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OSPE fr^'^Y COUNTY 

n>\p NO. I 

CIRCLX3 rNOtCATC TOTA^L 
LrNCTH or Jf^uH-J If^ ThC 



Report of the Department of 
Entomology of the New ... 



Dept of Entomology, New Jersey Agricultural 
College Experiment Station 






HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 



OF THE 



Museum of Comparative Zoology 



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REPORT 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL DEPAKTMENT 



OF THE 



New Jersey Agricultural 
College Experiment Station 



New Brunswick, N. J. 



BY 

THOMAS J. HEADLEE, Ph.D. 



For THE Year 1914 




PATEBSON, N. J. 
The N6W8 Printing Co., SUt« Printers. 

1915. 



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' c-i 



REPORT 



OF THE 



ENTOMOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT 



OF THE 



New Jersey Agricultural 
College Experiment Station 

New Brunswick, N. J. 
BY 

THOMAS J. HEADLEE. Ph.D. 
For the Year 1914 



PATERSON, N. J. 
The News Printing Co.. SUte Printers. 

1916. 



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Table of Contents. 



X VI. Report ob' the Entomoixkukt 339-399 

General Outline of Work 339 

Staff Personnel and Acknowledgements 339 

Correspondence 339-345 

General Statement 339 

Tabular Statement 340-345 

Insects of the Year •. . . . 345-354 

Grape Leaf-hopper. 345-346 

Pear PsyJla 346-347 

Plant Lice 347 

San Jose Scale 347 

Oyster-shell Scale 348 

False Apple Red-bug 348 

Potato Flea-beetle 348 

Rose Bug 348 

June Bugs or May Beetles 348 

Strawberry Weevil 349 

White Pine Weevil 349 

Hickory Bark Beetle 349 

An Unusual Greenhouse Insect 349 

Army Worm 350-352 

Apple-tree Tent Caterpillars 352-353 

Florida Fern Caterpillars 353 

Argentine Ant. 353 

Fleas 353 

Grape Vine Potato Gall 354 

Narcissus Fly 364 

Miscellaneous Species 354 

Another Method of Rearing Silk Worms 354-355 

Insect Collections 355-356 

Increase 355 

Exhibition 355-356 

Anti-Poach-Borcr Coatings 356 

(Combinations of Nicotine with Ordinary Spraying Mix- 
ture 356-35? 

Materials Used. . . , 356-357 

Laboratory Methods 357 

Effect on Spray Mixtures 357-359 

Effect on Nicotine 359 

Conclusions 359 

Potato Spraying and Dusting 359-381 

Potato Spraying and Dusting Experiments for the 

Year 1914 361-381 

Introduction 361-363 

Plan of Experiments and Arrangement of 

Plots 363 

Methods of Experiments 363-365 

Discussion of Individual Experiments 365-374 

At Elmer 365-368 

At Freehold 368-371 

At Robbinsville 371-374 

Cost of Spraying and Dusting 374-375 

Control of the Potato Flea-beetle 375-389 

A Parasite of the Flea-beetle 381 

(iii) 



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iv TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

XVI. Repobt of the E:«itomologist — Continued. pages 

Fly Control 381-399 

Fly Control on the College Farm 382-399 

Introduction 3^2 

Studies on the Fly Fauna of the College Farm 382-389 

Species Which Are Attracted to Milk 383 

Breeding Plaoes •. . 384 

Annotated List of the Fleas Seen Upon 

the College Farm 384-389 

Experiments With Baits for Fly Traps 389-390 

Studies on Larvicides 390-394 

Laboratory Experiments 390-391 

Outdoor Experiments With Iron Sulphate 

and Borax 391-392 

Effect of Larvicidal Doses of Iron Sul- 
phate and Bleaching Powder on the 

Growth of Barley 392-393 

Experiments With Pyroligenous Add. . . . 393 
Control of the Fly Bre^dtmg in Horst 

Stalls : 394 

Flight Experiments 394-396 

Why Flies Do Not Breed in Old Compost 396-399 

Ammonia Experiments 397 

Experiments With Manure Extracts 398-399 

Practical Methods Used to Exterminate Flies 399 



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Report of the Entomologist. 



THOMAS J. HEADLEE, PH. D. 



GENERAL OUTLINE OF WORK. 

The attention of the entomologist has been devoted this year to fur- 
nishing information and other assistance, insofar as his means would per- 
mit» as the need arose. He has also carried forward investigations of 
anti-peach-borer coatings, of the effect of various sprays and dusts on 
potato foliage and yield, and of the problems of house fly and mosquito 
control. 

Staff Personnel and Acknowltdomtnts. 

The present year has seen a considerable amount of change in the staif. 
Miss Augusta E. Meske has continued her efficient management of the 
clerical affairs of the office. Mr. C. H. Richardson, Jr., took up and car- 
ried on the work against the house fly and its allies. On April 1st Mr. A. 
B. Cameron, who holds a scholarship of the Board of Agriculture of Eng- 
land, Joined the force for the purpose of gaining practical experience in 
field methods of insect control. He was given charge of the potato 
foliage work and carried it forward in an eminently satisfactory manner. 
Mr. Herman H. Brehme, chief inspector in mosquito extermination work, 
resigned on November 80, 1913. Mr. Joseph S. Obecny resigned on March 
3lBt to take up the management of his farm and greenhouse plant on Long 
Island. On June let Mr. Charles S. Beckwith was appointed as temporary 
assistant in mosquito work and has been appointed a member of the per- 
manent force; his appointment is to take effect November 1st 

CORRESPONDENCE. 
General Statement 

The correspondence of the present year has involved the handling of 
approximately 6,000 regular letters, about one half of which were 
written in this office. In addition to this, work at least 2,000 circular 
letters have been sent out. 915 letters concerning specific pests have 
been written for the purpose of giving requested information relative to 
habits and methods of control. 



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340 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Tabular Statement. 



ARACHNIDA. 

BnrobU prateoas. Gannan Clpver Mite. ^eokwh. Mmt 

Enopliycii aenigma. Mit« Keansburg Juhr 

gSSSsp^^ GaUMite S^^l^y?* "J*^ 

^^ ^ Red ^ider. Newark July 

•• •• . . Mite Quinton Oct. 

••;;;;;;.;; •• weatviue oct. 

•• •• . " Madison Sept. 

.Dog Tick. Cream Ridge June 

INSECTA. 



LOCULUTT. 

. Englewood 



Dermacentor amerioanut. L. 



TfATiM Namb. CoiiMON Nams. 
Thermobia domeitioa Pack. SUver Fiah. 



Thripa tabaoi. linden. 



Apbit braMioe, linn. . 
Aphis gompi. Glover. 

•« •• •• 

Aphis mali, Fahr. 



Aphididae, 



Atpidiotua'h«d8ro. Vail 
AipidiotuB pernioiotua. Vail. 



Aulaoanni row, 



Bonche 



25 
15 


27 
20 

1 
12 



DATS. 

.Sept. 1 

TBTSANOmBA. 

Onion Thript E. Moriches, L.I.,N.Y.Aug. 13 

HOMOPTERA. 

Cabbage Aphis Paterson Oct. 

Mekm AphisTT Dias Creek July 

** ** Arlington July 

•• •* Somerville Sept. 

Apple ApUs. Bloomfield June 

• •• ^T. Deal June 

•• •• Somerville. June 

" " Dias Creek. July 

*• Scotch Plains. Sept. 

Plant lice Mt. Holly June 

" Chatsworth Sept. 

" " Middletown ,May 

Root lice MuUica Hill June 

Plant lice Elisabeth June 

** *' So. Bound Brook. . .. .June 

Green lice. Rockaway July 

Green Root Louse Pahnyra. July 



Plant lice. . . 



J« 



Jersey aty. 

.... Elisabeth. . 

Rahway . . . . 

. ...Pennington. 

... .Orange 

Somerville. . 

Trenton 

Metuchen... 

Trenton 

Trenton 

Lakewood. . 

Oleander Scale Montolair 

San Jose Scale Mason aty, W. Va. 



...July 
...July 
...July 
. . .July 
. . .Aug. 
. ..Aug. 
...Aug. 
...Aug. 
...Aug. 
...Sept. 
...Oct. 
...Mar. 
Jan. 



. Watchung Mar. 

. .Princeton May 

. .Haddonfiekl June 

. .Springfield June 

. .New York aty June 

Haddonfield June 

^^^ .RoseScale Vineland Mar. 

/^!|!!^r^if(ChermM)abieticolens.Thos. Spruce Gall Louse. . . .Rutherford Sept. 

^^^^^^ pinioorticis Pitch Pine Bark Aphid Salem Jan. 

•* *• •* ** *• New Brunswick May 

East Orange June 

LambertvUle Sept. 

.Enonymous Scale Tenafly Mar. 

*• Ocean aty May 

** *• Moorestown July 

OkioQuma furfurus. Fitch §««^ S<»le. Jersey aty. ., June 

rdonarois pinUoHs. Fitch Pme Leaf Scale New Brunswick May 

ColoDha vOmiook. Fitch Cox^Comb QaU-Louse hooust June 

DuSSSTcarueU, Targ Juniper Scale ^^- 'Vi-. AF" 

uwrnv^ ,. .. .. jj^^ Brunswick May 

•• •♦ ** ,* •* Convent June 

Eulecanium tuUplfenu, Cook Tulip^Soft Scale Jenafly Feb. 



Qliionaspis enoE^S^mi, Comst. . 



Eulecanium sp. 



Soft Scale Trenton. 



.July 



^SS^S^^^iA^/Uod:\ EbnScale. Mt. Holly. ..... i i ! i ij^T. 

iMrya purchasu. Mask Cottony Cushion Scale Prmceton Feb. 



15 

8 
20 

2 

1 

4 
11 

8 
24 
30 
14 
24 
19 
25 
29 

1 

7 
15 
18 
20 
30 

7 
10 
18 
20 
31 
16 
23 
17 
26 

6 
14 

8 
19 
22 
24 
11 
26 
29 
21 

3 
11 
31 

5 
31 
22 
21 
22 
30 

6 
14 
19 
13 
30 
16 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 341 

Tabular 8tat«m«nt — Continued. i 

HOMOPTERA— Cootmued. 

Latin Namb. Common Nams. Locautt. Dats. 

LtpidoMpbM olmi. linn Oyster-Shell Scale Pine Brook. April 17 

•* Whippany April 2 

*• - •• Jenoydty April 27 

*• " " " WcetfieW May 16 

" Plainfield June 2 

•• New York a^ June 2 

•• •• •• •• ** *• Haokenaaok June 6 

" •• - •* Springfielcl June 19 

*• WoodcliffonHud«»..Ang. 24 

•• OoeanQrove. 8ept.2» 

Mysua persioM. Suls. Qreen Peaoh Aphia. Hooreetown Oet. 17 

iCrsua ribia, Lum Currant Aphia. Mooreatown Oct. 12 

*• • •* EaatOrange. May 4 

" " Johnaonburg May 7 

" " EastOranfe May 11 

•• ** •• Weatfieki May 18 

•* •• " •• •♦ Dunelien. May 18 

•* •• •• " •• Rooelle. June 21 

" •• Haddonfield. June 24 

Neetaxophora piri, Kalt. Pea Loum Budds Lake May 11 

" " " Grenloch. June 17 

Neetaxophora ioa», Lum Roae Aphie. Patenon May 27 

Pemphicua ip Poplar Gall-Louee East Orange. June 24 

Pbeoaeooeus aoerieola, Kina. Mi^ Pseudooocua. Tenafly Feb. 10 

Phylkoerm yaatatrix, Planeh. . . .Grape Phylknura. WeatEnd. July 17 

- " " .... ^^ " WestfieW Jubr 30 

•* .... " •* Madison Aug. 19 

Pseudoouocus sp Mealy Bug 8pring6eld July 8 

•^ " " Newton. Sept. 16 

Payila p3rriook^ Forst. Pear PqyUa Magnolia. , Jufir 7 

^ *• •• •• " ln5feV»- Sept. 14 



Rhopalosiphum solani, Thos Tomato Aphis Phillq>sburg Ju& 10 

^^^^^ •' *•.... " *• Clifton. Ju& 18 

" .... " •• MtEphraim Ju& 16 

" .... " " Ariingtoo Ju5 20 

" " .... " " Newark. Ju£e28 

V "....•• " Elmer June 29 

Saissetia hemisphiorica, Targ .. . .Hemispherical Scale. Verona. July 4 

Saissetia sp Soft Scale. .Rahway June 17 

Sohisoaeura lanigera, Hausm. . ..Wooley Apple Aphis Deal June 4 

**.... Locust. June 22 

" .... •• - " Passaic June 1 

"...." M .. Elisabeth June 22 

• New York aty .July 6 

•• • «... Swainton Oct. 13 

•• Vineland Oct. 16 

IVphlocyba comes, Say Grape Leaf-hopper Hightstown. Sept. 23 

^^ - *^ *'^ •• ^^ Glassboro Sept 29 

" MerchantviUe. S^t.29 

l^rphlocyba rose* linn Rose leaf-hopper Dover. June 12 

l^phlocyba rosn. Linn Rose leaf-hopper Montolair June 17 

HEMIPTERA. 

Anaaa tristis. De G Squash Bug. W. ColHngswood July 13 

Arilus cristatuB, linn Wheel Bug Freehokl March 24 

" " •• Burlington Aug. 16 

MiridflB iCbpsidflB) Plant Bug. Plainfieki June 29 

Coreidae. • Bug Swedeaboro Aug. 8 

Hordaa goniphorus. Say Hamden July 2 

Leptobyrsa. ezplanta Heid Rhododendron Lace Bug. . . . Lambertville. Oct. 16 

lygua Kalmii, otal. Elmer June 29 

Paloik>oapaus hneatus, Fab Foux^lined Leaf-bug East Orange. Bfay 4 

*• •• •• ^^ .♦ •• M New Brunswick. June 6 

Hamden July 2 

ORTHOPTRA. 



Afli!i*H^*" Grasshoppers. Medford Aug. 29 

Blatta oiientalis linn Oriental Cockroach. New Brunswick May 21 

Blattide. Roaches Richwood July 8 

Diapheromeca fsmorata. Say. . .. Walking Stick. Westfield Sept. 16 

Gryl^ domestious, Linn House Cricket Highland Park Aug. 24 

Loeustidv Meadow Graashopper Medford Aug. 29 

Ificrooentrum sp Katydid Bound Brook MKr. 3 

Paratenodera nnensis. Sauss. . . .Chinese Mantis Palmyra Aug. 24 

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342 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Tabular Statement — Continued. 

OOLEOPTERA. 

Latin Namk. Common Namb. Locautt. Date. 

Agrilus rufioolliB, Fab Red-neoked Oineborer SeweU Feb. 10 

AJJorhina nitida, Linn Patenon July 16 

** " " Lambertviile. July 18 

Amphioerus bioaudatus, Say. . . .Apple twigborer Hammonton May 8 

Antaonomufl signatua, Say Strawberry Weevil Medford May 17 

*• •• '* Moorestown May 18 

•• •' *• " *• Hammonton May 10 

*• ....^. •• " MUlviUe Majr 10 

Apion nigrum, Herbet Black Loouat Apion New York City June 1 

Attagenus pioeus, Oliv BJaok Carpet beetle New Brunawiok April 22 

" *• *• •* *' *• Nutley Aug. 4 

Nutkiy AugT 17 

Bupreatidffi Flat-headed borer Rutherford Aug. 6 

Oawndra orysie, Linn Rice Weevil Butler April 27 

Oaloeoma scrutator, Fabr Firey Searcher Wiklwood May 18 

Gbauliognatua marginatua, Fabr. lAmpyrid Far Hills June 2 

Gbrysomelidft Leaibeetle Westfield Aug. 18 

CocdneUkUe. Lady Bird sp Trenton Aug. 31 

Oonotraohelus nenuphar. Hbst. ..Plum curouuo Middletown May 28 

Camden June 2 

PlainfiekL June 4 

Ogdensburg. June 10 

U. Montdau* June 15 

Glementon June 17 

Pennington June 22 

Glementon July 8 

U. Montdair July 6 

Short Hills. Ju& 8 

Montdair July 10 

Now York Cily JuJfy 20 

Franklinville Aug. 3 



Crepkiodera nifipes. linn. 



.South OnuBge Sept. 

'^— York aty. 



i,r«pKiuu«t« >uuiM>a, *--»». ;•••.• •J?*'' York Q^ June 1 

Crioceiis asparagi, Linn Asparagus beetle Greenwich. May 18 

•• " " " " Trenton June 

Cydooephala villosa. Bums June Bug. Paterson. May 

IJennsatide Carpet Beetles Port Norris Sept. 23 

Diabrotica vittata, Fab Striped Cucumber beetle. . . .Grenloch June 4 

" " " " ....Bay Head June 23 

*• W. Collingswood July 13 

..New York aty S^ 3 

Elaphidion viUosum, Fab Oak twig Pruner Red Bank June 22 

" •• '* ** " " Convent. Aug* 17 

" " " Ramsey j^ Ig 

New York aty July 18 

Bdleplain Sept H 

EJaterid«,sp Wbeworma M.**J?^^- ^ug. 29 

fiUateridie sp Wire worms. Short Hills. Sept. 6 

Epiuix .ucum-U, Hip. . . .... .Potato Fk. B^. ....... g^^J^- • • ■■■■■■^ f 

•' ". Moorestown Mur 28 

•* ** •• Newark. June 23 

Epitrix parviUa. Fab FJea Beetle. New Brunswick. May 20 

oSSSoffia luteola, MuU Elm Lwif Beetle. M t. Holly. JiSe 30 

SoDodamia convergens, Guer. . .Lady Bird Hackensack July 27 

^fodamia gUcialS. Fab. .... . Lady Bird ?'''^u W. S«Pt- 1« 

U^SruTnova-boracensIs, Forst.. New York City May 11 

L^Sbnostema tristis. Fab. . . . .•• .May Beetle. Pomptpn Plains May 16 

;;;;; •• " puunfiew j,Se 4 

*• ** Princeton June 12 

.. *.; •• " MulUcaHiU. June 19 

LADtinotarsa lO-Hneata. Say Colorado Potato-beetle Haokettotown July 14 

*^*^ M •• •• •• •• " ** Sussex. July 20 

.• «• •• " " *• ** Swedesboro Au«. 8 

*• " " Short Hills Sept. 16 

Lyctus striatus, Mels. .Powder Post Beetle ^fnM>ny Aug. 13 

aSodactyhisiubspinoeus.Fabr.Rose Chafer SS25„ {««« S 

i« " •• west vine. June 10 

•i ** ** " ** Haddon Heighto June 10 

•• •♦ •• *• •* Vineland June 14 

.. •• Hamilton Square June 16 



LAchnostera sp. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 343 

Tabular Statement — Continued. 

OOLEOPTERA— OoDtinued. 

LATm Nams. Common Namb. Localitt. Datb. 

Macxodaotyhiii subapinosua, Fabr.Roae Chafer Bay Head June 23 

Elmer June 29 

Lady Bird Swedeeboro Oct. 19 

Bfitter Beetles Roeelle Park July 7 

Tenafly June 5 

\y Soolytid Tenafly June 5 

IS. Elaterid Olaasboro JuJty 

Leaf Beetle Prinoeton June 1 

Leaf Beetle Fair Lawn June 29 

New York aty June 1 

r Peach Bark Beetle Farminfldale Oct. 28 

White Pine Weevil Bemar^ndlle July 10 

'* " *• Lsmnfield, Maae. Aug. 17 

" ." " ^ " " " LynnfieW. Maae Sept. 16 

Pterooyolon mah, Fitoh Soolytid Tenafly June 5 

Soolytua quadrispinomifl. Say Hickory Bark Beetle. N. ArUnirton July 22 

8ool3rtus quadriapinosus. Say Hickory Bark Beetle Convent Aug. 17 

Scobrtua ruguloeus. Rati Fruit Bark Beetle Nutley June 28 

8oo&tu8 ruffukMUs Rats Fruit Bark Beetle U. Montdair July 8 

SeolytoB ruguk>su0. Rats Fruit Bark Beetle Mahwah Sept. 15 

Soolytua rufuk>8ua. Rats Fruit Bark Beetle Farmincdale Oct. 29 

Berica trociformis Burm Cedar (^eet May 11 

Tribofiuxn femudneus, Fab Butler April 27 

Txichiua piger. Fab MerohantviUe June 27 

Triehobaris tnnotata, Say Potato Stalk Borer Flemington July 11 

Trichobaiis trinotata, Say Potato Stalk Borer Maya Landinjc, June 27 

Trocodenna ap Dermeatid New Brunswick. June 25 

Xytoterea pohtua. Say Soolytid Tenafly June 15 

LEPIDOPTERA. 

Aoronyeta oblinita, Sm-Abb Dagger Moth Swedeeboro Oct. 12 

Anaowa lineateUa, Zell Metuchen Aug. 29 

Arehipa roaaoeana, Harr I .Bas^nne June 1 

CaUoeamia promethea, Dm F N^w York aty May 15 

Csfdia pomoncJla, Linn C Somerville July 14 

Ceratomia oataljpcB, Bdv C Swedeaboro Sept. 15 

Otheronia regaUa, Fab I BerHn Sept. 8 

Coleophora fletcherella. Fern C W.Virginia Jub^ 15 

Datana integernma(Q. A R E er Hackettatown Aug. 23 

Deamia fumeraHa, Hbn G New Brunawiok May 29 

GoometridiB . r C Dover June 12 

H^botiiia obaoleta, Fab C Hackenaack June 5 

*' ** " Somers Point June 22 

•• '* *• " Great Meadowa. July 20 

Hemeroeampa leuooatigma, S. A. . White-marked Tuaaock Moth Newton June 26 

Hypfaantria eunea, Dnr Fall Web-worm New York dty Sept. 3 

Leucania unipuncta* Harr Army Worm Shrewabury June 16 

" '* " Ocean Grove. July 13 

•' " " Atlantic aty July 13 

" ** .. « Trenton July 15 

" •• " MuUicaHiU. Jufy 16 

** " ** " ** Trenton July 16 

•• •• " " " Richwood July 16 

" ..i-... " " • Blackwood July 17 

" " " Hackenaack July 17 

" " •• Haddonfield Jufy 17 

" " " " " Newton July 17 

" " " Philadelphia Juty 18 

•• *• ** " •' Bordentown July 18 

•• •• •• Little Silver Ju^ 20 

•• •* •' ** •' Long Branch July 21 

" " " New York July 21 

•• •• •• " '* New Brunswick July 21 

" " •• New York aty July 21 

" " " *' •' New Brunawick July 22 

•• " " " " WeatEnd July 22 

•• " " '* *' Belmar July 23 

" •• •* •• " Morriatown July 23 

" *• " " " Grantwood Juty 24 

** " " •* '• Hammontoq July 24 

" •• " " •• New York aty Jqly 21 

•* " " " ...New Brunawiok July 22 

" " " Weat End July 22 



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344 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 
Tabular Statement — Continued. 

LEPIDOPTERA— Coatinued. 

Latin Namb. Common Namx. Locautt. Datb. 

Leucaoia unipuocta Harr Army Worm Belmar July 23 

" . •' " " Morristown July 28 

'* •• " Qrantwood July 24 

'• " " Hammonton July 24 

; " *• " New York aty Ju& 24 

; ;* " Tenafly July 25 

" " " Princeton July 26 

." •• " Weetfield JvSr 26 

• " " JerseyCity July 28 

" " " New York aty Ju& 81 

; " •• " PlainfieW....: Au«. 28 

" " " Atlantic Hicfalanda. . .Sept. 14 

Maoronoctua onueta, Grt. Nootuid Orange. June 14 

Malacoeoma americana, Fabr.. . .Apple-tree Tent-cateipillar. .. Phalanx Feb. 20 

" *• •• ... ^ ...Allendale. May 18 

;;... ; ...AUendale. May 22 

"... ...New York aty June 2 

" .... " " " " ...Oxford .: July 1 

"... " " " •• ' ...Hackettetown July 14 

"... • " ...Lodi Sept. » 

Malacoeoma duetria, Hbn Forest Tent Caterpillar Newton June 6 

Meltttia aatyTinifonnis, Hbn Squash Borer I^dhurat. Aug. 27 

Bfineola vaocinii, Riley Cranberry-fruit Worm New York City Aug. 17 

" " PlainfieW. ...: Aug. 18 

Nootuidae sp Cut Worm New Brunswick. May 8 

•^ •* " East Moriches, 

Lone Island. N. Y. Jfay 26 

•*..•. Noctuid Asbury Park June 26 

Oxyptihis perisoelidactyhis,Fitch.Qrape Plume Moth Nutl^ May 26 

Papaipema nitela. On DahHa stalkborer Trenton July 14 

" " " Sterling. Aug. 10 

PapiUo polyxenus, Fab SwaUow-tail Butterfly Cater- 
pillar Jamesburg. Aug. 1 

Phlegethonttus oaioUna, linn. . .Tomato Worm Qlen Qardner Aug. 21 

".... •• " Washington Aug. 28 

Rhyadonia fhistrana, Scudd ^ Trenton Aug. 10 

RhyaokMiia sp Bass Rirer. F^. 21 

Mineola indianelU, ZeU Rascal Leaf-crumpler New York City May 11 

Pieris rap», linn Imported Cabbage Worm. .. .OaUfon. July 16 

PInipestris simmermanni, Qrt. . .Pine Tip Moth New Brunswick May 21 

PodosBsia S3^ring», Harr lilac Borer. Rirerton. June 20 

Sanninoidea eodtosa Sur Peach Borer. Mendham % May 22 

" ^*^ " •• New York aty May 26 

" •* •• New York aiy Ju£e 1 

" " •• Tltusville. June 2 

" " •• CaHfon June 6 

" " " Morristown July 7 

•* " " RosellePark. Ju& 7 

" '• " NaughbriAt Aug. 1 

•• •• " Broatb^nTN.Y Aug. 31 

" " " HaddonHeigfato Sept. 7 

" " " Woodbridge. S^t. 21 

" " " Interlaken Oct. 6 

•• •• " New York aty Oct. 12 

" " " PhilUpsburg Oct. 27 

Sohisura conohina, S. and A Red-Humped Apple-cater- 
pillar Hackensack July 17 

Sesia tipuUformis, linn Imported Currant Borer Haddonfield June 24 

Sibine stimulea, Clem Saddle-back Caterpillar Roeedale Aug. 18 

•' •* Trenton Sept. 24 

Thsrxidopteryx ephemeneformis, 

Stepb Bag Worm ...Passaic July 18 

Thyiidopteryx ephemeneformis, 

Steph •• •* PWnlleW. Aug. 10 

Thyridoptersrx ephemeneformis, . . -^ . . 

Steph..... " - AtlanticHighlands. . .Aug. 28 

Vanessa antkypa. linn Spiny EUm Caterpillar Riverton. Aug. • 

Zeusera psrrina. Fab .^. .Leopard Moth Iiong Branch June 16 

HYMENOPTERA. 

" " Atsion Mar. 11 

Apis melUfera. linn Honey Bee Morgan)rille. ..• July IS 

CaUroa limaoina, Reti Pear Slug Somerville. June 11 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 345 

Tabular Statement — Continued. 

HYMENOPTERA— Continued. 

Latin Nams. Common Namb. Locautt. Date. 

OunpoDotus hflfftrolwinui penn-. . 

qrhraiiieiis, DtO Carpenter Ant New York City 8«pt 10 

CbryadkUe ep Cuckoo Bee Hishlande July 16 

EiMlelomyia »thiope. Fab Roee Shig Dover June 12 

Formkida op .\ Ante. Nutley Aus. 17 

" ^' Black Ante WeetfieW May 9 

'* '* Ante. MerehantviUe June 1 

Tdmeumooidv ep lohneunon Fly Princeton Auc. 17 

Mesarhyaw lunator, Fab Long-tailed Ichneumon LambertviUe Aug. 17 

•• ^' •• NewBrunwrick Aug. 21 

MoDophodnoidee oaryie, Nort. . .Hickory Woolly Worm Belfonl Aug. 17 

IfoiM^hadnoklee rubi, Harr Baapberry Saw Fly Hammonton May 26 

Odynerua tigris, Sanae. Wasp Highlands. July 26 

Bhoditee roar, linn. Moev Roee-gall little Falls. May 4 

Tomoetethus bardus, Say Saw Fly Far Hilk. June 2 

SPHONAPTERA. 

Cteoooephalus eanis. Curt Cttt and Dog Flea. Rahway July 31 

^ " " •• *^ •• Ridgefiekl Aug. 16 

" " •• *• ..Red Bank- Aug. 26 



17 



DIPTERA. 

Aedes eantator, Coq Brown Salt Marsh Mosquito. .Pat^rson May 27 

** Brown Salt Marsh Mosquito.. Elisabeth July 21 

CalHphora erythzooephala Blow Fhr Morristown July 20 

Taeioptera vitis O. S Grape Vine Potato Qall Rutherford Jui^ 30 

Ceoidoinyiidae sp West End July 17 

^ " Titusville Aug. 14 

•* Mahwah Aug. 17 

" Mahwah Aug. 24 

Cootarinia pyrivora, Riley Pear Midge New Brunswick Aug. 6 

Cules pipiens, linn House Moequito Pateraon May 27 

Cafioidae sp Moaquitoe Fon Du Lac. Wis May 27 

Daflmeura leguminicola, lint. . .Cbver Seed Midge Bound Brook June 12 

Lo^iia cnaar, linn Green Bottle Fly Morristown July 20 

MajretioU deatructor, Say Heesian Fly Hampton May 29 

" " Eaat Orange May 31 

•* Frenchtown June 12 

" Newark June 24 

" Hackettatown July 14 

" Flemington Aug. 26 

Mttsoa domestioa, linn Houae Fly Leonia June 2 

Fhoibia braaaton, Bouche Cabbage Maggot. Hightatown May 28 

•• •• ^^ Medford June 9 

" •• " WeetviUe June 10 

Phorbia cepetorum, Meig Imported Onion Maggot New York City July 9 

" '* " ^ Hackettatown Oct. 16 

Phorbia ap Onion Maggot Grenloch May 23 

Phorbia q> *' * Manahawkin June 18 

INSECTS OF THE YEAR. 

Grape Leaf-Hopper. 

iTyphlocyha comes Say) 

Tne grape leaf-hopper has this year been unusually abundant and has 
done a large amo|Lnt of damage. Indeed, the writer is convinced that not 
only this year but for several years passed, the damage done by this in- 
sect has been much larger than most of the grape growers suspect 
Many of the vineyards of south central New Jersey were this summer so 
badly infested that disturbing the vines in late August and early Sep- 
tember caused the hoppers to rise in clouds. The fact that these creatures 
are sucking insects and do not cut or chew the foliage is probably the 
condition that has led growers to disregard them. It is interesting to note 



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346 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

that Hartzel* found the vines protected from leaf-hopper attack to hare 
from 8 to 68 per cent more sugar In the berries than had the fruit from 
the unprotected vines. 

Spraying experiments in New Yorkf have clearly shown that "Black- 
leaf 40" used at the rate of 1 part to 1,600 parts of water or Bordeaux 
destroyed the hoppers. To get best results this treatment should be ap- 
plied while the hoppers are Immature, and must be made with sufficient 
care to wet all individual insects. Owing to the fact that the young hop- 
pers congregate on the lower shoots, which are of little value and hard to 
spray, it is recommended that these shoots be removed Just before the 
application is made. 

Pear Psylla. 

iPsylla pyricola Porst) 

For several years past this insect has been giving serious trouble at 
various points in the state. From Riverton, Vineland, Moorestown and 
Phalanx formal complaints have been received by the writer and in many 
other places he has seen evidence of its work. 

Taking care not to injure the trees, the rough bark should be scraped 
from the trunks and larger branches and all trash about the orchard 
should be cleaned up in order that the psyllas may have no good shelter 
in which to pass the winter. This scraping may be done at any time when 
time is available. It is probable, however, that the best time for the 
operation, from all standpoints, is the early fall. At this time the living 
bark is hardening and psyllas are not yet in hibernation. The studies of 
Hodgkisst show that during warm spells in November and December the 
adult psyllas emerge from the crevices in which they have sought shelter 
and move sluggishly about over the trees, and that at such times a thor- 
ough treatment with a mixture composed of three-fourths of a pint of 
"Black-leaf 40" to 100 gallons of water with soap added at the rate of 
three to five pounds will destroy all that are hit The delaying of the dor- 
mant treatment with lime-sulphur for San Jose scale until the buds are 
about ready to open has been shown to destroy such eggs as have been 
laid. By the time the petals have fallen most of the eggs have hatched 
and the young have concentrated about the bases of the fruit stems and 
leaf stalks. A thorough treatment at this time with a mixture composed 
of three-fourth of a pint of "Black-leaf 40" to 100 gallons of water to which 
from 3 to 5 pounds of soap have been added will destroy all that are hit 
Thorough work at this time will usually destroy nearly all of the insects. 

In badly infested orchards it is advisable to use the four treatments 
mentioned — scraping, fall spraying, delayed winter strength lime-sulphur 
treatment and blossom fall spraying. In view of the success in using the 
"Black-leaf 40" combined with Bordeaux or summer strength lime-sulphur 
against aphis and red bug the writer sees no reason why the last of the 



♦New York (Geneva) Station Bull. No. 359. 

tU C. 

tNew York (Geneva) Station Bulletin No. 387. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 347 

four treatments cannot be combined with the regular bloeeom ttM spray- 
ing for chewing insects and diseases. If such practice were adopted the 
tobacco probably should be used at the rate of 1 part to 600 parts of the 
spraying mixture. 

Plant Lice. 
(Aphidid€B) 

Although not nearly so abundant as last year Tarious species hare done 
enough harm to 'attract attention. The apple plant lice (particularly 
AphiM mali DeG,) haye done much harm to foliage and fruit Although 
reports reeeired and obsenrations made are rather meagre they agree 
that "BlaCk-leaf 40" used with soap and water or with the ordinary spray- 
ing mixtures (Bordeaux and arsenate of lead or summer lime-sulphur and 
arsenate of lead) destroys the lice and does not injure the trees. 

In this connection it should be said that Mr. Charles S. Beckwith, a 
senior student in Rutgers (Allege, deyoted a large part of his thesis time 
to an elementary study of the various combinations of nicotine solutions 
with common spraying mixtures for the purpose of determining whether 
the uniting seriously altered the physical make up of the combination or 
combined the nicotine in such a fashion as to make it inefrective. The 
results he obtained are set forth in a special section of this report 

Tests of standard tobacco extracts have gone far enough and have 
shown such results that persons having trouble with plant lice would do 
well to consider them as methods of controL 

The wooly apple aphis iSchizoneutu lanigera Hausm) appeared in un- 
usual numbers and occasioned much complaint. It should be remembered 
that this insect lives both on the roots and on the upper parts of the 
tree, and that the elimination of the above-ground form contributes to the 
control of the below-ground form. Root treatments of orchard trees for 
destruction of lice have 40t proven very successful i^nd it seems that 
elimination of the above-ground form by use of soap or nicotine and soapy 
sprays accompanied by proper pruning* cultivation and fertilization, is 
likely to give best results. In the nursery row, however, the elimination 
of the above-ground form may be profitably accompanied by a root treat- 
ment 6t the many that have been suggested at various times by various 
persons, it seems likely that running a liberal amount of tobacco dust in 
trendies along the rows, just over the roots will prove most satisfactory. 
The tobacco when carried by water down to the roots destroys the lice, 
acts as a repellant and is thought to have a fertilizing effect 

San Jooe Scale. 
{AspidiotuM pericious 0>mst) 
This species is not so frequently received in correspondence as are many 
ot the older formerly-oonsidered-less-troublesome kinds. It has been this 
year less frequently- complained of than the oyster-shell scale. This is 
partly due to widespread knowledge of its recognition marks and methods 
of oontroU but also partly due to a great and widespread reduction in its 
malignity. It is obviously experiencing a period of depression. The writer 
does not believe, however, that spraying for it can safely be neglected. 



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348 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Oytter^Kell Scale. 
{Lepidosaphes ulmi Linn.) 
This Insect seems to be increasing -In numbers and in amount of damage 
it does. This year, in addition to the usual trouble with it In nurseries 
and orchard plantings, it was found on birches growing in the woods at 
Westwood, New Jersey, and it was exceptionally abundant on poplar and 
black walnut at SomervlUe. On cultivated trees it is easily controlled by 
proper washes. Persons having trees infested with this scale should look 
after them carefully. 

False Apple Red-Bug. 
{Lygidea mendax Reut) 
This Insect appeared in considerable numbers In various orchards about 
New Brunswick, but readily succumbed to treatment outlined In the 1918 
report of the entomologist 

Potato Flea-Beetle. 
(Epitrix cucumeris Harr.) 
Without doubt this Insect has been, during the past year* from the 
standpoint of potatp foliage Injury, the most serious insect problem of the 
white-potato grower. During the entire season the writer did not see a 
patch free from injury. In most places the beetles were feeding on plan- 
tain and other weeds about the fields before the potatoes emerged from the 
soil. Scarcely were they above the ground before perforating the leaves 
began. This continued throughout the season. Between broods the dam- 
age was small. Even the second crop suffered much harm from this pest. 

Rose Bug. 

i Macrodaotylus auhspinoaus Fab.) 

The damage done by this species was sufficient to occasion complaint 

Arsenate of lead and glucose again proved an efficient spray. The five 

pounds of lead arsenate in the usual formula was in some cases Increased 

to eight 

June Bugs or May Beetles. 

While the history of these insects shows instances of as great or greater 
abundance, the writer has never seen May beetles so numerous as they 
have been this year. Every warm quiet night during the season of their 
abundance (June) the trees on the writer's lawn were each a roaring 
swarm. Very generally over the state the tender leaves of forest, shade 
and fruit trees were eaten off. The injury occasioned much speculation 
as to the cause, and some complaint 

It seems likely that these beetles came from the white grubs that were 
so troublesome in the summer of 1912. That year it will be remembered 
the damage was so great as to cause it to be designated as the "White 
Grub Year." 

Whether this extraordinary number of beetles foreshadows unusual 
damage by white grubs cannot at present be told. A careful watch will be 
kept and warning Issued as soon as the danger can be definitely discerned. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 349 

strawberry W*«vil. 
{Anthonomu$ signatus Say.) 

This inaeet has this year done more harm than It usually does, and none 
of the measures tried thus far glye promise of entirely satisfactory re* 
suits. The growing of the stamlnate varieties as a trap does not appear 
to have had serious trial by our growers. Those to whom the writer has 
mentioned the possibility have found the suggestion totally new, or have 
decided that the disadvantages of the pistillate varieties are too great 
Some aver that the berries from the pistillate varltles are not equal In 
flavor to those grown from the perfect flower; others that the berries do 
not stand shipment as welL 

Mr. J. L. Pursuer In a letter dated May 14th called attention to the 
work of this Insect at Cologne. The Inspections whlph followed on May 
20th showed In many Instances a loss of 50 per cent The variety known 
as "Manhattan" seemed especially susceptible. The Injury was marked 
at Egg Harbor, Hammonton and MUlvllle. 

White Pine Weevil. 
iPiiiodes itrobi Peck) 

This Insect has been much In evidence this season. Its work was noted 
at BemardsvlUe, South Orange, and Morris Plains. Adults were emerging 
on August 7th, when the detailed examinations were made. 

Persons experiencing this trouble were advised to keep the terminal 
shoots sprayed during May and June with whale oil soap (1 pound to 6 
gallons of water) to which one-half pound of arsenate of lead has becfh 
added. They were also warned to keep a sharp lookout for a slight yel- 
lowing of the tips and to examine promptly for signs of feeding. If 
punctures are found each should be probed with a soft wire to kill the 
larva. If the feeding has gone on to such an extent as to render recovery 
doubtful, the shoots should be promptly cut out and burned. 

Hickory Bark Beetle. 

( 8colytu$ quadrispinoiUM Say) 

This Insect has been Just as Injurious this year as last and Is really a 
terrible pest of the hickory In the northeastern part of the state. It Is a 
matter of great regret to the writer that his funds have not permitted him 
to take up the study of this species, for the present measures of control are 
not practical under the local conditions. 

Ah Unusual Greenhouse Insect ^ 

In a greenhouse In North Jersey a calandrld new to our collection was 
taken and sent to the Bureau of Entomology for Identification. Mr. 
Schwarz determined It as Eucactophagus graphipterus Champion and 
remarked that It was a native of Costa Rica and the United States of 
Colombia. He further said there were only three specimens known. 



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350 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Army Worm. 
{Leucania unipuncta Harv.) 

During May and early June reports of tremendous numbers of moths 
flying about the lights came from various cities throughout the state, the 
greatest Interest being manifested by towns and cities along the coast 
from Sandy Hook to Atlantic City. The few specimens which we had a 
chance to examine were all army worm moths. 

A little after the middle of June reports of army worm damage to 
com, wheat and potatoes came In. In all cases the worms migrated from 
adjacent fields of grass. Early In July reports of extensive lawn Injury 
by the same species began to arrive from nearly all parts of South 
Jersey. On July 17th the writer observed the worms at work In the light- 
house lawn at Atlantic City. They consumed all blue and other tender 
grasses, leaving the weeds and coarse grass. At that time they ranged 
from one-half an Inch long to fully grown. The lawn was dry and brown, 
except In spots where coarse grass and weeds gave It a green color. Four 
days later complaints were pouring In from all parts of the state. 

As Is usually the case the rare parasitism visible at the beginning of the 
outbreak Increased until almost all the worms that could be found were 
Infested. 

Arsenate of lead was sprayed on Infested grass plots and killed many 
worms, but proved totally Insufficient to stop an advancing horde. Poi- 
soned bran mash likewise destroyed many, but could not stop the armies. 
In ditching across the line of march was found the successful method of 
stopping their progress. Ditches 12 to 20 Inches deep with the smooth 
perpendicular side toward the field to be protected and furnished with 
slx-to-elght-lnch-deep post holes along their bottoms at distances of ten 
feet proved very efficient The worms fell Into the ditches, gathered In 
the holes, and were killed by pouring kerosene upon them or by crush- 
ing them with a flat-ending staff. 

In North Arlington It was found that a hard roadway recently cov- 
ered with the usual coating of road oil acted as a very efficient barrier, 
absolutely preventing the worms from crossing. Mr. Miller, flndlng this 
to be true, kept the road running between his place and the invading 
host covered with oil and practically none succeeded In crossing It 

The eggs seem to have been laid by the moths, probably the members of 
the flights mentioned earlier. In grasslands generally. Including lawns. 
The larve fed upon the grass until the supply became exhausted, and then 
started out In search of food. Their night feeding habits prevented peo- 
ple from noticing them, and the work which they were doing was at- 
tributed to other agents. When, however, they began to migrate they 
were discovered at once and calls for help were sent In. 

Persons, whose lawns and plants had been Injured, were advised as 
follows: "If the worms have already turned the lawn reddish brown itnd 
have disappeared the Injured grass should be liberally watered and fer- 
tilized In order that It may recover from the attack. For one acre of 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 351 

medium-light to heavy soil a fertiliier* oomposed of 150 pounds of bons 
meal and 160 pounds of nitrate of soda should be satisfactory, while for 
the same sized plot of very light soil a fertilizer composed of 100 pounds 
of bone meal, 150 pounds of nitrate of soda and 50 pounds of muriate of 
potash should be used. The fertilizer should be applied jus( before a good 
rain, or be followed promptly by copious watering. It must be evenly dis- 
tributed. Trees, bushes, and vines injured by this insect should be like- 
wise furnished with food and water in order that they may recover from 
the attack." 

In Monmouth County the Farm Demonstrator, Mr. W. B. Duryee, Jr., 
carried on a warfare against this pest and the report of his experience 
follows: 

"The presence of army worms was first reported to this oflloe on June 
22nd, although they had been noticed in considerable numbers since June 
18th. The area infested comprised perhaps 500 acres in the vicinity of 
Bailey's Comer, near Allenwood. The insects first appeared in the grass 
fields and in many cases were not noticed until the grass was cut when 
they made their way into other crops in search of food. 

"The worms were also reported in numbers at East Freehold at about 
the same time (June 28rd). The crops damaged were grass intended for 
hay, potatoes, com and wheat, the destruction of the last three not being 
severe owing to prompt measures of prevention. Four or five fields of 
timothy were rendered practically valueless, only the bare stalks being 
left" 

The ditch method was adopted. A furrow was plowed across the worms' 
line of march. The loose soil which fell back into it after the plow passed 
was carefully cleaned out and the side toward the field to be protected 
was made smooth and perpendicular. "In these trenches holes were dug 
with a spade at intervals of twenty feet. These holes were cut eight or 
nine inches deep and as wide as the trench, with straight sides. The 
worms collected in these holes rapidly and to make their destruction doubly 
sure were sprayed with kerosene, which was very effective. In some cases the 
soil was so gravelly that it was impossible to make the side sheer enough 
to keep the worms from climbing out In these cases a second trench, 
like the first, was made five or six feet in front of the first 

"It was found impossible to control the worms when feeding on plants. 
Arsenate of lead was fairly effective although slow in action; Paris green 
applied heavily enough to be effective burned the foliage. Kerosene emul- 
sion was found useless at any dilution, because it injured foliage of com 
when applied sufilciently concentrated to kill the worms. The worms were 
present in decreasing numbers for two weeks after they first appeared." 
It is probable that they were present for some time before the farmers 
saw evidence of their work. 



*l'he formula is one devised by Dr. Jacob G. Lipman, Director of the 
Experiment Stations, at the request of the writer. 



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352 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

"The next serious outbreak was reported on July 16tlu On inyestigation 
they were found to be very numerous along the coast from Sea Girt to Sea 
Bright, the infestation extending only a mile or two west They were 
somewhat abundant at Red Bank and along the Rumson Road leading 
from Red Bank to Sea Bright Isolated cases were reported as far west 
as Freehold. Lawns suffered principally from this attack, especially 
those that had been seeded during the last year or two." 

