead Ores through- 
out the world. Cases have, however, occurred, when a somewhat thin stra- 
tum of Grit, superimposed on an Argillaceous Shale of moderate thickness, 
has exclusively contained large quantities of decomposing Galena, earthy 
Carbonates, and imperfectly crystallized Carbonates. In the former case, the 
ore lies mostly in more or less solid ribs, approximately parallel to the walls 
of the vein ; while in the latter, the lode is found loosely filled with various 
sized pieces, in different stages of chemical decomposition. 

When the beds of Gritstone and Shale are much broken and displaced 
(as id usual in the vicinity of an anticlinal axis, or contiguous to a line of 
extensive fault), or when the beds of Shale are individually thicker than the 
respective Gritstones, the vein throughout its productive depth principally 
yields irregular strings and small bunches of Galena ; whilst its upper part 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ON THB LEAD MINING DIBTBI0T8 OP YORKSHIRE. 173 

mosU J carries considerable deposits, of mixed rich and poor earthy, compact, 
.and crystallized Carbonates. 

In such ground, when the vein is very wide and encloses detached masses 
of Gritstone, or when the sides of the lode are much disturbed and broken, 
large crystals of the Carbonate are frequently found pressed flat upon the 
faces formed by the jointing and bedding planes of such Sandstone, for 
some distance from the body of the ore. 

The Limestone beds usually favour the deposits of rich Galena in self 
lumps, or nodules of various sizes. These self lumps are often coated with 
an earthy white Carbonate, which is also frequently found filling the small 
interstices in the adjacent rock, and likewise as a deposit in the nests formed 
by those sudden enlargements and contractions so usual in veins traversing 
the Limestone beds. Not many of the other Lead Ores (which are seldom 
met with, and consequently of little commercial value) have been found in 
our Yorkshire Mines. 

Minium is stated, in most Mineralogical works, to have been found on 
Grassington Moor; but I have never seen, nor heard of any from there, 
and certainly for twenty-six years past none has been found. The Phos- 
phate and Arsenio-phosphate were formerly found at Grassington, principally 
in the Gritstone. 

A small piece of native Lead has also been obtained from the Gritstone 
in those mines within the last four years. 

In each district we have numerous mines ; some^ that a few years ago 
were highly productive, are now nearly exhausted; others, though but 
recently opened, are yielding well; and there is no doubt there are many rich 
veins yet undiscovered in both districts. 

By far the greater portion of the present produce from the Northern dis- 
trict is from the Old Gang Mine, in Ariiendale ; and the Kell Head Mine, 
in Wensleydale ; while the Grassington Mines in Wharfedalc yield about 
two-thirds of the produce of the Southern district. The produce of the 
county in 1856 was 89S3 tons of Pig Lead, or about |th of the total returns 
of the United Kingdom. 

The difficulties and uncertainties which attend mining for Metallic Mine- 
rals are not generally known. 

Many large and regular veins (although presenting very encouraging fea- 
tures) prove totally destitute of metallic mineral ; others make rich deposits 
of ore, but of very limited extent ; and in our most profitable mines, a con- 
siderable extent of barren ground must needs be opened, even on the best 
producing veins. 

At the Cononley Mines, for instance, although profitable for many years 
past, the levels (which are very extensive) have laid open more than 20 
fathoms of totally unmetalliferous, for every fathom of productive ground. 

The Sections produced tend to show that Lead Mining in the secondary 
formation is more uncertain in its character than in the more primitive 
rocks. When ore is discovered in the latter, it is reasonably expected to 
continue upwards and downwards to some considerable extent ; whereas, in a 
stratified country, and where the bearing beds are not individually thick, the 
ore at best will not exceed a few fathoms in height of depth, and moreover 
levels may be driven in certain beds without the slightest chance of success. 

In one respect the stratified district ofiers the advantage. The nature 
and thickness of the bearing beds, and the inclination of the strata being 
known, we can generally determine the elevation for commencing an Adit, 
or water level, to drain the productive parts of the veins ; and thus avoid 
the cost of engine power for pumping, and other expenses. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



174 RBPOBT — 1858. 

Mining for Metallic Minerals, whether in the primitiTe or teoondary for- 
mation, is of a much more uncertain and speculative character than that for 
Coal. In the Coal Measures, we can ascertain at a moderate expense, by 
boring, whether seams of Coal exist ; and if existing, their thickness. This 
being learnt, an approximate estimate of the quantity of saleable Coal in a 
given area, and the cost of its get, is no difficult matter. 

With the Rake and Pipe Veins of the Lead Fields, the case is different 
A vein which generally approaches the perpendicular, rather than otherwise, 
presents little chance of being probed by boring; and even should it be 
pierced, the mineral capable of extraction through a borehole would afford 
very unsafe data by which to judge the value of the vein. The hole might 
quite possibly pass through the only portion of ore contained within many 
nithoms ; or, with an equal possibility, penetrate the poor part of a vein, 
which at any other point would have yielded widely different data. 

Mineral veins diay be, and frequently are, discovered (in places where the 
surface of the rock is to be seen) by the fracture and interruption in the 
regularity of the strata. 

In all Mining districts, but especially in a stratified country, the pheno- 
mena presented by veins, their frequent heaves and dislocations, and their 
varied appearances when bounded by different rocks, call for very close 
attention; and even a dependence upon knowledge acquired in one district, 
may prove fatal in another. 

The Miner should be perfectly acquainted with the nature of those sub- 
stances, which it is his daily task to seek in the bowels of the earth,-— afl 
well as with those which, though perhaps worthless in themselves, generally 
indicate the presence or absence of the immediate objects of his search. 
Long and practical experience, combined with a knowledge of Geology 
and Mineralogy, can alone furnish him with this requisition ; and is there- 
fore essential to success. 



On the Collapse of Glass Globes and Cylinders. 
By W. Fairbairn, F.R.S. 

At the Meeting of the British Association last year, a paper was read upon 
the Collapse of Cylindrical Wrought-iron Riveted Tubes by a uniform 
external force. These experiments upon a ductile and fibrous material, led 
to some novel and important results, and suggested the propriety of similarly 
testing the resisting powers of a perfectly homogeneous crystalline and 
rigid material, in order that our knowledge of the laws which govern the 
resistance of vessels to collapse, might be confirmed and extended. 

For this purpose, glass was the material selected, not only on account of 
its fulfilling better than almost any other material the conditions sought for, 
and from the ease with which it could be manufactured into the required 
forms ; but also because it was hoped that the results would be practically of 
value in those cases in the arts and in experimental science in which it is so 
extensively employed. 

The experiments were conducted m a similar manner to those upon iron. 
Some glass cylinders and globes were procured direct from the glass-house, 
blown out of good flint-glass. The open ends of these were then hermetically 
sealed by the blow-pipe, and they .were placed in a strong wrought-iron vessel, 
capable of sustaining a pressure of 2500 lbs. per square inch. Water was 
then pumped in by means of a force-pump, and the pressure was recorded 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ON THB OOLLAP8B OV GLASS OLOBBS AND CTLINDBRS* 1/5 

by a Schfl^er gauge* The point of rupture was indicated by an explosion 
within the vessel, and by the sudden decrease of pressure. 

The first experiments were upon glass globes, intended to be perfectly 
spherical, but in most instances somewhat flattened upon the side opposite 
to that from which they were blown. Notwithstanding, however, this ellip- 
ticity, some of the globes bore enormously high pressures, especially when 
the extreme tenuity of the ^ass is considered, amounting to from one to 
two hundredths of an inch in thickness only. 

Table I. — Strength of Gloss Globes to resist a uniform external pressure. 



Mark. 


Diametcm. 


ThiekneM. 


CoUapalag pnaMn. 




inches. 


inehet. 


inch. 




L 


5-05 


476 


0^14 


M 


5-08 


470 


0-018 


410 


K 


4W 


472 


0OS2 


470 


B 


6-60 


— 


(HiiO 


476 


N 


8-22 


7-46 


0K)10 


35 


C 


8*20 


7S0 


0H)12 


49 


D 


8-20 


7-40 


0-015 


60 



It will be seen that, notwithstanding the extreme thinness of the glass, 
the pressures range as high as 475 lbs. per square inch over every square 
inch of surface, equivalent to a total pressure of 20 tons upon a 5^inch 
globe ^th of an inch thick, before it was fractured. 

Unfortunately the 8-inch globes were all elliptical to a serious extent, 
and hence in these the collapsing pressure was greatly reduced, ranging 
from 35 to 60 lbs. per square inch only. 

The next results are upon glass cylinders, blown with hemispherical ends. 
In the experiments upon iron, the remarkable law had been deduced that 
the strength of cylindrical vessels of that material, exposed to a uniform 
external pressure, varied inversely as the length. Thus with vessels precisely 
similar in other respects, one twice the length of another bore only half the 
pressure, one three times the length bore only one-third of the pressure, and 
so on. From the following experiments it will be seen that a similar law 
applies in the case of homogeneous glass cylinders. 

