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Congress of Archaeological Societies 
in Union with the Society of 
Antiquaries of London. Committee on 
Ancient Earthworks and Fortified 
Enclosures 

Report 

1909-11 




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REPORT OF TH&tf 




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DEC 1967 




MITTEE 



ON 



ANCIENT EARTHWORKS- AND 
FORTIFIED ENCLOSURES, 

Prepared for presentation to the Congress of 
ArchcBological Societies, Jtdy ytk, 1909. 



COMMITTEE. 



Lord Balcarres, M.P., F.S.A. {Chairman). 



Mr. A. Hadrian Allcroft,M.A. 
Mr. W. J. Andrew, F.S.A. 
Col. F. W. T. Attree, F.S.A. 
Mr. C. H. Bothamley, F.I.C. 
Mr. J. G. N. Clift. 
Mr. E. S. Cobbold, C.E., F.G.S. 
Mr. S. Denison. 

Mr. WlLLOUGHBY GARDNER. 

Mr. A. R. Goddard, B.A. 
Professor F. Haverfield, M.A., 
F.S.A. 



Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. 
Mr. H. Laver, F.S.A. 
Mr. C. Lynam, F.S.A. 
Mr. D. H. Montgomerie. 
Mr. C. H. Read, LL.D., P.S.A. 
Mr. J. Horace Round, LL.D. 
Col. O. E. Ruck, F.S.A.Scot. 
Mr. W. M. Tapp, LL.D., F.S.A. 
PresidentB.C.A.WiNDLE,F.R.S. 



Mr. A. G. Chater, Hon. Sec. 
(Address : 41, Porchester Square, London, IV.) 



The Committee is able to report a steady growth of interest in ancient 
fortifications, as shown by measures taken for the preservation, explora- 
tion and recording of these remains. It has to be noticed, however, 
that many large areas (such as Buckinghamshire, Norfolk and Surrey, 
to name only three counties), are still comparatively neglected ; and it 
will not be out of place to insist once more on the value of local effort 
in the systematic recording of these relics, as the first step towards their 
preservation and investigation. 

A Royal Commission on Welsh Monuments was appointed in 
August, 1908, and has been for several months engaged on its inventory. 

In October, 1908, the Government appointed a Royal Commission 
to make an inventory of the Ancient and Historical Monuments of 
England, and to specify those which seem most worthy of preservation. 
A Sub-Commission to deal with earthworks and pre-Roman remains has 
been constituted as follows : Lord Balcarres (Chairman), Sir H. H. 
Howorth, Professor Haverfield, Mr. J. G. N. Clift, with Mr. William 
Page and Mr. A. G. Chater as Assistant Commissioners. Mr. D. H. 
Montgomerie is assisting the Commission as investigator of earthworks. 

The county of Hertford is now being surveyed, and other counties 
will follow in turn. 

It will be seen that the Sub-Commission is closely associated with 
the Earthworks Committee of the Congress, and in view of this fact 
is suggested that the county archaeological societies might render 
valuable assistance to the Royal Commission by collecting information 
and preparing schedules (especially in those counties that have not yet 
oeen dealt with in the Victoria County History), which would supple- 
ment and correct the Ordnance Survey and serve as a basis for the 
schedules of the Royal Commission. 

It is gratifying to announce that the Hampshire Field Club has 
already reported that a schedule of the earthworks of the county is 
being prepared by one of its members, Dr. J. P. Williams-Freeman, and 
that a preliminary list of the earthworks of Cheshire has been furnished 
by Mr. William Harrison (see Bibliography). The Committee is also 



informed that Mr. Percy Farrer, of Durrington, Wilts., has under- 
taken to schedule the earthworks of a part of Wiltshire, including 
Salisbury Plain. 

It is hoped that these examples may be widely followed, and that 
the appointment of the Royal Commission may serve to stimulate the 
work of recording for which this Committee was originally constituted. 

The officers in charge of the revision of the Ordnance Survey on the 
scale of 25 inches to the mile have agreed to keep the Committee 
informed of the position of their field parties, in order that any earth- 
works hitherto omitted or insufficiently shown may be made good in the 
next revision. This information will be forwarded to the Secretaries of 
the local societies concerned, and the Committee trusts that advantage 
will be taken of this practical arrangement for mutual assistance 
between the Ordnance Survey and the Archaeological Societies. 

The Committee is now in correspondence with the Commission 
d'ctude des Enceintes prehistoriques et Fortifications anhistoriques, a 
development of the Societe Prehistorique de France which during the 
last three years has collected a great quantity of material for an 
inventory of the ancient fortifications of France. We take this oppor- 
tunity of mentioning that the President of the French Committee, 
Dr. Adrien Guebhard, A.F.M. (4, Rue de l'Abbe de l'Epee, Paris), 
will be glad to exchange reprints with the authors of any papers relating 
to our subject, 

We have again to thank the Victoria History Syndicate for the 
presentation of the original plans of earthworks reproduced in the 
volumes of the History. 

PRESERVATION.— The transfer of Maiden Castle, Dorset, to 
the guardianship of H.M. Office of Works has now been completed, 
and it is understood that steps will be taken to check the destruction of 
the ramparts by rabbits. 

Thetford Castle Meadow and Hill, Norfolk, have been leased by 
Thetford Corporation for ninety-nine years, and the site was formally 
opened as a public park on September 5th, 190S, by Lady William 
Cecil, the lessor. 

Stokeleigh Camp, on the Somerset side of the Avon gorge, has, 
thruugh the generosity of Mr. G. A. Wills, been saved from destruction, 



and secured to the public. Besides purchasing the camp and the 
surrounding woods, Mr. Wills has provided a fund for the maintenance 
of the site in its present natural state ; and it is understood that the 
property will be vested in the National Trust for Places of Historic 
Interest or Natural Beauty. 

White Barrow, near Tilshead, Wilts., one of the chief long barrows 
of the county, has been acquired by the National Trust, the owner of 
the property, Mrs. Cunnington, of Devizes, herself contributing part of 
the purchase price, and the remainder having been raised by subscrip- 
tion. Mrs. Cunnington reserves to herself and her husband the right to 
excavate the barrow. 

Mr. Claude E. S. Bishop, of Norton Priory, near Chichester, has 
recently purchased the remains of an earthwork adjoining the old church 
at Selsea with a view to its preservation. 

The Essex County Council has voted a sum of money for the pur- 
pose of restoring the old landmarks of Epping Forest. 

Pendinas Camp, Cardiganshire, has been protected by the owners 
and by the Corporation of Aberystwyth, certain public paths to the 
summit having been wired off. 

DESTRUCTION. — Many instances have been noticed of the 
mutilation of ramparts and ditches through the utilization of ancient 
earthworks in the laying out of golf courses. This practice is evidently 
on the increase, and the Committee would urge archaeologists and all 
who recognize the importance of these relics to use their influence 
whenever possible to prevent such destruction, which is doubtless due 
in most cases to ignorance of the scientific value and historical interest 
of the remains. 

Buckinghamshire. — Prince's Risborough. — A small portion of 
the reputed site of the Black Prince's palace has been added to the 
churchyard adjoining, and the moat on that side has been filled in. 

Carnarvonshire.— Penmaenmawr. — Mr. Willoughby Gardner 
reports that quarrying has recently extended considerably in the direction 
of this hill fortress, and that blast holes have actually been drilled 
beneath the north wall of the stronghold. He reported the matter to 
the Royal Commission on Welsh Monuments, and two of the 
Commissioners have been to view the site. It is feared, however, that 



the remains cannot easily be saved, the Quarry Company having been 
granted a lease of the mountain by the Commissioners of Woods and 
Forests. 

Conway Mountain. —Mr. Gardner reports that the walls 



of the hill fortress here were sadly mutilated last year by Territorials 
entrenching themselves behind them during manoeuvres. This was 
brought to the notice of the Conway Town Council by the Llandudno 
Field Club, the Nant Conwy Antiquarian Society and the Abergele 
Antiquarian Society acting in concert, and the Council at once 
instructed their surveyor to erect notice boards around the site, putting 
it " out of bounds " for troops. 

Devonshire. — A cairn a few yards south of the high road on 
Wigford Down, Meavy, and some hut circles near Petertavy have been 
destroyed by road menders. A complaint has been lodged with the 
Tavistock District Council by the Devonshire Association. 

Hertfordshire. — Mr. W. B. Gerish writes that the tumulus at 
Metley Hill, Wellington, has been levelled comparatively recently, and 
a large moated site near Shingle Hall, Sawbridgeworth, has been 
levelled and the moat filled in. 