Infested lawns were sprinkled or sprayed with arsenate of lead, poi- 
soned bran mash was scattered, and air slaked lime and gasoline were 
employed. "The first was not very effective, seeming to operate merely 
as a repellant The second was fairly effective in some cases, but not so 
in others because the worms refused to eat the bran when they could get 
grass. The third seemed most successful. Narrow depressions were made 
along the edge of walks, gardens, and buildings. The lawn was sprinkled 
with lime not allowing any to get into the trenches. The worms hid in 
these depressions during the morning to avoid the lime and by sprinkling 
them with gasoline great numbers were killed. Gasoline was better than 
kerosene as it did not stain the buildings or pavements and the odor 
disappeared. The worms menaced lawns in this section for ten days after 
they were first reported. 

"The next report of damage was at Farmingdale on July 23rd. This 
was not serious and they soon disappeared. 

* '*The number of parasitized specimens increased from rare instances, 
when the worms were first reported to almost 100 per cent during the 
latter part of the infestation. The number of tachina files increased cor- 
respondingly." 

Appie-Tree Te«it Caterplllart. 
{Malacosoma americana Fabr.) 

Late in April and early in May this species occasioned much complaint 
throughout the northeastern part of the state. Much of the land within 
reach of New York City is apparently held by speculators, and little 
effort is made by the owners to cultivate or even to preserve its decent ap- 
pearance. Much of it is covered with scrub growth, including wild cherry 
bushes. Apple trees are found along fence rows and in old neglected or- 
chards. This wild, uncared-for growth of cherry and apple became cov- 
ered with webs of this insect Allendale, Westwood, Hillsdale, Hillsdale 
Manor and Woodcliff Lake were among the towns worst infested. The 
species was mistaken for gypsy moth and newspaper reports of the oc- 
currence of this insect were circulated. 

The unusual number caused the foliage on these waste lands to become 
exhausted while yet many of the worms were only partly grown. Con- 
sequently apple, cherry and peach were defoliated and much garden truck 
consumed on places whose owners had used all possible care in destroy- 
ing their own infestation. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 353 

Some evidence of the work of this speoieB was found In South Jersey 
at Hammonton. 

In limited localiUes this Insect is readily controlled by cutting out the 
offending nests, or better still by spraying the foliage about the nest thor- 
oughly with arsenate of lead (8 pounds) and water (50 gallons). When 
the outbreak covers a large territory and involves much growth on wild 
lands community action is advisable. In all such cases the aid of the en- 
tomologist should be sought and a well-planned campaign against the in- 
sect undertaken. 

Florida Fern Caterpillar. 
{Eriopus floridetiMis Quen.) 

On September 18th this insect was found troublesome on ferns at 
Riverton. The firm on whose premises the injury was occurring had re- 
ceived some Nephrolepis from Florida, and it is probable that the species 
came with them. They were feeding on Adiantum, sp., Cyrtomium sp., 
Blechnnm sp. and Atparagus sprengeri. Blechnum seemed to suffer most. 

Argentine Ant. 
ilridomyrmex humulis Mayr.) 

This species was taken in the packing from a case of nursery stock 
from Germany. Dr. W. M. Wheeler, who kindly 'determined the species, 
was at a loss to understand its occurrence in Germany, unless It was con- 
fined strictly to greenhouses. This suggested that perhaps the species was 
a member of the greenhouse-insect life of New Jersey. Systematic collec- 
tions failed to show It, but did reveal three species new to the greenhouse 
fauna of the state. These were determined by Dr. Wheeler as Tetra- 
morium guineense Fabr., Prenolopis fulva Mayr., and Pheidole anastasii 
Emery. All were taken at Rutherford, the first, April 9th, 1914, and the 
others on April 14th, 1914. 

Fleas. 
(CtenocephaluM canis Curt) 

The cat and dog fiea occasioned a considerable amount of trouble in the 
houses of the well-to-do. In every case It was found In connection with pet 
cats or dogs. In some cases the fieas seemed to be breeding In the house 
after the animals had been denied access for a long time. In one Instance 
the particular breeding place seemed to be behind a loose base-board in a bed 
room. Elimination of the pets as fiea carriers by regular treatment with 
soap and water or pyrethrum followed by liberal treatment of all cracks 
and crevices in the infested rooms with gasoline will eventually relieve 
and prevent further difllculty. Proper treatment of the pets followed by 
thoroughly fumigating the infested rooms with hydrocyanic add gas 
should give immediate and permanent relief. 

Some of the persons troubled were convinced that the troublesome fieas 
were not cat and dog fieas but "sand fieas." Subjecting specimens to a 
careful microscopic examination resulted in every Instance in showing 
them to be the cat and dog fiea. 



13 AG 

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354 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Grape Vine PoUto-Gall. 

This peculiar and interesting malformation was taken at West £!nd 
and Rutherford. The casual agent is a small dipterous insect, Lasioptera 
vitU O. S. 

Naroitsut Fly. 
{Merodon equestris L.)* 

Daring October, 1918, this species was found by Bliss Morlod[, of 
Orange, working in the roots of her Iris. Although this is its first record 
in New Jersey it is recognized as a pest in British Columbia and in Europe. 
The infested plants were pulled up and destroyed. 

Miscellaneous Species. 

Among the arthropods doing noticeable but merely local injury may be 
mentioned the following siiecies: (1) June 24th, mlUipeds feeding on 
potato plants at the base where the stems were in contact with moist 
soil; (2) July 10th, red spider injuring phlox at Red Bank; (3) July 13th, 
onions about Hightstown slightly injured by onion thrips {Thrips tabaci 
Linden); (4) July 6th, mealy bugs (probably Paeudococcus trifolii 
Forbes) attacking the base of Weigelia in F. & F. Nurseries at Springfield; 
(5) July 15th, currants on College Farm, New Brunswick, Injured by the 
four-lined leaf-bug {Pdcilocapsus lineatus Fabr.); (6) July 7th, ''Black 
Diamond" blackberries at Cologne injured by the bramble fiea louse 
{Trioza tripunctata Fitch); (7) July 17th, elm trees in SomerviUe consid- 
erably Injured by plant lice (probably OalHpteruM ulmifoUi Monell); (8) 
June 15th, potatoes at Mullica Hill attacked by plant lice; (9) July 
17th, euonymus at SomerviUe injured by the euonymus scale iChionoM- 
pU euonymi Comst); (10) July 6th, July 17th, catalpa at Hammonton 
and other South Jersey towns and at Somerville attacked by the catalpa 
sphinx caterpillar (Ceratomia catalpos Bdv.); (11) July 17th, elm in Som- 
eryllle injured by wood leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina Fab.); (12) June 
26th, iris at Orange Injured by Macronoctua onu$ta Grt; (13) July 6th, 
scrub oak (Quercus pumila) in North and South Jersey woods injured by 
the common oak caterpillar {Aniaota senatoria Abb ft Sm.) ; (14) July 7th, 
the blackberry plants at Cologne injured by the blackberry crown borer 
{Bemhecia marginata Harr.); (15) July 8th, pussy willow in Hammonton 
injured by the poplar borer (Saperda calcarata Say); (16) June 24th, 
cucumbers and melons in Monmouth County injured by the striped cucum- 
ber beetle {Diabrotica vittata Fab.); May 18th, asparagus at Green widi 
injured by asparagus beetle (Crioceris asparaffi Linn.); (18) July 30th, 
tomatoes at Centre Square attacked by Colorado potato beetles {Leptino- 
tarsa decemlineata Say); (19) June 8th, maple at Passaic injured by 
petiole miner, a saw fiy (Priophorus acericauUs McG.). 

Another Method of Rearing Silk Worms. 

Mr. Elias Mead of Passaic, N. J., approached the entomologist with 
a plan for testing a better method of rearing silk worms. Mr. Mead 
>» Determined by Nathan Banks through kindness of Dr. L. O. Howard. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 355 

would like to have selected some mulberry trees at New Brunswick 
and carried on the test close to the entomologist's office. The lack 
of mulberry trees prevented this, however, and Mr. Mead then made 
the test in his own yard at Passaic, the entomologist or his representa- 
tive visiting the scene of operations at intervals. Mr. Mead explained 
that the method had been devised by his son, Mr. M. H. Mead,* and 
that its particular merit lay in the high percentage that came to ma- 
turity and the unusually low labor cost involved in caring for them. 

Accordingly on June iith, Mr. H. B. Weiss visited Mr. Mead's 
home and witnessed the placing of two colonies of caterpillars on a 
small mulberry tree. The method involved the following operations: 
(i) slipping an elongated, double-walled and blind-ending cloth sack 
over several leafy branches; (2) introducing the caterpillars at open 
end; (3) replacing the cage and contents on fresh food if the amount 
of foliage enclosed proved too small; (4) removal of the cage after 
pupation and harvesting of the cocoons. 

In the cages under observation, the food was sufficient and no 
change was made during the course of the experiment. On July loth, 
Mr. Weiss examined the two cages and found the caterpillars practi- 
cally full grown and the foliage almost consumed. On July i8th, 
Mr. Weiss again saw the cages and found that all caterpillars had 
pupated. On July 21st, the entomologist examined and removed 
the cages with the following results. The first cage started with 65 
caterpillars and produced 57 good cocoons. The second cage started 
with. 55 caterpillars and produced 47 cocoons. 

At Mr. Mead's request the writer removed two other cages, neither 
of which we had had under observation. In one according to Mr. 
M. H. Mead, 56 caterpillars had been placed. In the other 55 had 
been placed. In the first 55 cocoons were found, one of which was 
weak. In the second 50 cocoons were found. 

INSECT COLLECTIONS. 
Increase. 

The insect collection has been increased by the addition of some 
Coleoptera from Mr. C. A. Frost and by the addition of a collection 
of California Coccida, 

Exhibition. 

An exhibition collection of injurious insect species has been started. 
The specimens are placed in Riker mounts, because of the ease and 
safety with which this form of collection can be transported. The 
following mounts have been prepared: 2 cases of California scales, 
3 cases showing different types of insect injury to leaves, 2 cases of 
New Jersey scales, 2 cases showing insect injury to stored products, 
3 cases showing some of the galls of New Jersey, i case of Cicadidse, 
I case of pear psylla, i case of pear leaf blister mite, i case of potato 



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356 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

stalk borer, i case of elm leaf-beetle, i case of rose chafer, 2 cases of 
insect work in bark layers. 

Anti'Pftftch-Borer Coatings. 

The work this year has been devoted' to a general test of hard 
asphaltum, soft asphaltum, air slaked lime, "government whitewash," 
"Boro-wax," sulfocide, etc., as outlined in last year's report. All 
substances failed to obtain complete control. The soft asphaltum gave 
the most encouraging results, because it withstood the weather for 
a full season and allowed borers to penetrate only below its lower 
edge. All other coatings showed borers just above or were penetrated 
by them. One full year of trial has shown no asphaltum injury 
to any age of trees. Further experiments looking toward the effecting 
of a sufficiently complete coating with this and other similar substances 
will be made. 

COMBINATIONS OF NICOTINE WITH ORDINARY SPRAYING 

MIXTURE 

At various times in the past several years the combination of nico- 
tine preparations with summer strengths lime-sulphur and arsenate 
of lead or with bordeaux and arsenate of lead has been recommend- 
ed. In no case, however, docs the recommendation seemed to have 
been based on extensive studies. Among New Jersey fruit growers, a 
few have used "Black-leaf 40" combined with Pyrox, but the state of 
nund is apparently one of indecision. 

Complaints from more or less reputable sources have indicated 
that the combination may result in forming a mass of troublesome 
precipitate. It was decided therefore in connection with a study of 
the false apple red bug and its control to determine in a laboratory 
way whether a combination of nicotine solution with the ordinary 
spraying mixtures produced any undesirable change which could be 
readily detected. Mr. Charles S. Beckwith, a senior student, who 
had chosen as his thesis the study of the false apple red bug and 
its control undertook this investigation and his statement of procedure 
and results follows herewith. 

"An inyestigatlon into tbe effect of combining nicotine with the common 
spraying mixtures for our purpose seemed naturally to divide itself into 
two phases — effect on the spray mixture and effect on the nicotine. By 
force of circumstances investigation of the first phase was limited to the 
amount of precipitate that is formed, while the second dealt with the 
ability of the nicotine to stay in solution and therefore to retain its effect- 
iveness. 

Material Used. 

"'Black-leaf 40' is perhaps the most widely tested of the standard 
strength nicotine preparations and 'Nikotiana' is a new product made at 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 357 

Madison, New Jersey, by the Aphine Manufacturing Ck>mpan7. Both of 
these were used In the experiments, the former being diluted one part 
to 600 parts water and the latter at the rate of one part to 180 parts water. 
'The action of nicotine was tested with the following mixtures: Lead 
arsenate; zinc arsenlte; Bordeaux mixture; lime sulphur; Bordeaux mix- 
ture and lead arsenate; Bordeaux mixture and sine arsenlte; lime sulphur 
and lead arsenate; lime sulphur and xlnc arsenlte; 'Pryox'; 'Electro 
Bordo-lead.' 

Laboratory Methods. 

"All mixtures were made up in the same proportions as In common 
orchard practice, using distilled water. The nicotine was added to the 
solution In the proportion given above. All liquid measurements of 60 cc. 
or less were made with a pipette. The solution was carefully mixed and 
100 cubic centimeters were passed through a Gooch filter. The precipi- 
tate was washed once with cold water and then dried at the temperature of 
100 *" c for four hours. It was then cooled and weighed. 

"The filtrate was tested for nicotine by adding a solution of Iodine and 
potassium Iodide, which gives a red precipitate In the presence of nico- 
tine. When there was lime sulphur in the mixture the nicotine was dis- 
tilled by a steam distillation process and the distillate tested for nicotine. 

EfTect on Spray Mixtures. 

"The effect of the nicotine preparations upon the other Ingredients In 
the mixture was studied and the precipitate from 100 cubic centimeters of 
mixture was' weighed. 



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358 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 3S9 

"in no case does the nicotine make any marked change in the amount 
of precipitate. The small variations may be due to a number of causes 
but they are not large enough in any case to affect the usefulness of the 
mixture. 

Effect on Nicotine. 

"The filtrate from all the nicotine spray mixtures gave a red precipitate 
when a mixture of iodine and potassium iodide was added. This proves 
that the nicotine remained in solution as nicotine or nicotine sulphate. It 
is effective in either case. Even the very strong lime sulphur solutions 
failed to break up the nicotine or combine with It in an unsatisfactory 
way. 

"In order to determine the effectiveness of the nicotine when combined 
with other substances, observations were taken in two orchards infested 
with the false apple red bug. One was on the College Farm in New 
Brunswick, the other was on the farm of Mr. J. A. Cortelyou at Princeton. 
On the former,, a mixture of lime sulphur, lead arsenate and 'Black-leaf 
40' was used and on the latter, lead arsenate and 'Black-leaf 40.' No more 
care than usual was taken in the sprayng of the trees, the only difference 
being in the addition of the nicotine. In both cases, the infestation was wiped 
out so that a half hour search failed to reveal a single nymph whereas, 
before the spraying, nymphs in the first and second stages were numerous.. 
A second search a week later failed to reveal any nymphs or any of their 
characteristic work. 

Conclusion. 

"It is evident that the two nicotine preparations, 'Black-leaf 40' and 
'Nikotiana,' can be mixed with the common spray mixtures without a 
serious precipitate forming and without any apparent detriment to the 
nicotine." 

Potato Spraying and Dusting. 

This second year of potato spraying and dusting has seen the scope 
of the work greatly increased. Instead of one field, three, each locat- 
ed in a typical potato growing section of the State have been used. 
Instead of eleven acres sixty acres have been involved. Instead of 
one variety, three have been tested. As stated in our previous report 
the purpose of this work is: (i) to determine in a -large practical 
way the relative value of spraying and dusting mixtures in getting 
a maximum yield of tubers through control of injurious insects and 
plant diseases and through growth stimulus imparted to vines; (2) to 
devise a satisfactory method of controlling the potato flea beetle 
(Epitrix cucumeris Harr). 

This work was carried forward as a co-operation between the 
Experiment Station and the potato growers concerned on the one 
hand and the Experiment Station and certain commercial concerns on 
the other. The Experiment Station directed and assisted in making 



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36o NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

the 'applications and made the necessary observations on the results. 
The potato growers, Mr. J. Harry Kandle, of Elmer, Mr. Frank P. 
Jones, of Freehold^ and Mr. Robert M. Dilatush, of Robbinsville, 
made the applications and in some cases helped in taking the data on 
yields. 

The principal group of commercial concerns co-operating were 
headed by Mr. F. H. Pough, of the Union Sulphur Company. With 
Mr. Pough, were associated representatives of the Corona Chemical 
Company and the Dust Sprayer Manufacturing Company. Mr. 
Charles Carpender, of the Vreeland Chemical Company, associated 
with representatives of the Bateman Manufacturing Company, co- 
operated with the Station in its work in Robbinsville. The Thomsen 
Chemical Company co-operated with the Station in its Robbinsville 
work, the Ansbacher Insecticide Company in its work at Freehold 
and the Kil-tone Company in its work at Elmer. 

The Union Sulphur Company furnished the sulphur and made up 
all the dust mixtures; the Corona Chemical Company furnished the 
arsenate of lead; the Dust Sprayer Manufacturing Company, the 
dusting machines; the Vreeland Chemical Company, the Bordo-lead; 
the Bateman Manufacturing Company a potato sprayer for work at 
Robbinsville; the Thomsen Chemical Company the arsenite of zinc; 
the Ansbacher Insecticide Company the Bordeaux-lead, used at Free- 
hold ; the Kil-tone Company the Kil-tone, used at Elmer. 

In return for this aid from commercial concerns, the Station 
obligated itself to arrange for and carry out the test, and to furnish 
a statement of results. It was further, distinctly understood that, 
while any of the co-operating concerns might use the facts discovered 
for planning future work, no use was to be made of it for publicity 
purposes until the results had been printed by the Experiment Station. 

In this co-operation the Experiment Station was represented by its 
departments of Plant Pathology and Entomology. Owing to the fact 
that the problems of protecting potato foliage from parasitic injury 
seemed to be mainly entomological, the Department of Entomology 
assumed complete charge of carrying out the plans that were made in 
conference. Mr. Alfred E. Cameron, a scholar of the Board of 
Agriculture of England, who at the time when this work began was 
studying with the entomologist, was given charge of it, and his report 
of the investigation follows herewith. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 361 

"Potato Spraying and Dusting Experiments 
for the Year 1914. 

BY 
ALFRED E. CAMERON, M. A., M. Sc. 
Board of Agriculture Scholar, England. 



Introductiorv. 



"I hare had the pleasure of deriylng from many farmers, well versed In 
the most up-to-date methods of agriculture, their personal experiences in 
the matter of spraying. Although in a few cases there was a certain 
chariness in expressing an opinion, the general trend of their ideas has 
been hitherto essentially antagonistic to the adoption of spraying with 
Bordeaux, in the first place as entailing more trouble than it was thought 
to be worth and in the second place as failing to prove of any advantage 
when the final profits came to be reckoned up. This seemed more than 
interesting to me in view of what was the experience of others, both in 
other states of this country and in other countries of the world, and I 
finally concluded that either some climatic or soil factor or perhaps some 
ifiethod of agriculture counteracted or obscured the otherwise admittedly 
beneficial effect of the application, or that there was a slipshodness or 
carelessness in the manner of its preparation and treatment 

"Three places were secured for the accomplishment of the work, namely, 
at Freehold, Robbinsville and Elmer, in the counties of Monmouth, Mer- 
cer and Salem, respectively, districts which may be considered fairly repre- 
sentative of the potato growing sections of ^e State, and at all three 
places satisfactory returns showed the benefits to be obtained from the 
employment of Bordeaux. At Freehold, however, the increase in yield 
as compared with the other treatments, hereafter discussed, was not 
marked. Indeed, so little was the difference in any of the treatments and 
so uniform the yield that I am inclined to look for the reason of apparent 
failure here in the fact that peculiar methods of culture may infiuence the 
final result Here the surface soil is a sandy loam— CoUington sandy loam 
containing a large amount of potash (2.5 per cent) — underlaid by a green- 
ish-yellow, sticky marl, and on this particular farm a system of deep- 
plous^ing enriching the top soil has been adopted with the most satis- 
factory results. Added to this we have to meet the fact that our co- 
operator is in the habit of feeding his soil with abundant supplies of barn- 
yard manure as well as commercial fertilizer, which may secure such 
strong and vigorous plants that the Bordeaux-effect is entirely lost In 
other words, what I would tentatively suggest in view of the evidence 
obtained is that under certain conditions, with which we are as yet not en- 
tirely familiar, the potato vines may arrive at an optimum of vigor beyond 
which they may fail to be stimulated, a critcal point in fact At Freehold 



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362 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

then the slightly Increased yields on the Bordeaux as compared with those 
obtained on the sulphur and proprietary Bordeaux plots may be Justly 
ascribed to its more efficient control of the flea beetle {Epitrix cucumeris 
Uarr.) which in dry seasons like that Just past levies in New Jersey at 
least a higher tax on the crop than any of its vegetable parasites. In- 
deed here we have a reason for the comparatively poor showing of Bor- 
deaux in New Jersey. One dry season follows another with such regu- 
larity that the early {Macroaporium Solani E. ft M.) and Late Blights 
iPhytophthora infestans De Bary), exacting such a toll in the more north- 
em states, here in only odd humid seasons favorable to the germination 
of the spores of the latter, get the opportunity to exert their ruinous in- 
fluence. Therefore it is only natural to assume that Bordeaux, which is 
specific against these potato blights, will be more likely to demonstrate 
its capabilities in seasons favorable, to the generation of blights, and this 
indeed has been the experience of several New Jersey farmers. 

"The use of sulphur in these experiments marks an innovation in the 
application of this material as a fungicide of potato leaf diseases in this 
state at least. In Europe, especially Southern France, and in Northern 
Africa, in Algeria, sulphur has been extensively used in combatting the 
odium and other fungous diseases of the grape vine with most encourag;- 
ing results. According to Bourcart*, sulphur has also a direct action on 
the grape vine which it renders more vigorous. That this is probably 
true also of the potato vine under certain circumstances is shown by the 
results obtained at Elmer on blocks dusted with a mixture of sulphur and 
lead arsenate. These yielded 21 bushels per acre more potatoes than those 
treated with arsenate of lead alone. This was, however, but a third of the 
increase derived from the use of Bordeaux lead arsenate mixture. 

''A series of experiments carried out by Bourcartt showed that sulphur 
virtue of the supposed generation of the sulphur dioxide or sulphuretted 
hydrogen, but by reason of Its own vapours. 

"The comparative aspect which this year's experiments are intended to 
bear out must not be lost sight of and the differences in yields obtained 
on the differently treated plots are worthy of strict attention. Besides 
the fact that the home-made Bordeaux mixure gave the best return as 
regards yields in all three experiments, it also proved to be the most 
economical in application, excepting, of course, the lead arsenate used on 
the check plots at Freehold and Elmer and Intended only to check the rav- 
ages of the Colorado potato and flea beetles. 

"The experiments at Geneva have also come to the conclusion that there 
are several factors which might have an Important Influence on the results, 
amongst which are mentioned differences of locality and soils. t The aver- 
ages for the ten-year experiments at Geneva and Riverhead reveal the fact 
that the average increase for sprayed potatoes per acre at the former is 



♦Insecticides, Fungicides and Weed Killers— E. Bourcart, London, 1913, 
p. 46. 

tLoc. Cit. p. 46. 

tBull. 290, N. Y. Agri. Exper. Sta., F. C. Stewart, 1907. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 363 

more tiiaii douUe the increaae for the Utter. At (Geneva the soil is rather 
a heavy clay loam, at Rirerhead a sandy loam, interesting; in yiew of what 
has been said about the experiments at Freehold, New Jersey. Sheltered 
rather than exposed conditions give better results and in the final reckon- 
hig op the fertility of the land and the variety of the potato are factors 
of no mean importance. But, probably as the author remarks, most atten- 
tion must be paid to thoroughness in spraying. 

Plan of the Experiments and Arrangements of Plots. 

"The idea was to carry out the experiments on as large a scale as pos- 
sible so that the objection which is often advanced, of the futility of form- 
ing correct conclusions from the yields of rows treated singly would not 
hold good. Therefore at Robbinsville and Elmer the fields were divided 
up into plots of 20 rows and six of these plots formed a series. Within ttie 
series each alternate plot was a check treated at Robbinsville with a mix- 
ture of zinc arsenite and gypsum calculated to repress the activities of the 
flea beetle and Colorado beetle, and at Elmer to this same end, arsenate 
of lead was employed. The other treatments in the block or series varied: 
at Elmer, Bordeaux Mixture combined with arsenate of lead, Kiltone, and 
a mixture of sulphur and lead arsenate; at Robbinsville, Bordeaux com- 
bined with lead arsenate, Vreeland's "Electro" Bordo-Lead, and a mixture 
of sulphur and zinc arsenite. At Robbinsville where the field contained 
slii^tly more than twenty-four acres this series of plots was repeated 
four times, so that any inconsistancies, due to the nature of the soil, might 
be eliminated as far as possible. At Elmer where there was approximately 
ten acres, there was only space for a single repeat 

"The arrangement at Freehold was slightly different, the field of about 
twenty-four acres being divided up into blocks of but eight rows so that 
many more che^ plots could be inserted. Then again every alternate 
plot was a check, the other plots in the series of six being treated with 
Bordeaux mixture and lead arsenate, a mixture of sulphur, lead arsenate 
uxd gypsum, and Ansbacher's Bordeaux. It will be noted that at each 
plaoQ a different proprietary spraying mixture was used. 

Methods of Experiments. 
"In applying the wet preparations, two types of spraying machines were 
employed. At Elmer, the Watson Sprayer, made by the Field Force Pump 
Company of Elmira, N. T., gave eminently satisfactory results. The only 
objection that could be made was the fluctuation in the maintenance of 
the pressure from sixty to eighty pounds. It is desirable to aim at get- 
ting a higher pressure than this so that the spray-liquid may be deliv- 
ered as a fine mist on the leaves. At Freehold and Robbinsville the power 
spraying machine made by the Bateman Manufacturing Ck>mpany, of 
Grenloch, N. J., gave the requisite pressure of 100 pounds, ensuring a uni- 
form application of the fluid. In all eases the nozzles were adjusted so 
that four rows could be covered at one time, and these machines all gave 
the Miamond' effect in their delivery of the spray, a fact of the utmost im- 
portance, seeing that it is necessary to cover the under as well as the 
n^er surfaces of the leaves with the mixture. 



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364 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

"In applying the dust mixtures of sulphur combined with gypsum, ar- 
senite of zinc and arsenate of lead, the Potato Duster made by the Dost 
Sprayer Manufacturing Ck>mpany, of Kansas City, Mo.» was used. Here 
it is necessary to state that the original plan was not carried out in 
its entirety and whereas it was intended to apply the lead arsenate to the 
checks as a dry powder, so much difficulty was experienced that event- 
ually it was decided at Elmer and Freehold to apply it wet at the rate of 
six pounds per 100 gallons. 

"In all cases the application of the sulphur mixtures was successfully 
undertaken, except at*Freehold, where no treatment was made for the first 
spraying, and for the second a mixture of hydrated lime and lead arsenate 
was used in dry form in the proportion of sixty-nine pounds of the former 
to thirty-one pounds of the latter. 

."Comment must be made on the fact that the potato dusting machine 
did not give complete satisfaction, but a certain amount of blame must 
also be addicted to the materials which frequently cohered to such an 
extent within the delivery pipes that mechanical blocking ensued. It was 
on account of this reason mainly that the lead arsenate was applied wet* 
otherwise a great deal of valuable time would have been wasted. 

"Bven as it was a lot of trouble was experienced in regulating the 
quantity of dust that was being applied, but finally, after making some 
adjustments, we were enabled to feed out the sulphur-gypsum-lead-arae- 
nate, the sulphur-zinc-arsenite and the sulphur-lead-arsenate mixtures In 
the required amounts of about 30-36 pounds per acre. 

"Most up-to-date farmers who find it necessary to use Bordeaux mixture 
are acquainted with its method of preparation, so that it seems superfluous 
to repeat what is a very old story here. Suffice it to say that the formula 
of the mixture employed in our experiments was the same in all three, 
namely, 6-5-50, and to every 100 gallons of the mixture six pounds of ar- 
senate of lead were added as a poison for the Colorado potato-beetle 
(Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) and the flea beetle iEpitrix CucumerU 
Harr.). This same poison served to control the ravages of these pests at 
Elmer and Freehold, but at Robbinsville zinc arsenite was tried, with what 
results win be hereafter set forth in the section of flea beetle control 

"In the case of the proprietary Bordeaux preparations, Ansbacher's was 
applied at the rate of 20 pounds per 100 gallons, which sufficed to cover 
Just about two acres. Vreeland's Electro Bordo-Lead was applied at the 
rate of about 18 pounds per acre suspended in 100 gallons, an intention- 
ally rather heavy application, while 13 pounds of Kil-Tone, of which 18 
pounds were suspended in 100 gallons, served to treat one acre at Elmer. 

"It was so arranged that an interval of 8 to 12 days should elapse be- 
tween each treatment, this being considered the outside limit for safety, 
since the new shoots which are springing up ran serious risk of damage 
both from insect destroyers and fungous parasites if a longer period was 
allowed to intervene between the applications. Assiduous attention to 
spraying and thoroughness of application are important factors for good 
results, and it has been shown by the experiments of the New York Agrl- 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 365 

cultural Experiment Station* that the more aprayings one makes the 
greater are likely to be the yields, and therefore the profits. In New 
Jersey, the Tines begin to oyerlap in the rows about the end of June, mak- 
ing it difficult for the operator to drive a team into the field without in- 
flicting mechanical injury to the vines. It is quite posMble to have made 
four applications previous to this, but the vines continue to grow on for 
a month later. In cases where cireumstances are fttvorable to the ap- 
pearance of the late blight, it would be absolutely essential to make at 
least two further treatments before the vines die. 

"The scheme of the treatments was as follows, the locality appearing 
first, then the dates of the four applications, then the four treatments: 

"Blmer, May 21-22, June 1-2, June 10-11, June 24-25; Bordeauz-Lead- 
Arsenate, Kil-Tone, Sulphur-Lead-Arsenate 5-.5, Lead Arsenate. 

"Freehold. May 21-22, June 5-6. June 16-17, June 27-28: Bordeaux-Lead- 
Arsenate, Ansbacber's-Bordeaux-Lead, Sulphur-Oypsum-Lead-Arsenate (2- 
3-1), Lead Arsenate. 

"Robbinsville, Blay 27-28, June 10-11, June 28-25, June 30 1, July 1; Bor- 
deaux-Lead-Arsenate, Vreeland's "BHectro" Bordo-Lead, Sulphur-Zino-Ar- 
senite (5-1), Gypsum-Zinc-Arsenite (5-1). 

DI8CU88I0N OF THE INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENTS. 
AT ELMER. 

"From the middle of May until the middle of August there were eleven 
inches of rainfall with periods of prolonged drought during which there 
was quite a lot of tip-bum, a physiological condition of the leaves for 
which no proper reason can be assigned. Probably it is a case of the 
plant suffering from mal-nutrition activated by some climatic or atmos- 
pheric condition. We cannot say that drought is the only cause because 
it has been observed to be prevalent during wet spells. On that date, 
May 27, when the first treatment was made, the fiea-beetle had already 
been at work for several days, although the vines were not more than 
six inches high. The damage being done was considerable, and added to 
this there were large numbers of eggs of the Colorado beetle, some of 
which had already hatched, betokening injury to come. 



*Bull. 823 N. T. Agri. Exper. Sta., Geneva, p. 323. 1910. 

tOn this date an application of Sulphur-Zinc-Arsenite was made on the 
sulphur plots of the first and second series — there being four series in all 
at Robbinsville — and on sixteen rows of the third series when an accident 
rendered the machine useless and so no further spraying was done. At 
Robbinsville, therefore, with the exception of these plots mentioned, only 
three applications of the various treatments were made. 



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366 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The plan of the field was as follows: 

Plan 1.~The Experiment at Elmer. 



r 



Bbribs I. 



Bordeaux Mixture and Arsenate of Lead. 



Arsenate of Lead. 



Kil-Tone. 



Arsenate of Lead. 



Sulphur and Lead Arsenate Mixture. 



Arsenate of Lead. 



8BRIE8 IL. 



Kil-Tone. 



Arsenate of Lead. 



Bordeaux Mixture with Arsenate of Lead. 



Arsenate of Lead. 



Sulphur and Lead Arsenate Mixture. 



"The field was divided into two blocks in one of which there were six 
plots of twenty rows each, in the other five, each plot measuring 0.89 
acre except the last Arsenate of Lead plot, which had only fifteen rows 
and measured 0.68 acre. 

"On June 2nd, the field was examined for flea-beetle. The numbers had 
been greatly reduced, and, curious to relate, an adjacent field of potatoes 
which had not been treated, was badly infested with this small pest It 
would appear that it had been repelled to this neighboring field. On some 
of the Tines a few aphides Rhopaloaiphum aolani Thos., were observed at 
work, but not in sufficiently great numbers to cause uneasiness or to make 
it worth while to go to the expense and trouble of a special treatment. 
At this stage the Kil-Tone plots compared favorably with the others aa 
regards insect control and indeed, so far as observations could be trusted, 
this proprietary preparation seemed to give quite satisfactory results. 

"On June 24th a rather curious phenomenon was observed. The potato 
plants were now in blossom, but the flowers had died off quickly on all 
the plots except on the checks sprayed with Arsenate of Lead. What was 
the exact significance of this cannot be stated, but that there was no ulti- 
mate detrimental effect is shown by the yields, which were greater on the 
plots than on the controls. On this date, too, there was a slightly trace- 
able recrudescence of the fiea-beetle, especially noticeable on the sulphur 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 367 

plots, but after the treatmnt had been made they were effeetlrely repelled. 
Perhaps the reason for their greater number on these plots was the fact 
that the dust does not adhere to the vines for such a long time as the wet 
sprays, and therefore more frequent applications would haye to be made 
to maintain its efficiency. 

"On July 7th, in addition to Epitrix cucumeris Harr. there was present 
in appreciable numbers another species of the flea-beetle, Epitrix fmcula 
Cr., which, according to the late Dr. Smith, is supposed to be rarely found 
in New Jersey. The recurrence of the flea-beetle at this period led me to 
the belief that there is a second brood, if not a third, in this State, for 
after a decided diminution a second time there was an increase on Aug- 
ust 26th on the late crops in the southern regions. These periods of 
great infestation alternated with periods of absence of attack are gteerally 
characteristic of multi-brooded species. 

"As regards fungous diseases, cases of early blight were very rare on the 
first crop, and late blight was not observed, but on the second crop in 
August, early blight seemed to be rather general, appearing first when the 
plants were yet small. 

"During the early days of August the old-fashioned potato beetle, Epi- 
cttuta vittata Fab. appeared suddenly in the fields of South Jersey, strip- 
ping the vines of all leaves that were yet green. This was considered 
.peculiar in view of the fact that not a* single specimen was met with in the 
northern parts of the State. Its occurence in the south can be associated 
with the greater prevalence of grasshoppers, on the eggs of which the 
meloid beetle thrives in its larval stages. It is a commonly cited example 
of an insect which undergoes a hypermetamorphosis from an incipient 
active predaceous larva hunting for its fodd voraciously, to a sluggish 
grub stage. This marked change in habit is Induced by its latterly finding 
ample provender in the grasshopper burrow dug for the reception of the 
eggs, without having to be energetic in satisfying its appetite. 

"Throughout the season the plots sprayed with Bordeaux mixture gave 
every promise of large yields, as the 'vines had a healthy deep green color 
while they retained their vigor at the end of the season for almost ten 
days longer than those in the other plots. From an examination made 
July 24th, the order of value of the various treatments was as follows: 
(1) Bordeaux Mixture and Arsenate of Lead; (2) Sulphur and Lead 
Arsenate Mixture; (3) Kil-Tone; (4) Lead Arsenate. 

"That this order as Judged from the vines had some significance can be 
Judged from the yields as obtained when the potatoes were dug on Au- 
gust 10th. 



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368 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Yield From Plot* Sprayed Experimentally. 
Table I. — Elmer. Var. Cobbler. 



Nature of Applioatioa. 



Bordeaux-Lead-AneQaie . 
Lead Anenate-Cheok. . . . 



Sulphur^Lead-AnMiate (lh.5). 
Kil-Tone 



Yields in Im. per acre. 



Seriee I. 
252.85 
133.25 
222.7 
189.4 
222.1 
200.2 



_SerieB II. 
298.35 ~ 
239.1 
235.25 
256.65 
245.0 
228.8 



Average of the 
twoplotB. 

275.6^ 

212.725 

233.5 
214.5 



Average gain in bu. per aere of Bordeaux over oheek plots 

Average gain in bu. per acre of Bordeaux over Sulphur plots 

Average gain in bu. per acre of Bordeaux over Kil-Tone lAoia 

Gain in bushels per acre of Sulphur- Lead-Arsenate plots over check plots. 
Gain in bushels per acre of Sulphur- Lead- Arsenate plots over Kil-Tone 



62.875 

42.1 

61.1 

20.776 

19.00 



'Two years preylously the same field had been planted in potatoes. 
Then followed a rotation of grass, cloyer and timothy, which was mowed 
in the summer following for hay. Late in the fall it underwent ploughing, the 
soil being turned up to a depth of eight inches, and then in the spring 
worked with a Clark cut-away harrow. Fertilizer of the formula 4^10 
was administered at the time of seed-planting at the rate of about a ton 
and a quarter to the acre. 

AT FREEHOLD. 

"From June 21st until the end of July, representing the most important 
period of growth of the yines, there was only 4.8 inches of rain, and al- 
though the weather was excessively dry and warm at times the planta 
made such headway that the profuse vines of the Giant variety were 
meeting in rows almost at the time of the fourth treatment on June 16th. 
Here there was a fair amount of tip-bum, and also some Fuaarium o«y#- 
porunif the fungus of dry rot There was no late blight and only an in- 
finitesimal amount of early blight, which appeared first late in the season* 
about July 20th. Practically none was to be found on the plots sprayed 
with Bordeaux mixture or with the Ansbacher preparation, but the Lead 
Arsenate and Sulphur dust plots had quite a little. However, not a great 
deal of damage was committed as the vines were already dying. 

''As has already been said, there were eight series of six plots at Free- 
hold, with a snudler series, IX, of but two plots. The area of the field 
was 24.57 acres and each plot had but eight rows. At no time throughout 
the season could the eye observe any dilference in the vines of the various 
plots that could be supposed to be due to difference of treatment, and as 
the probable reasons for this remarkable fact have already been detailed 
it will not be necessary to take up the discussion again at this point 

"The same phenomenal fiuctuation in the presence of the fiea-beetle 
was likewise observed here as at Elmer and also at Robbinsville lending 
further support to my belief of there being three broods of this pest in 
New Jersey. Johannsen* is quite emphatic in his assertion that there is 



•Bun. 211, Maine Agr. Exper. Sta. Potato Flea-Beetle, 1913, pp. 39-40. 
O. A. Johannsen. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 369 

but a single brood in Maine, or at least a partial second, and quotee 8ir- 
rine'8 experience in New York aa supporting his statement This, how- 
ever, does not argue that single-broodedness is an inseparable and uni- 
versal characteristic of the species. 

"The yields as obtained at Freehold are set forth in the table, and a 
glance at the last column will readily show how little .advantage there was 
in spraying or dusting. Still something was achieved in that the home- 
made Bordeaux mixture vindicated itself, if ever so little, here as at El- 
mer, but on this occasion the Lead Arsenate check plots came out some- 
what ahead of the proprietary Ansbacher Preparation. Perhaps the re- 
sults would have worked out somewhat differently had it been possible to 
apply the Sulphur-Gypsum-Lead-Arsenate in a more satisfactory fashion 
for the non-application of this material during the first and second treat- 
ments also militated against a true comparison of the results. 

"At Freehold the variety most grown is the "Giant" and the tubers 
are sold mixed, there being no separation into firsts and seconds, or mar- 
ketable and culls. 



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370 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 371 

"It is of interest to note the general uniformity of the figures, there be- 
ing v^ry little variation in yield in the plots of each individual series, 
except perhaps in series I, where the Bordeaux plot out-yielded the average 
of the check plots by 18 bushels per acre. In this series, too, the Sulphur- 
Oypsum- Lead- Arsenate plot also gave an increase of twelve bushels per acre 
over the check plots, while the plot sprayed with Ansbacher's Bordeaux- 
Lead lagged behind the check plots to the extent of 4.5 bushels. But 
this only serves to show how little confidence can be placed in the results 
when the figures of only a single series are considered. The truth can only 
be ascertained by averaging up two or more series, indeed, the greater 
number of series the more certainly can we arrive at a general conclusion. 

"The field at Freehold, as regards previous cultivation, presented three 
distinct sections. Six acres had been planted in potatoes for four years, 
and each year wheat and crimson clover had been ploughed under as 
a green manure. Nine acres had been planted with com during the two 
previous years and cow-peas sown out amongst the com. Here there had 
been a rotation of wheat, clover and timothy, and com. The remaining 
nine acres had borne a potato crop continuously for six or seven years, 
and on this particular section a system of deep ploughing had been prac- 
ticed. It has already been mentioned how radical cultivation of this type 
might obscure the effects of spraying. 

AT R0BBIN8VILLE. 

"On the whole the weather was very dry in this district of the State 
during the summer, but frequent showers helped to bring the rainfall up 
to about ten inches, extending over a period of about three months from 
May 27th, when spraying started, until the potatoes were dug. Shortly 
after the first treatment was made there were neither many flea-beetles 
nor Colorado beetles to be seen, although in all conscience the infestation 
was quite severe on other fields planted with early Cobbler seed. The 
variety here treated was the "Green Mountain." 

"The plan of the plots on the field of 24.57 acres is outlined in the fol- 
lowing scheme: 



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372 



NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 
Plan III— The ExpeHment at Robbintville.^' 

Bordeaux Mixture and Lead Araenato. 

Zino-Araenite-Gypsum. 

Sulphu>Zino-AiBenite. 



Srribs I. 



^o>Arseaite-Qyp0Um. 



Electro Uordo-Lead. 



Zioc-Araenite-Gypsum. 



SBRnu II. 



SulphiusZino-Anenite. 



Zinc-Araenite-Gsrpsum. 



Electro Bordo-Lead. 



Zinc-Arsenite-Gypsum. 



Bordeaux Mixture and Lead Axsenat«. 



Zino-Arsenite-Gypaum. 



SCRIRB III. 



Srrim IV.. 



Sulphur-Zino-Arsenite. 



Zinc-Arsenite-Gypeum. 



Electro Bordo-Lead. 



Zinc- Arsenite-Gypsum . 



Bordeaux Mixture and Lead Arsenate. 



Zino>AraeniteXiyp8um. 



Electro-Bordo-Lead. 



Zinc- Araenite-Gypsum . 



Bordeaux Mixture and Lead Arsenate. 



Zinc-Arsenit«-G3rp8um. 



Sulphur-Zinc- Araenit«. 



Zinc-Arsenite-Gypeum . 



*Plan II. has been omitted. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



373 



'There were four series of plots all approximately of the same size ex- 
cept those of series IV, which were less than half the area of the others. 
The general contour of the field was rather irregular, but this did not 
affect the results at alL Throughout the growing period, the vines on the 
Bordeaux plots were easily superior to the vines on the other plots with 
the exception of that in the first series where, for some inexplicable reason, 
there was quite a lot of tip-bum, especially evident about June 80th. 
Early and late blights were conspicuous by their absence, while only a few 
hills were affected bjr Dry Rot (Fu$arium oxyiporumj. Bxamination 
of the field on August l€th revealed the plants on the Bordeaux plots still 
green and quite vigorous, while on the other plots they were quite dead. 
The potatoes were dug on September 1st, and the following days, and an 
observer casting his eye over the field could with a little discrimination, 
pick out the plots treated with Bordeaux mixture by reason of their being 
less over-grown with weeds. This in itself would point to the invigorating 
eCTeet of the mixture. The potato vines become so sturdy by reason of 
ItB application that they suffer less from competition with inimical weeds, 
especially crab-grass. 

Yield DeUlled According to Series. 
Table IV— Robblnsvllle. 



Nature of the AppUcation. 




Avg. of the 




Series I. 


SerieBlI. 


Series III. 


Series IV. 


four series. 


Bordeaux Mixture and Lead Arsenate. 
Gyp«um-Zlne-Ar8enite 


233.88 
249.52 
231.74 
273.13 
273.60 
266.93 


310.75 
225.24 
259.49 
249.99 
266.19 
241.59 


328.31 
258.71 
245.19 
314.34 
260.16 
312.30 


290.62 
228.10 
223.94 
228.44 
160.38 
253.12 


290.89 
248! 98 


Sulphur-Zinc-ArMnite 


246!68 


Electro Bordo-Lead 


265.98 



Average gain in bushels per acre of Bordeaux plots over check plots 41 .41 

Average gain in bushels per acre of Bordeaux plots over Sulphur plots 50.31 

Average gain in bushels per acre of Bordeaux plots over Electro Bordo Lead 24. 41 

Average gain in bushels per acre of Bordeaux plots over ail others 38 . 71 

Yields Oetalled Aocordlng to Firsts and Seconds. 
Table V— Robblnsvllle. 





YIBLO IN BUSHCUS PBS ACRE. 


Aver, of the 


Nature of Application. 


Series'!. | Series IL | Series IIL 


Series IV. 


four series. 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 


Bordeaux-Mix ture- 
Lead-Araenate .... 


