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i'ibrOi^ 



Experiment Statior 



FOR THE YI:/\R 1912 



3<^i ltaF*v5^ 




r 



State of Connecticut 

PUBLIC DOCUMENT I^o. 24 



Thirty-sixth Amiiial Report 



OF 



The Connecticut Agricultural 
Experiment Station* 

Bdng the annoal report for the year ending October 31 

1912 



TRINTED BY <yi{DET{ OF THE LEGISLATURE 



HARTFORD 

Published by the State 



3^^» ' ^ 



X^»^ 






publication 

approved by 

The Board of Control. 



THB TUTTLB, MORHHOUSS ft TAVLOR COMPANY 



coMcncnr AmuLTiiBAL eifebihent station. 

Srptembrr 30, 1912 



BOARD OF CONTROL. 

His Excdlenqr, Simeon £. Baldwin, ex officio, President 

Piup. H. W. C6NN, Vice Prgsident ...Middletown 

QuBGB A. H0P8ON, Secretary ^ . . • • ^ . . .« ^^ ^ Wallingford 

E. H. J1NKIN8, Director and Treasurer New Haven 

JofiiPH W. Alsop. .^ •..•...»••... .^ ^ . — .^ .. .^ ^ • ^ Avon 

Wilson H. Ln^ ^ ^ ^....^ Orange 

EiANK H. Staotmuiusib Elmwood 

jAiiKS H. WiBB Hamden 



STATION STAFF. 

Adminutkatiom. B. H. Jbnkins, Ph.D., Directcr and Treasurer. 

Miss V. S. Colb, Librarian and StenPi^ra^htr, 
Miss L. M. Brautlbcht, Bockkttptr and Stenographer. 

CRntlSTRY. 

Analytical Laboxatoby. John Phillips Stxxbt, M.S., Chemist in Charge. 
B. MoNBOB Bailby, Ph.D., C. B. Mobison, B.S., 
R. B. Rob, A.B., C. B. Shbpabd, Aetistante, 
Hugo Langb, Laboratory Helper. 
V. L. Chubchill, Sampling Agent, 

Pbotbid Rbsbabch. T. B. Osbobnb, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge. 

Miss B. L. Fbbry, A.B., Assistant. 
Miss Luva Fbanos, Stenographer. 

Botany. G. P. Clinton, S.D., Botanist. 

B. M. Stoddabd, B.S., Assistant. 

Miss M. H.' Jaggbr, Seed Analyst. 

Miss B. B. Whittlbsby, Herbarium Assistant. 

Bntomology. W. B. Bbttton, Ph.D., Entomologist: also State 

Entomologist. 

B. H. Waldbn, B.Agb., D. J. Cafpbby, B.S., 
H. B. KiBK, Assistants. 

Miss F. M. Valbntinb, Stenographer, 

FoBBSTBY. Samubl N. Spbing, M.F., Forester: also State 

Forester and State Forest Fire Warden, 
W. O. Fillby, Assistant: also Asst. State Forester. 
Miss B. L. Avbby, Stenographer. 

Plant Bbbboing. H. K. Haybs, M.S., Plant Breeder. 

C. D. Hubbbll, Assistant. 

Bihldings and Gbounds. Wiluam Vbitch, In Charge. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGI 

Officers and Staff iii 

Contents v 

Report of Board of Control ix 

Report of Treasurer xvii 

Errata xx 

Report on Commercial Fertilizers i 

Observance of the Fertilizer Law i 

Sampling and Collection of Fertilizers i 

Explanations concerning Analyses and Valuations 3 

Analyses of Materials chiefly valuable for Nitrogen 8 

Phosphoric Acid .. 25 

Potash 31 

Nit. and Phos. Acid 36 

Cost of Plant Food in Raw Materials 44 

Analyses of Mixed Commercial Fertilizers 46 

Home Mixtures 84 

Miscellaneous Fertilizers 86 

Report on Food Products 95 

Canned Com 96 

Dried Fruits 97 

Gluten and Special Foods 107 

Honey no 

Rice 118 

Sausage 122 

Canned Tomatoes 125 

Net Weight of Package Goods 137 

Report on Drugs 146 

Acetic Acid 146 

Aconite 148 

Asafetida 150 

Sjrrup of Figs IS3 

Glycerine IS7 

Heroin iS8 

Magnesium Carbonate I59 

Magnesium Citrate 160 

Opium » ^ 166 

Paregoric 166 

Sodium Salicylate 169 

Precipitated Sulphur 170 

Turpentine 172 

Proprittary Remedies 184 



Vi CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

FA6B 

Report on Drugs, confd. 

Food and Drug Products examined for Dairy Commissioner 201 

Miscellaneous Products 205 

Summary 208 

Report of the State Entomologist 209 

Inspection of Nurseries 217 

Inspection of Imported Nursery Stock 220 

Inspection of Apiaries 223 

Gypsy Moth Control Work 224 

Brown-tail Moth Control Work 229 

A new Sawfly Pest of Blackberry 236 

The Walnut Weevil or Curculio 240 

The Walnut Bud-moth 253 

The Mosquito Plague and How to Control it 259 

The Fall Armyworm 284 

Serious Injury by White Grubs 288 

Miscellaneous Insect Notes 291 

Report on Commercial Feeding Stuffs 297 

Law regarding Feeding Stuffs 297 

Oil Seed Products 298 

Wheat Products 300 

Maize Products 301 

Rye, Buckwheat, Oats and Barley Products 303 

Miscellaneous Feeds 304 

Digestibility of Feeding Stuffs 309 

Average Composition of Feeds 310 

Manurial Ingredients of Feeds 313 

Cost of Feeds 316 

Analyses of Feeds 318 

Feed Definitions 338 

Report of the Botanist 341 

Notes on Plant Diseases 1911 and 1912 341 

Chestnut Bark Disease 359 

Historical Consideration 359 

Characteristics of the Disease 364 

Distribution and Hosts 370 

Damage and Loss Caused 378 

Present Situation and Prospects 380 

Relation to Condition of Host 389 

Previous Chestnut Troubles 407 

Native Home of the Fungus 413 

American Species of Endothia 417 

Artificial Cultures 428 

Inoculation Experiments 434 

Preventive Experiments 442 

Recommendations for Connecticut 447 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. VU 

FAGI 

Report of the Botanist, confd. 
Chestnut Bark: 

Literature 449 

General Summary 452 

Report of State Forester 455 

Forest Fires 457 

State Forests 462 

The Station Forester 466 

Rainbow Forest Plantations 47i 

Forest Planting in Connecticut 485 

Index 509 



Report of the Board of Control 

OF 

THE CONNECTICUT AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 

STATION. 

To His Excellency, Simeon E. Baldwin, Governor of Connecticut: 

The Board of Control of The Connecticut Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station herewith respectfully submits its report for the year 
ending November i, 1912. 

The following changes in the Station staff have occurred: 

Samuel N. Spring, B.A., M.F., who has served the State and 
Station most efficiently as their forester for three years, resigned 
on October i, 1912, to accept a professorship in Cornell Uni- 
versity. 

Mr. W. O. Filley, the assistant forester, has been appointed 
to fill this vacaniy in our staff, and Mr. A. E. Moss, M.F., a 
graduate of The Connecticut Agricultural College and of the 
Yale Forest School and later a forestry assistant of the United 
States Forest Service, has been appointed assistant Station 
forester. 

R. B. Roe, B.A., who has served as an assistant chemist for 
three and one-half years, resigned in October to accept a position 
in a chemical researcli laboratory. 

Harry B. Kirk, formerly for two years assistant in economic 
zoology in the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, was ap- 
pointed an assistant in the Entomological Department in Febru- 
ary, 1912. 

An exhibit illustrative of the work of the several departments 
of the Station was made at three of the agricultural fairs during 
the fall, with members of the staff in attendance to explain it and 
answer questions. While such exhibits have seriously interrupted 
the Station work, they have proved to be most effective in bring- 
ing its results immediately and in a striking way to those who 
should get practical benefit from them. 

The same purpose is also served by frequent addresses before 
granges, farm institutes, field meetings, etc. During the year 



X CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

ninety addresses of this sort have been made by members of the 
staff in response to requests. 

While the attendance of the Station staff at fairs, farm institutes 
and other meetings has been necessary and profitable, it has 
taken much time which was greatly needed for its experimental 
study and work, which are the Station's special sphere. 

The rapid development of the so-called agricultural extension, 
in which the national government is expected to cooperate with 
the agricultural colleges, should reduce the necessity for these 
outside activities on our part. The greatest efficiency of the 
Station can only be secured by the uninterrupted course of its 
special work. On the other hand, the extension of agfricultural 
teaching and demonstration by new agencies abundantly provided 
with funds but not so amply supplied with trained teachers puts 
an added responsibility on both College and Station to do tfior- 
oughly and with the least possible interruption the sound teaching 
and painstaking research on which the whole agfricultural exten- 
sion effort must rest, if it is not to prove an injury rather than a 
blessing. 

The valuable Station library, now numbering about 8,000 vol- 
umes, had until this year no suitable place for orderly arrange- 
ment and easy reference. The quarters formerly used for a 
chemical laboratory have recently been equipped with steel shelv- 
ing, electric lights and other necessary furnishings, and the gen- 
eral consulting library with the various card catalogues has been 
installed in it, under the direction of Miss Cole, the librarian. 

The Report of the Station staff, which is printed with this 
report of its Board of Control, makes unnecessary any detailed 
statement of what has been done. The Report itself describes 
only that part of the work which is of present importance to 
farmers, but besides this there have been printed in scientific 
journals eighteen papers giving the results of Station investiga- 
tions. 

The following incomplete summary will show the scope of the 
Station's work: 

Chemical Department. 

Seven hundred and eighty samples of fertilizers and manures 
and 273 of feeding stuffs have been analyzed and the results 
published. Twelve hundred and fifty samples of human food 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF CONTROL. XI 

products and 395 samples of drugs have been examined, the 
results published, adulterated samples reported to the Dairy and 
Food Commissioner, and evidence furnished in court trials in 
eighteen cases. 

Over 2,000 samples of food products have been weighed or 
measured as a basis for establishing regulations on the subject, 
as required by an Act of the last General Assembly. 

An improved method of determining starch in meat products 
has been devised and much cooperative work done for the 
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 

Botanical Department. 

The orchard experiment at Yalesville (now in its fourth year) 
on a block of 900 trees is planned to determine the effect of fer- 
tilizers on growth, yield, winter injury, occurrence of yellows, 
and bearing life of the trees. 

The effects of different sprays on peaches, apples and other 
fruits have been carefully tested. 

Studies of muskmelons — ^with reference to varieties, spraying 
and disease resistance, — of the calico of tobacco, of peach yellows, 
and extensive experiments and study of the nature and spread 
of the chestnut blight are also in progress. 

Seeds sent by seedsmen and farmers, and some samples bought 
by the Station have been tested as to vitality and, where necessary, 
as to purity, to the number of 863. 

Entomological Department. 

This department has determined the life histories of three 
little-known and destructive insects and the means for combating 
them. 

Studies on the white pine weevil are not yet concluded. 

It has cooperated by furnishing inspection, information and 
advice to organizations and individuals who have engaged in 
mosquito control work. 

It has inspected the 54 nurseries of the State, covering some 
770 acres ; 30 orchards and gardens ; 987 packages of imported 
nursety stock; and 153 apiaries containing 1431 colonies. 

The gypsy moth has been so nearly exterminated at Stonington 
that very careful search fails to discover a single specnmen, and 



Xii CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION BEFOKT, I9I2. 

at Wallingf ord very few specimens have been found. These two 
very threatening invasions have thus been stamped out. 

The brown-tail moth work in the northeastern part of the State 
has shown a great diminution of the pest where work was done 
last year^ but a gradual spread of the invasion. This work could 
and should be done by local authorities and not left for the State. 

Forestry Department. 

About 528,000 forest seedlings have been supplied at cost to 
owners of Connecticut forest land for planting, and about 290,000 
are ready for sale in 1913. 

The Station's experimental forests at Rainbow and Enfield 
have needed little except fire protection. 

About 76,000 seedlings have been set in the State Forests. One 
lot of twenty acres badly infected with chestnut disease has been 
cut clean and is to be set to pine in 1913. No fire has occurred 
on either of these tracts. 

An accurate type and stock map of the Portland Forest has 
been made, with a plan for the permanent management of the 
forest. 

The number of spring fires, 254, and the estimated damage, 
$21,700, have been much less than in the previous year, owing 
partly to the plentiful rain and partly to increased efficiency of 
the fire warden service. During the danger season two lookout 
stations and fire patrols of certain railroad lines — services which 
were paid for chiefly by a United States government appropria- 
tion — greatly helped in promptly discovering and extinguishing 
forest fires. 

Twenty-seven examinations of forest tracts ranging in size 
from 10 to 500 acres were made for and at the request of the 
owners and advice given as to their treatment. 

A full report has been made on the woodworking industries of 
the State in cooperation with the United States Forest Service 
and will soon be published. * 

The State forester was made a member of the Commission on 
the Taxation of Forest Land, and the field work necessary to 
secure information on the matter was put in his charge. This has 
required a very careful and laborious study of forest conditions, 
the results of which will appear in the Commission's report. 



BEPORT OF THE BOARD OF CONTROL. Xlll 

Plant Breeding. 
(Supported by Adams Fund.) 

Mr. Hayes has continued the study of tobacco, to determine 
precisely how different measurable characters of the plant — ^such 
as size, shape and number of leaves, height of plants, etc. — are 
inherited by crosses or hybrid plants, and to discover any fixed 
relation that there may be between these and the subtile characters 
which make "quality." The practical purpose is to find a way 
in which improved strains of tobacco may be produced. Many 
thousand measurements of single plants have been made for this 
study, and 35 row selections of 250 plants each have been separ- 
ately harvested, cured and fermented and are immediately to be 
sorted and judged as to quality by experts. The commercial 
side of this work is in cooperation with the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

Further tests of the merits of using for seed first generation 
hybrids of com have been made at the experiment field,.as also a 
study of the effects of crossbreeding and inbreeding of tomatoes. 
Other work has been on selections of rye, testing the value of 
selection in forest seeding, and on developing an improved variety 
of muskmelon. 

Protein Research. 
(Supported by Adams Fund.) 

This department, being devoted wholly to technical research, 
is supported by the Adams Fund, which, according to Act of 
Congress, must be spent wholly for such work. 

The nutritive effect of the separate proteins or flesh-forming 
materials of food has been the main object of study this year and 
has yielded very valuable results. 

The Station correspondence has involved the writing of 11,922 
letters and manuscript reports. (Main office 5,357, chemical 
department 623, botanical 507, entomological 2,823, forestry 2,107, 
plant breeding 200, protein research 305.) 

During the year there have been issued a report of 445 pages 
with 32 plates in an edition of 10,000 copies, and four bulletins 
aggr^;ating ^7 pages with 12 plates in editions of 9,500. 



xW CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION KEPmtT, I912. 

A technical bulletin of 45 pages with 5 plates was issued in an 
edition of 2,000 copies. 

We wish again to call attention to the pressing needs of the 
Station* In 1895 the General Assembly appropriated $10,000 to 
the Station as an annual pajrment for its support, and the same 
amount has been paid yearly ever since. But in the meantime 
it has, by various Acts, greatly increased the amount of work 
required of the Station without in any case providing additional 
funds to meet these requirements, nor was this work of a kind 
which could be paid from funds appropriated by the national 
government Thus : 

In 1899 ^^ Assembly passed a law regulating the sale of catde 
feeds, requiring the Station to collect samples and make and 
publish analyses of the different brands yearly, but with no 
appropriation for the work. 

In 1901 the law regarding insect pests was passed, appropriate 
ing to this Station $3,000 for the use of the State Entomolc^t 
in executing the law, creating the office of State Entomolc^^t 
but providing that he shall receive no salary other than that 
which he received as a member of the Station staff, L e., his 
salary was to be paid from Station funds. 

At the same session the office of State Forester was created 
and with the same provision as to pa3rment of his salary. 

An Act of this session also required that all apparatus used in 
determining fat in dairy products as a basb of payment should 
be tested and marked by this Station or by the A^cultural Col- 
lege, but no appropriation was made for it. All this work, not 
very large in any one year, has been done without charge at this 
Station. 

In 1903 a law was passed r^;arding renovated butter, which 
placed further work on this Station. 

In 1907 the Assembly passed a bill much more elaborate than 
previous ones on the same subject, to prevent the sale of adulter- 
ated, misbranded or poisonous foods, drugs and liquors. It only 
repealed those parts of existing statutes which were inconsistent 
with it. This law, with the increased public attenticm which has 
been drawn to the subject and with the extension of the work 
to cover drugs ancT liquors, has greatly increased the work 
required of the Station with no addition to its means of meeting 
the demands. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF CONTROL. XV 

The General Assembly recognized the increased work involved 
by increases in the salaries of the Dairy and Food Commissioner 
and his deputy commissioner and in provision for the expenses 
of their office, but made no further provision for the chemical 
work involved. 

The Assembly in 191 1 passed an Act concerning Adulteration 
of Turpentine, whic6 is to be enforced by the Dairy and Food 
Commissioner and the Director of this Station "acting jointly." 
About 150 samples of turpentine have already been examined, of 
which 30 were adulterated. 

The same session of the General Assembly passed an Act 
requiring a statement of the net quantity of contents to be 
marked on all food products in packages, and providing that the 
Dairy and Food Commissioner and the Director of this Station 
shall establish rules regarding allowances to be made for varia- 
tions from the alleged net weight of such packages. There are 
no published data on the subject and we are therefore making 
an extensive series of weighings oi certain package goods and 
containers to determine the present range of net weights in the 
market. The Dairy and Food Commissioner buys what goods 
are required ; the Station does the work. 

In no one of the cases cited above has any appropriation been 
made to the Station to cover the cost of the work. 

The result has been that the Station, at the sacrifice of agri- 
cultural experiment and research work which is its proper func- 
tion, has been forced to do this control work and to use for it 
funds which should rather have been devoted to the object for 
which this Station was established : namely, agricultural investi- 
gation and experiment. 

At the same time, the proper demands made on the Station for 
assistance in all branches of farming have greatly increased. It 
is no longer possible for the Station to meet all these. Its income 
can no longer meet its expenses and unless it is more adequately 
supported it will be necessary to curtail its present field of work, 
making it rather a control station than an agricultural experiment 
station. The call for sound research in the interest of practical 
agriculture was never so pressing as it is now. It surely is not 
the time to force this, the first established Station in the country, 
to curtail its experimental work. 



XVI CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

The above statement of the facts and present sittiation requires 
no argument to show the reasonableness of the request of this 
Board that the General Assembly will increase the annual Station 
appropriation by $7,500, which by careful estimate is the amount 
which must be yearly spent in the control work above mentioned 
for which the State has never made appropriation, and the appro- 
priation for insect pest work by $1,000. 

All of which is respectively submitted. 

George A. Hopson, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER, 1912. 



E. H. Jenkins, in account with The Connecticut Agricultural 
Experiment Station for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1912. 

Receipts. 
Balance on hand, October i, 191 1 (Analysis Fees).. $ 52.60 

State Appropriation, Agriculture $10,000.00 

State Appropriation, Food 2,500.00 

State Appropriation, Insect Pest 3,000.00 

State Appropriation, Gypsy Moth 2,500.00 

United States Appropriation, Hatch 7,500.00 

United States Appropriation, Adams 7.500.00 

Analysis Fees S»50o.oo 

Sale of Mt. Carmel Farm to Lockwood Trust 6,000.00 

Sale of Farm Products 386.99 

Miscellaneous Receipts 75.61 

From the Lockwood Income 11,046.13 

56,008.73 



Total $56,061.33 

Disbursements. 

E. H. Jenkins, director, salary $2,800.00 

E. H. Jenkins, treasurer, salary 400.00 

G. A. Hopson, salary 100.00 

V. E. Cole, " 850.00 

L. M. Brautlecht, " 750.00 

J. P. Street, " 2,500.00 

T. B. Osborne, " 2,400.00 

E. M. Bailey, " i,550.oo 

C B. Morison, " 1,200.00 

R. B. Roe, " 1,125.00 

C. E. Shepard, " 900.00 

W. E. Britton, " 2,000.00 

G. P. Qinton, " 2,200.00 

E. M. Stoddard, " 900.00 

S. N. Spring, ** 2,500.00 

W. O. FiUey " 1,500.00 

H. K. Hayes, " 1,500.00 

Edna L. Ferry, " ' 1,008.34 

H. Lange, " 92500 

V. L. Churchill, " 825.00 



XVIU CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



Wm. Vcitch, salary $ 675.00 

E.L.Avery, " 480.00 

H. W. Kiley (Labor) 728.00 

Wm. Pokrob " 728.00 

C D. HubbeU " 728.00 

Geo. Graham " 728.00 

M. H. Jagger " 520.00 

Labor 3*74646 

Publications 676.18 

Postage 205.81 

Stationery 42352 

Telephone and Telegraph 162.53 

Freight and Express 28549 

Gas, Kerosene and Electricity 748.11 

Coal 1,625.70 

Water 148.88 

Chemicals and Laboratory Supplies 1,205.18 

Agricultural and Horticultural Supplies 232.13 

Miscellaneous Supplies 574.69 

Fertilizers 386.61 

Feeding StuflFs 372.27 

Library and Periodicals 750.77 

Tools and Machinery 464.17 

Furniture and Fixtures 1,184.67 

Scientific Apparatus 166.31 

Live Stock 200.00 

Traveling by the Board 106.61 

Traveling by the Staff 1,144.31 

Traveling in connection with Adams Fund Investiga- 
tions 98.11 

Fertilizer Sampling 233.64 

Food Sampling 183.34 

Insurance 140.00 

Insect Pest Appropriation to State Entomologist ... 3,000.00 

Contingent 186.50 

Lockwood Expenses 400.00 

Gsrpsy Moth Appropriation to State Entomologist . . . 2,500.00 

New Buildings 58.00 

Betterments 389.89 

Repairs 328.27 

Rental of Land 160.00 

Balance on hand, October i, 1912 : 

Analysis Fees $755-17 

State Agricultural Appropriation 297.67 

Total 



$55,008.49 



1,052.84 
$56,061.33 



REPORT OF THE TREASURER. XIX 

New Haven, Oct. 31st, 19 12. 

This is to Certify that we have examined the accounts of E. H. Jenkins, 
Treasurer of The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, for the 
year ending Sept 30, 1912, have compared the same with the vouchers 
therefor and found them correct 

William P. Bailey, 
Edward S. Roberts, 
Auditors of Public Accounts, 



XX CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



ERRATA. . 

Page 12. It is stated that the Humphreys, Godwin Co. has 
made a rebate to buyers when the cotton seed meal sold by it 
was found to contain less nitrogen than was guaranteed. It 
might be inferred fpom this statement that the other firms there 
named had not done this, but we have since been advised that the 
Apothecaries Hall Co., of Waterbury, and W. Newton Smith, 
of Baltimore, have also given similar rebates. 

Page 92. The guaranteed percentage of phosphoric acid in 
Wizard Brand Manure, sold by the Pulverized Manure Co., 
Chicago, analysis number 377, is incorrectly stated as four. 

The statement that this brand contains much less phosphoric 
acid than is guaranteed is also incorrect. 

One per cent, of phosphoric acid is guaranteed and this 
guaranty is fully met. 

Page 362, line 4 from bottom, read Moravian instead of 
Bavarian. 



PART L 

(Report on Commercial Fertilizers, 1912. 



By E. H. Jenkins, Director, and John Phillips Street, 
Chemist in charge of the Analytical Laboratory. 

The statutes relating to the trade in commercial' fertilizers 
have been fully explained in previous reports and are so gen- 
erally understood by dealers that further reference to them is 
deemed unnecessary in this report. 

OBSERVANCE OF THE FERTILIZER LAW. 

During 19 12, forty- four individuals and firms have entered 
for sale in this state three hundred and sixty-nine brands of 
fertilizers, classified as follows: 

Nitrogenous superphosphates 266 

Bone manures and ''bone and potash" 29 

Fish, tankage, castor pomace and chemicals 74 

Total 3* 

SAMPLING AND COLLECTION OF FERTILIZERS. 

During April, May and June, Mr. V. L. Churchill, the sampling 
agent of this station, visited one hundred and fifteen towns and 
villages in Connecticut to draw samples of commercial fertilizers 
for analysis. These places were distributed as follows : 

Litchfield County 10 

Hartford County 37 

Tolland County 8 

Windham County 9 

New London County 9 

Middlesex County 11 

New Haven County 22 

Fairfield County 9 

"5 

I 



2 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I912. 

In these places seven hundred and fifty-seven samples were 
taken. 

The agent could not find the following brands which had been 
entered for sale in the state: American Agricultural Chemical 
G>/s Dried Blood, Wheat and Haymaker, Ground Untreated 
Phos. Rock; Lister's Special 10 per cent. Fertilizer*; Munroe 
& Sons' Unleached Wood Ashes ; National H. G. Top Dressing, 
Swift's Lowell Nitrate Soda, Muriate Potash, Tankage. 

With two exceptions, no analyses of these brands could there- 
fore be made. 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE FERTILIZERS ANALYZED. 

Number of 
Samples. 

1. Containing nitrogen as the chief active ingredient. 

Nitrate of soda 15 

Dried blood and blood tankage 3 

Cotton seed meal 295 

Castor pomace 3 

Linseed meal i 

2. Containing phosphoric acid as the chief active ingredient. 

Ground phosphate rock 3 

Basic slag or Thomas phosphate 14 

Precipitated bone 3 

Dissolved rock phosphate or acid phosphate 10 

3. Containing potash as the chief active ingredient. 

High grade sulphate of potash 9 

Double sulphate of potash and magnesia 2 

Muriate of potash 14 

Kainit 3 

Vegetable potash i 

Cotton boll and cotton hull ashes 8 

4. Containing nitrogen and phosphoric acid. 

Fish manures 14 

Tankage 12 

Egg tankage i 

Kanona i 

Bone manures 35 

5. Mixed fertilisers. 

Acid phosphate and potash 3 

Commercial mixtures 279 

Home mixtures 16 

6. Miscellaneous fertilisers, manures and amendments. 35 

Total 780 

* A sample sent by the manufacturer was analyzed. 



EXPLANATIONS CONCERNING ANALYSES. 3 

EXPLANATIONS CONCERNING THE ANALYSES. 

The analyses given on the following pages show the percentage 
quantities of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash present in 
the samples, and, where possible, their solubilities. These solu- 
bilities give some indication as to the probable availability to 
crops. 

Each printed analysis is the average of two closely agreeing 
analyses made independently by two expert analysts following 
the methods of the American Association of Official Ag^cultural 
Chemists. 

Samples are numbered consecutively as received. The numbers 
having risen to 28,000, the numeration has been begun this year 
at unity again for the sake of economy of space in printing. 

The average cost of most of the samples is calcul^ed from 
the prices quoted by the sellers of the goods. In some cases 
quite different prices are charged by dealers for the same goods. 
These quotations, therefore, should be regarded only as a general 
guide, not at all as a basis for individual purchases. 

When materials contain either nitrogen, phosphoric acid or 
potash as the single fertilizer ingredient, the cost per pound of 
that ingredient is easily calculated from the ton price and the 
analysis. Thus, if a sample of muriate of potash contains 50.2 
per cent, of potash, which is 1004 pounds per ton, and costs 
$42.50 per ton, actual potash costs 4250 -j- 1004, or 4.2 cents 
per pound. 

Fertilizers which are mixtures of various raw materials and 
contain two or more of the fertilizer ingredients above named 
are reported with an attached valuation. 

Valuation of Fertilizers. 

There is so much misunderstanding as to the meaning of the 
term valuation as it is used in our fertilizer reports that particular 
attention is called to the following explanations: 

The valuation of a fertilizer is the result of calculating the 
retail cash cost at freight centers of an amount of nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and potash in high grade materials equal to the 
amount contained in one ton of the fertilizer. It is a valua- 
tion of only one factor which makes up the cost of a fertilizer, 
namely, the market cost of the three kinds of plant food in it. 



4 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Valuation no more shows the fair retail price of a fertilizer than 
quotations of steel billets can show the fair price for small 
amounts of structured steel of a specified shape. If, however, 
the prices of steel remain fairly uniform, a comparison of these 
quotations with the rates charged by different companies in open 
competition for the finished product is a help, though not a 
perfect guide, to the buyer in studying the bids of different 
manufacturers. 

To illustrate : Of two fertilizers, A and B, let us assume that 
A contains 3.5 per cent, of organic nitrogen, 4.5 per cent, of 
water-soluble, 3 per cent, of citrate-soluble and i per cent, of 
insoluble phosphoric acid and 6 per cent, of potash, and sells 
at retail for $35.00. B contains 2.0 per cent, organic nitrogen, 
3.5 per cent, of water-soluble, 3 per cent, citrate-soluble and 
4 per cent, insoluble phosphoric acid and 8 per cent, of potash, 
and retails for $32.00. 

We assume that both are in good condition, sold by well- 
known and reputable manufacturers, and the prices are the best 
obtainable for these two brands. The question is, which is the 
better purchase: 70 pounds of nitrogen, 150 pounds. of soluble 
phosphoric acid, 20 pounds of insoluble phosphoric acid and 120 
pounds of potash at $35.00; or 40 pounds of nitrogen, 130 
pounds of soluble phosphoric acid, 80 pounds of insoluble phos- 
phoric acid and 160 pounds of potash for $32.00. Obviously the 
first thing to do is to get the approximate value of all these sepa- 
rate ingpredients in one figure so as to have some common basis of 
comparison. In a ton of A are 70 pounds of organic nitrogen, 
which can be bought for about 19 cents a pound ; 150 pounds of 
soluble phosphoric acid, which can be bought for 4>4 cents per 
pound in form of acid phosphate ; 20 pounds of insoluble phos- 
phoric acid, for which we may allow 2 cents per pound; 120 
poimds of potash, which can be bought in form of muriate for 
4j4 cents per pound. 

Calculating as follows, 

70X19 =13.30 

' 150X4^= 6.75 

20 X 2 = .40 

120X4^= 5.10 

25.55 



VALUATION OF FERTILIZERS. 5 

it appears that the plant food in fertilizer A can be bought, at 
freight centers, in raw materials, for about $25.55, and a similar 
calculation shows that the corresponding figure for fertilizer B 
is $21.85. These two figures are the "valuations" of the two 
fertilizers. Each gives a single figure to represent the trade value 
of the actual plant food in each of these two fertilizers, A and B, 
but they do not at all show the fair market price of the goods. 

Valuations do not, of course, show the agricultural value of 
the plant food in fertilizers. Nor do they show the cost to 
the manufacturer of the stock which he used in the mixture. 
His profit comes in part from skill and judgment in buying the 
plant food on the most favorable terms. The valuation shows 
simply what it would cost the farmer to buy the same amount of 
plant food as the mixed fertilizer contains, at freight centers, 
unmixed, in raw materials of good quality. 

But the cost of the plant food contained in a mixed fertilizer 
is but one item, though the largest single item, in its cost. Other 
items are grinding and mixing, bags, freight, agents' commis- 
sions, as well as other items, overhead factory charges, losses 
and profits. 

It cannot be stated too emphatically that the valuation does not 
and cannot show the fair retail price of fertilizers, but only one 
item-r-the largest item to be sure — of the cost. In fact one must 
add ten dollars or more to the valuation to approximate what 
would be, in most cases, a fair selling price. 

Fertilizer A costs $35.00, and the plant food in it has a 
valuation of $25.55. Fertilizer B costs $32, and its plant food 
a valuation of $21.85. The charges for converting the raw 
materials into a uniform mixture and delivering it are $945 in 
A and $10.15 in B; or, in A about 37 per cent, of the valuation 
of the plant food in it, and in B 46.4 per cent. — figures which 
we call percentage difference between cost and valuation. 
Assuming the substantial accuracy of the costs of plant food 
and that the nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash are equally 
valuable in both brands, it is clear that A is a better purchase 
than B. For while the difference between cost and valuation 
(i. e., the cost of manufacture and selling) is only 70 cents more 
in B than in A, in the latter it is about 46 per cent, of the value 
of the raw material, and in the former only about 37 per cent. 



6 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

To recapitulate: 

I. Valuation represents one item, and the largest item, in the cost 
of mixed commercial fertilizers. It is a valuation of only one factor 
which makes up the market price, namely, the average market cost of 
the untreated raw materials of high quality which enter into its 
composition. 

a. It affords a basis for estimating, approximately, the fair selling 
price. 

3. It affords a basis of comparing fertilizers which differ consid- 
erably in composition and price. 

4. It does not represent the fair selling price. 

5. It does not show the agricultural value of the ingredients in it. 

The trade-values used in the calculations made in this report 
are only approximately correct, for market prices constantly 
fluctuate, but they are accurate enough to be used to compare 
fertilizers which are on sale at the same time. 

Trade- Values of Fertilizer Elements for 191 2. 
The average trade-values or retail costs in market, per pound, 
of the ordinarily occurring forms of nitrogen, phosphoric acid 
and potash in raw materials and chemicals, as found in New 
England, New York and New Jersey markets during 191 1 and 
adopted at a conference of representatives of the New England, 
New York and New Jersey Stations in March, 191 2, are as 
follows : 

Cents 
pound. 

Nitrogen in nitrates and ammonia salts i6}i 

Nitrogen, organic, in fine dry fish and blood 22 

in cotton seed meal and castor pomace 20 

in fine* bone and tankage and in mixed fertilizers . 19 

in coarse* bone and tankage 15 

Phosphoric acid, water-soluble 4^4 

citrate-solublef and in fine bone and tankage, cotton 

seed meal and castor pomace 4 

in coarse bone and tankage and ashes 3^ 

in acidulated goods insoluble in water or citrate 

solution 2 

Potash in high grade sulphate and mixtures free from muriates ... 5% 

cotton seed meal and castor pomace 5 

muriate 4^ 

* In this report "fine," as applied to bone and tankage, signifies smaller 
than ftf inch ; "coarse," larger than ^ inch. 

t Dissolved from 2 grams of the fertilizer, previously extracted with 
pure water, by 100 cc neutral solution of ammonium citrate, sp. gr. 1.09, 
in thirty minutes at 65® C, with agitation once in five minutes. Commonly 
called "reverted" or "backgone" phosphoric acid. 



METHOD OF VALUATION. 7 

The foregoing are, as nearly as can be estimated, the average 
prices at which, during the six months preceding March last, the 
respective ingredients were retailed for cash, in our large markets, 
in those raw materials which are the regular source of supply. 
The valuations obtained by use of the above figures will be found 
to correspond fairly with the average retail prices, at the large 
markets, of standard raw materials. 

Method of Valuation of Bone and Tankage. 

To obtain the valuation of ground bone or tankage the sample 
is sifted into two grades, that finer than ^ inch, "fine," and 
that coarser than ^ inch, "coarse." 

The nitrogen value of each grade is separately computed by 
multipl)ring the pounds of nitrogen per ton by the per cent, of 
each grade, multiplying the product by the trade-value per pound 
of nitrogen in that grade, and taking this final product as the 
result in cents. Summing up the separate values of each grade 
thus obtained, together with the values of each grade of phos- 
phoric acid, similarly computed, the total is the valuation of the 
sample. 

Method of Valuation of Mixed Fertilizers. 

The organic nitrogen in mixed fertilizers is reckoned at 19 
cents per potmd, nitrogen of nitrates, and ammonia salts and 
phosphoric acid in its three forms of solubility, at the prices 
given above. Potash is rated at 4J4 cents, if sufficient chlorine 
is present in the fertilizer to combine with it to make muriate. 
If there is more potash present than will combine with the 
chlorine, then this excess of potash is reckoned at 5>4 cents per 
pound, except in certain special cases, to be noted later, where 
carbonate of potash has been used in the mixture. 

To obtain the Valuation of a Fertilizer, multiply the pounds 
per ton of nitrogen, etc., by the trade-value per pound. The 
several products give the values per ton of the several ingredients 
and their sum is the total valuation per ton. 

Percentage, Difference shows the percentage excess of the cost 
price over tihe average retail cost, at freight centers, of the nitro- 
gen, phosphoric acid and potash contained in the fertilizer. It 
shows in a general way the cost of manufacture and sale of 



8 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

the mixture expressed in percentage of the cost of the raw 
materials composing it. 

This information helps the purchaser to determine whether it 
is better economy to buy the commercial mixed fertilizers, of 
which so many are now offered for sale, or to purchase and mix 
for himself the raw materials. 



I. RAW MATERIALS CHIEFLY VALUABLE FOR 
NITROGEN. 

NITRATE OF SODA OR SODIUM NITRATE. 

Nitrate of soda is mined in Chili and purified there before 
shipment. As oflFered in the Connecticut market this year, it con- 
tains about 15.4 per cent, of nitrogen, equivalent to 93.5 per cent, 
of pure sodium nitrate. The other usual constituents are moist- 
ure and small quantities of common salt and Glauber's salt 
(sodium sulphate). 

363. Sold by Nitrate Agencies Co., New York. Stock of 
J. F. Merrill, Suffield. 

360. Sold by Bowker Fertilizer Co., New York. Stock of 
W. O. Goodsell, Bristol. 

272. Sold by Coe-Mortimer Co., New York. Stock of 
Spencer Bros., Suffield. 

270. Sold by American Agricultural Chemical Co., New York. 
Stocks of Chas. Templeton, Waterbury, and F. S. Piatt Co., 
New Haven. 

235. Stock of Apothecaries Hall Co., Waterbury. 

633. Sold by Wilcox Fertilizer Co. Stock of T. H. Eldredge, 
Norwich. 

639. Sold by Rogers Manufacturing Co., Rockfall. 

274. Sold by L. T. Frisbie Co., New Haven. Stock of 
Lightboum & Pond, New Haven. 

712. Sold by Fertilizer Materials Supply Co. Stock of H. P. 
Beers, Greens Farms. 

640. Sold by F. S. Royster Guano Co., Baltimore. Stock 
of C. E. Kempton, Pomf ret Center. 

281. Sold by American Agricultural Chemical Co., New 
York, per E. Manchester's Sons, Winsted. Sampled and sent by 
John Gotta, Portland. 



NITRATE OF SODA. 9 

188, 263 and 287. Sold by Sanderson Fertilizer and Chemical 
Co., New Haven. 188 from stock of Connecticut School for 
Boys, Meriden ; 263 sampled and sent by E. B. Sniffen, Stratford ; 
237 from stock bought by C. R. Treat, Orange. 

Analyses of Nitrate of Soda. 

Station No 363 360 272 270 235 533 539 

Percentage amounts of 

Nitrogen guaranteed 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 

Nitrogen found 15.44 15.64 i5-40 15.38 15.00 15.76 15.20 

Equivalent sodium nitrate 93.75 94.96 93.51 93.38 91.08 95.69 92.29 

Cost per ton $48.00 50.00 50.00 51.25 > 5^^,^ ^^^ 52.00 

Nitrogen cost cents per 55- 

pound 15.5 159 16.2 l5;5}'^-7 17.1 17.1 

Station No 274 7x2 640 281 x88 263 237 

Percentage amounts of 

Nitrogen guaranteed 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 

Nitrogen found 15.44 15-74 1546 15.36 15.36 15.10 15.40 

Equivalent sodium nitrate 93.75 95.54 93.S7 93.26 93.26 91.69 93.50 

Costperton $53.oo 55.00 55.00 

Nitrogen cost cents per 

pound 17.2 17.4 17.8 

The above table shows : 

I. That the percentage of nitrogen in nitrate of soda, as it is 
sold in Connecticut, has ranged from 15.00 to 15.76. A part of this 
difference may be due to the absorption of water by the nitrate. For 
example, a bag of nitrate of soda weighing aoo pounds may contain 
when sold 15.65 per cent, or 31.3 pounds of nitrogen. If in transit 
and storage it gathers 6 pounds of moisture it will contain only 15.2 
per cent, of nitrogen, but the total quantity of nitrogen in the bag 
will be as before, namely 31.3 pounds. 

a. Nitrate could be readily bought this year at retail for $50 per 
ton, and a pound of nitrogen in this form costs from 15.9 to 16.7 
cents. 

3. The price charged by different agents for the same stock varies 
greatly. See No. 270. 

While nitrogen in nitrate bought in small lots of agents has 
cost about 16.5 cents per pound, it has been bought in mixed 
car lots jor cash by farmers and farmers' clubs at prices ranging 
from 14.9 to 15.7 cents per pound. 



lO CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I912. 

The great economy of buying either chemicals or mixed ferti- 
lizers for cash and in quantity is so obvious and has been so 
persistently urged by us that no further comment seems necessary. 

A sample sent by the F. F. Rockwell Company of Putnam 
and stated to have been received by them with the label "Nitrate 
of Soda," 633, contained only 14.04 per cent, of nitrogen as 
nitrate, 4.45 per cent, of matter insoluble in water and consider- 
able amounts of chlorides and sulphates. It was not conmiercial 
nitrate of soda, but an impure nitrate either of soda or potash. 

DRIED BLOOD AND BLOOD TANKAGE. 

Two samples of dried blood drawn from stock of L. M. 
Benham and Andrew Ure, Highwood, Nos. 226 and 242, con- 
tained respectively 13.00 and 13.10 per cent, of nitrogen. Over 
y7 per cent, of the nitrogen was in active form and its cost was 
20.6 cents per pound. 

A sample of Blood Tankage sent by S. L. Tuttle, Gaylord 
Farm, Wallingford, and bought of the Sanderson Fertilizer & 
Chemical Co., contained 7.50 per cent, of nitrogen and 5.83 per 
cent, of phosphoric acid. Eighty-two per cent, of the nitrogen 
present was in active forms. 

COTTON SEED MEAL. 
(Analyses on pages 14 to 24.) 

Two hundred and ninety-five samples of this material have 
been analyzed this year, representing about 6,500 tons sold within 
the state, and a cash outlay of something over $200,000, chiefly 
by tobacco growers. 

The analyses of these samples are given in a following table. 
Names of the commission men or brokers from whom the meal 
was bought are given where they are known, and where they 
are not known, the names of the Connecticut dealers are given 
instead. With each sample is given the number of the car in 
which it was received and the person or firm which bought it. 

The cost of nitrogen per pound is calculated in each case by 
allowing $4.42 for the phosphoric acid and potash in one ton, 
subtracting this from the ton cost and dividing the remainder by 
the number of pounds of nitrogen in the ton. Undecorticated 
meals contain much less phosphoric acid and potash, and no cost 
of nitrogen is calculated for them. 



COTTON SEED MEAL. II 

Sample 419, page 24, was drawn from car No. 67097 by Olds 
& Whipple. Sample 412 was drawn later from the same car by 
J. B. Parker, when it was received at Windsor. Full particulars 
as to the method of sampling in each case are not at hand, but 
the nitrogen determinations show the differences likely to occur 
if the samples are not drawn from a sufficiently large number 
of sacks. 

A study of the table shows that 

1. The highest price paid has been $35.00 for high-grade meal, the 
lowest $26.50, for low-grade, and the average price has been $31.20. 
It should be said, however, that the prices in the table are those 
originally charged, but where the nitrogen fell below the guaranty, 
the price has been in most cases proportionately reduced. 

2. The per cent, of nitrogen has ranged from 7.6 to 4.87, the 
average being 6.58 per cent., which is 04 per cent, lower than last 
year. If there are excluded thirty samples which are very obviously 
undecorticated meal, the average percentage of nitrogen is 6.69, and 
average cost $3i«5o. 

3. The cost of nitrogen in cotton seed meal has ranged from 23.5 
to 174 cents and has averaged 20.2 cents per pound. From this cal- 
culation are excluded the undecorticated and very imperfectly decor- 
ticated samples. 

4. The meal sold into the state this year has been of lower grade 
than ever before. A third of it has been sold for what it was not; 
that is, it has contained far less nitrogen than was claimed for it. 
Thus, of the 138 samples shipped by Humphreys, Godwin & Co., 44 
per cent, were below guaranty; of the 86 shipped by W. Newton 
Smith, 16 per cent.; of the 19 sent by Olds & Whipple, with no 
statement of the firm from whom it was bought, 29 per cent, were 
below guaranty. 

In this very unsatisfactory condition of things, the Station 
analyses make it possible for every buyer to protect himself by 
claiming from the seller a rebate for every unit of nitrogen 
deficient in the meal which he buys. 

The difficulties of commission men in the matter of guaranties 
have been sufficiently explained in previous reports. The amount 
of tim^ and trouble now spent in adjusting claims for shortage 
of nitrogen, if applied by them to forcing manufacturers to tell 
the truth regarding their output of meal, would put the trade 
on a more satisfactory basis. 

Special attention is called to twenty samples of meal from 
Humphreys, Godwin & Co., which contain less than six per cent. 



12 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

of nitrogen. The five at and near the end of the tabulation of 
samples of meal sold by them have been further examined as 
follows : 

No. Nitrogen. Ash. Fiber. 

165 4.87 4.83 17.13 

19a 5.30 5.91 13.46 

193 5.27 5.46 13.49 

aia 4.94 4.91 17.39 

aa8 5.34 • 5.56 13.90 

Average good decorti- 
cated meal, 144 analy- 
ses 7.14 6.60 4.90 

Average undecorticated 
meal 4.04 4-9 18.50 

It is clear that these, and at least fifteen others, are not cotton 
seed meals as that term is understood in the trade,* but fine 
ground, imdecorticated, or only partially decorticated, meal, all of 
them sold with a guaranty of 6.5 per cent., and running from 
one-half per cent, to more than one and one-half per cent, below 
this guaranty. Delivery of such meal ought to be refused, and 
the parties directly responsible for the fraud or "accident," 
that is, the manufacturers of it, should be prosecuted. If the 
commission houses who deal in such meal will not stop the fraud 
at its source, it will be necessary to hold them responsible imder 
the federal and state laws. 

The same observations also apply to at least six samples from 
Apothecaries Hall Company, four samples from the Buckeye 
Cotton Oil Co., and several from W. Newton Smith, which con- 
tained less than six per cent, of nitrogen, were far below their 
guaranties and were undecorticated meals. It should be said that 
the Humphreys-Godwin Co., when notified of the analysis of the 
meal referred to, promptly made a rebate to the purchaser, 
covering the deficiency in nitrogen. 

Those who wish to have samples of meal examined at the 
station must bear in mind that proper sampling is no less import- 



♦ According to the Commercial Fertilizer of July 12, 1912, the cotton 
oil trade at its annual association meeting adopted a definition of cotton 
seed meal and declared that nothing should be recognized, traded in, or 
sold as cotton seed meal which had less than 38 per cent, of protein. 
This is the equivalent of 6 per cent of nitrogen. 



COTTON SEED MEAL. 1 3 

ant than accurate analysis, and that careless sampling makes the 
analysis worse than useless. The seller will not and should not 
accept an analysis, imless he has proof that the sample was 
properly drawn. At least twenty bags should be opened in every 
car lot and about a pint taken from each, by thrusting the hand 
or a cup down into the meal. These samples should then be 
mixed carefully, and two samples drawn from the mixture, one 
to be sent to the station and the other held for the manufacturer 
in case it is called for. The one who samples should be prepared 
to make affidavit as to the date, number of car, number of bags 
opened, etc. The sample sent to the station should be fully 
described on a blank, which will be furnished on application. 

This information should be given to the station before the 
analysis is undertaken, for the station has no right to do work 
with state funds unless it has some assurance that the work, 
when done, will be of value to the public. Frequently we receive 
samples with no marks to identify them, broken packages from 
which a part or all the sample has run out over the mail matter, 
samples quite too small to be representative, and samples not of 
stock delivered in the stat^, but of what some shipper proposes 
to supply. These, of course, are worthless, but they are not 
positively harmful, whereas a sample of meal on sale in the 
state, which is apparently all right, but has not been carefully 
drawn, may do great injustice either to buyer or seller. 

CASTOR POMACE. 
(Analyses on page 25.) 

Castor pomace, a residue from the manufacture of castor oil, 
and extremely poisonous to stock, which will eat it greedily if 
they have the chance, is used more or less as a fertilizer for 
tobacco. Three samples have been examined : 



14 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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24 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 






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CASTOR POMACE. 2$ 

246. Gray Pomace. Stock of Olds & Whipple, Hartford. 

526. Sold by American Agricultural Chemical Co., New York. 
Stock of Seth Viets, West Suffield. 

286. Sold by Baker Castor Oil Co., New York. Stock of 
Olds & Whipple, Hartford. 

Analyses. 

Station No a45 5^6 236 

Percentage amounts of 

Nitrogen, as ammonia 0.02 0.00 0.02 

" organic, water-soluble 0.52 0.62 0.76 

" " active insoluble 2.40 .... 1.90 

" " inactive insoluble .... 2.22 .... 1.77 

Total nitrogen 5.16 . 4.46 4.45 

" phosphoric acid 1.84 — 1.65 

" potash 1.07 .... 0.97 

Cost per ton $25.00 25.00 25.00 

Nitrogen cost cents per pound 21.8 25.8 25.5 

The g^ay pomace contains over half a per cent, more of 
nitrogen than the others and at the same price is a more 
economical purchase. Castor pomace is the most expensive form 
of nitrogen at present used as a fertilizer on tobacco lands. 

LINSEED MEAL. 

A single sample, 484, sent by W. M. Hinson, Hazardville, 
contained 5.34 per cent, of nitrogen. The five years tests made 
by this Station at Poquonock showed that linseed meal was 
an excellent source of nitrogen in tobacco fertilizers. 

To make it worth consideration as a substitute for cotton seed 
meal it would have to be bought for about $24.00 per ton, far 
below its present price. 



II. RAW MATERIALS CHIEFLY VALUABLE 
FOR PHOSPHORIC ACID. 
GROUND PHOSPHATE ROCK. 
216. Mt. Pleasant Tennessee Ground Phosphate Rock. This 
sample contained 2543 per cent, of phosphoric acid. 

Price $3.00 bulk or $4.00 in burlap bags, in car lots, f. o. b. 
Mt Pleasant. Freight to New Haven, about $4.80. 



26 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

At these prices phosphoric acid costs delivered in car lots in 
this state, about ij4 to i^ cents per pound. 

637. Tennessee Phosphate, made by Central Phosphate Co., 
Mt. Pleasant, Tenn., sold by Apothecaries Hall Co., Waterbory, 
contains 25.80 per cent, of phosphoric acid and costs $12.00 per 
ton, making the cost of phosphoric acid 2.3 cents per pound. 

898. Tennessee Phosphate, bought of John Ruhm, Jr., Mt- 
Pleasant, Tenn., by W. A. Henry & Son, Wallingford, contained 
^.75 per cent, of phosphoric acid. 75 per cent, of the phosphate 
passed a 100 mesh sieve. 

Car lots of Tennessee fine ground rock phosphate have been 
offered, delivered in Connecticut, in paper lined cars, for $7.60 
per ton with a guaranty of 2954 per cent, of phosphoric acid. 
This would be equal to a price of ij4 cents per pound of 
phosphoric acid. 

There seems to be no difficulty in shipping ground rock in 
bulk in a paper-lined car. Thirty tons fills an ordinary car to 
a depth of eighteen inches to two feet. 

BASIC SLAG OR THOMAS PHOSPHATE POWDER. 

This material is a finely ground slag produced by a special 
process of removing phosphorus from iron. 

It contains from 17 to 19 per cent, of phosphoric acid, 35 to 50 
per cent, of lime, 13 or more per cent, of iron and smaller 
quantities of magnesia and manganese. 

Very little of the phosphoric acid is soluble in water, but by a 
conventional method of extraction (Wagner's method) the larger 
part of the phosphoric acid in slag of good quality is soluble 
in ammonium citrate. Pot and field experiments and practical 
experience have alike shown that the phosphoric acid of basic 
slag is quite readily available to crops and it Jias come into rather 
extensive use, particularly by orchardists. 

Last year some basic slag of quite inferior composition was 
sold in this State, and in order to more certainly determine the 
quality of this year's purchases the fineness of all samples has 
been determined with standard sieves and the citrate-soluble phos- 
phoric acid has been determined by the Wagner method. 

The samples are as follows : 

130. Sold by the Coe-Mortimer Co. Sampled and sent by 
F. H. Beers, Brookfield Centre. 



BASIC SJJiG. 27 

153. Sold by American Agfricultural Chemical Co. to E. 
Manchester's Sons. Sampled and sent by C. R. Newton, 
Woodbridge. 

222. Sold by Fertilizer Materials Supply Co. to the Agri- 
cultural Station. 

284. Sold by American Agricultural Chemical Co. Stock of 
F. S. Piatt Co., New Haven. 

241. Sold by the Coe-Mortimer Co. Stock of Lightboum & 
Pond Co., New Haven. 

243. Sold by Fertilizer Materials Supply Co. Stock of L. M. 
Benham, Highwood. 

244. Sold by American Agricultural Chemical Co. Stock of 
Thos. Griswold & Son, South Wethersfield. 

246. Sold by Ross Bros., Worcester. Stock of Olds & 
Whipple, Hartford. 

257. Sold by Fertilizer Materials Supply Co. Sampled and 
sent by A. E. Plant, Branf ord. 

279. Sold by American Agricultural Chemical Co. to E. 
Manchester's Sons. Sampled and sent by John Gotta, Portland. 

384. Sold by Nitrate Agencies Co. Stock of J. F. Merrell, 
Suffield. 

446. Sold by Wilcox Fertilizer Co., Mystic. Sampled at 
factory. 

543. Sold by Sanderson Fertilizer and Chemical Co. - Stock 
of S. L. Tuttle, Wallingford. 

577. Sold by Apothecaries Hall Co., Waterbury. Sampled 
from their stock. 

The table of analyses of basic slag shows : 

z. The mechanical condition of all the samples is very satisfactory 
and quite uniform; about 60 per cent., by weight, is finer than a 
aoo mesh and only about 5 i-a per cent, coarser than 50 mesh. 

a. The per cent, of phosphoric acid ranges from 16.61 to 19.80, the 
average being 17.59. 

3. The "citrate-soluble" phosphoric acid, excluding four samples, 
ranges from 14.71 to 16.84 and averages 15.57. 

4. Four samples, all of them from the American Agricultural 
Chemical Co., contain respectively 23.65, ia.64, 134a and 10.07 per cent. 
of citrate-soluble phosphoric acid, being much below the average of 
all the others. The goods represented by these four samples were, 
howler, bought and sold on a guaranty of 17 per cent, total and 
ZI.9 soluble by the Wagner method and therefore practically met 
their guaranty. 



28 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



5. The retail cost of phosphoric acid in basic slag has been about 
4.6 cents per pound. It has been bought by farmers in mixed car 
lots for from 3.6 to 4.3 cents. 

Analyses of Basic Slag. 
(Percentage Amounts) 



Mechanical Analysis. 



Phosphoric Acid. 



130 

222 

234 
241 
243 

^H 
240 

257 
279 
364 
446 
543 
577 



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17.07 
17.65 
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16.98 
18.12 
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16.29 

17.71 
16.61 
17.05 
17.26 



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13.65 
15.07 
12.64 
15.75 
15.24 
13.42 
16.03 
14.71 
10.07 
15.95 
15.53 
15.38 
15.20 



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2.96 
4.26 

2.00 
5.01 

2.66 

1.74 
4.70 
2.47 

2.22 
6.22 
1.76 
1.08 

1.67 
2.06 



8 

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15.00 



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17.00 



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15.00 

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Averages, o i i 1.5 2 11 4.5 19 
Average, excluding Nos. 153, 234, 244 and 279 



60 17.59 14.68 2.91 
17.63 15.57 



PRECIPITATED BONE. 

This material, understood to be a by-product of glue manu- 
facture, is a fine, dry, white powder, neutral in reaction and 
having the composition given below : 

It is used chiefly as a tobacco fertilizer. 
. 260. Sampled and sent by Olds & Whipple, Hartford. 

11. Sent by the American Agricultural Qiemical Co. 

261. Sampled and sent by the Keiser & Boasberg Plantation 
from stock bought of Olds & Whipple. 

Analyses of PRECiprrATED Bone. 

260 zi 261 

Water-soluble phosphoric acid 0.94 } ^ « 0.80 

Citrate-soluble phosphoric acid 37.71 > 37.21 

Citrate-insoluble phosphoric acid 0.13 1.73 0.09 

Total phosphoric acid 38-78 37.54 38.60 



ACID PHOSPHATE. 29 

This material has over 37 per cent, of "available" phosphoric 
acid and sells at a price which makes the cost of "available" 
phosphoric acid about 5 cents per pound in niixed car lots. . 

DISSOLVED ROCK PHOSPHATE OR ACID PHOSPHATE. 

This material is made by treating mineral phosphates or phos- 
phate rock with oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid), which makes the 
phosphates largely soluble in water. 

The guaranty gives the percentage of "available" phosphoric 
acid. This is a purely trade name for the sum of the water- 
soluble and citrate-soluble phosphoric acid. It has no reference 
to the actual availability of the phosphoric acid to crops. In the 
case of well-made acid phosphates, however, having domestic 
rock phosphates as a base, it is fair to assume that the greater 
part of the "available" phosphoric acid as defined above is 
actually readily available to crops. 

The following analyses show the average composition of this 
material : 

445. Stock of Wilcox Fertilizer Co., Mystic. 

444. Sold by Nitrate Agencies Co., New York. Stock of 
J. F. Merrell, Suffield. 

268. Sold by the American Agricultural Chemical Co., New 
York. Stocks of F. S. Piatt Co., New Haven, and Apothecaries 
Hall Co., Waterbury. 

681. Sold by F. S. Royster Guano Co., Baltimore. Stock 
of Wells & Downs, Killingly. 

787. "High Grade Soluble Phosphate," sold by Coe-Mortimer 
Co. Stock of Spencer Bros., Suffield. 

442. Sold by Bowker Fertilizer Co. Stocks of A. D. Bridge's 
Sons, Hazardville, and S. B. Wakeman, Saugatuck. 

448. Sold by L. T. Frisbie Co., New Haven. Stock of Light- 
bourn & Pond, New Haven. 

225. Sold by Fertilizer Materials Supply Co., New York. 
Stock of L. M. Benham, Andrew Ure and S. A. Flight, High- 
wood. ^ 

188 and 289. Sold by Sanderson Fertilizer & Chemical Co., 
New Haven. 188 from stock of Connecticut School for Boys, 
Meriden. 239 from stock of C. R. Treat, Orange. 

The table of analyses shows one sample, 443, of lower grade 
than the others, guaranteed 12.0 per cent, available and selling at 



3© CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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POTASH SALTS. 3 1 

a lower price; but available phosphoric acid costs more in that 
than in any other. Only very rarely are low grades with low 
prices really economical to buy. 

The cost of "available" phosphoric acid at retail has ranged from 
4^ to 6.4 cents per pound. In mixed car lots farmers have bought 
it at much lower prices, ranging from 3.6 to 4^ cents per pound. 



III. RAW MATERIALS OF HIGH GRADE CONTAINING 

POTASH. 

HIGH-GRADE SULPHATE OF POTASH. 
(Analyses on page 33.) 

This chemical should contain about 90 per cent, of pure potas- 
sium sulphate (sulphate of potash), equivalent to about 49 per 
cent, of potassium oxide ("potash"), and it should be nearly free 
from chlorides. The nine samples analyzed were of good quality 
and, with one exception, met their guaranties. 

This exception may be apparent rather than real. On page 9 
we have noted that an over-weight of the package, caused by its 
drawing moisture, will cause a lowering of percentage composition 
without affecting the total amount of plant food in the bag. A 
slight increase in weight makes a large difference in the per- 
centage composition of very high-grade goods like potash salts. 

Thus, if a bag weighing 220 pounds net and containing 50 
per cent, of potash absorbs 2 pounds of moisture, it will contain, ' 
of course, ^ much potash as it did before, but the percentage 
of potash will be only 49.55. 

The same holds true for all the potash salts. 

The ruling price of high-grade sulphate at retail, delivered, has been 
from $48 to $51 per ton, making the cost of actual potash in this form 
about 5 cents per pound. 

DOUBLE MANURE SALT. 
(Analyses on page 33.) 

This material is frequently sold on a guaranty of "48-50 per 
cent, sulphate," which is equivalent to 25.9-27.0 per cent, of 
potassium oxide (actual potash). Besides some 46-50 per cent, of 
potassium sulphate, it contains over 30 per cent, of magnesium 
sulphate, chlorine equivalent to 3 per cent, of common salt, a 



$2 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

little sodium and calcium sulphates, and varying quantities of 
moisture. 
The two samples analyzed were of average composition. 

The cost of potash per pound in double manure salt was 6.z cents, 
higher than in high-grade sulphate. In mixed car lots it was bought 
for 4.9 cents. 

MURIATE OF POTASH. 

(Analyses on pages 33 and 34.) 

Commercial muriate of potash contains about 80 per cent, of 
muriate of potash (potassium chloride), equivalent to 50.5 per 
cent, of actual potash, 15 per cent, or more of common salt and 
4 per cent, or more of water. 

The fourteen samples were of average composition with the 
exception of 240 which contained an exceptionally high per- 
centage of potash. 

The average cost per pound of potash in the muriate was 4.25 ctnts* 
In mixed car lots it has been bought for from 3.6 to 3.9 cents per 
pound. 

Sample 481 contained 49.09 per cent, of potash and 50 per cent, 
is guaranteed. 

Two bags weighed respectively 208 and 210 pounds, an average 
of 209 pounds. Allowing 2 pounds for the bag these bags con- 
tained 207 instead of 200 pounds, the marked weight. Now 207 
pounds with 49.09 per cent, contain 101.6 pounds of actual 
• potash, whereas 200 pounds with 50 per cent, contain 100 pounds. 

This illustrates again the fact that this kind of material may 
absorb enough water to reduce the percentage below guaranty 
and yet may contain the full number of pounds of actual potash 
which has been guaranteed. 

KAINIT. 
(Analyses on page 34.) 

Kainit contains from .11 to 15 per cent, of potash, more than 
that quantity of soda, and rather less magnesia. These "bases'* 
are combined with chlorine and sulphuric acid. It usually con- 
tains more water than either the sulphate or muriate of potash 
and is sold on a guaranty of from 12 to 15 per cent, of potash. 

Only three samples were examined, which are of average com- 
position. 



POTASH SALTS. 



33 



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POTASH SALTS. 35 

VEGETABLE POTASH. 

This material, which is understood to be a residue from the 
beet sugar manufacture, is considerably used as a tobacco fer- 
tilizer, most of its potash being in form of carbonate. 

A single sample, 738, irom stock of Olds & Whipple, Hartford, 
had the following composition : 

Percentage amounts of 

Potash calculated as muriate i.S3 

Potash calculated as sulphate i .59 

Potash calculated as carbonate 23.32 

Total water-soluble potash found 26.44 

Guaranteed 25.00 

Cost per ton $4300 

Potash costs cents per pound 8.1 

COTTON BOLL AND COTTON HULL ASHES. 

Eight samples of this material, rightly prized as a potash 
fertilizer on tobacco lands, have been analyzed, as follows : 

791. Of light color, sent by L. B. Haas & Co., Hartford. 

13. Bought of the Oil Seeds Co., by E. N. Austin, Suffield. 

636. Bought of Olds & Whipple, Hartford, by C. W. Porter, 
Hockanum. 

870. Bought of American Cotton Oil Co., by Spencer Bros., 
Suffield. 

887. Bought of American Cotton Oil Co., by Spencer Bros., 
Suffield. 

792. Part of the same shipment as 791, but darker in color. 
This sample contained 16.37 per cent, of sand and soil and 11.40 
per cent, of coal. 

483. Sent by W. M. Hinson, Hazardville. 
105. Sent by Huntington Bros., Windsor. 

Analyses of Cotton Hull and Cotton Boll Ashes. 

Station No 791 13 636 870 887 793 483 X05 

Percentage amounts of 

Water-soluble potash.. 22.08 23.40 26.63 21.32 20.82 14.88 23.38 23.39 

Cost per ton $36.00 40.00 5500 * * 36.00 

Potash costs cents per 

poand 8.2 8.6 Z0.3 iz.a 11.3 Z2.z 

*$2.25 per unit. • 



36 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

The analyses of 7M and 792 show the great inequalities in 
composition of different packages in the same shipment. 

Potash in this form of carbonate has cost from 8^ to Z2.i cents 
per pound. 

IV. RAW MATERIALS CHIEFLY VALUABLE FOR 

NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

FISH MANURES. 

"Fish Scrap/' or Dry Ground Fish, as it has been"* sold in this 
state for many years, is the dried and ground residue left after 
expressing the oil from porgies or menhaden. It usually contains 
8 per cent, or more of nitrogen and about 7 of phosphoric acid. 

Of late there has come into market "dry ground fish" of 
very different origin and composition from what was previously 
sold under that name in this state. It is a by-product of factories 
where fish is prepared for market and does not consist chiefly 
of the flesh of the fish but is the refuse from the factory, and 
has considerably less nitrogen and much more phosphoric acid 
than the dry ground fish from the menhaden oil factories. It 
contains about 6yi per cent, of nitrogen and 18.00 to 19.00 per 
cent, of phosphoric acid. 

Samples 476, 156 and 205 represent this material. Four of 
the fourteen fish manures analyzed do not fully meet their 
guaranties of nitrogen. 

If we allow 3 a-3 cents per pound for the phosphoric acid» the 
nitrogen in the fish manures costs from 20.3 to 29.1 cents (with one 
exception, 869, the upper limit is 24.3 cents), and the average of all 
is 234 cents* 

No. 474 had less nitrogen than guaranteed. The two single 
samples from which this sample is made up contained the same 
percentage, and the manufacturer's chemist in our sample found 
substantially the same percentage that the Station found. 

A second sample, 869, of this same brand shows a still lower 
percentage of nitrogen. 

SLAUGHTER HOUSE TANKAGE. 

(Analyses on pages 38 and 39.) 

After boiling or steaming various slaughter-house wastes, 

fat rises to the surface and is removed, the soup is run off and 

the settlings remaining in the tanks ("tankage") is dried, ground 

and sold as a fertilizer. 



FISH MANURES. 



37 



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38 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Analyses of Tankage. 



Station 
No. 


• * 

Maanlacturcr. 


Dealer or PurchmMr. 


544 
33S 

2X8 


Wilcox Fertilizer Co 

Sanderson Fertilizer and Chemical Co. 
Sanderson Fertilizer and Chemical Co. 
C. M. Shay Fertilizer Co 

Sanderson Fertilizer and Chemical Co. 
Sanderson Fertilizer and Chemical Co. 
Unknown 


T. H. Eldredge, Norwich 

A. D. Clark. Orange 

C. R. Treat, Orange 

L. M. Benhamand S. A. Flight, High- 
wood . 


220 


Agricultural Station 


789 

Sa8 

5*7 
278 


Conn. School for Boys, Meriden 

S. D. Woodruff & Sons, Orange 

S. L. Tuttle. Wallingford 

W. E. Fiske. Warehouse Pt., C. N. 

Burnham, Middlefield 

Apothecaries Hall Co., Waterbury. . . 
Pring Bros.. Wallingford. E. Halla- 

day, Suffield 

John Gotta, Portland, bought of E. 

Manchester's Sons. 


Sanderson Fertilizer and Chemical Co. 
New England Fertilizer Co 

L. T. Frisbie Co 


American Agricultural Chemical Co. . . 
American Agricultural Chemical Co. . . 



• As the analyses show, it has a wide range of composition, 
depending largely on the relative amounts of bone and of meat 
scraps which were "rendered" as above, but in general, nitrogen 
gives more than half the value to the material. Like bone the 
immediate ag^cultural value of tankage depends not only on the 
chemical composition but also on the fineness. 

All the samples were drawn by the Station agent excepting 
789 and 878. No. 818 is a "fish tankage." The table of 
analyses shows the state of solubility of the organic nitrogen. 
As was explained at length in our last report, by determining 
the nitrogen solubility, it is possible to distinguish between those 
forms which are readily available to crops and those which are 
agriculturally inert. 

Water-soluble organic nitrogen is that which is soluble in 
water under the prescribed method of treatment. 

Active insoluble organic nitrogeti is insoluble in water, but 
soluble in an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate. 



TANKAGE. 

Analyses of Tankage. 



39 



1 



$34.00 



33.00 
33-00 

30.00 



I 



$34.87 
32.55 
31.91 

29.21 
31.85 
32.44 
27.71 
28.49 

29.26 
30.26 

27.86 
27.90 



'1 



2.4* 



12.7 
9.0 

7.6 



Chemical Analysis. 



O.IO 
0.16 
0.15 

0.32 
0.17 
0.12 
0.18 
0.15 

0.14 
0.20 

0.32 

0.38 



Nitrogen. 



^1 



0.49 
3.12 
2.90 

3.08 
2.72 

2.27 
0.48 
2.40 

2.63 
2.60 

1.02 

0.98 






4.72 
3.10 
2.66 

2.07 
2.48 
2.94 

3.19 
2.20 

1.75 
1.52 

2.22 

1.92 






1.90 
0.74 
1. 21 

1.24 
1.06 
1.03 
2.27 
I.15 

0.78 
0.87 

I.I9 
1.39 



-a 



7.21 
7.12 
6.92 

6.71 

6.43 
6.38 
6.12 
5.90 

5.30 
5.19 

4.75 

4.67 



II 



6.6 
7.4 
7.4 



5.0 
5.0 

5.7 

5.0 
4.9 

4.9 

4.9 



Phosphoric Add. 



12.58 

10.75 
10.48 

9.47 
13.24 
13.41 

9-43 
10.27 

15.66 
16.20 

15.66 
15.74 



12.0 
12.0 

lO.O 

14.0 
15.0 

13.7 

13.7 



Mechanical 
AnaljTsis. 



a m 



63 

54 

58 

39 
51 
61 
47 
45 

41 

58 

49 
54 



37 
46 
42 

61 
49 
39 
53 
55 

59 
42 

51 
46 



* Valuation exceeds cost. 



Inactive insoluble organic nitrogen is insoluble in either of the 
above-named reagents. 

All of these forms of nitrogen are found in every organic 
nitrogenous substance, but the relative quantities are quite differ- 
ent. In general, when more than one-half of the water-insolu- 
ble organic' nitrogen in any mixture is insoluble in permanganate, 
tho- conclusion is justified that some agriculturally inferior form 
is present. 

The same may be suspected if no water-soluble nitrogen is 
present. 

The table shows 

1. Judged by the solubility of their organic nitrogen, all of the 
samples appear to be genuine animal tankage of good quality, though 
a rather high percentage of the nitrogen in 789, from S. D. Woodruff 
& Sons, is classed as insoluble inactive. 

2. Seven of the twelve samples have 50 per cent, or more finer 
than 1-50 inch. Other things being equal, fine tankage is preferable to 



40 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

coarse, and there should be no difficulty in getting more than a half 
of it in the fine condition. 

In the schedule of valuations phosphoric acid in fine tankag^e 
is rated at 4 cents per pound and in coarse tankage at 3J^ cents ; 
figures which cannot be far wrong because the cost and valuation 
of the samples received are not far apart and an error will be 
more likely or will count most in the nitrogen valuation, since 
the market price of it is four or five times as great as that of 
phosphoric acid. 

3. Figured on the above basis the average cost of phosphoric acid 
in the tankages is 3 3-4 cents, which makes the nitrogen cost from 
Z7 to so cents in the samples highest in nitrogen and from 19.3 to 
ao cents in the samples relatively low in nitrogen. 

Farmers have bought tankage in car lots or mixed car lots, deliv- 
ered, for prices which brought the cost of nitrogen down to za.4 to 
17 cents per pound. 

The two samples 447 and 238 from the Sanderson Fertilizer 
Co. have somewhat less nitrogen than gfuaranteed. The company 
advises us that the stock from which these goods were bagged 
showed 7.44 per cent, nitrogen. 

The two samples from the American Agricultural Chemical Co. 
also have somewhat less nitrogen than is guaranteed. 

EGG TANKAGE. 

This material. No. 31, is stated to be made from the yolks 
and shells of eggs, the whites being used in some manufacturing 
process. 

"KANONA." 

A nitrogenous material. No. 732, stated to be of animal origin 
but to contain no leather and to be highly available. 
The analyses of these articles are as follows : 

Egg Tankage. Kanona. 

Nitrogen as ammonia 0.06 0.20 

" organic, water-soluble 0.37 1.50 

" " active insoluble 1.98 5.81 

" " inactive insoluble 1.17 1.49 

Nitrogen total 3.58 9.00 

Phosphoric acid 1.84 



BONE MANURES. 4 1 

BONE MANURES. 

In the following table are given the chemical and mechanical 
analyses of thirty-five samples examined this year. 

It will be seen that the term "bone" as used in the fertilizer 
trade has no very precise meaning. The percentage of nitrogen 
in these bones ranges from 1.6 to 5.58 and phosphoric acid ranges 
from 14.74 to 28.53. 

Some bone manures consist of dry, clean, pure bones, others 
of fresh or moist bone with more or less adhering grease and 
flesh, sometimes mixed with sulphate of soda or other salts to 
prevent putrefaction, or of bone from which a large part of the 
nitrogenous matter has been extracted in the manufacture of 
glue. 

In buying bone regard should be had to its fineness as well 
as to its chemical composition. Fine grinding enormously 
increases the surface upon which the soil bacteria, the soil water 
and the crop roots can act to dissolve and make available the 
substance of the bone. 

Two samples, 843 and 865, contained less nitrogen than was 
guaranteed, but in each case the percentage of phosphoric acid 
far exceeded the guaranty. 

Five samples, 842, 844, 854, 856, 857, had less than the guaran- 
teed percentage of phosphoric acid, but in all these cases the 
excess of nitrogen over the guaranty furnished more than a 
money equivalent of the deficiency in phosphoric acid. 

Lister's Celebrated Ground Bone and Tankage, acidulated, 
579, contains 50 per cent, each of cqarse and fine material. It 
contains : 

Nitrogen 2.82 

Water-soluble phosphoric acid 5.16 

Citrate-soluble phosphoric acid 4.87 

Citrate-insoluble phosphoric acid 3.66 

Total phosphoric acid 13.69 

Its cost is $30 and valuation $19.86. 



42 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, X9I2. 

Analyses of 



Station 
No. 



839 
840 
84Z 
843 

843 
844 
84s 

846 

m 

849 
850 

853 

Hi 

857 
859 
858 

III 
86z 
862 
863 
864 
865 
866 



259 
852 
221 

264 

265 

631 

439 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Sampled by Station Agent : 
Amer. Agr. Chem. Co., Fine Ground Bone. 
Amer. Agr. Chem. Co., Fine Ground Bone. 

Amer. Agr. Chem. Co., Bone Meal , 

Armour Fertilizer Works, Bone Meal 



Berkshire Fertilizer Co., Fine Ground Bone. . , 
Valentine Bohl, Self Recommending Fertilizer, 
Bowker Fertilizer Co., Fresh Ground Bone 

Bowker Fertilizer Co., Market Bone 

Buffalo Fertilizer Co., Bone Meal , 

Coe-Mortimer Co., XXX Ground Bone 

Peter Cooper Fertilizer Co., Pure Bone Dust. . 

Essex Fertilizer Co., Ground Bone 

L. T. Frisbie Co., Fine Bone Meal 

New England Fertilizer Co., Ground Bone 

Nitrate Agencies Co., Ground Bone 

Rogers & Hubbard Co., Pure Raw Knuckle 

Bone Flour 

Rogers & Hubbard Co., Strictly Pure Fine Bone 
Rogers Mfg. Co., Pure Fine Ground Bone . . 
Rogers Mfg. Co., Pure Knuckle Bone Flour 
F.S. Royster Guano Co., Fine Ground Bone Meal 
Sanderson Fert. & Chem. Co., Ground Bone. . . 

C. M. Shay Fertilizer Co., Ground Bone 

M. L. Shoemaker & Co.. Swift-Sure Bone Meal 
Swift's Lowell Fertilizer Co., Ground Bone.... 

The Van Iderstine Co., Pure Ground Bone 

Wilcox Fertilizer Co., Pure Ground Bone 

Wilcox Fertilizer Co., Ground Steamed Bone.. 



Sampled by Purchasers and others : 
Fertilizer Materials Supply Co., Steamed Bone 

E. L, James, Warrenville, Ground Bone 

Pittsburg Provision and Pack. Co., Pure Bone 

Meal 

Sanderson Fert. and Chem. Co., Fine Ground 

Bone 

Sanderson Fert. and Chem. Co., Fine Ground 

Bone 

Sanderson Fert. and Chem. Co., Fine Ground 

Bone 

Manufacturer unknown. Ground Bone 



Dealer or Purcha 



J. A. Glasnap 

Chas. Templeton 

J. A. Glasnap 

Farmers* Roofing and Supply Co., 

A. Grulich 

Hotchkiss & Templeton 

Apothecaries Hall Co 

Lightbourn & Pond Co., A. D. 

Bridge's Sons 

J. P. Barstow & Co 

John Reinhardt & Sons 

R. H. Morgan 

Apothecaries Hall Co 

W. K. Ackley 

D.W.Ives 

T. B. Atwater 

J. R. Houston 

H. W.Andrews 

Warner & Hardin 

F. S. Piatt Co 

Factory 

C. E. Kempton 

F. Hallock Co 

Knowles-Lombard Co 

Olds & Whipple 

M. E. Cooke 

E. B. Clark Seed Co 

T. H. Eldredge ." 

Factory 

A. E. Plant 

Sent by manufacturer 

Station 

E. B. Sniffen 

E. B. Sniffen 

O. G. Beard 

Amer. Sumatra Tobacco Co 



BONE MANURES. 

Bone Manures. 



43 



• 


^ 


«■§ 




Chemical Analysis. 




Mechanical Analysis. 


1 


1 
I 
1 

> 


Ill 














11 


Nitrogen. 


Phosphori 


c Acid. 




1^ 


Found. 


Guar- 
anteed. 


Found. 


Guar> 
anteed. 


135-00 


•28.37 


23.4 


2.52 


2.5 


26.40 


22.0 


50 


50 


35-00 


28.19 


24.2 


2.60 


2.5 


24.72 


22.0 


68 


32 


30.00 


18.18 


65.0 


1.60 


1.7 


16.84 


13.7 


53 


47 


33.00 


26.35 


25.2 


2.66 


2.5 


22.16 


22.5 


66 


34 


33.00 


39.83 


7.3 


2.14 


2.5 


27.45 


20.0 


94 


6 


33-00 


32.32 


2.1 


4.28 


3.8 


22.03 


23.0 


72 


28 


34-00 


27.13 


25.3 


2.75 


2.5 


23.26 


^22.8 
• 13.7 


57 


43 


30.00 


18.98 


58.1 


2.35 


1.9 


14.74 


48 


52 


30.00 


29.74 


0.8 


3.58 


2.9 


23.33 


22.0 


51 


49 


30.00 


28.20 


6.4 


2.42 


2.5 


25.33 


23.0 


72 


28 


30.00 


28.48 


5.3 


2.43 


2.1 


27.48 


22.0 


41 


59 


35-00 


30.38 


15.2 


2.70 


2.5 


27.12 


23.0 


67 


33 


33.00 


31.39 


1.9 


4.01 


3.3 


23.56 


18.0 


51 


49 


38!oo* 


31.64 


7.5 


2.88 


2.5 


27.91 


23.0 


68 


32 


26.59 


5.3 


2.66 


2.5 


22.49 


22.9 


65 


35 


38.00 


32.57 


16.7 


3.96 


3.8 


24.03 


24.7 


69 


31 


34.50 
38.00 


27.23 


26.7 


3.60 


2.9 


20.37 


22.0 


44 


56 


33.18 


14.5 


3.52 


3-9 


25.97 


22.0 


82 


18 


36.00 


34.45 


4.5 


3.90 


3.8 


25.59 


24.0 


81 


19 


33.00 


26.38 


25.1 


2.41 


2.5 


23.90 


22.9 


56 


44 


33.00 


29.63 


II. 4 


2.70 


2.5 


27.27 


20.0 


50 


50 


33.00 


28.02 


17.8 


3.00 


1.6 


23.92 


22.9 


47 


53 


38.00 


36.28 


4.7 


5.58 


4.5 


22.36 


20.0 


58 


42 


31.00 


39.54 


4-9 


2.70 


2.5 


26.25 


23.0 


64 


36 


30.00 


28.06 


6.9 


2.28 


2.0 


27.58 


27.0 


42 


58 


33.00 


29.08 


10. 


2.32 


2.5 


28.53 


22.0 


45 


55 


29.50 


27.49 


7.3 


2.05 


1.6 


27.50 


24.0 


47 


53 


37.00 






2.59 


2.1 


20.64 


22.9 


73 


27 


33.00 






4.01 


...■ 


20.85 


.... 


5 


95 


29.00 






3.94 


... 


20.38 





62 


38 








3.01 


2.5 


24.78 


20.0 


48 


52 








2.55 


2.5 


26.42 


20.0 


50 


50 


34.00 






2.30 


2.5 


23.44 


20.0 


41 


59 


35.00 






0.74 


... 


33.10 





93 


7 



*Car lot, delivered. 



44 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



THE COST OF PLANT FOOD IN RAW MATERIALS. 

The facts regarding market prices which have been shown in 
detail in the preceding pages may here be brought together for 
comparison. 

NITROGEN. 

The following table gives the percentage of nitrogen, the 
average retail price and the actual cost of nitrogen both at retail 
and in mixed car lots of the various nitrogenous raw materials 
in our market 

Percentage of Cost Nitrogen costs cents Cash cost ia 

Nitrogen. per ton. per pound retail. mixed car tots. 

Nitrate of Soda.... 15.5 $50.00 15.9 to 16.7, av. 16.3 14.91015.7 

Dried Blood 13.0 20.6 

Cotton Seed Meal. 6.0 to 7.6 31.50 17.4 to 25.5, av. ao.aj 20.2 

Castor Pomace.... d. 5 to 5.2 25.00 22.3 to 25.9, av. 24.6 .... 

Linseed Meal 5.3 

Dry Ground Fish. . 8.5* 43.50 20.3 to 24.2, av. 22.5 

Tankage 4.7107.2! 30 to 34 17 to 20 12.41017.0 

* And 7.1 per cent, of phosphoric acid, f And 9.4-16.2 per cent, of phosphoric 
acid, t In car lots. 

The table shows that in general nitrogen in castor pomace has 
cost more than in other forms, 24.6 cents per pound, and that of 
dry ground fish comes next, 22.5. The nitrogen of tankage and 
cotton seed meal has been bought at about the same price and 
that of nitrate of soda has been much cheaper than in any other 
of these forms, costing a fifth less. Being cheaper and more 
quickly available than other forms, it should be used wherever it 
can be with advantage. For top dressing winter grains and 
meadows, as a "starter" for potatoes and other early planted 
crops, and in orchards it deserves more general use. 



PHOSPHORIC ACID. 



Citrate- 
Soluble. 



Percentage 

of 

Phosphoric 

Add. 

Ground Phosphate 

Rock 25.4 

Basic Slag 17.0 15.7 

Precipitated Bone. . . 38.0 35.8 to 38.6 

Acid Phosphate ... .15 to 17 13.8 to 15.9 14.50 to 17.75 4-9 to 6.4, av. 5.3 3.6 to 4.4 



Coat per 
ton. 



$10.30* 

15 to 18 



Citrate-Soluble 

costs cents 

per pound, 

retail. 

2.0t 

5.1 

5.0 



Cash cost in 
mixed car lota. 



4.1 to 4.8 



*Car lots, bags, f^^^st of tctal phosphoric acid. 



COST OF PLANT FOOD IN RAW MATERIALS. 45 

This table includes the chief commercial sources of phosphoric 
acid, excepting bone. Insoluble and comparatively inert phos- 
phoric acid costs in car lots less than two cents a pound. Citrate- 
soluble phosphoric acid either in basic slag, precipitated bone, 
or acid phosphate, costs about 5 cents at retail but in mixed car 
lots can be bought for cash for a cent less. In selecting it must 
be remembered that "precipitated bone" is neutral in reaction and 
is specially used as a tobacco fertilizer; basic slag is strongly 
alkaline, containing from 40-50 per cent, of lime, a part of which 
is probably uncombined with phosphoric acid, while acid phos- 
phate is strongly acid in reaction, and may contain some free 
sulphuric acid and also a large amount of sulphate of lime, land 
plaster. It has been pointed out by others that sulphate of lime, 
like many other salts, may act on some soils as a potash fertilizer, 
its*^lime displacing potash from certain hydrous silicates, zeolites, 
and making it more quickly available to crops. 

POTASH. 

Percentage of Cost 

Potash. per ton. 

High-grade Sulphate . , 49 to 51 $48 to 51 

Low-grade Sulphate 25.51027.7 31 

Muriate 49 to 52.1 40 to 48 

Kainit , ii.2toi4.o 

Vegetable Potash (carbonate) 26.4 43.00 

Cotton Hull Ashes 22 to 26.6 36 to 55 

The above figures show that potash in form of carbonate costs 
fully three cents more per pound than in any other form. It has 
been a favorite form of potash for tobacco and some lands have 
unquestionably been overdosed with it. 

Our own experiments at Poquonock indicated a somewhat 
unfavorable effect on the burn of the tobacco leaf when sulphate 
of potash was used, but many growers have used it without 
causing any such defect. In our tests unnecessarily large 
quantities of sulphate were used. On old tobacco land, 300 
j)ounds of high-grade sulphate of potash should certainly be 
enough. Some fruit growers prefer either the high grade or 
double sulphate of potash for orchard fertilizers, believing that 
where it is used the color of the fruit is better than where the 
cheaper muriate is substituted. Whether this is generally true is 
quite uncertain. 



Potash 

costs cents 

per pound retail. 


Cash cost 
in mixed 
car lots. 


5 


5.0 


6.1 


4.9 


3.9 to 4.6 


3.6 to 3.9 


.... 


3.9 


8.1 


.... 


8.2 to II. 2 


.... 



46 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Our observation and experience make very clear the extreme 
importance of cooperative buying for cash where this can possibly 
be done. A much larger part of the fertilizers used in Connect- 
icut could be bought in car lots than is now done with a saving 
of 10 per cent, or more in their cost. 



V. MIXED FERTILIZERS. 
MIXTURES OF PHOSPHATES WITH POTASH SALTS. 

733. Grass and Oats Fertilizer, made by American Agricul- 
tural Chemical Co., New York City; sampled from stock of 
C. A. Cowles, Plantsville. 

734. Wheeler's Grass and Oats, made by American Agricul- 
tural Chemical Co., New York City; sampled from stock of 
L. L. Loomis, East Granby. 

348. A mixture claimed by the manufacturer to he two-thirds 
by weight of acid phosphate and one-third high-grade sulphate of 
potash, 52 per cent. Sent by R. S. Rounds, Cannon Station. 

733 734 348 

Water-soluble phosphoric acid 9-47 9-22 

Citrate-soluble phosphoric acid 2.52 1.72 

Citrate-insoluble phosphoric acid 0.61 0.20 

Total phosphoric acid found 12.60 11.14 

" " " guaranteed 12.00 12.00 ..,;. 

Water-soluble potash found 2.25 2.17 1364 

Potash guaranteed 2.00 2.00 

Cost per ton $25.00 $23.00 

Valuation per ton $12.69 $11.60 

Percentage difference between cost and valuation 97.00 98.3 

1575 pounds of acid phosphate and 90 pounds of muriate of 
potash contain as much plant food as either of the above grass 
mixtures and can be readily bought anywhere in the state for 
about $14.50 and usually for considerably less. 

The percentage of potash in 348 indicates that only about one- 
fourth of the mixture was 52 per cent, high-grade sulphate of* 
potash. 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 47 

NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 
(Analyses on pages 58 to 83.) 

In the following table are 273 analyses of samples of nitroge- 
nous superphosphates which were drawn by the Station agent, and 
eight analyses of samples sent by individuals. The brands are 
given under the names of their manufacturers, arranged 
alphabetically. 

All of the determinations are made in duplicate by* expert 
chemists, are frequently checked by chemists elsewhere, and 
we have every reason to believe, are correct. We may assume 
a possible error not greater than o.i per cent, of nitrogen and 
0.15 per cent, of phosphoric acid and potash, due to errors of 
analysis. 

Whether the samples accurately represent the average com- 
position of the brands is less certain. At least three packages 
of each brand are sampled with an instrument which takes a 
section of the contents from top to bottom. Often a considerably 
larger number are thus sampled, and the analysis is made on 
a mixture of these separate samples. Frequently samples of a 
given brand are drawn as above described in several different 
towns, and these samples are mixed and analyzed as one sample. 

Nevertheless, as will appear on following pages, the analysis 
in some cases is unsatisfactory to the manufacturer, who 
claims that it does not represent fairly the average quality of 
the brand in question. Analyses of the same brand made on 
samples drawn in other states or on samples drawn from the 
factory pile from which the shipment was made, show results 
quite different from our own. 

The causes of these discrepancies, irritating alike to the 
manufacturer and to the Station, are various. Some are quite 
evident and others are probably not understood. A mixture 
of dry materials which have very different specific weights 
always separates more or less when it is moved or shaken either 
in the pile or in the bags. In a pile of such a mixture the coarser 
and heavier particles will be found around the outside edge of the 
heap, and goods bagged from this part will not have the same 
composition as from other parts of the pile. 

When fertilizer bags are torn in handling, the dealer must 
rebag their contents, and he uses what sacks he may have at 



48 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

hand. If they are stenciled with the name of a different brand, 
confusion is likely to result. In some cases it has been quite 
clear that this has happened, and any shortage of weight had 
been made good by fertilizer sweepings. If one such bag is 
among those which are sampled, of course the analysis will be 
misleading. 

The diflferences between the analyses made by the manufacturers 
and those made in the course of fertilizer inspection are almost 
invariably due to differences in sample and not to errors of 
analysis. Differences in sample may be attributed to three or 
four causes, loss or gain of moisture, lack of uniformity in the 
different packages, mistakes in brands or tags, and faulty method 
of sampling. The last of these alone is the responsibility of 
the Station. Every effort is made by it to follow a method 
which will give a perfectly representative sample of the packages 
opened and of the whole stock, provided that they are reasonably 
uniform in composition. Each analysis is reported as soon as 
done to the persons owning the stock, and also to the manu- 
facturer. If the analysis does not in his view represent the 
goods fairly, the Station has, wherever it could be done, drawn 
and tested other samples of the brand. It cannot, however, 
suppress any analysis which it has made. 

The water-solubility of the organic nitrogen has been deter- 
mined in all cases, and where this was suspiciously low, both 
the active- and inactive-insoluble nitrogen have been determined. 
Experience indicates that when there is a fair proportion of 
water-soluble organic nitrogen, no undue proportion of inactive- 
insoluble nitrogen will be present. 

When more than one-half of the organic nitrogen is classed 
as inactive-insoluble, it indicates that inferior forms of nitrogen 
have been used, in part at least, and if after deducting the 
inactive-insoluble nitrogen from the percentage of total nitrogen 
found, the remainder is not as much as the guaranty, it cannot 
be fairly claimed that the goods are as guaranteed. 

The brands are discussed in what follows in the order in which 
they are tabulated. 

American Agricultural Chemical Co, 

510. Complete Tobacco Manure shows an overrun of 0.40 
per cent, nitrogen and 1.84 available phosphoric acid, and a 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 49 

deficiency of 0.80 per cent, potash.* The manufacturer asked 
that another sample be drawn, which was done. 

Its analysis, 720, shows about the same nitrogen as 610, 
available phosphoric acid 5.20 instead of 4.84, but potash 5.81 
instead of 4.70. 

721% Complete Tobacco Manure from Carbonate having 
shown a deficiency of 0.33 per cent, of potash, a second sample, 
867, was analyzed in which the potash was well above the 
guaranty. 

819. H. G. Tobacco Manure. The nitrogen is 0.80 and the 
potash 0.85 per cent, below gfuaranty. There is an overrun of 
1.32 per cent, in available phosphoric acid. 

A sample drawn in another place, 896, showed a deficiency 
of only 0.18 per cent, of nitrogen, while available phosphoric 
acid was 1.7 and potash 0.15 above guaranty. 

696. Packer's Union Gardener's Complete Manure showed 
an overrun of 0.17 per cent, nitrogen and 0.36 available phosphoric 
acid, and a deficiency of 0.71 potash. Another sample sub- 
sequently drawn, 826, showed an overrun of 0.18 nitrogen and 
1.69 available phosphoric acid, and a deficiency of 1.82 per cent, 
of potash. 

Of the forty-four brands of the American Ag^cultural Chem- 
ical Company's fertilizers which we examined (forty-eight 
analyses), the nitrogen in three cases, potash in eleven cases, and 
both nitrogen and potash in one case, are below the guaranty. In 
all but one case the deficiency in one ingredient is fully made 
up in money-value by an overrun of the others. The single 
case is 819, H. G. Tobacco Manure, which shows a money 
deficiency of $2.70. The second sample, above referred to, 
however, shows no such deficiency. 

The solubility of the nitrogen in all the samples examined is 
satisfactory. 

Armour Fertiliser Works. 

869. Bidwell's Formula for all Crops. The nitrogen was 
0.45 per cent, and potash 0.41 per cent, below guaranty and 
available phosphoric acid 0.29 per cent, above guaranty. On 
request, a second sample was drawn and analyzed, 616, in which 
the nitrogen was 0.18 per cent, and potash 0.39 per cent, below, 
and available phosphoric acid 0.16 above guaranty. 



50 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Of the twelve samples (eleven brands) analyzed, two are below 
guaranty in both nitrogen and potash, one each in nitrogen, 
potash and available phosphoric acid. In two cases the deficiency 
of one or more ingredients is not made good in money-value 
by an overrun in the other, the deficit being $1.82 per ton in 
869 and $0.88 in 616, both being Bidwell's Formula for all Crops. 

If the inactive-insoluble nitrogen in Brewer's Special Tobacco 
Fertilizer is deducted from the total nitrogen, the remainder, 
active nitrogen, falls 1.57 per cent, below the guaranty. 

Berkshire Fertilizer Co. All of the six brands meet their 
guaranties and the nitrogen solubility is satisfactory. 

F. E. Boardman. 309. Complete Fertilizer. The available 
phosphoric acid is 0.38 per cent, below guaranty, but the deficiency 
is more than made good by the overrun of nitrogen. 

Bowker Fertilizer Co. Bowker's Complete Alkaline Tobacco 
Grower (with potash as carbonate), 730, had 0.91 per cent, less 
potash than guaranteed and .08 per cent, nitrogen and 2.09 per 
cent, available phosphoric acid more than guaranteed. A second 
sample, 868, was drawn by thoroughly mixing the contents of four 
bags on the floor and sampling this mixture. It contained 0.14 
more nitrogen, 1.03 more of available phosphoric acid and 1.22 
per cent, more potash than was guaranteed. 

Stockbridge Potato and Vegetable Manure, 285, contained 
1.04 per cent, more available phosphoric acid than guaranteed, 
but 0.7 per cent, less of potash. Upon request a second sample, 
432, was drawn and examined. This sample contained 0.70 
more available phosphoric acid and 0.61 per cent, less potash 
than the guaranty, the two samples having approximately the same 
composition. Each of the three samples, of which 285 is a 
mixture, was separately tested for potash and contained 8.97, 
9.27 and 9.76 per cent, respectively. 

The manufacturer advises that a sample drawn from stock 
of W. B. Rice, Meriden, by their agent, who mixed the contents 
of four bags and sampled this mixture, contained 10 per cent, 
of potash. 

Stockbridge Special Complete Manure for Tobacco, 742, con- 
tained 2.34 per cent, less of nitrogen and 0.82 per cent, more of 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. SI 

available phosphoric acid and 2.45 per cent, more of potash than 
was guaranteed. Such wide differences strongly suggest a 
confusion of brands and that the material sampled was not 
representative of the brand named. 

A second sample, 896, was therefore drawn and analyzed, 
which showed 048 per cent, of nitrogen and 0.17 per cent, of 
potash less than guaranteed and 1.79 per cent, overrun of 
available phosphoric acid. 

Of the twenty-three analyses of the Bowker Fertilizer Co.'s 
goods (twenty brands), eleven are below guaranty; two in 
nitrogen, one in phosphoric acid, one in both nitrogen and potash 
and seven in potash. In every case, however, the deficiency 
in one ingredient is fully made good, in respect of money value, 
by an excess over g^uaranty in the other ingredients. 

Buffalo Fertiliser Co, The sample of Celery and Potato 
Special, 290, showed nitrogen 0.25 per cent, and available 
phosphoric acid 0.48 per cent, in excess of guaranty but potash 
1.29 per cent, below guaranty. The solubility of the nitrogen 
was also low. At the request of the manufacturer — who stated 
that repeated analyses of the pile from which this brand was 
shipped had shown in every case more than 10 per cent, of 
potash — ^another sample was drawn by the Station agent, 467, 
which gave 0.62 per cent, of available phosphoric acid and 0.21 
per cent, of potash in excess of guaranty. 

Potash was also separately determined in the three individual 
samples which were mixed to make up 290, and there was found 
respectively 7.16, 9.22, and 10.24 per cent. The lowest percent- 
age was in the sample drawn of John Reinhardt & Sons, W. 
Cheshire. 

Three of the nine brands sold by this company did not have 
the full amounts of plant food guaranteed, two being deficient 
in potash and one in nitrogen, but in all but one, 698, a deficiency 
of one ingredient is made good, as far as money equivalent is 
concerned, by excess of other ingredients. In this one case the 
money equivalent of the deficiency is about $1.70 per ton. 

If the inactive, insoluble nitrogen in Buffalo Tobacco Producer 
is deducted from the total nitrogen, the remainder is 1.15 per 
cent, short of the amount guaranteed; that is, the guaranteed 
amount of nitrogen is not fully supplied in active forms. 



52 CX)NNECnCUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I912. 

Chittenden Fertiliser Co.'s Tobacco Grower. 684. The sample 
was drawn from two agents in Broad Brook and one in Windsor- 
ville. The nitrogen found was less than the amount guaranteed 
by 0.20 per cent., while the available phosphoric add exceeded 
the guaranty by 044 per cent, and potash by 2.81 per cent. 
The manufacturer stated that the goods shipped to one of the 
agents were all from one car, every tenth bag had been sampled 
and analysis of the mixed sample by a Baltimore commercial 
chemist gave, nitrogen 4.96, available phosphoric acid 4.32, 
potash 8.85 per cent. The manufacturer further stated that 
both of the other G>nnecticut agents had only goods from 
another single car which was sampled as above described and a 
mixture of samples from this car and several others loaded from 
the same stock showed nitrogen 5.01, available phosphoric acid 
4.65, potash 8.65 per cent., figures which differ slightly from 
analysis 624 in nitrogen and phosphoric acid but very widely 
diflFer as to potash. 

In view of these facts, the manufacturer requested careful 
review of all the work, asserting that the Station analysis did 
not represent the quality of the goods. 

In each of the three samples of which 624 is made up, nitrogen 
was determined, and the following percentages found, 4.66, 4.81, 
4.93; average, 4.80, the same figure reported in 624. The 
figures indicate no very great difference in the composition of 
the samples. Our sampling agent endeavored, but was not able, 
after the request was made, to find this brand in hands of agents 
and so we were unable to make further analyses. The chemists 
above referred to, Wiley & Co., kindly forwarded portions of 
their samples, which were examined at this Station. The results 
were substantially the same as those obtained by the manufac- 
turer's chemist, the Station figures for potash being slightly 
higher. 

Two of the eight brands of the E. D. Chittenden Co. do not 
fully meet their guaranty in all particulars, one being deficient 
in nitrogen and one in potash, but in each case the excess over 
guaranty of other ingredients much more than makes good the 
money value of the deficiency in one. 

The E. B. Clark Co.'s brands meet their guaranties in all 
respects. 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 53 

The Coe-Mortimer Cofs G>mplete Manure with ten per cent, 
of potash, sample 471, contained 1.86 per cent, more of available 
phosphoric acid than was guaranteed and 0.21 per cent, less of 
potash. The three samples from which 471 was prepared con- 
tained respectively 9.65, 9.91 and 9.81 per cent, of potash. 

Coe-Mortimer's Peruvian Tobacco Fertilizer, 618, showed a 
deficiency of a44 per cent, of nitrogen and 0.38 per cent, of 
potash and an overrun of 1.28 per cent, of available phosphoric 
acid. 

Coe-Mortimer's Vegetable Grower, sample 762, showed a 
deficiency of 0.57 per cent, of potash and an overrun of available 
phosphoric acid of the same amount. 

In these three cases a part of our sample was sent to the com- 
pany to check our work and an unsuccessful effort made to draw 
other samples from the market for analysis. 

Of the nine brands sold by this company three show deficiency 
of potash and one of both nitrogen and potash. In 618 and 762 
the money equivalent of these deficiencies is not fully compen- 
sated by an overrun of other ingredients. 

The Connecticut Valley Orchard Cofs Special Fertilizer and 
the two brands of T. H. Eldredge's goods contain the guaranteed 
amounts of plant food. 

Three brands of the Essex Fertilizer Cofs goods show small 
deficiencies of nitrogen, this being more than made good in 
money equivalent by an overrun of the other ingredients. 

The Fertiliser Materials Supply Cofs No. i Potato and General 
Truck, sample 462, shows a deficiency of 0.56 per cent, of potash, 
a very slight deficiency of nitrogen and an excess over guaranty 
of 048 per cent, of available phosphoric acid, which does not 
quite make good in money equivalent the other deficiencies. 

The L. T, Frisbie Cofs Connecticut Special Fertilizer, sample 
312, having shown a deficiency of 0.29 per cent, potash, a second 
sample, 468, was tested, and showed a deficiency of 0.16 per cent, 
of nitrogen, 0.12 available phosphoric acid and 0.97 per cent, of 
potash. 

Frisbie's G>m and Grain Fertilizer, sample 294, showed a 
deficiency of 0.24 per cent, potash, with an excess of 0.38 per 



54 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

cent, nitrogen and 1.52 per cent, available phosphoric acid. The 
manufacturer stated that analyses of this brand in bulk had 
shown 3.07 per cent, of potash. Potash determined separately 
in the three samples of which 294 was made up showed 2.72, 
2.89 and 2.70 respectively. A second sample, 461, was also 
taken, from stock of Lightboum & Pond, the analysis of which 
met the guaranty in all respects. 

Of the five brands of this company, two were deficient in 
potash and one in nitrogen and potash. In one case, 468, the 
money equivalent of the guaranty was deficient by $1.51. 

Lister^s Agricultural Chemical Works, All of the ten brands 
fully meet their guaranties, with exception of a deficiency in 
available phosphoric acid of 0.58 per cent, in 771, which is more 
than compensated by an overrun in the other ingredients. 

E. Manchester & Son/ Manchester's Formula, sample 82S, 
shows a deficiency of 0.70 per cent, of potash and an overrun 
of available phosphoric acid of 0.92 per cent. A second sample, 
806, shows a deficiency of nitrogen of 0.30 and of potash of 0.42 
per cent., with an overrun of available phosphoric acid of 0.61 per 
cent. At the urgent request of the manufacturer, a third sample 
was drawn and analyzed, 913, which showed a deficiency of 0.32 
per cent, of nitrogen with an overrun of 0.62 of available phos- 
phoric acid and 0.13 of potash. 

Manchester's Special, sample 766, shows a deficiency of 0.36 per 
cent, nitrogen, 1.72 per cent, of potash and an overrun of 0.4 
per cent, available phosphoric acid. 

Of the five analyses, three brands, one is deficient in potash, 
one in nitrogen and two are deficient in both nitrogen and potash. 

Two analyses, 806 and 766, show a deficiency of money value 
in plant food of $1.00 and $2.49 respectively. 

Mapes Formula and Peruvian Guano Co.'s fifteen brands all 
fully meet their guaranties, with the exception of 663, in which 
a deficiency of 0.37 per cent, of potash is fully offset by an 
overrun of 0.7 per cent, nitrogen. 

The National Fertilizer Co.'s Eureka Potato Fertilizer, sample 
686, taken from three different places and from nineteen pack- 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 55 

ages, showed a deficiency of 0.92 per cent, of potash with an 
overrun of o.ii per cent, nitrogen and 0.51 per cent, available 
phosphoric acid. The manufacturer tested a portion of our 
sample, corroborating our result on potash and asked that a 
second sample be drawn. This second sample, 793, drawn from 
seven bags, showed a deficiency of 1.85 per cent, potash and an 
overrun of 0.32 per cent, nitrogen and 1.15 per cent, available 
phosphoric acid. 

Of the fourteen analyses (twelve brands) of this company 
four are deficient in nitrogen and four in potash. In one case, 
656, the deficiency is not made good in money value by the 
excess of other ingredients, this difference amounting to about 
eighty-seven cents. 

Of The New England Fertilizer Co.'s seven brands, two are 
deficient in potash and one in nitrogen, and in each case the 
deficiency is made good by an excess of the other ingredients. 

Of the Niantic Menhaden Fish Oil & Guano Go's five brands 
one is deficient in nitrogen but this is more than made good by 
an excess of the other ingredients. 

Olds & Whipple's seven brands fully meet their guaranties 
with the exception of 277, where a small deficiency in available 
phosphoric acid is compensated by a large overrun of potash. 

Of the five brands of Parmenter & Polsey, three are somewhat 
deficient in potash and one is deficient in nitrogen, with a slight 
overrun of some other ingredient. 

The F. S. Plait Go/s Market Garden Phosphate fully meets 
its guaranty. 

The Rogers & Hubbard Go.'s Bone Base Soluble Tobacco 
Manure, sample 688, shows 1.05 per cent, of chlorine. The 
manufacturers asked for a re-test, as only high-grade sulphate 
of potash was used in this brand. The percentage of chlorine 
was found to be the same in each of the samples of which 588 
was made up. Even the high-grade sulphate of potash contains 
a trace or more of chlorine and it is likely to be found in small 
amount in nitrogenous materials. One per cent, of chlorine in 



S6 CX)NNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

a tobacco fertilizer is absolutely without effect on the quality 
of the crop. It amounts to twenty pounds per acre, if a ton of 
the fertilizer is used. An ordinary dressing of stable manure, 
which is used everywhere and everywhere acknowledged as 
one of the best tobacco fertilizers, contains a good deal more 
chlorine than this. Most growers are too particular about 
chlorine. More attention to lack of lime and less to presence 
of chlorine in their fertilizers would be worth while. In this 
fertilizer there is a slight deficiency of potash fully compensated 
in money value by an overrun in the other ingredients. The 
other seven brands fully meet their guaranties in all particulars. 

The eleven brands of the Rogers Manufacturing Co. fully 
meet their guaranties, excepting 786, in which a deficiency of 
potash of 0.50 per cent, is fully compensated in money value by 
an excess of phosphoric acid. 

Royster^s High-Grade Tobacco Manure, sample 628, shows a 
deficiency of 1.3 per cent, potash and 0.56 per cent, nitrogen 
and an overrun of 2.65 per cent, available phosphoric acid. 
The manufacturer protested that the goods were made with safe 
overruns of each ingredient and that the above sample was 
certainly not representative and requested the analysis of another 
sample. Our agent tried unsuccessfully to find other stock of 
this brand in the State. Tests of nitrogen in the three samples, 
of which 628 is a mixture, gave 3.95, 4.16 and 4.72 per cent, 
a wide difference, but in no case meeting the guaranty. 

The analysis of Royster's Tobacco Ash Components, sample 
660, was protested by the manufacturer because, while only 
high-grade sulphate was used in its manufacture, the analysis 
showed over 10 per cent, of chlorine. 

With the above exceptions the nine brands of this company's 
manufacture fully met their guaranties. 

The nine brands of the Sanderson Fertiliser and Chemical 
Co. fully meet their guaranties in all respects. 

One of the brands of the C. M. Shay Fertiliser Co., 669, shows 
a deficiency of 0.23 per cent, potash but an overrun of 0.48 
per cent, of nitrogen, which more than compensates in money 
equivalent. Another, 646, is deficient in available phosphoric 
acid with an overrun of the other ingredients. 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 57 

The nitrogen in one of M, L, Shoemaker & Co.'s brands, 808, 
is 0.23 below guaranty, compensated in money equivalent by an 
overrun in available phosphoric acid. 

Of the thirteen brands of the Swift-Lowell Fertilizer Co,, 
four are deficient in nitrogen and two in potash, but the excess 
of other ingredients over guaranty makes good the money 
equivalent of the deficient elements. 

One of the two brands of Tanner & Wilcox is deficient in 
available phosphoric acid, but this is compensated by an excess 
of 0.61 per cent, of nitrogen. 

All of the ten brands of the Wilcox Fertilizer Co, fully meet 
their guaranties. 

S. D. Woodruff & Sons' Home Mixture, 346, exceeds the 
guaranteed potash by 0.27 per cent, and the guaranteed nitrogen 
by 043 per cent. This nitrogen, however, has a lower solubility 
than that of any other sample examined. If the insoluble- 
inactive nitrogen is deducted, the amount of active organic 
nitrogen is less than the guaranty by 0.59 per cent. 

Summary regarding Guaranties. 

Of the 273 analyses representing 258 brands, eighty-one show 
deficiencies in respect of one or more ingredients ; thus twenty- 
two are deficient in nitrogen, five in "available" phosphoric 
add, forty-three in potash and eleven others in both potash and 
nitrogen or potash and phosphoric acid. 

In twelve cases these deficiencies are not fully compensated 
by an overrun of the other ingredients, so that the goods neither 
contain what they are guaranteed to contain, nor its fair 
equivalent. 

Cost. 
The cash retail price is quoted by each agent from whom a 
sample is drawn and these prices are reported to manufacturers 
for criticism. If quotations on a given brand are widely 
divergent the dealers are asked to confirm or correct the figures. 
The average of the several quotations is given in the table. 



58 connecticut experiment station report, i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



426 
5x0* 

720 

72it 

867 

366 

650 
8x9t 

895 
693 

651 
652 

378 

558 

820 
821 
379 

.4^7 
308 



Mftnufactarer ^d Brand. 



Sampled by Station Agent: 

The American Agricultural Cheini< 

cal Co., New York City. 
Complete Manure with 10^ Potash. . 
Complete Tobacco Manure (from 

Sulphate) 

Complete Tobacco Manure (from 

Sulphate) 

Complete Tobacco Manure (from 

Carbonate) 

Complete Tobacco Manure (from 

Carbonate) 

Grass and Lawn Top Dressing. . . . 



H. G. Fertilizer, lojt Potash. 
H. G. Tobacco Manure 



H. G. Tobacco Manure 

Tobacco Starter and Grower. 



Bradley Branch: 
Complete Manure for Potatoes and 

Vegetables 

Complete Manure for Top Dressing, 

Grass and Grain 

Corn Phosphate 



Eclipse Phosphate 

Farmers* New Method Fertilizer. 



Place of Sampling. 



Niagara Phosphate. 

Potato Fertilizer 

Potato Manure 



XL Superphosphate. 

Church Branch: 
Fish and Potash 



Meriden, Milford, Burnside 
East Windsor Hill, Burn 

side , 

Broad Brook, So. Man- 
chester 

So. Manchester 

Hillstown 

New Haven, Meriden, Mil- 
ford 

Rockville, Putnam 

Broad Brook 

Windsor 

Broad Brook, New Mifford 

Norwich Town, Milford... 

Hazardville, East Windsor 
Hill 

Rockville, Norwich Town, 
Milford 

Milford, Putnam 

Middletown, Putnam, Staf- 
ford Springs 

Milford, Putnam 

Middletown, Putnam 

Rockville, Norwich Town, 
Milford 

Suffield, Norwich Town, 
Burnside 

Wallingford, Hazardville. 
Meriden 

f See note, p. 49. 



3 

\z 

« a 



$38.00 

36.00 

36.00 

37.00 

37.00 

33.50 
38.00 
48.00 

48.00 
38.00 

36.50 
38.75 

29.50 
27.50 

30.00 
26.50 
30.50 

32.00 
33.25 



ss 

22 



1^ 

> 



is 

c • 

11 

III 



$25. 

38. 

29 
29. 

29 

20. 

22. 
32. 

36. 
24 

26. 

27 

16. 
14. 

17. 
12. 
17. 

19. 

20. 



26.75 17.07 



46.8 

28.4 

22.9 

33.7 

24.7 

63.0 
65.4 



32.5 
56.3 



36.8 
41.5 

73-7 
94.5 

72.9 
III. 5 

73.3 

66.1 
66.0 

56.7 



* See note, p. 48. 



nitrogenous superphosphates. 
Analyses and Valuations. 



59 



NiTKOOCM. 






Phosphoric 


\CID. 




Potash. 






< 

e 




n 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


i 
1 


i 

1 

6 


6 

1 

z 

1 


Total. 


So^alled 
"Available." 


i 
1 


9 
c 




z 

e 


h 


1 


i 
1 


1 

9 



i 

1 


i 

9 



i 
1 
1 


0.04 


1.65 


0.28 


1.23 


3.20 


3.3 


5.44 


1.34 


0.68 


7.46 


7.0 


6.78 


6.0 


9.80 


10. 


436 


0.29 


0.16 


0.51 


3.99 


4.95 


4.5 


1.08 


3.76 


1.62 


6.46 


4.0 


4.84 


3.0 


'4.70 


5.5 


Sio 





0.95 


0.82 


3.21 


4.98 


4.5 


I.T5 


4.05 


1.62 


6.82 


4.0 


5.20 


3.0 


«5.8i 


5.5 


720 


0.20 


0.05 


1.06 


3.36 


4.67 


4.5 


0.18 


5.78 


2.29 


8.25 


4.0 


5.96 


3.0 


•5.17 


5.5 


721 


0.37 


0.03 


4.25 


4.65 


4.5 


0.59 


3.38 


1.48 


5.45 


4.0 


3.97 


30 


*5.92 


5.5 


867 


2.25 
0.59 
0.17 


0.15 
0.86 

3.04 


0.26 
0.22 
0.28 


1. 18 
0.76 
1. 51 


3.84 
2.43 
5.00 


3.9 

2.5 

5.8 


2.92 
4.25 
4.46 


2.75 
2.46 
1.86 


1. 19 
1.29 
0.74 


6.86 
8.00 
7.06 


6.0 
7.0 
6.0 


5.67 
6.71 
6.32 


5.0 
6.0 
5.0 


2.15 
9-59 
*9.i5 


2.0 
10. 
10. 


366 
650 
819 


0.13 


3.10 
2.14 


2. 
0.30 


39 
0.93 


5.62 
3.37 


5.8 
3.3 


4.82 
7.63 


1.88 
1.23 


0.52 
0.57 


7.22 
9.43 


6.0 
9.0 


6.70 

8.86 


5.0 
8.0 


•10.15 
'4.45 


10. 
4.0 


693 


0.93 


0.63 


0.52 


1.23 


3.31 


3.3 


5.13 


4.13 


2.24 


11.50 


9.0 


9.26 


8.0 


7.13 


7.0 


651 


1.24 


1. 01 


0.22 


2.38 


4.85 


4.9 


3.24 


2.24 


1.04 


6.52 


5.0 


5.48 


4.0 


5.83 


6.0 


652 


0.50 
0.12 


0.51 
0.23 


0.26 
0.32 


0.85 
0.56 


2.12 
1.23 


2.1 
I.O 


5.17 
5.42 


3.31 
2.62 


1.50 
1.06 


9.98 
9.10 


9.0 
9.0 


8.48 
8.04 


8.0 
8.0 


1. 81 
2.63 


1.5 
2.0 


IS 


0.31 
0.13 
O.II 


0.58 
0.34 
1.05 


0.27 
0.18 
0.16 


0.77 
0.55 
0.72 


1.93 
1.20 
2.04 


1.7 
0.8 
2.1 


5.53 
5.12 

5.75 


2.69 
2.45 
2.74 


1.43 
0.91 
1.05 


965 

8.48 
9-54 


9.0 
8.0 
9.0 


8.22 
7.57 
8.49 


8.0 

7-0 
8.0 


3.26 
1.50 
3." 


3.0 
1.0 
3.0 


820 

821 


0.42 


0.98 


0.26 


0.76 


2.42 


2.5 


4.48 


2.45 


1.78 


8.71 


7.0 


6.93 


6.0 


4.78 


5.0 


379 


0.58 


0.44 


0.30 


I. TO 


2.42 


2.5 


7.01 


3.04 


1. 51 


11.56 


10. 


10.05 


9.0 


2.37 


2.0 


427 


o.io 


0.35 


0.34 


1.44 


2.23 


2.1 


3.69 


3.12 


2.03 


8.84 


7.0 


6.81 


6.0 


2.58 


2.0 


308 



* o.70j( potash as muriate, 4.005^ as sulphate. 
' 1.00% potash as muriate, 4.81^ as sulphate. 
' i.oojt potash as muriate, 1.735^ as sulphate, 

2.445^ as carbonate. 

* o.6oj( potash as muriate, 1.19^ as sulphate, 

4.135^ as carbonate. 



^ 2.50$ potash as muriate, 6.65^ as 

sulphate. 
* 1.20^ potash as muriate, 8.95^ as 

sulphate. 
^ 0.82^ potash as muriate, 3.63^ as 

sulphate. 



6o connecticut experiment station report^ i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



654 
559 

822 



283 
5" 
824 



694 
695* 

825 
501 



560 



696 
380 
38X 



620 
827 
826 

621 

655 
622 



Mttnufacttnrer and Brand. 



Sampled by Station Agent: 
Great Eastern Branch: 

General 

H. G. Vegetable, Vine and Tobacco 

Fertilizer 

Northern Com Special 

Northwestern Branch: 
Fish, Bone and Potash 

Market Garden Phosphate 

lojt Potato Fertilizer 

Universal Fertilizer 

Packers^ Union Branch: 

Animal Corn Fertilizer 

Gardeners' Complete Manure. . . . 
Gardeners' Complete Manure.... 
Potato Manure 

Quinnipiac Branch: 
Climax Phosphate 

Corn Manure 

Market Garden Manure 

Phosphate 

Potato Manure 

Potato Phosphate 

Read Branch: 
Practical Potato Special 

Standard Superphosphate 

Vegetable and Vine Fertilizer. . . . 

Wheeler Branch: 
Corn Fertilizer 

Havana Tobacco Grower 

Potato Manure 



Place of Sampling. 



Madison, New Canaan .... 
Colebrook, East Hampton, 

Madison 

East Hampton, No. Granby 

New Haven, Suffield, Haz- 

ardville 

Southport, Stamford 

Wallingford, Hazardville . . 
New Canaan 

Waterford, Middlebury. . . . 
New Canaan, Middlebury. . 

Watertown 

Waterford, Ellington, East 
Hampton 

Milford, Plainfield, Daniel- 
son 

Wallingford, Westport 

Milford, Southport 

Putnam, New London .... 

Wallingford, New London, 
Westport 

Wallingford, New London, 
Westport 

Westport, East Hampton, 
Plantsville 

Bristol, So. Meriden, E. 
Canaan 

Bristol, So. Meriden 

E. Granby, Riverton, No. 

Granby 

E. Granby, Riverton, No. 

Granby 

E. Granby, Riverton, No. 

Granby 



$28.00 

33.75 
32.00 



§ 



5S 



SB 



©a j "Sfca 



I! 



$14.76 



30.00 19 



33.50 
33.50 



38.00 20 



33.50 
37.00 
37.00 

32.25 



29.25 
31.00 
37.00 
32.50 

32.75 

32.00 



32.00 

29.25 
33.00 



29.75 
36.25 
30.75 



.36 
.08 
.40 
.43 



.07 

.02 

23 



20.47 



89.7 

62.6 
63.8 



54.9 
51.7 
43.2 
86.0 



75.7 
47.8 
46.7 

57.5 



.96 

.40 

.77 
.77 

79 

.58 



109.5 
78.2 
43.6 
64.4 

65.5 
72.2 



95.9 
61.3 



80.2 

41.4 
68.2 



* See note, p. 49. 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued, 



6i 



NrntocBM. 


Phosphokic Acid. 


Potash. 






a 


^1 


!i 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


6 

1 


5 


6 


Total. 


So.called 
"Available." 


1 


9 





1 

z 

e 


i 
1 


1 

9 



1 


•0 
8 

9 



i 
1 


1 

3 


d 


0.07 


0.12 


0.18 


0.58 


0,95 


0.8 


5.95 


2.56 


0.96 


9-47 


9.0 


8.51 


8.0 


4.06 


4.0 


654 


0.40 
0.09 


0.25 
0.93 


0.31 
0.33 


1.09 
1.07 


2.05 
2.42 


2.1 

2.5 


6.81 
5.65 


2.04 
3.65 


0.82 
1. 19 


9.67 
10.49 


9.0 
10. 


8.85 
9.30 


8.0 
9.0 


6.12 
2.77 


6.0 
2.0 


III 


0.12 
0.31 

0.54 
0.28 


0.45 
0.S8 

O.IO 

0.42 


0.38 
0.26 

0.34 
0.27 


1.75 
1.13 
0.80 

1.35 


2.70 
2.58 
1.78 
2.32 


2.5 
2.5 
1.7 
2.5 


3.03 
6.33 
6.78 
6.23 


2.80 
2.23 
2.03 
3.04 


1.42 
0.82 
1.02 
1.25 


7.25 

9.38 

9.83 

10.52 


5.0 
9.0 
9.0 
9.0 


5.83 
8.56 
8.81 
9.27 


4.0 
8.0 
8.0 
8.0 


4.52 

5.97 

10.39 

4.02 


4.0 

6.0 

10. 

4.0 


283 

5" 

IS 


0.22 


1.05 

1. 00 
0.90 


0.16 
0.34 
0.45 


0.90 
1.33 
1.33 


2.33 
2.67 
2.68 


2.5 
2.5 
2.5 


6.66 
4.08 
4.89 


2.79 
2.28 
2.80 


1.56 
1. 11 
1.28 


II. 01 

7.47 
8.97 


10.0 
7.0 
7.0 


9.45 
6.36 
7.69 


9.0 
6.0 
6.0 


2.35 
^9.29 

»8.i8 


2.0 
10. 
10. 


82s 


0.42 


0.76 


0.19 


0.81 


2.18 


2.1 


6.02 


2.55 


1. 19 


9.76 


9.0 


8.57 


8.0 


5.68 


6.0 


501 


0.13 
0.13 
0.31 


0.27 
0.42 
1.40 

1.32 


0.13 
0.32 
0.34 
0.51 


0.58 
1.31 
1.25 
0.76 


I. II 
2.18 
3.30 
2.49 


I.O 
2.1 

3-3 

2.5 


6.30 
5.49 
5.69 
6.25 


2.24 
3.00 
2.97 
3.37 


1.29 
1.32 
1. 10 
1.56 


9.83 

9.81 

9.76 

II. 18 


9.0 

9.0 

9.0 

10. 


8.54 
8.49 

8.66 
9.62 


8.0 
8.0 
8.0 
9.0 


2.31 
1.79 
7.24 
2.30 


2.0 

1.5 
7.0 
2.0 


560 

823 


0.24 


0.91 


0.32 


I. II 


2.58 


2.5 


4.67 


2.04 


1. 00 


7.71 


7.0 


6.71 


6.0 


5.10 


5.0 


380 


0.18 


0.41 


0.51 


I. CO 


2.10 


2.1 


6.12 


2.65 


1.20 


9-97 


9.0 


8.77 


8.0 


3.28 


3.0 


381 


0.07 


0.12 


0.35 


0.53 


1.07 


0.8 


3.18 


2.06 


1. 41 


6.65 


5.0 


5.24 


4.0 


8.19 


8.0 


620 


0.08 
0.32 


0.16 
0.30 


0.23 
0.30 


0.55 
I. II 


1.02 
2.03 


0.8 
2.1 


5.19 
6.79 


3.39 
2.10 


0.96 
0.81 


9.54 
9.70 


9.0 
9.0 


8.58 
8.89 


8.0 
8.0 


4.02 

5.81 


4.0 
6.0 


826 


0.08 


0.47 


0.37 


0.83 


1.75 


1.7 


5.60 


2.96 


1.64 


10.20 


9.0 


8.56 


8.0 


2.43 


2.0 


621 





1. 10 


0-470-91 


2.48 


2.5 


4.56 


2.09 


1. 13 


7.78 


7.0 


6.65 


6.0 


•10.24 


10. 


655 


0.13 


0.72 


0.350.95 


2.15 


2.1 


6.24 


2.37 


0.87 


9.48 


9.0 


8.61 


8.0 


3.X3 


3.0 


622 



* 1.59^ potash as muriate, 7.705^ as sulphate. ' 1.20^ potash as muriate, 6.98^ as sulphate. 
' 1. 10^ potash as muriate, 9.14]^ as sulphate. 