Suffolk. — Bungay Castle. — Mr. W. A. Dutt writes that portions 
of the rampart that enclosed the base court have been damaged in 
enlarging the Town Yard, where road metal is stored, but so far as can 
be ascertained nothing further in that direction is likely to be done. 
The Castle ruins, chiefly standing on a walled mound, were sold some 
years ago by the Duke of Norfolk, but it is understood that they have 
since been repurchased by him. 

EXPLORATION. — Cambridgeshire. — The line of the Roman 
road between Cambridge and Barton was cut through by the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society and plans made of the cutting. 

The site of a levelled tumulus at Barton was excavated by the same 
Society, and last year the Rev. F. G. Walker examined two tumuli of 
the Roman period at the same place. 

Carmarthenshire. — The Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society has 
excavated a tumulus of the middle or late Bronze Age on Cadno 
Mountain, near Pendine. (See Bibliography — Ward.) 



The same Society has investigated the site of the Roman 
settlement at Dolaucothy. (See Bibliography — JTaverfield.) 

Cheshire. — The south-east angle of the Roman defences of 
Chester was examined last year by the Liverpool Committee for 
Research in Wales and the Marches. (See The Times, Jan. 8th, 1909.) 

Dorset. — Maumbury Ring, Dorchester. — Excavations were 
carried out here in September, 1908, by a committee of the British 
Archaeological Association and the Dorset Field Club, the work being 
under the superintendence of Mr. H. St. George Gray. Interesting 
details were revealed inside the entrance, and the floor of the arena 
was uncovered at several points. A cutting in the western bank 
resulted in the discovery at the foot of the bank of a shaft 30 feet 
deep, containing prehistoric relics. It is proposed to continue the 
work in the early autumn. (See Bibliography — Gray.) 

Hemsworth, near Wimborne. — The Roman villa has 

been excavated under the supervision of the Rev. G. H. Engleheart, 
F.S.A., and Mr. H. Le Jeune. 

Essex. — Red Hills. — The excavations carried out by the Red 
Hills Committee during the autumn of 1908 dealt with sites in the 
parish of Goldhanger. (See Bibliography — Reader.) 

Hampshire. — Silchfster. — Work in 1908 extended from May to 
December, under the supervision of Mr. Mill Stephenson, F.S.A. With 
last year's excavations was completed the systematic exploration of the 
whole of the 100 acres enclosed by the town wall. The remains of the 
east gate (first uncovered in 1872) were again laid bare and compared 
with those of the west gate, examined in 1890; the two gates are of 
similar plan and of the same date. Investigations are now being carried 
out to ascertain the exact nature and date of the outer defences, and a 
series of cuttings will be made through the encircling ditches. 

Bournemouth. — Some barrows have been opened in the 

Talbot Woods, under the supervision of Mr. W. de C. Prideaux, of 
Weymouth. 

Herefordshire. — Some trenches have been cut by the Woolhope 
Naturalists' Field Club on the site of the Roman station of Magni, near 
Hereford, and the Roman road near Abbeydore station has been 
further investigated by the same Society. 



Lancashire. — In April, 1909, an interment circle on Banniside, 
Coniston, was excavated by Mr. W. G. Collingwood, F.S.A. A report 
will be printed in the next volume of the Transactions of the Cumberland 
and Westmorland Archaeological Society. 

London. — In the spring of this year the Society of Antiquaries 
conducted an excavation on the site of Christ's Hospital, under the 
direction of Mr. Philip Norman, LL.D., and Mr. Francis W. Reader, 
with the object of finding remains of the angle bastion of the City 
Wall, where the latter after running due west turned southwards in the 
direction of Newgate. A considerable portion of the north side of the 
bastion was uncovered, together with a piece of the City Wall. The 
latter showed Roman masonry of the same character as in other parts 
of the wall that have been examined ; and the bastion proved to be 
of later date than the wall itself. This was also a feature of the 
undoubtedly Roman bastion found under the vestry of All Hallows, 
London Wall. Signs of an external ditch were looked for, but the 
indications were those of a running stream at the foot of the wall. 

Monmouthshire. — Caerwent. — Excavations were resumed in 
June, 1908, and continued till October. The chief discovery of the 
year was an interesting temple to the east of the Forum, of which the 
ground-plan is nearly perfect. A whole block of houses and shops 
situated to the east of the Forum and on the north side of the high 
road was excavated. Operations this year are being continued further 
north, near the Amphitheatre. 

Caerleon. — The Liverpool Committee for Research in 

Wales and the Marches has been conducting excavations on the site 
of this legionary fortress, in co-operation with the Caerleon and 
Monmouthshire Antiquarian Association. The southern angle of the 
defences has been examined, and very interesting results are being 
obtained from the excavation of the amphitheatre, known as " King 
Arthur's Round Table." A preliminary account of the work is given 
in The Times, July 9, 1909. 

Montgomeryshire. — Caersws. — The Liverpool Committee for 
Research in Wales is excavating this Roman fort, under the direction of 
Professor R. C. Bosanquet, F.S.A., and in conjunction with the 
Powysland Club. The defences consisted of a clay rampart faced with 



stone. A short notice of the work will be found in The Times, July 9, 
1909. It is expected that in a short time the same Committee will 
explore the camp at Cefn Caer, six miles from Aberdovey. 

Norfolk. — Burgh-next-Aylsham. — Excavations were carried out 
last year by Mr. Walter Rye on the moated site of the Old Hall. (See 
Bibliography— Clarke?) 

Northumberland. — Corbridge. — The excavations on the site of 
Corstopitum were resumed in July last and continued till October, under 
the supervision of Mr. R. H. Forster. The buildings uncovered 
included two large granaries, and part of a structure of great extent and 
evident importance, much of which lay outside the area reserved for 
excavation last year. The most important find of the year was a hoard 
of 48 gold coins in splendid condition. (See Bibliography — Knowles 
and Forster.) 

Somerset.— Meare.- — Trial explorations were conducted at the 
Lake Village last year by Messrs. Arthur Bulleid and H. St. George 
Gray (see Bibliography). It is expected that a good deal of work will 
take place on this site next season. 

Norton Camp, near Taunton.— A cutting was made in 






July, 1908, in the fosse of this camp by the Somerset Archaeological 
Society, under the direction of Mr. H. St. George Gray. The evidence 
showed that the camp was constructed during the Bronze Age and 
considerably used during the Romano- British period. (See Bibliography 
— Gray.) 

Lansdown. — In May last explorations of two barrows on 



the north-east slope of Lansdown were carried out by Mr. Thos. S. Bush. 
Charterhouse-on-Mendip. — In connection with the 



Somersetshire Archaeological Society's Wells meeting in July, Mr. H. 
St. George Gray has been conducting excavations on the site of what 
appears to be a small amphitheatre near the Roman lead mines, but the 
work had to be temporarily abandoned on account of bad weather. 
Roman construction of the earthwork is proved, and Mr. Gray has made 
a plan of the area with 6-inch contours. 

Surrey. — Leigh Hill, Coijham. — The excavations mentioned in 
last year's report have now been concluded. (See Bibliography — Smith.) 



Sussex. — The Brighton and Hove Archaeological Club has under- 
taken trial excavations on the three sites mentioned below, under the 
direction of its honorary secretary, Mr. Herbert S. Toms. 

Botolph Mounds, near Bramber. — A preliminary 

exploration produced no remains earlier than the mediaeval period. A 
further examination is contemplated. 

Hollingbury Camp. — Trial holes sunk in the fosse of 



this camp determined the position of the original entrances. 

The Graves of the Devil and his Wife, or Giants' 



Graves. — A cutting was made in August, 1908, in the rampart and 
ditch of this valley entrenchment on the floor of the Devil's Dyke 
combe. The question of date has still to be settled. 

Westmorland. — Ewe Close, Crosby Ravensworth. — Further 
explorations of this Romano-British settlement were carried out in 
September last by the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological 
Society, under the supervision of Mr. W. G. Collingwood, F.S.A. (See 
Bibliography — Collingwood. ) 

Wiltshire. — Knap Hill, Alton Priors. — Excavations of this 
camp were begun last year by Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunnington, and 
resumed this year. Some notes on the results have already appeared 
(see Bibliography — Cunnington), and a fuller report is promised. 