223.06 
241.66 
222.02 
259.25 
263.88 
247.68 


8.86 
7.86 
9.72 
13.88 
9.72 
9.25 


297.85 
217.58 
252.85 
240.62 
256.94 
234.79 


12.90 
7.66 
6.61 
9.37 
9.25 
6.80 


317.99 
248.23 
240.04 
296.20 
245.71 
297.34 


10.32 
10.48 
5.15 
18.14 
14.45 
14.96 


265.62 
202.07 
202.07 
217.11 
142.69 
228.12 


25.00 
26.03 
21.87 
11.33 
17.69 
25.00 


276.13 


14.27 




236.64 


12.34 


Sulphur-Zino-Arsenite 
Electro-Bordo-Lead. . . 


224.31 
251.98 


12.77 
14.00 



"It will be observed by a glance at tbe last column that there is very 
little difference in the average number of bushels per acre of seconds, 
the divergence in yields being practically confined to the first 



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374 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

"An examination of the yield on the Bordeaux plot of the first series 
causes surprise by its very low figure, indeed no other plot in this block 
did so poorly except one of the check plots where the yield was practically 
the same. Had it not been for the adverse conditions obtaining on this 
plot the average yield in the Bordeaux plots as a whole would have been 
at least 20 bushels per acre more. Similarly the adverse conditions whidi 
prevailed on the Sulphur plot of series IV helped to reduce the average 
yield of tubers per acre on all the Sulphur plots very materially. On the 
whole, however, experiments carried out on a largb field such as this are 
of more practical value tan if only a few rows were treated. The varia- 
tions in yield due to varying conditions of soil and fertility would some- 
times seem to confute all accepted theories. But in order to demonstrate 
fully the capabilities of any spraying material as well as those of the field 
on which the treated crop is grown, one must be fully acquainted with the 
several conditions which might influence the results either beneficially or 
adversely. 

"As regards previous cultivation, the field at Robbinsville had borne a 
potato crop for three years (1912-13-14). In the fall of 1912 it had been 
sown in rye, which was ploughed in the following spring. After the potato 
crop had been dug this same operation was repeated in the fall of 1913 
and the spring of 1914. Fertilizer of the formula 4-8-10 was applied with 
the seed at the rate of 1,500 pounds per acre. 

Cost of Spraying and Dusting. 

"The expense attached to the operation of applying insecticides varies 
with the kind of material and the type of machine employed in spraying 
or dusting as the case may be. Even if we consider Bordeaux mixture 
alone it would not be possible to state a cost which would hold good for 
all localities and for the various stages in the growth of the same crop 
within the same locality, because the luxuriance of the vines must be 
taken into account with regard to the amount of material necessary to 
cover them satisfactorily. Jones*, formerly of Vermont, states the average 
cost of sprajrlng one acre of potatoes three times using 200-500 gallons at 
one cent per gallon as |7.00. 

"The following table will give one an idea of this year's expenses at 
Freehold, Robbinsville and Elmer: 



♦L. R. Jones, Sixth Annual Rept. Vermont Agr. Exper. Sta., 1892. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 375 

Table of Comparative Coats of Materials. 
Table VI. 



1. At Robbinsville onlv three applicatione were made except on the Sulphui^Zino-Ar- 
eenite plots where those of Series I and II received four treatments, as also 16 rows of the oor- 
respondiDjE plot in Series III. 

The figures in the last column speak for themselves and at once show one how the cost of 
similar treatments may vary in different places in the same State. 

Control of the Potato Flea-Beetle, 

"In New Jersey as well as most of the potato growing states, this 
diminutive pest has long been recognized as a serious pest, detrimental 
not only because of the damage committed directly by its fenestrating the 
leaves, but also indirectly in that the tiny injuries serve as a means of in- 
cursion for early blight When one considers that in cases of severe 
attack anything from 10 per cent, to 20 per cent, of the leaf surface on a 
single hill might be destroyed one can form a somewhat rough idea of the 
adverse effect on the yield which this reduction in the assimilating power 
of the leaves causes. 

"Probably on account of its insignificant size, very little attention has 
been paid to the life-history or means of control of the flea-beetle, and 
one author seems to accept without test what another has experienced. 
Indeed it is only quite recently that the true facts of its larval behavior 
have been diagnosed and whereas it was generally accepted by Harris,* 
Riley t and Packard t that the larva was a leaf miner like others of its 



♦Harris, T. W., Insects Injurious to Vegetation, p. 127, 1862. 
tRiley, C. V., Missouri Kept. State Ent I, p. 101, 1869. 
tPackard, A. S., N. S. Geol. and Geog. Survey of Colorado and Adjacent 
Territory, 1875, p. 732. 



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376 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

congeners, such as Haltica nemorum, the flea-beeUe of turnips and other 
CrucifersB in England, It has been only within recent years that it has been 
found to feed on the subterranean tubers and roots of the potatoes as well 
as the roots of the tomato* and allied solanaceous plants. The attack on 
the tuber gives rise to a condition known as' "pimply/' formerly assigned 
to the activities of the scab organism, the real cause being discovered by 
Stewart t The same author (loc cit.) says that in 1895 in Long Island 
the damage was so noticeable that potatoes suffered a reduction in price 
of five cents. 

"The omniverous habit of the adult is well known and although the 
species has a dietetic preference for the SolanacecB, yet it can satisfy its 
appetite on almost any of the commoner weeds found near the margins 
of potato fields. The following are some of the food plants cited by various 
authors, the list being by no means exhaustive: potato, tomato, eggplant 
and pepper (0. Luggert)* Jamestown weed, nightshade (F. H. Chitten- 
den§), radish, turnip, cabbage, raspberry, sunflower and various members 
of the squash family (C. M. Weedll). beets (A. S. Packardf ). 

"An attempt was made during the season to arrive at some idea of the 
comparative intensity of the flea-beetle injury by making counts of the 
fenestrations on the leaves of individual shoots. Although a short table 
has been prepared showing the averages of these results, it is very doubt- 
ful if this method of measuring the degree of infestation is very success- 
ful unless one can make daily records. This was impossible because 
the spraying and dusting of the potatoes allowed only a short stay at a 
time at each place. However, the results, such as they are, have been 
tabulated in the hope that they might be of some use in stimulating others 
who have opportunity to attack the matter along this line. 



♦Chittenden. P. H., Bull. No. 19, N. S.. U. S. Dept. Agr., 1899, p. 89. 
tStewart. P. C, Bull. 113. N. S., N. Y. Agri. Exper. Sta., Geneva, 1896, 
p. 311. 

tLugger, O., Bull. 66, Minn. Agr. Exper. Sta., 1890, p. 247. 
fChittenden, F. H., Loc cit, p. 90. 

IWeed, C. M.. Bull. 29, N. H. Coll. Agr. Exper. Sta., p. 3, 1893. 
fPackard, A. S., Loc cit, p. 732. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 
Table VII. 



377 



Nature of Application. 



Date. 



Untreated 

Bordeauz-Lead-Arsenate 

Kil-Tone 

Lead Aneaate 

Sulphur-Lead-Areeoate 

Bordeauz-Lead-Araenate 

Vreeland's Electro Bprdo-Lead . 

Uypeum-Zinc-Arseoite 

Suiphur-Zinc-Arsenite 

Untreated 

Untreated 

Bordeaux-Lead-Areeoate 

Ansbaoher's Bordeaux Lead 

Lead Araeoate. 

Sulphui^-Qypeum Lead-Arsenate 

Bordeaux-Lead-Areenate 

Vreeland's Electro Bordo-Lead . 

Qypeum-Zino-ArBenjte 

Su4>hur-Zinc-'Ar8enite 

Bordeaux-Lead-ArBeoate 

Kil-Tone 

Lead Anenate 

Sulphui^Lead-Axaenate 

Untreated (Late crop) 



Locality. 



No. oi 
shoote. 



Aver. No. 
ol leavea 
per shoot. 



June 10 


.4 


.. 


*' 


'• 


June 29 


«, 


** 


July 


1 
9 


.. 


July 
•• 


10 


July 
•• 


13 


Jujly 


16 


Aug. 


22 



Elmer 


20 


15 




20 


15 


•* 


20 


15 


•• 


20 


15 


" 


20 


15 


Robbinaville 


20 


14 




20 


15 


Robb|naville 


23 


14 


Robblnsville 


1« 


13 


Freehold 


23 


13 


•♦ 


24 


13 


•• 


26 


8 


•• 


29 


9 


•• 


29 


9 


23 


23 


9 


Robblnsville 


33 
30 
22 


11 
3 




8 


•* 


21 


9 


Elmer 


27 


13 


•• 


28 


14 


•• 


25 


15 


•• 


29 


14 


" 


23 


9 



Aver. No. of 

leneetratious 

per leal. 



154.5 
92. 
142. 
138.6 
208.4 
9.3 
9.7 
8.3 
11. 
7.7 
9. 
4.9 
7.15 
6.3 
7.7 
8.9 
. 21.5 
13.54 
13. 
15. 
28. 
21. 
28. 
32. 



"Ab has been said before a great deal of confldence cannot be placed on 
these figures as it is almost impossible to Judge the gross intensity of the 
seasonal attack of the flea-beetle, because the numbers which are present 
in some definite locality at any given time, are determined by several con- 
ditions amongst which the most important are temperature and humidity. 
It will thus be readily understood why it is important to make continuous 
daily counts. If these extend only over a short period, the figures only 
hold good for that one period and cannot be expected to indicate the in- 
tensity except for the time stated. 

"In one case, at Robbinsville, the Bordeaux Mixture seemed to be less 
eflident than the Gypsum-Zinc-Arsenite in warding off the flea-beetle and 
it almost appears as if dry poisons for the time they remain on the leaves 
are more effective in their repelling function than wet poisons. In the 
long run, however, by reason of their greater powers of adherence, the 
latter give the best results, which accounts for the better showing of the 
Bordeaux Mixture and the Liead Arsenate. At Freehold, July 9th, the Bor- 
deaux plots had the least injury and similarly again at RobbinsviUe on 
July 13th and Elmer July 16th. Unsprayed vines, as is to be expected, are 
more liable to flea-beetle injury, and at Elmer August 22nd, on the late 
crop the average number of holes per leaf was during the second worst 
attack of the season. The intensity of the infestation at Elmer when the 
plants were yet young can be judged by results obtained on June 10th 
at the same place. Here the Bordeaux-Lead-Arsenate combination proved 
its qualities in keeping the pest at bay. 

"The fact that the average number of injuries, as judged from the table, 
were much greater at Elmer on June 10th is due to the fact that the counts 



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378 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

were made on the large radical leaves of the ylnes, which, on account of 
their having appeared first, suffer greater cumulative damage than the 
younger leaves on the top shoots, which alone were considered in the 
later reckonings. 

"The control of any insect pest by such measures as time and experience 
have so far taught must be reduced, for practical purposes, to a basis of 
dollars and cents. The total destruction of the flea-beetle, like that of any 
other insect pest, would mean unlimited expenditure and is practically 
impossible. As an insect indigenous to the United States, this pest will 
for ever, as long as potatoes are grown, levy a tax upon the farmer so that 
the question resolves itself into one of reducing the tax to a minimum 
by some measure of control. Three principal methods of attack have 
been employed in abating injurious insect pests, classified as follows: (1) 
Treatments which kill the insects; (2) measures that will restrict their 
abundance and act temporarily as repellants; (3) natural checks, such 
as insect or fungus parasites. 

"Hitherto it has been the general plan to tackle the problem of fiea- 
beetle control by means of repellants, and although Arsenate of Lead and 
Bordeaux Mixture have on many occasions proved efllcient, many of the 
inert powders and dusts recommended are practically of little benefit. 
Because of its activities and peculiar habits, the problem of killing the 
Insect outright presents many difficulties, for it is essential that, for 
the rapid administration of a lethal dose, the material employed must 
actually hit the insect and be retained there until the animal is paralyzed 
beyond recovery. What I have in mind is pyrethrum mixed with an ad- 
hering agent such as gelatin, glue, or soap. After some experiments had 
been carried out in the laboratory with several different substances here- 
after tabulated, it was decided to try several of these on some early and 
late potatoes with a view to discovering an agent capable of killing the 
beetles quickly. After several failures an infusion of pyrethrum mixed 
with Lead Arsenate in which gelatin is incorporated gave most satis- 
factory results and seemed to fulfill one's best expectations. This com- 
bination of insecticides is made up in the proportion of 6 pounds of 
pyrethrum to 60 gallons of water to which sufficient gelatin or soap is 
added to ensure that a film of the liquid when grayed on the leaves will 
adhere readily. In preparation, the pyrethrum is first made into a paste 
by the addition of hot boiling water, then diluted with hot water and 
cooled, and then further diluted to the required strength with cold water, 
the gelatin solution being previously stirred in. To get the best results 
this insecticide should be applied at 100 pounds pressure so that it hits 
the vines as a fine mist 

"The laboratory experiments were carried through in lamp-globes cov- 
ered with muslin. Inside the globes a small vessel for holding water was 
placed into which slips cut from the vines and treated with the various 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 379 

preparations tabulated, were cut Flea-beetles in varying numbers which 
were always previously counted were introduced and the effects noted 
after a period of hours or days as the case might be. The penultimate 
oolmnn of the table, which follows, records the percentage mortality, but 
this is only of interest in so far as it gives one an indication merely of 
the value of the insecticides. The conditions were too unnatural to allow 
of the experiments being a real test 



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38o NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 381 

A Parasite of the Flea^Beetle. 

"Throughout the summer from the middle of July until the beginning 
of September when a period of rather low temperature was experienced, 
sending the flea-beetle into hibernating quarters, a small species of brac- 
onld iPerilitus epitricis Viereck)* was often observed in close associa- 
tion with it on the potato vines. The following observations were made 
on July 80th. As the flea-beetle moved over the leaf surface the hymen- 
opteron follows closely in the rear with its two antenna outstretched, one 
on each side of the beetle. Whenever the latter stops, the braoonid fol- 
lows suit and remains often quite motionless. Sometimes, however, it be- 
comes quite excited and rapidly encircles its host When about to at- 
tack the hymenopteron orients itself either anteriorly or posteriorly in a 
direct line with the flea-beetle and artfully recurving its abdomen down- 
wards and forwards, strikes it in the weak part of its armour, the inter- 
segmental portion of the abdomen. Thus the act of oviposition is com- 
pleted and in many cases it was repeated three or four times in the same 
host by the same parasite. From several specimens of flea-beetles cai>tured 
daring the summer the same insect was reared, thus verifying my field ob- 
servations. The point of emergence usually is a hole found at the pos- 
terior end of the parasitized beetle in the anal region in the shape of a 
tiny aperture. 

"In Bulletin 19, N. 8., Chittendent dealing with the flea-beetle, attack- 
ing solanaceous plants, says that adult beetles (E. cucumeris) collected 
near Washington were parasitized evidently by the same species which is 
mentioned, (loc cit p. 85) as preying upon E, parvula, the tobacco flea- 
beetle." 

Fly Control. 

This work is a continuation of that undertaken last year. At the 
end of the season of 1913 the writer felt, that in view of the fact that 
after all known breeding places had been eliminated in so far as was 
practicable on the college general and dairy farms a considerable number 
of flics were still present in the pig house, horse barn and cow barn, 
investigations of a more fundamental type were needed. Accordingly, 
attention was turned sharply to the species concerned and to their 
breeding and other habits. Further studies were made of baits, manure 
disposal, and prevention of breeding in stalls. 

It was not financially practicable for the New Brunswick Board 
of Health to carry on a fly campaign and attention was concentrated on 
the college general and dairy farms. 



*This was identified by Mr. J. C. Crawford, of the Bureau of Entomology, 
U. S. Dept of Agric, and is a new record for New Jersy. 

tChittenden, P. H.. Bull. 19, N. S.. U. S. Dept. Agrtc., 1899, p. 89. 



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382 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



Fly Control on the College Farm. 

BY 
C. H. RICHARDSON, Assistant Entomologist 



Introduction. 



"The Board of Health of the City of New Brunswick being unable finan- 
cially to undertake a fly campaign it was thought best to concentrate the 
work in some rather isolated locality where fly breeding could be prac- 
tically eliminated. The College Farm, where a part of the work of last 
year was conducted, was again chosen as the best available place for these 
inyestigations. The work was started on April 24th and terminated about 
November Ist 

"These studies were made under the supervision of Dr. T. J. Headlee, 
to whom the writer wishes to express his appreciation for many helpful 
suggestions. He is also indebted to Mr. J. V. Bissett, formerly Assistant 
in Chemistry, Rutgers College, for aid during July and August, to Dr. 
C. H. T. Townsend and Dr. Frederick Knab, of the Bureau of Entomology, 
and to Mr. R. R. Parker and Mr. C. W. Johnson for the identification of 
specimens. • I ! 

"The investigations of the Department of Entomology of this station 
during the summer of 1913 showed that complete fly control could not be 
effected by the use of fiy traps as ordinarily constructed, that at most they 
could be only an adjunct The elimination of breeding places was held 
to be highly important and it was found that iron sulphate and carbon 
bisulphide were useful larvicides and that sulphur was an effective fumi- 
gant of adult files. The great importance of co-operation in anti-fiy work 
was brought out as well as the effectiveness of partially complete fly- 
breeding controL 

"The work undertaken this year was largely a continuation of last 
year's investigations, but more emphasis was given to the study of the fly 
fauna of the farm, especially to those species which frequent milk, and 
thus are possible carriers of infectious human diseases. A careful survey 
of the entire farm was made and all breeding places were regularly 
cleaned and inspected. The work on larvicides was directed rather to dis- 
cover new materials and to formulate new methods than to test the older 
ones. Minor studies were made on fly-trap baits, on the distance flies can 
travel, and on compost 

Studies on the Fly Fauna of the College Farm. 

"This work was undertaken to furnish data on the number of species 
of flies which inhabit a typical New Jersey farm, especially those species 
which, because of their omnivorous feeding habits or their blood-sucking 
propensities are a source of danger or annoyance to the farmer and his 
live stock. Particular attention was given to the flies which were cap> 
tured regularly in milk-baited traps, and because of their dung fiecdlng 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 383 

habits, might, through the medium of milk, convey germs of yarioua 
diseases to man. Flies were also hred from the various manures on the 

'*™- Species Which Arc Attracted to Milk. 

"Fly traps 12 inches in diameter and 30 inches high were employed in 
this work. They were placed in the following locations: in the pig bam 
above the feed troughs; at the poultry plant brooder house near an open 
window and in the feed house; at the compost heap near the greenhouses; 
la the horse bam and at the horse bam manure pit; in the cow bam, the 
calf bam and at the cow bam manure pit The pig bam, the houses of the 
poultry plant, the greenhouses and the horse bam form a group of build- 
ings which lie close to the residential section of the City of New Bruns- 
wick. The cow bam and calf bam form another group given up entirely 
to dairying about one mile distant from the horse bam. 

"About fourteen traps were maintained from May 6th until October 5th, 
after which the number of flies was so reduced that the trapping was not 
profitable. The traps at the feed house, compost heap, horse bam and cow 
bam manure pit were removed at various times because of the small 
size of the catch, and were taken to the other places to increase the 
number of traps there. 

"Fresh milk and bread or bran were used for bait, which was usually 
renewed every other day, although this program was not always strictly 
adhered to. The traps were emptied once a week and estimates were 
taken of the different species caught. The following is a list of the flies 
which were caught often enough to indicate that their capture was not 
accidental: 

Abundant species: Calliphora erythrocephala Meig., Lucilia sericata 
Meig., Phormia regina Meig., Musca dome$tica L., Muscina stabulans Fall., 
Fannia canicularii L. 

Species less abundant: Ravinia communis Parker, Ravinia latUetosa 
Parker, Sarcophaga lyullata Mans., Sarcophaga hoBmorroidaliSt Meig., 8ar- 
cophaga helicii Town., Pollenia rudis, Fab., Cynomyia cadaverina Desv., 
Lucilia ccB^ar L., Morellia micans Macq., Oraphomyia americana R. D., 
Muscina assimilis Fall., Ophyra leucostoma Wied., Fannia scalaris Fab., 
Scatophaga stercoraria L. 

"The first list includes species which were captured regularly and in 
abundance throughout the season, the second list, species of which less 
than fifty were captured during the season. Several species of anthomyids 
cannot now be included, because of a question as to their identity. 

"Four species in the list of those designated as abundant, namely, 
CaiUpTiora erythrocephala Meig., Musca domestica L.. Muscina stahulans 
Fall, and Fannia canicularis L., have been bred from or found upon 
human excreta by Howard* and the same author has likewise incriminated 
Cynoymia cadaverina Desv., Lucilia ccesar L., Morellia micans Macq., 
Ophyra leucostoma Wied., and Scatophaga stercoraria L. Thus nearly one- 
half of the flies which visited milk on the College Farm are known to 
visit human excrement. 



*A contribution to the study of the insect fauna of human excrement 
Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. 1900. Vol. 2, pp. 541-604. 



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384 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Breeding Places. 

"An effort was made to locate the breeding places of the different 
species of flies found on the farm. Horse manure, cleanings from beneath 
horse staUs, cow manure, pig manure, chicken manure, compost and rot- 
ting ensilage were examined for fly larvs and pups from time to time. 
When evidences of breeding were found, samples of the manure or com- 
post were placed in breeding cages and the adult flies were reared. A 
number of flies remain unidentified and are omitted from the following 
listo: 

• Horse manure: From manure pit — Musca domeitica L., 8tomoxy$ cdl* 
citrana L., Fannia canicularia L.; cleanings from underneath stall boards 
— Musca domeatica L., Muscina stabulans Fall., Fannia canicularis L., 
Fannia scalaria Fab. 

Cow manure. Eristalis tenax L., Ravinia communis Parker, Ravinia 
latisetosa Parker, Pseudopyrellia comicina Fab., Morellia micans Macq., 
Musca domestica L., Lyperosia (Hasm^atohia) irritans L., Muscina stabu- 
lans Fall., Myospila meditabunda Fab., Scatophaga stercoraria L., Lon- 
chcBa dcutschi Zett., Sepsis sp. 

Pig manure: Oulicoides specularis Coq., Ravinia communis Parker, 
Ravinia latisetosa Parker, Musca domestica L., Myospila meditabunda 
Fab., Scatopha^a stercoraria L., Borborus sp., Bepsis sp. 

Chicken manure: Musca domestica L. 

"From the standpoint of the number of species bred, cow manure was 
the most important producer of flies, chicken manure the least But under 
ordinary conditions, horse manure breeds the largest Urumber of house 
flies (Musca domestica L.), which exceed all others in abundance and, 
therefore, it must be considered the substance most desirable for elimina- 
tion. House flies were bred not only from horse manure, but from oow 
manure, pig manure and chicken manure. They did not in any instance 
issue from cow droppings in the pasture and only bred in this 
substance when it was mixed with straw. All the other species reared 
from cow manure came from droppings gathered from the cow pasture. 
Chicken manure offered a breeding place for house flies only when moist 
It is, however, a substance which must be considered in any sanitary 
operations. 

"About one-half of the species which were regularly attracted to milk 
were bred from various kinds of animal manure on the College Farm and 
are therefore liable to be a source of contamination for any milk improp- 
erly protected. 

ANNOTATED LIST OF THE FLIES SEEN UPON THE COLLEGE 

FARM. 

"This list makes no claim to completeness since it contains largely those 
species which frequented the dwellings or bred in the various manures 
of farm animals. A number of tabanids were observed at the oow bams 
during mid-summer but they are not included here. A few species, chiefly 
anthomylds. are still unidentified and are not mentioned in this 4tBt 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 385 

4. Chirondmidw, 

CuliooideB tpeoula^it, Cpq. 

Two specimens of this minute mosquito-liJce gnmt emerged July 11th from a pic dune 
which was placed in a breeding cage June 3wh, 
CuHooides variipennis, Coq. 

This biting gnat was abundant on the windows at the oow bam, May 10th. Many fe- 
males were gorged with blood which they had taken from the cows. 

Bihionidw. 

Scatopee, sp. 

An unidentified re p rese n tative of this genus was captured in a net on May lOtb. 

aimulidw. 

Simulium hirtipes, Fries. 

This "black fly" was captured on the farm. May 10th. but not seen later. 



Stratiomyidw, 
milk-baited tn 

Syrphidw, 



Ptectious trivitatus. Say. . ^ . • 

A single specimen was captured in a milk-baited trap at the oow bam manure pit. July lOth. 



Eristalis tenax, L. 

This drone fly bred in the oow bam manure pit during May and June. It was nersr 
taken in the traps. 

Sarcophagidce. 

Bottcheria latistema, Parker (1) 

A singJe specimen resembling this ^>ecies was captured at the horte bam manure pit 
September 28th. 
Ravinia communis, Parker. 

Thirteen individuals were captured at the big bam and the horse and cow bam manure 
pits from May l^th till etoptember 28th. Also reared from oow dung isolated June 5th, during 
July and on August 27th, and from pig dung isolated August 26th. 
Kavinla hitisetOBa. Parker. 

Four specimens wore captured on the farm gnd at ^e horse bam and cow bam manure 
pits from May 19th till August 7th. The species was bred from cow and pig dung isolated in 
cages on August 2dth and 27th, respectively. 
Saroophaga assidua. Walk. 

One specimen from a trap in the horse bom July 10th. 
Saroophaga buUata, Mans. 

Three specimens from the farm dated May 19tb. One taken from a trap at the cow 
bam manure pit, July ISth. 
Saroophaga falculata. Pand. 

One specimen from a trap in the brooder house, July 27th. 
Saroophaga dalmatina, Schiner. 

One specimen from the brooder house, August 21st. 
Saroophaga h»morrhoidalis, Meig. 

Four specimens from the horse bam manure pit, August Ist, 7th, 2l8t, and September 
2Sth, and one from the brooder house, August 7th. 
Sarcophaga helicis. Towns. 

First captured on the farm on May 10th, and subsequently during July and August at 
the horse bam manure pit and the eow bam. Seven specimens obtained. 
Saroophaga sooparia, Pand. 

One specimen, cow bam manure pit, July 18th. 
Saroophaga sarraoenic. lliley. 

Taken once at the cow bam manure pit, .August Ist, imd once at the pig bam, August 21st. 
Sarcophaga utilis, Aldrich. 

One specimen from the farm May 25th, and another from the horse bam manure pit, 
October 5th. 

MUMCidCB. 

PoUenia rudis, Fab. 

The cluster fly was caught in milk-baited traps at two places: the hotM bam manoie pit 
and the oow bam manure pit. The first individual was taken June 3rd, the last, August vth. 
Ten specimens were captured in all; the largest number taken from a single trap was five. 
Cynomsria cadaverina, Desv. 

This blow-fly-Iike species was not detected at the College Farm till May 13th, although 
specimens were collected in New Brunswick on April 24th, 26th, 29th and May Ist and 12th. 
It seemed to reach its maximum abundance late m May. Eleven specimens were taken from 



14 Ad 

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386 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

tnepB on May 10th and 25th. One was taken on June 3rd and the spedeB was not seen acarn 
tiuSeptember 28th when two specimens were captured in a trap at the horse bam manure pit. 

The records from the CoUcm Farm agree in genecal with Ihose from the entire Stated 
which show that Cynomyia cadaverina is present during May, and again during September 
and October. What becomes of this species during July and AugustV 
' Calli^ora erythrocephala, Meig. 

This common blow-4y was cwturea in the milk4>aited tr^>s throui^out the p|eriod cov- 
ered by these investigations. Seldom more than four or five were taken from a single trap. 
The first individuals were captured on April 24th, the last seen on October 20th. Althou^ 
never present in large numbers in a single catch, it is, on account of its dung feeding habits 
and its continual presence throughout the season, a species to be feared. 
Calliphora vomitoria, L. 

This bbw-fly was captured but twice, on May 19th and 26th. although it was expected 
to be abundant. It is said to occur everywhere in New Jeney at all aeasonsf but was far sur- 
passed in numbers on the College Farm by Calliphora erythrocephala, Meig. 
I^dlia cesar, L. 

lliis green bottle fly is closely allied to the next species, and is supposed to be more abund- 
ant in New Jersey. Only seven out of about fifty specimens of Ludlia which were saved, 
showed distinctly the character of Lucilia cae«ar, L. They were collected from traps during 
July and August. 
Lucilia sericata, Meig. 

This fly was obwrved on the farm in considerable abundance from May 19th till October 
5th. During June about 200 q>ecimens were taken from one trap at the cow bam manure 
pit. After that time it was not so plentiful and a trap seldom contained more than fifteen or 
twenty. This is an important species early in the summer before house flies are present in 
large numbers. 
Phormia regina. Meig. 

During June this species appeared in considerable numbers. About 250 were removed 
from a trap at the cow bam on June 3rd and on June 30th in a single trap at the cow bani 
manure pit, which had not been emptied since June 3rd, contained approximately 200 of these 
flies. After that time a single trap seldom contained more than four or five. It was first 
captured on May 25th, and was present at least till September 5th. The records indicate 
that this is an important species early in the summer and that it is present till well into the 
faU. 
Pseudopyrellia oomidna. Fab. 

Bred from cow dung isolated in breeding ca^ August 5th and 27th: about twelve indi- 
viduals issued. It was not captured in milk-baited traps. 
MorelUa micans, Macq. 

First captured on June 3rd in a trap at the cow bam manure pit from which four speci- 
mens were taken. Another was captured at the horse bam manure pit on September 28th. 

EUeven specimens were reared from cow manure taken from the cow pasture on the fol- 
lowing dates: July 22nd: Augiist 25th; August 27th. Many larvie were found in cow manure 
in the pasture on August 5th. 
Musca domestica. Ij. 

The house fly or typhoid fly wa^ by far the most abundant species on the tarm. The fol- 
lowing table was compiled frcMn Uapj>ed ^ledmens and from observations made at inter- 
vals throughout the season. While making no claims to absolute accuracy, it is believed, the 
table gives, in a general way, a true picture of the relative abundance of house flies and other 
flies on the College Farm in 1014. 



•Smith "Injects of New Jersey' , Ann. Kept. N. J. State Mus. 1909. p. 786. 
fSmith. k>c. cit., p. 786. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



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388 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

" Home fliM were neaa at the oow bam on Uuy 13th and by May 19Ui they had appeared 
in small numbers at the pig bam. Th«y graduaJly increased during May and June, and by 
Juiy Ist were more abundant than any other spedes. By the middle of September th^ had 
begun to decrease perceptibly. On October 5th, six traps stationed at thej>ig bam, brooder 
house and horse bam manure pit caught only 210 flies, and on October 20th, the reduction 
was still greater. 

"The pigbam and calf bam sustained the highest percentage of house flies thoughout 
the season. This was due to a large and constant supply of food in the form of milk, oraa, 
tankage and other materials which remained in the troughs and pails after the animam were 
fed or was spilled on the floor. The cow bam also attracted a large number of house flies, 
but late in July, Stomoxvs calcitrans, L., appeared in force and tne relative percentage of 
house flies dropped considerably. The horse bam and cow bam manure pits did not prove 
as attractire, since the manure was regularly removed from them, and consequently fewer 
house flies were captured there. This was also tme to a lesser extent of the brooder house 
and horse bam. It thus appears that wherever house flies found an abundance of food, they 
were present almost to the exclusion of all other species, but where their food was present in 
small quantity, they were largely displaced by oUier species. Whether this repkeliant effect 
was due to their numerical preponderance or to their pugnacity was not determined. How- 
ever, house flies were obeerved in pursuit of little house flies (Fannia canicularis, L.) about 
traps on several occasions. 

"Breeding was first discovered in horse manure at a small stable near the cow bam on 
June 2nd. On June 2.5th, a few larvm were found beneath the stall boards in the horse bam. 
Breeding was detected in moist chicken dung at the poultry plant on July 3rd, and on July 
7th myriads of lar\fe infested the cleanings from brooder pens (a mixture of chicken dung 
and sand) which had been used to fill depressions in a road and which a rain had dampened. 
A few house flies were bred from pig manure taken from the pig yards on August 2dth, and 
in large numbers from the same material gathered September 23ni. Larv» and pupe were 
reported October 15th in a mixture of cow manure and straw beneath a crate from which 
calves were fed. Larv» could nearly always be found in the horse ham manure pit, but ex- 
cept in a very few instances, the manure was removed before they had reached large sise. 
Graphomyia amerieana, R. D. ^maculata, Scopoli). 

Six specimens of this strikingly-marked fly were captured in traps at the cow bam ma- 
nure pit from June 3rd till July 18th. 
•'^tnmoxys calcitrans, L. 

The stable fly was not seen till May 0th wh(»n five or six were fmind on cows and one on 
a hog. It did not appear in large numbers till about the middle of July, and from that time 
it increased so that by July 27th it was as abundant at the cow bam ns the house fly. On 
August 10th three counts were made in the cow bam and 97% of the flies present were sta- 
ble flies. By September 28th, however, this percentage had dropped to about 75, and on 
October 20th, when the last observation was made the numbers were very greatly reduced. 

A few stable flies were bred from horse manure from the horse bam manure pit on Sep- 
tember 14th. Breeding pUces could not be found near the oow bam, but. as they may breed 
in accumulations of straw and grass, it would have been easy to overlook them. 
Lyperosia (Hsmatobia) irritans, Linn. 

The hom fly was first seen on cows at the cow bam on May 10th. On Msy 10th, it was 
estimated that 150 hom files were present on forty cows, but they were not evenly distributed, 
some cows having ten or twelve on their shoulders, others two or three and still others none 
at all. Only two of the twenty cows on the eut side of the bam were fly infested at 4:00 p. 
m., the hom flies preferring the cows in the strongest light. Bv June 6th there had been a 
jpreat increase in the number of hom flies and ih^ irregular distribution was not so apparent. 
This increase continued until the middle of July when the maximum was reached. A marked 
decrease was observed on September Idth and again on Seotember 28th when many of the 
cows were entirely free from flies. A few hom flies were still present on October 20th. 

Hom files were bred from oow dung which came from the cow pasture on June 30th. but 
I am confident they were breeding before this date. They were reared again from oow dung 
isolated in breeding csgee on August 27th. Pupfe were collected in considerable numbers on 
several other occasions during August. 
Muscina stabulans. Fall. 

The trap records showed that this species reached iif* height of abundance during June- 
On June 2nd, fifty specimens were taken from a trap in the brooder house; on June 3rd, 350 
were captured in traps in tJie cow bam and at the manure pit nearby: 235 were taken from 
ihe same traps on June .30th. Muscina stabulans. Fall, wa^ also a common species through- 
out July and August, but diminished in numbers during September. Three snecimens were 
taken on October 5th in the brooder house and at the horse bam manure pit, the latest date 
they were captured. 

Muscina stabulans wa^ only bred twice during th^ season. A single fly emerged from 
manure which had been taken from undemeath a horse stall on July 15th. and two speci- 
mens issued from cow dung isolated in breeding jars on June 5th. 
Muscina assimilis. Fall. 

Apparently occuring throughout the summer, but not abundant. Seven specimens wer* 
trapped on the following dates: June 3rd, .July 10th and September 28th. Five of these wer* 
captured on September 28th. 
Myospila meditabunda. Fab. 

A single specimen issued from cow dung which was placed in a breeding cage on August 
27th; another was bred from pig dung isolated in breeding cages September 23rd. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 389 

Anthompida. 

Ophyn leuoostoma, Wiad. 

Thw little metalUo black fly was obeerved and trapped on the Collefce Farm from June 
3rd "Titil September 28th. Nearly one-half of the trapped specimens were captured in the 
brooder houso, and the fact that individuals were observed about chicken dung on two occa- 
sions, sugcests that th^ might breed in this substance. Examinations* howevert failed to 
produce any Oi^iyra larv». 

Tea is the largest number of specimens of this species caught in a single day. 
Fumia canicubuis, L. 

From May 6th till the middle of June, the little house flv was one of the most abundant 
species on the farm. The traps contained 71% of flies of this species on May 19th. By June 
^id, about 50% of the flies at the pig bam and brooder house were of this species and the 
next day about 40% of those counted at the cow bam were little house flies. It rapidly de- 
creased after this date, espedallv in the pig barn and cow bam, but it was observed and 
trapped there throughout July. August and September in small numbers. In the horM bam . 
it was still preeent in considerable numbera on October 5th, and on October 20th was the most 
abundant fly in the horse bam. but still outnumbered bv the house fly at the pig bam. 

A number of larva>, some of which undoubtedly belonged to this species, were found 
beneath the stall boards in the horse bam on June 25th. It was bred from horse manure 
taken from beneath the horse stalls on July 15th, and from horse dung taken* from the horse 
bam manure pit September 9th. 
Fannia scalaris Fab. 

This species, closely allied to the little house fly, was not as abundant as the preceding' . 
It was seen from May 6th till August 7th and reached its greatest abundance on Juno 25tn 
at the horse bam. Twenty-six specimens were caught in traps or by means of nets. 

A single adult of this form was reared from deamngs gathered from beneath a horse stall 
on July 15th. It emerged on July Slst. 

Scatophagidcd. 

Scatophaga sterooraria, L. 

During t^e first two weeks in May this yellow dung fly laid its eggs in cow and pig dung 
in the pastures and in compost near the greenhouses. It was exceeding abundant at this 
time. Three specimens were taken in trape during Juhr, and four dunng the early part of 
August. The spedes was last seen in the cow pasture August 25th. 

Borboridis, * 

Borborus sp. 

Two distinct species are included under this head — one captured on the farm on April 
24th and another reared from pig dung isolated June 30th. 
Spherocera subsultans. Fab. 

There was one specimen taken at the horse bam manure pit. April 23rd, but this species 
or one nearly like it was seen at the above locality throughout the summer. It was found 
within manure heaps. 

SapromyzidCB. 

Lonehea deutschi, Zett. 

This snmll black fly was bred from cow dung taken from the cow pasture on July 22nd 
and August 25th. It was never caught in traps. 

OrtadidcB, 

Tetanops Iiiridipennis, Lw. 

A single specimen was taken from a trap at the horse bam manure pit on July 10th. 

SepsidcB. 

Tbls small By was bred from cow dung taken from the cow pasture on July 5th, July 22nd 
August 5th and September 24th, and from pig dung from the pig yards on June 30th, July 
3rd and September 23rd. It was captured in the poultry plant dung house and at the win- 
dows in the cow bam, but never in the traps. Neither have I ever seen it about traps, al- 
though it may have entered them at times and escaped again through the meshes of the wire. 

Experiments With Baits for Fly Trape. 

'Idilk and bran or milk and bread were used as baits for tbe fly traps 
throughout the summer. Sweet milk was used wheneyer obtainable. Ex- 
perimental work done by Morril* showed that fresh beer was a better 
liquid than milk for fly bait. Three experiments were conducted, each for 



•Joum. Econ. But, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1914, pp. 268-273. 



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390 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

a number of days, to prove whlcn was the better of these two substance& 
Two traps (12x30 inches), one baited with milk and bread, the other 
with beer and bread were placed about ten feet apart in the pig bam. 
The baits were placed in tin pie plates and were renewed every other day. 
Results were taken by comparing the number of dead flies in the bottom 
of each trap at the end of the time, as follows: (1) July 6-8< beer two 
times as many flies as milk; (2) July 10-15, milk two times as many flies 
as beer; (3) July 13-15, milk two times as many flies as beer. 

In experiment 2 the two traps were almost even on July 14, but by the 
next day the milk baited trap had again taken the lead. Beer is unques- 
tionably attractive to flies, but these experiments indicate that milk is 
even a better bait 

Studies on Larvicldes. 

. "The work on larvicldes consisted largely in an attempt to flnd new 
chemicals suitable to control house fly larvs in manure. Iron sulphate, 
borax and pyroligneous acid, which have recently been investigated by 
Cook, Hutchinson and Scales* were also given some attention. 

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS. 

"Seven new compounds besides iron sulphate and borax which haTe 
been previously investigated were used in the laboratory tests, the results 
of which are given in the table below. The larvae were placed in 60 mm. 
glass dishes with one ounce of fresh horse manure. The tops were eoT- 
ered with pieces of cotton doth held by means of rubber bands. Unless 
otherwise stated, 5cc of each larvicide solution was applied to each ounce 
of manure, an amount which gave it a thorough wetting. The dilutions 
were generally such as would be near a practical one flnancially should 
they show larvicide properties; An attempt was made to place ten larvaB 
in each dish, but was not successful because of the number of eggs and 
minute larvoe scattered throughout the manure. This will account for 
the difTerences in the number of adults which emerged in the experiments. 

"None of these compounds except borax, iron sulphate and mercuric 
chloride was effective at the strengths tested. Mercuric chloride used 
at the dilution of one part to flfty parts of water is a violent poison and 
its cost would render the applications too expensive. None of the three 
successful compounds was of sufilcient strength to* kill all of the larve 
and some always reached the pupal stage. It is also signiflcant that one 
seemingly perfect adult fly emerged from a borax and iron sulphate dish. 
Even under experimental conditions the control with these lanriddes is 
not perfect 



*Experiments in the destruction of fly larvae in horse manure — U. S. 
Dept. Agr., Bui. 118, 26 pp., 1914. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 391 

Experimwit I— 8«t 8/24— Examined 9/11, 1914. 









«> 










'$ 


1 


3 
1 


1 


1 


1 


CHEMICAL. 


5^ 


h 


11 


Cootrol water 




6cc. 


loi. 


None. 


None. 


17 
23 


•• »* 




I 


I 


•• 


I 


11 
27 


Sodium suli^io-carbonate 


1:200 
1:200 


20 
24 


Mercuric Chkmde 


l:lfiOO 


•* 


** 


*• 


'* 


24 


•t •• 


l:lfiOO 


•* 


** 


*' 




8 


«• •* 


1:6000 
1:6000 
1:200 


•; 


•; 


ti 


., 


♦15 


•• «« 


14 


Oxalic Acid 


16 




1:200 


** 


•* 






13 




0.46 grm: 












Borax 


6cc. H2 






«• 


13 

8 


1 



Iron Sulphate 


2 lbs.: 1 gal 
^1:200 


5 cc. 


•; 


8 
6 

1 


3 

6 

None. 







1 


Lead Acetate 


9 




^1:200 


** 


*' 


None. 


" 


13 


Alum 


1:100 


*• 


** 




** 


17 




1:100 


*• 


** 




*• 


^\ 


•• 


1:200 


** 




*' 


*' 


11 


" 


1:200 


*• 


'* 


** 


** 


10 


Ferric Chloride 


1:200 
1:200. 
1:100 
1:100 
1:200 
1:200 




<• 


4 •• 


1 
• None. 


16 




11 


Potasiium Carbonate 


9 




17 


M •« 


10 


" •• 


17 



Experiment II— Set 9/23— Examined 10/2$, 19 


14. 




Contiol water 




5 cc. 


1 OS. 

•• 


None. 
4 


None. 

9 
4 


8 






10 


Mercurie Chloride 


1:50 
1:50 


,' 


•» •« 


' 



* (2 live pupffi) . I (Stomoxys calcitrans) . 

"While these experiments did not furnish a new larvlcide, they gave 
valuable data on the resistance of house fly larvs to a number of com- 
pounds which will be useful In future work.* 

OUTDOOR EXPERIMENTS WITH IRON SULPHATE AND BORAX. 

"On August 3rd, three piles of horse manure containing 200 pounds each 
(about four bushels) were placed In a row ten feet apart near the horse 
bam manure pit One pile received the Iron sulphate treatment used suc- 
cessfully on cow manure last year^ I.e., 1 gallon of the stock solution to 30 
pounds of manure or 6 2/3 gallons for the 200 pounds. The stock solution 
was made up at the rate of 2 pounds of iron sulphate to 1 gallon of water. 
The applications were made with a sprinkling can to the surface of the 
pile. Another pile received 0.31 pounds (amount recommended by Cook, 
Hutchinson and Scales, loc. clt p. 24) of commercial borax which was 
crinkled over the pile and washed In with 6 2/3 gallons of water. The 
third pile was used as a control. On August 7th a count was made of a 
half-bushel sample from each pile with the following results: Iron sul- 



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392 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



pliate plle» 400 live larvaB; borax pile, 252 live larvaB; control pile, 215 
live larvsB. No water was applied to the check and It had dried out con- 
siderably. 

''The piles were treated again on August 7th, the amount of larvldde 
being doubled In each case so that the Iron-sulphate pile received 18 VZ 
gallons of' the stock solution, the borax pile 0.62 pounds washed In with 
13 gallons of water, and the control 13 gallons of water. An examination 
was made again on August 12th with the following results: Iron-sulphate 
pile, a few pups and quite a few young flies; control pile, a few larve, 
pup8B and young flies; borax pile, quite a number of pups black^ied, 
elongated and apparently dead and a few young flies. The number of 
larvee, pupee and young flies found was so small that it did not seem worth 
while to make exact counts. Although the borax pile showed fewer live 
flies a^d more dead pupee than the others, it cannot be said that the num- 
ber of larvee and pupse killed was entirely satisfactory. 

"Two other experiments conducted in boxes with open tops covered by 
wire screen were negatived by what was apparently a bacterial disease 
and the activities of a hymenopterous parasite, Spalangia muscidarum 
Richardson, which attacked the larve or pupse In the iron-sulphate and 
borax treated manure as well as In the controls so that very few of the 
larvsB or pupse matured. 

"Results obtained from experiments last year show that house fly larve 
can be killed if the iron-sulphate is carefully mixed with the manure. 
The work of the past summer, while not conclusive, indicates that surface 
treatment of manure piles with iron-sulphate will not result in the total 
elimination of the larvse therein contali\ed. 

THE EFFECT OF LARVICIDAL DOSESXpF IRON SULPHATE AND 
BLEACHING POWDER (CaOCIa) ON ThV GROWTH OF BARLEY. 

"An experiment was undertaken last year by 5?r. Headlee to determine 
the effect of manure treated with larvlcidal dot^s of iron-sulphate and 
bleaching powder upon the growth of barley. Ten ^arge pots were filled 
with various mixtures of eartl|, manure and the larvicides and were sown 
to barley. The crop was gathered when matured and through the kind- 
ness of Prof. A. W. Blair, Associate Soil Chemist, dry Vweights of the 
plants were determined. \ 









S 




Pot Number. 