62 connecticut experiment station report, i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



513 
643 

828 
428 

623 



368 

369^ 

516 

723 

429t 

722 

515 
724 

367 
726 



563 
284 
636 

562 
727 

309t 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Sampled by Station Agent: 

Williams and Clark Branch:^ 
Americus Ammoniated Bone Super- 
phosphate 

Americus Corn Phosphate 



Americus H. G. Special Fertilizer. 
Americus Potato Manure 



Potato Phosphate. 



The Armour Fertilizing Works, 

Baltimore, Md. 

All Soluble 



Ammoniated Bone with Potash. . 
Bid well's Formula for all Crops. 
BidwelTs Formula for all Crops. 

Bone, Blood and Potash 

Brewer's Special Fertilizer 

Complete Potato 

Com King 

Fish and Potash Mixture 

Fruit and Root Crop Special . . . . 
H. G. Potato 



Market Garden. 



Berkshire Fertilizer Co., Bridgeport, 

Conn. 
Ammoniated Bone Phosphate .... 



Complete Fertilizer. 
Grass Special , 



Long Island Special 

Potato and Vegetable Phosphate 

Tobacco Special with Carbonate. . . . 

F. E. Boardman, Middletown, Conn. 
Complete Fertilizer 



Place of Sampling. 



Waterbury, Wapping. . . . 
Milford, Wallingtord, New 

Britain 

Wapping 

Milford, Ellington, Wap 

ping 

Waterbury, Ellington, New 
Britain 



New Haven, Bridgeport, 
Willimantic 

Bridgeport, Willimantic... 

Windsor Locks 

Windsor Locks 

Bridgeport 

East Hartford 

Groton, Danielson 

Groton, Silver Lane 

Danielson, Meriden 

Danielson 

New Haven, Bridgeport, 
Willimantic 

New Haven 



Waterbury, Norwich Town, 

Stafford 

Waterbury, Milldale, Haz- 

ardville 

Norwich Town, Stafford, 

Windsor 

Milldale, Wethersfield 

Waterbury, Norwich Town, 

Stafford 

Hazardville 



Middletown 34.00 24.96 36.2 



Ss 



11 

V o 

> 



$30.75 
38.50 

32.00 

34.00 



33.25 
28.50 
30.00 
30.00 

39.00 
36.00 
29.50 
31.50 

25.00 
28.00 

33.75 
36.00 



28.25 
34.75 

36.25 
35.50 

32.00 
38.00 



$20.35 
17.61 

26.34 
18.74 
19.54 



21.38 

16.88 

20.01 

20.94 
28.36 
25.92 
17.26 
19.88 
14.62 

17.98 



25.90 

15.00 

23.39 

25.81 
24.08 

18.77 
30.17 



* See note, p. 49. f See note, p. 50. 



NITROGENOUS SUPEKPHOSP HATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued, 



63 



NlTROCBM. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


Potash. 












Total 












So-called 










1 


1 




Nitrogen. 


1 


1 


i 

1 

h 

8 


Total. 


"Available." 




i 




s 




1 




i 




•s 


6 


1 


0-2 


f 


1 


2 


1 


1 


i 
g 


a 


1 


« 


g 


V 


2 





cs 





^ 


(X. 


S 


^ 


5 


£ 





& 


^ 


£ 


S 


s 


0.47 


0.63 


0.33 


1. 21 


2.64 


2.5 


6.25 


3.49 


1.24 


10.98 


10. 


9.74 


9.0 


2.29 


2.0 


513 


0.29 


0.25 


0.29 


1. 31 


2.14 


2.1 


5.43 


3-44 


1.56 


10.43 


9.0 


8.87 


8.0 


1.74 


'•5 $43 


1.90 


0.37 


1. 18 


3.45 


3-3 


5.34 


3.84 


1. 18 


TO. 36 


9.0 


9.18 


8.0 


6.86 


7.0828 


0.150.55 


0.45 


1. 01 


2.16 


2.1 


6.04 


2.59 


1.02 


965 


9.0 


8.63 


8.0 


3.47 


3.0428 


0.23 


I. 12 


0.22 


0.95 


2.52 


2.5 


4.24 


2.55 


1.28 


8.07 


7-0 


6.79 


6.0 


5.01 


5.0 


6.3 


1.36 


0.25 


0.51 


0.88 


3.00 


2.9 


5.65 


2.36 


0.92 


8.93 


!-5 


8.01 


8.0 


4.04 


4.0 


368 


0.76 


0.20 


0.27 


1.29 


2.52 


2.5 


4.14 


2.35 


0.67 


7.16 


6.5 


6.49 


6.0 


2.24 


2.0514 


.... 


0.07 


0.66 


1.32 


2.05 


2.5 


5.95 


2.34 


0.93 


9.22 


8.5 


8.29 


8.0 


;4.59 


5.0369 


.... 


0.12 


0.63 


1.57 


2.32 


2.5 


5.85 


2.31 


0.92 


9.08 


8.5 


8.16 


8.0 


«4.6i 


5.0516 


a. 44 


0.20 


0.39 


1.37 


4.40 


4.1 


4.01 


3.58 


1.13 


8.72 


8.5 


7.59 


8.0 


7. II 


7.0723 


1.090.06 


0.20 


3.10 


4.45 


4.5 


2.50 


1.78 


0.17 


4.45 


4.5 


4.28 


4.0 


'5.75 


5.5'429 


0.72 0. 10 


0.17 


0.86 


1.85 


1.7 


4.62 


2.24 


0.65 


7.51 


7-5 


6.86 


7.0 


5.21 


6.0722 


1.260.36 


O.II 


0.88 


2.51 


2.5 


6.14 


1. 81 


0.84 


8.79 


8.5 


7.95 


8.0 


4.45 


4.0515 


0.18 


0.42 


1.24 


1.84 


2.1 


3.75 


2.82 


0.52 


7.09 


6.5 


6.57 


6.0 


2.20 


2.0724 


0.080.83 


0.17 


0.60 


1.68 


1.7 


6.36 


1.96 


0.56 


8.88 


8.5 


8.32 


8.0 


5.34 


5.0725 


0.51 


o.io 


0.00 


1. 19 


1.80 


1.7 


5.30 


2.69 


1. 00 


8.99 


8.5 


7.99 


8.0 


10.26 


10.0367 


1.3^ 


► 0.46 


0.16 


1.41 


3.42 


3.3 


5-64 


2.78 


0.79 


9.21 


8.5 


8.42 


8.0 


7.29 


7.0 


726 


o.ia 


rj.... 


O.IO 


I. II 


1.33 


0.8 


6.16 


2.34 


0.58 


9.08 


9.0 


8.50 


8.0 


2.78 


2.0 


5«3 


0.420.08 


0.38 


1.82 


2.70 


2.5 


3.72 


4.48 


1.22 


9.42 


9.0 


8.20 


8.0 


7.01 


6.0 


384 


3.7ro.o5 


0.07 


1.55 


5.44 


5.0 


2.61 


2.57 


0.67 


5.85 


5.0 


5.18 


4.0 


2.78 


2.0 


656 


o.64|0.20 


0.80 


1.83 


3.47 


3.3 


1.88 


4.01 


0.93 


6.82 


7.0 


5.89 


6.0 


• 7.12 


7.0 


S17 


0.9J 


>o.o6 


0.13 


1. 41 


2.55 


1.7 


4.59 


1.77 


0.31 


6.67 


7.0 


6.36 


6.0 


4.60 


4.0 


562 


... 


. 0.08 


2.47 


2.72 


5.27 


4.5 


0.05 


3.52 


0.18 


3.75 


4.0 


.3.57 


3.0 


*6.i3 


5.5 


7*7 


1.2I 


5.0.05 


0.37 


I. 51 


3.21 


3.0 


1.66 


4.96 


0.84 


7.46 


.... 


6.62 


7.0 


8.98 


9.0 


309 



* o,Bi% potash as muriate, 3.7^% as sulphate. • 0.73^^ potash as muriate, 3M% as sulphate. 

* o.gS% potash as muriate, 4.77^ as sulphate. 

* i.oo^ potash as muriate, 3.28^1^ as sulphate, i.85j|( as carbonate. 



64 connecticut experiment station eeport^ i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



729 
730* 

868 

518 

728 
288 

58^ 
382 

731 
548 

430 

431 
549 
697 
657 

287 

285^ 

432 

550 

742* 

896 

286 



370t 



Mttnafacturer and Brand. 



Place of Sampling. 



I 
SampUd by Station Agent: 

Bowker FertUixer Co., New York ' 
City. ' 

Complete Alkaline Tobacco Grower East Windsor Hill 

Complete Alkaline Tobacco Grower! 

with Carbonate 'West Suffield 

Complete Alkaline Tobacco Grower! 

with Caroonate IWest Suffield 

Com Phosphate ! Willimantic. Norwich. . . . 

Early Potato Manure j Yalesvllle, Silver Lane. . 

Farm and Garden Phosphate Hazard ville, Jewett City . 

Fisherman's Brand Fish and Potash. Waterbury, Yalesville, 



Gloucester Fish and Potash. 



Hill and Drill Phosphate . 



Plainfield. 



Southington, 
New Haven, 

Turnerville 

Waterbury, Hazardville, 

Norwich 

New Haven 

Yalesville, 



Lawn and Garden Dressing. . . . 

Market Garden Fertilizer East Hartford 

( Wethersfield 
Potato and Vegetable Fertilizer 1 Hazard ville, Rockville, 

, Windsor Hill 

Special Crop Grower j Westport 

Sure Crop Phosphate , Yalesville, Willimantic. 

Tobacco Starter Rockville, New Mllford 

Tobacco Ash Elements !West Suffield 



I$38. 

36. 

36. 
29, 
37. 
29. 

29. 

25. 

34. 



Stockbridge Sp*l Complete Manure Meriden, New Britain, 
for Corn and all Grain Crops • Bristol 

Stockbridge Sp*l Complete Manure New Haven, Waterbury, 
for Potatoes and Vegetables | Meriden 

Stockbridge Sp'l Complete Manure' 



Westport.. 



Yalesville, Yantic. 



for Potatoes and Vegetables. 
Stockbridge Sp*l Complete Manure 

for Seeding Down, etc 

Stockbridge Sp*l Complete Manure 

for Tobacco 

Stockbridge Sp'l Complete Manurej 

for Tobacco , Cromwell 

Stockbridge JSp'l Complete Manure; New Haven, Meriden, New 

for Top Dressing and for Forcing| Britain 



Glastonbury , 



The BufUo Fertilizer Co^ BufEdo, 

N.Y. 
Buffalo Tobacco Producer 



Hazardville, Manchester 
Windsor Locks 



f! 

5^ 



37.00 



• S 

•* « 

II- 



58. 

II 

5J55 



$27.28 39-3 
26.75! 36.4 



38.00 
35.50 
35.50 
38.50 
48.00 
48.00 
39.00 

40.25 



04: 25.7 

92 86. S 

oi| 47.9 

40 91.6 



16.93 
13.33 



20. 
21. 



23.60 



20. 

21, 

14 
20. 
20 



.56 
67 

57 
71 
55 
45 
53 



75.7 
87.5 



72.0 



56.8 

66.3 
49-3 
75.5 
62.5 

55-4 



37.9 

38-3 
38.8 

62.4 
62.4 
43-5 
47.0 



27.53 46.3 



* See note, p. 50. f See note, p. 51. 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued. 



65 



NiTBOGEN. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


Potash. 






a 


1 


1 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


i 

9 
1 


« 


1 
1 


Total. 


So-c 
"Aval 


ailed 
lable." 

3 


J 


1 

s 




i 
z 

e 


i 
1 


1 

1 

9 



£ 


1 

s 


i 
J 
1 


0.71 


0.08 


0.27 


3.34 


4.40 


4.1 


0.66 


4.86 


2.00 


7.52 


5.0 


5.52 


4.0 


^5.56 


5.0 


729 


0.74 


0.08 


0.21 


3-15 


4.18 


4.1 


0.61 


5.48 


2.42 


8.51 


5.0 


6.09 


4.0 


•4.09 


5.0 


730 


0.98 
0.22 
0.89 
0.21 


0.02 
0.7a 
I. II 
0.68 


3. 
0.28 
0.22 
0.27 


24 
0.50 

1. 13 
0.50 


4.24 
1.72 

3-35 
1.66 


4.1 
1.7 
3.3 
1.7 


0.48 
6.22 

4.71 
6. II 


4.55 
2.34 
2.68 

2.43 


2.57 
1. 15 
1.36 
0.93 


7.60 
9.71 
8.75 
9.47 


9.0 
8.0 
9.0 


5.03 
8.56 
7.39 
8.54 


4.0 
8.0 
7.0 
8.0 


•6.22 
2.26 
7.48 
2.03 


5.0 
2.0 

7.0 
2.0 


868 
518 





0.93 


0.52 


1.02 


2.47 


2.5 


2.02 


2.42 


1.96 


6.40 


5.0 


4.44 


4.0 


4.08 


4.0 


388 


O.IO 


0.33 


0.15 


0.57 


X.15 


0.8 


5.45 


2.51 


1.02 


8.98 


9.0 


7.96 


8.0 


2.17 


I.O 


58a 


0.64 

0.89 


0.96 
1.38 


0.19 
0.06 


0.96 
1.09 


2.75 
3.42 


2.5 
3.3 


6.77 
2.48 


2.36 
2.16 


1. 41 
4.26 


10.54 
8.90 


10. 
8.0 


9.13 
4.64 


9.0 
4.0 


2.37 
5.05 


2.0 
5.0 


38a 
731 


0.99 


0.50 


0.18 


0.95 


2.62 


2.5 


3.54 


3.05 


1. 19 


7.78 


7.0 


6.59 


6.0 


9.74 


10. 


548 


0.60 

O.X2 
0.15 
0.71 


I. 01 
1. 00 

0.35 
0.89 


O.II 

0.18 
0.20 
0.30 


0.85 
0.58 

0.45 
0.7c 


2.57 
1.88 

1. 15 
2.60 
0.27 


2.5 
1.6 
0.8 
2.5 


5.79 
6.12 
6.90 
5.00 
0.95 


2.43 
1.77 
1.90 
3.40 
5.33 


1.27 
0.43 
1.27 
2.10 
2.t5 


9.49 

8.32 

10.07 

10.50 

8.43 


9.0 
9.0 
10. 
9.0 
9.0 


8.22 

7.89 
8.80 
8.40 
6.28 


8.0 
8.0 

V.I 

6.0 


4.33 

g.ii 

2.54 

*3.77 

•13.48 


4.0 

10. 

2.0 

3.0 

15.0 


430 
43» 

IS 

6S7 


0.56 


2.09 


0.00 


0.78 


3.43 


3.3 


9.48 


1.35 


0.38 


II. 21 


II. 


10.83 


10. 


7.17 


7.0 


287 


0.67 


1.36 


0.02 


1. 18 


3.23 


3.3 


4.65 


2.39 


0.99 


8.03 


7.0 


7.04 


6.0 


9.30 


10. 


28S 


0.97 


0.94 


0.20 


1. 14 


3.25 


3-3 


4.26 


2.44 


1.05 


7.75 


7.0 


6.70 


6.0 


9-39 


10. 


432 


1.03 


0.43 


0.20 


1.002.66 

1 


2.5 


3.39 


3.32 


1.30 


8.01 


9.0 


6.71 


6.0 


9.53 


10. 


550 


0.24 


i.«5 


0.27 


1.703.46 


5.8 


0.96 


3.86 


1. 00 


5.82 


5.0 


4.82 


4.0 


•12.45 


10. 


742 


1.49 


2.90 


0.93 I5.32 


5.8 


2.54 


3.25 


1.46 


7.25 


5.0 


5.79 


4.0 


'9.83 


10. 


896 


'•35 


1.05 


0.16 


2.064.62 


4.9 


1.89 


3.31 


1. 18 


6.38 


6.0 


5.20 


4.0 


6.28 


6.0 


286 


! 

i2.i4 


D.23 


2.174.54 


4.5 


4.08 


1.68 


0.41 


6.17 


6.0 


5.76 


5.0 


'5.99 


5.5 


370 



* o.Bo% potash as muriate, 4.76j( as sulphate. * o.qo% potash as muriate, 2.87^ as 

* 0.515K potash as muriate, 1.42^ as sulphate, sulphate. 

2.16^ as carbonate. * i.3P)^ potash as muriate, 12.18^ as 

' 0.70^ potash as muriate, 2.01^ as sulphate, sulphate. 

3.51^ as carbonate. * 1.42^ potash as muriate, 11.03^ as sulphate. 

^ i.79J^ potash as muriate, 8.04^ as sulphate. 
*o.5i^ potash as muriate, 5.48^ as sulphate. 
5 



66 connecticut experiment station kepokt^ i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



290* 

467 
3x0 

583 

289 

698* 
744 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Sampled by Station Agent: 
The BafEdo Fertilizer Co., Bnffido, 

N. Y. (ConHnuedJ 
Celery and Potato Special 



Celery and Potato Special. 
Farmers' Choice 



Fish Guano . 



High Grade Manure.. 
New England Special. 



Top Dresser 

Vegetable and Potato. 



The £. D. Chittenden Co., Bridge- 
port, Conn. 
699 Complete Tobacco and Onion 

Grower 

624t Connecticut Tobacco Grower 



^^1 
748 

747 
749 
746 

519 



291 
292 



750^ 
47it 
383 

384 

75X 

6z8t 
75^i 



Fish and Potash 

Grain and Vegetable. 

Grass and Grain 

Potato and Grain. ... 
Potato Manure 



Tobacco Special. 



The Everett B. Clark Seed Co., 
Milford, Conn. 

Special Mixture 

Special 10^ 



The Coe-Mortimer Co., New York 

City. 
Celebrated Special Potato Fertilizer. 

Complete Manure lojg Potash 

Gold Brand Excelsior Guano 



Place of Sampling. 



W. Cheshire, Hazardville, 
Manchester 

Torrington 

Manchester, Ansonia, Bran- 
ford 

Manchester, Plainfield, 
Moosup 

Hazardville, Torrington... 

W. Cheshire, Hazardville, 
Manchester 

W. Cheshire, New Canaan 

Norwich Town 






H. G. Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate 

New Englander Corn and Potato 
Fertilizer 

Peruvian Tobacco Fertilizer 



Rockville, Greenes Farms. 
Broad Brook (2), Windsor- 

ville 

Windsorville, Rockville. . . 

Green's Farms 

Rockville 

Rockville, Broad Brook... 
Windsorville, Warehouse 

Point 

Broad Brook, Windsorville, 

Scitico 



Milford . . . 
Milford (2). 



Bristol, W. Hartford 

Suffield, Bristol, Torrington 
Suffield, Bristol, W. Hart- 
ford 

Suffield, Bristol, W. Hart- 
ford 



W. Hartford, Winsted 
Somersville, So. Manchester 



Peruvian Vegetable Grower [West Cheshire, Bristol 



$34.00 
34.00 

25.75 

26.25 
38.75 

29.25 
43.00 
33.00 



34- 50 

47.00 
29.00 
33.00 
37.00 
36.00 

34.00 

35.00 



32.00 
34.00 



31.50 
36.50 

35.50 

30.50 

32.00 
49.00 
42.00 



II 

■sat a 

> 



$21.70 
22.21 

15.82 

15.08 
27.69 

19.08 
28.00 
21.75 



25.81 

32.30 
25.90 
24.57 
24.94 
25.25 

26.96 

26.28 



26.48 
28.47 



J; 



ill 



18.29 

24.88 

21.95 
18.08 

13.92 
32.42 

27.38 



56.7 
53 I 

62.8 

74.1 
39-9 

53.3 
53.6 
51.7 



33.7 

45.5 
II. 9 
34.3 
48.4 
42.6 

26.1 

33.2 



20.8 
19.4 



72.2 

46.7 

61.8 
68.7 

129.9 
51. 1 
53.4 



♦See note, p. 51. fSee note, p. 52. J See note, p. 53. 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued. 



67 



s 

I 



0.6210.10 

I 

0.08 0.25 



0.16^0.25 
1.54^0.65 

0.4J 0.75 
2.53:1-25 

X. 40 0.69 



o 



o.oi 
0.17 

0.20 

0.17 
0.18 



0.06 
0.25 

O. 12 



0.18 1.88 

0.27 2.02 
0.15 1.95 
0.21J1.57 
1.960.28 
0.78 2. 16 

I 

0.15 1-94 
0.18 1.95 

l.i7!l-28 
1.09 1.39 



0.41 0.16 
o.i4!x-04 

o. 10 1. 00 
0.140.46 



« a 



0.53 
0.65 

0.52 

0.57 
0.94 

0.53 
0.88 
0.42 



0.12 1. 15 



0.05 
0.00 
0.05 
0.66 



0.45 o. 10 0.22 0.28 

X.430.340.423.37 
I.aOO.5010.4811.02 



2.46 
1.26 
1.38 
1. 14 



0.2010.56 



O.I5II.24 



0.60 



1.83 



0.05 0.89 
0.00 1.04 



0.25 
0.23 

0.34 



0.98 
I. II 

1. 10 



0.38 1.02 



Total 
Nitrogen. 



1.85 
1.54 

1.05 

1. 15 
3.31 

1.75 
4.91 
2.63 



3.33 

4.80 
3.36 
3.21 
4.04 
3.70 

3.48 

4.56 



3-39 
3.52 



1.80 
2.52 

2.54 
2.00 

1.05 
4.56 
3.20 



1.6 
1.6 

0.8 

0.8 
3.3 

1.6 
5.7 
2.4 



3.3 

5.0 
2.5 
2.5 
4.0 

3.3 
2.0 

4.3 



3.3 
3.3 



1.7 
2.5 

2.5 

1.9 

0.8 
5.0 
3.3 



Phosphoric Acid. 



5.34 
6.12 

4.84 

4.88 
5.17 

5.92 
2.83 
3.51 



8.18 

3.61 
7.54 
7.74 
4.24 
6.62 

7.21 

2.86 

6.24 
4.72 



5.95 
5.15 

6.26 
5.95 

5.07 

2.78 
5.88 



2 




3.14 
2.50 

3.55 

4-33 
2.84 

3.06 
4.23 
4.54 



0.86 

0.83 
0.83 
0.87 
2.70 
1.30 

1. 10 

0.74 



2.74 
2.99 



2.77 
2.71 

2.36 

2.69 

2.73 
4- 50 
2.69 



1.52 
1.29 

1.47 

1.47 
1.87 

1.89 
1.52 
1.07 



0.27 

0.17 
0.32 
0.13 
0.63 
0.19 

0.24 

0.15 



1. 00 
1. 19 



1.42 
1.93 

0.97 

1.25 

1.33 
0.36 
0.81 



TotaL 



I 



lO.OO 

9.91 
9.86 

10.68 
9.88 

10.87 
8.58 
9.12 



9-31 

4.61 
8.69 
8.74 
7.57 
8. II 

8.55 

3-75 



9.98 
8.90 



10.14 
9-79 

9.59 
9.89 

913 
7.64 
9.38 



9.0 
9.0 

9.0 

10. o 
8.0 

10. o 

7.0 
9.0 



10. o 

6.0 
6.0 

10. o 
8.0 

10. o 

10. o 

5.0 



9.0 
7.0 

9.0 

9.0 

8.5 
7.0 
9.0 



So-called 
"Available." 



8.48 
8.62 

8.39 
9.21 

8.01 



9.041 



8.0 
8.0 

8.0 



7.80 7.5 
7.28 6.0 
8.57' 8.0 



Potash. 


i 

1 


1 
i 

s 


8.71 


10. 


10.21 


10. 


4.94 


5.0 


2.91 


2.0 


10.03 


10. 


5.26 


5.0 


5.52 
6.56 


5.0 
7.0 


*5.84 


5.0 


•10.81 


8.0 


•6.37 
S.48 


4.0 
6.0 


5.27 

6.56 


5.0 
6.0 


•7.04 


6.0 


•6.54 


5.5 


7.78 
10.84 


7.0 

lO.O 


4.22 


4.0 


9-79 


10. 


5.81 


6.0 


3.26 


3.0 


3.45 
'9.62 


3.0 

10. 


*8.43 


9.0 



290 

467 

310 

583 

743 

289 
698 
744 



699 

624 

748 
747 
749 

746 
519 



291 
292 



750 
471 

383 
384 

PI 
6x8 

752 



' o.si5( potash as muriate, 5.33^ ^s sulphate. * 0.40^ potash as muriate, 6.64;^ as sulphate. 

*o.7o^ potash as muriate, lo.iij^ as sulphiate. *o.3ij( potash as muriate, 6.23^ as sulphate. 

'0.40^ potash as muriate, 5.97^ as sulphate. "^ 1.79^ potash as muriate, 7.835S as sulphate. 

* i.oo^ potash as muriate, 4.48^ as sulphate. ' 2.72^ potash as muriate, $-71%^^ sulphate. 



68 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Place of Sampling. 



1= 



11 

u 

JB •• 

•• • 

> 



551 
753 

293 



371 
372 



759 

434 

450 

760 
433 

435 
452* 



3I2» 

468 
294» 

451 
311 

761 

472 



Sampled by Station Agent: 
The Coe-Mortimer Co., New York 

City. (Continued.) 
Red Brand Excelsior Guano 



Tobacco and Onion Fertilizer. 



West Cheshire, Bristol, 

Somersville 

Canton 



$37 
32.00 



75 $26 



Conn. Valley Orchard Co., Berlin, 

Conn. 

H. G. Special Fertilizer 



Berlin. 



T. H. Eldredge, Norwich, Conn. 

Special Fish and Potash 

Special Superphosphate 



Norwich 
Norwich 



Essex Fertilizer Co., Boston, Mass. 
Complete Manure for Corn, Grain 

and Grass 

Complete Manure for Potatoes, 

Roots and Vegetables 

Market Garden and Potato Manure 



Special Tobacco Manure 

Tobacco Starter and Grower. 

XXX Fish and Potash 



Fertilizer Materials Supply Co., New 

York City. 
No. I Potato and General Truck Fer- 
tilizer 



East Hartford, Plainville. . . 
Suffield, East Hartford, 

Plainville 

East Hartford, Windsor 

Locks, Plainville 

East Hartford, Hazardville, 
Suffield, East Hartford, 

Poquonock 

Suffield, East Hartford, 

Plainville 



Westport , 



The L. T. Frisbie Ca, New Haven, 

Conn. 
Connecticut Special Fertilizer 



Connecticut Special Fertilzer. 
Corn and Grain Fertilizer 



Corn and Grain Fertilizer. 
Potato Manure 



Top Dressing 

Vegetable Grower. 



Hartford, Wallingford, 
Rockville 

Torrington 

Hartford, Wallingford, 
Bristol 

New Haven 

New Haven. Hartford, Wal- 
lingford 

Rockville 

New Haven, Hartford, 
Winsted 



27.00 



30.00 
28.00 



41.50 
39.25 

36.00 
44.50 

39.00 

32.00 

32.00 



36.50 
36.50 

30.00 
30.00 

3300 
39.00 

35.00 



50 
26.96 



21.88 



18.91 
15.93 



25.94 
25.91 

20.41 
32.46 

26,35 
17.37 

24.29 



22.99 
21.58 

18.19 
18.10 

21.63 
26.06 

26.36 



♦ See note, p. 53. 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued, 



69 



NlTROGSN. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


Potash. 








ii 


..0 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


1 


1 

3 





Total. 


So-c 
"Aval 


ailed 
lable." 

9 



1 


1 

9 





s 

cs 


(fa 


1 

1 

9 



■J 


1 

9 



i 

1 


0.31 
0.14 


1 

i.26;o.35 
1 .52.0.26 

1 


1.48 
1.38 


3.40 
3.30 


3.3 
3.0 


6.26 
5.18 


2.66 

1.75 


1. 01 
0.96 


9-93 
7.89 


9.0 
7.0 


8.92 
6.93 


8.0 

6.0 


7.31 
»8.54 


7.0 

8.0 


551 
753 


0.08 


1 
0.780.34 


1.42 


2.62 


2.5 


7.13 


2.67 


1.07 


10.87 


10. 


9.80 


9.0 


3.97 


4.0 


293 


0.08 


0.21*0.65 
0.060.28 

i 


1.58 
0.91 


2.44 
1.33 


2.1 

I.O 


2.14 
4.07 


3.54 

4.69 


2.15 
2.96 


7.83 
11.72 


6.0 
10. 


5.68 
8.76 


5.0 
8.0 


4.86 
2.78 


4.0 
2.0 


371 
372 


1. 01 


0.050.77 


1.33 


3.16 


3.3 


4.69 


1.94 


1 
0.55 7.18 


7.0 


6.63 


6.0 


9.96 


10. 


759 


1.07 


0.100.87 

i 


1. 10 


3-14 


3.3 


4.56 


1.89 


0.47 6.92 


7.0 


6.45 


6.0 


10.30 


10.0434 


0.44 
1.47 


0.060.98 
0. 10 0.91 


0.61 2.09 
1.453.93 


2.0 
4.1 


6.85 
3.51 


1.98 
4.84 


1 
1.52 10.35 
1. 10 9.45 


9.0 
7.0 


8.83 
8.35 


8.0 
6.0 


, 5.13 
*io.53 


5.0450 
10. 760 


2.04 


0.080.72 

1 


1. 18 4.02 


4.1 


2.04 


4.40 


1.06 7.50 


5.0 


6.44 


4.0 


»6.22 


6.oi433 


0.70 


0.060.50 


0.762.02 


2.0 


6.18 


2.05 


0.47 8.70 


9.0 


8.23 


8.0 


3.15 


3.0435 


0.45 


1 

1 

1.970.00 


0.79 


3.21 


3.3 


6.98 


1.50 


0.88 


9- 36 


.... 


8.48 


8.0 


6.44 


7.0 


452 


0.3C 
0.35 


► 0.070.88 
,0.050.74 


1.23 
1.20 


2.54 
2.34 


2.5 
2.5 


3.89 
3.86 


2. II 
2.02 


0.27 
0.27 


6.27 
6.15 


7.0 
7.0 


6.00 
5.88 


6.0 
6.0 


9.71 

9-03 


10. 
10. 


3x2 
468 


O.IC 
O.I2 


>o.550.54 
to. 50 0.55 


0.69 

0.83 


1.88 
2.00 


1-5 
1.6 


4.41 

5.78 


5. II 
3.14 


2.39 
1.20 


II. 91 
10.12 


9.0 
9.0 


9.52 
8.92 


8.0 
8.0 


2.76 

3.08 


3.0 
3.0 


294 
451 


0.4: 


0.79!©. 73 
ro.04'1.44 


0.96 
2.17 


2.48 
4.12 


2.5 
4.1 


4.97 
4.43 


3.02 
3.72 


0.75 
0.83 


8.74 
8.98 


8.0 
8.0 


7.99 
8.15 


7.0 
7.0 


6.37 

3-95 


6.0 
4.0 


3x1 

761 


O.IC 


) 1.600.77 


1. 00 


3.47 


3.3 


4.30 


3.26 


1. 14 


8.70 


8.0 


7.56 


6.0 


8.33 


8.0 


472 



' 0.78^ potash as muriate, 7.76$ as sulphate. • i.ioj^ potash as muriate, 9.43^^ as sulphate. 
• o.90j( potash as muriate, 5.32^^ as sulphate. 



70 connecticut experiment station report, i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Place of Sampling. 



762 
700 

454 

70X 
453 

552 
771' 
763 

644 
764 



Sampled by Station Agent: 

Lister's Agricaltural Chemical 
I Works, Newark, N. J. 

jAmmoniated Dissolved Bone Phos- 

I phate 

;Complete Tobacco Manure 

I Complete Tobacco Manure with Car- 
bonate 

ICorn and Potato Fertilizer 

I Potato Manure 



I Special Grass Mixture 

I Special loj^ Fertilizer 

I Standard Pure Bone Superphosphate 

of Lime 

[Success Fertilizer 



3-6-10 for Potatoes. 



E. Manchester ft Sons, Winsted, 
Conn. 
625* Formula 



805 I Formula. 

9x3 'Formula . 
702 ! Helper... 
765* Special .. 



388 

766 
387 

313 

580 
767 
555 
314 



The Mapes Formula and Peruvian 

Quano Co., New York City. 
Average Soil Complete Manure.. . 



Cereal Brand 

Complete Manure **A* 



Brand . 



Corn Manure 



Dissolved Bone 

Economical Potato Manure. 
Fruit and Vine Manure. . . . 
Potato Manure 



No. Branford 

Warehouse Pt., Glastonbury 



Burnside, Glastonbury. . . 

Stafford, Danbury 

Warehouse Pt., Hamden, 

Burnside.. 

Warehouse Pt., Glastonbury 
Manufacturer's sample . . 



Burnside 

Warehouse Pt., Hamden, 

Moodus 

Glastonbury 



So. Wethersfield, Winsted, 

Simsbury 

Wethersfield . . 



Winsted 

Winsted, Wethersfield 

So. Wethersfield, Winsted. 



Windsor Locks, Southing 
ton, Hartford 37-75 

Hartford, Hazardville 30.00 

Meriden, Southington, 
Hartford 36.00 

Windsor Locks, Meriden, 1 
Southington I 36.25 

Hartford ' 33 00 

37.50 
41.50 



$30. 
37. 

39 
30. 

36. 
36. 



32.00 



31.25 
30.00 

32.00 
27.00 
35.00 



Southington, Hartford. 

Southington, Hartford 

Windsor Locks, Suffield, 
Meriden 



40.75 



I- 

o o 

•• • 

g-S 



$18.30 

23.85 

27.85 

18. oS 

25.60 

24.99 
24.04 

20.05 

15.81 
24.58 



26.06 
25.16 

25.78 
21.37 
28.68 



26.95 
18.28 

22.15 

22.58 
22.98 
26.48 
25.62 

27.19 



II 

K5 5 



63.9 
55-1 

40.0 
68.7 

43.6 
44.1 



59-6 

85.0 
46.5 



19.9 
19.2 

24.1 
26.3 
22.0 



40.1 
64.1 

62.5 

60.5 
43.6 
41.6 
61.9 

499 



* See note, p. 54. 



NITSOGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued. 



71 



Nrrsooni. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


Potash. 












Total 










So^alled 










£ 


Is 


6 


Nitrogen. 


1 


1 


1 
1 


Total. 


"Available." 


(2 


1 

9 





J5 


1 


1 

1 

s 



•0 


1 


i 
1 


1 
1 


i 
1 

Si 


0.15 


0.34 


0.67 


1. 12 


2.28 


2.1 


5.05 


3.97 


1.64 


10.66 


9.0 


9.02 


8.0 


1.75 


1.5 


762 


2.69 


O.IO 


0.39 


0.82 


4.00 


4.1 


1.78 


2.61 


1.55 


5.94 


5.0 


4.39 


4.0 


»5.62 


5.0 


700 


2.62 


0.00 


0.37 


1.20 


4.19 


4-1 


0.32 


3.43 


3.40 


7.15 


5.0 


3.75 


4.0 


'5-99 


5.0 


454 





0.20 


0.74 


1.04 


1.98 


1.7 


4.93 


3.23 


2.33 


10.49 


9.0 


8.16 


8.0 


3.19 


3.0 


701 


0.4^ 


T.70 


0.35 


0.73 


3.27 


3.3 


6.43 


2.02 


1. 61 


10.06 


9.0 


8.45 


8.0 


7.32 


7.0 


453 


O.II 


1.09 


0.33 


0.38 


1.90 


I.O 


9.26 


1.34 


0.50 


II. 10 


.... 


10.60 


10. 


10.32 


10. 


55^ 


0.06 


0.59 


0.57 


0.90 


2.12 


1.6 


5.17 


2.25 


1.61 


9-03 


. . .. 


7.42 


8.0 


10.83 


10. 


771 


0.04 


t.13 


0.63 


0.85 


2.65 


2.5 


6.77 


2.75 


1.25 


10.77 


10. 


9.52 


9.0 


2.09 


2.0 


763 


O.I3 


0.14 


0.58 


0.60 


1.44 


1.2 


6.73 


2.59 


1.37 


10.69 


10. 


9.32 


9.0 


2.10 


2.0 


ta 


.... 


1.07 


0.49 


0.97 


2.53 


2.5 


4. II 


2.70 


1.47 


8.28 


7.0 


6.81 


6.0 


10.65 


10. 


0.46 


1.34 


0.25 


1.39 


3.44 


3.5 


5.77 


2.65 


0.93 


9.35 




8.42 


7.5 


7.30 


8.0 


625 


0.68 


1. 15 


0.12 1.25 


3.20 


3.5 


5.54 


2.57 


1.05 


9.16 





8. II 


7.5 


7.58 


8.0 


805 


0.20 1.32 

0.30)0.14 


1.66 


3.18 


3.5 


5.94 


2.18 


1. 15 


9.27 


. « • • 


8^12 


7.5 


8.13 


8.0 


913 


0.37 


0.93 


1.74 


1.6 


6.36 


2. II 


1.32 


9.79 


.... 


8.47 


8.0 


8.28 


8.0 


702 


0.03 


4. II 


0.00 


0.50 


4.64 


5.0 


6.59 


1. 31 


0.47 


.8.37 


.... 


7.90 


7.5 


•5.78 


7.5 


765 


3.20 


0.18 


0.34 


0.70 


4.42 


4.1 


1.57 


6.32 


0.63 


8.52 


8.0 


7.89 


7.0 


^5.04 


50 


388 


1. 00 


0.34 


O.I3 


0.78 


2.24 


1.7 


0.64 


6.93 


1.32 


8.89 


8.0 


7.57 


6.0 


4.46 


3.0 


766 


a. 05 


0.33 


0.14 


0.47 


2.99 


2.5 


0.97 


9.44 


2.33 


12.74 


12.0 


10.41 


10. 


3.08 


2.5 


3«7 


1.54 


0.19 


0.15 


0.82 


2.70 


2.5 


0.85 


7.86 


1.47 


10.18 


10. 


8.71 


8.0 


6.50 


6.0 


313 


0-20 


0.75 


X.47 


2.42 


2.1 


3.67 


12.72 


1. 01 


17.40 


.... 


16.39 


12.0 


.... 


.... 


Sfo 


s. 3910. 42 


0.07 


0.83 


3.61 


3.3 


0.55 


5.63 


0.70 


6.88 


6.0 


6.18 


4.0 


•8. 60 


8.0 


767 


I. 230. 12 


0.07 


0.86 


2.28 


1.7 


0.40 


5.84 


1. 18 


7.42 


7.0 


6.24 


5.0 


•11.82 


10. 


555 


3. 130. 10' 


o.ooo.44'3.67 


3.7 


1.27 


7.36 


0.79 


9.42 


8.0 


8.63 


8.0 


'7.32 


6.0 


3»4 



^ 0.90^ potash as muriate, 
* 0.60^ potash as muriate, 

4.85$^ AS carbonate. 
'0.60^ potash as muriate, 



4.72j(as sulphate. ^0.80^ potash as muriate, 4.24^ as sulphate. 

o.54j( as sulphate, * i.oc^ potash as muriate, 7.60^ as sulphate. 

* 1,40% potash as muriate, 10.42^ as sulphate. 

5.i8j(as sulphate. ''0.85^ potash as muriate, 6.4^ as sulphate. 



72 connecticut experiment station report, i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



770 
554 

553* 
386 

769 
385 

768 



473 

556 
772 



585* 

793 
455 

774 
773 
456 

659 

775 

584 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Sampled by Station Agent: 
The Mapes Ponnala and Peruvian 
Onano Co., New York City. 
(Continued.) 

Seeding Down Manure , 

Tobacco Ash Constituents 

Tobacco Manure, Wrapper Brand. . 

Tobacco Starter, Improved 

Top Dresser, Imp'd, Full Strength. 
Top Dresser, Imp'd, Half Strength. 

Vegetable Manure for Light Soils. . 

The National Fertilizer Ca, New 

York City. 
Ammoniated Bone Phosphate 

Complete Grass Fertilizer 

Complete Grass Fertilizer 

Complete Root and Grain Fertilizer 
Complete Tobacco Fertilizer 

Eureka Potato Fertilizer 

Eureka Potato Fertilizer 

Fish and Potash 

Formula * 'A" , 

Market Garden Fertilizer , 

Potato Phosphate , 

Tobacco Special 

Tobacco Special with Carbonate. . . . 

XXX Fish and Potash 

* See note, p. 54. 



Place of Sampling. 



Hartford 

Hartford, Windsor Locks, 
Suffield 

Hartford, Broad Brook, 
Windsor Locks 

Windsor Locks, Suffield, 
Hartford 

Hartford, Forestville 

Windsor Locks, Middle- 
town, Hartford 

Meriden, Hartford 

Willimantic, Silver Lane, 
Winsted 

So. Manchester, Greenwich 

Chester 

So. Manchester, Silver Lane 

East Windsor Hill, New 
Milford 

So. Manchester, Williman- 
tic, Guilford 

Chester 

West Cheshire, So. Man- 
chester, Silver Lane 

Willimantic 

Greenwich, Chester 

So. Manchester, Williman- 
tic, Silver Lane 

So. Manchester, Warehouse 
Pt., New Milford 

So. Manchester, Warehouse 
Pt 

So. Manchester, No. Bran- 
ford, Guilford 



n 

O u 

Q 



n 



r*^ 



$42.00 

34.75 

49 25 

37.75 
53.00 

34.75 
43.00 



i$33.i2 

28.00 

41.81 

26.40 
44.59 

21.78 
31.36 



28.25 
38.00 
38.00 
38.50 

36.75 

35.75 

35.75 

30.25 
35.00 
36.00 

32.00 

37-25 

40.00 

28.75 



Ml 

151 



16.67 
23.66 
24.58 
24.45 

24.49 

22.96 
23.70 

20.05! 

22.28| 
22.29. 

20.76; 

27.15 

27.66 

17.21 



26.8 
24.1 

17. s 

43.0 
18.9 

59-6 
37.1 



69.5 
60.6 
54-6 
57.5 

50.1 

55.7 
50.9 

50.9 
57.1 
61.5 

54.1 

37.2 
44.6 
67.1 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued. 



73 



NmtocBK. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


Potash. 






i 

a 


f 

Is 




Total. 
Nitrogen. 


1 
1 


9 

1 




Total. 


So^alled 
"AvaHable." 


•0 


1 




8 

z 


1 


a 



i 
1 


1 

9 



£ 


1 


i 


2.86 


0.02 


0.12 


0.38 


3.38 


2.5 


0.08 


12.97 


4.95 


18.00 


18.0 


13.05 




10.92 


10. 


770 


0.31 


0.07 


0.74 


1. 12 


0.5 


0.17 


1.90 


3.98 


6.05 


5.7 


2.07 





^15.17 


15.0 


SS4 


4.06 


0.07 


0.44 


2.33 


6.90 


6.2 


0.12 


4.26 


1.20 


5.58 


4.5 


4.38 





•10.13 


10.5 


553 


2.940.21 
5.943.38 


0.29 
0.55 


1.42 
0.27 


4.86 
10.14 


4.1 
9.9 


0.27 
0.38 


7.13 
6.45 


4.38 
0.63 


11.78 
7.46 


8.0 
8.0 


7.40 
6.83 


6.0 
5.0 


'1.97 
*4.90 


I.O 

4.0 


386 
769 


3.34 
4.12 


X.40 

O.IO 


0.07 
0.13 


0.16 

0.79 


4.97 
5.14 


4.9 
4.9 


0.33 
0.89 


2.66 
7.15 


0.99 
0.56 


3.98 
8.60 


4.0 
8.0 


2.99 
8.04 


2.5 
6.0 


'2.41 
•7.05 


2.0 
6.0 


?li 


0.22 
0.98 
0.84 
0.36 


0.45 
0.60 
0.67 
1. 00 


0.27 
0.24 

0.33 

0.18 


0.80 
1.80 

1.96 

1.66 


1.74 
3.62 
3.80 
3.20 


1.7 
4.1 
4.1 
3.3 


6.41 
5.87 
5.05 
6.25 


2.23 
1.32 

1.74 
2.13 


1. 71 
0.32 

0.55 
0.69 


10.35 

7.51 
7.34 
9.07 


9.0 
7.0 
7.0 
9.0 


8.64 
7.19 
6.79 
8.38 


8.0 
6.0 
6.0 
8.0 


2.53 
4.98 
5.58 
6.30 


2.0 
5.0 
5.0 
6.0 


Si 

772 

557 





1.45 


0.31 


1.39 


3. 15 


3.3 


6.70 


2.18 


0.87 


9.75 


9.0 


8.88 


8.0 


^5.17 


5.0 


658 


0.56 
0-55 


0.70 
0.38 


0.20 

0.29 


1. 15 
1.60 


a. 61 
2.82 


2.5 
2.5 


3.89 
4.06 


2.62 
3.09 


0.87 
1. 01 


7.38 
8.16 


7.0 
7.0 


6.51 

7.15 


6.0 
6.0 


I:?? 


10. 

lO.O 


5*5 
793 


0.14 
0.48 
0.35 


0.85 0.19 
1.240.59 

o.65'o.i6 


1.55 
1. 12 

1.37 


2.73 
3.43 
2.53 


2.9 
3.3 
2.5 


5. II 
4.07 
6.65 


1.48 
i.6r 
1. 91 


1. 20 
0.49 
0.83 


7.79 
6.17 

9-39 


7.0 
7.0 
9.0 


6.59 
5.68 
8.56 


6.0 
6.0 
8.0 


4.60 

5.83 
6.26 


4.0 

6.0 
6.0 


455 
774 
773 


1 1 
0.500.500.19 


0.91 


2.10 


2.1 


6.31 


2.39 


1. 00 


9.70 


9.0 


8.70 


8.0 


6.22 


6.0 


456 


0.300.160.34 

j 


3.80 


4.60 


4.6 


1. 41 


2.88 


1.04 


5.33 


4.0 


4.29 


3.0 


^5.74 


5.5 


«59 


....o.o5'3.39 
0.59I0.650.18 


1. 10 


4.54 


4.6 


0.41 


3.04 


2.23 


5.68 


4.0 


3.45 


30 


»5.o8 


5.5 


775 


1.03 


2.45 


2.5 


3.88 


1.84 


0.92 


6.64 


6.0 


5.72 


5.0 


3.74 


3.0 


584 



^3.70^ potash as muriate, 2.86^ as sulphate, " 0.45^ potash as muriate, 1.96^ as sulphate. 

9.6x5^ as carbonate. * 1.10$ potash as muriate, 5.95^ as sulphate. 

'i.79j( potash as muriate, 2.20^ as sulphate, ^ i.5<^ potash as muriate, 3.67$^ as sulphate. 

t.14% as carbonate. '0.60^ potash as muriate, 5.14^ as sulphate. 

'i'25j( potash as muriate, o.72J( as sulphate. *o.5ij( potash as muriate, 1.82^ as sulphate, 

^0.90^^ potash as muriate, 4,00% as sulphate. 2.75JK as carbonate. 



74 connecticut experiment station leport^ i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



564 
777 
778 
776 
565 
779 
566 



457 

781 

703 
780 
586 



335 

330 

337 

338 

339 

375^ 

277* 



794 
782 

795 
706 

567 



376 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Sampled by Station Agent: 
New EDgUnd Fertilizer Co., Boston, 
Mara. 

Corn and Grain Fertilizer 

Corn Phosphate 

H. G. Potato Fertilizer 

Perfect Tobacco Grower 

Potato Fertilizer 

Potato Grower 

Superphosphate 

The Niantic Menhaden Oil and 

Guano Co., South Lyme, Conn. 

Bone, Fish and Potash 

Corn and Grain Fertilizer 

H. G. Tobacco Fertilizer 

Market Garden Manure 

Potato and Vegetable Manure 

Olds ft Whipple, Hartford, Conn. 
Complete Corn and Potato Fertilizer 

Complete Grass Fertilizer 

Complete Tobacco Fertilizer 

Fish and Potash 

H. G. Potato Fertilizer 

Special Phosphate 

Vegetable Ash and Bone 

Parmenter ft Polsey Fertilizer Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

Grain Grower , 

Plymouth Rock Brand 

Potato Fertilizer 

Potato Grower 

Special Tobacco Grower 

The Frank S. Piatt Co., New Haven, 

Conn. . 
Platco Market Garden Phosphate.. 



Place of Sampling. 



C « 
© u 



is 

« o 

I- 



5'« 

« • 

n. 

til 
ill 

S-ss 



Plantsville, Rockville... 

Jewett City 

Plantsville -. . . 

Warehouse Pt., Glastonbury 
Plantsville, Rockville ... 

Rockville 

Plantsville, Wallingford, 
Middlefield 



Windsor Locks, Norwich, 

Suffield 

Norwich, East Haddam .... 
East Haddam. Silver Lane. 

Norwich, Moodus 

Norwich, Suffield 

Hartford 

Hartford 

Hartford 

Hartford 

Hartford 

Hartford 

Hartford 

Plantsville 

Plantsville, Plainville, E. 

Hampton 

Plantsville 

East Hampton 

Warehouse Pt., Wallingford 



New Haven. 



$29.00 
31.00 
35.00 

36.75 
31.00 
38.00 

32.25 



$13.90 
16.77 
20.90 
26.27 
17.01 
22.72 



30.25 
32.50 
34.50 
36.00 
33.50 



34.00 
34.00 
37.00 
30.00 
37.00 
35.00 
44.00 



32.00 

34.25 
34.00 
38.00 
38.00 



23.51 
20.39 
27.48 
27.58 
23.19 



25.33 
25.09 
31-59 
19.60 
28.68 
25.69 
34.31 



12.68 

19.21 
16.61 
23.02 
27.50 



35.00 21.46I 63.1 



10S.6 
84.8 

67.5 
39.8 
82.2 
67-3 

59-7 



28.7 
59-4 
25.9 
30.5 
40.1 



34.2 
35.5 
17. 1 
53-1 
29.0 
36.2 
28.2 



152,4 

78.3 
104.7 

65.1 
38.2 



* See note, p. 55. 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued. 



75 







NiTROOKM. 










Phosphoric Acid. 






Potash. 










Total 






. 






So-called 








1 


I 

Is 


1 


Nitrogen. 


1 

1 


JB 


i 


Total. 


"Available." 


1 


i 


s 

1 


i 
g 


3 


i 


1 

a 


g 


1 


d 


cs 


® 





& 





s 





fa 





fa 


^ 


fa 


^ 




0.04 


0.94 


0.46 


1.44 


1.2 


4.85 


2.56 


0.61 


8.02 


8.0 


7.41 


7.0 


2. II 


2.0 


0.16 


0.05 


0.72 


0.85 


1.78 


1.6 


5.94 


2.12 


0.72 


8.78 


9.0 


8.06 


8.0 


3.25 


3.0 


I. 16 


0.08 


0.31 


0.87 


2.42 


2.5 


6.71 


1.85 


0.42 


8.98 


9.0 


8.56 


8.0 


5.46 


6.0 


2.15 


0.03 


0.65 


1.05 


3.88 


41 


2.01 


4.46 


I. 18 


7.65 


5.0 


6.47 


4.0 


>6.63 


6.0 


O.IO 


0.36 


0.57 


0.71 


1.74 


1.6 


4.72 


3.07 


0.72 


8.51 


8.0 


7.79 


7.0 


4.27 


4.0 


0.86 


0.28 


0.43 


0.88 


2.45 


2.5 


4.68 


1.53 


0.38 


6.59 


7.0 


6.21 


6.0 


9.88 


10. 


1.02 


0.06 


0.77 


0.69 


2.54 


2.5 


6.34 


1.89 


0.81 


9.04 


9.0 


8.23 


8.0 


4.17 


4.0 


0.50 


0.40 


0.53 


1.70 


3.13 


2.5 


2.91 


3.46 


1.28 


7.65 


6.0 


6.37 


5.0 


•6.03 


3.0 


0.47 


0.23 


0.47 


1.27 


2.44 


2.1 


4.68 


3.03 


0.70 


8.41 


8.0 


7.71 


7.0 


'4.39 


3.5 


1. 16 


0.22 


0.36 


1.94 


3.68 


3.3 


5.58 


2.57 


0.88 


9.03 


8.0 


8.15 


7.0 


^6.53 


6.0 


i.a4 


0.22 


0.34 


2.02 


3.82 


4.1 


5.77 


2.36 


0.65 


8.78 


8.0 


8.13 


7.0 


»6.23 


6.0 


0.78 


0.25 


0.51 


1.46 


3.00 


2.5 


4.94 


3.82 


0.72 


9.48 


8.0 


8.76 


7.0 


•4.36 


4.0 




0.79 


0.49 


2.26 


3.54 


3.3 


0.20 


6.68 


1.56 


8*. 44 


7.0 


6.88 


6.0 


^6.24 


6.0 


0.53 


0.20 


0.51 


2.36 


3.60 


3.3 


0.52 


5.80 


I. 13 


7.45 


7.0 


6.32 


6.0 


^5.96 


6.0 


0.58 


O.IO 


1.69 


2.33 


4.70 


4.5 


O.II 


4.46 


0.61 


5.18 


3.5 


4.57 


3.0 


•6. 81 


5.5 


. • « • 


0.26 


0.75 


1. 81 


2.82 


2.5 


2.73 


3.40 


0.42 


6.55 


6.0 


6.13 


5.0 


,« ^-3* 


3.0 


.... 


1.23 


0.50 


1.95 


3.68 


3.3 


0.66 


6.13 


0.99 


7.78 


7.0 


6.79 


6.0 


>0lO.24 


10. 


.... 


X.50 


0.77 


2.34 


4.61 


4.1 


3.03 


2.67 


0.61 


6.31 


.... 


5.70 


4.0 


"3.76 


3.0 




.... 


.... 


. . . . 


. . . . 


.... 


0.20 


11.22 


O.I7 


11.59 


. . • . 


11.42 


12.0 


'«i6.76 


15.0 




0.06 


0.67 


0.48 


1. 21 


1.2 


4.72 


2.64 


0.65 


8.01 


8.0 


7.36 


7.0 


1-75 


2.0 


0.81 


0.18 


0.75 


0.68 


2.42 


2.5 


6.30 


1.70 


0.64 


8.64 


9.0 


8.00 


8.0 


3.80 


4.0 


.... 


0.04 


0.74 


0.68 


1.46 


1.6 


3.75 


3.09 


0.43 


7.27 


7.0 


6.84 


6.0 


5.95 


6.0 


0.99 


0.18 


0.41 


0.90 


2.48 


2.5 


4.81 


1.53 


0.36 


6.70 


7.0 


6.34 


6.0 


9.99 


10. 


2.33 


0.05 


0.55 


1. 17 


4.10 


4.1 


1.69 


4.18 


1.05 


6.92 


5.0 


5.87 


4.0 


"7.65 


8.0 


0.42 


1.07 


0.27 


1.04 


2.80 


2.5 


6.52 


2.08 


1.23 


9.83 


9.0 


8.60 


8.0 


4.17 


4.0 



564 

777 
778 
776 
565 
779 

566 



78X 
703 
780 
586 



335 
330 
337 
338 
339 
375 
277 



794 

782 

795 
706 

567 



«o.8o-t 
•o.285r 
*o.5i5lf 
»o.455f 
•0.405 
'2.I33< 
•o.25Jf 



potash as 
potash as 
potash as 
potash as 
potash as 
potash as 
potash as 
potash as 



muriate, 5, 
muriate, 5, 
muriate, 4 
muriate, 6. 
muriate, 5. 
muriate, 3. 
muriate, 4. 
muriate, 5, 



63^ as sulphate. 
,23Jf as sulphate. 
11$; as sulphate. 
02j( as sulphate. 
7S% as sulphate. 
96^ as sulphate, 
iij^as sulphate. 
7ijl( as sulphate. 



*o.40^ potash as muriate, 0.79^ as sulphate, 

5.62^ as carbonate. 
^^ 6.68^ potash as muriate, 3.56^ as sulphate. 
" o.7oj|^ potash as muriate, 3.0^ as sulphate. 
" 1.05^ potash as muriate, 1.73$^ as sulphate, 

13.985 as carbonate. 
" 1.095 potash as muriate, 6.565 as sulphate. 



76 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



590 
316 

587 
315 
458 
589 
S9X 
588* 



Sampled by Station Agent: 
The Rogers & Hubbard Ca, Middle- 
town, Conn. 
" Bone Base '* Complete Phosphate. 

** Bone Base" Fruit, or Grass and 
Grain Fertilizer 

* Bone Base " New Market Garden 
Phosphate 

* Bone Base " Oats and Top Dress- 
ing 

** Bone Base" Potato Phosphate. . . . 



798 
351 
03 



r 



799 
800 

664 
804 
80Z 

802 
704 
797 



521 
663 
627 

66z 
662 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Middletown 

New Britain, Granby, Glas- 
tonbury 

NewCanaan, East Hampton, 

Somersville 

East Hampton, Glaston- 
bury, SuflSeld 

** Bone Base" Soluble Tobacco Ma- Wallingford, Granby. Glas- 
nure tonbury 



'Bone Base" Soluble Corn and 

General Crops Manure 

' Bone Base ' Soluble Potato Manure 



Place of Sampling. 



Wallingford, Bristol, Som- 
ersville 



Middletown 

New Britain. Granby. 



The Rogers Mfg. Co., Rock&ll, Conn. 

All Round Fertilizer 

Carbonate Formula for Tobacco 

Complete Potato and Vegetable 

Fertilizer 

Fish and Potash 

H. G. Complete Corn and Onion 

Manure 

H. G. Grass and Grain 

H. G. Oats and Top Dressing 

H. G. Soluble Tobacco Manure 

H. G. Tobacco and Potato Manure. 

H. G. Tobacco Grower 

Tobacco Grower, Vegetable and Car- 
bonate Formula 



P. S. Royster Gaano Co., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Ammoniated Potato Manure 

Champion Crop Compound 

Fish and Potash 



Garden and Truck Guano. 
General Crop Fertilizer. . . 



Brooklyn, Rockfall. 
Suffield 



Wapping 

Wapping, Warehouse Pt. . 

Suffield. Somersville 

Rockfall, So. Manchester. 

Suffield 

Glastonbury, Thompson- 

ville 

Suffield, Somersville 

Burnside, Glastonbury 



Suffield, Glastonbury. 



No. Granby, Torrington. . . 

Ponifret Center 

Torrington, Pomfret Cen- 
ter, No. Haven 

Torrington, Marbledale 

Killingly, Marbledale 



1 

ri 

Q 


11 


$28.25 


$18.35 


44.00 


31.98 


36.00 


23.69 


55.00 


43.27 


34.00 


21.67 


36.75 


23.75 


44.00 


31.30 


48.50 


36.48 


30.00 
33.50 


18.14 
28.78 


32.50 
28.50 


21.98 
21.53 


37.25 
42.25 
45.00 


26.28 
35.38 
36.21 


43.50 
40.25 
39.00 


35.75 
30.69 
29.31 


39.75 


30.11 


33.25 
30.00 


19.68 
17.33 


28.00 


16.28 


32.00 
24.75 


21.16 
15.49 



IS 

HI 

H « a 



53.9 
37.6 

51.9 
27.1 
56.9 
54.7 
40.6 

32.9 



65.4 
16.4 

47.9 
32.4 

41.7 
19.4 
24.3 

21.7 
31.2 
33.0 

32.0 



68.9 
73.1 

72.0 

51.4 
59«8 



* See note. p. 55. \ See note, p. 56. 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued. 



77 



NmiOGKN. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


Potash. 








i 

1 


u 

ss 


Total 
Nitrogen. 


1 


1 
1 

J 


i 


Total. 


So-called 
"Av«il«blc." 


i 
1 


1 




1 

e 


(S 


9 



1 


1 


1 


1 

9 



i 
1 


0.36 


0-07 


0.25 


1.04 


1.72 


1.5 


4.98 


3.04 


0.87 8.89 

1 


8.0 


8.02 


7.0 


5.61 


5.0 


590 


0.36:0.15 


0.44 


1.84 


2.79 


2.2 


0.13 


10.24 


6.81 17.18 

1 


16.0 


10.37 


6.5 


12.47 


12.0 


316 


1 

o.9o;o. 10 


0.16 


1. 10 


2.26 


2.0 


3.95 


3.13 


0.95 8.03 


7.0 


7.08 


6.0 


10.78 


10. 


587 


8.I3I0.03 


0.03 


0.61 


8.80 


8.5 


0.02 


7.24 


2.05 9.31 


8.0 7.26 


4.5 


8.56 


8.0 


315 


0.850.10 


0.18 


1.04 


2.17 


2.0 


6.82 


3.02 


1.0610.90 


10. 


9.84 


9.0 


5.79 


5.0 


458 


1. 150. 06 


0.39 


1. 00 


2.60 


2.5 


2.29 


5.07 


1.33 8.69 


8.0 


7.36 


6.0 


9.20 


8.0 


589 


2.41 0.14 


0.40 


2.08 


5.03 


5.0 


1. 61 


6.84 


2.03 10.48 

1 


10. 


8.45 


7.0 


'5.78 


5.0 


591 


2.340.14 


0.43 


2.27 


5.18 


5.0 


1.22 


7.45 


1 
2.33 11.00 


10. 


8.67 


7.0 


'9.84 


10. 


588 


0.64 o.oS 


0.73 


0.41 


1.86 
1.44 


1.6 


6.42 
O.IO 


3.73 
3.57 


0.72 10.87 

4.81J 8.48 


10. 

7.5 


10.15 
3.67 


8.0 


2.81 
•13.50 


2.0 
14.0 


798 
735 


I.05;0.08 

i.24;o.io 


0.36 
0.47 


125 

1.85 


2.74 
3.66 


2.3 
3-3 


2.62 
1.96 


5.75 

2.68 


1.65 
0.92 


10.02 

5.56 


10. 
6.0 


8.37 
4.64 


8.0 
4.0 


5.30 
4.73 


5.0 
3.8 


803 
799 


0.9110.09 
0.160.02 
3.730.22 

1 


0.61 
0.22 

0.88 


2.01 
2.58 
1.49 


3.62 
2.98 
6.32 


3.6 
3.0 
6.3 


3.20 
0.06 
0.45 


3.73 

11.73 

7.73 


0.92 
6.56 
1.27 


7.85 

18.35 

9.45 


8.0 

16.0 

9.0 


6.93 
11.79 

8.18 


6.0 
7.0 


7.99 

14.22 

8.30 


7.0 

12.5 

7.5 


800 
664 
804 


i.6i|0.29 
0.950.26 
1.000.42 


1. 00 
1. 00 
1. 17 


2.09 
2.48 


4-99 
3.70 
5.07 


5.0 
3.5 
5.0 


0.45 
0.56 
0.09 


6.47 
7.86 
4.14 


0.72 
1.47 
0.73 


7.64 
9.89 
4.96 


8.0 
9.0 
4.0 


6.92 
8.42 
4.23 


6.0 
7.0 
3.0 


*II.52 

»9.6o 
•6.87 


II. 

8.8 
5.5 


801 
802 
704 


1. 090. 18 


0.74 


3.41 


5.42 


5.0 


0.14 


4.04 


0.27 


4.45 


4.0 


4.18 


3.0 


'5.77 


5.5 


797 





0-95 
0.60 


0.51 
0.50 


1. 21 
0.66 


2.67 
1.76 


2.5 
1.7 


2.69 
2.37 


3.55 
5.92 


1.04 
1.09 


7.28 
9.38 


6.5 
8.5 


6.24 
8.29 


6.0 
8.0 


5.08 
4.27 


5.0 
4.0 


ss 





0.86 
1.30 

to. 52 


0.34 
0.36 
0.04 


1. 00 
1. 14 
0.52 


2.20 
2.80 
1.08 


2.1 

2.5 
0.8 


2.00 

2.93 
2.10 


4.44 

4.87 
6.29 


1. 16 
2.00 
1.22 


7.60 
9.80 
9.61 


6.5 
8.0 
8.5 


6.44 

7.80 

8.39 


6.0 
8.0 
8.0 


2.99 
4.50 
4.98 


3.0 
4.0 
5.0 


627 
663 



' 1.66^ potash as muriate, 4.12]^ as sulphate. " 1.14^ potash as muriate, 8.46;^ as sulphate. 

* 1.40^ potash as muriate, 8.44^ as sulphate. * 0.74^ potash as muriate, 6. 13$ as sulphate. 
' i.99J( potash as muriate, 3.03JK as sulphate, ^ o.9<^ potash as muriate, 3.4ijl( as sulphate, 

S.48)( as carbonate. 1.46^ as carbonate. 

* 1.17^ potash as muriate, 10.35]^ as sulphate. 



78 connecticut experiment station report, i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



628* 

520 

660* 
626 

459 

592 
502 

340 

499 

665 

806 
503 

568 
569* 
645^ 

341 

8o8t 
807 



Place of Samplinf^. 



Sampled by Station Agent: 

P. S. Royster Quano Co., Balti- 
more, Md. (Continued.) 
High Grade Tobacc© Manure 



Glastonbury* So. Windsor, 

Broad Brook 

Ideal Tobacco Guano |No. Granby, So. Windsor, 

I Suffield 

Tobacco Ash Components ISuffield, South Windsor. . . 



$45-50 $30. 88 



Universal Truck Fertilizer. 



Sanderson Fertilixer and Chemical 

Co., New Haven, Conn. 
Atlantic Coast Bone, Fish and 

Potash 

Complete Tobacco Grower 

Com Superphosphate 



Formula A. 
Formula B. 



Kelsey*s Bone, Fish and Potash. . . 

Potato Manure 

Special with ioj{ Potash 

Top Dressing for Grass and Grain. 

The C. M. Shay Fertilixer Ca, 

Qroton, Conn. 

Com Fertilizer 



Milford, Killingly, No. 
Haven, Rockville., 



East Hartford, Guilford, 

Plainville 

Warehouse Pt., So. Windsor 
Shelton, Torrington, East 

Hampton 

East Hartford, Shelton, 

Derby 

East Hartford, Warehouse 

Pt.(2) 

Branford 

Shelton, Derby, Plainville. 

New Haven 

New Haven, Warehouse 

Pt., East Hampton 



Potato Manure. 
Grass Fertilizer. 



M. L. Shoemaker & Co^ Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 
'* Swift-Sure" Superphosphate for 
General Use , 



** Swift-Sure" Superphosphate for 
Potatoes 

*• Swift-Sure" Superphosphate for 
Truck, Corn and Onions 



Guilford, Tumerville, Put 
nam 

Guilford, Middlefield, Put- 
nam 

Groton, Tumerville, Kil- 
lingworth 



Hartford, Windsor Locks, 
Guilford 



Guilford . 
Guilford. 



I 

«> o. 

Q 



35.25 
33.50 

34.50 



26.00 
3400 

28.75 

35.00 

34.00 
27.50 
30.25 
37.00 

38.00 



29.75 
33.75 
36.25 

35.25 
35.00 
29.00 



Si 

11- 

> 



I 

il 
111 



27.50 
20.32 

25.00 



18.41 
26.97 

17.66 

25.01 

25.59 
24.26 
18.96 
24.08 

29.62 



20.98 

26.57 
27.00 

27.06 
25.90 

22 . 20 



47.3 

28.2 
64.9 

38.0 



41.2 
26.1 

62.8 

39-9 

32.9 
13.4 
59.5 
53.7 

28.3 



41.8 
27.0 
34.3 

30.3 
35.1 
30.6 



^ See note, p. 56. f See note, p. 57. 



NITKOGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued, 



79 



NiTBOCBlt. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


Potash. 






e 




Jl 


Total 
Nitroiren. 


• 

1 





1 


Total. 


SoH:alled 
"Available." 


1 


1 

' 




2 

e 


a 

1 


1 


-6 

a 

1 


i 




i 
1 


1 


i 




2.T5 


0.38 


1. 81 


4.34 


4.9 


4.71 


2.94 


0.32 


7-97 


5.5 


7.65 




5.0 


»8.7o 


10. 


628 


o.ia 


1.68 


0.50 


1.90 


4.20 
0.44 


4.1 


2.86 
1.34 


3.13 
5.59 


0.99 
0.55 


6.98 
7.48 


4.5 
6.5 


5.99 
6.93 


4.0 
6.0 


•6.83 
»I4.86 


6.0 
15.0 


^ 





1.69 


0.41 


1. 12 


3.22 


3.3 


3.48 


4.74 


1.30 


9.52 


8.5 


8.22 


8.0 


7.26 


7.0 


626 


0.17 
0.37 


0.43 

O.IO 


0.34 
0.28 


1.48 
3.80 


2.41 

4.55 


1.7 
4.5 


1.40 
1.13 


4.16 
3.68 


1.98 
0.27 


7.54 
5.08 


6.0 
4.0 


5.56 
4.81 


4.0 
3.0 


4.42 

*5.75 


4.0 

5.5 


459 
592 


0.38 


0.16 


0.27 


1.05 


1.86 


1.7 


4.55 


3.97 


2.53 


11.05 


9.0 


8.52 


7.0 


3.02 


2.0 


502 


1. 18 


0.62 


0.30 


1.25 


3.35 


3.3 


4.38 


3.59 


1.84 


9.81 


9.0 


7.97 


6.0 


6.62 


6.0 


340 


o.ai 

0.19 

0.75 


1. 41 
0.70 
0.45 
1.05 


0.14 
0.82 
0.28 
0.34 


1.65 
1.78 
1. 13 
0.50 


3.41 
3.30 
2.05 
2.64 


3.3 
2.5 
1.7 
2.5 


3.63 
1.89 
2,60 
4.55 


3.69 
4.72 
3.55 
1.68 


2.21 
1.07 
2.06 
0.45 


9.53 
7.68 
8.21 
6.68 


10. 

5.0 
8.0 
8.0 


7.32 
6.61 

6.15 
6.23 


6.0 
4.0 
5.0 
5.0 


»6.2I 

•6.13 

6.45 
10.97 


6.0 

4.0 

6.0 

10. 


IS? 


2.06 


0.53 


0.50 


1. 31 


4.40 


4.0 


4.31 


4.26 


1.69 


10.26 


.... 


8.57 


7.0 


7.32 


7.0 


S03 


. • • • 


0.07 


0.86 


1.95 


2.88 


2.5 


4.64 


3.02 


0.59 


8.25 


.... 


7.66 


7.0 


3.80 


3.0 


568 


0.93 


0-12 


0.97 


1.96 


3.98 


3.5 


3.53 


4.39 


0.96 


8.88 


.... 


7.92 


7.5 


5.77 


6.0 


S«9 


0.73 


O.IO 


1. 21 


2.08 


4.12 


4.0 


2.93 


4.21 


1.05 


8.19 


— 


714 


7.5 


6.27 


6.0 


645 


1. 17 


0.02 


0.70 


1. 19 


3.08 


2.9 


8.60 


2.81 


0.91 


12.32 




II. 41 


9.0 


'5.41 


4.5 


341 


1. 10 


0.02 


0.68 


0.87 


2.67 


2.9 


7.00 


4.06 


1.87 


12.93 




11.06 


8.0 


7.07 


7.0 


808 


0,84 


0.00 


0.45 


0.95 


2.34 


1.7 


6.73 


3.50 


1.78 


12.01 




10.23 


8.0 


5.34 


5.0 


807 



1 1.99^ potash as muriate, 6.71^ as sulphate. * 0.90^ potash as muriate, 5 

* 1.00% potash as muriate, 5.83^ as sulphate. * 1.40^ potash as muriate, 4, 

* 14. 26j( potash as muriate, 0.60^ as sulphate. ^ o.40j( potash as muriate, 5, 



«^«wy» f^ , w.^^^ «w sulphate. 

* 0.94^ potash as muriate, 4,Si% as sulphate. 



3ij^ as sulphate. 
73^ as sulphate. 
01^ as sulphate. 



8o connecticut experiment station report, i912. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



345 
343 
504 
647 

505 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Sampled by Stalion Agent: 

Swift's Lowell Fertiliser Co., 
Boston, Mass, 
Animal Brand 



Bone Fertilizer 

Corn and Vegetable Manure , 

Empress Brand ▼ 

Perfect Tobacco Grower 



8xo*iMarket Garden Manure. 
342*. Potato Grower 



344 Potato Manure 

389* Potato Phosphate 

506* Special Grass Mixture . . 
648*, Special Potato Fertilizer.. 
646* Superior Fertilizer. 
809 Tobacco Manure 

469. 



470' 



8X3 

8x8 
507 

81A 
8x6 

649 



Tanner & Wilcox, Winsted, Conn. 

Grass and Corn Phosphate 

Reliable Potato and Garden Phos- 
phate 



The Wilcox Fertilizer Co., Mystic, 

Conn. 
Complete Bone Superphosphate. . . , 

Corn Special , 

Fish and Potash , 



4-8-10 Fertilizer 

Grass Fertilizer 

H. G. Fish and Potash. 
H. G. Tobacco Special. 
Potato Fertilizer 



Place of Sampling. 



n 

C o 



Windsor Locks, Suffield, 

Wallingford, Southington $32 . 
Windsor Locks, Rockville, 

Guilford 30. 

Wallingford, New Canaan, 

Torrington, | 38 . 

Southington, New Britain,! 

Moosup j 27 . 

Rockville, Ellington, Wart- 

house Pt 38 , 

Rocky Hill, So. Manchester! 39. 
Southport, Wallingford, 

Guilford 35. 

Windsor Locks, Southing- 
ton, Rockville 31 . 

New Britain, Suffield, 

Southport 34, 

New Britain, Rockville, 

Ellington 39 

New Britain, Torrington, 

Saybrook 36 

Wallingford, Rockville, 

Wethersfield 

New Hartford 



75*19.73 
X7.48 
25.32 

12.95 



Winsted . 
Winsted . 



Wallingford 

Ellington, Westchester .... 
Norwich, Wallingford, East 

Hampton 

Mystic 

Mystic 

Ellington 

Ellington 

Norwich, East Hampton, 

Thompsonville 



37.00 
34.00 



29.00 
32.50 

27.00 
40.50 
37.50 
31.00 
38.00 

32.25 



Is 

g-s 






I1« sll 



25.77 
26. 48 

26.05 

16.35 

21.16 

27.16 

23.29 

27.85 
32.10 

31.32 
29.00 



19.62 
22.72 

20.05 
29.38 
25.85 
24.44 
27.29 

20.13 



66.0 

71.6 

50.1 

XI4.3 

48.4 
47.3 

34.4 

94-1 

60.7 

43.6 

57.8 

35.6 
34.0 

18. 1 
17.2 



47-7 
43.0 

34.7 
37.8 
45.1 
a6.S 

39.3 
60.2 



* See note, p. 57. 



NITKOGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Continued. 



8i 



NiTBOGBM. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


Potash. 








Is 


il 


Total. 
Nitrogen. 


1 


1 

i 


6 




Total. 


So-called 
"Available." 


1 


1 







i2 


! 


1 

1 


1 
1 




b 


1 




i 
1 


0.41 


0.42 


0.78 


0.80 


2.41 


2.5 


5.99 


2.26 


0.67 


8.92 


9.0 


8.25 


8.0 


• 
4.14 


4.0 


345 


0.26 


0.26 


0.72 


0.55 


1.79 


1.6 


6.20 


2.81 


1. 10 


10. II 


9.0 


9.01 


8.0 


3.13 


3.0 


343 


1.50 


0.05 


0.75 


0.98 


3.28 


3.3 


6.37 


1.82 


0.50 


8.69 


9.0 


8.19 


8.0 


7.34 


7.0 


504 


0.15 


0.03 


0.62 


0.54 


1.34 


1.3 


4-44 


2.53 


0.51 


7.48 


8.0 


6.97 


7.0 


2.02 


2.0 


647 


2.38 
1.43 


0.06 
0. 10 


0.46 
1.05 


1.05 
1.30 


l:SI 


4.1 
4.1 


2.72 
5.69 


3.50 
2.15 


0.69 
0.81 


6.91 
8.65 


5.0 

8.0 


6.22 

7.84 


4.0 
7.0 


»6.39 
6.28 


6.0 
6.0 


8x0 


0.86 


0.09 


0.58 


1.63 


3.16 


3.3 


4.52 


1.94 


0.51 


6.97 


7.0 


6.46 


6.0 


10.22 


10. 


342 


0.12 


0.36 


0.43 


0.70 


I. 61 


1.6 


5.19 


2.69 


0.81 


8.69 


8.0 


7.88 


7.0 


3.92 


4.0 


344 


1.08 


0.08 


0.46 


0.88 


2.50 


2.5 


6.51 


1.79 


0.49 


8.79 


9.0 


8.30 


8.0 


5.60 


6.0 


389 


1.54 


0.08 


1. 10 


1.26 


3.98 


4.1 


5.56 


2.35 


0.65 


8.56 


8.0 


7.91 


7.0 


6.72 


6.0 


506 


0.30 


0.65 


0.75 


0.90 


2.60 


2.5 


4.17 


2.28 


0.50 


6.95 


7.0 


6.45 


6.0 


9-54 


10. 


648 


I. a? 
1.65 


0.51 

O.IO 


0.80 
0.92 


0.95 
1.35 


3.53 
4.02 


3.7 
4.0 


5.60 
3.15 


1.95 
5.14 


0.42 
1.47 


7.97 
9.76 


8.0 
7.0 


7.55 
8.29 


7.0 
5.0 


10.07 
*io.o6 


10. 
10. 


646 
809 


2.46 


0.12 


0.43 


1.75 


4.76 


4.0 


1.84 


6.38 


3.28 


11.50 


II. 


8.22 


.... 


7.56 


7.3 


469 


1.05 


O.IO 


0.84 


1.92 


3.91 


3-3 


0.75 


6.21 


3.39 


10.35 


9.3 


6.96 


8.0 


9.06 


9.0 


470 


0.69 
0.83 


0,12 

O.IO 


0.21 
0.25 


1. 21 
1.50 


2.23 

2.68 


2.1 
2.5 


2.99 
5.14 


5.53 
3.69 


3.28 
1.74 


11.80 
10.57 


9.0 
9.0 


8.52 
8.83 


8.0 
8.0 


3.67 
5.55 


3.0 
5.0 


8X3 

8x8 




0.28 


0.62 


2.05 


2.95 


2.5 


2.12 


3.88 


1.80 


7.80 


6.0 


6.00 


5.0 


3.82 


3.0 


IP 

8x6 
815 


1. 14 
1.44 

i.17 


1.10,0.21 
0.920.17 
0.260.62 
0.080.22 


0.95 
1.47 
2.79 
2.25 


3.40 
4.00 
3.67 
3.72 


3.3 
4.JC 
3.3 
3.3 


7.20 
4.07 
4.80 
o.lo 


1.37 
3.20 
1.99 
5.99 


0.68 
2.07 
0.51 
4.45 


9.25 

9.34 

7.30 

10.54 


9.0 
7.0 
7.0 
7.0 


8.57 
7.27 
6.79 
6.09 


8.0 
6.0 
6.0 
5.0 


*io.79 
5.62 

5.31 
*6.93 


10. 
5.0 
5.0 
7.0 


0.63 


0.120.25 


1.32 


2.32 


2.1 


2.00 


5.02 


3.10 


10.12 


7.0 


7.02 


6.0 


5.44 


4.5 


649 



* 1.30^ potash as muriate, 5.09j( as sulphate. * 7.97^ potash as muriate, 2.82^as sulphate. 

* 2.io)t potash as muriate, 7.96^ as sulphate. ^ 0.8^ potash as muriate, 6.13^ as sulphate. 



82 



CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2. 



Nitrogenous Superphosphates. 



8x7 
8zz 

346* 

2x3 
282 

Z2Z 



Z20 
629 

437 
509 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



Sampled by Station Agent: 
The Wilcox Fertilizer Ca, Mystic, 

Conn. (Continued,) 
Potato, Onion and Vegetable Phos 

phate 

Special Superphosphate 

S. D. Woodruff ft Sons, Orange, 

Conn. 

Home Mixture 

Sampled by Purchasers and others: 

Berkshire Tobacco Special with Car- 
bonate Potash 

Bowker*8 Tobacco Ash Elements. 

Rogers' H. G. Fertilizer for Oats and 
Top Dressing 

Rogers' Soluble Tobacco Manure. 

Sanderson's Grass and Grain 

Shay's Potato Fertilizer 

Shay's Corn Fertilizer 

Shay's Special 

* See note, p. 57. 



Place of Sampling. 



Norwich 

Westchester 

Orange 

Thompsonville: James 

Gamble 

Suffield: Bissell -Graves Co, 

Granby: J. B. Cannon 

Granby: J. B. Cannon 

Shelton: O. G. Beard 

Colchester: H. London 

Colchester: H. London 

Manchester: C. R. Burr & 
Co 



1 

1 


II 


u 


li 


-!^ 


S-s 


80. 


11* 


TiCd. 


^ 


> 


$36.00 


$27.72 


26.00 


15.82 


31.00 





36.00 


29.00 


32.50 


22.24 


44.50 


37.61 


43.50 


35.20 


38.00 


25.31 


31.00 


26.99 


26.00 


21.08 


40.00 


35.80 



s 

11 

Ill 
ill 

S^5 



29.9 
64.4 



Valuation. 

The method and meaning of valuation is explained on pages 
3 to 7 and the table of trade values will be found on page 6. 

It must be remembered that "valuation" as used in this report 
is not a valuation of the brand in question but of the nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and potash in it; that is, it shows approximately 
what the same amounts of these ingredients as are contained 
in a ton of the mixed fertilizer would cost, unmixed, for cash, 
at freight centers in this State, in their unground and unmixed 
condition. To make a fair valuation of the manufactured 
fertilizer itself would necessitate adding to our valuation the 



NITROGENOUS SUPERPHOSPHATES. 

Analyses and Valuations — Concluded, 



83 



NlTBOGBN. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


Potash. 












Total 






. 






So-caUed 












1^ 


i 


Nitrogen. 


. 


i 




1 


Total. 


"Available." 








z 


1 


J 


^1 


1 


2 
1 


, 


1 




1 

a 
« 
u 
« 

9 


1 


1 


1 


^ 


£ 





h 


^ 


^ 


u 


u 


b. 


^ 


u* 





£ 


^ 


in 


1.16 


0.14 


0.22 


1.98 


3.50 


3.3 


7.05 


2.35 


0.45 


9.85 


9.0 


9.40 


8.0 


>7.64 


7.0 


5*7 


0.09 


0.12 


0.19 


1.08 


1.48 


I.O 


1.95 


6.22 


3.52 


11.69 


9.0 


8.17 


8.0 


2.52 


2.0 


Bzi 


1.72 


0.08 


0.27 


1.66 


3.73 


3.3 


4.01 


2.84 


1.36 


8.21 


8.0 


6.85 


.... 


8.27 


8.0 


346 


0.61 


0,05 


4.16 


4.82 


4.5 


o.i8 


3.23 


0.27 


3.68 


4.0 


3.41 


3.0 


'5.73 


5.5 


3x3 







....|.... 








1. 10 


5.99 


1.57 


8.66 


9.0 


7.09 


6.0 


*I5.30 


15.0 


383 


3.66 


o.as 


2.31 


6.22 


6.3 


1.62 


6.72 


1. 19 


9.53 


9.0 


8.34 


7.0 


10.15 


7.5 


Z3I 


1.75 


0.34 


3.03 


5.12 


5.0 


0.39 


6.61 


0.88 


7.88 


7.0 


7.00 


5.0 


*io.5o 


10.5 


Z30 


2.31 


O.IO 


0.40 


0.71 


3.52 


4.0 


5.47 


3.15 


0.50 


9.12 


.... 


8.62 


7.0 


6.47 


7.0 


039 


o.q8 


0.16 


1.09 


1.83 


4.06 


3.5 


3.14 


4.63 


0.93 


8.70 


8.0 


7.77 


7.5 


6.15 


6.0 


436 


0.14 


O.IO 


0.78 


1.88 


2.90 





4.78 


3.28 


0.63 


8.69 





8.06 





3.54 


.... 


437 


1.64 


0.14 


1.97 


2.16 


5.91 


5.8 


0.36 


5.10 


0.99 


6.45 


8.0 


5.46 


.... 


II. 10 


10. 


509 



^ 6.78^ potash as muriate, o.86j( as sulphate. * 1.20^ potash as muriate, 14.10^ as sulphate. 
' 0.70^ potash as muriate, 0.85^ as sulphate, ^ 1.16^ potash as muriate, 9.34^ as sulphate 
4^i85( as carbonate. 

ava'agc cost of mixing and bagging, bags, shrinkage, cost of 
storage, selling, collecting, freight, etc., items which would 
probably ag^egate $8.00 to $12.00 per ton. 

Percentage Difference 

shows the percentage excess of the cost price over the aver- 
age cost at freight centers of the nitrogen, phosphoric acid 
and potash contained in the fertilizer: that is, the percentage 
amount which is added to the cost of the raw materials as the 
cost of manufacture and sale. 



84 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Nitrogenous Superphosphates Sampled by Purchasers. 
Here are included eight analyses of samples sent by individuals. 
The Station is not responsible for the accuracy of the sampling*. 

HOME MIXTURES. 

In the table, page 86, are given analyses of sixteen fertilizers 
and the formulas by which they were mixed, as stated by their 
owners. Two of the mixtures were made in factories, the others 
were made on the farm. 

Obviously, there is a mistake in the formula given or in the 
mixing of 642, not mixed by the purchaser, for % mixture with 
333 pounds of muriate of potash in the ton would contain at 
least 8.0 per cent, of potash, while this sample has only 0.49. 
The same thing is true of 693. Four hundred pounds of double 
sulphate of potash in the ton should give at least 5.0 per cent, 
of potash instead of 1.58 per cent. 

In the other cases the actual analysis agrees fairly with the 
analysis as calculated from the formula; 

With few exceptions, these fertilizers are of high grade ; i. e., 
they contain relatively high percentages of nitrogen, phosphoric 
acid and potash. 

The average percentage composition of the whole number is 

Nitrogen as nitrates 2.13 

Organic nitrogen 2.10 

Total nitrogen 4.23 

"Available" phosphoric acid 8.13 

Potash 7.82 

As to the cost of plant food in these home-mixtures the facts 
are: 

In less than car-lots, delivered, one person bought the chemicals 
and made two mixtures, of which the average cost for chemicals 
alone was $32.75 and the valuation $33.69. 

In car-lots, delivered, one person made two mixtures, of which 
the average cost and valuation for chemicals alone were $24.76 
and $29.01 respectively. 

Another made five mixtures, for which the average cost and 
valuation were $27.72 and $27.71 respectively. 

Two other individuals bought (whether in car-lots or in 
smaller quantities is not stated) for $28.29 ^^^ $36.42 respcc^ 
tively and the valuations were $28.94 and $30.28 respectively. 



HOME MIXTURES. 85 

Another bought two mixtures made on his formula at factories, 
of which the average cost was $39.27 and valuation $3649. 

C. I. Stone reports the actual cost to him of mixing and 
bagging a ton of fertilizer as seventy-eight cents. This probably 
does not include cost of bags as the bags holding the chemicals 
could be used for the mixture. Allowing an average of $1.50 
per ton for mixing and bagging, those who bought their raw 
materials in mixed car-lots for cash got the mixture at a price 
which was quite close to the valuation of the ingredients, and 
in no case more than $2.50 above the valuation. The same is 
true in several other cases. 

Most of the samples were quite fine and dry enough to spread 
^th a drill or fertilizer sower. None were coarser than some 
of the factory mixtures. 

It is quite clear that men with good business sense, who can 
buy their fertilizer chemicals for cash, in mixed car-lots and mix 
them before the season opens, can usually save money by 
doing it. 

Those farmers who buy only a small amount of fertilizer, or 
who are not prepared to make cash payment, or to determine 
some time in advance what kind of plant food they need and 
how much, are not likely to make a success of home-mixing. 

With a system of cooperative buying and better rural bank- 
ing facilities, more farmers could profitably buy chemicals and 
mix for themselves. 

In comparing the cost of home-mixed with factory-mixed 
fertilizers, it must be remembered that the ruling prices of the 
latter necessarily cover, not only the fair price of the mixtures, 
but also a charge for doing the banking business of the 
purchasers. For example, in the majority of cases, the fertilizer 
manufacturer who sells a ton of fertilizer for $33, waits several 
months, often nine to twelve months, for his pay. That $33.00, or 
the larger part of it, he has borrowed at his bank, paying perhaps 
five per cent, interest, giving security to the bank and meeting 
his note the day it is due. So to the price which would yield 
him a fair profit if the goods were sold for cash he is compelled 
to add an amount which will fully cover the interest he is 
forced to pay and the .occasional failures of buyers to pay within 
the time agreed upon. He who buys on time forces the seller 
to do two separate kinds of business for him, make his fertilizer 
and be his banker. 



86 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Home Mixtures — Formulas. 



460 
461 
508 
306 
307 

464 

465 
463 
466 



zSi 
593 
546 

317 
462 



Made by or for 



E. J. Ayres, North Franklin, 

No. I for Grass 

E. J. Ayres, North Franklin. 

No. 2 for Potatoes 

H. E. Clark, Middlebury, 

Grass Mixture 

Conn. School for Boys, Meri- 

den. Grass 

Conn. School for Boys, Meri- 

den, Vegetable 

H. W. Ferry, So. Glastonbury 
Gaylord Farm, Wallin^ford, 

Garden 

Gaylord Farm, Wallingford, 

Orchard 

Gaylord Farm, Wallingford, 

Orchard and Corn 

Gaylord Farm, Wallingford, 

Potatoes 



Wilber Hills, Wapping 

A. E. Phelps, Glastonbury. 
C. I. Stone, Marion, Grass. 



W.M.Whitcomb, W.Cheshire 
W. L. Merwin. Milford.... 
C. Z. Murdock, Meriden... 



400 
200 
400 
500 

100 

333 

200 
200 



250 
300 



534 
500 



500 



300 



300 



500 
600 
900 



*400 



*5oo 



350 
400 



500 
750 



1300 



500 



600 



300 



600 



600 
1000 



333 



1200 



400 
400 



400 

750 
1000 

850 

•500 

500 

750 



1 180 

900 
400 






350 
400 



400 



*250 

200 
333 



400 



286 
400 
500 



S 



250 



200 

500 

400 



400'. 



' Cotton seed meal. * Precipitated bone. ' And 500 lbs. basic slag. 

* And 350 lbs. kainit. * Kainit. 



VI. MISCELLANEOUS FERTILIZERS. 

LIMESTONE. 

Here are included the nearly pure lime carbonate and also the 
double carbonate of lime and magnesia known as dolomite. 
From both of these, "burned lime" or "quick lime" is pre- 
pared, both for building purposes and also (particularly when its 
color is poor or it has been imperfectly burned) for agricultural 
use. The following analyses of ground and unground limestone 
show its usual composition. 



limestone. 
Home Mixtures — Analyses. 



87 





Nitrogen. 


Phosphoric Acid. 


J3 

s 




Station 
No. 


S 
2 

e 


e 


It 

a 


i 


1 


S 
^ 


1 

g 


9 
8 

e 
'I 

1 




H 


1 

i 
1 


460 


3.06 


0.05 


0.19 


1.66 


4.96 


2.41 


5.93 


2.61 


10.95 


11.83 


■$33.50 


461 


1.46 


0.05 


0.54 


1.60 


3.65 


2.82 


7.53 


3.25 


13.60 


10.69 


•32.00 


S08 


3.92 


0.20 


0.98 


1. 14 


5.24 


0.07 


9.23 


4.75 


14.05 


>8.9i 


•37.15 


306 


3.52 


0.07 


0.72 


1.03 


5.34 


1.35 


3.99 


I. II 


6.45 


9.08 


»026.88 


IS 


0.83 
3.08 


0.07 
0.13 


0.88 
0.08 


1.53 
0.15 


3.31 
3.44 


3-49 
5.88 


4.97 
5.39 


2.II 
1.73 


10.57 
13.00 


'7.93 
0.49 


»022.65 
35.00 


4«4 


1.59 


0.19 


0.37 


2.31 


4.46 


3.12 


4.06 


1.70 


8.88 


•7.30 


"31.30 


4«S 


1.48 


0.06 


0.77 


1.15 


3.46 


1.18 


6.34 


3.62 


II. 14 


*3.58 


"24.15 


4«3 


0.18 


O.II 


0.22 


2.78 


3.29 


2.24 


4.17 


1.94 


8.35 


•8.07 


"26.25 


466 


1.99 


0.12 


0.55 


1.74 


4.40 


4.41 


2.46 


1. 14 


8.01 


•6.24 


"29.18 


181 
593 
S4« 


2.33 
0.23 
4.06 


0.02 
O.IO 
0.00 


2.60 
0.06 3.85 
0.12 0.02 


4.95 
4.24 
4.20 


0.26 
0.86 
7.41 


10.93 
6.01 
1.67 


2.26 
0.50 
0.67 


13.45 
7.37 
9.75 


10.08 
'1.58 
7.92 


•41.40 

*"2'8*.29 


317 
463 


3.70 
■3*6^' 


0.03 
0.19 
0.08 


0.38 
0.24 2.16 
0.54 1.85 


4.11 

2.59 
6.07 


4.86 
1.30 
I. II 


3.89 
2.94 
904 


0.96 
1.38 
0.15 


9.71 

5.62 

10.30 


10.20 

7.73 

13.56 


"36.42 
25.00 



' o.8oj( as muriate, 8.11^ as sulphate. * 7.31^ as muriate, 0.62^ as sulphate. 
' 0.97^ as muriate, 6.33^ as sulphate. * o.qo% as muriate, 2.68^ as sulphate. 

* 1.5^ as muriate, 6.48^ as sulphate. * i.22$[ as muriate, 5.02$^ as sulphate. 

^ 0.60^ as muriate, 0.98^ as sulphate. •Less than car lots unmixed delivered. 

• Delivered mixed. " Car lots unmixed delivered. 

" Home mixed delivered. 



Sent by W. F. Tomlinson, F. D., of Danbury. 
680 and 681. Sent by W. H. Seeley, Boston, 
615 and 616. Sent by W. T. Coe & Son, Northford. 
630. Sent by E. B. Clark Seed Co., Milford. 
868. Sold by the Stearns Lime Co., Danbury. Sent by F. 
Howard Ensign, East Hartford. 

140. Sent by J. F. Merrell, Suffield. 

438. Sent by Plumtree Lime Co., Danbury. 



88 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Analyses of Limestone. 

Station No 683 680 615 681 630 358 6x6 140 458 

Lime 55. 80 55-20 5404 52.26 48.96 44.01 42.70 33-36 30.78 

Magnesia 0.18 0.30 0.54 1.91 1.22 1.21 1.60 19.24 21.14 

Equivalent Carbonate 

of Lime 99.64 98.57 96.50 93.32 87.43 78.60 76.25 59-57 54-96 

Carbonate of Magnesia 0.36 0.63 1.13 4.01 2.56 2.54 3.36 40.40 44-39 
Other matters by 

difference* 00 0.80 2.37 2.67 10.01 18.86 20.39 0.03 0.65 



100.00 100.00 loo.'oo 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 

Chemically pure limestone contains 56 per cent, of lime (the 
oxide of a metal calcium which does not occur in nature and is 
of no use in the arts) and 44 per cent, of carbonic acid. 682 and 
680 are very nearly pure. 616 and 681 are nearly pure but 
contain over 2 per cent, of other and insoluble minerals. 630, 
368, and 616 contain very considerable amounts of other minerals 
which are associated in nature with the carbonate and cannot be 
removed. 140 and 438 are dolomites, or magnesian limestones 
containing about 20 per cent, of magnesia replacing lime. 

The Steams Lime Co. of Danbury sell two grades of ground 
limestone, "Ten mesh" and "Forty mesh." These terms sig^fy 
sieves with ten meshes or forty meshes to the linear inch. Fine- 
ness of product will of course depend on the thickness of the 
wire of which the sieve is made. Samples of the two grades, 
kindly sent by the company, have been screened through standard 
sieves with the following results : 

Ten Mesh Forty Mesh 

Limestone. Limestone. 

Coarser than 20 mesh 14 o 

Between 20 and 30 mesh 17 11 

30 " 40 " 8 9 

" 40 " 50 " 3 6 

so " 80 " 10 15 

" 80 " 200 " 14 18 

Finer than 200 mesh 34 41 

100 100 



' Chiefly matter insoluble in acid. 



LIME. 89 

BURNED OR QUICK LIME. 

A single sample, 139, made by the Lee Lime Co., Lee, Mass., 
sampled and sent by J. F. Merrell, Suffield, cost $4.00, in car lots 
at the kiln. It contained 

Lime 51.48 

Magnesia 36.34 

Insoluble matter 3.33 

Free and combined water 8.85 



100.00 



This is made from magnesian limestone by roasting in a kiln 
which drives off the carbonic acid as a gas and leaves lime and 
magnesia (calcium and magnesium oxides). 

If we allow $2.00 for freight, lime and magnesia together cost, 
delivered, about 34 cents per 100 pounds in car lots. 

SLAKED LIME. 

Burned lime like the sample described has a great avidity for 
water and absorbs it rapidly from the air or if sprinkled with 
water combines with it quickly, developing great heat. There 
is formed slaked lime which is a hydrate and contains when 
pure about 75.7 per cent, of lime. Burned lime also combines 
with carbonic acid again to form carbonate of lime, with only 
56 per cent, of lime. 

The slaked limes of commerce are mixtures of hydrate and 
carbonate. The following analyses show the usual range of 
composition. '■* 

3. Sold by the Famams Lime Co., Famams, Mass. Sent by 
J. W. Alsop, Avon. 

617. Air-slaked. Sent by W. T. Coe & Son, Northford. 

182. Agricultural Lime from Farnams-Cheshire Lime Co. 
Sent by B. W. Rothe, Rockville. ' 

638. Patent Process Fertilizer Lime. Sold by Walton 
Quarries, Harrisburg, Pa. Stock of John Hesser, Killingworth. 

131. Agricultural Lime from Farnams Lime Co. Sent by 
F. E. Peckham, Norwich. 

4. Agricultural Lime from Famams Lime Co. Sent by H. K. 
Brainard, Thompsonville. 



90 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Analyses of Slaked Lime. 

Station No. 3 617 x8a 638 131 4 

Lime 65.64 65.20 62.88 6r.32 60.56 6ai4 

Magnesia 0.82 0.86 1.59 6.64 0.93 1.06 

Insoluble in acid 1.81 1.66 4.21 1.65 

Cost per ton, $350* 4.00* 18.00 5.85 8.50 

Lime-magnesia costs 

cents per 100 lbs. ... .40! u|6t 1-33 47 69 

Samples 3, 182, 131, were bought at about the ruling rates. 
Anything over $6.oo per ton for slaked lime, delivered, is not 
economical. Special attention is called to the "patent process" 
lime. This is a fine slaked lime, no better for agricultural use 
than the other samples. It has, however, been sold to a number 
of farmers in this state for $i8.oo per ton, or just about three 
times as much as need be paid for lime which is quite as valuable 
agriculturally. 

SHELL MARL LAND LIME. 

216. Sold by the Vermont Marl G>., Brattleboro, Vt. Sampled 
and sent by Jared Bishop, Cheshire. 

It contained 51.62 per cent, of lime and 0.51 per cent, of 
magnesia, both chiefly in form of carbonate. 

WOOD ASHES AND WOOD ASHES SUBSTITUTES. 

578. Bowker's Wood Ashes, from Bowker Fertilizer Co. 
Stock of Lightbourn and Pond, New Haven. 

524. Canada Ashes from John Joynt, Lucknow, Ont. Stock 
of H. G. Church, South Windsor. 

683. Hardwood Ashes, sold by W. L. Mitchell, Houlton, Me. 
Sent by Reiser and Boasberg Plantation, Inc., East Windsor 
Hill. 

629. Wood Ashes, sold by Olds & Whipple, Hartford. Stock 
of W. C. George, Warehouse Point. 

927. Unleached Wood Ashes imported by Geo. L. Munroe 
& Sons, Oswego, N. Y. Guaranty, i per cent, potash, 0.50 
phosphoric acid, 25.0 per cent. lime. Sampled and sent by F. W. 
Judson, Watertown. 

670. Lime and Ashes. Sent by W. A. Reed, Meriden. 



* At kiln, t Adding $1.85 freight. 



WOOD ASHES AND SUBSTITUTbS. 9 1 

214, Wood Ashes Substitute, sold by the Vermont Marl Co., 
Brattleboro, Vt. Sample sent by John Bishop, Storrs. 

26. Ashes from a Meriden factory. Sampled and sent by 
W. H. Lyon, Meriden. 

The collection is a typical one. The cost given for 678 is 
probably what is charged for small amounts for lawns, etc. ; the 
other prices are for car lots. 

One lot of hardwood ashes, 683, has about the composition 
which clean, dry, hardwood ashes should have. Allowing 4 cents 
per pound for phosphoric acid and 4j4 for potash, the lime and 
magnesia in these ashes costs 45 cents per 100 lbs., which is 
not excessive. » • 

Of the other four samples of "wood ashes," more than one- 
third of one and more than one-half of two others consists of 
water, sand, coal and other useless ballast. 

Analyses op Wood Ashes, Ashes Substitutes, Etc. 

Station No 578 524 683 539 927 570 214 26 

Percentage amounts of 

Water-soluble potash. 2.91 1.35 6.92 2.40 3.00 0.18 5.66 0.21 

Phosphoric acid 1.30 0.87 2.78 0.95 1.24 0.19 1.59 0.32 

Lime 26.04 24.77 34.15 16.48 31.54 38.86 42.03 3.99 

Magnesia 2.60 1.41 3.27 2.18 .... 0.74 0.85 0.82 

Water 6.76 37.82 2.62 13.55 1.66 i.io 9.05 

Charcoal ) . , (80.35 

Insoluble in acid h''^' '''"^ ^3-~ ^"^ "'37 ='5.49 6.35] ,3, 

Cost per ton $18.00*13.75 11.50 n.75 ii.oo .... 15.00 

The cost of lime and magnesia, calculated as above, is in 624, 
$1.56, in 629, $2.89, and in the wood ashes substitute, 214, $1.04, 
per 100 pounds. Lime and magnesia can readily be bought in 
ground limestone, pulverized burned lime or slaked lime for 50 
cents per 100 pounds, or less. 

HEN MANURE. 

129. Sent by E. L. Ford, Jr., Milford, repr||ents material 
gathered each week from the hen housed and stored in a bin 
under cover. 

It contained water 51.7, nitrogen 2.88, phosphoric acid 1.15, 
and potash 1.18 per cent. 

* Retail in small lots for lawns. 



92 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

SHEEP MANURE. 
619. Pulverized Sheep Manure, sold by American Agric. 
Chem. Co., New York City; sampled from stock of Greenwich 
Hardware Co., Greenwich. 

873. Sheep's Head Brand Pulverized Sheep Manure, sold 
by Natural Guano Co., Aurora, 111.; sampled from stock of 
F. S. Piatt Co., New Haven. 

874. Sheepino Natural Guano, sold by Niantic Menhaden 
Oil and Guano Co., South Lyme; sampled from stock of J. P. 
Barstow and Co., Norwich. 

877. Wizard Brand Manure, sold by Pulverized Manure Co., 
Chicago; sampled from stock of F. S. Piatt Co., New Haven. 

619 373 374 377 

Nitrogen in nitrates 0.42 

" " ammonia 0.17 0.20 0.10 0.45 

" organic, water-soluble 0.54 0.37 0.06 0.27 

" " active insoluble 0.59 042 0.28 0.36 

" " inactive insoluble 1.35 1.56 0.76 1.32 

Total nitrogen found 2.65 2.55 1.62 2.40 

" " guaranteed 2.06 2.25 1.50 1.80 

Water-soluble phosphoric acid 0.86 1.02 0.23 0.99 

Citrate-soluble " " 0.12 0.05 0.91 0.37 

Citrate-insoluble " *' 0.18 0.18 0.28 0.12 

Total phosphoric acid found 1.16 1.25 142 1.48 

" " ** guaranteed 0.50 1.50 1.00 4.00 

Potash found 1.82 1.88 4.26 1.85 

" guaranteed 0.50 1.50 4.00 i.oo 

Cost per ton $30.00 30.00 38.00 30.00 

877. Wizard Brand contains much less phosphoric add than 
is guaranteed. The percentage of potash in 874, Sheepino 
Natural Guano, is much higher than is ordinarily found in dry 
sheep manure. 

TOBACCO SIFTINGS. 

No. 9 recei^d from H. K. Brainard, Thompsonville, contained 
the following percentages : 

Nitrogen of nitrates 0.25, of ammonia 0.24, nitrogen organic 
171. Total nitrogen 2.20, phosphoric acid 0.64, potash 2.63. 



MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS. 93 

Tobacco steins, with which this may be compared, contains om 
the average. 

Total Nitrogen 2.Q5 

Phosphoric Acid 0.60 

Potash . / 7.54 



"CLAY DEPOSIT." 

70. Sent by Geo. H. Pearson, Bethel. A deposit in a vei« 
several feet deep in the bed of a stream. 

It is a fine silt, but contains no clay nor diatoms. Apparently 
it is largely an iron and alumina silicate. 

Insoluble in acid 56.35 

Oxide of iron and alumina 22.88 

Lime 4.50 

Magnesia 245 

Water at 100** 9^ 

Undetermined 4-54 

100.00 



PART n. 

Seventeenth Report on Food Products and 
Fifth Report on Dru£ Products, 1912. 

By John Phillips Street.* 



This station is required by law to make examinations of food 
and drug products, to publish its findings, and to report to the 
dairy and food commissioner all cases of adulteration or mis- 
branding which are discovered. Under this law a large number 
of samples of food and drugs have been bought in various parts 
of the state and carefully examined, and cases of adulteration 
or misbranding reported to the commissioner. The station has 
no power of prosecution, its duty being to determine the facts 
and supply expert testimony in case of prosecution. 

Of the 496 samples collected by the station agent, 253 were 
passed, and 92 were adulterated, below standard or mis- 
branded. Eighty-five of these 92 were reported to the 
commissioner, and 45 second samples of these brands were 
bought by his agents of the same dealers, and sent to the 
station for analysis. Of these* 28 were adulterated or mis- 
branded. The dairy and food conmiissioner has also sent 712 
samples, chiefly milk, molasses, sausage, butter and turpentine. 
These will be briefly discussed, leaving the full details and the 
results of prosecution to be given in the commissioner's report. 
Of these samples 344 were adulterated, misbranded, or below 
standard. To summarize: Of 757 samples taken by the com- 
missioner under the law, 372 were found to be either adulterated, 
misbranded or below standard. The station has been called on 
for court testimony in seventeen instances. Besides the above, 
288 samples were examined for the commissioner in connection 

♦ The analytical work herein reported was done jointly with E. M. 
Bailey, C. B. Morison, R. B. Roe and C. £. Shepard. 



g6 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

with a study of net weight and volume of package goods and a 
number of samples of food and drug products have been 
examined for individuals, which will likewise receive brief 
mention. 

I. FOOD PRODUCTS. 

CANNED CORN. 

The present examination was undertaken primarily to study- 
completeness of fill and net weight of contents in connection with 
the net weight and measure law recently enacted in this state. 
The chemical work was limited to a determination of dry matter 
and testing for presence of saccharin. 

The average composition of 42 samples of canned com analysed 
by McElroy & Bigelow* was as follows : 

Water 75.50 

Ether Extract 1.28 

Crude Fiber i 80 

Ash (-NaCl) 47 

Sodium Chloride 36 

Protein 2.84 

Carbohydrates i3.75 

Fresh sweet corn contains about 73 per cent, of water. The 
only ingredients generally added in canning are about 5 per cent, 
of water, and small quantities of salt and sugar. A properly 
filled No. 2 can of com should contain about 21 ozs. of material. 
Disregarding the small amounts of added salt and sugar and 
assuming that 5 per cent, of water has been added, the can should 
contain about 473 gms. of water and 122 gms. of dry matter, or 
79.5 and 20.5 per cent., respectively. As the addition of salt and 
sugar would reduce the percentage of water content, it is apparent 
that under the usual methods of canning a No. 2 can of corn 
should not contain more than 473 gms., or 79.5 per cent, of 
water; in fact with the best methods of practice the amount of 
water would undoubtedly be less. 

With one exception. No. 27896, the net weight of all of the 36 
samples here reported varied within quite narrow limits from 
571 to 614 gms., average 594 gms. Thirty-one contained 581 

*U. S. Dept. Agl., Bur. of Chem., Bull. 13, pt. 8, 1126. 



DRIED FRUITS. 97 

gms. or over, that is, within 0.5 ozs. of the standard fill of 21 ozs- 
The weight and percentage of water found in the samples may be 
summarized as follows : 



Samples. 


Gms. Water. 


No. 


Per Cent. Water. 


5 


446-455 


4 


75^76.6 


9 . 


456-465 


9 


76.8-78.3 


[0 


466-473 


II 


78.5-79.5 


9 


474-480 


6 


79.6-80.8 


3 


481-496 


6 


81.0-83.0 



Twelve of these samples, therefore, probably contain an 
excessive amount of water. They contain from 95 to 122 gms. 
of dry matter per can, average, 112 gms., as compared with from 
121 to 149, average, 133 gms., in the other twenty-four samples. 

According to Bitting* the can should be filled within ^ in. of 
the top. In our samples the air space was }i in. in 12, J4 in. in 
17, ^ in. in 6, and ^ in. in i. In seven samples, therefore, there 
was a tendency towards short fill, but inasmuch as in these sam- 
ples the net weights of contents were 614, 591, 585, 593, 579, 577 
and 592 gms., the deficiency was more apparent than real, and is 
probably largely due to slight variations in the dimensions of the 
cans rather than to any shortage of com. 

Six of the cans showed no corrosion, eleven traces, thirteen 
slight, five considerable and one much. 

No saccharin was found in any of the samples. 

The retail cost of the corn ranged from 7 to 16 cents per can, 
average 12 cents. Of course price depends to a considerable 
extent on quality, a matter not specially studied in this report. 

DRIED FRUITS. 

The examination of the one hundred and two samples of dried 
fruits was undertaken primarily to study the variations in 
weight of dried fruits sold in package form, and the losses in 
weight after keeping for several months. The results of these 
studies are given in Bulletin 172 of this station. Incidentally 
some chemical data were secured which are here published 
together with a full description of the samples. The changes in 
weight shown during storage are given in detail, but the discus- 
sion in the bulletin referred to above will not be repeated. 

♦ Bur. of Chera., Bull. 151, 50. 

7 



98 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table I. — 



Manafmctartf, or Jobber, «nd Brand. 



27649 Austin, Nichols & Co., New York. Extra Quality Cream Brand Sugar 
27822 The Baxter Bros. Co.. Brunswick, Me. Sterling Brand Standard 

Grade Sugar 

27622 A. F. Beckmann & Co., New York. Gold Rock Brand Sweet Tender 
27644 The Burt Only Canning Co., Oneida, N. Y. Holiday Brand Sweet. . . 

27906 ** *• ** ** Nectar Brand Sweet j 

27821 *' •* *** ** Rose of Sharon Brand 

Sweet 

37949 The F. C. Bushnell Co., New Haven. Northern Queen Brand Sweet 

Sugar j 

2761 1 Lewis DeGroff & Son. New York. Health Brand Sweet . 

27693 The Fame Canning Co.. Tipton, Ind. Fame Brand Sugar i 

27961 The R. N. Fitz Gerald Co., Hartford. Mascot Brand Fancy Maine. . . 1 

27674 Henry L. Forhan, Portland, Me. Forhan*s Square Brand Fancy Maine i 

Sugar ' 

27793 Henry L. Forhan, Portland, Me. Forhan*s Square Brand Fancy Maine 

Sugar 

27966 Henry L. Forhan, Portland, Me. Lake Brand Maine Sugar 

27806 •* *• ** Sundrop Brand Sugar 

27943 Fort Stanwix Canning Co., Rome, N. Y. Flag Brand Sweet Kernel 

Finest Quality 

27800 The Wm. M. Gecr Co., New York. Half Moon Brand Fancy 

27619 Great Atl. & Pacific Tea Co.. Jersey City, N. J. lona Brand 

27916 Francis H. Leggett & Co.. New York. Premier Brand 

27898 Miner, Read & TuUock. New Haven. Sphinx Brand Sugar 

27995 R- H. Nesbit Co., New Haven. Fancy Maine Sugar 

27996 Oswego Preserving Co., Oswego. N. Y. Magnet Brand Sweet Stand- 

ard Quality 

27925 Oswego Preserving Co., Oswego, N. Y. Silver Key Brand Standard 
Qu^ity Sugar 

27923 Portland Packing Co., Ponland, Me. Red Top Brand Maine Finest 

Sugar First Quality 

27666 Preston Canning Co., Preston. Md. Crown of Maryland Brand Sugar 
27903 Thos. Roberts & Co., Philadelphia. Northern Queen Brand Sweet 

Sugar 

37945 Saco Valley Canning Co.. Portland, Me. Fairfield Brand Sugar 

27612 ** •• *• Falmouth Brand Sugar 

27610 Seeman Bros., New York. White Rose Baby Brand 

27692 R. F. Smith, Norwich. Shetucket Brand Sugar. . 

27924 Sprague, Warner & Co., Chicago. Richelieu Brand 

27893 H. F. Webb Co.. Portland. Me. White Cross Maine Sugar Fine 

Quality 

27676 R. C. Williams & Co.. New York. Famous Royal Scarlet Brand 

Evergreen 

27820 Wilson Canning Co. Mexico, N. Y Lily Brand Sweet 

27905 Winters & Prophet Canning Co., MouVit Morris. N. Y. Empire Sweet 

First Quality 

27922 Winters « Prophet Canning Co., Mount Morris, N. Y. Revere Brand 

Sweet First Quality 

27896 A. F. York, Yarmouthville, Me. Maine Standard 

Maximum 

Minimum 

Average 



CANNED CORN. 



99 



Canned Corn. 



3 
i 

1 


Si 


1 
1 




i 


-5 

1" 




•s 


1 


1 


cts. 


inns. 


gms. 


gnw. 


gms. 


in. 




* 


* 


9 


ii8 


724 


1 10 


614 


yi 


SI. 


80.76 


19.24 


12 


130 


702 


q8 


604 


H 


Tr. 


78.45 


21.55 


12 


122 


692 


103 


589 


^ 


SI. 


7924 


20.76 


15 


138 


710 


103 


607 


H 


Cons. 


77.31 


22.69 


10 


146 


689 


97 


592 


H 


SI. 


75.40 


24.60 


12 


140 


703 


100 


603 


}i 


t( 


76.73 


23.27 


lO 


.120 


697 


102 


595 


H 


Tr. 


79.81 


20.19 


15 


138 


713 


105 


608 




** 


77.31 


22.69 


lO 


"7 


703 


102 


601 


^ 


Cons. 


80.46 


19.54 


15 


135 


689 


98 


591 


H 


Tr. 


77.20 


22.80 


13 


131 


686 


lOI 


585 


H 


SI. 


77.59 


22.41 


lO 


108 


693 


107 


586 


'A 


None. 


81.65 


18.35 


10 


117 


680 


99 


581 


}i 


SI. 


79.94 


20.06 


ID 


135 


712. 


100 


612 


H 


** 


77.91 


22.09 


10 


147 


693 


100 


593 


H 


«« 


75.20 


24.80 


12 


121 


680 


lOI 


579 


H 


None. 


79.12 


20.88 


lO 


122 


680 


403 


577 


8 


Tr. 


78.88 


21.12 


13 


127 


710 


104 


606 




None. 


79.02 


20.98 


lO 


128 


702 


100 


602 


l^ 


Cons. 


78.80 


21.20 


15 


128 


699 


104 


595 


}i 


Tr. 


78.46 


21.54 


12 


130 


702 


lOI 


601 


H 


Much. 


78.41 


21.59 


lO < 


135 


703 


lOI 


602 


}4 


Cons. 


77.62 


22.38 


15 


109 


686 


lOl 


585 


H 


SI. 


81.40 


18.60 


8 


122 


700 


104 


596 


}i 


Tr. 


79-58 


20.42 


7 


"3 


691 


100 


591 


H 


SI. 


80.94 


'2-'^ 


lO 


109 


698 


99 


599 




Tr. 


81.82 


18.18 


12 


112 


677 


99 


578 


ii 


Cons. 


80.67 


19.33 


I6 


144 


695 


105 


590 


X 


Tr. 


75.66 


24.34 


13 


121 


685 


103 


582 


H 


None. 


79.17 


20.83 


15 


108 


670 


99 


571 


}i 


Tr. 


81.08 


18.92 


13 


149 


713 


103 


6io 


H 


None. 


75.56 


24.44 


13 


127 


699 


lOI 


598 


H 


SI. 


78.80 


21.20 


12 


126 


680 


96 


• 584 


X 


Tr. 


78.39 


21.61 


15 


122 


695 


100 


559 


H 


SI. 


79-55 


20.45 


15 


132 


690 


99 


591 


H 


None. 


77.71 


22.29 


ID 


95 


662 


102 


560 


}i 


SI. 


83.04 


16.96 


Id 


'49 


7^4 


no 


614 


^ 


.... 


8304 


24.80 


7 


95 


662 


q6 


560 


^ 


• • • • 


75'^o 


i6.g6 


12 


126 


694 


lOI 


593 


^ 





78,8s 


2I,IS 



lOO CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table II. — Dried 



27931 
27608 

27885 

28002 
27829 
27984 
27909 

27913 
27501 
27743 
27799 

27908 



28001 
27883 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



AppUs. 
American Fruit Product Co., Rochester, N. Y. Choice Evap. King Apples 
Austin, Nichols & Co., New York. Hudson Brand Evap. Apples 

Bown Bros., Despatch, N. Y. Star Brand Evap. Apples 

W. T. Gaylord, Jr., Sodus, N. Y. Snow Flake Choice Evap. Apples 

W. T. Gaylord, Jr., Sodus. N. Y. Snow Flake Choice Evap. Apples 

Gold Medal Brand Evap. Apples, Baldwin's 

Hartmann & Bums, Rochester, N. Y. Gold Ribbon Brand Choice Evap. 

Apples 

Hartmann & Burns, Rochester, N. Y. York State Brand Evap. Apples 

Wm. A. Higgins & Co., New York. Chariot Evap. Apples 

J. J. Smith, Newark, N. Y. Perfection Brand Extra Choice Evap. Apples. . 
, J. Smith, Newark, N. Y. Choice Perfection Brand Evap. Apples 

A. B. Williams Fruit Co., Sodus, N. Y. Puritan Brand Extra Fancy Evap. 
Apples 



Apricots, 
The F. C. Bushnell Co., New Haven. Butter-nut Fancy Evap. Apricots. . . 

R. C. Williams & Co., New York. Famous Royal Scarlet Brand Fancy- 
Apricots 



Apples. 

Eight of the twelve samples of apples were labeled "Sulphured.** 
In only two samples could sulphur dioxide be detected, the 
amounts present being 1.2 and 0.9 mgm. per 100 gms. of fruit. 
The absence of sulphurous acid or the presence of these very- 
small quantities is explained by the fact that apples are dried with 
artificial heat, and after bleaching with the fumes of burning- 
sulphur the drying is effected so quickly that the sulphurous acid 
dextrose compound is rarely formed and even if formed generally 
disappears completely during storage. Several of the samples 
contained noticeable amounts of core, decayed spots, and in one 
case seeds. Two samples consisted mostly of small pieces and 
were of inferior quality. 



DRIED APPLES AND APRICOTS. 

Apples and Apricots. 



lOI 



Cliinii erf LabaU 



Net weight when packed i lb. 
Net weight when packed i6qz. 

Sulphur bleached. ....... 

''Sulphured" indistinctly 

stamped... ., 

SiJ I phured 

Sulphured 

Sulphured 

Sulphured 

Sul phur Processed ........... 

f '* Prepared by Sulphur Pro- 
J cess which retains nil the 
1 natural properties of fresh 

l^ apples" 

Bleached with Sulphur. » , 



Net weight. 




1 

i 

1 


mi 

i 

CIS, 


< 


n 


Dl. 


ox. 




cts. 


IS. 3 


13 2 


70 


14 


14.6 


r4"0 


12.8 


as 


IS 


20.6 


II.O 


10.7 


71 


15 


2t.8 


13-7 
13^3 

12.6 


12.4 
10,3 
11.9 


64 
75 

6B 


15 
12 

13 


n 5 
[4.4 

16.5 


13-9 


13.0 


7r 


15 f7'3! 


13.6 
13/4 
13^4 
ta.6 


11. T 

[0.6 
II. 4 
11.3 


71 

79 
76 


15 
12 

IS 


17,6 

14*3 
17*9 
19.0 


td.s 


13.7 


71 


20 


22.1 


^3*5 


12.7 


64 


IS 


21.3 


15. X 


13.6 


76 


25 


36. S 



Some slightly moldy 

Some decay; poor condition 

Some decay 

Some decay; many small pieces 

Some decay 

Some decay; many small pieces 

A good many seeds 



57.4 mgms. SO4 per 100 gms. 
A few worms ; casts ; in bad 

condition 
56.7 mgms. SOi per too gms. 
Good condition 



The apples cost from 12 to 20 cents per package, weighing 
at time of purchase from 11 to 15.3 ozs., the cost per pound of 
fruit ranging from 14.3 to 22.1 cents. 

Apricots. 

Both samples of apricots contained sulphur dioxide, No. 28001, 
574 mgms. and No. 27883) 56.7 mgms. per 100 gms. of fruit; 
in the former sample the presence of the bleaching agent was not 
declared on the label. This sample was also in bad condition, 
containing a few live worms, and many insect casts. 

The apricots cost 18 and 25 cents per package, weighing at 
time of purchase 13.5 and 15.1 ozs., making the cost per pound of 
fruit 21.3 and 26.5 cents, respectively. 



lOa CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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CURRANTS. 



103 



Currants. 

Eighteen samples were examined, all but two being labeled as 
cleaned or washed currants. Currants are commonly dried on 
sand, and unless later carefully cleaned may contain considerable 
mineral impurity. The total ash in the samples ranged from 
1.92 to 3.61, average, 2.37 per cent.; the ash insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid (sand) from 0.06 to 1.61, average, 0.39 per cent.; 
the ash soluble in hydrochloric acid from 1.76 to 2.18, average, 
1.98 per cent. 'Total ash is hardly a criterion as to the amount 
of mineral impurity, as the presence of varying amounts of seeds 
would affect the ash content. Insoluble ash, however, shows 
very closely the amount of sand. Three samples contained less 



Table IV. — Dates and Prunes. 



27639 
27878 
27613 

27659 
27641 

27777 
27640 
27810 

26938 
27881 



Bfanufacturer and Brand. 



Austin, Nichols & Co., New York. Sunbeam Pure 

Food Golden Dates 

Austin, Nichols &, Co., New York. Sunbeam Pure 

Food Piued Dates 

The Hills Bros. Co.. New York. Dromedary 

Brand Golden Dates 

The Hills Bros. Co.. New York. Royal Excelsor 

Selected Hallowi Dates 

Frank P. Kruger, New York. Purity Brand 

Persian Dates 

E. A. O'Kelly & Co.. Marseille. O'K Dattes 

Muscades sur Choix 

Palmer & Pierce, New York. Orient Brand 

Golden Dates 

R. C. Williams & Co., New York. Pitted Dates 

Hallowee, First Quality 



Prums, 
The Very Best Prunes Gold Medal Brand Pitted. 

Santa Clara Co.. Cal 

Lawrence Russell, Saratoga. Cal. Russell Brand 

Extra Fancy Saratoga Prunes 



Net weight. 






16. I* 
12. 5t 
13.3 

O.I 
12.0 

9.2t 

II. 5 
10.4 



15.7 
10.8 

12.5 
9.3 

II. 2 

7.3 

10.8 
9.4 



13.5 11.3 
15.4 13. 1 



144 
133 
144 
142 
143 
135 
143 
134 

150 
133 



P 
II 



9.9 
19.2 
14.4 
15.8 
13.3 
43.5 
13.9 
18.5 

17.8 
17.7 



* Claimed net wgt. when packed 16 oz. 

! Claimed net wgrt. when packed 12 oz. 
In pasteboard box with loose cover. 



I04 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

than 0.10 per cent., namely, 0.06, 0.04 and 0.09, and show how 
thoroughly it is possible to clean a high-grade article. Eight 
samples contained from 0.15 to 040 per cent., five from 0.41 to 
0.64, and one 1.61 per cent, insoluble ash. The two samples 
containing the highest percentages were the only ones making no 
claims for superior cleanliness on the label. Samples containing 
over 0.25 per cent, of sand cannot justly be called "clean." 

Table V.- 



Statimi 
No. 



27819 
27809 
27665 

27770 
27947 

27982 
27660 
27776 
27988 
27811 
27805 
27918 

27774 
27731 

27948 

27987 
27910 
27880 
27775 

27733 
27732 
27879 
27603 
27773 
27792 
27711 
27919 

27983 



Manufmcturer and Brand. 