Aveburv. — The excavations of the British Association were 

resumed in April under the direction of Mr. H. St. George Gray, and have 
established the fact that an entrance causeway of solid chalk existed on 
the south side of the enclosure. An account of this year's work appeared 
in The Times, May 21 and June 3, 1909, and it is hoped to resume 
operations next spring. 

Yorkshire. — Elslack, near Skipton. — The Yorkshire Archaeo- 
logical Society is carrying out excavations at Burwen Castle, the site of 
a Roman fort of about 5^ acres, under the direction of Mr. Thomas 
May, F.S.A.Scot., who succeeded Mr. F. Gerald Simpson. The position 
of the stone walls of the fort has been determined, and the remains of an 
earlier fortification with a clay rampart, directly in rear of the later stone 
wall, have been clearly made out. One of the gateways of the earlier 
rampart, constructed of wood, is now (June) in course of excavation, 



and several of the stumps where the ramparts abut on the gateway 
have been discovered in situ. The finds of pottery and coins extend 
from the end of the first to the late fourth century. The thanks of 
archaeologists are due to Mr. George Lane Fox, M.P., the owner of the 
site, who has offered every facility for its exploration. 

■ Castleshaw. — Further excavations on the site of this 



Roman camp took place last year. Their resumption this year has 
been hindered owing to the Oldham Corporation having scheduled the 
site in a Water Bill. It is hoped that the work so successfully begun 
by Mr. S. Andrew and Major W. Lees may be soon resumed and 
carried to a conclusion. Meanwhile the site appears to be suffering 
from neglect. 

Two tumuli at Reighton, near Speeton, have been opened by Mr. T. 
Sheppard, of the Hull Municipal Museum, but the results have not yet 
been published. 

Ailcy Hill, Ripon. — Digging operations were conducted 



here in June by Mr. McCall, editor of the Yorkshire Archaeological 
Journal, and some students of the Bishop's Clergy College. The soil 
is believed to be full of human bones buried promiscuously ; but on the 
north-east shoulder of the mound four or five entire skeletons were 
found near the surface, and appear to represent battle-burials. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. — Since the last report was issued chapters 
on earthworks have been published in the following volumes of the 
Victoria County History 

BUCKINGHAMSHIRE (Vol. II.) By George Clinch. 

HEREFORDSHIRE (Vol. I.) ... Compiled by the late 

I. Chalkley Gould, 
principally from plans 
and notes by the Rev. 
E. A. Downman. 

,, „ ... Offa's Dike in Hereford- 

shire, by James G. 
Wood. 

RUTLAND (Vol. I.) By Reginald A. Smith. 



II 

Amongst other literary matter bearing on the subject of earthworks 
may be noticed : 

Allcroft (A. Hadrian).—" Earthwork of England : Prehistoric, 
Roman, Saxon, Danish, Norman and Mediaeval." 
(Macmillan, 1908.) A complete text-book of the subject, 
illustrated with 225 plans, etc. 

Andrew (\V. J.).— "The Stone Circles of Derbyshire." (In 
" Memorials of Old Derbyshire," Bemrose and Sons.) 

Bulleid (Arthur) and Gray (H. St. George). " The Lake Village 
at Meare, 1908." (Brit. Assoc. Report, 190S.) 

Bush (T. S.). — Report on Explorations on Lansdown, May, 
June and September, 1908. 

Bushell (Rev. W. Done).— "The Stone Circles of Pembroke- 
shire." (Archaeologia Cambrensis, 6th Ser., Vol. IX, 
Part 2.) 

Capper (Col. J. E.).— Two Photographs of Stonehenge from a 
War Balloon. (Archaeologia, Vol. LX, PI. 69 and 70.) 

Clarke (W. G.).— " Thetford Castle Hill." (Norfolk Archaeology, 
Vol. XVI.) 

" Some Recent Finds in Norfolk." Contains a section 

on the discoveries at Burgh-next-Aylsham. (Norfolk 
Antiq. Misc., N.S., Vol. I, Part 3.) 

"Norfolk in Prehistoric Times." Contains notes on 

dykes and other earthworks. (Antiquary, Vol. XLV, 
1909.) 

" An Old-Time Picture of the Fens." With note on an 

alleged Roman camp in the Fens. (Antiquary, 
Vol. XLV, 1909.) 

Clinch (George). — "Suggestions for a Scheme of Classification 
of the Megalithic and Analogous Remains of Great 
Britain and Ireland." (Annals of Archaeology and 
Anthropology, Vol. II, No. 1.) 

Cocks (A. H.).— " Prehistoric Pit-dwellings at Ellesborough." 
(Records of Bucks., Vol. IX, 1908.) 



Collingwood (W. G.). — "Report on further Exploration of the 
Romano-British Settlement at Ewe Close, Crosby Ravens- 
worth, Westmorland." (Trans. Cumb. and Westm. A. and 
A. Soc, N.S., Vol. IX.) 

Cunnington (Mrs. M. E.). — " On a Remarkable Feature in the 
Entrenchments of Knap Hill Camp, Wilts." (Man, 
1909, No. 28.) 

" Notes on a Barrow of the Bronze Age at Oliver's 

Camp." (The Reliquary, Vol. XIV, 1908.) 

" Notes on a Late-Celtic Rubbish Heap, near Oare, 

Wilts." (Wilts. Arch. Magazine, Vol. XXXVI.) 

Curwen (J. F.). — " Brough Castle." (Trans. Cumb. and Westm. 
A. and A. Soc, N.S., Vol. IX.) 

Dutt (W. A.). — " Some Recent Discoveries at Burgh Castle." 
(Antiquary, Vol. XLV, 1909.) 

Forster (R. H.), and others. — " Corstopitum : Report of the 
Excavations in 1907." (Archaeol. /Eliana, 3rd Ser., 
Vol. IV.) 

Fryer (J. C. F.), and Keynes (G. L.).— "A Late Roman 
Settlement near Smersham." (Proc. Cambridge Ant. 
Soc, Vol. XI, Part 3.) 

Graham (T. H. B.).— " Six Extinct Cumberland Castles." Has 
notices of earthworks now or formerly existing at Castle 
Hewin, Liddel Mote and Dunwalloght Castle. (Trans. 
Cumb. & Westm. A. & A. Soc, N.S., Vol. IX.) 

Gray (H. St. George). — Report on the Avebury Excavations, 
1908. (Brit. Assoc. Report, 1908). 

Interim Report on the Excavations at Maumbury Rings. 

Dorchester, 1908. (Proc Dorset Field Club, Vol. XXIX 
Also issued separately.) 



• " On the Stone Circles of East Cornwall." With five 
scale plans and eight other illustrations. (Archasologia, 
Vol. LXI.) 



i3 

Gray (H. St. George).— " Excavations at Norton Camp, near 
Taunton, 1908." (Proc. Som. Arch. & N. H. Soc, Vol. 
LIV.) 

Hamnett (R.). — " Excavations at the Roman Camp of Melandra, 
1906-7." (Journ. Derbysh. Arch. & N. H. Soc, Vol. XXX.) 

Harrison (William).— " The Defensive Earthworks and Fortified 
Enclosures of Cheshire." (Trans. Lanes. & Chesh. Ant. 
Soc, Vol. XXV.) 

Haverfield (F.).— " Roman Dolaucothy." (Trans. Carmarthensh. 
Ant. Soc, Vol. V.) 

Hill (Rev. A. Du Boulay).— "The Saxon Boundaries of 
Downton, Wilts." (Wilts. Arch. Mag., Vol. XXXVI.) 

Hill (Rev. E.).— "The Warbanks at Cockfield." (Proc. Suffolk 
Inst, of Archaeology, Vol. XIII, Part 2.) 

Hope (W. H. St. John).— "Excavations on the Site of the 
Roman City at Silchester in 1907." (Archseologia, Vol. 
LXI.) 

" The Castle of Ludlow." (Archseologia, Vol. LXI.) 

Hughes (T. McK.).— " A Section in the Alluvium of Melbourn, 
Cambs." (Proc. Cambr. Ant. Soc, Vol. XI, Part 3.) 

"Ancient Trenches and Interments near Shepreth, 

Cambs." (Proc. Cambr. Ant. Soc, Vol. XI, Part 3.) 

Keynes (G. L.)., and White (H. G. Evelyn).— "Excavations at 
Earith Bulwarks." (Proc. Cambr. Ant. Soc, Vol. XII.) 

Killick (H. F.).— " Thetford Castle." (Norf. Ant. Misc., N.S., 

Vol. I, Part 3.) 
Knowles (W. H), and Forster (R. H.).— " The Corbridge 

Excavations, 1908." (Arch. Journ., Vol. LXVI.) 