Fertilizer. 


Larvidde. 


Diy\ Weight of 
Planiti ui grama. 




Indiv. \ Aver. 


1 


No manure 

No manure 

♦Manure. 


No treatment 


7.6 
10.6 
11.0 

9.6 

8.0 
11.6 
13.0 

8.6 

1.8 
0.4 


i 


i. ..,:..::.:. . 


No treatment. 


\ 9.0 


3 


Fe S04— 2 lbs. to 30 Iba. manure. 
Fe 804— 2 lbs. to 30 Iba. manure. 
Fe S04— 2 Ibfl. to 16 Ibe. manure. 
Fe 804 — 2 Ibe. to 16 lbs. manure. 
No treatment. . . 




4 


\ 10.2 


5 


«t 


. 


6 


t< 


\ ^-7 


7 


«• 


8 


•« 


No treatment. 


10.7 


9 


«• 


1 lb. bleaching powder to 8 qta. 
»«anure- 






„ 




10 


1 lb. bleaching powder to 8 qta. 
manure. 


Ml 









♦Manure waa alwa3ra uaed at the rate of H lb. to 18 Iba. of aoil. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 393 

Iron sulphate eyen when used at the rate of 2 pounds to 15 pounds of 
manure gaye better results than when neither manure nor iron sulphate 
were applied. The pots containing manure alone gaye slightly better re- 
sults than those to which iron sulphate was applied. Bleaching powder 
had a yery disastrous effect on the growth of barley. 

Cook, Hutchinson and Scales* found that iron sulphate greatly reduced 
the bacterial count in manure. The results of the present experiment do 
not indicate that the fertilizer yalue of the manure is greatly harmed. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH PYR0LIQNE0U8 ACID. 

"Pyroligneous acid has recently receiyed praise as a fly destroyer from 
a number of sources. Its champions claimed that it would not only destroy 
the eggs and the laryse, but that its fumes would eyen kill the adults. To 
ascertain the truth of tt^se assertions a number of experiments were un- 
dertaken. A barrel of crude pyroligneous add was kindly furnished 
throui^ the Yreeland Chemical Company for this purpose. The following 
test was made June 18th: A quart of undiluted pyroligneous add was 
applied to a quantity of manure in a horse stall about which many flies 
were hoyering. In one-half hour practically as many flies were crawling 
oyer the manure as before the treatment. The odor of the add was yery 
strong. It was apparent that pyroligneous add did not possess any unu- 
sual repellant qualities. 

^As a -further test, flye adult flies were captured and placed in a large 
stoppered bottle into which a rag saturated with undiluted pyroligneous 
add had been inserted. A Mason jar containing a water«oaked rag and 
flye flies was used as a check. After 45 minutes exposure, three flies 
were able to leaye the bottle containing pyroligneous acid and two others 
although wetted by flying against the saturated rag, ultimately flew ofL 
The flies seemed to be slightly inactiyated by the fumes, but they recoy- 
ered when exposed to the air. The flies in the check behayed normally 
and flew away when the cover was removed from the Jar. 

"In order to prove whether pyroligneous add would destroy eggs and 
larvs another experiment was made. Two boxes of approximately equal 
size were fllled with 1,700 cubic inches of horse manure one day old. An 
examination was made to see that no large larvae were present 

''The boxes were placed several feet apart in an exposed position on 
July 9th. One box was treated with one pint of undiluted pyroligneous 
add, applied with a sprinkling can; the other served as a dieck. Three 
additional pints of add were applied on July 11th, 18th and 15th, re- 
spectivdy. Examination was made on July 18th with these results: 
Chedc box — 28 larvs and 2 pup» found in the upper two inches of the 
manure. Treated box— 90 pupce counted in the upper two inches of the 
manure. Fbur or flve times as many were found but not counted. They 
appeared to be normal in every way. 

''Since pyroligneous acid failed to repel the adult house fly, or to pre- 
Tent it from breeding in manure, further experiments were not conddered. 
Recently Cook, Hutchinson and Scales t arrived at similar conclusions. 



•Loc dt, p. 11. 
tLoc dt, p. 9. 



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394 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



CONTROL OF THE FLY BREEDING IN HORSE STALLS. 

"The stalls at the horse barn are floored with 12-inch planks laid on a 
foundation of smooth cement Under these planks, house flies-bred in 
abundance last year, and to prevent a recurrence of this, experiments 
were conducted with a number of compounds. Nine stalls were chosen 
for this purpose and the applications were made by removing the stall 
boards and spreading the lanricides evenly over the cement floor. 

"On June 18th, stall 1 received two sixteen-qu^ pails of dry iron sul- 
phate and stall 2 one-half pail of the same. On June 22nd stall 5 was given 
two pails of acid phosphate and on June 24th and 25th, stalls 3, 4, 6 and 
7 received two pails of acid phosphate ^ach and stalls 8 and 9, two pails 
each of air-slaked lime. Many Fannia larvee and a few house fly larvae 
were found on these days. 

"Examination of stalls 1 and 2 was made on June 2nd and they were 
found to be free from larvae. July 2nd, stall 1 (iron sulphate) showed 
no larvse, stall 2 (iron sulphate) showed a few Fannia and one house 
fly larvse. In this stall the iron sulphate had largely disappeared. The 
other stalls were free of larvs. July 9th, stalls 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 contained 
no larvse. July 15th, stalls 1, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9 were carefully searched and 
Fannia larvse were found in stall 5 (acid phosphate) house fly larvse 
in stall 8 (air-slaked lime) and Fannia and house fly larvse in stall 
9 (air-slaked lime). 

"Up to this time only a few larvse were found in one iron sulphate 
treated stall which had received but one-half pail of larvicide. Each stall 
received a pail and a half of iron sulphate on July 16th. TEis was applied 
by lifting up the stall boards and throwing the iron sulphate under the 
ends where it was thought it would pass into solution and disseminate 
over the cement floor. On July 27th, however, house fly larvse were found 
in stall 8 above the point where the iron sulphate had penetrated. On 
July 30th all the stalls except numbers 1 and 2 received one pail of iron 
sulphate or about 50 pounds each. Stalls 2, Z, 6 and 9 were examined on 
August 25th, when house flies were still abundant and only two Fannia 
larvse were found in stall 2. Fly breeding had been practically eliminated 
by the use of iron sulphate. 

"One hundred pounds or less of iron sulphate properly applied would 
undoubtedly keep a stall cleared of larvse through the fly season. The 
cost would be less than one dollar per stall. 

Flight Experiments. 

"The number of flies at the pig bam remained fairly constant during 
the greater part of July and August As it was certain that all places 
on the farm where flies could breed in large numbers were practically 
under perfect control, it was surmised that many must come from outside 
sources. A number of experiments were made to ascertain how many 
flies would return to the pig bam when released at points known distances 
from it. Flies were captured in traps at the pig batn and the number 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 395 

ccmtained in eadi was roughly estimated in the followlzig way: A twenty- 
squu^inch piece of wire screen was carefully placed against the trap 
screen in five or six different places and an average of the number of 
flies covered by it was taken. With this average and the total area of the 
traps, the total number of flies could be approximately estimated. 

"A trap containing about 3,000 flies was taken to a point 1,715 feet (not 
quite a third of a mile) southwest of the pig bam on July 22nd. A small 
quantity of rouge (ferric oxide) was placed on the lid of the trap as it 
stood upside down. The trap was shaken up and down and with a rotary 
motion so that the flies were well dusted with the powder. They were 
liberated at 9:45 A. M. The following results were obtained: 

July 24 — 1 marked fly in trap at pig bam. 

" »' — 1 " " reported by workman at brooder house. 

" 27—11 " flies in traps at pig bam. 

" — 1 " fly in traps at horse bam manure pit 
Aug. 1 — 1 " " " " " " " " " 

Total 15 

"Fifteen flies were accounted for out of the entire lot of about 3,000. 
Of course, it is possible many more returned to the farm and were not 
seen or caught. The rouge wears oft in time so that only a trace persists 
on the dorsum, or it may disappear from that region entirely, but it always 
stains the alulse permanently a pale red color. 

"About 11,600 flies were marked and liberated on August 4th. Four 
thousand of these were marked with rouge and liberated at 11 A. M. from 
the southwest station (1,715 feet) used for the experiment of July 22nd. 
Three t&ousand flies were marked with pulverized chalk and released 
at 9:50 A. M. from a point 1,715 feet northeast of the pig bam. One 
thousand six hundred flies marked with a powder composed of carmine 
and chalk (30 grains of carmine to 1 ounce of chalk) were freed at 11:45 
A. M. from a point 1,715 feet northwest of the pig bam. Three thousand 
flies colored with yellow aniline dye and chalk (120 grains of dye to 1 
ounce of chalk) were liberated at 11 A. M. at a distance of 1,715 feet south- 
east of the pig bam. 

"The following flies marked with rouge were accounted for: 

August 7th — 4 marked flies from traps at pig bam. 

" —1 " fly " " " horse bam manure pit 
" 9th — 2 " flies " " " " " " " 

Total 7 

"Several flies marked with powdered chalk were seen in the trap at the 
horse bam manure pit on the afternoon of August 4th, but it is not certain 
wliether they were from the northeast or southeast stations. The yellow 
aniline dye-chalk preparation gave a poor color which rubbed ofT easily 
and when pale could hardly be distinguished from the chalk. When this 
trap was examined several days afterward none of the flies marked with 
<^halk or aniline dye-chalk could be found and no other flies so marked 
were ever observed. 



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396 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

"The carmlhe-chalk mixture gave a good color though not as vlyid as tt^e 
rouge preparation. The flies colored by it, however, were never again 
seen. This same result came from a preliminary experiment undertaken 
on July 2nd when about 3,000 flies were marked with carmine-chalk and 
liberated at the horse bam manure pit None were recovered. It seems 
probable that either the carmine or the chalk or both caused the death 
of these flies or that the color vanished rapidly. 

"The last flight experiment was made on August 26th at 8 P. M. with 
4,000 rouge-marked flies. They were liberated at the northwest station, 
1,715 feet from the pig bam. The following were captured in the traps 
or seen on the tarm: 

August 26th — 9 marked flies in traps at pig bam. 
»• »' — 8 " " seen " " " 
28th— 2 " " in traps " " " 

31st— 2 " " " " " " " 

Total 16 

"A comparison of the longevity of flies marked with rouge in traps 
with those unmarked showed in the one experiment that the unmarked 
flies lived one day longer than the marked flies. All but about fortj 
marked flies were dead out of over 1,000 after two days confinement, 
while a few of the unmarked flies were alive at the end of three 
days in a trap containing about 1,000. Both lots were fed with moist 
bread. The flight experiments showed that marked flies may live con- 
siderably longer when at liberty. Still, as the above experiment indicated, 
they probably do not live as long even under natural conditions as the 
unmarked flies. 

"While a very small portion of the marked flies found their way into 
the traps again, it must be remembered that the pig bam lay in only on« 
of the many directions which marked flies were free to take. This and the 
fact that many were probably injured by the process of marking will 
account for the small number that returned. 

"The experiments show that flies came from a considerable distance to 
the pig bam, horse bam and brooder plant. Since the poultry plaAt 
borders on the edge of a rather thickly populated area and the pig bam 
and horse bam are not fair distant, it is certain that many flies came from 
this neighboring territory throughout the season. Although the cow bam 
is more isolated, undoubtedly many of its flies came from outside sources 
also. 

Why Flies Do Not Breed in Old Ccmpost 

• 
"A close watch was kept for house fly breeding in compost heaps 
throughout the summer. Those at the greenhouses and one near the pear 
orchard were under continual surveillance and the benches in the green- 
houses were examined from time to time. All of this compost, a mixture 
of horse manure and straw or cow manure, ensilage and other debris, was 
left out of doors over winter. No house fly breeding was found in it at 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 397 

any time. Considerable numbers of house fly larv» were reported in com- 
post and bench soil last year* but it developed that this compost was made 
up with fresh manure which; in the warm atmosphere of the greenhouses, 
offered an excellent breeding place. 

"Two striking differences were observable between the old compost and 
fresh manure heaps. First, compost gave oft no perceptible amount of 
ammonia gas while fresh manure piles gave it ofT in quantities easily 
detected; second, compost lacked the characteristic fecal odor of fresh 
manure. These observations suggested that the pregnant female house 
fly might be attracted to fresh numure either by the odor of ammonia or 
by the fecal odor and that the compost was not frequented because of 
the lack of one or both of these odors. 

AMMONIA EXPERIMENTS. 

"The attractiveness of ammonia to house flies was tested in the follow- 
ing manner: Two small Hodge fly traps of dke type adapted to garbage 
cans were selected for this experiment The pans of both were fllled level 
with the top with coarse saw dust, which, it was thought, would simulate 
horse manure. In one trap, the check; the saw dust was dampened with 
water while the other received twenty-flve drops of concentrated ammo- 
nium hydroxide; The traps were placed fifteen feet apart in the pig bam 
at 5 P. M., August 5th. Flies were abundant at the time. At 10 A. M. the 
following day, the odor of ammonia could not be detected in the experi- 
mental trap, which, however, held three flies. No flies had entered the 
chedk trap. 

''Another experiment was made with a single small Hodge trap in the 
pan of which a large piece of ammonium carbonate was placed. The 
following morning three flies were found in this trap. 

"The third experiment was an attempt to Induce house flies to oviposit 
in saw dust from which ammonia was arising. Eight tin pie plates were 
placed in a row near the horse bam manure pit where house flids' eggs 
and larva could be found at the time (August 6th about 8 P. M.). One 
hundred and thirty-six grams of coarse saw dust were placed in each. 8ix 
IMUis received 1, 2, 8, 4, 6, and 10 per cent by weight of ammonium car- 
bonate and enoui^ water to moisten the mixture. Two pans were used as 
controls and the saw dust was moistened only. The next day at 8:80 A. M., 
the odor of ammonia had disappeared. There was no evidence that flies 
bad oviposited. The saw dust was moistened daily and on August 10th 
another examination was made for eggs or small larve, but none was 
found. Flies were not seen on or near the pans at any time. 

"If ammonia had been volatilized throughout a longer period in these 
experiments, the results might have been difTerent But I believe the 
attractiveness of ammonia must be feeble, because the experiments were 
conducted at a time when flies were abundant and in places where they 
were always present 



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398 



NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



EXPERIMENTS WITH MANURE EXTRACTS. 

"Human feces derive their fecal odor from two bacterial decompoBition 
products, skatol and lndol*» largei)r the former* but I am not aware that 
these compounds have been isolated from horse or cow numure. That 
they exist in horse and cow manure appears certain, howeyer, from the 
presence of colon bacilli, the indol and skatol forming bacteria, in the 
alimentary tract of the horse and cow. 

"It was desired to see what effect known solyents of skatol and indol 
*would have upon fresh samples of horse ma9ure and to test the reactions 
of flies to the extracts and residues. Skatol is slightly soluble in water 
and soluble in alcohol; indol is moderately soluble in hot water and very 
soluble in ether and alcohol. 

"Four two hundred gram lots of fresh horse manure were placed in 
covered Jars. The first lot was macerated in 750 cc of cold water for 
thirty hours, then filtered by suction and washed with two liters of water. 
The second lot received 760 cc of hot water, was placed on a water bath 
for thirty hours, then removed, filtered and washed like the first lot 
The third lot was given 750 cc of alcohol for thirty hours, then filtered 
by suction and washed with two liters of alcohol. The fourth lot received 
500 cc of ether for thirty hours, then was filtered and washed with 500 
cc. of ether. The washings from each lot were thrown away. The ex- 
tracts and residues were kept in covered receptacles until used in the 
experiments. 

"All the extracts possessed a marked fecal odor except the ether extract, 
which had a very feeble odor, but the alcohol extract was mu<di more 
odoriferous than the others. The residues all possessed a fecal odor 
except the alcohol residue, which was practically odorless. 

''Bqual amounts of the extracts and residues were placed in small Hodge 
traps and exposed on the south window sills of the laboratory at New 
Brunswick, July 24th. The results obtained July 27th are here tabulated: 



Manure Extracts. 



Extnot. 


Amount 
in traps. 


Number of Flies Caught. 


Remarks. 


Cold water 


30 oc. 


None. . 


Not all evaporated. 


Hot water. 


1 MuBcina etabulana Fall 






2 Muaona stabulanB FalL 




Akohol • 


1 Poilenia rudis Fab 


•» <• *t 


Ether 


1 Saroophaga utilb Aldrich 

None 


Evaporated. 



•This was slightly more oonoantrated than the others. 
Manure Residues. 



Extmeted With: 

Cold water 

Hot water 

Aioohol 

Ether. 



Amount in Traps. 



.Pto filled None. 

.Pan filled None. 

.Pan filled None. 

Pan filled : . . . .None. 



Number of Flies Caught. 



•Howell— Text Book of Physiology, Philadelphia, 1909. p. 781. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 399 

"The aleohol extract was attractive to a larger number of flies than the 
others because it contained the largest quantity of the compounds which 
produced the fecal odor. This fecal odor is probably due to two com* 
pounds, skatol and indol, known to result from the activities of various 
colon bacilli, which flourish in the intestinal tract of the horse. Alcohol 
is a solvent of both of these compounds. 

"The manure residues were apparently not present in sufficient quanti- 
ties to attract flies. Larger amounts would probably show difTerent re- 
salts. I believe, however, that the alcohol and water residues would be 
less inviting than the ether residues as the ether appears to remove less 
of the odor producing compounds. 

"It is not clear why house flies did not visit the alcohol extract Pos- 
sibly they are not as keen of scent as the species caught They were 
never very abundant about the laboratory. 

"Skatol and indol deserve a. trial as baits for fly traps, although their 
present cost would probably limit their use to rather weak solutions. 

Practical Methods Used io Exterminate Fliea. 

"All manure from the horse and cow bams was consigned to cement pits 
every day. These pits were emptied with a few exceptions at least once a week 
and usually twice or even three times in the case of the cow bam pit The 
stalls in the horse bam were treated with iron sulphate as described above. 
Three horse stalls in a stable near the cow bam were cleaned with some reg- 
ularity, but undoubtedly bred flies early in the season. They were so con- 
structed that iron sulphate could not be used to advantage under them 
and larvse matured in the spaces between the boards until they were 
cleaned regularly twice a week. The voidings in the pig yards were spread 
with a rake so that they would dry, a method which gave good results in 
dry weather but which would not absolutely prevent breeding. Chicken 
manure, in the one instance in which it was infested by larvs, was treated 
with unslaked lime and water which* raised the temperature of the mass 
to 140'' F., killing all the larvae. Whether this destraction was due to 
the direct action of the lime or to the heat there was no way of deter- 
mining. This procedure cannot be recommended, aci it undoubtedly drives 
off most of the ammonia from the manure. Sulphur was used for fumigat- 
ing adult flies in the cow bam and calf bam on a number of occasions. 
One pound of sulphur to 1,000 cubic feet of space, the formula used last 
year, Vas effective in the cow bam, but more was required for the calf 
bam, which was not nearly so tight 

"The writer feels confldent that the control measures greatly reduced 
the number of flies. Comparatively few could be found at the horse bam 
i^ poultry plant even in mid-summer and although the pig bam and cow 
and calf bams always harbored more than were desired, the trap catches 
could never be measured by the quarts as they were last year. Just how 
much this reduction was due to the season or to a difTerence in the number 
of parasites, it is, of course, impossible to say." 



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Report on the Mosquito Work 
for 1914. 

(BY THOMAS J. HEADLEB. PH. D.) 



General Outline. 

The attention of the Entomologist has been devoted to the study 
and the prosecution of salt marsh mosquito control, to aiding boards 
of health as requested to do so, and to general oversight and supple- 
menting the work of the county mosquito extermination commissions. 

It must be said at the outset that this record is only approximately 
complete for, while the writer has a rather complete knowledge of the 
different broods in that part of the State north of Sandy Hook, his 
knowledge of the succession to the south is only partial. Still by 
means of personal inspection trips and by utilizing the records of other 
observers, a picture of the general conditions in that section of the 
State can be drawn. 

The mosquito breeding season of 191 4 has given the drainage systems 
established on the salt marshes, a very severe test — the most severe for 
many years. 

Early Important Brood. 

At the outset the season of 1914 was quite normal, but the unusu- 
ally long-continued low temperature delayed the development of the 
early spring brood, which the flooded condition of the salt marsh in 
early spring usually produces, until it emerged after warm weather 
set in instead of getting out while the temperature was low enough to 
prevent biting and quickly to destroy it. As a result of this delay 
people were annoyed by this brood to some extent. 

The species composing this brood were mostly Aedes cantator Coq. 
even as far south as Cape May County. Aedes cantator Coq. was 
practically alone along the coast as far south as Bay Head. South 
of this point it was associated with Aedes sollicitans Wlk. 

The early brood came this year from the meadows of Newark 
Bay and the Hackensack in early May and spread to the north and 
northwest over the upland to the mountains northwest of Paterson 
and southwest along their ridges to Summit. In the south, this brood 
winged its way from the marshes far out into the pines. On May 
22nd the writer met members of it in the pines twenty-five miles back 
from the coast. 

As is usually the case, the shut-in meadows in North Jersey were 
the prolific breeders of this brood. The rains and high tides left such 

(401) 



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402 ^ NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

a quantity of water on them that the outlets were totally inadequate 
for its discharge. Also, as is usually the case, in early spring the 
water in these shut-in marshes was almost or quite destitute of fish, 
which in the more open marshes played so large a part in eliminat- 
ing this brood. From Barnegat Bay head north to Newark Bay the 
numbers of mosquitoes escaping, owing to the open character of the 
marshes and the consequent more rapid drainage and more complete 
penetration by killifish, was negligible; while from the shut-in marshes 
of Newark Bay and the Hackensack River the number produced was 
sufficient to cause some annoyance. 

The troublesome part of this infestation appeared in northwestern 
Hudson, southern and southwestern Bergen, easitern ami northern 
Essex and southern Passaic Counties. Following the mosquitoes along 
their line of migration to places where they were bred showed rather 
conclusively that the bulk of the eariy spring brood, which proved 
troublesome in the territory above specified, came from the shut-in 
marshes of the northern part of Newark Bay and of the Hacken- 
sack River. It is interesting to note that the line of migration was, 
as it is usually the case, westward and northwestward and that that 
portion of Hudson County lying to the east of the Hackensack marshes 
had scarcely a single mosquito until the middle of July. 

In wooded sections this brood remained in evidence for about eight 
weeks, growing constantly less and less noticeable until at the end of 
this period specimens were difficult to obtain. 

Second Important Brood. 

From the issue of the early brood until the 15th of July the num- 
ber of mosquitoes emerging from the drained salt marsh was negligible 
and the number coming from the undrained marshes was no greater 
than normal at that period of the year. 

About June 26th the tides began to run high, reached their max- 
imum about July 9th and did not return to low until about July 25th. 
During much of this time the weather was cloudy and rainy. At 
first, the large amount of water on the marshes by reason of its low 
temperature prevented immediate hatching and rendered the growth 
of the wrigglers very slow. In spite, however, of the low tempera- 
ture, from one end of the salt marsh to the other, a tremendous 
brood of wrigglers hatched and started to grow to maturity. 

For purposes of considering the development of this enormous brood 
the marshes may be divided into drained and undrained and each of 
these classes into the shut-in and open types. On the undrained 
marsh vast stretches are separated from easy drainage by the slight- 
ly higher ground which lies along the banks of the natural creeks and 
streamlets. These areas, which lie on what would be considered in 
a drained marsh as open meadow, together with a few more inacces- 
sible places, constitute the shut-in portions of the undrained marsh and 
forms the vast breeding grounds characteristic of such marshes. The 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 403 

really open meadow on the undrained marsh is that portion which is 
covered by every tide that is a little higher than the normal. These 
shut-in sections of the undrained marsh were full of wrigglers, which 
were not confined to salt holes but occurred everywhere among the 
stems of the partly submerged grasses. The kiUifish were abundant 
in the creeks and streams of the undrained marshes and were usually 
plentiful in the salt holes, but proved unable to penetrate the grassy 
breeding grounds or more inaccessible breeding areas in sufficient num- 
bers to eliminate the developing pest. 

On the drained meadow the only shut-in portions are those from 
which some artificial (roadways, railroads, or fills) or natural (shitt- 
ing sand beach) barrier prevents the escape of the water. The open 
meadow is all that portion of the salt marsh where by means of ditch- 
ing the water normally penetrates at every high tide and escapes at 
every low water. In contrast with the salt marsh condition of nearly 
all South Jersey, in Atlantic 0)unty from Somers Point to Absecon, 
in parts of the Barnegat Bay marsh where the drainage system were 
operating, and from Bay Head to the Arthur Kill the breeding was 
almost completely eliminated by the killifish which the drainage sys- 
tems enabled to penetrate the marsh. To some extent, the rapid es- 
cape of the water, which the drainage systems of these open meadows 
permitted, aided in the destruction of this brood. Certain shut-m 
areas in that portion of the marshes just described which lie in Ocean 
and Monmouth Counties the killifish failed to penetrate and the mos- 
quito emerged. In similar areas in Middlesex County the County 
Mosquito Extermination Commission destroyed the breeding at small 
cost by use of oil. 

The drained meadows along the Arthur Kill to the Rahway River 
arc with the exception of those at Woodbridge and Sewaren of the 
open type and the breeding was almost completely eliminated. At 
Sewaren and Woodbridge, however, the breeding was too extensive to 
succumb to oil and a stfiall brood escaped. 

From the Rahway River north to the Peddie Street sewer, the mea- 
dows are more shut-in, the railroads being mainly responsible. These 
conditions rendered the control of breeding more difficult and a good 
sized brood escaped in spite of all efiForts to the contrary. 

From Peddie Street sewer north along Newark Bay to the Hacken- 
sack and Passaic Rivers and up the Hackensack Valley the shut-in 
character of the marsh becomes very marked. Railroads, roadways, 
and fills cut it up into basins, the drainage of which is exceedingly 
difficult. To make matters worse, sewage is poured into several of 
these basins. The drainage systems, which w^ould ser^e to remove 
the water under normal conditions of tide and weather proved wholly 
inadequate. The use of oil proved impracticable not only because of 
the enormous area to be covered but because the men in some areas 
sunk to the hip at every step. From these shut-in marshes and from 
other undrained or incompletely drained portions of the Hackensack a 
large brood escaped. 
\ 



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404 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The wrigglers began to produce mosquitoes from about the middle 
of July. Since a mosquito collecting trip, made from the 15th to the 
1 8th of July covering the whole coast from Jersey City to Port Norris, 
well indicates the relative abundance of mosquitoes at different points 
along the coast and brings out rather clearly the efiFect of the drainage 
on tKe number produced, an account of the trip and its findings will 
be introduced. 

The inspection trip began on July 15. Stops of ten minutes were 
made at regular intervals throughout the trip. The collecting period 
from West Creek on was much shortened for, with the exception of 
a few stations in Atlantic county and one in Cape May, the pest was 
so numerous and blood-thirsty as to render long stops unbearable. 
Practically all mosquitoes taken from the point of starting to station 
No. 12, in Newark were Aedes cantator Coq., while all taken after 
that were Aedes sollicitans Wlk. At station No. 10, both specimens 
belonged to the latter species. Inasmuch as it was necessary to drive to 
Jersey City to make the start, it seemed best to examine mosquito con- 
ditions in the back parts of Union and Essex Counties, in the lower 
part of Bergen, and in the eastern part of Hudson. 

The stations and number of salt marsh mosquitoes caught at each 
are set forth in the following statement: 

(1) .5 of a mile northeast of Newmarket on Vail Avenue, no mosaui- 
toes; (2) 1 mile northeast of Plainfield on J. R. Van Ness property, no 
mosquitoes; (3) South Mountain Reservation, three mosquitoes; (4) 
Rutherford, no mosquitoes; (5) Paterson Plank Road about half way from 
western high ground to Secaucus, four mosquitoes; (6) Leonard Gordon 
Park in Jersey City, no mosquitoes; (7) Park at east end of Jersey City 
Plank Road, seven mosquitoes; (8) Swift Packing Plant Just east of Har- 
rison, fifteen mpsquitoes; (9) Davis Memorial Church in Harrison, seven 
mosquitoes; (10) Frelinghuysen Avenue at Prest-o-lite Works, two mos- 
quitoes; (11) on paved road between Elizabeth and Rahway, no mos- 
quitoes; (12) shore highway Just out of Rahway and south of Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, one mosquito; (13) shore highway Just west of Sewaren, 
four mosquitoes; (14) edge of marsh at south end of Perth Amboy, South 
Amboy highway bridge, no mosquitoes; (15) Shore Road Just below 
Laurence Harbor, no mosquitoes; (16) Keyport, marsh edge at Shore 
Road, no mosquitoes; (17) near Keansburg, no mosquitoes; (18) marsh 
edge of south side of north branch of Shrewsbury River, no mosquitoes; 
(19) Bay Head, four mosquitoes; (20) White's bog near Browns-Milla- 
in-the-Pines, thirteen mosquitoes; (21) on high road from Lakehurst to 
Toms River, a little southeast of the former, three mosquitoes; (22) on 
Shore Road, one and one-half miles south of Toms River, seven mosqui- 
toes; (23) Shore Road Just south of Forked River, fifteen mosquitoes; 
(24) Meadow Road Just east of Bamegat, fifteen mosquitoes; (25) Shore 
Road at West Creek, fifty-four mosquitoes (almost eat you alive); (26) 
on Shore Road, north side of Mullica River, fifty mosquitoes; (27) on Shore 
Road in woodland south of Mullica River, thirty-two mosquitoes, (28) 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 405 

on Shore Road near dab house Just north of Absecon, fifteen mosquitoes; 
(29) Light house- lawn in Atlantic City, one mosquito; (30) Somen Point, 
ten mosquitoes; (31) on Shore Road at Marmora, fifty-nine mosquitoes; 
(32) Shore Road at Avalon Road, fifty mosquitoes; (33) Shor^ Road at 
Ck)ld Spring Church, south of C^pe May Court House, one mosquito; (34) 
Green Creek on Delaware Bay shore, thirty mosquitoes; (85) Just east 
of Croshen at edge of the marsh, forty-five mosquitoes; (36) three-fourths 
of a mile west of Dennisville, near edge of marsh, forty-five mosquitoes; 
(37) Just west of Leesburg, forty-seven mosquitoes; (38) Just west of 
Port Norris, forty-six mosquitoes; (39) high road between Newport and 
Bridgeton, ten mosquitoes; (40) in Bridgeton, two mosquitoes; (41) in 
Elmer, no mosquitoes. 

1. Mosquitoes found at points between New Brunswick and the park at 
the Jersey City end of the Newark and Jersey City Plank Road, with the 
exception of the few taken along the Paterson Plank Road, were much 
worn and were members of the early May brood. 

2. The mosquitoes found in the above park, at Swift's plant and at Har- 
rison were perfectly fresh and, therefore, must have come directly from 
the adjacent shut-in and imperfectly drained marshes. 

8. The mosquitoes found in Newark, Elizabeth, Rahway and Sewaren 
were of different species but were also fresh and must, therefore, have 
come from adjacent shut-in and imperfectly drained marshes. 

4. The almost total absence of salt marsh mosquitoes from Perth Amboy 
to Bay Head can be ascribed to nothing other than to fairly satisfactory 
drainage systems established in the marshes of that territory. 

6. The greater number of mosquitoes found near Browns Mills must be 
attributed to migrations from the MuUica River marshes. 

6. The moderate increase in mosquitoes from Lakehurst south to Bame- 
gat must be attributed to less satisfactory drainage of the marshes along 
the Bay and to its proximity to the undrained marshes below Manahawkin. 

7. The comparatively small number of mosquitoes taken between Jersey 
City and West Creek must be attributed to the more or less perfect marsh 
drainage that has been established, for no sooner did we pass from terri- 
tory adjacent to the drained marsh into territory adjacent to the un- 
drained marsh (which we did between Bamegat and West Creek) than 
the mosquitoes collected increased many times in number. Nor does the 
number collected tell the full truth, for the mosquitoes were so thick that 
less than five minutes were spent in collecting. Their bloodthirstiness 
was too great to be borne. 

8. The thinning out in the number collected in Atlantic County occurred 
in territory adjacent to drained marshes. 

The members of this brood which emerged from the undrained and 
incompletely drained marshes spread themselves through the pines and 
the farming lands for many miles (thirty or more) back from the 
coast. The mosquitoes escaping from the drained marshes of Manas- 
quayi north to Laurence Harbor were not abundant and gave very 
slight trouble indeed. Those that escaped from Laurence Harbor to 



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4o6 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Sewaren were negligible. Those that came out from Scwarcn to 
Rahway River were few in number and gave little trouble. Those 
that came out from Rahway River to Peddie Street sewer were con- 
siderable in number, but lasted only a short time. Those that came 
from Peddie Street sewer northward were large in number and gave 
much annoyance. Especially was this true of the Aedes cantator Coq., 
that escaped from the Hackensack. 

The brood which came from the marshes bieginning at the Rahway 
River and extending up Newark Bay and the Hackensack River was 
sufficiently large to sweep over adjacent upland to the mountains. 
That portion of it from the Rahway River to Peddie Street sewer did 
not last long or excite much complaint, while that from the shut-in 
marshes north of Peddie Street sewer and along the Hackensack River 
especially the latter, lasted a long time and gave great trouble. The 
issue from the Newark Bay section appeared to trouble Irvington and 
South Orange particularly, while that from the Hackensack infested 
western Hudson, southern and southwestern Bergen, eastern and 
northern Essex and southern Passaic Counties. To a less extent it ap- 
peared in eastern Hudson and eastern Bergen. 

Later Broods. 

The brood, which issued during the latter half of July from the un- 
drained marshes of South Jersey, augmented and replaced by later is- 
sues continued extremely troublesome throughout August and Septem- 
ber. Even as far north as Bay Head the pest was bad. 

The brood, which issued from the Hackensack Valley marshes and 
spread over western Hudson, southern and southwestern Bergen, 
southern Passaic, and eastern and northern Essex remained trouble- 
some throughout August. The supply in this region was replenished 
by later issues. The writer personally observed the emergence of 
Aedes cantator Coq., in large numbers on two different later occasions, 
from the Frank Creek Section of the Kearny marsh. 

The brood which issued from the shut-in marshes just north of the 
Peddie Street sewer was replaced at different times from apparently 
the same source in such a fashion as to keep Irvington and South 
Orange supplied throughout most of August. 

BROODS OF C. PIPIEN8 LINN AND C. SALINARIU8 COQ. FROM 

SALT MARSHES 

From the polluted marshes of northwestern Newark Bay, particu- 
larly that portion lying north of Peddie Street, sewer and west of the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey, which is known as the "Ebling Sec- 
tion" large numbers of Culex pipiens Linn., and Culex salinartus Coq., 
escaped, infesting South Newark, including the Weequahic Park sec- 
tion, and a part of North Elizabeth. This infestation was first noted 
on July 1 6th. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 407 

From the northwestern section of the Frank Creek, part of the 
Kearny marsh and from the territory lying just north of the Green- 
wood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad, Culex pipiens Linn., and 
probably also Culex salinarius Coq., escaped early in July in sufficient 
numbers to establish a zone of infestation extending from the marsh 
edge westward across northwestern Hudson and southwestern Bergen 
into Essex County to approximately a north and south line running 
along the western border of Branch Brook Park. The southern 
border of this infestation appeared to be a line running westward 
through north Kearny and Riverside to Branch Brook Park. The 
infestation extended far enough north to trouble Nutley to some extent. 

A number of sewers from the cities on the highland to the east- 
ward empty into that section of the Hackensack marsh which lies 
along Pen Horn Creek from the County Road to the Paterson 
Plank Road, converting it into a sewage-polluted marsh. From vari- 
ous parts of this marsh Culex pipiens Linn., emerged and made its 
way into the adjacent cities. No data on the first appearance of C. 
pipiens from this source are available, but the beginning was proba- 
bly about the middle of July. 

These flights of C pipiens from its sewage-soaked salt-marsh breeding 
places ceased only after they were dried up by weather and additional 
drainage. \ 

Work Previous to 1914. 

Any full discussion of this subject must include a review of the 
splendid study of the mosquitoes and their habits which preceded the 
actual work of extermination. Indeed, such a discussion could not 
fail to include the thorough and fundamental study of methods of 
control on which the later practical work has been based. But, in 
view of the fact that this phase of the subject has been rather adequately 
treated in past reports, it appears desirable merely to recount those 
facts upon which recent work has thrown new light. These facts all 
pertain to the practical work of cutting ditches and the treatment of 
this subject will therefore be limited to that phase. 

The number of feet of ditching reported for each of the years to 
191 3 is only approximate and the actual amount cut is probably less 
than that listed. The work was largely done under a form of con- 
tract (see annual report for 1907) in which the contractor under- 
took for a lump sum to drain a stated area of marsh, provided he was 
not required to cut more than a stated maximum number of feet. 
Under this form of contract the contractor knew the maximum work 
that could be required to him and probably habitually figured on the 
maximum number of feet at about so much per foot. The contractor 
also knew that if he could drain the given area of marsh to the satis- 
faction of the inspector in charge with a less number of feet than the 
maximum his profits would be larger. 

As a natural and normal result of this form of contract, the num- 
ber of feet cut on some marshes has been less than the specified maximum. 



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4o8 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

During the summer of 191 3 the attention of the Entomologist was 
drawn by Mr. C. H. Cranmer and Mr. Theo. A. Corliss, of Mana- 
hawkin, to the fact that the ditching was not being cut in that part 
of the marsh represented by the maps referred to in the contracts. 
* * * Later in the season the Entomologist stopped at Manahawkin 
and saw Mr. Cranmer, He soon became thoroughly convinced that 
these gentlemen were right in a part at least of their contention. A 
thorough personal investigation was then set on foot and the territory 
covered by Stafford Township Map No. i, which was supposed to 
have been ditched and had been paid for, was found to be practically 
undrained and not a foot of ditching could be discovered in Marsh 
Elder Island. 

When the chief inspector, Mr. Herman H. Brehme's attention was 
called to the matter, he at first asserted that the maps were incorrect, 
and after becoming convinced that the maps were substantially right, 
said that a mistake had been made and the ditching put in other terri- 
tory. The contractor, when his attention was drawn to the matter, 
followed a similar course of explanation. 

Examination of the territory having shown that the marsh in dis- 
pute was a part of a large natural division with its northward be- 
ginning in Union Township, the Entomologist decided tp have the 
entire area examined — all the ditching measured and mapped — for 
the purpose of seeing wherein the mistake had been made. ♦ • • 
Accordingly all ditching in Union Township was measured and mapped, 
amounting to 384,169 linear feet of 10x30 inch ditches or their 
equivalent. The salt marsh in Union Township was covered by three 
maps. All the salt marsh covered by these maps with the exception 
of Marsh Elder Island was satisfactorily ditched. On the territory 
covered by Map No. i, 186,840 linear feet 10x30 inch ditching was 
cut; on territory covered by Map No. 2, 110,024 feet; on territory 
covered by Map No. 3, 87,30s feet. The ditching actually cut in the 
territory covered by Stafford Township Map No. i was found to be 
15,105 linear feet of 10x30 inch ditches or their equivalent. 

Investigation of the records showed that the dftching work in Union 
Township and in Map No. i, of Stafford Township had been done 
under the following contracts : 

1. Contract for ditching marshes of Union Township, Ocean County, dated July 

26, 1912 $2,900.00 

2. Agreement to drain salt marsh area IjnnK between Gunning River and south- 

em branch of Gunning River, Ocean County, dated September 16, 1912. . 700.00 

3. Agreement to drain salt marsh area lying between Gunning River and northern 

branch of Gunning River. Ocean County, dated September 16, 1912 500.00 

4. Agreement to drain Marsh Elder Island. November 1. 1912 900.00 

5. Contract for ditching salt marshes comprehended in Stafford Township Map 

No. 1, dated December 16, 1912 6.800.00 

Total $11 .300.00 

A careful scrutinizing of the papers connected with this ditching 
revealed the fact that the contract for ditching the salt marshes of 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 409 

Union Township carried a maximum of 166,000 linear feet of 10x30 
inch ditches or their equivalent and referred to Maps i and 2 only. 
Our measurements show 296,864 linear feet of 10x30 inch ditches or 
their equivalent in the marsh covered by these two maps. It has seemed 
impossible for the Entomologist to locate with certainty the territory 
comprehended in agreements 2 and 3 of the preceding list. It is, how- 
ever, easy to locate the territory referred to as "Marsh Elder Island" 
and comprehended in Item No. 4, of the preceding list. It is also easy 
to locate the territory comprehended by Map No. i, of Stafford Town- 
ship. 

The facts then are these — the contractor undertook to drain the 
territory comprehended in Union Township Maps Nos. i and 2, 
providing he was not required to cut more than 162,000 linear feet 
of 10x30 inch ditches or their equivalent. As a matter of fact the 
measurements show that he cut 296,864 linear feet of 10x30 inch 
ditches or their equivalent in this territory. The contractor further 
undertook to drain two additional pieces of illy defined territory, bor- 
dering in one instance the north side of Gunning River and in the 
other instance the south side of Gunning River. Whether this territory 
lies wholly in Union Township Map No. 3, or in Maps 2 and 3, the 
Entomologist is unable to determine. At any rate the drainage of the 
territory comprehended in Map No. 3, was completed, involving the 
cutting of 87,305 linear feet of 10x30 inch ditches or their equivalent. 

When we take the fact that the contractor cut about 384,169 linear 
feet of 10x30 inch ditching or its equivalent in the marshes of Union 
Township, as laid down on the maps used, excluding Marsh Elder 
Island for which he was supposed to receive only $4,100.00 it is clear 
that something is wrong. It is clear that something is wrong because 
this means a cost of 1.06 cents a foot as compared with a normal price 
of about 2.5 cents a foot. 

As a matter of fact, however, the contractor received $7,200.00 
additional for doing this work and I5)I05 linear feet, making the sum 
of $11,300.00 for cutting 399,274 linear feet of 10x30 inch ditches 
or their equivalent. This means a cost of 2.8 cents per foot instead of 
ix>6 cents. The contractor appears to have realized the additional 
sum of $7,200.00 for this work by getting his money ($900) for the 
Marsh Elder Island job, without doing any work and his money for 
the Stafford Township Map No. i job, by cutting only 15,105 linear 
feet of 10x30 inch ditches or their equivalent. 

It may be that the real cause for the mistake of the inspector and 
the contractor lay in the fact that a few years back the marsh section 
of the division line between Union Township and Stafford Town- 
ship was changed and made to meander along Fresh Creek into the 
Gunning river and to follow the Gunning river to Barnegat bay, 
while the maps followed the earlier survey and took no account of the 
change. Even this seems hardly sufficient to explain the failure to 
ditch Marsh Elder Island, which is plainly marked and named on all 



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410 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

the larger survey maps as well as on the Map No. 3 of the Union 
Township series. The 15,105 feet in territory covered by Stafford 
Township, Map No. i appear to have been cut by the contractor on 
the following job while he and the inspector were endeavoring to locate 
themselves. 

This mistake resulting in a failure to drain Marsh Elder Inland and 
the salt marsh covered by Stafford Township Map No. i was called 
sharply to the attention of the inspector in charge and the contractor. 
The. latter was requested to drain Marsh Elder Island and to complete 
the drainage of the territory covered by StaflFord Township Map No. i. 
At still a later date, January 12th, 19 14 the contractor's attention was 
called to the matter and he was requested to do the work. He simply 
did nothing and in fact paid no attention to the last communication. 

In late January or early February of 191 4 the whole matter was 
laid before the Attorney General and action requested. While the 
Attorney General had the matter under consideration the contractor 
suddenly and without notifying this office began, about June 4th, 191 4, 
the work of cutting additional ditching on the territory covered by 
Stafford Township Map No. i. He continued this work without ask- 
ing or permitting any direction from this office until June 23, 191 4, 
when he ceased and removed his gangs. In this period he cut 75,273 
linear feet of 10x30 inch ditches or their equivalent, giving the area a 
little better than one-half the drainage it needed. 

This additional work when taken with that already recounted in Union 
Township and that already on marsh covered by StaflFord Township 
Map No. I shows that the contractor cut 474,547 linear feet of 10x30 
inch ditches or their equivalent, for which he received the total sum of 
$11,300.00 or 2.38 cents linear feet. 

On July 1 6th, 19 14, the Attorney General issued an order to con- 
tractor to complete the drainage of the area covered by StaflFord Town- 
ship Map No. I. On July 28th information was received from the 
Attorney General's office to the eflFect that the contractor requested a 
conference. The conference was granted and the contractor main- 
tained that he was not to blame for the mistake, for he put the ditches 
where the inspector instructed him to, that much ditching had been 
placed under the inspector's orders in territory not under any contract 
but in territory which would later have had to be ditched, and that the 
total ditching cut was an amount equal to what could be obtained for 
the money he had received. The truth of the first contention was 
borne out by the inspector's written testimony and the correctness of the 
second and thTrd contentions was proven by the Entomologist's own 
investigations. 