Table II. — Strength of Glass Cylinders to resist a uniform external 

pressure. 



Mark. 


Diaaeter. 


Length. 


ThiekncM. 






inchn. 


inches. 


inch. 


Ibe. 


B 


4-06 


m 


•048 


180 


G 


4H» 


m 


•064 


297 


H 


3-98 


14 


•076 


382 


P 


4-05 


7 


•046 


380 


Q 


405 


7 


•034 


202 


T 


3*09 


14 


•024 


85 


R 


8-08 


14 


•082 


103 


S 


8-25 


14 


•042 


175 



These cylinders, though of high resisting powers, sustain considerably less 
pressure than the globes. Comparing cylinders £ and P, 14? and 7 inches 
long respectively, and of the same diameter and thickness of glass, we find 
the longer was crushed with about half the pressure which was requisite to 
collapse the shorter cylinder, which is a confirmation of the law deduced for 
iron tubes. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



176 RBPOBT— 1858. 

The general formula for the globes takes the form of the following eqaa< 

tiOD, 

P being the collapsing pressure in lbs* per square inch; D=diameter; 
1= thickness of glass. Similarly, putting L=: length, the formula for the 
cylinders is 

p_Cxrf 
which is precisely similar to that for iron tubes. 



Report on the Marine Fauna of the South and West Coasts of Ireland. 
By E. Perceval Wright, M.B., A.B., FX.S., M.RJ.A., Di- 
rector of the Museum, and Lecturer on Zoology, University of 
Dublin; and J. Reay Greene, A.B.y M.RJ.A., Professor qf 
Natural History, Queer's College, Cork. Part L (1858). 

At the last Meeting of the British Association, a Committee consisting of 
Drs. £. Perceval Wright, Melville, and Kinahan, was appointed to investigate 
the marine Zoology of the south and west Coasts of Ireland. 

Professor J. Reay Greene and Dr. Carte of Dublin were subsequently 
added to the Committee. 

The region marked out for their observations extends from Camsore Point 
in the Co. of Wexford, to Gweedore Bay in the Co. Donegal, and embraces a 
coast line of several hundreds of miles. It was evident that so vast a district 
could only be investigated by the labours of several years, and hence, on 
mature deliberation, the Committee determined to devote themselves and 
the money grant placed at their disposal by the Council for 1858» to in- 
vestigate parts of the Cos. Waterford, Cork, and Kerry ; reserving the Coasts 
of Clare and Galway for the next ensuing summer, and those of Mayo, 
Sligo, and Donegal for another year ; hoping, at the expiration of this period, 
to be able to communicate to tlie British Association a Report, which, with 
the joint Reports from the North of Ireland and Dublin Bay Dredging Com- 
mittee, will enable us to draw up a final Report on the Irish Marine Fauna, 
which shall be entitled to act a second part to that by the late Professor £• 
Forbes " On the investigation of the British Marine Fauna," published in 
1850. 

Such being our intention, we wish it to be understood that the present 
Report is merely provisional, and that we refrain from deducing any theories 
from the facts observed, until we have the entire district examined. 

Early in July 1858, we proceeded to investigate the first selected region, 
and a list of the stations from which the coast at each side was explored is 
given, t. e. 1. Carnsore Point; 2. Saltees; 3. Hook Head; 4^ Dunmore; 
5. Tramore; 6. Youghal; 7. Cork Harbour; 8. Kinsale; 9. Rosscarberry ; 
10. Castietownsend ; 11. Baltimore; 12. Cape Clear Island; 13. Skull; 
l^. Crookhaven ; 15. GlengariflT; 16. Berehaven ; 17. Ardgroom; 18. Cap 
hersiveen; 19. Valentia; 20. Dingle; 21. Ventry; 22. the Blasquet Islands. 

Several portions of this district had from time to time been investigated 

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MARINE FAUNA OP THE S. AND W. COASTS OF IRELAND. 177 

by various Irish nataralists, and previous to setting out on our explorations, 
we carefully noted the result of their labours, in order that we might corro* 
borate all doubtful localities given by them, and also have the benefit of their 
past experience; the localities so investigated, were Youghal by the late Dr. 
Ball, Cork Harbour by J. Vaughan Thompson and others, Courtmacsherry 
and Bantry Bays by Professor Allman, Dingle Bay by W. Andrews, and 
Yalentia by Professor Kinahan. 

Considering that we could not gain a correct knowledge of the Fauna 
without devoting a good deal of attention to <* shore collecting," we took 
frequent occasion, at the period of low tides, to investigate the littoral zone : 
and to this fact may be ascribed the discovery of a large number of new 
Irish Zoantharia, and many interesting Nndibranch Mollusca. 

The geologic structure of the coast, for the most part Devonian and Silurian, 
b such, that *' shore collecting " cannot be prosecuted unless with the assist- 
ance of boats : as sheer precipices, oflten hundreds of feet high and rising 
perpendicularly out of the water, quite preclude access to the very fertile 
fields of marine zoology which may be found in the tide-worn caverns at 
their base. 

In many places, too, small rocky islets, covered at every successive tide, 
were proved well worthy of diligent search. 

While we paid a good deal of attention to this latter kind of investigation, 
we yet did not neglect the as important one of *^ dredging," The smallness of 
our grant, added to the extreme expense which would attend on deep-sea 
dredging in such remote parts of Ireland, prevented us from exploring any 
depth beyond thirty or forty fathoms. We, however, hope on a future occasion 
to be enabled to undertake a series of deep-sea dredgings on the west coast, 
by the kind assistance of some yachting friends. 

The commonest sea bottom we met with, was one formed of a coarse 
sand, chiefly made up of the d6bris of decaying Nullipore and broken frag- 
ments of Trophon, Natica, Rissoa, Odostomia, &c. This sand particularly 
abounds in Bantry Bay ; it is most extensively used for fertilizing the land, 
being dredged for this purpose in enormous quantities. Marine animals 
aeem to avoid this << Coral sand," and with the exception of Hippolyte va- 
riansy even the * Shrimps ' appeared to us to abandon it. Next, we met with 
vast tracks of heavy compact sand, chiefly tenanted by the Crangonidae and 
Palesmonidse, diversified here and there with large patches of weedy ground 
which abounded with animal life. 

Many of the large harbours were very muddy, and abounded with spongesy 
&C which sometimes reached gigantic dimensions. 

The Cape Clear Island, the most southern, — ^and the Blasquet Islands, the 
most western land in Ireland, with Bere Island, were carefully examined ; but 
their sides present such high and unbroken walb to the ocean, and they are 
so exposed to its continual swell, that they were not found particularly pro- 
ductive. 

To enumerate in detail the various species of the marine Fauna met with, 
would be at the present immature. But we would wish to call attention to 
some interesting forms that presented themselves, and append a list of the 
Zoantharia and Echinodermata as specimens of the richness of the Fauna. 

On quiet daj's, when the Atlantic was moderately calm, nothing could 
exceed in beauty and numbers the Medusae — fleets of ^quorea sailed past, 
accompanied by Thaumantias globosa^ Thompsani^ con/iuensy and many 
others ; this last-mentioned species, discovered by the late Professor Edward 
Forbes, is remarkable for the peculiar arrangement of its reproductive glands, 
which are placed so high up in the gastro-vasctilar canals, as to present the 

Digitized by ^OOQlC 



1 78 BBPOBT — 1 868* 

appearance of a bright red orots, shiDing oonspicuonslj through the trans- 
pareut disk, when the animal is seen floating beneath the surface of the 
water. 

New forms of Slabberiai Oceania, &c., occurred in the western entrance of 
Berehaven» as also many specimens of WiUna steUata. 

Except for their abundance, the following Ctenophora would hardly merit 
notice, viz. Cydippe pileus and pomifarmisy Mnemea Norvegioay and Beroe 
ovaia^ This latter swam in shoals ; several of the specimens being of a 
very large size and of a bright roseate hue, frequently diversified with a 
play of iridescent colours. In Berehaven Harbour we also obtained an 
apparently new species of Tomopteris ; its otherwise transparent body glittered 
with many bright sherry-coloured spots, and we were enabled to investigate 
with some care the anatomy of thb very anomalous creature. 

The List of Zoantharia appended (List B) will show the species that 
occurred. In some parts of the coast, as off Crookhaven and Dingle, the whole 
surface of the rocks for many square yards was covered with specimens of 
CorynactU viridisy so far belying its specific name as to appear of the most 
brilliant purple, as often as of a bright green, varied with many of a rioh 
peach colour. Every excavation that the waves had worn in the slaty 
Devonian, was inhabited by Sagartia venustOy S.roseay and others of the genua; 
and we observed that at Parkmore Point, near Venty, Tttbularia indivina 
abounded in such quantities, that in one place a piece of rock about 20 feet 
long by 10 or so broad, and covered by 1 or 2 feet of water, was one dense 
forest of this interesting Hydrozoon ; others of this latter division were ob- 
served, but details thereof are reserved for a future occasion. 