Arguimbau & Ram6e, New York. Arm6e Brand Smyrna Figs 

Arm6e Brand Fancy Figs 

Ann6e Superbos Brand Extra Fancy Locoums Washed and Con- 
served Figs 

Austin, Nichols & Co., New York. Anco Washed Figs 

Sunbeam Pure Food Washed 
Figs. 



Bengal Brand Washed Figs (Serial No. 14902) 

W. A. Camp & Co., New York. Antler Brand Washed Figs 

** *• ** Jester Brand Washed Figs 

J. C. Carpenter Fig Co., Houston, Tex. Imperial Skinless Figs. . 

Cresca Figs 

Guggenhine & Co., California. Pansy Brand California Figs 

Hills Bros. Co., New York. Choice Anchor Brand Washed and 
Conserved Figs 

Hills Bros. Co., New York. Coronet Brand Smyrna Figs 

•* ** *' Dromedary Brand Washed and Con- 
served Figs 

Hills Bros. Co., New York. Liberty Bell Brand Washed and 
Conserved Figs 

Imperial Brand Oriental Washed Figs. . . 

Lesbian Fruit Co. Lesbian Brand Washed Figs Extra Quality. . . 

Antoine Reggio & Co., Smyrna, Turkey. Turkey Brand Figs. . . . 

Rosenberg Bros. & Co., San Francisco, Cal. Sultan Brand Fancy 
California Figs 

Seeman Bros., New York. White Rose Brand Smyrna Figs 

Smyrna Fruit Co. Erbeyly Brand Pulled Figs 

*• *' Erbeyly Brand Superior Quality Figs 

Van Dyk & Catrevas. Imperial Brand Washed Figs 



White Lily Sterilized Selected Pulled Figs, Packed in Turkey 

R. C. Williams & Co., New York. The Famous Royal Scarlet 

Brand Fresh Figs 

R. C. Williams & Co., New York. Vizier Brand Smyrna Figs 



Style of 
package. 



Box 

Jar 

Basket 
Tumbler 

Jar 

Box 
Basket 

Jar 

Basket 

Paper 

Basket 
Box 



Basket 
«• 

Box 
Paper 



Basket 
Box 

Basket 
Box 

Box 

Jar 
Basket 



DATES. 



loS 



The cost ranged from 9 to 15 cents per package, weighing at 
time of purchase from 10.3 to 15 ozs., the cost per pound of 
fruit ranging from 10 to 16.8 cents. 

Dates, 
No chemical data were secured with the eight samples of dates. 
The cost ranged from 10 to 25 cents per package, weighing at 



Figs. 



j 




Polarization. 












"S 






•li 






s 










I 

1 


1 


\ 


ii» 


1^ 


1§ 
1^ 


Claims of Labels. 




cts. 


o«. 








mgms. 






10 


5.5 


- 7.16 


- 8.36 


2.78 





Washed and conserved in corn 


syrup. 


25 


12. 1 


- 3.98 


- 4.76 


2.40 





Prepared with corn syrup. 




20 


II. 7 


- 8.16 


- 9.04 


2.58 





Prepared in com syrup. 




19 


9.2 


-11.88 


—12.28 


0.40 









18 


9.5 


- 9.90 


— 11.06 


2.00 





Prepared with sugar and corn syrup. 


10 


5.9 


- 7.16 


- 7.96 


1.20 









10 


5.6 


-17.04 


-17.40 


1.44 





Prepared with pure com syrup 


, 


25 


14.7 


—11.96 


— 11.56 


0.60 





Prepared with corn symp. 




35 


18.5 


+32.40 


- 9.68 


.... 









30 


14.3* 


- 7.52 


- 7.92 


2.78 





Prepared with corn syrap. 




9 


9.2 


—18.30 


-18.48 


0.36 


16.6 


Bleached with sulphur. 




25 


9-9 


— 11.58 


—12.40 


1.40 





Prepared with com syrup. 




10 


5.8 


— 12.38 


— 12.76 


1. 00 





Washed and conserved in corn 


syrup. 


10 


5.5 


— 9.18 


— 9.16 


3.00 





Conserved in corn syrup. 




25 


10.6 


- 8.98 


— 9.60 


2.00 





Prepared with corn syrup. 




22 


12.0 


- 8.32 


- 8.72 


1.20 









10 


4.9 


- 4.00 


— 4.20 


2.20 









14 


10.9 


- 9.94 


—10.32 


1.40 









5 


3.5 


-18.34 


—18.32 


0.00 


45.3 






30 


13.2 


-13.96 


-13.92 


0.00 





Prepared with sugar and corn 


syrap. 


25 


14.6 


-II. 04 


—12.76 


0.60 





tt 1* «t ti «( 


i( 


25 


13. 8t 


- 7.98 


- 8.76 


2.00 





it (» (t •( (t 


(< 


10 


4.7 


- 8.18 


- 9.76 


3.08 





Prepared with corn syrup. 




25 


II. 2 


— 8.00 


— 8.40 


2.60 





<t t( ti 1* 




15 


9.7 


- 8.76 


- 9.96 


1.80 





It «i <i (» 




30 


13. 1 


— 12.36 


-12.76 


1. 00 









35 


13.0 


- 4.80 


— 6.00 


0.80 





Prepared with corn syrup. 




23 


13.0 


— 11.98 


— 11.60 


1.40 





Prepared with sugar and corn 


syrup. 



* Claimed i lb. net weight. 



f Claimed 13.5 oz. net when packed. 



Io6 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2. 



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GLUTEN AND SPECIAL FOODS. I07 

time of purchase from 9.2 to 16. i ozs., the cost per pound of 
fruit ranging from 9.9 to 43.5 cents, an extremely wide variation. 

Figs. 

Twenty-eight samples were examined, nineteen of which were 
labeled as prepared with corn syrup and five as prepared with 
sugar as well. The polarizations showed wide variations, direct 
at 22** C. from — 3.98 to — 18.34; after inversion at 22° C. from 
— ^4.20 to — 18.48; after inversion at 87° C. from ±0.00 to 
4-3.08. Neither the amount of cane sugar or glucose used was 
large in any case, except in 27988 where the figs were packed 
in sugar syrup. 

Two samples contained sulphur dioxide, No. 27805, 16.6 
mgms., and No. 27775, 45.3 mgms. per 100 gms. of figs ; in the 
latter sample the sulphur dioxide was not declared on the label. 

The size and nature of the packages of figs varied so much 
that a comparison as to cost is hardly satisfactory. 

Prunes, 

The cost of the two samples was 15 and 17 cents per package, 
wdgfaing 13.5 and 15.4 ozs., respectively, at time of purchase. 

Raisins. 

Thirty-two samples of raisins were examined. Only one sam- 
ple contained sulphur dioxide. No. 27820, a brand of Sultana 
raisins, containing 17.3 mgms. per 100 gms. of raisins; this was 
not declared on the label. 

The cost ranged from 9 to 25 cents per package, weighing at 
time of purchase from 114 to 16.6 ozs., the cost per pound of 
fruit ranging from 9.6 to 26.8 cents. 

GLUTEN AND SPECIAL FOODS. 

Eleven samples of gluten foods and similar preparations were 
examined. While some of these were not specially recommended 
for use by diabetics, the chief use of a gluten preparation is to 
provide a food rich in nitrogenous compounds and as poor as 
possible in starch. Some of these samples are excellent from this 
standpoint, while others contain so much starch that their claims 



Io8 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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GLUTEN AND SPECIAL FOODS. I09 

to be diabetic foods are unfounded if not fraudulent, and their 
use by diabetic patients attended with considerable danger. 

Akoll Biscuit has high percentages of protein and fat, and a 
very low content of starch. 

Brusson Diabetic Brecui, while it exceeds its protein guaranty, 
cannot be recommended for use by diabetics because of its high 
starch content, over 40 per cent. 

Barker^s Cluten Food makes no specific claim on its label, yet 
it contains nearly 87 per cent, of protein, higher than any other 
sample examined, and no starch whatever. 

Soy Bean Gruel Flour (Cereo Co.) contains a fairly high per- 
centage of protein, high fat and only a trace of starch. It con- 
tains about 9 per cent, of cane sugar, doubtless added to increase 
its palatability. 

20% Gluten Meal (Kellc^g's) bears this statement on the label, 
"It is claimed for 20% Gluten that a large portion of the starch 
has been removed, and experience shows that it is better adapted 
to all but exceptional cases than is pure Gluten, besides being 
more palatable and less expensive." While it is true that modem 
medical practice in diabetes permits the use of food containing 
as much starch as the patient can normally assimilate, it would 
certainly be an "exceptional case" where a preparation containing 
nearly 50 per cent, of starch could be recommended for a suflferer 
from diabetes. 

40% Gluten (Kellc^gf's) bears these statements: *Tret)ared by 
a process which almost wholly excludes all the elements with the 
exception of gluten," "This food is absolutely indispensable to 
persons suflFering with Diabetes, a disease which is better con- 
trolled by its use than by any other known means." A preparation 
containing nearly 32 per cent, of starch cannot be said to have the 
starch "abnost wholly" excluded. A food containing so much 
starch cannot be "absolutely indispensable" to diabetics, and that 
by the use of such a food diabetes is better controlled "than by 
any other known means" is of more than doubtful truthfulness. 
The following sample bears exactly the same claim, which 
obviously cannot be true for both of two such dissimilar products. 

80% Gluten (Kellogg's) bears exactly the same claims as the 
40% Gluten. This preparation is a high-grade article, containing 
over 81 per cent, of protein and only a small amount of starch. 



no CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

The above claim, relieved of some of its exaggeration, might 
fairly be applied to a food of this nature. 

' Arena-Gluten Biscuit Mixture (Kellogg^s) claims to be made 
from oatmeal and wheat gluten "especially for the use of Dia- 
betics." Once more we repeat that a material ccmtaining 41 
per cent, of starch is not safe or desirable food to recommend 
generally for diabetics. 

40% Gluten Biscuit (Kellogg's) claims "Good for Well 
Folks — Best for Diabetics — Well for All Folks." Containing as 
it does 35 per cent, of starch it certainly is not "best for dia- 
betics." 

80% Gluten Biscuit (Kellogg's) bears the same claim as the 
preceding sample and with ipuch more justification. It contains 
over 82 per cent, of proteui and less than 5 per cent, of starch. 

Break f cist Toast (Kellogg's) claims to be "prepared from 
whole wheat bread made from hulled wheat flour dextrinized, 
partly predigested. Retains all the food value of wheat." How 
"hulled" wheat flour can make "whole" wheat bread is diflScult 
to understand. The claim for partial predigestion probably rests 
on the assertion that the flour is^ dextrinized. It has been dex- 
trinized only in small part, as over 57 per cent, of raw starch 
remains. 

The preparation of foods containing much gluten and little 
starch is an expensive process and high prices must be charged 
for the resultant foods. But when a diabetic patient pays a high 
price for a food which is claimed to meet his particular needs, 
and analysis shows that the food is utterly unfitted for his require- 
ments, he is defrauded and, depending on the manufacturer's 
claims, pays his good money for a food which may work actual 
harm upon him. 

For convenience of reference the various analyses of diabetic 
and gluten preparations made at this station since 1906 are col- 
lected in arable Vila. Sixty-four other analyses made by this 
station are given in the Report for 1906, page 156. 

HONEY. 
The official standard for honey is as follows : 

"Honey is the nectar and saccharine exudations of plants gathered, 
modified and stored in the comb by honey bees {Apis mellifica and A, 
dorsata) ; is laevo-rotatory, contains not more than twenty-five (25) 



GLUTEN AND SPECIAL FOODS. 



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112 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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HONEY. 113 

per cent of water, not more than twenty-five hundredths (0.25) per cent, 
of ash, and not more than eight (8) per cent, of sucrose." 

"Chemically considered, the ideal honey is a concentrated solution of 
invert sugar (i. e. of the sugars dextrose and levulose in equal propor- 
tions), with traces of ash, formic acid, nitrogenous bodies, dextrin, and 
other organic substances not sugar. This ideal type of honey, unfor- 
tunately, is the exception, since the impurities so generally introduced by 
bees from plant juices, honeydew, and other sources affect the composition 
of honey to a very marked degfree. A limit, even if it be an arbitrary 
one, must therefore be set for the percentage of such impurities, in order 
that a suitable standard may be maintained for the composition of honeys 
sold upon the market."* 

The adulterants most commonly used at present in honey are 
cane sugar, commercial glucose and invert sugar. Cane sugar 
may either be introduced directly or by feeding it to the bees. 
Glucose in the past has been the most conmion adulterant of 
honey. It closely resembles honey in color and consistence, and 
its ability to prevent granulation even when used in very small 
quantities is a strong incentive to its use. Invert sugar has long 
been a favorite adulterant of honey, and as honey itself consists 
of nearly three-quarters invert sugar, its detection is rather 
diflScult. The present examination was confined chiefly to the 
three adulterants just enumerated. 

Twenty-six samples of bottled strained honey were analyzed. 
Nos. 27600, 27098, 27699, 27600, 27636, 27708, 27801, 27894, 
87920 and 27967 showed more or less granulation. The color 
ranged from almost colorless to brown. 

The methods of analysis used were essentially those employed by 
Browne (see reference above). To avoid the error due to birotation, the 
solutions were allowed to stand for twenty hours before making the 
direct polarization. In many of the samples crystallization had begun; 
these were carefully heated to 45* to 50* C until complete solution was 
effected, and the samples then cooled to room temperature. 

Direct polarization was made at 22® and 87^ C, and the invert polariza- 
tion at the same temperatures. Invert sugar was determined as total 
reducing sugars, using 10 gms. of honey, and 2 cc. of alumina cream 
making up to 50 cc. with water. After filtering, 10 cc of the filtrate was 
made up to 200 cc with water, and 20 cc (= .2 gm. honey) used for the 
determination. Free acidity is reported as formic acid, although it is 
recognized that other acids may be present 



* Browne: U. S. Dcpt Agl. Bur. of Chem., BulL no, p. 10. 
8 



114 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table VIII. 



Manufacturer and Brand. 



27599 *W. H. Archer, Port Chester, N. Y. Warranted Pure White Clover 

Honey » 

27598 'Austin, Nichols and Co.. New York. Busy Bee Brand Pure Extracted 

Honey 

27673 'Austin, Nichols and Co., New York. Sunbeam Pure Food Honey. . 
27894 *A. C. Bristol, Meriden. Pure Honey 

27600 *H. W. Coley. Westport. Warranted Pure Honey 

27772 *Lewis DeGroff and Son, New York. Health Brand Pure Honey 

27S84*W. H. Dickinson, Middletown. Extracted Honey Warranted Pure. . 

27791 *Falcon Packing Co., New York. Falcon Brand Pure Honey 

27986 *W. D. Foote, Westville. Pure Honey 

27771 'C. S. Guernsey, Thomaston 

27769 *C. P. Heinze, Woodbury 

27968 'Hildreth and Segelken, New York. Pure California White Sage Honey 
27808 'Humbert and Andrews, Brooklyn, N. Y. Acme Brand Pure Strained 

Honey 

27942 *W. J. Lamb Co., W. Somenrille, Mass. Pure Florida Honey 

27708 'P. W. Latham and Co., Norwich. Gusu-anteed Pure Honey 

27597 'Francis H. Leggettand Co., New York.» Premier Pure Strained Honey 

27601 *Jos. M. McCane and Son, New York. Orange Bloom Brand Pure 

Honey 

27985 JMontclair Jam Kitchens, Montclair, N. J. Highest Grade Honey. .... 
27500 "New England Maple Syrup Co., Boston. Golden Tree Pure Honey 

27602 'Frank L. Park. White Plains, N. Y. Warranted Pure Honey 

27734 *The Royal Cheese Co., Detroit, Mich. Royal B Absolutely Pure 

Honey 

27967 'Simpson Spring Co., So. Easton, Mass. Gold Label Pure Honey 

27804 'Simpson Spring Co., So. Easton, Mass. Victor Brand Pure Honey.. 
27636 'Vermont Maple Syrup Co., New Haven. Pride of the Farm Brand 

Pure Honey 

27920 *R. C. Williams and Co., New York. Famous Royal Scarlet Brand 

Pure Honey 

27672 *R. C. Williams and Co., New York. Famous Royal Scarlet Brand 

Pure Honey 

Maximum 

Minimum 

Average 



'Nearly colorless. 



'Pale straw color. 
*Yellow brown. 



•Deep straw color. 
•Brown. 



♦Yellow. 



Polarisation, The direct polarization ranged from — 24 to — 27.5, 
average, —156, at 22** C, and from +1.5 to +20.0, average +9.2, at 87° C. 
The invert polarization ranged from — 5.94 to — ^31.24, at 22" C, and from 
±0.0 to +19.2, at 87* C. Browne has pointed out (see reference above) 



HONEY. 



"5 



Honey. 









Polarization. 




E« 




1 


h 




Direct. 


Invert. 


1 




u 


2 


f 






1 


1 






aa«C. 


87»C. 


aa« C. By" C. 


Differ- 
ence. 


i 


cts. 


OS. 


cts. 






• J 










15 


7.4 


32.4 


-16.6 


+ 9-0 


-19.58 


+ 5.2 


24.78 


74.30 


0.12 


0.25 


10 


7.7 


20.8 


—15.3 


+ 9-0 


-19.47 


4- 6.0 


25.47 


70.70 


0.09 


0.04 


10 


U.9 


32.7 


-14.0 


+ 8.4 


— 21.78 


4- 6.8 


28.58 


66.60 


0.06 


0.06 


25 


14.8 


27.0 


-15.6 


-4- 8.0 


—18.26 


4- 8.0 


26.26 


72.15 


0.14 


0.17 


25 


14.6 


27.4 


-17.0 


+ 6.6 


— 20.24 


4- 6.0 


26.24 


74.75 


0.17 


O.II 


25 


12.9 


31.0 


—15.4 


+ 8.2 


—20.46 


4- 6.6 


27.06 


66.80 


0.12 


0.24 


35 


22.3 


25.1 


- 9.3 


+ 15.5 


-13.64 


4-10.6 


24.24 


67.90 


0.09 


0.14 


15 


5.3 


45.3 


-17.2 


-4- 9.2 


-20.35 


+ 7.8 


28.15 


72.45 


0.09 


0.09 


20 


10.7 


30.0 


-23.3 


+ 6.8 


-25.96 


4- 5.0 


30.96 


71.20 


0.£0 


0.18 


25 


15.7 


25.5 


- 2.4 


+ 19.6 


— 6.27 


4-17.0 


23.27 


66.45 


o.i5 


0.35 


25 


n.6 


34.5 


- 2.9 


+20.0 


- 5.94 


-I- 19-2 


25.14 


68.45 


O.IO 


0.26 


10 


6.8 


23.5 


-21.4 


+ 6.0 


-23.32 


+ 5.6 


28.92 


73.20 


0.08 


0.12 


25 


18.7 


21.4 


-15.4 


4-10.2 


—21.12 


4- 8.0 


29.12 


71.45 


0.08 


0.18 


25 


14.5 


27.6 


-24.7 


4- 2.6 


-27.50 


4- 2.0 


29.50 


69.35 


0.12 


o.ia 


18 


10.5 


27.4 


- 9.2 


+ 14.3 


-13.64 


4-I0.4 


24.04 


72.20 


0.09 


0.23 


10 


•6.9 


23.2 


-17.0 


+ 7.8 


— 25.08 


4- 4.8 


29.88 


70.50 


0.07 


0.06 


15 


•7.2 


33.3 


-12.5 


4-10.8 


-21.45 


+ 5.0 


26.45 


65.45 


0.13 


O.IO 


25 


17.0 


23.5 


-13. 1 


4-11.4 


-15.40 


4- 8.0 


23.40 


73.20 


0.07 


0.36 


10 


6.7 


23.9 


-15. b 


4- 7.6 


-20.79 


+ 5.8 


26.59 


76.53 


0.08 


0.04 


25 


14.7 


27.2 


-27.5 


4- 1.5 


-31.24 


± 0.0 


31.24 


73.25 


0.14 


O.I5 


10 


6.4 


25.0 


—20.1 


-{- 6.3 


— 25.08 


4- 6.2 


31.28 


73.70 


0.07 


0.03 


10 


4.5 


25.6 


-17.6 


+ 7.3 


-23.32 


4- 6.0 


29.32 


71.50 


0.07 


0.09 


10 


6.3 


25.4 


-18.2 


4- 9.0 


— 19.80 


+ 7.4 


27.20 


74 60 


O.IO 


0.21 


10 


8.8 


18.2 


—20.0 


4- 2.0 


-23.32 


4- 2.0 


25.32 


72.90 


0.09 


0.18 


10 


5.3 


30.2 


-14.0 


4-10.8 


— 20.24 


4- 8.0 


28.24 


71.45 


0.07 


0.09 


25 


13.8 


29.0 


-11.3 


+ 10.5 


-22.88 


4- 6.0 


28.88 


71.05 


0.06 


0.06 






45.3 
18.2 


-27.5 


4-20.0 


-31.24 


4-19.2 


31.28 


76.53 


0.17 


0.36 






I.J8 


+ 1.5 


- 5.94 


± 0.0 


23.27 


65.45 


0.06 


0.03 






27.9 


4- 9.2 


—20.24 


4-7.05 


27.29 1 71.23 


O.IO 10.15 



'Claimed net wgt., 4X oz. "Claimed net wgt., about s% oz. 
'Claimed net wgt., about 8 oz. 



that the difference between the invert polarizations at 2ol^ and 87^ C is 
fairly constant for nearly all honeys, 95 per cent, of the samples he exam- 
ined ranging from 23 to 30. The range of difference in our samples may 
be summarized as follows: — 



Il6 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

No. of Degrees 

Samples. Ventzke. 

S 23-25 

7 25-27 

7 27-29 

4 29-30 

3 30-32 

The range was from 23.27 to 3i-28» average, 27.29, as compared with 
Browne's average of 26.71 for pure honey. There is nothing in these 
values, considered by themselves, to indicate any adulteration in our 
samples. 

Calculation of sucrose in honey by the Clerget formula may introduce 
an error, in some cases exceeding one per cent Such a calculation may 
be used, however, as a rough means of determining the presence of 
excessive sucrose. By this formula our samples showed from 1.22 to 
8.80 per cent, sucrose, values which are probably too high in all cases. 
As the official standard permits as much as 8 per cent, of sucrose, all 
these samples may be considered as satisfying the standard in this 
respect 

Commercial Glucose, The A. O. A. C method for estimating glucose 
in honey consists in polarizing the inverted solution at 87" C, multiply- 
ing this reading by 100 and dividing by 163. The fact that all honeys 
are more or less dextrorotatory at 87**, makes it necessary to use extreme 
caution in this method of calculating glucose. 

Another method of calculation, much used in Europe, is based upon 
the variation in the invert polarization of the sample from the average * 
polarization of pure honey. Using Browne's values for pure honey 

this formula would be y = ^'^ , in which y = per cent of commercial 

193 
glucose and P = invert polarization Ventzke of normal weight of sample. 
This method, while giving somewhat better results than the A. O. A. C 
method, makes no allowance for the wide range in the invert polarization 
of pure honeys ( — 29.26 to +14.96), thus making possible a considerable 
error. 

Browne suggests still a third method of calculation based upon the 
lowering of the difference in invert polarization between 20" and 87** C; 
this difference he found to average 26.7. The difference in invert 
polarization between 20** and 87° C. is multiplied by 77, the average 
percentage of invert sugar after inversion for pure honey, and this 
product is divided by the percentage of invert sugar after inversion found 
in the sample. This quotient multiplied by 100 and divided by 26.7, gives 
the percentage of pure honey in the sample. 

All the samples were tested by these three methods of calculation. 
Only five samples were somewhat suspicious because of the rather high 
plus polarization at 87". The figures were as follows: 





HONEY. 






Per cent, of GlncoM 


u 




A. 0. A. C. European 
Method. Method. 


Browne 


No. 


Method. 


27708 


6.38 2.00 


4.1 


27769 


".78 5.99 





27771 


1043 S.82 





27884 


6.54 2.00 





27985 


4.91 1.09 


7.9 



117 



Owing to the existing uncertainty in all these methods of calculation 
the Beckmann test* was applied to these doubtful samples. The results 
were negative in each case. 

Invert Sugar. The invert sugar ranged from 65.45 to 76.53, average, 
71.23 per cent., all well within the limits for pure honey. It is possible 
that some of the lower percentages may be due to the presence of 
excessive water, but this point was not determined. All the samples were 
tested for added invert sugar by Ley's ammoniacal-silver testf and by the 
anilin-acetate testt. In four cases the latter test gave slight indications 
of the presence of added invert sugar, but no absolutely positive results. 

Free Acidity. The free acidity, calculated as formic, ranged from 0.06 
to 0.17, average, 0.10 per cent., all well within the usual accepted limits. 

Ash. The ash ranged from 0.03 to 0.36, average, 0.15 per cent., only 
two samples exceeding the standard's maximum, 0.25 per cent. 

Summary. 

While in a few cases certain tests indicate the presence of a 
small amount of glucose, and in two instances the percentage 
of ash exceeds the standard, we do not feel justified in condemn- 
ing any sample as adulterated or otherwise illegal. There are 
wide variations in quality but all the samples appear to be genuine 
honeys of varying origins. 

In three samples a definite net weight was claimed ; in two of 
these the weight delivered considerably exceeded that claimed; 
in 27601, however, there was a shortage of ten per cent. The 
cost per pound of honey ranged from 18.2 to 45.3 cents, with an 
average of 27.9 cents, depending to some degree on the size of 
the package, and probably, in certain cases, on the quality of the 
hcmey. 



♦ Zeit anaL Chem., 1896, 33, 267. 
t Pharm. Zeit., 1902, 4/, 603. 
t Bur. of Chem., Bull. 110, 68. 



Il8 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

RICE. 

Partly in response to a popular demand for a perfectly white 
product, and partly to make a low-grade article appear of supe- 
rior quality, the practice of "facing^" or "polishing" rice has 
become very general. Formerly the polishing was eflfected by 
shaking the rice in a bag of sheepskin or other suitable material 
Of late, however, the rice has been polished either by the use of 
paraffin oil or by talc in connection with a small amount of 
glucose. The word "talc" is used here in a broad sense. It is 
almost impossible to identify absolutely the mineral matter used, 
for f rench chalk, talc and steatite, substances whose use has been 
suggested, show relatively small diflferences in composition as 
regards their chief ingredients, silica, magnesia and iron and 
alumina. 

The use of talc or similar polishing material is objectionable 
for several reasons. It is entirely unnecessary, for if polishing 
must be practiced there are other methods less objectionable. 
Moreover the demand for white rice is a whimsical fancy of the 
purchaser, to satisfy which a part of the nutriment of the rice 
is removed. The amount of foreign mineral matter present is' 
sometimes sufficient to materially aflfect the weight, which is 
fraudulent. Furthermore the presence of even small quantities 
of insoluble mineral matter may be injurious to health because of 
the irritation it causes and because of the possible formation of 
foecal concretions. 

It is quite probable that nearly all the polished rice shipped in 
interstate commerce is so branded as to declare the presence of 
foreign mineral matter, but it is also true that the retail purchaser 
is seldom advised of the contamination, when he purchases rice 
in bulk. In the case of the forty-four samples purchased by us 
and the eighteen purchased by the Dairy Commissioner, the 
agent was not informed in a single instance that he was buying 
polished rice, although over half of the samples were certainly 
thus polished. 

In the present examination only total ash and ash insoluble in 
hydrochloric acid were determined. Genuine unpolished rice 
should not contain over 0.30 to 0.40 per cent, of ash, and only a 
very small part of this should be insoluble in hydrochloric acid. 
The amount of acid-soluble ash is a fairly constant quantity in 



RICE. 



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I20 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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RICE. 



121 



both polished and unpolished rice. The appearance of the ash 
is also of value in judging as to the presence of talc. Unpolished 
rice gives a fused, glassy ash, while that of polished rice has a 
powdery appearance. A few of the samples passed by us as 
unpolished because of the fused appearance of the ash, contained 
suspiciously high percentages of total and insoluble ash. 

Of the forty-four station samples, twenty-one were passed, 
seventeen contained talc or similar material, one was short- 
weight, and five were labeled as compound. 

The samples not classed as adulterated ranged from 0.32 to 0.50 per 
cent total ash, from 0.01 to 0.06 per cent acid-insoluble ash, and from 
028 to ojfi per cent acid-soluble ash. The samples found to contain 
talc ranged from 0.38 to 0.83 per cent total ash, from 0.06 to 040 per 
cent acid-insoluble ash, and from 0.30 to 0.44 per cent, acid-soluble ash. 
Only one of the five samples labeled as containing talc showed unmis- 
takably that adulterant. 

Samples 27958 and 27936, sold respectively by Great Western 
Market, New Britain, and Spencer-Pierpont Co., Waterbury, 

Table XII.— Rice. 

(Sampled by Dairy Commissioner, J 





Dealer. 


Ash. 




6 
2 


■a 


1^ 
1- 


1^ 


Appeanoce of Ash. 


6326 
68S4 


Passed. , 

Bristol: Foucault & Roberge 

Meridm : McBride & Co 


0.38 
0.36 
0.44 
0.37 
0.39 
0.33 
0.44 
0.37 
0.30 

0.41 
0.72 
0.66 
1. 03 
0.45 
0.37 
0.50 

0.57 
0.48 


0.04 
0.05 
0.08 
0.03 
6.02 
0.05 
0.05 
0.03 
0.02 

0.06 
0.29 
0.29 

0.55 
0.08 
0.06 
0.09 
0.14 

O.II 


0.34 
0.31 
0.36 
0.34 
0.37 
0.28 

0.39 
0.34 
0.28 

0.35 
0.43 
0.37 
0.48 
0.37 
0.31 
0.41 
0.43 
0.37 


Fused. 


6851 

6853 
6309 
6330 
6336 


MiddUtown: Bielfield & Thayer 

Middletown Cash Grocery 

New Britain : Sovereign Trading Co. . 

Great Western Market. 

New Haven : Wm. Heller 


*. 
»( 

Mostly fused. 
Fused. 


6338 
6333 


E. Schoenberger& Sons . 
Norwich : A. Francis & Son*. ........ 


<» 


6327 


Coated with Talc, 
Bristol: M. H. Smith 


Powdery, slight fusion. 
Powdery. 


6332 


Dctnbury : C. L. Morgan 


6852 
632R 


MiddUtovm: Atlantic & Pacific Tea Co. 
New Britain : Wray & Co 


^31 
6339 


Miller & Olson 

NiPt Haven : Johnson Bros 


Powdery and fused. 


6324 
6325 


mfm London: Mills Tea and Butter Co. 

Wdterbury : Spencer Picrpont Co 

F. I. Fabricant 


Mostly fused 
Powdery. 



122 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

were decidedly short-weight, amounting to about one ounce in a 
pound. 

The prices ranged from 5 to 10 cents per pound, the polished 
rice averaging about 0.5 cent higher per pound. 

Entirely independent of the use of talc, the samples showed 
much variation in quality. Nos. 27796, 27802, 27969, 27900, 
27902, 27694, 27932, 27934, 27643 and 27956 consisted very 
lai^ely of broken or very small grains. Nos. 27816, 27940 and 
27938 contained living insects. 

Eighteen samples were taken by the Dairy Commissioner on 
our complaint. Nine of these were passed and nine were found 
to contain talc or similar material. The passed samples contained 
from 0.30 to 0.44 per cent, total ash, from 0.02 to 0.08 per cent. 
acid-insoluble ash, and from 0.28 to 0.39 per cent, of acid-soluble 
ash. The samples containing talc contained from 0.37 to 1.03 
per cent, total ash, from 0.06 to 0.55 per cent. acid-insoluWe ash 
and from 0.35 to 048 per cent, acid-soluble ash. 

Nos. 6862, 6334 and 6328 consisted largely of broken grains, 
the latter also containing considerable dirt, which probably 
accounts in part for its abnormally high ash. 

SAUSAGE. 

In the analysis of samples of sausage for the dairy and food 
commissioner (see page 204), a useful method for the determina- 
tion of starch was devised by Messrs. Bailey and Shepard, which 
consisted essentially of a combination of the well-known Majrr- 
hofer and Sachsse methods. The following is a description of 
their experience with this method. 

THE DETERMINATION OF STARCH IN MEAT PRODUCTS. 

By E. M. Bailey and C E. Shepard. 

In the examination of meat and meat products for added starchy 
materials Mayrhofer's method is generally reconmiended for the deter- 
mination of starch, and H is one of the provisional methods of the 
A. O. A. C. Upon applying this method in the course of an inspection 
of sausage, frankfurts, etc., we noticed that in Bur. of Chem., Bulletin 
107 (revised), p. no, 1. 11, the sentence beginning "Acidify the 
filtrate . . ." is evidently intended to read "Acidify the solution . . ." 
After strongly acidifying the alkaline starch solution, making up to* 
volume and filtering, an extremely slow filtration ensues and the filtrate 



STARCH DETERMINATION. 123 

is very turbid. This turbidity is independent of the starch content of 
the sample under examination and is probably due to protein substances 
not entirely removed by the previous treatment An abstract of Mayr- 
hofer's paper in The Analyst, 22, 11 (1897) recommends to make the 
alkaline solution up to volume, filter and precipitate starch in an aliquot 
portion previously acidified with acetic acid. By this procedure the 
filtration is somewhat improved and the filtrate is reasonably clear. 

For a number of reasons, however, we found the method unsatisfactory. 
Chief among these are the slow filtration of the alkaline starch solution, 
already mentioned, the time-consuming operation of filtering and washing 
the precipitated starch, and the use of tared papers. We therefore 
determined to try a modification of the method by directly hydrolyzing 
the starchy residue after the removal of protein and fat by the first 
filtration, then determining dextrose by copper reduction. This pro- 
cedure is open to the criticism that any cellulose in the starchy residue 
is subjected to partial hydrolysis, but this objection has not proved serious 
enough to invalidate the method for the purpose at hand. 

The complete procedure is as follows: 

Mayrhofer-Sachsse Method for Starch in Meat Products, Treat 
20 g^ams of the sample in a casserole with 50 cc. of 8 per cent solu- 
tion of potassium hydroxide and digest on a steam bath with frequent 
stirring until the meat is entirely dissolved. Maintain the original volume 
approximately by the addition of water in case the solution appreciably 
concentrates. Add an equal volume of 95 per cent alcohol, stir thoroughly 
and filter on a small Buchner funnel provided with a thin asbestos mat 
Should the filter clog and filtration become slow, transfer the mat with 
residue to the casserole removing any adhering residue in the funnel by 
means of a wisp of moist asbestos. Prepare a new filter. Add warm 4 per 
cent potassium hydroxide in 50 per cent alcohol to the residue in the cas- 
serole, disintegrate the mass by stirring and pour upon the new filter. Wash 
twice with warm 4 per cent, alcoholic potash and finally with 50 per 
cent alcohol. (A new mat is not always necessary, but on the whole 
it wastes no time as the second filtration is always rapid. Moreover, 
the starch becomes incorporated with the asbestos and is better acted 

«pon in the hydrolysis.) Remove the filter to a 500 cc. flask, add 200 cc. 
f water, 20 cc. of hydrochloric acid, — specific gravity 1.125 — andhydrolyze 
m a boiling water bath for two and a half hours. Nearly neutralize with 
dilute sodium hydroxide, cool and make up to 500 cc Determine dextrose 
in 25 cc of the filtrate (equivalent to i gram of material) using Allihn's 
copper solution. Multiply the weight of dextrose by 0.9 to obtain the 
weight of starch. 

This combination of the Mayrhofer and Sachsse methods was 
tried in a number of cases by determining the starch content in 
one portion of a sample and again in a duplicate portion to which 
a weighed amount of anhydrous starch had been added. The 



124 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

sample was rendered as uniform as possible by hand mixing but 
this did not, in all cases, ^ve as homogeneous a mixture as could 
be desired. The errors are somewhat increased by this factor. 

The amouats of starch in the following table represent weights 
per gram of sample. 

TABLE I. 

I. II. III. IV. 

Starch in sample, gm o.ooio 0.0603 0.0019 0.0439 

Starch added, gm 0.0440 0.0440 0.0440 ao440 

Total starch present, gm 0.0450 0.1043 ao459 0.0879 

Total starch found, gm 0.0438 0.1073 0.0426 0.08^ 

Difference, in weight, gm —0.0012 +00030 —0.0033 — 0.0043 

" in per cent — ai2 +0.30 —0.33 — 0^43 

Taking into account the nature of the material worked upon, 
and remembering that the object of the determination is to distin- 
guish between samples containing only spice starches and those 
containing added starchy materials, we believe that the results 
obtained are above reasonable criticism. 

A comparison between the Mayrhofer method and the Mayr- 
hofer-Sachsse method upon samples mixed as described is shown 
in the table below. 

TABLE II. 

Mayrhofer M«yrho£er-SachsM DifFerence by 

Sample. Method. Method. M.-S. Method. 

6570 3.66% 3.96% +0-30% 

6571 4-68 4-86 +0.18 

6573 1.09 IAI +0.15 

6574 0.50 a3i —0.19 

6575 3.18 2.73 —045 

6577 0.30 0.20 —0.10 

6578 2.25 2J02 —0.23 ^ 

6580 2.09 2.13 +0.04 ^ 

6581 0.38 040 +0.02 

In addition to the determinations shown in Table II, 31 other 
determinations of starch in market samples were made, in dupli- 
cate, by the modified method. The percentages ranged from 
traces to 5.68 per cent. In only two cases was the variation 
between duplicates over 0.27 per cent., the average being 0.12 
per cent. The method seems to meet all the requirements of a 
satisfactory working method at a saving in time of at least 50 
per cent. 



CANNED TOMATOES. 125 



CANNED TOMATOES. 



From the standpoint of output tomatoes are one of our most 
important canned vegetables. They naturally contain so much 
water in their tissues, that, unlike many other vegetables, such 
as com and peas, it is unnecessary to add any water to them 
during the canning process. Such an addition is not only 
unnecessary, but has also been ruled as an adulteration by the 
U. S. government. (Food Inspection Decision 144.) 

Tomatoes are filled into the cans either by hand or by machine. 
The cans filled full of whole tomatoes by hand are known as 
"hand-packed" or "solid packed," as distinguished from those 
filled by machine, or filled with a mixture of whole tomatoes and 
added juice. In machine-packed tomatoes the fruit is naturally 
more or less broken, thus affecting the appearance, but not the 
quality, of the product. 

Tomatoes are sold under different grades, such as extra choice, 
extra select, choice, select, extra standard, standard and seconds. 
In many cases these prefixes are meaningless. The "extra 
choice" of one packer may be no better than the "standard" of 
another. The packer's name at the present time is more of a 
criterion as to quality than the grade specified. As Bitting says :* 

"There should be but two grades — selected or first grade, and standard 
or field run for the second. A can of first grade tomatoes should be 
from selected, prime, ripe fruit, having a fleshy body, well-developed 
flavor and tmiform color. The can when opened should be full and 
most of the tomatoes whole or in large pieces, free from all peel, core, 
or defects. The net weight should not be less than 32 ounces in a No. 3 
can. A can of standard tomatoes should be from sound, ripe fruit, 
having a fair body and good flavor. The can when opened should be 
full, and part of the tomatoes whole or in large pieces. They should 
be well peeled and cored. The net contents of a No. 3 can should not 
weigh less than 32 ounces." 

TcMnatoes are generally packed in No. 3 cans for household 
trade. This can may be of the regular size or what is known as 
"extra tall." 

In judging canned tomatoes there must be considered the 
appearance, ripeness and quality of the fruit, the relative amounts 
of pulp and juice, and the amount, if any, of added water. 
Furthermore, it must be determined whether the original fruit 

♦ Bur. of Chem., BulL 151, page 61. 



126 CONNECTICUT EXPEMMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

consisted of sound material, or whether spoiled or partially spoiled 
stock had been used. Bacon and Dunbar have pointed out ♦ that 

"When tomatoes spoil as a result of the life processes of bacteria, 
yeasts, and molds, the sugars are rapidly used up, being changed prin- 
cipally into acetic acid, lactic acid, alcohol and carbon dioxid, the amounts 
of these substances depending on the types of organisms which are most 
active in the particular sample in question. During most classes of spoil- 
age the citric acid is also rapidly decomposed, so that its amoimt serves 
as a valuable index in detecting decomposition. It is very easy to 
detect spoilage in tomato pulp or canned tomatoes, as such products, 
when perfectly sound, contain no volatile acids and a considerable per- 
centage of citric acid and invert sugar, and when spoiled quite large 
amounts of volatile acids are present with little or no invert sugar or 
citric acid." 

Forty-one samples of canned tomatoes were examined, the 
brand names and packers of which are given in full in Table 
XIII. 

TABLE XIII.— BRANDS. 

37994. Whole Tomatoes. Oneida Community Limited, Oneida, N. Y. 

37993. Highest Grade Tomatoes. Montclair Jam Kitchens, Montclair, 
N.J. 

37954* Bay Ridge Brand Finest Quality Tomatoes. J. W. Bay & Co., 
Lincoln City, Del. 

27926. Burt Olne/s Solid Packed Selected Tomatoes. The Burt Olney 
Canning Co., Oneida, N. Y. 

27991. Butter-Nut Brand Hand Packed Tomatoes Fancy Quality. 
Fredonia Preserving Co., New York. 

27964. Golden Rose Brand Fancy Tomatoes. Seeman Bros., New 
York (Dist.). 

27904. Golden Tip Brand Hand Packed Tomatoes Extra Selected. 
A. J. Tanner Co., Oakfield, N. Y. 

27927. Locust Point Brand Hand Packed Tomatoes First Quality. 
Oriole Packing Co., Oriole, Md. 

•27897. Our Cook's Brand Tomatoes Fancy Quality. R. C. Williams 
& Co., New York (Dist). 

27891. Sunbeam Pure Food Hand Packed Tomatoes. Austin, Nichols 
& Co., New York (Dist). 

27892. Arlington Brand Selected Tomatoes. Austin, Nichols & (x>., 
New York (Dist). 

27607. Orion Brand Red Ripe Tomatoes Selected Quality. Acker, 
Merrall & Condit Co., New York (Packed for). 

27930. Oakland Brand Tomatoes Extra Quality. Granger & Co., 
Buffalo, N. Y. (Packed for). 



♦ Bur. of Chem., Circ 78. 



CANNED TOMATOES. ^ 1 27 

27690. Abbsco Brand Tomatoes First Quality. Jas. Wallace Packing 
Co., Cambridge, Md. 

27899. Empire Tomatoes First Quality. Winters & Prophet Cannmg 
Co., Mount Morris, N. Y. 

27691. Optimus Brand Tomatoes First Quality. Waddington & Holme, 
Naylors, Va. 

27824. Our New Century Tomatoes First Quality. (Monogram) 
"B.R.P.C." 

27963. Rosehill Brand Tomatoes First Quality. Charles Webster, East 
Newmarket, Md. 

27992. Adieno Brand Tomatoes Choice Quality.* Qark, Chapin & 
Bushnell, New York (Packed for). 

27917. Whitby's Choice Tomatoes. C. H. Whitby & Son, Denton, Md. 

27609. Bob White Brand Tomatoes, Standard Tomatoes. Albert Webb 
& Son, Vienna, Md. 

27689. Ames* Quality Brand Tomatoes. S. K. Ames, Boston (Dist.). 

27965. Antler Brand Tomatoes. Tucker & (Goodwin, Hartford (Packed 
for). 

27907. Bon Ton Brand Tomatoes. The R. N. Fitzgerald Cb., Hartford 
(Packed for). 

27645. Broad Creek Brand Tomatoes. E. C. Ross, Seaford, Del. 

27950. Cirio's Peeled Tomatoes. Societi C^enerale delle Conserve 
Alimentari Cirio, S. Giovanni a Teduccio, Presso, Napoli, Italy. 

27608. Glenmore Brand Tomatoes. The John Boyle Co., Baltimore, 
Md. 

27928. (jolden Rule Brand Tomatoes. Phillips Packing (3o., Cam- 
bridge, Md. 

27915. Guilford Tomatoes. Sachem's Head Canning Co., Guilford. 

27794. Hazel Dell Brand Tomatoes. J. W. Bay & Co., Lincoln City, 
Del. 

27797. Lake Erie Brand Tomatoes. Silver Creek Pressing Cx>., Silver 
Creek, N. Y. 

27990. Maryland Special Brand Tomatoes. Phillips Packing Co., 
Cambridge, Md. 

27807, 27953. M. and W. Brand Tomatoes. James T. Wilson & Co., 
Delmar, Del. 

27678. Nabob Tomatoes. Francis H. Leggett & Co., New York 
(Dist). 

27963. Polo Brand Tomatoes. Stoddard, (Gilbert & Co., New Haven 
(Padced for). 

27823. Pride of Somerset Tomatoes. Arden Packing Co., Arden, Md. 

27677. Red Bird Tomatoes. T. H. Chambers & Co., Federalsburg, Md. 

27929. Richelieu Brand Tomatoes. Sprague, Warner & Co., CThicago 
(Dist). 

27989. St Lawrence Brand Tomatoes. The Medina Canning Co., 
Medina, N. Y. 

27946. Triangle Brand Tomatoes. Hoffecker Bros. & Hall, Smyrna 
Landing, Del. 



128 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Twenty-one samples claimed a special quality, ranging from 
"whole" to "standard." Two samples ca«ie in No. 2 cans, 2:j in 
No. 3, 8 in No. 3, 5 in. Jersey, i in No. 3, 5.5 in. Jersey, i in an 
odd size (3J4 X3 11-16), and 2 in glass jars. The following is 
a summary of the net weight of contents in the various sized 
containers : — 



No. of 




Max. 


amplea. 


Siie of Can. 


gms. 


2 


Nq.2 


584 


27 


No. 3 


1003 


8 


No. 3, 5 in. 


1056 


I 


No. 3, SS i^ 


— 


I 


odd 


— 


2 


jars 


905 



Net Waif ht of ContenU. 




Min. 


Ave. 


gma. 


«m». 


879 


582 


940 


987 


ICk22 


— 


"59 


— 


497 


876 


891 



Accepting Sitting's figure of 32 ozs. (= 907 gms.) as a stand- 
ard for No. 3 tomatoes, only one sample, 27927, can be considered 
as short fill, containing 880 gms., or 31 ozs. 

It is apparent, however, that net weight of contents considered 
by itself has little direct value, as this weight may be due to 
tomatoes, water, or a mixture of the two. 

All the samples were separated, therefore, into pulp and juice, 
by straining through cheese cloth (40 threads to the inch) allow- 
ing the fruit to drain, without crushing, as long as the juice 
dropped freely. Such a method, of course, gives somewhat too 
high values for pulp and too low for juice. Too much importance 
may be given to the amount of pulp separated by this method. 
A high perceAtage of pulp may be secured by the use of hard, 
slightly green fruit. On the other hand a thoroughly ripe tomato, 
which alone has the full flavor of the fruit, may through its 
ripeness be more or less disintegrated during processing, or may 
be badly broken after a long shipment. The relative amounts of 
pulp and juice must, therefore, be considered with much care in 
order to reach a proper judgment. The Ohio Trade Standard 
for "fancy" tomatoes requires a minimum of 20 ozs. of fruit 
exclusive of juice, and for "standard" tomatoes a minimum of 
18 ozs., both in No. 3 cans, containing about 32 ozs. net weight 

No. 3 is the standard size for tomatoes, and two-thirds of our 
samples are of that size. In these samples the pulp ranged from 
264 to 541 gms., the juice from 408 to 682 gms., and the per cent. 



TOMATOES. 129 

of juice from 43 to 72. Eleven of the samples claimed superior 
quality, and none of these contained the minimum of 20 ozs. of 
fruit required by the Ohio Standard, ranging as they did from 
11.7 to 15.5 ozs., and the percentage of juice from 54 to 64 per 
cent. Only three of the twenty-seven samples exceeded or 
approximated the minimum of 18 ozs. for "standard" tomatoes. 
Expressing these results in a different way, of the samples in No. 
3 cans, 3 contained from 9.3 to 12 ozs. of drained pulp, 17 from 
12. 1 to 15 ozs., 4 from 1 5.1 to 18 ozs., and 2 fron» 18. i to 19. i ozs. 
Of the same samples 4 contained from 43 to 50 per cent, of juice, 
15 from 52 to 60, 6 from 61 to 64 and 2 over 70. 

Considering the samples as a whole, excluding 27891 and 27824 
which were in No. 2 cans, and 27950, an odd size, we find the 
drained pulp ranged from 264 to 698 gms., the juice from 405 
to 682 gms., and the percentage of juice from 40 to 72 per cent. 
Only seven samples contained over 18 ozs. of fruit. It is apparent 
that the g^eat majority of the brands examined contained exces- 
sive juice, and that the addition of water is a very common prac- 
tice. The amount of added water will be considered later on in 
this report. 

The character of the fruit showed considerable variation. In 
eight samples practically whole tomatoes were found ; in twenty- 
five, large lumps, in four, small lumps, while in four a mushy 
consistency was observed. As regards ripeness, thirty-one sam- 
ples were of excellent quality, while ten contained more or less 
wholly or slightly green pieces. Sample 27990 is quite striking 
from the fact that it contained a very high percentage of juice, 
71 per cent., and only 9.5 ozs. of *f ruit, and that this small amount 
of fruit present was not ripe. 

Excluding the two samples sold in glass and intended for fancy 
trade, and the three samples in odd sizes, the cost per can ranged 
from 9 to 15 cents. The cost per pound of dry matter ranged 
from 75 cents to $1.86, and the cost per pound of tomatoes of 
average water content from 4.8 cents to 11.9 cents. In the 
samples packed in glass the cost per pound of dry matter was 
$245 and $3.61. A study of the table shows that quality was not 
the sole consideration in determining cost, and that in many cases 
the consumer paid a high price for added water. 



I30 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table XIV.— 



Station 
No. 



27994 
27993 

27954 
27926 

27991 
27964 
27904 
27927 
27897 
27891 
27892 
27607 
27930 
27690 

27899 
27691 
27824 
27963 
27992 
27917 
27609 
27689 
27965 
27907 
27645 
27950 
27608 
27928 
27915 
27794 
27797 
27990 
27807 

27953 
27678 
27962 
27823 
27677 
27929 
27989 
27946 



Brand. 



Oneida Community. . . 
Montclair Jam Kitch- 
ens 

Bay Ridge 

Burt Olney 

Butter-nut 

Golden Rose 

Golden Tip 

Locust Point 

Our Cook*s 

Sunbeam Pure Food. . 

Arlington 

Orion 

Oakland 

Abbsco 

Empire 

Optimus 

Our New Century. . . . 

Rosehill 

Adieno 

Whitby's 

Bob White 

Ames* Quality 

Antler 

Bon Ton 

Broad Creek 

Cirio's 

Glenmore 

Golden Rule 

Guilford 

Hazel Dell 

Lake Erie 

Maryland Special 

M. and W 



Nabob 

Polo 

Pride of Somerset. 

Red Bird 

Richelieu 

St. Lawrence 

Triangle 



Quality claimed. 



Whole 



Highest Grade 

Finest Quality 

Solid Packed Selected 

Hand Packed Fancy Quality. 

Fancy 

Hand Packed Extra Selected. 
Hand Packed First Quality. 

Fancy Quality 

Hand Packed 

Selected 

Red Ripe Selected 

Extra Quality 

First Quality 



Choice Quality. 

Choice 

Standard 



Peeled . 



Weight of 



•25 

u 



gms. 
1520 

1514 
1064 
II78 
1220 
II60 
1 163 
IOI7 
1087 
691 

"77 
1067 
1086 
1049 

II6I 

1022 
680 
IO9I 
1087 
1093 
1095 

1 102 

1 103 
1080 
1028 

606 
1078 
1045 
I2I2 

1079 
1081 
IO61 
II22 
1096 
1321 
1055 
1098 
1097 
II22 
II55 
II61 



9 

a 
I 



gms. 
876 

905 

927 

1023* 

1056 

1003 

I0I2 

880 

936 

584 

1035 

927 

937 
911 
1008 
879 
579 
956 
943 
952 
946 
961 
958 
941 
894 
497 
945 
911 

1055 
941 

949 
924 
988 

957 
1159 
921 
960 
960 
97it 
987 
998 






gvas. 
476 

407 

377 
454 
556 
430 
607 
367 
380 
333 
538 
332 
428 
353 
483 
439 
296 

385 

349 

409 

264 

500 

368 

408 

372 

227" 

457 

389 

562 

411 

541 

270 

384 
350 
698 
385 
412 
423 
530 
417 
367 



gaa. 
400 

498 
550 
569 
500 

573 
405 
513 
556 
251 
497 
595 
509 
558 
525 
440 
283 
571 
594 
543 
682 
461 
590 
533 
522 
270 
488 
522 
493 
530 
408 

654 
604 
607 
461 
536 
548 

537 
441 

570 
631 



♦Claimed net wgt., 33 oz. = 936 gms. f Claimed net wgt. 34 oz. = 964 gms. 



TOMATOES. 



131 



Canned Tomatoes. 





Nature of Tomatoes. 


Rip«neafl. 


J 


Cott per lb. 


1 


1 


&r 


1 






I 


S 
t 


ii 


J> 






1 


Q 


i^ 


p« 






u 














eta. 


cts. 


eta. 


46 


Whole. 


0. K. 


30 


245 


15.7 


55 


Some whole; large pieces. 


II 


35 


361 


23.1 


59 


Lumps. 


Some green pieces. 


13 


139 


8.9 


56 


Lumps. 


0. K. 


15 


88 


5.6 


47 


Some whole; large pieces. 


** 


15 


91 


5.8 


57 


Lumps. 


14 


13 


120 


7.7 


40 


Whole. 


II 


12 


97 


6.2 


58 


Lumps. \ 


II 


12 


127 


'8.1 


60 


♦* 


II 


15 


121 


7.7 


43 


Some whole; large pieces. 


** 


10 


158 


10. 1 


48 


Large lumps. 


I nearly green ; rest O.K. 


13 


no 


7.0 


64 


Lumps. 


0. K. 


10 


108 


6.9 


54 


•* 


Partly green. 


10 


75 


4.8 


61 


t4 


Few green pieces. 


10 


139 


8.9 


52 




Slightly green. 


15 


108 


6.9 


50 


<l 


0. K. 


10 


89 


5.7 


49 


II 


If 


8 


120 


7.7 


60 


Large lumps. 


Slightly green. 


10 


106 


6.8 


63 


One whole; large pieces. 


O.K. 


15 


186 


11.9 


57 


Small lumps. 


II 


9 


78 


5.0 


72 


Lumps. 


II 


10 


156 


10. 


48 


** 


Few green pieces. 


10 


99 


6.3 


63 


Small lumps. 


O.K. 


12 


108 


6.9 


56 


Lumps. 


II 


10 


107 


6.8 


58 


•* 


II 


13 


176 


11.3 


54 


Mushy. 


*• 


13 


174 


II. I 


52 


Large lumps. 


II 


12 


149 


9.5 


57 


Lumps. 


** 


10 


■S2 


8.5 


47 


Some whole, large pieces. 


** 


13 


120 


7.7 


56 


Mushy. 


II 


10 


79 


5.1 


43 


Lumps. 


•• 


II 


108 


6.9 


71 


Mushy. 


Slightly green. 


12 


186 


II. 9 


62 


Lumps. 


0. K. 


9 


90 


5.8 


63 


Large lumps. 


II 


9 


96 


6.1 


40 


Small lumps. 


Very ripe. 


15 


112 


7.2 


58 


Lumps. 


0. K. 


13 


152 


9.7 


59 


•* 


Some green pieces. 


12 


124 


7.9 


56 


Small lumps. 


Very ripe. 


13 


140 


9.0 


45 


Some whole; large pieces. 


0. K. 


15 


127 


8.1 


58 


Lumps; mushy. 


One green. 


12 


69 


4.4 


63 


Lumps. 


0. K. 


10 


73 


4-7 



132 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table XV.- 



27994 
27993 
27954 
37926 

27991 
27964 
27904 
27927 
27897 
27891 
27892 
27607 
27930 
27690 
27899 
27691 
27824 
27963 
27992 
27917 
27609 
27689 
27965 
27907 
27645 
27950 
27608 
27928 
27915 
27794 
27797 
27990 
27807 

27953 
27678 
27962 
27823 

27677 
27929 
27989 
27946 



Oneida Community 

Montclair Jam Kitchens 

Bay Ridge 

Burt Olney 

Butter-Nut 

Golden Rose 

Golden Tip 

Locust Point 

Our Cook*s 

Sunbeam Pure Food.. . . 

Arlington 

Orion 

Oakland 

Abbsco 

Empire 

Optimus 

Our New Century 

Rosehill 

Adieno 

Whitby's 

Bob White 

Ames' Quality 

Antler 

Bon Ton 

Broad Creek 

Cirio's 

Glen^ore 

Golden Rule 

Guilford 

Hazel Dell 

Lake Erie 

Maryland Special 

M.and W 

M. and W 

Nabob 

Polo 

Pride of Somerset ...... 

Red Bird 

Richelieu 

St. Lawrence 

Triangle 

Maximum 

Minimum 

Average 



I 



93.66 
95.12 
95.42 
92.43 
92.94 
95.11 
94.46 
95." 
93.98 
95.09 
94.80 
95.48 
93.55 
96.42 
93.77 
94.08 

94.79 
95.51 
96.13 

94.53 
96.98 
95.26 
94.75 
95.49 
96.56 
93.71 
96.14 
96.22 
95.36 
93.87 
95.12 
96.83 
95.40 
95.58 
94.74 
95.78 
95.40 
95.63 
94.48 
92.02 
93.76 
gd.gS 

g2.02 

94-9' 



6.34 
4.88 
4.58 
7.57 
7.06 
4.89 
5.54 
4.89 
6.02 

4.91 
5.20 
4.52 
6.45 
3.58 
6.23 
5.92 

5.21 

4.49 
3.87 
5.47 

3.02 

4.74 
5.25 
4.51 
3.44 

6.29 

3.86 
3.78 
4.64 
6.13 
4.88 
317 

4.60 

4.42 
5.26 
4.23 
4.60 

4.37 
5.52 
7.98 

6.24 
7.g8 

S'02 
SO9 



0.444 
0.422 
0.340 
0.432 
0.390 
0.400 
0.348 
0.418 
0.484 
0.374 
0.483 
0.401 
0.441 

0.377 
0.490 
0.442 
0.519 
0.391 
0.424 
0.463 
0.270 
0.394 
0.524 
0.389 
0.347 
0.496 

0.333 
280 

343 

393 

435 

312 

0.443 

0.358 

0.437 

0.449 
0.530 
o 386 
0.486 
0.368 
0,416 
05^4 

0,2J0 
0409 



z 



0.249 
0.550 
0.045 
0.483 
0.630 
0.186 

O.I2I 
0.060 

0.434 
0.236 
0.065 
0.055 



3.38 
1.45 
1.98 
3.94 
3.09 
2.14 
2.62 
2.14 
2.61 
2.83 

2.45 
2.03 



0.4791 2.62 



0.051 


1 1. 41 


0-. 889 


3.19 


0.055 


3.40 


0.077 


3.41 


0.048 


1.60 


0.058 


1. 15 


0.057 


3.52 


0.033 


1.24 


0.057 


1.78 


0.040 


2.15 


0.052 


1.68 


0.059 


1.39 


0.060 


3.90 


0.036 


1.79 


0.039 


3.04 


O.T96 


3.03 


0.047 


3.61 


0.056 


3,38 


0.144 


1.03 


0.069 


2.03 


0.055 


1.93 


0.038 


3.66 


0.051 


1.74 


0.056 


2.14 


0.046 


1.89 


0.038 


2.35 


1.136 


,3.96 


0.087 


2.78 


/./J^ 


3-9^ 


0,033 


r,o2 


0.176 


2.26 



TOMATOES. 



133 



Canned Tomatoes. 







Acidity in 
cc. il Na OH 


Citric Add 
(Anhydrous). 


8 


In Dry Matter. 














X 


_. 


go 


10 

per xoogms. 


1 

1 


2 £• 

li 


9 
? 

i 

Si* 


i 

< 

1 




% 



S 

% 




c 


1 

1 


1 





1 


m 


^ 


H 


> 


Q 


U 


M 


M 


xn 


M 





ft. 


2.96 


O.OII 


52.0 


2.4 


0.46 


0.36 


I. 0195 


7.00 


3-93 


53.31 


7.26 


55.5 


3.43 


0.018 


45.2 


2.0 


0.37 


0.32 


1.0140 


e.65 


11.27 


29.71 


7.58 


33.5 


2.60 


0.022 


44.8 


1.6 


0.31 


0.31 


I. 0130 


7.42 


0.98 


43.23 


6.77 


43.7 


3.63 


0.024 


72.0 


2.4 


0.56 


0.50 


1.0270 


5.71 


6.37 


52.05 


7.40 


55.6 


3.97 


0.026 


44.0 


2.8 


0.28 


0.31 


I. 0215 


5.52 


8.92 


43.77 


3.97 


48.1 


2 75 


0.020 


47.8 


2.8 


0.36 


0.33 


I. 0160 


8.18 


3.80 


43.76 


7.36 


45.5 


2.92 


0.021 


54.0 


2.6 


0.39 


0.38 


1.0207 


6.28 


2.18 


47.44 


7.04 


48.3 


2.75 


0.024 


52.8 


2.0 


0.42 


0.37 


I. 0160 


8.55 


1.23 


43.76 


8.59 


44.3 


3.41 


0.014 


50.0 


1.6 


0.37 


0.35 


1.0238 


8.04 


7.21 


43.36 


6.15 


46.7 


2.68 


0.025 


47.2 


1.4 


0.27 


0.33 


I. 0198 


7.62 


4.81 


45.42 


5.50 


47.8 


2.75 


0.019 


60.4 


I.O 


0.43 


0.42 


1.0207 


9.28 


1.25 


47.12 


8.26 


47.8 


2.49 


0.022 


63.0 


1.4 


0.42 


0.44 


I. 0122 


8.87 


1.22 


44.91 


9.29 


45.5 


3.83 


0.022 


66.8 


1.6 


0.59 


0.47 


1.0200 


6.84 


7.43 


40.62 


9.15 


44.0 


2.17 


0.022 


46.4 


1.8 


0.32 


0.32 


I. 0126 


7.74 


1.42 


39.39 


8.94 


40.0 


4.04 


0.014 


53.6 


1.6 


0.46 


0.38 


1.0252 


7.87 


14.27 


35.15 


7.38 


41.0 


2.52 


0.016 


56.8 


2.0 


0.40 


0.40 


1.0224 


7.47 


0.93 


57.43 


6.76 


58.0 


2.80 


0.016 


49.2 


2.2 


0.41 


0.34 


1.0206 


9.96 


1.48 


46.26 


7.87 


47.0 


2.89 


0.027 


55.2 


4.0 


0.41 


0.39 


I. 0130 


8.71 


1.07 


35.63 


9.13 


36.0 


2.72 


0.024 


53.8 


2.6 


0.44 


0.38 


I. Olio 


10.96 


1.50 


29.72 


11.37 


30.2 


2.95 


0.024 


60.6 


2.4 


0.50 


0.42 


1.0220 


8.46 


1.04 


46.07 


9.14 


48.1 


1.78 


0.012 


37.8 


3.0 


0.22 


0.26 


I. 0103 


8.94 


1.09 


41.06 


7.28 


41.5 


2.96 


0.021 


47.8 


2.2 


0.33 


0.33 


I. 0160 


8.31 


1.20 


37.55 


6.96 


38.0 


3.10 


0.02I 


51.6 


2.4 


0.42 


0.36 


I. 0165 


10.00 


0.76 


40.95 


8.00 


41.3 


2.83 


0.025 


71. 


3.6 


0.44 


0.50 


I. 0170 


8.63 


1. 15 


37.25 


10.00 


37.7 


2.05 


0.019 


46.8 


2.8 


0.29 


0.33 


I. 0130 


10.09 


1. 71 


40.41 


8.43 


41. 1 


3.39 


0.009 


54.0 


1.8 


0.47 


0.38 


1. 0170 


7.89 


0.95 


46.ro 


7.47 


46.6 


2.07 


O.OIO 


43.8 


2.6 


0.30 


0.31 


I. 0138 


8.63 


0.93 


46.37 


7.78 


46.9 


1.74 


0.013 


27.6 


2.0 


0.20 


0.19 


I. 0120 


7.41 


1.03 


53.97 


5.29 


54.5 


2.61 


0.020 


64.0 


3.2 


0.52 


0.45 


I. 0190 


7.39 


4.22 


43.75 


II. 21 


45.7 


2.52 


0.018 


48.6 


2.8 


0.29 


0.34 


1.0226 


6.41 


0.77 


58.89 


4.73 


59-4 


2.50 


0.018 


55.2 


5.0 


0.43 


0.39 


I. 0187 


8.91 


1.15 


48.77 


8.81 


49.4 


2.15 


0.021 


38.0 


1.6 


0.30 


0.27 


1. 0100 


9.84 


4.54 


32.18 


9.46 


33.7 


2.58 


0.024 


65.2 


3.0 


0.44 


0.46 


I.OIQO 


9-63 


1.50 


43.91 


9.57 


44.6 


2.49 


0.021 


56.8 


1.8 


0.45 


0.40 


I. 0175 


8.10 


1.24 


43.67 


10.18 


44.3 


2.60 


0.012 


47.6 


2.8 


0.41 


0.33 


I. 0188 


8.31 


0.72 


50.57 


7.79 


51.0 


2.48 


0.022 


57.4 


4.8 


0.42 


0.40 


I. 0150 


10.64 


1. 14 


41.23 


9-95 


41.8 


2.46 


0.018 


58.8 


2.0 


0.40 


0.41 


I. 0183 


11. 30 


1.22 


46.52 


8.70 


47.1 


2.48 


0.022 


53.4 


2.8 


0.33 


0.37 


I. 0166 


8.83 


1.05 


43.25 


7.55 


43.8 


3.27 


0.027 


68.0 


2.0 


0.53 


0.48 


I. 0170 


8.80 


0.69 


40.76 


9.60 


41. 1 


4.02 


0.028 


53.6 


2.0 


0.39 


0.38 


1.0290 


4.6i 


14.24 


49.62 


4.89 


57.9 


3.46 


0.017 


54.0 


2.4 


0.35 


0.38 


I. 0170 


6.67 


1.39 


44.55 


5.61 


45.2 


404 


0.028 


72,0 


50 


0-S9 


0.50 


i.02go 


11-30 


14.27 


58.89 


/^.J7 


S9'4 


^'74 


o.oog 


27,6 


1.0 


0.20 


o.ig 


I. 0100 


4.6r 


0.72 


2g.7i 


3-97 


30.2 


2.83 


0,020 


S3^t 


2.4 


0,40 


0,37 


I. 0177 


8.26 


2-73 


4390 


7.91 


45-4 



134 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Chemical Composition. 

The average composition of 66 samples of tomatoes as given in 
Experiment Station Work, 1903, and the average composition of 
canned tomatoes as given by Wiley, Foods and their Adulteration, 
1907, p. 315, are as follows: — 

Whole Canned 

Tomatoes. Tomatoes. 

Water 9364 9359 

Fat 0.43 0.23 

Fiber 0.7s 0.60 

Starch and Sugar 3.80 3.47 

Sugar 3.05 — 

Protein (N X 6.25) 0.91 i^ 

Ash (NaQ free) 047 0.52 

Salt — 0.14 

Citric Acid 0.48 — 

The important determinations in judging the quality of canned 
tomatoes are solids, salt-free ash, sugar, citric acid, ammonia, 
volatile acid and specific gravity of the juice. 

Solids. The solids ranged from 3.02 to 7.98, average, 5.09 per 
cent; 7 samples contained under 4 per cent., 16 from 4 to 5, 
8 from 5 to 6, and 10 over 6 per cent. Any sample containing 
less than 5 per cent, of solids must be suspected of containing 
added water; 23, or over half, of the samples fall under this 
suspicion. 

Sugar. Invert sugar ranged from 1.02 to 3.96, average, 2.26 
per cent. A deficiency in sugar might arise from under-ripe 
fruit, from added water or from spoilage. Other data failed to 
indicate spoilage in any of the samples, so we may dismiss that 
cause from consideration at this time. While in a few instances 
slightly green or under-ripe fruit was associated with a relatively 
low sugar content, unripeness in no case appeared to be the 
determining cause for the deficiency in sugar. It would seem, 
therefore, that chiefly added water influenced the sugar content. 
Fourteen samples contained from i to 2 per cent., 21 from 2 to 3 
per cent., and only 6 over 3 per cent. The amounts of sugar 
contained in tomatoes of different varieties and of varying degrees 
of ripeness are far from constant. A consideration of the sugar- 
free solids, therefore, affords a better basis to work on. 

Sugar-free Solids. The sugar-free solids ranged from 1.74 to 
4.04, average, 2.83 per cent. Eleven samples contained from 1.7 
to 2.4 per cent., 19 from 2.5 to 3, and 1 1 over 3 per cent. Less 



TOMATOES. 135 

than 3 per cent, of sugar-free solids justifies a suspicion as 
to added water. 

Salt-free Ash. The salt-free ash ranged from 0.270 to 0.524, 
average, 0409 per cent. Twelve samples contained from 0.27 to 
0.37, 21 from 0.38 to 047, and 8 over 0.47 per cent. Less than 
040 per cent, would indicate added water, and less than 0.50 per 
cent, excite a strong suspicion as to its presence. 

Salt. The salt ranged from 0.033 ^^ i-^S^i average, 0.176 per 
cent Twenty-nine samples contained under 0.14 per cent., 8 
from 0.14 to 0.50, and 4 over 0.50 per cent. In the last four^ 
samples the salt made up from 57 to 75 per cent, of the ash, 
seemingly an excessive quantity. 

Citric Acid. Citric acid was determined directly in all the 
samples, and also calculated from the total acidity as determined 
by tenth-normal alkali. The determined values averaged 0.03 per 
cent, higher than the calculated. Citric acid ranged from 0.20 to 
0'S9i average, 0.40 per cent. Twelve samples contained less than 
0.35 per cent., 6 from 0.35 to 0.40, 18 from 040 to 0.50, and 5 
over 0.50 per cent. A low percentage of citric acid might be due 
to spoilage or to added water, but as already stated no evidence 
of spoilage was detected. Less than 0.35 per cent, of citric acid 
renders a strong suspicion of added water. 

Volatile Acid. Volatile acid, as acetic, ranged from 0.006 to 
0.030, the latter figure alon^ suggesting any marked amount of 
spoilage. In this sample the citric acid was nearly normal and 
the sugar only slightly below standard. There was, therefore, 
no evidence of any marked acetic acid fermentation in the 
samples. 

Ammonia. The percentages of ammonia found tend also to 
the same conclusion. They ranged from 0.009 to 0.028 per cent., 
in no case significant. 

Specific Gravity of Juice. This ranged from i.oioo to 1.0290, 
average, i. 01 77. While this determination is influenced to an 
important degree by added salt and by sugar which may have 
been nattu-al to the fruit or directly added, it is significant that the 
seven samples with the lowest percentages of solids showed juice 
specific gravities ranging from i.oioo to 1.0138, only one other 
sample showing as low as 1.0122, and only two as low as 1.0130. 

Per Cent, of Sugar in Salt-free Solids. It was hoped that this 
determination might give some added data as to the ripeness of 



136 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

the tomatoes, but the variations in sugar content due to varietal 
differences, climatic influences, and the possible addition of sugars 
during the canning process, render their use of uncertain value. 
These percentages ranged from 30.2 to 59.4, average, 454. 

Added Water. From our knowledge of the composition of the 
tomato fruit and of the process of canning tomatoes, we r^^ard 
any sample as suspicious which contains less than 5 per cent, of 
solids, less than 3 per cent, of sugar-free solids, less than 0.35 
per cent, of citric acid, and less than 0.5 per cent, of salt-free ash. 
Any sample containing less than 3 per cent, of sugar-free solids, 
less than 0.35 per cent, of citric acid or less than 0.4 per cent 
of salt-free ash, we would condemn as containing added water. 
Based on these limits our samples may be grouped into three 
classes, 15 which we pass as genuine, 17 which we consider as 
suspicious, and 9 whose chemical composition indicates added 
water. The tabulation below shows the maximum, minimum and 
average figures obtained in each of these classes. 

Sugar-free Citric Salt-free 

Solids. Solids. Acid. Ash. 

Passed. 

Maximum 7.98 4.04 0.59 0,52 

Minimum 4.88 2.75 o^ 0.42 

Average 6.ii 340 0.44 046 

Suspicious, 

Maximum 6.13 2.96 0.52 0.52 

Minimum 422 2.46 o^ 0.34 

Average 4.90 2.66 0.33 o^o 

Condemned. 

Maximum 4.37 2.72 045 Ou|2 

Minimum 3.02 1.74 020 0.27 

Average 3.72 2.18 0.32 0.33 

The nine samples condemned as containing added water were 
Nos. 27608, 27609, 27645, 27677, 27690, 27928, 27953, 27990 and 
27992. None of these is condemned for shortage in one ingre- 
dient only. These certainly contain added water, and it is 
reasonably certain that some of those included in the suspicious 
class also contain added water, but from the data at hand we do 
not feel justified in condemning them. Six of these were packed 
in Maryland and two in Delaware. 



NET WEIGHT OF PACKAGE GOODS. 1 37 

NET WEIGHT OF VARIOUS PACKAGE GOODS. 

In Bulletin 172 of this station were published the results of an 
investigation of the variations in net weight of certain classes of 
foods sold in package form. Brand names were not given in the 
bulletin, but they are published now for the guidance of the con- 
sumer. The detailed discussion of the bulletin will not be 
repeated here, attention being called only to those brands which 
showed a tendency towards short weight. 

About 2,000 packages were weighed, representing 150 brands 
of about 75 kinds of foods. 

A definite weight was claimed on 594 of the packages examined. 
Five hundred and seventeen of these either exceeded the claimed 
weight or were deficient by less than 0.25 oz. Of the yj deficient 
samples the deficiency in 20 samples appeared to be exceptional, 
102 samples of the same brands fully satisfying their claims. 
The remaining 57 samples, however, showed a general tendency 
towards short weight. 

Samples Showing Short Weight. 

The following brands showed the greatest deficieipcies : 

Potted Meat Beef Ham Flavor, Libby, McNeill & Libby. 
Halves. All 12 samples were deficient by from i.o to 1.4 ozs. 

Medium Egg Macaroni, Freihofer. Ten of 12 samples were 
deficient by from 0.7 to 2.6 ozs. 

Egg Elbow Macaroni, Freihofer. Eleven of 12 samples were 
deficient by from 0.4 to 1.3 ozs. 

Egg Elbow Spaghetti, Gold Leaf, Freihofer. Eight of 12 sam- 
ples were deficient by from 0.4 to 1.4 ozs. 

Educator Toasterettes, Johnson. Ten of 12 samples were 
deficient by from 0.3 to 1.2 ozs, 

Frotana, Nat. Biscuit Co. Four of 12 samples were deficient 
by from 0.3 to 0.8 oz. 

Kellogg's Toasted Com Flakes. Six of 12 samples were defi- 
cient by from 0.4 to 1.8 ozs. 

Relative Amounts of Solids and Liquor in Canned Goods. 

A statement of net weight may be misleading if quality is not 
considered as well. The addition of water to canned vegetables, 



138 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

fruits or fish might bring the net weight up to a normal figure, 
which would give but little information, however, as to the rela- 
tive amount of food present. To illustrate this point duplicate 
samples of thirty brands of foods were separated into solid and 
liquid portions by draining through a sieve. The results were 
discussed in detail in Bulletin 172, and will not be repeated here. 
Attention is called, however, to the foot notes to Table XVI, in 
which these data are given in connection with the specific brands. 
Additional data will be found in our Report for 1910, page 462, 
and under tomatoes in this report. 

The Cost of Package Goods. 

Table XVI shows the cost per package and the cost per pound 
of the different foods. All these prices, with the exception of 
those for crackers and biscuit, represent prices based on dozen 
lots and probably were the most favorable prices obtainable by 
the purchaser in New Haven in April of this year. Granting that 
quality should have an important effect on price, these prices 
reveal, or rather emphasize, some important facts. For instance. 
Standard String Beans and Compass Brand String Beans both 
cost 7.5 cents per can of about equal capacity ; the former, how- 
ever, contained 58 per cent, of liquor compared with 50 per cent, 
in the latter. This comparison is even more striking when we 
consider the Magnes Refugee Beans which cost two cents 
more per can and yet contain only 38 per cent, of liquor. Sim- 
ilarly with tomatoes, the Butter-Nut Hand Packed cost 9.5 cents 
per No. 2 can, or 7.8 cents per pound of canned tomatoes, while 
the Maryland Special cost 11 cents per No. 3 can, or 5.6 per 
pound. While at first glance the latter brand seems the cheaper 
purchase, our analysis shows it to contain 71 per cent, of juice, 
while the Butter-Nut contains only 47 per cent. In the smaller 
can of the Butter-Nut, therefore, the purchaser would obtain 10.3 
ozs. of drained tomatoes for two cents a can less than he would 
obtain in the larger can of Maryland Special, containing only 
9.5 ozs. of drained tomatoes. 

Again, the Jumbo Pie Peaches contained 32.4 ozs. of fruit and 
liquor per can, at a cost of 10.5 cents, while the Yellow Free 
Peaches contained 30.5 ozs. at 19 cents. These data apparently 
favor the Jumbo* as much the cheaper purchase. When we con- 



NET WEIGHT OF PACKAGE GOODS. 139 

Table XVI. — Net Weight of Various Package Goods. 



Brand and Manufacturer. 



Vegetables. 
Asparagus, 
Del Monte Brand Colossal Green. Cal. Fruit Canners 

Asso., San Francisco 

Del Monte Brand Green Tips. Cal. Fruit Canners 
Asso.. San Francisco 



Artichokes, 
Libertas Brand. Fratelli Mustica, Palermo, Italy. . . . 

Beans, 
Magnes Red Kidney. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fredonia, 
N. Y 



Magoes Ripe Lima. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fredonia, 
N. Y 

Standard String. Gibbs Pres. Co., Baltimore, Md . . . . 

Compass Brand String. D. E. Fooie and Co., Balti- 
more, Md 

Buitcr-Nut Fancy Refugee. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fre- 
donia. N. Y 

Magnes Refugee. Fredonia Pres. Co., ^edonia, N. Y. 

Magnes Yellow Wax. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fredonia, 
N.Y 

Buttcr-Nut Golden Wax. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fre- 
donia, N. Y 



Beans and Pork, 
Van Camp's with Tomato Sauce. Van Camp Pack. 

Co., Indianapolis 

Solder's with Tomato Sauce. T. A. Snider Pres. Co., 

Cincinnati 



Beets, 
Buttcr-Nut Cherry. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fredonia, 
N.Y 



Com. 

Magnes Sweet. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fredonia, N. Y. 

Konhern Queen Sweet Sugar. F. C. Bushnell Co., 
New Haven 

Butter-Nut Maine Fancy. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fre- 
donia. N.Y 



I.- 



24 
24 



24 

24 
24 



24 

24 

24 
24 

18 
12 

24 

24 
24 
24 



Net Weight. 



32.2 
16.8 

24.4 

22.0 

21.6 
19.3 

20.0 

20.8 
20.8 

21.0 

20.8 

22.5 
22.8 

21.6 

21.8 

20.920.6 

20.920.4 



30.7 
16.0 

22.3 

20.7 

20.7 
18.6 

18.5 

19.9 
20.5 

20.5 

20.6 

21.8 
22.0 

20.3 



»3i.6 
«i6.4 

'23.6 

*21.3 

•21.3 

*i9.o 
'19.4 

820.3 
•20.7 

»02O.8 

"20.7 

"22.1 
"22.4 



21.4 

20.8 
20.7 



23 

20 



9.5 

7.5 

7.5 

13.5 
9.5 

8 
12 



8 

12 

10 

8 

7.5 
10.5 



s 



II. 6 
19-5 

8.1 

6.0 

7.0 
6.3 

6.2 

10.6 
7.2 

6.1 
9.3 

5.8 
8.6 

7.5 

6.0 
5.8 
8.1 



'20.9 oz. solid, 10.7 oz. liquid. '12.1 oz. solid, 4.3 oz. liquid. ' 12.6 oz. solid, 
11.001. liquid. * 15.9 oz. solid, 5.4 oz. liquid. *I5.2 oz. solid, 6.1 oz. liquid. • 8 oz. 
■olid, II oz. liquid. ''9.7 oz. solid, 9.7 oz. liquid. ^ 12.2 oz. solid, 8.1 oz. liquid. 

la.goz. solid, 7.8 oz. liquid. '® 12.2 oz. solid, 8.6 oz. liquid. "11. 6 oz. solid, 9.1 oz. 
liquid. "Net wgt. 22 oz., claimed. "16.3 oz. solid, 4.9 oz. liquid. 



140 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table XVI. — Net Weight of Various Package Goods. — ConHmuL 



Brand and Manufacturer. 



Mushrooms, 
La Diane Selected. Von Bremen, Asche and Co., 

New York 

La Diane Pieces and Stems. Von Bremen, Asche and 

Co., New York 

Peas, 
Magnes Sweet Wrinkled. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fre- 

donia, N. Y 

Butter-Nut Little Gem Sifted. Fredonia Pres. Co., 

Fredonia, N. Y 

New Process Green Split. The Cleveland Seed Co., 

Avon, N. Y 

Red Peppers, 
Pimientos Morrones. Fabr. Espec. de Cons. Veg., 

Calahorra, Spain 

Pimientos Morrones. Fabr. Espec. de Cons. Veg., 

Calahorra, Spain 

Pumpkin, 
Golden Solid Dry Packed. U. H. Dudley a»d Co., 

New York 

Magnes Golden. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fredonia, N. Y. 

Spinach, 

Butter-Nut Spring. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fredonia, 
N. Y 

Succotash, 
Butter-Nut Green Lima. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fre- 
donia, N. Y 

Magnes. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fredonia, N. Y 

Tomatoes, 

Butter-nut Hand Packed. Fredonia Pres. Co., Fre- 
donia. N. Y 

Half Moon Hand Packed. The Wm. H. Geer Co., 
New York 

Maryland Special. Phillips Packing Co., Cambridge, 
Md 

Red Fox Solid. The Wm. H. Geer Co.. New York. . 

Cirio Peeled. Soc. Gen. delle Cons. Alim. Cirio, S. 
Giovanni, Italy 



2; 


Net Wcigbt. 


i 




•< 




OS. 


oz. 


01. 


12 


15.7 


15.0 


"15.4 


12 


15.2 


14.6 


»I4.9 


24 


a..9 


".5 


»«21.7 


24 


21. 1 21.0 

1 


"21.0 


12 


16.4 


15.9 


16.0 


18 


17.4 


14.4 


»«i6.6 


12 


8.4 


7.6 


'• 8.0 


12 
12 


37.9 
33.2 


37.5 
33.1 


*«37.6 
33.2 


12 


34.0 


32.9 


33.4 


24 
23 


21.3 
21.6 


193 
19.6 


20.8 
20.8 


24 


21.0 


X7.8 


19.5 


12 


36.4'33.2 

1 


34.6 


12 
12 


33.2 
33.7 


32.3 
31. I 


"32.7 
32.6 


12 


18.3 


15^ 


17.5. 



23 123.9 

16 ;I7.J 



10.5 
12.5 



10.5 to.5 



13 "-5 
8 ii6.o 



10 I 4.3 1 
9.5 4-3 



12 5 7 



II. 5 8.8 
9.5 7.3 



9.5 7.8 
12.5 5 S 



II. 5 
12.5 

8 



5.6 
6.2 

7-3 



"7.4 oz. solid. 8.0 oz. liquid ; claimed net wgt., 15 oz. **6.8 oz. solid, 8.1 02. liquid. 
"13.9 oz. solid, 7.8 oz. liquid. " 13.4 oz. solid, 7.6 oz. liquid. "Claimed net wgt., 
15.5 oz. "Claimed net wgt., 7 oz. *° Hand-stamped indistinctly "35^ corn starch." 
*• Excessive liquor small pieces, fruit not fully ripe. 



NET WEIGHT OF PACKAGE GOODS. 



141 



Table XVI. — Net Weight of Various Package Goods. — Continued. 



Brand and Manufacturer. 



Cherries. 



Fruits. 



Royal Am. Golden Gate Packing Co., San Jose, Cal. 
Booth's Preserved White, Oval. A. Booth and Co., 

Baltimore, Md 

Rosebud, Colored and Flavored. Rheinstrom Bros., 

Cincinnati 

Peaekes. 

Jombo Pie. Miller Bros, and Co., Baltimore, Md. . . 

Yellow Free. Golden Gate Packing Co.. San Jose, Cal. 

Sliced Lemon Cling. Golden Gate Packing Co., San 

Jose, Cal 



Pears. 
Triacan Extra Bartlett. The Wm. H. Geer Co., New 
York 



Bartlett. Golden Gate Packing Co., San Jose, Cal. . . 

Pineapple. 
Royal Hawaiian Sliced. Haiku Fruit and Pack. Co., 
Haiku, H.I 



Plums. 
Triacan Extra Lombard. The.Wm. H. Geer Co., New 
York 



Fish. 
Underwood's Clams. Wm. Underwood Co., Boston. 
Pleasant River Maine Clams. H. S. Kane, Brooklin, 
Me. 



Izumi Crab. S. Izumi, Hokkaido, Japan 

Fish Flakes, Cod and Haddock. Burnham and Mor- 
rill Co., Portland, Me 

Herrings in Tomato Sauce. Marshall and Co., Aber- 
deen, Scot 

Kippered Herrings. Marshall and Co., Aberdeen, Scot. 

Home's Karluk Red Salmon. Alaska Packers Asso., 
Saa Francisco 

Bnttcr-Nut Columbia River Spring Salmon. F. C. 
Bashnell Co., New Haven 

Buner-Nut Columbia River Spring Salmon. F. C. 
Bashndl Co., New Haven 

Creole Barataria Shrimp. Pelican Lake Oyst. and 
Pack. Co., Houma, La... 



2 



12 
24 

8 



24 
12 



24 



24 



12 



Net Weight. 



32.2 
21.4 
31.6 



33.1 
31.3 

31.4 



21.3 
31.5 



23.6 



21.3 

16.4 

16.3 
16.4 

10. 1 

18.8 
17. 1 

17.5 

15.9 

8.1 
10.9 



30.8 
19.8 
31.0 



31.3 
29.7 

30.3 



19.4 
30.1 



21.8 



20.9 

15.6 

14.9 
16.2 

7.2 

17.6 
16.2 

16.9 

14.4 

7.6 

10.3 



'31.4 
'20.7 



•31.3 



*32.4 
•30.5 



^31.0 



**21.0 
•30.5 



"22.9 



*2I.I 

»I6.2 

««I6.I 
16.4 

8.5 

18.3 
16.6 

17.3 

15.3 

7.9 

»*io.7 



23 
12.5 



II. 7 
9.6 



55 28.1 



10.5; 5.2 

19 jio.o 

20 ,10.3 



12.5 9.5 
21 II. o 



21 JI4.7 



6.1 



8 
30 

7.5 

14 
14 

17 
21 

12.5 
10 



9.9 

8.0 
29- 3 

14. 1 

12.2 
13.5 

15.6 

22.0 

25.3 

14.9 



"18.90Z. solid, 12.5 oz. liquid. " 11.8 oz. solid, 8.9 oz. liquid. •*20.i oz. solid, 
n.aox. liquid. •• 16-9 oz. solid, 15.5 oz. liquid; skins not removed. •• 19.5 oz, solid, 
n.ooz. liquid; claimed net wgt., 30 oz. **20.5 oz. solid, 10.5 oz. liquid; claimed net 
^Rt., 300Z. •• 12.3 oz. solid, 8.7 oz. liquid. ••20.4 oz. solid, lo.i oz. liquid; claimed 
^<»gl..30oz. *i6.7oz. solid, 6.2 oz. liquid. " 11. 8 oz. solid, 9.3 oz. liquid. "6.40Z. 
wlid, 9.8 oz. liquid. »» 5.6 oz. solid, 10.5 oz. liquid. •*4.8 oz. solid, 5.9 oz. liquid. 



V 



142 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table XVI. — Net Weight of Various Package Goods. — Cantinuel 



Brand mad Manufacturer. 



Meats. 
Beech-Nut Sliced Bacon. Beech-Nut Pack. Co., 

Canajoharie, N. Y 

Beech-Nut Sliced Beef. Beech-Nut Pack. Co., Cana- 

joharie. N. Y 

Corned Beef. Libby, McNeill and Libby, Chicago. . . 

Boned Chicken. Richardson and Robbins, Dover, Del. 
Potted Meat Beef Ham Flavor. Libby, McNeill and 

Libby, Chicago 

Potted Meat Beef Ham Flavor. Libby, McNeill and 

Libby, Chicago 

Cooked Lunch Tongues. Libby, McNeill and Libby, 

Chicago 



Soups. 
Mock Turtle. Franco-American Food Co., Jersey 
City, N. J. 



Tomato Puree. Franco-American Food Co., Jersey 

City, ^- • 
Tomato 



City, N. T. 

Jos. Campbell Co., Camden, N. J. 



Preserves. 

Beech-Nut Peanut Butter. Beech-Nut Pack. Co., 
Canajoharie, N. Y 

Compound Pineapple. Logan, Johnson and Co., 
Boston 

Plum and Apple. Logan, Johnson and Co., Boston.. 

Raspberry and Apple. Logan, Johnson and Co., Boston 

Strawberry and Apple. Logan, Johnson and Co., 
Boston 

Union Preserved Strawberries. Piatt and Co., Balti- 
more, Md 

Apple Jelly Currant Flavor 

Symps, Molasses, Honey. 
Mt. Washington Maple Sap Syrup. Bay State Maple 

Syrup Co., Boston 

Nutmeg Fancy Cane and Maple. Miner, Read and 

Tullock, New Haven 

Karo. Corn Products Refining Co., New York 

Aunt Dinah N. O. Molasses. Renick and Ford, New 

Orleans, La 

Compound Honey. Chas. Israel and Bros., New York 



o > 
2; 



Net Weight. 



10. 1 

8.8 
12.3 
24.8 
14. 1 

3.9 

5.5 

13.2 



17.7 

8.6 
II. 9 



7.2 

14.3 
13.9 
13.7 

14.0 

II. 7 
9.9 



19.4 

10.3 
32.2 

31.3 

7.8 



8.9 

8.0 
"7 
23.4 
12.8 

3.6 

5.1 

II. 9 



9.7 
»• 8.3 

"12. 1 



16.9 

8.2 

"3 



6.7 

13.2 

13.3 
13.2 

12.7 

II. 4 
9.6 



17.5 

9.8 
31.9 

29.9 
7.0 



I a 



136 

•3.8 

" 5.4 

12.6 

17.3 
8.5 

»ii.5 

' 7.1 

137 
13.7 
134 

13.3 

'II. 5 
9.8 

18.5 

10. o 
^32.0 

30.4 
7.4 



24.2 27.5 
' 46 

4 

9 

27.5 

17 

7.5 
7.5 



41.3 

48.2 

21.3 

18.2 
54.0 

16.9 

23-7 
34.9 



15.7 

I4.I 
10.4 



12 270 

8 9-3 
9-3 



7.5 
8 

7.5 
8 



9.6 

9.6 

II. 1 
24-5 

17.3 

12.0 
4.0 

3-9 
17.3 



•• Claimed net wgt., 9 oz. ** Claimed wgt., 3.5 oz. *> Claimed wgt.. 7 oz. 

•• Claimed net wgt., 8 oz. '• Claimed wgt., 6.5 oz. *• 4.4 oz. solid, 7.1 oz. liquid. 

*' Claimed net wgt., 12 oz. ^ Claimed wgt., 10.5 oz. *• Claimed net wgt., 2 lbs. 



NET WEIGHT OF PACKAGE GOODS. 143 

I 

Table XVI. — Net Weight of Various Package Goods. — Continued. 



Brand and Manufacturer. 



Pickles and Relishes. 

Oyster Cocktail Sauce. T. A. Snider Pres. Co., Cin- 
cinnati 

Blue Label Tomato Ketchup. Curtice Bros. Co., 
Rochester. N. Y 

Ten Penny Chow Chow Pickles. The Williams Bros. 
Co., Detroit 

Chili Sauce. The Williams Bros. Co., Detroit 

Ten Penny Sweet Gherkin Pickles. The Williams 
Bros. Co., Detroit 

Ten Penny Sweet Fancy Mixed Pickles. The Williams 
Bros. Co., Detroit 

Sweet Relish Pickles. The Williams Bros. Co., Detroit 

Salad Dressing. £. R. Durkee and Co., New York. . 

Condensed Milk. 

Magnolia Brand. Borden Cond. Milk Co., New York 

Van Camp*s Evaporated. Van Camp Packing Co., 
Indianapolis 

Van Camp's Evaporated. Van Camp Packing Co., 
Indianapolis 

Square Brand Skimmed. Hires Cond. Milk Co., Phil- 
adelphia 



Pastes. 

Bntter-Nut Alimentary Paste, Mezzani. F. C. Bush 

nell Co., New Haven , 

Medium Egg Macaroni. Freihofer Vienna Baking 

Co., Philadelphia 

Egg Elbow Macaroni. Freihofer Vienna Baking Co., 

Philadelphia 

Anger's Golden Seal Macaroni 

Fbg Brand Fine Egg Noodles. C. F. Mueller Co., 

Jersey City, N.J 

Gold Leaf Egg Noodles Medium. Freihofer Vienna 

Bak. Co., Phila 

Gold Leaf Egg Elbow Spaghetti. Freihofer Vienna 

Bak. Co.. Phila 

Spaghetti Italian Style. Van Camp Packing Co., 

Indianapolis 

Sphinx Superior White Vermicelli. Miner, Read and 

Tullock, New Haven 



2 



12 
12 
12 
12 

12 
12 

12 

12 

12 
12 
12 

36 

12 



Net Weight. 



9.8 

17.4 

8.8 
9.3 

9.1 

8.1 

10.8 

3.6 



14.9 
6.0 

17. 1 
12.4 

16.8 
16.3 

15.9 
6.7 

7.8 

8.5 

16.0 

21.9 

14.8 



9.5 
17.0 

8.4 
8.3 

8.1 

7.6 

10.4 

3.5 



'9.7 
17.3 

8.6 
8.8 

8.7 

7.9 
10.7 
« 3.6 



14.7 

6.0 

16.7 

12.3 

15.6 
13.4 

14.7 

5.5 

7.2 

7.9 
14.6 
21.0 
14.3 



I 



14.8 
« 6.0 
*»i6.9 

12.4 

*»l6.2 

15. 1 

*»I5.6 
6.1 

7.5 
8.2 

**I5.4 

21.5 
14.5 



10 

4 

8 

7.5 
II 

ID 

10 

7.5 

8 

10 
10 
12 

7 



< 



19.8 

16.6 

14.9 
14.5 

14.7 

16.2 
12.0 
35.6 



10.8 

10.7 
7.6 
9-7 



10.9 

10.6 

10.3 
20.0 

17. 1 

19.5 

10.4 

8.9 

7.7 



^Claimed net wgt., 8 oz. *• Claimed net wgt., 14.5 oz. *® Claimed net wgt., 16 ox. 
•Claimed net wgt., 3.25 oz. *"» Claimed net wgt., 6 oz. *• Claimed wgt., i lb. 



144 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table XVI. — Net Weight of Various Package Goods. — Contimud, 



Brand and Manufacturer. 



Crackers and Biscuits. 

8ojg Gluten Biscuit. The Kellogg Food Co., Battle 
Creek, Mich 

40jl^ Gluten Biscuit. The Kellogg Food Co., Battle 
Creek, Mich 

Breakfast Toast. The Kellogg Food Co., Battle Creek, 
Mich 

Educator Toasterettes. Johnson Educator Food Co., 
Boston 

Educator Animal Crackers. Johnson Educator Food 
Co. , Boston 

Fruited Educator. Johnson Educator Food Co., 
Boston 

Japanese Friendship Wafers. Banta and Van Buskirk, 
New York 

Bostonia Sugar Wafers. O. B. Gilman, Boston 

Sugar Wafers, Chocolate. Huntley and Palmer, Read- 
ing, Eng 

Republic Chocolate Wafers. G. J. R. Wafer Bakery, 
Freeville, N. Y 

Festino Almonds. National Biscuit Co., New York 

Chocolate Tokens. 

Champagne Wafers. ** ** ** ** • ** 

Nabisco Chocolate. ** ** ** ** ** 

Nabisco Vanilla. 

Social Tea Biscuit. 

Frotana. ** ** ** ** 

Saltine Biscuit. 

«* it it << 11 «« 4* 

Five O'clock Tea Biscuit. National Biscuit Co., New 

York 

Baronet Biscuit. National Biscuit Co., New York. . . 

FigNewtons. 

Uneeda Lunch Biscuit. National Biscuit Co., New 

York 

Hydrox Chocolate Biscuits. Loose-Wiles Biscuit Co., 

Boston 

Sunshine Brandywine. Loose-Wiles Biscuit Co., 

Boston 

Sunshine Veronique. Loose-Wiles Biscuit Co., Boston 
Sunshine Tan-San. *' ** " ** ** 

Sunshine Butter Thin. ** ** ** ** 



S 

ll 
6^ 



9 

6 

12 

5 
5 

10 

7 

12 

12 
6 
12 
12 
12 
8 

9 
12 
10 

6 

6 
6 
8 



Net Weight. 



7.0 

9.2 
12.4 
14.8 

11. 

5.3 

14.3 
5.2 

6.5 
6.0 
3.6 
6.7 
6.7 

8.8 

6.1 

".5 

6.5 

15. 1 
10. o 

5.1 

8.3 

5.9 
2.2 

3.0 



6.2 

2-7 

8.7 

10.8 
13.9 

10.7 

3.2 
3.2 

4.6 

12.5 
4.8 
5.4 
4.6 

2.6 

6.0 
6.3 
7.7 
5.3 
9 

6.2 

14. 1 

8.1 

4.4 
7.8 

4.7 
1.9 
2.3 



> 
< 



6.7 

3.1 

9.0 

*<>ii.4 

*'I4.4 
10.8 

3.5 
3.4 

4.9 

133 
" 5.1 
« 6.0 

" 5.3 
" 3.0 
" 6.5 
« 6.6 
^ 8.4 
*' 5.6 
10.7 

" 6.3 
"'14.5 
" 8.9 

« 4.8 

8.1 

5.4 
2.r 
2.6 
7.1 



P 



129 

35 

28 



25 37 

25 "4 
10 48 



124 

54 
78 
67 
76 
53 
62 

24 
19 
29 
22 

26 

28 
18 

17 

59 

74 
76 
93 
23 



•<* Claimed net wgt., 12 oz. *' Claimed net wgt., 6 oz. " Claimed net wgt., 6.25 oz. 
•* Claimed net wgt.. 14 oz. " Claimed net wgt., 5 oz. " Claimed net wgt., 8.5 oz. 
•* Claimed net wgt., 4.5 oz. *^ Claimed net wgt., 2.75 oz. " Claimed net wgt., 5.25 oz. 



NET WEIGHT OF PACKAGE GOODS. 145 

Table XVL — Net Weight of Various Package. Goods. — Concluded, 



Brand and Manufacturer. 



Cereals. 

Kellogg*s Toasted Corn Flakes. Kellogg T. C. F. 
Co., Battle Creek 

Quaker Toasted Corn Flakes. Quaker Oats Co., 
Chicago 

Quaker Rolled White Oats. Quaker Oats Co., Chicago 

Bufccco Rolled Oats. Buffalo Cereal Co., Buffalo, 
N. Y 

Hecker's Cream Farina. Hecker-Jones-Jewell Mill. 
Co., New York 

Grandma's Pancake Flour Comp. Hecker-Jones- 
Jewell Mill. Co., New York 

Reliable Self-Raising Prep. Flour. Reliable Flour 
Co., Boston , 

Miscellaneons. 
Royal Baking Powder. Royal Baking Powder Co., 

New York 

Royal Baking Powder. Royal Baking Powder Co., 

New York .■% 

Danham's Orig. Shred Cocoanut. Dunham Mfg. Co., 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

Dunham's Orig. Shred Cocoanut. Dunham Mfg. Co., 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

None Such Mince Meat. Merrell-Soule Co., Syracuse, 

N. Y 

Crisco. The Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati. . . . 
Jcllo Ice Cream Powder. Genesee Pure Food Co., 

Le Roy, N . Y 

Tryphosa. E. C. Rich» New York 

Dried Fruits. 
Butter-Nut Fancy Evap. Apples. F. C. Bushnell Co., 

New Haven 

Serv-us Brand Cleaned Currants. Serv-us Pure Food 

Co., New York 

Monogram Brand Dates. William Hills, Jr., New 

York 

Very Best Prunes Gold Medal Brand. Santa Clara 

Co., Cal 

Bntier-Nut Fancy Seeded Raisins. F. C. Bushnell 

Co., New Haven 

__i 

* Claimed wgt., 10.5 oz. •* Claimed net wgt., 8 oz. 
"Claimed net wgt., 22 oz. •* Claimed net wgt., 4 oz. 
"Claimed net wgt., 1.5 lbs. 

10 



II 

2; 



Net Weight. 



II. I 

22.8 
23.9 
32.7 
32.1 
23.9 

8.4 
4.0 

9.8 

II. O 
24.2 

5.0 
7.4 

14.7 
14.9 
13.9 
13.0 
15.2 



8.7 

9.0 
22.0 

23.4 

32.3 

31.8 

23.7 



^OlO.I 



9.2 

'22,5 
24.1 
32.4 
31.9 

»»23.8 



7.9 
3.8 
3.6 
7-9 



4.8 
6.6 



14.0 

13.9 
12.2 
II. 9 
14.9 



«o 8.0 

" 4.0 

«' 4.0 

•0 8.7 

"10.9 
24.1 

4.9 
" 7.2 

14.3 
14:. 6 
12.9 
12.4 
15. 1 



8 12.7 

8 13.9 
8.5 6.0 



8.5 

12.5 

8.5 

10 

20 

II 

7 

13.5 

8.5 
20 

7.5 
8 

12.5 
II 

7.5 

10 

10 



§ 

is. 



5.6 
6.2 
4.3 
6.7 

40.0 
44.0 
28.0 
24.8 

12.5 

13.3 

24.5 
17.8 

14.0 

12. 1 

9-3 
12.7 
10.6 



*' Claimed net wgt., 10 oz. 
*• Claimed net wgt., 7 oz. 



146 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

sider, however, that the peaches of this brand were unskinned 
and that the can contained 48 per cent, of juice against only 36 
per cent, in the other, the apparent relative cheapness of this 
brand to a great extent disappears. Similar comparisons could 
be made with many other brands, but we cannot consider the 
whole table in detail. 

The prices show another very important point, namely, the 
expensiveness of certain classes of canned products. Perhaps 
the consumer does not realize, when purchasing the thin-sliced 
bacon or smoked beef of undoubted delicious quality, he is paying 
41 cents per pound for the former and 48 cents for the latter. 
In Potted Meat Beef Ham Flavor, formerly generally understood 
by the consumer to be "Potted Ham," but now revealed in its 
true light, he pays 17 or 24 cents per pound, depending on the 
size of the package, rather a high price for beef of inferior quality. 
Macaroni or noodles at 20 cents per pound is certainly not an 
economical purchase. The prices paid for crackers, especially 
in the smaller packages, are notably high. Cleanliness in 
manufacture and subsequent handling, of course, are important, 
* but do they justify such prices as 92 cents, $1.14 or $1.24 per 
pound, to mention only a few of our most costly brands ? Plain 
crackers, like Saltines, costing 29 cents per pound are hardly an 
economical food. Certain cereals like cornflakes are sold in what 
appear to be very generous packages, but the flakes in them cost 
12.7 to 13.9 cents per pound. 

Further details will not be cited, but we believe a careful study 
of Table XVI will give much useful data that have an important 
bearing on the "high cost of living.'" 



11. DRUG PRODUCTS. 

ACETIC ACID. 
(Acidum Aceticum.) 

The Pharmacopoeia defines acetic acid as "a liquid composed of 
not less than 36 per cent, by weight of absolute acetic acid, and 
about 64 per cent, of water, and obtained by the oxidation of 
ethyl alcohol or by the destructive distillation of wood." 



ACETIC ACID. 



147 



Table XVII. — Acetic Acid. 



Place of Sale. 



to 



•e8 



P 



27519 
27520 
27521 
27625 
27726 

27727 
27728 
27576 



25777 

27563 
27564 
26959 
26960 
27538 

27539 
27652 

27653 
27662 
27700 

27701 
27591 
27592 

27759 
27760 
27761 



6147 
6148 
6x70 



Bridgeport. 
Bridgeport. 
Bridgeport. 
Danbury.. . 
Hartford... 
Hartford... 
Hartford.. . 
Meriden . . . 



Meriden . 



New Britain. 
New Britain. 
New Haven . 
New Haven. 
New Haven. 



New Haven.. 
New London . 
New London. 
New London. 
Norwich 



Norwich . 
Stamford. 
Stamford. 



Waterbury. 
Waterbury . 
Waterbury . 



Sampled by Dairy 
Commissioner, 

*A. L. Embree, 
Stamford 

*Marron's Phar- 
macy, Stamford. 

»J. H. Clampett. 
Bridgeport 



cts. 
10 
10 
10 
15 
15 
20 
20 
10 



.048 
.019 
.048 
.048 
.049 
.047 
.049 
.049 



1.040 



049 
049 

049 
050 
040 

052 
049 
049 
049 
049 

049 
008 
040 

049 
049 
044 



% 
34.82 
12.60 
35.06 
34.82 
35.27 
34.14 
35.63 
35.51 



28.18 

35.48 
35.45 
35.60 
36.02 
28.51 

37.92 
35.81 

35.57 
35.51 
35.69 

35.69 

6.05 

28.21 

35.39 
35.51 
31.10 



28.12 
34.32 
35.98 



.013 
.010 
.018 
.305 
.008 
.Oil 

.005 
.315 



.058 

.014 
.020 

.033 

.017 
.064 

.016 
.010 
.012 
.004 
.003 

.006 

.015 

.026 

.020 
.016 
.018 



3S% U. S. P. 
Considerable chlorides. 



Formic and sulphurous acid present. 

Brown color; contains iron, lead, 
formic and sulphurous acids, and- 
trace of empyreumatic substances. 

78.3JJ U. S. P.; contains empyreumatic 
substances and trace of sulphates. 



Contains empyreumatic substances and 
trace of sulphates, ^f^,2% U. S. P. 



Contains trace of formic and sulphur- 
ous acid. 

i6.8jr U. S. P. 

^Z,^% U. S, p.; contains trace of 
chlorides. 



86.4J^ U. S. P. 



n%.i% u. s. p. 



' See 27592 above. ' See 27591 above. * See 27520 above. 

It should have a specific gravity of about 1.045 ^^ 25"* C. (equal 
to 1.048 at is"* C), should leave no residue on evaporation, should 
be free from sulphuric, hydrochloric, formic and sulphurous acids, 
heavy metal? and more than traces of emp)a'eumatic substances. 



148 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Twenty-eight samples were analyzed. These contained from 
6.05 to 37.92 per cent, acetic acid. Twenty-one samples contained 
approximately the standard percentage. The other seven con- 
tained 6.05, 12.60, 28.12, 28.18, 28.21, 28.51 and 31.10 per cent, 
respectively. Two of these, 27691 and 27620, showed a great 
deficiency in acid, containing only 17 and 35 per cent, of the 
required amount. 

Of the twenty-one . samples containing over 34 per cent, of 
acetic acid four failed to comply strictly with the U. S. P. require- 
ments, one containing high fixed impurities, mostly chlorides, two 
traces of formic and sulphurous acids, and one, 27676, being of 
a decided brown color and containing high fixed impurities, iron, 
lead, formic and sulphurous acids and traces of empyreumatic 
substances. 

To summarize, 17 samples were found to be of satisfactory 
quality, 4 of proper acid strength contained various impurities 
and 7 contained only from 17 to 86 per cent, of the required acid. 

The three samples taken by the Dairy Commissioner were 
second samples from the stock of druggists found by the station 
to be selling this drug below standard strength, 6147, correspond- 
ing to our 27692, showed no change; 6148 and 6170, correspond- 
ing to 27691 and 27620, however, showed 34.32 and 35.98 per 
cent., respectively, where 6.05 and 12.60 were previously found, 
another indication that the three-sample feature of the law may 
put the dealer on guard and that the material sold does not neces- 
sarily represent what would be secured by the casual purchaser. 

ACONITE. 
(Aconitum,) 

"The dried tuberous root of Aconitum Napellus, collected in 
autumn; yielding when assayed by the proems given below 
(U. S. P. page 28), not less than 0.5 per cent, of aconitine." 

Seven samples of the powdered root were analyzed. 

Aconitine was determined by four methods, the U. S. P. 
gravimetric and volumetric and the A. O. A. C. gravimetric and 
volumetric (U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. of Chem., Bull. 107^ 258). 
Neither gravimetric method is reliable because of the difficulty in 
securing a perfectly pure residue from the ether and chloroform 



ACONITE. 



149 



extraction. The following tabulation of results shows that in 
certain cases the amount of impurity may be very considerable. 



ACONITINB BY DIFFERENT METHODS. 

U.S. P. Method. 

Sample. Grav. Vol. 

i % 

27747 *494 -3^ 

27495 335 -29$ 

27548 *383 ^31 

27658 454 ^97 

27682 *4I5 .231 

27705 t725 487 

27588 jfi7 .397 

Averages, 470 .346 420 
♦Residue impure. fResidue very impure. 



A. 0. A. C. 1 
Grav. 


Method. 
Vol. 


i 


i 


430 


-371 


.301 


.256 


.308 


.288 


448 


^59 


♦.387 


.256 


.581 


.512 


486 


410 



^50 



These results show very clearly the tendency towards high 
results by both gravimetric methods, and that there is little choice 
between the two volumetric methods as regards accuracy. 

With the exception of 27706, all the samples were deficient in 
the alkaloid, ranging from 0.231 to 0.397 per cent., or from 46.2 
to 794 per cent, of the strength required by the U. S. P. 

Total ash ranged from 4.52 to 6.05, and ash insoluble in hydro- 
chloric acid (sand) from 0.13 to 1.30 per cent. There wa« a 

Table XVIII. — Aconite Root (Powdered). 





Place of Sale. 


S 

n 

I 


1 


Aconitine. 


Ash. 


1 
1 


i 


< 


•a 
I 




27747 
27495 
27548 
27658 
27682 


♦Hartford 


cts. 

15 

10 
10 

10 
20 
10 
20 


oz. 
2.2 

1.8 
1.8 
1.7 

W 

1.8 
j.g 


0.384 
0.295 
0.221 

0.397 
0.231 
0.487 
0.397 
0.346 


0.371 
0.256 
0.288 

0.359 
0.256 
0.512 
0.410 
0.350 


6.05 

5.47 
5.61 
5.48 
5.62 
5.36 
4.52 
5-44 


0.72 
1.23 
1.04 
0.65 
1.30 
0.31 
0.13 
0.77 


♦fNew Haven 




New London 




27705 

27588 


Norwich 


Stamford 


Average. . . . 



* No Poison label. 



t Labeled '* not pure.' 



ISO CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

relation between insoluUe ash and aconitine, the higher per- 
centages of alkaloid being associated with a low insoluble ash. 

The samples were carelessly weighed at the time of sale. 
Although two ounces were asked for in every case, the amount 
delivered ranged from 1.7 to 2.4 ozs., at a cost of from 10 to 20 
cents. Although the substance is actively poisonous two drug- 
gists neglected to afEx a poison label to their samples. 

POWDERED ASAFETIDA. 

The Pharmacopoeia requires that gum asafetida shall contain 
not less than 50 per cent, of matter soluble in alcohol and not more 
than 10 per cent, of ash. 

The quality of gum asafetida is notoriously bad and that of the 
powdered drug is even worse. The literature shows that much 
inferior asafetida is imported into this country, some containing 
as much as 75 per cent, of ash. On the other hand numerous 
samples have been found containing over 70 per cent, of alcohol- 
soluble resins and less than 6 per cent, of ash. 

Because of its gummy nature it is claimed that a diluent is 
necessary when asafetida is to be prepared in powdered form. 
However, an ash content of 40, 50 or even 65 per cent is inex- 
cusable, and can only be considered as an adulteration. (See 
page 204.) 

Twenty-seven samples were analyzed, representing Seventeen 
samples taken by us and ten duplicate samples collected by the 
Dairy Commissioner. 

The alcohol-soluble matter ranged from 1 1.58 to 60.50 per cent., 
as follows: 

9 samples from 11.6 to 20.0 per cent 
ID " " 20.1 to 30.0 

S " " 30.1 to 40.0 

2 " " 40.1 to 50.0 " 

I " " 60.5 " 

In other words 15 of the 27 samples contained less than half 
of the required amount of alcohol-soluble matter. As a rule the 
low percentages of resins were associated with large amounts of 
ash. The last column of Table XIX shows the calculated amount 
of alcohol extract based on 10 per cent, of ash (the U. S. P. maxi- 



ASAFETIDA. 



151 



•(p»1«inorB.o) 'tfn 
•)9 J9d 01 JO sfsvq 
uo )9ei)x^ loqoatV 



•«os 



•o»o 



< 
Q 

H 
M 

CO 

Q 
O 



H 



IDH 
tn 9|qn|osai 



in o|qn(osax 



•|«V>x 



•)3«nxa (oqooiv 



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tn c^oo f^ M O^ ^ w^ c*^ ^ ^oo c*^ o*»r> M t;» O 
O eooo « ^« O^N OMH r>.oo « m O w O^ S 

d ^« o^Ooooo o to»no^« \nooo r>."^CX 
mWWmmmmNmmmcOmmW cos 

oooo M coo »nw t>.o^^»^>'>r^«'>^M o 
»Ad d^^r^ei-^Nodao^nd^dfOMi^p 

M«MM»HeOMNMeOMC«MMC«M«<M 

»♦»»♦♦♦ ♦ ♦ 

« eo« eoeoi^OO ejoo ^o r>.oO »«2 ^ «^ t^ 
,0^ tnco M 00 00 ^ »r»o M ^M ^o»^»ne» ^>* 

M M* d »^ M d M M « M* ^ ci « d « M M S 

80 O M eo^eo«0g\c<^0 « »£>it* 9*^ 
woo u>o t^i-« »no^oo r^«oo»o^t^« s 

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t^»nO <>0^0 O^OO « ^^« R"^. '^. ^^ 
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c<^ ^ ^ CO coo tfiin rt *r% ^O ^ « »n w O > 

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^MM^COMCOMC<C«e«MM>OC«COMC\| 



a 
o 



0«<^0 0»'>»«»'>»'>0>'>0 O O O O M^O 




^ 



c 
o 

•a 

4) 

a 

•a 

a 
o 
O 

* 



•on UOpBJS 



O "^00 O CO ^ too « O^Ooo N mOOoo 
c*^^eo^r^r>.r^i^i^»no o>»noooooooo 



152 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

mum for the gum). This shows approximately the amount of 
alcohol-soluble matter in gum of U. S. P. quality as regards ash. 
These calculated values ranged from 19.71 to 77.65 per cent., or 

2 samples from 19.7 to 30.0 per cent 
8 " " • 30.1 to 40.0 

8 " " 40.1 to 50.0 " 

9 " " 50.1 to 'J'J,'J 

These figures indicate that in 9 samples the original gum was 
of U. S. P. quality, in 8 of fairly satisfactory quality, while in 10 
it was decidedly inferior. Whatever justification there may be 
in the use of a certain amount of diluent in powdering the gtmi, 
the above figures show that in nearly half of the samples the gum 
itself was not of U. S. P. strength. 

The total ash ranged from 27.06 to 67.84 per cent., the ash 
insoluble in water from 22.95 to 63.29 per cent, and that insoluble 
in hydrochloric acid (sand) from 0.82 to 2.62 per cent. The 
samples may be classed as follows on basis of total ash. 

2 samples from 27.1 to 30.0 per cent 
S " " 30.1 to 40.0 " 

10 " " 40.1 to 50.0 " 

3 " " 50.1 to 60.0 

7 " " 60.1 to 67.8 " 



Table XX. — Powdered Asafetida. 

(Sampled by Dairy Commissioner,) 





be 


6 


•Jo* 


2 


ag 


0, 




i 


u"* 


w 


• 


6367 


27498 


6368 


27752 


6388 


27586 


6397 


27944 


6558 


27572 


6565 


27974 


6566 


27975 


6567 


27738 


6569 


27959 


6585 


27788 



Dealer. 



Chas. Fleischner, New Haven 

Cbas. S. Leete & Co., New Haven 

A. L. Embree, Stamford 

P. N. Holley, Bristol 

W. W. Mosher. Meriden 

Cantarow Drug Co., Hartford 

Frank L. Palmer, Hartford 

L. H. Tracy. Hartford 

E. L. Janeswick, New Britain 

J. W. Cone, Waterbury 

* See Table XIX. 



8 

5 



13.52 
25.36 
34.28 
21.40 
26.00 
15.26 
36.58 
11.58 
26.26 
12.20 



•a 



63.83 
43.80 

49-33 
49.12 

46.24 
66.94 

37.17 
47.08 
64.18 
66.88 



CSS 

K uu 



33.64 
40.59 
60.89 

37.89 
43.52 
41.58 
52.38 
19.71 
65.97 
33.15 



SYRUP OF FIGS. 153 

No sample approached even the U. S. P. maximum and ten 
contained over 50 per cent. ash. 

The ash consisted chiefly of calcium sulphate, in fourteen sam- 
ples associated with considerable calcium carbonate. 

The selling price showed the usual variations, ranging from 10 
to 25 cents per ounce. 

The ten second samples taken by the Dairy Commissioner 
(Table XX) ranged from 11.58 to 36.58 per cent, alcohol extract 
and from 37.17 to 66.94 per cent, ash; in other words none of, 
the samples satisfied the U. S. P. requirements. With one 
exception the analyses of these samples agreed reasonably well 
with those of the corresponding station samples. 

SYRUP OF FIGS. 

This proprietary has been on the market for a number of years. 
It was formerly sold as "Syrup of Figs," but of late years many 
of the labels note the presence of "Elixir of Senna," which is 
generally the real laxative agent * present. The reason for this 
change is apparent from the following extract from the opinion 
of the U. S. Court in the case, Worden v. California Fig Syrup 
Co., 187 U. S., 516,5*36: 

"The argument for complainant is that, because fig juice or syrup 
has no laxative property, everybody ought to understand that when the 
term is used to designate a laxative medicine it must have only a 
fanciful meaning. But the fact is admitted that the public believe that 
fig juice or syrup has laxative medicinal properties. It is to them that 
the complainant seeks to sell its preparations, and it is with respect to 
their knowledge and impression that the character, whether descriptive 
or fanciful, of the term used, is to be determined." 

While whole figs do have a laxative effect, due largely to the 
mechanical effect of the seeds and skins, there is no evidence that 
a decoction of figs has any such action whatever. The public 
should understand that in the preparations under discussion the 
laxative agent is not figs, but, generally, senna, often associated 
with Rochelle or Epsom salts, which relieve the griping often 
resulting from the use of the senna alone. 

Thirteen samples were analyzed, six of which were sold as 
compound fig syrup, five as compound fig and senna syrup, and 
two as fruit laxative. 



154 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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SYRUP OF FIGS. 155 

Brand Names. 

37533. Premium Remedy for Constipation, A Vegetable Laxative, 
A. D. S. Fig Syrup Comp., Alcohol 3 per cent 

36943- Syrup of Figs and Elixir of Senna, Contains 6 per cent of 
Alcohol 

37517. Laxative Fig Syrup and Compound Synergists, .03 Alcohol. 

375x6. Fig and Senna Laxative Compound Syrup, Alcohol 5 per cent 

375x4. Compound Fig Laxative Syrup, Contains .about 8 per cent 
Alcohol. 

375x5. Nyal's Compound Laxative Fig Syrup, Alcohol 16 per cent 
"A Purely Vegetable Laxative." 

37779. Narco Fig Laxative Syrup, Contains about 8 per cent Alcohol. 

37535. Penslar Compotmd Laxative Fig and Senna S3rrup, Alcohol 
2 per cent "Each fluidounce contains Senna, 175 grs., Rochelle Salts, 
20 grs.. Syrup of Figs, 80 Min." 

36949. Dr. Hobson's Laxative Fig Syrup Compoimd, with Senna and 
other Vegetable Laxatives. 

36940. Hiker's Compound Syrup of Senna and Figs, 254 per cent 
Alcohol. 

275x8. Rexall Fruit Laxative, Containing 14 per cent Alcohol. 

37568. Vita Compound Fruit Laxative Syrup, 2 per cent Alcohol. 
"Syrup Figs and Raisins, Syrup Prunes, Senna, Mandrake, Rhubarb, 
etc." 

37534. Laxative Fig Syrup and Senna Compoimd, Alcohol 5 per cent. 

With one exception all the samples contained alcohol ranging 
from 1. 16 to 9.63 per cent. The solids ranged from 51.20 to 
65.09 per cent., chiefly consisting of cane sugar, except in 26949, 
where 11.43 P^r ^^^^- cane sugar and 33.61 per cent, invert sugar 
were present; in the other samples the sugar ranged from 35.65 
to 61.28 per cent., constituting from 70 to 94 per cent, of the 
solids. 

The ash ranged from 0.21 to 4.92 per cent., while the water- 
insoluble ash ranged from 0.08 to 0.36 per cent. An examination 
of the ash showed traces of chlorides, lime, magnesium, phosphates, 
sulphates, and iron in all samples. Chlorides were found in consid- 
erable amount in 27616, 27636 and 26779; magnesia in 27616, 
27616, 27617, 27618 and 27668; and sulphates in 27616, 27616, 
27617^ 276S6 and 27668. In four of these samples, 27616, 
27616, 27617 and 27668, magnesium sulphate (Epsom salt) was 
present, while 27618 contained an tmidentified magnesium salt. 
In 27636 Rochelle salt was present. It is apparent, therefore, 
that the cathartic action was not in all cases derived solely from 
vegetable drugs, as claimed for some of the brands. 



156 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Generally speaking, since syrup of figs confessedly has no 
laxative property, it would seem to be a species of misbranding 
to give the words "fig syrup" so much prominence on the label 
of laxative remedies of this nature. By the manufacturer's own 
label in one case only 80 minims of syrup of figs is claimed per 
fluidounce, or 16 per cent., while 40 per cent, of senna is claimed. 
A statement made on the label of the California Fig Syrup Co. is 
illuminating in this respect. "This excellent remedy, well and 
favorably known under the name of Syrup of Figs, will in future 
be designated Syrup of Figs and Elixir of Senna, as the latter 
name is more fully descriptive of the combination, because its 
laxative principles are obtained from Senna, which is the best of 
natural laxatives, while the figs of California are used to promote 
the pleasant tiaste." There is, therefore, evidently no more reason 
why the word "fig" should appear on the labels of these prepara- 
tions than the name of any other flavoring ingredient used, such 
as cassia, cloves or mint. The word "fig** is used with all the 
preparations except the Rexall and Vita products, which are 
called "Fruit Laxatives," a nomenclature just as objectionable, 
as in neither case is the main laxative effect secured from any 
fruit which may be present. 

By subtracting the sum of the sugars and ash from the total 
solids, we get a close approximation to the amount of v^etablc 
extractive present, assuming, of course, the absence of glycerine 
for which we made no tests. This figure ranges from 3.34 to 
16. 1 1 per cent., six samples containing less than 10 per cent. 

When we consider the samples individually we find more spe- 
cific criticisms necessary. The A. D. S. preparation, 27533, bears 
the usual statement, "This is not a patent medicine, etc.," which 
raises the question whether a preparation made by a druggist or 
a group of druggists may not be quite as much a patent medicine 
as if made by a quack doctor or a seemingly reputable house. 

In 27517 we find considerable Epsom salt. The brand name 
claims the presence of "synergists." Synergy, medically speak- 
ing, is "the combined healthy action of every organ of a system." 
The claim for the presence of such substances is certainly a most 
sweeping one. 

In 27516 we also find considerable Epsom salt. 