With all these facts in hand the Attorney General ruled on the case 
as -follows : 

"On December 16, 1912, Jene P. Bianahan entered into a contract for ditching salt 
marshes coinprehended in Stafford Township, Ocean County, on Map No. 1, for the sum of 
$6,300.00. The contract provided that he should drain the territory shown on the map, but 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 4« i 

ahould not be required to out more than 253,000 feet of ditch 30 inches in depth. During 
the Spring or Summer of 1913, Mr. Manahan actually drained a small part of the area shown 
on Map No. 1. and out 15,106 feet of ditching. He was paid the whole contract price, 
$6,300.00, by virtue of four separate certificates of the Inspector in charge of the work, Her- 
man H. Brehme. each for SI, 575.00. In the Summer of 1014, between June 4th and 23rd, 
after your attentidli had been called to the matter, and while the matter was under investi- 

Stion, Mr. Manahan, without being required, did further ditching within the area shown on 
&p No. 1, and has now drained a considerable part of the area, and cut, altogether, about 
90,378 lineal feet of ditch, 30 inches deep. It further appears that Mr. Manahan has done a 
large amount of draining and ditching outside of, but adjoining the area covered by Map No. 
1, amounting, altogether, with the 00,378 feet cut within tiie area, to fully the 253.000 feet 
called for- by the contract. It further appefirs that this adjoining area was mosquit'O breed- 
ing swamp needing draining, and that the work on this adjoining area has been for the benefit 
of the State, and wouki have been done and paid for had Mr. Manahan not done it. Mr. Man- 
ahan states that he supposed that he was doing this ^ork within the area shown on Map No. 
1. and that the mistake arose from misapprehension of the township line, and the diflSculty 
pf locating the boundaries of the map actually on the ground. He also states that the ditch- 
ing was done under the direction of the Inspector in charge of the work, Herman H. Brehme. 
and where directed by him. The letter of Mr. Brehme, enclosed in your letter of the 15th, 
states that Mr. Manahan put in the ditches as directed by him, and that he personally ex- 
amined the ditching before certifying that the work contemplated undm* the contract was 
completed in accordance therewith. He further says that there was a general mix-up with 
the township line and lay of the land, and, to make the best of it, under the circumstances, 
he kejit on and cleaned up the moret phu;es for mosquito breeding, as far as the feetage would 
aUow in the contract, and that they were still working in Union Township, when thcry thought 
they were doing work in Stafford Township. 

" Under these circumstances and facts. I beg to say that, in my judgment, the State has 
no remedy against Mr. Manahan, or his bondsmen. Mr. Manahan appears to have acted in 
good faith, and under the direction of the Inspector in charge of the worx, and, while the work 
was not done strictly in accordance with the contract, yet the work was done where both he 
and the Inspector, acting for the State, supposed the contract called for it. The State received 
the whole benefit of the work, and. I think, would be bound by the direction and action of 
the Inspector. It would certainly seem to be impossible, even if legal, to require Mr. Mana- 
han to do additional work, under the contract, and to take advantage of his mistake and not 
pay him for that work.'* 

This apparently docs not dispose of the failure to ditch Marsh Elder 
Island and that case is still in the hands of the Attorney General. 

The experience of the past two years has clearly demonstrated that 
the form of contract under which the contractor undertook for a lump 
sum to drain a specified ar^a, providing he cannot be called upon to cut 
more than a certain specified number of feet, is one for the proper and 
adequate carrying out much expensive survey work must be undertaken, 
for if the number of feet necessary is overestimated the State loses money 
and if underestimated the area fails of complete drainage. It is surely 
much Wtter simply to ask the contractor to cut a specified number of 
feet in a given area and to pay him for the actual number of feet cut, 
neither more nor less. The Entomologist by and with the consent of 
die Director of the Station has changed the form of contract in such a 
fashion that the contractor is paid for the number of feet cut, — no more 
or less. 

Summary Work Previous to 1914. 

The fundamental investigations of habits and life history and of 
general methods of control have been completed. The attitude of the 
public mind has been changed from one of ridicule to one of serious 
consideration — indeed to one of strong belief in many quarters. A 
workable law under which the State could proceed with the drainage of 
the salt marsh had been passed. Care and upkeep of the ditching systems^ 



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412 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

established on the Hudson, Essex, Union and Middlesex County 
marshes had been turned over to the mosquito extermination commis- 
sions of those counties. In co-operation with the mosquito commission 
of Atlantic about eight miles of the costal marshes in that county have 
been freed from mosquito breeding. 

WORK OF 1914. 

Tabular Statement of the SaSt-Marth Ditching Work From 
the Beginning to and Including the Year 1914. 



Supervision. 

Part salary and expenseB of Executive Officer SI ,200.00 

Salary and expenses of inspectors (Herman H. Brehme, J. S. Obecny. Henry H. 

Brehme and C. S. Beckwith) 3.360.51 

Advertisng, material, equipment and labor 656 . 14 

•5.213. 65 

Tabular Statement of 1914 Salt iVIarsh Ditching Work. 



MEADOW. 


No. of 
acres. 


No. of feet of 

10x30 

ditches or 

their equivalent. 






Ditching. Cleaning. 


Kearnv (Frank Creek Section) 




$1.182.00 


North Elisabeth 




60.000 
136.500 

135.101 


475.00! 


Patconff Creek . . 


1.600 
2.400 


3.000.00 


Patcong Creek and Great Egg Harbor 
River 


2.876.86' 








4.000 


321.601 


S7.533.86 



In addition to work outlined in the preceding table, Atlantic County 
has cut 828,367 feet and the Property Owners' Association of Rumson and 
surrounding places 245.872 feet. A considerable amount of ditching was 
cut in Hudson County, but the report of it is not at hand. 

Frank Creek. 

Frank Creek is a small stream extending northward from the 
Passaic River for a little less than one and one-half miles at a 
distance of about one-half mile east of the highland on which Har- 
rison and Kearny are built. At one time it must have been a strong 
tidal creek, thoroughly draining its section of the meadow. Since that 
time, however, its channel has been crossed near the mouth by a great 
railway grade, bearing the four regular tracks of the Pennsylvania Rall- 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 413 

road, the two regular tracks of the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Rail- 
road and a number of siding tracks. The creek penetrates this grade 
through a concrete culvert which has an upstream opening twelre feet 
wide and six feet high. In this opening ar^ fitted two large tide gates, 
by means of which the water passes out at low tide. 

As one proceeds upstream, one finds its (^annel crossed Just south of 
the Swift Packing Plant by two railway sidings. The crossing is effected 
in these instances on wooden culrerts that do not appear to impede the 
flow of water. Just north of the Swift plant it is crossed by the Hanrison 
Turnpike and another railway Biding. The Harrison Turnpike crosses it 
on a concrete culvert which is so narrow as greatly to impede the progress 
of the water. The railway siding crosses on a wooden culvert and does 
not materially interfere with the fiow. North of this point three railway 
grades cross its channel, each on a concrete culvert of capacity sufficient 
to permit rather free flow of the water. 

In addition to the interference which the various grades crossing it set 
up, by the converging of the various railway grades and roadways the 
creek is called upon to drain a very much larger area than formerly, and 
to make matters still worse it is expected to carry the raw sewage of 
Kearny from that town to the Passaic River. 

The natural and normal result followed — the channel of Frank Creek 
became filled with sediment and the sewage spread over sections of the 
marsh along the banks. This filled-up condition of the creek not only 
caused the several hundred of acres of salt marsh depending upon Frank 
Creek for outlet to hold water long enough to turn out far more than its 
share of the early spring brood of salt marsh mosquitoes, but caused those 
parts lying adjacent to the banks (involving perhaps fifty acres) to re- 
main wet throughout the breeding season and constantly to throw off 
Aedes cantator Coq. and Culex pipiens Linn. 

This very serious condition led the station to Join with the Common 
Council of Kearny and the Hudson County Mosquito Extermination Com- 
mission in an effort to remedy the trouble. After consultation with the 
town engineer of Kearny, Mr. H. P. Kriener, and the chief inspector of 
the Hudson Commission, Mr. William Delaney, the Entomologist drew up 
a plan for the improvement This plan included the cleaning of Frank 
Creek from the point Just south of the Swift Packing Plant, where the 
sidings crossed it, to a point twenty-five feet north of the last railroad 
culvert From a point twenty-five feet north of the last culvert the creek 
was to be cleaned to thirty-six inches below the level of the upper edge of 
the opening in the north end of the culvert From this point south the 
bottom of the finished creek was to exhibit an even and regular fall. 
From the point of beginning to the Harrison Turnpike the bottom of the 
creek was to be five feet wide and from that point to the southern end 
of the improvement eight feet wide. 

Knowing that the solid sewage had filled the creek channel it was de- 
cided to try to settle the sewage before delivering the water to the cleaned 
out creek). Two ditches each thirty inches wide and thirty inches deep 



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414 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

were to be cut — one along each side of the creek from the north point of 
cleaning northward to or almost to the highland. Each ditch was to ran 
along the creek from fifty to. one hundred feet from its bank. A dam 
was to be placed across the creek at a point one hundred and fifty feet 
north of the last culvert over the creek channel, and the sewage-charged 
water thereby to be compelled to flow over certain spillways across the 
settling basin into the ditches. 

All this matter was embodied in formal specifications, and proposals 
advertised for, the understanding being that the work was to be done 
under the direction of the Common Council of Kearny and the cost to be 
borne equally by Kearny, the Hudson County Mosquito Extermination 
Commission, and the Experiment Station. The contract was awarded to 
Mr. Jesse P. Manahan, of Red Bank, and the work was completed in a sat- 
isfactory manner by April 6th, 1914. ^ 

The past summer has shown that the settling basin has been only partly 
successful, much sewage floating across it into the ditches and that the 
cleaned ditches' could not take care of all the water on the several hundred 
of acres. 

It has, however, dried up the sewage soaked areas and prevented the 
fifty acres before mentioned from continually breeding as was formerly the 
case. The area which depends upon it as an outlet is entirely too large to 
be drained into it by gravity. Other outlets must be provided or the water 
in the distant part of the marshes raised by means of a pump. 

Little Silver Work. 

The occasional appearance of salt marsh mosquitoes in that beautiful 
summer-home section along the Navesink and Shrewsbury rivers led the 
property owners of the Rumson Road district to start a movement looking 
toward the elimination of the last breeding places from which the pest 
could come. 

It was decided that if all breeding places for salt marsh mosquitoes 
within a radius of four miles from Little Silver railway station were 
eliminated, the secton already mentoned would be free from further trouble. 

The contract for doing this work was awarded to the United States 
Drainage and Irrigation Company of New York City for the sum of $8,000. 
The contract provided for a yearly maintenance — the first year to cost 
1700 and each year thereafter the sum of $1,000 for a period of nine years. 
The contract provided that any year the Property Owners' Association 
could void the maintenance clauses. 

The Entomologist's attention was called to the matter by Mr. Ira Bar- 
rows acting for the association concerned. On June 20th, 1914, Mr. Bar- 
rows and Mr. Adams formally requested the Entomologist to examine the 
ditching and to report on its efilciency, holding that the State could afford 
to furnish advice when private money was being expended for doing part 
of the work to which it stood committed. The Entomologist assured Bir. 
Barrows and Mr. Adams that as soon as the opportunity offered he would 
cause a careful survey of the territory to be made. Accordingly on Sep> 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 415 

tember 2l8t Mr. Charles S. Beckwith began a detailed examination of the 
territory covered by this contract and on October 22nd completed it 

In general Mr. Beckwith's study showed that the work had been well 
done. The contractor on being informed in the nature of certain serious 
faults undertook to remedy them and is at this writing engaged in their 
correction. All ditches were measured, tested for width and depth, and 
examined for workmanship. They were plotted on careful maps of the 
entire district Mr. Beckwith's report follows: 

Report of the Salt Marth Work Done Under the Little Silver Contract. 

Mr. Charles S. BECKwrrH, B. Sc, 

Assistant to the Entomologist in Mosquito Extermination. 

"The territory covered by the Little Silver contract includes all the 
marsh lying along the Navesink with its branches and the Shrewsbury 
with its branches as far north as the Navesink Highlands. Part of these 
marshes had already been ditched but the trenches were so badly filled up 
that cleaning them required as much or more labor as did new work. 

"The inspection started on September 21st and continued until October 
22nd. The width and depth of all ditches as well as the plan and method 
of ditching was studied with an object of determining their efficiency. In 
some cases where there was a large number of short spurs, they were not 
mapped but their length was added in to make the total number of feet. 
The gaieral condition of the territory was looked into and all breeding 
places or likely breeding places were noted. 

"After having carefully inspected and mapped the territory, I should 
say that the drainage work was well done and the mosquito places nearly 
eliminated. The contractor showed great skill in surveying the ground 
and finding breeding marsh so that little ditching was wasted, but all 
dangerous places were drained. I have divided the territory into sections 
80 that it can be described more clearly and fully. 

"Section one consists of all the marsh land lying on the banks of Swim- 
ming River between the upper bridge at Red Bank and the bridg:e crossing 
near the pumping station. This covers about a mile and a half of terri- 
tory in which there are 52,394 feet of ditching. The marsh on the north 
side is covered chiefly with salt grass and is drained by a system of 
parallel ditches, in no case more than 150 feet apart Around the edge 
of the marsh is an extra ditch called an upland ditch. The purpose of 
this is to cut off the numerous small fresh water streams which would 
normally run out on the marsh and make large pools close to the upland. 
There is no standing water on this section now, except at the extreme 
western end where cows are pastured. Here there is water in the hoof 
prints and mosquito larvae were found developing in it To improve the 
drainage in this field is a difficult matter, because of the impervious texture 
of the soil. The ditches are already as close as fifty feet and the only thing 
to do seems to be to deepen the present ditches. Even then this place should 
be carefully watched. The marsh lying on the south side of the river is a 
cat-tail area and would- not usually be considered a breeding place, but, 



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4i6 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

. because of the water standing on the upland edge, tbfi whole place was 
drained. 

"Section two consists of that marsh lying on Swimming River above the 
bridge at the pumping stfition. The river in this section contains less salt 
and the marsh begins to assume a fresh water character. The first half 
mile of marsh on the north side of the river is brackish enough to breed 
the salt marsh varieties and it has been ditched in the same fashion as 
section one. Seven thousand five hundred and twenty-seven feet of ditch- 
ing were needed to drain this area. The contractor has had the same dllD- 
culties to meet here as he did on the east side of the bridge — a cow pas- 
ture in a field where there is little or no seepage. • Deepening the present 
ditches is apparently the best method of improving it, but if more outlets 
are needed, underdrainage should be resorted to. Above this field, the 
vegetation indicates a fresh water swamp and It is not likely to breed the 
salt marsh mosquitoes. No ditching has been cut in It 

"Section three consists of the marsh land lying along the creeks run- 
ning into the north side of the Navesink between the upper bridge at Red 
Bank and the Navesink Highlands. The first is Nut Swamp Brook, which 
Is a small creek having the same problem as Swimming River on a small 
scale. It was met in a Uke manner, ditches being dug as far up as the 
salt marsh extended, while the remaining swamp is undrained. The second 
creek is Porln Brook. This goes under the railroad about 200 feet from 
its mouth and although the first 200 feet is carefully drained, that above 
the railroad is untouched. No breeding was found there on the day it was 
inspected, but it has the characteristics of a breeding place, so I place it 
as dangerous. Ten thousand forty-six feet of ditching were used along 
these two creeks, but there are three other creeks in this section, none of 
which are drained. Any of them under unfavorable weather conditions 
might become breeding places. They are small, however, and can be 
easily watched. 

"Section four consists of the south bank of the Navesink from Red Bank 
to the Shrewsbury River and from there to the Sea Bright bridge. There 
are few low spots on the south side of the Navesink between Red Bank 
and Oceanic One at Fair Haven was of sufficient importance to be 
ditdhed. Just below Oceanic, however, is a large island known as Black 
Point Sedge. This and the mainland ' immediately adjacent comprise a 
large marsh which is partly drained, but which beciuse of interference of 
owners it was impossible to ditch completely. It is one of the dangerous 
spots of the territory, especially on the mainland but, as is the case often, 
it must be watched to find actual breeding. At the Junction of the Shrews- 
bury and the Navesink rivers is a marsh -located on Mr. Remain's pn^ 
erty. It has been drained and the ditches were in first class condition 
when inspected. Taking in the two places there are 8,811 feet of ditching 
in this section. 

"Section five consists of all the marsh on the north side of the Shrews- 
bury between the Sea Bright bridge and Oceanport This includes many 
small bits of marsh which were drained before, but the ditches were in 
bad condition. The object of the contractor in this place seemed to be to 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 417 

follow these old ditches, no difference how crooked they were and to effect 
a drainage through the old openings. New ditches were put in whereyer 
necessary, making a total of 36,004 feet for this section. Many of the 
cleaned ditches are shallow and the bottoms uneven. The openings of the 
ditches just north of the club house are all choked up with sea weed, 
which is washed in heavily at this point, making the cost of maintenance 
much higher than it normally would be. The contractor deserves great 
credit for cleaning out aU the creeks and old ditches extending far back 
on the upland. This work was not called for in the contract, but it helped 
control many fresh water kinds of mosaaitoes, especially of the malarial 
sort. One small place that was missed is at the head of Parker Creek, 
opposite the residence of Bir. Bell. It is a small piece of salt grass marsh 
and three or four parallel ditches would put ft out of harm's way. The 
large cat-tail area at the head of this creek is not likely to send out any 
salt marsh mosquitoes. 

"Section six includes that marsh on the south side of the Shrewsbury 
and its south branches between Oceanic and Low Moor. This again is a 
combination of old and new ditches and, while the new ones are care- 
fully placed, the old ones seem to be dug in a hit or miss style, making a 
poor looking result The ditches that open directly into the. river between 
Blackberry Creek and Pleasure Bay are subject to a wave action which 
fills the openings with sand. The upkeep here is rather more than is jus- 
tified for a permanent piece of work, and the contractor should correct 
the fault. There is a very small piece of marsh Just north of Mr. Beck's 
property at Low Moor which has not been drained, thereby causing con- 
siderable criticism. One ditch would drain the entire place and stop all 
danger of breeding. This section is by far the largest and 124,613 feet 
of ditching were used in its drainage. 

"Section seven takes in the islands in the Shrewsbury. They are low 
and need only ditches to the holes where breeding is common in summer. 
Six thousand four hundred and twenty-seven feet were sufficient to do 
this thoroughly. 

"I have mentioned that several doubtful places should be carefully 
watched, but this applies in a sens^ to every section of the marsh. It is 
impossible to say definitely whether mosquitoes will or will not breed in 
a certain area. The State and the counties engaged in such work have 
found that the only way to be sure a salt marsh is not breeding is to 
have an inspector on it all the time. This man must be one who under- 
stands mosquito work and must be able to get over all the territory within 
a week after high tides. Of course the contractor will maintain an in- 
spection, but if the association is to get the benefit of its expenditure, it 
lUiould have a representative who will see that there is no breeding of mos- 
quitoes within the drained area. 

"This inspection work should be carried on between March 1st and 
October 1st, including the entire breeding season. 

"The total number of feet of ditching in the territory amounts to 
246,822, which, at |8,000, makes the price per foot about 3.2 cents. The 



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4i8 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

average price is about 2^ per foot, but the scattered character of this 
marsh must have made Its ditching more expensive. 

"The marsh is now free from breeding pools and all ordinary breeding 
in the grass except as mentioned on Swimming River. There is no reason 
why the territory along the Navesink and Shrewsbury rivers should not 
be entirely free from salt marsh mosquitoes." 

North EliubMh Meadow Work. 

For two breeding seasons the Entomologist has observed that a very con- 
siderable amount of breeding occurs on that part of the Union County 
meadow which lies east of the Central Railroad of New Jersey and south 
of Bound Creek. This breeding occurred between the ditches already con- 
structed in water which lay on the surface long enough to produce the 
adult mosquitoes. 

The present ditches are not only very far apart (500 feet) but so long 
that the water in them has little movement at any time. The meadow is 
an open one and but for these conditions should be as free from breed- 
ing as any well trenched meadow. 

Believing that the practical solution of the problem lay in more ditches 
and in better outlets the Experiment Station offered to pay ore-half the 
cost of improving the northwest comer of this section. The Union County 
Mosquito Extermination Commission accepted the offer and undertook 
the work. The plan was to cut two wide ditches paralleling tbe Central 
Railroad of New Jersey, each forty inches wide, running from Bound 
Creek southward to the oyster road ditch in one instance and into oyster 
creek in the other. The rest of the ditching wa sto be cut as 10x30 inch 
ditching between the old ditches and to drain into the new wide north 
and south channels. 

The total ditching amounted to 50,000 linear feet of lOxSO inch ditches 
or their equivalent 

The contract was awarded to Mr. Jesse P. Manahan of Red Bank for the 
sum of 1950, and was completed in a satisfactory manner. The bid of 1.9 
I cents per foot was notable as being the lowest received for this work for 
several years. 

Patcong Creek Work. 

The work of the Mosquito Extermination Commission of Atlantic County 
and the Experiment Station had, before the station was ready to cut any 
ditching this season, eliminated the breeding places from Absecon to 
Somers Point — a distance of almost eight miles. This fact taken with the 
additional fact that salt marsh mosquitoes bred any considerable distance 
north of a given point rarely infest that point, led the chief inspector of 
that commission to request that further ditching placed in Atlantic County 
by the station be cut in marshes westward of Somers Point. As this 
seemed the best way to obtain the maximum protection for the money ex- 
pended, the station decided to place its ditching on Patcong Creek and 
Great Egg Harbor River. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 419 

Aeoordingly on July 21ai, 1914, a ocmtraot tor eotting 120,000 linear feet 
of lOzSO inch ditches or their equiralent on the meadows of Patoong 
Cre^ was awarded to the United States Drainage and Irrigation Company. 

The salt marsh from Somers Point to the new roadway across Patcong 
Creek is ao frequently swept by the tide that breeding apparently does not 
bccnr. Along both sides of Patcong Creek from the new road almost to 
Ste^mansTille bridge the breeding was found to be Tory prolific. The 
Patoong Creek marsh had been under obsenration for some time before 
the ditching began and by the time the gangs were on the ground the 
breeding spots had nearly all been indicated by white stakes. 

The Patcong Creek section extends about three miles upstream &x>m 
Great En Harbor River, the marsh ayeraging from 800 to 1,000 feet wide 
on each side of the creek. There are a few small creeks and very few of 
the "farmers' ditches." A border of high ground about seventy-five feet 
wide runs along the banks of the creeks and ditches, behind which the 
marlBh is from six to twelve inches lower. The poor drainage of the lower 
portions of the marsh permitted only the growth of coarse sedge grasses 
while the higher parts supported a good crop of salt hay. Breeding pools 
are few 4n number and the breeding observed took place in the water sur- 
rounding the partially submerged sedge. High tides sweep over the 
meadow, and after all had run off that would readily do so, two or three 
inches would remain among the sedge until it had time to escape by 
seepage or evaporation. Tides, which under ordinary meadow conditions 
would destroy the developing brood by current and killiflsh, here failed 
to do their work, because the sedge stems protected the wrigglers from 
the current and screened them from the fish. Even when the water was 
drained away the wrigglers lived as long as the soil protected from the 
sun by the grass remained damp. For periods of forty-eight hours the 
wrigglers have been observed to. persist in the moist mud needing during 
this time only the return of the water to continue life and development 

Owing to these rather unusual conditions it was necessary to drain the 
Patcong Creek marsh in such a fashion as to remove all water from the 
surf^tce. At first an effort was made to drain by running ditches through 
the low spots but it quickly appeared that regardless of care in placing 
ditches there was always some spot more than 100 feet away in which the 
water stood for days. Parallel ditching was resorted to to overcome this 
difliculty and proved very satisfactory. 

Mr. Charles S. Beckwith was appointed inspector in charge and carried 
the work thtough in a very satisfactory manner. Ditching began on the 
east side of the creek. Just above the new road and continued up stream 
almost to Steelmansville Bridge. Eighty-one thousand two hundred and 
sixty-eight linear feet or their equivalent were cut in this side of the 
creek. The gangs were then transferred to the west side and beginning 
on the first breeding mar^h worked down stream until the 120,000 feet 
ran out. 

Just before the work contemplated in this Job was completed it was de- 
cided to complete the expenditure of $3,000 in Atlantic County during the 
fiscal year and the contracting company was asked whether it would cut 



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I 
42b NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

a.n additional 16,500 linear feet of 10x80 inch ditchee or their equivalent 
in Patcong Greek marshes at the same rate per foot and according to same 
specifications. Being promptly assured of the contractor's wilUngnees the 
job was awarded. 

Within the time limited the contractor finished the worlL comprehended 
in the regular contract in a highly satisfactory manner. At the end of 
this job the additional ditching was cut Although warned against doing 
so, the contractor cut 1,270 feet more thietn the total. Including these 
extra feet, 56,502 linear feet of 10x30 inch ditching or Its equivalent was 
cut in the marshes along the west side of Patcong Creek. 

It should be said in passing that at the request of the chief inspector 
of the Atlantic County Commission a certain amount of very short spur- 
ring was left for his men to do when they went on the area for the pur- 
pose of filling all holes with sods. 

All told, 137,770 linear feet of 10x30 inch ditches have been cut in the 
salt marshes of Patcong Creek at a cost of |3,000, relieving 1,600 acres 
from mosquito breeding. 

Patcong Cre^k and Great Egg Harbor River Work. 

Owing to the fact that the necessary steps preliminary to advertising 
and awarding of contract for drainage in the salt marses of Bergen 
County could not be completed before the dose of the present fiscal year 
the sum of two thousand eight hundred and seventy-six dollars and 
eighty-six cents ($2,876.86) became available for further ditching on these 
areas in Atlantic County. 

On October 20th, 1914, a contract for cutting 135,701 linear feet of 10x30 
inch ditches, or their equivalent, in the salt marshes of Patcong Creek 
and Great Egg Harbor River was awarded to the United States Drainage 
and Irrigation Company. The work began on the west side of Patcong 
Creek where the previous job had left off and continued along its border 
until all the marsh on the west side of the creek and north of the new 
road was drained. From Patcong Creek the gangs began the drainage 
along the east side of Great Egg Harbor River proceeding upstream. All 
told, more than 134,431 linear feet of 10x30 inch ditches, or their equiva- 
lent, were cut in this location. The work relieved 2,400 acres from mos- 
quito breeding. 

It should be said at this point that the contractor asked to have the extra 
1,270 feet inadvertently cut during the former job accepted ^is a part of 
this contract, and that the request, appearing to be a reasonable one, was 
granted. 

Hackensack Valley Inspection Work. 

The conviction that the Hackensack Valley threw off several trouble- 
some broods of mosquitoes in the breeding season of 1913 induced the 
Entomologist to make plans for watching it during the season of 1914. 
Mr. Henry H. Brehme was sent over the entire marsh area in the fall of 
1913 and his findings indicated that while not the entire marsh surface 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 421 

was likely to breed, there were places located in all sections which would 
be likely to produce mosquitoes. For the reason that the funds of the 
Experiment Station were inadequate to meet the calls made upon it and 
that the territories of Hudson, Essex, and Union Counties were invaded 
by these swarms, the aid of these counties was sought and obtained. 

It was agreed that Essex County should contribute the serrices of Mr. 
Wilbur Walden, one of its deputy chief inspectors and an engineer by 
training, and one regular inspector, that Hudson County should contribute 
two inspectors and Union one, and that the Experiment Station should 
devote the time of its regular inspector, Mr. Henry H. Brehme. It was 
understood that Mr. Walden should be in charge of the work, and that he 
should be assisted by Mr. Brehme. It was also understood that a report 
of progress made in each week of work should be submitted to the chief 
inspectors of the counties concerned and to the Entomologist 

The inspection began on April 13th and continued for one month. In 
this time, with the exception of a small section of marsh in Harrison 
lyii^g between the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Passaic River, the 
entire Hackensack Valley salt marsh was examined. 

Nearly all the breeding found by Mr. Walden was that of Aedes cantator 
Coq., but a few samples of A. sylvestris were taken. Breeding was found 
in the 3rd, 4th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th. 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 
19th, 21st, 22nd, and 23rd districts* out of a total of 27. In some cases the 
breeding covered the whole area of certain sections in a given district 
but usually it was confined to limited portions of the different sections. 

Mr. Walden's reports having demonstrated that the Hackensack Valley 
salt marsh was likely to prove a very prolific source of mosquitoes, it 
seemed only wise to keep it under observation throughout the breeding 
season. In this way it was hoped much of the breeding might be elimi- 
nated with oil and the facts necessary to proper drainage accumulated. 
Accordingly, a force composed of inspectors from Essex and Union Coun- 
ties headed by Mr. Henry H. Brehme covered the entire valley every ten 
days or two weeks. The following cases of breeding were discovered. 

District No. 1. — Area between the Hackensack River and the Passaic 
River extending from the Newark Bay northward to the Newark and 
Jersey City Plank Road. 

May 12 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvae found in 15 small holes on 
the south side of the Newark and New York branch of the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey. 

May 20 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvae found in 5 holes south of 
Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

June 2 — Scattered breeding of C pipiens larvae found in 2 old cans near 
the Chemical Company plant south of the Newark and Jersey City Plank 
Road. 



*The districts referred to are described on succeeding pa^es, 

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422 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

June 10 — Light breeding of A. soUicitans larvae found in a number of 
pools north of the Newark and New York branch of the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey. 

July 6 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvae found in overgrown ditch 
north of the Newark and New York branch of the Central Railroad of New 
Jersey. 

July 29 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvae found in five small 
holes on the south side of the Newark and New York branch of the Cen- 
tral Railroad of New Jersey. Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvie found 
in a overgrown ditch on the north side of the Newark and New York 
branch of th^ Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

August 22 — Light breeding of A. sollicitans larvae found in an overgrown 
ditch on the north side of the Newark and New York branch of the Cen- 
tral Railroad of New Jersey. 

District No. 2. — Area between the Hackensack River and the Passaic 
River extending from he Newark and Jersey City Plank Road northward 
to the Jersey City branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

May 12 — Light breeding of A. cantator found in ten holes along Arling- 
ton Water Company's pipe line and in holes along telegraph poles south of 
Jersey City branch of Pennsylvania Railroad. 

May 20 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvae found in five small 
holes east of Passaic Avenue and three pools about 300 feet west of the 
Hal^kensack River south of the Jersey City branch of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. 

June 10 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvae found in three holes 
along the Arlington Water Company's pipe line and in six holes along the 
telegraph poles soiith of the Pennsylvania Railroad east of Psussaic Avenue. 
Scattered breeding of C pipiens larvae was found in one barrel along edge 
of dumping ground. 

June 24 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvae was found in holes 
along old railroad ties and double row of telegraph poles south of Jersey 
City branch of Pennsylvania Railroad and scattered breeding of A. canta- 
tor larvae found in two holes along the Arlington Water Company's pipe 
line. 

July 6 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvae found in cattails on the west 
side of Passaic Avenue. Heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. sollicitans 
larvae found in hole^ ditches and foot prints south of the Jersey City 
branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Light breeding of A. cantator larvae 
found in seventeen holes along the Arlington Watef pipe line. Scattered 
breeding of C. pipiens larvae found along the edge of the dumping ground. 

July 17 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvae and pupae found in the cat- 
tails along the south side of the Jersey City branch of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad east of Passaic Avenue. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larv« 
found along the edge of garbage dump north and south of the Arlington 
Water Company's pipe line for about 250 feet. Light breeding of C. pipieni 
and A. sylvestris larvae found in eight pools on the garbage dump just 
north of the Newark and Jersey City Plank Road. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 423 

July 29 — Scattered breeding of A, cantator lanre found in six sign post 
boles south of the Jersey City branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad east 
of Passaic Avenue. Scattered breeding of C. pipien$ and C. saliiMrius 
larvse found in four holes along the Arlington Water Company's pipe. 
Scattered and heavy breeding of C. ptptent larvs and pups fdund along 
edge of garbage fill at the Arlington Water Company's pipe line. 

August 11 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larve found in six sign 
post holes south of the Jersey City branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
east of Passaic Avenue. Light and heavy breeding of C. pipie$^s larviB 
and pupflB found in two holes and at the dumping ground along the Ar- 
lington Water Company's pipe line. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvs 
found along the edge of the dumping ground and in four pools just north 
of the Newark and Jersey City Plank Road« 

August 22 — Light breeding of C. pipienM found in one pool about 400 
feet north of the Newark and Jersey City Plank Road. Light and heavy 
breeding of O. pipiens larvtt and pupe found in six holes and for 200 feet 
west of the garbage fill along the Arlington Water Company's pipe line. 

September 5 — Light breeding of C, pipiens larve found along the edge 
of the garbage fill at the Arlington Water Company's pipe line. Scattered 
breeding of O. pipiens larvse found along the garbage fill just north of the 
rendering plant 

September 16 — Scattered breeding of C, pipiens larve found in one hole 
and aloBg garbage fill at the Arlington Water Company's pipe line. 

October 9 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvse found al<mg the edge 
of the garbage fill at the Arlington Water Company's pipe line. 

District No. 3, Section A. — Area between the Jersey City branch of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad and Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad, 
extending from the Hackensack River westward to the junction of the 
grades of these lines. 

May 12 — ^Very little breeding; only about a dozen A, cantator larvse found. 

May 20 — One acre, light breeding of A. cantator larvse found and 10 per 
cent pupse found at the Dloxygen sign board. 

July 6 — Heavy breeding of A, cantator and A, sollicitans larvse found in 
blind ditches and at nine sign boards. 

July 17 — ^Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvse and pupse found in post 
holes at ten sign boards. 

July 29 — ^Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvse found at 11 sign post 
holes. Heavy breeding of A. cantator and (7. pipiens larve found along the 
old Jersey City water pipe line west of the Hackensack River. 

August 11 — Light breeding of C, pipiens found along the old Jersey City 
water pipe line west of the Hackensaick River. 

August 21 — ^Light breeding of C. salinarius larvse found in a ditch at 
the Remington sign board and in depressions at the Remington sign 
board. Light breeding of 0. pipiens larvse found in seven holes along the 
old Jersey City water pipe line west of the Hackensack River. 

September 7 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvse found along the old 
Jersey City water pipe line. 



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424 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

DisTBiCT No. 3, Section B. — ^Area between old branch of Erie Railroad, 
Hackensack River, and the Thirty-Second Street line of the Pennsylyanla 
Railroad. 

May 12 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvse in all stages in almost 
every pool and hole west of the Hackensack River to the railroad spar. 

June 10 — Scattered breeding of A. cfintator larvs found in scattered tree 
stump holes. 

July 6 — Heavy breeding of A, cantator and A, solUcitans larve found in 
every overgrown ditch and tree stump hole. 

July 29 — Scattered A. cantator larvae found in a few tree stump holes. 

District No. 3, Section C. — ^Area between the Delaware, Lackawanna and 
Western Railroad and the old branch of the Erie Railroad, extending from 
the Hackensack River westward to the Belleville Turnpike. 

May 20 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvae and 80 per cent pupe in 
ditch 1,500 feet long and 10 feet wide about 1,200 feet west of Hackensack 
River and light breeding of A. cantator larvse and 15 per cent pupe in' 
four pools and a blind ditch 20 feet long at the Coward Shoe sign. 

June 10 — Light brewing of A. cantator larvae found at the Vulvullx and 
Kabo sign boards east of the junction of the Harrison Turnpike and the 
Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. 

June 24 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvae found In three sign post 
holes and a ditch at the Gray and Henry sign and one pool at the Mos- 
quito Tavern. 

July 6 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. sollicitans larvae found in 
every ditch and sign post hole on this section. 

July 17 — ^Light breeding of A, cantator larvae and pupae found at the 
Kabo sign and in 100 feet of ditch at the Kelley Loan Company sign. 

July 29 — Light breeding of C pipiens and O. salinarius larvae found in a 
wide ditch on the west side of the levee along the Hackensack River. 
Light breeding of A, cantator iarvie found in a blind ditch at the second 
signal tower of the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad and at the 
Haig ft Haig sign board. 

August 12 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae found along the north 
side of Belleville Turnpike in pools west of the Mosquito Tavern. 

August 24 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvae found in three holes 
along the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad 700 feet east of the 
Harrison Turnpike. 

District No. 3, Section D. — Area between the Harrison Turnpike and the 
Belleville Turnpike, extending from the Junction of the Harrison and 
Belleville Turnpike westward to the Thirty-Second Street line of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. 

July 7 — Scattered breeding of A, cantator larvae found just east of 
Thirty-Second Street line of Pennsylvania Railroad. 

July 18 — Heavy breeding of A, cantator larvae and pupae found in si^n 
post holes. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 425 

District No. 3, Section E. — Area between the Delaware, Lackawanna ft 
Western Railroad, the Thirty-Second Street line of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, and the Harrison Turnpike. 

June 11 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens lanrn found In a ditch at Roe 
and Conoyer sign board east of Kearny Junction. 

June 24 — Light breeding of A, cantator lanrsB found in seven holes at 
the sign boards and (7. pipiens larv» in two holes at the Jap-a-lae sign 
board. 

July 30 — Heavy breeding of C. pipiens larvsB and puimb found over 
about one and one-half acres just east of where the Thirty-Second Street 
line of the Pennsylvania Railroad runs over the Delaware, Lackawanna 
ft Western Railroad. 

August 12 — ^Heavy breeding of A. cantator and (7. pipien$ larve and 
pups found. One acre at the Chambers sign board. 

August 24 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvs found at the sign board 
east of where the Pennsylvania Railroad runs over the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna ft Westerly Railroad. 

District No. 4, Section A — Area between the Belleville Turnpike and the 
Arlington Water Ck>inpany's pipe line extending northward from the old 
Newark and Paterson branch of the Erie Railroad to the present Newark 
and Paterson branch of the Erie Railroad. 

May 12 — ^Very little breeding of A. cantator larv© found. 

July 7 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvs found over this whole area, 

August 12 — Light breeding of C pipiens and (7. salinarius larvae found 
hi the cattails east of the third culvert 

District No. 4, Section B. — Area between the Delaware, Lackawanna ft 
Western Railroad, the Thirty-Second Street line of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road and Harrison Turnpike, extending from the junction of the Thirty- 
Second Street line of the Pennsylvania Railroad and Harrison Turnpike 
westward to the upland. 

May 12 — ^Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvae and pupae and many 
adults on the wing west of the Old Fish Road. 

May 23 — ^Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvae and about 76 per cent 
pupae were found between Swift's Railroad spur and Frank Greek south 
of the Swift Plant, which covered about two acres. 

June 11 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvae found in ten-inch 
ditch at the Clysmic sign board and one hole north of the Remington 
Typewriter sign board. 

July 7 — ^Light breeding of A. cantator and 0. sollincitans larvae in every 
hole and depression west of the Old Fish Road. 

. July 30 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvae found in six holes west 
side of the Old Fish Road. 

District No. 4, Section C. — Area between Harrison Turnpike and old 
Newark and Paterson branch of the Erie Railroad extending from the 
Thirty-Second Street branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad westward to 
Frank Creek. 



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426 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

May 12 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvR found east of Frank 
Creek. 

July 7 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvs found over this whole area. 

July 18 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvs and pups found over this 
whole section. 

July 30 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvse found in cattails east- 
ward from the first culvert east of Frank Creek and in a pool Just west 
of the Thirty-Second Street line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

August 12 — Light breeding of C pipiens and O. salinarius larvse found 
in the cattails for 2,000 feet along the old Newark and Paterson branob 
of the Brie Railroad. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larv« found In 
pools along the Harrison Turnpike. 

August 24 — Scattered breeding of C pipiens larvse found in the cattails 
for 150 feet just west of the Arlington Water Company's pipe line. 

District No. 4, Sectiow D. — Area between Harrison Turnpike and the old 
Newark and Paterson branch of the Erie Railroad extending from Frank 
Creek westward to the upland. 

May 12 — Only an occasional A. cantator larvse found. 

May 26 — Only seven A. cantator larvse found at Wobum Degreaalns 
Company's plant 

June 11 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvse found in a pool on 
the north side of the Wobum Degreasing Company's plant. 

June 24 — Scattered breeding of C pipiens larvse found in a ditch on the 
west side of the Wobum Degreasing Company's plant 

July 7 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvse found in a ditch and In 
the cattails west of the Wobum Degreasing Company's plant 

July 18 — Scattered and heavy breeding of A. cantator throughout 

July 30 — ^Light suid heavy breeding of C. pipiens larvse and pupse found 
in the cattails west of the Wobum Degreasing Company's plant to the 
dumping ground at the upland. 

District No. 4. Section E. — Area between the old Newark and Paterson 
branch of the Erie Railroad and the present Newark and Paterson branch 
pf the Erie Railroad extending from Frsuik Creek westward to the upland. 

May 12 — Only an occassional A. cantator larva found. 

Distbict No. 4, Section G. — Area between the old Newark and Pater- 
son branch of the Erie Railroad and the new Newark and Paterson branch 
of the Erie Railroad extending from the Arlington Water Company's 
pipe line westwsird to Frank Creek. 

May 12 — Scattered to heavy breeding of A. cantator larvse and SO per 
cent pupse found from Frank Creek eastward for about 1,000 feet. 

July 7 — ^Light breeding of A. cantator and O. pipiens larvse found OTer 
this whole section. 

July 18— Scattered and heavy breeding of A. cantator larvse and pnine 
found over this whole section. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 4^7 

DisTBiCT No. 5, Section A. — Area between the Newark and Paterson 
branch o( the Erie Railroad and the Duke Street sewer extending from 
Frank Greek westward to the upland. 

July 7 — ^Ldght breeding of A. cantator laryn found in the cattails and 
scattered breeding of C. pipietu larvae found in cattails along the north 
side of the Newark and Paterson branch of the Erie Railroad. 

July 80 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens found in the cattails north of 
the Newark and Paterson branch of the Erie Railroad. 

August 12 — Light breeding of C pipiens lanre found in cattails 76 feet 
north of the Newark and Paterson branch of the Erie ftailroad. 

DiSTsiOT No. 6, Section B. — Area between the Duke Street sewer and the 
Bergen Ayenue sewer extending from the Junction of the Duke Street 
and Bei:gen Avenue sewers westward to the upland. 

July 7 — Scattered breeding of A. Mylvestris larvs found along the upland 
north of Tappan Street in cattails. 

July 30 — Light breeding of C pipiehM larvae found in the Bergen Avenue 
sewer. 

District No. 5, Section C. — Area between the Bergen Avenue sewer and 
Frank Creek» extending from the Newark and Paterson branch of the Erie 
Railroad westward to the upland. 

June 24 — ^Twelve C. pipiens egg boats found in a ditch south of Kearny 
Gun Club house. 

July 7 — Light breeding of C, pipiens and scattered breeding of A, «y^ 
ve$trU larvae found in a ditch at woodland north of the Kearny Gun Club 
house. 

July 20 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvse found in a ditch at the wood- 
land north of the Kearny Qun Club house. 

DiSTBiCT No. 5, Section D. — Area between the new Newark and Paterson 
branch of the Erie Railroad and the New York and Greenwood Lake 
branch of the Erie Railroad, extending from the Belleville Turnpike west- 
ward to Frank Creek and the upland. 

May 13 — Light breeding of A, cantator larvae and pupse found between 
Frank Creek and the second culvert east of Frank Creek, north of the 
Erie Railroad and scattered A. cantator larvse were found about 800 feet 
west of the Belleville Turnpike south of the New York and Greenwood 
Lake branch of the Erie Railroad. 

May 25 — Heavy breeding of C. pipiens larvae found along the edge of the 
dumping ground south of the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of 
the Erie Railroad. 

June 12 — Scattered breeding of C pipiens larvse found along the edge 
of the dumping ground south of the New York and Greenwood Lake 
branch of the Erie Railroad. 

June 24 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvse found at the edge of the 
dumping ground south of the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of 
the Erie Railroad. 



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428 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

July 7 — ^Ldght breeding of C. pipiens larve found at the edge of the 
dumping ground south of the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of 
the Erie Railroad. Scattered breeding of A. gylvestrU larre found In 
hoof prints and holes south of the Oakwood Avenue dumping ground. 

July 20 — Light breeding of C, pipiens larve found along the edge of the 
dumping ground south of the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of 
the Erie Railroad. Light breeding of A, slyvestrit lanrsB and pups in 
holes south of the Oakwood Avenue dumping ground. 

July 80 — ^Slight breeding of A, sylvestris larre found In pools and cattle 
hoof prints south of the Oakwood Avenue dumping ground along the up- 
land. 

August 4 — Light breeding of A. cantator and C. pipiens larvsB and pupe 
found over three-fourths of the section. 

August 12 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens found along the edge of the 
dumping ground south of the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of 
the Erie Railroad. 

September 8 — Light breeding of 0, pipiens found along the edge of the 
dumping ground south of the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of the 
Erie Railroad. 

DiSTUCT No. 6, Section A. — ^Area between the Belleville Turnpike and the 
New York and Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad extending 
from the Junction of the Newark and Paterson and the New York and 
Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad westward to the Belleville 
Turnpike. 

July 8 — Scattered to light breeding of A, cantator and A. aylvestris lar- 
v» found along the south side of the New York and Greenwood Lake 
branch of the Erie Railroad. 

July 20 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvs found which covers 
about five acres. 

District No. 6, Section B. — Area between the Belleville Turnpike. Thirty- 
Second Street line of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the New York and 
Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad, extending from the old 
railroad spur westward to the Newark and Paterson branch of the Brie 
Railroad. 

July 6 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvse found in very many old 
tree stump holes. 

District No. 6, Section C. — ^Area between the Thirty-Second Street line 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the New York and Greenwood Lake 
branch of the Erie Railroad, extending from the Hackensack River west- 
ward to the old railroad spur. 

July 6 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. sollicitans larvae found in 
old tree stump holes. 

July 20 — Light breeding of A. cantator larvae found which covers about 
one-half an acre. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 429 

D18TBICT No. 7, Section A. — Area between the New York and Greenwood 
Lake branch of the Erie Railroad and the Belleyille Turnpike, extending 
from the Junction of the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of the 
Erie and the Belleville Turnpike westward to the upland. 

May 14 — Scattered breeding of A. sylvestrit lanre found along upland 
north of the Arlington Company's plant 

June 12 — ^Heavy breeding of C. pipiena larvae and pup» found along the 
Arlington Company's fill. Scattered breeding of C. pipieiu and Anopheles 
larve found in two pools 7x26 and 6x30 feet east of the Arlington cemetery. 