Among the Echinodermata, we may mention that Urcuter glacialis occurred 
very commonly, and several specimens were dredged, which measured S2 
inches in diameter ; Luidia fragillissima and Asterias aurarUiaca were not 
unfrequent Amphidotus roseus occurred in Bantry Bay. From the list 
appended, it will be seen that nearly all the Asteriadae, with but few ex- 
ceptions, have been obtained on the coast of Ireland. 

CribeUa rosea and Ganiaster I'empktoni have been taken by Dr. Ball on 
the Nymph Bank off Waterford, and at Youghal. Several new species also 
occurred to us. We think we have discovered the ** first appearing" on the 
south coast of the Echinus lividusy on some sunken rocks out at sea ; and it 
appears to us that a curious relation exists between the vertical and geogra- 
phical distribution of the species in question, since the higher the latitude 
in which it is found, the shallower the water it would appear to frequent. 
We have been led to this conclusion from observations made by us on its 
occurrence around the west and south coasts of Ireland. At Dingle, for 
example, it lives and thrives high up in the Littoral Zone; whereas about 
the Cape Clear district, it loves the deep rock pools, where it is only exposed 
to view at the very lowest tides, and even then with from 10 to 15 feet of 
water always over it. The rare Echinus Flemingii has been taken by Dr. 
Ball at Youghal. (See List A.) 

Of the Crustacea a long list could be furnished, but we would only allude 
to the capture of the various species of Ebalia on sandy ground in Castle- 
townsend and Berehaven ; of Xantho rivulosa at Valentia, where it was 
taken in 1856 by Dr. Kinahan ; and Pirimela denticulata in Dingle by Wm. 
Andrews, Esq. Gaiathea Andrewsiiy a species recently added to science by 
Dr. Kinahan, was dredged in the greatest abundance. 

Of the Mollusca little mention need be made, — Doris flammeoy coceineOf 
the two HemuBos recorded in Alder and Hancock, EoUs Farranif &c 
were foundi the latter three very abundantly ; a large number of Tunioata 

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MARINE FAUNA OF THB 0» AND W« OOASTS OF IRELAND* 179 



awarded our diligent searoh with several probably new species. CalyplTdM 
$mensis and lanthina communis may be alluded to among the Gastero- 
pods» with Amphyiphyra ^aiinOf TomateUafamata^ Philine quadnUOf &c 
Aplyda hybruia might be seen browsing in herds on the Codium tamerUo* 
sum^ which at Berehaven grows most luxuriantly. Area tetragona occurred 
at Ardgroom, Venus casinoy &c. with Pectunculus gfycimeris, in Bantry Bay. 

Amphioxus lanceokUus was taken in Berehaven^ one specimen of which 
survived its capture for many days, despite of being carried in a glass vessel 
nearly 200 miles* William Andrews records the following rare fish as oc- 
curring off Dingle : Capros aper, Sebastes Norvegicus, CoUus Grcenlandicus, 
Morrhua mimUa, and jRanieeps trifurcatus ; both Lepidogaster comubiensis 
and bimaculaius were taken by us at the shore of Cape Clear Island. 

In conclusion, we would ask for a renewal of the grant for the year 1859 
from the Council, trusting to continue our exploration of thb interesting 
region with unabated zeal, and with a sure confidence that the result of 
our labour will prove of some service to those who, like us, are engaged 
in the pleasant task of observing and recording the many created beings, 
which, nurtured and preserved in life by the great world of waters alike with 
it, proclaims the exbtence of an Almighty and Omnipotent God. 

List of Echinodermata (A). 



1. 
2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 



Comatula rosacea 

Ophiura texturata 

„ albida 

Ophlocoma neglecta , 

„ Leachii (n. sp. J. G.) .. 

„ Ballii 

,j filifonnis 

,f brachiata 

ff granalata 

,, bellis 

f, roiula 

tf minuta 

(n. sp. G. & W.).. 
Uraster glacitJia 

„ rubens 

,f violacea 

,, hispida 

Cribella ocolata 



„ rosea 

Solaster endeca 



„ papposa 

Palmipes membranaceiu 

Asterina gibbosa 

Gooiaster Templetoni .. 
Asterias aurantiaca ..... 

Luidia fragillissima 

Echinus sphera 

„ miliaris 

,, Flemingii 

„ lividus 

Echinocyamus pnsillas .. 

Spatangus purpureas 

Brissus lynSfer 

Amphidotos cordatos 

w resells 



N. N.E. E. S. S.W. W. N.W, 



■ 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



180 



BBPORT— 1858. 



N.B. We purposely exclude from this Lbt all reference to the Holothu* 
riadee, the species of which stand much in need of further elucidation. We 
have aUo given the distribution, as far as it was known to us, all round Ire* 
land, both in this Lbt and the following one on Zoantharia. 

List op Zoantharia (B). 



1. Actinoloba dianthua 

2. Sagartia bellis 

3. „ miniata 

4. „ rosea 

5. ff ornata 

6* „ venusta 

7. „ nivca 

8. „ sphyrodeta 

9. „ pura 

10. t, cocdnea 

11. „ troglodytes 

12. „ vidoata 

13. ,t parasitica 

14. „ hastata (n. sp. B. P. W.) ... 

15. Adamsia palliata 

16. Anthea cereus 

17. Actinia mesembryanthemnm 

18. Bunodes gemmacea 

19. Tealia crassicomis 

20. „ Greenii (n. sp. E. P. WJ 

21. Cor7nacti8Yiridis(Allmaiiiii,E.P.W.) 

22. „ heterocera 

23. Ilyanthos Scoticus 

24. TorbinoUa milletiaiia 

25. Zoanthus Conchii 

26. Cyathina Smithii 

27. Sphenotrochu8Wrightii(n.8p.Go88e) 



N. N.E. E. S. S.W. W. N.W. 



12 3 



»? 



♦ ? 



Total number of species of Echinoderms 35, or about two-thirds of the 
British list ; and of the Zoantharia 27, or about half the number recorded as 
occurring in England and Scotland. This difference will, we trust, be greatly 
diminished in a few years. Both lists have been brought down to the latest 
dates, several species having been added while the MS. was passing through 
the press. 

The districts marked from 1 to 7> are given as first introduced by one of 
the authors in the <* Proceedings of the Dublin University Zoological and 
Botanical Association,*' vol. i. p. 176> and are briefly as follows : — 

Ist Province, North. — From Tory Island or Horn Head, on the mainland, 
to Rathlin Island or Fair Head, embracing the two extensive Loughs, 
Swilly and Foyle, and parts of the counties of Donegal, Londonderry, and 
Antrim. 

2nd Province, North-East — From Fair Head to Downpatrick, at the en- 
trance of Strangford Lough, embracing Belfast and Strangford Loughs, and 
parts of Antrim and Down. 

3rd Province, East. — From Downpatrick to Carnsore Point, in the county 
of Wexford, embracing Dundrum, Dundalk, and Dublin Bays, and parts of 
the counties of Down, Louth, Meath, Dublin, Wicklow, and Wexford. 

4tli Province, South, — From Carnsore Point to Cape Clear, county of 

Digitized by ^OOQlC 



XXPBBIMflNTS ON THB MBA8UBBMBNT OF WATER. 181 

CoA, with the fine harbours of Waterford» Duogariren, Youghal, Cork, and 
Kinflale, and parts of the counties of Wexford, Waterford, and Cork. 

5th Province, South- West. — From Mizen Head to Kerry Head, or the 
mouth of the Shannon, embracing Bantry, Dingle, and Tralee Bays, the 
Eenmare River, and parts of the counties of Cork and Kerry. 

6th Province, West — From Loop Head, county of Clare, to Erris Head, 
on Mullet Island, at the extreme north-west of Mayo, embracing Gal way, 
Clare, and Blacksod Bays, the Isles of Arran, Clare, Achill, and Mullet, and 
parts of the counties of Clare, Galway, and Mayo. 

7th Province, North-west. — From Erris Head to Horn Head, embracing 
Killala, Sligo, and Donegal Bays, and parts of the counties of Mayo, Sligo, 
and Donegal. 

"These seven Provinces might be easily subdivided, but I think this is not 
advisable ; indeed, I am rather doubtful of the propriety of keeping either 
the 2nd or 5th Province : but still we find species peculiar to each of these 
localities, or at least occurring in them, and not generally found in the others : 
thusy JBckinus Hvidus occurs in Provinces, but hardly, if at all, in Province 4. 
I need hardly justify the utility of making these Provinces ; their convenience, 
when referring to geographical distribution, is obvious ; as by saying in which 
of these Provinces an animal occurs, we at once arrive at an idea of its dis- 
tribution in a much shorter manner than enumerating the counties it occurs 
in. I have hesitated to call the Provinces Boreal, Lusitanian, &c^ thinking 
the time has not yet arrived for so doing. The Dredging Committees on 
the east, north, and south-west of Ireland will doubtless in time enable this 
to be done. I have only to hope this enumeration may be adopted, as it 
will render comparison so very easy." 