The Nyal preparation, 27515, claiming to be a purely vegetable 
laxative, contains 4.92 per cent, ash, a considerable portion of 



GLYCERINE. 157 

which is Epsom salt. It is therefore not "purely vegetable" and 
much of its laxative action depends upon a mineral cathartic. It 
contains 9.63 per cent, of alcohol by weight, more than double 
the amount found in any of the other samples. 

27635, Penslar Syrup, contains Rochelle salt as claimed, also 
considerable chlorides and sulphates, indicating the use of other 
mineral drugs. 

26940, Riker's Syrup, contains only 3.34 per cent, of solids, 
other fhan sugar and ash, 94 per cent, of its solids consisting of 
sugar. This contains less vegetable extractives than any other 
of the group. 

27618, Rexall Fruit Laxative, contains a magnesium salt, to 
which part of its laxative action is probably due. 

27668, Vita Syrup, contains considerable Epsom salt, which is 
not mentioned in its formula, and which is certainly not a "fruit," 
to which the manufacturer attributes the laxative eflfect of his 
preparation. 

GLYCERINE. 
(Glycerinum.) 

Glycerine of U. S. P. strength should contain not less than 95 
per cent, of absolute glycerine, should have a specific gravity not 
less than 1.246 at 25° C. (= 1.2526 at 15"* C), should be neutral 
to litmus paper, should be free from mineral impurities, sugars, 
butyric acid and acrolein. 

Thirty samples were analyzed. 

The specific gravity at 15® C. ranged from 1.2469 to 1.2630; 
absolute glycerine from 93.0 to 99.2. 

Sugar was present in small quantity in one sample. 

Butyric acid was present in all samples, but in nine cases only 
in traces. 

Acrolein was absent in one sample, present in traces in sixteen, 
and in relatively considerable amounts in thirteen. 

Arsenic was present in traces in ten samples. 

No oxalic acid, calcium, chlorides or sulphates were detected in 
any sample. 

The cost of four ounces ranged from 15 to 35 cents. 



iS8 coNNECTicxrr experiment station report, 1912. 
Table XXII. — Glycerine. 



§ 



27503 
27526 

27527 
27528 

27529 
27623 
27632 

27635 
27723 



Place of Sale. 



Bridgeport. 
Bridgeport. 
Bridgeport. 
Bridgeport. 
Bridgeport. 
Danbury... 
Danbury.. . 
Danbury... 
Hartford. . . 



277241 Hartford. 

27725 
27729 
27581 
27582 
27565 
27566 
26961 
27494 
27545 
27546 
27547 
27654 
27656 
27702 
27714 
27589 
27590 
27766 

27767 
27768 



Hartford 

Hartford 

Meriden 

Meriden 

New Britain 

New Britain 

New Haven 

New Haven 

New Haven 

New Haven 

New Haven 

New London 

New London 

Norwich 

Norwich 

Stamford 

Stamford 

Waterbury 

Waterbury 

Waterbury 

Average. 



n 



cts. 

25 
25 

20 

15 
15 

20 
20 
35 
15 
20 

15 
20 

15 
15 
20 
20 
20 

15 
20 
20 
25 
30 
35 
25 
25 
20 

15 
15 
25 
20 



so 



II 






I 

.250294.0 
.2620I98.8 
.251594.6 
.254295.6 
.2556196.2 
.2517:94.6 
.254295.6 
.2493:93.6 
.251094.4 
.257597.0 
.254896.0 
.259297.6 
.2599:98.0 
, 2629 99 . 2 
,2516194.6 
255596.2 
254095.6 
258897.6 
.2514I94.6 
2547:95.8 



2570 
2630 
2515 
2597 
2580 



96.8 
99.2 
94.6 
98.0 
97.2 



2520:94.8 
2555196.2 
255796.2 
2469193.0 
255296.0 



S 



None 

None 

Yes 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 



Yes 

Trace 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Trace 

Trace 

Trace 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Trace 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Trace 

Yes 

Yes 

Trace 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Trace 

Trace 



Trace 
None 

Yes 
Trace 

Ye^ 
Trace 
Trace 
Trace 

Yes 
Trace 

Yes 
Trace 
Trace 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 
Trace 
Trace 

Yes 
Trace 
Trace 
Trace 

Yes 
Trace 
Trace 

Yes 

Yes 
Trace 

Yes 

Yes 



None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

Trace 

None 

Trace 

Trace 

Trace 

Trace 

None 

None 

Trace 

Trace 

Trace 

None 

None 

None 

Trace 

None 

None 

None 

None 

None 

Trace 

None 

None 



HEROIN. 

Heroin, diacetyl morphine, is a morphine derivative, which has 
recently come into use to an alarming extent as a substitute for 
cocaine and similar habit-forming drugs. The abuse of the drug 
has become so great that at least one city in this state, New Haven, 
has passed an ordinance forbidding its sale except on prescription, 
or for purely professional or scientific purposes. Four samples 
were purchased by our collector, whose identity was unknown to 
the druggists in question, the latter making no inquiries whatever 
as to the purpose of the purchase. While the sale of these 
samples was not illegal at the time, it is obviously easy for a 



MAGNESIUM CARBONATE. 



159 



perfect stranger to purchase this dangerous drug without a pre- 
scription in at least four of our cities. 

The samples contained from 4.03 to 19.75 P^r c^^** of heroin, 
equivalent to 0.068 to 0.172 of a grain per tablet, one showing a 
shortage of .015 of a grain, or 18 per cent. 

Table XXIII. — Heroin Tablets. 



37740 
37551 
27685 
27704 



Pike's Drug Store, Hartford 

J. A. Notkin & Bro., New Haven 

Starr Bros., New London 

Smith Pharmacy, Norwich 



cts. 

101I2 
20I12 

I5{i2 
25112 



55 



gm. 
1. 118 
0.651 
1.238 
1.312 



Heroin. 



I 



6.02 

19.75 
4.98 
4.03 



•6 

u 

II 

OH 



,087 
,172 
,078 
.068 



.083 
.167 
.083 
.083 



MAGNESIUM CARBONATE. 
(Magnesii Corbonas.) 

''Magnesium carbonate should yield, upon ignition, not less than 
40 per cent, of residue, of which not less than 96 per cent, should 
consist of pure magnesium oxide." 

One grain should not contain more than o.ooi gm. of foreign 
soluble salts. It should not contain more than mere traces of 
lime, iron or other heavy metals. 

'Magnesium carbonate of a quality not strictly satisfying 
U. S. P. requirements is frequently sold marked "For technical 
use." The difficulty and expense of completely removing certain 
foreign salts greatly increases the cost of the substance, still as 
long as the U. S. P. is our standard for drug purity the druggist 
should adhere to that standard for the drugs he sells. Should the 
dealer sell this drug in the original package plainly marked "For 
technical use," he can hardly be criticized for selling an impure 
article, for he sells it for what it is. However, when selling the 
"technical" g^ade in bulk it should be so labeled as to give the 
purchaser full knowledge of its inferior quality. 

Nine of the eighteen samples analyzed came in their original 
wrappers, and seven of these were branded "technical." One 



l6o CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

sample each of Pattison's, Lehn & Fink's and all the bulk samples 
were sold as "Magnesium Carbonate" and should have met the 
U. S. P. requirements. 

One sample, 27718, proved to be oxide, not carbonate of mag- 
nesia. The other seventeen samples on ignition gave residues 
from 40.78 to 42.03 per cent., and contained from 38.88 to 40.52 
per cent, of pure magnesium oxide, all satisfying the U. S. P. 
standards in both respects. All the samples, however, contained 
considerable foreign soluble salts, ranging from 0.62 to 1.07 per 
cent. Iron was found in tracers or more in all samples, while lime 
was found in three samples. 

While all the samples contained the proper amounts of the 
important ingredient, magnesium oxide, none of them was strictly 
in conformity with the rather exacting U. S. P. requirements. 

Some of the samples showed quite a shortage in weight. Four 
ounces were asked for in every case, but the amounts delivered 
ranged from 3.3 to 4.4 ounces. Seven samples were short by 04 
of an ounce or over, equivalent to 10 per cent, or more. The 
price ranged from 10 to 20 cents. 



SOLUTION OF MAGNESIUM CITRATE. 
(Liquor Magnesii Citratis.) 

The U. S. P. formula for this preparation yields a product 
which contains, in 100 cc. of the solution, 1.60 gms. magnesium 
oxide, 0.33 gm. potassium oxide, 9.28 gms.^total citric acid and 
3.24 gms. free citric acid. 

Forty-three samples were analyzed, thirty-one of our own 
collection and twdve from the Dairy Commissioner. These 
showed a wide range in composition. The thirty-one samples 
contained from 3.50 to 10.50 gms. total and from 0.18 to 3.81 
gms. free citric acid 100 cc, from 0.72 to 1.91 gms. mag- 
nesium oxide, and from none at all to 0.40 gm. potassium oxide. 
All the samples contained traces of lime, ten from 0.05 to o.ii 
gm. Twenty-nine showed strong, one slight and one no effer- 
vescence on opening. A lemon odor was strong in twenty-one 
samples, slight in five, and none detected in five. In twenty-five 
samples the solution was clear, in five slightly turbid and in one 
distinctly turbid. In all the samples there was some sediment; 



MAGNESIUM CITRATE. 

Table XXIV. — Magnesium Carbonate. 



i6i 



27512 

27554 
27555 
27637 
27712 

27513 

27585 
27567 

27575 

27744 
27749 
27499 
27556 
27750 
27684 
27713 

27780 
27781 



*Keasbey & Mattison Co., Am- 
bier. Pa 

*Keasbey & Mattison Co., Am- 
bler, Pa 

^Keasbey & Mattison Co., Am- 
bler, Pa 



Brand, or nace of Sale. 



Keasbey & Mattison Co., Am- 
bler, Pa 

* Keasbey & Mattison Co., Am- 
bler. Pa 

Lehn & Fink. New York 

♦Schieffelin & Co., New York.. . 
*Pattison*s, Washington Chem. 

Co., Engl 

*Pattison*s, Washington Chem. 

Co., Engl 

In bulk. Hartford 

** New Haven 



' New London 

Norwich 

Waterbury 

Average (excluding 27713). 



Weight. 



4.0 

4.0 

4.0 

4.0 

4.0 
4.0 
4.0 

4.0 

4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 
4.0 



4.03. 
4.03. 
403, 



4.2 

3.3 

3.4 

4.0 

3.7 
3.7 
3-4 

4.4 



1^ 



10 
10 

8\i3.2 






41.53 
42.03 

40.79 
40.78 

41.34 
41.07 
41.17 

41.25 



1 



39.60 

40.52 

39-49 
38.88 

39-70 
39-29 
39-60 

40.11 

40.00 
39-90 
40.52 
39.60 
39-90 
40.21 
40.21 
93.93 






0.78 
0.62 
0.80 
1.04 

0.61 

0.93 
0.86 

0.77 



Impurities Detected. 



Iron. 

Traces lime and iron. 

Iron and trace lime. 

Iron. 

Iron. 
Iron. 
Iron. 



40.01 o 
3§.8oo 
9,840 



f 



Trace iron. 

69 Trace iron. 
76 Trace iron. 
84 Trace iron. 
,07 Iron. 
68 Trace iron. 

79 Iron. 

82 Trace iron. 

80 Trace iron; oxide, not 
carbonate, magnesia. 

78 Iron. 

67 Iron and lime. 

79 



•♦Labeled, •'Technical. 



in eight this was very slight, in thirteen slight, in seven 
considerable and in three very heavy. 

This solution is liable to deteriorate in appearance on keeping 
even for a short time, losing its clear, bright appearance and a 
precipitate of potassium bicarbonate frequently settling out. 
Furthermore, from its composition it is a particularly favorable 
medium for bacterial and fungus growth. For these reasons it 
should be made up in small lots only sufficient for immediate 
demands, or as directed in the U. S. P. "This preparation should 
be freshly made when wanted." It does not seem that age should 
impair its strength in magnesia and potash, but long keeping 
results in loss of acidity and carbonic acid gas, wfth an accom- 



1 62 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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MAGNESIUM CITRATE. 1 63 

panying precipitation of potassium bicarbonate, which seriously 
affects its appearance, if not its efficacy. 
Total citric acid ranged from 3.50 to 10.50 gms. per 100 cc. 

7 contained from 8.4 to 10.5 gms., or 90 to 113 per cent. U. S. P. 
10 contained from 7.4 to 8.3 gms., or 80 to 89 per cent. U. S. P. 

6 contained from 64 to 7.3 gms., or 70 to 79 per cent U. S. P. 

8 contained from 3.5 to 6.3 gms., or 38 to 68 per cent. U. S. P. 

Free citric acid ranged from o.*l8 to 3.81 gms. 

6 contained from 2.9 to 3.8 gms., or 90 to 117 per cent U. S. P. 

7 contained from 2.5 to 2.8 gms., or 77 to 86 per cent. U. S. P. 

4 contained from 2.1 to 24 gms., or 65 to 74 per cent. U. S. P. 
14 contained from 0.2 to 2.0 gms., or 6 to 62 per cent U. S. P. 

Magnesium oxide ranged from 0.72 to 1.91 gms. 

17 contained from 1.44 to 1.91 gms., or 90 to 119 per cent. U. S. P. 

5 contained from 1.28 to 1.43 gms., or 80 to 89 per cent. U. S. P. 

2 contained from 1.12 to 1.27 gms., or 70 to 79 per cent. U. S. P. 

6 contained from 0.96 to i.ii gms., or 60 to 69 per cent U. S. P. 
I contained 0.72 gm., or 45 per cent. U. S. P. 

Potassium oxide ranged from none to 040 gm. 

26 contained from 0.30 to 040 gm., or 90 to 121 per cent. U. S. P. 

3 contained from 0.26 to 0.29 gm., or 80 to 89 per cent. U. S. P. 
I contained 0.24 gm., or 73 per cent. U. S. P. 
I contained 0.00 gm., or o per cent. U. S. P. 

. Allowing a variation of ten per cent, from the U. S. P. stand- 
ard, that is, 8.35 total and 2.92 free citric acid, 1.44 magnesia 
and 0.30 gm. potash per 100 cc, the following table summarizes 
our analyses : — 

4 samples within 10 per cent. U. S. P. 

2 samples low in free citric acid. 

I sample low in potash. 

8 samples low in total and free citric acid. 

1 sample low in total citric acid and magnesia. 

II samples low in total and free citric acid and magnesia. 

2 samples low in total and free citric acid and potash. 
2 samples low in all four ingredients. 

That is, only four samples were entirely satisfactory, while 
twenty-four were deficient in total citric acid, twenty-five in free 
citric acid, fourteen in magnesia and five in potash. Sample 



1 64 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

27583, otherwise of full y. S. P. strength, contained no potash 
whatever. The above results indicate that this solution was 
quite carelessly prepared by druggists, especially with respect to 
the citric acid and magnesia ; also that in a number of instances 
the druggists dispensed stock not freshly prepared as is required 
by the U. S. P. 



Table XXVI. — Solution of. Citrate of Magnesia (Dairy 
Commissioner's Samples). 
(Grams per too ccj 



•2. 

s 



*52IO 

6366 
6369 
6382 

6386 

6559 
6564 
6568 
+6583 
6587 

6s88 
6598 



6.20. 

E 0.5 



26953 
26952 
27670 
27687 
27583 
27717 
27559 
27758 
27756 
27754 
27633 



S. N. Rubin, Hartford 

J. A. Caryl, New Haven 

Goldberg's Pharmacy, New Haven. 
Nichols & Harris. New London. . . . 

West Side Drug Store, Norwich 

V. W. Schmelzer, Meriden 

J. M. Rosenthal, Hartford 

Chas. Scherp, New Britain 

E. M. Roberts, Waterbury 

Henry Picarelli, Waterbury 

J. A. Urba, Waterbury 

Doran's Drug Store, Danbury. 



li 






0.19 

0.33 

0.23 

0.39 
0.36 
0.38 
0.38 
0.26 
0.48 
0.38 
0.26 
0.31 



PerccoL U. S. 
P. ttrcDCth. 



MgO. 



54 
108 

59 

70 
78 

107 
67 
89 

108 

78 

79 
no 



K,0. 



58 
100 

70 
118 
109 
115 
115 

79 
I4S 
115 

79 

94 



* Contained 4.64 per cent, total and 1.06 free citric acid. 
t Heavy precipitate of potassium bicarbonate present. 

With, one exception the twelve samples analyzed for the Dairy 
Commissioner were taken from drug stores where a short time 
before we had purchased substandard samples of this preparation. 
In these samples, except 6210, only magnesia and potash were 
determined. 6210 proved to be only slightly over 50 per cent. 
U. S. P. strength, there apparently being little eflfort made to 
follow the formula. Of the other eleven samples four were 
within 10 per cent, of the U. S. P. standard, four were deficient 
in magnesia, one in potash, and two in both of these ingredients. 
In only three cases do the analyses of these second samples 
agree satisfactorily with those of our own san^ling. This indi- 
cates either that the druggists do not always follow a definite 
formula, or that they are careless in compounding their solutions, 



MAGNESIUM CITRATE. 1 65 

or that, knowing from the purchase of the three samples as 
required by law the reason for the purchase, they doctor the 
solution as the occasion may require. This we know to be the 
case in at least one of these samples. The station's sample 
certainly more fairly represents what the average purchaser 
receives. 

Methods of Analysis. 

Note the appearance of the sample as regards clearness, color, odor, 
amount of precipitation, etc On opening note effervescence and gas 
presssure. Shake the sample thoroughly and empty into a large beaker. 
To hasten discharge of free carbonic acid pour rapidly from one beaker 
to another until effervescence ceases. Return liquid to the original con- 
tainer, shaking thoroughly each time before removing portions for 
analysis. Express results of analysis in grams per 100 cc 

Acidity (free or uncombined, excluding carbonic acid). Heat 25 cc. of 
solution to boiling in a porcelain casserole to remove last traces of car- 
bonic acid and dilute to 50 cc. Titrate with half-normal sodium hydroxide 
solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator, and expressing the result 
as citf ic acid. 

Total Citric Acid. Dilute 5 cc of solution to 25 cc, and precipitate 
with excess of basic lead acetate solution; filter, and wash with dilute 
alcohol until the filtrate gives but a slight reaction for lead. Remove 
precipitate from filter, suspend in hot water and pass a rapid stream 
of hydrogen sulphide through to precipitate the lead. Filter off the 
black lead sulphide and wash with hot water. Boil the filtrate to remove 
excess of hydrogen sulphide and after cooling make up to 250 cc Titrate 
an aliquot of 50 cc, equal to i cc of original solution, with tenth-normal 
sodium hydroxide solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator. 

Iron, Alumina and Phosphoric Acid. Evaporate 25 cc of solution to 
dryness and ignite residue. Dissolve this in dilute hydrochloric acid and 
filter. Precipitate iron, alumina and phosphoric acid with ammonia, wash, 
dry and weigh. 

Lime. Precipitate the filtrate from the preceding with ammonium 
oxalate and weigh as calcium oxide. 

Magnesia. Evaporate filtrate from lime determination, remove ammo- 
nium salts by ignition and precipitate the magnesia with sodic phosphate, 
weighing as magnesium pyrophosphate. If only traces of iron, alumina, 
phosphoric acid and lime are present, the magnesia may be rapidly 
determined by evaporating 10 cc. of the solution, igniting the residue 
and dissolving same in hydrochloric acid, from which the magnesia may 
be precipitated directly by adding sodic phosphate and ammonia, weighing 
as the pyrophosphate. 

Potash. Evaporate 25 cc. of solution, char residue and extract with hot 
dilute hydrochloric acid. Cool filtrate and make up to 100 cc Evaporate 
an aliquot of 25 cc. to dryness in a platinum dish, and determine potash 
as in the Lindo-Gladding method. 



l66 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

OPIUM. 

The U. S. P. standard for gum opium is not less than 9 per 
cent of crystallized morphine, and for powdered opium not less 
than 12 per cent, nor more than 12.5 per cent, of crystallized 
morphine, when assayed by the U. S. P. method. 

One sample of the gum and five of powdered opium were 
analyzed. The gum contained 11.3 per cent, of morphine and 
the powdered samples from 13.0 to 13.9 per cent. Two samples > 
bore no poison label. 

Morphine was determined by Eaton's method (Bur. of Chem., 
Bull. 137, p. 189). 

Table XXVII. — Opium (Gum and Powdered.) 



Station 
No. 



27531 



27745 
27751 
276S0 
27706 

27785 



Gum, 
Bridgeport 

Powdered, 

♦Hartford 

New Haven 

New London 

Norwich 

*Waterbury 

Average of powdered opium 



Cost 


"^^'^ 


per oz. 


for xoi. 


cts. 


oc. 


100 


I.O 


85 


0.8 


85 


1.0 


100 


0.9 


100 


0.9 


85 


0.8 


9' 


0,9 



per cent. 
II.3 



13.4 
137 
13.9 
13.8 
13.0 



Not labeled poison. 



PAREGORIC. 

(Tinctura Opii Camphorata.) 

A preparation of camphorated tincture of opium, more com- 
monly known as paregoric, was made in the laboratory strictly 
according to the U. S. P. formula. This analyzed as follows :— 

Specific gravity at 15.5** C 0.9511 

Alcohol by volume 45.65 

Morphine gms. per 100 cc 0.0524 

Morphine grains per fluid ounce 0.240 



PAREGORIC. 



167 



Table XXVIII.— Paregoric. 



6 

2 



Hbcb cut Sale. 



Laboratory Sample. 
Bridgeport 



Danbury . 
(t 

Hartford . 

It 

Meriden . 



New Britain. 
New Haven . 



27504 
27522 

27523 
27524 
27525 
27624 
27626 
27631 

27719 
27720 

27721 

27722 
27730 
27578 

27579 
27580 

27561 
27562 
26955 
26956 

26957 
26958 
27540 
27541 
27542 
27543 
27544 
27655 
27679 
27696 Norwich 

27697 
27698 
27707 
27593 
27594 
27762 
27763 
27764 
27765 



New London . 



Stamford... 
Waterbury 



Average 



20 

25 
25 
25 
20 
35 
35 
35 
25 
20 

25 
20 

15 
25 
25 
25 
35 
20 
25 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
20 
35 
30 
25 
30 
25 
25 
20 
20 
15 
25 
35 
25 

24.4 



h 



u _ 



.9511 
.9525 
.9585 
•9536 
.9564 
.9499 
.9510 
.9263 
.9530 
.9410 
.9688 
.9511 
.9490 
.9541 
.9460 
.9500 
.9519 
.9519 
.9559 
.9533 
.9510 

.9547 
.9561 
.9455 
.9500 
.9522 
.9550 
.9269 
.9522 
.9500 
.9513 
.9529 
.9555 
.9507 
.9511 
.9555 
.9469 
.9563 
.9483 
.9515 

.95/0 



45.65 



52.15 



48.39 
40.94 



56.37 



Mcni}bimi 



1% 



.0524 

.0480 

.0552 
.0468 
.0492 
.0504 
.0456 

.0516 
.0504 
.0504 
.0492 
.0504 
.0444 

.0480 
.0528 
.0528 
.0444 
.0510 
.0504 

.0420 
.0480 

.0345 
.0528 
.0480 

.0456 
.0504 
.0552 
.0528 
.0504 
.0390 
.0480 

.0504 
.0552 
.0645 
.0432 
.0450 
.0391 
.0492 

.0480 

.0552 






.240 

.222 

.255 
.216 
.227 

.233 
.210 
.238 
.233 
.233 
.227 

.233 
.205 
.222 
.242 
.242 
.205 
.235 
.233 
.194 
.222 

.159 
.242 
.222 
.210 
.233 
.255 
.242 

.233 
.180 
.222 
.233 
.255 
.298 
.199 
.208 
.180 
.227 
.222 
.255 

.226 









105.3 

97.4 

III. 8 

94.7 
100. o 
102.2 

92.1 
104.4 
102.2 
102.2 

100. 
102.2 

. 89.9 
97.4 

106. 1 
106. 1 

89.9 

103. 1 
102.2 

85.1 
97.4 
69.7 

106. 1 

97.4 

92.1 

102.2 
III. 8 
106. 1 
102.2 
78.9 
97.4 
202.2 

III. 8 

130.7 
87.8 
91.2 

78.9 
100. o 

97.4 
III. 8 

gg.i 



l68 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

This proved to be somewhat stronger in morphine than the 
U. S. P. minimum, or 105.3 per cent. 

Thirty-nine samples were analyzed. Alcohol was determined 
only in those samples in which the specific gravity varied materi- 
ally from that of the laboratory sample. In these four samples 
the alcohol ranged frcmi 40.94 to 56.37, the gravities ranging 
inversely from 0.9688 to 0.9263. 

The specific gravities of all the samples ranged from 0.9263 
to 0.9688, average 0.9510. 

Morphine ranged from 0.0345 to 0.0645 gms. per 100 cc. or 
from 0.159 to 0.255 grains per fluidoimce, equivalent to 69.7 to 
1 1 1.8 per cent, of minimum U. S. P. strength. The morphine 
content may be summarized as follows : — 

19 from .0494 to .0645 gms. per 100 cc, or .228-.298 grs. per fl. oz., or 
100-131 per cent. min. U. S. P. 

13 from .0445 to .0493 gms. per 100 cc, or .206-.227 grs. per fl. oz., or 
90-99 per cent. min. U. S. P. 

4 from .0395 to .0444 gnis. per 100 cc, or .182-.205 grs. per fl. oz., or 
80-89 per cent. min. U. S. P. 

3 from .0345 to 0.394 g«is. per 100 cc, or .IS9-.181 grs. per fl. oz., or 
70-79 per cent. min. U. S. P. 

The inspection showed paregoric to be in a very satisfactory 
condition, 19 samples equaling or exceeding U. S. P. strength, 
13 being deficient by less than 10 per cent, and only 7 by more 
than 10 per cent. The weakest sample was only 70 per cent, 
minimum U. S. P. strength, while one was 131 per cent. U. S. P.; 
this latter sample appears to be dangerously strong. 

Thirty-five samples were of the normal yellow-brown color. 
26957, the weakest of all, was light yellow in color; 27544 was 
brown and 27719 and 27722 were dark brown, the latter being 
labeled "Elixir Paregoric" and stated to contain licorice. In 
27544 and 27719 the abnormality in color was not associated with 
a deficiency in morphin. 

This much-used preparation ranged in price from 15 to 35 
cents for four ounces of samples of equivalent strength. 

Methods of Analysis, 
Morphine. The method, used was based on that suggested by Eaton 
(Bur. of Chem., Bull, /j/, p. 189), with, as seemed to us, some useful 
modifications. Evaporate 100 or 50 cc of paregoric to about 15 cc and 
transfer to separatory funnel. After washing out with ether as directed, 
the sample was transferred to a 100 cc flask, made up to the mark with 



SODIUM SALICYLATE. 1 69 

lime water, shaken, and allowed to stand for one hour. 50 cc. of this 
filtered solution was introduced into a separatory funnel and shaken out 
three times with chloroform, 15 cc. each, and then with 25 cc. of washed 
ether. (Repeated tests of the ether wash gave a negative test with Mayer's 
reagent, showing washing once with ether was sufficient for paregoric.) 
Collect ethv-chloroform extractions in another separatory funnel and 
wash with 10 cc. of limewater; return limewater to original solution 
and reject the immiscible solvent. To the solution now add 20 cc. of 
alcohol and then 10 cc. of one per cent, ammonium chloride solution to 
free the morphine, testing with wet litmus paper held in the neck of the 
funnel. Follow with 30 cc. of chloroform and shake thoroughly for 
several minutes. Draw off and shake with four successive 30 cc portions 
of a mixture of one part alcohol and four chloroform. Filter the com- 
bined alcohol-chloroform extracts, after washing with 10 cc of water^ 
through a filter wet with chloroform into a 250 cc pressure flask, 
removing the chloroform and alcohol by distillation under diminished 
pressure. (In this way all but about 10 cc of the solvent may be 
recovered.) Evaporate the uadistilled portion at room temperature in a 
bell jar using a current of filtered air. When dry add 5 cc of absolute 
alcohol and allow to stand tmtil complete solution is effected. Then 
dissolve in 5 cc of fiftieth-normal sulphuric acid and titrate with fiftieth- 
normal potassium hydroxide, using cochineal as indicator. 

SODIUM SALICYLATE. 
(Sodii Salicylas.) 

Sodium salicylate should contain not less than 99.5 per cent, 
of the pure salt. Its aqueous solution should be colorless and 
should have only a slightly acid reaction. It should be free from 
sulphates, sulphites, chlorides and heavy metals. 

Thirteen samples were analyzed. These contained from 96.0 
to 984 per cent, sodium salicylate. One gave a colorless aqueous 
solution, one pinkish and eleven a slight brown color. Eight 
gave slightly acid and five distinctly acid reactions. No sulphates 
were foimd in nine samples, traces in two, and considerable in 
two. No sulphites were found in five samples, traces in six, and 
considerable in two. No chlorides were found in ten samples, 
and traces in three. No heavy metals were found in four 
samples, and traces in nine. 

No glaring adulteration was detected in any of the samples, 
although all samples were somewhat below full U. S. P. strength ; 
in three samples the deficiency amounting to as much as four 
per cent. 



17© CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

The same tendency towards short-weight, so often observed in 
purchases from druggists, was shown with this drug. Although 
one ounce was asked for in every case, the amount delivered 
ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 oz., only three samples giving the full 
weight, and five showing a deficiency of 20 per cent. .. 

The U. S. P. methods of analysis were used. 

Table XXIX. — Sodium Salicylate. 



1 


Place of Sale. 


8 
I 

I 

cts. 

10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 

15 
10 

15 
10 
10 
10.8 


f 

01. 
0.8 
0.9 
0.8 
0.8 
0.9 
0.9 
1.2 
I.I 
I.O 
0.8 
0.9 
0.8 

0.9 
0.9 


A 


f 


1 


1 


t 


u 


i 
1 

1 


27651 
27739 
27748 
27574 
27570 
27497 
27550 
27657 
27699 
27587 
27787 
27789 
27790 


Danbury 

Hartford 

Hartford 

Meridcn 

New Britain . . . 
New Haven . .. 
New Haven . . . 
New London . . 

♦Norwich 

Stamford 

Waterbury 

Waterbury 

Waterbury 

Average ^ 


98.4 
96.0 
97.6 
97.6 
98.4 
97.6 
98.4 
98.4 
97.6 
98.4 
96.0 
96.0 
96.8 

97-5 


si. brown 
si. brown 
si. brown 
colorless 
si. brown 
si. brown 
si. brown 
si. brown 
si. brown 
si. brown 
pinkish 
sL brown 
si. brown 


si. acid 
disl. acid 
dist. acid 
dist. acid 
si. acid 
si. acid 
si. acid 
si. acid 
si. acid 
dist. acid 
dist. acid 
si. acid 
si. acid 


No 
Trace 
Trace 
No 
No 
No 
No 
No 
Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 
No 


No 
Trace 
Trace 

No 

Trace 

No 

No 

Trace 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Trace 

Trace 


No 

Trace 

No 

No 

No 
No 

Trace 
No 

Trace 
No 
No 
No 
No 


Trace 
No 
No 
Trace 
Trace 
Trace 
Trace 
Trace 

No 

Trace 

No 

Trace 

Trace 












........ 



* Powers & Weightman, Philadelphia. 



PRECIPITATED SULPHUR. 

{Sulphur PrcBcipitatum.) 

Precipitated sulphur is prepared by boiling sublimed sulphur 
and lime in water, then precipitating the sulphur from the clear 
solution by means of hydrochloric acid, and finally washing the 
precipitate with water until no further reaction for lime is given. 
This precipitate when dried contains the sulphur in a very finely 
divided state, rendering it more readily suspended in liquids and 
increasing its value in the making of ointments. The use of 
sulphuric acid is not admissible, as thereby the sparingly soluble 
calcium sulphate is formed instead of the easily soluble calcium 
chloride. The nature of the frequent adulteration of tliis mate- 
rial indicates either that sulphuric has been substituted for hydro- 



PRECIPITATED SULPHUR. 



171 



chloric acid, that the precipitate has been insufficiently washed, 
or that there has been a direct addition of sulphate of lime to the 
finished product. It was rather surprising that when the station 
agent sought to buy precipitated sulphur, several of the druggists 
seemed unfamiliar with the existence of such a preparation. 

U. S. P. precipitated sulphur should not leave a weighable 
residue on ignition, or on evaporating its ammoniacal solution. 
It should contain not less than 99.5 per cent, of pure sulphur 
and should have a neutral reaction. 

Fifteen samples were analyzed. Although precipitated sulphur 
was asked for in each case, in three samples the labeling was 
simply "Sulphur." 

Table XXX. — Precipitated Sulphur — Passed. 



Place of Sale. 



27502: Bridgeport. . . 

2773 5 1 Hartford 

27736':* *' ;... 
27573lMeriden..., .. 
2757ijNew Britain.. 
27496 New Haven. . 
27663* *• 
27683|New London. 

27703 Norwich 

27782,*Waterbury . . 

27783I 

27784! *' 



Weight. 


V 

! 


i 

s 


III 




^ 






i 


£ 


•s 


¥ 


III 


1 


i 

3 


oz. 


oz. 


cts. 










2 


1.7 


5 


0.34 


0.17 


Neutral. 




2 


2.2 


5 


0.45 


0.27 


** 




2 


3.6 


5 


0.05 


0.00 


ti 




2 


2.7 


10 


0.06 


0.07 


t( 




2 


1.8 


10 


0.36 


0.37 


*f 




2 


1.8 


10 


0.56 


0.50 


tt 




Box. 


3.4 


5 


0.09 


0.00 


** 




2 


1.9 


5 


0.07 


0.00 






2 


1.9 


5 


0.30 


0.20 


tt 




2 


2.1 


10 


O.II 


0.20 


Acid. 




2 


1.9 


5 


0.34 


O.IO 


Neutral. 




2 


1.9 


10 


0.32 


0.30 


tt 





5-3 

•2.0 



* Labeled ** Sulphur." 
Table XXXI. — Precipitated Sulphur — Adulterated. 



27737: Hartford 

27549 New Haven. 
27753 New Haven, 



2 


1.9 


5 


46.46 


2.07 


Neutral. 


2 


1.9 


10 


3.47 


1.77 




2 


2.0 


5 


46.19 


1.73 


<« 



19.09j27.16 

0.961 1.93 

18.94 126.89 



All the samples showed some residue on ignition. In twelve 
of these this residue ranged from 0.05 to 0.56 per cent. ; in the 
other three the residues were 3.47, 46.19 and 46.46 per cent, 
respectively. The residue from evaporating the ammoniacal 



172 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

solution in twelve samples ranged from none to 0.50 per cent; 
in the three, showing large residues on ignition, 1.73, 1.77 and 
2.07 per cent., respectively. In one sample the reaction was acid, 
in all the others neutral. 

Three samples showed gross adulteration with sulphate of lime. 
These contained 19.09, 0.96 and 18.94 per cent, of lime and 27.1,6, 
1.93 and 26.89 per cent, of sulphuric anhydride, respectively. 

The usual variations in weight sold were shown by these samples. 
From 1.7 to 3.4 ozs. were delivered in response to a request for 
2 ozs., at a cost ranging from 5 to 10 cents. 

The three samples found to be adulterated were reported to the 
Dairy G^mmissioner and second samples were purchased by him. 
6336 and 6337, bought of H. Morris and Charles S. Leete, New 
Haven, contained 0.38 and 0.24 per cent, of ash, respectively, 
although the station's samples contained 3.47 and 46.19 per cent 
the third sample, 6850, from Goldfield Bros., Hartford, con- 
tained only 0.03 per cent, ash against 46.46 per cent, obtained 
in the first sample; this sample, however, was not precipitated 
sulphur, but ground brimstone. 

The results secured with these three samples again illustrates 
the futility of the present method of buying three samples. The 
dealer is at once put on his guard, and the purchase often does not 
represent the same quality of material sold to the general con- 
sumer. In the case of one of these samples, after the sample was 
purchased and the dealer recognized the purpose of the purchase, 
he declared the sample was not U. S. P. 

TURPENTINE. 

At the 1911 session of the General Assembly an act (Chapter 
274, Public Acts of 191 1 ) concerning the adulteration of turpen- 
tine was passed. Section i of this act provides that 

"No person, firm, or corporation shall manufacture, mix for sale, offer 
or expose for sale, or have in his or its possession with intent to sell, 
or sell, under the name of turpentine or spirits of turpentine, any 
article which is not wholly distilled from rosin, turpentine giun, or 
scrapings from pine trees, and unmixed and unadulterated with oil, 
benzine, or any other substance of any kind whatsoever, unless the 
package containing the same shall be stenciled or marked with letters 
not less than two inches high and one inch wide 'adulterated spirits of 
turpentine.' Nothing herein contained shall be construed as prohibiting 



TURPENTINE. 1 73 

the manufacture or sale of any such compound or imitation, provided the 
l>ackage containing the same shall be plainly marked as such." 

Turpentine had never been systematically inspected in this 
State. Acting, therefore, under the authority of the above law, 
the Dairy Commissioner, through his agents, collected 130 sam- 
ples, which were analyzed in this laboratory, and are herewith 
reported. The samples were taken chiefly from the stock of 
dealers in painters' supplies. 

Turpentine as sold in this country is of two general varieties, 
that distilled from gum turpentine and that distilled from cut 
pine, fir or spruce, known as "wood** or "stump" turpentine. 
When properly refined the latter closely resembles gum turpen- 
tine. Objection has been raised to its use, however, because of 
its odor, its physiological eflFect, its lack of uniformity and 
unsatisfactory working qualities. It is believed, however, that 
improved manufacturing processes will in the near future render 
this product satisfactory commercially and thus utilize the vast 
stumpage waste in the South. In the present examination no 
attempt has been made to identify wood turpentine in distinction 
from that distilled from the gum. 

American turpentine is frequently adulterated with cheaper, 
inferior oils, generally petroleum oils corresponding closely in 
specific gravity and temperature of distillation with turpentine. 
Certain coal-tar oils, rosin spirits and wood turpentine are also 
sometimes used as adulterants. 

The Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture,^ has 
suggested specifications for three grades of commercial turpentine 
(Bull. 135, p. 25) as follows: 

Standard or No. i, spec grav. at 20° C. from 0.862-0.870; refractive 
index at 20** C. from 1.468 to 1476; 95 per cent, should distill below 
170** C; on polymerization the residue should not exceed i per cent., 
should be reddish in color and viscous, and its refractive index at 20* C. 
should be from 1.500 to 1.520. 

Second quality or No. 2, spec. grav. at 20° C from 0.862-0.875; 
refractive index at 20" C. from 1468 to 1480; 90 per cent, should distill 
below 170** C; the polymerization residue must not exceed i per cent. 
and must have a refractive index of not less that 1.500. 

Third quality or No. 3, spec, grav. at 20** C from 0.865-0.880; refractive 
index at 20** C. from 1.468 to 1.485; 60 per cent, should distill below 
170* C; the polymerization residue must not exceed i per cent, and 
must have a refractive index of not less than 1.500. 



174 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

G>ste gives similar specifications for pure turpentine, though 
varying slightly in some details (Analyst, 33, 220). 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C. from 0.860 to 0.871 ; refractive index at 
20'' C. from 1469 to 1.472; should yield no distillate below 155** C, not 
less than 70 per cent, between 155** and 160** C, and not less than 95 
per cent, up to 180'' C; no part of the distillate should refract below 
pinene, 1.4652. 

Walker gives still other specifications, which likewise show 
minor variations from those first cited (Bur. of Chem., Bull. lOp, 
p. 14). 

Specific gravity at 15.5** C from 0.862 to 0.875; refractive index at 
20** C from 1469 to 1474; initial distillation about 156** C, 95 per cent 
distilling over between 153.5° and 165.5'' C Six cc. of turpentine (by 
the method indicated) should show not less than 0.3 cc. unpolymerized oil 
after thirty minutes and not less than 0.5 cc. after eighteen hours. 

In order to simplify the tables the refractive index is expressed 
in degrees of the butyro-ref ractometer, 63.2 and 76.0 correspond- 
ing to refractive indices of 1.468 and 1.476, respectively. The 
methods used require no special comment; the polymerization 
method employed was that given by Walker (Bur. of Chem., Bull. 
I op, p. 14), the foam test was that quoted by many authorities, 
in which a persistence of foam after violent shaking indicates 
the presence of mineral oil, and the Klein potassium iodide test 
was likewise a test for mineral oil. 

The results of analysis are shown in two tables, first (Table 
XXXII), those which gave specific gravities between 0.858 and 
0.883 ^t ^S-S** C., and refractive indices between 62.0** and 73.8**, 
which are passed as "not found adulterated," and second (Table 
XXXIII), those which were found to contain mineral oil or 
water, or were otherwise below standard. 

Eighty-five samples were not found adulterated, although 
doubtless some of these were in part, if not wholly, wood turpen- 
tine. These ranged in color from water-white to yellowish. 
Nine of the samples gave the foam test, but further examination 
revealed the presence of no appreciable amount of mineral oil. 

The specific gravity at 15.5** C. ranged from 0.858 to 0.883, 
corresponding to 0.861 to 0.886 at 20** C. The following groups 
may be formed, based on specific g^vity: 



TURPENTINE. 175 

17 samples between 0.858 and 0M7 

54 samples between 0.868 and 0.872 

II samples between 0.873 and 0.877 

3 samples between 0.878 and 0.883 

In other words, based on this determination alone only 17 of 
the samples would meet the U. S. specifications for standard 
No. I turpentine, 71 those for second quality, ii- others those for 
third quality, while three others showed gravities higher than 
either of the three U. S. grades. 

The refractive index ranged from 62.0'' and 73.8**, eighty 
between 62.0** and 69.5**, and five between 70.0** and 73.8**. 
These values would satisfy the requirements of any of the three 
U. S. grades. 

Twenty of the samples gave more or less pronounced reactions 
for mineral oil by the Klein test. The specific gravities and 
refractive indices of these samples, however, were so nearly 
normal that the amount of mineral oil present must have been 
extremely small, and these samples are passed as not found 
adulterated. 

Twelve of the passed samples were subjected to fractional 
distillation, in some cases to secure data from samples apparently 
pure, and in others because of doubts of their purity raised by 
other tests. In these the initial distillation temperature ranged 
from 155° to 161**, from 57 to 98 per cent, distilled under 165**, 
and from 85 to 98 per cent, under 175**. With the exception of 
6141, which by all the tests appeared to be wood turpentine, the 
distillation data on these samples were considered reasonably 
satisfactory. The refractive indices of the diflFerent fractions 
were likewise normal. 

Adulterated and Substandard Samples. 

In Table XXIII are given the analyses of forty-five samples, 
which are adulterated or otherwise of inferior quality. Thirty- 
four of these contained mineral oil in large .amounts, four con- 
tained water, one mineral oil and water, and six were otherwise 
below standard g^ade. 

Many of the samples were water-white in color, while others 
were yellowish and those containing water had a milky appear- 
ance. In nine samples, which other tests proved to contain from 



176 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPOKT, I912. 

Table XXXII. — Turpentine 




6141 
6401 
6402 
6403 
6404 
6406 
6408 
6410 
6411 
6416 
6417 
6419 
6420 
6421 
6422 
6424 
6425 
6428 
6429 
6430 
6431 
6432 
6434 
6435 
6439 
6440 
6441 
6442 

6443 
6444 

6445 
6446 

6449 
6450 
6451 
6452 
6453 
6456 
6460 
6462 
6463 
6464 
6466 
6467 
6468 



Turpentine A^r^ Milford : C. M. Beach 

South Norwalk : C. E. Dowc 

Fox Cycle and Hardware Co 

Norwalk : H. F. Prowitt 

Hubbell Staples 

Meridm : Wm. S. Bailey 

John F. Butler 

Middletown : C. A. Pelton 

Wm. Greaves 

New Haven : The F. E. Spencer Co 

Hartford : Bonner Preston Co 

Hoffman Wall Paper Co 

Sisson Drug Co 

American Wall Paper and Paint Co 

Wadsworth Howland Co 

C. H. Talcotl&Co 

C. R. Turner 

Sisson Drug Co 

Aferiden : Little, Somers & Hyatt Co 

Grimord Bros 

Birdsey & Raven 

Wallingford : The J. R. Burghoff Co 

Dickerman Hardware and Supply Co. 

New Britain : The John Boyle Co 

Morgan & Kingsley 

£. U . Thompson 

Greenwich : Jaynes Hardware Co 

Greenwich Hardware Co 

D. K. Allen 

Stamford: Warshow's Paint and W. P. Co 

J. S. Davenport & Sons 

Lockwood & Palmer 

Willitnantic : A. B. Holmes 

Latham & Crane 

Rockville : N. Wendheiser 

Geo. W. Hill 

Danbury : Danbury Hardware Co 

R. R. Wildman 

WinsUd: G. W. Kilmer 

J. F. Denison & Son 

Torrington : James Smith's Son 

J. F. Baldauf 

Ansonia : T. P. Terry & Son 

Estate Lockwood & Hotchkiss 

Frank Yudkin 



TURPENTINE. 



177 



NOT FOUND Adulterated. 





Foam 
Test. 


Klein 
Potassium 
Iodide Test. 


d 

in 
e) 

! 

u 
u: 

1 

.880 
.871 
.871 
.87s 
.871 
.871 
.870 
.874 
.873 
.873 
.870 
.870 
.872 
.870 
.871 
.872 
.883 
.871 
.873 
.865 
.871 
.873 
.873 
.871 
.872 

.871 
.872 
.871 
.870 
.870 
.872 
.871 
.871 
.872 
.863 
.871 
.875 
.872 
.863 
.870 
.870 
.867 
.870 
.870 
.870 


3 
•Id 

1 

161 

157 

157 


Percentage 
distiUing. 


Butyro-refractometer 
atao'C. 


Color and Appearance. 


1 


u 


57 

92 

87 
98 

76 
68 


u 



m 
tx 





28 

6 

81 

20 


u 



1 


1 
1 



d 

a 

3 
fa 


d 

s 


d 




Yellowish 
Colorless 

SI. yellow 

Colorless 

White, si. cloudy 

Colorless 

It 

Cloudy, yellowish 

Bluish 

Colorless 

Yellowish 

Colorless, si. cloudy 

White, cloudy 

Yellowish, cloudy 

Colorless 

Yellowish, cloudy 
Colorless 

White, cloudy 
Colorless 
Yellowish 

Colorless 

Yellowish, cloudy 

Colorless 

t« 
«■ 

White, cloudy 

Yellowish 

Colorless 

Yellowish 

Yellowish, dirty 

White, cloudy 

Colorless 


Yes 
No 

(t 

Yes 
No 

(« 
It 
t< 

Yes 

No 

t( 

It 
•( 
• t 

i* 
t* 
(« 
II 
II 

Slight 

No 
II 

II 

II 

11 

Slight 
No 

Yes 

No 
11 


No 

II 
II 
II 

II 

II 
II 

Faint pink 

Pink brown 
II 

No 

Pink brown 
II 

No 
II 
II 

Yellow 

Pink brown 
It 

Yellowish 
Pink brown 

II 

No . 
II 

II 

II 

SI. pink 
No 

II 

II 
II 

Yellowish 

No 

Faint yellow 
II 

No 


67.2 
65.7 
67.0 

66.1 
66.1 
64.5 
65.1 
67.3 
66.5 
68.1 
66.1 

65.7 
68.0 
66.1 
67.0 
67.0 
70.2 
67.0 
68.4 
63.7 
67.0 
66.7 
68.0 
69.1 

65.3 
66.1 
68.0 
67.0 
73.8 
66.1 
67.0 

67.3 
67.0 
68.0 
61. 1 
67.2 
67.2 

65.9 
65.0 
66.1 
66.1 
64.0 
68.0 
67.0 
65.0 


. .. 


62.5 

65.0 
64-0 

65.7 

64:3 

60.9 


65.4 
68". ii 

62.0 
. . . • 



» Fraction i65*-i70** C. 



la 



178 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table XXXIL— Turpentine 




6470 
6471 
6472 
6473 
6474 
6475 
6476 
6478 
6481 
6483 
6484 
6485 
6486 
6487 
6489 
6490 
6491 
6492 
6493 
6494 
6496 
6497 
6498 
6500 
6501 
6509 
6512 
6513 
6515 
6517 
6518 

6519 
6522 

6524 
6525 
6527 
5528 
6529 
6531 
6532 



Turpentine 



Derby : F. Hallock Co 

Abbott & Co 

Edw. Watkins , . . . . 

Shelton : N. D. Clark 

l^augatuck •■ J. M. Page & Co 

Geo. W. Benedict 

Seymour: Seymour Lumber and Hardware Co. 
Bridgeport : Hawley Hardware Co 

Frank M. West 

Samuel Dawe 

James J. Conlin 

H. D. Murphy 

Somers Bros 

Senior Bros 

Harry Rider 

L. B. Silliman 

Hubbell & Wade Co 

Waterbury : Apothecaries Hall Co 

Austin & Woodruff Co 

it t i *i 

Hotchkiss & Templeton 

Siglaski Marks Co 

Putnam : Chandler & Morse 

Ballard & Clark : 

H. S. Burt 

Norwich : The Eaton Chase Co 

Fred C. Crowell 

T. H. Eldredge 

The Chas. Osgood Co 

Lee & Osgood Co 

New London : Lyon & Ewal d 

Walter A. Smith & Co 

The G. M. Williams Co 

Darrow & Comstock 

New London Decorating Co. . . . 

New Haven : Thompson & Belden 

Lightbourn & Pond Co 

H. M. Hodges 

Wm. H. Sellwood 

John Foley 



18 to 89 per cent, of mineral oil, the foam test gave negative 
results. Likewise in seven samples known to contain mineral oil, 
the Klein test failed to reveal it. 



TURPENTINE. 



179 



NOT FOUND Adulterated. — Continued. 





Foam 
Test. 


Klein 
Potassium 
Iodide Test. 


u 

to 

2 

1 
.1 

V) 

.871 

.870 
.868 
.868 
.869 
.871 
.868 
.870 
.868 

.871 
.870 
.868 
.869 
.860 
.867 
.864 
.858 
.868 
.866 
.867 
.869 
.869 

.873 
.868 
.867 
.867 
.867 
.879 
.868 
.872 
.873 
.873 
.870 
.867 
.873 
.867 
.869 
.863 
.872 
.865 


3 

i 

159 

155 

157 

155 
158 


Percentaj^e 
distilling. 


Butyro-refractometer 
at 20*> C. 


Color and Appearance. 


d 

I 

1 




85 
84 

88 
85 

79 
78 


u 
Vi 


'8» 
12 

'6» 
10* 

16 
18 





1 

68.0 
67.0 
67.0 
67.0 
68.0 
68.0 
70.0 
68.0 
67.0 
70.0 
68.0 
66.4 

67.5 
62.0 

64.5 
65.0 
62.0 
68.1 

65.9 
68.0 
67.0 
68.0 
69.8 
67.6 
67.0 

65.3 
66.0 
68.0 
66.4 
65.0 
68.0 
67.0 
68.0 
65.0 
68.0 
66.1 
66.6 
63.2 
67.0 
64.0 


9 

2 
1 


2 

s 

J 

\ 

64.8 

66.2 

58.8 
58.8 

62.0 
63.5 




% 

J 

1 


Colorless 

44 

White, cloudy 
Colorless / 

41 

Yellowish, fluorescent 
4 4 

Colorless 
44 
1 

44 

Yellowish, cloudy 

Colorless 

White, cloudy 
44 

Colorless 
44 

Colorless, dirty 

Colorless 
White, cloudy 

Colorless 
Colorless, dirty 

Colorless 

• 4 
44 
44 

44 
44 

SI. color 

Colorless 

44 

Cloudy 

Colorless 

SI. cloudy 

Colorless 
44 

44 

SI. cloudy 
Colorless 


No 

44 

44 

44 

44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 
44 

Yes 
No 

44 
44 

44 
44 
44 
44 
44 

Yes 

No 

44 
44 
44 

44 

Slight 

No 

44 

44 

44 
44 


No 
Faint pink 

No 
Faint pink 

No 

Yellowish 
44 

No 
44 

44 

SI. pink 
44 

• 4 

No 

SI. pink 

Red'sh brown 

SI. pink 

No 
SI. pink 

No 

44 

44 


6'8'.i 
70.3 

61! 7 
6*1'. 8 

68.5 
67.0 



* Fraction i65''-i70° C. 

In the detection of mineral oil the chief dependence was placed 
on specific gravity, refractive index, initial distillation tempera- 



t8o CONNECTiCUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table. XXXIIL- 



6407 
6409 
6412 
6415 
6418 
6423 
6433 
6436 
6437 
6438 
6447 
6448 
6454 
6455 
6457 
6458 
6459 
6461 
6465 
6469 
6477 
6479 
6480 
6482 
6488 
6495 
6499 
6502 
6503 
6504 
6505 
6506 
6507 
6508 
6510 
6511 

6514 
6516 
6520 
6521 

6523 
6526 
6530 
6533 
6534 



Sold as 



Turpentine 

it 

Turpeen 

2d Run Turpentine. . 

Turpentine 

ti 

11 

Adult Turpentine 

Turpentine 

Commercial Turpentine 
Turpentine 

Turpeen 

Turpentine 

«( 

*« 

2d Run Turpentine.. 

Turpentine 

tt 

(t 

(t 

li 

K 

<> 
<( 
l( 

Turpeen 

Turpentine 

Substitute Turpentine 

Turpentine 

If 

II 

II 

11 

Adult. Turpentine 

Turpentine 



Dealer. 



Meriden : The J. Lacourciere Co 

Ivers Bros 

MiddUtown : L. O. & E. S. Davis 

New Haven : L. L. Rosenberg 

Hartford: H. Harris Co 

J. S. White Sons 

Wallingford: W. A. Butler 

New Britain : Rackliffe Bros. Co 

W. Sanderson & Co. . . . 

P. F. Kelley 

Willitnantic : Hurley Grant Co 

H. R. Chappell 

Banbury : Geo. F. Hawley 

F. A. Hull & Son 

F. C. Lawrence 

J. Wright& Co 

Fred Quaas 

Winsted: Dickerman & Pond Co 

Torrington : Hotchkiss Bros. Co 

Derby : Louis Bennett 

Seymour : C. S. Lounsbury & Son 

Bridgeport : Coester Bros 

Geremia & Cocozza 

Joseph Coughlin Co 

Edw, J. Brooks 

Waterbury : Wilson & Savin 

Putnam : J. O. Fox & Co 

Danielson : Woodward Drug Store 

The Burrows Drug Co 

Moosup : C. D. Salisbury 

W. W. Rood 

Plainfield : Dearnley & Clark 

Norwich : Preston Bros 

Albert Boardman 

Peck, McWilliams & Co... 

P. F. Murbagh 

S. W. Carroll & Son 

H. BlackledgeA Co 

New London : H. E. Hanson 

R. J. Sisk 

Eaton & Wilson 

Hobson & Root 

New Haven: Wadsworth & Howland. 

E. M. Walsh Co 

S. G. Grillo 



Color and 
Appearance. 



White, cloudy 



Yellowish 
Colorless 
Yellowish 
Colorless 
White, cloudy 
Colorless 



Yellowish 

Colorless, dirty 

White, cloudy 

Yellowish, cloady 

Colorless 

Yellowish 

Colorless 

II 

White, cloudy 
Colorless 

Yellowish, cloudy 
ti 

Colorless 



Slightly cloudy 
Colorless 



Yellow 
Colorless 



Slightly cloudy 
Colorless 



Slightly cloudy 
Colorless 



TURPENTINE. 



l8l 



Adulterated Turpentine. 



No 



Yes 



Yes 
No 
Yes 
No 

Yes 

t« 

Slight 
Yes 

Slight 
No 
Yes 

No 

Slight 

Yes 

No 

Slight 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Slight 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 



No 
Yes 

No 

Yes I 



Klein Potassium 
Iodide Test. 



No 



Pinkish red 

i( 

No 
Pink 

No 

t< 

Red 

No 

Pinkish red 
It 

No 

Yellowish brown 

No 

Slightly yellow 

Yellowish 

Pinkish red 

No 



Slightly yellow 

No 

Slightly pink 

Yellowish 



I? 



.865 
.865 
.835 
.822 
.817 
.857 

•799 
.856 
.850 
.828 
.847 
.844 
.815 

.859 
.856 
.823 
.858 
.865 
.814 
.828 
.868 
.847 
.831 
.856 
.841 

.791 
.860 
.852 
.837 
.857 
.825 
.838 

.833 
.834 
.873 
.857 
.810 

.843 
.856 
.802 

.871 
.826 
.848 

.844 
.821 






-142 
150 



Percentage 
distilling. 



45» 
23 



158. 
-142 24 



145 

154 

152 

-142 

-142 

154 

145 

-142 

-142 

-142 

-142 

155 

160 

150 

155 

155 

155 

150 

152 

151 

155 

155 

-153 

155 

148 

153 
155 
158 
142 

154 
146 



-142 32* 
156 



145 
145 
155 
155 
-142 
150 



I7|i7 

7518 
54.. 
1317 



10 



25. 

17. 



42.1 
29.0 
34.0 
56.9 31 
25.615 
57.1 37 
55.044 
35.0 



53.1 

51.0 

34.0 

57.1 

59 

34 



Butyro-refractometer at 20" C. 



si 

o 



61.2 



62.3 



.2 »^ 



.2"- 



10 



42. 
40. 
22. 
37. 

7 37 
.0 14 
.936. 

.9 
.0 
718 



60, 

62, 

34. 

38.. 

60.0 

56.0 

39.7 
60.038 
50.0 40. 



38.2 



19.2 
60.0 
55.4 
47.0 
58.0 
36.5 
47.4 
42.5 
45.0 
59.0 28 
56.0 42 
31.7 16. 
53.3 27. 
57.0 . 
28.5 19 
4CX5 20, 
38.0 
54.8 
53.0 32 
33.0 II 



.8 



I 

I 

9-5 



57.7 
51.1 
19.8 
53.i|6o. 

47.3i53. 
12.2 17. 



58.9 
20.6 

17.4 
54.6 
20.5 
52.8 
52.8 
13.6 
60.2 
48.6 
29.9 

57.9 
56.0 

19-3 
54.6 
60.0 

27.3 
20.9 26. 



55.0 
50.0 
45.4 
55.4 

I5.2|2I. 

45.350. 

3O.0I36. 

39.042 

42.2 

48.0 

20.8 

60.4 

54.0 

24.0 
24.2 
20.0 



52.5 

60.0 
16.3 



59 



23.0 



28.1 



33.3 



33.2 



61.2 
57.0 
48.5 
590 
26.0 

40.7 
44.0 

54.4 
55.0 
31.0 



34.8 
35.3 
31.0 



28.0 



Unpolymerized Oil. 



Ad 

I' 

Is 



26.6 
24.5 
30.3 
56.4 

22.9 



35.0 

22.0 

51.8 



60.3 
63.1 
30.1 
63.0 

67.3 
20.6 

36.8 
56.4 

66.8 

37.0 

^56.3 

2II7.0 

13.2 



49.0 

34.8 
53.5 
38.8 
36.0 
56.0 



89 30. 1 
26 63.2 
. . ^ . . 

83 24.6 

7737.8 

81 36.0 

3267." 

2859- 

8832. 



Color. 



Colorless 



Pinkish 
Colorless 



Colorless 

<t 

Pinkish 

si. pink 

Colorless 
(( 

SI. pink 

1 1 

Colorless 



SI. pink 
Colorless 

Pink 
SI. pink 
Colorless 



Colorless 
Colorless 

K 
II 

Pinkish 

Colorless 
Brownish 



Colorless 
It 

Brownish 
II 

Colorless 



' Fraction i65*-i7o*' C. 
* Fraction 170"-! 80' C. 



* 22j^ distilled under 145" C. 

* 2ij< distilled under 150° C, refracto meter, 19.3. 



1 82 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

ture, fractions distilling at different temperatures, the refractive 
indices of these fractions and the amount and appearance of the 
unpolymerized oil. 

Samples Adulterated with Mineral Oil. 

Specific gravity ranged from 0.791 to 0.873, thirty of the 
samples showing less than 0.858. 

The temperature of initial distillation ranged from below 142** to 
160**, nine distilling under 142** and thirty-one under 156^. The 
fractions distilling at the different temperatures were very vari- 
able, from none to 42 per cent, under 155**, from 17 to 96 per 
cent, under 165**, from 29 to 98 under 175** ; in one sample 21 
per cent, distilled under 150**. 

The refractive index of the original turpentine ranged from 
19.2° to 60.9**. The refractive indices of the different fractions 
increased with the temperature of distillation. The indices of 
the fractions under 155** ranged from 9.5° to 44.0"*, 155** — 165** 
from 12.2° to 60.4°, 165*^—175** from 174** to 71.0**, 175** — iSo'^ 
from 26.0** to 55.0**. 

Based on the amount of unpolymerized oil the percentage of 
mineral oil ranged from 16 to 92 per cent., fourteen containing 
over 75 per cent. The refractive index of the unpol3rmerized 
oil ranged from 13.2** to 67.8°. This oil was generally colorless 
or faint pink and had the characteristic odor of mineral oil. 

Samples Adulterated with Water. 
In these four samples the turpentine had a milky appearance ; 
the specific gravity ranged from 0.856 to 0.865 and the refractive 
index from 57. i** to 62.3**. 

Samples Below Standard. 
In these six samples the specific gravity ranged from 0.847 to 
0.868, the temperature of initial distillation from 155** to 156**, 
from 37 to 77 per cent, distilled under 165** and from 71 to 89 
per cent, under 175**. The refractive index of the original tur- 
pentine ranged from 55.4** to 60.0** while that of the fractions 
ranged from 50.0'* to 61.2**. In two of these samples there were 
indications of the presence of a certain amount of mineral oil, 
but the evidence was contradictory, and they are simply classed 
as substandard samples. 



TURPENTINE. 1 83 

Summary, 

Of 130 samples analyzed 85 were passed as not found adulter- 
ated. Seventeen of these meet the U. S. specifications for No. i 
turpentine, 71 those for No. 2, and 11 those for No. 3; three 
samples showed higher gravities than permitted for any of these 
three grades. 

Forty-five samples were adulterated or below standard, 34 with 
mineral oil from 16 to 92 per cent., four with water, one with 
mineral oil and water, while six others were below standard. 

Of the adulterated samples 36 were sold as turpentine, 3 as 
turpeen, 2 as seconU run turpentine, 2 as "adulterated" turpentine 
and one each as substitute and commercial turpentine. The 
samples of turpeen, second run and "adulterated" turpentine were 
somewhat similar in composition and contained from 78 to 92 per 
cent, of mineral oil. 

The manufacturers and jobbers represented in the present 
inspection, as far as known, were as follows, the samples found 
not to be pure turpentine being indicated by heavy type: 

American Naval Stores Co., New York, 6406, 6416, 6421, 6428^ 6492; 
Apothecaries Hall Co., Waterbury, 6466, 6474, 6476; Barclay Naval 
Stores Co., 6408, 641ft 6424, 6442, 6444, 6459, 6472, 6473, 6478; J. W. 
Barry, Boston, 641a, 6417, 6423, 6436, 6447, 6455, 650ft 6516, 6533; Booth 
& Law, New Haven, 6409, 6430, 6458, 6460, 6468* 6532, 6534; A. G. 
Belden & Co., New York, 6402, 6403, 6445; O. T. Bourne Co., Savannah, 
Ga., 6497; Brewer & Co., Worcester, Mass., 6500; Carolina Pine Products 
Co., Cleveland, O., 6510; Carpenter & Morton Co., Boston, 6475, 6518; 
John A, Casey & Co., New York, 6401, 6404, 6425, 6432, 6434, 6441, 6446, 
644ft 6453, 6471, 6481, 6483, 6494, 6496, 6501, 651ft 6522, 6523, 6527, 6528; E. 
C. Church, Providence, R. I., 6504; L. O. & E. S. Davis, Middletown, 6411 ; 
Devoe & Raynolds, New York, 6435; J. R. Ells, Southport, 6457, 6465; 
Gulf Turpentine Co., Qeveland, O., 65ci; H. S. Hawley, Danbury, 6456; 
H. M. Hodges & Bro., New Haven, 6433; Hubbell & Wade Co., Bridge- 
port, 6487; Independent Turpentine Co., New York, 6443; Jackson 
Varnish Co., Chicago, 6438; J. T. Kirk, New York, 6489; Longman & 
Martinez, 6141; Loos & Dilworth, Philadelphia, 6479, 6488, 6507, 6512, 
65i3t 6515, 6517, 6521, 6524, 6530; Lee & Osgood Co., Norwich, 6448, 6502, 
6503; David B. Levy, New York, 6454, 6526; Chas. Osgood Co., Norwich, 
6499; Penn Alcohol and Chemical Co., Philadelphia, 6429, 6431, 6450; M. W. 
Sarendon, New York, 6490; Sherwin-Williams Co., Newark, N. J., 6525; 
Siglatski & Briggs, Hartford, 6437, 6462 ; L. B. Silliman, Bridgeport, 6467, 
6485; Sisson Drug Co., Hartford, 6439; Southern States Turp. Co., 64i8» 
6469, 6493, 6514, 6520; T. E. Spencer, 6531 ; Thompson & Belden, New 
Haven, 6440^ 6451, 6463, 6464, 6477, 6484; Tolar, Hart & Co., 6410, 6452; 
U. S. Turpentine Co., 6491 ; Weaver Co., Providence, R. I., 6480, 6505, 



184 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

PROPRIETARY REMEDIES. 

A number of these remedies were examined with sufficient 
completeness to make a fair judgment of their medicinal value 
and the claims made for them. It is well-known that, even when 
the claimed ingredients are present, as a rule the purchaser pays 
an exorbitant price for remedies of more or less well-known 
efficacy. 

• Hydrozone^ 

27511. Hydrozone, 30 Vol, H2O2, Charles Marchand, New 
York. This is simply a proprietary name for a preparation of 
hydrogen dioxide, supposed to be of unusual excellence and 
strength. The capacity of the bottle was 58 cc, but it contained 
only 13 cc. of the liquid. The cork was apparently tight, but the 
condition of the advertising matter surrounding the bottle indi- 
cated possible leakage. Hydrogen dioxide deteriorates rapidly 
unless handled and stored with the greatest care and it would be 
expected that with a solution as strong as this one claimed to be 
deterioration would be even more rapid. This sample contained 
only 0.68 per cent, of dioxide, less than one-fourth the strength 
of the ordinary U. S. P. Solution of Hydrogen Peroxide, in spite 
of its claim to be three times stronger. It is interesting to note 
that in 1909 this Station analyzed a sample of the regular hydro- 
gen dioxide put out by this same firm, which contained only 
0.63 per cent. (Report for 1909, pt. ii, 264). 

In order to be entirely fair another sample of Hydrozone, 
1455, was purchased and analyzed. The contents of the bottle 
practically reached the mark noted by the manufacturer as indi- 
cating proper volume, and there was no indication of any leakage 
whatever. This new sample, however, contained only 2.99 per 
cent, of dioxide, that is, the strength of the ordinary U. S. P. 
solution. It is quite probable that Hydrozone, when it leaves the 
manufacturer's hands, is of the strength claimed. It is evident, 
however, at least in the two examples examined by us, that 
because of the liability of hydrogen dioxide to deteriorate, espe- 
cially when in concentrated form, the purchaser of Hydrozone 
can have little assurance he is receiving the superior article he 
expects. Any medicinal preparation of the nature of Hydrozone, 
which, because of the casual method of purchase of proprietary 



PROPRIETARY REMEDIES. 185 

medicines, may have been on the druggist's shelf for months or 
possibly longer, must necessarily be an uncertain purchase. 

Gouraud Oriental Cream. 
27536. Oriental Cream or Magical Beautifier for the Skin and 
Complexion, Ferd. T. Hopkins, successor to T. Felix Gouraud. 
Capacity of bottle, 8 fl. ozs. ; cost, 98 cents. 

Specific gravity at IS-S**, 1.0457; specific gravity of liquid portion, 
0.99989; solids per 100 cc, 5.35 gms., all of which is mercurous chloride 
(calomel) ; no mercuric chloride (corrosive sublimate) present. 

The preparation consisted of about 13 gms. of calomel sus- 
pended in 8 fl. ozs. (240 cc.) of water. The amount of calomel 
in the bottle of this substance can be bought at retail for about 
6 cents., the remaining 92 cts. is the charge for a half-pint of 
water. Calomel, while generally used internally, is often used 
externally "as an efficient alterative and desiccant in venereal 
and other ulcers, herpetic eruptions, etc." (U. S. Dispensatory, 
19th Ed., p. 626.) 

Spiro Powder. 
27557. Spiro Powder, Spiro Company, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
"It will prevent and destroy the odors of perspiration on the body, 
feet and clothing, relieve eczema, chafing and prickly heat, ease 
sore feet and reduce inflammation." Weight of sample, 20 gms. ; 
cost, 25 cents. A very fine, light, white powder, with a mild, 
agreeable odor of oil of roses. 

It contained 99.55 per cent, of ash, and showed no further loss on 
heating at 100° C. Qualitative tests showed zinc to be the only metal 
present, and no mineral or organic acids; 99.96 per cent, of zinc oxide 
found. On distillation with steam a clear distillate was obtained with 
the odor of roses ; phenol and thymol absent. On heating under a watch 
glass, cooled in ice water, a very minute sublimate appeared in fine, 
tree-like crystals, which were not identified; it did not respond to the 
general tests for phenols ; boric acid absent. 

The preparation appears to be essentially zinc oxide, with 
possibly a trace (not over 0.50 per cent.) of zinc carbonate, and 
an odoriferous material similar to oil of roses. 

Zinc oxide is sometimes employed "as an exsiccant to excoriated 
surfaces and in various skin diseases, sometimes by sprinkling 



1 86 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

on the affected part, but generally in the form of ointment. . . . 
As a cosmetic it has the great advantage over the preparations 
of lead of not being poisonous." (U. S. Dispensatory, 19th Ed., 
P- ^355-) Chemically pure zinc oxide may be bought for 35 
cents per pound, while the commercial oxide costs but 15 cents 
per pound; the amount of zinc oxide in this preparation could 
be bought in the purest form for 1.5 cents. 

Poslam. 
26946. Poslam, Emergency Laboratories, New York. "The 
new discovery for Eczema and all other skin troubles." The sam- 
ple was sold in a small tin and weighed 20.5 gms., and cost 50 
cents. A grayish ointment with a strong, tarry odor. 

31.84 per cent, was insoluble in chloroform, and contained salicylic 
acid, X147 per cent, of zinc oxide, and 19.45 per cent, of anhydrous com 
starch. Another portion of the chloroform-insoluble residue yielded a 
small amount of salicylic acid. The aqueous extract from the shake-out 
gave a test for zinc, indicating that probably some zinc salicylate had been 
formed by the action of the zinc oxide and salicylic acid. 

The chloroform-soluble portion of the ointment on evaporation showed 
bright yellow crystals, like sulphur. Sulphur determined by the method 
of Puckner and Hilpert (Rept of Chem. Lab., Amer. Med. Asso., ^, p. 
26) amounted to 6.55 per cent. 

The fatty portion, after removal of the tar oil, on distillation with 
steam gave a distillate having a slight odor of menthol; the aqueous 
liquid remaining in the distillation flask responded to tests for salicylic 
acid. 

On extracting a portion of the chloroform extract with 95 per cent 
alcohol, a residue of 14.40 per cent was obtained; this was of a dark 
brown color and had a tarry odor. The fatty portion, after extracting 
the tar oil, was not identified, but was probably petrolatum. (See Puckner 
and Hilpert, loc, cit.) 

A summary of the analysis follows : 

Zinc oxide II47 

Sulphur 6.55 

Starch, anhydrous 19-45 

Tar oil 14.40 

Menthol present 

Salicylic acid present 

Fatty base, probably petrolatum, suflRcient to make 100 parts. 

The analysis shows that the preparation derives its therapeutic 
value from zinc oxide, tar oil and sulphur. "These have long 



PROPRIETARY REMEDIES. 1 87 

been used and known as more or less effectual remedies for the 
treatment of skin aflfections, but certainly do not warrant such 
claims as are made in the advertising matter sent out with Poslam 
stating it to be The newest medical discovery for the treatment of 
eczema, and all other skin aflEections' and * . . . entirely diflEerent 
from anjrthing yet used/" (Puckner and Hilpert, loc. cit.) 
Even the larger sized jars put out by the company, holding 5.5 
ozs. and costing $2.00, would cost the purchaser about $5.80 per 
pound, for materials not worth more than 17 cents at retail prices. 

Dr. Franck's Grains of Health, 
26947. Genuine Doctor Franck's Grains of Health, Laxative 
puis, A. Rougureff, Paris, France. Number of pills, 49 ; weight, 
5.33 gms. ; cost, 39 cents. The pills were packed in a small box 
with shreds of cork, and were coated with a silvery substance. 

1.78 per cent, ash was found, which showed qualitatively the presence 
of silver, sodium and iron, 0.91 per cent, of metallic silver being obtained. 
12.29 per cent of the pills was insoluble in 95 per cent, alcohol. The 
alcohol-soluble portion, on evaporation to dryness, gave a bright, shiny 
brown mass, yellow in thin layers, and tasting strongly of aloes. On 
dissolving in hot water and treating with a strong solution of sodium 
borate, a very pronounced greenish fluorescence appeared, indicating aloes 
in large amount; no alkaloids were detected. 25.90 per cent, of the pills 
was insoluble in water. Neither salicylic acid, benzoic acid nor phe- 
nolphthalein was present 

The pills appear to be essentially aloes coated with silver, and 
cost at the rate of $33.19 per pound. 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale People. 
26954. Dr. WUliams' Pink Pills for Pale People, The Dr. 
Williams Medicine G)., Schenectady, N. Y., and Brockville, Ont. 
"Safe and Eflfective Tonic for the Blood and Nerves. For 
Anaemia, Diseases due to Impoverished Blood, such as Rheuma- 
tism, Diseases of Women, Nervous Disorders resulting from 
Mal-Nutrition, including Neuralgia, Sciatica, St. Vitus' Dance. 
Useful in Locomotor Ataxia and Partial Paralysis. A digestive 
tonic for Dyspepsia and Chronic Constipation." The package 
contained 38 pills, weighing 12.75 gn^s., and costing 43 cents. 
The pink color of the pills was due to cochineal ; the pill coating, 
consisting of sugar and calcium carbonate, made up 55 per cent, 
of the weight of the pill. 



,\ 



1 88 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

34.20 per cent of the whole pills was insoluble in water; this residue 
dissolved in hydrochloric acid with effervescence (carbonates), a floc- 
culent precipitate separating out The aqueous solution gave a negative 
test for aloes, and contained no soluble iron, and no nitrates or phos- 
phates; sulphates were present and a trace of chlorides. Iron was 
present in the hydrochloric acid solution. 22.19 per cent of ash was 
found, showing much iron, lime, magnesium, carbonates and sulphates, 
and consisted chiefly of iron oxide, magnesium sulphate and calcium 
carbonate. 6.94 per cent, of iron oxide, 3.36 per cent, of sulphuric 
anhydride and 1.68 per cent, of magnesium oxide were found. 

Phenolphthalein, benzoic acid and salicylic acid were not present 97.81 
per cent, of the pill mass was insoluble in 95 per cent, alcohol. The 
residue from the small soluble portion gave a negative reaction for 
aloes, and after proper treatment yielded a slight residue, which gave 
a very faint cloudiness with Mayer's reagent (trace of alkaloids), insuffi- 
cient for identification. 

A summary of the analysis follows : 

Ash 22.19 

Iron oxide 6.94 

Sulphuric anhydride 3.36 

Magnesium oxide 1.68 

Insoluble in water 34.20 

Pill mass insoluble in alcohol 97.81 

Lime and carbonates present 

Alkaloids and chlorides faint traces 

Color cochineal 

Salicylic acid, benzoic acid, phenolphthalein and aloes none 

The active ingredients detected were iron oxide, and mag- 
nesium sulphate (Epsom salt), and a faint trace of alkaloids. 

In spite of the claim that the pills are "Not a cure-all," we find 
that they are recommended for all diseases resulting from impov- 
erished blood, a long list of female complaints, for many nervous 
disorders, such as St. Vitus' dance, paralysis and locomotor ataxia, 
and for male disorders arising from excesses, etc. ; surely a rather 
wide field. In using the pills the patient is directed first to purge 
the bowels, then take the pills, bathe frequently, keep the bowels 
regular, and partake of a nutritious diet. The thought occurs 
that perhaps the desired result might as well be secured by 
following all of this treatment except the taking of the pills. 

Kargon Compound, 
27537. Kargon Compound, Kargon Extracting Co., Cincin- 
nati, O. "Contains 15 per cent, alcohol." Volume of bottle, 



PROPRIETARY REMEDIES. 1 89 

31 cc. ; cost, 39 cents. A'rather heavy liquid, specific gravity at 
15.5** C, 1. 1644, of a brown color and a strong odor and tasting 
of buchu. 

It contained 10.2 per cent of alcohol by weight, or 15 per cent, by 
volume, and 18.1 per cent, of glycerine; total solids, 48.3 per cent; ash 
12.67 per cent, which gave qualitative tests for potassium and carbonates 
only. Five cc. of the substance distilled with phosphoric acid gave 0.6360 
gra. of acetic acid, or 10.93 per cent, acetic acid, equivalent to 17.87 per 
cent potassium acetate. (The 12.67 per cent of potassium carbonate 
obtained in the ash was equivalent to 17.99 per cent, of potassium acetate.) 

The analysis may be summarized as follows: 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 1.1644 

Alcohol by volume 15.0 

Glycerine 18.1 

Solids 48.3 

Potassium acetate 17.87 

Buchu present 

In other words, this remedy contains potassium acetate, 
glycerine, alcohol and buchu. 

Kargon is one of those preparations whose advertisements 
often appear in our newspapers as solid reading matter, in which 
a harmless-looking prescription is given, consisting of Kargon 
Compound, Fluidextract of Dandelion and Compound Syrup of 
Sarsaparilla, with the ingenuous advice that they "can be procured 
from any good pharmacist and mixed at home." This prescription 
is evidently intended to lead the public to believe that Kargon is 
one of the numerous standard diuretics, but when one goes to 
buy it he finds that it is made by one and only one concern, a 
proprietary medicine in every sense of the word. Such a pre- 
scription as that given above of course yields an active diuretic. 
"But it is a combination that in the majority of cases of kidney 
disease will do great harm. And no matter what the condition, 
if used indiscriminately and 'taken regularly,' as the advertise- 
ments advocate, it cannot be otherwise than dangerous." (Jour. 
Amer. Med. Asso., Mch. i6, 1907, p. 967.) 

"As an act of humanity kindly recommend this valuable mixture 
to your suffering relatives, friends or acquaintances, especially 
elderly people who may need this remedy," is advice which comes 
with each bottle, and which should be disregarded by every one 
having the slightest humanitarian instincts. 



IpO CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Schenck's Pulmonic Syrup. 
27609. Schenck's Pulmonic Syrup, Dr. J. H. Schenck & Son, 
Philadelphia. "The 70 year old Standard Remedy for Consump- 
tion, Coughs, Colds, Diseases of the Lungs and Respiratory 
Organs." Volume of bottle, 11 fl. ozs., cost, 85 cents. A brown, 
syrupy fluid with a very sweet taste, and an odor of winterg^een 
and of an acetous character resembling vinegar. 

Specific gfravity at 15.5°, 1.3861. It was miscible with water without 
causing any precipitate. It had an acid reaction; lead acetate produced 
only a very slight turbidity in a 13 per cent, solution. On dilution with 
95 per cent, alcohol a slight turbidity resulted. No alkaloids were 
present, and only 0.08 per cent, of ash. By treatment with Fehling's 
solution, 34.49 per cent, sucrose and 38.40 per cent invert <sugar, or 
72.89 per cent total sugars were obtained. The direct polarization at 
24** C. was +264, after inversion — 22.0. 

Two gms. mixed with sand and dried to constant weight gave 75.59 per 
cent solids. 

Steam distillation gave a slight acid distillate with the odor of oil 
of wintergreen. The syrup shaken out with chloroform, after acidifica- 
tion, gave an oily residue of a wintergreen odor, with a reaction for 
salicylic acid, probably resulting from decomposition of oil of wintergreen. 

The following is a summary of our analysis : 

Specific gravity at 15.5** 1.3861 

Alcohol none 

Glycerine none 

Solids 75.59 

Sucrose 34-49 

Invert Sugar 3840 

Ash 0.08 

Oil of Wintergreen present 

Alkaloids none 

This remarkable remedy for consumption is essentially a win- 
tergreen-flavored mixture of saccharine syrups, 96.4 per cent, of 
the solids consisting of sugars. It is hard to believe that the 
virtues of this material rests in the 2.7 per cent, of undetermined 
solids (possibly vinegar of squills). It is recognized that a rich 
and nutritious diet is essential in the treatment of consumption, 
and it is true that this substance with nearly 73 per cent, of sugar 
is highly nutritious, and yet one can scarcely recommend the 
purchase of such a preparation at the rate of $2.50 per quart, 
when molasses is obtainable at 50 to 60 cents per gallon. 



PKOPRIETARY REMEDIES. I91 

Thialion. 
27S10. Thialion, a Non EflEervescing Lithiated Laxative Salt, 
manufactured for The Voss Chemical Co., Danbury, Conn. Net 
weight, 4 ozs. ; cost, 89 cents. A granular, gritty substance of a 
slightly brown color and with a salty taste ; • the addition of water 
caused no eflEervescence. Qualitative tests gave reactions for 
sulphates, chlorides, citrates, sodium and lithium. 

The following determinations were made: chlorine, ,1.94 per centj 
sulphuric anhydride, 15.51 per cent; citric acid radical, 42.86 per cent; 
lithium, 0.148 per cent., and total sodium, 25.84 per cent. Calculating 
the lithium as lithium citrate, the sulphate as sodium sulphate, the chlorine 
as sodium chloride, and the residual citric acid as sodium citrate we obtain 
the following probable composition of this material. (On heating at 
100^ C, a loss of only 0.28 per cent, was obtained; such water as the 
substance may contain exists therefore as water of crystallization, and 
this is estimated by diflFerence.) 

Sodium citrate 57.77 

Sodium sulphate, anhydrous 27.53 

Sodium chloride 3.20 

Lithium citrate, anhydrous 1.48 

Combined water (by diflFerence) 10.02 

In the literature sent to physicians and in its advertisements 
Thialion is stated to be "a laxative salt of lithia" of the following 
formula : "3 Li^O, NaO, So,, 7 HO," and sodio-trilithic anhydro- 
sulphate is given as its name. As our analysis shows, it is simply 
a mixture of sodium citrate and sodium sulphate with very small 
amounts of lithium citrate and sodium chloride. The advertising 
literature, therefore, deliberately misrepresents the facts, for we 
have here no new chemical compound that possesses any mys- 
terious therapeutic properties diflferent from those of its com- 
ponent drugs. Speaking of the graphic formula furnished by 
the makers of this preparation the Journal of the American Med- 
ical Association says, Nov. 3, 1906, p. 1500: "To a physician who 
possesses but little knowledge of chemistry, it will seem impres- 
sive, and he may absorb the idea that it stands for a preparation 
that is the result of exhaustive scientific research. To the 
chemist, this formula will appear as a jumble of symbols and 
numbers that mean nothing. It is not worth while to call atten- 
tion to the simplicity of this simple mixture of ordinary salts, for 
it is too self-evident." 



192 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Ely's Liquid Cream Balm, 
26945. Ely's Liquid Cream Balm, "Remedy for Catarrh, 
Catarrhal Deafness, Hay Fever, Cold in Head." Ely Brothers, 
New York. Volume of bottle, 50 cc. ; cost (including glass 
inhaler), 69 cents. A pinkish liquid of a rather thick consistency, 
with the odor of thymol and menthol. 

Specific gravity at 15.5* C, 0.8696; no alcohol, no glycerine, no ash, 
no cocaine or other alkaloids present. Five gms. of the liquid showed 
4.1215 gms. of unsaponifiahle residue, and 0.6435 gm. of fatty acids or 
allied substances, a total of 4-7650 gms., or 95.3 per cent (The above 
separation was probably accompanied by some mechanical loss in purify- 
ing the two fractions.) The unsaponifiahle residue had a decided odor 
of menthol. Ten cc. of the liquid treated with glacial acetic, sulphuric 
and nitric acids gave a fi^een color, indicating presence of thymol. The 
colorless, oily layer left after removing thymol was insoluble in water 
and cold alcohol, but soluble in ether, petroleum ether, and chloroform; 
this residue had a specific gravity of 0.860, index of refraction at 20'*, 
1.4715; treatment with acetic anhydride (Lewkowitsch, », p. 376) showed 
the presence of mixed hydrocarbons. All these properties indicated 
liquid petrolatum as the basic substance. The fatty acids had a refractive 
index at 20** of 1.4689, but were not identified; these may have been 
due to an admixture of fixed oils or to impurities in the petrolatum. 
The polarization in alcoholic solution was laevorotatory, a characteristic 
of menthol. 

This preparation appears to consist essentially of liquid 
petrolatum with small quantities of thymol and menthol. 

"Liquid petrolatum is much used as a soothing local application 
in inflammation of the mucous membrane in the nose, throat, 
larynx, and even bronchial tubes. It is usually applied by means 
of an atomizer." (U. S. Dispensatory, 19th Ed., p. 925.) The 
amount of this simple and well-known remedy, contained in a 
bottle of this preparation (50 cc.) is worth about one-half of a 
cent. 

Cuhanos, 
27558. Cuhanos, a Positive Relief for Asthma and Catarrh. 
Manufactured for Cubanos Cure G)., New York. "Q>ntains the 
following ingredients, Poppy Heads, Sugars, Stramonium, 
Leaves of Belladonna, Root of Belladonna, Tincture of Benzoin, 
Nitrate of Potash, and Opium (one-tenth grain to one ounce of 
Cubanos)." Packages of two sizes bought, the 10 cent size 
weighing 11.82 gms., the 25 cent size, 31 gms. 



PROPRIETARY REMEDIES. 1 93 

A microscopical examination showed the presence of belladonna 
leaves tissues (wavy parench3rma of upper and lower epidermis, 
stomata, glandular hairs, collenchyma cells, and calcium oxalate 
"sand") ; belladonna root and poppy head tissues (pitted cells of 
inner epidermis of fruit coat) also present. Stramonium tissues 
strongly resemble those of belladonna, making it difficult to dis- 
tinguish them. 

The material contained 22.02 per cent of ash, 1.86 per cent, being 
insoluble in hydrochloric acid (sand). Qualitative tests in the ash 
showed the presence of carbonates, sulphates, phosphates, chlorides, 
nitrates, silicates, iron, aluminum, calcium, sodium and potassium, most 
of which, excepting the nitrates, silicates and part of the potash, were 
probably normal ingredients of the vegetable substances of the mixture. 
2.50 per cent of nitrate nitrogen was present, equivalent to 18.02 per 
cent of potassiuin nitrate. Reducing sugars were present 

Ten grams of the material yielded .0285 gm. of crude alkaloidal residue, 
which on purification amotmted to .0160 gm., or 0.16 per cent Mayer's 
reagent gave a heavy precipitate; general reactions for opium bases were 
obtained as follows: — ^nitric acid gave a reddish yellow color, potassium 
ferricyanide and ferric chloride and trace of hydrochloric acid gave a 
blue color. No attempt was made to detect hyoscyamine and atropine in 
the small alkaloidal residue. No benzoin was detected. 

The material appears to be essentially as claimed, but is some- 
what expensive, the smaller packages costing at the rate of $3.84 
per lb., the larger, $3.65 per lb. 

Dr, Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery. 
26989. Dr. Pierce's Alterative Extract or Golden Medical 
Discovery. World's Dispensary Medical Association, Buffalo, 
N. Y. Capacity of bottle, 10 fl. ozs. ; cost, 79 cents. Claimed 
to contain Golden Seal Root, Queen's Root, Stone Root, Black 
Cherrybark, Bloodroot, Mandrake Root, chemically pure Gly- 
cerine, pure Water and a very small amount of Borate of Soda, 
'less than a grain to the dose of 'Discovery.' " 

The following determinations were made: — specific gfravity at 15.5° C, 
1.1070; alcohol, none, glycerine, 27.60 per cent.; solids, 38.80 per cent; 
ash, 0.69 per cent ; sodium borate, 0.65 per cent. ; polarization at 23** C, 
zero before and after inversion; phenolphthalein, none; potassium iodide, 
none. 

While it was impossible to determine the presence of the vari- 
ous alterative vegetable drugs claimed in this preparation, the 
13 



194 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

total amount of vegetable extractives found was 11.20 per cent., 
hardly entitling it to be called "a very concentrated, vegetable 
extract." The amount of sodium borate found was well within 
that claimed. The constituent drugs claimed to be present have 
a recogTiized therapeutic value, but hardly entitle it to the "cure- 
all" properties claimed for it in its advertising literature. That 
these well-known drugs by a mysterious combination, the result 
of "a tedious course of study and experiment, extending over 
several years," can become a "superior remedy" for coughs, 
bronchitis, laryngitis, weak lungs, sore throat, biliousness, dys- 
pepsia, general debility, nervous prostration, blood diseases, skin 
diseases, catarrhal aflfections of all organs, heart diseases, malaria, 
constipation, kidney and bladder affections, etc., etc., is certainly 
a strain on one's credulity. 

Peruna, 

26944. Peruna Tonic, The Pertma Co., Columbus, O. "Con- 
tains eighteen per cent, of alcohol by volume." Capacity of 
bottle, 20 ozs.; cost, 75 cents. The main label on the bottle 
claims "Pe-Ru-Na contains cubebs, hydrastis canadensis, corydalis 
formosa, collinsonia canadensis, cedron seed, ginger, senna, 
glycerine and a very small proportion of the oil of copaiba." On 
a separate sticker is this naive information : 

"For a number of years requests have come to me from a 
multitude of grateful friends, urging that Peruna be given a 
slight laxative quality. I have been experimenting with a laxa- 
tive addition for quite a length of time, and now feel gfratified to 
announce to the friends of Peruna that I have incorporated such 
a quality in the medicine which, in my opinion, can only enhance 
its well-known beneficial character. S. B. Hartman, M.D." 

A brown liquid, specific gravity at 15.5° C, 0.9870; alcohol by weight, 
14.0 per cent., by volume, 17.37 per cent; solids, 2.67, glycerine, i.50» 
ash, o.ii per cent; polarization direct and after inversion at 23**, dto.o; 
phenolphthalein not present nor any inorganic laxative; positive tests for 
cubebs and senna. 

The dealcoholized solution acidified and shaken out with ether and 
ether-acetone, then made alkaline with ammonia and shaken out with 
ether-chloroform gave a residue yielding a positive test with Mayer's 
reagent. Further tests in this residue gave results resembling those 
for prohibited alkaloids but it was found that these tests were due to 
senna and cubebs (declared on the label and otherwise identified). The 



PROPRIETARY REMEDIES. 1 95 

only reaction not accounted for by the presence of these two vegetable 
drugs was the faint reddish color obtained with nitric acid, but this 
test is insufficient in itself to prove the presence of morphine or its 
derivatives. The principles of senna and cubebs are largely removed by 
shaking out with ether-acetone from acid solution, but it was shown 
that this separation is incomplete, some of these principles appearing 
in the residue from the alkaline shake-out. 

Analyses of Peruna, made before the passage of the Federal 
law, show from 22 to 26 per cent, alcohol by volume, and from 
0.35 to 0.44 per cent, of solids. It was so clearly an alcoholic 
beverage and not a medicine that the Internal Revenue Com- 
missioner required sellers of it to take out a liquor license,, which 
explains the sticker quoted above. The "grateful friends" 
requesting the addition of a laxative were probably dealers who 
objected to paying a liquor tax, and the "laxative addition" 
with which Dr. Hartman experimented "for quite a length of 
time," as far as we can determine, is simply the well-known drug 
senna. The extract from vegetable drugs in Peruna is only 
about one per cent. 

A, D. S. Rheumatic Remedy. 

26948. A.D.S, Rheumatic Remedy, Premium Remedy for the 
relief of Rheumatism, Lumbago, Sciatica and Gout. "Contains 
4 per cent, alcohol." American Druggists' Syndicate, New York, 
Distributors. Capacity of bottle, 2.3 ozs. ; cost, 50 cents. 

A brownish viscid liquid, specific gravity at 15.S**, 1.1015; alcohol by 
weight, 4.1 per cent, by volume, 5.7 per cent; solids, 23.4 per cent; 
glycerine, 9.80 per cent; ash, 7.90 per cent. Qualitative tests in the ash 
showed carbonates, sodium, potassium, iodides and a trace of sulphates. 
645 per cent potassium iodide, 1.25 per cent, sodium oxide and 5.29 
per cent salicylic acid were found, the two latter being equivalent to 
6.13 per cent sodium salicylate (calculated from the salicylic acid deter- 
mination). No phenolphthalein present An acidified portion dealcohol- 
ized and shaken out with ether and ether-acetone, gave a negative test 
for senna; made alkaline with ammonia and shaken out with ether- 
chloroform a residue was obtained giving a positive test for alkaloids 
with Mayer's reagent. This residue gave a faintly reddish color with 
nitric acid, a blue color with ferric chloride and ferricyanide, and no 
violet color with sulphuric acid and formaldehyde. The blue color with 
ferricyanide is given by many vegetable extractives, e. g., colchicum, 
and the third test is negative for opium bases. The nitric acid test is 
not conclusive enough for the identification of morphine or its derivatives. 



196 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

A summary of the analysis follows : 

Specific gravity at 15.5* C 1.1015 

Alcohol by volume 5.70 

Solids 23^ 

Glycerine 9J80 

Ash 7.90 

Potassium iodide 6.45 

Sodium salicylate 6.13 

Alkaloids trace 

Phenolphthalein absent 

The preparation, therefore, consists of potassium iodide and 
sodium salicylate (both well-known specifics for rheumatism) 
and an alcohol-glycerine infusion of a small amount of an 
unidentified vegetable drug, to which the trace of alkaloids found 
may be due. 

The familiar legend "This is not a patent medicine, etc.," found 
on all A. D. S. preparations, has already been discussed under 
S)rrup of Figs, page 156. 

Rheumatogen. 
27532. Rheumatogen, alcohol 20 per cent., Rheumatogen 
Chemical Co., New Haven. "The latest and most scientifically 
compounded preparation for the treatment of rheumatism in all 
its manifestations. It is especially adapted for Rheumatic Joints, 
Gout, Lumbago, Sciatica, and all ailments arising from kidney 
and bladder trouble. For Relief of Pain of Nervous Origin no 
Better Remedy is Known." Capacity of bottle, 4 ozs. ; cost, 50 
cents. 

A brown liquid, specific gravity at 15.5** C, 1.OJ09; alcohol by weight, 
13.3 per cent, by volume, 17^ per cent. ; solids, 12.70 per cent ; glycerine, 
0.80 per cent; ash, containing carbonates, sodium and small amount 
of sulphates, 3.95 per cent; sodium Salicylate, 10.93 per cent; phenol- 
phthalein and iodides, none; senna, present 

A positive test for alkaloids was secured with Mayer's reagent; 
further tests gave results similar to those noted under the preceding 
sample, and were not sufficiently conclusive for the identification of 
morphine or its derivatives. 

A summary of the analysis follows : 

Specific gravity at IS-S® C 1.0309 

Alcohol by volume 17.20 

Solids 12.70 



PROPRIETARY REMEDIES. 197 

Glycerine 0.80 

Ash 3.9s 

Sodium salicylate 10.93 

Alkaloids trace 

Senna present 

Iodides and phenolphthalein absent 

The preparation appears to be simply a mixture of sodium 
salicylate and an alcoholic infusion of vegetable drugs, chiefly 
senna, to which the trace of alkaloids found may be due. Sodium 
salicylate is a specific for rheumatism and senna is a well-known 
laxative. The sodium salicylate present (the drug to which the 
preparation owes its value in the treatment of rheumatism) is 
worth about 1.25 cents. 

Sanatogen. 
26941. Sanatogen^ the Food Tonic. Bauer & Co., Berlin. 
"Net weight, 200 gms." Net weight found, 199.5 gms.; cost, 
$1.90. "A definite, organic combination of 95 per cei^t. of 
pure, especially prepared Casein and 5 per cent, of Sodium 
Glycero-Phosphate." Whether or not this preparation is an 
organic "combination" we cannot say, but our analysis substan- 
tially satisfies the above claim as to the ingredients present. We 
have made a very careful and detailed analysis of this product in 
the eflFort to prove the nature of the protein and phosphorus 
compound .or compounds present. The details of this analysis, 
and the methods used will be published elsewhere. Below will be 
found a summary : 

Water 9.97 

Total nitrogen 12.81 

Nitrogen precipitated by acetic acid 12.54 

Equivalent to casein 80.01 

Ether extract 0.11 

Ash S.S9 

Sulphur 0.73 

Sulphur due to casein 0.64 

Phosphorus 1.49 

Phosphorus in inorganic form o.i i 

Phosphorus due to casein 0.69 

The material is a mixture of casein and sodium glycerophos- 
phate, with a small amount of unidentified protein, equivalent to 
0.23 per cent, nitrogen, containing both phosphorus and sulphur, 



19B CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

and a small amount of phosphorus, o.ii per cent., in inorganic 
combination. The manufacturer's claims as to its composition 
are therefore substantiated, but many of the statements as to its 
food value made in its various advertisements will not stand close 
scrutiny, and savor strongly in certain instances of the typical 
proprietary medicine advertisement. The following are a few 
quotations of this nature: 

"In Sanatogen, by an intricate process of manufacture, casein and sodium 
glycerophosphate are united so intimately as to form a new and distinc- 
tive compound which is absorbed and assimilated with extraordinary 
facility." — Sanatogen circular. 

"Sanatogen the Food Tonic will once more make you a cheerful partner 
with good health. It will furnish materials for your life- force to fi^rasp, 
absorb and build on." — Boston Transcript, June 4, 1910. 

"The Wan and Despondent Neurasthenic, who responds so poorly to 
the routine treatment of functional nervous disorder, will 'take on the 
native hue of resolution/ under Sanatogen." — Amer. Jour, Clin. Med., 
March, 1911. 

"It effects nutrition directly by arousing metabolic activity. ... It 
causes gain in flesh, strength and vigor of brain and body."— AT. Y. Med. 
Jour., Dec 30, 191 1. 

". . . . Sanatogen supplies this deficiency [of nervous energy]— 
renews the strength — ^vigor and vitality — restores the depleted nerves and 
worn tissues to their normal health." — The Literary Digest, Nov. 12, 1910. 

"Sanatogen is science's logical answer to the call of the nerves, the 
food answer to the hungry cry of impoverished conditions, however these 
conditions may have been brought about, by fret, illness, stress of work, 
domestic, business or social exactions — ^with distressing results in sleep, 
in appetite, in *blues,' in outlook on life." — The World's Work, Dec., 191 1. 

"Sanatogen. is four times as easily digested as wheat flour. Sanatogen 
possesses splendid tonic and vitalizing properties that place it high above 
any ordinary food-stuff of whatever kind." — Chicago Record-Herald, 
Nov. 28, 191 1. 

"Patients in a very low condition of health have been sustained for 
prolonged periods upon Sanatogen alone; this proves it to be a life 
sustaining agent in itself." — Sanotogen circular. 

In opposition to these sweeping claims we call attention to 
excerpts from the Journal of the American Medical Association, 
quoted in the North Dakota Food Department Special Bulletin, 
2 (6), p. 107: 

"Only the highest class magazines and newspapers have been patron- 
ized; the 'copy* has been so written as to appeal not to the ignorant but 
to the intelligent .... Truly, a wonderful preparation if these state- 



PROPRIETARY REMEDIES. 1 99 

ments are true; but they are false, most of them at least, and, in that 
many who can ill afford it may be led to pay a ruinous high price for a 
very ordinary food, the statements are viciously and cruelly false/' 

"Dr. Barker, Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, says: 
'If Sanatogen consists simply of casein and sodium glycerol phosphate, it 
is pretty obvious that all of its good effects (excepting perhaps the 
psychic influence of taking an expensive and, to the layman, mysterious 
product) can be gotten by including eggs and milk in the food/ '' 

"Dr. Folin of the Harvard Medical School says: 'For myself, or for 
any one who would take my advice, I would prefer a glass of milk to 
Sanatc^^n when hungry and plain glycerol phosphate to Sanatogen when in 
need of a tonic. Medicated food used to be sold for horses. To me 
the "food tonic" combination represents one of the most unscrupulous 
fake ideas used by manufacturers of patented articles to fool the public' " 

"Dr. Lusk of Cornell University, after condemning Sanatogen and 
stating that its nutritive material could be secured in one pint of milk, 
comments upon the value of the glycerol phosphate as follows: 'That 
sodium glycerol phosphate has any distinctly beneficial physiological 
action has never to my knowledge been shown.'" 

In spite of these words of condemnation Sanatogen is strongly 
endorsed by certain European scientists and literary men of more 
or less reputation. It is difficult, therefore, for the layman to 
venture an opinion as to its merits as a food and a tonic, other 
than to point out that its chief constituents, casein and organic 
phosphorus, may be obtained just as well in milk and eggs at 
a very much lower cost. 

Pinex. 

26942. Pinex, The Pinex Co., Ft. Wayne, Ind. "Alcohol 17 
per cent., 22 minims chloroform per fluidounce, and other valuable 
ingredients." "Pinex is guaranteed to do all that is promised in 
the Booklet" (which accompanies each bottle). Capacity of bot- 
tle, 2.5 fl. ozs. ; cost, 50 cents. A thick, reddish brown liquid, 
having the odor and taste of tar and chloroform. 

The following analytical data were obtained: 

Specific gravity at 15.5® C 1.2220 

Alcohol by weight 11.70 

Alcohol by volume 18.00 

Total solids 60.00 

Glycerine 19.50 

Solids — glycerine 40.50 

Sucrose (by Qerget) 27.19 

Tar, etc (by difference) 13.31 



aoo CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Ash 2.II 

Polarization, direct at 23° C +284 

after inv. at 23** C —7.26 

Sulphates, chlorides, sodium, potassium, carbonates 

(in ash) present 

Croton oil, iodides none 

Chloroform, minims per fl. oz 17.9 

While Pinex is recommended for "consumption, asthma, bron- 
chitis, croup, whooping cough, hoarseness, coughs, colds, 
la grippe, chronic weakness of the lungs and all diseases of the 
throat and lungs," a consideration of its claims in connecticxi with 
consumption alone is especially interesting. In the booklet 
referred to above we find the following under the caption "Pinex 
Syrup for Consumption" (Italics are ours) : 

"We have told you that Pinex is a concentrated compound extract of 
Norway pine. You probably know that white pine is a great sedative 
for any inflanmiation or irritation of the lungs, throat or bronchial 
tubes. You also know that pine forests are very healthy to live in; 
especially so for consumptives. The natives of the pine forests seldom 
have coughs or consumption. What is the reason? What is there in 
the air of these regions to be so effective? It is the Guaiacol and sev- 
eral other volatile constituents of the pine. It is the volatile principles 
of these agents that make a residence in the pine woods of Norway so 
invigorating to consumptives. In the past 25 years Guaiacol has been 
considered by the most celebrated physicians of the day to be the most 
useful known remedy for consumption. The Guaiacol in Pinex makes 
Pinex an almost certain remedy for consumption. . . . Two other very 
essential things in curing consumption are plenty of 'fresh air^ and good, 
plain, substantial, wholesome food. Years of experience among physicians 
has proved that 'fresh air^ and good food alone will often cure consump- 
tion, even in deep-seated cases. . . . Plenty of good fresh air and 
Pinex will do all that could be done were you living in the Pine woods 
of Norway. . . . For any cough get the best remedy you know. Don't 
risk some puny remedy, for nothing can be too sure. It means everything 
to know that when you give Pinex Cough Syrup you are safe." 

There are both truth and distortion of the truth in the above 
claims. There is no doubt that fresh air and abundant nutritious 
foods are useful in preventing consumption and in the checking 
of an incipient tendency towards that disease. It is also true that 
"fresh air and good food alone will often cure consumption." 
The above statements, however, have no connection whatever 
with Pinex. The guaiacol in Pinex does not make Pinex "an 



DAIRY commissioner's SAMPLES. 20X 

almost certain remedy for consumption," for there is no such 
"almost certain remedy," and while traces of guaiacol may be 
present in Pinex, we were unable to detect any by the U. S, P. 
tests. The statement that "when you give Pinex Cough Syrup 
you are safe" would be consoling if true. 

Guaiacol, or creosote of which guaiacol is an important con- 
stituent, is recognized as of value in the treatment of consumption. 
No medicine, however, can take the place of fresh air and nutri- 
tious diet, and self-medication is always dangerous, especially in 
the case of a disease like consumption. 

Pinex is not supposed to be used in the form in which it is 
sold. The 2.5 ozs. sold are to be "combined with syrup or 
strained honey, making a full pint of excellent laxative cough 
medicine." With reference to this point the booklet says : 

"Our reason for not placing Pinex on the market already prepared is 
that we are teaching you Health Economy. Most cough medicines con- 
tain a large quantity of Sugar Ssrrup— a very useful element and not 
expensive. When you buy Pinex you pay for the medicinal ingredients 
only." 

In spite of these statements we find 27.19 per cent, of sugar 
and 19.50 per cent, of glycerine in Pinex, showing the claim to 
be both misleading and untrue. 



FOOD AND DRUG PRODUCTS EXAMINED FOR THE 
DAIRY AND FOOD COMMISSIONER. 

Seven hundred and fifty-seven samples were referred to this 
station by the Dairy and Food Commissioner for examination. 
Since the details regarding them will be found in this report, only 
a brief summary of the results is here given, except in the case 
of turpentine, where quite complete analytical data were secured. 

Of the whole number of samples examined, 354 were not found 
to be adulterated, while 372 were adulterated, misbranded, or 
below standard. 

Butter and Butter Substitutes. Of thirty-nine samples exam- 
ined eighteen were butter, ten oleomargarine and eleven renovated 
butter. One sample of renovated butter, claimed to weigh one 
pound, weighed only 14.4 ozs. In many cases the illegality of 



202 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

the sale consisted in the failure to display the rdquired sign when 
selling oleomargarine, or failure to stamp renovated butter at the 
time of sale. 

Candy. Six samples of candy examined were in all cases free 
from paraffin and added mineral matter. Where chocolate was 
claimed, no foreign fat was present. All contained glucose, and 
one was colored with amaranth, a permitted coal-tar color. All 
the samples were passed. The analyses are given below : 

Pat. Polarization at i8«. 

Ether Ref. Ind. Melt- 
Water. Extract. 40«. ing Point. Direct. Invert. Ash. 

♦Chocolate Nut Caramels.. 9.35 6.31 1.4567 31" +109.4 -*-4i.i 0.49 

Chocolate Creams 10.71 9.38 1.4567 32" 4- 98.6 -*- 17.2 0.58 

Chocolate Mints 10.38 11.09 1-4577 3i' + 97-0 H- 18.3 0.70 

Chocolate Creams 10.65 9-97 14569 32* 4- 92.0 4-20.5 0.62 

fChocolate Nut Caramels.. 9.49 10.32 1.4566 30' 4- 88.0 +24.4 0.94 

tStrawbcrry Jellies 16.50 0.15 4-ii8.o 4-34.3 0.23 

Cider. The sample examined contained benzoic acid. 
Cinnamon. Two samples were tested with the following 
results : 

Ether Extract. Ash. 



Total. Volatile. Non-Volatile. Total. Water-Sol. Acid Insol. 

3.51 I.S3 1.98 4.87 1.31 1.58 

1.72 046 1.26 5.1S 1.64 047 

The microscope showed no added adulterant in either sample, 
but the volatile and non-volatile ether extract in the second sample 
were both too low for genuine cinnamon. 

Cocoa. The three samples examined were all misbranded and 
one was adulterated with sugar. Bartlett's Ralston Health Qub 
Cocoa contained 54.38 per cent, sucrose, which was not declared 
on the label. Bensdorp's Royal Dutch Cocoa showed high ash 
and high alkalinity of ash. The claims that it was "the purest 
cocoa made" and that it was "soluble" were both untrue. Isen- 
burg*s White Lily Cocoa contained 22.76 per cent, of fat and 3.26 
per cent, of nitrogen; it was therefore not "double the strength 
of ordinary grades of cocoa," as claimed on the label. 

Coffee. The sample examined was not found adulterated. 



*The nuts made up 6.7 per cent, of the sample. tThe nuts made up 9 per cent of the 
sample. X Contained amaranth, a permitted coal-tar dye. None of the samples contained 
paraffin. 



DAIRY COMMISSIONER S SAMPLES. 203 

Cream. One of the two samples tested contained only 11.25 
per cent, of fat, and was therefore below the legal standard. 
Neither sample contained a chemical preservative. 

Grape Juice. A sample of Puritan Grape Juice was found to 
contain only natural color. 

Ice Cream. Twenty-five samples were tested for butter fat, 
which ranged from i.o to 18.5 per cent. Three samples were 
notably deficient, containing only i.o, 3.0 and 4.0 per cent., 
respectively. 

Lemon Extract. One of the two samples tested contained 8.9 
per cent, lemon oil, with natural color. A sample of French's 
Triple Strength Lemon Extract contained no lemon oil, and was 
colored with napthol yellow S, a permitted coal-tar color. The 
carton claimed "triple streng^," the bottle "genuine extract," 
and a sticker on both the carton and bottle stated in very fine 
print that it contained "no" lemon oil, a series of inconsistent and 
misleading statements clearly making the sample misbranded. 

Milk. Two hundred and sixty-five samples were examined. 
Of these forty-five conformed to the legal standards, while sixty- 
one were deficient only in solids-not-ifat. Eighty-five samples 
were below standard in solids, thirty-four in fat and one hundred 
and forty-nine in solids-not-fat, two hundred and twenty samples 
failing to meet the legal requirements in one or more particulars. 
Four samples were skimmed and fifty-seven were watered. It is 
to be remembered that these figures do not correctly indicate the 
true state of Connecticut market milk, as with few exceptions 
these samples were taken because they were suspicious and comr 
plaints had been made of the vendors. 

The watered samples were taken in Branford, Qieshire, 
Hebron, Middletown, New Canaan, Rocky Hill, Seymour, Somers, 
Stafford Springs, Stratford, West Haven, Winchester and Wood- 
bridge. These samples averaged 10.09 per cent, solids, two 
samples containing only 6.75 and 6.96 per cent. 

Skim Milk. Two samples of skimmed milk were found to be 
watered. These contained 7.56 and 7.84 per cent, solids and 0.13 
and 0.21 per cent, fat, respectively. 

Molasses. One hundred and sixty samples were examined 
chiefly for the presence of glucose. In certain samples, showing 
low polarization, water was also determined. No adulteration 



204 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2, 

was found in one hundred and fcMty-eight samples. The direct 
polarization in these ranged from +17.8 to +50.8, average, 
+36.7; the polarization after inversion from — 8.8 to — 17.8, 
average, — 17.5; all at 18'' C. One san^le contained glucose, 
polarizing +96.6 direct and -{••72.2 after inversion. The remain- 
ing eleven samples exceeded the standard's limit for water, 25 
per cent, ranging from 25.23 to 27.53 P^^ cent. 

Olive Oil, One sample was unadulterated, while another con- 
tained cottonseed oil. 

Rice. Eighteen samples were examined, nine of which were 
passed, and nine were found to contain talc or similar material 
(See page 121). 

Sausage. Sixty-eight samples of sausage, frankfurts, etc, 
were tested for starch, boric acid and sulphites. None of the 
samples contained boric acid. Twenty-seven samples were 
passed ; these contained from 0.00 to 0.88 per cent, starch, and 
from none to 2.2 mgms. of sulphurous acid per 100 gms. of 
material. One sample was rotten when received and totally unfit 
for human consumption. Thirty-four samples contained starch, 
ranging from i.oi to 6.56 per cent., average, 3.02 per cent 
Two samples contained excessive sulphurous acid, 6.6 and 94 
mgms. per 100 gms. Four samples, all frankfurts, contained a 
coal-tar dye and from 3.22 to 4.73 per cent, of starch. In two 
cases the dye was identified as ponceau and amaranth, respec- 
tively, both permitted colors. 

Vanilla Extract. A sample of Alliance Brand was found to be 
genuine, containing 0.209 per cent, vanillin, and no coumarin car 
caramel. 

Acetic Acid. Three samples were examined, one of which sold 
by A. L. Embree, Stamford, contained only 28.12 per cent, acid, 
or 78.1 per cent. U. S. P. 

Asafetida, Powdered. Eleven samples were analyzed, ten of 
which failed to satisfy the U. S. P. standards for alcohol-soluble 
resins and ash. (See page 152.) Another sample, taken on the 
request of a large wholesaler and guaranteed to contain 61.3 per 
cent, soluble resin and 16.675 P^r cent, ash, contained 61.84 and 
17.18 per cent., respectively, showing that a high-grade powdered 
asafetida is by no means an impossibility, as often claimed. 



MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS. 205 

Citrate of Magnesia. Twelve samples of solution of mag- 
nesium citrate were examined. Foiu* of these were within lo 
per cent, of the U. S. P. standard, four were deficient in mag- 
nesia, one in potash, and three in both of these ingredients. (See 
page 164.) 

Precipitated Sulphur. Three samples were examined, one of 
which sold by Goldfield Bros., Hartford, was ground brimstone 
and not the drug claimed. (See page 172.) 

Turpentine. One hundred and thirty samples were examined. 
Full analytical details are given on page 176. 

Net Weight Samples. Two hundred and eighty-eight samples 
were examined in connection with a study of the variations in net 
weight and volume of package goods. The results of this study 
are given in detail in Bulletin 172 of this station, and certain data 
as to individual brands on pages 139 to 145 of this report 

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS SENT BY PRIVATE 
INDIVIDUALS. 

MUk. Twelve of the twenty-one samples tested satisfied the 
legal standard, while seven were below it. One sample tested for 
preservatives only contained no boric or benzoic acid or formalde- 
hyde. One sample, the duplicate sample taken by a city milk 
inspector, contained 18.23 per cent, solids and 9.4 per cent, fat; 
the seal was in poor condition and the sample was apparently 
tampered with in a very clumsy manner. In addition to these 
the morning and evening milk of the individual cows of a herd of 
fourteen were tested for fat. This ranged from 3.8 to 6.1 per 
cent, for the morning and from 4.4 to 8.1 per cent, for the 
evening milk, the latter averaging 0.8 per cent, higher. 

Cream. Four samples were tested, ranging from 17.5 to 55.5 
per cent, of fat. Sucrate of lime was found in none of the 
samples. 

Skim Milk. The single sample tested contained 9.98 per cent, 
solids and 1.4 per cent. fat. 

Condensed Skim Milk. The samples contained 0.85 per cent, 
fat, and gave a negative test for sucrate of lime. 

Butter. Of the three samples tested one was genuine, one was 
renovated butter, while the third was an inferior product, prob- 
ably containing some renovated butter. 



ao6 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Near Beer. A sample sent in by the State Police showed a 
specific gravity at 15.5** C. of 1.00303, and contained 1.36 per 
cent, alcohol by weight and 1.73 per cent by volume. 

Baking Powder. The sample proved to be a phosphate powder. 

Celery. A sample covered in places with a considerable quan- 
tity of a greenish deposit was examined. This deposit was found 
to consist chiefly of copper carbonate, probably the result of 
spraying, but no arsenic was present. It was reported that much 
of the celery sold in the Bridgeport markets was found by the 
local inspectors to contain this contamination. 

Cider. The sample examined had the following analysis : Spe- 
cific gravity at 15.5** C, 0.99786, alcohol by volume, 6.58, solids, 
1.56, acidity, 0.36, ash, 0.28, polarization at 20** C. (200 min. 
tube), — 0.5**; salicylic and benzoic acids absent. 

Ice Cream. The sample tested contained 10.50 per cent, of fat 

Fruit Syrups. Four samples of strawberry syrup were tested 
for glucose, one of which contained this sugar. A sample of 
peach syrup, claimed by a certain New Haven newspaper to have 
poisoned a woman drinking a soda water flavored with it, was 
tested for hydrocyanic acid with negative results. It was, how- 
ever, colored with a coal-tar dye, but reliable evidence showed 
the woman's sickness to have been due to other causes. 

Jam. The sample of strawberry jam examined contained no 
glucose. 

Oysters. A sample of Saltesea Oysters, put up by the Ameri- 
can Oyster Co., Providence, R. I., contained no salicylic, benzoic 
or boric acids. The total net weight of the sample was 502 gms., 
of which 393 gms. was oysters and 109 gms., or 21.7 per cent., 
the drained liquor. 

Peanut Butter. The single sample tested proved to be genuine, 
no oil other than peanut being detected. 

Lemon Extract. A sample made by Polk & Calder Drug Co., 
Troy, N. Y., was found to be genuine. Its analysis was, specific 
gravity at 15.5° C, 0.8162, alcohol about 92 per cent, lemon chI, 
5.3 per cent., color, natural, wood alcohol, none. 

Sage. The sample made by the R. T. French Co., Rochester, 
N. Y., was found to be genuine. 

Spaghetti. A sample of Marvelli Spaghetti, made by the Mar- 
velli Co., Harbor Beach, Mich., was claimed to be very rich in 



MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS. 207 

gluten and low in starch, and hence permissible for the use of 
diabetic patients. It contained only 15.50 per cent, of protein. 

Vinegar. Twelve samples were tested for solids and acidity. 
They ranged from 0.56 to 4.92 per cent, acidity, and from 0.77 
to 2.75 per cent, solids. Only three of the samples satisfied the 
legal requirements in both respects. 

Malt Carbonic. Two samples of Sunlight Brand Ebling's Malt 
Carbonic, made by The Ebling Brewing Co., New York, were 
sent by officials from "no license" towns. One sample contained 
3.08 per cent, alcohol by weight and 3.93 per cent, by volume. 
The complete analysis of the other sample follows : 

Specific gravity 1.0167 Ash 0.13 

Water 91.09 Phosphoric acid 0.035 

Alcohol, by weight 3.34 Dextrin 1.53 

" by volume 4.27 Dextrose 0.00 

Extract 5.57 Maltose 3.59 

Grade protein 0.24 "Bitters" (sol. in alcohol 

and ppt. by lead) present 

The distribution of the sugars and the amounts of extract, 
protein and phosphoric acid indicate that the product is a malt 
liquor. The liquor has the nature, substance and quality of beer, 
and its sale is illegal where the sale of alcoholic beverages is 
forbidden. 

Poisoning Cases. Several samples of soils, feeds, etc., which were 
suspected of having caused poisoning in cattle, were analyzed. Two 
samples of wheat middlings, sent by F. F. Brewster, New Haven, 
contained arsenic and copper, probably in the form of Paris green. 
A material sent by J. L. Gardner, Central Village, was tested for 
arsenic and alkaloids with negative results. Four samples were 
sent by R. Wohlgeschaffen, Tumerville, two consisting of por- 
tions of stomach tissues of cows which had died suddenly, and 
two consisting of portions of the stomach contents from the same 
cows. All four samples contained considerable arsenic. Eight 
samples of soil sent by G. Martin, Milford, were tested for arsenic 
with negative results. The stomach contents of a cow, sample also 
sent by Mr. Martin, contained large quantities of lead and arsenic. 



2o8 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table XXXIV. — Summary of Results of Examination of 
Food and Drug Products in 191 2. 



H 


II 

If 

n 





ii 








36 


, . 


2 


20 


102 


5 


6 




II 


25 


u 




26 


21 


tiS 




44 


§32 


9 




41 


15 


10 




25 


I 


5 




7 


2 


15 




17 
13 


30 






30 


3 


I 




4 


7 


17 


4 


18 


4 


27 




31 


I 






I 


5 






5 


32 


7 




39 


8 


+5 




13 


12 


3 




15 
iS 


203 


116 


30 


496 


18 


21 . 




39 


9 


6 




15 


3 


4 




7 


45 


|220 




265 


148 


12 




160 


9 


9 




18 


27 


41 




68 


I 






I 


2 


I 




3 


I 


10 




II 


4 


8 




12 


2 


I 




3 


85 


39 


6 


130 

288 


354 


372 


6 


1045 


61 


20 


I 


104 


618 


508 


37 


1645 



Sampled by Station. 

Corn, Canned 

Dried Fruits 

Gluten and Special Foods 

Honey 

Rice 

Tomatoes* Canned 

Acetic Acid 

Aconite, Powdered 

Asafetida, Powdered 

Fig Syrup Laxative 

Glycerine : 

Heroin Tablets 

Magnesium Carbonate 

Magnesium Citrate, Solution 

Opium, Gum 

Opium, Powdered 

Paregoric 

Sodium Salicylate 

Sulphur, Precipitated 

Proprietary medicines, etc 

Total 

Sampled by Dairy Commissioner, 

Butter and Butter Substitutes 

Candy, Cider, Cinnamon, Cocoa, Coffee, Cream 
Grape Juice, Lemon Extract, Skim Milk, Olive Oil 

Milk 

Molasses 

Rice 

Sausage 

Vanilla Extract 

Acetic Acid 

Asafetida, Powdered 

Magnesium Citrate, Solution 

Sulphur, Precipitated 

Turpentine 

Package Goods (net weight study) 

Total i 

Sampled by Private Individuals, 
Total from all sources ^ 



* Also includes misbranding, f Short weight. % One short weight. § Prob- 
ably many of these also contained added water. T All short weight, and one 
misbranded as well. | Includes 61 samples below standard in sollds-not- 
fat only. 



PART in. 



TWELFTH REPORT 

OF THE 

State Entomologist of Connecticut 



To the Director and Board of Control of the Connecticut Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station: 

I transmit herewith my twelfth report as State Entomologist 
of Connecticut. It contains an account of the activities of my 
office for the calendar year of 1912, but as in previous reports 
the statements r^[arding finances and the inspection of imported 
nursery stock apply to the State fiscal year ending September 
30th. 

Respectfully submitted, 

W. E. Britton, 

State Entomologist, 

Report of thb Receots and Expenditures of the State Entomologist 
FROM October ist^ 191 i, to September 30th^ 1912. 

Insect Pest Account. 
Receipts. 

From E. H. Jenkins, Treasurer $3,000.00 

Account of 1911, balance 7^5.99 

Miscellaneous 12.93 

$3,778.92 
Expenditures. 

For Field, office and laboratory assistance : 

B. H. Walden, salary $1,080.00 

H. B. Kirk, salary 562.50 

D. J. Caffrey, salary 219.00 

E. B. Whittlesey, salary 301.00 

F. M. Valentine, salary 150.00 

Other assistance 110.13 

$2,422.63 

14 



2IO CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Printing and illustrations $281^ 

Postage 56.02 

Stationery 17.35 

Telegraph and telephone 3.90 

Express, freight and cartage 6.65 

Library 184.67 

Laboratory apparatus and supplies 97.51 

Office supplies 57^ 

Traveling expenses J90.88 

Balance, cash on hand 260.11 

$3,778.92 

Gypsy Moth Control Account, 
Receipts. 

From E. H. Jenkins, Treasurer $2,5001)0 

Account of 1911, balance 168.97 

$2,668.97 
Expenditures. 

For Salary, labor, board of scouts, etc: 

D. J. CaflFrey, salary $ 766.00 

Labor, board of scouts, etc 1,268.79 

$2,034.79 

Printing and illustrations 2.40 

Tools and supplies 54.84 

Telegraph and telephone .25, 

Express, freight and cartage 1.98 

Traveling expenses 343.64 

Balance, cash on hand 231.07 

$2,668.97 

Memorandum: — This account of the State Entomologist has been duly 
audited by the State Auditors of Public Accounts. 

Publications of the Entomological Departicent, 1912. 

By W. E. Britton : 

Eleventh Report of the State Entomologist (Part IV of Station Report 
for 1911) : 88 pages, 10 text iigures, 16 plates; 9,000 copies distributed 
in March, 1912. 

Report of Committee on Injurious Insects: Proceedings Connecticut 
Pomological Society, 1912, p. 37, 4 pages. 

Progress in Exterminating Two Isolated Gypsy Moth Colonies in Con- 
necticut Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. V, p. 194, 2 pages, 
April, 1912. 

Spread of the Leopard Moth in Connecticut and Its Injury to Shade 
Trees. Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol V, p. 241, 2 pages, 
June, 191 2. 

The House Fly as a Disease Carrier and How Controlled. Bulletin Con- 
necticut State Board of Health, 10 pages, i plate, June, 1912. 