June 25 — Heavy breeding of C, pipien$ larvs and pups found along the 
Arlington Company's fill. 

July 8 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larve found in a ditch and along 
the Arlington Company's fill. Scattered breeding of C. pipient larvs found 
in the two pools east of the Arlington cemetery. . 

July 20 — Light breeding of O. pipien$ larvse found along the edge of 
Arlington Company's fllL Light breeding of C. pipiens larve found in a 
ditch 100 feet long south of the Arlington Cemetery. 

July 31 — Scattered breeding of 0. pipiens and O. salinarius larve found 
along the Arlington Water Company's pipe line 300 feet east of Saw Mill 
Creek. Heavy breeding of 0, pipiens larvs and pups found in the cat- 
tails east of the Arlington Company's ash-flll for 500 feet Scattered breed- 
ing of C pipiens larvse found along the edge of the Arlington Company's 
ash-flU. Light breeding of C pipiens, C, salinarius and A. sylvestris larvse 
found in a ditch 75 feet long south of the Arlington cemetery. Scattered 
Anopheles larvse found in one pool on the east side of the Arlington ceme- 
tery. 

August 18 — ^Heavy breeding of C. pipiens larvse and pupse found wher- 
ever water was found. Light breeding of C. pipiens larvse and pupse found 
at telegraph pole No. 96 east of Saw Mill Creek on the north side of the 
Belleville Turnpike. 

August 25 — Scattered and heavy breeding of C pipiens larvse found 
along the edge of the Arlington Company fill. Scattered breeding of (7. 
pipiens larvse found in the lily pond on the east side of the Arlington 
cemetery. 

September 8 — Heavy breeding of C pipiens larvse found in the cattails 
and along the Arlington Company's All. Scattered breeding of C, pipiens 
larvse found in the lily pond on the east side of the Arlington cemetery. 

September 19 — Scattered breeding of 0. pipiens larvse found along the 
edge of Arlington Company's ash-fllL 

DiSTBiOT No. 7, "Section B. — Area between the New York and Greenwood 
Lake branch of the Erie Railroad and Saw Mill Creek» extending from the 
Hackensack River westwsird to the Belleville Turnpike. 

May 13 — Scattered A. cantator larvse breeding Just west of the Hacken- 
sack River. 

June 12 — Scattered breeding of A, cantator larvse found in two ditches 
and at the Major Cement Company's sign west of the Hackensack River. 



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430 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

June 26 — Light breeding of A. cantator lanre found in the ten-inch 
ditches Just west of the Haokensaek Riyer. 

July 8 — Scattering and heavy breeding of A, cantator and A. solHdtant 
larvn found over an area of about 30 acres west of the HaclLensack River. 

August 13 — Scattered breeding of A, cantator larvae found in a diteh at 
switch No. 20 and in a pool at signal tower No. 42. 

District No. 8, Section A. — Area between the Belleville Turnpike and 
Meadow Road east of Astor Avenue, extending from Saw Mill Creek west- 
ward to the upland in Arlington. 

June 13 — Scattered breeding of C. fnpiens and Anopheles larvse found in 
four pools along the Arlington Water Company's pipe line north of the 
Belleville Turnpike. 

June 25 — ^Scattered \breeding of C pipiens larvse found in three small 
pools along the old Jersey City water pipe line west of Saw Mill Creek. 

July 9 — Scattered breeding of A, sylvestris larvie found south of Meadow 
Road east of Astor Avenue, which covers about two acres. 

July 20 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A. aylvestris larvse and 
pupee found south of Meadow Road which covers about ten acres. Heavy 
breeding of C. sylvestris larvae and pupee found in pool on north side of 
Belleville Turnpike west of Saw Mill Creek. 

July 31 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens and A, sylvestris larvs found 
along the edge of the upland south of the Meadow Road east of Astor 
Avenue. 

August 13 — Scattered breeding of C, pipiens larvsB found in depressions 
south of the Meadow Road east of Astor Avenue along the upland. 

August 25 — Scattered breeding of C pipiens larvae found in the large 
pool on the north side of the Belleville Turnpike opposite the Arlington 
Cemetery gate. 

District No. 8, Section B. — Area between the Meadow Road east of Astor 
Avenue and the Boonton branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna k Weetem 
Railroad, extending from the southern branch of Kingsland Creek west- 
ward to the upland in Kingsland. 

July 8 — Heavy breeding of A. sylvestris ktrve and pupae found abomt 
800 feet north of Meadow Road east of Astor Avenue along the upland. 
Light breeding of A. cantator and A. sylvestris larvae fdund in cattails oast 
of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad shops. 

July 21 — Light breeding of A, cantator and A. sylvestris larvae found in 
the cattails east of the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad shops. 

July 31 — Soattered breeding of C. pipiens larvs found in one pool about 
800 feet north of the Meadow Road east of Astor Avmue along the upland. 

August 13 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae and pupae found in the 
cattails at the foot of Gast Avenue. 

August 26 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvae found in a pool east 
of the foot of Oast Avenue. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 431 

D18TBICT No. 8, Sscmox C. — Area between Saw Mill Creek and Kingsland 
Creek, extending from the Haokenaaek RiTer weatward to the MeaAow 
Road aaat of Astor Ayenue. 

District No. 8, Section D. — Area between Kingsland Creek and the Boon- 
ton branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, extending 
from the contact of the two westward to the northern branch of Kingsland 
Creek. 

May 22 — Six small holes had breeding of about one-half a dozen A. can- 
Uiar larv» and pupe going on in them. 

July 9 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. 9plve9tria larv» fMuid Just 
south of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad embankment. 

July 21 — Light breedfaig of A, cantator larvs found for about 700 feet 
east of the northern branch of Kingsland Creek. 

District No. 8, Section E. — Area between Kingsland Creek and the Boon- 
ton branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad Company, 
extending westward from the Hackensack Rirer to the contact of the two. 

District No. 9, Section A. — Area between the Boonton branch of the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna k Western Railroad and the Jersey City water pipe line, 
extending &x>m the Hackensack River westward to the upland in Kings- 
land. 

May 14 — ^About one dozen small A. cantator larv» f6und breeding akmg 
the water pipe line. 

May 22 — ^About ane-lialf dosen A, cantator larrsft found along the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad embankment 

July 9 — Light breeding of A, cantator and A. sylvestria lanr« found 
along the north side of the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad 
enfcankment and the south side of the Jersey City water pipe line about 
1,800 fibet wast of the Hackensack Rirer. 

August 26 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. tplvestris found in 
cattails along the Jersey City water pipe line for a distance of 1,000 feet. 

District No. 9, Section B. — Area between the Jersey City water pipe lin** 
and the embankment area, extending from the Hackensack River and 
Berry's Creek westward to the upland in Kingsland and Lyndhurst. 

May 14 — ^About one dozen A. cantator and A. sylveatrig larva found in 
cattails along the upland. 

May 22 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. 9ylve9tri8 in cattails along 
the upland. 

June 8 — Scattered A. cantator and A. sylvestris larvse and pupte found 
in two small holes along the upland. 

June 15 — ^Heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. sylveatria larvsB found 
on the north side of the Jersey City water pipe line at the small wood- 
land west of the Hackensack River. There was light breeding of A. can- 
tator and A. tylveatm larv» found going on on the south side of the water 
pipe line. 



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432 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

June 26 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larre found along the north 
side of the Jersey City water pipe line for a distance of 800 feet. 

August 1 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larre found In cattails along 
the upland. it 

August 26 — Heavy breeding of A, cantator and A. sylveatria larvae found 
in cattails along the Jersey City water pipe line for a distance of 1,000 
feet 

District No. 9, Section C. — Area between the dike at Lyndhurst and the 
dike at Rutherford, extending from Berrys Creek westward to the upland 
at Lyndhurst and Rutherford. 

May 22 — ^Light breeding of A, cantator and A. 9ylve$tri9 larvss In two 
pools and a ditch a foot wide about 800 feet north of the Klngsland Brick 
Plant 

July 9 — Light breeding of A, cantator and A, sylvestria larve found In 
overgrown ditch about 400 feet north of the Klngsland Brick Works. 

August 26 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. $ylv€8tri$ lanm found 
in the cattails and overgrown ditch about 800 feet north of the Klngsland 
Brick Works. Light breeding of C. pipiens larvs found along the edge of 
garbage fill south of the main line of the Erie Railroad. 

District No. 9, Section D. — Area between the diked area and the main 
line of the New York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad, extending from 
Berry's Creek westward to the upland in Rutherford. 

June 3 — One C. pipiens egg boat found In an old dstem Just south of 
the Columbia Button Works east of Meadow Road. 

District No. 10, Section A. — Area between the New Jersey and New York 
branch of the Erie Railroad and the upland In East Rutherford, extending 
from the main line of the New York, Lake Erie ft Western Railroad north- 
ward to the Paterson Plank Road. 

June 26 — Scattered breeding of C. pipien$ larve found at dumping 
ground south of Clser's Ice house. 

June 27 — ^Llght breeding of C pipiens larvn and pups found along the 
north and south sides of Stanley Street in the cattails. Scattered breeding 
of C. pipiens larvn found in a ditch on the east side of the Hackensack 
car bam. 

July 9 — ^Llght breeding of C. pipien$ larvs found along the edge of 
dumping ground south of CIser's Ice house. 

July 22 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvs and pupe found alons 
the edge of the dumping ground south of CIser's Ice house. 

August S — ^Llght breeding of O. pipiens larvse found In one pool on the 
east side of the Hackensack trolley car bam. Light breeding of C. pipiens 
larve found in cattails at the dumping ground south of CIser's Ice houne. 

August 14 — Scattered breeding of O. pipiens larvs found In m sewer 
ditch east of the dumping ground south of CIser's Ice house. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 433 

District No. 10, Section B. — Area between Berry's Creek and the New 
York and New Jersey branch of the New York, Lake Brie ft Western 
Railroad, extending from the main line of the New York, Lake Erie ft 
Western Railroad northward to the Paterson Plank Road. 

May 19 — Scattered breeding of* A, 9ylve$tri$ lanm found Just east of the 
New Jersey and New York branch of the Erie Railroad. 

June 16 — ^Light breeding of A. cantator larvae found in 25 sign post 
holes north of the Junction of the main line and the New Jersey and New 
York branch of the Erie Railroad. 

July 9 — ^Heavy breeding of A, cantator and A. sylvestrig larvs found 
going on in 96 sign post holes and in two small depressions. 

July 10 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. MylveatrU larvn and 
pupee found in a ditch south of the Paterson Plank Road 500 feet east of 
the New ^rsey and New York branch of the Erie Railroad. 

August 3 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvse found at the sign 
boards north of the Junction of the New Jersey and New York branch of 
the main line of the Erie Railroad. Scattered breeding of A, cantator and 
A, 9ylv€8tri8 found in an overgrown ditch east of the Hasselhunes coal 
pockets. 

Distbict No. 10, Section C. — Area between the Hackensack River and 
Berry's Creek, extending from the new canal northward to the Paterson 
Flank Road. 

June 17— Light breeding of A. cantator larvn found in ditch about 8 by 
300 feet along the Paterson Plank Road, 500 feet west of the Hackensack 
River. 

July 10 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larve found over about ten 
acres of meadow. Light breeding of A. cantator larvse found in a ditch 
about 400 feet long, 600 feet west of the Hackensack River. Light and 
ueavy breeding of A. sylvestrU larve in every pool found in the woodland. 

August 5 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens and C. aalinariua larvn found 
in a ditch along the Paterson Plank Road 500 feet west of the Hackensack 
River. 

Distmct No. 10, Section D. — Area between the Hackensack River and 
Berry's Creek, extending from the main line of the New York, Lake Erie 
ft Western Railroad northward to the new canal. 

June 16 — ^Light breeding of A. cantator larvse found in 42 sign post 
holes west of the Hackensack River and north of the main line of the 
Erie Railroad. 

June 26 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larve and pupse found in 13 
sign post holes west of the Hackensack River north of the main line of the 
Erie Railroad. 

July 9 — Scattered and heavy breeding of A. cantator larvs found in 227 
sign post holes and in depressions which cover about one and one-half 
acres. 

Distbict No. 10, Section E. — ^Area between the Hackensack River and 
Berry's Creek south of the main line of the New York, Lake Erie ft West- 
em Railroad. ' 



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434 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

June 16 — Light breeding of A, oantator larv» and pup» found which 
ooyers an area of about two acres jnst east of the place where the main 
line of the Erie Railroad crosses Berry's Creek; and scattered breeding of 
A. cantator larvte were found in 10 sign post holes west of the Haekensack 
River. 

July 9 — Light breeding of A. cantator lanrse found going on in ISO sign 
post holes west of the Haekensack River and light breeding of A. otmtmtor 
lanrse found Just east of where Berry's Creek flows under the main line of 
the Brie Railroad which covers about two and one-half acres. 

August 3 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larve found in an |Over- 
grown ditch at telephone poles Nob. 107 and 108. 

District No. 11, Section A. — Area between the Haekensack River and the 
upland in Secausus, extending from the Paterson Plank Road ^uthward 
to the main line of the New York, Lake Brie ft Western Railroad. 

District No. 11, Section B — ^Area between the old iron works road and the 
county road, extending from the Paterson Plank Road southward to the 
New York, Lake Erie ft Western Railroad. 

July 15 — ^Heavy breeding of A. cantator and C BOlHcitans larv» and 
pup» found in holes and depressions about 400 feet north of where the 
New York, Lake Erie ft Western Railroad crosses County Avenue. 

July 27 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvse found in holes and 
depressions 400 feet north of where the New York, Lake Brie ft Western 
Railroad crosses County Avenue. 

District No. 12, Section A. — Area between the County Road and the 
Erie and Susquehanna Railroads, extending from the Paterson Plank 
Road southward to the Secaucus Road. 

May 18 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvs found which covens an 
area of about three-fourths of an acre east of the schoolhouse along the 
County Road. 

Blay 27 — Scattered breeding of C. pipien$ larv» found in a ditdi about 
300 feet long, about 700 feet north of the Secaucus Road east of the New 
York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad. 

June 6 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens found in a pool about 400 feet 
north of the Secaucus Road west of the New York, Susquehanna ft Western 
Railroad, and heavy breeding of C. pipiens larvse found in barrel at 171 
Tounele Avenue. 

June 19 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiena larv» found in two pools north 
of the Secaucus Road, west of the New York, Susquehanna ft Western 
Railroad and scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvs found Just south of 
the Homestead Station, east of the New York, Susquehanna & Western 
Railroad. 

July 1 — ^Light breeding of O, pipient larvn found in small pools 700 f^t 
north of the Secaucus Road along the New York, Susquehanna ft Western 
Railroad. Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvK found at the sign 
boards north of the Secaucus Road, east of Pen Horn Creek. Light breed- 
ing of A. cantator found along the south side of the Paterson Plank Road 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 435 

for «00 feet in a diteh which was cut from Koch's' Hotel to Pen Horn 
Creek. Light breeding of A. 9ylve§trU and C pipieuM lanm found in cat- 
tails about 500 feet north of the Secaucus Road east of the New York, Sus- 
quehanna ft Western Railroad. 

July 14 — Light breeding of A, cantator larve and pups found along the 
west side of the New York, Susque^nna ft Western Railroad in the cat- 
tails south of the Jagee ft Beldls coal pockets. Light breeding of C. 
pipietiM and A, sylveatria lanrie found in the cattails about 1,200 feet north 
of the Secaucus Road east and west of the New York, Susquehanna ft 
Western Railroad. Light breeding of O. pipieng larvse were found in the 
cattails and an open ditch Just east of Koch's Hotel on the south side of 
the Paterson Plank Road. 

July 25 — Light breeding of C. pipieng larvse found in the cattails for 
500 feet south of the Thirty-Second Street Line of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road west of the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad. Scattered 
breeding of C. pipient larvse found along the edge of the garbage pile oa 
the north side of the Secaupus Road Just east of the Pen Horn Creek. 
lAf^t breeding of A. cantator larve found in the cattails along the south 
side of the Paterson Plank Road east of Koch's Hotel. Scattered breeding 
of A, cantator larv» found in the ditch Just west of Koch's HoteL 

August 7 — ^Heavy breeding of C. pipient larvse and pupe found west of 
the day pits ai^d in the cattails surrounding the old dumping ground 
south of the Jagee ft Bellis' coal pockets. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens 
larvae found in cattails for 300 feet south of the Thirty-Second Street Line 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, west of the New York, Susquehanna ft 
Western Railroad. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvse found in the cat- 
tails south of Koch's Hotel, on the south side of the Paterson Plank Road. 
Light breeding of C pipiens eggboats and larvse found in a ditch and cat- 
tails between Homestead and Tyler Park east of the New York, Susque- 
hanna ft Western Railroad. 

August 19 — Light breeding of C, pipieng larvse found in a ditch beween 
eastern and western tracks of the New York, Susquehanna ft Western 
Railroad south of the Homestead Station. Heavy breeding of C. pipiens 
larvse found in two pools 400 feet west of the New York, Susquehanna ft 
Western Railroad north of Secaucus Road. Scattered breeding of C. 
pipiens larvse found in small pools about 600 feet south of the Homestead 
Station east of the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad. Heavy 
breeding of C, pipiens larvse and pupse found in the Pen Horn Creek at the 
Thirty-Second Street Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

September 4 — Scattered breeding of A, cantator larvae found in the cat- 
tails on the south side of the Paterson Plank Road for 100 feet east of 
Koch's HoteL Scattered breeding of C, pipiens found in three pools on the 
north side of the Secaucus Road. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvse 
found between the eastern and western tracks of the New York, Susque- 
hanna ft Western Railroad, south of the Homestead Station. 

September 25 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae found In Pen Horn 
Creek on the north side of the Secaucus Road at the Thirty-Second Street 
Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 



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436 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

October 12 — Scattered breeding of C, pipiens larvse found in four pools 
on the north side of the Secaucus Road. 

DiSTKiCT No. 12, Sectio:? B. — Area between the County Road and the 
Erie and Susquehanna Railroads extending from the Secaucus Road south- 
ward to County Line. 

May 18 — Scattered A, cantator larvse breeding north of buildings at 
Lundy's Lane. 

May 27 — Scattered breeding of A, sylve$tri8 larvse and pupie in a ditch 
about 25 feet north of Lundy's Lane east of the New York, Susquehanna 
& Western Railroad. 

June 19 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiena larv« found in two ditches 
south of the Secaucus Road and light .breeding of C, pipiens larvae In a 
ditch along the north side of the County Line west of the New York. Sus- 
quehanna ft Western Railroad. 

July 1 — Light breeding of A, cantator and C, pipien$ larvs found along 
Secaucus Road from dumping ground westward to Pen Horn Creek. Scat- 
tered breeding of C. pipiens larvs found in two pools at Weigan*s Lane, 
one pool at Lundy's Lane and one culvert under the New York, SusQue- 
.hanna & Western Railroad. 

July 14 — ^Heavy breeding of C pipieng larv» found along Weigan's Lane 
in two pools. Heavy breeding of C. pipiens found in cesspool overflow at 
Weigan's Lane. Heavy breeding of C pipiena larvae found in a pool 3x30 
feet on the east side of the New York, Susuehanna ft Western Railroad, 
200 feet south of the Secaucus Road. Heavy breeding of C, pipiens larvae 
found in the cattails between Lundy's Lane and County Line, for 800 to 
1,000 feet Scattered breeding of A, cantator and C. pipiens found in the 
scattered cattails on the north side of the County Line. 

July 26 — Heavy breeding of C pipiens larvae and pupe found in pool at 
Weigan's Lane and Secaucus Road. Scattered breeding of C, pipieni larvae 
found at edge of garbage fill on the south side of Weigan's Lane. Heavy 
breeding of C. pipiens larvae and pupae found in a pool on the north side 
of the garbage fill at the Secaucus Road and the New York, Susquehanna 
ft Western Railroad. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvae found in two 
pools 200 feet north of Lundy's Lane. Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae 
found in cattails south of Lundy's Lane and along the County Line west 
of the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad. 

August 7 — Light breeding of C. pipieng larvae found in three pools at 
Weigan's Lane. Scattered breeding of C, pipiens larvae found under four 
culverts along the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad from 
Secaucus Road to Lundy's Lane. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvae 
found in two pools on the north side of Lundy's Lane. Scattered breeding 
of. C pipienM larvae found in the cattails on the west side of the New 
York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad and the north side of County 
' Line south of Lundy's Lane. 

August 19 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae and pupae found in a 
ditch and a pool at the edge of the dumping ground along Weigan's Lane. 
Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae found under the second railroad culvert 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 437 

north of Lundy's Lane. Scattered breeding of C pipienM lanm found in 
a pool ISO feet south of Lundy's Lane west of the New York, Susquehanna 
k Western Railroad. 

September 4 — Scattered and heavy breeding of C. pipiens lanr» and 
pup«e In three pools and one gutter along Weigan's Lane. Heavy breed- 
ing of C. pipiens larv» and pupe found In the cattails on the south side 
of the Secaucus Road east of the Pen Horn Creek. Heavy breeding of 
C. pipient larve and pupe found at the old dumping ground on the south 
of the Secaucus Road east of Pen Horn Creek. Heavy breeding of 
found In a pool and ditch at the garbage dump just south of the Paterson 
Line sewer. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larve found under two cul- 
verts of the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad, two pools just 
south of Lundy's Lane and in the gutter along the north side of the County 
Une. 

September 21 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larv» found In three 

pools along the edge of the old dumping ground on the south side of the 

Secaucus Road. 

i 

DiSTSioT No. '13, Section A. — Area between the Public Service Power 
Plant and Pen Horn Creek, extending from the Hackensack River east- 
ward to the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad. 

Hay 16 — ^About one dozen A, cantator larve found in a few holes. 

June 16 — Scattered breeding of A, cantator larvse found just north of the 
Public Service Power Plant in two holes. 

July 2 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A. soUicitans larvae found 
in three pools Just north of the Public Service Power Plant 

July 16 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. sollidtans larve found in 
lix pools along the row of telegraph poles on this section. 

July 27 — Scattered breeding of A. sollidtans larve found in six holes 
on the north side of the Public Service ash-fllL 

August 20 — Heavy breeding of C. pipiens larvie and pup» found in a 
ditch on the Public Service property. 

DiSTBiGT No. 13, Section B. — Area between the New York and Greenwood 
Lake branch of the Brie Railroad and the Boonton branch of the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad, extending from the junction oT 
the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad and the 
Boonton branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad north- 
ward to Pen Horn Creek. 

June 8 — flight breeding of A. sollidtans larv» found In a pool just north 
of the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad and in 
a blind ditch about ten feet long about 100 feet south of Pen Horn Creek. 

July 2 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A. sollidtans larvse found 
in an overgrown ditch 100 feet south of Pen Horn Creek. 

July 15 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. sollidtans larvse found 
in 33 pools and in an overgrown ditch about 100 feet south of Pen Horn 
Creek. 



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438 NtW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

July 27 — Scattered breeding of A, BolHcitans larvse found in eight l^oles 
and an overgrown ditch 100 feet south of Pen Horn Creek. 

August 8 — Scattered breeding of A. sollicitans larvse found in one pool 
and an overgrown ditch about 100 feet south of Pen Horn Creek. 

District No. 13, Section C. — ^Area between Pen Horn Creek and the 
Thirty-Second Street Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad extending north- 
ward from the Hackensack River to the New York and Greenwood Lake 
branch of the Erie Railroad. 

July 2 — Scattered breeding of A, cantator and A, $olHcitans larv» In 
overgrown ditch 600 feet east of Thirty-Second Street Line of Pennsylvania 
Railroad. Light breeding of A, cantator and A. aollicitariM larv» found 
in sign post holes 200 feet east of Thirty-Second Street Line of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. 

July 15 — Light breeding of A, cantator and A. aollicitans larvse found In 
post holes and in overgrown ditch 600 feet east of the Thirty-Second 
Street Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

District No. 13, Section D. — Area between Pen Horn Creek and the 
Thirty-Second Street Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad, extending from 
the New York and Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad to the 
Boonton branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad. 

May 15 — Light breeding of A. cantator larv» in holes along telegraph 
poles west of Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad. 

July 2 — L'ight breeding of A. cantator and A. $ollicitan$ larvae found in 
12 sign post holes at the Alabastine and Monticello signs. 

July 15 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. 8ollicitan$ larve found 
in sign post holes and in the cattails south of the Alabastine and Monti- 
cello sign boards. 

July 27 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. 8oUicitan$ larv» found 
in sign post holes and in the cattails south of the Monticello sign board. 

August 8 — Scattered breeding of A. 8ollicitan8 larv» found in cattails 
and sign post holes at the Monticello sign board. 

August 20 — Scattered C. salinarius eggboats in a pool near Little Snake 
Hill. 

Distbict No. 13, Section E. — Area between the Boonton branch of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad and the main line of the New 
York, Lake Erie & Western Railroad, extending from the New York ft 
Greenwood Lake Railroad freight spur northward to Pen Horn Creek. 

June 8 — Scattered A. sollicitans found along railroad spur south of 
Pen Horn Creek. 

June 20 — Light breeding of A. 8oUicitan8 larvse found along railroad 
spur south of Pen Horn Creek. 

July 2 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A. 8olUcitan8 larvse fbund 
on west side of Erie Railroad spur south of Pen Horn Creek. 

July 15 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. 8oUicitan8 larvae and 
pupse found along the old Erie Railroad spur. Heavy breeding of A. 
cantator and A. sollicitans larvsB and pups found in pools along the east 
side of the Boonton branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western 
Railroad. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 439 

AugiiBt 8 — Light breeding of C. pipiena larvs and pupe found in pools 
on the west side of the old Erie Railroad spur south of Pen Horn Creek. 

District No. 13, Section F. — Area between main line of the New York. 
Lake Erie & Western Railroad and County Road extending from the New 
York ft Greenwood Lake Railroad freight spur northward to Pen Horn 
Creek. 

June 8 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvs found in sewage overflow 
north of the New York & Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad 
spur. 

June 20 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvse found in sewage over- 
flow north of the New York & Greenwood Lake Railroad spur. 

July 2 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvs found in sewage overflow 
north of the New York & Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad 
freight spur. 

July 14 — Light breeding of C. pipiens found in cattails along the north 
side of County Road 600 feet east of Pen Horn Creek. 

July 15 — Scattered breeding of C pipiens larvse found in sewage over- 
flow north of the New York & Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Rail- 
road flight spur. 

July 25 — Scattered breeding of C pipiens larvse found in a pool 600 feet 
east of Pen Horn Creek. 

July 27 — Heavy breeding of C. pipiens larvse and pupse found in sew- 
age north of the New York ft Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad 
freight spur. 

August 8 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larve found in the sewage 
north of the New York ft Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad 
spur. 

August 20— Heavy breeding of C pipiens larvn and pupee found in the 
Mwage north of the New York ft Greenkood Lake branch of the Erie Rail- 
road freight spur. 

September 16 — ^Light breeding of O. pipiens larvs found in the sewage 
north of the New York ft Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad 
freight spur. 

October 10 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvm and pups found in the 
sewage north of the New York ft Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Rail- 
road spur. 

DiSTMCT No. 13, Sbction G.— Area between the Boonton branch of the 
Delaware Lackawanna ft Western Railroad and the main line of the New 
York. Lake Erie ft Western Railroad, extending from the Thirty-Second 
Street Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad northward to County Road. 

Distbict No. 13, Section H. — Area between the Thirty-second Street Line 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad and Snake Hill, southward from the Boon- 
ton branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad Station. 

Jtly 15 — ^Light breeding of A, cantator and A, solUcitans larv» found in 
blind ditches. 



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440 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

District No. 13, Section I. — Area between the Thirty-second Street Line 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Hackensack River extending south- 
ward from the New York & Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad. 

May 15 — Heavy breeding of A, cantator and A, BollidtariM lanm in about 
100 holes. 

July 2 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A, Bollidtan* larve found 
In a dozen holes. 

Distbict No. 13, Section J. — Area between the Thirty-second Street Line 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad and Snake Hill, extending northward from 
the New York & Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad. 

May 29 — Light to heavy breeding of C. pipiens larvae and pups found in 
two ditches Just north of the New York ft Greenwood Lake branch of the 
Erie Railroad. 

July 2 — Scattered breeding of A, cantator larvse found in a pool 75 feet 
north of the New York & Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad. 

July 15 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae found in a blind ditch. 

July 27 — Light breeding of A, cantator and C. pipient larvs found In 
two blind ditches. 

August 20 — ^Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae found in a pool and one 
blind ditch. 

District No. 13, Section K. — Area between the Boonton branch of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad and the main line of the New 
York, Lake Erie ft Western Railroad, extending from Pen Horn Creek 
northward to the Thirty-second Street Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

June 8 — Scattered breeding of A, sollidtans larvae found in six holeB on 
the south side of the Thirty-Second Street line of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. 

August 8 — Scattered breeding of A, sollidtans larvae found in one pool 
on the west side of the old Erie Railroad spur north of Pen Horn Creek. 

August 20 — Scattered breeding of A. sollidtans larvae found in poolff 
at the foot of the Thirty-Second Street Line of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
embankment Light breeding of C pipiens larvae found in pools at the 
amchor post of the Pennsylvania Railroad. 

District No. 14, Section A. — Area between the Boonton branch of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad and the Jersey City Water 
pipe line extending from the County Road northward to the Hackensack 
River. 

Distbict No. 14, Section B. — Area between the Hackensack River and 
the Boonton branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad 
extending from the County Road northward to the Boonton branch of 
the Delaware, Lackawanna ft Western Railroad bridge over the Hacken- 
sack River. 

District No. 14, Section C— Area between the Jersey City water pipe 
line and the main line of the New York, Lake Erie ft Western Railroad 
extending from the old Iron Works Railroad spur northward to the ^aek- 
ensaek River. 

May 15 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvae found which covered about 
ten acres. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 441 

D18TBICT No. 14, SEonoN D. — Area between the Jersey City water pipe line 
and the main line of the New York, Lake Erie ft Western Railroad, extend- 
ing from the County Road northward to the old Iron Works Railroad spur. 

May 29 — ^Heavy breeding of A. cantator lanr» and pupe found for a dis- 
tance of about 300 leet between Anderson's and Cssar's Creek. 

July 2 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larrse found in pools and an 
overgrown ditch just east of the Jersey City water pipe line. 

July 15 — Heavy breeding of A, cantator and A. $oUicitanM larvae and 
pups found over the whole meadow between Anderson's and Cesar's 
Creek and County Road. 

July 27 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator lanm found in depressions 
between Anderson's and Cesar's Creeks. 

District No. 16, Section A. — Area between the Hackensack River and the 
upland in Jersey City, extending from Newark Avenue southward to the 
Newark and Jersey City Plank Road. 

May 26 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvs found along the edge of the 
Logan Avenue dumping ground. 

June 9 — Light breeding of A. aollicitana larvce found on all parts of the 
meadow. 

June 22 — ^Heavy breeding of C pipiens larve found at Logan Avenue 
dumping ground and along the west side of the Cemetery Just south of the 
Sip Avenue sewer. 

July 3 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. sollicitans larvie over the 
whole area. 

July 16 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. solUcitana larvs found 
in six sign post holes east of Mengle's box plant, ten small pools 300 feet 
south of the old shooting range, and two ditches between the Sip Avenue 
sewer and the race track. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvae found 
along the edge of the Logan Avenue dumping ground. 

July 28 — Light and heavy breeding of A. $ollicitan$ larvs found In very 
many pools over the whole section. Heavy breeding of C, pipiens larvie 
and pupe found along the edge of Logan Avenue dumping ground. 

August 10 — ^Light breeding of A,' sollicitans larvs found in three sign 
post holes east of Mengel's box plant. Light and heavy breeding of C, 
pipiens larvs and pups found at Logan Avenue dumping ground. Light 
breeding of A. eantator larvie found in two pools south of the race track. 

August 21 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvse found in six pools at 
the Mengel's box plant Scattered A. sollicitans larve found at the sign 
boards east of Mengel's box plant Light and heavy breeding of C. pipiens 
larvie and pupe found in the cattails and at the edge of the Logan Avenue 
dumping ground. Scattered breeding of C, salinarius larvie found in six 
pools at Dallis Avenue south of the Jersey City branch of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. 

September 3 — Scattered breeding of C, pipiens larv» found along the 
edge of the Logan Avenue dumping ground. 

September 22~>Scattered breeding of A. sollicitans larva found in about 
50 per cent of the pools along the Hackensack River. 



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442 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

District No. 15. Section B. — Area between the Hackensack River and 
the Morris Canal, extending from the Newark and Jersey City Plank Road 
southward to Danforth Avenue. 

May 26 — Light breeding of A, cantator larvse and pups and C. pipienM 
larvee was found in a good many holes along the Arlington Water Company 
pipe line west of the Morris Canal. 

June 9 — Light breeding of A. BMidtana larvie found in two pools sottth 
of the Newark and Jersey City Plank Road, in a good many pools south 
of the Newark and New York branch of the Central Railroad of New Jer- 
sey in three pools south of the Mutual Chemical Company plant 

June 22 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and C pipiena and C. «altj»- 
arius larvs was found in six holes along the Arlington Water Company 
pipe line. 

July 3 — Scattered and light breeding of A. cantator and A. aoUicitans 
larvse in very many pools over this area. Scattered breeding of C. pipient 
eggboats and larvae found in three holes along the Arlington Water Com- 
pany pipe line. 

July 16 — Light breeding of A, cantator and A. soUidtans larvae found in 
a few holes and pools south of the Newark and New York branch of the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey. Scattered and heavy breeding of A. can- 
tator and C. pipiens larvae and pupae found in 75 per cent of the holes 
along the Arlington Water Company pipe line. 

July 28 — Scattered breeding of A. sollicitans larvae found in a few holes. 

August 10 — Scattered breeding of C. pipicna larvae found in six holes 
along the Arlington Water Company pipe line. 

August 21 — Scattered breeding of A. sollicitans larvae found in three 
pools along the Arlington Water Company pipe line, at the Hackensack 
River. 

September 22 — Scattered breeding of A. aoUicitans larvae found in 12 
pools, south of the Newark and New York branch of the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey. 

District No. 16. — Area between the Paterson Plank Road and Moonachie 
Creek, extending from the Hackensack River westward to the Moonadile 
and Little Ferry Road. 

May 19 — Scattered A. cantator larvae found over about one-half an acre, 
and in overgrown ditch about 1,000 feet west of the Haekensack Rtrer 
north side of Paterson Plank Road. 

June 17 — ^Heavy breeding of A. cantator larvae was found covering about 
two acres and also in a ditch which runs along the north side of t^e 
Paterson Plank Road for a distance of about 1,200 feet. Scattered breed- 
ing of A. cantator larvae was also found. 

July 10 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. sylvestris larvae found la 
an overgrown ditch along the Paterson Plank Road for about 1,200 feet. 
Light breeding of A. cantator and A. sylvestris larvae found about 900 feet 
west of the Hackensack River which covered about one and one-half acres. 

July 23 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvae found in one pool along 
the north side of the Paterson Plank Road 900 feet west of the Hackensack 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 443 

River. Heavy breeding of C pipien$ larvae found in manure pool 10 and 
12 feet on the east side of the Little Ferry Road, one-fourth mile north 
of the Faterson Plank Road. 

August ^ — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A. 9ylV€StrU larve 
found in depressions and overgrown ditch 900 feet west of the Hacken- 
sack River. 

District No. 17. Sectton A. — Area of upland along Wood ridge Road and 
Moonachie and Little Ferry Road, extending from the Paterson Plank 
Road north and westward to Berry's Creek. 

August 17 — Heavy breeding of C pipiens larvae and pupie found in the 
gutter on the west side of the Moonachie and Little Ferry Road, about one- 
fourth mile north of the Patorson Plank Road. 

DisTBiCT No. 17, Section B. — Area of woodland located between Berry's 
Creek and the upland east of Berry's Creek, south of Woodridge Road. 

District No. 17, Section C. — Area between Berry's Creek, the woodland 
and the upland west of the Moonachie and Little Ferry Ro^d, extending 
from the Paterson Road northward to Woodridge Road. 

May 19 — Scattered A, cantator and A. sylve$tris larvae found 1,200 feet 
west of Little Ferry Road. 

June 27 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A. sylvestris larvae found 
over an area of about one and one-half acres. Scattered breeding of A. 
sylvestris larvae found In gutter between retaining wall and Grand Street. 
Heavy breeding of C. pipiens larvae found in gutter on east side of Grand 
Street. 

July 11 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A. sylvestris larvae found 
in depressions along the Paterson Plank Road. 

District No. 18. — Area between Berry's Creek and the New Jersey and 
New York branch of the Erie Railroad, extending from the Paterson Plank 
Road northward to Woodridge Road. 

May 19 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. sylvestris larvae and pupae 
was found in cattails north of Broad Street, Carlstadt.; also light breeding 
of A. sylvestris Just east of brick works; also 11 acres of light breeding of 
A. cantator and A. sylvestris about 500 feet east of the Erie Railroad. 

May 28 — Heavy breeding of C, pipiens larvae was found in two wells at 
the retaining wall south of Woodridge Road; also in two large lot pools 
south of Woodridge Road and east of the New Jersey and New York 
branch of the Erie Railroad. 

June 16 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A. sylvestris larvae found 
north of Broad Street in Carlstadt; covered about one acre. 

June 27 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens eggboats and larvae found in 
pool 10x75 feet on the southwest comer of Bergen Street and Woodridge 
Road. 

June 29 — Scattered breeding of C, pipiens larvae found in a ditch about 
200 feet east of the Carlstadt Station, north side of Paterson Plank Road. 

July 11— Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A, sylvestris larvae found 
south of the old brick plant in depressions. 



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444 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

District No. 19, Section A. — ^Area between Merhoff Road and the Little 
Feny Road, extending from the Hackensack River westward to Merhoff 
Road. 

DiSTBicT No. 19, Section B. — Area between Merhoff Road and Eckel's 
Creek, extending from the Hackensack River westward to the Little Ferrj 
Road. 

June 17 — Heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. sylvestrig lanm and 
pups found which covered an area of about two and one-half acres. 

June 20 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A. sylvestris larvse and pups 
found. 

July 10 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator and A. nylvestris larvie and 
I'up83 found over an area of five acres. 

August 5 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvs found In a few depres- 
sions. 

District No. 19. Section C. — Area between Moonachie Creek and Eckel's 
Creek, extending from the Hackensack River westward to the upland east 
of the Moonachie and Little Ferry Road. 

July 10 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvae found south of Eckel's 
Creek In small depressions. 

District No. 20. — Area between the Hackensack River and the Bergen 
Pike, extending from Lodl Road In Little Ferry northward to New York, 
Susquehanna ft Western Railroad, In Hackensack. 

District No. 21, Section A.— Area between CromakiU Creek and Mill 
Creek, extending from the Paterson Plank Road northward to the Hacken- 
sack River. 

June 30 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvce found In two pools 2x3 
feet In diameter about 800 feet north of the Paterson Plank Road. 

July 13 — Scattered breeding of C. pipiens larvse found in sewage ditch 
on the east side of Mill Creek. Light breeding of C. pipiens larvie and 
pupse found over about one-fourth acre opposite the First National Bank 
of Secaucus. Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae found In a ditch opposite 
Gardner's blacksmith shop. 

July 24 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvs found in a ditch 50 feet long 
on the east side of Mill Creek. 

August 18 — Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae and pupae found in a 
sewer ditch east of the Kiesewether building on the north side of the 
Paterson Plank Road. 

District No. 21, Section B. — Area between the Hackensack River and 
Mill Creek, extending from the Paterson Plank Road northward t<A the 
moiflh of Mill Creek. 

June 5 — Light breeding of A. cantator pupae found In farmers' ditch 
near where Mill Creek empties Into the Hackensack River. 

July 13 — Light breeding of A. cantator found In the farmers' ditches 
near the mouth of Mill Creek. 

July 24 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvae found in a farmer's 
ditch near the mouth of Mill Creek. 

August 6 — Light breeding of C. pipiens and A. sylvestris larvae found 
In two ditches along the Hackensack River north side of the Paterson 
Plank Road. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 445 

August 18 — Ldght breeding of C, pipieuM larvn found in four fanners' 
ditehes near the mouth of Mill Creek. 

District No. 22. — Area between CromakiU Creek» Hackensack River, and 
the Erie Railroad and New York, Susuehanna ft Western Railroad, extend- 
ing from the Paterson Plank Road northward to Bellman's Creek* 

Ma^ 21 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator lanm found north of Bab- 
bitt plant and scattered breeding of A, cantator larvje and pupse was 
found south of the Edgewater branch of the Erie Railroad. 

June 5 — Heavy breeding of C pipiens larvse and pups found in the ditch 
north of New Durham Station and 14 barrels with heavy C. pipiens breed- 
ing of larvs and pup®. 

June 18 — Scattered breeding of A. sylvestri$ larve found in a pool 300 
feet north of the New Durham Station east of the New York, Susquehanna 
k Western Railroad. 

June 30 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator lanm found in six sign post 
holes south of the Babbitt soap plant. Scattered breeding of A. sylvestris 
and C pipien$ lanm in a pool 300 feet north of the New Durham Station 
east of the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad. 

July 13— Scattered and heavy breeding of A. cantator and A. $ylve$tri9 
larvae found in holes and depressions on the north side of the New York, 
Ontario ft Western Railroad. Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvse 
found in depressions Just north of the Babbitt Soap Company's office. Scat- 
tered and light breeding of C, pipien$ and A. sylvestri$ larve found in the 
pools and cattails on the east side of the New York, Susquehanna ft West- 
em Railroad between New Durham and Homestead. 

July 24 — Ldght breeding of 0, pipiens larvse found in swamp just north 
of the Babbitt Station on the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad. 
Light breeding of C. pipieng larvn found in cattails south of the Oranton 
Quarries east of the New York, Ontario ft Western Railroad. Scattered 
breeding of C, pipiens larvse found in cattails just south of New Durham 
Station east of the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad. 

August 6 — Scattered breeding of A. cantator larvse found in five sign 
post holes south of the Babbitt soap plant. Scattered breeding of C. pipiens 
larvae found in the cattails south of the Granton Quarries east of the New 
York, Ontario ft Western Railroad. Light breeding of C. pipiens larvae 
found in two pools 300 feet north of the* New Durham Station east of the 
New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad. 

District No. 23, Section A. — Area between the Hackensack River and the 
New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad, extending from Bellman's 
Creek northward to the first natural creek. 

May 21 — ^Light to heavy breeding of A. cantator larvae and about 80 per 
cent, pupae found over an area of about one and one-half acres about 1,600 
feet east of Hackensack River; also scattered breeding of A. cantator lar- 
v» which covers about two acres about 500 feet south of New York, Sus- 
quehanna ft Western Railroad and Edgewater freight line crossing. 



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446 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

July 13 — Scattered and heavy breeding of A, ecmiator and A. sylvestrU 
larvse found in holes and depressions over about one acre about 700 feet 
south of where the Edgewater branch of the Erie Railroad runs over the 
New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad. 

August 6 — Scattered breeding of A, ca^tator larrm found in amall 
depressions which cover about two acres. 

District No. 23, Section B. — ^Area between the Hackensack River and 
the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad, extending from the first 
natural creek to the third natural creek north of Bellman's Creek. 

June 30 — Scattered and light breeding A. cantator and A, sylvestrU 
larvse found for a distance of about 1,000 feet Just west of the Edgewater 
branch of the Erie Railroad. 

District No. 23, Section C. — Area between the New York, Ontario ft 
Western Railroad and the north branch of Bellman's Creek, nortbward 
from the Edgewater branch of the Erie Railroad. 

May 21 — Light breeding of A. cantator and A, sylvestrig larve and pupe 
found in about 100 small holes just north of the Edgewater brandi of the 
Erie Railroad. 

District No. 23, Section D. — Area between the Hackensack River and the 
New York Susquehanna & Western Railroad, extending from the third 
natural creek north of Bellman's Creek to the north branch of Bellman's 

Creek. 

• 

District No. 23, Section E. — Area between the north branch of Bellman's 
Creek and the Northern Railroad of New Jersey, extending from BeUman's 
Creek northward to Overpeck Creek. 

District No. 23, Section F. — Area between the Hackensack River and the 
New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad, extending from the north 
branch of Bellman's Creek northward to Overpeck Creek. 

District No. 24, Section A. — Area between the Overpeck Creek and the 
upland in Ridgefield Park and Teaneck, extending from the Bergen Pike 
northward to the Hudson River Trolley Road. 

District No. 24, Section B. — Area between the Overpeck Creek and the 
Northern Railroad of New Jersey, extending from the Bergen Pike in 
Ridgefield northward to Nordhoff. 

District No. 25. — ^Area along both sides of the Hackensack River, extend- 
ing from the New York, Susquehanna ft Western Railroad northward to 
Chorry HiU. 

District No. 26, Section A. — Area between Berry's Creek and the Little 
Ferry Road, extending from Woodridge Road northward to the Lodi Road. 

District No. 26, Section B. — Area between the New Jersey and New York 
branch of the Erie llailroad and Berry's Creek, extending from Woodridge 
Road northward. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 447 

DisrmiCT No. 2€, Section C. — ^Area between the New Jersey and New York 
branch of the Erie Railroad and the upland to the west, extending north- 
ward. 

District No. 26, Section D. — Area between the New Jersey and New York 
branch of the £Me Railroad and the upland to the east, extending from the 
Lodl Road northward to Hackensack. 

District No. 26. Section E. — Area between the marsh and Bergen Pike 
from the Lodl Road to Hackensack. 

District No. 27. — Area lying between the Pennsylvania Railroad and the 
Passaic River. 

The extreme northern end of this salt marsh did not receive the same 
careful Inspection as that which lay south of the Paterson Plank Road, and 
the total absence of breeding records should not be taken to mean that no 
mosquitoes bred there during the past summer. 