On Ewperimenis on the Measurement of Water by Triangular Notches 
in Weir Boards. By Jambs Thomson, A.M.^ C.E., Professor of 
Civil Engineering, Queen^s CoUege, Belfast. 

The experiments proposed to be comprehended in the investigations io 
which the present interim Report relates, have for their object to determine 
the suitableness of triangular (or V-shaped) notches in vertical plates for 
the gauging of running water, instead of the rectangular notches in ordinary 
use. The ordinary rectangular notches, accurately experimented on as they 
have been, at great cost and with high scientific skill, in various countries, 
with the view of determining the necessary formulas and coefficients, for 
their application in practice, are for many purposes suitable and convenient 
They are, however, but ill adapted for the measurement of very variable 
quantities of water, such as commonly occur to the engineer to be gauged 
in rivers and streams. If the rectangular notch is to be made wide enough 
to allow the water to pass in flood times, it must be so wide, that for long 
periods in moderately dry weather, the water flows so shallow over its crest 
that its indications cannot be relied on. To remove, in some degree, tbb 
objection, gauges for rivers or streams are sometimes formed in the best 
engineering practice, with a small rectangular notch cut down below the 
general level of the crest of a large rectangular notch. If, now, instead of 
one depression being made for dry-weather use, in a crest wide enough for 
use in floods, we conceive of a large number of depressions extending so as 
to give to the crest the appearance of a set of steps of stairs, and if we 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



182 RBPOBT — 1868. 

conceive the number of such steps to become infinitely great, we are led at 
once to the conception of the triangular, instead of the reclangalar notch. 
The principle of the triangular notch being thus arrived at, it becomes 
evident that there is no necessity for having one side of the notch vertical 
and the other slanting; but that, as may in many cases prove more con- 
venient, both sides may be made slanting, and their slopes may be alike« It 
is then to be observed, that by the use of the triangular notch with proper 
formulas and coefBcients derivable by due union of theory and experiments, 
quantities of running water, from the smallest to the greatest, may be accu- 
rately gauged by their flow through the same notch. The reason of this is 
obvious, from considering that in the triangular notch, when the quantity 
flowing is very small, the flow is confined to a small space admitting of 
accurate measurement ; and that the space for the fiow of water increases as 
the quantity to be measured increases, but still continues such at to admit 
of accurate measurement 

Further, the ordinary rectangular notch, when applied for the gauging of 
rivers, is subject to a serious objection from the difficulty, or impoasibilityy 
of properly taking into account the influence of the bottom of the river on 
the flow of the water to the notch. If it were practicable to dam np the 
river so deep that the water would flow through the notch as if coming from 
a reservoir of still water, the difficulty would not arise. This, however, can 
seldom be done in practice ; and although the bottom of the river may be bo 
far below the crest as to produce but little effect on the flow of the water 
when the quantity flowing is small, yet when the quantity becomes great, 
the ^ Velocity of Approctch*^ comes to have a very material influence on the 
flow of the water, but an influence which it is usually difficult, if not im« 
practicable, to ascertain with satisfactory accuracy. In the notches now 
proposed, of triangular form, the influence of the bottom may be rendered 
definite, and such as to affect alike (or at least by some law that may be 
readily determined by experiments) the fiow of the water when very small, 
or when very great, in the same notch. The method by which I propose 
that this may be effected, consists in carrying out a floor starting exactly 
from the vertex of the notch, and extending both up stream and laterally so 
as to form a bottom to the channel of approach, which will both be smooth, 
and will serve as the lower bounding surface of a passage of approach un- 
changing in form while increasing in magnitude at the places at least which 
are adjacent to the vertex of the notch. The floor may either be perfectly 
level, or may consist of two planes whose intersection would start from the 
vertex of the notch, and, as seen in plan, would pass up stream perpendiculaily 
to the direction of the weir board, the two planes slanting upwards from 
their intersection more gently than the sides of the notch. The level floor, 
although theoretically not quite so perfect as the floor of two planes, would 
probably, for most practical purposes, prove the more convenient arrangement 
With reference to the use of the floor, it may be said, in short, that by a due 
arrangement of the notch and the floor, a discharge orifice and channel of 
approach may be produced, of which (the upper surface of the water being 
considered as the top of the channel and orifice) the form will be unchanged 
or but little changed, with variations of the quantity flowing ;— very much 
less certainly than is the case with rectangular notches. 

The laws regulating the quantities of water flowing in such orifices as 
have now been described, come naturally next to be considered. Without, 
however, in the present interim Report, attempting to enter on a detailed 
discussion of theoretical considerations on this subject, I shall here merely 
advert briefly to the principal results and methods of reasoning. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



EXPEBIMBNTS ON THB HBAflURBMBNT OF WATER* 183 

Bj theory I have been led to anticipate that the quantity flowing in a 
given notch should be proportionaly or very nearly bo> to the f power of the 
lineal dimensions of the cross section of the issuing jet, or to the |> power of 
the head of water over the vertex of the notch. This head is to be under- 
stood, in the case of water flowing from a still reservoir, as being measured 
vertiodly from the level of the water surface down to the vertex of the 
notch ; or, in the case of water flowing to the notch, with a considerable 
velocity of approach over a floor arranged as above prescribed, the head it 
to be considered as being measured vertically from the water surface where 
the motion is nearly stopped by the weir board, at a place near the boards 
but as far as may be found practicable from the centre of the notch. The 
law here enunciated, to the efiect that the quantity flowing should be pro- 
portional to the f power of the head, I consider should hold good rigidly in 
reference to water flowing by a triangular notch in a thin vertical plate from 
a large and deep reservoir of still water, if the water were a perfect fluidi 
free from viscidity and friction, and free from capillary attraction at its 
surface, and from any other slight disturbing causes that may have minute 
influences on the flow, the flow being supposed to be that due simply to 
gravitation resisted by the inertia of the fluid. The like may be said of 
water flowing from triangular notches with shallow channels of approach, 
having floors as described above, when due attention is given to make the 
passages of approach so as really to remain unchanged in form for a suffi- 
cient distance from the notch, while increasing in magnitude as the flow in* 
creases (such being supposed, according to my theory, to be possible) ; and 
if due attention be paid to measuring the heads in all cases in positions 
similarly situated with reference to the varying dimensions of the issuing 
streams. 

In illustration of these statements, or suppositions, I would merely say that 
if two triangular notches, similar in form, have water flowing in them at 
diflPerent depths but with similar passages of approach, the cross sections of 
the two jets at the notches may be similarly divided into the same number of 
elements of area ; and that the areas of the corresponding elements will be 
proportional to the squares of the lineal dimensions of the cross sections, or, 
as from various considerations may readily be assumed, proportional to the 
squares of the heads ; also the velocities of the water in the corresponding 
elements may be taken as proportional to the square roots of the lineal 
dimensions, or to the square roots of the heads. From these considerations, 
supported by numerous others, it appears that the quantities flowing should 
be proportional to the products of the squares of the heads into their square 
roots, or to the f powers, as already stated. 

The friction of the fluid on the solid bounding surfaces of the passages of 
approach where the water moves rapidly adjacent to the notch, may readily 
be assumed, from all previous experience in similar subjects, not to have a 
very important influence even on the absolute amount of the flow of the 
water; and if we assume (as is known to be nearly the case for high velo- 
cities, such as occur in notches used for practical purposes, unless unusually 
small) that the tangential force of friction of the fluid, per unit of area of 
surface flowed along, b proportional to the square of the velocity of flow, it 
follows by theory that the friction, although slightly influencing the absolute 
amount of the flow, will not, according to that assumption, at all interfere 
with its proportionality to the f power of the head, and this condition will 
very nearly hold good if the assumption is very nearly correct 

How closely the theory thus briefly sketched may be found to agree with 
the actual flow of water will be a subject for experimental investigation ; 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 



184 EBPOBT — 1858. 

and whatever may be the result in this respect* the main object must be to 
obtain, for a moderate number of triangular notches of different forms, and 
both with and without floors at the passage of approach, the necessary 
coefficients for the various forms of notches and approaches selected, and 
for various depths in any one of them, so as to allow of water being gauged 
for practical purposes, when in future convenient, by means of similarly- 
formed notches and approaches. The utility of the proposed system of 
gauging, it is to be particularly observed, will not depend on a perfectly 
close agreement of the theory described with the experiments, because in 
respect to any given form of notch and approach, a table of experimental coeffi- 
cients for various depths, or an empirical formula slightly modified from 
the theoretical one, will serve all purposes. To one evident simplification 
in the proposed system of gauging, as compared with that by rectangular 
notches, I would here advert, namely, that in the proposed system, when 
once the form of the notch and channel of approach is fixed for gauging 
any set of streams, the quantity flowing comes to be treated as a function 
of only one variable, namely, the measured head of water ; while in the rect- 
angular notches it is practically treated as a function of at least two variables, 
namely, the head of water and the horizontal width of the notch ; because 
in practice it would be inconvenient, if not impossible, to select any single 
width of notch, or any moderate number of widths of notches, for general 
use, for very varied quantities of water. It is commonly also a function of 
a third variable, very difficult to be taken into account, namely, the depth 
from the crest of the notch down to the bottom of the channel of approach ; 
which depth must vary in its influence with all the varying ratios between it 
and the other two quantities of which the flow is a function. 