Laver (Henry).— "A Survey of Gryme's Dyke and the other 
Earthworks on Lexden Heath." (Trans. Essex Arch. 
Soc, Vol. XI, Part 1.) 

Lowerison (Bellerby).— "The Sites of Three Danish Camps, and 
an Anglian Burying Ground in East Anglia." (Saga 



14 

Book of the Viking Club, Vol. VI, Part I.) The three 
camps for which the writer claims Danish origin are those 
at Holkham, Warham, and South Creake, Norfolk. 

MacRitchie (David).— " The Kewach's Castle." (Antiquary, 
Vol. XLIV, 1908.) 

March (H. Colley). — "The Ritual of Barrows and Circles." 
(Proc. Dorset Field Club, Vol. XXIX.) 

Orpen (G. H.). — "Motes and Norman Castles in Co. Louth." 
(Journ. Roy. Soc. Ant. Irel, Vol. XXXVIII.) 

Pryce (T. Davies).— " Oldox or Hodox Camp, Oxton." (Trans. 
Thoroton Soc, Vol. XII.) 

Pryce (T. Davies), and Dobson (F. W.). — " An Ancient Village 
Site : Whimpton, Notts." (Trans. Thoroton Soc, 
Vol. XI.) 

Reader (F. W.). — Report of the Red Hills Exploration Com- 
mittee, 1906-7. (With Introductory Note by Horace 
Wilmer, Hon. Sec. of the Committee.) (Proc. Soc. Ant. 
Fond., 2 Ser., XXII, 164. Also issued separately.) 

Rye (Walter).—" Earthworks at Mousehold Heath." (Notes on 
earthworks formerly existing.) (Norfolk Archaeology, 
Vol. XVI.) 

Salzmann (L. F.). — " Excavations at Pevensey, 1906-7." 
Sussex Arch. Collections, Vol. LI.) 

"Excavations on the site of the Roman Fortress at 

Pevensey, 1907-8." (Arch. Journ., Vol. LXV.) 

Sheppard (T.). — " Prehistoric Relics from Middleton." Refers 
to tumuli at Middleton on the Wolds. (Hull Museum 
Publications, No. 55, Sept. 1908, with plate.) 

Smith (Reginald A.). — " Romano-British Remains at Cobham." 
(Surrey Arch. Collections, Vol. XXI.) 

Stapleton (Philip).— " Explorations of Moel-y-Gaer, Bodfari." 
(Archseologia Cambrensis, 6th Ser., Vol IX. Part 2.) 

Tench (E. J.). "Norwich Castle Mound." (Norfolk Arch., 
Vol. XVII.) 



i5 

Walker (Rev. F. G.). — Report on the Excavations at Barton. 
(Proc. Cambr. Ant. Soc, Vol. XII.) 

Ward (John). — "Excavations of a Tumulus on Cadno Mountain, 
near Pendine." (Trans. Carmarthensh. Ant. Soc, Vol. V.) 

Westropp (T. J.) — "Types of the Ring-Forts remaining in 
Eastern Clare." (The Newmarket Group.) (Proc. Roy. 
Irish Academy, Vol. XXVII, Section C.) 

" Promontory Forts in the ' Irrus,' Co. Clare." (Journ. 

Royal Soc. Ant. Irel., Vol. XXXVIII.) 

" Ring-Forts in the Barony of Moyarta, Co. Clare, 

and their Legends." (Journ. Roy. Soc. Ant. Irel., Vol. 
XXXVIII.) 

Wooler (Edward). — "The Catrail " (concluded). (Antiquary, 
Vol. XLIV, 1908.) 

Yorke (Rev. A. C.).— " The Round Moat at Fowlmere." (Proc. 
Cambr. Ant. Soc, Vol. XII, Part 1.) 



The Scheme of Classification issued in 1903 and the Appendixes 
of 1904 and 1905 being out of print, the Committee has revised the 
whole for early reissue with an entirely new set of plans. 

To meet the cost of reissue a special fund has been raised to which 
the Society of Antiquaries has contributed ^10, the Royal Archaeo- 
logical Institute £2 25., the British Archaeological Association £2 2s., 
the Viking Club £2 2s., the Cambridge Antiquarian Society £1, other 
sums having been subscribed by persons interested in the work of the 
Committee. 

It is anticipated that the new Scheme will be ready for distribution 
in the autumn, and copies will be obtainable from the Secretary at $d. 
each, post free. Societies may obtain the Scheme in quantities of fifty 
copies and upwards, at a reduced rate. 



i6 



CLASSIFICATION. 

The classification of defensive works recommended by the Committee 
now stands as follows : — 

a. Fortresses partly inaccessible by reason of precipices, 

cliffs, or water, defended in part only by artificial works. 

b. Fortresses on hill-tops with artificial defences, following the 

natural line of the hill. 

Or, though usually on high ground, less dependent on 
natural slopes for protection. 

c. Rectangular or other enclosures of simple plan (including 

all forts and towns of the Romano-British period). 

D. Forts consisting only of a mount with encircling moat or 

fosse. 

E. Fortified mounts, wholly or partly artificial, with remains 

of an attached court or bailey, or showing two or more 
such courts. 

f. Homestead moats, consisting of simple or compound 
enclosures formed into artificial islands by water moats. 

G. Enclosures, mostly rectangular, partaking of the form 
of F, but protected by stronger defensive works, ram- 
parted and fossed, and in some instances provided with 
outworks. 

H. Ancient village sites protected by walls, ramparts or fosses. 

x. Defensive or other works which fall under none of the 
above headings. 



REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE 



ON 



ANCIENT EARTHWORKS AND 
FORTIFIED ENCLOSURES, 

Prepared for presentation to the Congress of 
Archaeological Societies, July 6th, 1910. 



COMMITTEE. 



Lord Balcarres, M.P., F.S.A. {Chairman). 



Mr. A. Hadrian Allcroft,M.A. 
Mr. W. J. Andrew, F.S.A. 
Col. F. W. T. Attree, F.S.A. 
Mr. C. H. Bothamley, F.I.C. 
Mr. J. G. N. Clift. 
Mr. E. S. Cobbold, C.E., F.G.S. 
Mr. S. Denison. 

Mr. WlLLOUGHBY GARDNER. 

Mr. A. R. Goddard, B.A. 
Professor F. Haverfield, M.A., 
F.S.A. 



Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. 
Mr. H. Laver, F.S.A. 
Mr. C. Lynam, F.S.A. 
Mr. D. H. Montgomerie. 
Mr. C. H. Read, LL.D., P.S.A. 
Mr. J. Horace Round, LL.D. 
Col. O. E. Ruck, F.S.A.Scot. 
Mr. W. M. Tapp, LL.D., F.S.A. 
President B. C A. Windle, F. R.S. 



Mr. A. G. Chater, Hon. Sec. 
(Address: 41, Porchester Square^ f.ondon, IV.) 



In presenting its Annual Report the Committee wishes to point out 
that on the present occasion it has interpreted the terms of its 
enquiry more strictly than has been the case in some previous 
years. Originally appointed for recording Ancient Defensive Earth- 
works and Fortified Enclosures, the Committee has found it 
convenient, with the consent of the Congress, to include tumuli 
and other earthworks of a non-defensive character. But of late 
years the Report has been allowed to go beyond this and to 
include notices of a number of explorations which cannot by 
any interpretation of its terms of reference be said to come 
within the scope of the Committee's enquiry; and when it is 
borne in mind that such notices are omitted in the present instance, 
the Committee considers that the following Report, restricted as 
closely as possible to Earthworks pure and simple, may be 
taken as indicating a constantly growing interest in this branch of 
archaeology. 

The Committee has great pleasure in announcing that it has 
received from Dr. J. P. Williams-Freeman of the Hampshire 
Field Club, a complete schedule, accompanied by 70 plans, of 
the earthworks of Hampshire. These will be preserved, with 
the other papers presented to the Committee (including the 
original drawings of all plans of earthworks that have appeared in 
the Victoria County Histories), at the Society of Antiquaries' Rooms. 
Dr. Williams- Freeman's schedule is the more valuable since it is 
understood that the Victoria History of Hampshire will not include 
a section on earthworks. The Committee may be allowed once more 
to express the hope that this example may be more largely followed 
in the counties which have not yet been dealt with by the Victoria 
County History. 