AID EXTENDED TO BOARDS OF HEALTH. 
Allendale. 

On June 10th, 1914, at the request of the Board of Health of Allendale 
the Entomologist examined the mosquito breeding places in and about Al- 
lendale. The following report was prepared and submitted. 

"In accordance with our understanding I examined on June 10th the 
mosquito breeding territory in and about the town of Allendale. Most of 
the mosquitoes troubling Allendale in all probability come from two gen- 
eral sources — the breeding places In back yards and on city lots, and the 
swampy areas located about town. 

"There are many cess-pools, open privies, cisterns, lot pools, open sewer 
drains, rain barrels, old tin cans and other receptacles In and about the 
Tarious properties composing the town. In these places the house mos- 
quito, and to some extent .the malarial mosquito, will breed prolifically. 

"In the swamps, five of which I examined yesterday, and the various 
ditches and brooks more or less breeding of the house mosquito, the ma- 
larial mosquito and swamp mosquito will probably occur. 

"The breeding places located in the already built up lots can be at- 
tended to only by a house-to-house Inspection and treatment Every prop- 
erty in the town would have to be examined at least once ln> ten days and 
aU breeding places treated by draining, filling, burying, cleaning, stock- 
ing with fish, screening, or regularly covering every ten days with a film 
of oU. 

"The marsh breeding places, for the most part, would be exceedingly 
dlAcult to treat with oil and can best be eliminated by drainage. The 
present drainage system is obviously Inadequate to carry the water away, 
and I wouM suggest that before any considerable sum of money is ex- 
pended on the old drains a surveyor should be employed and directed to 
prepare « statement of the methods and the cost of adequate drainage, 
and that the authorities in the Borough adopt a definite drainage scheme 



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448 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

toward the accomplishment of which all efforts should be directed. Breed- 
ing in the brooks and ditches can be prevented by cleaning them in such a 
fashion that the side walls shall be free from grass and the bottom shall 
have an uninterrupted flow of water. 

"I am inclosing a copy of Circular No. 13 on the house mosquito, a copy 
of the law under which your body would operate against these mosquito 
breeding places and a copy of an outline for an anti-mosquito campaign.** 

Dover. 

On June 17, 1914, in response to a request from the Board of Health 
of Dover, the writer examined the "Mansion House" in that place for the 
source of a swarm of €. pipiena that had been infesting the hotel for some 
time. It was soon discovered that this was the only house in Dover 
seriously troubled. A careful examination revealed a large pool of water 
under the freight elevator and a great overflow cess-pool in the cellar. 
No breeding was found in the elevator pool, for a heavy coating of oil 
had been administered some time before. The breeding conditions in the 
cess-pool could not be examined, for it was covered with heavy cement. 
The concentration of mosquitoes in these parts of the basement clearly 
indicated these places as the source. That this overflow pool had much 
water in it and that the breeding was heavy was indicated by Mr. Horgan's 
(the proprietor) statement that a short time previously it had been over- 
flowing and that a mass of black wrigglers came out through one of the 
cracks. 

Mr. Horgan was advised to fumigate his rooms with "culicide" or with 
hydrocyanic acid gas and to keep the elevator pool, the cess-pool in the 
cellar and all surrounding cess-pools and privies oiled. He was further 
advised that Mr. John G. Taylor, the local health officer, was the man to 
take charge of the operation for him. 

In course of these examinations an accident happened which threw light 
on the danger of using matches to make examinations of oil-treated recep- 
tacles. Mr. Horgan, desiring to show the writer a cess-pool outside the 
building, pulled away the stone cover and started to insert a lighted 
match. Instantly an explosion occurred and a flash of flame came from 
the vent, enveloping Mr. Horgan's head and badly singeing hair and skin. 

Fair Haven. 

The beginning of this work lies in the year 1913. On request of the 
Board of Health of Fair Haven an investigation of certain ponds and 
brooks in the borough was undertaken. The inspection began on Septem- 
ber 18th, 1913, and ended on the 19th. Mr. Henry H. Brehme, who made 
the examination submitted the following report. 

"There was an investigation made of the various ponds and brooks in 
Borough of Pair Haven, with the assistance of Dr. G. V. V. Warner to 
determine what species of mosquitoes were breeding in theih, and the 
result of the investigation was that Anopheles larvse or the malarial 
carrying species were either found actually breeding or were lik^y to be 
found doing so in the following places: 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 449 

"Section No. 1 is a pond which is located on the south side of Fair Haven 
Road east of LAke Avenue. This place is nothing more than a dirty hole, 
and Anopheles larve were found breeding along the edges of this pond. 
The beet remedy here Will be to connect the small spring-like stream 
which comes from the southwestern section of this pond, with a tile pipe 
and run the pipe to the northeastern end of the pond to drain it Then 
the place should be filled, otherwise oiling will have to be done. 

"Section No. 2 is a pond which is located between the Fair Haven Road 
and the Navesink River on the Hess property. This pond, which is used 
for cutting ice only, has very dirty edges, there being long grass and lilies 
growing along the edges, which make it an ideal Anopheles breeding place. 
Anopheles larvw were found along the edges of this pond in fair numbers. 
The best remedy will be to keep the edges free of grass, so it will be pos- 
sible for the fish to get into all parts of the pond and keep the edges free 
of breeding. If this pond has no fish in it at the present time, it should be 
stocked with sunflsh or goldfish to make it safe after the edges are cleaned. 

"Section No. 3 is a small race-way which is located on the east side of 
Section No. 2 north of the ice house. There was a scattering breeding of 
Anopheles larvae found going on along the grassy edges of this race-way, 
and the best remedy will be to fill this place. 

"Section No. 4 is a pond which is located on the south lide of Fair 
Haven Road opposite the ice pond. There was scattering breeding of 
Anopheles found going on along the grassy edge of this pond, and the best 
remedy here will be to keep the edges free of grass. If this pond is not 
stodLed with fish, it should be stocked with sunflsh or goldflsh to make it 
safe. 

"Section No. 5 is a brook which comes from south of Section No. 4, 
and which feeds the pond known as Section No. 4. There was scattered 
breeding of Anopheles larvie found .going on along the edges of this brook, 
which are not very clean. The best remedy here will be to give this 
brook a thorough cleaning and keep the edges^ree of grass. If any pools 
are found to exist in a dry season andbreeding is found going on in them, 
oiling will have to be done. 

"Section No. 6 is a brook which comes from the north side of Ridge 
Road between Leonard Avenue and Harrison Avenue in the Borough of 
Fair Haven, and flows south across Ridge Road into Shrewsbury Town- 
ship. This is a dirty brook, being overgrown with grass and brush and a 
good many pools form here. There was breeding of Anopheles larv» 
found going on along the edges of this brook in the Fair Haven and also 
in the Shrewsbury Township territories. The best remedy here will be to 
give this brook, a thorough cleaning, and if there are any pools existing 
during a dry season and breeding is found going on in them, oiling will 
have to be done. 

"Section No. 7 is a brook which comes from the Thomas N. McCarter 
estate and flows west across Pearl Street, then north across Fair Haven 
Road and empties into the Navesink River. There were scattered Ano- 
pheles larvs found breeding along the edges of this brook, and the best 
remedy will be to give this brook a good cleaning and keep the edges 



16 AQ 



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450 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

free of grass. If any pools exist in a dry season and any breeding is found 
going on in them, oiling will have to be done. 

"Section No. 8 is a swamp which is located along Section No. 7, between 
the Fair Haven Road and the Naveslnk River. This section, which also 
has cattails growing in it is undoubtedly wet a good part of the season. 
Found egg boats and larvse of C. pipiens, A. sylveatrig larvce, Anopheles 
larvffi and one Anophelea pupa. The best remedy here will be to cut 
lateral ditches from this swamp into Section Na 7 and drain it Other- 
wise oiling will have to be done. 

"Section No. 9 is a swampy place lying along Section No. 7 on the south 
side of Fair Haven Road. Although there was no breeding found going 
on here at the present time, it will undoubtedly breed C. pipiens and Ano- 
pheles in a wet season. The best remedy will be to cut lateral ditches 
about every 100 feet apart into Section No. 7 and drain it, otherwise ol^ 
ing will have to be done If any breeding is found going <m. 

"Section No. 10 is a brook which comes from the Hagan estate on the 
east side of the Rumaon Improvement Company's property near the Water 
Works and flows northwest and north across Fair Haven Road and empties 
into the Naveslnk River. This brook will undoubtedly breed (7. pipiens 
and Anopheles, No breeding was found going on here at the present time, 
which is due to the fact that the heavy rainfall of the last two days washed 
out the brook. The best remedy will be to give this brook a good deanlBg 
and keep the edges free from grass. If any pools exist In a dry season 
in which breeding Is found, oiling will have to be done. 

Section No. 11 Is a swampy place lying along the east side of Section 
No. 10, on the south side of Fair Haven Road. €. pipiens larvs and scat- 
tering Anopheles larvse were found breeding here. The best remedy will 
be to cut lateral ditches about 100 feet apart into Section No. 10 and drain 
this section. Otherwise oiling will have to be done. 

"Section No. 12 is a pond which Is located on the Thomas N. McCarter 
estate on the east side of Ptarl Street This pond is safe and has clean 
edges with the exception of a small shallow section lying along the eastern 
shore, where there is grass growing along its edges. There were a few 
scattered Anopheles larvs found breeding here. The best remedy will be 
to clean the eastern end of this pond of the grass, so the fish with whldi 
It is stocked can keep the edges free of breeding. 

"Section No. 13 is a brook which comes from Section No. 12 on the Mc- 
Carter estate and feeds the brook In Section No. 7. This brook Is alnuMit 
completely overgrown with grass. There were scattering Anopheles larvse 
found breeding here, and the best remedy will be to give this brook a 
thorough cleaning. If any pools exist during a dry season in which 
breeding Is found going on, oiling will have to be done. 

"There are catch basins on the McCarter estate which will undoubtedly 
breed a good many C. pipiens or house mosquitoes. As 1 am not pre- 
pared to say at this time whether these catch basins are oiled during the 
mosquito breealng season, I would like to recommend that they be oiled 
about every ten days during June, July and August and every fifteen days 
from the 15th of May, and' during the month of September. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 451 

"As Fair Haven has no sewer system, and undoubtedly has a great many 
cess-pools, which will breed a gq^d many €, ptfpietM or house mosquitoes, 
I would like to reoommoid that all oess-pools be sealed with cement 
around the edges, and that if there be any vent or hole on the surface 
or stime cover, it shall be screened with Ane mesh wire ^u* sealed with 
c^nent Otherwise oiling will have to be done every ten days during 
June, July and August 

"From the investigation made of the various breeding places in the 
Borough of Fair Haven, Monmouth County, it will be seoi that the prob- 
lem is a local <me, and <me over which the Board of Health of Fair Haven 
has iuriadiction. This board has power to compel property owners under 
the 'Dufileld Amendm^it' to abate the nuisance found existing on their 
propMty." 

On July 27th, 1914, In response to a further request Mr. Charles 8. 
Beckwith was sent to examine the Loew and Ingraham ponds (Sections 
1 and 4 of preceding report) for mosquito breeding. Later the Entomolo- 
gist himself examined the ponds and personally presented to the board 
a report of the findings. The following letter, closing the incident came 
to hand about the niiddle of September: 

"Deab Sib: — 

"With reference to the Loew and Ingraham Ponds which were inspected 

by you on August 12th, the Board is pleased to advise that it has had a 

meeting with the owner and it now appears that we are in a fair way to 

have the entire section improved in accordance with our recommendations. 

"Your hearty cooperation in the matter is appreciated. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) D. O. Wolcott, 
Secretary." 

Franklin Furnace. 

On June 26th, 1914, in response to a request from the Boa^ of Health 
of Franklin Furnace, the writer delivered an Illustrated lecture on mos- 
quitoes and their control. The meeting was held by the local board and 
Dr. E. A. Ayres imd Mr. David C. Bowen, of the State Board of Health, 
were the other speakers present The principal subject of Interest was 
the malarial mosquito (Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say), for the valley 
in which this village is located is the scene of the worst malarial fever 
outbreaks in the State. At the time the writer was there, the malarial 
species was breeding abundantly. The State and local boards of health 
undertook some practical work in controlling these species as a means 
of reducing the prevalent malaria. 

Haworth. 

On May 3rd, in response to a request from the Board of Health trans- 
mitted by Mr. H. B. Vannote, President of the Bergen County Mosquito 
Extermination Commission, the ESntoqiologist met the members of this 
board and examined the territory in and about Haworth for mosquito 
breeding. The following report of hi^ findings was submitted; 



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452 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

"The first problem that oonfronts the people of Haworth is the destine^ 
tlon of a rather large brood of woodlimd mosquitoes now present in the 
wriggler form in the woodland pools throughout the Borough. These 
species do not fly far, and it is accordingly to be expected that those houses 
situated in the woodlands nearest the breeding places will be the most 
frequently visited. In every piece of woodland that I examined, including 
that which lies northwest of the Country Club, that which extends almost 
continuously eastward to and across the railway, that which is found along 
the eastern border of the Borough and that along the southern border, 
pools of water containing mosquito wrigglers were found. These wrig- 
glers range from one-half to full grown. Providing the pools do not dry 
up before the transformations can take place imd providing the weather 
stays warm, a brood of mosquitoes will be on the wing in ten days or less. 
If the weather at that time should be cold they will give little or no 
trouble. If, on the other hand, the weather be warm and people occupy 
their porches, considerable complaint may arise. 

"The next mosquito problem will be the control of the swamp species. 
I found only a few wrigglers of this species dur^g the examinations. 
Later in the season, however, it may be expected to breed in the more open 
woodland pools and in the open swampy areas. The control of this species 
is largely a matter of drainage supplemented by the Judicious use of oil 
as the occasion demands. 

"The next mosquito problem will be the control of the house species. 
Without doubt this is the most serious and diflicult phase of the mosquito 
problem in Haworth. Beginning late in May this species, which is now 
hibernating in cellars and other protected places, will emerge and begin 
breeding. From the time it gets a good start it will, in any water it can 
find, produce a brood every ten to fifteen days throughout the season. It 
will penetrate the sleeping rooms by working through the screens. This 
species can be controlled only by keeping everlastingly at it Beginning 
June 1st a mian experienced in such matters should be employed to ex- 
amine all possible mosquito places in the Borough and to treat, or cause 
them to be treated, in such a way as to destroy the breeding every ten 
to twelve days throughout the season to the latter part of September. 

"Beginning in July the malarial species will be found breeding in grassy 
streams and pools. The drainage which is necessary to get rid of the 
swamp mosquitoes, and the careful examination and treatment which 
is recommended for the house mosquito will take care of this species 
incidentally. 

"The mosquito problem at Haworth could be met by the following openu 
tions: (1) oiling the pools which will shortly give up a brood of wood- 
land mosquitoes; (2) instituting a comprehensive system of economical 
and efficient drainage of pools and swampy places; (3) employing an in- 
spector who understands such work to examine and treat, or cause to be 
treated, the mosquito breeding places within the limits of the borou^ 
ouce each ten or twelve days. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 453 

"To do this It will be necessanr for the borough Itself either through Its 
gOTeming body, or through a private organisation to raise funds, and I 
would suggest that In this matter the borough request the oo-operatlon 
of the Bergen County Mosquito Extermination Conunlsslon. 

"I am unable to give you exact figures on the cost of such a oamiMilgn 
until I have had a chance to determine fairly accurately the drainage 
which will be necessary." 

Long Branch. 

At the request of the Long Branch Board of Health, on May 6th, 1914, 
the Entomologist examined the mosquito breeding conditions in and adja- 
cent to that city. Some bad spots for (7. pipient were discovered, besides 
the usual city and town places that breed this species. The Board of 
Health was Informed that the problem of controlling the local breeding 
species was not difficult, but that the good work on that phase of the prob- 
lem might largely be annulled by flights from adjacent salt marshes. At 
the same time, however, the point was made that the worst breeders of 
the adjacent marshes were drained and that unless unusually favorable 
mosquito breeding conditions should prevail, there would be no eftectlve 
flights from the salt marshes. On May 12th, 1914, at the request of the 
Board of Health, the Entomologist gave an illustrated lecture to the high 
school on mosquitoes and methods used in their controL 

Trenton. 

On request the writer made a trip to Trenton for the purpose of exam- 
ining some mosquito breeding territory in that city. Dr. A. S. Fell met 
the Entomologist and pointed out the suspected spots. The indicated places 
were carefully examined and the following report submitted: 

"On Saturday, April 18th, 1914, I made an investigation of low terri- 
tory which extends between the Belvldere Division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad and West State Street from Parkllne Avenue to the asylum 
bridge. That portion between Westfield Avenue and the asylum bridge Is 
penetrated with a meandering stream. The banks of this stream are 
greatly overgrown, and the malarial mosquito. Anopheles quadrimaculatus 
Say, will probably breed along the edges. That portion of the territory 
between Parkllne Avenue and Westfield Avenue is not, at the present 
time, draining satisfactorily into anything and a considerable amount of 
stagnant water was found on it I have no doubt that this stagnant water 
will breed the house mosquito, Culex pipiens Linn., and in all probability 
the malarial mosquito as well. The east end of this area seems much 
better drained than the west end, and I am Informed that some time ago 
an effort was made to drain it 

"Under the 'Duffield Amendment' to the general health laws, approved 
Bfarch 28th, 1904, it becomes the duty of the Board of Health to cause 
the abatement of all water in which mosquito larvae breed. While I have 
not actually seen breeding In this water, I have no doubt that at the 
proper season it will be found. The nuisance from the mosquito stand- 
PQlnt Qould easily be abated by the cutting of drainage ditches in such a 



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454 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

fashion as to connect this stagnant water with the meandering creek be- 
fore mentioned, or with storm sewers should any be in the neighborhood 
and lie low enough to render such an operation practicable. Permanent 
abatement can be secured, of course, through filling and I would suggest 
that if practicable the city's ash garbage be diverted to this point and the 
low ground filled. Doubtless some arrangement with the owner of the land 
could be affected whereby he would pay the additional expense ineident 
to carting the garbage that distance." 

COUNTY MOSQUITO EXTERMINATION WORK. 

The county mosquito extermination commission has been lortg enough 
at work to accomplish results of a character that merit careful consider- 
ation and study. In Essex County this organization has been organ- 
ized and working three years spending $35,317.23, $65,313.99 and 
$62,997.75 the first, second and third years respectively. In Union 
County this organization has been at work three seasons, using $15,- 
792.54, $31,107.05 and $23,746.35. In Hudson County two seasons 
of work have been completed, using $25,917.06 in 1913, $31,063.36 in 
1914. In Atlantic County two seasons of work have been completed 
involving the expenditure of $16,666.75 in 1913 and $24,702.01 in 
1914. In Passaic County there have been two years of demonstration 
and educational work, costing $3,061.60 in 1913 and $9,427.78 in 1914- 
In Camden County there has been one year (1913) of very limited 
educational work, costing $500.Q0 and one year (1914) of demonstra- 
tional and educational work, costing $2,929.44. In Cape May County 
there was one year (191 3) of educational and survey work costing 
$500.00. In Bergen County there has been one year (191 4) of edu- 
cational and demonstration^ work, costing $800.00. Middlesex County 
has just completed its first season of demonstrational and educational 
work at a cost of $5,427.46. 

What has been done with this large amount of money* and the results 
that have been accomplished are set forth in the annual report of these 
counties which either have already been, or soon will be, published and 
may be obtained by any one interested. 

The Entomologist believes that the time has arrived when the first 
comprehensive analysis of the work of the county mosquito extermination 
commission can be made, but finds that the data in his possession are not 
sufficient to permit satisfactory work of this sort. Such consideration 
of county mosquito extermination work will have to await the securing 
of the necessary detailed data. A movement looking toward the collec- 
tion of this necessary body of facts has already been set on foot. 

Enough data are, however, already in the writer's files to show that 
the cost of mosquito extermination depends upon the density of the 
population, the extent and character of the territory to be protected, and 
relation which this territory bears to other breeding territory. ^ 

Other things being equal as the density of the population increases 
the per capita cost of mosquito extermination decreases. Just what the 

* These flgrures represent the latest revision and are as accurate as the 
writer has been able to obtain. 



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Experiment station report. 455 

limits of this principle are, data are not at hand to show, but it can be 
said that it seems to apply to all the practical work of mosquito control 
now going on in the State. The operation of this factor is pretty well 
shown by comparing the cost of mosquito extermination in Essex and 
Union Counties. Essex County has a population of 4356 per square 
mile and Union 1455. Essex expended per capita in the partial year 
of 1912, 6.4 cents, in the full years of 1913 and 1914, 11.8 cents and 
1 1.4 cents respectively as compared with 10.6 cents, 20.8 cents and 15.9 
cents per individual in Union in 191 2, 191 3 and 1914 respectively. 

That increase in area of territory under protection when other facton 
remain unchanged means increase in cost of protection needs no proof. 
It is self-evident. Protection of a territory is more or less expensive as 
the prolific breeding; area in it is large or small. A light sandy soil is 
conducive to low cost of protection for such soil does not retain pools of 
water on its surface long enough to breed mosquitoes. On the other 
hand, impervious clay soil usuaOy means high cost of protection for the 
reason that pools of water are readily retained long enough to breed 
mosquitoes. The presence or absence of large, breeding, fresh or 
brackish water swamps means increased or decreased expenditure. 

Whether the territory, which it is proposed to protect from mosqui- 
toes, is within the flight of mosquitoes breeding in incalcuable numbers 
on a salt marsh or a large favorable fresh water swamp determines 
whether real protection is possible or not. The best eflPorts, which may 
control in a highly satisfactory manner all mosquitoes breeding within 
the territory to be protected, will count as nothing if swarms of the pest 
come in from points outside the area. 

THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM IN ESSEX COUNTY. 

The physical surface of Essex County begins at sea level as a 4,000-acre 
salt marsh and rises to the height of 600 or more feet Until the north- 
eastward ranging hills are reached the height of land rarely exceeds 200 
feet All this lower level of land is cut by meandering streams which 
afford the somewhat heavy soil pretty fair drainage. 

The hilly sections are well forested and have many pools in which the 
woodland species of mosquitoes breed, giving to this county an important 
woodland-pool-mosquito problem. The streams that meander through both 
the hilly and the lowland sections of the county in some cases do not 
completely drain all parts of their valleys, thereby creating a considerable 
number of swamps from which the swamp species issue in sufficient num- 
bers to constitute a problem. 

The streams and ponds of this county exhibit a heavy growth of grass 
along their edges, and some of the latter when the dry season has lowered 
the level are sufficiently shallow to show a growth of coarse grass over 
much of their bottoms. In the water behind the screen of t^e grass the 
malarial mosquitoes breed and issue in sufficient numbers to demand 
attention. 

The great bulk of the half million persons living within the limits of tha 
county is gathered on the lowland in and adjacent to the city of Newark. 



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456 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The changes Incident to the transformation of country into city hare 
dammed many of these meandering streams transforming them into vim- 
lent breeding places for the house mosquito. These changes have polluted 
a large part of the streams, ponds and pools and rendered them bad breed- 
ers for the same species. The presence of so many people has meant 
necessarily the multiplication of the ordinary house and yard breeding 
places. All of these factors have contributed to the breeding throughout 
the season of vast numbers of house mosquitoes, the suppression of which 
is a very large work. 

The 4,000-acre salt marsh has been crossed and criss-crossed by railways 
and roadways, and all drains except the great creeks, utterly destroyed. 
The marsh has thus been broken up into parts of various sizes, all fur- 
nished with insufficient outlets. To make a bad matter worse the city of 
Newark dumps in one way or another much of its raw sewage in various 
ones of these divisions. ,The blocking up of the drainage insured the 
abundant breeding of the salt marsh mosquitoes, and polluting the water 
with sewage made certain the breeding of enormous numbers of house 
mosquitoes. It is from these separate portions of the original salt marsh 
that most of Essex's intraterritorial mosquitoes come. From it in spite of 
drainage and the free use of oil came A. cantator to form a part of the early 
May brood. From it came the A. cantator that formed a part of the mid- 
July issue. From the sewage charged parts came the A. cantator infesta- 
tion of South Newark, Irvington, and Union Township of Union County. 
From the same cource came the house mosquito troubles in South Newark 
and a part of North Elizabeth. 

Unfortunately Essex County is located within the reach of the marshes 
of the Hackensack Valley and from that source It received that portion of 
the early May brood found in eastern and northeastern portions of its . 
territory. From the same source came the mid-July infestation of these 
parts and from it the supply was kept up until the dry weather of late 
summer. 

Unfortunately Essex's northern border is close enough to the swampy 
places on the Great Piece Meadows to be visited on occasion by species 
bred there. Generally speaking, however, the trouble from this soprce 
is very limited. 

The present methods of mosquito control worked with a little more care 
will render the woodland, swamp, malarial and house species negligible fac- 
tors in human comfort. But the methods of controlling breeding on the 
salt marsh are insufficient 

The insufficiency of the present salt marsh drainage was absolutely 
demonstrated during July when despite utmost efforts (cleaning ditches, 
cutting new ones and oiling) a large brood of mosquitoes escaped. At 
this time wherever water stood mosquitoes bred. 

Shortly after the issue of the mid- July brood the Entomologist published 
the following article in response to a request for information: 

"I have been requested to state the source of the salt marsh mosauitofs 
now infesting Glen Ridge in Essex County. They, in common with the 
salt marsh mosquitoes now infesting to a greater or less extent, parts of 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 457 

Hadson, Bergen, Passaic, Essex and Union Counties, escaped from the salt 
marshes of the Hackensack Valley and Newark Bay between the 10th and 
20th of this month. It should be understood that these dates are approxi- 
mate, some emerging before the 10th and some after the 20th. 

"About June 2l8t the tides began to run high and continued to do so 
for almost twenty days, lacking very little of reaching the level of the 
spring tides. During this period the weather was cloudy and considerable 
rain fell, preventing rapid evaporation and increasing the volume of water. 
The ditching systems could not carry oft the water fast enough, and the 
depressions between the ditches which would, under normal conditions, 
have dried out promptly, remained filled with water and breeding. On 
many of the meadows continuous sheets of water, in some cases many 
acres in extent, were breeding. 

"The mosquito commissions were fully aware of this condition, but 
were practically helpless. They did the only thing which under the cir- 
cumstances could be done— placed oil on the meadows to be used as soon 
as the water fell sufficiently to render spreading of it practicable. 

"On the more open meadows of southern Union and of Middlesex Coun- 
ties killifish consumed most of the wrigglers, and the oil spreading left 
comparatively few to emerge; but on the low lying, shut-in meadows of 
northern Union, Essex, Hudson, Bergen, especially of the last three coun- 
ties, the utmost oiling proved insufficient 

"The woodland pool, swaimp, house and malarial mosquito breeding on 
the upland is now under pretty good control and would, but for certain 
sewage-charged salt marshes, be so satisfactory that these species would 
be eliminated as a factor in human comfort and health. 

"The phase of mosquito breeding which the mosquito commissions have 
be^ under extreme conditions of weather and tide able only partially 
to control, and which is responsible for the present outbreak, is on the 
salt marsh, particularly on the shut-in and low-lying parts of it Shut-in 
marshes have been created almost entirely by man's activity. The mak- 
ing of streets, roadways, railroad grades, garbage fills, mud and sand fills 
and dykes is responsible. The shut-in meadow shrinks and becomes low- 
lying. To make matters worse raw sewage is poured into many of these 
marshes and so sweetens the brackish water that the house mosquito 
breeds in it in enormous numbers and migrates over the adjacent upland, 
in some cases to points distant two and one-half miles. 

''The normal open high-lying meadows will be rendered free from that 
.mosquito breeding which now occurs under extreme conditions by addi- 
tional ditching and by enlarging the outlets. The shutrin and low-lying 
marshes are being fitted with sluice' gates, by means of which the water 
passes out at low tide and is prevented from entering at high tide. In 
times of heavy rainfall and high tides during the breeding season power 
pumps will have to be used to aid the sluices. In this way all of these 
marshes that are not filled can and eventually will be rendered entirely 
free from mosquito production. 

"When we remember that in round numbers Union County has 4,000, 
Essex County 4,000, Hudson County 10,000, and Bergen County 9,000 acres 
of salt marsh, it is easy to understand that the prevention of absolutely 
all breeding is a very large and difficult problem. Much has already been 
done. The drainage systems on all these marshes, except those of Bergen 
County (a few limited areas excepted), are such that under ordinary con- 
ditions of weather and tide few mosquitoes can get off. Work is constantly 
going on to render these meadows mosquito-proof, even .under the most 
extreme conditions of weather and tide, but much yet remains to be done. 

"Breeding places for mosquitoes are now far less in number than ever 
before in Union, Essex and Hudson Counties, and the time is not far di8< 
tant when these salt marsh broods will come no more." 



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458 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The mosquito commlsBion became convinced that some more effeetlTe 
method of handling these marshes must be found. At the suggestion of 
the writer the president of the commission, Dr. Ralph H. Hunt, and the 
c^ief inspector, Mr. John W. Dobbins, examined an area in the Hacken- 
sack Valley under dike and sluice gate and found the surface in spite of 
the rainfall and cloudy weather (which had proven so disastrous on the 
Essex meadows) dry and free from breeding. This seemed to ofter a solu- 
tion for the problem. After having the diking and sluice-gating elsewheie 
in the State carefully studied by the consulting engineer, Mr. James 
Brooks of Glenn Ridge, the commission empowered the engineer to pro- 
ceed with plans for diking and sluice-gating the worst sections of the 
Essex salt marshes. 

There was, of course, no way in which Essex could by work within its 
own limits prevent salt marsh mosquitoes bred on the Hackensack from 
entering its territory. The commission did, however, furnish inspectors 
to cooperate with the writer for the purpose of determining where the 
breeding occurred and caused the concentrated breeding located by this 
inspection in the Bergen County section of the Hackensack marsh to be 
oiled in the hope of reducing the mosquitoes coming into Essex from that 
source. 

THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM OF UNION COUNTY. 

The physical surface of Union County begins, like that of Essex, at sea 
level with a salt marsh of about 4,000 acres (which, however, is divided 
into three distinct parts) and rises gently to the northwest to a height 
of about 600 feet. From the marsh to the northeastward running range 
of hills (the same range as that found in Essex) the height does not for 
the most part exceed 200 feet 

Streams meander through this area but do not drain it so efflcienly as 
Essex. Swamps are larger in size and greater in number. 

The swamp mosquito problem is correspondingly more difficult than in 
Essex. 

The hilly portions of Union CJounty are pretty well wooded and a consid- 
erable number of woodland pools are present While the number of wood- 
land pool mosquitoes Issuing from them must be reckoned with, the prob- 
lem is not so important as in Essex. 

The grassy banks of streams and ponds afford breeding places for a con- 
siderable number of the malarial mosquitoes rendering them a factor to 
be reck<med with. 

The 4,000-acre salt marsh is fortunately far less cut up than that of 
Essex and has very little sewage contamination. The problem of control 
is, therefore, much less difficult The crossing of the marshes by the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey and by spur imd sidings thereof has, how- 
ever, materially interfered with the original drainage. Small creeps have 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 45<J 

been filled and the areas they originally drained left without outlets. 
Drainage systems have been established in all the marshes. These with 
proper supplementing by additional ditching and killiflsh will probably 
be found ample to prevent the issuance of large numbers of mosquitoes 
even under such extreme conditions of tide and weather as obtained In 
June and July of this year. 

In expressing this opinion the writer realizes' that he is running counter 
to opinions of others who are as well informed as he. He holds this view 
because more open and better drained marshes under just as severe test 
have turned out a negligible number of mosquitoes because the killiflsh, 
which failed to penetrate these meadows in large numbers, were present 
everywhere and consumed the mosquito wrigglers. 

At the same time the cost of diking and sluice-gating certain of the 
most difficult parts of these meadows is very small and the chance for 
keeping the water down excellent In such instances the cost of thus pro- 
tecting the meadow is probably less, or at any rate no greater than that 
involved in cutting the necessary additional ditches. 

The experience of the present yeari has bem sufficient ta demonstrate 
that additional ditching is needed on the Union County mii^ marshes for 
under the extreme test of June and July many mosquitoes escaped. 

To a certain minor extent Union County lies within reach of salt marsh 
mosquito flights from the Hackensack Valley and the Essex portion of the 
Newark Bay marsh. From the latter, its northeastern bwder was infested 
in mid-July by A. cantator and later by that species and O. pipiena, 

THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM IN HUDSON COUNTY. 

Hudson County covers only forty-three square miles,* much less than half 
the space covered by Essex and but little mofe than one-third the space 
covered by Union. It consists of two rather broad ridges extending from 
southwest to northeast with the broad salt marsh of the Hackensack 
River lying between them. The eastern ridge extends from the Kill Van 
Kull northeastward along New York Bay and the Hudson River to the 
northern boundary of the county. The western ridge extends from the 
Passaic River northeastward along its eastern bank to the northern boun- 
dary of the county. On the eastern ridge lie the towns of Bergen Point, 
Centerville, Bayonne, Saltersville, Greenville, etc, Jersey City, Hoboken, 
West Hoboken, Weehawken, etc. This ridge from the southwestern end 
to New Durham is almost solidly built up. Beginning at the southern 
end of the western ridge the towns of Harrison, Kearny and Arlington 
form a continuous city to the northern limit of the county. 

On these two ridges are concentrated a half million of people. 

Hudson County has no woodlands of any considerable size and conse- 
quently practically no woodland pool mosquito problem. 



• Land surface. 



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46o NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Hudson County's upland consists of ridges that because of tlieir strong 
slopes are so well drained that It has practically no fresh water swamps. 
The swamp mosquito problem in this county is small; some few A. selves- 
tri8 and €, perturhans breed in parts of the Hackensack Valley marsh. 

The concentration of its population on these two well-drained ridges 
produces the smallest number of breeding places for the house mosquito 
possible with such a large' population. If the only mosquitoes Hudson 
County has to fight were those bred on the ridges, mosquito control would 
be very inexpensive. 

Unfortunately, the advantage which Hudson County gains by the concen- 
tration of her people on exceedingly well-drained land, is largely lost 
through this land lying adjacent to an enormous salt marsh. Approxi- 
mately 10,000 acres of salt marsh lie within the Hackensack Valley and a 
smfUl amount is found near Constable's Point 

This enormous marsh is only partly drained. Its original drainage has 
been almost completely ruined by railway and roadway grades and large 
fills. Wherever mosquito breeding has been found and the nature of the 
marsh rendered the cutting of 10x30 inch ditching likely to prove effective 
ditches have been put in with Judgment and are giving excellent servloe. 
There are, however, many places where through railway grades and road- 
ways or great sand and garbage fills the success of ditching demands the 
cutting of large outlets, or the installation of pumping plants, and in such 
places little effective drainage has been done. To make a bad matter 
worse, in this county as in Essex, certain of these shuMn marshes are 
made dumping grounds for raw sewage. In some instances the sewers 
empty right into the open marsh, while in others they drain into creeks 
that have become clogged and spill over the banks into the meadows. 
There yet remains much work to be done before this area can be free from 
mosquito breeding. 

To a certain minor extent Hudson County is infested by mosquitoes 
that breed outside its confines. For instance, the writer has considerable 
reason to think that the southwestern end of the eastern ridge was dur- 
ing the latter part of the summer this year infested by A. aollicitans bred 
on the marshes of Union County just across Newark Bay. 

Hudson County's great and practically only problems in mosquito con- 
trol are the salt marsh forms bred within its limits and the house mos- 
quitoes bred both on its uplands and its sewage-charged marshes. The 
control of the house mosquito bred on the upland is simple,, but the control 
of A. cantator and C. pipiens breeding on the. marshes is very difficult 
indeed. 

THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM IN ATLANTIC COUNTY. 

Physically, Atlantic County begins at sea level as a low strip of sand 
rising from the ocean. Behind this narrow strip lies a salt marsh which 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 461 

stands but slightly above mean high tide. Back of this stretch gently ris- 
ing to a height of a little more than 100 feet and nowhere really hilly the 
county stretches northwestward to its limits. Except where it has been 
cleared for agrieoltural or urban purposes the whole face of the county is 
coyered with scrubby oak and pine. 

Except in cedar swamps and occasional holes the water does not lie on 
the sandy and gravelly surface long enough for mosquitoes to breed. The 
woodland pool mosquito problem does not apparently exist 

The great cedar swamps for some reason, possibly low temperature or 
lack of food for the wrigglers, do not breed an appreciable number of mos- 
quitoes. The swamp mosquito problem seems to be limited to a few (7. 
pertur1>an9 and an occasional A, sylvestris. 

Where the population is sufficiently concentrated as is the case in the 
cities and towns the improper disposal of human waste and other opera- 
tions incidental to transforming country into urban property, create 
breeding places for the house mosquitoes. Excavations under houses, cis- 
terns, eees-pools, open privies, garbage dumps, barrels, tubs, buckets and 
pools serve this purpose. The problem of controlling the house mosquito 
is, however, not difficult and has been very satisfactorily handled in the 
past two seasons. 

It is, however, in the salt marsh and the control of the species it breeds 
that Atlantic County has its great problem. Of the 569 square miles ap- 
proximately seventy-eight are salt marsh. These seventy-eight square 
miles divide the costal strip from the main land by a belt of marsh and 
water, ranging from two and one-half miles at the southern end to six at 
the northern end. This salt marsh extends along the northeastern border 
of the county for twelve or more miles and for a somewhat greater dis- 
tance along the southeastern boundary. Although mosquitoes breed over 
a small proportion of this total area the breeding spots are scattered 
throughout and the problem of eliminating them is a large one. Already 
the breeding places on the costal marsh from Absecon to Somers Point 
have been eliminated, and recently those on Patcong Creek and the lower 
section of the Great Egg Harbor River have been destroyed. 

Careful observations of the past two seasons made by Mr. Eaton and his 
inspectors have shown that the mosquitoes bred to the northward of a 
given point rarely visit that point Acting on this information the north- 
em end of the salt marsh adjacent to which few persons live has not been 
touched and the whole eftort has been directed to draining the territory 
lying to the south and west of the principal centers of population — ^to 
eliminating the breeding places from which the mosquitoes that reach 
these centers come. 

Unfortunately, the salt marshes of northeastern Cape May County are 
close enough to the main centers of population in Atlantic County to 
furnish a pest of mosquitoes under extreme breeding conditions such as 
obtained in June and July of this year. It is not therefore, to be expected 



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462 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

that the result of the ezcellenf drainage work done in Atlantic County 
will under extraordinarily favorable breeding conditions be as satisf^ustory 
as it should until the salt marshes of northeastern Cape May County are 
adequately drained and looked after. 

THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM IN PASSAIC COUNTY. 

Passaic County on the map has roughly the shape of an hour glass with ' 
the small end to the southeast. All south of Pompton Lakes forms the 
southern division and all north the northern portion. Considerably more 
than one-half the area lies in the northern section but appro ximatidy 
200,000 out of the 215,902 inhabitants live in the southern part 

The surface from Paterson south while rolling is not rugged, but from 
Paterson north It assumes a rather rugged character. 

The hilly portions are well wooded and have many pools. The woodland 
pool mosquitoes must form a serious problem in the rougher parts of 
the county. No thorough investigations of this point have been made. 

Although a very considerable number of small swamps exist in the 
southern part of this territory and although the Great Piece Meadows are 
only a few miles away the mosquitoes taken during the summer in the 
City of Passaic and elsewhere in the county showed few specimens of the 
swamp species. It does not look as if the swamp mosquito problem can be 
a very important one. At the same time the writer feels that a different 
type of season might give a dilTerent result 

The population in the southern end of the county is rather concentrated 
and the usual breeding places for the house mosquito are abundant In 
addition to this the cities of Paterson and Passaic have a very large niun- 
ber of factories in which numerous water holding receptacles are kept. 
The soil is by nature fairly well drained, but is sufficiently tight to hold 
water in depressions long enough for mosquitoes to breed. 

The rather careful tests of the past season in the City of Passaic have 
shown that the house mosquito and all the other local breeding species 
can be satisfactorily controlled. 

In view of this fact it is especiallly to be regretted that the past season's 
studies have shown with equal clearness that salt man^ mosquitoes (A, 
eantatar) were present in the City of Passaic from late July to late Ans- 
ust in sufficient numbers to render the occupation of unscreened porches 
in shrubbery-filled yards very uncomfortable. These salt marsh mosqui- 
toes csme from the Hackensack Valley. That Passaic County would tn 
ordinary seasons be free from salt marsh mosquitoes with the exception 
of an early spring non-troublesome brood is hardly to be doubted. Nevei^ 
theless, the fact remains that the good results of the most successful con- 
trol of the local species are under unusually favorable breeding condi- 
tions on the Hackensack salt marshes likely to be overwhelmed by broods 
of salt marsh migrants from that source until that marsh is drained and 
rendered tree from mosquito breeding. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 463 

THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM OF CAMDEN COUNTY. 

Physically Camden County begins at the Delaware Rirer only a few feet 
above the sea and rises g^itly to the southeast, reaching in some places 
about 200 feet The soil is light, beginning at the river as a loam and 
Elding to the southeast in the sand typical of South Central Jersey. Many 
streams, some of which lead to the Delaware and others to the Atlantic 
Ocean, meander through this slightly rolling country. At various points 
before nearing their outlets some of these streams fall to drain their val^ 
leys BnA swamps of considerable size are formed, llie principal streams 
that empty into the Delaware are drowned at their mouths and have 
more or less extensive tidal marshes along their courses and about their 
openings. The country is sparsely wooded until the typical sand is 
reached where the scrub pine and oak appear. 

Woodland pools, owing to limited amount of woodland and the pervious 
soil are not abundant enough to breed a pest of woodland mosquitoes. 

Swamps, on the other hand, are sufficiently numerous to produce a pest 
of swamp mosquitoes, if they should become active breeders. 

The tidal marshes of the various creeks emptying into the Delaware 
might prove bad breeders of the house mosquito and perhaps of salt marsh 
mosqultoee, principally AedeM sollicitans Wlk. The sewage-charged ones 
are the most dangerous. 

The usual breeding places of the house mosquito are present in perhaps 
smaller numbers than in places where the soil is less pervious. However, 
lot pools, roadside pools, stopped-up ditches, holes in the paved streets, 
water-containing privy vaults, cess-pools, sewer catch-basins, overgrown 
brooks, ponds, swamps and lakes, unused receptacles, garbage-dump pools, 
and sewage polluted streams are sufficient in number to produce an un- 
bearable pest at certain points in the county. 

Across the Delaware River from Camden County lies a considerable 
amount of low marsh land on which the white-banded salt marsh mosquito 
(A. BolUcitans) has been found breeding during the past season, and It 
seems reasonable that at times the best sort of mosquito control on the 
Jersey side will be interfered with by migrants from this source unless 
the Pennsylvania authorities destroy these breeding places. Judging 
from the extent of the area, however, it does not seem likely that the in- 
terference can be of a very serious nature. 

Migrations of the white-banded salt marsh mosquito from the breeding 
brackish marshes of the coast to the east and its rivers, reach the south- 
eastern section of the county in numbers sufficiently large almost to annul 
tbe effect of local work. 



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464 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM OF MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 

Middlesex County begins at sea level and stretches westward to its 
boundary lines. Tbe elevation above tbe sea is for the most part only 100 
feet or less, although in some cases a height of more than double that is 
reached. The surface of the land is rolling rather than level. The north- 
. em part of the county lies on the red shale and to the souhwestward it 
passes over into a gravelly loam. A part south of the Raritan River below 
New Brunswick is made up of typical South Central Jersey sand. 

Generally speaking, the woodlands are not very extensive, except in the 
sand barren region. Woodland pools are not sufficiently numerous to 
produce a serious pest of woodland {K>o1 mosquitoes. 

The streams which meander through this territory in many cases do not 
drain all parts of their valleys and a considerable number of swamps are 
produced. There is reason to anticipate that the control of the swamp 
species will prove a considerable problem. 

In much of this territory, especially in the red shale, the soil is suffi- 
ciently impervious to hold water long enough for mosquitoes to breed. 
The population of Middlesex County is not greatly concentrated but enough 
water pollution exists when taken wih the ordinary urban breeding places 
of the house mosquito to produce a pest of this species in every town of 
considerable size. 

Evidence has been accumulated to show that a considerable pest of ma- 
larial mosquitoes is bred along the grassy banks of brooks, swamps, ponds 
and pools. 

It is, however, in the. 8,000 acres of salt marsh that Middlesex County 
has is great mosquito problem. The marsh is divided in many parts and 
scattered in smaller or larger areas along the coast and tributary streams 
from the south end to the north end. In the spring the brown salt 
marsh mosquito (A, cantator) and during the summer the white-banded 
salt marsh mosquito (A, soUidtana) breeds on it. 

A fairly complete system of drainage has been established in all parts 
of it and the numbers that now emerge are comparatively small. Under 
extreme conditions, however, it is conceivable that enoui^ might get out 
to cause trouble. To get the best results more drains should be cut and 
the drainage systems patrolled throughout the season. 

THE MOSQUITO PROBLEM OF BERGEN COUNTY. 

The eastern and western ridges of highland with the Hackensack Val- 
ley between, so characteristic of Hudson, continue northeastward into 
Bergen County. The eastern ridge nms, maintaining its relationship to 
the Hudson River, to the northeastern border. The western ridge con- 
tinues almost to Cherry Hill where it bends to the northward and con- 
tinues in that direction until it finally reaches and joins the broad high- 
lands that extend to the State line. The Hackensack Valley continuee 
northeastward to the State line, forming some swampy lands in the north- 
em part To the northwestward of this ridge and northeast, east and 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 465 

sontheast of Pateraon is an area of comparatively low elevation. T6 the 
northwest the county becomes ragged. 

There is mnch wooded territory and many woodland pools — a condition 
which gives to Bergen County a serious woodland pool mosquito problem. 