PUBLICATIONS OF ENTOMOLOGICAL DEPASTMENT. 211 

The Role of the House Fly and Certain Other Insects in the Spread of 

Human Diseases. Popular Science Monthly, Vol. LXXXI, p. 36: 

14 pages, 5 figures, July, 1912. 
The Mosquito Plague of the Connecticut Coast Region and How to Con- 
trol It. Bulletin 173 of this Station: 14 pages, 4 plates; 10,000 copies, 

July, 1912. 
Review of Sanderson's "Insect Pests of Farm, Garden and Orchard," 

Science, June 14, 1912. 
The Leopard Moth (Summary of Bulletin 169 of this Station) with 

Illustrations. Connecticut Farmer, January 13, 1912. 
Inspection of Apiaries in 1911^ Connecticut Farmer, February 24, 1912. 
Inspection of Imported Nursery Stock in Connecticut, Connecticut Farmer, 

June I5> 1912. 
Improvement of Salt Marshes, Connecticut Farmer, August 3, 1912. 
The House Fly and Its Relation to Typhoid Fever, Proceedings of the 

Sixth Sanitary Conference of the Health Officers of Connecticut 

(with discussion) ; 17 pages, October, 1912. 
Notes of the Year from 0)nnecticut, Journal of Economic Entomology, 

Vol V, p. 464, December, 1912, 2 pages. 
Inspection of Apiaries in 1912, Connecticut Farmer, November 2^ 1912. 

By G. P. CuNTON and W. E. Button : 

Test of Summer Sprays on Apples, Peaches, etc (Part V, Report of this 
Station for 1911), 60 pages, 8 plates. 9,500 copies. May, 1912. 

By B. H. Walden: 

Common Househc^d Insects. Connecticut Farmer, March 16, 1912. 

White Pine Weevil, Connecticut Farmer, July 6, 1912. 

Entomological Staff. 

W. E. Britton, Ph.D State and Station Entomologist, 

B. H. Waldbn, B.Agr First Assistant. 

Donald J. Caffiey, B.S Assistant. 

Habky B. KntK* Assistant. 

Miss E. B. WHirrLESEvt Stenographer. 

Miss Frances M. Valentine! Stenographer. 

Mr. Walden has continued as assistant and takes charge of all 
work in my absence from the office. Mr. Caflfrey has been in 
charge of all field work in suppressing the gypsy and brown-tail 
moths, and when not needed there has helped in the inspection of 
nurseries. Mr. H. B. Kirk was engaged to fill the place of Mr. 



♦ Beginning February isth, 1912. 

t Until August ist, when transferred to botanical department. 

t Employed temporarily June 17th and regularly since August ist 



212 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

A. B. Champlain, who resigned October ist, 1911. Mr. Kirk 
began his work February isth, 1912, and came to Connecticut 
from the Division of Economic Zoology, Harrisburg, Pa. Mr. 
Kirk has aided in the inspecticMi of nurseries and of imported 
nursery stock and has studied the walnut weevil and bud-moth 
during the summer and also made observations on white pine 
insects. He specializes in the beetles (order Coleoptera) and has 
spent considerable time on the collection. He will also assist Mr. 
Caffrey in scouting for gypsy moth egg masses and brown-tail 
nests during the winter, 

Mr. J. Kirby Lewis, a student of the Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College, was employed during his summer vacation, from 
Jtme i8th to September 7th, as a general laboratory assistant. So 
far as is practicable, local help has been employed in the gypsy 
moth work at Wallingford and at Stonington, and in part on the 
brown-tail work in the northeastern comer of the State. 

Messrs. H. W. Coley of Westport and A. W. Yates of Hart- 
ford have continued as apiary inspectors and are paid by the 
day for the time employed. 

Miss E. B. Whittlesey continued to work half of each day as 
stenographer, until her vacation, July ist. Miss Frances M, Val- 
entine was en:q>loyed June 17th to do some special clerical work 
and to fill the position of stenographer during July. On Miss 
Whittlesey's return, August ist, she was transferred to the 
Director's office for a time and later to the botanical department 
and Miss Valentine was given a position in this department, 
working full days, the extra work being necessary. 

Much of the success of the woxic of the department is due 
to the faithfulness and efficiency of the persons mentioned above, 
and their services are not unappreciated. 

Chief Lines of Work. 

Certain routine and police duties are required by law of the 
State Entomologist, such as suppressing the gypsy and brown- 
tail moths, the annual inspection of nurseries, the inspection of 
apiaries on complaint, and the examination of orchards on request. 
In addition to these prescribed duties for the past four years 
an attempt has been made to inspect all woody field-grown 
imported stock to safeguard the State against insect and fungous 



WORK OF ENTOMOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT. 213 

pests liable to be introduced in this way. The inspection work in 
each of its several divisions is described more in detail in the 
following pages. 

Some studies of scientific value have been made during the 
yean Mr. Kirk devoted a portion of his time in the summer 
months to investigating the life history, habits, and damage of 
the walnut weevil, Conotrachelus juglandis, Lee. This work, 
except for further tests of remedial treatment, has been com- 
pleted, and a comprehensive account of it is given on page 240 
of this report Mr. Kirk also studied another insect, a bud- 
moth, of the genus Acrobasis which causes much injury to 
walnuts and often works conjointly with the walnut weevil. 
The results of this work appear in the paper on page 253. 

For three years Mr. Walden has made observations on a spe- 
cies of sawfly which he found defoliating cultivated blackberries 
in a field near New Haven. During the past season he obtained 
sufficient data to complete his knowledge of the life history of 
this insect The species being a new one, was described recently 
as PamphUius dentatus by Prof. A. D. MacGillivray. The arti- 
cle on page 236 of this report contains all the known facts 
regarding this insect. 

A start has been made in a study of the white pine weevil, 
Pissodes strobi Peck, and other insects attacking pine trees in 
Connecticut, but several seasons will probably be necessary to 
obtain the data that would warrant publishing a report. 

Some attention has been given to the general care of the 
orchard trees on the Station farm at Mt. Carmel, where several 
minor investigations are still in progress. 

The control of the mosquito nuisance was actively taken up by 
several organizations and individuals, during the season, and 
this <^ce has endeavored to cooperate wherever and whenever 
possible by furnishing information and advice, and in a number 
of cases has sent an expert to examine and report upon the sus- 
pected territory and to inspect drainage or oiling work. A fuller 
report of this phase of our work is given on pages 259-288. 

There has been a greater demand for popular lectures than 
ever before, especially regarding the housefly and the mosquito, 
subjects connected with public health. These demands have been 
met, if possible, and in most cases the lectures have been illus- 
trated with lantern slides, charts or specimens. Of the thirty 



214 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

lectures given during the year by Messrs. Britton and Walden, 
twelve have been illustrated with lantern slides, and twenty-one 
(eight illustrated) have dealt with flies and mosquitoes. 

There has also been a considerable increase in the correspond- 
ence and other clerical work of the crffice. 

In connection with the general station exhibit the entomological 
department made an exhibit of its work at three agricultural 
fairs as follows: 

Norfolk Agricultural Association, Norfolk Sept. 19-20 

State Fair, Berlin Sept 24-28 

Suffield Fair, Suffield Oct i- 2 

This department exhibit was similar to that of last season 
described in the Report of 191 1, p. 264, though somewhat less 
space was occupied, about 1,200 square feet being used. The 
mosquito exhibit was made more of a feature than previously and 
a number of new charts and enlarged photographs added con- 
siderably to the appearance of the display. 

Summary of Inspection and Office Work^ 1912. 

315 samples of insects received for identification. 
S3 nurseries inspected. 
52 regular certificates issued. 
7 parcel certificates issued. 
31 orchards and gardens examined. 
987 boxes and packages imported nursery stock examined. 
153 apiaries containing 1431 colonies inspected. 

73 apiaries containing 337 colonies found infested with European foul 
brood and treated. 
2746 letters written on offidal work. 
179 mail and express packages sent out 
432 bulletins mailed on request or to answer inquiries. 
30 lectures and addresses made before granges, clubs and civic organi- 
zations. 

Entomological Features of 1912. 

The winter of 1911-12 was characterized by low temperatures 
and the ground remained frozen nearly all of the time from 
December until March. The ground was covered with ice but 
there was little snow. 

Many trees in orchards and in woodlands were apparently 
injured, either directly by the winter, or, possibly, by the drought 
of 191 1, followed by rains, stimulating a late growth which was 



ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF igi2. 215 

easily damaged by the freezing. At any rate, the buds were 
killed in nearly all peach orchards, except near the coast, and many 
oak trees have died during the drought of July and August, 191 2, 
which were probably injured the previous winter. A number of 
others, half-dead, show signs of winter injury to roots or stems. 
The cool, moist weather of May favored a luxuriant foliage 
develcq>ment on trees, and after the few hot, sunny days of June 
and July leaf scorch troubles developed on many trees, especially 
sugar maples. 

Seasonal conditions, especially absence or abundance of mois- 
ture, winter changes and low temperature have a direct or 
indirect effect on the scarcity or abundance of the various kinds 
of insects. The cold, wet spring seemed favorable to the 
increase of aphids and nearly all kinds were abundant. The 
rosy apple aphis. Aphis sorbi Kalt., was more prevalent and 
caused more damage than since 1909, many orchards being 
seriously injured and the fruit stunted by it. The green apple 
aphis, A. pomi DeG., was also common but it causes less injury 
to bearing trees than A, sorbi and its principal damage consists 
in checking the growth of young trees in orchards and nurseries. 

Perhaps the most prominent feature of the season was the 
great abundance of white grubs (iMchnosterna sp.) and the dam- 
age caused by them. There were many complaints and several 
specimens were sent to this office. Evidently the drought 
favored them as they did more damage than I have seen during 
a residence of eighteen years in the State. Not only were grass 
fields attacked and injured, but com, strawberries and potatoes 
were also damaged and in some cases nearly destroyed by the 
grubs. In a forest nursery near New Haven, nearly twenty- 
five per cent, of the seedling conifers and some deciduous trees 
were eaten off below the surface of the ground. 

The fall army worm, Laphygma frugiperda S. & A., was 
received from Stonington, Groton and from two different locali- 
ties in New Haven. In three of these places the caterpillars 
were devastating lawns, and in the other case they were feeding 
upon a field of millet. 

The birch leaf skeletonizer, Bucculatrix canadensisella Chamb., 
though much less abundant than in 1910, was found over the 
entire State as in 191 1, and was particularly noticeable on the 
yellow birches in Litchfield County in September. It was also 



2l6 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I912. 

received at this office on cut-leaf and other omamoital birches 
from various localities. 

The leopard moth, Zeugera pyrina Linn., which was fully 
described in Bulletin 169 and in the report of 1911, continues its 
destructive work on the shade trees of the shore towns and 
cities. 

The gypsy moth, Porthetria dispar Linn., has appar^itly been 
exterminated at Stonington, and nearly so at Wallingford. 
The brown-tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linn., is spreading 
a few miles each year towards the south and east. In time it 
will doubtless spread over the entire State. Though it is hdd 
in check by its natural enemies and by the destruction of winter 
nests and by spraying, it cannot be wholly eradicated as can 
small colonies of the gypsy moth, because both sexes fly. 
Detailed accounts of our work against both these insects will be 
found in this report. 

Cut-worms were fairly abundant in June and did their usual 
amount of injury. 

The elm leaf beetle, Galerucella luteola Mull., though causing 
little injury in towns where spraying was thoroughly and uni- 
versally practiced, ravaged the unsprayed trees in many places, 
including the roadside and meadow trees of the open country. 
This insect seems to be now particularly prevalent in the north- 
western portion of Connecticut. 

The fall canker-worm, Alsophila pometaria Harr., as in past 
seasons, continues to damage apple and elm trees in certain locali- 
ties. 

The spiny elm caterpillar, Euvanessa antiopa Linn., was 
received from a number of correspondents in various portions 
of the State. Though possibly not as abundant as in 191 1, it 
was nearly as prevalent. Persons often mistake the larvae for 
gypsy caterpillars, but the resemblance is slight. 

Injury was reported to fruit by the rose chafer, Macrodacty- 
lus subspinosus Fabr., and the bumble flower beetle. Euphoria 
inda Linn. The white marked tussock moth caterpillars. Heme- 
rocampa leucostigma S. & A., were feeding upon a California 
privet hedge in New Haven in July. The red-humped caterpil- 
lar, Schizura concinna S. & A., and the yellow necked caterpillar, 
Datana ministra Dru., were in their usual abundance devouring 
the leaves of young fruit trees late in the season. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL FEATURES OF I912. 217 

The San Jose scale, Aspidiotus pemiciosus Comst., was 
present as usual, and in certain orchards, though thoroughly 
sprayed, the fruit showed considerable infestation at harvest 
time. The oyster shell scale, Lepidosaphes ulmi Linn., and the 
scurfy scale, Chionaspis furfura Fitch, are present in rather con- 
stant numbers year after year but do no very serious damage in 
Connecticut orchards which otherwise receive good care. 

The scale insects which at present attract the most attention 
are the tulip tree scale, Toumeyella Ivriodendri Gmel., and the 
woolly maple leaf scale, Phenacoccus acericola King. The pine 
bark aphis, cherntes pinicorticis Fitch, is seemingly on the 
increase and many inquiries regarding it have been received. 

The cotton moth, Alabama argUlacea Hubn., which attracted 
attention late in September, 191 1, by its abundance in its north- 
ward flight, also appeared October nth and 12th, of this year, 
but in much less numbers than in 191 1, and more than two weeks 
later in the season. 

The season of 1912 was a notable one on account of the great 
abundance of mosquitoes. The frequency of the high tides, 
together with the long period during which the salt marshes 
were flooded, gave the salt marsh species a favorable opportunity 
for multiplying, and they took advantage of it. Thus where no 
control measures were adopted the salt marsh mosquito, Culex 
soUicitans Walk., was extremely abundant late in the summer, 
and the rain barrel or house mosquito, Culex pipiens Linn., was 
likewise common and was the source of much annoyance. 

INSPECTION OF CONNECTICUT NURSERIES. 

The annual inspection of nurseries as required by law was 
commenced August 26th and finished about the middle of 
October. The work was done by Messrs. Walden, CafFrey, Kirk 
and Lewis. Two nurseries were inspected twice, once in the 
spring and ag^n in the fall. The nursery business is on the 
increase in Connecticut and a number of the nurser3mien have 
increased their area of growing nursery stock. When this ofiice 
was established in 1901, the first list of Connecticut nurserymen 
receiving certificates contained twenty-five names. About half 
of those nurserymen are still in the business, and the present list 
has fifty names. 



2l8 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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2 20 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

In 1902, just ten years ago, statistics were gathered showing 
that the thirty-one nurseries contained about 422 acres. Similar 
data has been collected the present season and there are now 
fifty nurseries, containing about 1082 acres. 

Fifty-three nursery inspections were made during the year 
and fifty-two certificates issued. 

On the whole the nurseries are each year paying more attention 
to treating their stock to destroy insect pests, consequently their 
condition as regards San Jose scale has greatly improved during 
the past few years. On account of the danger of distributing 
certain other pests, which are liable to be found on nursery stock, 
the Connecticut nurseries are now given a closer inspection than 
ever before. 

Some chestnut trees in one nursery had the chestnut bark 
disease and were destroyed. 

In addition to the regular inspection of growing nursery stock, 
inspections of several packages have been made at the request of 
persons who are not nurserymen, but wish to ship certain kinds 
of stock to other states. Seven package certificates have been 
issued during the year. Of the names published in the nursery- 
men's list of last year, two have gone out of the business, one 
has moved his business into an adjoining State, and the others 
are on the present list Four new names have been added. 

On pages 218 and 219 is a list of the nurserymen and firms 
receiving certificates in 191 2, together with statistics r^^rding 
the area and kind of stock in each nursery. In most cases the 
acreage given is that supplied by the owner, but in some instances 
it is the estimate of the inspector. 

INSPECTION OF IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK IN 

CONNECTICUT.* 

By W. E. Britton and B. H. Walden. 

For the past few years there has been a great increase in the 
amount and value of the nursery stock imported into the United 
States from European and other countries. In the natural course 
of events we should expect that many species not commonly 
cultivated, horticultural varieties and novelties would be brought 



* A portion of this article was printed in the Connecticut Farmer, June 
15, 1912. 



INSPECTION OF IMPORTED NURSERY STOCK. 221 

into this country for the purpose of increasing the variety of 
plants available for ornamental planting and of introducing 
worthy commercial varieties, but we often wonder why such 
things as California privet, Japanese barberry and the common 
spiraeas, which can be and are so easily grown here, should be 
imported in such quantities, especially when there is quite a heavy 
duty to be paid on such stock. 

The chief reasons for the heavy importations are the low 
prices of labor in Europe, and the fact that soil and climate 
in certain localities there produce fine plants. Were these the 
only factors to be considered, such importations would be a bene- 
fit, not only to the United States, but also to the countries where 
the stock is grown. But there are insect and fungous pests in 
all lands, and a number of them have been brought into the 
United States on nursery stock, so that the traffic is not an 
unmixed blessing. Our Government has never established any 
system of inspecting such stock except for customs duties. 

No other important nation lacks such a system of inspection. 
A few years ago, dead San Jose scales were found on some dried 
apples and otiher fruit shipped into Germany; forthwith all 
American dried fruits wer^ debarred from Germany. Far more 
dangerous infestations have been found on nursery stock brought 
here from Germany, France, England, Holland and Japan, yet 
until October ist, 1912, the United States has had no inspection 
system other than that provided in the separate states, and almost 
no restrictions on the entrance of such stock. 

Early in 1909, winter nests of the brown-tail moth were found 
on stock from France, shipped into a number of states, including 
Connecticut, and had it not been for the inspection officers in the 
separate states, who destroyed all nests found, the whole country 
would now be infested by this most undesirable addition to our 
insect fauna. 

Previous to 1909, no attempt was made to inspect imported 
stock in G>nnecticut, but in order to protect the State and its 
varied horticultural and agricultural interests, such inspection 
was given, though there was no provision for it except that the 
law providing for the control of the gypsy and brown-tail moths, 
enacted in 1907, liberally interpreted, permitted it. 

In 1909 and 1910, brown-tail nests were found on fruit seed- 
lings imported from France, but since then none have been found, 



a22 CONNECTICUT EXPEIUMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

though in a number of cases trimmed branches with part of the 
web remaining showed that the stock had been infested. A 
number of other kinds of insects, some of which are known 
to be pests, have been found during the inspections and destroyed 
The white pine blister rust has been detected in two or three 
shipments, and in the spring of this year an importation of 
5,000 young pines was destroyed because infested by this disease. 
Last year a similar disease of junipers from Japan was brought 
into this State, and as in one of its stages it is injurious lo 
pomaceous fruit in Japan, serious damage might be expected to 
follow its introduction into Connecticut. We have too many 
pests already; still, there are several important ones in Europe, 
and no doubt in other countries, not yet known to be in America. 
If any one of these becomes established in Connecticut or any 
other State, the entire country is endangered. 

In the seascm just dosed 987 boxes, bales and packages have 
been inspected by members of the entomological staff. This is 
more than ever before in a single year, smd includes only the 
hardy plants and woody stock for florists. No attanpt has been 
made to inspect seeds, bulbs, lily-of-the-valley pips, or tender 
herbaceous plants. Moreover, a nui^ber of small shipments of 
nursery stock could not be inspected because the stock was 
received and distributed before we were notified of its importa- 
tion. We have received notice of the arrival of more than 550 
boxes, etc., of bulbs and other plant material which we made no 
attempt to examine, and of about 25 boxes, etc., which could not 
be traced or found at their point of destination. 

The following taWe shows the amount and source of such 
stock examined by this office for the past four seasons : 

1909 Z910 191 1 1912 

Belgium 2 91 15 269 

England 16 63 91 26 

France 71 104 154 97 

Germany 93 9 2 9 

Holland 109 376 449 534 

Ireland 18 14 14 

Japan 6 26 109 25 

Russia I 

Scotland 19 2 12 

Miscellaneous or unknown 9 . . 18 i 

Total 306 T^ 854 987 



INSPECTION OF APIARIES. 223 

Congress, at its last session, established the Federal Horticul- 
tural Board and provided for a system of applications and per- 
mits before any nursery stock can enter the United States, and 
also gave this Board the right, after due notice and hearings, to 
establish and enforce quarantine regulations against any country 
or portion of a country where any serious insect pest or plant 
disease exists, which is liable to be In-ought into the United States. 
This Board also has a similar right to quarantine states or por- 
tions of states in this country for the same reasons. This law 
became operative October ist, 1912. 

The Federal Horticultural Board does not attempt to inspect 
any stock consigned to the various states having inspection sys- 
tems, but leaves it to the State inspectors. It does attempt, how- 
ever, to notify the inspectors regarding the arrival of the stock 
at the ports of entry. The notice gives the number of the permit 
issued, name of grower or consignor, name and address of con- 
signee and locality where stock was grown. This enables us, 
for instance, to trace the stock more easily than we have been 
able to do in the past, and should result in a careful inspection 
of a larger proportion of the imported stock needing inspection 
which is brought into the State. Only field-grown woody plants 
require inspection under this act. No attempt will be made to 
inspect herbaceous nursery or florist's stock. 

At the present time there is no State provision for this work, 
but it is important as it safeguards and protects the State from 
introducing pests in this manner, and there should be some defi- 
nite provision for its continuance. 



INSPECTION OF APIARIES IN 1912. 

The inspection of apiaries has been conducted in much the 
same manner as last year and Messrs. A. W. Yates of Hartford 
and H. W. Coley of Westport have continued to act as inspectors. 
An eflFort was made, however, to inspect apiaries in those por- 
tions of the State not previously covered in the work, and con- 
siderable European foul brood was found in Litchfield, Torring- 
ton, Winchester and Baridiamsted in Litchfield County and some 
was found in Norwich and Stonington in New London County. 
Very few apiaries have previously been inspected in these two 
counties, as no complaints have been filed requiring attention. 



2 24 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, 1912. 

In nearly all sections of the State, where apiaries are examined, 
foul brood is found, and in some cases it does much damage, 
killing oflF colonies of bees before its presence is known. Wher- 
ever the proper treatment is given, there seems to be no trouble 
in controlling the disease and in most cases it disappears alto- 
gether. 

As three hundred dollars is the limit of the appropriation to 
be expended in any one year, the entire State cannot be covered 
in a single season. The beekeepers seem to be pleased with the 
inspection service and treatment, so far as it goes, but at theh" 
last meeting they voted to ask for an increased apprc^riation; 
and for certain changes in the laws giving authority to inspect 
without complaints; to place a quarantine upcm diseased apiaries; 
and requiring that a certificate of good health accompany each 
shipment of bees, whether brought into the State from without 
or moved from one point to another within the State. 

The statistics given below show a summary of the inspection 
work for the season : 

Apiaries Inspected, 1912. 

Apiariet. Colonies. 

Number inspected 153 1431 , 

Infested, European foul brood 73 337 

Other troubles: 

Pickled Brood several 

Doubtful 3 cases 

Diseased Adult Bees 6 cases 

Average number of colonies per apiary 9^ 

Total cost of inspection $299.80 

Average cost of inspection per apiary 1.96 

Average cost of inspection per colony ai 



GYPSY MOTH CONTROL WORK IN 1912, 

By W. E. BwTFON and D. J. Caffrey. 

Stonington Infestation. 

No caterpillars have been found in Stonington since the sum- 
mer of 1910 and it is probable that the gypsy moth has been 
eradicated from that locality. Nevertheless, the place will be 
watched. Mr. Caffrey, in company with two Federal scouts, 
examined Stonington, beginning January 4th, 191 2, and finishing 



GYPSY MOTH CONTROL. 225 

January 20th. No egg-masses were found. Nevertheless, the 
trees were banded the following summer, the bands examined for 
caterpillars and much scouting done in and around the area 
formerly infested. No gypsy caterpillars were found. Mr. 
Fred Hoadley was employed on this work and had immediate 
charge under our direction of applying, examining and removing 
the bands. Mr. Hoadley commenced work on May 13th, and 
finished August 17th. Mr. Caffrey spent three days in July 
scouting tn Stonington. 

Number of burlap bands 2210 

Number of tanglefoot bands 66 



Wallingford Infestation. 

An account of the scouting operations at Wallingford, during 
the autumn and winter of 191 1, appears in the last report of this 
Station (see Report for 191 1, page 279). At that time five egg- 
masses were found through the combined efforts of the State and 
Federal scouts. 

The summer work began on May 13th, and on May 14th 
tanglefoot bands were applied to 128 trees, including all the 
spruce and cedar trees in the cemetery and several large hickory, 
walnut and spruce trees about town. This tanglefoot was stirred 
from time to time to keep it in a viscid condition. 

Commencing on May isth the burlap bands were placed on 
all the trees, to the number of 5,379, in the area between North 
Main, Christian, Cherry, Ward and Fair streets. The area thus 
treated was somewhat smaller than that of the previous two 
years, due to the diminished size of the territory where egg- 
masses and caterpillars were found the year before. Two men 
were employed to examine these bands at regular intervals from 
May 23d until August 15th. During this period many suspected 
trees, especially rough-barked maples and elms, were climbed 
in search of caterpillars, and in addition all shrubbery and vines, 
impossible to band with burlap, were examined, as well as some 
of the territory outside the banded area. 

The first caterpillar, one-half inch in length, was found June 
1st, under the burlap around a large maple tree in front of "The 
Woodbine" on Center street. On June loth, fifteen caterpillars 

15 



226 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

were found in the rear of the First National Bank, on Main 
street, feeding on apple and wild plum. The next day all of 
the foliage in this vicinity was sprayed with lead arsenate, at the 
rate of 2j4 pounds, of the powdered form, to 50 gallons of water. 
On June 14th, six more caterpillars were found in the same yard. 
On June 19th, two caterpillars were found in an adjoining jrard. 
From this time until the end of the season the trees, bushes, 
fences and outbuildings in this ihmiediate section were examined 
nearly every day for caterpillars. • 

The first pupa appeared in the breeding cage on July 6th. 
On July 22d a pupa was found under the burlap on a maple 
tree in front of Grosse's, on South Orchard street. The next 
day this tree was looked over with the aid of a ladder and two 
full-grown caterpillars found. Careful search of the trees and 
bushes surrounding this spot failed to reveal any further signs 
of infestation. 

The first adult, a male, emerged in the breeding cage on July 
27th. During the last part of the season some search was made 
for egg-masses on the trunks, fences, etc., where the foliage did 
not interfere, but none were found. 

This work on the trees and the turning of burlap was continued 
until August 15th, when the burlap bands were removed from the 
trees and burned ; the summer work closing on August 17th. 

The result of the work this season shows that twenty-six cater- 
pillars were found and one pupa. It is possible that some cater- 
pillars were killed by the arsenical poison, although none were 
observed after the spraying. All the caterpillars were found 
within a very small area, compared with that originally infested, 
and this fact, together with the small number of egg-masses, 
caterpillars and pupae found within the past year, seems to indi- 
cate that the insect is well under control at Wallingford. 



• Gypsy Moth Statistics, Wallingford, 1912. 

l^-masses destroyed 5 

Caterpillars destroyed 26 

Cocoons destroyed i 

Trees banded with burlap 5379 

Trees banded with tanglefoot 128 

Trees sprayed (not including shrubs) 11 

Trees infested (not including shrubs) 6 



gypsy moth control. 227 

Scouting for the Gypsy Moth in the Northwest Corner 
OF the State. 

About three weeks during the months of April and May were 
spent in scouting for gypsy moth egg-masses in the northwest 
corner of the State. 

In 19 II the towns of Great Barring^on, Lenox and Stock- 
bridge in Massachusetts, not far from the Connecticut State line, 
were found to be infested with the gypsy moth. These towns 
are on the main automobile roads passing through the border 
towns of this State, and during the summer months, when the 
caterpillars are active, there is much travel along these roads, 
with the consequent danger of the caterpillars being carried from 
the infested districts into Connecticut. 

It was therefore deemed advisable to watch this part of the 
State to guard against any possible introduction of the insect, 
and to this end the trees in the villages, along the main roads 
and on many of the large estates in Salisbury, North Canaan, 
Norfolk, Sharon and Canaan, were examined for egg-masses, but 
nothing was found to indicate the presence of the gypsy moth at 
any of these places. 

Salisbury. 

In the town of Salisbury much time was spent around the vil- 
lage of Lakeville. There are many trees along the streets and in 
the yards of this village which needed careful examination. The 
grounds and the road approaching Hotchldss School were also 
given careful attention, as automobiles frequently come to the 
school from all parts of New England. 

The main road leading west irom Lakeville was followed as 
far as the road leading to the south, beyond Ore Hill. The sur- 
roundings of Ore Hill village were examined and also around the 
mines. From Lakeville the trees along the road running east 
to the village of Salisbury were examined, the village itself, the 
roads running northward, as far as Ball Brook and the Chapin- 
ville road for a short distance beyond the railroad tracks. At 
Twin Lakes are many summer cottages, the owners of which come 
from many different sections during the summer, and conse- 
quently the trees in this vicinity were looked over with especial 
care. 



228 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I912. 

The road running from Chapinville station north through 
Chapinville, as far as Hammertown, was followed and included 
all the territory around Scoville's estate at Chapinville. At Lime 
Rock the street trees and along the roads to Falls Village were 
looked over. 

North Canaan. 

In the town of North Canaan, the junction point of the C. N. E. 
and N. Y., N. H. & H. railroads, at Canaan village, was looked 
upon as a dangerous point, as it is only about a mile distant from 
the Massachusetts state line, and connected by electric railway 
and within ten miles of Great Barrington, where the gypsy moth 
has already l)een found. Careful search of the entire village and 
roads leading north to the state boundary failed to reveal any 
signs of infestation. 

The main automobile road out through East Canaan was also 
followed to the town line, as this is the route generally taken, in 
traveling between the summer colonies of Lenox and Norfolk. 
The camp meeting grounds at Pine Grove, three miles south of 
Canaan, where therie are many cottages in the midst of a large 
pine grove, was visited and gone over carefully. 

Norfolk. 
The entire village of Norfolk was examined and for some dis- 
tance into the surrounding country. The trees around the 
garages and driveways of the many summer homes in this sec- 
tion were given special attention, as it was feared that caterpillars 
from some of the infested towns nearby in Massachusetts might 
be brought in on the numerous automobiles and other vehicles 
that pass back and forth between these sections during the sum- 
mer months. It is at this time that the caterpillars are most 
active, crawling about in going from tree to tree and frequently 
hanging suspended over the highways. In this manner they may 
gain access to any passing vehicle and be carried for a long 
distance, either dropping off along the way or crawling out of 
the vehicle when it stops. The vicinity of the Music Shed, where 
the concerts of the Choral Union are given, was examined, as 
these concerts come during the months of June, and are attended 
by many people who come from all directions. 



GYPSY MOTH CONTROL. 229 

The autcmiobile road leading out through West Norfolk, on the 
way to Canaan, was followed as far as the town line. On the 
south everything was looked over as far as the second railroad 
bridge, and on the east, as far as the group of houses around the 
fork of the roads, and on the north as far as the cemetery 
beyond Haystack Mountain. 

Sharon. 
The central part of the village at Sharon and also the road 
out through Sharon Valley to the state line, towards Millerton, 
N. Y., was examined. 

Canaan. 

In the town of Canaan the only place receiving attention was 
at Falls Village, where the entire village was examined, including 
the road leading from the village of Lime Rock and northward 
on the main automobile road to the village of Canaan. 

The result of the work done in these towns would seem to indi- 
cate that the gypsy moth has not, as yet, spread into Connecticut 
at this point from the nearby infested towns in Massachusetts. 
The danger from this source, however, may be considered to be 
serious and it will be necessary to keep a close watch on this 
section, under the conditions now existing. 

CONTROLLING THE BROWN-TAIL MOTH IN 1912. 
By W. E. Britton and D. J. Caffrey. 

Control measures against the brown-tail moth, Euproctis chry- 
sorrhcea Linn., in the northeast comer of the State, were con- 
tinued on the same plan as in the previous year (see Report 
for 191 1, pp. 281-286). Beginning January 29th, 1912, the 
towns of Thompson, Woodstock, Putnam, Pomfret, Killingly, 
Brooklyn and adjoining portions of Union, Ashford, Plainfield, 
Sterling, Canterbury and parts of Lisbon and Griswold, espe- 
cially around Jewett City, were scouted for the winter nests, 
tc^ether with the city of Willimantic, part of Norwich and the 
villages in the town of Staflford. 

The amount of territory to be scouted made it necessary to 
employ two gangs for the work. Mr. J. H. Osgood of Putnam, 
who had been employed by the city in this work, was placed in 



230 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

charge of one gang, while the other was under uie direction of 
Mr. Caffrey. 

The control work of last year has greatly diminished the num- 
ber of nests, and seems to indicate that the brown-tail moth may 
be kept from doing serious damage in Connecticut by continuing 
the present method of control. The limit of territory infested 
was extended further southward to include the entire town of 
Killingly, Plainfield as far as Wauregan, Sterling as far as North 
Sterling, and the eastern edge of Brookl}m as far as Long Brook. 
Westward along the Massachusetts state line and in the towns of 
Woodstock and Pomfret the limit of infested territory was 
reduced about two miles, no nests being found beyond West 
Woodstock, where a single specimen was taken. Later a single 
nest was found in Stafford, but in this case it probably came 
directiy from infested territory in Massachusetts. 

The greater part of ihe nests were foimd along the steam or 
trolley roads, main highways of travel, or near the towns and 
villages where the lights were thickest. From many indications 
it seems probable that the adults are coming in from the adjoin- 
ing states of Massachusetts or Rhode Island each year, either 
through their own efforts or are being transported by various 
means of travel from those two states into Connecticut. 

The methods used in scouting were the same as last year. It 
was found impossible to cover the woodland and brush areas, 
but the orchards, roadsides, around dwellings, along highways of 
travel and the open country were very carefully examined for 
nests. Fruit trees situated close to a house, either in the town or 
country, prove to be the most likely place to find nests, while 
the large apple orchards and white oak trees along the roadsides 
also seem to be preferred by the pests, so these localities were 
given special attention. 

The following is an account of conditions existing in the 
various towns: 

Thompson. 
In the town of Thompson the nests were found to be present 
in abotit the same localities as last year, but in some instances 
were greater in number. At North Grosvenordale several small 
pear and apple orchards near the railroad station yielded 3^ 
nests. Just west of Grosvenordale railroad station, on the top 



BROWN-TAIL MOTH CONTROL. 23 1 

of the hUl, 203 nests were cut from a clump of white oak trees 
near the roadside. One tree at this place was so badly decayed 
that it was necessary to cut it down, before the nests could be 
removed from its upper branches. In Thompson village the nests 
were scattered in territory around the four comers at Thomp- 
son Inn and on both sides of the road to the railroad station, 
to the number of thirty-one. On the estate of Norman B. Ream, 
nearby, where the infestation was first discovered, only four 
nests were found. On the farm of Howard Ing^aham, half a 
mile north of the village, 156 nests were taken, mostly from one 
pear tree. At East Thompson, near the Rhode Island state line, 
sixty-one nests were found. At West Thompson ten nests; 
Mechanicsville, three; Thompson Station, two; Wilsonville, 
eight; Quinebaug, seven; and Quaddick, five. Scattering nests 
were taken throughout the entire township, except in the region 
around the northern end of Quaddick Reservoir, — ^bringing the 
total number for the entire town to 966 nests. 

Woodstock. 
The conditions in the eastern part of the town were about the 
same as last year, but in the western part the nests were not 
nearly as numerous or scattered over as large an area. One nest 
was found near Davis' general store, at West Woodstock, but 
the remaining territory westward through Woodstock Valley 
and Kenyonville and northward to the Massachusetts state line 
was free from infestation. The orchards and scattered fruit 
trees in the eastern part of the town required much time for 
inspection and many nests were found in these places. At W. H. 
Young's, near South Woodstock, seventy-five nests were taken; 
at Bastow's, near Harrisville, sixty-five nests; while all fruit 
trees in this section contained one or more nests, to the total of 
498, around South Woodstock. Along Main street, at Wood- 
stock Hill across from the Academy, thirty nests were found; 
and back of the district school, eleven more. There were very 
few nests between Woodstock Hill and North Woodstock, four 
being taken at Echo Farm of L. H. Healey and six others 
scattered along in as many orchards; around the village of 
North Woodstock, ten nests; East Woodstock, eighty-three 
nests, mostly near the road, leading north over the hill. At 



232 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Sprucedale, near South Woodstock, twenty-seven nests were 
taken from trees around the factory there. Two nests were 
found in the section known as "English Neighborhood," two 
miles west of North Woodstock, and one other nest near Muddy 
Pond. In the entire town, 699 nests were found. While in 
Woodstock, the villages of Union, North Ashford, Eastford, 
Ashford and Phoenixville were scouted, together with the main 
roads which connected them, but no infestation was found at 
any of these places. 

Putnam. 
A great decrease was noted in the number of nests on each 
tree in the city of Putnam. Some of the trees which were 
covered with nests last year had only a few this year and the 
conditions throughout the city in general were much improved. 
In the territory between the city and the Rhode Island state 
line, however, especially along the main automobile road to Provi- 
dence, the nimiber of nests found was greater than last year. 
Along Elm street, and School street, in the city, were the worst 
infested places, one apple tree near the railroad station having 
seventy-three nests, while about seventy nests were cut from tiic 
large oak trees on Oak Hill, and forty-one nests from a pear 
tree at the comer of Elm and Bridge streets. Up through 
Rhodesville in the western part of the city the nests were not 
very numerous, or in the region beyond Oak Hill and Main 
street. At the Town Farm three nests were found; near the 
Children's Home, at East Putnam, thirty nests ; near Day Memo- 
rial Hospital, one nest ; Putnam Heights and vicinity, 105 nests 
and a few scattering ones near the Rhode Island state line, mak- 
ing a total of 1,260 nests for the entire town, where 5,989 were 
destroyed last year. 

POMFRET. 

Only a small part of Pom fret was found to be infested. The 
territory south of the New England Division of the railroad was 
free from nests as was that portion west of Pomfret Center. 
The worst infested spot was near Prospect Hill, on the stage 
road from Putnam, where sixty-three nests were cut from a 
small apple orchard beside the road. Six more scattering nests 
were found along this road nearer the Putnam town line. In 
the back yards along Pomfret street we took five scattering nests, 



BROWN-TAIL MOTH CONTROL. 233 

one nest on an apple tree near Pomf ret Academy and several 
more around the Clark estate. The nursery of J. H. Bowditch 
and Lapsley's large orchards, near the southern border of the 
town, were given special attention but no infestation was found 
in these places. A total of eighty-two nests were found in the 
entire town. 

Kjllingly. 
In the town of Killingly several scattered infestations were 
found and these seemed to be the result of adults coming in from 
Putnam or from an infested portion of Rhode Island. One nest 
was found at Williamsville near the old grist mill, one at Da)rville 
on Lake Side Farm, one on the loop road to Quinebaug River, 
one in the borough of Danielson at the comer of North and Main 
streets; three nests on the farm of Mrs. R. A. Bartlett, three 
miles north of Chestnut Hill; twelve nests on the Green 
Hollow road, two miles south of Danielson, on three connecting 
farms, and two nests one mile further south on the same road, 
near the Plainfield town line. Six nests were found in the 
vicinity of South Killingly in the southeast corner of the town. 
A total ntmiber of twenty-seven nests in the entire town. 

Brooklyn. 
The infestation in Brooklyn was confined to the extreme east- 
ern edge of the town. Twenty-eight nests were cut from a pear 
tree near Long Brook, two miles out from Danielson, on the main 
road to Brooklyn village. This pear tree was located within 
twenty feet of the house and the family residing therein had 
recently moved from the infested locality in Putnam. Along 
Allen Hill road, six scattered nests were found in the apple 
orchards connected with the farms. One other nest was found 
on the Brooklyn side of Waureg^in village, in the southeast 
comer of the town, near the Catholic Church. There were no 
nests found in the village or in the western and northern parts 
of the town. A total of thirty-five nests in the entire town. 

Sterling. 
The town of Sterling was scouted from Killingly line as far 
south as the villages of Sterling and Oneco. The fact that the 
Providence Division of the railroad enters Connecticut through 



234 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

this section made it particularly liable to infestaticm. One nest 
was found in the village of North Sterling, about two miles west 
of the Rhode Island line. A total of one nest in the town of 
Sterling. 

Plainfield. 

The town of Plainfield was scouted, except a section in the 
southeast comer of the town. The infestation was confined to 
the vicinity of Wauregan village, where six nests were found on 
the farm of Mrs. George Davis, on the hill east of the village; 
four nests on apple trees just below this point; two nests near 
the Wauregan railroad station on the road leading north, and 
one nest on the hill between the railroad station and the village. 
The villages of Moosup, Alm3rville, Plainfield, Plainfield Junc- 
tion and Central Village were carefully scouted but no more 
nests were found. A total of thirteen nests for the town of 
Plainfield. 

While in this section, the villages of Jewett City in the towns 
of Lisbon and Griswold, Canterbury in the town of Canterbury 
and the center of the city of Norwich were scouted but nothing 
was found. 

WiLLIMANTIC. 

The city of Willimantic was scouted for brown-tail and gypsy 
moths as far as the city limits, but nothing in the nature of an 
infestation was found. 

Stafford. 
The villages in the town of Stafford were scouted for brown- 
tail and gypsy moths and to determine the western limit of the 
brown-tail infestation. One brown-tail nest was found near the 
Central Vermont railroad station and from the nature of its loca- 
ticm the insect was probably brought down from infested territory 
in Massachusetts, through which the Central Vermont trains pass. 
The villages of Staffordville, Hydeville, Stafford Hollow, West 
Stafford and Orcuttville were carefully scouted but no other 
infestations were found. Total for town of Stafford, one nest. 

Summary. 
The result of control work against the brown-tail moth during 
the past season indicates that the number of nests has been 



BROWN-TAIL MOTH CONTROL. 235 

materially decreased throughout that portion of Connecticut 
known tp be infested. The area actually infested has been 
slightly increased, due to finding a few nests in the adjoining 
towns of Brodklyn, Plainfield and Sterling^ with one isolated 
spednoen taken at Stafford. These towns, with the previous 
infested area, including Thompson, Woodstock, Putnam, Pomfret 
and Killingly, make a total of nine towns in the State where the 
brown-tail moth i^ known to be present. 

The nimiber of nests found and destroyed in each town are as 
follows: Thompson, 966; Woodstock, 699; Putnam, 1,260; 
Pomfret, 82 ; Killingly, 27 ; Brooklyn, 35 ; Sterling, i ; Plain- 
field, 13, and Stafford, i ; making a total of 3,084. Last year 
(1911) 7,133 nests were found in the territory infested at that 
time. 

The Norwich Infestation. 

After finishing the scouting work described above, specimens 
of the brown-tail moth were received on May 14th, 1912, from 
Mr. John E. Fanning, 31 Willow street, Norwich, Conn. On 
May 17th, Mr. Caffrey investigated the matter, and upon his 
arrival at Norwich, Mr. Fanning pointed out the places where 
he had observed the work of the insect. 

After scouting the surroundings this infestation was found to 
be an isolated one, confined to a comparatively small space, 
about 100 yards in length, between Franklin and Chestnut streets, 
and a small connecting spot in two yards on Broadway, the next 
street to the westward. 

The worst infested spot was at 170 Franklin street. Here 
three pear trees and one apple tree were partly defoliated. The 
owner of the property had been badly afflicted with the "brown- 
tail rash," caused by the poisonous and irritating hairs of the 
caterpillars, and had been forced to seek the services of a physi- 
cian. The trees in the adjoining yard of D. S^ Underwood were 
also defoliated, somewhat, the caterpillars at this time being very 
active and measuring about three-fourths of an inch in length. 
Further along, at 230 Franklin street, were a few nests on a 
group of eight pear trees, and caterpillars were feeding upon 
tiie foliage. At 258 Franklin street, one nest was found on a 
pear tree, and the caterpillars were feeding upon the trees nearby. 
At 89 Chestnut street, some feeding was noticed upon a pear tree. 



236 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I9I2. 

Back of the Norwich Nickel and Brass Company's Factory, on 
Chestnut street, were two pear trees containing feeding cater- 
pillars and three or four nests. At the comer of Broadway and 
Willow streets, on tke property of Dr. W. J. Hanford, four nests 
were found on one pear tree, and on adjoining property, at 125 
Broadway, the caterpillars from two nests were feeding on a 
pear tree. 

Arrangements were at once made with Frank Kimball, who 
contracts ior spraying operations in the locality, and the foliage 
of all the trees found to be infested with nests or caterpillars 
were sprayed with paste lead arsenate, five pounds to fifty 
gallons of water. Twenty-two trees were treated in this nmnner, 
care being taken to give them a thorough drenching with the 
poison. In addition to the points named above, and to the 
work done the previous winter, the trees along the following 
streets were examined for traces of the insect: Laurel Hill to 
top of the hill. Spruce, Talmond, Washington to the Parade 
Ground, Sachem, McKinley through Rockwell, Broad, Warren, 
•Treadwell, Boswell, QifF, Hobart, Hamlin, Central and North 
Main as far as Sixth, West Main to comer of Pine and Maple, 
Maple, Forrest, Cortot, Asylum, Pearl, Mt. Pleasant, Peck, West 
to first cross road, Uncas, Williams and Lafayette. An effort 
was made to examine a few trees in all parts of the city, as it 
was impossible at the time to cover the entire city systematically. 
The trees were in full leaf, which makes the insect difficult to 
detect, but no nests or signs of feeding were observed at any 
of the places, except where the spraying was done. 

It seems probable that the brown-tail moth was in some way 
transported to Norwich from the towns known to be infested 
in the northeastern comer of the State, or possibly from the 
infested portion of Rhode Island. 



A NEW SAWFLY PEST OF THE BLACKBERRY. 

Pamphilius dentatus MacG. 

By B. H. Walden. 

Adult sawflies collected by the writer in a blackberry field in 
Hamden, near New Haven, May 24th, 1910, were sent to Pro- 
fessor Alexander D. MacGilUvray, who pronounced them a new 



A NEW SAWFLY PEST OF THE BLACKBERRY. 237 

Species, which he has recently described in the Canadian Ento- 
mologist, Vol. XLIV, p. 297, as PamphUius dentatus. 

When the field was again visited the following season, on June 
27th, many sawfly larvae were found, and the plants showed con- 
siderable evidence of their work. A number of these larvae were 
taken to the laboratory but no adults were reared. An exami- 
nation of other blackberry fields in the vicinity revealed no trace 
of the insect. In the spring of 1912, the place was again 
visited. The blackberry field where this insect was discovered 
two years previous had been plowed, but in two other fields 
nearby the insect was found and was especially abundant on one 
short row of blackberries near the field originally infested. 

Life History and Habits. 

The adults appear during the latter half of May, though in 
1912, which was a late season, they were first observed on June 
1st, were the most numerous June 9th, and the last adults were 
seen on June 14th. 

The eggs are deposited in rows on the under side of the leaf, 
normally on the lateral veins, with the axis of the egg parallel 
with them, as is shown on plate H. Occasionally the eggs 
are fastened to the veins transversely, and very rarely are 
deposited on the leaf surface between the veins. No eggs could 
be foimd on June ist, but many had been deposited by June 9th. 
A few larvae were fotmd on this latter date and all eggs had 
apparently hatched on June 25th. From fourteen to seventeen 
days are required for the larvae to reach maturity, and by July 
I2th all but one or two had gone into the ground, where they 
remain until the following spring before pupating. Soon after 
hatching the young larva spins a few threads, by which it grad- 
ually draws a portion of the leaf over itself, forming more or less 
of a tube, within which it feeds. The larva travels ventral side 
up on the thin web thus formed, with its back to the leaf upon 
which it feeds. Where several eggs are on one leaf, the larvae 
hatching from them collect together in one web, as the leaf is 
devoured. Other leaves may be drawn in with the first web 
and eaten, so all that remains of the leaves are the principal 
veins, each covered with a thin web, in which are bits of the 
leaves and castings from the larvae. See plate I. 



238 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I9I2. 

The habits of this insect are quite similar to those of the peach 
sawfly, Pamphilius persicum MacG., an account of which was 
given in the report of this Station for 1907, page 285. 



Description. 

Egg. White, smooth and shiny; cylindrical, about twice as 
long as wide, ends round, sides usually straight, though occasion- 
ally slightly curved, or somewhat narrow towards the end. 
Average length, 1.59 mm.; average thickness, .67 mm. 

Larva: newly hatched. General color, pearly white; head, 
black; the two basal joints of the antennae, white; apical joint, 
black, and the remaining joints dark brown, with the front 
margins white. Length, 2.5 mm.; average thickness, .48 mm.; 
antennae, .27 mm. ; cerci, .29 mm. One larva, under observation, 
increased to 3.5 mm. in length before moulting, and the anal two- 
thirds of the body became pale green from the food consumed. 

1st moult. General color, apical third, dirty yellow, 
remainder, pale green; head, amber-colored; eye-q)ots, light 
brown; a brown triangular spot at center of head; first s^;ment 
back of head with a faint amber-colored, elongated transverse 
mark covering about two-thirds of the dorsal surface of the 
segment; anal plate with a broad, raised portion, starting near 
the tip, which diverges and becomes two-branched towards the 
base of the plate ; the raised portion and edges of the plate nearly 
white; remainder, green; cerd with apical joint brownish. 
Length, 4.5 mm. 

2d moult. Head, amber-colored; mouth parts, light brown; 
eye-spots, triangular mark on front of head and the elongated 
mark on first segment darker and more prominent than in pre- 
ceding moulting stage; a dark median line from back of head to 
anal plate; markings on anal plate more strongly defined than 
above; cerci with apical, joint black; middle joint with base, 
dark; apical margin, white; basal joint, white. Length, 11 mm.; 
average thickness, 2 mm. 

Sd moult. Head, olive green. In this and the remaining 
moults the appearance is similar to that of the full g^own larva. 

Full grown larva. General color, bluish green; body, cylin- 
drical, somewhat flattened and slightly tapering towards either 
end ; legs, small and slender ; head, from the front, nearly round, 



A NEW SAWFLY PEST OF THE BLACKBERRY. 239 

olive green, mottled and shiny; a dark brown spot near the 
center of the front at the point where the frontal sutures meet ; 
eye-spots and mouth parts, brown ; antennae, seven-jointed ; basal 
joint, white; apical joint, black; remaining joints, brown with 
the front margins white ; the first segment back of the head with 
the raised portion brown, below which is a smaller brown spot; 
anal plate, broadly rounded with the lateral margins raised and 
with a broad, raised central portion starting at the tip and 
diverging near its middle into two branches which extend to 
the base of the plate; cerci, three-jointed; basal joint, broad and > 
about equal in length to the two remaining joints ; the first and 
second joints, white; the last joint, slender, tapering to a point 
and black in color. Length of larva, 17.5-19 mm.; average 
thickness, 3 mm.; width of head, 1.75 mm.; base of anal plate, 
2.25 mm. 

The dorsal and lateral views of the larva, as well as dorsal and 
ventral aspect of the anal plate and the front of the head, are 
shown on plate III. 

The pupa was not obtained. 

Adult. The adult is a moderately large and striking sawfly, 
somewhat resembling P. persicum, but differing from that species 
in the color of the antennae, the basal portion of which are black 
with the remainder white. The tibiae of the hind legs are black. 
In F. persicum the antennae are black to the tips and the tibiae 
of the hind legs are rufous. See plate III, b. 

The facial markings of the female are similar in both species, 
but differ considerably in the males. The males of P. dentatus 
have the entire face (declivous area) yellow, while that of P. 
persicum has the lower half and margins of eyes yellow with the 
remainder black. 

This species was described by Professor A. D. MacGillivray 
in the October issue of the Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XLIV, 
page 297, 1912, as follows: 

"Pamph§ius dentatus n. sp. — ^Body black, with the terminal half of the 
antennae, the clypeus, a dentate spot on the inner orbits extended as a 
parenthesis-shaped mark to the caudal aspect of the head; an emarginate 
spot in front of the median ocellus and an angular line behind it, a paren- 
thesis-shaped mark at the lateral margin of the vertical furrow, the 
margin of the pronotum, the tegulae, the V-spot, the scutellum, the 
postscutellum, a spot on the humeral angle beneath the wings, the front 
and middle legs and the hind legs except the tibiae, white; the abdomen 



240 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

rufous beyond the basal plates; antennae with about twenty-seven 
segments ; supradypeal area carinated ; head depressed about the median 
ocellus, sparsely punctured; declivous area smooth; median lobe of 
mesothorax smooth, lateral lobes densely punctured and scutellum sparsely 
punctured; wings hyaline; veins brownish. Length 8-10 mm. 

The male differs in having the entire declivous area yellow and the 
notum, except the scutellum and the postscutellum, black. 

Habitat. — Wilbraham, Mass.; J. O. Martin, collector. Hamden, New 
Haven and Wallingford, Conn.; B. H. Walden, collector. 

This species is near rubi Rohwer." 

Whether or not this insect will prove a serious pest of black- 
berries is impossible to state at this time. Most of the feeding 
takes place on the lower leaves, and very few of the canes in the 
infested fields were completely defoliated. On the other hand 
the insect has spread over a considerable area in the past two 
seasons. 

No remedies were tried against the blackberry sawfly, but 
should it become abundant, spraying the foliage, about the time 
the eggs are deposited, with lead arsenate at the rate of two 
pounds in fifty gallons of water, will probably control it. 

The blackberry sawfly was not observed feeding on any other 
species of plant, though both black and red raspberries were 
grown adjoining one of the blackberry fields where the sawfly 
was found. 



THE LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS OF THE WALNUT 

WEEVIL OR CURCULIO. 

Conotrachelus juglandis, Lee. 

By W. E. Britton and H. B. Kirk. 

The studies herein described were undertaken for the purpose 
of learning the life history, habits and seasonal development of 
this weevil, about which little has heretofore been known, 
although it was described thirty-five years ago. 

The senior author first became interested in this insect through 
Dr. Robert T. Morris, a well-known surgeon of New York City, 
who has a farm at Stamford, Conn., and who is an enthusiastic 
nut grower, and president of The Northern Nut Growers* Asso- 
ciation. Dr. Morris has been experimenting for a number of 
years trying to establish the hardier varieties of commercial nut- 



THE WALNUT WEEVIL OR CURCULIO. 24 1 

bearing trees, with the idea of introducing the new and interest- 
ing industry of nut-growing into the New England States. 

Since the spring of 1909 this department has received a num- 
ber of letters from Dr. Morris, regarding an insect which punc- 
tures the nuts of several species of walnuts, and another (a bud- 
worm) working in the new growth of the same trees. Later, 
we received letters stating that he had observed weevils punctur- 
ing the nuts and had found the larvae of some insect working in 
the stems. In July, 1909, Dr. Morris sent specimens of this 
weevil, which was identified as Conotrachelus juglandis Lee. 

It was Dr. Morris who suggested that the Station detail some- 
one to study the walnut weevil. Realizing the importance of the 
subject, Mr. Kirk was engaged as an assistant with the under- 
standing that such investigations were to be part of his work. 

The field studies were made on the premises of Dr. Morris 
at Stamford, and of Mr. H. L. Champlain at Lyme, supplemented 
by observations upon such other walnut trees as could be found 
growing elsewhere about the State. 

The general plan of these studies and the present paper are 
the joint work of the authors. Mr. Kirk has done most of the 
field work. 

The authors hereby acknowledge their indebtedness to Dr. 
Robert T. Morris and to Mr. H. L. Champlain, who kindly placed 
their trees at our disposal for study and experiment; to the 
Bureau of Entomology for identifying specimens and furnishing 
records; and to many museums and entomologists throughout 
the country for kindly sending us records from their specimens. 

Previous Knowledge of the Walnut Weevil. 
In searching the literature and in corresponding with the 
Bureau of Entomology and with various entomologists, it was 
evident that little was known about the life, history and habits 
of this species. B. D. Walsh, the first State Entomologist of 
Illinois, evidently observed the walnut weevil as early as 1867, 
but regarded it as a "Phytophagic species" of the common plum 
curculio. In his first report he states*: — 

"But there, actually, in my opinion, does exist a Thytophagic species' 
of the common curculio, which is uniformly one-half larger and which 



♦ Walsh, Report on the Noxious Insects of Illinois, I, p. 86, 1868. 
16 



242 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I912. 

in the larva state feeds, not upon stone-fruit or pip-fruit, but upon green 
butternuts and walnuts (Juglans), from the former of which I bred 
two individuals, August 13th. Of this peculiar type of curculio I sent 
specimens six years ago to our great North American authority in the 
Order of Beetles, Dr. J. L. LeConte ; and he pronoimced them to be mere 
varieties of the plum curculio. They scarcely differ from that insect in 
any other perfectly constant character than size." 

In a foot note on the same page he explains : — 

"There is, I believe, a slight, but perfectly constant colorational char- 
acter by which these two forms are distinguishable. The broad band 
behind the polished black humps on the wing-cases is, in the large-sized 
nut-inhabiting form, of a dingy white color with a few milk-white spots. 
In the small plum-inhabiting form, this same band is of a bright ochre- 
yellow color, with more or less milk-white spots, which last, however, 
never occupy more than one-half of the ochre-yellow band. Moreover, 
I am informed by Dr. Hull, that the larva of the large-sized form — ^with 
which he has long been familiar— occurs with him in hickory-nuts having 
their shucks marked by the characteristic crescent-slit, and that this larva 
'penetrates to the kernel of the nut' Whereas, as is well known, the 
larva of the small-sized form that frequents the plum, never under any 
circumstances penetrates to the kernel of that fruit This difference in 
the habits of the two forms is certainly very remarkable." 



Mr. Walsh quotes Dr. Fitch to the eflfect that specimens found 
on butternut trees are always larger than those from fruit trees, 
the difference in size being ascribed, by Dr. Fitch, to the g^reater 
food supply. 

In 1876 the walnut weevil was described as Conotrachelus 
juglandis* by Dr. J. L. LeG>nte. Since that date the insect 
has been mentioned several times in the literature, but only as 
breeding in the nuts. Thus, Brooks, writing in i9io,t describes 
and illustrates the injury to the nuts by the adults and larvse of 
this insect. Dr. F. H. Chittenden, of the Bureau of Entomology, 
in a letter to the senior author, as late as June loth, 191 1, states: 

"This species has never been given careful study to my knowledge, 
and I have never had an opportunity of testing any remedy against it 
I am familiar with its habits, however, having, studied it when at Ithaca, 



* LeConte, Proc. Am. Phil. Society, Vol. XV, p. 226, 1876. 
t Brooks, West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Bull. 128, 
p. 176, 1910. 



THE WALNUT WEEVIL OR CURCULIO. 243 

N. Y., and found that the larva develops chiefly from the nuts of the 
walnut." 

The first intimation that the insect breeds also in walnut stems 
came to us from Dr. Morris, who, in July, 1909, sent to this 
office specimens which he had observed "apparently at work upon 
a young shoot of Juglans regia/' In July, 191 1, he sent more 
specimens and wrote as follows : 

"You speak of the injury to the fruit. That is not where the great 
damage is done. Eggs are laid in the leaf axils, beginning just as soon 
as the leaves appear. Later eggs are laid also in the stems of the leaves, 
and later yet in the fruit Some of my young trees are all but ruined 
already. It is a terrible pest. The Japanese walnuts, Juglans sieboldiana 
and /. cordifortnis, are their favorites, then comes the English walnuts, 
/. regia. The chief local tree for attack is the butternut, /. cinerea" 

In August of the same year Mr. A. B. Champlain, then an 
assistant in this department, discovered larvae working in the new 
growth of /. sieboldiana at Lyme, Conn., and brought samples to 
the Station insectary, where he bred the adults of Conotrachelus 
juglandis, this being the first definite record of the species being 
bred from the stems. 



Injury and Abundance. 

In Connecticut the injury caused by the adults and larvae is 
confined entirely to the new growth and nuts, causing the stems, 
in extreme cases, to be killed entirely back to the old wood and 
causing the nuts to fall off before maturing. 

The adults do their chief damage early in the spring, making 
large punctures (see plate IV, a),. some of which cut half way 
through the leaf stems and young shoots, causing them to wilt 
and die, and although the main injury it done by the larvae,* the 
adult injury would be worth considering. 

The larvae work first in the young shoots and, later, as the 
stems grow, in the petioles of the leaves, in the leaf stems, or, 
in fact, any part of the new growth large enough to accommo- 
date the larvae. This injiuy to the new shoots by the larvae, most 
severe in early summer and up to the middle of June, has been 
so great in the plantations of Dr. Morris at Stamford and also 
with the trees at Lyme, as to wholly prevent the owners from 



244 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

obtaining a crop of nuts. Plate IV, b, shows the injury caused 
by the larvae. 

Juglans sieboldiana and /. cordiformis seem to be the ones 
preferred, and we have counted as many as eight larvae in a stem 
four inches long, and have seen trees where every stem was com- 
pletely tunneled out. The work can be detected by the egg 
puncture and by the frass which is pushed out through it as the 
larva grows. 

From what we can learn through correspondence with other 
entomologists and nut growers, the damage caused by this insect 
is far more serious in Connecticut than in most other states. 
The fact that it is mentioned as breeding only in the nuts, and 
has not previously been recorded as attacking the new growth, 
would lead one to believe that it has not been very abundant, nor 
has caused much damage in other regions where nuts are grown. 

The larvae cause considerable injury to small trees in nurseries. 
For instance, in a nursery at New Haven, in August, out of forty- 
six three-year-old trees of Juglans sieboldiana and /. cordi- 
formis, twenty-six were infested, some of them badly, by the 
larvae tunneling in the new growth. On October loth, the jun- 
ior author examined thirty-five six-year-old trees of /. sieboldi- 
ana in another part of this nursery. Five trees showed larval 
attack but most of the year's growth was short and not vigorous, 
and consequently not favorable for the attack of this insect. In 
the same nursery, there had been considerable fall feeding at the 
base of the leaf petioles by the newly-emerged adults, but no 
beetles could be found on the trees nor underneath the stones 
upon the ground nearby. 

In a nursery at New Canaan, about the middle of September, 
Mr. Kirk noticed a row containing about 265 trees of Juglans 
sieboldiana on all of which the larvae were tunneling in the new 
growth. An adjoining row of about the same number of /. regia 
trees was only slightly attacked, and another adjoining row con- 
taining about 400 trees of black walnut, /. nigra, were uninf ested. 
Several hundred other trees of /. sieboldiana in another part of 
the same nursery were badly infested, not a single tree escaping. 
Here, also, was noticed the fall attacks of the adults at the base 
of the leaf petioles, and two adults were collected. 

What appeared to be the work of this weevil was received from 
Litchfield July 7th, and showed the characteristic feeding punc- 
tures at the base of the leaf stem. 



the walnut weevil or curculio. 245 

Life History and Habits. 

This insect has only one generation each year and passes the 
winter in the adult stage, though we were not able to discover 
the exact place of hibernation. 

The beetles appear usually the latter part of May, and begin 
at once to feed upon the stems and leaf veins. After mating, 
the females begin about the last week in May to lay eggs. 
Apparently the beetles feed throughout the egg-laying period, 
as both collected and bred adults died within one or two days 
when left in captivity without food, but when given food they 
lived for a month. The beetles have the habit common to most 
curculios of feigning death and dropping from the stems when 
disturbed. 

The eggs are laid on both fruit and stems in irregular crescent- 
shafted punctures and under flaps, similar to those of the plum 
curculio, C. nenuphar, and hatch from six to twelve days later, 
depending probably upon weather conditions. Eggs 'are laid 
throughout the period extending from the last week in May up 
to the first of August. Those laid after about July 20th hatch, 
but do not mature, the larvae dying in the stems, probably because 
of the hardening of the plant tissues. During August many dead 
larvae were observed in the stems, but no living larvae were seen 
after September ist. 

The young larvae first attack the young shoots, then the base 
of the leaf stems, then with some species of Juglans the other 
portion of the leaf stem is injured and finally the nuts. In the 
stems they work mostly upwards but are found tunneling in 
both directions. The moults were not observed. From one to 
five larvae to each nut have been observed in butternuts, where 
they go into the kernel but return to the shucks to complete their 
larval life. From four to six weeks are required for the larval 
development, which does not continue in the stems after Septem- 
ber 1st. 

When mature, the larvae enter the ground about one inch below 
the surface, remain there about ten days, when they pupate. 
From sixteen to twenty days after pupating the adults emerge 
and, flying to the trees, eat small holes, chiefly at the base of the 
leaf petioles. 

The feeding habits of the newly-emerged adults might easily 
mislead one to conclude that the beetles were ovipositing. The 



246 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

first pupae are seen about August ist, and the last adults are 
seen about September i6th. Our latest record of adults which 
had laid eggs earlier in the season was September 7th. 

Dr. Morris informs us that he had observed adults at work 
on the trees as early as May 7th and as late as September 5th. 



Description. 

Egg. The egg is oblong oval in shape and of a creamy white 
color and apparently with a smooth surface, but when examined, 
under high power, it has a finely wrinkled appearance. Length, 
.95 mm.; thickness, .57 mm. 

Larva. The larvae are cylindrical and legless with no promi- 
nent markings or appendages. When young they are of a dirty 
white color with brown heads, and when mature the body changes 
to a yellowish white color. Tips of mandibles black, prothoracic 
segment with a brown patch nearest the head, and tubercles 
brown. Length of full grown larva, 12 mm. ; thickness, 354 nun. 

Pupa. There is no pupal cell, the pupa being entirely naked. 
It is of the same general form and size of the adult and of the 
same yellowish white color of the full grown larva. There are 
a few long, slender, brown hairs on the beak, thorax and ventral 
side of the abdomen and two on each femur, with two promi- 
nent stouter spines on the last abdominal segment. 

Adult. The adult very closely resembles the plum-curculio, 
C nenupliar, but is readily distinguished by its larger size and the 
more distinct, broad, whitish band on the elytra. The beak is 
about one-half and the thorax one-third as long as the body. 
The elytra have several humps and ridges which give the beetle 
a rough appearance. The whole is covered with short, yellowish 
hairs, forming the bands on the thorax and elytra. The newly- 
emerged specimens are distinctly brownish in tint, but after a 
time turn to a darker grey color. This serves to distinguish the 
newly-emerged from the egg-laying adults. The length of C. 
juglandis varies from .24 to .28 of an inch, while that of nenuphar 
does not exceed .22 of an inch. 

This weevil was originally described by Dr. J. L. LeG>nte in 
Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. XV, 
page 226, 1876, as follows : 



THE WALNUT WEEVIL OR CURCULIO. 247 

C. juglandis n. sp. 

"Dark brown, varies with black, pubescence fulvous, or dirty yellow, 
forming a curved bifurcated line each side of the prothorax, and a broad 
band behind the middle of the eljrtra. Beak longer than the head and 
prothorax, cylindrical, not stout, shining, sparsely punctured, with a 
broad lateral groove, and two stout, finer ones near the base. Prothorax 
coarsely pimctured and rugose, with a very short carina before the middle, 
and four discoidal tubercles; broadly constricted in front. Elytra with 
striae with large quadrate punctures, alternate interspaces strongly costate, 
the third and fifth interrupted forming on each a high crest, with a basal 
and sub-apical elevation. Ventral segments sparsely punctured, fifth 
more finely and densely. Legs somewhat annulated, thighs bidentate. 
Length, 7 mm.; ^ inches. 

This species is closely allied to the plum weevil, C. nenuphar, and has 
been confounded with it until the present time. It is, however, much 
larger, the beak is longer, more slender, and less curved; the prothorax 
is broader and more rounded on the sides, the crest of the fifth elytral 
interspace is longer, almost as large as that of the third, and overlaps 
it far more than half its length, and, finally, the pubescence is of a 
nearly uniform color, so that the band of the elytra is not variegated 
with white. The ventral segments are much less densely punctured." 



Food Plants. 
From our studies and observations, it is evident that in Con- 
necticut the walnut weevil attacks and injures the various species 
of Juglans in the following order, those at the head of the list 
being most seriously injured, 

Juglans cordiformis, Heartnut, Fruit and Stems. 

" sieboldiana, Siebold's wahiut, " " 

cinerea, Butternut, " " 

regia, Persian or " 

English walnut, 
" nigra, Black walnut, Stems. 

" mandshurica, Japanese walnut, " 

\ 

Though we have no definite records of this weevil attacking 
and injuring the hickories, Mr. Kirk observed punctures at the 
base of the leaf stems resembling closely the feeding punctures 
of C, juglandis on Juglans. Dr. Morris states that he has seen 
them on the bittemut, Hicoria minima, the shellbark, H. ovata, 
and the mockemut, H, alba. No doubt they may attack the stems 
of certain hickories, and the stems and nuts of practically all 



248 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

species of Juglans, yet they seem to prefer and only injure a few 
species of the latter. 

Experiments in Determining Life Stages and Habits. 

Adults were placed in cages made of cheese cloth sewed into a 
cylinder-shaped bag and slipped over the new growth and tied 
at both ends, to determine the habits of the adults. 

The weevils were collected from the neighboring trees, 
immediately placed in the cheese cloth cages and were examined 
twice or three times a week. The adults did considerable feed- 
ing before making the egg puncture, by stripping the bark on the 
leaf veins and stems to such an extent that we thought it advis- 
able to try an arsenical poison to kill them before ovipositing. 

The tgg and pupa stages were studied in the Station insectary. 
The length of the tgg stage was determined by cutting off the 
shoots immediately after eggs were laid, and taking them to the 
insectary, where they were kept fresh and were examined each 
day until the eggs hatched. 

The larvae were studied in the field in both the stems and the 
nuts. Stems were marked and labeled where eggs had just 
hatched and the cheese cloth bags were tied over the stems to 
trap the larvae when they emerged, giving the length of the larval 
stage. Larvae were taken from these cages and placed in cages 
in the insectary, where the pupa stage and time of adults emerg- 
ing were determined. 

The habits of the newly-emerged beetles were studied in the 
field. 

Control Methods. 

After observing the extensive feeding habits of the adults, we 
were able to ascertain a probable preventive in the use of lead 
arsenate. Several small trees were sprayed with lead arsenate, 
six pounds to fifty gallons, and weevils were collected and 
encaged on the sprayed stems. 

On June nth, three cages were made on a tree sprayed with 
the above proportions; two cages containing two weevils each 
and the other, four weevils. Check' cages were made on 
unsprayed trees. By June i8th all the weevils were dead in the 
cages and no eggs were laid and all stems showed the character- 



THE WALNUT WEEVIL OR CURCULIO. 249 

istic feeding marks of the adults. In the unsprayed cage one 
weevil was dead by the i8th, while the other fed and oviposited 
until July 9th. 

At L)mie, Conn., June 21st, two other cages were made, with 
three weevils each, on a Japanese walnut tree in bearing, sprayed 
with the same proportions of lead arsenate ; two eggs were laid 
the following day, but the weevils were found dead a week later 
and there were no more punctures. The trees were examined 
later (August loth) with the result that no more punctures 
were made after the trees were sprayed, although weevil work 
was apparent from eggs which had been laid before the applica- 
tion. Four adjoining trees showed considerable weevil injury 
and larvae were still working in stems and nuts, while in the tree 
sprayed no larvae were found. 

Several other tests were made on a black walnut tree on the 
Station grounds, with similar results. 

In one nursery, cutting off the infested shoots in mid-summer, 
say about June 20th, is practiced. The tree afterwards makes a 
good growth and the shoofs are not seriously injured by the wee- 
vils, late in the season. 

This pruning must not be done too late, however, else the new 
growth will not ripen sufficiently and will be winter-killed. 

In any spraying work to control the walnut weevil, the spray 
should be directed against the under surface of the leaves in 
order to kill as many as possible of the adults which feed there 
on the leaf veins. 



Distribution in North America. 

Apparently this weevil occurs at least throughout the eastern 
half of the United States and Canada, though in a large portion 
of this territory it is not abimdant and is not considered an 
important pest. In order, to obtain definite records of its occur- 
rence some sixty letters were sent to specialists, station and 
museum entomologists, horticulturists and nut growers, asking 
for the records on the specimens in their collections and for the 
results of their field observations regarding this insect. About 
fifty-one replies were received, from which the following records 
of distribution are compiled. The names given are in most cases 
not those of the collector, but of those reporting the records to us. 



iS^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Alabama: Andalusia (Bur. Ent coll., Wash., D. C, A. L. Quamtance). 
Canada: Belleville, Ont (coll. of J. D. Evans, Trenton, Ont). 

Hamilton, Ont, Ridgeway, Ont (Ont Agr. College coU^ Cjuelph, 
Ont, C J. S. Bethune). 

Montreal (Colo. Expt Sta. coll., Ft Collins, Colo., C P. Gillette). 

Mount St. Hilaire, Mont (coll. G. Chagnon). 

Ontario (Am. Mus. Nat Hist coll., N. Y. City, C W. Lenff). 

Ottawa (coll. of W. H. Harrington, Ottawa, Can., A. (jibson). 

Ridgeway, Ont (coll. of J. D. Evans, Trenton, Ont). 

Laval County (Can. Dept Agr. coll., Ottawa, C^., A. Gibson). 

Toronto, Ont (Cornell Univ. coll., Ithaca, N. Y., G. W. Herrick). 
Connecticut: Lyme (colL of A. B. Champlain, Harrisburg, Pa.). 

Lyme (Conn. Expt Sta. coll.. New Haven, Conn.; collected by 
A. B. Champlain and H. B. Kirk). 

New Canaan (Conn. Expt Sta. coll.; collected by B. H. Waldcn). 

North Branford (Conn. Expt Sta. coll.; collected by H. B. Kirk). 

Stamford (Am. Mus. Nat Hist coll., N. Y. City, C. W. Leng). 

Stamford (Bur. Ent coll.. Wash., D. C, A. L. Quaintance). 

Stamford (Conn. Expt Sta. colL; collected by H. B. Kirk). 

Stamford (U. S. Nat Mus. coll., Wash., D. C, E. A. Schwarz). 
District of (Columbia: Washington (U. S. Nat Mus. colL, E. A. 
Schwarz. Listed by Ulke). '• 

Washington (Ohio State Univ. coll., Columbus, O., H. Osbom). 
Georgia: Qayton (Am. Mus. Nat. Hist coll., N. Y. City, C. W. Lcng). 

Santa Catherina Island (U. S. Nat. Mus. coll., Wash., D. C, 
E. A. Schwarz). 
iLUNOis: Galesburg (Am. Mus. Nat Hist coll., N. Y. City, C. W. 
Leng). 

Central Illinois (observed by H. Garman). 

Northern Illinois (111. Expt Sta. coll., Urbana, 111., C. A. Hart). 

Illinois (mentioned by B. D. Walsh). 
Indiana: Elkhart (Mich. Expt Sta. colL, East Lansing, G. D. Shafer). 

Harrison County (Ind. Expt Sta. coll., Lafayette, Ind., J. Troop). 

Posey County (Ind. Expt Sta. coll., Lafayette, Ind., J. Troop). 

Southern Indiana (Ind. Expt Sta. coll., Lafayette, Ind., J. Troop). 
Iowa: Guttenberg (U. S. Nat Mus. coll.. Wash., D. C, E. A. Schwarz). 

Iowa (Mus. Comp. Zool. coll., Cambridge, Mass.,. S. Henshaw). 
Kansas: Douglas County (Univ. of Kan. coll., Lawrence, Kan., S. J. 

Hunter). 
Louisiana: Mound (Bur. Ent coll., Wash., D. C, A. L. Quaintance). 
Maryland: Plummer*s Island (U. S. Nat. Mus. coll., Wash., D. C, 
R A.' Schwarz). 

Maryland (Minn. Expt Sta. coll., St Anthony Park, Minn., A. G. 
Ruggles). 
Massachusetts: Mass. (coll. of H. C. Fall, Pasadena, Cal.). 
Nebraska: (Indications but no definite record, L. Bruner). 



THE WALNUT WEEVIL OR CURCULIO. 251 

New Jersey: Newark (N. J. Expt. Sta. coll., New Brunswick, N. J., 
H. B. Weiss). 

Orange Mts. (U. S. Nat Mus. coll., Wash., D. C, E. A. Schwarz). 

South Orange (Am. Mus. Nat Hist coll., N. Y. City, C. W. Leng). 

New Jersey (Mus. Comp. ZooL coll., Cambridge, Mass., S. Hen- 
shaw). 
New York: Buffalo (U. S. Nat Mus. coll.. Wash., D. C, E. A. Schwarz). 

Buffalo (Univ. of Kan. coll., Lawrence, Kan., S. J. Hunter). 

Ft Montgomery (Am. Mus. Nat Hist coll., N. Y. City, C. W. 
Leng). 

Newport (New York State Mus. colL, Albany, D. B. Young). 

New York City (U. S. Nat Mus. coll.. Wash., D. C, E. A. Schwarz). 

♦New York City (Bur. Ent coll., Wash., D. C, A. L. Quaintance). 

PeekskUl (Cornell Expt Sta. coll., Ithaca, N. Y., G. W. Herrick). 

Phoenicia (N. Y. State Mus. coll., Albany, N. Y., D. B. Young). 

Poughkeepsie (N. Y. State Mus. coll., Albany, N. Y., D. B. Young). 

Westchester (Injury observed by W. C. Deming). 

New York (U. S. Nat Mus. coll., Wash., D. C, E. A. Schwarz). 

New York (Am. Ent. Soc coll., Phila., Pa., H. Skinner). 

New York (coll. of H. C. Fall, Pasadena, Cal.). 

New York (Mich. Expt. Sta. coll.. East Lansing, G. D. Shafer). 
N(«TH Carolina: Magnetic -City (Bur. Ent coll., Wash., D. C, A. L. 
Quaintance). 

Round Knob (U. S. Nat Mus. coll.. Wash., D. C, W. D. Pierce). 

North Carolina (Mich. Expt Sta. coll.. East Lansing, G. D. Shafer). 
Ohio: Cmcinnati (Am. Mus. Nat Hist coll., N. Y. City, C. W. Long). 

Sugar Grove (Expt Sta. coll., Wooster, O., H. A. Gossard). 
Pennsylvania: Allegheny (111. Expt Sta. coll., Urbana, III., C. A. Hart). 

Allegheny* (Mus. Comp. Zool. colL, Cambridge, Mass., S. Henshaw). 

Allegheny (Am. Mus. Nat Hist coll., N. Y. City, C. W. Leng). 

Bethlehem (Lab. Econ. Zool. coll., Harrisburg, Pa., A. B. Cham- 
plain). 

Harrisburg (Lab. Econ. 2^1. coll., Harrisburg, Pa., A. B. Cham- 
plain). 

Jeanette (reported by Mr. Klages). 

Pittsburg (reported by Mr. Klages). 

Pottstown (Wagner Inst coll., Phila., Pa., A. B. Champlain). 

Winewood (Bur. Ent coll.. Wash., D. C, A. L. Quaintance). 

Dauphin County (reported by Dr. (Tastle). 

Lancaster County (reported by Dr. Castle). 

Penn., Southwestern (reported by Dr. John Hamilton). 

Penn. (U. S. Nat Mus. coll.. Wash., D. C, E. A. Schwarz). 
Texas: Texas (Mich. Expt Sta. coll., East Lansing, Mich., G. D. 
Shafer). 



♦These specimens were collected by Dr. R. T. Morris and may have 
been taken on his farm at Stamford, Conn. 



252 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Vermont : Burlington (Boston Soc Nat. Hist. colL, Boston, Mass^ C. W. 

Johnson). 
Virginia: Hume (Bur. Ent coll., Wash., D. C, A. L. Quaintance). 

Pennington Gzp (U. S. Nat Mus. coll.. Wash., D. C, E. A. 

Schwarz). 
Petersburg (Bur. Ent. coll.. Wash., D. C, A. L. Quaintance). 
Virginia, Southwestern (observed by W. J. Price). 
Virginia (Am. Ent. Soc. coll., Phila., Pa., H. Skinner). 
West Virginia: Berkeley (U. S. Nat Mus. coll., Wash., D. C^ E. A. 
Schwarz). 
French Creek (Expt Sta. coll., Morgantown, W. Va., W. E. 
Ramsey). 
Wisconsin: Wis. (N. Y. Expt Sta. coll., Ckneva, N. Y., P. J. Parrott). 
Wis. (Mus. Comp. Zool. coll., Cambridge, Mass., S. Henshaw). 

Many experiment station collections contain no specimens of 
the walnut weevil. A few have material from their own state. 
Others have specimens from adjacent or distant states, and the 
existence of such specimens is frequently unknown to the ento- 
mologists now working in the states where the beetles were col- 
lected. We mention this to show that in all probability this 
weevil is not as abundant throughout the range of Juglans as in 
Connecticut, or it would have been collected more extensively, 
and had it caused much damage it would probably have been 
studied elsewhere. 

Several entomologists and collectors report no records for tfieir 
states, but such data were furnished by others. 

Reports were received from Professors A. J. Cook, R. W. 
Doane, and H. C. Fall, California ; Professor C. P, Gillette, Col- 
orado ; Professor C. O. Houghton, Delaware ; Dr. E. W. Berger 
and Professor J. R. Watson, Florida; Professor J. M. Aldrich, 
Idaho; Professor H. Carman, Kentucky; Dr. Edith M. Patch, 
Maine; Geo. D. Shafer, Michigan; A. G. Ruggles, Minnesota; 
Professor Leonard Haseman, Missouri ; Professor R. A. Cooley, 
Montana ; Professor W. C. O'Kane, New Hampshire ; Professor 
C. E. Sanborn, Oklahoma; Professor A. B. Cordley, Oregon, 
and Professor A. L. Melander, Washington; but there are no 
records or observations to indicate that Conotrachelus juglandis 
occurs in these states. No reports have been received from 
Arizona, Arkansas, Mississippi, Nevada, New Mexico, North 
Dakota, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, 
Utah and Wyoming. 



the walnut bud-moth. 253 

Bibliography. 

Walsh, B. D. Proceedings Entomological Society of Philadelphia, Vol. 

V, p. 207, 1865. (Reference to a species probably new.) 
Walsh, B. D. Report on Noxious Insects of Illinois, I, p. 86, 1867. 

(Mentions it as a phjrtophagic species of the plum curculio.) 
Le(x)nte, J. L. Proceedings American Philosophical Society, Vol. XV, 

p. 226, 1876. (Original description.) 
Packard, A. S. Fifth Report U. S. Entomological Commission, p. 335, 

189a (Brief illustrated account.) 
Lugger, O. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 66, p. 291, 

1899. (Brief account of injury.) 
Felt, E. P. Insects AflFecting Park and Woodland Trees, p. 581, 1906. 

(Illustrated account.) 
SchaeflFer, (3has. Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XXXVIII, p. 341, 1906. 

(Key to species of Conotrachelus,) 
Smith, J. B. Report of New Jersey State Museum. Insects of New 

Jersey, p. 389, 1909. (Listed as occurring in New Jersey.) 
Brooks, F. E. West Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Bull. 128, 

p. 176, 1910. (Illustrated account) 
Leng, C. W. Journal New York Entomological Society, Vol. XVIII, p. 

79, 1910. (Species collected in Northern Georgia.) 
Morris, R. T. Report Northern Nut Growers* Association, II, p. 18, 

1912. (Brief note recording attack of new shoots.) 



THE WALNUT BUD-MOTH. 

Acrobasis caryce Grote? 

By H. B. Kirk. 

While studying the Valnut weevil on the plantation of Dr. 
Robert T. Morris at Stamford (see page 240) nests of lepidop- 
terous larvae were noticed on the tips of the branches of Persian 
walnut, Juglans regia, trees. Closer examination revealed larvae 
tunneling in the buds and new shoots and causing about as much 
damage as the weevil itself. 

This insect was observed more than three years ago by Dr. 
Morris, who wrote in July, 1909, as follows: 

"By the way, I will enclose some newly discovered bud-worm work 
and of very serious character, as it comes at a season when my men are 
not looking out for bud- worms. I send under separate cover three 
shoots from a young Juglans regia (the only shoots which it had) all 
headed off by the bud- worm. In May the bud-worms badly injured 
Juglans cordiformis, J, sieboldiana, J, australis, J. mandshurica, J, regia, 
/. nigra, J. rupestris, and /. Calif ornica: also Hicoria Ovata, H, laciniosa, 



254 CONNECTICUT EXPEWMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

H, pecan and several hybrids. They are particularly fond of /. cordi" 
fortnis. Some trees of this species five years old and about ten feet high 
had practically every terminal bud infested this spring." 

A month later Dr. Morris wrote: 

"Under separate cover I am sending specimens of Juglans cordiformis 
showing work of a new lot of bud-worms. This makes the third brood 
apparently for this season, if all are of the same species. Bud-worms 
are going to do terrible damage among my thousands of young nut 
trees." 

In 191 1 Dr. Morris regarded the bud-worms as the larvae of 
the walnut weevil, Conotrachelus juglandis, therefore his state- 
ment regarding damage should be modified, as some of the injury 
to the various species of walnut and hickory about which he wrote 
in 1909 was undoubtedly caused by the weevil instead of the 
bud-worm. In the studies herein described, the Persian walnut, 
/. regia, was more seriously injured than any other species 
observed. 

Extent of Injury. 

The damage done by this insect, shown on plate VIII, is fully 
as great as that of the weevil itself, and although there are not 
as many species of trees aflfected, the most valuable species, /. 
regia, is the one preferred. In our observations on Dr. Morris' 
f aran the damage to the above species of walnut has been greater 
than that of C. juglandis, and in a number of cases has killed 
the young trees in a very short time. 

The young butternuts, black walnuts and several varieties of 
the English or Persian walnuts, /. regia, were also damaged 
seriously. On one tree, two feet high, thirty-five pupae were 
found in the nests. This tree and several others not so badly 
infested were killed. So far as can be determined, it does not 
attack, or at least does not seriously injure, any of the other 
species of Juglans, 

This insect has been studied and observed only at Stamford, 
though indications of its presence were noticed late in the season 
at New Canaan. 

Habits and Life History. 
There are at least three generations each season. The eggs 
are laid singly amund the base of the bud and sometimes on the 



I 



THE WALNUT BUD-MOTH. 255 

leaves, are not concealed and, though small, can easily be detected 
on infested trees. The first brood- was not discovered until in the 
pupa stage, when an idea of the damage was first brought to our 
attention. 

Adults that were bred June 28th from these pupae laid eggs 
two days later. These eggs hatched in from six to ten days. 
Calculating from the period necessary for the development of 
the second brood, the first eggs are laid about the second week in 
May. Eggs of the third brood are laid about August 15th to 
22d. When the larvae of the third brood were first discovered 
(August 23d) they were about an eighth of an inch in length, 
and when examined September 7th, they were found in the old 
nests of the previous brood- and apparently had not increased in 
size. No observations were made after this date, but the young 
larvae probably pass the winter in the old nests. 

The larval habits of this insect are quite varied, feeding on 
the buds, leaves, and stems. The stem-feeding habit is most 
peculiar; sometimes the feeding is from the outside and only on 
one side of the stem, while again the larva begins on the terminal 
or an axillary bud and commences feeding downward, being 
entirely concealed all the while. 

On account of this latt^ habit the work of this species and 
that of the walnut weevil was at first thought to be caused by one 
species of insect. But even with this similarity, the work of the 
two species can readily be distinguished. The larva of the wal- 
nut weevil exudes its f rass by pushing it out from the egg punc- 
tures at the base of the petioles or along the stem, but never at 
the terminal end of the new shoot. In the work of the present 
species the tips of the shoots die and the f rass is retained and 
afterward forms a part of the pupal case, and again the nests 
are always apparent with the f rass and leaves drawn together 
where the majority of the pupal cases are found. 

The nest, which is the most conspicuous evidence of the pres- 
ence of this insect, contains most of the pupae. The remaining 
few are found in the dried tips of the stems or in the green stem 
itself. From two to three weeks after pupating the adults 
emerge. 

Adults, bred in the laboratory, laid eggs several days after 
emerging and died shortly after. The egg and adult stages of 
this insect are shown on plate IX, 



256 connecticut experiment station report, i9i2. 

Identity of the Bud-Moth. 

Several fresh-reared adults were submitted to Mr. Charles R. 
Ely of Washington, D. C, a specialist in this group. Mr. Ely, 
on first examination, considered this a new species, and remarked 
that, according to his memory, the pupa cases were quite diflPerent 
from those of Acrobasis cary<B Grote, to which the adults bore 
a close resemblance. It is recognized that in the genus Acrobasis 
adults of certain species can be separated only by a knowl- 
edge of the food habits of their larvae. . • 

Mr. Ely afterward examined the material in the U. S. 
National Museum and, in company with Dr. H. G. Dyar, com- 
pared our specimens with those labeled A, cary(B Grote in the 
collections. They seemed to be identical. Mr. Ely states, how- 
ever, that the specimens in the museum are not really proved 
specimens of A. carycs as their larval habits are not known, and 
furthermore that the adults appear different from the others 
which were bred from pecan. For the present, therefore, we 
must refer to this bud- worm of the walnut as A. caryce Grote, 
but on further investigation it may prove to be an undescribed 
species. 

Description.^, 

Egg. Irregularly oval, greenish white, surface finely wrin- 
kled, .57 mm. long and .34 mm. wide. 

Larva. The larva is cylindrical, tapering slightly toward both 
ends, and is sparsely covered with long hairs. There are no 
prominent markings; tubercles indistinct. Mouth parts and 
body of a dirty olive green color, head shining black and on the 
dorsal side of the first segment is a black patch with a smaller 
black spot on either side, the larger patch being divided in the 
middle by a line the same color as the body. Second segment 
marked with two small black dots ; legs in front, black. Length, 
five-eighths of an inch; thickness, one-eighth of an inch. 

Pupa. About seven-sixteenths of an inch in length, distinctly 
tapering. Light brown in color with no striking markings. 
Anal extremity with a short, sharp spine on either side pointing 
outward and four slender hooked spines at posterior end. 
Abdominal segments finely and moderately densely punctured. 

The pupa is enclosed in a cylindrical-shaped case about one- 
half inch long and about three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter. 



THE WALNUT BUD-MOTH. 257 

It is composed chiefly of frass of the larva. Sometimes a num- 
ber of cases are welded together in one mass, but the general 
shape is the same. 

Adult. The adult is a grey moth having a wing-expanse of 
about three-fourths of an inch but showing much variation in 
size. The primaries are ash-g^ey or darker, with lighter basal 
areas and a light grey suflfused area on distal third of front 
marg^ extending scarcely half-way across the wings, more or 
less iridescent. Secondaries unicolorous and in most cases 
lighter than the primaries. 

Acrobasis carycr, which is probably identical with the walnut 
bud-moth, was originally described by A. R. Grote in Papilio, 
Vol. I, page 13, February, 1881. The description is reprinted 
here, and is as follows : 

Acrobasis caryce n. s. 

"Male. The maxillary palpi untufted, the antennae ciliate, with a 
sub-basal flexure and a scale-tooth on the thickly scaled basal joint 
Shining grayish fuscous; the head and thorax concolorous. Smaller 
than Angusella, without the cameous shadings and reddish thorax and 
head. Outer line of primaries pale, narrow and faint Inner line a 
ridge of raised darker scales narrowly edged outwardly by a pale, 
flesh-colored shade. The wing is paler, more grayish, at base. The 
color shifts with the light. Discal points faint In ornamentation this 
species is inconspicuous. Hind wings, as usual, blackish; fringes inter- 
lined, concolorous. Length of primary wing, 9 mil. Reared by Mr. 
Coquillett from larvae on Carya porcina; the larva has been found 
*boring into the twigs.* " 

Mr. Coquillett describes the larva and chrysalis as follows : 

"Body subcylindrical, smooth, pale greenish ash; a pale brown sub- 
dorsal dot on each side of segment 2; a wavy- fold below the spiracles; 
the latter are encircled with a dark brown ring, and there is a brown 
piliferous dot above each; a few whitish hairs on each side of the body; 
top of segment i polished, yellowish green ; head narrower than segment 
I, heart-shaped, dark brown; venter pale green, unmarked; 16 legs; 
length 14 mm. Found May 21, burrowing in the branches of the pignut 
hickory, Carya porcina, usually selecting the lower branches; imagoes 
about June 22. 

Chrysalis, Of the usual form, pale brown, rounded at the posterior 
end, at which place there is a cluster of about four slender hooked 
spines; length, from 7 to 8 mm. The larva spins a thin web around 
the footstalks of the leaves which grow near the terminal end of the 
branch, and then burrows into the terminal bud and the wood of the 
present year's growth. It webs its castings together and forms a short 

17 



258 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

tube which projects outward from the mouth of its burrow, and is 
closed at the outer end. The larva probably assumes the chrysalis form 
in its burrow, but those which I reared deserted their burrows and 
spun tough cocoons beneath the litter in the bottom of the breeding- 
cage. These larvse are very subject to the attacks of parasites; from 
a small number which I collected I obtained three moths and two 
Hymenopterous parasites which Mr. £. T. Cresson determined to be 
the Phanerotoma tibialis of Haldeman. One of these parasites issued 
June 21 and the other June 26." 

Natural Enemies. 
Two Tachinid flies were reared from the second brood of 
larvae, emerging August ist. These have been determined by 
Mr. Harrison E. Smith of the Bureau of Entomology as Exorista 
pyste Walk. 

Remedies. 

The larvae feed mostly on the leaves which are drawn into the 
nest and this pest can therefore be easily controlled by an arseni- 
cal spray applied to the foliage. On the trees sprayed with lead 
arsenate (six pounds in fifty gallons of water) for the adults of 
the walnut weevil no bud-worm injury was noticed. Most all of 
Dr. Morris' trees, especially the Persian or English walnut, were 
infested with both the weevil and the bud-moth, so that both 
insects could be controlled with the same applications. The 
larvae of the three broods appeared this season about June ist, 
July loth and August i8th. The weevil is most abundant after 
June 1st, so if applications are made on the first two dates the 
bud-moth would be controlled and a large percentage of the wee- 
vils destroyed. However, if the weevils are abundant, a second 
application should be made two weeks after the first. Further 
trials are necessary to establish practical control methods for this 
insect, but it is probable that less poison, perhaps three pounds 
in fifty gallons of water, may prove effective against the bud- 
moth as well as against the walnut weevil. 

Literature. 

Grote, A. R. PapUio, Vol. I, p. 13, 1881. (Original description of adult, 

larva and pupa.) 
Hulst, G. D. Transactions American Entomological Society, Vol. XVII, 

p. 122, 1890. (Description of adult, larva and pupa.) 
Dyar, H. G. Proceedings Entomological Society, Washington, Vol. X, 

p. 46, 1908. (Reference to food plant, etc.) 



J 



SALT MARSH MOSQUITOES. 259 

THE MOSQUITO PLAGUE OF THE CONNECTICUT 
COAST REGION AND HOW TO CONTROL IT.* 

The salt marshes along the coast furnish the principal part of 
the mosquito plague of the southern portion of the State. Con- 
trary to the habits of most mosquitoes, those of the salt marsh 
species fly inland long distances, and as they are large and very 
abundant, and are voracious feeders, they make life a burden 
to many inhabitants, and keep away many others who would 
otherwise summer on the Connecticut coast. This condition 
results in preventing the proper development of a legitimate 
business and the people of the State are so much the poorer on 
account of it. That the remedy is not impossible, nor impracti- 
cable, nor so expensive as most people suppose, and that 
for agricultural purposes the land is greatly improved by the 
treatment, the details given on the following pages will show : — 

MOSQUITOES OF THE SALT MARSH. 

There are two species of mosquitoes which breed abundantly 
on the salt marshes and which are commonly called salt marsh 
mosquitoes — the brown salt marsh mosquito Culex cantator Coq, 
and the banded salt marsh mosquito Culex soUicitans Walk. 

THE BROWN SALT MARSH MOSQUITO. 

The brown salt marsh mosquito Culex cantator Coq. is large 
and uniformly reddish brown in color^without conspicuous mark- 
ings, though there are narrow white bands on the legs and on 
the abdomen. It is shown in figure i. Breeding upon the salt 
marsh early in the season, the females bite fiercely and migrate 
long distances in search of food, going chiefly inland, which in 
Connecticut is the direction of the prevailing winds. About July 
1st, it is almost or wholly replaced by the banded salt marsh 
mosquito, which is present during the remainder of the season. 

THE BANDED SALT MARSH MOSQUITO. 

On account of its white markings this is the most conspicuous 
mosquito of medium size found in Connecticut. All of the legs 
are banded, dark and white alternating, and the front margin of 
each abdominal segment is also white and there is a dorsal longi- 
tudinal white line on the abdomen. In addition to these striking 

* Published as Bulletin 173, July, 1912. 



26o CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2. 

characters there is a white band upon the beak, about half way 
between base and tip, and these markings together serve to dis- 
tinguish this from all other species of mosquitoes. 

The eggs are laid on the mud of the salt marsh pools and 
hatch when the pools fill with water. About a week is required 
in warm weather from the hatching of the egg to the emergence 
of the adult mosquitoes, which come in swarms or broods and 




Fig. I. — The brown salt marsh mosquito, Culex cantator Gxi. : i. adult 
female: 2. palpus; 3- anterior claw of same; 4. 5. 6. anterior, median 
and posterior daws of male. All enlarged. (After Smith, Report on 
New Jersey Mosquitoes.) 

are often extremely abundant, and the females bite ravenously. 
They migrate inland in search of food, sometimes going twenty- 
five or thirty miles. It seems to be necessary for the females to 
obtain blood from one of the higher animals in order to develop 
their eggs. Moist of them are probably able to obtain food 
within from five to ten miles of their breeding places. 

The banded salt marsh mosquito is far more abundant than the 
brown salt marsh species, and appearing later in the summer, 
constitutes the mosquito plague of the shore region, remaining 



SALT MARSH MOSQUITOES. 



261 



until cool weather prevents further mosquito breeding. This 
mosquito is the one commonly called the salt marsh mosquito 
and is shown in figure 2. 

Of course there are several species of fresh water mosquitoes 
of the genus Culex, and malarial mosquitoes, Anopheles, breeding 
in the fresh water pools in the rear of nearly every salt water 
marsh, and rain barrel mosquitoes breed in the cisterns and 




Fig. 2. — The banded salt marsh mosquito, Culex sollicitans Walk.: i. 
adtilt female; 2. palpus: 3. anterior, 4. median and 5. posterior daws of 
male. All enlarged. (After Smith, Report on New Jersey Mosquitoes.) 

Other receptacles around the shore cottages, but these are local 
and do not fly far. They do not as a rule breed in salt or 
brackish water, and do not constitute any important part of the 
mosquito plague of the Connecticut coast region. 



AREA OF SALT MARSH IN CONNECTICUT. 

The salt or tide water marshes of Connecticut contain 22,264 
acres or 34.79 square miles,* distributed rather unevenly, along 



*D. M. Nesbit, Miscellaneous Special Report No. 7. The Marshes of 
the United States, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1884. 



262 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

the coast in the southern part of the State. The marsh areas 
are the most extensive in the middle part of the coastal region, 
or that portion bounded on the west by the Saugatuck and on 
the east by the Connecticut rivers. A considerable portion of the 
coast is hard land, being gravelly or rocky and there are few 
large tidal marshes, the largest in the whole state being the 
Quinnipiac marsh, near New Haven, of over 3,600 acres in 
extent. 

CONDITION OF THE SALT MARSH AREAS. 

In the report of the Mosquito Survey of Connecticut, made 
in 1904, and published in the report of this station for that year, 
page 285, it was stated that fully 50 per cent, of the entire 
salt marsh area of the State had at some time been thoroughly 
drained for salt hay farming. Other portions are well drained 
naturally, and so are not serious breeders of mosquitoes. 

In recent years, however, salt hay farming seems to have been 
neglected, though it is hard to understand why; as the hay 
still brings a price ranging from $7.00 to $12.00 per ton, and 
there is quite a demand for it for packing, bedding and mulching 
material. Many salt marshes have been neglected, the old 
ditches have become clogged, filled or grown up and few new 
ones have been cut. Such marshes are prolific breeding places 
of salt marsh mosquitoes. From personal observations, and 
from conversation with some of the older residents, we may 
safely conclude that in many cases at least the marshes are in 
worse condition to-day than they were thirty or forty years ago 
and mosquitoes correspondingly more numerous. Wherever the 
marsh becomes sufficiently congested, water stands, the turf rots 
and a depression is formed which increases in size and breeds ' 
millions of mosquitoes. 

Nearly every salt marsh receives more or less fresh water from 
springs or streams emerging from the highland. Ifiis water 
must pass through the marsh to reach the ocean. Some marshes 
are so congested that the fresh water cannot drain off but is 
kept back, making soft bogs with considerable stagnant water. 
Often the highest and dryest part of the salt marsh is near the 
outlet, while the lowest portion is at the back side next to the 
highland. In such places, and often nowhere else upon the 
marsh, stagnant water occurs. 



MOSQUITO CONTROL. 263 

Many persons think that if tide g^tes are provided, it will 
prevent mosquito breeding, and that no other work is necessary. 
But the gates keep out only tide water. Fresh water enters just 
the same and must be allowed to pass out. Hence drains are 
necessary. Tide gates only prevent the flooding of the marsh at 
high tide and are almost negligible so far as mosquito breeding 
is concerned. It is necessary to do almost as much ditching 
with as without a tide gate. Wherever the tide rises and falls 
in the ditches, mosquitoes will not breed. 

Tide gates are of much value in salt hay farming, for they 
keep the marshes from becoming flooded at each perigee tide, 
and prevent the salt grass from becoming encrusted with salt. 
Hay is considerably more valuable and a much greater yield is 
obtained if the salt water is not allowed to flood the marshes 
during the growing period. 

Some communities, however, have recently made a start 
toward improving the conditions of the marshes. Nearly seven 
miles of coast marsh land was drained in 191 1, just east of 
Stamford, and the present season similar work is being done 
about Greenwich, Fairfield, New Haven, Branford and Saybrook. 
This draining has all been for the purpose of doing away with 
mosquitoes, and not for increasing the yield of grass, yet the 
latter result is gained. 



MOSQUITO CONTROL. 

The general methods of mosquito control are (i) draining of 
the marshes, (2) oiling the breeding pools and (3) screening of 
rain water receptacles. The first, viz. draining, is the method 
to be chiefly considered in connection with the present control of 
the mosquito nuisance ; the second may be employed temporarily 
until the draining can be carried out, and the third should receive 
attention each year. 

METHODS OF DRAINING. 

Where there is a natural stream flowing through the center of 
the marsh, the area may be satisfactorily drained by cutting 
simple lateral ditches running nearly at right angles to the axis of 
the stream, with the outlets bearing slightly toward its mouth. 



264 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

These lateral ditches should be narrow — not more than ten inches 
wide — and from 24 to 30 inches deep, according to the character 
and size of the area to be drained. If there is no stream for an 
outlet, then a broad central ditch must be cut. This should be 
fully as deep as the laterals and wide enough to carry off the 
water supplied by them. The lateral ditches should be parallel 
with each other and from one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
feet apart, according to the condition of the marsh. It is not 
necessary to connect each pool with the tide water in ditching, 
as the seepage is so great through the porous peat of the salt 
marshes that pools are often drained and become dry at a 
distance of sixty or more feet from the ditch. 

In draining some Connecticut marshes clay or g^vel is 
encountered in the bottom of the ditch. It is not necessary to 
cut into this material unless it is near the central ditch where it 
will trap the water. 

Ditches cut years ago for salt hay farming were shallow and 
open. Such ditches are not recommended and are not being cut 
at the present time in mosquito extermination drainage work. 
Shallow and open ditches are easily clogged by floating debris 
and vegetation grows in them readily, choking them and render- 
ing them ineffective. Deep narrow ditches, on the other hand, 
remain in working condition for a number of years and are sel- 
dom clogged by vegetation. All marsh areas should be pven 
attention, however, because in high tides, sods from the ditches, 
hay, driftwood or other debris may float into the ditches and 
clog them. By a frequent and systematic patrol of the area 
such conditions may be detected and remedied at once. 

Such ditches as are mentioned above can best be cut with hand 
tools made for the purpose, shown on Plate XI, but on the 
larger marsh areas of New Jersey power machines may be 
employed to advantage. 

There are always small depressions which should be filled and 
can be filled easier and cheaper than they could be drained. This 
is particularly true in the hard land. There are also certain 
depressions where on account of the expense draining is imprac- 
ticable. These may be treated by dredging out the center and 
filling the banks with the material excavated, thus concentrating 
the water in a permanent pool which should be stocked with fish. 



DRAINING SALT MARSHES. 265 

COST OF DRAINING MARSH LAND. 

The cost of draining salt marsh land is not prohibitive. In 
fact it is actually less than most persons expect. From contracts 
which have been made recently for such work, and from con- 
versing with the contractors, we may state that the salt marshes 
of Connecticut may be drained, so that they will not breed mos- 
quitoes, at a cost of between $5.00 and $10.00 per acre, or say 
an average of not over $8.00 per acre. As this area contains 
22,264 acres the cost of draining the salt marshes of the whole 
State would not exceed $178,112.00, a sum insignificant con- 
sidering the benefit to be derived from its judicious expenditure. 

Some contracting firms are prepared to drain marsh areas at 
a g^ven price per running foot of ditch, the price var)ring from 
two cents upward, according to the amount and character of the 
work to be done. 

On some of the large marsh areas of New Jersey, ditches have 
been cut by power machines at a price as low as one cent per 
running foot of ditch, and contracts have been made for draining 
certain definite areas at less than $2.00 per acre. 



RESULTS OF DRAINING SALT MARSH. 

Wherever salt marsh is properly drained the land rises per- 
ceptibly, becomes much harder thto before and there is no stag- 
nant water upon it; mosquitoes cannot breed thereon, and 
consequently all land in the vicinity of the marsh becomes more 
desirable for residence purposes. If depressions occur and fill 
with water at flood tide, it will soon seep away before mosquitoes 
can develop in it. As the land becomes firmer it is easier to get 
over it, especially with a team, for cutting and removing the salt 
hay. The character of the vegetation soon changes and the spike 
grass DisHchlis maritima, which is characteristic of breeding 
areas and which always produces a small yield of poor quality 
hay, gives way to black grass Junciih gerardi, which makes the 
best salt hay and which all over the marsh gives a much greater 
yield after draining. During the summer a practiced eye can 
tell at a glance, by the color of the marsh, which portions of it 
are well drained, showing the bright green of the black grass, 
contrasting with duller green or gray of the spike grass and the 
other marsh vegetation of the ill-drained areas. 



266 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

The yield is often increased three or four fold by simple drain- 
ing, and land has been known to produce twenty times as much 
after the operation.* 

Such an increase in yield might, even with the crop of a single 
season, more than pay the cost of draining. But this increase 
keeps up as long as the drains work and the total increase in 
yield and quality of the crop is enormous. 

This yield, of course, greatly increases the income from the 
land, which accordingly increases in value as an investment 
Surrounding property also becomes more valuable on account of 
the increase in the value of the marsh. 

That the growing of vegetable crops on the salt marsh, where 
properly drained and dyked, is not impossible, nor impracticable, 
was demonstrated a few years ago by Mr. F. R. Sammis of 
Stratford, who grew some excellent celery, asparagus and onions 
on the big Stratford marsh. In future years, unquestionaWy 
some of our salt marsh land will be used to grow such crops. 

But more particularly on account of getting rid of the mosquito 
plague is the benefit felt by those living near the marsh. The 
people are more healthy and more comfortable. Shore resorts, 
summer hotels and cottages, as well as permanent residences, all 
benefit by such improvement work. If the mosquitoes can be 
eliminated from the coast region of Connecticut — ^and they will 
be if we drain the marsh land — ^there is no more attractive place 
in the country where one can spend the summer. Last but not 
least, the railroad and transportation companies will reap a 
harvest in the increased summer traffic to and from the shore 
resorts. 

OILING OF BREEDING POOLS. 

Where mosquito larvae wrigglers are found in any pool, 
they may be killed in a few minutes by spreading a film of oil 
over the surface of the water. It is necessary for the larvae 
to come to the surface aboyt once each two minutes to breathe, 
and the oil not only prevents the air from entering their respira- 
tory system, but the oil also enters their breathing tubes, 
destroying the tissues, and they soon die. 

The oil must be applied about once each ten days to keep the 



*J. B. Smith, Bulletin 207, New Jersey Agrictiltural Experiment 
Station 1907. ^ 



OILING OF BREEDING POOLS. 267 

pool in a safe non-breeding condition. For this purpose ordi- 
nary kerosene, which can be purchased from any grocer, will 
answer. Some prefer a heavier oil, called light fuel oil. One 
grade sold by the Standard Oil Co. as "34** Distillate" has 
been recommended for this work. 

Oiling at its best is but a temporary expedient, and should be 
practiced on the salt marsh only until the marsh can be drained'. 
In mid summer the tall vegetation often obscures many small 
breeding places, and likewise makes it difficult to distribute the 
oil on the surface of the water, where needed, — ^most of it 
striking the vegetation. 

A convenient method of applying oil is by means of small 
compressed air sprayers with cylinders of galvanized sheet iron. 
Each cylinder contains a pressure pump and will hold about two 
and one half gallons of liquid. It may be carried in the hand 
or held by a strap thrown over the shoulder. Such an outfit, 
including short piece of hose with nozzle, may be purchased 
for $4.50. A two-foot extension rod is almost a necessity and 
costs thirty-five cents extra. 

Where large areas are to be treated^ barrels of oil should be 
distributed at various convenient points, in or around the marsh. 

The amount of oil to be applied is one fluid ounce to each 
fifteen square feet of water surface. A less quantity will often 
fail to kill the wrigglers. 

SCREENING OF RAIN WATER RECEPTACLES. 

Many shore cottages are not connected with the water sup- 
ply of the villages or cities, but rain water is collected from 
their roofs and conducted into barrels or cisterns, from which 
it may be drawn as needed. Where these barrels or "cisterns 
are above ground and uncovered, CtUex pipiens will certainly 
breed in them. Such receptacles should always be screened, 
and if it is necessary to take water from the top of the barrel, 
mosquito netting tacked upon a hoop, somewhat larger than the 
top of the barrel, can be placed over it and removed at pleasure, 
and mosquitoes cannot reach the water to lay their eggs. 

Tin cans, kettles, broken bottles, clogged gutters and other 
receptacles on the dump or scattered promiscuously, are pro- 
lific breeding places wherever they contain water for a week or 
more and should never be tolerated. 



268 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 
COMMUNITY EFFORT IN MOSQUITO CONTROL. 

In any work directed toward the control of mosquitoes in 
the salt marsh region, little will be accomplished except through 
cooperation. If one marsh is drained, some relief will be felt 
by those residing near it and especially on the inland side of it 
But in order to really do away with the mosquito nuisance, 
all salt marsh areas for a distance of several miles should be 
drained. In the absence of State legislation, this can be done 
only through community effort, as the separate property owners 
will not as a rule cooperate effectively to such an extent, and 
many of them will not expend a dollar for such improvement 
work on their own land. If money is raised by subscription 
and enough procured, then large areas, beginning with the 
worst ones, can be treated and relief obtained. 

Lower prices for draining work will be obtained through 
cooperation than could possibly result if each owner arranged 
by himself for having it done. 



LEGISLATION NEEDED. 

Though much can be accomplished through the cooperation 
of adjacent communities in treating -salt marshes for the pur- 
pose of controlling mosquitoes, in order to gain the greatest 
benefits to all concerned, some state-wide movement should be 
inaugurated. Authority to drain marshes whether the owner 
desires it or not, should be conferred upon some officer or com- 
mission, especially where it benefits the whole community, the 
town and the state, without injuring the property or working 
any hardship to its owner. 

Just Vhat arrangement would be best has not been deter- 
mined, but if the State could bear a part of the expense — ^per- 
haps one-half, and give the work proper supervision and insist 
on its maintenance — and the remaining portion be met by the 
town and the owner, each paying a certain definite percentage, 
in just proportion to the benefits received, it would seem to be 
the most desirable solution of the problem. 

The salt marshes are owned by a large number of freehold- 
ers, some of whom are non-residents. Most of the owners, if 
they can be found, are willing to have their lands drained, but 
occasionally an owner objects, and he is thus able to block a 



SUMMARY. 269 

work which, if carried through, would be a great benefit to the 
whole community or town, including himself. 

Legislation is therefore essential to provide for the systematic 
and wholesale draining of the salt marsh areas of the State. 

SUMMARY. 

The mosquito plague of Southern Connecticut is composed 
chiefly of two species of salt marsh mosquitoes — ^the brown salt 
marsh mosquito, Culex cantator Coq., and the banded salt marsh 
mosquito, Culex solHcitans Walk., which breed in the brackish 
stagnant pools of the salt marshes and fly inland several miles 
in search of their food, viz. the blood of the higher animals. 

The rain barrel mosquito Culex pipiens Linn, breeds in rain 
water barrels, tin cans and other receptacles along the shore, 
and certain other species of Culex, as well as the malarial mos- 
quito. Anopheles, may breed in the fresh water pools next to 
the highland, yet these are all local, fly only short distances and 
form only a small part of the mosquito plague of the coast region. 

The salt marsh region of Connecticut contains 34.79 square 
miles, or 22,264 acres, more than half of which has in past 
years been drained for salt hay farming. During recent years 
the marshes have received little attention, the ditches have become 
filled and probably breed more mosquitoes than they did thirty 
or forty years ago. 

The conditions are such as to check the proper and natural 
development of the Connecticut coast region as a site for sum- 
mer homes; the land produces little, and is unprofitable, yet 
taxes are collected upon it. 

Tide gates in proper working condition will keep tide water 
from flowing over the marsh but do not prevent the fresh water 
entering the marsh from the highland. This must escape to 
the ocean and draining is the only treatment to be advised. 
Narrow 'deep ditches are much more permanent than broad 
shallow ones. The lateral ditches should be not more than ten 
inches wide and from 24 to 30 inches deep, and placed from 
100 to 150 feet apart, running parallel with each other, and 
nearly at right angles to the main stream or the broad central 
ditch. ^ 

The cost of draining the Connecticut marshes will vary, but 
may be done by contract at from $5.00 to $10.00 per acre, and 



27^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, 1912. 

should not average more than $8.00. The entire salt marsh 
area of Connecticut can be drained for less than $200,000.00. 

The increase in yield of salt marsh hay will soon pay the cost 
of draining and may do so in a single season. 

Mosquito wrigglers may be killed by oiling the breeding pools, 
but this should be considered as only a temporary measure and 
should not be advocated in place of draining. 

The methods of draining and oiling are shown on the plates, 
and described in detail on the pages of this report. Coopera- 
tion of individuals and conmiunities are necessary for success- 
ful results in this work, and many towns and communities have 
taken it up. Legislation, however, is needed, and a State-wide 
movement with some State supervision would seem to be the 
best solution of the problem. 

MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK IN CONNECTICUT 

IN 1912. 

During the year there has been much interest shown in the 
subject of mosquito control, and a number of requests were 
made to this office for the examination of suspected breeding 
areas and for expert advice regarding treatment' Much has 
also been accomplished in draining marsh areas, and this paper 
describes briefly each area examined and also contains a summary 
of all draining operations to control the mosquito nuisance. 
For convenience each section or locality is discussed separately. 

Greenwich. 

In response to a* request for an expert, Mr. Walden visited 
Greenwich on June loth, and in company with Dr. E. O. Parker, 
chairman of Mosquito Conmiittee, Board of Trade, and Mr. 
Edwin M. Skinner, president of the United States Drainage 
and Irrigation Company, examined the section within ♦a radius 
of about one mile of the town hall. 

Mr. Walden reports: 

**i. At the foot of Nigger Hole Hill is a stream with a series 
of swampy areas along its course. There is considerable stand- 
ing water in. these places in which mosquito larvse or wrigglers 
were breeding. The stream should be cleaned out and deepened 
so that it will drain all standing water. 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK IN CONNECTICUT. 27 1 

2. Near Edgewood Inn is a small swamp with bogs and 
grass more or less covered with water. Mosquito larvae were 
present in the water and many adult mosquitoes were found 
around the edges. In one direction the land is much lower than 
the swamp and a single ditch leading to this will give thorough 
drainage. 

3. There is a low area at the right hand side of Prospect 
street with standing water all through the grass and weeds. 
This could be drained across the street to a brook on the left 
hand side which is much lower than the street. 

The three above mentioned sections are ideal breeding places 
for the malarial mosquito (Anopheles), which will certainly be 
found there later in the season. The section near Prospect street 
is especially dangerous because there are many people living in 
the immediate vicinity. 

Any one of the three places can breed enough malarial 
mosquitoes to infest the entire borough. Owing to the prevalence 
of malaria in Greenwich now the conditions will be much worse 
later in the season when the Anopheles become more abundant, 
if nothing is done to do away with their breeding places." 

The Mosquito Committee conducted a campaign, issued litera- 
ture, and obtained, estimates for draining and filling sufficient 
to abolish the breeding places. The Board of Trade asked the 
borough officials for an appropriation for the work, but this 
was not granted, so no draining was done. Dr. Parker later 
reported a record of nine hundred authentic cases of malaria 
in Greenwich for 191 2. 

Stamford. 

The drainage work here was done in 191 1, and covered the 
entire coast line from the easterly shore of Bell Island to Shippan 
Point, a distance of about seven miles. Mr. W. L. Searles of 
Rowayton was chairman of the committee and was the leader 
in educating the people and arousing them to definite action. 
About $2,800.00, raised by voluntary contribution, was expended 
for draining 200 acres, and 125,000 lineal feet of ditches were 
cut. The residents are well satisfied with the work. This office 
had no part in this work, though in previous years the region 
has been examined twice and advice given. 



272 connecticut experiment station report, i912. 

Darien. 
As in Stamford, the money was raised by voluntary contribu- 
tion, and $3,800.00 was expended in draining an area amoimting 
to approximately 300 acres of salt marsh and some inland 
swamps. The work was completed late in 191 2. 

South Norwalk. 
In the work of South Norwalk and Darien, as well as in that 
of Stamford, Mr. Searles was the leading spirit. About 600 
acres were here* drained at a cost of $7,500.00, also raised by 
voluntary contribution, and the work was done in the summer 
of 19 1 2. This office can share no credit for the campaign here 
or at Darien. 

Fairfield. 

The campaign in Fairfield was started by local initiative in 
November, 191 1, and a committee arranged meetings and 
obtained contributions for the abatement of the mosquito nui- 
sance. Six public-spirited citizens g^ve $1,000.00 each, and it 
was not a difficult matter to raise by voluntary contribution 
enough to make $8400.00, which was the cost of draining 1,250 
acres of salt marsh and some small inland areas. Before con- 
tracts were let, the Improvement Association of Fairfield and 
vicinity became incorporated and took charge of the work. Mr. 
Oliver G. Jennings was president and Dr. Valery Havard, 
secretary. No dues were required and a large membership was 
sought and about 300 joined the organization. 

No oiling or other temporary measures were practiced at 
Fairfield, draining being the only means considered. The ditch- 
ing was started in June and finished about August ist. 

The results are evidently satisfactory as Dr. Havard stated 
that the people were now able to use their porches with comfort 
afternoon and evening. 

New Haven and ViciNrrv. 
The Anti-Mosquito Committee, a sub-committee of the Com- 
mittee on Sanitation of the Civic Federation of New Haven, 
instigated and, in cooperation with this office, planned a mosquito 
campaign. All other civic and health organizations were asked 
to cooperate and several meetings and conferences* were held. 



. MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK IN CONNECTICUT. 273 

The officers of this committee were Dr. Louis M. Gompertz, 
chairman; Seymour C. Loomis, secretary; and Thomas W. 
Famam, treasurer. 

By means of illustrated and other lectures, newspaper articles 
and circulars the matter was agitated in early spring and the 
week beginning April 226, was set apart as "donation week" 
or "mosquito week" for raising funds. Through an effort 
organized and directed chiefly by the secretary named above 
a house-to-house canvass was made. Altogether nearly $5,000.00 
was obtained by voluntary contributions in New Haven and 
vicinity, including adjacent portions of Orange and East Haven. 

Fourteen lectures, treating of mosquitoes, were made by Messrs. 
Britton and Walden in or near New Haven. Five of these were 
illustrated with lantern slides, and most of the others were 
illustrated by specimens, photographs or charts. It- is believed 
that much good resulted from the camp)aign aside from the money 
raised and the drainage and oiling work accomplished. An 
ordinance to prevent the breeding of house flies was passed 
by the board of aldermen, and a mosquito regulation adopted by 
the board of health. An appreciable advance was made in 
educating the people to recognize that these pests can be 
controlled. 

Experts from this office examined the whole area several 
times in the season, both to locate breeding areas and to inspect 
the work of oiling and draining. 

Before expending this money the Anti-Mosquito Committee 
was incorporated without capital stock, in order to put the work 
on a better business basis. Mr. P. L. Buttrick was employed 
as field agent, to have immediate charge of the oiling and other 
field work. 

Draining. 
The principal breeding places were drained, beginning at 
Morris Cove and extending eastward to Silver Sands, and includ- 
ing several separate small areas in the West River meadows. 
The area drained is estimated at 347 acres, and cost $3,567.00. 
Bids were first obtained on draining a certain area at Morris 
Cove, situated partly in New Haven and partly in East Haven 
and extending up both sides of Morris Creek, from its mouth 
northward as far as the salt marsh reaches. Three drainage 
18 



274 coNNExrricuT experiment station report, 1912. 

contractors visited the area and submitted bids. The contract 
was awarded to the lowest bidder, The United States Drainage 
and Irrigation Co., 17 Battery Place, New York City. There 
must be a new tide-gate built on Morris Creek below South 
End road before the full benefit of the ditching will be realized. 
The property owners expected to build one, but have not done 
so. Included with the Morris Cove area, in the first contract 
was a small plot of twelve or fifteen acres in Fort Hale Park. 
This area was in bad condition and needed draining. The land 
is owned by the United States Government but is turned over 
to the City for use for park purposes. The work on this con- 
tract was completed early in July. The ditches were inspected 
by Mr. Walden on July 22d, and again on July 29th in company 
with Mr. E. M. Harvey of The United States Drainage and 
Irrigation Co. 

Later this firm was employed to drain the South End marsh 
on a basis of a footage rate per lineal foot of ditch. On account 
of lack of funds, this marsh, especially at its eastern end, was 
not entirely drained, though most of the mosquito breeding 
was stopped in it. Nevertheless about 10,000 feet more of ditches 
are needed there to perfect the work, and should be cut as soon 
as funds are available. 

Though the worst breeding places were drained first, it was 
thought best not to expend all of the money for permanent work 
in the same section. The West River meadows contained 
several small areas that needed treatment, and contracts were 
awarded to the same firm to drain two such areas ; one west of 
the river between the New York, New Haven and Hartford 
Railroad tracks and Washington Avenue, and the other on the 
east side between Congress Avenue and the Derby Railroad. 
This work was done in August and was all examined August 
2 1st, by the State Entomologist, in company with Mr. P. L. 
Buttrick, field agent of the Anti-Mosquito Committee and Mr. 
Edwin M. Skinner, president of the United States Drainage 
and Irrigation Co. Mr. Skinner recognized a few defects and 
promised to, and later did, send his men to remedy them. This 
drainage work, while on the whole satisfactory, must be extended 
over nearly all of the salt and some of the fresh marshes around 
New Haven, before the mosquito nuisance can be entirely 
eliminated. Draining, filling or dredging, i. e., permanent work 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK IN CONNECTICUT. 275 

should be executed wherever possible, and other measures 
should be regarded as of doubtful expediency. 

Oiling. 

The committee early planned to keep oiled through the season 
such breeding areas near the city as could not be drained. 
Though a simple matter in fresh water pools and receptacles 
it is a difficult one on large salt marshes. These areas are 
flooded at the perigee or very high tides, which though not 
as high in 1912 as in some seasons, came oftener and the meadows 
were flooded longer than usual, making it all along the Con- 
necticut coast one of the worst mosquito seasons within the 
memory of the residents. 

On much of the salt marsh area the g^ss is not cut for 
hay but water stands in it deep enough and long enough to pro- 
duce mosquitoes. The presence of the grass interferes seriously 
with applying the oil to the surface of the water. Where the 
water occurs only in pools the matter is comparatively simple, 
but in late summer and early fall the very worst breeding places 
were in the grass, and many of these areas showed no signs of 
breeding in the spring and early summer. 

At first the oiling was done with small knapsack compressed 
air sprayers. The "Auto-spray" shown on plate XIII made by 
the E. C. Brown Co., Rochester, N. Y., was first employed, being 
available, light and inexpensive. But this pump did not prove 
to be very durable and later one of the "Simplicity" pumps, 
made by the McCormick Manufacturing Co., of Dayton, O., was 
ordered. 