The Committee also gratefully acknowledges having received 
om Mr. G. G. T. Treherne, of the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian 
Dciety, a schedule of the antiquities of " Laugharneshire," in which 
istrict of South Carmarthenshire Mr. Treherne has done much 
■chasological exploration. 

During the past twelve months the Committee and its local 
jrrespondents have rendered assistance to the Ordnance Survey 
i revising or supplementing the earthworks on the 25-inch sheets 
1 the counties of Sussex, Hampshire, Berkshire and Surrey. It 

hoped that this co-operation may be continued with the help of 
>cal antiquaries who have knowledge of the subject. 

The Committee much regrets the delay in re-issuing its Scheme 
f Classification announced last year. This has been due to the 
amber of new plans which it is proposed to introduce in order 
1 give as complete a series of examples as possible, and to the 
ifficulty of visiting the various sites, many of them distant, 
»r the purpose of preparing these plans. Mr. D. H. Montgomerie, 
1 whom the Committee is much indebted for having undertaken 
ie greater part of the work, now reports that the drawings are in 
ie hands of the engravers. The new Scheme will, therefore, be 
ady for distribution very shortly. 

It is much regretted that the circulation of the Committee's Report 
is fallen off very considerably since it was decided, last year, to make 
small charge for it. As the work of the Committee is now very 
merally supported by the Societies in Union, and as everything tends 
' show that it may be still better supported in the future, it is felt to be 
grettable that some Societies should run the risk of checking what is 
)ubtless a growing interest among their members by ceasing to circulate 
is Report on account of the small and unavoidable charge which was 
lanimously agreed to at the last Congress. 

PRESERVATION. 

Cambridgeshire. — Comberton. — The maze at this village, 5 miles 
est of Cambridge, has been restored and enclosed. It had almost 
itirely disappeared and is now re-dug on the lines of its original 
isign. 



Carmarthen. — The Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society is taking 
active steps to prevent destruction of or the depositing of rubbish on 
The Bulwarks at Carmarthen. 

Essex. — Saffron Walden. — It is understood that, owing to 
representations made by the Essex Archaeological Society, the local 
authorities are taking steps to preserve and restore the maze on the 
common. 

Oxfordshire. — Swerford. — As a result of representations made 
to the Rector by the Oxford Architectural and Historical Society, 
an earthwork of the mount-and-bailey type to the north of the church, 
part of which it was proposed to use for an extension of the cemetery, 
has been left un interfered with. 

Somerset. — Stokeleigh Camp, near Bristol, the preservation of 
which was mentioned in the last Report, has been presented by its 
purchaser, Mr. George Wills, to the National Trust. 

DESTRUCTION. 

Cambridgeshire. — The Cambridge Antiquarian Society reports 
slight encroachments (which have been stopped) on the Devil's Dyke 
at Swaffham Prior. 

Carnarvonshire. — Penmaenmawr. — Prior to the destruction of 
this ancient fortress, which, as reported last year, will take place 
through quarrying operations under a lease from the Crown, a survey is 
being made by the Cambrian Archaeological Association. 

Hampshire. — Aldershot. — Dr. J. P. Williams-Freeman reports 
that one of the banks of the earthwork known as Bat's Hogsty has 
quite recently been considerably dug away. This is on War Depart- 
ment property, and Dr. Williams-Freeman at once called attention to 
the damage. It is understood that this will be restored, and that steps 
will be taken to prevent further destruction. 

i i. Mr. C. H. Bothamley reports that Worlebury Camp 

has been damaged by the moving and rolling down of stones by boys 

playing in the camp and adjoining woods. The Axbridge District 

icb of the Somersetshire Archaeological Society is endeavouring to 

prevent further mischief. 



Surrey. — Coulsdon. — A portion of the earthwork known as the 
New Ditch, on Riddlesdown, has recently been destroyed through the 
building of a house on the line of the work. 

Sussex. — Brighton. — Mr. H. S Toms reports that levelling 
operations in connection with Brighton Race Course have revealed an 
inner enclosure within "White Hawk Camp. The rampart of this work 
seems to have been levelled in ancient times and the ditch was, 
superficially, only slightly apparent. The western portion of this has 
now been obliterated by levelling, but the position has been recorded 
by survey and sections. Flint cores, flakes and scrapers were found 
on the surface during the levelling operations, and fragments of 
bronze-age pottery and the bed-stone of a rude sandstone grain-rubber 
were found in the top mould of the filling of the ditch. 

Brighton. — Hollingburv Camp. — Owing to the extension of 
the golf course, the tee and green within the camp, of which complaint 
has been made, will ultimately be removed. 

Wiltshire. — Bincknoll. — A quarry has recently been opened on 
the edge of the escarpment which has slightly cut into the ditch of the 
earthwork at Bignoll (Bincknoll). In company with Miss Story 
Maskelync the Rev. E. H. Goddard, as Secretary of the Wiltshire 
Archaeological Society, saw the tenant, and it is hoped that no 
further injury will take place, another quarry being opened fifty yards 
away. 

Yorkshire. — Scarborough. — A tumulus in the grounds of Scar- 
borough College, one of three marked in the O.S., is being removed in 
the extension of the cricket ground. The Yorkshire Archaeological 
Society reports that this is unavoidable and that notes are 
being made. 

EXPLORATION. 

Bedfordshire. — Hockliffe. — A section across the highest part of 
the mound has been made under the direction of Mr. James Berry, 
and various objects were found, including an iron arrow-head and 
mediaeval tiles. 



Buckinghamshire. — Tattenhoe. — Mr. James Berry and Mr. W. 
Bradbrook excavated the mound known as Windmill Hill in May, 1910, 
with results that point to its mediaeval origin. 

Cambridgeshire. — Bowen. — Three round tumuli were excavated 
here by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society in August, 1909, and 
proved to be of Roman date. One was double : a small circular Roman 
tumulus surmounted by another Roman one. 

Carmarthenshire. — Further examination of a tumulus on Cadno 
Mountain and of other tumuli and cairns in the parish of Pendine are 
reported by the Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society. 

Cumberland. — Mr. W. G. Collingwood, F.S.A., has made a further 
exploration of Banniside Circle, Coniston : a bronze-age tumulus and 
large ring-mound. 

Dorset. — Dorchester. —The second period of excavations at 
Maumbury Rings (the Roman Amphitheatre) took place in September, 
1909, under the direction of Mr. H. St. George Gray. The western 
half of the northern entrance-way was uncovered and showed the same 
structural details as on the eastern side, but in better preservation. A 
large cutting was made at the S.S.VV. end "of the amphitheatre, where 
the original structure has been modified, probably at the time of the 
Civil War. 

Durham. — Hamsterley. — Mr. E. Wooler reports that the camp 
known as The Castles has been excavated, and a guard-chamber 
discovered in the thickness of the walls. The defences of the camp 
consisted of a dry stone wall, the angles of which have been cleared. 

Glamorgan. — Excavation of the annexe of the Roman fort at 
Gellygaer was begun last year, and is about to be continued. So far, 
the work has been largely confined to the military baths. 

Merionethshire. — Auerdovey. — Col. O. E. Ruck reports the 
excavation of a cist at Bryn Dinas, Happy Valley, Aberdovey. 

Montgomeryshire. — Caersws.— The Liverpool Committee for 
rch in Wales is continuing its excavations at this Roman fort. 



Somerset. — Lansdown. — Further explorations of barrows on 
Lansdown took place in July and September, 1909, under the direction 
of the Rev. H. H. Winwood and Mr. Thos. S. Bush. 

Ponter's Ball, near Glastonbury. — Mr. A. Bulleid, 



F.S.A., made two large cuttings through the vallum and ditch of this 
earthwork in July, 1909. Bronze age and Late Celtic shards of pottery 
were found. No report has yet been published. 

Suffolk. — Butley.— Excavations took place in April, 1910, under 
the direction of Mr. H. St. George Gray, of a roughly semi-circular 
earthwork at Staverton Park. The full results have not yet been 
published, but a brief account of the work is given in "The Times" of 
April 5th, 19 10. 

Sussex. — Beltout. — The remains of two interesting valley 
enclosures within the area of this camp were investigated in 
xvugust, 1909, by the Brighton and Hove Archaeological Club, 
under the direction of Mr. H. S. Toms, and proved to be of the 
Bronze Age. 

Excavations have taken place during the past year at 

Chanctonbury Ring, disclosing Roman foundations within the area of 
the camp. 

Wiltshire. — Old Sarum. — Excavations were begun by the Society 
of Antiquaries in the autumn of 1909, and have so far been confined to 
the Castle. 