The proposed system of gauging also gives facilities for taking another 
element into account which often arises in practice ; namely, the influence 
of back water on the flow of the water in the gauge, when, as frequently 
occurs in rivers, it is found impracticable to dam the river up sufficiently to 
give it a clear overfall, free from the back or tail water. For any given 
ratio of the height of the tail water above the vertex of the notch, to the 
height of the head water above the vertex of the notch, I would anticipate 
that the quantities flowing would still be, approximately at least, proportional 
to the l-power of the head as before ; and a set of coefficients would have to 
be determined experimentally for different ratios of the height of the head 
water to the height of the tail water above the vertex of the notch. 

With the aid of the grant placed at my disposal by the Association at last 
year's meeting, for the purposes of these researches, I have got an experi- 
mental apparatus constructed and fitted up at a place a few miles distant 
from Belfast, in Carr's Glen, on the grounds of Mr. Neeson, who has kindly 
afforded me all the necessary facilities regarding the water supply and the site 
for the experiments ; and I have got some preliminary experiments made on a 
right-angled notch in a vertical plane surface, the sides of the notch making 
angles of 45^ with the horizon, and the flow being from a deep and wide 
pool of quiet water, and the water thus approaching the notch uninfluenced 
by any floor or bottom. The principal set of experiments as yet made M'ere 
on quantities of water varying from about 2 to 10 cubic feet per minute; 
and the depths or heads of water varied from 2 to 4 inches in the right- 
angled notch. From these experiments I derive the formula Q=*317 H* ; 
where Q is the quantity of water in cubic feet per minute, and H the head 
as measured, vertically, in inches, from the still-water level of the pool, down 
to the vertex of the notch. This formula is submitted, at present tempo- 
rarily, as being accurate enough for use for ordinary practical purposes for 

Digitized by ^OOQlC 



ANIMAL AND VBGBTABLB PBODUOTS. 185 

the measurement of water by notches similar to the one experimented on, 
and for quantities of water limited to nearly the same range as those in 
the experiments ; but as being, of course, subject to amendment by more 
perfect experiments extending through a wider range of quantities of 
water. 

Out of the grant of ^10 from the Association for these experiments, the 
amount for which J have hitherto had to apply to the Treasurer as having 
been expended in them is £S Os. 4cf.; which leaves a balance remaining of 
£1 I9s. 8d. 

It will be readily observed, that the experimental investigations indica- 
ted in the foregoing report as desirable, are such as would require for their 
completion, and extension to large flows of water, a great expenditure both of 
time and money, like as has already been the case with researches on the flow 
of water in rectangular notches. All that I can myself for the present pro- 
pose to attempt, is to open up the subject with experiments on moderately 
small flows of water ; and with this view, I would be glad to be aided, by a 
further grant from the Association, in continuing experiments of the kinds 
already undertaken. 



Rep(nrt of the Committee on the Magnetic Survey of Great Britain. 
By Major-General Sabine. 

The Committee are glad to be able to state that the Survey has made good 
progress in the course of the present year. Mr. Welsh has completed the 
Survey of Scotland and its adjacent islands, by adding observations at a suf- 
ficient number of points on the islands to the north and west of the main 
land to those he had made in Scotland itself in 1857. General Sabine has 
employed himself in North and South Wales ; and Dr. Lloyd, having asso- 
ciated with himself Professors Joseph Galbraith and Samuel Haughton, and 
George Johnstone Stoney, Esq., has obtained observations on the course of 
the isoclinal and isodynamic lines over Ireland generally. 

There is probably another year's work before the Survey will be so far 
advanced that its different parts can be coordinated, preparatory to the final 
account being prepared for presentation to the Association. In the mean 
time Dr. Lloyd is desirous that the names of Messrs. Galbraith, Haughton, 
and Stoney should be added to those of the Committee named in 1856. 



RqHnrt on Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Substances imported from 
Foreign Countries into the Clyde {including the Ports of Glasgow, 
Greenock, and Port Glasgow) in the years 1853, 1854, 1855, 1856, 

1857. By MiCHABL CoNNAL, Esq., and William Keddie, 
Esq., Glasgow. 

The following returns have been obtained from a careful examination of 
the Clyde Bill of Entry, printed by the Custom House authorities at Glasgow. 
The returns embrace only substances imported from foreign countries, ex- 
clusive of those received " coastwise." From the vague and often inaccurate 
manner in which the entries are made, it has been found impossible to classify 
a number of the substances. Those of unknown or uncertain character have 
been placed under the head of Miscellaneous. 

1858. o ^ J 

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REPORT — 1858. 



MINERAL SUBSTANCES. 



Sabstances. 


Whence 
Imported. 


Imports, 
1853. 


Imports, 
1854. 


Imports, 
1855. 


Imports, 
1856. 


Imports, 
1857. 


^buter 


Leghorn 

Marseilles 


cwt. 
36 


cwt 
116 


cwt 
63 


cwt 
18 


cwt 
52 
10 


Roman Cement 4.*.... 












36 


116 

46 tons. 

tons. 
516 

8 
28 
16 


63 

tons. 
248 


18 

tons. 
264 

8 
18 


62 

tons. 
3968 

17 


Mirble 


Leirhom .... 


tons. 
308 

28 


Sta0CD 


Salonica •• 


Sicily ,. 


Antwerp 




Bordeaux 




Hamburg 




2 

1 


New York 






Athens. ..••••4. 






Rouen • 








336 


568 


251 


290 


3985 
20toiii. 

60 tons. 

150 tons. 

cwt 
93 

60 


Plaster oC Paris 




85 tons. 
60 tons. 
2 tons. 


45 tons. 




160 tons. 

50 tons. 

cwt 

855 

67 

153- 


Limestone •••••...... 


FWmce ....t. «•••. 


Chalk 


L^horn •.••.•••. 




Pamice Stone t... 

Porcelain i... 


Rouen 


Messina 


cwt. 


cwt 

556 

408 

66 


cwt. 


Palermo 




72 


Malta 




Leghorn •• 




Rouen 










1030 


72 


1065 
2cwt 

140 cwt 

tons. 
1055 


153 

tont 
400 




Emery Stones 


Smyrna 

Rotterdam 

New York 


351 tons. 
30 tons. 




90 tons. 


Barytes , „.. 


37 cwt 


Magnesia. •••• 


Borax 






Nitrate of Soda 


iqmque 

Valparaiso 


tons. 
175 
647 


tons. 


tons. 
243 


Natron (Carbonate of Soda) 
AlkaU 










822 




243 

980 galls. 


1055 


400 


20 tons. 


Roaen ••.... ••.. 













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HINJIftAL SUBSTANCES. 



237 



Substances. 


Whence 
Imported. 


Imports, 
1853. 


Imports, 
1854. 


Imports, 
1855. 


'T^' 


Imports, 
1857. 


Salt (Coivmop) tttitt.ttttt... 


Portugal 


tons. . 
213 


tons. 

160 

80 


tons. 


tons. 
295 


tons. 
3 


Saltpetre 


France •••« 


95 


AlfXfl^i^riii , 




Calcutta 






213 


240 


95 


295 

156 tons. 

tons. 

8977 

165 


3 

30 tons. 

tons. 

3448 

206 

25 

280 

155 


Brimitone •■•ttt.t.ttt 


SicUy 


tons. 

3401 
568 
370 
191 


tons. 

9938 

835 

26 

110 

60 


tons. 
4240 


M'sitflpflnASA .........>....... 


France 


Italy 




Malta 


43 




Alexandria 




Portugal 






230 


New York 








Rotterdam 

St. John's, N. B. 
Marseilles ... 










4530 

tons. 
27 


10,969 
tons. 


4283 
tons. 


9372 

tons. 

8 

110 


4114 
tons. 

4 
22 














Leghorn 










Rotterdam 

St. John's, N. B. 

Spain 










27 

945 tons. 






118 
230 tons. 


26 

20 tons. 

tons. 
71 
12 


333 tons. 


331 tons. 


Lead • 


tons. 
293 
160 


tons. 
49 


tons. 
78 


tons. 
149 


fiithanrfi ...-^-..t-tt..t.ttTtt— 


France 


Montserrat ••••.. 




3 




Hamburg ...... 

Rotterdam 

Cronstadt. •*.•.... 




,,.,,,, 


453 

tons. 

17 

6 


49 

tons. 

7 

15 


81 

tons. 

4 


149 

2209bars. 
20 cwt. 
42 cwt 

14 tons. 
10 tons. 

10 tons. 

occadona 


83 

129 cwt. 
Uy. 


intiinigv •.•••••••• 


83 


22 


4 




New York ...... 








Sienna Earth 


L^hom ......... 


144 cwt. 


87 cwt. 