No work was done on the Quinnipiac marsh, but all other 
marshes near the city not drained were oiled. As the grass 
breeding became more extensive and intensive toward the latter 
part of the summer more powerful pumps were needed, and 
a Hardie Wheel Outfit was procured. After a trial, the 
"Double-Forester," designed for fighting fires and made by 
W. & B. Douglas, Middletown, was purchased. Both of these 
pumps were quite effective, though requiring two men to each 
outfit. Each pump is sufficiently powerful to throw a heavy 
spray or solid stream for some distance, and it is unnecessary 
to walk over the entire area as is the case with the smaller 
outfit. But even larger outfits were given a trial. When the 



276 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

breeding season was at its height Mr. Buttrick borrowed some 
barrel spray pumps, such as are used for spraying trees, and 
hired extra men to use them. By such means he was able to 
head off one brood of mosquitoes which was in danger of emeig- 
ing before the territory could be covered by his regular force 
with the small pumps. 

Altogether nearly $1,000.00 was expended in oiling. It is 
rather expensive, costing on the salt marsh about one-fourth 
to one-third as much in one season as to drain the same area. 
The drains, with slight attention, are effective for many years, 
but the oiling must be repeated with the subsidence of every 
high tide. 

For part of the work kerosene was used, chiefly because it 
could be procured at a reasonable price at every comer grocery, 
often saving expense in the time of the men, if it had to be 
carried long distances from a central distributing point. But 
later in the season when more oil was used several barrds 
were purchased of a heavier oil, known as "light fuel oil" or 
"34° distillate," and a barrel placed near the center of each 
particular area where it would be used. This oil is somewhat 
less expensive than kerosene, and lasts longer upon the surface 
of the water. It is probably more destructive to vegetation, 
and to animal life in the water than kerosene — ^though both kill 
mosquito larvae readily. The Park Commissioners oiled the 
breeding places within the public parks. 

From the actual cost of doing the work, Mr. Buttrick com- 
puted that for tne early brood the cost per acre might be as 
low as three cents. In midsummer the cost was about sixteen 
cents per acre per brood, while for the heavy broods of August 
and September the expense probably reached $1.00. The average 
per brood would probably be. nearly fifty cents per acre. If 
there are seven broods in a season it will be seen that the cost 
of oiling alone may amount to $3.00 or more per acre, for a 
single season. 

As most of this marsh land can be drained for less than ten 
dollars per acre, systematic oiling is hardly to be advised. 

Future Work Around New Haven. 
In order to be practically rid of the salt marsh mosquito nui- 
sance, more draining must be done next year. This should 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK IN CONNECTICUT. 277 

include the area on the east side of the harbor north of Fort 
Hale Park, portions of the Mill River meadows, Quinnipiac 
marsh. West River meadows, and at Sandy Point, Old Field 
Creek and Cove River marshes in Orange. Additional ditches 
should be cut at South End, and there are still other marshes 
in East Haven between Momauguin and the Branford line. 
The City of New Haven should also drain Beaver Swamp, where 
malarial mosquitoes breed abundantly, and all other breeding 
places within its park area. 

Corporations Interested. 

Several transportation and manufacturing corporations have 
shown sufficient interest in the subject to have their marsh land 
examined and estimates obtained for draining it. For the most 
part the estimates were submitted late in the season and action 
was deferred until the following spring. 

Branford. 

In 191 1 some draining work was done north of Short Beach, 
and several years ago Mr. Wm. A. Bryan, at his own expense, 
drained many acres of salt marsh near Indian Neck. Dr. Chas. 
W. Gaylord has also at different times exercised his authority 
as health officer to drain areas where malarial mosquitoes were 
breeding. Several years ago the residents of Pine Orchard 
raised money and drained a small marsh and oiled other areas 
near that settlement. 

Early in 1912, Dr. Wm. H. Carmalt, chairman of the House 
Committee of the Graduates Club, asked us to make an examina- 
tion of the marshes in the vicinity of Double Beach, the hotel 
there having been rented by the Club. Mr. Walden, with the 
help of Mr. Kirk, examined this area. That portion west of 
Double Beach was examined on May loth, and the remaining 
portion west, as far as Branford River, on May 20th. Had 
the examination been made in July, August or September, 
mosquito breecKng would have been found far more extensive, 
as is the case in all salt marshes. Mr. Walden's notes refer 
to breeding places located on maps by means of numbers and 
are as follows : 



27^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Marshes west of Double Beach, examined May lo, igi2. 
"603. At entrance of hotel grounds on both sides of drive, 
there is standing water in which wrigglers were breeding (fresh 
water species). 

604. Holes blasted in the ledge, which hold water and in 
which fresh water wrigglers were found. 

605. This whole marsh area is in bad shape. The old ditches 
are choked and the marsh is soggy, with much standing water, 
in which salt marsh wrigglers (probably Culex cantator) were 
abundant. It will be necessary to reditch this whole section 
to prevent breeding. The worst breeding is across the north 
end and down the east side, next to the road covered with 
crushed stone. Near the entrance to the private place there 
is breeding on both sides of the road. 

606. Small, soggy areas which need draining. Wrigglers 
were present in all standing water. 

607. Small marsh of two or three acres across the south 
side of which is a roadway with stone retaining wall next to 
water. Towards the west end was a sluiceway through which 
flows the stream that drains the marsh. This sluice has collapsed, 
choking the stream so that the marsh contains standing water, 
especially on the north and eaist sides. The water contained 
large numbers of wrigglers. The sluiceway should be repaired 
and small ditches should be dug from the edges of the marsh 
to the main stream. 

608. In the whole upper half of this marsh and west of 
the stream down to the road where the trolley runs, mosquitoes 
are breeding abundailtly." 

Marshes east of Double Beach, examined May 20, igi2, 
"609. Small marsh north of Double Beach Hotel; a few 
wrigglers were found. A single ditch from shore to west side 
of area will drain all standing water. 

610. The west and north portions of this marsh have much 
standing water, and mosquitoes are breeding in it. Should be 
drained. 

611. South edge of this small marsh next to high land has 
choked ditches with standing water and is breeding mosquitoes. 

612. A low marsh flooded by tide when examined. No 
mosquito breeding found. 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK IN CONNECTICUT. 279 

613-614. Water standing at these spots, containing wrigglers. 

615-616. Standing water which may breed mosquitoes later 
in the season. 

617. Sparse breeding along the edge of marsh. 
^ 618. Upper end of marsh, where the drainage has been cut 
oflF by a road crossing to a sand bank on west side. 

619. This marsh is in very bad condition. The whole area 
is in need of ditching. The worst breeding spots in the sections 
are marked 619." 

Estimates were procured on draining these marsh areas, but 
nothing else has been done. Possibly next season may bring 
some definite action. 

In May, 19 12, Mr. David Daggett of New Haven applied to 
this office for an expert examination of the region about Pine 
Orchard, to learn what measures should be adopted to eliminate 
the mosquito nuisance there. As we were all busy, at our 
suggestion, Mr. P. L. Buttrick was employed for this purpose 
by Mr. Daggett, who requested that the report be submitted to 
this office for approval before further action on it was taken. 

The examination was made during the latter part of May 
and a report of six t)rpewritten pages and a map was submitted 
for my approval May 29th.. This report covers the coast 
from Branford River to Stony Creek and includes data on 
fresh as well as salt marshes. The suggestions for treatment 
have not been adopted as far as I can learn, so there still 
remains considerable work to be done in this section. 

Guilford. 
A citizen of Guilford is authority for the statement that the 
selectmen have caused to be drained certain sections of marsh 
land in that town. I do not know the area treated nor in what 
year the work was done. 

Old Saybrook and Old Lyme. 
My first knowledge of any attempt at mosquito control near 
the mouth of the Connecticut River resulted from the call at 
my office of Mr. Brooks on May 17. He stated that at Fenwick, 
where mosquitoes had been quite a nuisance, the residents had 
determined to use an abundance of oil, floating it in on the tide 



a8o CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

as a relief measure. I advised him that draining was the proper 
means, and cautioned him against expending too much money 
upon oil. 

Nothing more was heard from this sefction until October, 
when I received a letter from Mr. R. A. Rutherfurd of Black 
Hall, who had planned to procure estimates on draining the 
entire area, a portion of which lies in the town of Old Say- 
brook and the remainder in Old Lyme. Mr. Rutherfurd 
obtained estimates, saw the residents most interested and enlisted 
their support, then arranged for two meetings on November ist, 
one at 4 p. M. in Old Saybrook and another at Old Lyme at 
8 p. M. A representative of the United States Drainage and 
Irrigation Co., which made the estimate, was present, and the 
State Entomologist gave a brief talk at each meeting. Since 
that date a committee in Old Lyme has organized an Anti- 
Mosquito League and in all probability some draining will be 
accomplished next season. 

Fresh Water Breeding Places. 

On May i6th, at the request of Dr. Wm. H. Carmalt, I 
visited the property formerly known as Lion Park, now owned 
by the New Haven County Anti-Tuberculosis Society, on 
Campbell Avenue, West Haven, making an inspection of possible 
mosquito breeding places on the property. The following report 
was submitted to Dr. Carmalt: 

"That portion fronting on Campbell Avenue, where several 
drains have recently been installed, is now in good condition. 
There is a little moisture above ground, due to the recent heavy 
rains, but I believe this will entirely disappear after a few dajrs 
of pleasant weather. The only portion of the ground which 
needs any treatment is the brush-covered area near the south- 
west comer. There is more or less water standing in the 
depressions scattered over a part of this area, and the deeper 
pools, or nearly all of them, contain mosquito larvae, some of 
which are nearly full grown. These are probably Culex cana- 
densis, one of the species which breed in woodland pools early 
in the season. The brush here grows so thickly that it is dif- 
ficult to get through it to make a careful examination of this 
part of the grounds. Kerosene should be put on these pools at 
once, in order to kill the larvse now in them. The oil can be 



MOSQUITO CONTROL WORK IN CONNECTICUT. 28 1 

applied easily on these small pools with an ordinary sprinkling 
can, though it is necessary first to cut some of the brush in order 
to get at them. 

I believe that the best treatment for this area is to cut a 
ditch perhaps eighteen or twenty inches deep and a foot wide, 
running through the center of the swampy area in a westerly 
direction or perhaps a little north of west, following the natural 
drainage line to the swamp near the railroad back of your prop- 
erty. Perhaps it will be necessary to cut a few short lateral 
ditches leading into the larger breeding pools, using the material 
removed from the ditches to fill in the small depressions. This 
work, of course, can be done under the direction Qf any engineer 
or contractor, and presents no particular difficulties. 

I presume there is more territory west of your property 
which also needs draining, though I did not look over the 
adjoining field." 

On June 20th, 1912, at the request of Dr. W. S. Lay, health 
officer of Hamden, I accompanied him in his automobile, from 
the corner of Whitney and Putnam Avenues, to look at some 
stagnant pools which he regarded as unsanitary. 

First we went through Putnam Avenue, to where a small 
sluggish stream crosses upper Newhall Street. This stream 
comes from the vicinity of Prospect Street, near the base of Mill 
Rock, and crossing Newhall Street, enters the swamp owned 
by the New- Haven Water Company. A high wire fence pre- 
vented us from examininp^ the water on this property, but where 
it crossed the street, as well as above it, was in a filthy condi- 
tion. Though the water was tested at a few places for wrigglers, 
none were found. Dr. Lay pointed out a number of houses 
nearby where undoubted cases of malaria occurred last year 
and this spring. This seemed to be the source of the malarial 
mosquito. From the condition of the stream and swarap it 
must surely breed malarial and otHer mosquitoes later in the 
season, and should be regarded as dangerous, at least in its 
present condition. The Water Company should cut, on its own 
property, a deep central ditch, sufficiently broad to carry off 
the water. With a few laterals to drain the margins of the swamp. 
The material excavated should be used for filling depressions 
between the ditches. Above Newhall Street, the bed of the 



282 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Stream should be cleared and straightened, some* of the brush 
cut and the water stocked with minnows. Several coves in the 
margin of the upper part of Lake Whitney receive surface 
water from the surrounding territory and are separated from 
the main part of the lake by sand bars which are supposed to 
act as filters. These cut off parts of the lake, must certainly be 
mosquito breeding areas at times and should be given attention. 
The margins are shallow and more or less grown up with vege- 
tation. Even if stocked with fish there would probably be 
mosquito breeding around the edges. 

We then went north and west, where, between Dixwell and 
Circular avenues, and south of Cherry Hill we found a large 
stagnant pool, of perhaps eight or ten acres in extent. Appar- 
ently this pool has no outlet, but the water is shallow and grass 
grows through it over most of the surface. We did not test 
this pool for mosquito breeding. At Mt. Carmel post office we 
turned to the east and then to the north, into the road running 
parallel with the trolley tracks. At a point directly back of 
Mr. Woodruff's, opposite the vicinity of the Station farm, there 
are at least three sink holes, each containing a foot or more of 
water, all more or less grown up with brush, the present species 
being button bush, and half of the bushes were dead. Various 
aquatic plants grow around the margins, the latter so covered 
with brown scum that it was difficult to examine the water. 
Adult mosquitoes, resembling Culex pipiens, fairly swarmed 
here. We did not succeed in finding larvae, and on account of 
the soft mud around the edges and the lack of rubber boots, 
it was impossible to make tests except in a few places. These 
places were formerly drained into the stream which* is only a 
short distance eastward, but the ditches need to be deepened and 
the brush should be cut to let in the sunlight and to facilitate 
the work of draining and oiling. These places are on land 
either owned or controlled by the New Haven Water Company, 
and should receive attention at once, as the residents of the 
vicinity have already entered a complaint. 

Returning to the trolley line at Mt. Carmel center, the com- 
mencement of the old canal and at the south end, near the 
railroad station we found one malarial wriggler in the water. 

Advised Dr. Lay to work for the permanent draining of this 
canal, and to fill portions of it, if not possible to drain it entirely. 



mosquito control work in connecticut. 283 

Organized Effort Toward Legislation. 

Knowing the interest in the subject of mosquito suppression, 
and its importance to the people of the State, the Station called 
a meeting for September 17th, and invited all men to attend 
who were known to be interested in the object of the meeting. 
Nearly one hundred invitations were issued, but less than twenty 
were present. Many letters were received from others express- 
ing their regret that on account of previous engagements thiy 
were unable to be present. Dr. Gaylord of Branford was chosen 
chairman. The situation in all its phases was discussed, and 
the speakers were unanimous in declaring legislation necessary. 
Consequently it was moved that the chairman appoint a com- 
mittee of five to further consider the matter and, if it saw fit, 
to draft bills to be introduced into the next legislature, the 
ccminiittee to report at another meeting to be called prior to 
January ist, 1913. 

The committee, of which Dr. Chas. J. Bartlett of New Haven 
was chairman, met twice and decided upon two measures, one 
providing for the drainage of the larger marsh areas, and the 
other giving more authority to the health officers to remedy 
local mosquito troubles. These bills were submitted to the 
people attending the second meeting at the Station, November 22, 
Through a suggestion made at this meeting, a portion of the 
second bill was omitted and the matter covered by an amend- 
ment to Section 2526 of the General Statutes (Revision of 1902). 
The meeting then voted approval of these three measures and 
the chairman was empowered to appoint a committee to acquaint 
the people with these proposed laws and to support the bills 
at the legislative hearings. Dr. Wm. H. Carmalt of New Haven 
was appointed chairman of this conmiittee. 

The following table shows the approximate number of acres 
of marsh land which have been drained recently, and all but 
the Stamford work was done in 1912. Moreover, the cost, which 
is also shown in the table, was borne by voluntary contributions : 

Mosquito Drainage Work in Connecticut. 

Approximate 
LocatioD. Acreage. Cost. 

Stamford 200 $2,800.00 

Darien 300 3,800.00 

South Norwalk 600 7i5oo.oo 

Fairfield 1,250 8^00.00 

New Haven 347 3,567.00 

Total 2,697 $26,067.00 



284 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

OUTBREAK OF THE FALL ARMY WORM. 
Laphygma frugiperda S. & A. 

On September 3d a few specimens of the larvae were received 
from Mr. Fred Hoadley of Stonington, where they were devour- 
ing the grass of a lawn in the village. The caterpillars were 
collected on August 31st, and Mr. Hoadley reported that they 
seemed to eat grass only, and had destroyed the lawn. Mr. 
Hoadley had sprayed the femaining grass with lead arsenate, 
which killed the larvae. 

On September loth a large number of larvae and pupae were 
brought to my office from the lawn of Mr. Thomas Hooker, 
51 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, where they were rapidly 
devouring the grass. Many of the larvae had Tachinid egg^ 
fastened upon their heads and bodies, showing that they were 
strongly parasitized. 

The next day, September 11, in response to a request, I 
visited Branford House, the residence of Mr. Morton F. Plant 
at Groton, to examine the work of this insect. Several acres 
of lawn had been entirely devastated and the ground was being 
disked preparatory to reseeding. Many of the caterpillars here 
had pupated though some were still small, and apparently about 
half grown. Here also were many Tachinid eggs indicating 
that parasites were present. 

On September nth another box of specimens was brought 
to the Station by Mr. William Roberts, from the field of his 
neighbor, Mrs. Upson. In this case the larvae were devouring 
millet and doing considerable damage. These also showed evi- 
dences of parasitism and there were pupae in the box. 

On September 22d adults emerged from the material collected 
at Groton and also from New Haven material. Adults con- 
tinued to emerge until October 9th. 

Dr. Felt* reports that this insect was very abundant in the 
vicinity of New York and on Long Island the latter part of 
September and the first part of October. It attacked lawns 
chiefly, but injured com on Long Island. 

From a circular issued August 31st, by the Secretary of 
Agriculture, it appears that this insect has this season caused 



♦Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 5, p. 403, October, 1912. 



THE FALL ARMY WORM. 285 

great destruction of crops in <he Gulf States and northward, 
attacking nearly all kinds of vegetation, but especially grass, 
com, alfalfa, cow peas, cotton, sugar cane and rice. The fall 
army worm was not the only offender in this southern invasion 
but was accompanied by the true army worm Heliophila uni-- 
puncta. Haw., and by the cotton worm Alabama argillacea, 
Hiibn. In Connecticut, however, these two last named species 
were not seen in the adult stage, though the army worm is 
probably present in small numbers and several adults have been 
taken at light each season. 

Description and Life History. 

The adult of the fall army worm is a moth belonging to the 
family Noctuidae, and has a wing expanse varying from one 
and one-fourth to one and one-half inches. The primaries are 
narrow and in the male are often without prominent markings, 
being uniformly mouse grey. The female has conspicuously 
mottled primaries, which can be seen better than described if 
the reader will examine plate XIV, a, of this report, where both 
sexes are shown. The secondaries in both sexes are nearly 
white, semi-transparent and iridescent, with a dark border, 
which is broadest at the apex, and gradually diminishing and 
disappearing altogether before it reaches the inner angle. 

Body mouse grey, somewhat lighter than the primaries. The 
females lay pearly-white ribbed eggs in clusters of 50 to 60 
and covered with mouse-colored hairs from the abdomen of 
the parent. These eggs are laid on the leaves and stems of 
grasses and when abundant the females often deposit eggs on 
the leaves or twigs of trees, walls, fences and buildings. The 
eggs hatch in about ten days and the young begin to feed upon 
their favorite food plant, which is usually grass of various 
kinds, with the cereals as second choice, followed by the other 
crops mentioned. There are probably two generations in this 
climate and the larval period is not well known here. It prob- 
ably varies greatly in different seasons. Our collection contains 
several adults collected in Maine between August loth and 
September 7th. The late appearing female moths lay eggs, 
but from studies made at Washington, D. C, a few years ago, 
it appears that though these eggs hatch and the larvae feed until 
cold weather, then go into the soil, that they are not able to 



286 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

survive the winter. In most cases the adults do not emei^ 
in the fall, but pass the winter as pupae and appear the follow- 
ing May. As we have a good supply of material we hope to 
be able to make further observations on the life history of this 
insect 

The full grown larva varies from one to one and one-half 
inches in length and somewhat resembles the common army 
worm but is darker in color. The Stonington specimens were 
described as follows : 

Length 28 mm. (i}i inch) : thickness 3 mm. Color daric 
purplish grey or black dorsally, greenish or light brown ven- 
trally. A spiracular lateral stripe extends longitudinally, widi 
yellowish ground-work faintly marked with light brown. There 
are narrow, broken, subdorsal lines of cream color, with faint 
parallel tracings between them. The first segment has a well- 
defined, cream-colored dorsal line which disappears entirely 
on the second or third segments. Anal segment with cream- 
colored dot. Head black, shining, with an inverted Y-shaped, 
cream-colored, facial mark. Antennae white with black tips. 
Legs brown. Each abdominal segment shows dorsally six black 
tubercles, the front pair being nearer together than the rear 
ones, the lateral pair being distad of the front and caudad of 
the rear pair. There are two rows of black tubercles below 
the yellow spiracular stripe. Each tubercle bears a short black 
and rather stiff hair. 

The pupa is about five-eighths of an inch long, brown and 
much resembles the corresponding stage of other Noctuid moths. 
Larvae, pupae and adults are shown on plate XIV. 

Natural Enemies. 
I have already mentioned that the larvae were parasitized. 
Three female Tachinid flies emerged October 5th, from the 
Groton material. These were identified by Mr. Harrison E. 
Smith of the Bureau of Entomology, as Winthemia quadri- 
pustulata Fabr., a species common on this as well as on other 
hosts. Chittenden* mentions another fly, Frontina frenchii Will., 
of the same family reared from material collected at Coltunbia, 
S. C. He also mentions the Hymenopterous parasites, Apanteles 



♦ Bureau of Entomology, Bull. 29, p. 36, 1901. 



THE FALL ARMY WORM. 287 

laphygmae Ashm., MSS., Limneria dubitata Cress., and Euplec- 
trus comstockii How., as having been bred from the larvse. 
Several specimens of wasps are known to attack the larvae in the 
Southern States and the larva of a ground beetle, thought to 
be the fiery ground beetle, Calosoma calidum Fabr., is known to 
prey upon them. This beetle is common in Connecticut. 

Control Measures. 

Lawns may be sprayed or drenched with an arsenical poison, 
preferably lead arsenate, to kill the larvae which feed upon it. 
This was used by Mr. Hoadley with good results at Stoning- 
ton, and would be particularly effective in the early stages of 
the damage before the larvae are fully grown. It usually 
happens, however, that the larvae remain unnoticed until they 
have made their work conspicuous, and by that time many have 
transformed to pupae. It is then too late to poison them. Appli- 
cations of kerosene emulsion, followed with copious drenchings 
from the hose, is said to be effective. 

There are several mechanical measures that may be employed. 
One of these is to roll the ground in early morning or in late 
afternoon when the larvae are feeding, going over the land 
several times with a heavy roller. 

At Groton a disk harrow was employed to cut up the turf, 
to make a suitable bed for reseeding the lawn. Possibly this 
treatment was unnecessary. Even though the grass was wholly 
devoured above ground it would come up again and be green 
if the crowns of the plants or the rootstocks were not destroyed. 
Nevertheless, the harrow was in operation when I visited the 
place and I advised that it be driven over the lawn many times 
in different directions to kill as many as possible of the larvae 
and pupae. 

As most of the insects winter as pupae in the soil, late fall 
plowing may be regarded as an important control measure, 
especially on land where the field crops have been attacked and 
injured. It is not advisable for lawns. If large flocks of 
chickens or turkeys can be placed upon an infested field, no 
doubt many of the larvae and pupae will be devoured. 

Attention should be given this insect next year, as the fall 
army worm sometimes causes considerable damage earlier in 
the season. 



288 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

SERIOUS INJURY BY WHITE GRUBS. 

In the report of this Station for 1909, page 372, there was 
published a short account of injury to grass lands that season 
by white grubs. Judging from observations, correspondence 
and other reports, this injury in 1912 far exceeded that of 
1909, and not only was grass damaged but various cultivated 
crops such as strawberries, com and even potatoes were badly 
injured. 

Specimens of the grubs were received July 23d, from Bots- 
ford; August 22d, Bethel; August 23d, Noroton Heights; 
August 28th, Darien and Saugatuck; September 12th, Noroton; 
September 28th, Meriden; and October isth, Fairfield. Inquiries 
were also received and answered from Colchester, Norwalk, 
Wallingford, Prospect, Cheshire, Watertown, Plantsville, South- 
port, Southbury, New York City and Hammonton, N. J. At 
Prospect, Cheshire, Noroton, Darien, Southport, Fairfield, 
Southbury, Meriden and New York City the grubs caused 
injury to grass in meadows and in one case on lawns. Injury 
to com was the reason for inquiries from Botsford, Colchester, 
Norwalk, Wallingford and Cheshire. Mr. Filley reported a 
case in Southington where two acres of corn had been killed 
by the grubs. The inquiries from Bethel and Watertown reported 
strawberries as being the crop chiefly damaged, and serious 
injury to potatoes was the complaint from Noroton Heights, 
Darien, Saugatuck and Plantsville. Mr. Moss reports very 
serious injury to potatoes in West Cheshire. In one case a 
row five rods long furnished at harvest only thirteen good 
potatoes. On the land of the Northeastern Forestry Company 
at Cheshire, where several acres were devoted to potatoes, only 
about 25 per cent, of the crop escaped injury. Here, also, there 
was great damage to forest tree seedlings. White pine is the 
kind of tree grown there most extensively and it was the most 
injured, nearly 25 per cent, of the seedlings being damaged. 
Some of the seedlings lost their roots entirely, as shown on 
plate XV, a, while others were partly eaten off. Black locust 
and other kinds of hard wood seedlings were also attacked and 
injured, though to a less extent. The inquiry from Hammonton, 
N. J., stated that the grubs were destroying lettuce plants by 
eating the roots in the beds, where they were evidently intro- 



INJURY BY WHITE GHUBS. 2^9 

duced in the compost, which is usually made of turf and stable 
manure. Professor Forbes found thirty-four grubs in a single 
hill of com in an Illinois field. 

The dry season seems to favor the increase and abundance of 
white grubs. Several such droughts in succession generally 
precede or at least accompany severe white grub injury. 
Normally, grubs are present in the soil and feed upon grass 
roots, but it is only when abundant that they cause conspicuous 
dams^e. Plate XV shows the adult beetle, larva and the injury 
caused by this insect. 

Life History. 

White grubs are the larvae of May or June beetles, belonging 
to the genus Lachnostema and to the family Scarabaeidae. 
There are many species in the United States, and our collection 
contains fourteen species taken in Connecticut. Probably sev- 
eral others occur here. Of this number L. fusca Freeh., L. 
crenulata Forst., L. hirticula Klnoch., L. nova Smith, and L. 
fratema Harris, are the common ones and one or more of these 
are doubtless responsible for the damage to grass and hoed 
crops. Most of our material was examined by Mr. John J. 
Davis of Lafayette, Ind., who is working on this genus for the 
Bureau of Entomology. Though the exact life history has not 
been carefully worked out for each species, it is supposed that 
three years are required for the insect to pass tiirough the 
entire period of development from the egg to the adult beetle. 
Most of this time is occupied by the larval period and passed 
in the soil. It is the last year as grubs when they are large 
and voracious that the larvae do most of their feeding and con- 
sequently most of the injury. The work of the smaller and 
younger grubs of a later generation is probably seldom noticed, 
though usually occurring in the same field with the larger ones. 

The eggs are laid in the month of June in grass land or 
cultivated fields; and are white, oval, and about one-tenth of 
an inch in length. Each egg is laid in a ball of earth perhaps 
a half inch in diameter and placed in the ground from one to 
five inches beneath the surface. In about two weeks the eggs 
hatch and the young grubs begin to feed upon the roots, growing 
slowly at first. At the end of the first and perhaps the second 
seasons the grubs go downward from seven to fourteen inches 
19 



^90 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

below the surface to pass the winter. At the end of the last 
season the grub makes an earthen cell in the ground, and after 
three weeks there, changes to a soft, light brown beetle. It 
remains in the ground, however, until the f (blowing spring, when 
in May or June it emerges a dark, brown beetle with hardened 
wing covers. The adult beetles feed at night on the leaves of 
various trees, sometimes defoliating them. It is probable liiat 
the various species may have different feeding habits and food 
preferences, but these are not well known and must here be 
treated as if the same. The beetles hide through the day in the 
soil and may often be turned up with the rake or the spade in 
the garden. In early evening late in May and during the first 
part of June the beetles make much noise in their clumsy flight 
and certain species are attracted by lights and may be found in 
large numbers under arc lights. 

Control MKrnoDS. 

Like several other noxious insects, white grubs should be 
controlled by cultural practices rather than by the use of apj^- 
cations. Com, strawberries and other crops commonly damaged 
by white grubs should not be planted on sod land as it is 
usually on such ground that the greatest damage occurs. Rota- 
tion of crops is apt to prevent this multiplication and it is where 
land is kept in grass for several years at a time that it is 
most seriously injured. If hogs can be turned upon infested 
land they will root it over and devour the g^bs. Skunks have 
a similar habit, and I saw years ago in New Hampshire acres 
of grass so eaten at the roots that the turf could be rolled up 
like a carpet and the field filled with holes where the skunks 
had been digging after the gjubs. 

Fall plowing is to be reconunended as it brings the larva 
and pupae to the surface, where they are killed by freezing. 
If flocks of turkeys or chickens follow the plow they will eat 
many of the insects as will also blackbirds and crows. 

Often the injury is noticed in midsummer, when it is advis- 
able to plow the land and sow it to Hungarian or millet, thus 
getting another crop from it the same year. If the injury 
appears too late in the season for this practice, the land may 
still be sown to rye. In any case, whether the ground is plowed 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES. 29 1 

in late fall or in spring, midsummer or early fall, it should 
be pulverized very thoroughly by going over it several times 
in diflFerent directions with a disk harrow to kill the larvae or 
beetles. It is questionable if any application of chemicals, as 
is often advised, is worth considering. Common salt, lime, 
kainit and muriate of potash are sometimes recommended to kill 
ivhite grubs, but the cultural practices mentioned are preferable ; 
though any good fertilizer has a value other than for killing 
grubs. 

MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES. 
A Gall-making Beetle of the Hop Hornbeam. — In April 
191 1, Mr. A. B. Champlain, then an assistant in this department, 
while visiting at Lyme, collected some branches of hop horn- 
beam or ironwood, Ostrya virginka, containing swellings or 
galls. On cutting open the galls, some were empty, while others 
contained borers, and a spiral gallery was visible. The branches 
were placed in breeding jars with the ends in moistened sarld 
to prevent too rapid dr)ring. In due time, on May 29th, three 
adult beetles were obtained. They belong to the family Bupres- 
tidae and to the genus Agrilus, They were sent for identifica- 
tion to Mr. C. A. Frost, South Framingham, Mass., who 
pronounced it a new species^ and who was requested to describe 
it. Mr. Frost has named this species champlaini, in honor of 
the discoverer, and the description was published in the Canadian 
Entomologist, Vol. XLIV, page 245, August, 1912. The 
appearance of the gall is shown on plate !KVI, c. Other speci- 
mens have since been reared by Mr. Kirk. 

The Spruce Bud Moth, Tortrix fumiferana Clem. — ^This insect 
seemed to be unusually abundant in 1912. Several adults were 
taken at light on July 17th. On July 22d several adult moths 
were received from Dr. E. H. Jenkins, collected at his summer 
home, Pemaquid Point, Me., where he says that the larvae defo- 
liate and ultimately kill the spruce trees. The adults were 
mating at the time he collected them and the air was filled with 
them flying about. In a trip through eastern Massachusetts 
and along the coast in New Hampshire and into Maine during 
July, the writer also saw hundreds of these moths. In Con- 
necticut, however, I have never seen them as abundant as they 



292 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

were the past season. Occasional spruce twigs which may have 
been damaged by this species have been sent to this office. Two 
were received from New Haven and one from Stamford in 
191 1, but we were not able to rear the adult. An illustrated 
account of the destructive work of this insect may be found 
in the Fifth Report of the United States Entomological Own- 
mission, page 830, 1890, and a compiled account is g^ven by 
Dr. Felt in his "Insects AflFecting Park and Woodland Trees," 
page 416, 1906. 

The moth has a wing-spread of an inch or slightly less, and 
the wings are finely mottled with light and dark brown. The 
winter is passed in the partly grown caterpillar sts^e amcmg 
the terminal shoots of the branches, and in the spring the larvae 
feed upon the leaves of the present and previous seasons' 
growth, making a web upon the terminal shoots and reaching 
maturity the last week in June. They then pupate in the loose 
leaves of their improvised nests, and in a week the adults appear. 
The eggs are laid in midsununer and hatch in ten days. There 
is but one brood each year. 

Where choice ornamental and shade trees are attacked, they 
should be sprayed thoroughly with lead arsenate, using at least 
five pounds of paste or two and one-half pounds of dry powder 
in fifty gallons of water. 

A Chrjmomelid Beetle on English Ivy Imported from 
Europe. — ^While inspecting imported nursery stock in the spring, 
Messrs. Caffrey and Kirk found in one box containing several 
plants of the conmion English ivy, Hedera helix, some blue leaf- 
eating beetles which appeared to be feeding upon the ivy. The 
shipment came from Holland. All specimens found were col- 
lected, about fourteen in ntunber. Through the kindness of the 
Bureau of Entomology, these were identified by Mr. E. A. 
Schwarz as Agelastica (Galeruca) alni Linn. Mr. Schwarz 
writes that the introduction of this beetle into the United States 
would be most undesirable. Though perhaps it is not regarded 
as an important pest abroad, it is included in Eckstein's "Forst- 
liche Zoologie," page 442, 1897, ^^d in Judeich-Nitsche's 
"Forstinsektenkunde," page 607, 1895, as skeletonizing the 
leaves of various species of alder. Whether or not it will attack 
and injure other kinds of foliage we do not know. 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES. ^93 

Southern Cabbage Butterfly in Connecticut. — Mr. Walden 
captured an adult Southern cabbage butterfly Pontia (Pieris) 
proiodice Boisdv., at Yalesyille, September 26th, 1912, while 
inspecting nursery stock. This is the first Connecticut specimen 
taken by any member of the staff of this department, though 
our collection contains a male and a female collected by Mr. 
H. S. WooUey of Waterbury and the species has been reported 
from several other localities in the State. Smith, in his list 
of New Jersey Insects, states that the Southern cabbage butterfly 
is common in some seasons in Southern New Jersey, though 
rarely found in the northern part of the State. Messrs. Walden 
and Caffrey observed wings of this species in a spider's nest 
and several adults were flying about at Yalesville. No doubt 
this butterfly is more common than we suppose and is usually 
mistaken for the much more common imported cabbage butterfly, 
Pontia (Pieris) rapce Linn. P. protodice is the cabbage butter- 
fly of the Southern States and the caterpillars feed upon the 
leaves of cabbage, cauliflower and other cruciferous plants. 

Tolype velleda Stoll., Unusually Common. — ^This curious 
moth is closely allied to the tent caterpillar and belongs to the 
family Lasiocampidae, some members of which are called 
**lappet" or "lackey" moths in Europe. At two or three dif- 
ferent times during the course of our gypsy moth work, the 
men have found the caterpillars, at first thinking they were 
gypsy caterpillars, then noticing the difference. The cater- 
pillars are very short and broad and are closely appressed to 
the bark, dull rusty or dark grey in color. The first specimen 
received at this office on July 27th, 1912, was a full grown 
larva from Centerhill, in the town of Hartland. On October 
5th Mr. Stoddard of the botanical department brought in an 
adult collected in New Haven, and early in October the writer 
observed several of the moths resting on electric light poles 
about the city. On October nth a box containing eight adults 
and three cocoons were received from Leonard Bridge in the 
town of Lebanon. The moths are grey and have a wing-spread 
varjring from one and one-half inches in the male to two and 
one-fourth in the female. The primaries are crossed by white, 
undulating lines. The bodies have a woolly appearance, and 
are grey with a brown central stripe extending the length of the 



294 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPOIT, I912. 

thorax. The cateq>illars fed upon apple, pear, cherry, maple,, 
oak, willow, poplar and lilac, and will probably never be suf- 
ficiently commcm to be regarded as a pest 

The Elm Saw-fly. — This insect was rather abundant in igi2 
and larvae were observed in several places. On July 31st, a 
larva was received from Winsted, and on September 19th, three 
larvae on willow were handed to the writer at Norfolk. The 
full grown larva is over an inch and a half long, head and body 
uniformly a light cream color with black spiracular dots and 
a narrow black or dark brown median dorsal stripe. (See plate 
IX, c.) The larvae may be seen in the latter part of summer 
crawling down the trunks of elm, willow, poplar and linden* 
trees, upon which they feed, seeking the ground to transform. 
Spra3ring the foliage with lead arsenate is the proper remedial 
treatment. If disturbed they curl themselves up like a snail shell 
The adult is one of our largest saw-flies, also called "willow" 
or "giant" saw-fly and bears the name of Cimbex americana 
Leach. 

Aphis on Potatoes. — On July i8th leaves of com and pota- 
toes were received from Mr. Noyes Palmer of Stonington, and 
from Mr. Alfred L. Beebe of Mystic, all infested with aphids 
which we took to be the potato aphid Macrosiphum {Necia- 
r$phora) solanifolii Ashm. This identification was later verified- 
by Mr. Arthur I. Bourne of the Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Amherst, Mass. In 1903 this aphid was very abundant on leaves 
and stems of potatoes in Fairfield, and in July, 1909, Mr. 
Bourne, then an assistant in this department, found it on pota- 
toes in the Station garden. In 1904 and the two succeeding 
years it caused serious damage in the large potato fields of 
Aroostook County, Maine, and Bulletin 147 of the Maine Experi- 
ment Station, by Dr. Edith M. Patch, is devoted to this species. 
Where plants are badly infested in small areas we may employ 
a spray of kerosene emulsion, but this did not seem practicable 
on large areas in Maine. 

Tulip Tree Scale, Toumeyella liriodendri Gmd. — ^This is our 
largest scale insect. It is now attracting considerable attention 
and specimens were received during the season from G)lumbia^ 
Fairfield, Greenwich, New Haven and Waterford. The female 



J 



MISCELLANEOUS INSECT NOTES. 295 

scales are hemispherical, nearly one-third of an inch in diameter 
and brown in color. They are usually found upon and some- 
time kill the lower branches of tulip trees, afterward going 
to the higher branches. Small trees are often wholly infested. 
The males are much smaller and thinner. There is one brood 
annually, the young being born about September ist. The 
proper treatment is to spray with kerosene emulsion during the 
latter part of September to kill the young. The old shells remain 
for a long time upon the twigs. Formerly this insect was placed 
in the genus Lecanium, and later was known as Eulecanium 
tulipifera Cook. 

Juniper Web Worm, Phalonia rutUana Hubn. — On May 21st 
red cedar twigs were received from Wilton, containing a number 
of small webs. Though adults were not reared, the webs were 
probably formed by the Juniper web worm, which is described 
and illustrated by Packard in the Fifth Report, United States 
Entomological Commission, page 910, 1890. On November 4th, 
1909, similar webs on dwarf juniper were sent to us from 
Greenwich. If thoice or ornamental trees or shrubs are endan- 
gered a spray of lead arsenate will doubtless prevent further 
devastation. 

The Garden Millipede or ^Thousand Legs,'' Julus hortensis 
Wood. — On May 13th I was called to examine strawberry plants 
in a large field near New Haven. There were many dead 
plants, some no doubt having been injured the previous winter. 
The plants showed considerable tunneling in die main stems, 
probably the work of the strawberry crown borer Tyloderma 
fragaruB Riley, though only a few of the larvae were present 
at the time of the examination. Many of the cavities, however, 
were literally filled with th&e millipedes (shown on Plate XVI, 
a, and b), apparently eating into the roots and crowns. In 
fact many of the cavities may have been eaten by them as they 
were very abundant on the field. At various times these milli- 
pedes have been sent to the Station, and reported as causing 
injury to plants. In Guilford in 1907 they damaged roots and 
bulbs in flower beds; in New Haven French anemones were 
injured by them in 1909, and beans in 191 1. 



296 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

The remedies consist of poisoned baits, such as slices of 
potato, turnip or some other succulent root, dipped in a mixture 
of lead arsenate, white arsenate or Paris gjeen, about an ounce 
of dry powder or twice as much lead arsenate paste to two 
gallons of water. The bait should be distributed over the 
infested portions of the field. 

Mites on Aih Tree. — On August 27th I was called to examine 
a white ash tree on Huntington Street, New Haven, opposite the 
Station grounds. The tree was perhaps six inches in trunk 
diameter, and it was literally covered, not only on leaves and 
stems, but on the bark of branches and trunk, with a silk-like 
web upon which were crawling myriads of mites resembling 
the common red spider of greenhouses. This web was so thick 
on the bark that it glistened in the sunlight as if covered with 
ice, though somewhat iridescent. The mites were fairly 
swarming down the trunk, evidently mig^ting to another tree, 
or perhaps to lay their eggs elsewhere. The leaves, which were 
badly injured, were turning yellow and dropping, the drought 
probably increasing or aggravating the trouble. Slides of these 
mites were sent to Mr. Nathan Banks, of the Bureau of 
Entomology at Washington, who identified the species as 
Tetranychus bimaculatus Harv. 

Mites on Chrysanthemum Flowers. — On November 14th, 
Mr. Kirk, when inspecting imported nursery stock at a florist's 
in Bridgeport was asked to examine some chrysanthemums 
which drooped and the petals withered and died. In a large 
flower, though freshly cut, dead and brown petals scattered 
through the blossom at once indicated that something was 
wrong. Though examined by both botanists and entomologists, 
the only parasites found were very small mites at the base of 
the petals. The mites seemed to lie the cause of the trouble 
and were determined by Mr. Banks as Tarsonemus pallidus 
Banks. 



PLATE I. 




a. Blackberry cane nearly defoliated. 




b. Larvae on leaf. Natural size. 



WORK OF BLACKBERRY SAWFLY. 



PLATE II. 




a. Leaf rolled by larvae. Natural size. 




b. Eggs on under side of leaf. Natural size. 
EGGS AND LARV>E OF BLACKBERRY SAWFLY. 



PLATE III. 







(f^^'^^^I^W^V^ 








a. 





a. Larvae, about five times enlarged, b. Adult, twice natural 
size. c. Dorsal view of last segment of larva, d. Ventral view 
of same. e. Face of larva — last three ten times enlarged. 

LARV>E AND ADULT OF BLACKBERRY SAWFLY. 



PLATE IV. 




a. Feeding punctures at base of leaf petioles, b. Larvae tunneling in 
new shoot. c. Shows where frass is ejected through egg punctures, 
d. Hickory probably attacked by this insect. All natural size. 



WORK OF WALNUT WEEVIL. 



PLATE V. 




a. Appearance of infested butternut, b. Shows where grub had en- 
tered at end of butternut. c. Walnut showing egg puncture at tip. 
d. Grub inside of butternut. All natural size. 




e. Small walnut tree showing method of studying the habits of the weevil. 
WORK OF WALNUT WEEVIL. 



PLATE VI. 




'^. 






^v^^ 

"^4 M 






a. Adult, b. Larvae, c. Pupa. All greatly enlarged. 



ADULT, LARV/E AND PUPA OF THE WALNUT WEEVIL. 



PLATE VII. 



f^ ^ 



a. Walnut weevils. Four times hatural size. 




b. Egg as laid in stem. Natural size. 




c. Larvae. About two and one-half times natural size. 
EGG, LARV/E AND ADULTS OF WALNUT WEEVIL. 



PLATE VIII. 




a. Nests at tips of new growth. Natural size. 




b. Appearance of infested shoots, natural size. 
WALNUT BUD MOTH. 



PLATE IX. 




a. Walnut Bud Moth, twice natural 
size. 





c. Larva of Elm Sawfly. 
About twice natural size. 



b. Arrow shows egg of Bud Moth. 
Enlarged two and one-half times. 




d. Oiling mosquito breeding pools with the ** Double Forester " pump. 
WALNUT BUD MOTH, ELM SAWFLY AND METHOD OF OILING MARSHES. 



PLATE X. 



iAm^i " *^ % 



a. Mosquito breeding pools on salt marsh near Morris Cove. 




b. The same view as above showing ditch. 
MOSQUITO DRAINAGE ON THE SALT MARSH. 



PLATE XI. 




a. The spade raised ready to be plunged into the peat. 




b. Rolling away the turf. 



DRAINING THE SALT MARSH WITH THE SKINNER SPADE. 



PLATE XII. 




a. The Skinner ditching spade. 



T^r^, ^ , , 


^.-S^ 










1 


^^^' - 


w,^^.. 



b. This pool half way between ditches has been drained. 



DRAINING OF SALT MARSHES. 



PLATE XIII. 





s\ 


I 


d.M..^sli^ 


^^tf 


■M. 


. 4 




1 




^-,m 


',m^am 


■ ^ %: 


■ 


./rr 


J 


m4'^^ 




ii 






^^y:^^^ 


* 


^ 


^•«*-« *. 


"^6«( 



a. Sandy Point marsh. Stakes and flags mark breeding pools. 




b. Oiling pools in West River marsh. 



OILING BREEDING POOLS WITH •• AUTO-SPRAY" OUTFITS. 



PLATE XIV. 




a. AdultSp female at left. Soinewkat eniargccL 




b. Larvae and pupae, natural size. 



THE FALL ARMY WORM. 



PLATE XV. 




a. Seedling pine eaten off by grubs. Natural size. 




b. While grub, 
Nmurd size. 




c. Ad VI It June 

beetle, natural 

size. 




d. Potatoes eaten by white grubs. 
THE WHITE GRUB. 



PLATE XVI. 





a. Strawberry ftem wIktc niiilipedes 
were found. 



b. Garden millipedes, natural 
size, 




c. Galls of Agrilus champiaini on hop hornbeam. 



GARDEN MILLIPEDE AND A BORER IN HOP HORNBEAM. 



PART IV. 



Commercial Feeding Stuffs. 

By J. P. Street.* 



THE LAW REGULATING THEIR SALE. 

Under the Connecticut statutes the term "coricentrated commer- 
cial feeding stuff" covers practically all feeds excepting: — hay 
and straw, whole seeds, immixed meal made directly from any one 
of the cereals or from buckwheat, and feed ground from whole 
g^rain and sold directly from manufacturer to consumer. 

Section 4592 requires that every package of concentrated com- 
mercial feeding stuff shall bear a statement giving the name and 
address of manufacturer or importer, the ntunber of net pounds 
in the package, the name of the article and the percentage of 
protein and fat contained in it. 

No registration of feeds or payment of analysis or license fees 
is required. ' 

The penalty for violation of the statute is not more than $100 
for the first offense and not more than $200 for each subsequent 
offense. 

The law authorizes this station to take samples from any manu- 
facturer, or dealer, in a prescribed fashion, and requires the sta- 
tion to analyze, annually, at least one sample of each brand which 
it has collected and to publish these analyses "together with such 
additional information in relation to the character, composition 
and use thereof as may be of importance." 

The dairy and food commissioner is charged with the enforce- 
ment of the statute. 



♦The analytical work here described has been done by Messrs. Bailey, 
Morrison, Roe and Shepard. 



2gS CONNECnCXTT EXFERIMENT STATION KEF08T, I912. 

In compliance with Atse requirements tbe f (diowing report has 
been prepared* The utmost brevity of discussion is made neces- 
sary by the limit imposed by law on the size of the report 

During the fall of 1912 the station sampling agent visited 
fifty towns and villages of this State and coUected 226 samples 
of feeds as prescribed by law. The results of the examinatioa 
of these samples are here discussed, and the chemical analyses are 
given in Table V. 

The fifty-five analyses of samples SGit by individuals are 
separately reported 

Oil Seed Products. 
Cotton Seed Meal, Sampled by the Station. 
• (Analyses on page 31&) 

Of the seventeen samples analyzed all satisfied their guaranties 
except 1287, from the Kemper Mill & Elevator Co., Kansas City, 
and 1267, from W. Newton Smith, Baltimore, Md., which were 
2.75 and 3.37 per cent low in protein, respectively. The average 
composition and selling price were practically the same as last 
year. 

Cotton Seed Meal, Sampled by Purchasers. 

The station is not responsible for the sampling but only for 
the analyses of samples not drawn by its agents. 

Four brands of Dixie Brand, Humphreys, Godwin & Co., 
Memphis, were uniformly guaranteed 38.62 per cent, protein. 
124, sent by O. T. Downs, Brooklyn, contained 41.12 per cent; 
1085, sent by L. C. Brainard & Co., Thompsonville, 41.19 per 
cent.; 1456, sent by H. B. Coger, Newtown, 39.50 per cent; 
and 1474, sent by C. A. Pease & Co., Hartford, 42.50 per cent 
This low guaranty is "safe" for the seller, but not exact enough 
for the buyer. 

Two other samples, likewise credited to Humphreys, Godwin 
& Co., and sent by W. R. Messenger, Granby, were guaranteed 
6.5 per cent, nitrogen, which is equivalent to 40.63 per cent 
protein. 1482 contained 40.38 and 1483, 36.69 per cent, protein, 
the latter being deficient by nearly 4 per cent 

Four other samples of Humphreys, Godwin & Co.'s meal came 
to us unguaranteed. 107 and 1485, sent by The Coles Co., 



OIL SEED PRODUCTS. 299 

Middletown, contained 40.38 and 39.50 per cent, protein, respec- 
tively; 1486 and 1649, sent by Olds & Whipple, Hartford, con- 
tained 38.38 and 40 per cent., respectively. 

23 and 56, Owl Brand, F. W. Erode & Co., Memphis, sent by 
B. T. Holcomb, West Simsbury, and R. L. Fors)rth, Granby, the 
latter sample guaranteed 41 per cent, protein; contained 41.30 
and 41.56 per cent., respectively. 

328, W. Newton Smith, Baltimore, Md., guaranty 41 per cent, 
protein, sent by M. D. Leonard & Co., Watertown, contained 
36.44 per cent., a deficiency of 4.56 per cent. 

329, R. J. Hardy & Sons, Boston, guaranty 38 per cent, protein, 
sent by M. D. Leonard & Co., Watertown, contained 39.75 per 
cent. 

1076 and 1469, sent by The Coles Co., Middletown, contained 
37.81 and 39.56 per cent, protein, respectively. 

1461, Bonita Brand, Southern Cotton Oil Co., Charlotte, N. C, 
guaranty, 38.62 per cent protein, sent by Apothecaries Hall Co., 
Waterbury, contained 40.88 per cent. 

1470, bought through Apothecaries Hall Co., Waterbury, by 
H. H. Waldron, Bethlehem, contained 38.50 per cent, protein. 

1473, sent by W. H. Lee, Orange, contained 42.50 per cent, 
protein. 

1647, Southern Cotton Oil Co., Charlotte, N. C, sent by 
Apothecaries Hall Co., Waterbury, contained 41.75 per cent, 
protein. 

Linseed Meal, Sampled by the Station. 

(Analyses on page 318.) 

The two samples of new process and the three of old process 
meal all satisfied their guaranties. 

Peanut Meal, Sampled by Purchasers. 

Two samples of peanut meal and two of peanut waste were 
analyzed. 21 was sent by J. W. Pincus, New York ; 880, J. E. 
Sopcr Co., Boston, sent by F. H. Stadtmueller, Elmwood; 30, 
sent by Nut Product Co., New Haven; and 126, sent by 
T. S. Scranton, Madison. These samples had the following 
composition : 



300 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Peanut Meal. Peanut Waste. 

az 880 30 12$ 

Water — 8.09 3.57 4^5 

Ash — — 5.77 5.66 

Protein 34.94 46^5 38^ 22^ 

Fiber — — 3.61 7.14 

Nitrogen-free extract — — — 19.23 31.93 

Fat — a87 39.38 27.98 

880 was guaranteed 38 per cent, protein and 8 per cent, fat 
selling price, $32.00, or $4.00 less per ton in car lots. This sample 
far exceeded its protein guaranty, and would seem to be an 
economical purchase at the price quoted, provided it proved 
acceptable to stock. Experience indicates that too much of this 
product scours dairy stock. None of the other samples was 
guaranteed, or was the selling price given. 

Wheat Products. 

Wheat Bran. 

(Analyses on page 318.) 

Of the twenty-six samples, five had no guaranty of composition 
as required by law, and two of these no brand name. These 
samples were 1258, Hamilton's Winter Bran, 1161, Niagara 
Bran, 1318, Voigfs Bran, and 1221 and 1284, manufacturer 
unknown. These samples were of normal quality, but this in 
no wise relieves the Connecticut dealer from the obligations of 
the law regarding branding. Of the remaining twenty-one sam- 
ples, all but two satisfied their guaranties, 1149, Hecker^s Choice 
Bran, and 1296, Western Canada Flour Mills Bran, being 0.65 
and 0.52 per cent, deficient in fat, respectively. 

The selling price ranged from $25 to $30, the higher prices as 
a rule providing no better feed. 

Wheat Middlings, 

(Analyses on page 320.) 

Of the thirty-one samples, 1319, Voigfs Middlings, and 1165, 
Standard Middlings, did not bear the guaranty required by law, 
but were of good quality. 1176, Cox's Middlings, was 1.09 per 
cent, below guaranty in fat, 1233, Hecker^s H Middlings, was 



MAIZE PRODUCTS. 301 

0.86 per cent, below in fat, and 1247, Lidgerwood Middlings, was 
1.50 per cent, below its protein guaranty. 1148 contained an 
unusual amount of fiber, probably due to imperfect cleaning of 
the wheat. 

The selling prices ranged from $27 to $36 per ton, an even 
wider range than in the case of wheat bran. There is no impor- 
tant difference in composition between samples selling at these 
extreme prices. 

Wheat Feed. 
(Analyses on page 322.) 
Of the twenty-four samples, 1167, Bull's Eye Mixed Feed, was 
1. 19 per cent, below its protein guaranty, and 1313, Manhattan 
Mixed Feed, was 0.78 per cent, below in fat 

The selling price ranged from $28 to $34 per ton, the $28 
sample containing more protein than that sold for the maxunum 
price. 

Red Dog Flour, 
(Analyses on page 324.) 
The three samples analyzed satisfied their guaranties. 

Wheat Products, Sampled by Purchasers. 
904, Bran, bought of Waters and Bronson, Middlebury, and 
sent by H. E. Clark, Middlebury, guaranty 14.5 per cent, protein, 
contained 15.06 per cent. 1472, Bran, sent by W. H. Lee, Orange, 
contained 15.69 per cent, protein. 

Maize Products. 
Gluten Meal. 
145, Diamond Gluten Meal, C. M. Cox & C^., Boston, sent by 
C. N. Bumham, Middlefield, contained 39.25 per cent, protein. 

Gluten Feed. 
(Analyses on page 324.) 
Ten samples of six brands were analyzed, all of which satisfied 
their guaranties, the average protein, 25.83 per cent., exceeding 
the average guaranty by nearly 3 per cent. 

Five samples were sent by purchasers: 148, Buffalo, sent by 
C. N. Bumham, Middlefield, contained 25.94 per cent, protein; 



302 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

128, Globe, sent by S. P. Woodward, Bethany, contained 30.94 
per cent, protein ; 892, Danbury A, and 893, Danbury B, sent by 
R. J. Hardy & Sons, Boston, contained 25.88 and 25.38 per cent 
of protein, respectively; and 1471, sent by W. H. Lee, Orange, 
contained 26.88 per cent, protein. 

Hominy Feed. 
(Analyses on page 326.) 

Of the fifteen samples analyzed, one, 1306, Simpson, Hendec 
& Co., New York, did not bear the guaranty required by law; 
this sample, however, was of excellent quality. The other four- 
teen samples all satisfied their guaranties. The average hominy 
feed this year contained 0.74 per cent, more protein, and 0.43 
per cent, more fat than in 191 1, and sold for $2.53 per ton less. 

64, Yellow Hominy Feed, Quaker Oats Co., Chicago, guaranty 
9 per cent, protein, sent by F. D. Weed, Danbury, contained 10.25 
per cent, protein ; 66, Steam Cooked Hominy Feed, Miner-Hillard 
Milling Co., Wilkes Barre, Pa., guaranty 10 per cent, protein, 
also sent by Mr. Weed, contained 11 44 per cent, protein. 

1087, sent by W. C. Burton, Torrington, was suspected by the 
purchaser of being adulterated. It contained 10.36 per cent 
water, 2.00 ash, 8.75 protein, 2.94 fiber, 69.53 nitrogen-free 
extract and 642 fat. The deficiency in protein and fat appeared 
to be due only to the presence of excessive starch, com starch 
being the only starch shown by the microscope. 

1862, sent by H. B. Peck, Northfield, contained 11.06 per cent, 
protein. 

Hominy Feed and Corn Cob, 
(Analysis on page 326.) 

The single sample of Star Feed analyzed exceeded its protein 
guaranty by more than 3 per cent, and its fat guaranty by more 
than 2 per cent. However, compared with hominy feed at $28, 
or even $30, it is not an economical purchase, as it contains more 
fiber and less protein, fat and carbohydrates than standard hominy 
feed. 

Corn Bran. 

One sample, 195, sent by D. H. Colt, Elmwood, contained 9.19 
per cent, protein. 



rye products. 303 

Rye Products. 
(Analyses on page 326.) 

Two samples of rye feed and one each of rye bran and rye 
middlings were analyzed. 1161, Bran, ground by Morse and 
Landon, Guilford, did not bear the guaranty required by law. It 
contained less protein and fat and considerably more starch than 
the other three rye products, all of which satisfied their guaranties. 

Buckwheat Products. 
(Analyses on page 328.) 
The two samples of middlings analyzed were of quite different 
quality. In 1342, Quinebaug Middlings, the protein was 2.37 
per cent, below its guaranty and 0.54 below its fat guaranty, 
although the product was very high grade. The other sample of 
somewhat poorer quality satisfied its guaranty. 

Oats. 

Three samples of oats, 980, 981 and 982, sent by Joseph Pepe, 
Waterbury, contained 12.59, ^^'7^ and 13.14 per cent, of water, 
respectively. We were asked to determine whether these were 
old-crop or new-crop oats. A considerable difference in water- 
content might have given some indication, but the differences in 
these samples are too small to be significant. 

Barley Products. 
Malt Sprouts. 
(Analyses on page 328.) 
Of the three samples analyzed, 1144, Flinfs Fancy Marvel, was 
0.73 per cent, below its fat guaranty, and 1169, Geneva Malting 
Go's Malt Sprouts, was 0.98 per cent, below in fat. 1144, how- 
ever, exceeded its protein guaranty by 6.25 per cent, and was a 
sample of very high grade. 1817, Ballantine's Malt Sprouts, 
was 1. 13 per cent, low in protein. It contained a rather undue 
amount of barley hulls. The three samples averaged 26.55 P^r 
cent, protein, with an average selling price of $28. This feed 
should receive more consideration from dairjrmen, especially in 
comparison with many of the proprietary mixed feeds containing 
only from one-third to one-half as much protein as malt sprouts, 
and selling for from $30 to $35 a ton. 



304 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Dried Brewers' Grains, 
(Analyses on page 328.) 
All of the four samples analyzed satisfied their guaranties. 
Attention is again called to the fact that this feed is frequently 
underguaranteed in protein. The samples averaged 27.89 per cent, 
protein and 6.86 per cent fat, exceeding the respective average 
guaranties by 3.39 and 1.18 per cent. The average price, $29.75 
per ton, considered in connection with the feed's high analysis, 
marks it as one of the cheapest high-grade feeds cm the market. 

Dried Distillers!' Grains, 

(Analyses on page 328.) 

The three samples analyzed all satisfied their guaranties. 

Though not as cheap a feed as either malt sprouts or dried 

brewers' grains, this feed is valuable and economical, especially 

when compared with proprietary feeds selling for the same price- 

MlSCELLANEOUS FeEDS. 

Dried Beet Pulp. 
(Analyses on page 328.) 

The five samples of beet pulp satisfied their guaranties. This 
material is a carbohydrate rather .than a protein feed. Feeding 
experiments in other states, notably New Jersey, have demon- 
strated its value, as its carbohydrates appear to be present in a 
very assimilable form. 

Dried Molasses Beet Pulp, 
(Analysis on page 330.) 
The single sample analyzed satisfied its guaranty. 22, made by 
The Larrowe Milling Co., Detroit, and sent by The C. W. Camp- 
bell Co., Westerly, contained 10.06 per cent, protein. 

Com, Oats and Barley, 
(Analyses on page 330.) 
This material is exempt from the provisions of the law with 
respect to guaranty. The two samples analyzed were of very 
similar composition and were of standard quality. 



MISCELLANEOUS FEEDS. 305 

Wheat and Corn Cob Feeds. 
(Analyses on page 330.) 
Both samples were properly branded and both satisfied their 
guaranties. The price of this class of feeds is more reasonable 
than in past years. It is for the feeder to determine whether he 
shall buy a wheat feed at $28 to $30, or such a feed as this in 
which the protein of wheat feed has been reduced from 17 to 
II per cent, by an admixture of ground com cobs, and which 
sells for $24 or $25 per ton. 

Com and Oat Feeds, 
(Analyses on page 330.) 
Two samples of true provender (gfround com and oats) were 
analyzed and both were of good quality. 

Chop Feeds. 
(Analyses on page 330.) 
The thirteen samples analyzed satisfied their guaranties. Chop 
feeds are chiefly mixtures of com and oats products, with some- 
times a little hominy. A mixture of com and oats of good quality, 
half and half, should contain about 10 per cent, protein, 4.5 per 
cent, fat, and not over 5.5 per cent, fiber. A comparison of these 
figures with the analyses shows that inferior portions of these 
grains, com cob and oat hulls, are often present in more than 
normal proportions. It is difficult to understand why any one 
buys such feeds as these when cotton seed meal, gluten feed, dried 
brewers' grains, malt sprouts, and dried distillers' grains may be 
bought for the same price or less, and when an abundant supply 
of carbohydrates and roughage can be cheaply raised on the farm. 

Proprietary Horse Feeds. 
(Analyses on page 332.) 
Six samples were analyzed. 1234, Bonnie Horse Feed, was 
1. 00 per cent, below its protein guaranty. The other samples all 
satisfied their guaranties. 

A sample of Sucrene Horse & Mule Feed, 19, American Milling 
Co., Chicago, sent by H. B. Coger, Botsford, contained 13.13 
per cent, protein. 



306 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Proprietary Dairy and Stock Feeds. 

(Analyses on page 332.) 

Twenty-two samples were analyzed. The following deficiencies 
in fat were found: 1223, Biles' Ready Dairy Ration, 0.48 per 
cent. ; 1281, Blatchford's Calf Meal, 0.28 per cent. ; 1882, Green 
Meadow Dairy Feed, 0.36 per cent. ; 1172, Purina Molasses Feed, 
0.35 per cent. ; and 1231, Presto Molasses Feed, 0.27 per cent ; 
1241, Schumacher's Calf Meal, was 1.12 per cent, below guaranty 
in protein and 0.51 per cent, in fat. The remaining samples sub- 
stantially satisfied their guaranties. 

Dairy Feeds, Sampled by Purchasers, 

A sample of Sucrene Dairy Feed, 20, sent by H. B. Coger, 
Botsford, contained 18 per cent, protein. Two samples of BUe^ 
Union Grains, 1088 and 1084, sent by R. G. Waterous, Williman- 
tic, contained 26.00 and 27.63 per cent, of protein, respectively. 
A sample of Unicom Dairy Ration, 684, sent by G. W. Thorpe, 
West Cheshire, contained 24.38 per cent, protein. A sample of 
Western Stock Feed, 766, sent by The Coles Co., Middletown, 
contained 8.63 per cent, protein. Another sample, 849, simply 
marked "Feed," contained 11.56 per cent, protein. 

Proprietary Poultry Feeds. 

(Analyses on page 334.) 

Fourteen samples were analyzed. Two samples, 1266, Purity 
Poultry Mash, and 1226, V. B. Growing Feed, did not bear guar- 
anties as required by law. 1199, Wirthmore Poultry Mash, was 
0.43 per cent, deficient in fat, but contained 7.38 per cent more 
protein than guaranteed; 1288, Red Comb Meat Mash, was 1.33 
per cent, low in fat; and 1279, Park & Pollard's Dry Mash 
Feed, was 1.75 per cent, low in protein. The other nine samples 
substantially satisfied their guaranties. 

Poultry Feeds, Sampled by Purchaser. 

28, Dry Mash, made and sent by G. W. Thorpe, West Cheshire, 
contained 8.04 per cent, water, 18.06 protein and 5.05 fat. 



OTHER MISCELLANEOUS FEEDS. 307 

Beef Scrap, Meat Meal and Fish Meal, 
(Analyses on page 336.) 
Twelve samples were analyzed. Three samples were below 
their protein guaranty, 1164, Frisbie's Poultry Food, by 3.12 
per cent, 1846, Ross Poultry Meal, by 1.37 per cent., and 1260, 
Whitman and Pratfs Beef Scrap, by 1.3 1 per cent. ; 1280, Shay's 
Pure Ground Beef Scrap, was 2.83 per cent, below its fat guar- 
anty. The samples of meat scrap show a very wide range in 
composition, protein ranging from 28.63 ^^ 57 per cent., fat from 
9.70 to 16.55 per cent, and ash from 17.96 to 51.06 per cent. 
This scrap is a variable mixture of bone and meat and cannot 
be expected to have a very uniform composition. 

Alfalfa Feed. 
Sample 1487, Komfalfa Feed & Milling Co., Kansas City, 
sent by C. M. Jarvis, New Britain, contained 7.83 per cent, water, 
10.30 ash, 15.00 protein, 26.92 fiber, 37.79 nitrogen-free extract 
and 2.16 fat 

Bean Vine Meal. 
Sample 1661, sent by C. E. Kempton, Pomfret Centre, con- 
tained 6.56 per cent, protein, which indicates a composition similar 
to that reported for a sample in last year's report. The price of 
such a feed is the controlling factor in the economy of its use, a 
matter of which we have no knowledge in this particular instance.. 

Twigs and Molasses. 
This sample, 68, consisted of small brush, bark and twigs, to 
which ten gallons of molasses had been added per ton. It con- 
tained 3.69 per cent, protein and 42.59 per cent, fiber. The sample 
was sent by C. M. Peck, Lyme. Shredded mature wood does 
not contain any appreciable amount of nourishment. But bark 
and buds (which are immature leaves and flowers) contain the 
nutritive juices of the tree and the stored food from which new 
growth is made and therefore contain more or less food which 
herbivorous animals can assimilate. The chief food of deer and 
moose in winter is browse, i. e., buds and the twigs and branches 
of trees. There is no reason, therefore, why domestic stock may 
not eat and get some small amount of nourishment from such 



3o8 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

material, just as well as from straw, bog hay, etc, and occasional 
reports come to us of it being relished by cows, especially when 
molasses or alfalfa meal or mill feed is mixed with it It has 
been proposed in the vicinity of Hamburg, where there is a mill 
that will grind small shrubs and branches, that land may be cleared 
up and the undergrowth ground and used as a substitute for hay 
which is very scarce and high. Maple, birch, perhaps alder, as 
well as huckleberry bushes might answer, but one would imagine 
that chestnut, sumac or oak would tan the hides of the cattle 
prematurely ! It is said that the cost of grinding is about $5.00 
per ton. As long as the material is used only by farmers in the 
neighborhood with full knowledge of what they are using, the 
matter may well be left to their experiments and experience. As 
a commercial "filler" or "conditioner" for dairy rations, its use 
would condemn the feed. 

Biscuit Refuse. 

1481, sent by C. M. Jarvis, New Britain, contained 14.25 per 
cent, water, 4.36 ash, 7.67 protein, 0.46 fiber, 66.31 nitrogen- free 
extract, 6.95 fat, 1.23 nitrogen, 0.20 phosphoric acid and 0.33 
potash. 

Fresh Harvested Ears of Com, 

Sent by John Toth, Jr., Wallingford. The kernels contained, 
airdry, 23.84 per cent, of water and 8.91 per cent, of protein. 
This com when crib-cured with 12 per cent, of water would con- 
tain 10.29 P^r cent, of protein. A yield of 7,000 pounds of ears 
at harvest would be reckoned as 100 bushels of shelled com 
according to the practice which has been generally followed in 
com contests. In this sample 7,000 pounds of ears actually con- 
tained only 89 bushels of crib-cured shelled com with 12 per cent 
of moisture. Some of the record yields of late-maturing com 
would be much more largely reduced, if the excessive moisture in 
them were left out of the account. 

Summary of Deficiencies in Branding or Guaranties. 

Of the 227 samples collected by our agent and analyzed, two 

cotton seed meals were low in protein. Seven wheat feeds were 

without guaranties, two low in protein and three in fat One 

each of hominy feed and rye products had no guaranty. One 



\ 



DIGESTIBILITY OF FEEDING STUFFS. 309 

buckwheat middlings was low in both protein and fat. One 
malt sprouts low in protein and two in fat. Of the proprietary 
horse, dairy and poultry feeds, two had no guaranties, two were 
deficient in protein, seven in fat and one in both protein and 
fat. Of the beef scraps three were deficient in protein and one 
in fat Deficiences of less than i per cent, of protein and 0.25 
per cent, of fat are not noted. 

Digestibility of Feeding Stuffs by Ruminants. 

Table I shows the digestion coefficients, or percentages of the 
food elements which are digestible by neat cattle (Lindsey's Com- 
pilation, 17th Report Mass. (Hatch) Agrl. Station, 191 1, page 
29 et seq.). 

Some of those figures are the results of only a very few tests, 
and all of them represent short periods of feeding and must be 
regarded as showing comparative digestibility of the feeds only 
very roughly. Like chemical composition, statement of the diges- 
tibility of a feed is only a single "pointer" to the feeder, helpful, 
if it is not over-valued. 

TABLE I. 
Digestion Coefficients. 

Nitrogen-free 
Protein. Fiber. Extraa. Fat. 

Cotton Seed Meal 84 35 78 94 

Linseed Meal, new process 84 74 80 89 

Linseed Meal, old process 89 57 78 89 

Com Meal 67 .. 92 90 

Hominy Meal 65 67 89 92 

Gluten Feed 85 87 90 81 

Wheat Bran 77 39 7i 63 

Wheat Middlings 77 30 78 88 

Wheat Feed 78 62 77 ^7 

Rye Feed 80 .. 88 90 

Oats 77 31 77 89 

Buckwheat Middlings 85 17 83 89 

Malt Sprouts 80 34 69 100 

Dried Distillers' Grains 73 95 81 95 

Dried Brewers* Grains 81 49 57 89 

Provender 71 48 83 87 

Wheat and Com Cob Feed 63 28 71 92 

Dried Beet Pulp 64 84 91 

Oat Hulls 62 32 33 92 

Cob Meal 17 6$ 60 50 



3IO CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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312 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I912. 

Average Composition, Digestibility and Selling Price of 
Commercial Feeds. 

Table II contains a siunmary of the facts given in more detail 
in Table V, and shows, first, the average composition of these 
feeds as determined by the present inspection, arranged according 
to their protein content ; second, the amount of digestible matter 
in each feed, as far as we have been able to calculate it; and 
third, the average retail prices in November last. 

The feeds are tabulated in six groups. The following state- 
ment gives the average number of pounds of digestible protein, 
fiber and nitrogen-free extract, and fat purchasable for one dollar 
in each of these groups : 

Digestible Nutrients Purchasable for One Dollar. 

Fiber and 
Group. Protein. Nitrogen-free ' Fat. 

Extract. 

1 Containing over 30 per cent protein 15.3 19.5 4.9 

2 " 25 to 30 " " 14.8 28.6 1.8 

•3 " 20 to 25 " " 137 37^ 2^ 

4 " 15 to 20 " " 84 30.8 2.5 

5 " 10 to 15 " " 5.0 Z7A 31 

6 " less than 10 " " 4-2 43-0 1.7 

While too sweeping deductions should not be drawn from 
these group averages, it is apparent that one dollar in the first 
three groups supplies the feeder with from two to four times as 
much protein as in groups 4, 5 and 6. It is protein that the 
feeder requires to "balance" the feeding rations of his stock. 
With an abundance of roughage on hand there is no apparent 
reason for the purchase of low-grade feeds. Generally speaking 
the dairyman should raise his own carbohydrate feeds and where 
necessary should supplement these with those high-grade feeds in 
which he can purchase digestible protein at the lowest cost. The 
fact pointed out in previous years is true this year: for $29 
per ton the feeder may buy feeds containing from 8.50 to 29.75 
per cent, protein, while for $32 he may buy feeds ranging f nnn 
9.81 to 40.89 per cent, protein. Failure to observe this lack of 
relation between cost and the needed nutriment supplied may 
explain why in many cases the dairy business is no Iwiger 
profitable. 



MANURIAL INGREDIENTS OF FEEDS. 313 

The Manurial Ingredients of Feeds, 

The manurial value of a feed is largely determined by the 
amount of nitrogen it contains, although the ash constituents, 
phosphoric acid and potash, are also of considerable importance. 
The more concentrated feeds, when finely ground, are quite as 
good sources of available organic nitrogen as the best commercial 
fertilizers; the phosphoric acid and potash of feeds, however, 
are less valuable than the more soluble forms. The follow- 
ing table shows the average content of the fertilizing elements 
found in the dairy and stock feeds sold in this State. In many 
cases the analyses of standard feeds in other states, notably New 
Jersey, have been utilized ; in thirty-three cases, however, analyses 
were made in the samples actually examined in the present inspec- 
tion. In addition the manurial constituents of the more important 
home-grown feeds are also included. 

It is at once noticeable that there are wide variations in the 
amounts of fertilizing ingredients contained in the different com- 
mercial feeds. Nitrogen ranges from 0.54 to 7.14 per cent., 
phosphoric acid from 0.15 to 3.09 per cent., and potash from 
0.08 to 4.61 per cent. One hundred pounds of cotton seed meal, 
for instance, would supply 12.05 pounds of total plant-food, while 
the same quantity of oat hulls would furnish but 1.30 pounds. 
It must be remembered, however, that a certain portion of the 
fertilizing elements of the feed is retained in the animal itself or 
given off by other means than the excreta, the amount depend- 
ing upon the kind of animal and the object of feeding. Lawes 
and Gilbert have shown at Rothamsted that in milking cows about 
75 per cent, of the nitrogen and 90 per cent, of the phosphoric 
acid and potash are voided as excrement or perspiration, the 
remainder going into the milk or adding to the weight of the 
animal. With mature horses the same investigators showed that 
all of the nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash is voided in the 
excrement or perspiration. As the feeds enumerated in the table 
are chiefly dairy feeds, they will be discussed entirely from the 
dairy standpoint. 

Nitrogen is the most valuable and most important fertilizing 
element supplied by feeds, and it is in nitrogen that they show 
the greatest variation. In the fertilizer inspection of last year 
it was found that the average mixed fertilizer contained 2.95 

31 



314 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table III. — Manurial Ingredients in Feeds. 



Feed. 



Oil Cake Meals, 

Cotton Seed Meal 

Linseed Meal, new process 

** *• old process 

IVheat Products. 

Wheat Bran 

Wheat Feed 

Wheat Middlings 

Red Dog Flour 

Corn Products, 

Gluten Feed, Buffalo 

** Cream of Com 

*• Globe 

** Grand Rapids 

•• •• Hubinger's 

Staley*8 

Hominy Feed 

Hominy Feed and Com Cob (Star) 

Com Meal 

Kye^ Buckwheat^ and Oat Products. 

Rye Bran 

Rye Feed 

Rye Middlings 

Buckwheat Middlings, high grade 

Ground Oats 

Oat Hulls 

Brewery and Distillery Products, 

Malt Sprouts 

Dried Brewers' Grains 

Ajax Flakes 

Eagle Distillers* Grains 

Husted Distillers' Grains 

Miscellaneous Feeds, 

Dried Beet Pulp 

Dried Beet Pulp and Molasses 

Corn and Oats (Provender) 

Corn and Oats Chop 

Corn, Oats and Barley 

Wheat and Corn Cob Feed 

Dairy and Stock Feeds. 

Biles Ready Dairy Ration 

Blatchford's Calf Meal 

Blue Ribbpn Dairy Feed 

Buf Ce Co. Creamery Feed 

Grandin's Stock Feed 



Nitrogen. 



i 

714 
5.70 
5.43 



2.56 
2.72 
2.69 
2.86 



4.39 
4.34 
4.25 
3.5a 
3.96 
3.94 
1.75 

1.62, 

1.44 



2.25 
2.45 

2.72 

4.88 
1.78 

0.54 



4.13 
4.II 
4.92 
4.80 
5.00 



1.29 

1.54 
1.57 
1.42 
1.77 
1.73 



3.89 
4.03 
3.96 
3.00 
1.80 



Pbocpboric , _^ . 



3.09 
2.16 

1.88 



2.92 
2.04 
1.61 
1.42 



1.64 
1.48 
1.27 
0.36 
0.83 
1.36 
1.40 
0.96 
0.63 



1.54 
1.56 
1.87 
2.60 
0.76 
0.24 



1.61 

I.OI 

1. 18 
1.69 
0.54 



0.24 
0.15 
0.71 
0.87 
0.69 
1.80 



1.79 
1.45 
1.80 

1.73 
1. 15 



1.82 
r.49 
I-3I 



1.57 
0.54 
0.82 
0.80 



1.02 
0.98 
1.05 
0.08 
0.25 
0.87 

0.75 
0.69 
0.37 



0.95 
I.07 
1.22 

1.33 
0.50 
0.52 



1.78 
0.08 

0.59 
0.96 
0.12 



0.57 
1.81 
0.44 
0.63 
0.50 
1.16 



1.20 
1.13 
2.12 
1.07 
0.73 



MANURIAL INGREDIENTS OF FEEDS. 315 

Table III. — Manurial Ingredients in Feeds — Continued, 



Feed. 



Dairy and Stock Feeds — Continued. 

Green Meadow Dairy Feed 

Henkel's Fine White Feed 

Husted Molasses Feed 

Husted Steam Cooked Feed 

Larro Feed for Dairy Cows 

Presto Molasses Feed 

Purina Molasses Feed 

Euaker Molasses Dairy Feed 
:humacher*s Calf Meal 

Schumacher's Stock Feed 

Sucrene Dairy Feed 

Unicorn Dairy Ration 

Zenith Stock Feed 

V-B Dairy Feed 

Wirthmore Balanced Ration 

Wirthmore Slock Feed 



Farm Crops. 

Com Fodder, field-cured 

Corn Silage T 

Com Stalks, dried 

** •* field-cured 

Hay, Alfalfa 

'* Cow Pea 

** Red Clover 

•* Timothy 

Straw, Oat 

•• Rye 

" Wheat 



Nitrogen. 


Phosphoric 
Acid. 


Potash. 


% 


% 


% 


'1.8I 


0.23 


4.6i* 


2.64 


1.52 


0.94 


3-24 


1.24 


1.47 


1.70 


0.69 


0.49 


3.10 


1.22 


0.88 


2.30 


1-93 


1.77 


1.68 


0.40 


1.75 


2.64 


0.96 


1.56 


2.86 


1.60 


0.56 


1.66 


0.67 


0.64 


2.90 


1.20 


1.81 


4.27 


1.88 


1.16 


1.89 


1. 01 


0.66 


3.50 


1.28 


0.91 


4.25 


1.56 


I. II 


1.75 


1.09 


0.72 


0.86 


0.36 


1.07 


0.24 


0.12 


0.33 


0.82 


0.28 


0.95 


0.61 


0.33 


0.83 


2.66 


0.54 


2.46 


2.48 


0.66 


2.36 


1.97 


0.40 


1.75 


0.96 


0.36 


1.26 


0.65 


0.22 


1.22 


0.50 


0.29 


0.79 


0.43 


0.13 


0.74 



*This figure is correct for the sample examined but appears quite abnormal. 

per cent nitrogen. The table shows that eighteen of the fifty- 
two feeds tabulated contain more than the manurial equivalent of 
this amount, 3.93 per cent. These include cotton seed and lin- 
seed meals, gluten feed, buckwheat middlings, the brewery and 
distillery products and a few of the feed mixtures. It is obvious, 
therefore, that a wise selection of feeds enhances the value of the 
manure and consequently plays an important part in farm 
economy. 

There are also wide variations in the amounts of phosphoric 
add and potash supplied by the different feeds. Phosphoric acid 
is supplied most abundantly in the oil-cake meals, wheat, rye and 
buckwheat products, malt sprouts and certain brands of gluten 
feed; nine of the feed mixtures also contain over 1.40 per cent. 



3l6 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

of this element. On the other hand, oat hulls, dried beet pulp, 
certain distillers' grains and those gluten feeds to which the 
"steep" liquor is not added are very poor in phosphoric add. 

Potash is found in largest quantity in the oil-^rake meals, wheat 
bran, buckwheat middlings, malt sprouts, dried beet pulp and 
molasses, and certain feed mixtures in which molasses is a promi- 
nent ingredient. Certain gluten feeds and distillers' grains, and 
dried brewers' grains contain but very small quantities of potash. 

Of the home-grown crops alfalfa, cow pea and red clover hay 
are all rich in nitrogen and potash, and oat straw contains con- 
siderable potash ; all, however, are low in phosphoric add. 

A comparis<Mi of the feeds, pound for pound, however, in 
many cases is hardly fair, for certain of the more concentrated 
feeds, cotton seed meal, for instance, can form but a small part 
of the ordinary dairy ration. Two pounds of cotton seed meal 
would supply no more nitrogen than six poimds of wheat bran, 
and only one-third of the phosphoric acid and less than half the 
potash. On the other hand wheat bran and wheat middlings 
could be fed in equal amounts, and here the bran would supply 
nearly double the amount of phosphoric add and potash and 
only a little less nitrogen than the middlings. Malt sprouts and 
dried brewers' grains likewise would probably be fed in equal 
amounts, furnishing equal quantities of nitrogen, but by tiie 
feeding of the sprouts, two-thirds more phosphoric add and 
twenty-two times as much potash would be supplied to the 
manure. The practical feeder, therefore, has a great opportunity 
to improve the quality of his farm manure simply by a wise 
sdection of the feeds he uses for his stock, and this improve- 
ment, in the majority of cases, may be effected at no increased 
expense. It must be emphasized, nevertheless, that while the 
feeder has this opportunity of improving his farm manure, espe- 
cially in its nitrogen content, this same nitrogen is the most dusive 
of all the fertilizing elements, and all the advantage of a wise 
selection of feeds may be lost through carelessness in the preser- 
vation of the manure. 

The Cost of Feeds. 

No feeder needs to be told that the prices of all feeds have 
advanced in recent years, but unless he has kept accurate records 



THE COST OF FEEDS. 



3^7 



perhaps he has not realized how great this advance has been. 
Thiis station began its official inspection of feeds in 1899 and 
since then it has a record of the average prices asked for the 
various feeds in October and November of each year. Prior to 
1899 all feed prices had been quite low but in that year an upward 
tendency was noted. The year 1902 showed greatly advanced 
prices, especially for cotton seed and linseed meals, brewery and 
distillery products, gluten feed and hominy feed, the latter feed 

Table IV. — Variations in Selling Price, 1:899-1912. 



Average Price, 1899-1912. 



Cotton Seed Meal 

Linseed Meal, new process 

Linseed Meal, old process 

Dried Distillers' Grains, high grade 

Dried Brewers' Grains 

Malt Sprouts 

Gluten Feed 

Buckwheat Middlings, high grade. . 

Wheat Bran 

Wheat Feed 

Wheat Middlings 

Hominy Feed . 

Provender (Corn and Oats) 



Highest. 



$34-85 
39.00 

42.75 
34.67 
29.75 
28.00 

32.71 

32.o<^ 

30.97 
31.74 

*^2.8o 

32.86 
37.00 



09 
•12 
'II 
'12 
'12 
'12 
'08 

'12 

'07 

'07 

'11 

'II 
'II 



$24.20 

25.75 

26.25 

27.00 

*26..75 

16.75 
20.17 
18.00 
19.53 
19-55 
19.76 

17.79 
19.00 



Year. 



'99 
'03 

'03 
'06 
'06 
•01 

'99 
'00 

'99 
*99 
'99 
'99 
'oo 



191a price compared 

with lowest price 

1899-1913. 



$10.65 

13.25 

16.50 

7.67 

*3.oo 
11.25 
12.54 
14.00 
11.44 
12.19 
13.04 

15.07 
18.00 



! 



Per cent. 
In- 



44 
51 
63 
28 
«II 

67 
62 

78 

59 
62 
66 

85 
95 



*Not examined in this State before iqo6 ; in New Jersey this feed sold for $18.03 
in 1899 and $19.06 in 1900, the Connecticut 1912 price showing an increase of $11.72, 
or 65 per cent. 



showing an increase of $10.34 per ton over the price of 1899. 
The next year the prices of all of these feeds dropped considerably, 
but the prices of wheat products, bran, feed and middlings, then 
began an advance that has continued with slight fluctuations 
until the present time. The maximiun prices for practically all 
of the feeds have been shown in the past three years. Table IV 
gives a summary of these average prices in thirteen of the stand- 
ard feeds on which we Jiad sufficient data to warrant their inclu- 
sion. These figures show that during the last three years the 
Connecticut feeder has been paying from 28 to 95 per cent, more 



3l8 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table V. — Analyses of Commercial Feeds 



1184 
1220 
1271 
1291 
1314 
1357 
1224 

1 201 

1202 

1302 

1249 

1237 

1267 
1 166 
T312 

1324 
1262 



1198 



t3BQ 
n^9 



1323 
tt6o 
tSC4 

1*93 



Oil Seed Products. 

Cotton Seed MeaL 

Owl Brand. F. W. Brode & Co.. Memphis. Tenn. 

Buckeye. Buckeye Cotton Oil Co., Cincinnati, O. 



Acme Brand. T. H. Bunch, Little Rock, Ark. 

Old Gold Brand. *» * • 

Choice. Chickasha Cotton Oil Co., Chickasha, 

Okla 

Dixie Brand. Humphreys, Godwin & Co., 

Memphis, Tenn 

Forfat Brand. Humphreys, Godwin & Co., 

Memphis, Tenn ." 

Imperial. Imperial Cotto Mill Co., Memphis, 

Tenn 

Peacock Brand. Keeton McArthur Co., Atlanta, 

Ga 

Choice. Kemper Mill & Elev. Co., Kansas City, 

Mo 



Retail Dbalss. 



Wallingford: E. E. Hall 

PlainvilU : Eaton Bros • 

MiddUtown: Meech & Stoddani 

Suffield : Spencer Bros 

WilUmanHc: H. A. Bugbce... 
Winsted : E. Manchester & Soni 



Dirigo Brand. W. Newton Smith, Baltimore, Md, 

Pioneer Brand. J. E. Soper Co., Boston 

«t (( ti (t • i< 



Milford : E. L. Oviatt 

Meriden : Grain & Feed Co. 



Meriden : A. Grulich. 



RockvilU: E. White 



Bonita Brand. Southern Cotton Oil Co., Charlotte, 
N. C 



Linseed Meal^ New Process, 
American Linseed Co., Chicago 



Linseed Meal^ Old Process, 

AmeHcan Linseed Co., New York .% 

The Guy G. Major Co., Toledo. O 

Red Wing Linseed Co., Red Wing, Minn. 



Wheat Products. 
Wheat Bran, 

Atl^g. Atlas Flour Mills, Milwaukee, Wis 

Winona. Bay State Mill Co., Winoila, Minn.. . 
Niagara. Cataract City Mill Co., Niagara Falls, 

N, Y 

Commander. Commander Mill Co., Minneapolis, 
Minn 



Bethel: Johnston & Morrison.. 

South Norwalk: S. Roodner... 

Middlefield: A. E. Miller 

Derby : Peterson-Hendcc Co.. 
Willimantic : E. A. Buck & Co. 
New Haven: W. E. Critteodeo. 

Waterbury : H. S. Coe & Co. 

Average guaranty 

Average of these 17 analyses .. 
Average digestible 



Meriden : Grain & Feed Co... 
Stafford Springs : G. L. Dennis 

Average guaranty 

Average of these 2 analyses . • 
Average digestible 



Colchester : David Shea 

Hamden: I. W. Beers 

New London : P. Schwartz Ca- 

Average guaranty 

Average of these 3 analyses . • • 
Average digestible 



New Haven : W. E. Crittenden. 
Ansonia : Flour & Grain Co.. 

Meriden: A. Grulich 

Flantsville: T. B. Atwatcr .. 



I 



analyses of commercial feeds. 
Sampled in 1912. 



319 



6 






Pounds pek Hundheo. 








X 














Price 


g 






Protein 




Nitrogen-free 


Ether 


1 per 
ton. 


cn 


Water. 


Ash. 


(N x6.a5.) 


Fiber. 


Extract. 


Extract. 










(Starch, gum, etc.) 


(Fat.) 




II84 


9.02 


5.92 


41.31 


7.48 


28.05 


8.22 


1" 
i 

$32.00 


1220 


7.20 


6.17 


38.44 


10.79 


29 22 


8.18 


34.00 


I27I 


7.35 


6.30 


39.00 


10.96 


28,27 


8.12 


3300 


I29I 


8.80 


6.56 


40.63 


8.10 


27.03 


8.88 


36.00 


I3I4 


7.27 


6.63 


39.50 


8.57 


29.29 


8.74 


33.00 


1357 


7.15 


6.58 


44.25 


4.55 


26.08 


".39 


! 3300 


1224 


7.60 


5.51 


45.38 


8.24 


25.86 


7.41 


' 34.00 

I 


I20I 


8.70 


6.22 


37.75 


8.62 


28.28 


10.43 


34.00 


1202 


7.05 


6.23 


39.38 


II.I3 


28.28 


7.93 


! 32.00 


1302 


7.29 


6.89 


41.00 


7.99 


27.88 


8.95 


32.00 


1249 


8.84 


6.53 


41.13, 


7.29 


27.94 


8.27 


j 34.00 

1 


1237 


7.19 


6.79 


38.25 


9.83 


29.77 


8.17 


1 34.00 


1267 


8.42 


6.22 


37.63 


10.69 


28.72 


8.32 


1 32.00 


II66 


9.41 


6.41 


42.25 


4.84 


26.83 


10.26 


1 33.00 


1312 


5.31 


7.07 


47.25 


5.91 


26.89 


7.57 


32.00 


1324 


7.69 


6.69 


42.00 


7.50 


27.66 


8.46 


! 34.00 


1262 


8.27 


6.53 


39.94 
39.83 


7.43 


28.92 


8.91 
7.09 

1-7^ 


31.00 




7;8i 


6.43 


40.89 


8.^3 


^7-93 


33^" 




.... 





34.3 


2.9 


2Z.8 


8.2 


' 


II98 


9.88 


5.48 


38.69 


8.20 


34.95 


2.80 


40.00 


1308 


10.08 


5.44 


37.50 
36.00 


8.39 


35.72 


2.87 
z.oo 


42.00 




9.98 


5.46 


38. ID 


8.29 


35.33 


! 2.84 


41.00 


.... 


.... 




32.0 


6.1 


28.3 


2.5 




1350 


10.37 


5.12 


34.81 


8.29 


35.88 


i 5.53 


j 42.00 


I186 


10.32 


4.64 


33.00 


7.89 


37.20 


6.95 


' 3900 


1329 


8.62 

.... 


6.08 . 
.... 


36.00 
31.33 


7.05 


34.54 



7.71 

533 
1 6.73 


36.00 





9.77 


S.28 


34.60 


7.74 


35.88 


39^00 









30.8 


4.4 


27.9 


6.0 


1 


X323 


10.27 


6.69 


17.00 


9-95 


50.88 


5.21 


' 26.00 


1160 


9.82 


6.19 


16.25 


10.02 


52.79 


4.93 


28.00 


iao4 


10.05 


6.01 


15.75 


9.70 


53.35 


5.14 


30.00 


"93 


1 M, 


6.64 


15.88 


10.33 


52.68 


5.32 


30.00 



320 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPOKT, I912. 

Table V. — ^Analyses of Commescial Feeds 



3 



KCTAIL DCAUS. 



I2I7 
1356 
1258 , 

II49 

II83 

II45 

1362 
1358 

1283 

"75 
1297 

1161 i 

1156 
1150 
1274 

1207 

1268 
1318 
1213 

1295 
122 1 
1284 



1292 

1328 

1159 
1212 

1203 

1176 
1341 
1251 

1343 



Whbat PmoDUCTS. — C^nHnued. 
Wheat Bran, 

Monogram. C. M. Cox Co.. Boston /'ZaMrrOfc.- F. B. Newton 

Eagle Roller Mill Co., New Ulm. Minn Danlmry : F. C. Benjamin & Co 

Winter. Wm. Hamilton & Son, Honedye Falls. Waterkmry : I. A. Spcnc« 

N. Y Grain Co 

Choice. Hecker-Jones-Jewell Mill Co.. New York ^r«i/^i/.- S. V. Osbom 

Ben Hur. Hennepin Mills Co., Minneapolis,' 

Minn WalUngford: ^.^.^^\ 

Dreadnoui^ht. Hunter-Robinson- Wenz Mill Co., 

St. Louis, Mo ' \East Haven: F. A. Forbes 

Spring, jennison Bros. & Co.. Janesville, }A\iiVL,\Tarringt0n : D. L. Talcon 

Bran & Wheat Screenings. The K. B. R. Mill 

Co., .Marquette, Kan ; WinsUd : E. Manchester k Sons 

Maney Mill Co., Omaha, Neb Hartford: Smith, Northam&Co 

W. T. Naldrett. Norvell, Mich \No. Haven: Cooperative Feed Co 

Seal of Minn. New Prague Mill Co., New Prague, 

Minn Manchester : Little & McKinncj. 

Choice. Niagara Falls Mill Co., Niagara Falls.' 

N. Y \Ansonia: Flour & Gnun Co 

Northwestern Cons. Mill Co., Mmneapolis, ^Wnvi.xGuilford : Morse & Landon 

Pillsbury's Minneapolis, Minn Branford: S. V. Osbom 

Sleepy Eye. Sleepy Eye Flour Mill Co.. Sleepyi 

Eye, Minn \Middletown : Meech & Stoddard. 



Red Turkey. Southwestern Mill Co., Kansas City 
Mo 

Fancy. Geo. Tileston Mill Co., St. Cloud, Minn. 

Voigt Milling Co., Detroit, Mich 

Coarse. Washburn-Crosby Co., Minneapolis, 
Minn 

Western Canada Flour Mills, Canada 

No tags. •Bought from Terry Co., Bridgeport. . . 

No tags 



Wheat Middlings. 

Atlas Extra Flour. Atlas Flour Mill Co., Milwau- 
kee, Wis 

Fancy Low Grade. Barber Mill Co., Minneapolis. 
Minn ; 

Winona. Bay State Mill Co., Winona, Minn 

Puritan Flour. Brooks Elev. Co., Minneapolis, 
Minn 

Standard. Cataract City Mill Co., Niagara Falls, 
N. Y 

Chas. M. Cox Co., Boston, Mass 

Crescent Milling Co., Fairfax, Minn 

Duluth Superior Mill Co., Duluth, Minn 

Lucky Spring Flour. Federal Mill Co., Lockport, 
N. Y 



New Britain : C. W. Lines Co... 

MiddUfield: A. E. Miller 

New Haven : R. G. Davis & Sons 

Southington: Lumber & Feed Co. 

Suffield: A. Sikcs 

PlainviUe: Eaton Bros 

Hartford: Smith, Northam & Co. 
Average of these 26 analyses . . • ■ 
Average digestible 



Snjfield: Spencer Bros. 



New London : P. Schwartz Co.. 
A nsonia : FIou r & Grain Co. . . . 



New Britain : Stanley Svca Co. 

Meriden: A. Grulich 

No, Haven: Cooperative Feed Co. 
Moosup : T. E. Main & Sons Co. 
Bethel : Johnston & Morrison. 

Danielson: Quinebaug Grist Mill 



* Statement of dealer. 



ANALYSES OF COMMERCIAL FEEDS. 

Sampled in 1912 — Continued. 



321 



I 



1217 
1256 

1258 
H49 

1183 

1 145 
1362 

1358 
1283 
n75 

1297 

1161 
1156 
II 50 

1274 

1207 
1268 
1318 

1213 
129s 
122 1 
1284 



Pounds pbk Hundred. 



Water. 



10.39 
9.46 

10.96 
9.61 

9.80 

9-54 
10.00 

9-75 
9.88 
8.34 

9.60 

9.39 

9.76 

10.92 

II. 18 

8.96 

10.58 

9.64 



Ash. 



5.73 
6.94 

5.92 
5.99 

7.00 

5.91 
6.79 

5.95 
6.55 
5.98 

6.05 

6.44 
6.47 
6.64 

6.81 

6.68 
6.06 
5.88 



Protdn. 
(Nx6.a5.) 



14.63 
15.31 

14.88 
15.25 

15.13 

14.88 
16.75 

17.88 
16.50 
15.88 

16.50 

15.75 
16.13 
16.00 

15.25 

17.50 
14.63 
15.00 



10.07 


6.18 


15.88 


10.40 


5.42 


16.50 


1048 


5.60 


14.38 


10.09 


6.26 


15-88 


9.93 


6.26 


15.82 

Z2.2 



Fiber. 



9.75 
10.55 

9.15 
9-34 

11.23 

8.28 
9.85 

8.43 
9.67 
7.86 

10.09 

8.58 
9.54 
9.94 

10.46 

8.75 
10.21 

8.13 

10.48 
8.S9 
8.00 

9-79 
9.50 
.3.7 



Nhrogen-free 
! Extract. 

I (Starch, gum, etc.> 



54.49 
52.70 

54.87 
55.11 

51.97 

57.44 
51.15 

53.65 
52.66 
57.40 

52.67 

54.94 
52.90 
51.41 

51.38 

53.66 
53.65 
56.97 

51.77 
54.31 
57.26 

53.35 
53.67 

38. Z 



Price 



Ether 

Extract. 

(Fat.) 



5.II 
5.04 

4.22 
4.70 

4.87 

3.95 
5.46 

4.34 

4 74 
4.54 

5.09 

4.90 
5.20 
5.09 

4.92 

4.45 
4.87 
4.38 

5.62 
4.48 
4.28 
4.63 
4.83 
3.0 



$28.00 
25.00 

30.00 
30.00 

26.00 

27.00 
27.00 

26 00 
28.00 
29.00 

28.00 

28.00 
28.00 
30.00 

26.00 

28.00 
26.00 
25.00 

30.00 
29.00 
28.00 
38.00 
27.85 



1292 

1328 
1159 

1212 

1203 
1176 
I341 
I251 

1343 



10.83 

11.45 
11.08 

10.22 

9.46 
11.87 
10.12 
11.01 

10.28 



4.II 

2.66 

5.25 
4.58 
5.16 

2.42 
5.06 

2.79 
4.29 



17.94 

18.13 
17.63 

17.75 

17.25 
15.25 

18.38 

18.00 
19.13 



6.48 

1.57 
7.40 

7.28 

7.89 
2.37 

7.22 
2.60 

6.28 



55.72 

61.24 

53.29 

55.47 

54.86 
64.68 
53.10 
60.83 

54.44 



4.92 

4.95 

5.35 

4.70 

5.38 
3.41 

6.12 

4.77 

5.58 



34.00 
35.00 

30.00 

36.00 

33.00 
33.00 
27.00 
36.00 

30.00 



322 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table V. — ^Analyses of Commercial Feeds 



§ 
■5 



Retail DcAUEL 



Bri4gepcri : Vincent Bros. 

So. Norwalk: M. T. Hatch... 

East HoTfcn : F. A. Forbes 

MiddUtown: MccchAStoddardCa 



Wheat Products. — Continued. 
Wheat Middlings, 

1230 The Gwinn Mill Co., Columbus, O 

1233 *• H." Hcckcr-Jones-Tewell Mill Co., New York 
1 147 Ben Huf Standard. Hennepin Mills Co., Minne- 
apolis, Minn 

1270 Flour. . W. T. Jennison, Minneapolis, Minn 

1304 Carnation Gray. Kemper Mill & Elev. Co., 

Kansas City, Mo 

1247 jLidgerwood Mill Co., Lidgerwood, No. Dak \SpringdaU 

1305 Powerful Straight. New England Flour Co.,! 
Boston \RockvilU : E. White 

Niagara Falls Mill. Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y \WalHngford : Gallagher Bros.. 

Pillsbury's *^ A," Minneapolis, Minn TkompsonvilU : H. K. Brainard 

*'B," " ** Bran/ard. • S.V.Osbovn 

XX Daisy •* *' \ East Hartford : W. K. Ackkj 



\RockvilU : 



E. White 

.• Monroe & Palmei 



ii8x 
1285 
1 148 
1278 
1 194 
1294 
121$ 
1223 

1253 
1269 

1339 
1 301 

1319 

"55 

1 165 



1335 
1265 
1167 
1188 
1248 
1313 

1368 
1182 
1310 
1228 



1174 

1363 

I33t) 



Bixota. Red Wing Mill. Co.. Red Wing, Minn 

Flour. Russell Miller Milling Co 

Pennant. David Stott, Detroit, Mich .' PlainvilU : F. B. Newton 

Tennant & Hoyt Co., Lake City, Minn \Milford: E. L. Oviatt 



Angelus. Thompson Milling Co., Lockport, N. Y 
Fancy. Geo. Tileston Mill. Co., St. Cloud, Minn 

Geo. Urban Mill. Co., Buffalo, N. Y 

Vimco. Valley City Mill. Co., Grand Rapids, 

Mich 

Voigt Milling Co., Grand Rapids, Mich 

Standard. Washburn-Crosby Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn 

Standard. No tags 



PlantsvilU: T. B. Atwater. 
Suffieid: A. Sikes 



Mixed Feed, 
Fancy Winter. E. W. Bailey, Montpelier, Vt. . . . 

Bay State Mill. Co., Winona, Minn 

BuH*s Eye. Blish Milling Co., Sejrmour Ind 

Regent. Chas. M. Cox Co., Boston 

Boston. Duluth Superior Mill. Co., Duluth, Minn 
Manhattan. Hecker-Jones-Jewell Mill. Co., New 

York 

Sunshine. Hunter-Robinson-Wenz Mill. Co., St 

Louis, Mo 

Crescent. Kemper Mill. & Elev. Co., Kansas 

City, Mo 

Snowflake. Lawrenceburg Roller Mills Co, 

Lawrenceburg, Ind 

Thoroughbred. Lexington Roller Mills Co., 

Lexington, Ky 



Yantic : A. R. Manning 

Bristol: Eaton Bros 

Derby : Peterson-Hendee Co 

Hamden: I. W. Beers 

Bethel: Johnston & Morrisoo.. 

WillimanHc: H. A. Bugbce 

Thomaston: L. E. Blackmer. 

Wallingford : E.E.Hall 

WilUmanHc: E. A. Buck* Co. 

*-v ......^.^w, *^j Bridgeport : Vincent Bros. .•••• 

W. T. Naldrett, Norvell, Mich \No, Haven : Co Operative Feed to 

Donahue-Stratton Co., Milwaukee, Wis j Torrington : D. L. Talcott. 

Pennant. National Milling Co., Toledo, O \Yantic : A. R. Manning 



Danbury: C. W. Kceler 

MiddUfield : A. E. Miller 

Norwich: Chas. Slosberg 



Rockville: E. 
New Haven : 



White 

R. G. Davis & Sobs 



Guilford : Morse & Landon.-- 
Shelton: AnsoniaFlour&GrainW 

Average of these 31 analyses 

Average digestible 



ANALYSES OF COMMERCIAL FEEDS. 

Sampled in 1912 — Continued, 



323 









Pounds pek Hundred. 








6 


' 














Z 














Price 


§ 






Protein 




Nitrogen-free 


Ether 


per 
ton. 


■^ 


Water. 


Ash. 


(Nx6.a5.) 


Fiber. 


Extract. 


Extract. 




M 








(Starcli, gum, etc.) 


(Fat.) 




1230 


9-43 


3.96 


18.25 


5.38 


57.19 


5.79 


$35.00 


1233 


10.07 


4.93 


18.25 


7.83 


53.78 


5.14 


30.00 


1 147 


10.63 


5.19 


17.50 


8.05 


53.79 


4.84 


28.00 


1270 


11.26 


3.70 


17.63 


4.22 


58.23 


4.96 


31.00 


1304 


903 


4.59 


19.88 


5.09 


56.35 


5.06 


29.00 


1247 


9.86 


4.18 


18.50 


6.03 


55.76 


5.67 


34.00 


1305 


9-47 


5.09 


20.38 


5.90 


53.90 


5.26 


28.00 


II8I 


9.82 


4.63 


18.13 


7.47 


53.84 


6.II 


30.00 


1285 


II. 19 


4.28 


18.00 


5.67 


5b.o8 


4.78 


32.00 


1148 


10.32 


5.13 


14.75 


11.26 


52.17 


6.37 


30.00 


1278 


12.29 


3.29 


18.75 


3.07 


57.72 


4.88 


36.00 


II94 


10.15 


4.86 


19.50 


6.51 


52.97 


6.01 


32.00 


1294 


12.03 


3.06 


18.00 


3.07 


58.84 


5.00 


34.00 


I2I5 


10.60 


4.36 


16.94 


5.83 


57.32 


4.95 


30.00 


1223 


10.46 


4.74 


18.56 


6.55 


53.11 


6.58 


32.00 


1253 


11.74 


4.17 


17.75 


5.97 


54.61 


5.76 


32.00 


1269 


10.77 


3.98 


17.31 


5.23 


57.33 


5.38 


29.00 


1339 


10.66 


3.S8 


16.63 


4.55 


60.33 


4.25 


27.00 


I3OI 


10.76 


4.29 


16.38 


5.59 


58.47 


4.51 


30.00 


I3I9 


11.71 


3.49 


15.94 


4.37 


59.91 


4.58 


32.00 


"55 


10.01 


5.50 


17.63 


7.66 


53.90 


5.30 


30.00 


I165 


11.37 


4.20 


16.50 


lil 


55.40 


5.54 


31.00 




10.64 


4.24 


17.76 


56.29 


5.22 


31.48 


— 








13.7 


1.8 


43.9 


4.6 




1335 


9.65 


5.77 


17.00 


7.81 


54.95 


4.82 


28.00 


1265 


10.61 


4.79 


17.19 


6.46 


55.88 


5.07 


32.00 


1 167 


10.51 


5.22 


15.81 


7.22 


56.76 


448 


30.00 


1188 


1042 


5.17 


17.63 


7.83 


53.71 


5.24 


30.00 


1248 


10.28 


5.10 


16.75 


7-94 


54.43 


5.50 


32.00 


1313 


9.35 


5.05 


17.00 


7.52 


56.21 


4.87 


28.00 


1368 


9.79 


6.10 


18.13 


7.81 


53.30 


4.87 


31.00 


1 182 


9.29 


5.06 


16.63 


7.02 


57.76 


4.24 


28.00 


1310 


1 8.80 

1 


5.38 


16.00 


7.15 


58.19 


4.48 


30.00 


1228 


t 9-52 


4.87 


15.50 


6.52 


5927 


4.32 


31.00 


1 174 


10.04 


4.40 


15.38 


5.50 


60.70 


3.98 


31.00 


1363 


1 10.78 


6.71 


16.25 


8.24 


52.66 


5.36 


29.00 


1336. 


j 9-42 


5.06 


17.63 


6.20 


57.24 


4.45 


30.00 



324 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table V. — ^Analyses of Commercial Feeds 



1 



Retail Dealer. 



-I- 



"57 
1219 
1351 

IIQ2 

ii6a 

1187 

1359 
1216 
1252 
1300 

1255 



1260 
1275 

1325 



1 179 
1263 



1299 
1309 



1 168 
1242 



1353 
1369 



Wheat Products. — Continued. 
Mixed Feed, 

Niagara Falls Mill. Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y | 

Fancy. Pillsbury*s, Minneapolis, Minn 

Royal. Royal Milling Co., Great Falls, Mont 

Occident. Russell Miller Mill. Co 

Gold Mine. Sheffield King Mill. Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn 

Try Me. Sparks Milling Co., Alton, 111 

Wabash. ** ** ** Terre Haute, Ind. . . 

Honest. David Stott, Detroit, Mich 

Angelus. Thompson Mill. Co., Lockpori,N. Y.. 
Farmers' Favorite Cow Feed. Valley City Mill 

Co., Grand Rapids, Mich 

Waggoner Gates Mill. Co., Independence, Mo.. . 



Guilford: G. F. Walter. 
PlainvilU : Eaton Bros. . . 
Winsted: Theo. Wachter. 
Cheshire: G. W. Thorpe. 



Red Dog Flour, 

Niagara Falls Mill. Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y.... 

XXX Comet. Northwestern Cons. Mill Co., 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Adrian. Washburn Mills, Minneapolis, Minn. < 



Ansonia : Flour & Grain Co 

Hamden : I. W. Beers 

W^insted: E. Manchester & Sons 

Plainville: F.B.Newton 

Danbury: C. W. Keeler 

RockvilU: E. White 

Danbury : F. C. Benjamin & Co. 
Average of these 24 analyses — 
Average digestible 



I Waterbury: H. S. Coe & Co. 



Buffalo. 



Maize Products. 
Gluten Feed. 
Corn Products Refining Co., New York 



Afiddletown: Meech & Stoddard. 
New London : Arnold Rudd Co.. 
Average of these 3 analyses 



*Cream of Corn. 

New York.. . . 
Cream of Corn. 

New York..., 



American Maize Products Co. 



American Maize Products Co., 



Globe. Corn Products Refining Co., New York. 
If It tt <« << 

Grand Rapids. Douglas & Co., Grand Rapids, la 
Hubinger. J. C. Hubinger Bros. Co., Keokuk, la. 



No. Haven: Cooperative Feed Co. 
Waterbury : H . S. Coe & Co. . . 

Average guaranty 

A verage of these 2 analyses 

Average digestible 

Manchester ; G. W. Kuhney 



Stafford Springs : G. L. Dennis. 

Average guaranty 

Average of these 2 analyses — 

Average digestible 

Derby : Peterson-Hendee Co. . . 
Norwalk : Holmes, Keeler & 

Kent Co 

Average guaranty 

Average of these 2 analyses 

Average digestible 

Winsted: Piatt & Coe 

Guaranty 

Digestible 

New Haven: W. E. Crittenden.. 

Guaranty 

Digestible 



* Statement of dealer. 



ANALYSES OF COMMERCIAL FEEDS. 



325 



Sampled in 1912 — Continued. 



Pounds pbk Hundred. 



"57 

1219 ' 

1351 ' 

1 192 I 

1162 
1187 

1359 i 

1216 

I2$2 

1300 
"55 



1260 

1275 
1325 



"79 
1263 



9-77 
11.30 

9.89 
10.51 


5.38 
5.93 
4.66 
4.60 


10.39 , 
10.16 
8.60 


5.05 
5.12 
5.16 


10.40 
10.48 


5.30 
5.45 



9.65 

9-97 
9.98 



10.35 

10.84 
11.00 
10.73 



10.18 
8.79 



5.34 
5.20 

5.35 



Protein. 

(Nx6.a5.) 



16.13 
17.00 
17.81 
17.50 

17.13 
16.75 

16.75 
16.25 
16.69 

16.13 

15.63 
16.70 
13.0 



I Nitrogen-free 

Extract. 
(Starch, Kum, etc.) 



Ether 

Extract. 

(Fat.) 



1.83 I 17.13 



3.04 
2.77 

3.55 



4.47 
3.07 



19-25 
17.19 
17.86 



27.75 
27.19 
24.00 



7.43 
7.18 
7.28 
7.02 

7.79 
7.04 

7.17 
7.51 
8.71 

7.62 
6.64 
7.28 

0.93 

2.40 
3.01 
2.ZZ 



5.75 
696 



56.27 
54.00 

55.27 
55.52 

54.77 
56.55 
57.92 
55.49 
53.37 

56.54 
57.85 
56.01 

43.1 
65.70 

58.51 
61.24 

6z.8z 



48.85 
51.58 



5.02 

4.59 
5.09 

4.85 

4.87 
4.38 
4.40 
5.05 
5.30 

4.72 
4.71 
4.78 
4.3 

4.06 

5.96 
4.79 
4.94 



3.00 
2.41 
2.00 



Price 
per 
ton. 



; $34.00 
32.00 

; 31.00 
30.00 

. 31.00 

I 30.00 

I 29.00 

, 30.00 

; 31.00 

I 

29.00 
' 28.50 
I 30.23 



36.00 

34.00 
36.00 
35.33 



29.00 
32.00 





9.48 


3.77 


1 —-f^^ 
27.47 


6.35 


50.22 


2.7Z 


30.50 


— 






33.3 


5.5 


45.3 


2.2 

1 




1299 


8.64 


3.80 


! 27.88 


6.41 


51.15 


2.12 


30.00 


1309 


6.24 


3.21 


26.38 
23.00 


6.57 


53.72 


3.88 
; 2.00 


3400 




7.44 


3.50 


27. Z3 


6.49 
5.6 


52.44 


! 3.00 


32.00 


! 


.... 


.... 


23. z 


47.2 


2.4 




II68 


8.62 


3.95 


1 26.13 


6.67 


51.95 


! 2.68 


31.00 


1242 


6.35 


4.39 


1 27.00 
23.00 
; 26.57 
I 22.6 


7.13 


52.81 


' 2.32 
i 2.00 


35.00 




7.48 


4.17 


6.90 


52.38 


1 3.50 


33.00 


.... 






6.0 


47.x 


1 2.0 




1353 


8.59 


0.99 


1 22.00 
1 20.00 


7.54 


57.12 


! 3.76 
2.50 


30.00 




.... 


.... 


Z8.7 


6.6 


51.4 


1 3.^ 





1369 


7.80 


1.72 


24.75 
23.00 


6.34 



55.18 


4.21 
2.40 


29.00 











2Z.0 


5.5 


49.7 


3.4 





3*6 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table V. — Analyses of Commercial Feeds 



s I 



Retail Dkalbk. 



1264 
1303 



1348 
1243 
II78 

1244 
1293 
1246 

"73 

1334 
1 189 

1222 

1257 

1306 
1337 

1298 
1340 



1352 



1151 
1 197 
1259 

1367 



Maizb Products. — Continued. 
Gluten Feed. 
Staley's. A. E. Staley Mfg. Co.. Decatur, III. 



Hominy Feed. 
Homco. American Hominy Co., Indianoplis, Ind. 

Buf CeCo. Buffalo Cereal Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Wirthmore. Chas. M. Cox Co.. Boston 

Evans. Evans Mill. Co., Indianapolis, Ind 

*R. J. Hardy & Sons, Boston, Mass 

Badger. Chas. A. Krause, Milwaukee, Wis 

Steam-cooked. Miner-Hillard Mill. Co.. Wilkes 
barre. Pa 

Mystic Milling Co., Sioux City, la. 

Patent Cereals Co., Geneva, N. Y 

Yellow. Quaker Oats Co., Chicago 

♦Simpson, Hendee & Co., New York 

Blue Ribbon. J. E. Soper Co., Boston 

Sparr Cereal Co., Marshfield, Wis 

Logan. Standard Cereal Co., Chill icothe, O. . . . 



Hominy Feed and Com Cob. 
Star Feed. Toledo Elevator Co.. Toledo, O 

Rye Products. 

Bran. Morse & Landon. Guilford 

Feed. Boutwell Mill. & Grain Co., Troy, N. Y.. 
Middlings. Washburn-Crosby Co., Minneapolis, 

Minn 

Feed. Blodgett Mill. Co.. Janesville Wis 

* Statement of dealer. 



Bristol : Eaton Bros 

RockvilU: E. While 

Average guaranty 

Average of these 2 analyses. 
Average digestible 



Colchester : Grain & Coal Co. . . 

Guaranty 

Stamford: W. L. Crabb 

Guaranty • 

No. Haven: Co6perativcFc«i Co. 

Guaranty 

Greenwich : J . P. Johnson 

Guaranty 

Suffield : Spencer Bros 

Guaranty 

SpringdaU : Monroe & Palmer 
Guaranty 

New Haven : J. T. Benham Esi.. 

Guaranty "1 

Yantic : A. R. Manning 1 

Guaranty 

Hamden: I. W. Beers 

Guaranty 

Milford: E. L. Oviatt 

Danbury : F. C. Benjamin & Co. 

Average guaranty 

Average of these 2 analyses 

RockvilU: E.White 

Norwich : Chas. SI osberg 

Guaranty 

Manchester : Little & McKinncy. 

Guaranty 

Norwich : Norwich Grain Co. . . • 

Guaranty 

Average guaranty of all hominy 

feeds 

Average of these 15 analyses . . • 
Average digestible 



Winsted: Piatt & Coe. 
Guaranty 



Guilford: Morse & Landoo. 
Meriden : Grain & Feed Co. . 



Waterbury : H. S. Coe & Co. . • 
Thomaston : L. E. Blackroer .^ 



ANALYSES OF COMMERCIAL FEEDS. 

Sampled in 1912 — Continued. 



327 



o* 


Pounds peh Hundred. 




X 














Price 


1 






Protein 




Nitrogen-free 


Ether 


per 
ton. 




Water. 


Ash. 


(NX 6.25.) 


Fiber. 


Extract. 
(Starch, gum, etc.) 


Extinct. 
(Fat.) 




1 1264 


9.19 


2.99 


23.00 


6.47 


54.96 


3.39 


$32.00 


1303 


10.84 


3.93 


26.25 


5.56 


49.07 


4.35 


28.00 


.... 


.... 


.... 


23.00 


.... 




2.50 




.... 


10.01 


3.46 


24.63 


6.0Z 


52.02 


3.87 


30.00 


.... 








20.9 


5.2 


46.8 


3.1 




1348 


9.82 


2.82 


11.50 


4.24 


62.73 


8.89 


29.00 


.... 


.... 


.... 


9.50 


.... 




7.00 




1243 


9-45 


2.69 


11.38 


4.17 


63.47 


8.84 


33.00 


.... 


.... 


.... 


ZO.OO 


.... 




7.00 




1178 


9.37 


2.72 


II. 31 


4.72 


63.14 


8.84 


30.00 


.... 


.... 


.... 


Z0.00 






7.50 




1244 


10.04 


2.51 


11.38 
zo.oo 


4.41 


63.43 


8.23 
7.50 


34.00 


1293 


10.49 


2.28 


10.88 


4.67 


64.43 


7.25 


30.00 




..... 


.... 


Z0.00 


.... 




7.00 




1246 


10.40 


3.08 


11.88 
9.00 


4.40 


63.39 


6.85 

6.00 


34.00 


1173 


8.64 


2.58 


11.88 
Z0.00 


4.33 


66.74 


5.83 
5.00 


31.00 


1334 


*8.75 


3.62 


11.63 

ZZ.OO 


4.03 


64.77 


8.20 
7.00 


29.00 


II89 


10.60 


2.54 


10.88 


3.95 


63.82 


8.21 


31.00 


.... 


.... 


.... 


ZO.OO 


.... 




7.00 




1222 


11.52 


1.76 


10.25 


2.19 


69.45 


4.83 


29.00 


1257 


11.14 


2.14 


10.75 


3.27 


66.97 


5.73 


28.00 




.... 


.... 


9.00 


.... 




4.00 




.... 


"33 


1.95 


Z0.50 


2.73 


68.2Z 


5.28 


28.50 


1306 


8.38 


2.87 


11.56 


4.52 


63.65 


9.02 


29.00 


1337 


10.36 


2.62 


11. 38 


4.27 


63.38 


7.99 


28.00 


.... 


.... 


.... 


zo.oo 


.... 




8.00 




1298 


9.37 


2.45 


11.75 


3.63 


63.96 


8.84 


32.00 


.... 


.... 


.... 


ZO.OO 


.... 




8.00 




1340 


9.26 

1 .... 


2.30 


11.00 
9.00 

9.75 


3.65 


66.64 


7.15 
7.00 

6.57 


28.00 


.... 


1 9.83 


3.53 


ZZ.29 


4.03 


64.67 


7.65 


30.33 


.... 







7.3 


2.7 


57.6 


7.0 




1352 


1 8.64 


2.26 


10.13 
7.00 


8.04 


63.81 


7.12 
5.00 


30.00 


"51 


1 10.99 


2.82 


13.44 


2.62 


67.49 


2.64 


30.00 


U97 


II. 19 


3.54 


15.31 


3.85 


62.89 


3.22 


34.00 


1259 


10.37 


4.02 


17.00 


5.17 


59.91 


3.53 


31.00 


J3^ 


_ 9.38 


5.67 


15.88 


7.06 


58.33 


3.68 


32.00 



1 



328 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT^ I912. 

Table V. — ^Analyses of Commercial Feeds 



I 



1232 
1342 

I3I7 
II44 

1 169 



1290 
1238 

"43 
1344 



1389 
1355 
1354 

1239 

1360 
1356 
1364 
1282 



Retail Dealck. 



Buckwheat Products. 
Middlings. Miner-Hillard Mill. Co., Wilkesbarre, 
Pa 



Middlings. Quinebaug Grist MtU, Danielson . . 

Barley Products. 
Malt Sprouts. 
P. Ballantine & Sons, Newark, N. J 



Fancy Marvel. Flint Mill. Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Geneva Malting Co., Geneva, N. Y 



Dried Brewers' Grains. 
XXX. Chicago Grain & Feed Co., Chicago 

Bull Brand. Farmers* Feed Co.. New York 

Providence Brewing Co., Providence, R. I 

C. W. Wagar.& Co., Philadelphia 

Dried Distillers' Grains. 
Ajax Flakes. Ajax Mill. & Feed Co., Buffalo, 
N. Y 

Eagle Grains, 3 D. The Dewey Bros. Co., Blan- 
Chester, O 

Husted. Husted Milling Co., Buffalo, N. Y 

Miscellaneous Feeds. 

Dried Beet Pulp. 

Continental Sugar Co., Findlay, O 

Menominee River Sugar Co., Menominee, Mich. . 

Mt. Clemens Sugar Co.. Mt. Clemens. Mich 

Owosso Sugar Co.. Lansing, Mich 

Charles Pope, Chicago 



So. Norwalk: M. T. Hatch. 

Digestible 

Danielson : 

Digestible 



New Haven : R. G. Davis & Sons 

Guaranty 

East Haven: F. A. Forbes 

Guaranty 

New Haven : J. T. Benham, Est. 

Guaranty 

Average of these 3 analyses 
Average digestible 



Suffield : Spencer Bros 

Guaranty 

Norwalk: Holmes. KeelerA 

Kent Co 

Guaranty 

East Haven : F. A. Forbes. . . 

Guaranty 

Danielson : Young Bros. Co.. 

Guaranty 

Average of these 4 analyses .. 
Average digestible 



Hatardville : A. D. Bridges t 

Sons Co 

Guaranty 



WinsUd: E. Manchester & Sons 

Guaranty 

Winsted: E. Manchester & Sons 

Guaranty 

Average of these 3 analyses 
Average digestible 



Norwalk: Holmes, Keeler& 

Kent Co 

Torrington : D . L . Tal cott 

Winsted: E. Manchester & Sons 
Torrington: F. U. Wadhams... 
Hartford: Smith. Northam&Co. 

Guaranty of all samples 

Average of these 5 analyses 

Average digestible. ^^ 



ANALYSES OF COMMERCIAL FEEDS. 

Sampled in 1912 — Continued. 



329 



Pounds pek Hundred. 



Water. 



12.82 
12.81 

7.48 
12.22 
10.84 

10. z8 

8.27 

7.54 
7.49 
7.80 

7.78 

7.17 

7.57 
7.36 
7.37 



8.54 
7.97 
10.00 
9.83 
8.44 

8.96 



Ash. 



4.67 
5.02 

6.04 
5.75 
5.32 
5.70 

3.04 

2.92 

3.53 
3.21 
3.18 

3.03 

4.18 
V.38 

2.86 



3.23 
2.61 

3.25 

2.85 

3.35 
3.06 



Protein. 
(Nx6.a5.) 



23.88 
20.3 
30.38 
25.8 



24.50 
25.63 

28.25 
22.00 

26.88 
26.50 

26.55 
2Z.2 

29.19 
25.00 

29.25 
27.00 
23.38 
22.00 
29.75 
24.00 
27.89 
22.6 



30.75 
30.00 

30.00 
30.00 
31.25 
30.00 
30.67 
22.4 



8.25 
8.44 
8.75 
8.63 
8.44 

8.00 
8.50 
54 



Fiber. 



11.53 
2.0 

8.89 

X.5 



15.00 
10.38 
10.98 

12. 12 

4.x 
12.32 



12.07 

13.12 

13.12 

12.66 
6.2 

10.63 

9.25 
11.15 
10, 



;:r 



19.59 
18.86 
19.04 
18.31 
20.12 



19.18 

16. z 



Nitrogen-free 

.Extract. 