Casterlf.y Camp. — Mr. and Mrs. B. H. Cunninuton made 



some preliminary excavations at this camp (on Salisbury Plain) in 
September, 1909. Their investigations were directed chiefly to 
ascertaining which of the entrances were original, and resulted 111 the 
tracing of a hollow-way, which enters the camp through one of these 
entrances. 

Bishop's Cannings. — Mr. and Mrs. Cunninston have also 



excavated a rectangular valley entrenchment near Shepherd's Sin tic and 
proved its mediaeval origin. 



Wiltshire. — Avebury. — No work has taken place on this site during 
the last twelve months, but the excavations of the British Association 
will be resumed next spring. 

Yorkshire. — Elslack. — The excavations at the Roman camp at 
Elslack have been completed and a full report will appear in the 
Yorkshire Archaeological Journal. 

The Committee hears with much interest that excavations 

are to be resumed at Castleshaw. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Amongst recent contributions to the literature of the subject, the 
following may be noticed : — 

Andrews (J. B.).— " Early Defensive Earthworks, Ceylon." 
(Man, 1909, No. 104.) 

Bosanquet (R. C). — "Excavations in Roman Wales." (The 
Antiquary, Vol. XLV.) 

Brigg (J. J.). — " Kildwick Moors." (Bradford Scientific 
Journal, No. 17.) 

Bush (Thos. S.). — " Report on the Explorations on Lansdown, 
1909." (Proceedings of the Bath and District 
Branch of the Somersetshire Archaeological Society, 
1909.) 

Chater (A. G.). — " Earthworks of the Hill-spur Type." (Journal 
of Brit. Archseol. Assoc, N.S., Vol. XV.) 

Collingwood (W. G.). — " Report on the Explorations of a 
Circle on Banniside Moor, Coniston." (Trans. 
Cumberland and Westmorland A. and A. Soc, N.S., 
Vol. X.) 

"Aldingham Mote." (The Antiquary, Vol. XLV) 



Collins (W. G.) and Cantrill (T. C.).— " Solisbury Hill Camp, 
near Bath." (The Antiquary, Vol. XLV.) 

Colman (F. S.). — "The History of the Parish of Barwick-in- 
Elmet." Contains an account, with plans and sections, ot 
the earthworks at Barwick-in-Elmet. (Thoresby Soc, 
Vol. XVII.) 

Corbett (J. S.).—" Caerphilly Castle." (Trans. Bristol and 
Glos. Archseol. Soc, Vol. XXXI., Part II.) 

Cunnington (Mrs. M. E.). — "The Discovery of a Chamber 
in the Long Barrow at Lanhill, near Chippenham." 
(Wilts Archseol. Mag., Vol. XXXVI.) 



- " Notes on Barrows on King's Play Down, Heddington." 
(Wilts Archseol. Mag., Vol. XXXVI.) 



- "A Mediaeval Earthwork in Wiltshire." (Below the 
Wansdyke, near Shepherd's Shore, Bishop's Cannings.) 
(Man, 1910, 3.) 



Curie (J.). — Excavations of the Roman Military Station at 
Newstead, near Melrose. 

Evans (D. Cledlyn).— "Cam Goch Camp" (with plans, etc.). 
(Trans. Carmarthenshire Ant. Soc, Vol. V.) 

Evans (G. Eyre).— " Cam Goch." (Trans. Carmarthenshire 
Ant. Soc, Vol. V.) 

Gardner (Willoughby).— " The Ancient Hill Fortress on Pen-y- 
Corddyn, near Abergele." (Archaeological Cambrensis, 
Jan., 1 9 10.) 

Gray (H. St. George). — Second Interim Report of the Excava- 
tions at Maumbury Rings, Dorchester, 1909. (Proc 
Dorset Field Club Vol. XXX. Also issued separately.) 



Gray (H. St. George). — "Excavations at the 'Amphitheatre,' 
Charterhouse-on-Mendip, 1909." (Proc. Som. Archaeol. 
and N. H. Soc, Vol. LV.) 

King (H.) and Polkinghorne (B. C). — " Excavation of 
a Barrow on Chapel Cam Brea, Cornwall." (Man, 
1909,87.) 

Liverpool Committee for Excavation and Research in 
Wales and the Marches. First Annual Report, 1908. 
(University Press, Liverpool, 1909.) 

Major (A. F.) and Chater (A. G.). — " Excavations at Downend, 
near Bridgwater, 1908." (Proc. Somerset Archaeol. 
and N. H. Soc, Vol. LV.) 

Mortimer (J. R.). — " Opening of a Barrow near Borrow 
Nook." (Yorks Archaeol. Journ., Vol. XX.) 

Old Sarum, The Excavation of the Site of. (Wilts. Archaeol. 
Mag., Vol. XXXVI.) 

Peers (C. R.).— "On the Excavation of the site of Basing 
House, Hampshire." (Archaeologia, Vol. LXI, Part II.) 

Royal Archaeological Institute, Report of Annual Meeting. 
(Contains references, with plan, to earthworks near 
Somerton Castle, and near Basingthorpe, Lines.) 
(Archaeological Journ., Vol. LXVI.) 

Tierney (H. C.).— " Cwm-Rheidol, Mysteries of the Carmarthen- 
shire Hill Tops." (Trans. Carmarthenshire Ant. Soc, 
Vol. V.) 

Toms (H. S.).— " Ancient Cultivations near Hollingbury Camp." 
(Brighton Herald, April 9, 19 10.) 

Villy (F.).— "An Exploration of Mounds near Cullingworth." 
(Bradford Scientific Journal, No. 19.) 



Westropp (T. J.)- — " Promontory Forts and Allied Structures in 
Northern County Kerry." (Proc. Royal Soc. Ant. 
Ireland, Vol. XL. Part I.) 

" A Study of the Fort of Dun Aengusa in Inishmore, 

Aran Isles, Galway Bay : its Plan, Growth and Records." 
(Proc. Royal Irish Academy, Vol. XXVIII, Section C, 
No. i.) 



As stated in the foregoing Report, the Committee's new Scheme of 
Classification (a 24-pp. pamphlet, fully illustrated with plans and sections 
and containing the Committee's recommendations for the scheduling of 
earthworks) is now almost ready. Societies which did not subscribe in 
advance may obtain copies of the Scheme in quantities of fifty and 
upwards on application to the Secretary, who will furnish particulars of 
the price. The Scheme will be ready for distribution in October, and it 
is hoped that early application may be made, as only a limited number 
is being printed. 

A. G. CHATER, 

Hon. Secretary to the Committee, 

41, PORCHESTER SQUARE, LONDON, W. 






CLASSIFICATION. 

The classification of defensive works recommended by the Committee 
now stands as follows : — 

a. Fortresses partly inaccessible by reason of precipices, 
cliffs, or water, defended in part only by artificial works. 

B. Fortresses on hill-tops with artificial defences, following the 
natural line of the hill. 

Or, though usually on high ground, less dependent on 
natural slopes for protection. 

c. Rectangular or other enclosures of simple plan (including 

forts and towns of the Romano-British period). 

d. Forts consisting only of a mount with encircling moat or 

fosse. 

E. Fortified mounts, wholly or partly artificial, with remains 
of an attached court or bailey, or showing two or more 
such courts. 

f. Homestead moats, consisting of simple or compound 
enclosures formed into artificial islands by water moats. 

G. Enclosures, mostly rectangular, partaking of the form 
of F, but protected by stronger defensive works, ram- 
parted and fossed, and in some instances provided with 
outworks. 

h. Ancient village sites protected by walls, ramparts or fosses. 

x. Defensive or other works which fall under none of the 
above headings. 



REPORT of the COMMITTEE 



ON 



ANCIENT EARTHWORKS AND 
FORTIFIED ENCLOSURES, 



Prepared for presentation to the Congress of 
Arehosologieal Societies, July 5th, 1911. 



COMMITTEE. 

Lord BALCARRES, M.P., F.S.A. {Chairman). 



Mr. A. Hadrian Allcroft, M. A. 

Mr. W. J. Andrew, F.S.A. 

Col. F. W. T. Attree, F.S.A. 

Mr. C. H. Bothameey, F.I.C. 

Mr. J. G. N. Clift. 

Mr. E. S. Cobboed, C.E., F.G.S. 

Mr. S. Denison. 

Mr. Wiixoughby Gardner. 

Mr. A. R. Goddard, B.A. 