(llYdnms Sesqoiozide of 
Pig Iron , 


St. John's, N. B. 
St. Petersburg .. 




Ochre •••...t... ....•..•••• 








Nantes 


300 tons. 






Plumbago • «t*t. 


Rouen ............ 


Rotterdam 

St. John's, N.B. 


cwt. 
1 
6 


small 


quantities 




7 



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Snbstoncei. 



Whence 
Imported* 



Importi, 
1853. 



Imports, 
1854. 



Imports, 
1855. 



Imports, 
1856. 



Cllromate of Iron 

• ■ 
Copperas 

Pyrites 

(Bitolphcureiofltoii.) 

Spelter ot ZliMi ...* 

Copper.M , 



Veidisrii. 
Gold 4. 



Pewter..4 

Asphalte 

Lapis LaSttU .*< 
Ultramarine. 

Terra Umbra ... 

Drip-stone 



Glass Sand 



Smyrna .. 
New York 



Rouen 

Drontheim 



Hamburg , 
Antwerp «••< 
tlotterdant . 
Palermo .<«. 



St. Kitts .... 

Quebec 

Grenada .... 

Trinidad .... 

Valparaisa * 
Jamaica ••.. 
St. Vineent . 
Malta ...... 

Callao ....... 



New York 



Melbonme 
New York 
Jamaica ... 



Demerara.. 
Cardenas .. 
Callao 



Malta ...... 

Sourabaya 



Rouen . 
Lisbon. 



Bartb, or Painters' Colours., 
Chroma Ore.«M*M......,...i,, 



tons. 
50 



tons. 

195 

50 



50 



200 



owt. 

778 



cwt* 

078 

2283 

158 



ewt. 
148 
790 



ewt^ 
549 
893 



778 

cwt. 
20 



8118 
cwt. 
190 



938 
cwt. 



81 

1 



1442 
cwt. 



80 



100 



22 



7 cwt. 



padkaMS. pafbagti- 



560 cwt. 



20 tons. 



8 owt. 

tons. 
473 



tons. 

217 

60 



Montreal ......... 

St. Petersburg... 
New York .., 
Cronstadt 



60 cwt. 
30 tons. 



964 tons. 



i73 



300 tons. 



877 



40 tons. 



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MINERAL 8U08TANO£8. 



989 



Snbstuiees. 



"Whence 
Imported. 



Imports, 
1853. 



Imports, 
1854. 



Imports, 
1865. 



Imports, 
1856. 



Imports, 
1857. 



Chrome Yellow . 

Burr Slonei 

Sal-ammoniac',... 
Acetate of Lime . 
Vitriol 



Mineral Water.. 



SeHzer Water. 
Chromate? .... 



Rotterdam 

France 

Rotterdam 
New YoHl 
Hamburg... 



Hamburg... 

Rotterdam 

Marseilles 



Amsterdam . 
Oporto 



lOowt. 

1045 

3cwt. 

]885owt. 



gallons. 
600 
550 



2205 

1611 cwt. 

250 gaUs. 

gallons. 



4057 



1924 cwt. 



gallons. 



624 

1976 cwt. 

gallons. 
2000 



4892 



2079 ewt. 



1150 



2000 
645gall8. 
238 C¥rt. 



Report qfthe Committee on Shipping Statistics. Presented to the 
British Associdtion^ September, 1858. 

Report of the Committee appointed bj the British Association to inquire 
into the statistics of shipping, with a view to rendering statistical record more 
available as data condaoive to the improvement of naval architecture as 
respects the adaptation of the form of ships to the requirements of sea 
aenrice. 

The Committee, so appointed, consisted of the following gentlemen : — 



Admiral Moorsom. 
J. Scott Russell. 
J. £• McConneli. 



Charles Atherton. 
William Fairbaim. 
James Perry. 



Henry Wright 
Andrew Henderson* 



The Committee, on commencing their proceedings, received letters from 
Admiral Moorsom, Mr. John Scott Russell, and Mr. J. £• McConneli^ 
whereby the Committee were deprived of the co-operation of those gentlemen 
as members of this Committee ; the remaining members, however, agreed to 
prosecute the duties assigned to them, and William Fairbaim, Esq., F.R.S., 
oy the unanimous desire of the Committee, undertook to conduct the pro^ 
ceedings as Chairman, with the assistance of Henry Wright, Esq., as Honor* 
ary Secretary. The Committee now beg to explain the course of proceed- 
ing by which they hoped to promote, if not mature, the objects assigned to 
them by the Association. 

In the first place, the Committee issued a circular, inviting statistical In- 
formation as to the actual sea performances of ships (Appendix No. 1), with 
a view to compiling a comprehensive statement as to the sea performances 
of vessels generally, whence the Committee might be enabled to select a con*' 
siderable number of vessels, of which the performances at sea may have beett 

Digitized by i^JfOOQlC 



2240 REPORT — 1858. 

remarkable ; and their attention being thus directed to a limited selectioo, 
embracing a considerable number of vessels of practically established excel- 
lence for sea service, the Committee hoped, after making due inquiry, to be 
enabled to present, as respects those vessels, a statistical exposition, in tabular 
form, of their various elements of construction and type of build, and thus, 
by a system of collation and induction, to discover practically those types 
and elements of construction which have been found by experience most con- 
ducive to good performances at sea. In the case of steam-ships, it was pur- 
posed that the statistics of the original .trials to which steamers are generally 
put when new, should also be collected, classified, and collated with reference 
to the subsequent performances of the same vessels at sea, whence it might 
be determined to what extent and in what respects the usual smooth-water 
triab of steam-ships may be indicative of the probable properties to be ex- 
pected of the same ships at sea, as respects their dynamic capabilities. 

The Committee are happy to sa^ that this attempt at practically inquiring 
into the peculiarities of construction to which the good or bad qualities of 
steam-ships may be attributable, has not been wholly fruitless ; for, although 
shipowners, shipbuilders, and marine engine manufacturers have been 
generally reluctant to communicate particulars whereby the dynamic merits 
of ships may be numerically classed and compared, the results of which clas- 
sification and comparison might, if promulgated, affect the commercial value 
of their property and the relative professional reputation of constructors, 
still, in reply to the before- mentioned circular, information has been com- 
municated as to the performance of vessels, particularly steam-vessels, by 
which it appears that a great difference exists between steam-sbips as respects 
their economic capabilities for the performance of mercantile steam transport 
service, leading to the conclusion that the general aggregate of steam service 
Is performed by vessels of inferior adaptation for economic duty, and con- 
sequently at a rate of prime-cost expenditure ; and, therefore, ultimate charge 
on the public, greatly in excess of that which would be involved if all steamers 
were of the superior class of excellence that has been already in certain cases 
actually attained. For example, this Committee are assured, on authority 
which they believe to be unquestionable, that a certain vessel, the Bremenh 
of 3440 tons displacement at the time of trial, propelled by engines working 
up to 1624 indicated horse-power, attained the speed of 13*15 nautical miles 
per hour. Now, if we estimate the dynamic duty thus performed by the 

formula j^xf =^' ^^ *^^^ ^*^® ^^"^ coefficient, cJ^^^^^^^^^^ 

2274X227'88 

jggT =319 ; and this coefficient of dynamic duty, resulting from 

the mutual relation of displacement, speed, and power, appears, from the 
statements which have been communicated to this Committee, nearly 50 per 
cent higher than that realized by the average performance of the steam-ships 
of the present day. The following are the coefficients of dynamic duty de- 
duced by the foregoing rule from the performances of mercantile steamers 
of high repute, of which the trial data have been communicated to this Com- 
mittee, viz. 325, 294, 291, 288, 259, 248, 231, 230, and 204, and many others 
below 200. 

This Committee therefore regard the Bremen as being a felicitous exem- 
plification of naval architecture as respects type of form adapted for easy 
propulsion ; and as we conceive that the promulgation of some of the con- 
structive elements of this vessel may be of public importance, we are happy 
in being authorized and enabled, by Messrs. Caird and Co., of Greenock, the 
constructors of the ship and of the engines, to communicate to the British 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ON SHIPPING STATISTICS. 241 

Association the folloviog statistical data as to tlie elements of constructiou 
of the Bremen :— 

Length between perpendiculars of stem and rudder post*. 318 feet 

Breadth of beam 40 ^ 

Depth of hold 26 „ 

Mean draught of water at the time of trial 18 ft 6 in. 

Displacement (D) at trial draught 3440 tons 

Area of maximum immersed section (A) at the trial draught 606 sq. fU 
Distance of maximum section (A) measuring from the stem 159 feet 

Constructors' load draught {Ift7''** 19 " 

Displacement at constructors' load draught 3440 tons 

Rate of ships' displacement at constructors' load draught 25 ,, perin. 