(Starch, gam, etc 



40.68 

33.7 

35.30 
29.3 



45.61 
42.13 
44.51 



44.08 
30.4 

40.19 



40.24 
45.89 



40.23 

41.63 
23.7 



36.14 



36.42 

36.71 

36.42 
29.5 



59.60 
61.07 
57.92 

59-39 

58.85 



59.37 
54.0 



Ether 

Extract. 

(Fat.) 



6.42 

5.7 
7.60 

6.8 



1.37 
X.47 
1.27 
2.00 
1.47 
2.45 
1.37 
X.4 

6.99 
5.00 

7.98 
6.30 

6.59 
5.00 

5.89 
6.00 
6.86 
6.1 



12.28 
11.00 

12.58 
10.00 
12.15 
8.00 
12.34 
11.7 



0.79 
1.05 
I.04 

0.99 
0.80 
0.50 
0.93 



Price 
per 
ton. 



$32.00 



27.00 
28.00 
29.00 
28.00 



30.00 
33.00 



28.00 
28.00 
29.75 



36.00 

34.00 
34.00 
34.67 



30.00 
29.00 
27.00 
28.00 
31.00 



29.00 



330 CONNECnCOT EXPEBUCENT SCATION SBFOKT, I912. 

Table V. — ^Analyses of Commsxciai. Feeds 



I 



KSTAU. DbAUDL 



1206 

1163 

I3I5 

1 170 

1347 
1338 
1 196 
I3l8 

II95 

1276 

II52 
1365 

I32I 
1327 

1296 
I2I4 



1333 
1307 



1272 
1320 



MiSCELLAMXOUS FkSDS. 

Dried Beet Pulp and Mclasses. 

Michigan Sagar Co., Alma, Mich. 

MixzD Feeds. 
Com and Oat Feeds, and Chop Feeds. 
Buf Ce Co. Chop Feed. Buffalo Cereal Co., 
Buffalo. N. Y 

Iroquois Chop Feed. Buffalo Cereal Co., Buffalo, 
N. Y 

Buf Ce Co. Stock Feed. Buffalo Cereal Co., 
Buffalo. N. Y 

Provender. Colchester Grain & Coal Co., Col- 
chester 

Stock Feed. W. H. Haskell & Co., Toledo, O. . . . 

Purity Stock Feed. Wo&. S. Hills Co., Boston. . . 

New England Stock Feed. H. O. Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mayflower Stock Feed. Husted Mills, Buffalo, 

Kom-Oato Feed. Meech & Stoddard, Middletown 

Provender. Morse & Landon, Guilford 

Mystic Feed. Mystic Mill. & Feed Co., Rochester, 
N. Y 

Boss Feed. Quaker Oats Co., Chicago 

White Diamond Feed. Quaker Oats Co., Chicago 

Victor Feed. Quaker Oats Co., Chicago 

Winner Chop Feed. David Stott, Detroit, Mich. . 

Corn, Oats and Barley. 

C. W. Campbell Co., Westerly 

Edward White, Rockville 

Wheat and Corn Cob Feeds. 
Sterling Feed. Indiana Mill. Co., Terre Haute, Ind 

Kennebec Feed. }. E. Soper Co., Boston , 



AVv Britain : C. W. Lines Co... 
Guaranty 

Shelton : Ansonia Flour & Grais 

Co 

Guaranty 

New Haven : R. G. Davis & Sons 
Guaranty. 

New Haven : J. T. Benham Est 
Guaranty 

Colchester : 

Norwich: Chas. Slosberg 

Guaranty 

PlantsvUle: C. O. Cowles 

Guaranty 

PlainviUe : Eaton Bros 

Guaranty 

PlantsviUe: CO. Cowles.* 

Guaranty 

Middletown: 

Guaranty 

Guilford: 

Torrington: F. U. Wadhams.... 

Guaranty 

New Haven: W. E. Crittenden.. 

Guaranty 

New London : P. Schwartz Co. 

Guaranty 

So. Manchester: G. W. Strant... 

Guaranty 

Plainville: F. B. Newton 

Guaranty 

Westerly: 

Rockville : 

Average of these 2 analyses 

Middletown : Meech & Stoddard. 

Guaranty 

New Haven: W. E. Crittenden.. 

Guaranty 

Average of these 2 analyses 

Average digestible ^ 



ANALYSES OF COMMERCIAL FEEDS. 



331 



Sampled in 19 12 — Continued, 



Pounds pbk Hundred. 



Water. 



8.84 

9.56 

8.74 

9.04 

10.97 
8.89. 

8.19 

8.05 

10.41 
10.36 
11.52 

9-97 
9.93 
9.07 
10.08 
9.25 

II. 19 

9.02 

ZO.IO 

10.20 
10.15 
Z0.Z7 



Ash. 



4.52 

3.35 
3.24 
3.22 

2.34 
2.91 

4.02 

3.60 

3.51 
2.61 
V.82 
3.37 
3.50 
3.07 
2.94 
3.57 

2.18 

2.33 
2.26 

4.48 
4.09 

4^39 



Protein. 
(Nx6.a5.) 



9.63 
9.00 



9.13 
7.00 

10.13 
7.00 

9.81 

8.00 

10.81 
10.00 

8.00 
10.69 

8.00 
10.19 

9.00 

10.81 
7.50 
7.88 
7.00 

10.63 

11.00 
8.00 

9.75 
8.00 
9.38 
8.00 
8.88 
9.00 
0.63 
8.00 

II. 13 
10.94 
ZZ.04 

10.88 
9.60 

10.75 

9.80 

10.82 

6.8 



16.34 

9.17 
8.70 

7.99 

5.76 
6.12 

10.02 

10.16 

5.47 
9.87 
4.04 
8.82 
9.69 
7.22 



10.01 
9.49 



4.53 
5.43 
4.9S 

14.15 

15.28 

14^71 
4«i 



Nitrogen-free 

Extract. 

(Starch, gum, etc.) 



59.79 

64.99 
64.22 
64.70 



65.54 
66.10 



62.06 
63.37 

64.28 
65.77 
67.90 
62.86 



61.60 
67.96 



64.45 

6i.*8i 

67.08 , 

68.23 

67.65 

57.00 

56.52 

56^76 
403 



Ether 

Extract. 

(Fat.) 



0.88 
0.50 



3.80 
3.00 

4.97 
3.00 

5.24 
4.00 

4.58 
5.98 
4.00 
5.02 
3.00 

4.73 
4.00 

5.52 
3.50 
3.51 
3.00 
4.09 

3.98 
3.00 

5.53 
.3.00 

3.30 
3.35 

3.64 
3.00 

6.25 
5.00 

3.89 
4.05 

3-97 

3.29 

3.75 
3.21 
2.75 
3.35 
30 



Price 
per 
ton. 



$28.00 

31.00 

28.00 

32.00 

32.00 
32.00 

34.00 

33.00 

32.00 
30.00 
33.00 
31.00 
29.00 
28.00 
30.00 
30.00 

32.00 
30.00 

3Z.00 
25.00 
24.00 
24.50 



23 



33^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table V. — ^Analyses of Commercial Feeds 



I 



1164 
1234 

1277 
1349 

1326 

iaa6 

1254 

1273 

1366 

1281 

1185 
1 191 

"53 

1330 
1322 

1200 

1180 



BSAMD. 



MiXBD Fbbds. — Continued, 

Proprittary Horse Feeds, 

Buf Ce Co. Horse Feed. Buffalo Cereal Co.. 

Buffalo. N. Y I 

Bonnie Horse Feed. Manuel T. Hatch, South 
Norwalk 

Algrane Horse Feed. H. O. Co.. Buffalo. N. Y. 

Molasses Horse Feed. Husted Mills Co.. Buffalo. 
N. Y 

Schumacher^s Special Horse Feed. Quaker Oats 
Co.. Chicago 

V-B. Horse Feed. Vincent Bros.. Bridgeport. 

Proprietary Dairy and Stock Feeds, 

Sucrene Dairy Feed. American Milling Co.. 

Chicago 

Biles Ready Dairy Ration. The J. W. Biles Co., 
Cincinnati. O 

Buf Ce Co. Creamery Feed. Buffalo Cereal Co.. 
Buffalo. N. Y 

Calf Meal. Blatchford*s Calf Meal Factory, 
Waukegan, 111 

Unicom Dairy Ration. Chapin & Co., Milwaukee, 
Wis 

Unicorn Dairy Ration. Chapin &Co.. Milwaukee, 
Wis 

Wirthmore Balanced Ration. C. M. Cox Co.. 
Boston 

Wirthmore Stock Feed. C. M. Cox Co.. Boston. . 

Grandin*s Stock Feed. D. H. Grandin Mill Co. 
Jamestown. N. Y 

Henkers Fine White Feed. Commercial Mill. Co.. 
Detroit. Mich 

Husted Molasses Feed. Husted Mill. Co., Buffalo. 
N. Y 



RXTAIL DBALSB. 



Shelton : Ansonia Flour & 

Grain Co 

Guaranty 

South Norwalk : 

Guaranty 

E, Hartford: W. K. Ackley.... 
Guaranty 

Colchester: David Shea 

Guaranty 

New London : P. Schwartz Co 

Guaranty 

Bridgeport : 

Guaranty 

Danbury : F. C. Ben jamin & Ca 
Guaranty 

Middletown : Meech & Stoddard. 
Guaranty 

Thomaston : L. E. Blackmer 

Guaranty 

E, Hartford: G. M. White & Co. 
Guaranty 

WalHngford: E. E. Hall 

Cheshire: G. W. Thorpe 

Average guaranty 

Average of these 2 analyses 

Guilford : Morse & Landon 

Guaranty. 

Mystic : Mystic Grain Co 

Guaranty 

New Haven : W. E. Crittenden.. 
Guaranty 

Aferiden : Grain & Feed Co 

Guaranty 

WalHngford : Gallagher Bros. . . . 
Guaranty 



ANALYSES OF COMMERCIAL FEEDS. 

Sampled in 1912 — Continued. 



333 



Watw. 



9.60 

10.47 

8.58 

10.65 

9.05 
10.15 

10.56 
8.67 
8.80 

10.62 

8.42 
6.79 
7.60 

8.41 
8.22 

8.71 
10.45 
11.69 



Pounds per Humdrsd. 



3.39 

2.72 
3-71 

4-97 

4.40 
2.41 

9.20 

5.71 
4.44 

5.10 

6.05 
4.50 

5.46 
3.24 

3.44 

3.71 

7.05 



Protein. 
(Nz6.a5.) 



11.56 
10.00 

13.00 
14.00 
12.50 
IZ.OO 

10.31 
7.00 

10.25 

9.25 

12.00 

9.40 



18.13 
16.50 

24.31 
24.00 

18.75 
18.00 

24.75 
25.00 

26.25 

27.06 

20.00 
26.66 

26.56 

25.50 

10.94 

9.00 

11.25 
8.50 

16.50 
15.00 

20.25 
18.00 



9.07 

5.73 
10.85 

6.26 

7.67 



5.23 

II.17 

9.67 

9.50 

6.23 

7.21 
10.61 
8.91 

8.18 
7.92 

6.20 

4.45 

7.41 



Nttrogen-ft«e 

Extract. 

(Starch, gum, etc.) 



62.41 
63.63 



59.49 
64.06 

65.04 
65.06 



45.24 
45.12 



52.92 

48.58 



45.95 
44.67 



45.3X 

45.58 



63.20 
62.31 



61.19 
49-55 



Ether 

Extract. 

(Fat.) 



3.97 
4.00 

4.45 
4.00 
4.87 
4.00 

3.75 
3.00 

3.59 
3.25 
5.15 
3.40 



5.70 
3.00 

6.52 
7.00 

5.59 
4.00 

4.72 
5.00 

6.12 

6.37 
S.50 
6.25 

5.81 
5.20 
6.48 
4.00 

8.09 
3.50 

3.70 
3.50 

4.05 
4.00 



Price 
per 
ton. 



$35.00 



33.00 
34.00 

30.00 



29.00 
32.00 



29.00 
33.00 
34.00 
70.00 



33.00 
33.00 
33.00 
33.00 
30.00 



30.00 
35.00 
31.00 



334 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table V. — ^Analyses of Commercial Feeds 



1211 
1309 
1316 

12S6 
1 190 
1 241 

"77 

117a 

1231 

1227 

1205 
1361 

1 199 
1261 

1288 

1235 



Zenith Stock Feed. Husted MiU. Co., Buffalo, 
N. Y 



Larro Feed for Dairy Cows. Larrowe Mill. Co., 
Detroit, Mich 



Green Meadow Dairy Feed. Omaha Alfalfa Mill. 
Co., Omaha, Neb 



Brand. 



Mixed Fbrds. — Continued, 
ProprUtary Dairy and Stock Feeds, 
Husted Steam Cooked Feed. Husted Mill. Co.. 
Buffalo, N. Y 



Blue Ribbon Dairy Feed. Quaker Oats Co., 
Chicago 



Quaker Molasses Dairy Feed. Quaker Oats Co., 
Chicago 



Schumacher's Calf Meal. Quaker Oats Co., 
Chicago 



Schumacher's Stock Feed. Quaker Oats Co., 
Chicago 



Purina Molasses Feed. Ralston Purina Co., St. 
Louis 



Presto Molasses Feed. Scientific Feed Co., 
Milford 



V-B. Dairy Feed. Vincent Bros., Bridgeport.. . 

Proprietary Poultry Feeds, 
American Poultry Feed. Quaker Oats Co.. Chicago 

Buf Ce Co. Poultry Feed. Buffalo Cereal Co., 
Buffalo, N. Y 



Wirthmore Poultry Mash. C. M. Cox Co., Boston 

Queen Poultry Mash. Albert Dickinson Co., 
Chicago 



Red Comb Meal Mash. Edwards & Loomis, 
Chicago 



Bonnie Poultry Feed. Manuel T. Hatch, So. 
Norwalk 



RxTAiL Dealer. 



N'ew Britain : Stanley Svca Co.. 
Guaranty 

ATew Britain : Stanley Svea Co.. 
Guaranty 

A^ew Haven : R. G. Davis & Son. 
Guaranty 

Westerly: C. W. Campbell Co- 
Guaranty 

ThompsonvilU : H. K. Brainaid.. 
Guaranty 

Cheshire : G. W. Thorpe 

Guaranty 

Norwalk : Holmes, Keeler & 

Kent Co 

Guaranty 

No, Haven: Cooperative Feed Co. 
Guaranty 

New Haven : J, T. Benham, Est 
Guaranty 

Bridgeport : Vincent Bros 

Guaranty 

Bridgeport : 

Guaranty 

Meriden : A. Grulich 

Guaranty 

Torrington: D. L. Talcott 

Guaranty 

Meriden: Grain & Feed Co.... 
Guaranty 

Waterbury: H. S. Coe & Co.... 

Guaranty 

Hazardville : A. D. Bridges 

Sons Co 

Guaranty 

So. Norwalk : 

Guaranty :_♦ 



ANALYSES OF COMMERCIAL FEEDS. 

Sampled in 1912 — Continued. 



33S 



10.33 

10.73 
8.08 

17.70 
9.06 
950 
9.03 
9.06 

12.20 

13.18 
8.96 

10.67 

9.29 
9.40 

10.93 

11.08 

9.90 



Pounds per Hunorbd. 



Ash. 



2.28 
3.56 
4.44 
10.86 
7.03 
7.37 
4.84 

3.19 
5.62 

6.47 
3.90 

2.62 

2.86 
13.35 

3.44 

5.28 

8.04 



Protein. 
(Nx6.a5.) 



10.63 
.9.00 

II. 81 

zo.oo 

19.38 
Z9.00 

11.30 
xz.oo 

24.75 
25.00 

16.50 
z6.oo 

17.88 
X9.00 

10.38 
zo.oo 

10.50 
zo.oo 

14.38 

Z4.00 

21.88 

20.00 

13.63 

Z2.00 

17.00 
Z5.00 
24.38 
Z7.00 

10.38 
zz.oo 

14.75 
Z5.00 

17.13 
z6.oo 



Fiber. 



5.48 

5.40 

12.46 

15.00 



10.64 



II. 12 



2.68 
9-45 



9.57 
6.75 



8.49 
3.88 



5.01 
5.21 



5.85 
7.53 
6.63 



Nitrogen-froe 

Extract. 

(Starch, gum, etc.) 



66.51 
62.99 
52.21 
44.50 



44.17 
51.31 

58.08 

64.34w 



59.96 

56.09 
51.91 

64.08 

60.68 
44.09 



65.78 
58.69 
54.30 



Bther 

Extract. 

(Fat.) 



4.77 
4.00 

5.52 
4.00 

3.43 
3.00 

0.64 

z.oo 

4.35 
4.00 

4.20 

3.50 

7.49 
8.00 

3.58 
3.25 

2.15 
2.50 

3.13 
3.40 
4.86 
4.00 

5.12 
3.50 

5.16 
4.00 
3.57 
4.00 

3.62 
2.50 

2.67 
4.00 

4.00 
4.00 



Price 
per 
ton. 



$35.00 

35.00 

32.00 

29.00 

34.00 

30.00 

64.00 

31.00 

39.00 

32.00 
32.00 

38.00 

42.00 
45.00 

42.00 

45.00 

43.00 



33^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Table V. — ^Analyses of Commercial Feeds 



2 

I 



1266 
1208 

1210 

1279 
1240 

1171 

1225 
1245 

1229 
1158 

1154 

1346 
1331 

1345 
1280 

1 146 

1287 

1236 

1250 

1311 



Bkamd. 



Mixed T%Y.T>s.—Cofuludtd, 

Proprietary Poultry Feeds, 

•Purity Poultry Mash. Wm. Hills & Co., Boston 

H. O. Poultry Feed. H. O. Co.. Buffalo. N. Y.. . 

Husted Laying Mash. Husted Mills. Buffalo. N. Y. 

Dry Mash Feed. Park & Pollard Co., Boston. . . 

Growing Feed. Park & Pollard Co.. Boston 

Chicken Chowder Feed. Purina Mills, St. Louis. 

V-B Growing Feed. Vincent Bros., Bridgeport. . 

V-B Mash for Laying Hens. Vincent Bros., 

Bridgeport 

Beef Scrap, Meat Meal and Fish Meal. 
Ground Beef Scrap. Joseph Breck & Sons. Boston 

Meat Meal for Poultry. Conn. Fat Rend. Co., 
New Haven 

Frisbie*s Poultry Food. L. T. Frisbie Co., New 
Haven 

Fish Meal. Wm. S. Hills Co., Boston 

Pawtucket Poultry Food. Pawtuckct Rend. Co.. 
Pawtucket, R. I 

Poultry Meal. Ross Bros. Cp., Worcester. Mass. 

Pure Ground Beef Scrap. C. M. Shay Fert. Co., 
Groton 

Ground Beef Scraps. M. L. Shoemaker Co.. 
Philadelphia 

Poultry Food. Springfield Rend. Co., Springfield, 
Mass 

Cooked Meat Scraps. Swift's Lowell Fert. Co.. 
Boston 

Beef Scrap. Whitman & Pratt Rend. Co., Lowell, 
Mass 

Poultry Food. Wooster Rend. Co., Auburn, Mass. 
* Statement of dealer. 



BHstol: W. O. Goodscll 

New BHtain : C. W. Lines Co. . 

Guaranty 

New Britain: Stanley Svea Co,. 

Guaranty 

E, Hartford : G. M. White k Co. 

Guaranty 

Norvtalk: Holmes. Keelcr ft 

Kent Co 

Guaranty 

New Haven : J. T. Benhtm. Eit 

Guaranty 

Bridgeport: 



RXTAIL DlAUB. 



Greenwich : J. P. Johnson . 
Guaranty 



Bridgeport: Vincent Bros. 
Guaranty 



Guilford: G. F. Walter. 
Guaranty 



Guilford : M orse & Landon 

Guaranty 

Danielson . You ng Bros. Co . . ■ 
Guaranty 



Westerly : C. W. Campbell Co. 

Guaranty 

Danielson : Young Bros. Co 

Guaranty 



E, Hartford: G. M. White* Co,! 
Guaranty 



E. Haven, 
Guaranty. 



F. A. Forbes. 



Thompsonville : H. K. Braintrd, 
Guaranty , 



So, Norwalk: M. T. Hatch... 
Guaranty 



Bethel: Johnston & Morrison..- 

Guaranty 

Willimantic : E. A. Buck ft Co. 
Guaranty 



ANALYSES OF COMMERCIAL FEEDS. 

Sampled in 1912 — Continued. 



337 



Pounds rss Hundkbd. 



Water. 



Protdii. 
(NX6.25.) 



Fiber. 



Nitrogen-free 

Extract. 

(Starch, gum, etc.) 



Ether 

Extract. 

(Fat.) 



Price 
per 



9.24 
9.70 

10.65 

9.72 

10.24 
10.45 

6.86 
9.62 

6.77 

7.18 

6.36 
10.17 

6.34 
3-52 

7.79 

8.94 

6.18 

5.32 

7.79 
7.23 



11.42 
3.84 

Vis 
10.77 



7.36 
6.37 



8.12 
9.08 

26.36 

29.41 

40.47 
31.37 

3113 
51.06 



38.60 
17.96 
35." 

38.38 



31.19 
31.10 



21.50 

18.44 
17.00 
17.25 
15.00 
18.25 
20.00 

15.31 * 

14.00 

18.13 

17.00 

20.00 

23.00 

2Z.00 

46.13 
40.00 

47.63 

35.00 

36.88 
40.00 
54.69 
45.00 

46.88 
40.00 
28.63 
30.00 

37.00 
35.00 

57.00 
55.00 

46.63 
40.00 

40.06 
40.00 

43.69 
45.00 
46.38 
40.00 



5.80 
6.02 

"5*18 

* 8* 36 

4.85 
6.55 
5.13 

8.28 



45.94 
56.63 

57.58 

48.42 



56.65 
55.08 
53.90 
44.44 



6.10 
5.37 
5.50 

5.49 
3.00 

4.48 
3.00 

5.59 
3.00 
3.42 
3.00 

5.99 

5.58 
4.00 

16.55 
10.00 

11.96 
8.00 

10.00 
8.00 
2.00 
2.00 

II. 19 
8.00 
10.12 

10.00 

12.17 
15.00 

14.88 

10.00 



0.70 

8.00 

10.92 
8.00 



12.59 

10.00 

10.67 

8.00 



$42.00 
38.00 



41.00 
43.00 



50.00 
48.00 
43.00 
48.00 



62.00 

57.00 

55.00 
55.00 



51.00 
45.00 

55.00 

63.00 

50.00 

55.00 



55.00 
54.00 



33^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

per ton for his feeds than he did in 1899, nine of the thirteen 
feeds showing an increase of 59 per cent or over. In this era 
of high prices the financial success of the dairyman depaids to 
a very great degree on the prices he is paying for his feeds. 
He buys, or should buy, most of his feeds for the protein they 
contain. The carbohydrate feed at $30 per ton is a luxury that 
few dairymen can afford. Probably the time will never come 
when the average feeder can raise on his farm all the feed 
required by his stock, but certainly intelligent management can 
greatly reduce the amount he need purchase. No feeder can 
afford to purchase under any circumstances, at the prices asked 
for them, com cobs, oat hulls and weed seeds. Soaking weed 
seeds with molasses, or mixing a little cotton seed meal or gluten 
feed with oat hulls does not by any mag^c process endow these 
products with a nutritive value they never possessed and never 
can possess. The purchase of small amounts of high-grade feeds 
mixed with relatively worthless material under the guise of some 
wonderfully effective special mixture bearing a proprietary name 
is never economical. The feeder has plenty of roughage of this 
sort already at hand on his farm. With city feeders, who are 
obliged to buy all their feeds, these arguments of course have 
less weight, but even with these a considerable economy may 
be effected by a careful scrutiny of the guaranty, the ingredients 
used, the chemical analysis and the price asked. 



Feed Definitions. 

Following are the definitions of the various commercial feeds 
which have been formally adopted by the Association of Feed 
Control Officials of the United States : 

Alfalfa meal is the entire alfalfa hay ground, and does not contain 
an admixture of ground alfalfa straw or other foreign materials. 

Blood meal is ground dried blood. 

Brewers' dried grains are the properly dried residue from cereals 
obtained in the manufacture of beer. 

Buckwheat shorts or buckwheat middlings are that portion of the 
buckwheat grain immediately inside of the hull after separation from 
the flour. 

Chop is a ground or chop feed composed of one or more different 
cereals or by-products thereof. If it bears a name descriptive of the 
kind of cereals, it must be made exclusively of the entire grains of 
those cereals. 



FEED DEFINITIONS. 339 

Clipped oat refuse (term oat clippings not recognized) is the result- 
ant by-product obtained in the manufacture of clipped oats. It 
may contain light, chaffy material broken from the ends of the hulls, 
empty hulls, light, immature oats and dust It must not contain an 
excessive amount of oat hulls. 

Corn bran is the outer coating of the corn kernel. 

Com feed meal is the sifting obtained in the manufacture of cracked 
com and table meal made from the whole grain. 

Cornstarch by-product with com bran is that portion of commercial 
shelled com that remains after the separation of the larger part of 
the starch, and the germ by the processes employed in the manu- 
facture of cornstarch and glucose. It may or may not contain corn 
solubles. 

Cornstarch by-product without com bran is that part of commercial 
shelled com that remains after the separation of the larger part of 
the starch, the germ and the bran by the processes employed in the 
manufacture of cornstarch and glucose. It may or may not con- 
tain corn solubles. 

Cottonseed meal is a product of the cottonseed only, composed 
principally of the kernel with such portion of the hull as is necessary 
in the manufacture of oil; provided that nothing shall be recognized 
as cottonseed meal that does not conform to the foregoing definition 
and that does not contain at least 36 per cent, of protein. 

Choice cottonseed meal must be finely ground, not necessarily 
bolted, perfectly sound and sweet in odor, yellow, free from excess of 
lint, and must contain at least 41 per cent of protein. 

Prime cottonseed meal must be finely ground, not necessarily 
bolted, of sweet odor, reasonably bright in color, yellow, not brown 
or reddish, free from excess of lint, and must contain at least 38.6 
per cent, protein. 

Good cottonseed meal must be finely ground, not necessarily 
bolted, of sweet odor, reasonably bright in color and must contain 
at least 36 per cent, of protein. 

Cottonseed feed is a mixture of cottonseed meal and cottonseed 
hulls, containing less than 36 per cent, of protein. 

Cracklings are the residue after partially extracting the fats and 
oils from the animal tissue. If they bear a name descriptive of their 
kind, composition or origin, they must correspond thereto. 

Digester tankage is the residue from animal tissue exclusive of hoof 
and horn specially prepared for feeding purposes by tanking under 
live steam, drying under high heat, and suitable grinding. If it 
contains any considerable amount of bone, it must be designated 
digester meat and bone tankage. 

I>istillers' dried grains are the dried residue from cereals obtained 
in the manufacture of alcohol and distilled liquors. The product shall 
bear the designation indicating the cereal predominating. 

Plax plant by-product is that portion of the flax plant remaining 
after the separation of the seed, the bast fiber and a portion of the 



340 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

shives, and consists of flax shives, flax pods, broken and immature 
flax seeds and the corticle tissue of the stem. 

Grits are the hard, flinty portions of Indian corn without hulls and 
germ. 

Hominy meal, hominy feed, or hominy chop is a mixture of the 
bran coating, the germ and a part of the starchy portion of the 
corn kernel obtained in the manufacture of hominy grits for human 
consumption. 

Malt sprouts are the sprouts of the barley grain. If the sprouts 
are derived from any other malted cereal, the source must be desig- 
nated. 

Meal is the clean, sound, ground product of the entire grain, cereal 
or seed which it purports to represent: Provided, that the following 
meals, qualified by their descriptive names, are to be known as, viz.: 
Com germ meal is a product in the manufacture of starch, glucose 
and other corn products and is the germ layer from which a part of 
the corn oil has been extracted. Linsee4 meal is the ground resi- 
due after extraction of part of the oil from ground flaxseed. 

Meat scrap and meat meal are the ground residues from animal 
tissue. exclusive of hoof and bone. If they contain any considerable 
amount of bone, they must be designated meat and bone scrap, or 
meat and bone meal. If they bear a name descriptive of their kind, 
composition or origin, they must correspond thereto. 

Oat groats are the kernels of the oat berry with the hulls removed. 

Oat hulls are the outer chaflfy coverings of the oat grain. 

Oat middlings are the floury portion of the oat groat obtained in 
the milling of rolled oats. 

Oat shorts are the covering of the oat grain Ijring immediately 
inside the hull, being a fuzzy material carrying with it considerable 
portions of the flne floury part of the groat obtained in the milling 
of rolled oats. 

Red dog is a low grade wheat flour containing the finer particles 
of bran. 

Rice btto is the cuticle beneath the hull. 

Rice hulls are the outer chaffy coverings of the rice grain. 

Rice polish is the flnely powdered material obtained in polishing 
the kernel. 

Screenings are the smaller imperfect grains, weed seeds and other 
foreign material having feeding value, separated in cleaning the grain. 

Shipstuff or wheat mixed feed is a mixture of the products other 
than the flour obtained from the milling of the wheat berry. 

Shorts or standard middlings are the flne particles of the outer and 
inner bran separated from bran and white middlings. 

Wheat bran is the coarse outer coatings of the wheat berry. 

Wheat white middlings or white middlings are that part of the 
offal of wheat intermediate between shorts or standard middlings and . 
red dog. 



PARTY. 
REPORT OF THE BOTANIST FOR I9U AND I9I2. 

G. P. CUNTON. 



I. NOTES ON PLANT DISEASES OF CONNECTICUT. 

A. DISEASES PREVALENT IN I9II AND I912. 

Weather Conditions in 191 1, The winter of 1910-11 was 
rather open, with very little extremely cold weather. Snow was 
not abundant, and the little that fell did not cover the ground 
long. During January and February there were a number of 
rainy days. As this moist, warm weather was not followed by 
a sudden cold snap, comparatively little winter injury resulted. 

There were two late frosts during the first week of May that 
injured some of the fruit blossoms, especially cherry and certain 
varieties of apple, also tomatoes that had been set out early, 
but on the whole the injury was not extensive. In case of the 
apples, the pistils were frequently the only part of the blossoms 
hurt Some of the very young leaves were also injured, causing 
them to have a stunted appearance, with the epidermis loosened, 
in a wrinkled irregular fashion, from the apparently thickened 
tissues beneath. The spring, on the whole, was rather dry 
and warm. 

June and July were extremely dry, with very hot periods in the 
latter month, causing an unusual scald of apples and, to a less 
extent, of peaches. Gooseberries were even baked on the 
bushes. This drought, perhaps the worst of those that have 
occurred during the last five years, was extremely hard on vege- 
tation in general, and especially so on certain market garden 
crops and on trees that had suffered previously from drought 
and winter injury. Hail during the summer caused some dam- 
age to tobacco and apples in certain restricted localities. From 
the middle of August on, the moisture was sufficient for most 
24 



342 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

plants, though it could not overcome the previous ill effects of 
the drought on some crops. An early frost, coming about 
September 13, cut the season rather short, and caused consider- 
able injury to com and late tobacco. 

Diseases Prevalent in igii. On account of the comparatively 
dry spring and very dry early summer, ftmgous diseases were 
not prominent, especially those that get their start in the spring. 
Among the more prominent may be mentioned the following: 
Sun Scorch, Sooty Blotch and Speck Rots (due chiefly to Black 
Rot and Fruit Speck) of apple ; Scab of beets, prominent in the 
vicinity of Norfolk ; Leaf Spot of celery ; Black Knot of cherry 
and plum ; Bark Disease of chestnuts, especially bad, apparently 
because of drought injury to the trees ; Anthracnose of cucumber 
and muskmelon, and also Leaf Mold of the latter host; Leaf 
Scorch of hemlock, etc.; Bacterial Blight of pear; Tip Bum 
of potatoes ; Mildew of rose ; Calico and Pole Bum of tobacco. 

On the other hand, certain diseases were less conspicuous than 
usual, and in some cases not seen at all. Among these were: 
Rust and Scab of apple, less prominent than usual because of 
the comparatively dry spring ; Rust of asparagus, not uncommon 
at the end of the season, but late in starting, and so not especially 
injurious ; Anthracnose of string beans, apparently quite incon- 
spicuous; Mildew of Lima beans, not found at all; Brown Rot, 
causing little injury to cherry and plum, and not so much as 
usual to peaches; Leaf Curl of peach, comparatively inconspic- 
uous ; Scab of pear, very much less than usual, even on suscep- 
tible varieties ; Late Blight of potatoes, entirely absent except in 
the northwestern part of the State, where it caused a little rot 
of the tubers ; Rust of quince, less prominent than usual. 

Weather Conditions in 1912, The year 1912 presented weather 
conditions rather different from those of the preceding year. 
In the first place, the winter was unusually severe, some of the 
coldest weather for years being recorded during January. As 
this followed much warm weather in December, it killed a good 
many fruit buds, particularly peaches, so that this crop was quite 
light, especially inland. This cold also produced some injury to 
the wood of peach trees, but not nearly so much as in some of 
the preceding severe winters. 

The spring was very wet in April and May, and as considerable 
rain had soaked into the ground during the winter, this largely 



PLANT DISEASES OF CONNECTICUT. 343 

replenished the supply greatly depleted by the drought of 191 1. 
This wet spring put back the earlier crops considerably, and 
late frosts about the middle of June added further to their 
troubles. These frosts injured garden crops considerably, and 
even killed the leaves of certain trees in the northern part of the 
State. The wet spring, however, favored forage crops as a 
whole. 

June and July (to the middle), however, showed another long 
drought period, but this was not so hot as that of the preceding 
.year, and because of the supply of water in the ground, the deep- 
rooted crops did not suffer much. From the middle of July on, 
while some localities suflFered from lack of rain, most of them 
had enough scattered rains to mature the crops in good shape, 
except potatoes, and, in some cases, onions. 

Another factor that made the season a favorable one for vege- 
tation in general was the very late appearance of the fall frosts. 
While very slight frosts occurred the last of September and the 
first of October, these only partially killed the most tender plants, 
as melons, etc. The first heavy frost did not occur until Novem- 
ber 2, thus giving in the end an unusually long growing 
season despite the late spring. On the whole, the season was 
much more favorable to vegetation than the preceding one. 
Peach trees showed the best foliage conditions for some years. 

Diseases Prevalent in 1912, Fungous diseases were more 
prominent this year than the preceding, especially those that 
developed into prominence because of the wet spring. Among 
those occurring abundantly may be mentioned the following: 
Black Rot of apple, on the foliage, and Rust and Scab on the 
same host, especially the former, were abundant. The Cedar 
Apple, Gynnosporangiutn macropus, Plate XVIII c, which is 
the III stage from which the apple rust develops, was also 
unusually common in the spring, thus accounting for the abun- 
dance of the apple rust which followed later. 

Rust of white ash, ^cidium Fraxini, was also very common, 
being sent in for identification from a number of localities, 
especially along the shore. It was prominent there because the 
III, or mature stage, of this rust occurs on marsh grass, Spartina 
sps., which is common along the shore. The appearance of the 
I stage on the ash is shown in Plate XVII a. 



344 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Orange Rust of blackberry, etc., was more common than usual, 
as was also the Anthracnose of cherry. Sun Scorch and Black 
Spot of maple were not uncommon. The Bark Disease of chest- 
nut, on the other hand, seems to have been set back somewhat by 
the moisture conditions more favorable to its host, since a number 
of observers reported fewer infections, and old cankers with 
less vigorous development than in the preceding year. Bacterial 
Rot of cabbage did some damage in certain fields, and will be 
described later in this report. Anthracnose of currants caused 
considerable harm by premature defoliation. 

Leaf Spots of horse-chestnut and Boston ivy were more con- 
spicuous than usual. Leaf Mold of melons caused considerable 
injury, so that the sprayed vines did much better than those 
unsprayed. Leaf Curl of peach was more conspicuous by far 
than we have ever seen it, due to the favorable wet spring; 
and Scab was also conspicuous. Brown Rot, on the other hand, 
did comparatively little harm except to certain early varieties 
like the Champion. This was due in part to the light crop, and 
in part to the rather dry weather at harvest time. The Bac- 
terial Blight of pear and quince and the Rust of the latter host 
were more prevalent than usual, though not very serious. Early 
Blight of potatoes developed somewhat, and there was consider- 
able Tip Bum, but little or no Late Blight. There were a few 
complaints of Yellows of raspberry and Mildew of rose. 

Beside the preceding, there were reported during the two 
years a number of new or unusual troubles which we shall 
describe more in detail under the following heads : 

B. DISEASES OR HOSTS NOT PREVIOUSLY REPORTED. 

APPLE, Pyrus Malus, 

Rust, Orange, Roestelia aurantiaca Pk. We have already 
reported two other species of rusts on the leaves and fruit of 
apple, but this is the first species we have seen occurring on 
the stems. This, however, is rather characteristic of the present 
species, as we have found it on other hosts, the quince and 
Crataegus, not uncommon on the twigs. It was sent to the 
Station from two diflFerent localities during the past season, but 
evidently is not very common on the apple, as we have never col- 
lected it ourselves on this host. It forms fusiform swellings on 



PLANT DISEASES OF CONNECTICUT. 345 

the twigs, and in these the fragile, white peridia, or fruiting 
cups, develop, and upon opening disclose a mass of bright orange- 
colored spores that by their color and microscopic characters are 
easily distinguished from the other two species previously 
reported. One of the specimens sent in the late fall showed 
the young twig swollen and still alive, while the fruiting 
pustules had not yet developed. This indicated that the twig 
might live over the winter and develop this stage the follow- 
ing spring. Ordinarily these swellings develop their fruiting 
bodies, and then are gradually killed by the fungus, so that the 
next season no further development occurs on them or on the 
uninjured portion of the twig below, thus showing that the 
fungus is not perennial on the host. The III, or G)mMiosporan- 
gitun, stage of the fungus occurs on both the red cedar and 
the common juniper in spring, and is spread from these to its 
alternate rosaceous hosts, among which, besides those already 
mentioned, is the Juneberry. 

BASASAf Musa sapientum, 

Anthracnose, Gloeosporium musarum Qce. & Mass. This 
fungus is not uncommonly found on bananas in our markets. 
It causes a blackening and dry decay of the skin. Eventually 
the fruiting stage shows as small, pinkish, more or less numerous 
exudations. If kept in a moist chamber, these become much 
more prominent. Cultures are easily obtained, and these pro- 
duce only the conidial stage. As these cultures differ somewhat 
in appearance from those of the bitter rot of apple, and never 
with us have developed any asco-stage, we believe Shear is cor- 
rect in considering it a distinct species. It is doubtful if Myxo- 
sporiutn Musae B. & C. (Grev. 3: 13), later issued by Ellis and 
Everhart (N. A. F. n. 2672) as Gloeosporium Muscle, is different, 
if we judge by the Ellis specimen, though the original descrip- 
tion gives the spores as somewhat smaller than in the species 
under consideration here. , 

CABBAOE, Brassica oleracea. 

Black Bacterial Rot, Pseudomonas campestris (Pamm.) 
Smith. PI. XX a-b. This disease occurs on a number of related 
cruciferous plants, but we have reported it from this state before 
only on cauliflower. While we did not see it on cabbage until 



346 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

last season, it seems quite probable that it has caused more or 
less harm to this host before, since it has been reported as quite 
injurious in several other Eastern states in times past The 
trouble was called to our attention last year by a request, late 
in September, from H. B. Cornwall of Meriden to visit his 
farm and see what was the matter with his cabbages. Inspection 
showed that the trouble, which was quite serious, was this bac- 
terial disease. Although Mr. Cornwall had grown cabbage for 
some years, this was the first time that he had noticed trouble 
of this sort. 

From what we could learn from Mr. Cornwall, the disease 
apparently started in his cabbage from the seed of Danish Bald 
Head, which was imported. This variety was by far the most 
infected, and in looking over the old seedbed, we found several 
stunted seedlings of this variety that showed the disease. Mr- 
Cornwall also gave some of the young plants to several of his 
neighbors, and an examination of their fields showed the dis- 
ease on this variety, but not usually on the others. 

Mr. Cornwall did not notice the trouble until about the mid- 
dle of September, when, following a spell of muggy weather, 
this variety began to go down rapidly. Several other varieties, 
such as Copenhagen Market, Flat Dutch, and Savoy, showed 
little or none of the disease, although close to the Danish Bald 
Head. This probably means that the disease was not present in 
their seedlings, and that it spread to them later from the infected 
Danish Bald Head when the latter became badly infected. But 
of course it might also mean that these varieties were not so 
susceptible to the disease. The cabbage was on new land, and 
the plants were all from new seed beds. Part of the land had 
manure on it, and part had not, but this did not seem to make 
any difference. The Danish Bald Head first set out showed the 
trouble worse than those planted later. 

This disease is recognized by the blackened veins of the leaves, 
Plate XX b, where the bacteria develop chiefly, and in time 
extend down into the head. The leaf tissues finally turn yellow, 
and the leaves are easily pulled oflF. Soft rot, caused in part 
by other organisms, often loosens them at the base, and develops 
an ill-smelling internal decay, XX a. The bacteria gain entrance 
through drops of water at the water pores on the margins of the 
leaves. 



PLANT DISEASES OF CONNECTICUT. 347 

As the germs of this disease can be carried on the seed, as 
determined by Harding and Stewart, it is wise to see that the 
seed used does not come from a diseased crop. If doubt exists, 
it is well to treat the seed with formalin, 1-240, or corrosive 
sublimate, i-iooo, for fifteen minutes, as recommended by the 
investigators just mentioned. Likewise, if the disease shows 
up in a seedbed, this should be changed the next year. If bad 
in the field, this land should not be used for cruciferous crops 
for several seasons, and even if the disease is not present, yearly 
rotation is desirable where it can be carried on without especial 
difficulty. Refuse from diseased cabbages should never find its 
way to the manure pile. 

CTTBBANT, BLACE^ Ribes nigrum. 

PiNE-CuRRANT RusT, Crofiartium ribicola Waldh. Plate 
XVII b-c. In our last report, 1909-10, p. 730, we noted the 
finding of a few specimens of the peridial stage of this fungus, 
known as Peridermium Strobi Kleb., on recently imported white 
pine seedlings in several plantations in the state. These pines 
all came from one firm in Germany. In April, 1912, Mr. 
Walden, while inspecting imported nursery stock in one of the 
nurseries of the state, found in a shipment of three-year-old 
white pine seedlings, purchased from Schaum and Van Tol of 
Oudenbosch, Holland, at least 185 that showed the character- 
istic swellings or fruiting stage of this blister rust (see illustra- 
tions). The whole shipment was destroyed in consequence of 
this finding. Since then the United States Government has 
placed a quarantine on the importation of white pines into this 
country from any of the European countries where this disease 
is known to exist. Since our inspection of the plantations previ- 
ously mentioned, no other examples of this rust have come to 
our attention, and, so far as we know, it does not exist to-day 
in this state. 

The II and III stages of this rust occur on species of the 
genus Ribes, which includes our currants and gooseberries. 
Although occasional outbreaks of the rust on currant had been 
reported at Geneva, N. Y., we had never found it in this state. 
In 1912 Stewart, of the Geneva, N. Y., Station, reported another 
of these outbreaks, and later Stone, of the Amherst Station, found 



34^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

the disease in Massachusetts. The black currant seems to be 
by far the most susceptible of any of the varieties to this dis- 
ease. On learning of the outbreak at Geneva, we kept watdi 
for this rust in Connecticut, and early in October received 
leaves of black currants from H. B. Birdsey of Meriden which 
showed the III stage of the fungus. These currants, originally 
obtained from outside the state, had been planted in his garden 
about eight years, but he had not noticed this trouble before, 
though it may have escaped his attention. This year he noticed 
it because of the premature defoliation of the currants. 

After locating this rust at Meriden, we visited several nurs- 
eries, and inspected their currants to see if it occurred there. We 
also wrote to all the nurseries in the state handling black cur- 
rants, and requested them to look for the disease on the fallen 
leaves, as it was. then late in the season, and to send us any 
suspicious ones. We were not able, however, to locate the rust 
in any of these nurseries. As black currants are not handled 
to any extent by our nurserymen, it is not likely that the dis- 
ease occurs with them. 

There are no white pines in the immediate vicinity of the 
rusted currants in Meriden, and Stewart has never found the 
peridial stage on the white pine at Geneva. This makes it look 
as if the rust might carry over on the currants in some way 
without the aid of this stage for reinfection in the spring. In 
connection with Stewart and Stone, we have started, in the 
greenhouse, black currants that were last year badly infected, 
to see if the rust will again appear on them without the aid of 
the peridial stage. These plants were brought into the green- 
house in February, 1913, and at this writing, April 15th, although 
in full leaf, they had as yet shown no signs of the rust From 
this it appears as if the fungus did not (at least commonly) 
carry over on the currants. Possibly we have not learned all 
about the life history of this fungus. 

EVEBOBEEHS, Various Species. 

Dampening-Off, Rhizoctonia sp. During the past year 
complaints were received of dampening-off in coniferous seed- 
beds. At the Station trouble of this kind was also noticed, 
especially among the white pines. A superficial examination 
of these plants, which lop over on the ground and finally rot 



PLANT DISEASES OF CONNECTICUT. 349 

oflF at the surface, showed no conspicuous growth of any 
fungus, but upon microscopic examination, especially after 
keeping the plants in a moist chamber, the characteristic myce- 
lium of this fungus could be found in more or less abundance. 
Cultures were readily obtained, and while these looked very 
similar to those of the potato Rhizoctonia, we are not sure 
whether they are identical. It seems, however, to be the same 
thing that causes dampening-off of a variety of plants in seed- 
beds and greenhouses. 

This same fungus was also found dampening off coniferous 
seedlings in the Elm City Nursery, especially those of the yew, 
Taxus cuspidata. Those in charge stated that it was almost 
impossible to grow seedlings of this species, as it seems to be 
particularly subject to this injury. They found that if, as soon 
as the trouble appeared, they sprayed the ground around the 
aflfected plants with Bordeaux mixture, and repeated the spray- 
ing when necessary, they could save a fair percentage of the 
seedlings. 

Sun Scorch. This may perhaps be considered a combination 
of winter injury and sun scorch. Various evergreens, especially 
hemlock, suffered severely from this widespread trouble in the 
early spring of 191 1. While in most cases merely the leaves 
were killed in greater or less numbers, yet when this injury was 
severe enough the plants themselves died as a result of the 
severe defoliation that followed. Often only the outer ends of 
the leaves were killed, turning a reddish-brown in contrast with 
the green of the uninjured portion. 

The trouble was probably due to unusually warm weather in 
March and April, starting evaporation from the leaves while 
the roots were still frozen in the ground and unable to readily 
replace this loss. Possibly part of the trouble may have been 
caused by the warm, moist weather in January and February 
and the subsequent colder weather. Plants recently re-planted 
suffered more than those well rooted. 

HOPS, Humulus japonicus. 

Powdery Mildew, Sphcerotheca Humuli (DC.) Burr. This 
fungus forms a whitish, powdery growth on the leaves and stems 
with a mature fruiting stage showing as very small, blackish, 
crowded specks, chiefly on the under side of the leaves. It was 



35© CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

found rather conspicuously in the fall on the variegated variety 
of the Japanese hop, cultivated for ornament in the writer's 
yard, and caused premature death of the foliage. While this 
mildew has been responsible for considerable damage in the hop 
districts of Europe in times past, it has only recently been com- 
plained of in the hop districts of New York State. Blodgett 
reports that dusting the plants with sulphur is a rather satis- 
factory method of controlling the trouble there. 

JUHIPEBy CHINESE, Juniperus chinensis. 

Rust, Gymnosporangium japonicum Syd. Plate XVIII d. 
The last of March, 191 1, Mr. Walden, while inspecting importa- 
tions from Japan at the Elm City Nursery, found on the above 
host, specially on the form known as cotnpacta, an unusual rust 
on both stems and leaves. On a seedling of this same species, 
called /. virginalis, this same rust was also found, but only on 
the leaves. Altogether, 55 plants were found that had the out- 
breaks on the stems, and these were all destroyed. Those show- 
ing the rust only on the leaves were ordered planted in an 
isolated place, and an examination of them the next spring 
revealed no signs of the fungus. A few days after Mr. Walden 
found these infected specimens, he discovered others in an 
importation, also from Japan, of the Stephen Hojrt's Sons 
Nursery Company. In this case 49 plants showing the rust on 
the stems were destroyed. The writer determined both these col- 
lections to be the telial, or III, stage of Gymnosporangium 
japonicum Syd., which until this time had not been reported 
in America. 

An examination of Plate XVIII c-d shows that this rust is 
quite diflferent from our common red cedar rust, though appar- 
ently it is not so different from some of the other species 
reported from this country, especially G. effusum. This fungus 
has been well described by Shirai in Zeitschr. fur Pflanzenk. 
10, pp. 1-5, and he determined that the I stage is Roestelia 
koreamsis, which is more or less injurious to the foliage of pears; 
and can also infect apples and quinces, in Japan. 

The gelatinous swellings of the fungus evidently developed 
on the infected trees in transit, though they appear in Japan 
a little earlier than in this country. These are the fruiting 
bodies, or sori, and are 3-5 mm. high, more or less flattened 



PLANT DISEASES OF CONNECTICUT. 35 1 

or tongue-shaped, and run together on the stems, as shown in 
the illustration. On the leaves they are smaller, more isolated, 
more nearly conical, with one to three on a leaf. An examina- 
tion of the sori showed that they contained two types of spores, — 
one type long, pointed, thin-walled, chiefly in the interior of 
the sorus, and the other smaller, thicker-walled, with round 
apices, less abundant, and chiefly on the exterior. Those on 
the leaves are as a rule smaller than those on the stem. Shirai 
found that insects, especially bees, were important factors in 
carrying the sporidia of the germinating teleutospores in these 
sori to the alternate rosaceous hosts. 

This rust is probably perennial in the stems of the juniper, 
or else it takes two years for the sori to develop after infection. 
A juniper, which was badly rusted at the time of their discovery, 
was potted and placed in our greenhouse, where it has remained 
for two years. After the disappearance of the sori in the 
spring, the plant showed no signs of the rust that year or the 
next, but the spring following it again broke out in a different 
part of the stem, but not so conspicuously. Just how serious 
this rust might prove in its I stage on our pomaceous fruits, if 
it got started here, we do not know, but they certainly already 
have enough similar troubles. 

EAFFIE COBBT^ Sorghum vulgare var. 

Grain Smut, Sphacelotheca Sorghi (Lk.) Clint. We have 
reported this smut before on sorghimi and broom com. In 
September, 191 1, we found it not only on these hosts, but also 
on Red Kaffir corn grow^i at the Experiment Station farm for 
experimental purposes. None of these hosts are of commercial 
importance in this state, so the smut is not of economic import- 
ance here, though often serious elsewhere. It changes the seeds 
into kernels filled with a dusty mass of brownish-black spores. 

PEACH, Prunus Persica. 

Stem Canker, Phoma Persicce Sacc. This fungus has been 
reported previously in this country by Selby of Ohio (Ohio Exp. 
Stat. Bull. 92; 233. 1898. Ibid. 214: 423. 1910), who called 
it Constriction Disease of Stem, or Stem Blight. He reported it 
doing considerable injury in one lot of heeled-in nursery stock. 



35 2 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

and he also found occasional specimens in orchards. Selby has 
not since found that this was a serious trouble in his state, and 
apparently the pruning oflF of the diseased branches is the only 
treatment necessary. From what we have seen of it in Con- 
necticut we do not consider it a disease likely to prove trouUc- 
some here. Apparently it develops best on trees in a weakened 
condition. 

It was first found in Connecticut in October, 1911, by Dr. 
Britton, while inspecting one-year-old seedlings in one of the 
nurseries, and later the same nursery company sent the writer 
specimens, writing as follows: "We are sending you under 
separate cover some samples of peach twigs. These were sent us 
by a customer -of ours in New York State. We think he planted 
these trees last spring, and he says that he has quite a few where 
the wood is black in the center and the foliage is turning yellow 
and the edges of the leaves have been looking bad since July 
15th." 

An examination of both sets of specimens showed the fruiting 
stage of the Phoma fungus present. The twigs were partially 
or completely encircled by a depressed band of dead bark of 
varying width. This injury does not immediately kill the parts 
above, as the wood there often forms a greater growth than 
that below the cankers, giving rise to a slight swelling, though 
eventually the parts above are killed. The leaves turn yellow, 
and finally drop off. Cutting through the wood, we foimd a dark 
streak next the cambiiun, below the canker, but above it this 
was covered by the subsequent growth of the wood which formed 
the swelling. The stems were brittle and easily broken oflF at 
these areas. The fruiting pustules of the fungus show as small, 
more or less abundant, black specks. From these there ooze 
out the hyaline, oblong to broadly oval spores, which are round 
at the ends, sometimes slightly curved, and 7-10/1 long by 3-3.SM 
wide. 

PIHES, Pinus sps. 
Pine- ? Solidago Rust, Peridermium delicatulum A. & K. 
Plate XVIII a-b. Late in June, 1912, while examining the leaves 
of Pinus rigida at Granby for Peridermium acicolum, we not only 
found specimens of that rust, but also ran across specimens of 
another leaf rust on the same host, which was entirely dif- 



PLANT DISEASES OF CONNECTICUT. 353 

f erent and had never been collected before in the state. This 
rust we determined to be Peridermium delicatulum, and Kern, 
to whom we sent specimens, verified our determination, and 
kindly sent specimens of the type for comparison. This 
rust was originally described in 1906 by Arthur and Kern (Bull. 
Torr. Bot. Club 33 : 412) from Florida on leaves of Pinus sp., and 
apparently had not been collected since. 

The illustration shows very well some of the macroscopic 
differences between this species and our more common Perider- 
mium acicolum. These differences are as follows: (i) The 
peridia of P. delicatulum are very inconspicuous, being deeply 
embedded in, and standing very slightly above, the leaf tissues, 
and open by a long slit; while those of P. acicolum stand up 
prominently, 1-3 mm. above the surface of the leaf, and fre- 
quently remain as white, tongue-shaped elevations after the spores 
are shed. (2) The fresh spore-masses of the first species are less 
dusty, and are crimson, as compared with the orange-colored 
sori of the other species. (3) Microscopically the spores are 
smaller (18-29/4 x 17-21/A, subspherical or cuboidal to ovoid) > and 
with minute verruculations, while the spores of P. acicolum are 
covered with coarse, scale-like tubercles. 

From observations made at the time, though not proved by 
inoculation experiments, it seems very probable that P. delicatu- 
lum has, like P. acicolum, its III stage as a Coleosporium on 
Solidago. Immediately under and close to the branch of Pinus 
rigida bearing the P. delicatulum was fotmd a specimen of 
Solidago graminifolia var. Nuttallii containing the II stage of an 
undetermined Coleosporium. The spores of this were very 
similar in color and in fine verruculations to those of Perider- 
mium delicatulum on the pine, just as are those of the II stage of 
Coleosporium Solidaginis on Solidago rugosa similar in color 
and coarse tubercles to those of its peridial stage, P. acicolum. 
We have reported before that the spores of all the specimens on 
Solidago, etc., of the II stage of so-called Coleosporium Solidag- 
inis were not alike, and an examination of specimens on Solidago 
graminifolia var. Nuttallii already in the herbarium showed that 
these had the fine verruculations of this new species. It is hoped 
that we shall be able later by inoculation experiments to fully 
determine this species on the goldenrod and connect it with the 
suspected stage on pine. 



354 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Pine-Sweet Fern Rust, Peridermium pyrifortne Pk. We 
have already reported this fungus (which has its II and III 
stages on sweet fern, known as Cronartium Comptoniae Arth.) 
on Pintts sylvestris, P, rigida, P.austriaca, and P. maritima, from 
the Station forestry plantation at Rainbow. In May, 191 1, 
Forester Spring found it there on P, ponderosa, and in May, 
1912, Forester Filley and the writer found it on this host and 
P. montana, both hosts new, at least to this state. This makes 
six different species of pine on which we have now found this 
Peridermium. 

Stem Canker, ? Phoma sp. Plate XIX a.. Several times we 
have had young specimens of white pine brought to us by forest- 
ers showing the base encircled by a dead sunken area, as shown 
in the illustration. Occasionally we have found the Phoma fruit- 
ing slightly on these dead areas, and at least in one case, we 
. obtained this fungus in cultures from the specimens. We are 
not sure as yet whether this fungus is responsible for the trouble 
or whether it merely follows winter and drought injury. Some 
of the specimens have the aspect of being quite parasitic 

We have seen no notice of a Phoma canker of white pine in 
this country, but Tubeuf, in his Diseases of Plants, mentions 
two species of Phoma in Europe that attack the branches of 
various coniferous plants. One of these is Phoma pithya Sacc, 
and Saccardo, in his Host Index, gives the white pine as one 
of the hosts of this fungus. On the leaves of certain species 
of pine, including Pinus montana, we have seen Phoma acicola 
(Lev.) Sacc. It is a question with this species also whether it is 
parasitic or is merely following other injury where the leaves 
have been killed part way from the apex inward. 

aUnrCE, Cydonia sps. 

Fruit Spot, Cylindrosporium Pomi Brooks. In our 1909-10 
Report, page 723, we described the appearance of this fungus 
on the apple, and also reported finding it rarely on the common 
quince, Cydonia vulgaris. In October, 1912, the writer also 
found it on fruit of the Japan quince, Cydonia japonica. While 
the fruit of this was abundantly covered with small purplish 
discolorations, none of these showed the fruiting stage of the 
fungus. Cultures from the tissue, however, showed that they 



PLANT DISEASES OF CONNECTICUT. 355 

were caused by this fungus. Of course the fruit of this orna- 
mental plant is of no economic importance. 

BOSE9 Rosa sp. 

Crown Gall, Bacterium tumefaciens Sm. & Towns. Plate 
XIX b. We have reported previously this bacterial disease on 
the following hosts: apple, bittersweet (Japanese), blackberry, 
peach, plum, and raspberry. Besides these, we have reported 
a somewhat similar trouble on the branches of oak trees, and a 
trouble of grapes which we have considered a winter injury, 
but which some others attribute to the crown gall organism. 
While the rose has been reported elsewhere as a host, it had not 
been found infected in Connecticut until Walden, in December, 
191 1, while inspecting Manetti stock recently imported from Eng- 
land by A. N. Pierson of Cromwell, discovered a few plants 
showing the galls conspicuously on the roots. Specimens of 
these have been planted in our greenhouse for over a year, and 
the disease does not seem to have as yet very seriously aflfected 
the plants, or to have spread to any extent to the new roots. 

TTTBNIP, SWEDE, Brassica campestris. 

Phoma Rot, Phoma Napobrassicce Rost. Plate XXc-d. In 
December, 1912, Mr. W. N. Durgy of Danbury noticed a rot 
trouble in his Swede turnips, and later sent specimens to the Sta- 
tion for information. Concerning this he wrote: "As I have 
a trouble with my Rock turnips this year that I never had before, 
I thought I would send you a sample. They were nice and solid 
when I put them in the cellar, and now nearly half of them are 
like the sample. Will you kindly report what is the cause of 
the trouble." Later, in answer to inquiries, he furnished the fol- 
lowing information : "The turnips did not show any spots when 
they were dug. The only thing we saw when we dug them was 
a decay on a very few around the top, so that when we pulled 
them, the top would come off, but I thought nothing of this. 
I have not heard of any similar trouble around here. I have 
made a specialty of raising turnips for a good many years, and 
have always stored them in the same place, i. e., the cellar bottom. 
My cellar is warm, but not very damp. I have had the farm 
for sixteen years, and never raised but one crop of turnips 



356 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2. 

before on the same ground, which was in 191 1, but I manured 
it heavily with horse and cow manure, and used fertilizer 
besides." 

An examination of the turnips sent showed that they had 
a dry rot, appearing as sunken, subcircular areas scattered over 
the roots, especially above, as in illustration c These areas 
usually had a darker border, but on the samples we received we 
did not notice that this was purplish or that the spots were 
finally cracked, as described for the trouble on Swedish tuni^)s 
elsewhere. A microscopic examination showed the mycelium of 
the fimgus abundant in these spots, and apparently the cause 
of the decay. No fruiting bodies showed, but after placing the 
turnip for a few days in a moist chamber, these became abundant, 
as shown in illustration d. Cultures of the fungus were easily 
obtained, and these produced a black growth in the medium with 
a scanty, superficial, whitish or slightly pinkish tinted growth 
above. The spores exuded more or less abundantly in rose- 
colored, viscid masses. Mr. Stoddard readily produced the dis- 
ease in healthy tubers, kept fairly moist and warm, on inoculation 
with spores from the cultures. 

The writer is indebted to Stewart of Geneva, N. Y., for several 
references to this disease in other countries, but neither Stewart, 
Selby, nor anyone else apparently, has reported a similar 
trouble in the United States. So far as the writer can judge 
from the meager description, our disease appears to be the same 
as that reported by Rostrup (5-6) from Denmark in 1893. He 
fotmd it on Swede turnips, and describes as its cause a new 
fungus which he called Phoma Napobrassicce. The trouble was 
next reported from the north of England, by Potter (4), who 
first noticed it in the winter of 1896-7. He also found it on 
the roots in the field. Potter merely identified the disease as 
caused by a species of Phoma, though he noted the possibility of 
its being the same species described by Rostrup. Carruthers 
(i) also reported this trouble from Lincolnshire, England, in 
1903, and he had no doubt but that the disease reported by 
Potter and himself was the same as that described by Rostrup. 

In 1905, ICirk (3) reported the disease from New Zealand as 
new in that region. He gpives the following description of the 
injury: "Below the crown, and forming a kind of irregular 
ring aroimd the upper third of the turnip, are numerous more or 



PLANT DISEASES OF CONNECTICUT. 357 

less circular depressed areas of deca)ring tissue, varying consider- 
ably in size. They are light brown and corky, and are generally 
surrounded by a well-defined purple margin. As the disease 
advances, these patches crack and form deep fissures, which spread 
deeply into the interior of the turnip, ruining it. Numerous 
black dots (pycnidia) now appear on the diseased patches ; these 
dots are cone-shaped, and contain immense numbers of minute 
spores, which emerge from the apices of the fructification in 
small, globular, rose-colored masses. The spores then soon 
separate, and are disseminated by various agencies, especially 
wind.*' 

In 1912, Giissow (2) reported the disease from Prince Edward 
Island, Canada, and this seems to be the first report of the dis- 
ease from North America. While we have accepted Rostrup's 
name for the fungus, we are not sure whether it is distinct 
from a cabbage fimgus (Photna BrassiccB, or P. oleracea) that 
has caused more or less damage in Europe and was reported in 
1911 by Manns (Ohio Agr. Exp. Stat. Bull. 228: 276-89) as 
causing serious injury in Ohio, especially through cankers on 
the stems. The cabbage and turnip both belong to the same 
genus, and so are closely related, and the Phoma fungi found 
on each cause cankers, and have spores about the same size. 
(Manns reports the spores of the cabbage Phoma as 4.5-5/A x 
i.7-2fA, while those of our turnip Phoma are chiefly 3.6-4.5/A x 
1.8/Li). But we do not know whether the spore masses of the 
cabbage Phoma are rose-colored, as are those of the turnip 
Phoma. Manns reports the fungus as occurring on the leaves 
somewhat, and McAlpine reports it on the leaves of cabbage, 
turnip and rape. Johnson has reported a Phoma disease on the 
leaves of Swede turnip in Ireland, and this may be the same 
as our Phoma. The other writers do not distinctly mention the 
Phoma as occurring on the leaves of turnips, though from the 
spraying treatment recommended, it is at least suggested that it 
may occur there. 

While the diflferent investigators have suggested various pre- 
ventive treatments, it is not known yet whether all of these are 
practical, especially the spraying of the foliage in the field. 
Certainly, however, rotation should be practiced where the dis- 
ease has appeared in a field. It is also quite likely that the kind 
and amount of manure used in the field may have some influence. 



35 S CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

This is especially true if diseased turnips have been fed to tiie 
stock. Storage in a dry, cool place, with piles not too large, 
may also help to keep down the trouble. No doubt the character 
of the season is a factor in the development of the disease. 

1. Camithcrs, W. Diseases of the turnip bulb. Joum. Roy. Agr. 
Soc Eng. 64:297-300. 1903. [Illust] 

2. Otissow, H. T. Photna rot of turnip. Exp. Farms Ottawa Rcpt 
19x2 : 202-4. 1912. 

3. Kirk, T. W. Diseases of Swede turnip. New Zealand Dept Agr. 
Div. Biol. Hort Bull. 14: 1-4. 1905. [Illust] 

4. Potter, M. C. A new Phoma disease of the Swede. Joum. Bd. 
Agr. 6:(l-ii Reprint). [Illust.] 

5. Rostrup, £. Oversigt over Sygdotnme hos Kulturplanter. Tidsskr. 
Landokonom. 11:330. 1893. 

6. Rostrup, E. Phoma- Angriff bei Wurzelgewachsen. Zeitscfar. 
Pflanzenkr. 4 : 322-3. 1894. 

WISTABIA9 CHINESE^ Wistaria chinensis. 

Crown Gall, Bacterium tumefaciens Sm. & Towns. Although 
we do not find the above host among those mentioned by Smith 
as infected by the crown gall, yet so far as one can judge from 
macroscopic examination, it is occasionally infected in this state. 
Mr. Walden collected specimens in March, 19 12, on plants 
imported from Japan in one of the nurseries, and Dr. Britton 
later brought us specimens from a plant grown in his yard. In 
the latter case the galls were associated with an elongated, sunken 
area of dead bark, and on this we found the fruiting pustules 
of a fungus that agrees fairly well with Phoma seposita Sacc. 
Whether the latter was present as a saprophyte or a parasite 
was not determined, but probably it was the former, since we 
have seen no references to it as causing injury. 



PLATE XV 





a.. Ash Rust* p. 343. 



bn While Pine Rust, x ^, p. ^^47. 




c. White Pine Rust, nat. size, p. 347. 
SOME TREE RUSTS. 



PLATE XVIII. 




a-b. Two species of Pine leaf Rusts, x 2-3, p. 352. 





c. Common Cedar Rust, p. 343. d. Japanese Juniper Rust, p. 350. 



SOME TREE RUSTS. 



PLATE XIX. 




a. Canker of White Pine, p. 354. 




b. ■ Crown Gall on Roses, p. 355. 
DISEASES OF WHITE PINE AND ROSE. 



PLATE XX. 





a-b. Black Bacterial Rot of Cabbage, b. Showing blackened veins, p. 345. 





c-d. Phoma Rot of Swede Turnip, d, x 2, with fruiting pustules, p. 355. 
DISEASES OF CABBAGE AND TURNIP. 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 359 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE, 
Endothia gyrosa var. parasitica (Murr.) Clint. 

HISTORICAL CONSIDERATION. 

Introduction. It is now over eight years since the chestnut 
blight was first found in New York, and nearly six years since 
it was reported to this Station as occurring in Connecticut. 
The writer became acquainted with the trouble in 1905 through 
Murrill's work and specimens sent by him, and has been actively 
engaged in a special study of it ever since its discovery in 
Connecticut. Articles (5-12) concerning these studies have 
appeared from time to time in the Station Reports and else- 
where. Since our views have been, in part, at variance with 
those held by certain other investigators, we propose to give 
here more in detail the information we have gained during 
these investigations, and our conclusions therefrom. 

We wish to acknowledge especial indebtedness to our assist- 
ant, Mr. Stoddard, who during the last three years has greatly 
aided in the work with artificial cultures, inoculation experi- 
ments, etc. Mr. Spring, the former, and Mr. Filley, the 
present, forester of this Station, have cooperated with the 
botanical department in determining the conditions in our for- 
ests and the possible remedial treatments. American and 
European botanists have aided with specimens aad information ; 
and we are especially indebted to Professor Farlow, of Harvard, 
in our systematic study of the blight fungus and its allies. We 
are also indebted to numerous persons interested in forestry 
in Connecticut for much local information. 

Discovery of Disease. The chestnut blight was first noticed 
by H. W. Merkel, in charge of the trees of the New York 
Zoological Park, in the summer of 1904, as injuring scattered 
trees in that park. In 1905 it was so bad that he took active 
measures to bring it under control, and published (32) the first 
general description of the trouble in the Report of the New 
York Zoological Society for that year. The attention of 
Murrill, of the New York Botanical Garden, was called to 
the disease, which had now become quite conspicuous in the 
parks and woods in the vicinity of New York City, and he 
began a botanical study of it to determine the exact cause. 



36o CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2. 

After a preliminary paper in the Journal of the New York 
Botanical Garden (45), published in June, 1906, he described 
in Torre)ra (47), in September of the same year, the specific 
fungus responsible for the trouble, a species new to science 
which he called Diaporthe parasitica. 

Previous to this outbreak there is no record, so far as the 
writer knows, of a disease of chestnuts in this country, or else- 
where, that can be surely attributed to the same cause, though 
there have been troubles of chestnuts in the Southern States 
that may or may not have been due to it. These will be 
discussed more fully later. Since the disease has been called 
to the attention of the public, however, there are a niunber of 
persons who have reported that they believe that they have 
seen this or a very similar trouble previous to 1904. 

For example, Metcalf and Collins (36, p. 45) say: "No 
earlier observation than this is recorded, but it is evident that 
the disease, which would of necessity have made slow advance 
at first, must have been in this general locality for a number 
of years in order to have gained such a foothold by 1904." 
And further on (p. 46) they add: "Observations by the junior 
writer indicate that this disease may have been present in an 
orchard in Bedford County, Va., as early as 1903, and that in 
Lancaster County, Pa., it was probably present as early as 

1905." 

Dr. Britton of this Station informs the writer that as far 
back as 1889 he knew of a seedling chestnut tree on a farm 
near Keene, N. H., that suddenly, during the summer, developed 
a progressive canker trouble that now seems to him to have 
been the chestnut blight. 

Professor Davis, in the discussion at the Pennsylvania 
Chestnut Blight Conference at Harrisburg (54, p. 102), said: 
"I will say that I think I saw the blight on Long Island in 
1897 or 1898. * * * That was in Cold Spring Harbor, in 
Huntington, especially back of Huntington, through the hills 
around there. So I think it was in 1898 well established in 
those localities." Mr. Child, of Putnam, Conn., at this same 
conference (54, p. 107) also said: "I know two men about 
sixty years of age who state that they are positive that they 
saw this blight twenty years ago, or something that looked the 
same as is shown in the blight to-day." 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 36 1 

Early Investigations. We are' indebted largely to Murrill 
(45-51) for our knowledge of the life history of the chestnut 
blight fungus. He not only gave a careful scientific descrip- 
tion of its different spore stages, but by inoculation experiments 
proved that it could produce the disease in healthy seedlings. 
He also tried various methods of control. 

The United States Department of Agriculture soon became 
interested in the disease, and through the eflforts of Metcalf 
(33-39) and later of Collins (13-16) and others, facts concern- 
ing the distribution, hosts, and control of the fungus were made 
known. Metcalf (33) was the first to note the relative 
immunity of the Japanese varieties to the disease, and to sug- 
gest that the fungus was originally brought into this country 
from Japan. He is also, more than anyone else, to be credited 
for what good, if any, may arise from the attempted control 
of the fungus by the cutting-out quarantine method, since it is 
through his advocacy that this method has been undertaken in 
Pennsylvania and perhaps elsewhere. 

The writer apparently was the next after Murrill and Metcalf 
to take up the special study of the disease. He was the first 
to try to prove that weather had some connection with the 
trouble, and through his investigations, in connection with 
Farlow, to show the relationship of the fungus to two other 
species found in this country, all of which are now considered 
species of the genus Endothia. 

Recent Investigations. With the spread of the blight to new 
localities, and the appropriation of large sums of money by the 
National Government and the State of Pennsylvania for its 
special study and control, popular and scientific interest in this 
disease was greatly augmented. The more recent investigations 
have had to do largely with the detailed study of field conditions 
in the diflFerent states, especially in the State of Pennsylvania, 
where the force of scientific and general workers is larger than 
on any other special botanical investigation ever carried on in 
this country. This control work has been largely devised by 
Foresters Williams and Detwiler (19, p. 129), based on the 
cutting-out experiments of Metcalf at Washington (38). 
Recently Carleton, of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, has been given general control of all the work in 



362 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Pennsylvania, with Heald, formerly of Texas, in charge of the 
laboratory investigations. 

Collins (16) has contributed to our knowledge of the treat- 
ment of individual trees. Rankin (59, 60), of New York, has 
reported on results of inoculation tests as to time of year, 
water content of trees, etc. Fulton (24), of Pennsylvania, 
has made a variety of field observations as to distribution of 
spores, conditions of infection, etc. The Andersons (i, 2) 
have reported on the character of the fungus in cultures, 
inoculation tests, etc. Craighead (17) and others have studied 
its relation to insects. Miss Rumbold (62, 63) has experimented 
with chemicals to determine their effect on the trees as r^^rds 
blight resistance, etc 

Farlow (20, 21), Shear (64, 65), the Andersons (i, 2) and 
the writer (8-10) have studied the nomenclature and systematic 
relationships of the fungus. Stewart (70), Murrill (51, p. 194) 
and the writer have r^^arded unfavorably extensive control by 
cutting-out methods. Mickleborough (40, 41), Smith (67, 68) 
and others have contributed articles of interest to the general 
public. In Europe, von Hohnel (29), Rehm (61), and Pantanelli 
(52, 53) have published notes or papers on the subject. 

Identity, In the study of a disease it is always very desir- 
able to know exactly the fungus that causes it. While Murrill 
proved conclusively that his Diaporthe parasitica was the 
immediate cause of the chestnut blight, this did not necessarily 
prove, as he claimed, that it was a species new to science. 
The question naturally arises, has this fungus been previously 
known under some other name? As a vigorous parasite, 
killing oflf chestnut trees, there is certainly no record of any 
fungus that can be definitely identified with it. The writer 
from the first was skeptical about the fungus having entirely 
escaped previous observation by botanists, especially if it might 
under certain conditions exist as a weak parasite or a sapro- 
ph)rte. One of the first things we set about to learn, therefore, 
was whether or not this fungus had had a previous botanical 
record. 

Schweinitz, a Bavarian minister, who lived at Salem, N. C, 
and Bethlehem, Pa., and made his botanical studies from 
about 1812 to 1834, was one of the first and most extensive 
collectors of fungi in this country. He described many species 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 363 

new to science. It was among the species described by him, 
since the relationships of many of them are now somewhat 
obscure, that we made a search for some fungus that might 
throw additional light on Diaporthe parasitica. In this search 
we asked the aid of Professor Farlow, whose knowledge of 
American fung^ is unsurpassed, and who has some of the 
Schweinitzian specimens in his herbarium, and from him we 
first learned of the close relationship of the chestnut blight to 
Endothia gyrosa (Schw.) Fr. This fungus was first described 
by Schweinitz as Sphaeria gyrosa, from North Carolina on 
Fagus and Juglans. He sent specimens to Fries, a famous 
authority on fungi in Europe, who later recognized it as a 
European species, and finally placed it under a new genus, 
Endothia. This possible relationship of the blight was brought 
out for the first time in the writer's Report (6) for 1908. 
Neither Farlow nor the writer had at that time examined the 
ascospore stage of the true Endothia gyrosa, so the exact 
relationship of our blight fungus to this species was not posi- 
tively determined, though the writer called attention to the 
fact that, so far as one could tell from the Cytospora stage, 
it was impossible to distinguish between Diaporthe parasitica 
collected on chestnut in America and Endothia gyrosa found on 
the same host in Italy. 

Previous to this, however, Rehm (61) had decided that 
Diaporthe was not the proper genus for our chestnut blight, 
and had placed it under the genus Valsonectria, but had not 
questioned its identity as a new species or its relationship to 
Endothia. 

Von Hohnel (29) seems to have been the first to definitely 
state that Diaporthe parasitica was not distinct morphologically 
from Endothia gyrosa, for in the latter part of 1909 he wrote: 
"Diese Pilz ist in Rehm Ascomyc, No. 1710, ausgegeben unter 
dem Nahmen Valsonectria parasitica (Murr.) Rehm. Es ist 
aber nicht anders als £. gyrosa mit schwach entwickelt^n 
Stroma." Since then Farlow (20), Shear (65), Saccardo, and 
Rehm, the last two in letters to the writer, have also decided 
that the chestnut blight fungus is not distinct morphologically 
from Endothia gyrosa (sometimes called £. radicalis) of 
Europe. 



364 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

The Andersons (i) were among the last to study the rela- 
tionship of Diaporthe parasitica to the genus Endothia. Their 
studies having led them to believe that the blight fungus, 
though related, was entirely distinct from Endothia gyrosa, they 
have placed it under Endothia as E. parasitica (Murr.) Anders. 

Although the writer started out to prove the identity of the 
chestnut blight with the Endothia gyrosa of Europe, he has 
been forced to conclude from his microscopical, cultural and 
inoculation studies that it is not exactly identical with that 
species, as is held by von Hohnel and others. The relation- 
ship, however, is so close that he cannot, on the other hand, 
agree with the Andersons in considering it an entirely distinct 
species. Hence he (9) has placed it as a variety under that 
species, calling it Endothia gyrosa van parasitica (Murr.) 
Clint. 

The preponderance of opinion of those who have made a 
critical study of the fungus, therefore, is that it is not an 
entirely new species, but that it is merely a strain, or at most, 
a variety of a previously described saprophjrtic or semi-parasitic 
species, that for certain reasons has now attained unusual viru- 
lence in the northeastern United States. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISEASE. 

As to the Host, It is easy enough to distinguish this disease 
on the smooth bark of sprouts or young trees, Plate XXIII a, 
since it forms definite cankers by killing the infected bark, 
and these usually increase in size until the entire stem or limb 
is girdled. These cankered spots are slightly sunken, and 
distinguished from the healthy bark by a chestnut-brown color, 
whereas the normal bark is more of a greenish-brown. Often 
the bark on these cankered spots is more or less cracked, and 
in time the fruiting pustules show as nmnerous minute cushions 
projecting through lenticel-like openings. 

On the rough bark of the older trees the cankers do not 
show very distinctly, though when cut out, as shown in Plate 
XXIII b, they give a cankered eflfect. Frequently with these 
the whole bark becomes infested, and the presence of the 
fungus is shown by the fruiting pustules breaking out from 
the deep cracks of the bark. Often when these do not develop, 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 365 

the bark may look healthy, but when hit by a hammer, it g^ves 
a hollow sound and is easily separated from the wood, showing 
the cambium entirely dead. After the tissues are killed, one 
is apt to find the larvae of beetles, etc., at work between the 
bark and the wood, and their presence has led some to think 
that they were the real cause of the trouble. 

The first appearance of the disease on the smooth bark fre- 
quently seems to be due to the injuries caused by bark miners, 
Plate XXIV a. The most frequent starting points, however, are 
through cracks, wounds or where a branch has been pruned, 
XXIV b, or killed from some cause, as winter injury. Very 
frequently the fungus gets a start from a crack in the crotch 
of the limbs. 

In summer time the disease is recognized in the top of the 
trees, even at some distance, by the dead leaves on certain 
branches, which have been girdled, but whose girdled area is 
not easily seen from the ground, Plate XXII a. These dead 
leaves adhere for a long time to the branches. They first 
b^n to show about the latter part of June or the first of 
July, when the previous year's canker has finally succeeded in 
girdling the branch. In the winter these dead branches some- 
times retain their dead foliage and burs long after those from 
healthy branches have fallen. This is true, however, of a 
branch killed prematurely from any cause. 

The cankers on the main trunk, as they become serious, 
cause the latent or adventitious buds in the healthy tissues 
beneath to develop, so that in time there are produced a ntunber 
of slender sprouts, and one can detect the presence of a canker 
high up in the tree by these. 

The fungus, while it kills the bark and cambium, and thus 
eventually the tree, is not a true wood-destroying species. 
When the trunk of a living, but cankered, tree is cut and barked, 
the cankered spot, Plate XXIII d, is usually visible as a 
darker area in the wood corresponding to the cankered spot 
in the bark, the mycelium of the fungus having injured the 
woody tissues for a short distance inward. Such cankered 
spots can sometimes be seen on telephone poles used along the 
highway. This injury in ^^tself, however, is negligible so far as 
it afifects the value of the pole. 



366 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Often, after trees are cut, the stumps of those infected at 
the base develop a vigorous growth of the fruiting stage on 
the three or four outer rings of wood. This probably means 
that the mycelium can penetrate thus far into the wood from 
the canker, or possibly it may mean that fresh infection takes 
place from spores developing in the nutrient material furnished 
by the exposed sapwood. 

After an infected tree has been killed, or has been cut 
before death, there may be a further development of the 
fruiting stage of the fungus. We doubt, however, if disease- 
free trees often develop prominent infection after cutting. In 
other words, the fungus is parasitic or semi-parasitic, but does 
not develop in its prime as a saprophyte. Even on trees killed 
suddenly and left standing, Plate XXII b, we have often failed 
to notice a general spread of the fungus through the bark. 
In the wood pile, too, while the fruiting stage no doubt shows 
some increase, a general subsequent infection of the disease-free 
bark does not seem to take place. 

As to the Fungus, The mycelium of the fungus ramifies 
through the bark, beneath it, and often into the wood for a 
short distance. When the epidermis of a young, smooth, 
cankered branch is carefully peeled off, it often shows the 
mycelium as a whitish or yellowish coating just beneath, and 
below this is the reddish-brown diseased bark sharply marked 
off at its edges from the healthy white tissues. In the older 
infected bark, the mycelium is sometimes seen as fan-shaped 
areas between the tissues or on the wood. The mycelium often 
gives a mottled eflfect to the bark as seen when cut through. 
In time, with the aid of insects, it produces soft, semi-dusty 
spots in the firmer, less aflfected tissues. 

The infected tissues do not show external signs of the fungus 
itself at first (with artificially inoculated cai)kers, not for two 
months or more after inoculation, Plate XXV b), but in the 
smooth bark in time numerous fruiting pustules are gradually 
protruded through small, lenticel-like openings. These at first 
are quite small, but in time show as subspherical to irregularly 
oblong cushions one-eighth of an inch or less in length and 
about that in height, XXIV c. In the rough bark they break 
out more irregularly from the crevices, and are more run 
together into compound groups, XXIV d. They vary in color 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 367 

with age from light-orange through almost crimson- to dark 
chestnut-brown. The interior of the pustules is usually lighter 
colored, and more uniformly remains of a yellow tint. When 
fully matured, the fruiting pustules show small black dots on 
the surface or in cross-section, which are the ducts through 
which the matured spores escape. 

On the wood, the fruiting pustules are usually simple, smaller, 
conical in shape, and apparently do not produce the mature 
stage of the fungus. They have an appearance to the eye 
quite different from those on the bark, and for this reason 
Saccardo formed a distinct genus, Endothiella, for them. 

The pustules, within inconspicuous cavities, soon begin to 
form a summer, or conidial, stage. This, if it were the only 
stage produced, would place the fungus in the imperfect genus 
C)rtospora, so this is sometimes known as the Cytospora stage 
of the fungus. The spores are produced apically in great 
numbers from slender fruiting threads. When filling the cavi- 
ties and swollen by moisture, they ooze out over the surface 
of the pustules as drops, or more frequently, slender yellowish 
tendrils. These tendrils are most conspicuous in suipmer just 
after rainy weather. Soon, however, they become worn or 
washed away by rains, and, if carried to cracks in the bark, 
they cause new infection. 

As the spore masses are viscid and moist, they easily adhere 
to insects, especially when crawling over them in the larval 
stage, and to the feet and beaks of birds, and these are con- 
sidered means of spreading infection, not only in the neighbor- 
hood, but also to distant points. These spores, Plate XXVIII i, 
are very minute, in fact, so small that it would take two or 
three hundred million to cover an area an inch square. They 
are h)raline, oblong, unicellular with rounded ends, and about 
2.5-4x0.75 fi in size. 

In the same fruiting pustules that produce the Cytospora stage 
there appears, after some time, the mature spore stage, often 
called the winter stage, because it occurs most commonly from 
late fall to late spring. However, like the sunmier stage, this 
winter stage can be found more or less abundant at any time 
of the year, its appearance depending in part on the age of the 
fruiting pustules. With the beginning of this stage, the fruiting 
pustules have reached their maximum growth and the production 



368 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

of the summer spores is practically over. It is quite unlike 
the Cytospora stage in that the spores are borne in sacs, or 
asci, situated in special receptacles called peritheda. 

The mature peritheda, Plate XXVIII k, are minute, light to 
dark-colored spherical bodies, situated within, but generally 
beneath and around, the edge of the pustules. By means of 
long black necks these peritheda open on the exposed surface 
of the fruiting pustules, where they show as minute black 
specks called ostioles. With the later growth and wearing away 
of the fruiting pustules these ostioles sometimes project as 
short spines. Each perithedum contains numerous, hjraline, 
oblong, asd, Plate XXVIII f, tapering somewhat at their base, 
within which are eight ascospores arranged one above another 
in one or two rows. In size the asd usually vary from 40 to 
45 /A in length by 7 to 9 fi wide, though some vary from 37 to 50 /* 
in length. 

The ascospores, Plate XXVIII c, are hyaline, oblong to 
broadly oval, with a central septum, at which they are often 
slighUy constricted. These spores are usually rounded at the 
ends, though sometimes somewhat pointed at one or both ends. 
They vary from 6 to 10 fi in length by 2.75 to 5 fi in width. 
While the chief time of germination of the ascospores is 
undoubtedly in the spring, their production and germination 
seems to be more or less distributed throughout the year. After 
rainy weather they are shot through the ostioles of the peritheda 
with some little force, and no doubt may be carried much 
further by the wind. By this means their distribution is greatly 
fadlitated, and, because of their greater vigor, some experi- 
menters believe they are more important in producing infection 
than the conidial spores. 

Progress of Disease. From our inoculation experiments it is 
evident that seedling trees one-half inch or less in diameter 
may be girdled, and in some cases their tops killed in one 
season, Plate XXV a. Sprouts an inch or more in diameter may 
likewise be entirely girdled for a distance of six or more inches, 
so that the death of the parts may be expected at least by the 
following spring. We have not inoculated the large limbs of 
trees, neither have we measured the rate of growth of cankers 
on the same, but we have had under general observation, for 
several seasons, marked trees at both Stamford and Middlebury. 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 369 

From the results of these observations, it seems to take at least 
two, and more frequently three, four or more years, to entirely 
kill the larger trees. 

The trees at Stamford were on the farm of Mr. F^. V. Stevens, 
and we are indebted to him and his son for aid in the experi- 
ments there. The trees were first marked by the writer and 
Mr. Filley in April, 1909. At that time many of them were 
in bad condition, as they were in the region where the blight 
first made its appearance in this state. All of the trees and 
sprouts in a certain area were numbered, and their condition 
as regards blight recorded. They varied in size from sprouts 
2 to 8 inches in diameter to large trees two feet in diameter. 
The following table shows their condition when first examined, 
and after two growing seasons. They were not examined in 
191 1. In 1912, according to Mr. Stevens, Jr., all of the infected 
trees were dead ; some of the sprouts, especially those developed 
since the marking, however, were alive. In 1910 some of the 
dead sprouts did not show any, and others but little signs of 
the fungus, and their death may have been partly due to other 
causes, as drought and winter injury, though all are included 
in the following table. 

Sproats, 2-8 in. diam. Trees, 10-24 >i^* diam. 

Apr. 1909. Nov. 1910. Apr. 1909. Nov. 1910. 

No. % No. i No. % No. fk 

Free 26 25.7 7 6.9 7 29.2 o 

Little diseased 28 27,7 10 9.9 8 33-3 i 4-2 

Moderately diseased ... 14 13.9 4 4-0 2 8.3 3 12.5 

Badly diseased 24 23.8 15 14.8 2 8.3 10 41.7 

Dead 9 8.9 65 644 5 20.8 10 41.7 

Totals loi loi 24 24 

The trees at Middlebury, all above six inches in diameter, 
were in a grove belonging to the Whittemore estate. For 
their experimental use the Station is indebted to the farm 
superintendent, Mr. W. M. Shepardson. The trees were on a 
hillside having a southern exposure, and had recently been 
thinned, by taking out those most diseased. They no doubt 
suffered from blight more severely because of winter and 
drought injury, due in part to their exposure and the thinning. 
The trees were first examined in February, 1910, and marked, 
but not numbered, with a sign indicating their condition as to 



370 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



the disease at that time. They were examined again and 
re-marked at the end of that season, and examinations were 
made again at the end of the seasons in 191 1 and 1912. In 
these later examinations data were not taken from all of the 
marked trees, but the condition of each tree examined was 
compared with its condition in the fall of 1910. The badly 
diseased and dead trees increased from 5.7 per cent, in the spring 
to 35 per cent, in the fall of 1910, to 58 per cent, in 191 1, and 
to 69 per cent, in 1912. The following table shows the conditions 
at the different times of examination : 



Feb. loio. 
No. % 

42.7 
42.7 



Not. ioio. 

No. ik 



Not diseased 67 

Little diseased 67 

Medium diseased.. 14 8.9 

Badly diseased ... . 9 5.7 

Dead o o 



o 
68 
34 
55 

o 



o 
43.3 
ai.7 
35.0 

o 



Totals 1^7 



157 



Fall, 1910 
No. 



24 
40 

aa 

31 
o 



i 

ao.5 

34.2 

18.8 

a6.5 

o 



Fall, 19x1. 

o 

ai.4 
ao.5 
37.6 
20.5 



No. 

O 

25 

24 

44 
24 



117 



"7 



Fall, I9xa 
No. % 

21.8 



FaB,i9:i 
No. i 



12 

25 

9 
9 
o 



45.5 

16.4 

16.4 

o 





164 

3S.2 

30-9 



55 



55 



DISTRIBUTION AND HOSTS. 

In the United States. The blight, first noticed in the late 
summer of 1904 at Bronx Park, New York, was said by Merkel 
to have spread by the end of 1905 so that 98 per cent, of the 
trees in this borough were infected. Murrill (45), in June, 
1906, reported the disease from New York, New Jersey, Mary- 
land and Virginia, and in September also from the District of 
Columbia. In February, 1908, he (48) gave Connecticut and 
Massachusetts as additional states. Metcalf and Collins (36) 
showed the distribution by August, 1909, to include Rhode 
Island, Pennsylvania and Delaware. Except in the vicinity of 
New York City, including adjacent parts of New York, Con- 
necticut, Long Island and New Jersey, the points of infection 
at this time, so far as known, were scattered rather than 
general. In May, 1910, Metcalf and Collins (37) included 
West Virginia among the infected states. The past year the 
disease has been reported also from New Hampshire and 
Vermont. 

At the present time the most damage caused by this disease 
in Massachusetts and Connecticut has been along and west of 
the Connecticut river. In New York it is conspicuous along 
the Hudson River up to Albany, and in western Long Island. 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 37 1 

In New Jersey the chestnuts of the whole state have suffered. 
In Pennsylvania the trouble is serious in the eastern half, and 
quite bad in the southeastern part. The disease occurs gen- 
erally in Delaware, but is especially bad in the northern counties, 
where the chestnuts are most abundant. Maryland and Rhode 
Island have the disease scattered, and serious in certain localities. 
In Virginia and West Virginia the infections are apparently 
few and inconspicuous. 

In Connecticut, The first specimens from Connecticut were 
sent to the Experiment Station in November, 1907, by F. V. 
Stevens, Jr., of Stamford, who found the disease doing con- 
siderable damage in this region during the summer. He also 
mentioned that he thought he had seen it in one or two other 
towns in the state. Since that report others have stated to 
us that they had seen the disease earlier, but had not known 
its nature at the time. For example, Mr. G. H. Hollister, of 
Keney Park, Hartford, said that in the summer of 1905 he 
foiuid a tree on the Edgewood Park estate at Greenwich that 
he is now sure had the blight. Forester Spring reported that 
a farmer in the town of Easton noticed the disease as early 
as 1905. These three towns are all in Fairfield County, near 
the first reported outbreak in New York. 

Hodson (28) reported the blight in New London County 
as early as 1908. Mr. N. J. Peck brought us a specimen from 
Woodbridge, New Haven County, in the winter of 1909, and 
reported that he had seen it in his woods for four or five, 
years. The first fruiting specimen collected by the writer 
outside of Stamford was found at Morris Cove, New Haven 
County, in September, 1908, though immature specimens were 
seen that spring in Westville. 

By the end of 1908 the disease had been reported in all but 
one of the twenty-three towns of Fairfield County, in eight 
towns of New Haven County, and in one town of New London 
County. By March, 191 1, the writer (7, p. 716) had reports 
of it in all of the twenty-three towns of Fairfield County, 
twenty-one in New Haven, fourteen in Litchfield, seven in Hart- 
ford, two in Middlesex, three in Tolland, and one each in 
Windham and New London counties. Out of these seventy- 
two towns all but seven were west of the Connecticut River. 
In November, 191 1 (11), it was reported in 121 towns of the 



372 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

State, and in February, 1912 (12), it had been found in 164. 
out of 168 towns of the state. Since that time it has been 
reported in the remaining four. 

We have no doubt that a careful examination would have 
revealed the blight's presence in many of these towns mudi 
earlier than it was first reported. There is no question, how- 
ever, that it was much more conspicuous in Fairfield and New 
Haven counties at first than elsewhere, and that to-day it is 
much more prevalent west than east of the G)nnecticut River. 
This is probably due to the fact that in the western part of 
the state chestnut is more abundant than in the eastern half, and 
also to the fact that the disease started earliest in the sou&- 
eastem part of the state. We doubt very much, however, if it 
has spread from a single infected locality in Fairfield County 
through all the rest of the state, but hold rather to the idea 
that it was present in a very inconspicuous way in a ntunber of 
localities scattered over the state, and has spread from these. 
See Plate XXI. 

Manner of Distribution. Many persons believe that the chest- 
nut blight started at some one locality in the region of New 
York City and from there spread to all of the localities where 
it is now known to occur. Maps issued from time to time by 
Metcalf and G)llins are based on this idea. Williams (54, 
p. 198) has rather positively stated this in the following 
quotation: "I would like to ask the gentlemen from around 
the neighborhood of New York City whether if they had been 
really active and alert and on the firing line when this thing 
was discovered in 1904, might they not have accomplished some 
real thing which would have redounded to the benefit of the 
other states, as Massachusetts has done in her g3rpsy moth fight? 
If instead of sitting down and nursing their hands in idleness, 
and allowing the scourge to go on, simply because they could 
not originate sufficient interest in their state, they had gone out 
and done what they could, this thing would probably not have 
come upon us." 

This view almost of necessity carries with it the additional 
belief that the chestnut blight is of foreign origin, since if of 
native origin there is little likelihood that th% fungus would 
have been limited to one locality; whereas if imported, it could 
have spread from one center or even from a single tree. On 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 373 

the Other hand, the writer holds the view, at least tentatively^ 
that the chestnut blight has not spread from a single central 
locality in New York City, but that at the time of its discovery 
there in 1904 it occurred in an inconspicuous way in widely 
scattered spots in several states, and that it has been in these 
localities for years. 

The reasons for this belief are as follows: (i) While origi- 
nally reported from the New York Zoological Park in 1904, sub* 
sequent information has shown that at about that time, or even 
earlier, in several cases already cited, the disease was present 
in such widely separated places as Woodbridge, Stamford and 
Greenwich, Conn.; Huntington, L, I.; Bronx Park, N. Y.; 
Bergen G)unty, N. J.; Lancaster County, Pa., and Bedford 
County, Va. (2) Its sudden appearance and quick destruc- 
tion of the trees where first fotmd (98 per cent, infected by 
end of 1905, as reported by Merkel) indicate that there was 
some other factor involved than the spread of a virulent para- 
sitic fungus, since such quick work is without parallel in the 
history of other fungou3 diseases of trees, or even with this 
one in its later history. (3) Recent investigations have shown 
that the fungus is more likely native than imported, and if 
native, there is no good reason why it should have been limited 
to the immediate vicinity of New York City. (4) Our investi- 
gations in Connecticut have shown it present in some localities 
in an inconspicuous way at the base of the trees, as if it were 
a native instead of an introduced fungus, just as its nearest 
relative is found to-day in the South. This latter fungus, 
Endothia gyrosa, is so generally distributed in the South that 
there is no doubt that it has occurred there since Schweinitz's 
time, and yet no one had, previous to our invest^tions, 
reported it on chestnut in that region. 

We believe that the chestnut blight fungfus existed in the 
North previous to its outbreak in 1904 as a weak parasite in a 
number of scattered localities. From these centers it spread 
with greater or less rapidity according to local conditions. 
This belief does not in any way contradict the possibility of 
the disease being carried longer or shorter distances by such 
agencies as infected nursery stock, birds, etc. Perhaps the 
strongest evidence against this belief is the fact that the greatest 
damage has occurred in the vicinity of New York City, and 

as 



374 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

apparently has spread outward with the development of seem- 
ingly new infections. This 24>parent wave of progress, however, 
is in part due to a corresponding wave of interest on the part 
of the people to locate a disease so generally discussed. It is 
quite doubtful whether the disease was observed in most of 
the localities as soon as it made its appearance there, but 
rather our experience has been that it was usually discovered 
in a place when smneone became interested enough to search 
for it. 

Hosts, Resistance, etc. While the blight was first found on 
our native chestnut, Castcmea dentata, and most of the damage 
has been done to this species, it was soon determined that other 
species of Castanea were more or less susceptible to the disease. 
Murrill (48, p. 27) in 1908 called attention to these hosts, as 
follows: "It b now certain that die chestnut disease attadcs 
all species of Castanea, both native and cultivated, that occur 
in this region, namely, Castanea dentata, the common native 
chestnut, C. crenata, the Japanese chestnut, and C. pumila, the 
diinquapin, found native from New Jersey to Florida." The 
European chestnut, Castanea saHva, though not mentioned by 
Murrill, is now known to be about as susceptiUe to the disease 
as our native q>ecies. At first certain varieties of this, as the 
Paragon, were thought to be more or less immune, but sub- 
sequent observation has not shown any that possessed marked 
resistance. 

Concerning the infection of the Japanese chestnut, Murrill 
said: "This discovery is especially timely because of the fact 
that the Japanese chestnut has been under observation else- 
where in the vicinity of affected native trees, and has beai 
considered immune, so that it has been mentioned as a 
desirable substitute for the native tree in some of our parks." 
Metcalf also had noticed this apparent resistance of the Japanese 
chestnut, and published a short bulletin (33) in February, 1908, 
in which he says: "Observations made by the writer the past 
year indicate that all varieties and species of the genus Castanea 
are subject to the disease except the Japanese varieties {Castanea 
crenata Sieb. & Zucc). All of the latter that have been observed 
in the field or tested by inoculation have been found immune. 
This fact can hardly fail to be of fundamental importance to 
the future of chestnut culture. Although the nuts are distinctly 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 375 

inferior in flavor to the European varieties, such as Paragon, 
the Japanese is already grown on a large scale as a nut-pro- 
ducing tree. There are, however, many trade varieties of 
dubious origin. Some of these may prove later to be subject 
to the disease." 

So far as the writer has observed in Connecticut, the 
Japanese varieties seem to have more or less resistance to the 
disease, but our experience has not been very extended. We 
have seen two cases, one in a nursery and another in a private 
yard, where the Japanese species was directly attadced by the 
blight, but have examined it in nurseries several times with- 
out finding any sign of the disease. We also failed to produce 
the disease in a Japanese variety in the Station yard, although 
the bark was inoculated in sixteen different places. 

In April, 1910, with the aid of the State Forester, we had 
set on the hillside, beside a badly diseased patch of chestnut 
timber on the Whittemore estate in Middlebury, six young 
trees each of the following varieties: Paragon, Reliance, Eariy 
Bon, Japan Mammoth, Late Tamba and Alpha, mostly Japanese 
varieties. These were planted to see if any would escape the 
blight. Unfortunately, many of them were killed back to the 
ground the first sunmier by drought. On the stems of some 
there appeared on the exposed southern side sun-scald cankers 
similar to those described by Powell, but no sign of the blight 
fungus showed that year. Since then a number of the trees 
have died from drought, but none have been killed or seriously 
injured by the blight fungus, though in 191 1 a little of the 
fungus was found on two of the badly injured Japanese Mam- 
moth, and in 1912 on two of the languishing Paragon trees 
cankers had started. The Paragon, of all the varieties, stood 
the transplanting and drought conditions the best. 

Some years ago, through the work of the late Judge Coe 
of Meriden, Mr. Hale of Glastonbury, and Dr. Britton of this 
Station, considerable interest was aroused in the cultivation of 
chestnuts, especially the large fruiting varieties. While we 
know of no cultivated orchards that were set out, a number 
of men grafted these varieties onto the native sprouts and 
trees. Among these were W. O. Coming of Marbledale, and 
Mr. John Dickerman of Mount Carmel. Both these gentle- 
men say their grafted trees have been badly injured by the 



37^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

blight. Mr. Corning writes: "Of my Japanese trees a great 
many will have to be cut down. At the same ratio of progress, 
none will be left in three years." And in another letter he 
states further, in answer to our inquiry: "I bought in New 
Jersey cions for four kinds, namely, Japanese, Numbo, Ridgdy 
and Paragon, all on chestnut sprouts. I bought at the same time 
trees from seedlings, but they all died before the blight struck 
us. I find the Japanese stand so far the best The Paragon 
are the poorest, although they have made the best growth and 
produced the most chestnuts. I find the infection commences 
about at the juncture of the grafts on the sprouts, and runs 
up and down, faster up than down.'' 

Dr. Robert T. Morris, of Stamford, has experimented more 
with different varieties than anyone else in tihe state, so his 
statement, following a discussion of a paper by Collins (13, 
p. 43), is of special interest: "In my own orchards I have 
twenty-six kinds of chestnuts, and have followed them along 
for the purpose of determining which ones would resist the 
blight best I cut out last year [1910] five thousand old 
American chestnut trees on my property. There is not a tree 
in all that part of Connecticut, the vicinity of Stamford, that 
is not blighted, and very few that are not dead. Now, in the 
midst of this disaster, what was the behavior of my e3q>erimental 
chestnuts of various kinds? It was this. I had about one 
thousand Coreans that lived up to five years of age, growing in 
the midst of blighted chestnuts, and none of these blighted. 
It occurred to me (hat it might be well to graft these on the 
stumps of American chestnuts, because these Coreans resisted 
the blight But when I grafted them on the sprouts of American 
stumps, at least 50 per cent of the Coreans blighted, showing 
that the pabulum wanted by the Diaporthe seemed to be fur- 
nished by the American chestnut I had some chestnuts from 
North Japan that resisted the blight, and yet these grafted on 
sprouts from American chestnuts blighted. I had some Chinese 
chestnuts, and none of those have blighted as yet; and in 
grafting them, two or three have not been b%hted. I have 
perhaps twenty-four chinquapins, both the Western form and 
the Eastern, and only one branch of one tree has blighted. Of 
the Southern Japanese chestnuts, very many are blighted. They 
are not as resistant as the Northern* I have a good many 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 377 

chestnuts of Ettropean descent, and among these some resist 
the blight pritty well; and some of the American progeny, 
like the Hannum and Ridgdy, seem to resist well enough, so 
that I am grafting these upon many different sprbuts." 

As interest became aroused, inquiries have been frequently 
made if other trees than the chestnut, especially oaks, were 
not attacked by this fungus. For a long time its occurrence 
was not reported on any other host than Castanea. Even as 
late as April, 1912, Metcalf (35, p. 223) published the following: 
''So far as is now known, the bark disease is limited to the 
members of the genus Castanea. The American chestnut, the 
chinquapin, and the cultivated varieties of the European chest- 
nut, are all readily subject to the disease. Only the Japanese 
and some other East Asian varieties appear to have any 
resistance." 

Fulton seems to have been the first to report the chestnut 
blight on oak, having exhibited cultures in December, 191 1, at 
the Washington meeting of the American Ph3rtopathological 
Society. In his Harrisburg paper (24, p. 53) he reports finding 
a fungus on white and black oak in Pennsylvania, and says 
concerning it: "While it is desirable to carry on further cross 
inoculation experiments, it seems reasonable to suppose in the 
light of present evidence that Diaporthe parasitica may, under 
unusual circtunstances, establish itself saprophytically on por- 
tions of trees outside the genus Castanea, if these portions are 
already dead. We have found no evidence that the fungus 
produces in any sense a disease of such trees as the oak." 

The writer and Mr. Filley first found the chestnut blight on 
oak in October, 1912, at Middlebury, Conn., in a badly diseased 
chestnut grove on the Whittemore estate. Previous search for 
several years had failed to show it on any of the various species 
of oak examined. At this place the ftmgus occurred rather 
inconspicuously, as follows: (i) On an exposed living root 
of Quercus ^Iba that had been injured in some way; (2) On 
cut surface of wood of a live stump of Q. rubra from which 
young sprouts were growing; (3) On the dead bark and dead 
stub of a twig on a recently cut stump of Q. rubra. Also, in 
November of the same year, Mr. Walden, of the entomological 
department, brought to the writer specimens of white oak from 
Greenwich, Conn., that had been killed by drought, on which 
this fungus occurred. 



37^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Cultures have been made from all these spedmens and from 
a specimen of black oak» Quercus velutina, soA by Detwfler 
from Pennsylvania, and all have shown the characteristic growth 
of the blight f imgus as distinguished from Endothia gyrosa, 
which also grows on oak in the South. However, in none of 
the cases so far reported does the fungus seem to have been 
an aggressive parasite on oak. We doubt very much if it ever 
will produce any serious trouble, since the oaks are hardkr 
than the chestnuts, and have not been deteriorated through 
sprout renewal. 

DAMAGE AND LOSS ALREADY CAUSED. 

Character of Damage. The injury caused by the bligirt 
fungus to the wood of the chestnut tree is not considered to 
be very important. Lumber, poles or ties cut from recently 
killed trees are not distinguished, as a rule, from those taken 
from perfectly healthy trees, and no data have yet been pro- 
duced to show that they are in any way inferior. This is 
because the fungus limits its attack to the bark, and the super- 
ficial layers of sapwood. After the death of the tree, the 
mycelium does not, apparently, form any progressive decay or 
deterioration of the wood. 

If the blight killed only the old trees ready for marketing 
the damage would not be very great. Loss arises in part from 
the irregularity of its attack. Each season some trees die, 
thereby making cutting and marketing inconvenient. The 
market is often glutted so that they cannot be disposed of to 
advantage. Further loss may arise in the deterioration of the 
dead trees if they are not cut soon after death, through decay 
started by other fungi and by insect depredations. 

The situation in Stamford, Conn., was shown in 1909 by 
Morris (42), as follows: "Millions of feet of fine chestnut 
timber, valuable for planking, piles, telegraph poles and cord- 
wood, will be lost within the next two years. Right now the 
blighted trees are still good for cutting purposes. I tried to 
dispose of about one thousand chestnut trees, but could not 
find a purchaser. All my neighbors are in the same predicament 
'No market,' is the regular reply to all my letters asking dealers 
if they handle wood of any sort. Forty or fifty cords of hard 
wood were rotting on the ground last autumn because I could 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 379 

not find any one that wanted cordwood that had been split and 
stacked while clearing part of the property three years ago." 

The type of damage so far mentioned, however, is incon- 
spicuous in this state as compared with the loss that occurs 
through the death of trees which are not yet fit for commercial 
purposes and can be used only for cordwood. The market for 
the latter in certain districts is easily satisfied. This means low 
prices or long storage. The greatest loss is caused where future 
profits are entirely cut out by the death of half grown 
trees and sprout growth too small for present use. If the 
disease progresses in the future as actively as in the past, the 
prospects of our chestnut forests are very poos indeed. This 
means serious loss, for the chestnut is one of the most useful 
forest trees in all parts of the country where it occurs. 

Besides the loss from a commercial point of view, there is 
the damage caused to the shade and ornamental trees, and to 
g^roves kept on estates, parks, etc, for aesthetic rather than 
practical purposes. To estimate the damage here is impossible. 

In the United States. Certain writers have attempted to 
estimate in money value the loss caused by the blight. Just 
how this loss is estimated is not made very clear. To the 
writer it seems to be largely guess work. However, it is 
interesting to note these figures in order to compare them with 
losses given for other fungous diseases and insects. Murrill 
(49) in 1908 estimated the damage in and about New York 
City between five and ten million dollars. Mickleborough (40) 
about the same time estimated the damage through the country 
at not less than ten million dollars, while in 1909 he (41, p. 14) 
wrote: "The damage already done in the states of New York, 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey, would not be less than twelve 
million dollars." Metcalf and Collins (38) gave twenty-five 
million dollars as a conservative estimate of the financial loss 
to the country up to 191 1. Detwiler (19, p. 130) estimates the 
loss in Pennsylvania alone as ten million dollars, allowing seven 
million for forest and three million for ornamental trees. The 
largest estimate that we have seen is that g^ven by Marlatt 
(31, p. 345), who said in 1911: "It is estimated that the loss 
in and about the City of New York is now between five and 
ten million dollars, and the loss throughout the area now 
infested is fully one hundred million dollars." 



380 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

In Connecticut. We shall not attempt to give any figures for 
the loss in Qmnecticut. To do this, one would have to determine 
the future value of sprout growth, and with more mature timber, 
to determine the difference between what one really got out 
of it and what he would have received if there had been no 
blight. Some idea of the loss, however, can be gained by an 
estimate of the chestnut in our forests and the percentage 
already injured by the blight 

Hawes and Hawley, in their forest survey of Litchfield and 
New Haven cotmties, estimate the forest land in Litchfield as 
55 per cent, and that in New Haven as 46 per cent, of their 
area. This gives a total of something over five hundred thousand 
acres of forest for these two counties. While considerable of 
this is in brush and some in white pine, by far the most of it 
is mixed hardwoods, with chestnut forming about 60 per cent 
of these in Litchfield and 70 per cent in New Haven G)unty. 
G)ttnting in all the forest land, Litchfield probably would run 
over 45 per cent, chestnut and New Haven over 50 per cent, 
according to these authors. Probably no other county of the 
state has proportionately so large a part of its area in forest 
as Litchfield, according to State Forester Filley, but on the 
other hand. New London is probably the only one that has a 
less proportion than New Haven County. 

On the whole, it is perhaps safe to estimate 40 per cent of 
all the forest land of the state as being chestnut The census 
for 1910 gives the lumber cut of chestnut in this state for that 
year as 58,810,000 feet B. M., or nearly equal to that cut from 
all other trees. These statements show how extensive the tree 
is in our forests, and how useful When we consider that f nnn 
5 to 90 per cent of the chestnuts in different parts of the state 
have already been attacked by the blight, a clearer idea of 
the great loss already caused may be gained, especially in 
Fairfield County, where over large areas there is scarcely a 
chestnut tree to be found that is not either killed or infected 
by the bKght 

PRESENT SITUATION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS IN CONNECTICUT. 

In order to give some idea of the damage already done in 
different parts of the state, the botani<;al and forestry depart- 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 38 1 

ments of the Station, after consideration of all the data avail- 
able, have made approximate estimates of the percentage of 
chestnut trees attacked in each of the counties. To gain more 
immediate information as to the condition in the different 
counties, the writer recently sent the following letter to about 
seventy-five men scattered over the state who have been especi- 
ally interefted in the blight and have had a chance to watch 
local conditions: ''In 191 1 the blight was more widely reported 
to us and was apparently more generally conspicuous than in 
any previous year. What we wish to learn from you is whether 
it was, where you observed it in 1912, more prominent, less 
prominent, or just about the same, as in 191 1.'' Information 
gained by this and other means is gi^en by counties as follows : 

Fairfield County. The blight was first found by Mr. Stevens, 
Jr., of Stamford in the summer of 1907, and reported soon 
afterward to the Station. From Mr. HoUister's observations 
at Greenwich, the disease no doubt occurred in the county at 
least as early as 1905. The injury has been greater here than 
in any other county, and is apparently now on the decline, since 
most of the trees have been attacked or killed. The Station 
estimates 75 to 85 per cent, of the trees already dead or infected. 
In answer to our letter, three report the blight worse, and 
four about the same or less conspicuous in 1912 than in 191 1. 

Mr. F. A. Bartlett of Stamford writes: "The chestnut is 
practically extinct in Fairfield County." Mr. Joseph Comwell 
of Norwalk says: "From my observations the chestnut blight 
was far more conspicuous in 1912 than in 191 1. In 1912 I 
made a special trip into the woods for the purpose of exam- 
ining the undergrowth, and found it more affected by the 
disease than at any earlier period. My observations were made 
in Wilton, Norwalk, Westport, Ridgefidd and Redding." 

Dr. R. T. Morris, who owns a farm near Stamford, says: 
''In the different years since the blight appeared some of my 
neighbors in the country have stated that they have observed 
more rapid progress than before, and others have expressed the 
opinion that we had less blight than before. As a matter of fact, 
so far as I can judge, there has been pretty steady progress of 
the blight from the first, and at the present time I do not know 
of a single unblighted tree in the vicinity of Stamford, Conn., 
although my men and I have taken long walks for the purpose 



3^2 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

of finding a resistant tree in order to propagate this tree 
because of its individual characteristics. A great many 
thousand trees were examined." 

On the other hand, Mr. F. V. Stevens, Jr., of Stamford, 
writes: "I have found that in this section of the state the 
blight has been far less prominent than in any year since 1908 
on the young sprouts, which are practically the onljr chestnuts 
we have." Mr. J. H. Treadwell of Danbury also says: "I 
would say that in this section dead trees caused by the attadc 
of previous years were more in evidence in 1912 than in 1911. 
However, it does not appear to me that attacks on healthy trees 
are quite as prominent in 1912 as in 191 1." • 

New Haven County. This was the second county in the 
state in which the disease was reported. It was -found by the 
writer in Westville in the spring of 1908. From the observations 
of Mr. Peck of Woodbridge, already alluded to, there is litde 
doubt that it occurred in places here as early as 1905 or 1906. 
The damage has been second only to that in Fairfield County. 
Quite a little of the timber has been cut in recent years for use 
in brick kilns and brass foundries. This has resulted in con- 
siderable young growth, which is always likely to show the 
disease badly. In most of the forests many of the large trees 
have also been badly infected or entirely killed. We estimate 
that 55 to 65 per cent of the chestnut has already been infected 
or killed. In answer to our letter, nine stated that they believed 
the blight was worse in 1912 than in 191 1, while seven thought 
it about the same or even less conspicuous. 

Professor R. C. Hawley of the Yale Forest School, who has 
charge of the New Haven Water Company's forests^ writes: 
"My observations have been principally confined to timber mer- 
chantable for cordwood or larger products. On such trees I 
think the chestnut blight has spread steadily in 1912 both in 
number of trees which it has attacked and, of course, in progress 
on trees already attacked. From a practical standpoint I antici- 
pate cutting out all the chestnut now merchantable in the 
vicinity of New Haven. My general impressions are that the 
disease is slowly spreading among the trees bdow cordwood 
size, although I have not devoted so much time to observing 
these trees." 



CHESTNUT BAKK DISEASE. 383 

Mr. W. M. Shepardson, of Middlebury, who has had con- 
siderable experience in cutting out diseased trees on the Whitte- 
more estate, says: "The blight was much worse in 1912 here 
than in any other year, and, as near as I can estimate, spread 
as much last year as in all previous years put together, so that 
in badly infested areas few or no trees are left without disease. 
In the home woods, round the fireplace and on the hill, where 
all trees were taken out last winter that we could discern, we 
found in September 845 trees over one foot in diameter that 
were much diseased and a great many smaller ones." 

Mr. G. H. Bartlett of North Guilford writes : "In the vicinity 
of North Guilford and North Madison the chestnut blight 
increased very rapidly in 1912. Young trees seemed to be less 
able to resist the attack than old and large ones. Present 
indications are that all chestnut sprouts will soon die. Some 
old trees seem likely to survive for a time." 

Mr. E. C. Warner, of North Haven, says, however: "In 
r^;ard to the chestnut blight I would say it was very much 
more prominent in 191 1 than in 1912. I think it spread very 
fast in 1910 and 191 1, and not very much in 1912. In some 
places where we cut the diseased trees, blight did not increase 
very much, and one piece of sprouts I was through the other 
day did not seem any worse than last year." 

Mr. C. A. Metzger, of Mount Carmel, also writes: "As a 
whole, the blight seems about the same as last year. It does 
not seem to have advanced as fast as it has hitherto. On our 
Mount Carmel farm the number of trees infected this year 
seems less than the number last year." 

Litchfield County. Our first knowledge of the occurrence of 
the disease in this county was due to specimens sent by W. E. 
Frost from Bridgewater in January, 1909. The next August 
Mr. F. V. Stevens, Jr., sent specimens from Harwinton and 
also reported the disease from near Winsted; and Spaulding 
(69) found specimens at Bantam in September. In January, 
1910, E. M. Stoddard collected specimens at Litchfield, and in 
March W. O. Coming sent others from Marbledale. So by 
the beginning of 1910 the disease was certainly well established 
throughout this county. So far the blight has not caused so 
much damage as in New Haven County, though in some places 
it has been very severe. Several of the best observers here seem 



384 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

to have noticed an apparent halt in the progress of the disease 
the past year, which, i£ continued for another year, will give 
hope that the chestnuts may escape the severe injury caused in 
Fairfield County. We estimate the infected chestnuts to be 
from 40 to 50 per cent, in this county. Of the reports 
received, seven indicate an increase of the 'trouble over 191 1, 
while six say the disease was about the same, or less con- 
spicuous. 

J. H. Putnam, of Litchfield, writes: ''I do not think that 
the chestnut blight has spread any worse the past season. Its 
ravages are more noticeable, as many trees previously attacked 
but not noticed, are now dead. The pieces where I cleaned 
it out two years ago do not show much spread since." In a 
later letter he adds this interesting statement: '^e have no 
large trees killed, but have just cut a large tree seriously injured. 
The cankers on this showed that the disease had gained two to 
three inches in 191 1, but only one-half to one inch in 1912, and 
in some places the new bark had held its own. Looking over 
a block of sprouts some ten years old, I found that where two 
years ago I had considered them doomed, they were making a 
splendid fight, and in some cases had apparentiy entirely over- 
come the disease." 

Donald J. Warner, of Salisbury, takes a similar favorable 
view, as follows: "I do not think that there were as many 
tre^ attacked by the blight in 1912 as in 191 1 in this vicinity. 
On our own property in 191 1 we cut several infected patches, 
and around these patches there were quite a number of trees 
which died in 191 2. Of course it is quite possible tiiat these 
trees had the disease in 1911 and were missed by the choppers. 
I did not notice nearly as many new cases as in the previous 
year." 

C. L, Gold, of West Cornwall, expresses the same view: *'I 
have been cutting quite a lot of chestnut timber this last fall 
and winter, and find considerable evidence of the disease, which 
did not show much or at all before the tree was cut However, 
the general appearance of our forests as we look at them from 
a distance showed but litUe signs of it the past season, nothing 
near as much as in the summer of 1911. It would seem as 
if the trees already infected would surely die, but from the 
results of the past season I am not so sure of it" 



Chestnut bark disease. 385 

W. O. Coming, of Marbledale, however, reports a worse 
condition, as follows: "I sent two men this morning to cut 
out my next winter's wood, and I found a very bad condition, 
nine out of ten young trees* about thirteen years old infected. 
I was on the same ground last winter, but I found only half 
as many diseased as to-day. Of my Japanese trees, a great 
many of them will have to be cut down, and with the same 
ratio of progress none wfll be left in three years." 

EUicott D. Curtis, of Bantam, likewise sees no improvement, 
as he writes: "In our own woods the blight is much more 
conspicuous than last year, and is doing much greater damage. 
Some of the infested woods were thinned last winter, and the 
diseased wood taken out This winter the disease is very 
prominent in these, and it looks as if the chestnut would have 
to be cut clean. It looks to me as if our chestnuts were com- 
pletely doomed, although I have not so far been able to find 
the disease in a small stand of trees about sixty years old." 

F. V. Stevens also takes a similar view : "At Torrington the 
outlook is about as bad as it was here [Stamford] three years 
ago, i. e., it promises to cause a total loss of all the chestnuts 
in that vicinity." 

Middlesex County. Forester Moss found a single infected 
tree in the state forest at Portland in March, 1910, and this 
is the earliest date we have for the disease in this county. 
Later examination, however, showed this infection to have 
occurred probably as early as 1906. The disease was seen by 
the writer at Middlefield and Middletown in March, and at 
Chatham and East Haddam in July, 191 1. The blight as a ^ndiole 
is probably somewhat worse here than in Hartford County, but 
not so bad as in Litchfield. We estimate 30 to 40 per cent, of 
the chestnuts infected. Three persons report the disease worse, 
and three no worse, in 1912 than in 191 1. 

Mr. J. E. Doane, of Centerbrook, writes: "I find plenty of 
blight in the chestnuts, more in the young than in the older 
growth. I find about one-half of the twenty-year-old trees in a 
tract that I have are either dead or diseased. I do not believe 
that there is any chestnut about here that has escaped from the 
blight, and thiidc it has spread more in the last year than any 
time before." D. Herdman, of the Wadsworth estate of Middle- 
town, also thinks the trouble on the increase, as he says : "There 



386 CONNECTICUT EXPBSIMBNT STATION XEPORT, I912. 

is no doubt in my mind but what the blight is more prominent 
on this estate in 1912 than it was in 191 1/' 

W. S. Hunger ford, of East Haddam, reports an improvement: 
''I noticed the chestnut blight as being more conspicuous in 

191 1 with a slight decrease in 1912," Mr. J. C. Reeves, of 
Portland, says: "I think it showed up more prcxninently in 

1912 in some localities, and not so much in others. On my land 
it was decidedly worse. Not so much new disease, but the 
trees showed it more. I think there is a change on the state 
land where we have cut it out In some places where we would 
get a load last year, we did not find a tree with the disease." 

Hartford County. The first reports we had of the disease in 
this county were in the fall of 1910, Forester Filley having col- 
lected specimens at Hartland in September, and Spaulding (69) 
at Windsor, and L. H. Goodrich at Hartford, in October. In 
March, 191 1, the writer found the disease at Granby. At 
present the disease is perhaps not as bad as in Middlesex 
County, though in some regions considerable damage has been 
caused. We estimate 25 to 35 per cent, of the chestnuts 
infected. Of the letters received from this ^unty, three writers 
think the disease worse in 1912 than in 191 1, and three think 
it was no worse. 

Mr. G. H. Hollister, superintendent of Keney Park, Hart- 
ford, writes: ''As we made a pretty thorough cutting of the 
diseased chestnut trees last winter, I have not found the tops 
of the larger trees so badly infected as last year. I have found 
a g^eat many trees with one or more branches infected, and more 
young trees than ever before. Probably many of the older 
trees have the blight, but it is not easily seen at present. On 
the whole, I consider the disease more prominent in 191 2 than 
in 191 1." 

S. W. Eddy, of Avon, says : "I looked over the woods yester- 
day, and would state that there is much more chestnut blight 
than last year. It showed up more in the young growth and 
small trees in the open. In fact, the woods and trees there 
show many leaves still holding on, and on looking them over, 
one can find the yeUow or orange fruiting pustules." 

R. S* Tryon, of Glastonbury, writes : "The blight is generally 
prevalent here, I ^ould say more prominent in 1912 than in 
191 1, but growth and spread aiq>ears not to have been so rapid. 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 387 

Hive noticed two or three instances where healthy growtii. 
appears to be overcoming diseased portions." 

F. H. Stadtmueller, of Newmgton, saysj '*We have as yet 
escaped any perceptible invasion of the chestnut bUght in this 
immediate vicinity, consequently can make no comparative 
statements. Lumbermen of this neighborhood have reported it 
less prevalent in 1912 than in 191 1." 

New London County, Hodson (28) in 1908 reported the 
blight along the Connecticut coast to New London^ and about 
that time or a year later Hazard, a Yale forestry student, 
reported it present in North Stonington. The first specimens 
we received from this county were sent from Gales' Ferry by 
Dr. C. B. Graves in May, and from Lebanon by T. K Claiic, 
in October, 191 1. The disease does not seem so bad in this 
county as in the preceding, and yet is worse than in the two 
following counties. We estimate the number of infected trees 
as between 15 and 25 per cent Only three answers to our 
letters were received, of which two said the disease was worse 
in 1912 than in 191 1, and one reported it about the same. 