Professor F. Haverfield, M.A., 
F.S.A. 



Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, M.A. 

Mr. H. Taver, F.S.A. 

Mr. C. Tynam, F.S.A. 

Mr. D. H. Montgomerie, F.S.A. 

Mr. C. H. Read, LL,D., P.S.A. 

Mr. J. Horace Round, LL.D. 

Col. O. E. Ruck, F.S.A.Scot. 

Mr. W. M. Tapp, IX.D., F.S.A. 

President B. C. A. Windle, 
F.R.S. 



Mr. A. G. Chater, Hon, Sec. (1910-n). 

Mr. Albany F. Major, Hon. Sec. (1911-12). 
(Address : 30, The Waldrons, Croydon). 



The revised " Scheme for recording Ancient Defensive Earth- 
works and Fortified Enclosures," announced in last year's 
Report, was distributed in the autumn to those Societies which 
subscribed towards its issue. A small stock remains in the 
hands of the Committee, which, it is thought, will be sufficient 
to satisfy the demand for the next few years. Only a limited 
number of copies can now be supplied to an}' single Society, 
and enquiries should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary. 

As evidence of the increasing importance attached to the 
study of Ancient Earthworks, it may be mentioned that two 
more of the Societies in Union report the formation of special 
Earthworks Committees : the Dorset Field Club, with Dr. H. 
Col ley March, F.S.A., as President, and the Rev. C. W. Whistler 
as Hon. Secretary ; and the Bucks. Architectural and Archaeo- 
logical Society, with Mr. A. H. Cocks, F.S.A., as Chairman, 
and Dr. D. H. West as Hon. Secretary. 

The Committee hears with interest that Dr. J. P. Williams- 
Freeman, whose survey of the defensive Earthworks of 
Hampshire was completed last year, is now engaged in 
cataloguing the barrows of that county. The value of such 
work, especially when performed by investigators with local 
knowledge, cannot be too often insisted upon ; and it is very 
gratifying to be able to announce that the Committee receives 
from time to time offers to undertake the survey of the 
earthworks of limited areas from antiquaries residing in 
different parts of the country. An immense field, however, 
remains to be explored, and the Committee would once more 
impress upon the Secretaries of local Societies the urgency 
of enlisting capable recruits for this work. 



The Committee has to announce, with regret, that its 
Secretary, Mr. A. G. Chater, finds it necessary to resign the 
post, and has great pleasure in announcing that Mr. Albany 
F. Major has kindly consented to undertake the duties of 
Hon. Secretary from this date. 

The following items of information, classified under the 
usual heads, have been brought to the knowledge of the 
Committee. 

PRESERVATION. 

Somerset. — Stokeleigh Camp.— The Leigh Woods Local 
Committee have partially cleared superfluous undergrowth 
within and around Stokeleigh Camp, making it more ac- 
cessible to the public, and have done their best to guard 
the camp from mutilation. 

Yorkshire. — Scamridge Dykes. — An attempt made by the 
Scarborough Rural District Council to construct a reservoir, in 
connection with the water supply for the village of Snainton, 
in the middle of Scamridge Dykes has been frustrated through 
representations made to the President of the Local Government 
Board by the Society of Antiquaries and the Yorkshire Archaeo- 
logical Society, and plans showing a reservoir clear of the dykes 
have been submitted to the Local Government Board. 

Skipsea. — At the instance of the Yorkshire 

Archaeological Society, that portion of the Skipsea earthworks 
owned by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners has been placed 
in charge of H. M. Commissioners of Works under the Ancient 
Monuments Protection Acts. 



DESTRUCTION. 

Bedfordshire.— Wellington.- Mr. Beauchamp Wadmore 
reports that all the laud around the earthwork at Willington, 
near Bedford, has been broken up for allotments. Only the 



inner enclosure with the main fosse, including the counter- 
scarp, has been railed off for preservation. This is greatly 
to be regretted, as, with the destruction of the outer works, 
the interest of this perhaps unique example will be lost. 

Carnarvonshire. — Penmaenmawr. — Mr. Willoughby 
Gardner reports that the destruction of this magnificent 
fortress, by quarrying under a lease from the Crown, is still 
slowly in progress, and that much indignant local agitation 
and protest has been manifested, following on Mr. Gardner's 
bringing the matter before the Earthworks Committee, the 
Cambrian Archaeological Association, the Royal Commission 
on the Ancient Monuments of Wales, the National Trust, the 
Woods and Forests Commissioners, and Parliament, without 
avail. 

Dorset.— The Rev. C. W. Whistler writes that, with the 
exception of the levelling of an already opened tumulus, for 
agricultural purposes, in a field to the south of the main 
Dorchester road, about two miles from Blandford, there is no 
destruction to report in the county. 

Gloucestershire.— Uley Bury. — It has been brought to 
the notice of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society that quarrying is still being carried on at Uley Bury, 
which endangers the earthworks of the camp. 

Westmorland.— Stainton.— Mr.W.G.Colliugwood,F.S.A., 
reports that a small "British Settlement" at Stone Close, 
Stainton-iu-Furness, finally obliterated by quarrying, has been 
under observation by the Cumberland and Westmorland 
Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, and a report will 
appear. 

Wiltshire.— Avebury.— The Wiltshire Archaeological and 
Natural History Society reports that digging for chalk has 
somewhat injured the slight ditch round the top of Windmill 
Hill, Avebury. 



EXPLORATION. 

Cambridgeshire.— Bowen.— The Rev. F. G.Walker reports 
that two tumuli at Bowen have been proved to be of Roman 
origin. One of these was covered by a Danish tumulus (see 
Bibliography — Walker). 

Cambridge.— The earthwork in Magdalene 



College grounds has been proved to be Roman in origin 
(see Bibliography- Walker). 

Derbyshire.— Repton.— The rectangular earthwork, known 
as the Buries, on the right bank of the Trent at Repton, was 
excavated last August by Dr. G. A. Auden, F.S.A., and Mr. 
F. Simpson. An account of the excavation, with plans, will 
appear in a forthcoming number of the Derbys. Arch. Soc. 
transactions. Bateman made a trial excavation without 
result in about 1856, and a second attempt was made in 1869. 
The pottery found is of the XV. century, and the remains of 
stone foundations of a small building were associated with 
XV. century roofing tiles. The earthwork had previously 
been attributed to the Roman occupation (Stebbing Shaw) and 
to the Danish occupation in 874-5 (Hipkins), but nothing 
pointing to those periods was found. 

Dorset.— Maumbury Rings, Dorchester.— The explora- 
tion of the Roman amphitheatre was continued in August and 
September, 1910 (third season), with most satisfactory results. 
The work will be temporarily suspended during [911, but is 
by no means completed. (See Bibliography— Gray). 

Huntingdonshire.- -Permission has been given and it is 
proposed by the Cambs. and Hunts. Archaeological Society 
to examine a tumulus in the county <>! Huntingdon, as s< .< >n 
as the requisite funds are in hand. 

Norfolk. — Norwich.— Three trial holes have been sunk 
in Norwich Castle Mound. The original surface was met with 



at a depth of 23-34 feet. Carefully made diagiams have been 
preserved. 

Somerset.- Stokeleigh. -Recently some slight excava- 
tions have been made in Stokeleigh Camp under the direction 
of Prof. C. IJoyd Morgan, F.R.S., and Mr. A. E. Hudd, F.S.A., 
but nothing was found to throw further light on the origin 
and construction of the camp. The dry walling along the 
crest of the inner vallum was excavated in several places, and 
two of the best examples have been left exposed and will be 
kept for the inspection of visitors, after being protected by 
posts and rails. No remains of any ancient entrance to the 
camp could be found, and no pottery or other ancient remains 
turned up in the various excavations. The wall is built of 
rough stones, some of considerable size, without mortar or 
cement, and without foundations. It remains to a height of 
about 3 feet, and is from 4 to 4J feet wide at the base. 

Surrey.— Chelsh am. — Work is now being carried on at 
a hitherto unrecorded entrenchment in Henley Wood, Chelsham, 
by the Croydon Natural History Society, but the results are 
not yet ready for publication. 

Sussex. — Several valley entrenchments have been noted 
by Mr. A. Hadrian Allcroft and Mr. H. S. Toms, in the 
neighbourhood of Brighton and Lewes, but no excavations 
have taken place during the past year. Mr. Toms reports 
having recently discovered the remains of another of these 
works, constructed over ancient cultivations (similar to the 
entrenchment in Eastwick Valley, near Brighton), in the 
valley south of Fulking Corner, west of the Dyke Station. 