Data for laying off Peake's curve of sections : — 

Area of immersed vertical section at the distance of ^ 
lengthy measuring from stem 256*5 sq. fit. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



Do. Do 486 

Do. Do 606 



Do. \' Do. Do 489 „ 



Do. Do. 253*5 



Data for laying off curve of displacement :— 

Displacement at draught of 4' 7)1", being | load draught . 300 tons 
Displacement at draught of 9^ 3'', being | load draught. . 1165 „ 
Displacement at draught of 1 3' 1 0|'', being 4 load draught 2240 „ 
Displacement at draught of 18' 6", or load draught . . « • 3440 ,> 

The foregoing data afford all the particulars required for the construction 
of Peake's curve of vertical sections, whence may be deduced the position 
of the vertical line passing through the centre of gravity of displacement and 
also the positions of the centre of gravity of the fore and aft bodies re« 
spectively. 

It will be observed, from the foregoing data of the constructive elements 
of the Bremen^ that the maximum immersed section is at the middle of the 
length, and that the vertical sections are in such ratio to each other, with 
reference to their respective positions, that the curve of vertical sections will 
be a close approximation to a parabola. 

The ratios deducible from the foregoing particulars of constructive data, 
combining Peake's curve of immersed vertical sections with the curve of 
displacement, will give a close approximation to the type of form of the im- 
mersed hull. 

The engines of the Bremen consist of two direct-acting inverted cylinders, 
90 inches diameter, and 3 feet 6 inches stroke, fitted with expansion valves 
capable of working expansively to a high degree. All parts of the engines 
are felted and lagged with wood wherever practicable, the lower 16 feet of 
the funnel being surrounded by a casing forming a superheating chamber, 
the steam entering at the lower end, and passing off at the top into the steam 
pipes leading to the cylinders. 

On the important question as to the extent to which the ordinary smooth- 
water trial of a steamer affords a criterion of the general average perform- 
ance that may be expected of the vessel at sea, this Committee have not been 
Able to obtain such an extent of returns of the comparative smooth-water 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



342 RBPORT — 1858. 

trials and sea performances of the same ships as enable them fully to respond 
to this part of the inquiry, and they refrain from expressing any speculative 
opinion, because they have adopted the principle which they desire to recom- 
mend to the notice of the British Association, that shipping improvement is 
to be discovered by statbtical record and analysis of the constructive elements 
of ships that have practically shown themselves to possess good sea-proper- 
ties, rather than by assuming the mere theories of opinionative speculation, 
from whatever source such opinions may emanate, — in short, that experience 
of actual performances at sea, statbtically recorded and utilized by being 
made the basis of comparison, is the most reliable base on which to construct 
an inductive system of progressive improvement in naval architecture and 
marine-engine construction. This Committee, however, have much satisfac- 
tion in being enabled to commence this inquiry by recording the sea per- 
formance of the before-mentioned vessel Bremen^ on a passage from Bremen 
haven to New York and back, during the months of June and Julv last, during 
the whole of which passages indicator cards were frequently taken, and the 
indicated working power of the engines ascertained. On the out passage the 
mean displacement was ^878 tons, the mean indicated horse-power was 1078, 
and the mean speed 10*28 knots per hour, giving a coefficient by the formula 
referred to=2(M<; but on the return passage the mean displacement was 
2990, the mean indicated horse power 1010, and the mean speed at the rate 
of 11*92 knots per hour, giving a coefficient=S48. Hence the mean co- 
efficient of the out and home passage =276, being about 13 per cent, below 
the coefficient (319) obtained on the s;nooth- water test-trial of the ship. 
The state of the weather and the sea was also recorded daily ; it appears to 
have been adverse on the out passage, but favourable on the home passage. 
The Committee are, therefore, of opinion that, by following up this course 
of statistical record of the smooth-water trial and subsequent sea perform- 
ances of ships respectively, a tabular statement might be compiled, showing 
the probable ratios of the coefficients of smooth water and sea performance, 
corresponding to the various rates of speed for which steamers may be re- 
spectively powered, whence the smooth water test-trials of ships may be made 
available as approximately indicative of their sea-servioe capabilities as 
respects their dynamic properties. 

Such are the statistical data of the constructive elements and dynamic 
capabilities of the Bremen, and if all steam- veaseU engaged in the mercantile 
transport service of Britain were equally effective as respects the mutsal re- 
lations of displacement, speed, and power, that is, capable of producing a eo- 
efficient of dynamic capability =319, by the formula referred to, it is probable 
that the prime-cost expenses of steam-ship transport per ton weight of oargo 
conveyed on long passages would, on the aggregate of the foreign trade of 
Britain, be reduced not less than 25 per cent, as compared with the prime* 
cost expenses incurred by steam-vessels of the average dynamic oapabllitf 
in present use. 

The efHect of improved type of build on the economy of steam trantport 
per ton weight of goods conveyed, is such as shows the inquiry to be of vital 
importance in connexion with the management of steam-shipping affairs. 

The public importance of improved type of build in a national point of 
view (for it is the publio and not the shipowners who ultlmatdy bear the 
brunt of expensive transport service) may be judged of from the statiatioai 
fact published by the Board of Trade, that no less than 899 steam-vessels 
(of which 511 are sea-going ships) were employed on the commercial traiw- 
port service of Britain in 1857* The ratio in which the transport servioe of 
the country is performed by the aid of steam appears to be conskantlyoii tibe 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ON StflPPINO fTATISTICS. 248 

iiioreaie; and m it ii to be expected that meroantiie competition will always 
caute the cost of freight on the general aggregate of the trade of the countrj 
to be proportionally ruled by the prinie*co8t expenses that may be actually 
iocarr«d in doing the work, it appears manifest that the public eoonomy de- 
pendent on the general realization of shipping improvement is a considera- 
tion that involves public interest to the extent of millions sterling per 
annum* 

To demonstrate the vast importance of this subject^ Appendix No. 2 has 
been compiled fVom the returns of the Board of Trade, to show the amount 
of trade between the United Kingdom and foreign countries during the yeac 
IS55* This compilation shows that the tons weight of cargo actually carried 
in the foreign trade of the United Kingdom in the year 1855 amounted to***- 

Imports 6,254,259 tons. 

Exports 8,370,363 tons. 

Total 14,624,622 tons. 

Nearly 15 millions of tons weight of sea-borne cargo, conveyed at probably 
35 per cent extra cost beyond what would be incurred if ships of the high 
order of dynamic merit exemplified by the Bremen were only and exclusively 
employed. 

By aid of Appendix No. 2, showing the amount of trade between Great 
Britain and all foreign countries respectively, parties conversant with shipping 
aiairB will be enabled to estimate approximately the gross amount annually 
involved in the goods-transport service of Britain. Thus public interests 
require that the statistical records of shipping should embrace such data m 
will be availably conducive to shipping improvement, by affording the means 
of approximately estimating the dynamic capabilities of ships, whereby every 
ship constructor and ship owner, and the directors of steam-shipping compn- 
nies, may be enabled to test the dynamic merits and condition of their ships 
respectively,— a system, which would gradually lead to the adoption of such 
types only as develope a high order of dynamic duty, and would obviate some 
of the most serious hazards to which private and public interests are now 
exposed from vessels being employed on commercial and postal services for 
which they are not fit. 

Only let it be publicly known, as exemplified by the BremeHy that steam- 
ships and their machinerv may be no constructed, that on being subjected to 
a test-trial, the cube of the speed in knots, multiplied by the square of the 
cube root of the displacement, and divided by the indicated horse power, 
ought, in the present day, irrespective of future improvement, to produce a 
quotient or coefiicient of dynamic duty equal to the number 319, and that 
the coefficient deduced from the rule thus enunciated constitutes (caieris 
paribus) a criterion of the cost price at which steam-ships perform their work ; 
and we shall then soon find that this test of dynamic merit, or the numeral 
coefficient deduced therefrom, will enter into the calculation of the pecuniary 
Talue of steamers to such extent that ships of a low order of dynamic capa- 
bility will not be built, because they will not sell. 

The test of dynamic merit, as above set forth, based on the mutual rela- 
tions of displacement, speed, and power, presumes on the net power effect- 
ively applied in propelling the ship being always in a constant and known 
ratio to the gross intiicated power. 

The inquiry, therefore, so far, is of such a nature as demands professional 
knowledge and skill in order to determine and discriminate between the merit 
that may be due respectively to the type of form of the hull, and to the con<* 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



244 REPORT— 1858« 

struction of the engines, propeller, and boilers ; for a good type of hull, pro« 
pelled by an inferior construction of machinery and boilers, or an inferior 
type of hull propelled by a good construction of machinery and boilers, may, 
by the above formula, produce equal result*. This Committee, howeTer» 
consider it of vital importance to the promotion of the objects of this in- 
quiry, viz., ^^ the maturing of a system of statistical record conducive to the 
improvement of naval architecture,'' that the owners and charterers of ships» 
and the directors of shipping companies or agents by whom shipping affairs 
are conducted, should themselves have the means of ascertaining the relative 
dynamic merits and working condition of their ships without any reference 
whatever to the professional assistance of builders or engineers, but be enabled 
to judge for themselves whether the performance be good or bad by refer- 
ence to the data afforded by their counting-house records ; and this desirable 
object may be at once effected by the displacement of the ship being known, 
and by substituting in the foregoing formula the consumption of fuel in a 
given time (say the weight in cwts. (W) consumed per hour), in lieu of the 
expression for power, and regarding the hull, machinery, and boilers collect- 
ively as an int^ral equipment of which the coefficient derived from the 

VxD* 
formula — W~~^ indicates the dynamic condition with reference to the 

dynamic condition of other vessels tested by the same rule, viz.: — ^Multiply the 

cube of the speed by the square of the cube root of the mean displacement, 

and divide the product by the consumption of fuel per hour expressed in 

cwts« The quotient indicates the relative dynamic condition of the vessel. 