Dr. C. B. Graves, of New London, writes: **1 should say 
the blight was just about the same as to general prevalence, but 
it is my impression that the proportion of badly infected and 
dead trees may be somewhat greater." Walter C. Tanner, of 
Voluntown, says: "Where I noticed this blight in 1912, it was 
much more conspicuous than in 191 1." 

Tolland County. The writer saw specimens of the blight at 
Mansfield in July, 1910; Filley collected specimens at Bolton 
in November of the same year; and H. Wood sent specimens 
from Tolland in April, 191 1. As yet the blight has done com- 
paratively little harm in this county, less than in any other 
except perhaps Windham. We estimate the percentage of 
infected trees to be between iq and 15 per cent Of the replies 
received to our letter four place the disease as more, and three 
as the same, or less conspicuous in 1912 than in 191 1. 

E. G. Walker, of Union, writes: "There is very little chest- 
nut blight in Uttion, and I do not think there was any increase 
over 191 1." Geoi^ Towne, also of Union, says, however; 
"More cases of the chestnut blight were observed by me in 
1912 than in 191 1. There is little doubt that it is spreading in 
this locality.*' Harry Wood, of Rodcville, also thinks it on the 



3^8 CONNECTICUT EXPBRIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

increase: ''In answer to your question it is my opinion that the 
disease around here has steadily increased in the past two years." 

George V, Smith, of Willington, says : "The blight is increas- 
ing quite rapidly in this town. In 1911 I did not observe more 
than a few cases. In 1912 I found it in colonies of infectioa. 
Some men tell me they are finding it everywhere in chestont 
cuttings. Two years ago I did not find a tree on my farms. 
Now there are many." Professor C. D. Jarvis, of Storrs, 
writes, however: "Replying to your letter, I would say diat 
in my opinion the chestnut bark disease has not been so con- 
spicuous during the past year. Fewer new infections were 
discovered, and the spread of the disease seems to have been 
much slower in the sections where it was present" 

Windham County. Former Forester Spring collected the first 
specimens we had from this county at Windham in September, 
1910, while Filley and Stoddard reported it from several towns 
in the fall of 191 1. The last two towns in the state in which 
we found the blight were in this county. The situation here 
is about the same as in Tolland Q>unty, or perhaps somewhat 
better, as we estimate only 5 to 10 per cent of the trees infected. 
Two reported the disease worse, and four as the same or better 
in 1912 than in 191 1. 

Mr. W. H. Hammond, of Hampton, writes: "So far as my 
observation went on my own farm, I was of the opinion that 
the blight did not spread last year as much as I expected, but 
there were many reports of it in new sections of the surround- 
ing towns." C. S. Hyde, of Canterbury, says: "I should 
say the blight was about the same as in 191 1, but if anything 
not quite so prominent in this section." C. E. Child, of Putnam, 
says: "Less prominent in 191a." On the other hand, C A. 
Tillinghast, of Danielson, writes: "I have found the chestnut 
blight spreading quite rapidly in this section, much more in 1912 
than in 1911." 

Future Outlook in the State. If we judge from what the 
blight has already accomplished in Fairfield and New Haven 
counties, and what it is now doing in certain parts of Litchfield, 
Middlesex and Hartford counties, there does not seem to be 
much hope for those regions where the blight has become firmly 
established. There are those who believe, that the blight is 
bound to go on in the future just as it has in the past, which 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 389 

means the death of all the chestnuts in the infected regions. On 
the other hand, there are others, like the writer, who believe 
that there have been tinusual conditions that have favored the 
rise and spread of the disease so far, and that the crest of this 
wave of infection is bound to be reached, and a g^dual decrease 
to follow when these conditions are changed. 

The blight has become far too prevalent and widespread to 
show sudden improvement in a single year, yet we believe that 
a let-up in its destructive spread was shown in the year 1912. 
In 191 1, according to all our information, blight was by far 
more conspicuous and became more widely distributed than in 
any previous year. This was a year of serious drought, follow- 
ing several dry years. In the winter and spring of 1912 
numerous rains replenished very largely the depleted supply of 
water in the soil, so that even trees in general that had not 
suffered seriously from any particular trouble showed decided 
improvement in foliage and growth. This was especially true 
of the peach, which is a very good indicator of weather con- 
ditions. True, there was a drought period in midsummer in 
1912, but this did not affect trees so much as it did the super- 
ficially rooted crops. 

Now, if weather conditions have had nothing whatever to 
do with the spread of blight, so far as increased or decreased 
vigor of the chestnut trees is concerned, then the blight in 
1912 should have been far more prominent, destructive, and 
widespread than in any previous year. Yet, thirty-one out of 
sixty-four persons answering our letter stated that the blight 
was no worse, or even apparently better, in 1912 than in 191 1. 
If our observations and those of the persons who corroborate 
them are true, then there is certainly some hope for the future 
of the chestnut in Connecticut. Just what percentage of the 
trees will survive the blight we do not aim to predict, but we 
certainly do not believe they are all to be exterminated. 



RELATION TO CONDITION OF HOST. 

General Statement. Some writers believe that the condition 
of the host has had no influence whatever on the rise and spread 
of this disease. For instance, Metcalf and ColUiis (37) in 1910 
said: "A debilitated tree is no more subject to attack than a 



39^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

healthy one. * * * Dry weather chedcs the disease by sap- 
pressing spore production. * * * Winter injury is not common 
over the whole range of the bark disease, but may be locally 
important in producing lesions through which tiie parasite 
enters. Winter injury bears no other relation to the bark 
disease." Metcalf (35, p. 225) in 1912 said again: "No definite 
evidence, experimental or otherwise, has been adduced to show 
that a tree with reduced vitality is more susceptible to infec- 
tion, or that the disease spreads more rapidly in such a tree 
than in a perfectly healthy and well nourished tree of cither 
seedling or coppice growth, provided that such reduced vitality 
does not result in or is not accompanied by bark injury by 
which spores may gain entrance." 

Now, if the condition of the host bears no relation to the 
rise and spread of the disease, the writer knows of no satis- 
factory explanation for its sudden and destructive appearance 
in this country except its importation from some foreign 
country. The evidence to date, however, is very strongly 
against the idea that it is an imported pest, as we shall show 
later. Among the farmers in Connecticut who have been able 
to watch this disease rather closely there are many who believe 
that the weakened vitality of the chestnuts has had considerable 
to do with its development and spread in this state. The 
writer more than anyone else has advocated this view, and we 
propose to give here the reasons we have for holding it 
Briefly expressed, they are as follows: 

The chestnut blight was brought to sudden prominaice just 
after the severe winter of 1903-04, which injured and killed 
fruit and forest trees in general along the coast and water- 
courses, of which New York City was the central point The 
resulting enfeebled condition of the chestnut enabled the blight, 
a previously inconspicuous parasite, to spring into sudden 
prominence on these trees and to gain credit for the death of 
others which had been largely or entirely due to winter injury. 
Since then we have had one or two severe winters, and more 
especially several dry sunmiers, that have injured not only the 
chestnut, but other forest trees over an extended area. Due 
to its successful attack on the weakened trees, the Might fungus 
has perhaps acquired an added virulence that has enabled it to 
attack apparently healthy trees, especially those of sprout 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 39 1 

renewaL The enfeebled condition of the chestnut trees and 
their omsequent susceptibility to the blight may possibly be 
related to some lessened chemiod activity in the bark and newly- 
formed wood, such as the production of tannic add; for instance. 
If so, then when this has returned to its normal production 
through favorable weather conditions, the blight should gradu- 
ally become correspondingly less aggressive. Under the follow- 
ing heads we shall take up more in detail our ideas of the 
relationship between weakened vitality of the chestnut and 
consequent susceptibility to the blight.^ 

IVinter Injury. We have in a previous Station Report (6) 
called attention to the results of winter injury on fruit and 
other trees in Connecticut. We shall attempt here to show also 
that these conditions were not confined to this state. In Decem- 
ber, 1902, following a very open fall, the temperature suddenly 
fell bdow zero, with the result that many trees, especially 
young fruit trees which had not properly matured their wood, 
were severely injiu^ or killed outright. The following winter 
of 1905-04 was so unusually severe that thousands of fruit 
trees in Connecticut, especially those situated in the valleys 
and on the loWer slopes, were killed, and others so severely 
injured as to develop physiological troubles for some time 
afterward. The injuries caused by these two winters were most 
noticeable in the region alot^ the Sound, in the valleys or on 
the lower hill slopes, and along the river courses, regions in 
which the chestnut blight afterward first appeared, and in which 
it has caused the most damage. The winters of 1906-07 and 
1907-08 also caused considerable winter injury. 

Although we did not at the time directly study the efiFect on 
the forest trees of these winters, especially that of 1903-04, 
which was the most severe, we do know from subsequent 
observations that many trees were injured. In' the summer of 
1904 we examined a young fruit orchard, at Stamford, whose 
wood had been largely killed, by winter injury; and two or 
three years later in examining chestnuts from this r^on, 
where the blight has been tte most severe, we could see indi- 
cations of winter injury to the wood of the chestnut sprouts 
dating back to the winter of 1903-04. In Ac winter of 1910, 
in examining chestnut at Middlebury, where the blight was 
just coming into prominence, we found quite a number of 



392 CX)NNECTICUT EXFEiaMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

injured and dead trees with no sign of the blight cm diem. 
There were others with the bark killed on the south or soatii- 
west exposures, and sound on the northern, as shown in Plate 
XXIII c by the dark and white wood ; and on many of -these 
there were no signs of the blight fungus as yet. There is no 
doubt that these trees had been injured by an attack of sun- 
scorch winter-injury, complicated probably by summer droughts. 
That we are not alone in believing that these winters did not 
confine their injurious efiFects to G)nnecticut or to fruit trees, 
that they may have lu^ tome connection with the chestnut 
blight, and that some persons have attributed their effects to 
fungous and bacterial troubles in certain cases, we shall attempt 
to show by the following quotations. 

Concerning the injury to fruit trees caused by the severe 
winter of 1903-04, Waite, of the United States Bureau of Plant 
Industry (Bull 51), writes: "The severe cold weather of the 
past winter, especially the intense cold of January 4th and 5^1, 
resulted in very severe damage by freezing to orchards in New 
York and New England, especially in the Hudson and Coor 
necticut valleys. The damage was found to be mainly to peach, 
Japanese plums and pear trees, and the most serious harm was 
largely confined to the lower levels and pockets." 

Eustace, of the Geneva, N. Y., Station (Bull. 269), in his 
discussion of this winter injury, says: "The winter of 1903-04 
was an unusually severe one throughout New York state. In 
many places the temperature was the lowest on record, and the 
periods of extreme cold were protracted. As a result the end of 
the winter found many of the orchards, especially those of peaches 
and pears, extensively and seriously injured. ♦ ♦ ♦ The damage 
was greatest in the Hudson River valley, where the cold was most 
severe, more than forty degrees below zero being reported. * * * 
At the end of the winter the external appearance of the trees 
was entirely normal, the baric of the trunk was smooth and of 
normal color, and the twigs on all parts of the tree were plump 
and bright. Nothing about the trees looked unusual or wrong, 
but upon cutting into the trunk an3rwhere above the snow line, 
it was found that both bark and wood were discolored for some 
depth into the trunk. ♦ ♦ ♦ Altitude, air drainage, and con- 
dition of the soil had a very important bearing upon the severity 
of the injury. The advantages of a high altitude were best 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 393 

shown in some of the peach orchards in the Hudson Valley. 
♦ * ♦ The dyiog of the trees (afterwards) at such unusual 
and irregular times gave rise to much alarm among the fruit 
growers in some localities. It was feared that a virulent attack 
of the yellows had broken out, or some new and serious disease 
had become prevalent" 

Whetzel, of the Cornell, N. Y., Station (Bull. 236, p. 133), 
says concerning a supposed outbreak of the bacterial blight 
of apple in that state: ''Anything that reduces the general 
vitality of the tree tends to render it more susceptible to attack 
of the bacteria. I have already referred to the apparent effect 
of low temperature in relation to this disease in the Hudson 
River region. A long growing season during 1902, with exces- 
sive rain, followed by a sudden and extreme fall of temperature 
early in December, is referred to by growers in that section as 
the beginning of the injury to their orchards. The winter that 
followed was a severe one, with sudden and severe changes of 
temperature during the early days of the spring of 1903. Many 
trees failed to leaf out, and large cankers were now observed 
on limbs and bodies of dead and dymg trees. The general 
conclusion at once prevailed that these dead spots were the 
direct results of these weather conditions. ♦ * ♦ I am there- 
fore of the opinion that many of the trees in the Hudson River 
Valley and about Kirkville were cankered prior to the winter 
of 1902-03. The severe weather no doubt weakened the trees 
yet free from the disease, thus rendering them more susceptible 
to attack during the summer of 1903. ♦ ♦ ♦ The winter of 
1903-04 was also a severe one, and no doubt added to the sum 
of the injury already produced. To just what extent the 
winter injury in this section is responsible for the death of the 
trees is a question. In certain cases it was very evident that 
the trees had died from this cause." This statement shows that 
Whetzel recognized the importance of these winter injuries, 
though apparently he made a mistake in considering blight the 
major cause of the trouble. 

Stone, of the Massachusetts Station (Report 20, p. 123), also 
says: "In previous reports attention has been called to s(»ne 
of these troubles, more particularly to the extensive winter 
killing which caused so much injury during the winter of 
1903-04, at which time thousands of trees and shrubs were 



394 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2. 

severely affected, many having been dying slowly ever since. 
Besides the trees which are dying, there are many others whid 
are in a very much weakened condition. Numerous oaks whidi 
were injured four years ago have died during the past three 
years, and some of these not yet dead are gradually becoming 
weaker. ♦ ♦ * Mention has previously been made in onr 
reports of the condition of the red maples, many of which are 
now gradually dying, and the white and rock maples are suf- 
fering to a limited extent from the same cause." And m a 
later Report (23, p. 66) he adds : "The severe winter of 15^3-04 
was not confined to our state, as its work may be seen through- 
out the whole northeastern section of the United States, and 
in many instances large orchards were wiped out entirely." 

The so-called pine blig^ was a trouble very prominent in 
New England a few years ago, culminating in its damage in 
1907. At first some investigators, as well as gprowers, tried 
to show that this was a fungous trouble, but the investigations 
of Stone of Massachusetts, Morse of Maine, and of the writo*, 
proved that it was entirely due to unusual seasonal conditions, 
prominent among which was winter injury. Ccmceming this 
trouble, Stone (Report aa, p. 65) writes: "The present pine 
blight dates back to the winter of 1902-03, when the conditi<His 
were such as to cause much injury to vegetation in general 
The following winter, 1903-04, was even more severe in its 
effects on vegetation, and caused extensive root killing of many 
trees and shrubs. Pine, as well as other trees, in many cases 
was killed outright, but the injury to the pine was largely con- 
fined to the small roots or those less than three-sixteenths of 
an inch in diameter." Morse (Forester's Seventh Rept., Me., 
p. 24) also says: "Practically all of the so-called pine blight 
in Maine appeared in 1907 and 1908, and was coincident with 
the most destructive winter injury to fruit trees known in the 
state in the last hundred years." 

In the spring of 1907 a late frost killed the immature leava 
of the sycamore over a considerable area, as shown by von 
Schrenk and the writer. It is at this time of the year tiiat 
the anthracnose fungus begins to be prominent, and the action 
of the frost was so similar to that of the fungus that several 
investigators, who apparently were not acquainted with the 
result of this frost, later laid the trouble entirely to the fungus. 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 395 

And this has been the case with a number of investigators who 
have laid winter-injury troubles largely or entirely to the 
fung^ which later became prc»ninent on the winter-injured 
tissues. One of the first problems the writer had in G)nnecticut 
was to connect, as the cause, a Cytospora fungus found on 
cankered baric of apple trees. We did not know as much about 
winter injury then as now, and were using the agent that was 
most evident at the time of the investigation, which occurred 
some time after the winter-injured cankers were produced. 

As to the relationship of winter injury to the chestnuts 
themselves, we have this statement by Murrill (45, p. 153), when 
he first began his investigations: "It is possible that the con- 
spicuous ravages of the disease about New York City are 
lai^ely due to the severe and prolonged winter of 1903-04, in 
which many trees of various kinds were killed or injured." 
Later, Murrill seemed to have given up this idea. Stone (Report 
^3» P- 57) ^'so writes on this point: "The writer has been 
informed by one who has had some opportunity to observe 
this disease, that it appears to be less prevalent on high eleva- 
tions than in the valleys. * ♦ ♦ It is, however, quite significant 
that the Connecticut Valley region should possess such a large 
amount of infection as compared with other isections. We have 
noticed for some time that there is a diflference in the degree 
of winter killing occurring in valleys and high elevations in 
this state. By far a greater amount of winter killing of trees 
occurred in river valleys and on the lower elevations, the Con- 
necticut Valley being especially notable in this respect. It is, 
moreover, a significant coincidence that the chestnut disease 
should make its appearance at about the same time that vegeta- 
tion was so severely injured by the severe cold which occurred 
during the winter of 1903-04 all over the northeastern part of 
the United States." 

From the preceding discussion we have made it evident that 
there was a general and severe injury of trees of various kinds, 
resulting especially from the winters of 1902-03 and 1903-04 
in New England and New York. We believe that the same 
conditions would have been found true for at least New Jersey 
and eastern Pennsylvania, had observations been made there 
at that time. This winter injury took severest effect along the 



396 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2. 

Sound'^ and its contributory rivers, and was soon followed in 
all these r^ons by the outbreak of chestnut blight 

Merkel (32), just about a year after the blight was first noticed 
by him, states that 98 per cent of the trees were then a£Fected, 
and adds: 'The disease was noticed with equal frequency 
upon young specimens in the nursery, upon sprouts that had 
sprung from stumps of trees cut down the previous year, on 
young vigorous trees thirty to forty feet high standing in deep, 
rich soil, and also upon the few survivors of the primeval 
forest with trunks twelve to fourteen feet in drcumferenoe." 
Such a destructive and indiscriminate attack in a single year b 
not the history of the blight in the later infected r^ons. To 
the writer it leads to but one conclusion, namely, that in those 
regions where the blight first appeared and was most severe 
the trees had suffered severely from winter injury, as this is 
the only agent we know of that acts in such a quick and diorougli 
manner. 

Drought Injury. There are a number of observers, like Mct- 
calf and Collins, who claim that lack of moisture as affecting 
the vigor of the chestnut has nothing whatever to do with the 
spread of the blight, but that, on the other hand, it should show 
greater progress in moist seasons, since these favor ^)ore 
development and infection. This idea is also e:q>ressed in the 
following statement by Murrill (46) : "Dry summers and 
otherwise unfavorable conditions may delay the progress of 
the disease a few years, but not very long.'' If the fungus 
were a strictly parasitic species, the condition of whose host 
made no difference in its virulence, this would be true. The 
writer, however, holds that the reverse is really the truth, namely, 
that drought, by weakening the trees, has greatly increased the 
spread of the disease, and that moist years, while favoring spore 
production, increase the resistance of the trees, and therd>y really 
lessen infection. 

From 1907 to 191 1 ConnectiQUt, at least, had an unusual series 
of summers, with drought periods that caused serious damage 
to cultivated crops and forest trees in general. For trees alone, 
that of 191 1 caused the most injury, since it was not only severe 



* Hodson (28) wrote in 1908 :— "A f avoraUe feature in the situation is 
that so far the disease has done most damage in the vicinity of the sea." 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 397 

in itself, but was a culmination of a period of dry summers. 
During this dry period blight has been most conspicuous in its 
development and spread in Connecticut, ctdminating in 191 1 
with by far the most frequent complaints of damage and spread 
to new localities. Its unusual prominence in 191 1 was not con- 
fined to Connecticut, for according to Rane (57, p. 49), Met- 
calf wrote him: "During the past summer the disease has 
spread more than in all its previous history." As we have 
already stated, the winter and spring of 1912 were so wet that 
much of the depleted moisture was restored to the soil. As the 
result, the general aspect of fruit and forest trees, including 
chestnut, showed great improvement over 191 1, and along with 
this came a more or less apparent let-up in the spread and 
severity of the blight. 

The particular situation of the trees, according to our observa- 
tions, often makes a big difference in the development of this 
disease. Those on the edge of the forest, specially on the 
southern exposure, have often showed the disease first and 
most severely. Isolated clumps of sprouts in the open are very 
susceptible. Forests that have been opened up by removal of 
trees, especially if on hillsides with southern exposure, are where 
we find the blight most prominent. Also we have sometimes 
found it bad in the lowlands. All these represent conditions 
where the trees suffer most from lack of moisture under con- 
tinued severe drought. 

We have especially in mind a forest in Middlebury on a hill- 
side with southern exposure where the blight became very 
prevalent. There the trees tmquestionably suffered severely 
from lack of moisture due to the droughts and the opening up 
of the forest by the removal of diseased trees. Many of 
those left finally showed sun-scald cankers with accompanying 
development of blight, at their base on the southern exposure, 
while the protected northern sides did not. Young nursery 
trees on this hillside also developed similar sun-scald cankers 
the first summer they were set out. While this part of the 
forest was being severely injured, trees on the northern exposure 
showed very little of the blight. 

This observation agrees with the statement of Ashe (Tenn. 
Geol. Surv., 10 b, p. 11), who writes: "For many years the 
chestnut on the lower mountains in the southeastern portion of 



39^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2. 

the State has been dying out a few trees at a time, ♦ * * Trees 
in the hollows and on cool north slopes and on land where a 
moderately dense shade and soil cover exist have not been 
affected. * * * The dying off of the trees is certainly not 
due to the chestnut baric disease." Local conditions such as 
outcrop of rocks, depth and character of soil, water taUc, 
presence of streams, exposure, etc., are all factors in the r^iila- 
tion of soil moisture,* and are not always easily determined by 
superficial examination. We do know that the blight often 
acts quite differently with these conditions varying in the same 
vicinity. 

It is often hard to distinguish drought injury from winter 
injury, as trees that have suffered from severe droughts with- 
out much outward evidence of the trouble often succumb dur- 
ing the following winter, and winter injury is given the entire 
blame. This was well illustrated after the drought of 1911, 
by a number of fine large chestnut trees on the Experiment 
Station grounds. The drought of 191 1, following the pre- 
ceding dry years, was very hard on certain of these trees, as 
the rock in spots comes very close to the surface. The result 
was that, following the winter of 1911-12 they were seen to 
be very badly injured at their base, the dead bark in some cases 
almost entirely encircling the trees. On one tree this dead bark 
ran up the side for a considerable distance. A little of the 
blight fungus showed on these injured areas shortly afterward, 
but it was entirely a secondary factor. 

There can be no question whatever that these droughts have 
injured various trees; and there is no getting around the fact 
that the blight has been more prevalent because of these 
droughts, and seems to have gotten the credit for injury to the 
chestnuts that is in part due to the droughts. Most persons 
admit that drought has injured and killed many trees other 
than the chestnut, yet are reluctant to concede that anything 
but the blight is responsible for the death of the latter. The 
injury by drought is well illustrated by the death of trees in 



* We understand that, due to the installation of a large water reservoir 
in the southwestern part of Long Island, the water table of the surround- 
ing region has been lowered considerably. This in turn has severely 
affected the forest trees, among which are many chestnuts. The bligfat ii 
quite bad fai this region. 



CHBSTNUT BARK DISEASE. 399 

East Rock Park, New Haven. This rock rises to a considerable 
height above the surrounding country, and the soil in many 
I^aoes is quite shallow, so that the trees have suffered severely 
from lack of moisture during the dry years. The chestnut has 
suffered with the other trees, and the blight has developed con- 
spicuously, killing many of them. Superintendent Amrhyn 
furnishes us with the following list of dead and dying trees 
that were found in this park in 1910. 

"I herewith enclose a list of dead trees found in the East 
Rock Park forests in an inspection made during the month of 
August, 1910. You will find the largest percentage of ttiem 
to be chestnut and hemlock. The first were not all dead, but 
were severely affected by the blight. The hemlocks are all 
dead, but a few of them have been in that state for two or 
three years, while all affected or dead chestnuts were cut down 
last winter. 

Chestnut i^ Hickory 75 Beech 15 

Hemlock 494 Maples 48 Elm 10 

Oaks 271 Walnut 44 Linden 7 

Birch loi Wild cherry ... 24 Locust 4 

Cedar loi Ash 23 Sassafras 3 

Carpinus 84 Pines 17 Apple 2 

"I think that a very large percentage of these trees, 2,685, 
have died on account of the grtBt dryness which has existed 
for about three years, changing conditions ever so much for 
the root systems of the trees." 

Other investigators have admitted the connection between 
drought injury and blight infection, or at least the possibility 
of such connection, as shown by the following quotations: 

Stone (Rept. 23, p. 57) says : "Our observations on the effects 
of meteorological conditions on vegetation, and the unusual 
opportunities we have had to study shade tree conditions for 
some years, have brought to our attention the unusually large 
amount of dead wood found on chestnut trees the past four 
or five years. From what we have seen of the chestnut during 
this period, we are of the opinion that it has not been in the 
best condition during late years, and that the chestnut, like the 
native white and black oaks, elms, red and rock maples, ash, 
etc., has been more or less affected by the severe cold and 
droughts of late years." A year later he writes further (Rept. 



400 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

24» P- 78) : **Like the preceding one, the past summer [191 1] 
has been exceptionally dry, and the heat has been intense at 
times. This drought, coming as it did after three or four 
previous dry seasons, has affected vegetation to a considerable 
extent, and will result in later injury, especially to trees." 

Rane (54, p. 152) said: "The disease was worse where 
thinnings had been made and a few trees allowed to stand 
1>ecause they were not large enough to cut into ties. These 
forests were unbalanced, and the air and sun allowed to get 
in. The blight was on the southern side; the cankers showed 
up Jargely there, but in the stands where we had normal condi- 
tions we found only a diseased tree once in a while." 

Rankin (60, p. 47), in speaking of the relation of chestnut 
blight to drought, says : "Preliminary investigations carried on 
by the speaker seem to point to the fact that the susceptibility 
of the chestnut tree to this fungus depends upon drought con- 
ditions ; that is, a low water content in the tree. * * * If the 
results of Doctor Moench on the cause of susceptibility and 
immunity of forest trees to disease should prove true in Ac 
case of this disease also, we may hope to be able to control die 
bark disease in shade, lawn and park trees by keeping up the 
water content of the tree." 

Dr. Caroline Rumbold (63, p. 57) states: "As for water, 
there is the question, as to whether or not droughts of recent 
years are partially responsible for the spread of the disease 
in the chestnut tree. I am now conducting experiments in 
which chestnut trees are being exposed to infection under vary- 
ing conditions, from dryness to excessive moisture, both atmos- 
pheric and soil These experiments may also throw some 
light on the report that the blight spreads rapidly where trees 
are in a crowded coppice, while trees growing cm the ridge of 
a hill are unaffected." 

Fire Injury. Not only the writer, but other members of the 
Station staff, have repeatedly noticed the blight on trees injured 
by forest fires. Examination of the r^on has usually shown 
that the blight was much worse on the trees within the fire 
area than on those beyond it. This fungus, in the writer's 
opinion, has not developed merely because of mechanical injury 
to the tissues, but rather because of lowered vitality of the 
inner bark and cambium. S. W. Eddy of Avon, in Mardi, 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 40I 

191 2, sent US specimens of the blight, and wrote: *'We are 
enclosing you sample of what we think is the chestnut blight. As 
about 50 per cent of the trees that were burned by forest fires 
last spring are covered with this growth^ we desire very much 
to learn whether or not this is the blight" Mr. Eddy^ in Feb- 
ruary of the following year, reported that he found tiie fungus 
abundant on the cut wood and fire-injured trees, but scarce on 
the perfectly healthy ones. 

Others have noticed this relationship of blight to fire injury, 
as shown by the following quotations. Rane (54, p. 152) says: 
"There is an unbalanced condition again where forest fires 
have run through the state year after year^ and the trees are 
abnormal, and only half alive anyway. There you find the 
disease seems to travel more rapidly than it does where the 
trees are under normal conditions, and have a forest floor where 
there is plenty of moisture and the conditions are more favor* 
aWe." Buttrick, in a paper on the eflfects of forest fires on 
the trees (Forestry Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 2), also remarks: 
"Diaporthe parasitica, chestnut bark ftmgus, seems to be more 
abundant and severe on fire-injured trees." 

Sprouts versus Seedlings. Much of the chestnut of Con- 
necticut has been cut over two or three times, being renewed 
by sprout growth. This repeated cutting has occurred not only 
in Connecticut, and in the greater part of New England, but in 
the chestnut forests of New Jersey, Delaware, and the eastern 
parts of New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland. It is generally 
admitted that this treatment has reduced the vitality of the 
coppice growth, as shown by the following quotation from R. 
Zon on the chestnut in soutiiem Maryland (U. S. Dept Agr. 
Bur. For. Bull. 53, p. 29) : "It must not be forgotten, however, 
that a chestnut stump cannot go on coppicing forever. With 
each new generation of sprouts, the stump becomes more and 
more weakened, and hence gradually loses its capacity to pro- 
duce healthy and vigorous sprouts. Although it is impossible 
to state with certainty how many generations of chestnut can 
be raised from the same stock without impairing the vitality 
of the sprouts, the effects of repeated and bad coppicing mani- 
fest themselves in the increasing number of dying chestnuts all 
over Maryland. The immediate cause of their death can nearly 
^ways be traced to attacks of either insects or fungi, yet the 



40a CONNECTICUT EXPERIBCSNT STATION REPORT, I912. 

prime reason is their decreased vitality, which makes them easj 
prey to their natural enemies." 

If the chestiiut blight has no relation to the age or vigor of 
the tree, it is certainly a curious comddence diat the Uigfat 
makes its first appearance and causes its greatest danu^e in the 
regions where the chestnut has suffered most from repeated 
cutting over. This is indicated by the two f ollowii^ statements. 

Nellis, of the United States Forest Service, in an unpublished 
working plan on "Utilization of Blight-killed Chestncrt,'' writes: 
"It is expected that this study will show that the present range 
of the chestnut bark disease is in a region of entirely second- 
growth chestnut, which has been culled of its most valuable 
timber, where only rough products are now being produced," 

Barrus, of New York (S4, p. i6o), says: "In those sections 
of New York state where the chestnut disease is present most 
of the marketable timber has been cut out Fire has gone 
through the remainder, and as a result, there is a great majority 
of the chestnut which is sprout growth of small dimensicnis. 
I should estimate that one-fifth of the chestnut is of merchant- 
able size, and perhaps in the districts where tfie disease is, more 
than four-fifths is under merchantable size." 

It has been our experience that young, especially isolated 
coppice growth, has suffered first and most sevcrdy in Con- 
necticut. We believe that these sprouts are naturally weak 
and easily killed by drought, etc. On the other hand, very 
large seedling trees have been the last to go with tfie blight 
We noticed also, in our inoculation work, that it was somewhat 
easier to infect sprout growth than young seedling trees, and 
that the cankers on sprouts developed more rapidly. 

In June, 1912, we examined a fidd where the Ansonia Water 
Company had planted about seven bushels of chestnuts in 1908, 
in 1909 had set out 6,900 one-year seedlings, and in 1910, 
9*875 two-year seedlings. While many of these seedlings had 
been killed by drought soon after they were set out, as shown 
by the vacant places, we were able to find only two seedlings 
that showed any signs of the blight fungus. Yet the. woods 
surrotmding these trees were quite badly infected with the 
blight. 

At one of the Connecticut nurseries, however, in September, 
191 1, we inspected about tfiree hundred five-year-old American 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 403 

seedling chestnuts which had been transplanted when one year 
old, and found 46 per cent, mfected with the blight, which had 
been present there at least two years, and probably started at 
the time of transplanting. The roots of these plants, when 
examined, were in good condition. We had the superintendent 
cut off all the diseased trees in one row (sixty-nine), and in 
February, 191 3, the sprouts that had come from these showed 
only cme that was plainly infected with blight, although they 
were exposed to the blight from infected seedlings that had not 
been removed. The first-year sprouts from old stumps also 
rarely show infection. According to our infection experiments, 
it usually takes only a month for the canker to show after 
inoculation, so these one-year-old sprouts had time to show the 
disease if they were infected. We beHeve the old, well-estab- 
lished roots produced unusually vigorous sprouts, which for 
the time being, at least, escaped infection. 

Vitality versus Chemical Activity, We believe that favorable 
or unfavorable climatic conditions for a plant are recorded 
through chemical activities concerned with its growth and 
vigor, and that a lessening of this chemical activity might with 
some plants be shown by lessened resistance to fungous attack. 
The following few references show the relationship of environ- 
ment on chemical activities of certain plants. 

Hasselbring (Bot Gaz. 53, p. 120) says: "It is true, of 
course, that plants are modified in their fluctuating characteristics 
by changes in the environment, but so far as experimental 
evidence shows, such modifications persist only as long as the 
environment inducing them persists. LeQerc and Leavitt, in 
their work with wheat, showed that this influence of the environ- 
ment is exerted also on the chemical composition of plants. 
When wheat of one variety from one locality was g^rown in other 
localities with a widely different environment, the chemical 
composition of the g^in was different in each locality. These 
differences persisted as long as the wheat was grown in the 
particular locality, but if at any time seed from one locality 
was grown in any of the others, the grain took on the composi- 
tion of the wheat constantly grown in those localities. 

Vasey (U. S. Dept Agr. Rept. 187a, p. 171) menticms a case 
where the alkaloids of cinchona bark were decreased by unfavor- 
able climatic conditions in the case of plants grown in England 



404 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPOET, I912. 

as compared with plants grown in Peru. Yet when i^ants from 
England were sent to India, their vigor was, restored, and an 
increase of the alkaloids was shown by dtemical anafysis, 
especially in the descendants of plants sent there. 

McKoiney (Science 31, p. 750) writes concerning the blight 
of Central American bananas: "The juice of diseased plants 
contains much less tannin than that of the normal plants. * * * 
It has been proved that the disease is not due to local conditions, 
such as too wet or too dry soil, etc Yet some of these ccm- 
ditions may predispose the plants to the disease.'' He does 
not say whether the lessened tannic acid is the result of the 
disease or vice versa. 

Tannic Acid and its Relationship to Chestnut Blight. The 
chestnut as a source of tannin is one of our most important 
trees. However, it seems that most of this tannin is made 
from the chestnuts in the South, although they are utilized as 
far north as Pennsylvania. The reason for this is that the 
chestnuts in the South furnish a greater percentage of tannin 
than those in the North. At least one cause for this seems to 
be that the older the trees the greater the percentage of tannic 
add, since the tannin is made from the ground wood and 
apparently comes largely from the cJder wood. As a rule, the 
chestnuts of the South are much older than those of the Nor^ 
and are more likely to be seedlings. As yet the chestnut bUgfat 
has not caused much harm in the South. Whether or not the 
present of more tannic add in the trees there has any rela- 
tionship to the absence of the blight is as yet uncertain, but 
there is a possibility of its having a direct bearing. 

In answer to a question regarding variation of tannic add 
in chestnut trees, Mr. F. Veitch, of the Leather and Paper 
Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
writes me as follows: "I have your letter of the iith inst 
asking for the tannin content of chestnut wood. This differs 
all the way from 2 per cent, to as high as 10 or 12 per cent in 
very old, dry chestnut. The chestnut wood used by extract 
makers probably averages around 6 per cent, of tannin. I can 
make no more definite statement regarding the tannin content 
of any particular chestnut than to say that yoimg chestnut as 
a rule contains the least, while the old chestnut contains Ae 
highest percentage of tannin. Only the body and large limbs 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 4^5 

of the tree without the bark are used in the making of tannin 
extracts." 

W. M. Benson (54, p. 229) makes a statement regarding 
chestnut trees grown on different soils which, if true, possibly 
explains why, in very dry years, the trees suffer more frcmi 
the blight than in wet ones, since there may be some relation 
between the amount of moisture and lime taken in by the roots 
and tannin produced in the tree. He says: "The chestnut 
wood received at the extract factories was at first supposed to 
be all alike in tannin strength, but costly experience proved 
that wood from good strong lime shale or limestone lands 
is far richer in tannin than wood from soils that are rocky, 
sterile, and contain little lime. The difference is so marked 
that even the workmen in the leach house at extract plants can 
tell when wood from a lime shale or limestone region is being 
leached simply by the unusual increase in the strength of the 
liquid obtained from such wood. Chemical analyses proved the 
same thing beyond all question, that in order for chestnut 
timber to attain its full tannin strength it must grow on lime- 
stone or lime shale soil." 

The part that tannin plays in the economy of plants is not 
very definitely known. It has generally been supposed to be 
largely a waste product, which serves more or less as a pro- 
tective agent against animal and fungus attack. Some few 
writers have raised the question whether or not it might serve 
some use in the physiological activities of the plant, possibly in 
the way of food. 

For instance, Pfeffer (Physiol, of Plants, i, p. 491-3) says: 
'Tungi can assimilate many aromatic bodies such ^ tannin, 
resordn, hydroquinone, phlorog^ucin, etc., but except in the 
case of quinic acid most of these afford very poor food 
materials. * * * Tannins, phloroglucin, and apparently all 
aromatic substances which acctunulate to any extent, are con- 
tained in solution in the cell sap, so that their presence does 
not injuriously affect the protoplast. ♦ * * Tannins and 
glucosides are undoubtedly produced for definite purposes, 
and are not mere by-products produced under all circumstances. 
* * * In spite of numerous recent researches, but little is 
known as to the function of tannin." 
26 



406 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Barnes (Textbook of Botany, i, p. 414) says concerning this 
subject: "Some substances, including the loose term tannin, 
are glucosides, and such as can be made to yield glucose by 
digestion may be considered as plastic substances rather dian 
wastes." Stevens (Plant Anat, p. 205) also states: "Tannins 
seem to be by-products, set aside in the tannin cells from the 
general circulation. It is uncertain whether the tannins are 
ever used to an appreciable extent in nutrition. They seem to 
be of service, however, in warding off parasites by their aseptic 
qualities and astringent taste/* 

Cook (Delaware Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 91, p. 59), who studied 
the effect of tannic acid on different species of fungi in 
artificial cultures, sa3rs in his general summary: "It aK)cars 
that tannin is an important factor, and that its importance varies 
in accordance with the other substances with which it is 
associated in the cells of the host plant. While tannin no doubt 
serves as a protective agent, its efficiency in this direction will 
vary somewhat with the character of the other substances within 
the cell. This may account for the variation in power of 
resistance between species, varieties, and individual plants. The 
fact that plants which produce large quantities of tannin are 
subject to disease is no argument against the preceding. The 
organism may live in tissues which bear little or no tannin, or 
which contain other substances that in a measure counteract 
the influence of the tannin. Furthermore, some species of fungi 
are much more resistant to tannin than are others, and the species 
which attack these high tannin-bearing plants no doubt possess 
this quality." 

To the writer it has occurred that possibly tannin may serve 
as an unusual source of food for certain trees rich in this 
product under unfavorable conditions for active formation of 
their normal food supply, such as drought years, and that such a 
use would lessen the supply of tannin laid down in the annual 
growth of wood formed in these years. Or possibly if not 
used for food, these unusual conditions do not favor its normal 
production. In any case, if tarniin content bears a relation to 
the blight disease, it is not the tannin of the whole tree that 
counts so much as the tannin of the bark and wood of that 
year's growth. If it bears any relation to the chemical activity 
of the tree, we can readily see that it could easily vary from 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 407 

year to year according to external conditions more or less 
favorable for its production. 

In our tannic acid culture work with the true chestnut blight 
and its close ally, Endothia gyrosa, reported in detail later on, 
we found: (i) Both fungi can use tannic acid, at least in 
small amounts, as food, — shown by the blackening of media 
through oxidation, loss of acidity, more luxuriant growth, with 
a low i>er cent, of the acid added, than without it, and a slight 
growth on agar-agar with tannic acid as the available source 
of food. (2) Higher percentages of tannic acid (four per 
cent, and above) are detrimental to a vigorous growth of 
either of these fungi, and finally (lo to 14 per cent.) entirely 
inhibit their growth. But with the true blight the tolerance 
is apparently greater by 2 to 4 per cent, than that of the 
saprophytic E. gyrosa. (3) Long-continued cultivation of the 
parasitic variety in artificial cultures without tannic acid prob- 
ably lowers its tolerance to the higher percentages of tannic 
acid. (4) Gradually passing these fungi in cultures from the 
lower to the higher percentages of tannic acid apparently 
raises their tolerance to it. 

From the results of these cultural experiments and what we 
have been able to learn about tannic acid in the chestnut, we 
reason that the true chestnut blight is better able to become an 
active parasite on chestnut trees than the Endothia gyrosa. Any 
cause that would lower the tannic acid, etc., content of the 
trees would allow it to develop into a more vigorous para- 
site, and its gradual tolerance to this higher percentage of 
tannic acid would give it an added virulence up to a certain 
extent. With the return of the tannic acid, etc., content of 
the tree above this limit of tolerance, the fungus would gfradu- 
ally revert to a less virulent and finally to even an inconspicuous 
parasite. 

PREVIOUS CHESTNUT TROUBLES. 

Nature of the Troubles. It is well known tfiat in times past 
the chestnut trees in this coimtry have suflFered severely in cer- 
tain districts, particularly in the South, in some cases being 
practically exterminated, so that their range is now consider- 
ably lessened from what it was originally. Strangely enough, 
no one has surely accounted for any of these devastations. 



4o8 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Personally we believe that this tree is extremely susceptible to 
changes in the natural environment, and that such changes, with 
water playing an important part, have been the chief factors 
back of the gradual decline of this important forest tree. Other 
factors, such as forest fires, deterioration through repeated 
cuttings, insect and fungus attacks, are contributing causes 
varjring in different localities. 

The question naturally arises, has the blight fungus had 
anything to do with these previous troubles of the chestnut? 
As no one ever made a careful study of them at the time, it 
is impossible to state whether or not the blight was connected 
with them. One thing is certain, and that is that the saim)- 
ph)rtic Endothia gyrosa is so generally scattered over the South 
to-day that there is no doubt it occurred in the regions where 
these chestnut troubles existed. It seems almost equally certain 
that the real chestnut blight does not to-day occur in those r^ons, 
or if it does, it is very inconspicuous. This would seem to indicate 
that if the blight had anything to do with these troubles in 
the past it was not able afterwards to exist there, but gradu- 
ally extended northward. When one reads the accounts of the 
outbreaks, he can easily imagine that the trouble might be due 
to the bKght fungus. We give here, arranged according to the 
time of their occurrence, some references to these troubles. 

i82$-45. We quote the following from an article by Mr. 
Jones of Georgia, which appeared in the American Journal of 
Science, Vol. i, p. 450, in 1846: "The present remarks are 
particularly directed to the death and disappearance of some 
of our trees and shrubs. The first that I will mention is the 
Castanea pumila, which is a tree from ten to thirty feet in 
height. In the year 1825, during the months from June to 
September, I observed this tree dying when in full leaf, and 
with fruit half matured. I examined numerous individuals, 
and could find no internal cause for their d)ring. I at first 
attributed it to the great fall of rain which took place in the 
year 1823. During the month of July of that year a consider- 
able quantity of land not subject to overflow was covered wiA 
water for some time, and the highest lands were completdy 
saturated. The latter part of 1824 was also very rainy. Know- 
ing that this tree, belongs in our highest and dryest soils, I con- 
cluded it was owing to a too moist state of the ground, hot 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 409 

since that time I am convinced that there must be some other 
cause, for the tree continues still to die up to the year 1845, 
and if the disease is not arrested, in a few years I fear it will 
be entirely exterminated/* 

18J56, Following is a letter from Professor G. W. Hilgard, 
received October 25, 1909 (similar observations by him have 
been recorded by Dr. Rumbold in Science, Vol. 34, p. 917) : 
"Your paper on the chestnut disease in New England reminds 
me of some old observations of mine made in the state of 
Mississippi in 1856. Traveling in the pine hills of northeastern 
Mississippi, I noted that of the small percentage of chestnut 
trees among the pines only a few were living, the great 
majority, mostly very large, tall trees, dead and decaying. On 
inquiry of the inhabitants, I found that this deadening had 
occurred lately, and they were at a loss to account for it. To 
my que^on why so many were charred at the base, the reply 
was that when the boys wanted to make a fire for nooning, 
they made it against these trees because they burned easily. 
The trees had not been killed in that way, but had died 'of 
their own account.' No other kind of trees seemed to be 
diseased. It was distinctly a dying off of the chestnut alone, 
and it extended far into Alabama. It would be interesting to 
know whether the results of that epidemic have been permanent, 
or whether a new g^rowth has come since the time I saw it. If 
the Diaporthe* disease existed in Mississippi, the presiunption is 
that it extends or extended all along the western Alleghany 
slopes, and has perhaps reached the Atlantic Coast only recently." 

1856, This note in^ts found in The Horticulturist, 1856, p. 97 : 
"All the chestnut trees throughout Rockingham County, North 
Carolina, and the surrounding counties have died this season," 

^^55'75' The following references are taken from an article 
on Statistics of Forestry in the U. S. Dept. Agr., 1875, p. 262, 
and are concerning chestnuts in the southern belt: "In several 
localities chestnut for some undiscovered reason appears to be 
dying out." Under notes on forestry conditions in Henry 
County, Va., is the following statement: "Chestnut has been 
dying out for years, and there are fears that it will become 
extinct" Concerning Elbert County, Ga., is the following: 
"The forests are a mixture of almost all kinds, but chestnut 
during the last twenty years has nearly died out." Under 



4IO CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Carroll County, the same state, is the statement: 'The forests 
contained a large quantity of chestnut, which began to die about 
ten years ago, and now scarcely a tree is left. Even the bushes 
are nearly all dead, though no insect or worm or other cause 
affecting them has been discovered." From Hall County also 
it is said: "Until within a few years chestnut abounded, but 
now nearly every tree is dead or dying." And from Walton 
County: "The chestnut has all died." 

1847-77. Under Diseases of Chestnut, p. ii6, A. S. Fuller, 
in The Nut Culturist, published in 1896, writes: "I have never 
noticed any special disease among chestnuts, neither do I find 
any mentioned in European books on forestry. The nearest 
approach to any such malady being recorded as having appeared 
in this country, is found in a paragraph in Hough's Report on 
Forestry, 1877, page 470, where the author copies from Pro- 
fessor W. C. Kerr, state geologist of North Carolina, as 
follows : 'The chestnut was formerly abundant in the Piedmont 
r^^n down to the country between the Catawba and Yadkin 
rivers, but within the last Airty years they have mostly perished. 
They are now found east of the Blue Ridge only, on higher 
ridges and spurs of the mountains. They have suffered injury 
here, and are dying out both here and beyond the Blue Ridge. 
They are much less fruitful than they were a generation ago, 
and the crop is much more uncertain.* While there is nothing 
said about chestnut disease in the paragraph quoted, we only 
infer that the author intended to convey the idea that the trees 
were suffering from some endemic malady, although it may 
have been due to long droughts, insect depredators, or other 
causes. A few years later Mr. Hough, in his Elements of 
Forestry, refers to the subject again, and admits that 'the cause 
of the malady is unknown.' But as the chestnuts continue to 
come to our market in vast quantities from the Piedmont 
regions, there must be a goodly number of healthy trees 
remaining." 

1889. On this date, P. H. Mell, in the Ala. Exp. Stat. Bull 
3, p. 16, says: "The trees [chestnut] of this state seem to be 
subject to a blight, or some destructive disease that is rapidly 
destro)ring them. This is particularly true when other trees 
are cut aroimd them. This subject is worthy- of careful investi- 
gation, and will be a problem for the experiment station to 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 41I 

solve in the future." Recently writing to Professor Mell 
regarding this trouble, he replied: "In reference to Bulletin 3 
of the Alabama Experiment Station in regard to the disease 
which attacked the chestnut trees in Alabama during 1889, I 
do not think investigation was ever carefully carried out." 
Atkinson, former, and Wolf, present botanist, at the Auburn 
Station are unable to throw any additional light on this trouble. 

i8p4. G. McCarthy, in N. Car. Exp. Stat. Bull. 105, p. 267, 
says concerning chestnut in this state: "The woodman's axe, 
casual fires, and the ravages of the root disease, have wrought 
much havoc with these grand forests." 

—1896. W. P. Corsa, in Nut Culture in the United States, 
a special report of the U. S. Dept. Agfr., Div. Pom., published 
in 1896, p. 78, writes : "From causes not well understood, there 
is a marked decline in the vigor of the chestnut throughout the 
broad area of territory in the Southern States where the white 
man found this tree among the most thrifty of the original 
forests. Down to the first quarter of the present century there 
seems to have been no mention of a trouble in the chestnuts 
of that section. Within the memory of residents of the Gulf 
States the chestnut flourished in all their higher lands. In 
point of time the trouble seems to have begun in the mbst 
southern limit of chestnut growth, and there the destruction 
has been most complete. It has pushed its encroachments 
throughout Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina, 
and is now reported in the strongholds of chestnut growth in 
North Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia. Observation of the 
native chestnut growth of Maryland and Virginia discloses the 
fact that many trees are dying without apparent cause. In 
some sections this is attributed to the ravages of insects. 
In others, to an unknown disease resembling blight. There 
is need for a more thorough investigation of this subject than 
has yet been made. No injury to the Japanese or European 
chestnut planted in this country is yet reported." 

— igoi. Dr. Mohr, in Plant Life of Alabama, published by 
the U. S. Dept. of Agr., Div. Bot, in 1901, page 61, states: 
"The chestnut, usually one of the most frequent trees of these 
forests, is at present rarely found in perfection. The older trees 
mostly show signs of decay, and the seedlings, as well as the 
coppice growth proceeding from the stumps, are more or less 



41 a CONNECTICUT EXFERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Stunted. It is asserted by the old settlers that this tree is dying 
out all over the mountainous regions, where at the beginning of 
the second half of the century it was still abundant and in per- 
fection." 

— 1911. W. W. Ashe, in Chestnut in Tennessee, Tenn. GeoL 
Surv. Bull. 10 B, p. II, remarks: 'Tor many years the chestnut 
in lower mountains in the southeastern portion of the state has 
been Aymg out a few trees at a time. * * * The dying off of 
the trees is certainly not due to the chestnut bark disease, a very 
destructive malady from Virginia to southern New England, 
no evidence of which was seen in Tennessee." 

— 191 2. Dr. Hopkins (54, p. 180), of the United States 
Dept. of Agriculture, who has recently been making a study of the 
relationship of insects to the death of chestnut trees in the 
South, states: "When we review the histdcy of the extensive 
dying of chestnut during the past half century in Mississippi, 
Tennessee, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Vir- 
ginia, it is surprising that there are any living trees left. In 
fact, there are not many left in some sections of these states, 
where the tree was abundant and healthy fifty years ago. It 
appears that there are a number of agencies of destruction other 
thdn the new chestnut blight disease, and that these agencies have 
been in operation in the area affected by the disease as well as 
in areas where this disease is not known to occur. Therefore, 
they must be taken into consideration and investigated before 
the problem of protecting the chestnuts can be solved. There 
appear to be other diseases, and we know that there are insects 
which have been directly or indirectly the cause of the death of 
a large percentage of the chestnuts over extensive areas." 

— 1913, Professor H. R. Fulton, of the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, West Raleigh, N. C, under date of January 29, 
I9I3> writes: "Throughout the whole Piedmont section of this 
state, just as in the corresponding section of Virginia and further 
south, the chestnut trees are in an imthrifty condition. This 
is probably due to a combination of factors. Changes in soil 
conditions due to a clearing up of extensive areas probably play 
a part. Trees are evidently attacked to a considerable extent 
by borers and other insects. Fire injury has in many instances 
had something to do with the situation. Our preliminary survey 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 413 

of the field has not disclosed any fungous disease that seems 
to be importantly connected with the condition of the trees." 

NATIVE HOME OF THE FUNGUS. 

General Considerations. Previous to the work of Merkel and 
Murrill, no one had ever, so far as known, collected or 
described the true chestnut blight fungus. Its sudden and 
destructive appearance naturally leads to the question, — Where 
did it come from? Murrill has not tried to solve this problem, 
although we understand he at first believed it to be a native 
species. The writer is the only one who, claiming it a native 
species, has attempted to give definite reasons for the belief, 
and an explanation of its sudden and aggressive development. 
Others have come forward with the suggestion that it is an 
introduced parasite, brought in accidentally, either from Japan 
or Europe. They have been led to their belief apparently 
largely because the blight was reported at first from a restricted 
region around New York City, and has apparently since then 
spread from this center into the regions in which it is now 
known. We shall consider in the follpwing paragraphs each 
of these possible habitats for this fungus. 

Japan. Metcalf has suggested most definitely that the fungus 
originally came from Japan, and Marlatt (31), following this 
suggestion, gives the blight as one of the most striking examples 
of "why we need a national law to prevent the importation 
of insect-infested and diseased plants." Metcalf 's (33, p. 4) 
first statement concerning the native home of this fungus is as 
follows: "The immunity of the Japanese chestnut, together 
with the fact that it was first introduced and cultivated on 
Long Island and in the very locality from which the disease 
appears to have spread, suggests the interesting h)rpothesis that 
the disease was introduced from Japan. So far, however, no 
facts have been adduced to substantiate this view." Later, 
Metcalf and Collins (36, p. 46) say: "Investigations are in 
progress to determine the origin of the bark disease in America, 
and the details regarding its spread. The theory advanced in 
the previous publication of this Bureau that the Japanese chest- 
nuts were the original source of infection has been strengthened 
by many facts. It lacks much of demonstration, however, and 



414 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

is still advanced only tentatively. * * * Chester's Cytospora 
on a Japanese chestnut noted at Newark, Del., in 1902, may 
have been the bark disease." 

Recentiy Metcalf (35, p. 222) remarks: "Its origin is 
unknown, but there is some evidence that it was imported from 
the Orient." Later, in answer to a direct question as to its 
origin, he adds (p. 227) : "That is exactly what we would like 
to know more about. The fact that the disease has obviously 
spread from a center leads me to believe that it is an importation 
rather than a disease which has developed here. The fact 
that the locality from which it has spread is the same locality 
into which the Japanese chestnut was first extensively intro- 
duced, that the Japanese and Corean chestnuts are highly 
resistant, and are the only varieties that are at all resistant, all 
suggest the hypothesis that the fungus parasite may have come 
from the Orient. However, the origin of the parasite is not 
a matter of practical importance, unless it could be shown that 
the fungus parasite is developing spontaneously in many locali- 
ties from some native saprophytic form, in which case the 
difficulties of control would be gfreatly increased." 

In the preceding, Metcalf brings out four points in favor of 
the Japanese origin of the fungus, as follows: (i) Immunity 
of Japanese and Corean chestnuts; (2) Outbreak of disease 
originally in Long Island, where Japanese chestnuts were first 
imported; (3) Spread of the disease from a single center; 
(4) Possibility of Chester's Cytospora on Japanese chestnut 
being the blight fungus. Let us take up these four points for 
further consideration. 

(i) The immunity of Japanese chestnut does not necessarily 
mean that this fungus occurred on it in Japan, and when brought 
to America spread to the American chestnut, and, finding it a more 
favorable host, caused the serious outbreak here, as Metcalf 
suggests. It may merely mean that the Japanese is a more 
hardy species. From the statements of Morris (13, p. 43) we 
take it that this is the case, since it is only the Japanese or Corean 
varieties from the more northern regions that show this resist- 
ance. Recentiy it has been found that the Japanese chestnut 
is highly resistant to the black canker, a serious chestnut disease 
now causing trouble in France. Arguing along Metcalf 's theory, 
one could say that this French fungus was of probable Jalpanese 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 4^5 

origin, which no one claims, so far as we know. Again, neither 
the chestnut blight fungus nor the closely related Endothia 
gyrosa has ever been reported from Japan, so far as the writer 
has been able to learn. In order to look into this matter a little 
more thoroughly, we wrote to three of the leading Japanese 
mycologists on this point. None of them could g^ve us any 
information of the occurrence of these fungi there, or of any 
serious chestnut trouble that could be attributed to them. One 
of them naively answered: "Some botanists in your country 
seem to entertain the opinion that this chestnut blight fung^ is 
of Japanese origin, — an apparently plausible opinion in accord- 
ance with a popular belief in certain quarters of your country that 
things obnoxious come from the other side of the Pacific. Let 
us see whether the words of these chestnut prophets prove to 
be the fact or not." 

(2, 3) We have attempted, under the head "Manner of Dis- 
tribution," to show that this disease did not originate in one 
locality, where first reported, and that its spread has not been 
from a single, but from many centers. 

(4) Regarding Chester's C3rtospora on Japanese chestnut, we 
can say definitely that this was not the blight fungus. We are 
indebted to the Delaware Experiment Station for the cq)portunity 
of examining the herbarium specimen of this, and we find that 
it is an entirely different fungus, being similar to a Phoma-like 
fungus not uncommon on dead and d3ang chestnut sprouts. 

Europe, While Farlow (20, p. 70) was one of the first to 
call attention to the very close relationship, if not exact identity, 
of our chestnut blight with Endothia gyrosa as found in Europe, 
he has made no claim that the disease was introduced into this 
country from Europe. He merely asks, "Is Diaporthe para- 
sitica, as at first supposed, really a species new to science? If 
so, is it a native species which has hitherto escaped the notice 
of all mycologists, or has it been introduced from some other 
country?" One can infer from his article, however, that if the 
fungus was proved to be an imported one he would favor Europe 
rather than Japan as being its native home. 

Shear (65, p. 212), however, conies out with a more definite 
statement as regards the European origin of the fungus, as 
follows: "As a result of our studies to date, we are of the 
opinion that Diaporthe parasitica Murr. is the same as Endothia 



4l6 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

radicalis of European authors, but not of Schweinitz, and &at 
it was probably introduced into this country from Europe, and 
has gradually spread from the original points of introductioii, 
its spread being facilitated chiefly by borers or other animal 
agencies which produced wounds favorable for infection by the 
fungus." 

Shear's reason for supposing that the chestnut blight was 
imported from Europe was that Endothia gyrosa occurred on 
chestnut there, and he could not distinguish the American chest- 
nut blight from this fungus. He, however, apparently did not 
know that E. gyrosa (E. radicalis of some European authors) 
also occurred on chestnut in this country. Further, he (66) was 
misled by an incorrectly named culture received from Pantandli 
(supposed to be of European origin but later turning out to be 
the real blight from America) with which he produced the 
disease in chestnuts. 

Pantanelli (53) of Italy, who has recently made a study of 
the European Endothicrgyrosa and the American chestnut blight, 
finds (i) that they are different in many small microscopic char- 
acters; (2) that, while E. gyrosa varies somewhat in character 
in Europe, there are no variations that correspond to the chestnut 
blight type; (3) that the native E. gyrosa causes no serious 
disease in Europe*; (4) that the American chestnut blight, when 
inoculated into chestnut in Italy, produces the disease. Natur- 
ally he concludes that our chestnut blight cannot be of European 
origin. 

To the above we might add the fact that European chestnut 
grown in this country is qtiite susceptible to the blight, and it 
would be rather difficult to explain its susceptibility in this coun- 
try and its immunity to the native fungus there, unless environ- 
ment really did bear some relationship to susceptibility and 
immunity of the host, which is denied by Metcalf . 

United States. The writer's reasons for believing the chestnut 
blight is native to this country may be summarized as follows: 
(i) It has never been found in any other coimtry. (2) It is 
very closely related to Endothia gyrosa, apparently developing 
from it as a distinct variety, and this species is a native fungus 
in this country as well as in Europe. (3) The limits of distribu- 
tion of £. gyrosa and the chestnut blight overlap at least in the 
region covered by Washington, D. C, to southern Pennsylvania, 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 417 

while £. gyrosa occurs south of this common area and the chest- 
nut blight north of it. (4) We have previously had serious 
troubles of chestnut trees in this country, and there seems to have 
been a continued northward movement of these, culminating in 
the recent trouble in the northern limit. While the chestnut bUght 
has been definitely connected only with this last trouble, the pre- 
vious ones have never been really explained. (5) The sudden- 
ness, etc., of the recent blight outbreak has been adequately 
explained by the writer through the unusual environmejital con- 
ditions that have weakened the chestnuts in the general regions 
where the outbreak has occurred. (6) The fact that the chestnut 
bUght fungus was never reported before this outbreak is no more 
difficult to explain than the fact that £. gyrosa had never been 
reported on chestnut in this country until by the writer a year 
ago, and yet this is a native fungus widely distributed on chestnut 
in the South, and has been known there on other hosts since 1822, 
when described by Schweinitz. They both were, in fact, merely 
overlooked on the chestnut. (7) Our cultures of £. gyrosa vary 
more from their normal type than do those of the variety 
parasitica, and some of these have varied somewhat toward the 
variety parasitica type. This, however, may have been due in 
part to bacterial contamination, etc. 

AMERICAN SPECIES OF ENDOTHIA. 

Various Species. It has been agreed among those who have 
recently studied the blight fungus from a systematic standpoint 
that it belongs under the genus Endothia rather than under 
Diaporthe, and is at least very closely related to the American- 
European species Endothia gyrosa. So far there have been 
described under the genus Endothia comparatively few species. 
Fries, who founded this genus, apparently considered Sphaeria 
gyrosa as the type, but did not give a very complete generic 
description. As understood to-day, however, Endothia has quite 
distinct generic characters. Of the species other than Endothia 
gyrosa and the chestnut blight, there have been found in North 
America Endothia Parryi (Farl.) Cke., on Agave sp., Endothia 
longirostrata Earle, on the bark of fallen trees from Porto Rico, 
and Endothia radicalis (Schw.) Farl, on Quercus, etc., chiefly 
from the Southern states. 



4l8 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Besides these, there is a somewhat similar appearing fungus 
recently described, by H. & P. Sydow (Ann. Myc lo, p. 82) 
on Quercus from Colorado, as Calopactis singularis. It is a 
semi-parasitic species, apparently, whose generic position is some- 
what doubtful, as the asco-stage has not been found. It has 
been known in this country for some time, and by some botanists 
has been placed under Endothia gyrosa, since the fruiting pus- 
tules and the Cytospora spores of the two are very similar. 
However, the fruiting pustules are larger, deeper crimson in 
color, and in maturity more powdery. We have it in culture 
from a specimen recently sent by Bethel from Colorado, and 
while it grows something like E, gyrosa, it does not form any 
distinct conidial fruiting pustules on media tried so far, and in 
manner of growth and color of mycelium resembles more nearly 
the cultures of £. radicalis. 

Of the species mentioned, we need to consider in connection 
with the blight fungus only Endothia gyrosa, already discussed 
somewhat, and Endothia radicalis, since these three in their 
Cytospora stage are so similar in appearance that they cannot 
be distinguished by the naked eye, and all have at least the oak 
as a common host. As E. radicalis is most sharply set off from 
the other two, we will discuss it first. 

Endothia radicalis. While the fruiting pustules of this species 
are not different from the other two, when we examine the asco- 
stage under the microscope it is very easily distinguished by 
the much narrower spores. These ascospores vary from linear 
to linear-oblong, are occasionally slightly curved, are apparently 
single-celled, though possibly they may in some cases develop 
an indistinct sqptmn, and are 6-10 /n, rarely 12 p,, long by 
1-2 fi.wide. We have never seen spores which grade into those 
of the other two species described here, so it is apparently quite 
a distinct species. See Plate XXVIII a, d. 

It seems to be largely southern, having been found in its 
asco-stage in Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Florida 
and North and South Carolina. However, there are specimens 
in various herbaria from much further north, showing only the 
conidial stage, that apparently belong to this species. One speci- 
men found in Connecticut has been under observation on roots 
of an oak tree for over a year, and though in a vigorous grow- 
ing condition, has made no attempt to form the asco-stage. 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 419 

Artificial cultures, however, show that it is this species. This 
means, apparently, that the species does not form its asco-stage 
readily in the North. It has not been reported as yet from 
Europe or elsewhere. While it seems to be largely saproph)rtic, 
we recently received from Wolf, of Auburn, Ala., an el^^t 
specimen on the live trunk of water oak, that shows it possesses 
parasitic tendencies. Plate XXIV e. 

So far this fungu^ has been reported on several species 
of Quercus and on Liquidambar Styraciflua. Earle and Under- 
wood collected' what may be this species on Vitis. Schweinitz 
described his Sphaeria radicalis as rare pn roots of Fagus, though 
on the envelope containing ; the original specimen he states it 
is on the roots of Quercus, which seems more likely. However, 
we have recently received ample specimens collected by Hall, 
at Clemson College, S. C, on the roots and bark of Fagus, 
which proves that this is to-day a host of the fungus further 
south, and so it may have been at Salem, N. C, as stated by 
Schweinitz. 

In cultures it forms a rather abtmdant aerial mycelium, 
something like Endothia gyrosa, but differs in that this is 
much more fluffy in character, and does not usually form fruit- 
ing pustules on the surface of the agar, Plate XXVI 7596. 
The conidial spores are produced in rather indefinite spots on 
the mycelium, and are very similar in appearance to those of 
the other two species, Plate XXVIII g-i. , The mycelium lacks 
the bright orange color that is characteristic of Endothia gyrosa 
on most media. At first it is white, and often remains partly 
uncolored, but finally has considerable brownish orange color, 
especially next the glass on the surface of the agar. In Petrie 
dishes the mycelium often forms a somewhat annulated develop- 
ment by the newer growth being less elevated than the older. 
We have cultures of it from Liquidambar Stryraciflua and 
Quercus nigra, from Alabama ; Fagus ferruginea, Quercus 
coccinea, and Quercus sp., from South Carolina ; Quercus falcata, 
from North Carolina; and Quercus rubra, from Connecticut. 

There is considerable doubt as to who first described this 
species, since it has usually been confused with the next. Shear 
(64) speaks of it as Endothia radicalis (Schw.), thus identifying 
it with Sphaeria radicalis of Schweinitz; and the Andersons 
seem to think that Shear definitely proved it to be identical 



420 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I9I2. 

with that species. No Schweinitzian specimens of Sphaeria 
radicalis in this country, however, have yet been found whidi 
have ascospores, though there is no doubt from the spcdmcn 
in the conidial stage in the Schweinitzian collection in the 
Philadelphia Academy of Science that 5". radicalis refers either to 
this species or to E. gyrosa. As Shear had opportunity to sec 
certain specimens of S. radicalis and 5*. gyrosa sent by 
Schweinitz to European botanists, the writer thought he had 
found the ascospores of S. radicalis to be linear. Recently 
writing Shear on this point, we received the following letter: 

"The specimens on oak roots collected by Hall in Soudi 
Carolina which I identified as the typical S. radicalis of 
Schweinitz were, according to my recollection, compared witii 
authentic specimens of Schweinitz from either Schweinite's 
herbarium or Curtis' herbarium at Harvard. This identification 
was made last winter before my trip to Europe. I have been 
going over carefully all our slides and specimens to locate the 
material on which this identification was based. I r^fret to 
say that thus far I have been unable to find it In this same 
connection I have examined very carefully the material from 
the Kew herbarium, which consists of an autograph specimen 
collected by Schweinitz, presumably at Salem, N. C, and sent 
by him to Hooker. I am surprised to find, on examination, 
that this specimen, though it shows considerable variation in 
ascospore measurements, does not appear to agree with the 
long, slender form of ascospores found in the specimen on oak 
roots which I sent you from Hall's collection at Qemson 
College, S. C. The measurements, as they have just been made 
from a slide from the Kew specimen, range mostly from 6.3-8.6 
by 2.8^3.6 ft. I think it is still possible that afl sorts of inter- 
mediate forms and sizes of spores will be found in the South 
connecting the long and short-spored specimens." 

Writing to the Kew herbarium for information concerning 
the specimen mentioned by Shear, which seems to be the only 
Schweinitzian ascospore specimen of Sphaeria radicalis yet 
reported, we received a letter from Assistant Director Hill, with 
the following notes made by E. M. Wakefield: "The specimen 
referred to by Shear appears to be one which bears simply a 
pasted-oh rough paper label with the name 'Sphaeria radicali/ 
in ink. On the authority of Mr. C. G. Lloyd, who is working 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 42 1 

here at present, the handwriting is that of Schwaegrichen, and 
the specimen is an authentic Schweinitzian one. It is probably 
one of a set sent to Hooker, though there is nothing on the 
label to indicate that this was the case. There is a pencil refer- 
ence in another handwriting (apparently Berkeley's) to 'Fr El. 
2 p- 73. Versatiles.' Some ascospores have been found in this 
specimen from which the accompanjring drawing has been made. 
They measure 5-7.5x2-3 ft (average size about 7x2 fi). The 
spores are usually one-septate. The septa are indistinct unless 
stained." 
* From Shear's and Wakefield's measurements of the spores, 
one can readily see that the specimen in the Kew herbarium 
labeled Sphaeria radicdlis is not the species we are considering 
here under that name, but really the next species, Endothia 
gyrosa. In a previous publication (9) we stated our belief that 
Schweinitz's 5". radicdlis and 5. gyrosa represented either the 
two distinct species of Endothia that we now find in the south- 
em United States or else the conidial and the asco-stage of 
only one of them, most likely S. gyrosa. This Kew specimen 
points to the latter of these two conclusions. It has also been 
the opinion of certain European botanists that these two species 
of Schweinitz were merely S)monyms, and identical with the 
form found in Europe, which we call Endothia gyrosa. 

Ellis (N. Am. Pyren. p. 552) in his description included both 
of these species (his spore measurements relating to one and 
his drawings to the other), though most of the specimens he 
referred to are those with linear spores. Farlow (20) was 
the first to really point out the two as distinct species, and 
because of this we (9) previously referred to the linear-spored 
form as Endothia radicalis (Schw.) Farl., though Farlow never 
definitely used this combination for the fungus. While at 
present it seems somewhat doubtful if Schweinitz's Sphaeria 
radicalis really relates to this fungus, we shall retain this com- 
bination, hoping for further light on the subject through future 
investigation. On the other hand, there is little if any doubt 
that Schweinitz's Pezisa cinnabarina does relate to its conidial 
stage, since it is identical, and has Liquidambar for a host, 
a host upon which £. gyrosa has not yet been reported. The 
nomenclature already used for this fungus by different writers 
is as follows : 



422 CONNECTICUT EXPE^MENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

Endotfaia radicalis (Schw.?) Farl. 
Pesisa flammea Schw. (not Alb. & Schw.) in Fung. Car. 

Sup. n. 1 193. ,1822. 
Peziza cinnabarma Schw. N. A. Fung. n. 840. 1831. 
? Sphaeria radicalis Schw. N. A. Fung. n. 1269. 1831. 
Sphaeria gyrosa Schw., Ravenel in Fung. Car. n- 49. 1852. 
Lachnella cinnabarina Sacc. Syll. Fung* 8 : 399. 1889. 
Endothia gyrosa (Schw.), Ell. & Ev. in N. A. Pyren.: 552. 

1892. p.p. 
Endothia radicalis (Schw.), Shear in Phytop. a: 88. Ap. 

1912. 
Endothia radicalis (Schw.) Fr., Andersons in Phytop. 

a: 210. O. 1912. 
Endothia radicalis (Schw.) Farl., Clinton in Science 36:91a 

D. 1912. 

Endothia gyrosa. We have examined ascospore specimens of 
this species on Castanea dentata from several southern states; 
on Castanea sativa from two sources in Italy ; on Quercus alba, 
Q. velutina, Quercus sps. from several localities in America; on 
Quercus sp. from Italy; on Carpinus Betulus from Tiflis, 
Russia ; on Carpinus sp. from Italy. So far as we can tell from 
a microscopic examination, these all belong to the same species, 
though there is some slight variation of the ascospores in the 
different specimens. These ascospores vary from elliptical 
oblong to narrowly oval, often tapering to one or both ends, 
have an evident septum, and are chiefly 6-9 p, long x 2-3.5 f» 
wide. They are therefore quite distinct from those of the 
preceding species (see Plate XXVIII b,e). Saccardo gives 
Aesculus, Alnus, Corylus, Fagus, Juglans and Ulmus as reported 
hosts for this species, with a distribution including North 
America, Europe, Ceylon, and New Zealand. But a careful 
comparative examination would be necessary to state positively 
that these all relate to the same fungus. 

We have made cultures of this fungus from many different 
sources on chestnut and oak from the South, and on chestnut 
from Italy. See Plate XXVI 7590, 7584. While these show 
some slight viLriations, they have a general agreement, but 
differ decidedly from all cultures of the true chestnut blight 
We have made inoculation tests, and have found the fungus 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 423 

to be a saprophyte, but with weak parasitic tendencies. Both the 
cultures and the inoculations we will discuss later in connection 
with those of the true chestnut blight. 

From the name usually applied, Endothia gyrosa (Schw.) 
Fr., it is seen that Schweinitz's Sphaeria gyrosa is considered 
the original type of the species. Schweinitz, in his Fung. Car. 
Sup., 1822, described this from Salem, N. C, on decaying bark 
of knots and also living bark of Fagus and Juglans. There 
is to-day some doubt about his correct determination of these 
hosts. He sent specimens to Fries, who also described it in 
his Syst. Myc. 2, p. 419, in 1823; and in his Elench. Fung. 2, 
p. 84, in 1828, he compares it with specimens received from 
Southern Europe. In 1845,* Fries, in Summ. Veg. Scand., 
created a new genus, Endothia, citing S. gyrosa of Schwei- 
nitz as the type, and ever since then European botanists 
have considered Endothia gyrosa of Europe to be the same 
fungus as Sphaeria gyrosa, described by Schweinitz from 
America. Some few have given Fuckel as a second author- 
ity for the name, E. gyrosa (Schw.) Fckl., since that author 
in his S3rm. Myc. p. 226, in 1869, indicated that he was the 
first to place this species under this genus, evidently con- 
sidering that Fries had not properly placed it there, since he 
did not really write the combination Endothia gyrosa. 

From the descriptions of both Schweinitz and Fries, it looks 
as if Schweinitz collected only the Cytospora stage of this 
fungus. This is further borne out by the fact that Schweinitzian 
specimens examined by Farlow and Shear in this country and 
Europe show only that stage. The original specimen of 
Schweinitz at the Philadelphia Academy of Science has been 
lost or misplaced, and in the original envelope is an entirely 
different fungus, a Nectria sent by Torrey from New England, 
which Schweinitz years afterwards apparently mistook to be 
this species. The writer (10) found a misplaced specimen (in 
another collection made by Schweinitz, now at the Philadelphia 
Academy of Science), which probably is his original type, but 
this also shows only the conidial stage. In the Curtis collection 
at Harvard, however, there is a Schweinitzian specimen of S. 
gyrosa which, while in the conidial stage, has a drawing on the 
envelope by Curtis of ascOspores which are like those of this 



424 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

species rather than linear, like those of E. radicalis, already 
discussed. 

Both Schweinitz and Fries always considered Sphaeria gyrosa 
and S, radicalis as distinct species, but of very similar aiq>ear- 
ance, and Fries, when he formed the genus Endothia, did not 
include the latter under it. Botanists in their day, however, did 
not make very careful microscopic examinations. De Notaris, 
in Sfer. Ital. i^, p. 91, in 1863, seems to have been the first 
to place 5". radicalis under the genus Endothia, and Tulasne, in 
Sel. Fung. Carp, a, p. 87 and p. 298, the same year, was 
apparently the first to consider the S. gyrosa and S. radicalis as 
one species, which he called Melogramma gyrosa, Fuckel also, 
in 1869, treated them as one species, and since that time European 
botanists have generally considered them as a single species, 
using sometimes £. gyrosa and sometimes £. radicalis as a 
specific name. In view of the information already given in 
Shear's letter, we are inclined to believe that this interpretation 
is correct, and that S. gyrosa is merely the conidial stage, as 
first suggested by Winter in Rab. Krypt. Fl. i*, p. 804. 

A considerable number of names have been applied in Europe 
to Endothia gyrosa, but it is rather difficult to determine whether 
all of these apply to the fungus under discussion. For instance, 
Streinz, in Nom. Fung., p. 545, in 1862, under S. gyrosa, gives 
5*. fluens Sow. as a synonym, and under S. radicalis, p. 559, 
gives S. tubercidariae Rud. as another. Shear has examined the 
Sowerby specimen, and he says: "There is little doubt that 
Sphaeria fluens Sow., described and figured by Sowerby in the 
supplement of his English Fungi, 1814, Plate 420, published 
as part of Plate 438, from a collection by Charles Lyall* in the 
New Forest of southern England, is the pycnidial condition of 
Endothia radicalis De Not." If this is true, then it must be an 
extremely rare fungus in England, since in answer to a letter 
to the Kew herbarium we received the reply that "Endothia 
gyrosa is very rare in Britain, if it really occurs." From 
Sowerby's description, one cannot be sure if it relates to this 
or some other fungus. Mr. Wakefield of Kew writes concern- 
ing our inquiry as to the host: "It is not possible to say with 
certainty what is the host of Sowerby's Sphaeria fluens. The 
specimen is very small, and no note is attached to it" We do 
not believe that this English specimen has as yet been definitely 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 425 

identified as the same thing as Endothia gyrosa. We give below 
the nomenclature which probably applies to the fungus in 
question. 
Endothia g3n:o8a (Schw.) Fr. 

f Sphaeria fluens Sow. Eng. Fung. t. 438 (with t. 420). 
1809? 

Sphaeria gyrosa Schw.* Fung. Car. Sup. n. 24. 1822. 

Sphaeria Tuberculariae, Rudolphi in Linnaea 4: 393. 1829. 

f Sphaeria radicalis Schw.f N. A. Fung. n. 1269. 1831. 

Endothia gyrosa Fr. Summ. Veg. Scand. : 385. 1845. 

Diatrype radicalis Mont* Ann. Sd. Nat. Bot. 3 : 123. 1855. 

Valsa radicalis Ces. & De Not. Schem. Sfer. Ital.: 33. 
1863. 

Endothia radicalis De Not. Sfer. Ital. i^ : 9. 1863. 

Melogramma gyrosum Tul. Sel. Fung. Carp. 2 : 87. 1863. 

Nectria gyrosa B. & Br. J Joum. Linn. Soc. Bot. 15:86. 
1877. 

Chryphonectria gyrosa SaccJ Syll. Fung. 17 : 784. 1905. 

Endothiella gyrosa Sacc. Ann. Myc. 4 : 273. 1906. 

Endothia virginiana Anders. Phytop. 2:261. D. 1912. 

Endothia gyrosa var. parasitica. We have previously spoken 
of the very close connection of Endothia gyrosa to the chestnut 
blight, and have shown that Farlow and Shear in this country, 
and von Hohnel, Saccardo and Rehm in Europe recognize them 
morphologically as a single species. Recently we sent ascospore 
specimens of the two on chestnuts from this country to these 
European botanists for further comparison, and their opinion 
as to the relationship. They still maintained that the American 
chestnut blight was not different specifically from E, gyrosa as 
found in Europe and America, but was merely a more luxuriant 
strain that had so developed through its parasitic habit. It is 
to be remembered, however, that all of the above investigators, 
except Shear, have based their conclusions merely on micro- 
scopic examination, since they have not had opportunity to 
study the situation in the field, and have not made cultures or 
inoculation experiments. On the other hand, it is to be taken 

* The conidial stage of the fimgus described. 

tXhe asco-stage of the fungus described. Fries apparently published 
lus description before Schweinitz. 
tThis fungus, according to von Hohnd (29). 



426 CONNECTICUT EXPBRllfENT STATION KEPOST, I912, 

into consideration that they are all botanists with a very extended 
experience in the systematic study of fungi. 

The Andersons have taken the other extreme, narody, dat 
the chestnut blight, which they call Endothia parasitica, is 
entirely a distinct species from E. gyrosa, which they call E. 
virgmiana. Their conclusion is evidentiy based on the para- 
sitic habit of the former as compared with the saprophytic 
habit of the latter, the difference between the two in artifidal 
cultures, and the slight morphological differences in their 
ascospores. Pantanelli (53) in his recent article might be 
considered as agreeing with the Andersons in considering the 
two as distinct 'Species, since in his conclusi<ms he sajrs: ''The 
Diaporthe parasitica Murrill is an Endothia, closely related to, 
but not like, the E. radicalis (Schw.) Fr. Hence it is oppor- 
tune to distinguish it as E. parasitica (Murr.) Anderson." 
However, Pantanelli was trying to show that these two were 
not entirely identical, and was not really concerned in their 
exact relationship, since he stated earlier in a footnote: 
"Recentiy, November 28, 1912, Professor P. A. Saccardo has 
communicated to me that he regards £. parasitica as a race of 
E. radicalis modified by parasitism. One may then consider 
whether it is a species or a distinct variety, but from the view- 
point of the pathologist it makes no difference." 

The writer, after a careful study of the blight fungus and 
of Endothia gyrosa, microscopically, in cultures, and in inocula- 
tion experiments, with an opportunity to examine both in the 
field, and also specimens of E, gyrosa on several hosts from 
Europe, has come to the conclusion that these two forms are 
too closely related to be considered distinct species. On the 
other hand, they are certainly distinguished through slight mor- 
phological differences in their ascospores, marked and constant 
cultural differences, and the apparendy great difference in their 
parasitic tendencies. These differences lead us to consider the 
blight fungus as a distinct variety of £. gyrosa, which is evi- 
dentiy the older form from which the blight fungus has been 
derived. 

As previously stated, neither Endothia radicalis nor £. 
gyrosa and its variety parasitica diffir enough in their fruiting 
pustules or conidial spores to present any very special distin- 
guishing characters. The ascospores of E. radicalis, however, 



CHESTNUT BARK DIS^IASE. 427 

differ from both the latter by being decidedly narrower (see 
Plate XXVIII a-c). The ascospores of £. gyrosa are much 
nearer to the type of the true blight fungus than to £. radicalis, 
although they are somewhat intermediate. In general we can 
describe the ascospores of E, radicalis as linear, those of E, 
gyrosa as narrowly oval, and those of E. gyrosa var. parasitica 
as broadly ovaL Usually one finds some spores of E. gyrosa 
and the variety parasitica that cannot be distinguished in size 
or shape. However, upon examining many from a specimen, 
one can tell which it is, as E. gyrosa has some spores that are 
narrower, and variety parasitica some that are broader, than 
any found in the other form. 

Measurements were made of one hundred ascospores of 
Endothia gyrosa var. parasitica from ten different chestnut trees 
from various localities, and these varied from 6 to lo f* long x 
2.75 to 5 /I wide, while the average was 745 p, long x 3.2 /t wide. 
Similarly, one hundred ascospores of E, gyrosa from ten dif- 
ferent chestnut trees from various localities, including one from 
Europe, varied from 6 to 9 /& long x 2 to 3.5 p, wide, the average 
being 7.205 p, long x 2.695 p wide. To' have maintained the 
same proportion in width as in length to var. parasitica, these 
spores should have been 3.095 p wide. Likewise, sixty ascospores 
of E. gyrosa on six oak trees from different localities, one from 
Europe, showed a variation of 6-9 p x 2-3.25 /i, averaging 7.099 p x 
2-733 /*• Also forty ascospores of E. gyrosa on Carpinus from 
two sources in Europe varied from 5 to 10 /i x 2.25-3.5 /*, averag- 
ing: 758 P X 2.8 p. 

These measurements show that there is a rather constant dif- 
ference in the width of the ascospores of Endothia gyrosa and 
£. gyrosa var. parasitica, no matter what the host or the locality 
from which they came, and if we also take into consideration 
the differences in artificial cultures and in the parasitic habits 
of the two, there seems no reason for not considering the 
blight fungus at least a distinct variety. The nomenclature of 
this variety is as follows : 

Endothia gjrrosa var. parasitica (Murr.) Clint. 
Diaporthe parasitica Murr. Torreya 6 : 189. 1906. 
Valsonectria parasitica Rehm, Ann. Myc. 5:210. 1907. 
Endothia parasitica Anders. Phytop. 2:262. D. 1912. 
Endothia gyrosa var. parasitica Clint. Science 34:9^3- 
27 D. 1912. 



4^3 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION SEPORT, I912. 
ARTIFICIAL CULTURES. 

Source of Cultures, etc. We have had cultures of Endotkio 
gyrosa under observation for more than a year, and of the 
variety parasitica for more than four years. These have been 
obtained from many different localities, and from both diest- 
nut and oak in each case. For example, we now have eighteen 
different cultures of the chestnut blight obtained from localities 
in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and the 
District of Columbia ; and besides these we have had others from 
time to time. We have five cultures of the blight originally 
obtained from three different species of oak, from two r^ons 
in Connecticut and one in Pennsylvania. Of £. gyrosa on chest- 
nut we have fifteen cultures from eight different regions in 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina, and one 
from Europe; and ten cultures from three species of oak from 
five different regions in the District of Columbia, Virginia, and 
North Carolina. 

We have grown many hundreds of these cultures on a variety 
of media in test tubes and Petrie dishes, though for most pur- 
poses tubes of potato- or oat-juice agar have proved the most 
satisfactory. From this extended experience we have been able 
to judge accurately as to purity of the cultures, constancy of 
their cultural characteristics, and differences that distinguish the 
variety from the species. Ordinarily the conidial spores of each 
have regularly appeared in these cultures, but in var3ring degree. 
In no case has the asco-stage of either been produced. Its 
production has seemed more likely to occur in the case of 
Endothia gyrosa, since in some cultures the conidial fruiting 
stage appeared as rather large, distinct, elevated pustules; bat 
these have never shown any signs of ascospore formation. We 
have made some attempts, by special media or treatment, to 
induce the asco-stage to appear in these pustules, but without 
success. 

Endothia gyrosa versus var, parasitica. The following 
characteristic differences were noted in special test tube cultures 
made at the same time on potato-, Lima bean-, and oat-juice 
agar, from twenty-five sources of Endothia gyrosa and ten 
sources of var. parasitica. In general, it may be stated that the 
potato-juice agar favors spore production for both, while the 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 4^9 

oat-juice agar favors a vigorous aerial mycelial development, 
especially for E. gyrosa. The bean-juice agar is somewhat 
intermediate in both respects. On any of these media, E. gyrosa 
is much less likely to exude spore masses in abundance than the 
variety parasitica. Perhaps this accounts for the ease with 
which the variety propagates itself in nature. The chief cultural 
differences of the two are as follows : 

(i) Var. parasitica fruits more abundantly, and exudes the 
sticky spore masses much more conspicuously, than does 
Endothia gyrosa. (2) The variety fruits earlier than the species, 
as determined by the exuding spore drops. (3) The variety has 
less evident, smaller, or more embedded fruiting bodies than the 
species, in which they are often elevated, distinct pustules, 
rarely hidden by the exuding spore mass. (4) The species 
develops a much more luxuriant aerial mycelium (except pos- 
sibly on potato agar) than does the variety. (5) The species has 
its aerial mycelium more generally and more highly orange col- 
ored, especially on oat-juice agar, than does the variety. 

The more minute and variable differences of the two on the 
three media are as follows: On the potato-juice agar var. 
parasitica forms chiefly an embedded growth, which, while white 
at first, soon becomes rather deeply colored, and produces numer- 
ous obscure or embedded fruiting bodies, which exude small, 
colored, sticky spore drops rather thickly over the surface of 
the agar. Finally, a slight surface growth of a flavus mycelium 
sometimes develops. The species differs in having at first a 
slightly more evident growth of mycelium, and finally having 
usually fewer, but larger, spore masses. The color of the em- 
bedded growth is variable, usually darker than in the variety, 
sometimes blackish, as if from bacterial contamination, but 
possibly due to variation in the composition of the medium. 

On the Lima bean-juice agar var. parasitica produces fewer, 
but larger, fruiting bodies and spore drops than on the potato- 
juice agar, while its aerial mycelium is more evident, and varies 
from albus to sulphureus in color. The species makes a much 
more evident aerial growth than the variety, while its fruiting 
pustules are decidedly fewer, larger, more elevated and distinct, 
and exude spores less abundantly. The color is much more evi- 
dent than in the variety, though variable even in the same tube, 
ninning from albus through sulphureus and flavus to even 



43© CONNECTICUT* EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

aurantiacus-miniatus on the edges where it is in contact with 
glass or medium. 

On oat-juice agar the variety parasitica forms a somewhat 
more evident aerial mycelium, but has fewer pustules and less 
evident spore drops even than on the Lima bean-juice agar. It 
usually has a deeper color, which varies from albus to luteus. 
The species on oat- juice agar forms a very luxuriant growth, 
even more so than on Lima bean-juice agar, and though its 
fruiting bodies are not so numerous, they are often evident 
exposed pustules, only partially hidden by the spores mass, whidi 
exudes with difficulty. The color assumes its maximum develop- 
ment and is in strong contrast to tteit of the variety on Ae 
same medium. It is usually more uniform and intense in color 
than on the bean-juice agar, finally var3dng from luteus through 
aurantiacus to miniatus and even badius when in contact with 
the glass or medium. Part of the growth, especially on the 
upper edge, however, often remains albus. 

The color of the spore masses of both forms varies in dif- 
ferent cultures f rpm sulphureus to nearly purpureus, depending 
apparently on age, variation of the medium, bacterial contamina- 
tion, or other unknown factors. Likewise, a culture when 
renewed on the same medium sometimes acts somewhat differ- 
ently for some unknown reason, as to luxuriance in mycelial 
growth or spore development, or color characters. 

Tannic Acid in Cultures. Since tannin is found in such large 
quantities in the wood of chestnut, and since this varies accord- 
ing to the age of the tree, etc., it has been suggested previously 
in this paper that this variation may have some bearing upon 
the development of the chestnut blight. It was thought desir- 
able, therefore, to study both the saprophytic Endothia gyrosa 
and the variety parasitica in artificial cultures containing dif- 
ferent percentages of tannic acid (M. C. W. brand, U. S. P.) 
to determine how this affected their vigor, growth and spore 
production. These cultures have all been made by Mr. Stoddard 
under the writer's direction, and the data here given shouM be 
credited to both investigators. We have used mainly for this 
work two rather recent cultures of E, gyrosa on two species 
of oak from Washington, D. C, and four cultures of E. gyrosa 
var. parasitica on chestnut, two from Washington and two from 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 



431 



Percent. 

of 
Tannin. 


Result. 


Endothia 

gyrowi 

Quercus sp. 


Endothia 

Quercus 
velutina. 


r 

E.gyrosaTar. 
paraaiUca 
Castanea 
dentata. 


E.gyrosavar. 
parasitica 
Castanea 
deatata. 


E.gyrosavar. 
parasitica 
Castanea 
denuta. 


E.gyrosavar. 

Castanea 
dentata. 


4% 


Grew... 
Failed.. 


5 

3 


8 



8 



8 



7 

I 


5 
3 


4.8J^ 


Grew... 

Failed.. 


6 

2 


6 

2 


7 

I 


8 



7 

I 


7 

I 


65t 


Grew... 

Failed.. 


7 

I 


5 
3 


5 
3 




8 



7 

I 


^% 


Grew... 

Failed.. 


4 

4 

8 


4 
4 


6 
2 




4 
4 


4 
4 


lOfi 


Grew... 

Failed.. 


2 

6 


3 

5 




4 
4 


6 
2 


lo.SjT 


Grew... 

Failed.. 


I 
7 




8 


6 
2 




5 
3 


5 
3 


11% 


Grew... 
Failed.. 


2 
6 


I 
7 


8 





5 
3 


3 

5 


11.5$ 


Grew... 

Failed.. 


I 
7 


I 
7 


5 
3 




4 
4 


5 
3 


lajr 


Grew... 

Failed.. 


2 
6 


2 

6 


5 
3 


6 

2 


5 
3 


5 
3 


H% 


Grew... 
Failed.. 




8 



8 


I 

7 



8 




8 




8 


Total 
No. 


Grew... 

Failed.. 


28 
52 


29 
51 


56 
24 


49 
31 


49 
31 


48 
32 


Total 
% 


Grew. . . 
Failed.. 


35J< 


3(^ 


30% 


39% 


39J« 


60% 
40jt 



Connecticut. Of these four, three had been in culture only a 
few months, while one had been in culture over three years. 

In each test we made three cultures of each of the above 
for duplication. We grew these on plain potato-juice agar, as 
checks for comparison, and also on this m^ium to which had 
been added the following percentages of tannic acid: 0.2, 0.4, 
0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0, 4.8, 6.0, 8.0, lo.o, 10.5, ii.o, 11.5, 12.0, 
140; see Plate XXVII. These cultures were first made in 191 2, 
and repeated in 1913 for confirmation, this time using five cul- 
tures of each in each test. The table shows the results of all 
these cultures in the tubes containing 4% or more of tannic acid. 
Those containing lower per cents, all grew, and so are omitted 
in the table. From the results of these investigations we obtained 
the following information : 

(i) The growth of either fungus causes no darkening of the 
plam potato-juice agar, but when tannic acid is added, even as 



43* CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

low as 0.2 per cent in case of var. parasitica, the gfrowth of the 
fungus causes a darkening of the medium. This indicates an 
oxidation of the tannic acid by the fungus, since these tubes 
without the introduction of the fungus remain undarkened 
except with the higher percentages, when they color as soon as 
made, upon cooling. With E. gyrosa, this darkening scarodj 
takes place, and with var. parasitica is less evident in those 
tubes containing only 0.2 and 0.4 per cent, of tannic acid, bnt 
shows on all strengths above these with both fungi about the 
same, though appearing sooner with var. parasitica. 

(2) The medium in the tannic acid tubes remains liquefied 
when 0.8 per cent, or more tannic acid is added. The acidity 
of potato-juice agar and, in the lower percentages, of tannic acid 
potato-juice agar, where darkening of the medium does not 
interfere, can be tested before and after growth of these fui^ 

N 
by titrating with — Na O H, using phenolphthalein as an mdi- 

20 
cator. These tests show that after E. gyrosa or var. parasitica 

has fully developed in plain potato- juice agar the acidity is 

practically unchanged ; but in tannic acid potato- juice agar boA 

of these fungi cause a lowering in the acidity of the medium, 

and the higher the acidity usually the greater the loss, though 

not proportionately greater, as shown by the following tests: 



Ttmiic Acid 




AddTert 








Add Test 




Loss la 


added (pw c«at.) 


before inoculation. 




alter (rowth. 




Addity. 


0.0 


0.15 


CO. 


^NaOH 


0.15 


CO 


20 


Na H 


0.0 


0.2 


.9 




(( << 




0.4 










0.5 


0.4 


1.2 




(1 (« 




0.85 










0.35 


0.8 


1.8 




<< l< 




. . . 












1.2 


2.1 




<l II 




1.4 










0.7 


1.6 


2.7 




11 l< 




1.8 










0.9 



(3) Cultures of E. gyrosa var. parasitica containing 0.2, 04, 
0.8 per cent, tannic acid show a more vigorous spore develop- 
ment than the check cultures of potato-juice agar without tannic 
acid. The same was true of E, gyrosa regarding mycelial 
development, but to a less extent, and possibly also as to spore 
development, though with this fungus the spores do not exude 
very abundantly in any case. 

(4) At about 4 per cent, the loss in color, especially with £. 
gyrosa, becomes quite evident. In the liquefied tubes up to 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 433 

4 per cent, tannic acid, the growth of the fungi tends to form 
a more or less firm coating over the surface, after the manner 
of grouvth on the solid medium. Above 4 per cent the growth 
becomes gradually less evident, generally showing in floating 
patches, embedded masses, or lateral growths around the side 
of the g^lass. Finally, at the highest percentages, 10 to 14, growth 
entirely ceases, only one having been successful at the latter 
strength in any of the tubes. 

(5) In the higher percentages of tannic acid E. gyrosa shows 
an enfeebled growth sooner than does var. parcisitica, since at 
6 to 8 per cent it makes comparatively little growth, correspond- 
ing to that made by the variety at about 10 per cent. It gen- 
erally fails entirely to make any growth at above 10 per cent., 
or only a poor growth above 8 per cent, in most of the tubes; 
while the variety in only one case made any growth above 12 per 
cent, and rarely any but a poor growth above 10 per cent. 

(6) At the higher percentages the difference in the appear- 
ance of the two fungi is less marked than at the lower, so that 
from 4 per cent up, where spore production of the variety is 
largely cut out, they are scarcely to be distinguished. 

(7) There was some variation in development with the dif- 
ferent cultures of the same fungus in the higher percentages of 
the tannic acid, as shown by one of the cultures of var. par- 
asitica from Connecticut which had been in artificial culture for 
over three years failing to grow quite as well as the more recent 
cultures. These variations are perhaps not constant. 

(8) All the preceding notes relate to cultures that ^were inoc- 
ulated from plain potato-juice agar directly onto those contain- 
ing various percentages of tannic acid. Another set of cultures 
was made in which each was brought up gradually through all 
the lower percentages of tannic acid. In these it was found that 
this g^dual acclimatization to the tannic acid gave a somewhat 
more luxuriant growth of both fungi at the higher percentages 
than when transferred directly from the potato- juice agar to 
these. 

Later experiments based on the preceding results were made 
with all our cultures of E. gyrosa (26 in number) and those of 
var. parasitica (22 in number), using two cultures of each and 
the following percentages of tannic acid: 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, lo.o. 
These cultures showed, as in the previous tests, that the variety 



434 CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



parasitica will grow in higher per cents, of tannic add and give 
a more evident development of mycelium than E. gyrosa. The 
details of this experiment are given in the appended table. 



% 


Nfttoe. 




tJlftW. 






TQ»i. J 


eM=* 


It 


i 

6 

i3 


1 

33 


1 

to 

3 








Q 


^ 


If 


1 ' 


&t 




Endoihia gyrosa.. , * 


31 

43 


<o & 


1.. 


40* 

a, 4 


4^ 


E. gjTosa var. parasitica . . 


97.6. t 




Endothia g^'Tosa ...,.., . 


1 

1 ^ 

!i5 


IS 


14 


9 

3 

9 
S 


3 

3 


4 


7 



31 
44 

37 


59-6 
100. 


31 



40.4 
0.0 


¥ 


E. gyros » var. paras k tea 




Endotbia gyrosa. ..*...,,„,,, 


cc^t 1 ai 


443 

IS ^ 


ajf 


E, gyrosa vat. parasitica. ' 


B4.I 


7 

1 




Endoihia gyrosa. * , 


1 

1 a 

1 


15 



8 


30 
13 


6 



i6 


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Endolhia gyrosa var. parasitica 


13-7 



INOCULATION EXPERIMENTS. 

General Conditions, etc. These experiments were undertaken 
primarily to determine the parasitic tendency of Endothia gyrosa 
as compared with that of the variety parasitica. That the latter 
could produce cankers when inoculated into chestnuts had been 
abundantly proved by the work of Murrill and others. With 
most of our inoculations both the species and the variety were 
used at the same time, and checks were also included. Nearly 
all these inoculations were made from artificial cultures, and 
usually only with conidial spories. Ordinarily a small slit in the 
bark was made with a sharp scalpel, spores from the cultures 
were introduced on a needle, the wound covered with moist 
cotton, and then bound with paraffine paper or bicycle tape. 
After several weeks the covering was removed. The checks 
were treated in the same way, except that no spores were intro- 
duced into the wound. 

In this way there were inoculated two- to three-year-old 
seedling chestnuts, four- or five-year-old chestnut sprouts, and 
two-year seedling oak at the Station Farm at Mount Carmel; 
six- to eight-year-old slow-growing chestnut seedlings at the 
Station forestry plantation at Rainbow; and two- to four-year- 
old oak sprouts in a waste lot at Highwood. The tables which 
follow give the data for all inoculations, since there are factors 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 435 

that apparently enter into their success that we had not in mind 
when the experiments were undertaken, namefy: — length of 
time the ftingus has been in artificial cultivation, age of the 
particular spores used, and time of )rear of the inoculation. 
This makes it difficult to judge of the results of certain of these 
inoculations, since two or more of these factors may have been 
involved. The final results of our inoculations were determined 
about the second week in October. Of course this gave some 
of the earlier inoculations made in May a much longer time to 
develop than those made in July, although these latter had 
plenty of time to show whether or not they were successful. We 
will consider the results briefly under the following headings. 

Endothia gyrosa versus var, parasitica. Ordinarily it takes 
about a month to determine whether or not an inoculation has 
taken, and even then it is sometimes doubtful, since the tissues 
around the wound often die back for a short distance as the 
result of the mechanical injury. The sum total of our experi- 
ments brings out quite clearly the difference in the parasitic 
nature of these two fungi. For instance, 151 out of all of our 
324 inoculations with var. parasitica, from all sources on all 
hosts, produced more or less evident cankers, that is, 47 per 
cent, were successful ; while of the 148 similar inoculations with 
£• gyrosa only 2 took, or about i per cent. Of these two, one 
showed only a comparatively small dead area, with fruiting 
pustules, around the point of inoculation, but did not seem to 
continue its growth, while the other was on a dead seedling 
whose roots had been cut off by mice, which no doubt weakened 
it, allowing the fungus to make an excellent growth, and even 
to produce its ascospores. If wje take into consideration only 
our inoculations of var. parasitica originally obtained from 
chestnut and inoculated into chestnut sprouts and seedlings, we 
find that out of 232 inoculations 132, or 57 per cent., took, as 
compared with entire failure of E. gyrosa under the same con- 
ditions. None of the 228 check trees in all our experiments 
showed atiy signs of infection, thus proving that the wounding 
alone was not harmful when protected from infection. 

With the check trees the cutting usually killed a little bark 
cm either side, especially if the knife was run under between 
the bark and the wood. This never grew larger, and the callus 
of dew tissue formed in the wound was alw;iys healthy. With 



43^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION RBPOST, I912. 

the wounds inoculated with E. gyrosa, sometimes this injured 
bark was a little more extensive than with the checks, which 
indicated a slight but futile attempt at parasitism. Occastonallyi 
on this dead bark and exposed wood, a slight fruiting growth 
of the fungus as a saprophyte was formed. 

With var. parasitica, however, the bark was gradually killed 
in an increasing area surrounding the point of inoculation, and 
this had a more or less irr^^ular outline, spreading faster in 
some directions than in others. Eventually the whole stem or 
limb was encircled, if the inoculation was made early in the 
season (see Plate XXV a). At the inoculation point a callus of 
young tis3ue often developed, and the vitality of this was greater 
than that of the older tissues, since it often remained healthy, 
until, beii^ entirely surrounded by dead tissues, it died as mudi 
from adverse nutritive conditions as from the direct action of 
the fungus (Plate XXV b). 

After the cankers attained some size, their reddish dead 
bark often became cracked, and the Cytospora fruiting stage 
appeared in more or less abundance. An examination of the 
inoculations as late as the last of December, however, failed 
to show that the asco-stage had developed on any of them. 
Whether this means that ordinarily the mature fruiting stage 
does not appear until the second season, we do not know, but 
it shows that sometimes this is the case. The inoculations made 
early in May on the chestnut sprouts one to two inches in 
diameter entirely girdled these for six to eight inches, forming 
very evident cankers, but not always with a conspicuous develop- 
ment of conidial spores. 

Hosts InoctUated. In the inoculation tests we used seedlings 
and sprouts of both chestnuts and oaks. Considering first only 
the chestnut hosts, we found that, as a rule, the variety para- 
sitica could be more easily inoculated into the sprouts than into 
the seedlings, and that on the sprouts the blight made a laiiger 
growth in the same length of time. This greater development 
might in part be due to the larger size of the sprouts, which 
varied from about one-half to one and one-half inches in 
diameter, while the seedlings were only about one-quarter to 
three-quarters of an inch in diameter. Out of a total of 177 
inoculations with cultures originally from chestnut made on 
chestnut seedlings, 91, or 51 per cent, took, as compared with 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 437 

41 successful out of a total of 55, or 75 per cent., on the sprouts. 
An attempt to inoculate a young Japanese chestnut six inches 
in diameter failed entirely, although sixteen inoculations were 
made at two different periods. This seems to show that the 
tree had great resistance, if not immunity, to the disease. 

As regards inoculation of chestnut, versus oaks, it was found 
that the former were much more readily infected than the latter, 
which showed only 12 successful infections out of 51, or 23 
per cent All of these were confined to the sprouts, and did not 
make nearly so vigorous growth as did the inoculations on 
chestnut sprouts. The oak seedlings used were rather small, 
and the inoculations were made comparatively late, using cultures 
obtained originally from both oak and chestnut. 

Source of Cultures. Most of our inoculations were made 
with cultures obtained from chestnut, as at the time we had only 
one culture of var. parasitica from oak, namely Quercus velutina 
from Woodmont, Pa. This was inoculated into both chestnut 
and oak seedlings and sprouts. The inoculations into chestnut 
seedlings showed 4 successful out of 25, or about 15 per cent., 
while the 16 made on the chestnut sprouts all apparently failed, 
for some not very evident reason, possibly because made in July 
with old spores. Of the 20 inoculations on oak seedlings, all 
failed, while of the 12 on oak sprouts, 5, or 42 per cent, took 
more or less vigorously. From the results of the inoculations 
with this single culture, it would seem that the strain from oak 
at least was not quite so active a parasite as that from the 
chestnut itself. 

Whether or not cultures from chestnuts from different regions, 
or from living as compared with dead trees, show any difference 
in virulence, we are not certain. In our experiments we did 
not get any conclusive results along this line. To determine 
these points accurately, however, one would need cultures that 
had only recently been obtained from their hosts, and whose 
spores when used were comparatively young and of the same 
age. 

Age of Cultures, It seems quite probable that the longer the 
variety parasitica is kept in culture the more likely it is to lose, 
at least in part, its virulence. While no direct experiments were 
made to determine this point, it is possibly shown by the cul- 
tures obtained originally from a Japanese chestnut in Westville 

27 



43^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 



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440 CX)NNECnCUT EXPKSUiElfT STATION KEFOKT, I9I2. 



Condensed Results of Inoculations with Enbothia 

GYROSA AND EnDOTHIA GYROSA PARASITICA. 













laM. 

(No.) 




Tfl 


« 




(JKa 


t 


E. g. parasitica 


from Cast. 


on 


Cast. dent, seedl. . . 


177 


86 


9« 


51 


•* *• •• 


** 


•• 


•* 


" sprts. . . 


55 


14 


41 


75 




** 


*• 


•* 


Quer. sp. seedl. . . 


12 


12 










•* 


•• 


** 


" sprts. .. 


7 





. 7 


wo 




•< 


Querc. 


on 


Cast. dent, seedl. . . 


25 


21 


4 


16 




*• 


«* 


*• 


•• sprts. .. 


16 


16" 










** 


** 


«« 


Qoer. sps. seedL . - 


ao 


20 










** 


t( 


*• 


•• sprts... 


12 


7 


5 


4« 


E. gyrossL 


•< 


Cast. 


on 


Cast. dent, seedl. . . 


15 


15 










** 


• 4 


•* 


•• •* sprts. .. 


18 


18 










•* 


*t 


•• 


Quer. sps. seedl. . . 


5 


5 


i *^ 







•* 


•• 


•* 


•• sprts... 








' 







•• 


Querc. 


on 


Cast. dent, seedl. . . 


82 


81 


I 


I 




(4 


*• 


*• 


•* sprts. .. 


4 


3 


I 


«5 




** 


•* 


*• 


Quer. sp. seedl. . . 


5 


5 


i 







** 


•• 


* t 


*• sprts. . . 


19 


»9 


• 





Checks 


. . • 




>• . . 


..on all Castanea. . 


ti3 


113 








Checks 


... 




... 


. . on all Quercus . . 


15 


15 


i ^ 






*Kept moist. *Kept dry. *-*One dry, one moist. 'Culture originally 
from conidial spores. ^Culture from ascospores. * Trees ridged to produce 
drought conditions. * Trees unridged. * Inoculated above and below knife 
girdle. ' Cut above and below knife girdle, but not inoculated. ' Stem in- 
oculated underground. '*Stem cut underground, but not inoculated. "If 
done earlier in the season, possibly some would have taken. These foot- 
notes apply chiefly to large table ; see column *' Host Inoc/' for numbers. 

on August 4, 1909, which produced only 50 per cent, infection 
as against lOO per cent, produced by a culture over two years 
younger obtained from Washington, D. C, on January, 2, 1912. 
Both of these were of the same spore age, and inoculated into 
chestnut seedlings at the same time and place. 

That the age of the spores used aflfects their virulence is 
apparently shown in a number of our inoculations. We used 
spores from cultures that had been made all the way from 20 to 
100 days, in a few cases even 250 days. These spores were always 
somewhat moist when used, and though possibly some of them 
were too old to germinate, there must have been others that 
were not, since we have renewed cultures not infrequently that 
were 100 days old, and in one case a culture that was 399 days 
old. Our inoculation tests apparently indicate that the younger 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 44 1 

the spores the higher the percentage of infection. For instance, 
on chestnut seedlings, cultures varjring from 28 to 55 days old 
g^ve ^successful inoculations varying from 100 to 50 per cent.; 
while those 79 to 250 days old gave from 30 to o per cent. 
However, with the latter the time of inoculation may have 
entered into the problem, since in no case did we try to inoculate 
on the same date with spores of greatly different ages. 

Time of Inoculation, Inoculations made in the spring are 
more successful than those made in midsummer, at least those 
we made in the spring were, as a rule, much more successful 
than those we made in July. However, as just stated, those 
made in the spring were made with younger spores than those 
made later, and just how much of the failure of the latter was 
due to the time of inoculation and how much to the age of the 
spores could not be determined. We have also tried inoculations 
on dormant seedlings in the greenhouse, and these have either 
failed to take or took only after the trees began to grow. The 
length of time the fungus has been in culture, age of the spores 
used, time of year the inoculation is made, are all points that 
need further investigation to bring out their bearings more 
clearly. 

Condition of Host, We tried several experiments to deter- 
mine what eflFect the condition of the host had on the success of 
the infection. These experiments included a few plants kept 
unusually wet and others very dry, in the greenhouse; others 
severely ridged outdoors to aid in drought conditions, com- 
pared with plants not ridged; and plants with knife cuts encir- 
cling the bark (in some cases with a band of bark removed) 
which were inoculated above and below these injured places. 
The results were rather conflicting, so that we could not tell 
whether or not these treatments made any special difference. 
Inasmuch as they did not show more striking evidence in favor 
of increased blight development under unfavorable conditions 
of the host, perhaps they may be interpreted as rather against, 
than in favor of, our theory that the condition of the host 
affects the prominence of the fungus as a parasite. However, 
such experiments need to be made in greater number and during 
several seasons in order to judge accurately as to results. 



442 CONNECTICUT BXPBSIlfBNT STATION SEPOST, I912. 
PREVENTIVE EXPERIMENTS. 

Earlier Experiments. Murrill tried to control the chestnut 
disease, when it was first discovered at the New York Botanical 
Garden, by cutting down and destroying the badly infected trees 
and by cutting out cankers on those less seriously injured. He 
found this did not prevent its further spread. Writing in 1908, 
he (48) says: "Preventive measures have apparently not 
affected it in the slightest degree. Pruning of diseased branches 
has evidently failed to check it even in the case of very young 
trees. Branches have been carefully removed, and wounds 
covered, leaving trees apparently entirely sound, but upon 
inspection a few weeks or a few months later, they would be 
found badly diseased at other points." Merkel, at the New 
York Zoological Park, also tried to control the trouble by cut- 
ting down the badly infected trees and by spraying with Bor- 
deaux mixture, but little or no benefit resulted from his eflForts. 

Metcalf undertook experiments to control the trouble on 
Long Island in a region where it was very bad. In 1909 be 
and Collins (36) say: "At present it is impossible definitely 
to record general beneficial results from any of the sprayings 
which have been undertaken or have been under observation. 
This may in part be due to the fact that it is yet too early to 
judge satisfactorily of the result^ and in part perhaps to the 
infrequency of sprayings. ♦ ♦ ♦ Almost the only treatment 
that can at present be safely recommended as surdy retarding 
the spread of the disease, to a greater or less extent, is one 
which will never be of practical use except in the case of 
orchard trees or certain valuable ornamental trees. It consists 
essentially in cutting out the infected branches or areas of bark 
and carefully protecting the cut surfaces from outside infection 
by means of a coat of paint or tar. This cutting must be 
thoroughly done and the bark of every infected place entirely 
removed for a distance of at least an inch (when the size of the 
branch permits) beyond the characteristic, often fan-shaped, 
discolored area produced by the growing fungus in the inner 
bark." In a later report, they also advocate that when the inner 
bark is badly infected "at least two or three annual layers of 
wood beneath the diseased bark must also be gouged out" 

Later Experiments. In a bulletin published in October, 1911, 
Metcalf and Collins (38, p. 10) advocate fighting the chestnut 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 443 

bark disease, in those regions or states where it has not yet 
obtained a serious foothold, by means of quarantine and cutting 
out all diseased trees. This recommendation was based on the 
results of some experiments carried on in the vicinity of Wash- 
ington, D. C, concerning which they write as follows: 

"Fortimately, however, there is a method of dealing with the 
situation which is applicable to the country as a whole and 
which, so far as tested, is practicable. Early in the course of 
the writers* investigations it became evident that the disease 
advances but slowly in a solid line, but instead spreads from 
isolated centers of infection oftai many miles in advance of 
the main line of disease. ♦ * * It therefore seems probable 
that if these advance infections could be located at a reasonably 
early stage, they could be eliminated at relatively little expense, 
thus preventing further spread from these points, at least. 
Accordingly the country within approximately thirty-five miles of 
Washington, D. C, was chosen in the fall of 1908 as preliminary 
territory in which to test this method of control. This section 
has been gone over fairly thoroughly once a year. As will be 
shown by Figure i, fourteen points of infection were located 
and the infected trees destroyed. Most of this work was done 
by the senior writer. The largest infection was a group of 
nursery trees that had been imported from New Jersey; the 
smallest, a simple lesion on a small branch of a large forest 
tree. In one case eleven forest trees in a group were infected, 
the original infection having been on two trees dating apparently 
from as early as 1907. Up to the present time (June, 191 1) 
the disease has not reappeared at any point where eliminated, 
and the country within a radius of approximately thirty*five 
miles from Washington is apparently free from the bark disease, 
although new infections must be looked for as long as the 
disease remains elsewhere unchecked. It is therefore believed 
that this method of attack will prove equally practicable in other 
localities, and if carried out on a large scale, will result ultimately 
in the control of the bark disease." 

Stewart, of the Geneva, N. Y., Station, and the writer, through 
the kindness of Metcalf, had the opportunity of examining, in 
January, 1912, part of the region where this work was carried 
on. Stewart (70) in his paper at Harrisburg said: "I hold 
that no definite conclusions can be drawn from that test." The 



444 CONNECTICUT EXPKUMENT STATIOH XEF<»T, I912. 

writer also beKeres that the ap pa r en t resotts would not justify 
the sq)pl]catioa of the method on a wholesale scale m other 
regions, for the followii^ reasons: (i) Apparentlj neidier the 
chestnut tree nor the blight disease was very cooudoo in the 
region under experimentation; hence the greater difficulty of 
the disease starting there, and also the greater ease witfi which 
it could be controlled. (2) Although diose in control evidently 
made a careful survey of the r^on for the hS^bt, they over- 
looked infected trees. In a region widi die chestnut tree and the 
disease more abundant, it would be impossible to locate all the 
diseased trees. (3) Where infected trees were cot down, the 
disease appeared on the bark of the stumps in some cases. To 
destroy the bark on the infected stumps as well is too great a 
task to be successfully accomplidied without great expense. 
(4) No check areas, apparently, were reserved with which to 
compare the results of the treatment 

Yet, based on this experiment apparently, local advocates of 
such measures succeeded in having the State of Pennsjrlvania 
establish a chestnut blight commission to f^t the disease in 
that state along these lines. To aid in the further study of the 
disease in all its aspects and in the control work, a grant of 
$275,000 was made by their L^slature. Shortly afterward, 
the United States Government also appropriated $80,000 for 
further work by Metcalfs department With the aid of Ae 
government, and with more or less state aid, several of the 
states south of Pennsylvania have taken up this woric, chiefly 
along the lines advocated by Metcalf and Collins, though appar- 
ently so far most of this work has been in the nature of pre- 
liminary surveys for locating the disease. 

In order to have a clearer idea of what has been accom- 
plished in a practical way in Pennsylvania by this commission, 
we recently wrote Carleton, who is now general manager, the 
following letter: "I understand from newspaper reports that 
the chestnut blight commission of Pennsylvania has fotmd that 
spraying with Bordeaux mixture is effective in controlling the 
disease. I wish to ask for a statement from you concerning this 
report Also, I should like very much to know what has been 
the outcome of your quarantine and cutting out work as carried 
on so far. Have you seen any conclusive evidence tfiat this 
has been successful in checking the blight? Lastly, I should 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 445 

like to know if the blight on the whole, without regard to 
treatment in checking it, has spread as seriously in Pennsylvania 
during the past year as it did in 191 1. So far as G)nnecticut 
is concerned, there seems to be a decided improvement, if we 
can juc^e by the reports that we have received." 

In answer to this letter, under date of March i, 1913, Carle- 
ton wrote as follows : "I have your letter of February 28th, and 
in reply will say first, that the reports in the papers about die 
spraying with Bordeaux mixture in connection with chestnut 
blight were, as usual, much exaggerated, and in some respects 
quite erroneous. The use of Bordeaux mixture is, at most, 
only a preventive, though the papers reported it to be a cure. 
Of course, as you know, nothing will cure the disease after it 
is in the tree. The Bordeaux was used on the estate of Pierre 
DuPont near Kennett Square. In connection with tree surgery 
methods, and by spraying about every two weeks during the 
smnmer, these two methods taken together appear to have con- 
trc^ed the blight It is believed that the Bordeaux mixture was 
of great use in preventing the germination of spores on healthy 
trees, and on healthy portions of trees that were being treated. 
I believe the sprajring with Bordeaux is of sufficient importance 
in chestnut orchards to recommend its practice in all cases of 
chestnut blight. It might be used, also, on unusually valuable 
lawn trees, but of course, it would be impracticable in forest 
tracts, chiefly on account of the cost, and for other reasons. 

"As to the spread of the blight in Pennsylvania, I r^^et to 
say that over a large portion of the state it has apparently 
spread more rapidly than the year before, so that the conditions 
appear, therefore, to be different from those in Connecticut, 
according to your statement. Because of the condition last 
stated, of the serious increase of the disease in this state, and 
particularly in those portions west of the Susquehanna, where 
we are endeavoring to check its progress, 3rou can see that our 
work has been unusually difficult Answering your question, 
however, as to our success in actually checking the blight, so far 
as we can get evidence one way or the other at all in the short 
time that I have been in the state, I believe we have accom- 
plished a great deal in that line. We can only actually know 
next summer, when we re-scout the areas over which cutting 
was done this summer. So far, in the areas of removal which 



44^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

have been re-inspected, the evidence is that our work has been 
very good There was some return of the disease, of course, 
as was to be expected, but a rather small percentage." 

Experiments in Connecticut. In G>nnecticut there has been 
no appropriation of money by the state to investigate the chest- 
nut blight, and none has been asked for. Such work as has 
been done has been carried on by the botanical and forestry 
departments of this Station with funds at hand, and in connec- 
tion with their other duties. There has been no attempt to 
enforce state control of the disease, or to eliminate it by the 
cutting out and quarantine method. There has been no demand 
for such treatment on the part of those interested. Preliminary 
surveys have shown that the disease now exists in all the towns, 
and in some of diem to such an extent that any attempt to 
gain control of the fungus by the cutting out method, even if 
successful, could only be made at a cost disproportionate to 
the good that would be accomplished. Add to this the constant 
watch that would have to be maintiuned against re-infection, 
the opposition that would be aroused among some property 
owners by the enforced cutting, and we have sufficient reason 
for not attempting such a program in this state. Then, too, 
none of the surrounding states, Rhode Island, Massadmsetts, or 
New York, is attempting such control. 

In order, however, to gain some idea of the value of the 
cutting out method, two experiments, in codperation with the 
forestry department, have been conducted in this state. . The first 
was at the Whittemore estate in Middlebury, and was largely 
preliminary in nature, being carried out by Mr. Shepardson, 
manager of the estate, at our suggestion, but not immediately 
under our control The disease was radier bad in certain of 
die woods on this large estate, and in a special effort to pro- 
tect those nearest the residence, the removal of all infected 
trees was started in 1910. These woods have now been gone 
over four different years, each time removing all trees of 
whatever size showing cankers. Apparoidy this removal has 
had little effect in decreasing the disease in these particular 
woods. A count was not made of the number removed each 
year, except that Mr. Shepardson states that more were removed 
in the winter of 1913 than in all previous years. In these 
woods, something over one hundred acres, forty or fifty of 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 447 

which contained trees over one foot in diameter, 845 trees over 
one foot in diameter were marked for removal in the winter 
of 1912-13, besides numerous trees and sprouts of less diameter. 
This same winter, in all the woods on the estate, there were 
2,200 trees over one foot in diameter that were marked for 
removal. In this experiment it was not attempted to remove 
the bark from the stumps. In certain badly diseased spots 
where the stumps were examined, it was found that perhaps 
30 per cent, of them showed some signs of the fruiting stage 
of the fungus the following summer. 

The second experiment was started in the fall of 191 1, at the 
Portland state forest. Here certain designated wood lots, eight 
in number, were gone over, and all trees and sprouts showing 
cankers were noted and marked for removal. These were 
removed during the following winter, and the wood and bark 
disposed of. A partial reexamination was made the next spring, 
to determine how effectively the work was done. In spite of 
the fact that the preliminary examination had been carefully 
made by two well-trained scientific men, and the ground had 
again been gone over by a practical man who removed die 
marked trees and any others he saw to be infected, it was found 
that some of the diseased trees had been overlooked. Six other 
lots in these woods were also examined, and the blighted trees 
counted, but not removed, these serving as a check to determine 
tiie benefit of removal in the other lots. 

All of these lots were reexamined in the fall of 1912, and 
the trees removed that winter, as before, from those lots 
reserved for removal. It is expected to keep up this experi- 
ment for several years, if warranted by the results or the preva- 
lence of the blight. As yet it is too early to determine the 
effect of the removal of the trees on the spread of the blight 
by comparison with the check lots. So far as the second year's 
results go, however, there were proportionately just as many 
newly blighted trees found in lots where all had been removed 
the year before as in the lots where all diseased trees had been 
left. 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CONNECTICUT. 

We are not advocating concerted action throughout the state 
to attempt control of the disease by the cutting out method. 
We are only rarely advising this method, in certain districts 



44^ CONNECTICUT EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, I912. 

where probable results might seem to warrant it, such as iso- 
lated woods recently and slightly infected, and of sufficient 
value to warrant the expense. Where a wood lot as a whole 
is merchantable, and the disease is present, we advocate that, 
if market conditions are favorable, it be cut and disposed of 
in the ordinary way. Where the trees are not as a whole of 
marketable size, and the disease is present, we advocate the 
removal of the dead and badly diseased trees and their disposal 
as lumber, poles, ties or cordwood, as their size will permit 

We have no uniform recommendations for treatment of 
sprout growth too small for market purposes, but as a usual 
thing no treatment is recommended. Where trees have been 
cut, and numerous sprouts are developing, it is perhaps advisable 
at the end of die second or third year to go over these and cut 
off all the diseased and weak ones, leaving only four to six 
vigorous <Mies, to renew the stand if possible. 

We are trying to prevent a glut of the market by discouraging 
wholesale cutting of the forests, especially where there is little 
need of it. As yet there has been no general glut and drop of 
prices except on cordwood in certain towns, and 7x9 ties, for 
which the demand on the part of the railroad has evidently 
fallen off. On the whole, however, there has been considerable 
more timber cut than usual. 

There are no small factories for the utilization of waste pro- 
ducts such as tannin, etc., and the establishment of such here b 
not likely or advisable. In the recent investigations of the wood- 
using industries of Connecticut, by Pierson of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, published as Bulletin 174 of this 
Station, it is stated that the chestnut is used by nineteen different 
industries in wood manufacture, of which 50 per cent, of Hat 
supply used is for musical instruments. Of all the chestnut 
timber used, however, only 35 per cent was Connecticut-grown. 

Whether the consumption of the home-grown product can be 
profitably increased is a question we cannot answer here, but 
is worthy of the attention of the timber growers and buyers. 
The largest use made of the chestnut trees is for building timber, 
telephone poles, railroad ties, and cordwood. The latter, besides 
its extensive family use, is consumed in brick kilns, brass 
foundries and charcoal pits. Its consumption by brass factories, 
however, is on the decrease, due to the substitution of crude 
petroleum. 



CHESTNUT BARK DISEASE. 449 

LITERATURE. 

Although chestnut blight is a comparatively new disease, the 
literature on the subject has already become rather extended, 
because of the popular interest aroused. We do not aim to 
include all of the popular articles, but do include all articles, 
so far as we know, that relate to any special study of the disease