Wiltshire. — Avebury.— Mr. H. St. George Gray conducted 
the third scasons's work here, on behalf of the British Associa- 
tion, from April 24th to May 13th, 191 1, laying bare a length 
of 35 feet of the great fosse on the S.S.W. (maximum depth 
below the silting, i8| feet). Red-deer antlers were uncovered 



on the bottom of the fosse, and ornamented pottery of Long- 
barrow type was found at a depth of only 5 feet below the 
surface of the silting in mixed mould. No trace of worked 
metal was found below the Roman stratum ; the latter deposit 
was clearly defined by shards of potter}' and a fibula of 
bronze bearing the maker's name, AVCISSA. It is hoped 
that there will be an opportunity of excavating the fosse 
close up against the eastern side of the southern entrance- 
causeway, and the vallum may be cut through at one of its 
lowest points. During the three seasons' work (1908, 1909, 
191 1) a large number of sectional diagrams and photographs 
have been made. A report upon the 191 1 work will be sent 
to the Portsmouth meeting of the British Association, Aug. — 
Sept., 1911. 

Casterlev Camp. — Mr. and Mrs. B. H. 



Cunnington have continued the excavation of the inner 
enclosure and pits in the centre of Casterley Camp. 
Particulars have not yet been published. The objects found 
(Date Celtic and Romano-British) have been placed in Devizes 
Museum. 

Old Sarum. — Last year's work of the Society 



of Antiquaries was practically confined to the uncovering of 
masonry structures. 

Yorksii irk. —Gargrave. — Dr. Villy of Keighley has done 
a little excavation at Gargrave en the site of a Roman earth- 
work, particulars of which will appear in the Bradford Antiquary. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Royal Commission on Historical Monuments (Kngland). — An 

Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Hertfordshire. 

(The Inventory includes all the earthworks of the 

count)', with plans and sections of the more 

important examples). 



Amongst other recent contributions to the literature of 
the subject, the following may be noticed :— 

Armitage (Mrs. E.).— " Early Norman Castles in the 
British Isles." Illustrated with drawings by 
Duncan H. Montgomerie. (London, John Murray, 
1911). 

Aylott (George).—" Pirton Castle." (Trans. East Herts. 
Archseol. Soc, Vol IV., Part I.) 

Bush (Thos. S.). — Report on the Explorations on 
Lansdown, etc., 19 10. (Proc. of the Bath and 
District Branch of the Somersetsh. Archseol. and 
N. H. Soc, 1910). 

Cunuiugton (Mrs. M. E.).— "A Mediaeval Earthwork 
near Morgan's Hill." (Wilts. Archseol. Mag., 
Vol. XXXVI.) 

Cnrwen (John F.). — "Castle How, Peel Wyke, Bassen- 
thwaite." (Trans. Cumb. and Westm. A. and A. 
Soc, N.S., Vol. XL) 

Graham (T. H. B.).— " Extinct Castles in Cumberland." 
(Trans. Cumb. and Westm. A. and A. Soc, N.S., 
Vol. XL) 

Gray (H. St. George).— Third Interim Report of the 
Excavations at Maumbury Rings, Dorchester, 1910. 
(Proc. Dorset Field Club, Vol. XXXI. Also issued 
separately). (See also The Times, Sept. 14th, 1910, 
and March 29th, 191 1). 

"The Earthwork near Butley." (Proc. Suffolk 

Inst, of Archseol. and Nat. Hist., Vol. XIV.) (See 
also The Times, April 5th, 1910). 



Gray (H. St. George). — Notes on Archaeological Remains 
found on Ham Hill, Somerset. (Proc. Somersetsh. 
Archoeol. and N. H. Soc, Vol. LVI.) 



- Wiuwood (Rev. H. H.) and Walter (R. H.).— 
Excursion Notes on Ham Hill Camp and Quarries. 
(Proc. Som. Arch, and N. H. Soc, Vol. LVI.) 



Hope (W. St. John) and Stephenson (Mill).— " Excava- 
tions about the Site of the Roman City at Silchester, 
Hants., in 1909." (Archaeologia, Vol. LXIL, Part I.) 

Macdonald (George).— " The Roman Wall in Scotland." 
(Glasgow, MacLehose, 191 1). 

Major (Albany F.). — "The Filling-in of the Eastern Ditch 
at Oliver's Camp, near Devizes." (The Antiquary, 
June, 191 1). 

May (Thomas).- "The Roman Forts at Elslack." (Yorks. 
Archasol. Journal, Vol. XXI.) 

Morgan (Col. W. LI.). — "Cil Ivor Camp." (Archaeologia 
Cambrensis, 6th Series, Vol. XL, Part I.) 

Orpen (Goddard H.). — " Notes on some County Limerick 

Castles." (Proc. R. Soc. Ant. Ireland, Vol. XXXIX., 
Part I.) 



"The Mote of Knockgraffon." (Proc. R. Soc. 
Ant. Ireland, Vol. XXXIX., Part III.) 



" Motes and Norman Castles in Ossory." (Proc. R. 
Soc. Ant. Ireland, Vol. XXXIX., Part IV.) 



IO 



Open (Goddard H.)— " Ireland under the Normans, 
1169-1216." (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1911). 
(Contains references to numerous Motes). 

Toms (H. S.). — " Prehistoric Cattlefolds near East- 
bourne." (Eastbourne Chronicle, August 20th, 
1910). 

Villy (Francis).—" Excavations at Castlestead Ring, near 
Cullingworth." (Bradford Scientific Journal, April, 
1911). 

On the Association of Long Barrows with Rec- 
tangular Earthworks. (Bradford Antiquary, 19 10). 

Walker (Rev. F. G.).— Excavations at Bowen, Cambs., 
and in the Roman Earthwork in Magdalene College 
grounds, Cambridge. (Proc. Cambridge Anti- 
quarian Soc.) 

Westropp (T. J.) — " Carrigaholt (Co. Clare) and its 
Neighbourhood," Part I. (North Munster Archseol. 
Soc, Vol. I.) 



" Notes on the Larger Cliff Forts of the West 
Coast of County Mayo." (Proc. R. Irish Acad., 
Vol. XXIX., Sect. C, No. 2). 



- " Promontory Forts and Similar Structures in 
the County Kerry." Parts II., III. and IV. (Proc. R. 
Soc. Ant. Ireland, Vol. XI,., Parts II., III. and IV.) 

- "St. Mochulla of Tulla, Co. Clare: his Legend 
and the Entrenchments and Remains of his 
Monastery." (Proc. R. Soc. Ant. Ireland, Vol. 
XU, Part IV.) 



II 



Westropp (T. J.)-" Early Forts and Stone Huts in 
Inishmore, Aran Isles, Gahvay Bay." (Proc. R. 
Irish Acad., Vol. XXVIII. , Sect. C, No. n). 

Williams-Freeman (J. P.). — " Danebury." (Papers and 
Proc. of the Hampshire Field Club, Vol. VI., 
Part IV.) 



Correspondence should now be addressed to the Hon. 
Secretary to the Committee : 



ALBANY F. MAJOR, 

Bifrost, 30, The Waldro.ns, 

Crovikix. 



12 



CLASSIFICATION. 

The classification of defensive works recommended by the 
Committee now stands as follows: — 

A. Fortresses partly inaccessible by reason of precipices, 
cliffs, or water, defended in part only by artificial 
works. 

b. Fortresses on hill-tops with artificial defences, 
following the natural line of the hill. 

Or, though usually on high ground, less dependent 
on natural slopes for protection. 

C. Rectangular or other enclosures of simple plan 
(including forts and town of the Romano-British 
period). 

d. Forts consisting only of a mount with encircling 
moat or fosse. 

E. Fortified mounts, wholly or partly artificial, with 

remains of an attached court or bailey, or showing 
two or more such courts. 

F. Homestead moats, consisting of simple or compound 

enclosures formed into artificial islands by water 
moats. 

G. Enclosures, mostly rectangular, partaking of the 

form of F, but protected by stronger defensive 
works, ramparted and fossed, and in some instances 
provided with outworks. 

h. Ancient village sites protected bj^ walls, ramparts 
or fosses. 

x. Defensive or other works which fall under none 
of the above headings. 



GN Congress of Archaeological 
789 Societies in Union with the 
G7C6 Society of Antiquaries of 
1909-11 London, Committee on Ancient 

Earthworks and Fortified 

Enclosures 
Report 



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