For example : a steam-ship (A) performed out and home voyages amounting 

to 7200 nautical miles in 652 hours, being at the average speed of 11*04 

knots per hour, the consumption of coal was 1519 tons, or 30,880 cwts^ 

being at the rate of 47 cwts. per hour, and the mean displacement was 29S4 

tons. Hence the coefficient of dynamic duty indicative of the merits of the 

^ .u- • . (ll-04yX(2934H 1345-6x2 05 ,,^^ 
performance on this occasion is 47 47 =5870. 

Again, another vessel (B), with a mean displacement of 840 tons, attains on 

long-continued service, the average speed of 12*78 knots per hour, with the 

average consumption of 50*3 cwts. coal per hour, giving a coefficient of 

, . , , (12*78/ X (840) 1 2087-3x89 ^^^^ ^^ . 
dynamic duty ^^ ^^^ ^= — ^^^ — =3693. Thus, in one case 

(A), the coefficient of dynamic duty, based on the consumption of fuel, is 
5870, whilst in the other case (B), it is only 3693 ; that is, one cwt. of coal 
in A performs as much dynamically effective work as is performed by 1^ 
cwt in the case of B, a discrepancy which may well induce professional 
inquiry being instituted by the shipowner, whether the inferior performance 
of B is occasioned by inferior type of form, or foulness of bottom, or inferior 
principle of mechanical appliances, or inferior management, or bad coal ; for 
these causes, combined, or indeed either one of them alone, may be sufficient 
to account for the result. 

Now, what are the all-important elements of construction thus proposed to 
be embraced in public records, and thereby made known to the purchasers 
and charterers of ships with a view to enable such parties to test the economic 
working capabilities of ships, so conducive to the reformation above referred 
to? Why, by the rule above enunciated, the displacement corresponding to 
the constructor's load draught at which the ship may be tried, and to which 
approximately, as a general rule» the ship may be loaded, becomes the only 
item of statistical data that requires to be officially recorded, for the test trial 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 



ON SHIPPING STATISTICS. 



245 



and sea performances of ships, as above shown, will give the capabilities for 
speed ; and the consumption of fuel per hour corresponding thereto will be 
known from the counting-house ledger* 

It is, therefore, suggested that the registration records of every ship give 
the displacement when the ship is immersed down to some definite line, which 
may be denominated the constructor's load line. 

The assignment of the constructor's load line draught forward and affc, and 
the corresponding displacement, are all the statistical data that are required to 
be registered in addition to the details of registration already enforced under 
the Merchant Shipping Act of 1 854, in order to determine the comparative 
coefficients, and put the system of practical rivalry hereby suggested into 
operation, as being the most effective system for inducing improvement in 
naval architecture. 

As regards the existing system of shipping statistics and shipping registra* 
tion, with reference to its affording data available for promoting shipping 
improvement, this Committee has to observe that, although the aggregate 
register tonnage of mercantile shipping appears to be a very close approxi* 
mation to the aggregate weight-carrying capability of the entire mercantile 
navy, still, when considered in detail with reference to particular ships, it 
b found that the register tonnage of a ship affords no approximate criterion 
whatever either of the load displacement or of the weight-carrying capabili- 
ties of ships respectively; for, by reference to Appendix No. 2, it will be found 
that ships are frequently loaded with dead weight of cargo to the extent of 
double their register tonnage, and the statement (Appendix No. 2) shows 
the following extreme cases of weight-carrying capability with reference to 
register tonnage : — 



Coantry traded 
with. 


Vetsels. 


Weight of 
Cargo. 


Register 
Tonnage. 


Ratio of 
Cargo to 
Tonnage. 




34 
1 
2 


tons. 
11,576 

780 

2,391 


4,075 
259 
455 


2-8 to 1 

3tol 

5-2 to! 


Tnnit 


Bolivis ....•••••••• 





These cases appeared so remarkable, that the Committee were anxious to 
prosecute inquiries with reference to the build and sea performances of those 
particular ships, and with that view they addressed a letter to the Custom 
House for the purpose of identifying the vessels thus referred to ; but the 
official fees demanded for responding to such inquiries, put it out of the 
power of the Committee to avail themselves to any useful purpose of the 
shipping statistics of Government. 

AnoUier difficulty which greatly obstructs the collecting of statistics on 
the sea performances of mercantile shipping, is the great number of vessels 
bearing the same name. In many cases, there are scores of vessels bearing 
the same name, thus rendering it extremely difficult to trace and scrutinize 
the performance of a vessel of any name with certainty as to her identity ; 
for, in publishing the arrivals and departures of shipping in mercantile navy 
records, the registered number of a ship, which constitutes the only means 
of identification^ is not generally given in connection with her name. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



$46 RBPOBT-— 1868, 

A further iDStance of the insufficiency of our present system of shipping 
registrfttion as statistical data indicative of the sixe of the hull of steam ship- 
ping, is afforded by the statement given in Appendix No. S, which has been 
deduced from a Return of the House of Commons, showipg the per-centage 
deduction from the gross tonpage allowed for the engine rooms of steam-ships ; 
whence we see that, without any reference whatever being made to the actual 
weight of the machinery, deductions are made from the gross tonnage vary- 
ing from 5 per cent to 92 per cent of the gross measurement, the remainder 
only being brought to account as the registered tonnage of the ship. 

In conclusion, this Committee beg to observe, that if the views thua 
brought before the notice of the British Association should be deemed worthy 
of further prosecution, and be favourably entertained by the Government, 
the statistics of the Post-office, as respects the constructive elements, and 
test trials, and subsequent sea performances of the various steam-ships em« 
ployed in H. M. Mail Service, would afibrd a collection of statistical data 
which, if duly analysed and applied as herein suggested, would greatly pro* 
mote the objects of this inquiry, which the British Association has thus been 
pleased to institute. 

The Committee have the painful duty of announcing the death of one of its 
members, James Perry, Esq., whose personal character, practical intelligence, 
and public usefulness, were of such an order, that his decease may be mourned 
as a public loss. 

(Signed) 

WILLIAM FAIRBAIRN, Oiairman. 
CHARLES ATHERTON. 
ANDREW HENDERSON. 
HENRY WRIGHT. 

The following circular was addressed to Shipowners and Shipping Com- 
panies requiring information and assistance. 



APPENDIX. 

I...T0 Shipping Companies, Shipowners, and others connected with the 
Mercantile Management and I^irection of Ships. 

Committee on Shipping Statistics. 

11 Baddngfasm Straet, Addlpfai, London, WXX, 
26th April, 1868. 

GxvTLSMBV,-p-The attention of the British Association at their late Meet* 
ing in Dublin, having been directed to the consideration of shinping statistics^ 
the Coounittee of the Association came to the resolution <* tnat the applica- 
tion of science to the improvement of steam-ships has been impeded by the 
difficulty of obtaining the necessary data from the present registration " ; a 
Committee were thereupon appointed to inquire into this subject, which Com- 
mittee beg the favour of your assistance, with a view to ascertain, from the 
general experience and records of shipping companies, shipowners, and others 
connected with the mercantile management and direction of shipping, what 
description of vessels has produced the best results. 

In the prosecution of this inquiry, the Committee desire now, in the first 
place, to ascertain what have been the actual sea performances of ships, and 
their att^tion being thus directed to instances in which the performance of 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ON SHIPPING STATISTICS. 



247 



particular ships has been remarkable, further steps will hereafter be taken to 
Inquire into the circumstances of such cases, and ascertain the peculiarities 
of proportion and type of form of the vessels which have produced such 
results. 

With these objects in view, the Committee request the favour of your 
filling up the annexed form, giving an example of the quickest voyage made 
hf each of the vessels of the line of packets under your direction, on the 
pf|saage or station on which such vessels respectively may have been em- 
ployed. 

I am. Gentlemen, 

Your very obedient servant, 

HENRY WRIGHT, Hon. Sec. 
By Order of the Committee. 

N.B. The Committee will feel obliged by your returning the form, when 
filled up, to the above address, as soon as convenient ; not later than the 1st 
of June. 



ShIPFIKO COMlffnTEB, 

Office, 11 Buckingham Street, London, W.C. 
[Ft if requested that this form hefiUed up and returned by the Ut of June, 1858.] 

h k rMmoted tfaAl thfl lJ^p]d(Hnni--iii at ibe 
VnufrlulK: fiircD nl tbe roUowlni' DrttLfebt^ H 




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