Many swamps of greater or less size exist, some of which undoubtedly 
breed the swamp species of mosquitoes proliflcally. Bergen County has a 
swamp mosquito problem of some size. The bulk of the population is lo- 
cated in the southern part of the county, but is not greatly concentrated. 
The water pollution is, however, sufficient when taken with the usual 
breeding places of the house mosquito to furnish every town of consider- 
able size with a pest of that species. 

Although our investigations have ncft yet shown it, there is no reason 
why places should not occur in this county where the malarial mosquitoes 
breed as abundantly or more so than any other kind, just as an instance 
of this sort is known to exist in Sussex County. 

In addition to this long roll of fresh water breeding species, Bergen 
County has in the Hackensack Valley about 9,000 acres of brackish marsh, 
over which, at certain seasons of the year, much breeding of the brown 
salt marsh mosquito occurs. Practically no drainage has been established 
in this area. All drains have been cut by nature or by the land owners. 
In fact, this area with a few minor exceptions was not recognized as a 
breeder of salt marsh mosquitoes until the present season, when a careful 
season-through series of inspections proved it to be so. 

As is usually the case, where undrained or partly drained salt marsh 
exists, the control of the breeding on this area of marsh forms the largest 
problem with which the county commission will have to deal and one 
which if not solved will largely annul the effect of upland work. 

In the year 1913 the Bergen County Mosquito Extermination Commission 
was granted by the Board of Chosen Freeholders of that county the sum of 
1500 for an educational campaign against mosquitoes. The starting of this 
work was delayed until the money reverted into the treasury and the 
board refused to reappropriate it for that year. 

In the year 1914 this commission was granted the sum of |800 for edu- 
cational and survey work. 

This commission, consisting of the president, Mr. H. B. Vannote, of 
Hasbrouck Heights; the treasurer, Mr. T. M. Brewster, of Ridgefleld Park, 
and of members Mr. Robert Ballagh and Mr. E. B. Walden, of Hackensack, 
Mr. H. H. Goodwin, of Westwood, and Mr. Wm. D. Tyndall, of Waldick, 
secured an office in the Court House at Hackensack and employed Mr. 
Robert 8/ Cleaver, of Hackensack, as chief inspector. 

M08QUIT0E8 OF THE YEAR. 

The occurrence and distribution of the principal species of salt marsh 
mosquitoes are discussed on pages 401-407 of this report and it >vill not 
be necessary to include them in this section. Of the less important, Aedes 
ifgniorhynchus Wied., nothing has been said. This species has, however, 
appeared in small numbers coincidently with Aedea aolHcitans Wlk. 



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466 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The season started off with a small issue of Aedes canade»sis Theob., 
accompanied by Aedea auhcantans Felt, in large numbers. Specimens of 
both species were commonly taken in May, but ten A. auhcantans were 
captured to one A. canadensis. Aedes sylvestris Theob. began to appear 
in late May, and Coquillettidia perturhans Wlk. in late June. 

Aedes canadensis Wlk. played a very unimportant part In ihe mosquito 
fauna of 1914 in the wooded districts of North Jersey south of the moun- 
tains. Aedes suhcantans Felt, on the other hand, proved unusually 
troublesome and important, being found from May to the middle of July. 
Abundant at the beginning of the season, it thinned out until none oonld 
be found. 

CoquiUettidia perturhans Wlk. has this year an unusual record. Ap- 
pearing in the latter part of June it was present in our collections to the 
latter part of August. In some localities during this period it was always 
taken and in some of these places it was at times the dominant and almost 
the only form. Its occurrence in small numbers was general. There were 
at least two places where it covered a large territory and was present in 
very considerable numbers. One covered the region of Weequahic Park, 
and the other the region including and lying east of Branch Brook Park to 
the Hackensack River Valley. 

Aedes sylvestris Theob. was troublesome throughout the past summer. 
It appeared it. May coincidently with the woodland species and remained 
throughout the season. From the end of June it was the most abundant 
of the fresh water species with the exception of the house mosquito. 

Culex pipiens Linn., appeared in the collections in June and continued 
to increase as the season became older until the dry weather of late sum- 
mer when its numbers fell off. Culex salinarius Goq. seems to have been 
associated with the house mosquito in troubling residences situated near 
the sewage-charged salt marsh. 

Anopheles crucians Wied. maintained its usual standing in Cape May 
County. Anopheles punctipennis Say has been very generally present but 
always in small numbers. Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say has been rather 
rarely taken in North Jersey south of the mountains. At certain points, 
however, it appeared in large numbers. At New Brunswick in late 
summer many were taken. At Fair Haven there was much com- 
plaint In Sussex County in the valley in which Franklin Furnace and 
Hamburg are located this species was rampant. This valley is in New 
Jersey's most malarious district. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF MOSQUITO WORK. 

Total appropriation $15,000.00 

Salt marsh ditching S7 .533.86 

Salary and ejcpenses of Executive Officer 2 .063.04 

Inspectors (Herman H. Brehme for 1 H months, Henry H. 
Brehme for 12 J^ monUis, Joseph A. Obecny for 5 H months. 
Chas. H. Richardson for 6 inonths and Chas. S. Beckwith 

for 5 months) 4.068.41 

aterial, equipment and labor 1 »806.29 

Reverting to treasury from October expense requisitions 28.40 — — 

$15t000.<M 



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REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT 
OF ENTOMOLOGY 



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Department of Entomology 



• Thomas J. Headlee, Ph.D., Entomologist. 

Charles H. Richabdson, Jr., M.Sc, Assistant Entomologist 
♦Henry H. Brehme, Field Assistant in Entomology. 
♦Charles S. Beckwith, B.Sc, Field Assistant in Entomology. 

Augusta E. Meske, Stenographer and Clerk. 



*On state Station. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

I Introductory 297 

II Insects and Other Animals About Which Our Correspondents 

Have Written 299 

III Insects of the Year 306 

IV Investigations 316 

Report on Mosquito Work for 1915 339 



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MAY 1 1917 



Report of the 
Department of Entomology 



Thomas J. Headlee. 



I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

The personnel of the staff has remained unchanged and continuity 
of the work has been thereby greatly promoted. Miss Augusta E. 
Meske has continued her satisfactory service as stenographer and clerL 
Mr. Charles H. Richardson has continued his studies of the typhoid 
fly and its associates. The results obtained will appear at a later date 
in a bulletin of the Experiment Station. He has rendered very satis 
factory service in the identification of insects, accession collection, and 
correspondence. Until recently all his time ha;s been devoted to Experi- 
ment Station work. With the beginning of the present college ycai 
he entered upon his duties as Instructor in Entomology and will devote 
approximately eig^t hours a week to that work. Mr. Charles S. 
Beckwith has continued his work of mosquito control planning the 
cutting of 715,000 feet of 10 by 30 inch ditching or its equivalent on the 
marshes of Bergen, Cape M^ and Ocean Counties. In addition to 
this he took charge of the salt marsh ditch cleaning and extending, and 
of the salt marsh patrol for the Ocean County Mosquito Extermination 
Commission, affording that section of the county from Toms River 
north B^ degree of protection which it has not hitherto known. All these 
duties he performed in a highly creditable manner. Mr. Henry H. 
Brehme has continued his work as a mosquito inspector spending most 
of his time along the shore of Rarita/i Bay, Newark Bay and the Hack- 
ensack River. A certain amount of temporary assistance, particularly 
in mosquito work, has been 'rendered by vanous persons, the chief of 
whom is Dr. Floyd E. Chidester, Associa,te Professor of Zoology in 
Rutgers College. Dr. Chidester*s time was devoted to that phase of salt 
marsh work concerned with the natural enemies of mosquito larvae and 
with the effect of varying salinities on mosquito development. The 
results of his investigations will be published as technical bulletins of 
the Experiment Station. 

The time of the Entomologist and his assistants has been devoted to 
attending to correspondence, to investigating certain phases of the effect 
of climatic fa/ctors on insect economy, certain phases of nicotine as an 

(297) 



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298 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

insecticide, anti-peach borer coatings, potato flea beetle control, potato 
spraying and dusting, strawberry weevil control, typhoid fly, white 
grubs, and miscellaneous species, and to the work of mosquito control. 

Ck>rreq[Knid€iioe. 

During the past season not far from an average of 30 letters each 
working day have been handled, involving a correspondence of 9000 
letters a year. Not more than ten of these letters pertained to work of 
the State Board of Agriculture and its seems fair to say that this depart- 
ment has handled an Experiment Station correspondence of 6000 letters. 
Requests for information on 180 species of insects and their near rela- 
tives of which 17 were mosquitoes, have been attended to. In addition 
about 1000 drcular letters have been mailed. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 
IL 

INSECTS AND OTHER ANnfAl4S ABOUT WHICH OUR 
CORRESPONDENTS HAVE WRITTEN. 



299 





ARACHNIDA 






Latin Namx. 

Bryobia pratensia Qarmao. 

Enophyea quadripes Shimer 


CoiocoN Same. \ 

Clover Mite 

Maiptle pouch gall mite 

Red Spider 


IX)CAUTT. 

Plainfleld 

Middletown 


Datb. 
April 29. 
June 3. 




June 16. 


Tatraoyehua r> 


Rahway 

Haddonfl Id 


March 5. 


•• . A 




June 14. 


«• «« 


«• 4< 


Red Bank. 


June 21. 


«• •« 


;; ;; ::/:::::::::: 


Rutherford 


June 23. 


• « •• 


Mendham 


June2S. 


»• «< 


New Brunswick 

Petersburg 


July 9. 


• • <• 


« It 


July 10. 


<« «« 


<4 <t 


Newark 

South Orange 

Egg Harbor 


July 31. 


Termea flavipea KoU 


INSECTA. 
Iboptera. 
White Ant 


April 27. 
May 18. 






Odonata sp, ( 

*« «• «• 


Odonata. 
Dragon flies 

Thtsanoptera. 
Onion Thrips. 

•« •• 

.1 •• 

Thripe. 

HOMOPTBRA. 

Strawberry Root Louse. . . 

Melon Aphis. 

Corn Root Aphis. 

Green Apjple Aphis. 

Rosy Apple Aphis. ..!!!!! 

Plant Lice. 

Green Plant Oice. 

Plant Lice 

Pototo Plant Lice 

Plant Lice. 


Morristown 

Bridgeton 

Philadelphia, Pa 

CedarvUle. 

Newport. 

E. Moriches, L. I 

Great Meadows 


lOot. 21. 

May 17, 
May 21. 
May 2L 


•« •< «« 


•• •• •« 


May 31. 
Juhr 16. 


•« •« <« 


Thyaaooptera 


March 5 




Moorestown 

Cologne. 

Berlin. 


Sept. 20. 


Aphia forbeai Weed 


" SSSadici^o^i)^ ". : : : : 

" mail Fabr 




Cape May Court House. . 

Atlantic Hig lands 

Bordentown 

Watchung 

Summit 

Little Falls 




•• •« 




" aorbi Kalt. 

AphidiHffs 


4. 




Washington 

Montclair 

Clifton. 

Shenandoah, la. 

BerUn. 

Paterson 

Cape May Court House. . 

Summit 

Oxford 

Passaic 

Montclair 

Haddon Heights 

Jersey City 




•• 




•« 




•• 




•* 






•• 


ti «< 




•• 


•« <• 




•• 


t« ti 




•• 


„ „ 




•• 




•* 


Aphid Galls 




<• 


Plant Lice 




•• 






•• 


Black Plant Lice 


Madison 

Pitman 

Somerville. 

Wayne 

Rutherford 

Mount Holly 




«t 


Plant Lice 




•• 






•• 




•• 


•t « 




•« 


Root Louse 




•• 


En^ewood 

Irvmgton. 

South Orange 




•• 


Green Plant Lice. 

Plant Lice. 




«« i 




•• 




Idlewood 

RiegelsviUe 

Pattenburg. 

Hackettstown 

Brookdale. 

Rutherford. 

SeweU 

Lewiston 




•• 


It II 




•• 


Green Plant Lice. 

Plant Lice 




•« 




«* 






•• 


14 II 




•» 


•1 II 




i« 


14 14 

Red Plant'Lice! .'.'.'.'.'.".'.'. 
Plant Lice 




It 


Cross Keys 




«« 


Irvington 

Cream Ridge 




• • 






•• 


Green Plant Uoe. 

Plant Lice. 


Kesrport. .7 

FrankUn Park. 




• • 




" 




Montolab 





Digiti 



ized by Google 



300 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



HOMOPTBRA— Continued 



Latin Namb. 



Aph'didsB. 



Aspipioiua forbesi Johna .... 
perniciosus Comity 



Common Namb. 
Plant Lice 

BUok Plant Lice! '.*.'.' 

Plant Lioe 

Cherry Scale 

San Joae Scale. 



Asteroleoanium quercioola Bou^e 
Aulaoamjisroen Bouphe. 

Cereaa bulbalus Fabr 

Chermee sp. 

Chermee abietis L 

ChionaopiB euonymi ComBt. . . . 

Chionaapia furfunis Fitch .... 



pInfo'Jft Ftch. 



ChrysomphaluB aonidum L 

Coccide 

Colopha uUmicola Fitch 

Eulecanium niirofaeciatum Perg. 
'* tuupifere Cook. . . . 

Goe^yparia q;>una Mod 

Lachnua queroifoliffi Fitch 

Lepidoeapnes ulmi Lu. 



Lysidea mendax Reut. 
Mysua oeraai Fabr. ... 



Golden Oak Scale. . . 
Roae Scale. ,. 

Buffalo Tree Hopper. 

Spruce Gall Louae. . . 
EuoDj/mua Scale 

Scurfy Scale. 



P n) leaf Scaie. 



Circular Scale 

Soft Scale. 

Coxcomb Gall Louae. 

Tem^iin Scale 

Tulip Soft Scale 

Elm Scale 

Oyater '^eli Scale.' '. '. 



Myxuaribia L. 

NectaropluHa f>ia' Kalt 

Nectarophora roaee L 

Pemphigua ap 

Phenacoccua acericola King. . 

Phylloxera vaatatrix Planch . 

Paeudococcua ap. 

Peylla pyrioolaForat 



Saiaaetia hemiaphsBrica Targ. 
Schiaonoura ap 



Fa^ Ai^ple Red Bug. 
Cherry Plant Louae. . . 

Currant Plant Louae 

Pea Louae 

it •• 

Roae Louae 

Ma^le Paeudococcua. . 

Grape Phylloxera. 

Mealy Bug 

PearPayUa 



lemiaphf 
>lant Lot 



Plant Louae. 



LoGAUTT. Datb. 

Downer July 21. 

Audubon Jui^ 23. 

Bronx Park Aug. 9. 

Eatontown Aug. 15. 

Somerville Sept. 20. 

Union Hill fcepU 20. 

Chatham. Jan. 25. 

Paulaboro Jan. 29L 

Tituaville Feb. «. 

Chatham. Feb. IL 

Trenton Mweh 26. 

Ridgewood June 28. 

Elisabeth Sept. 13. 

Rutherford Aug. 12. 

Lakewood Feb. 24. 

Maya Tianding. March 10. 

Hopewell Jan. 27. 

Metuchen 'Aug. 13. 

Newfoundland May 19. 

Haddonfield April 24. 

Cape May Court Houae. .'July 31. 

Oiatham Jan. 25. 

Tituaville Feb. 6. 

Trenton Feb. 24. 

Cape May Court Houae. . May 26. 

isumm I Nov. 9, '14, 

New York City Dec. 3, '14. 

Coa Cob, Conn. Jan. 28. 

Summit May 10. 

Summit ^fept. 20. 

Englewood April 10. 

Princeton Dec 7, •14. 

Woodbine. June 17. 

Camden May 28. 

Montclair June 21. 

Bloomfield May 13. 

Majra Landing Sept. 22. 

Mt. HoUy April 5. 

New York City. Sept. 22. 

Weatmont Nov. 15, *14. 

Mooreatown Feb. 2. 

Tituaville Feb. 6. 

New York City Feb. 11. 

OradeU Mar. 8. 

Trenton Mar. 28t 

Muldca HilL Mar. 80. 

HiUadale. April 1. 

Waahington April 5. 

New York aty April 12. 

Englewood. . July 3. 

Englewood July 7. 

Newark Aug. 12. 

Eatontown Aug. 15. 

Summit May M. 

Dunellen June 12. 

Waahington April 5. 

Cream Ridge June 16. 

Plainfield June 19. 

Montclair. June 9. 

Suaaex. July 13. 

Williamatown April 30. 

Weatwood June 10. 

New Egypt June 20. 

LawrenoeviUe June & 

New. Brunawick July 9. 

Ridgewood ' JuQr 31. 

Hawthorne 'J&n. 14. 

Hoboken. 'July 12. 

RoaeUe Park July 21. 

Glen Ridge. Sept. 27. 

Phalanx March 3. 

Riverton June 28. 

Vineland. June 28. 

Riverton July 2. 

Eaat Orange Sept. 28. 

Hoboken July 12. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



301 



HOMOPTERA— Continued 



Latin Namb. 
Sduxoneura lani^rara Housm. . 

Ttbicem septendecim L. 

IVphlocyba rosa L. 



Common Namk. Locautt. 
Wooly Apple Louae I Elisabeth 

*• ** iPattenburg 

Periodical Cicada Dover 

" ** Princeton 

Roee Leaf Hopper ISussex. 



HEMIPTERA. 



Anasa trts'js De G jSquaah Bug. 



Cicada axyi Groasb, 
(Smez lectulariua L. 



Leptobyrsa explaoata Held. 



Cicada. 
Bed Bug. 



Pentatomids 1^ . 
Phymata 



Rhododendron Lace Bug. 
Stink Bug 



^ Ambuah Bug , 

ReduviidsD op ' Aasaasin Bug. . 



Dover 

Freehold 

Engliahtown. . . . 

Marlboro 

Somerville 

Morristovm. . . . 

Hackenaaok 

New York City. . 

Croaswicks 

'New Monmouth. 



Aeridide ap 

Blattide n> Cockroach 

t* ft ■ •« 



ORTHOPTERA 
Grasahoppers. 



Periplan&ta americana L.. 
Mjcroeentnim so. . 



iSeweO 

iNewark. 

'Newark 

IPreehold, 

Paratenodera sinensis Sauss Chinese Mantis 'Moorestown 

American Cockroach jPhillipsburg. . . 

lElisabeth. . .. 

Katydid iNew York City. 

'^ "Hopewell.. .... 

j Vineland 

Garwood 

ITitusville 

ITitusville 

iThree Bridges. . 



Antibonomos aignatus Say. 



AnthrMius scrophularis L. 
Attasenus pioeus OHv. . . . 

Bruimus pi8<»iim L 

Br chids sp 

Carabids 

CluyaomeUdn 

Coecinellids 



Conotrachelos nenuphar Hbst. . 



Crioceris asparagi L.. 



CyDene robinis Forst 

Dermeates lardarius L 

Diabrotica 12-punctata Oliv. 
vittato Fab 



Drasterius elegans F&br. , 
Elatoidffi n> 



Epitrix oucumeris Harris. 



Galarucella luteola MuU. 



COLEOPTERA. 
Strawberry Weevil 



Buffalo Beetle 

Black Carpet Beetle. 

Pea Weevil 

Weevil 

Ground Beetle 

Leaf Beetle 

Lady Bug 



Plum CurcuHo. 



Asparagus Beetle. 



Locust Borer 

Larder Beetle 

12-8pot'd Cucumber Beetle 
Striped Cucumber Beetle. . 



Wire Worm. 
Wire Worm. 



PoUto Flea Beetle. . 

Flea Beetle 

Elm Leaf Beetle 



Date. 
March 6. 
July 8. 
June 5. 
June 26. 
June 5. 



Mar. 26. 
Aug. 2. 
A^ 21 
Aug. 14. 
A^l.24. 
Aug. 28. 
April 23. 
Sept 2. 
Oct. 20. 
Aug. 19. 



May 

July 

July 

July 

Oct. 

Mar. 

April 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

April 

Oct 



Port Norria Mar. 

Moorestown April 

Clifton May 

New Brunswick May 

Federalsburg, Md. May 

Moorestown June 

Louisville, Ky June 

Gordon Head, Brit. Col. Oct. 

Collingswood July 

Bloomfield May 

New Brunswick Jime 

Fanwood Dec. 

Plainfield July 

Moorestown April 

Moorestown April 

Summit May 

Glasaboro Mar. 

Berlin Mar. 

Somerville June 

Dunellen June 

Maplewood June 

Somerville July 

Bridgeport April 

TituaviUe June 

Summit May 

Millington May 

Berlin Mar. 

Marlton j June 

Asbury Park Aug. 

Paulsboro j^ept. 

Newton June 

Elmer 'Jan. 

Trenton May. 

■ ~ • " ■ Oct. 

July 
Mar. 
Feb. 
May 
May 
Aug. 



No. Caldwell. 
Montclair. ... 

Berlin 

Toms Rivo". ., 
Bridgeton. . . 

Elizabeth 

New Egypt . . 



5. 
24. 
10. 
23. 
25. 
25. 
15. 

28, '14 
27. 

3. 
18. 

6. 
14. 
20. 



19. 
29. 

5. 
10. 
15. 
10. 
16. 
28. 

5. 

6. 
11. 

8, *14. 
30. 
29. 
29. 
24. 

2 

6. 
10. 
12. 
18. 

3. 
28. 

9. 
24. 

7. 

6. 

3. 

6. 

2. 
25. 
26. 

8. 

5. 
20. 

3. 
22. 
14. 
15. 
31. 



ri 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



302 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



CJOLEOP I E RA— Con Liuued 



Latin Namb. 

Ithyoerus novaboraoeasis Forst. 
Leptinotaraa 10-lineata Say. . . . 



Maerodactylua subspinosus Fabr . 



NodoDota puacticollis Say. . . . 

Odontata nornii Sm 

FliytoDomuB punotatus Fabr. . 

PiModas strobi Peck 

Prionus laticollis Dm 

8M>6rda oandida Fab. 



Searabnids sp. (mostly Lachnos. 
tema fusca 
Froehl. andL . 
arcuta Sm.) 



Cyolooephala immaoulata Oliv. 
SoarabdBids s^ 



Sool^us rugulosua Rata 

** quadrispinoaus Say. 



SoolsrtidflB sp. 

Silvanufl surinamensia L. . . 



Tenebrioidea mauretanica L. . 
Xyleborua aaxeseni. 



Common Name. 
Colorado Potato Beetle. . . 



Rose Chafer. 



Clover Leaf Weevil 

White Pine Weevil 

Giant Root Borer 

Round Headed Apple Tree 
Borer 



White Gruba. 



Fruit Bark Beetle. . . . 
Hickory Bark Beetle. , 



Bark Beetlea 

Saw-toothed Grain Beetle. 

CadeUe 



Arohipa arcyroapila Wlk. . 
" "^ 



ArotiidflB ap. 

Autographa braaaicffi Riley. 
Carpocarpaa pomonella L.. . 



Citheronia regalia Fabr 

Crambua caliginoaellua Clem . 

Datana integerrima G. & R. . 
«• •# ti 

Deamia f uneralia Hubner. . . . . 
Eulia pinatubana Kearf 

*• (4 «• 

Haliaidota oarya Harria. . . . . 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

Fruit Tree Leaf Roller. . . . 
Leaf Roller 



LOCAUTT. 

Newfield 

Bridgeport 

EngUahtown 

Boonton 

Bridgeport 

Mt. Holly 

Silverton 

Cape May Court Houae. 

Lakewood 

Sicklerville 

Englewood 

Ridgewood 

Deal 

Upper Montclair 

Mmington 

Bernardaville 

Lakehurat 

Oakhurat. 

Spott«wood 



Bedford. 



Vincentown 

Marlton 

New York aty 

Cape May Court House. 

Tenafly. 

Englewood 

Eliaabeth 

Hackettatown. 

Scotch Plaina. 

Eaat Orange 

Stockton 

Rutherford. 

Merchantville. 

Trenton 

Rahway. 

Newton 

Rahway. 

Deal 

Paasaio. 

Pateraon 

Norma 

New Brunawick 

Glen Rock. 

Roeelle. 

Potteraville 

Oakhurat 

Englewood . . 

Freehold 

Red Bank. 

Trenton 

Camden. 

Tuckahoe 



Flandera. . . . 

Oakland 

Summit 

Lambe tville. 
Millburn. . 



Cabbage Looper. .... 

Coddling Moth. IPlainfield. 

*• " Merchantville. . . 

" " iDelawanna. . . . . 

Elizabeth 

Trenton 

Newton 

Port Monmouth. 

Tenafly. 

Grape Leaf Folder IPlainfield 

Pine-tube Builder Bernardaville. . . 

•• •• •• FarHilla 

Hickory Tuaaock Moth I Bernardaville. . . 



Hickory Horned Devil. . . 
Corn-root Web-worm. . . . 
Black Walnut Caterpillar. 



Date. 
May 27. 
May 13. 
June 16. 
June 24. 
May 3. 
May 4. 
May 10. 
May 26. 
June 8. 
June 14. 
June 16. 
June 16. 
June 18. 
June 30. 
June 16. 
Sept. 8. 
April 30. 
July 28. 
Dec. 16, '14. 

Oct. 12. 



. Feb. 

, Mar. 

. April 

. April 

May 

May 

July 

July 

July 

July 

Aug. 

. Aug. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept 

Sept 

Sept. 

. Oct 

. Oct. 

. Oct 

. Oct. 

. Oct. 

. Jan. 

. Aug. 

. July 

. Aug. 

. Sept 

.July 

• Aug. 

. Oct 

. Oct 

. Oct 



15. 
20. 
26. 
29. 

12. 



27. 
27. 
28 
2L 
30. 
7. 
16. 

la 

21. 

2& 
6. 
7. 

10. 

18. 

21. 

11. 

14. 

16. 

13. 

36. 

21. 

11. 

13. 



. Mar. 17. 
.May 18. 

. May 24. 
.May 18. 
. Nov. 8, •14. 
. April 10. 
. April 22. 

Sept. 10. 
. Oct. 18. 
. Aug. 16. 
. June 25. 

May 6. 
. S^t. 16. 

May 25. 

July la 

Oct 18. 

July 12. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



303 



LEPIDOPTERA— Continued. 



Latin Namb. 
HeUothis obaoletA Fab.. 



Hemerocampa leuoostigma S. & A 



Hyphantria eiinea Dm 

Lapliy^ina f ruj^iperda 8. & A . 

Leaeama albilinea Hbn. 

Loxofltege similalis Gn. 



Common Namb. 



Corn Ear Worm. . 



Maeronoctua onusta Grote. Iris Borer. . 



White-marked Tussock 
Moth. 

White-marked Tussock 
Moth 

White-marked Tussock 
Moth 

White-marked Tussock 

Fall Web Worm. 

Fall Army Worm 

Wheat-head Army Worm. 

Garden Web Worm 



Melalopha indusa Hbn 1 

Mehttia satsrriniformis Hbn. . 



Neptieular pomivorella Pack. . 
Nootuidse Bjf> 



Oxyptilus periseelidaetylus Fitch 

Paleaorita Temata Peck 

Papaipema nitella Gn. 



Phlegethontius celeus Hbn. 
PUyotsenia rubisalis Guen. . 

Sainia oecropia U 

Sanninoidea exitiosa Say. . . 



Poplar Tent Maker. 
Squash-vine Borer. . 



Serpentine Leaf Minw. 
Cut Worms 



Dorchester, Mass 

Shelton, Conn. 

Pemberton. 

Cape May Court Housa . 

Fauton 

Boston, Mass. 



Malaoosontka americana Fab Apple-tree Tent^CatorpiUar 



LOCAUTT. 



Grape Plume Moth. 



SpringCanker Worm. 
Stalk Borer 



PoUto Hawk Moth 

Greenhouse I^eaf Tyer. 

Cecropia Moth 

Peach Borer 



Mendham 

Woodcliff-on-Hudson . 

Trenton 

Freehold 

Jersey City. 

Asburv Park. ....... 

New Brunswick 

New Brunswick 

Passaic 

Plainfield. 

Hackensack 

Hackettstown. 

Allendale 

Peapack. 

Pemberton 

Trenton 

ParkRidse 

WoodcliffLake 

MiUviUe 

Whippany. 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Cookstown 

Summit. 

Passaic 

New York City 

Morristown 

Rivolon . 

Elisabeth 

Mil ington 

New York City 

East Orange 

BrooklynTN. Y 

New York aty 

Basking Ridge 

Peapack 

Allendale ... 

Cranbury 

Andover 

Rutherford 

Hackensack 

Springfield 

Berlin 

Woodbury 

Freehold 

Mickleton 

Oceanic 

Pemberton. 

Newark 

Ringoes 

Klberon 

Ancora. 

Westfield 

Madison 

Newton 

,Mt. Holly. 

' Rahway 

New York City 

Maywood 

I Rutherford 

'Hoboken 

iLovettsville, Va 

Bloomfield 

Paulsboro 

Ashland 

I Burlington. 

iPaterson 



•14. 



•14. 



14. 



•14. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



304 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



H YMENOPTER A— Conti nued. 



Latin Naioi. 
Sanninoldea exitioaa Say . 



j CoiniON Namb. 
, Peach Borer 



Sibine stimulea Clem. . . 
Sitotroga oerealella OUv. 



S pKifigidf* sp 

T^yiidopteiyx ephemeneformis 

Steph. 



Tiaoheria malifoliella Clem. . 
Zeusera pyrina L 



Apis mellif era L. . 



Callirhytis orerator O. S. 

Dolerus coUaris Say 

FormioidoB sp 



Lophyrus leoonti Fitch. . . . 
Magarhyssa atrata Fab. . . 
" lunator Fab. . 

Neurotenis batatus Fitch. 
Priophonis acericaulis 

MaoGillivray 

Priophorus acericaulis 

MacGillivray 

TenthridinidsQ sp 



Vespa crabro L. 



II •• 



Saddle^back Caterpillar. . 

<i 44 * " 

Angumois Grain Moth. . . 



Sphinx Moth. . 
Bag Worm. . 



Trumpet Leaf Miner. 
Wood Leo|>ard Moth. 



HYMENOPTERA. 
Honey Bee 



Wheat Saw Fly. 
Ants. 



I^ Conte's Saw Fly, 



Long-tailed Ichneumon. . 



Maple Petiole Borer. . 

Saw Fly '[ 

European Hornet. . . 



LOCAUTT. 

BerHn 

Ridgewood 

Taylorsville. Pa. . 

Haddonfield 

Irvington 

Sew^ 

Kingston 

Newark 

Sicklervilla . . . 

Newark 

Annandale 

Riegelsville. 

Orange. 

Hanovor 

Freehold 

Riverton. 

Rivoion 

Swedesboro. 

Camden 

Freehold 



Datb. 
Mar. 6. 
Mar. 28. 
April 16. 
AprU29. 
May 18. 
June 10. 
July 9. 
Sept. 7. 
Sept 18. 
Oct. 6. 
Oct. 18. 
Oct. 27, 
Aug. 9. 
Sept 18. 
Oct. 14. 
Sept IL 
Sept 13. 
Sept 21. 
Oct 2& 
Oct 14. 



Toms River 

Cranbury 

Elizabeth 

Elisabeth 

Westwood 

Newark. 

Pennington 

Oceanic. 

Jamaica Plains, Mass. . 

Cambridge, Mass 

Hackensask 



Whippany. 
'^ dge 



Bridgeport 

Washington 

Clinton. 

Bloomsbury. . . . 

Montclair 

Hackensack. ... 

Berlin 

Bogota. 

Plwnfield 

Bordentown. . . 

Roselle 

Bloomfield 

Merchantville . 

Plainfield 

Tuckahoe. . 
New York City. 
Ocean Grove. 



Mar. 

June 
July 
July 
July 
Aug. 
Oct 
Nov. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Aug. 

Nov. 

May 

June 

Aug. 

Sept 

April 

AMil 

Mar. 

April 

April 

April 

May 

May 

May 

June 

June 

June 

June 



8. 
15. 
10. 
19. 
23. 
12. 
12. 

4, • 
17. 
23. 
11. 

4, • 
13. 
2& 

7. 

6. 
21. 
28. 

6. 
17. 
20. 
29. 

8. 
26. 
21. 

1. 

2. 

3. 

8. 



.Westfield. 'June : 

IJune 29 
July 10. 
July 28. 
Aug. 2. 
Aug. 4. 
Oct 12. 
Aug 3. 
July 10. 
July 24. 
June 16. 
July 12. 



Newark. 

Rutherford 

New York City 

Cranford 

Paterson 

New Rochelle 

Chatham. 

Bornardsville. 

Hasbrouck Heights. 

Salem 

Hoboken 



Tenafly. 



New York City. . 
Ridgewood. . . . . 
New Brunswick. 

Petersburg 

Montclair 



June 1. 

June 8. 
May 29. 
July 9. 
July 10. 
Sept 26. 



SIPHONOPTERA. 



Ctenocephalus canis Curt Cat and Dog Flea IChatham iJuly 27. 

" IPlainfield iJuly 29. 

•* " " iFreehold Oct. 7. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



305 



DIPTERA 



Latin Namk. 
Addia sua vis Loew (7). . 



Cecidomyia carym, O. S 

" carysecola O.S 

" pilulae Walsh. 

tubicola O. S 

** oxycoccana Johns. . 

viticola O. S 

Cecidomyia sp 

CulicidsD sp 



Common Nam*. 



Cranberry Tip Worm. 



Mosc^ui 



LOCAUTT. 



EH talis tenax L 

Homalomyia sp. .... 
Lasioptera vitis O. S.. 



Lyperosia irritans L. .••••■• 
Monarthropalpus buxi I^b. 
Musca domeatica L 



Horn Fly 

Box I^af Miner. 
House Fly 



Phorbia brassicse Bouche. 



Cabbage MagRot. 



Phorbia sp 

PoUenia rudls Fab. 



14. 



14. 



•14. 
•14. 
•14. 
•14. 
•14. 



Tabanus sp. 



DeKalb, 

Cleveland, O. 

Blackshear 

New York City 

Prout's Neck, Me 

Oranse 

Elizabeth 

Rutherford 

•Newark 

Raleigh. N. C 

Vineland 

New York City 

Drone Fly Bordentown 

South Orange 

Potato Gall on Grape \V oodbine 

•^ RosellePark 

Lakewood 

Newton 

Far Hills 

Bayonne 

liayonne 

liayonne 

Detroit. Mich 

Passaic 

Maitinsville 

Fianklin 

Rutherford 

New York aty 

Franklinville 

Middle Village, N. Y. .. 

Matawan 

Hahway 

Weston 

Cape May Court House. 

Woodbine 

Paterson 

Riverton 

Elizabeth 

Boonton 

Tienton 

Hackettstown 

Onion Maggot 'Leesburg 

'Newark 

Cluster Fly j Lebanon ... 

. Horse Fly. 



Haddonfield Oct. 6. ' 

V ineland Mar. 1. 

Metuchen Aug. 13. 

Bernardsville June 2- 

Oceanic Nov. 4, 

Metuchen Aug. 13. 

Hammonton June 13. 

Bridgeton July 6. 

Newton June 8. 

Bayonne Nov. 10, 

Bayonne Nov. 10, 

Bayonne Nov. 10, 

Erie Nov. 1 1, 

Bayonne Nov. 12, 

Boston, Mass Feb. 27. 

Burlington April 16. 

Burlington June 2. 

Hinsdale, 111 June 26. 

Manchester, Mass June 29. 

Ne^ Egypt July 1. 

",fu July 9. 

■ ~ July 10. 

July 15. 

July 22. 

Aug. 6. 

Aug. 13. 

Aug. 14. 

Aug. 16. 

Sept. 4. 

Sept. 9. 

Sept. 14. 

Sept. 17. 

JuV 14. 

Mar. 9. 

May 31. 

July 21. 

July 22. 

Sept. 7. 

Oct. 18. 

Nov. 10, •U. 

Nov. 10, '14. 

Nov. 10, •14. 

May 6. 

June 18. 

June 23. 

Aug. 5. 

Aug. 13. 

Sept. 21. 

Oct. 11. 

Dec. 2. •14. 

May 16. 

May 25. 

May 25. 

May 26. 

May 26. 

May 27. 

May 28. 

June 4. 

June 5. 

June 6. 

June 8. 

Feb. 12. 

July 18. 

iNov. 29, ^14. 

Chester Sept. 12. 

F.lmer IJune 28. 



Datb. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



3o6 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

IIL 
INSECTS OF THE TEAB. 

This record includes all species except mosquitoes (they are treated 
in a special section of this report) that have appeared in sufficient num- 
bers to excite serious attention. 

American Tent Caterpillar. 

{Malacosoma americana Harr.) 

Dark broton egg mass about 3/4 of an inch long surrounding a small 
ttoig of apple, wild cherry and other trees during the dormant season or 
a white web of varying size built in a crotch and sheltering brown hairy 
caterpillars in the spring and early summer. 

The season of 1915 started off with a tremendous outbreak of this 
species. Centering in northeast New Jersey the outbreak included all 
the northern half of the State and the species appeared in small numbers 
throughout the southern half. The danger of outbreak was forecasted 
by scouting the State for egg masses and testing their health in tne 
insectary. Warnings were issued and citizens given opportunity to avail 
themselves of the State's anti-insect laws. 

The warnings were heeded to the extent that many persons cleaned up 
their own properties. 

In Bergen County where much of the land has been given over to 
urban development large acreages grown up to wild cherry are inter- 
spersed with or lie adjacent to built-up sections. On this wild cherry a 
tremendous brood of caterpillars developed and after consuming the 
available foliage migrated into the built-up sections consuming the foliage 
of apple, peach and garden truck. Under such conditions as these the 
efforts of the small individual land holder to protect his property 
adequately were set at naught. Fortunately, such conditions did not 
obtain in a large number of cases. 

The outbreaks of 1914 and 1915 have shown that under conditions 
where food is exhausted before maturity has been reached the caterpillars 
will migrate considerable distances in search of food and that at such 
periods they will consimie foliage which at other times they would refuse. 
The general life history and habits of the species are so well understood 
that they will be omitted from this report. 

An enormous number of egg masses have been deposited and unless 
natural enemies or weather intervenes an outbreak may be expected 
next season. 

Waging a successful fight against this insect involves education and 
organization; education of the people in the infested territory in the 
methods which tbe individual can use to protect his plantings, organiza- 
tion of people in the infested territory in such a fashion that the enforce- 
ment of law against the careless and recalcitrant can be carried out. 

Where such action is practicable, children's organization, such as the 
boy scouts, should be utilized to remove the egg masses before the next 
growing season opens. If, however, the prevention of an outbreak is 
to be the work of paid mature labor the hatching of the caterpillars 
should be awaited for there are many chances that the eggs or cate^ 
pillars which hatch from them may be destroyed by natural forces before 
the webs reach the size of a man's hand. 

Depending upon which is the more practicable under local conditions 
the webs with their caterpillar contents should be cut out and burned up 
or simply crushed where they hang or the foliage round about them 
sprayed with arsenate of lead or dusted with powdered arsenate of lead 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 30^ 

in such a fashion that the leaves will be covered with small closely set 
spots of the poison. The best results are likely to follow the application 
of the measuresr of control throughout a continuous area, permitting no 
nests to remain within its limits. Organized community action is the 
only type of action certain to bring about these results. 

Apple Plant Lice. 

Small dark-green to light and rosy colored lice covering the opening 
buds and flower stems and later found on the undersides of the leaves and 
upon the apples causing the foliage to curl and the apples to gww 
knotted and gnarled. 

The American tent caterpillar had barely made a good start when 
various species of plant lice nad begun to work. Tne season was coid 
and the lice throve while their principal parasitic enemies did not 
Soon the apple foliage began to curl and later the young apples to shriveL 
and grow knotted and gnarled. 

Contrary to previous experience the principal species was the rosy 
apple louse {Aphis sorbi Kaltenbach) and again contrary to previous 
experience with apple lice they proved very dlflacult to kill. 

The life history of the rosy apple louse is much like that of the green 
species except that instead of staying on the apple tree the year round it 
migrates probably to certain species of plantains and returns to the 
apple in the fall. All species of apple plant lice (except the wooly) pass 
the winter in the egg state on the smaller branches and twigs of the trees 
and hatch about the time the buds open. Until recently it was held that 
the best time to destroy the young lice lay between the opening of the 
buds and the opening of the blossoms. 

As the result of careful and rather conclusive studies Parrott and 
Hodgkiss of the experiment station at Geneva, New York, reached the 
conclusion that best resiilts follow the treatment which is applied just as 
the buds are beginning to show green. These workers hold that nicotine 
solutions, oil emiilsions, and soap preparations are the most effective 
sprays. They advise a combination of winter strength lime sulphur and 
40 per cent nicotine at the rate of 3/4 of a pint of nicotine to 100 gallons 
of the lime sulphur. By this combination both the scale and the plant 
lice are hit. 

In the 1913 report of the Entomologist the writer called attention to 
the fact that winter-strength lime^sulphur treatment for San Jose scale 
when delayed until the buds were swelling would destroy the green apple 
aphis {Aphis mali Fabr.) provided the lice had hatched and the buds 
had not yet opened sufficiently for them to find shelter under the scales. 

It wo\ild seem that this stage is the most auspicious for apple lice 
control because of their tender condition, providing all the lice are 
hatched before the buds open sufficiently for them to crawl under the 
scales. The complete success of the method hinges directly upon this 
phase of their life history. 

Assuming that not all the lice do hatch before the buds open sufficiently 
to allow them to seek shelter the following facts remain: (1) some and 
perhaps the large majority do hatch before shelter can be had; (2) from 
95 to 98 per cent of those which do hatch may be destroyed by the com- 
bined winter-strength lime-sulphur and 40 per cent nicotine combination, 
which treatment also controls the San Jose scale; (3) such lice as are 
left may be hit by later sprays with just as good chances of success as if 
no treatment whatever had been given when buds began to show green. 

If the grower desires to take every possible precaution to destroy the 
lice he should treat the trees when they are beginning to show a little 
green with winter-strength lime-sulphur to which 40 per cent nicotine 
has been added at the rate of 1 part of the nicotine to 1000 parts of the 



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3o8 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

lime-sulphur. The mbcture should be applied with sufDcient care to coTer 
all parts of the tree, particularly the twigs and smaller branches. Of 
course this treatment will serve for the scale as well as the lice. Then 
he should keep a sharp lookout for the presence of lice by examining 
many specimens of opening buds from difiTerent parts of the orchard. 
If the lice appear between the opening of the buds and opening of the 
blossoms the orchard should be promptly treated with a mixture com- 
posed of 40 per cent nicotine, water and soap. Contrary to the recom- 
mendation emanating from other sources the writer believes that the 
nicotind should be used at the rate of 1 part to 500 parts of water and 
should have soap added at the rate of 2 pounds to fifty g&llons. It is 
likely that the 40 per cent nicotine added to the scab spray at this time 
would give satisfactory results. The most complete success will follow 
only that type of treatment which thoroughly wets all the lice. 

From certain work done several years ago against the melon louse 
{Aphis gossypii Glover) the writer has felt that best results in spraying 
lice, which are somewhat protected by foliage, follow the use of stronger 
nicotine mixtures than those which are usually recommended. His belief 
that stronger mixtures are better has been strengthened by the present 
season's experience. 

OUier Plant lice. 

The cherry louse {Myzus cerasi Fabr.) occurred practically everywhere 
the domestic cherry was grown and curled the leaves badly. There 
were very few instances in which the pest was combatted at all. This 
inactivity was probably due to the slight importance of the cherry crop. 

Both shade and forest tree lice were far from being as abundant this 
year as last. The same reduction was seen in the species infesting bush 
fruits, but the lice on truck crops were much worse than usual. 

Potato lice were very abundant but did little damage. Tomatoes were 
tremendously infested with Aphis rumicis Linn., and were probably 
weakened in such a fashion as to render them susceptible to the mosaic 
disease which followed. 

Practically no spraying for control of the potato lice was undertaken 
but some successful work with 40 per cent nicotine, water and soap was 
carried out against the aphis on tomatoes. The most practical machine 
used has been the field potato sprayer. Thorough treatment with a mix- 
ture composed of 40 per cent nicotine (1 part), water (500 parts) and soap 
at the rate of 2 pounds to 50 gallons has seemed satisfactory. 

The gooseberries at Mr. Edward Mechling's place near Moorestown 
have exhibited both this season and last a most remarkable malforma- 
tion, which is apparently due to the work of plant lice of the species 
Aphis houghtonensis Troops. This species' of aphis was brought to atten- 
tion by Mr. James Troop who found it in the summer of 1904 on 
Houghton gooseberries near the city of Indianapolis, Indiana. Mr. Troop 
does not attempt to describe its life history but states that it does not 
colonize on other varieties of gooseberry. 

Observations made by the writer have served to confirm the pest's 
reported fondness for the Houghton. Thus far the life history has proved 
a puzzle. 



^The writer's Uuinks are due to Mr. John J. DatIs for identiilcaUoii of specimens. 
'Entomological News, Feb. 1906, pp. 59-60. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 309 

Pear Psylla. 

{Psylla pyricola Forst) 

Small (1/10 of an in, long) reddish hrown fly-like creatures found on 
the trunks and branches during vxirm days in late fall and early spring; 
small (1/80 of an inch-\-) yellow nymphs congregating in axils of leaf 
and fruit stalks, and later spreading over the undersides of the leaves 
causing the tree to drip honey-dew and later to take on a dark sooty color. 

The pear psylla has recently thrust Itself into notice by troubling In a 
very serious manner several pear growers and by refusing to succumb 
to the usual treatments. Briefly stated, the pear psylla winters as an 
adult in the cracks and crevices of the bark, moves about more or less 
during the warm spells of the dormant season, lays its eggs Just before 
the blossoms open, feeds first as a nymph in the axils of the leaf and 
fruit stalks, then spreads over the under-sides of the leaves, and reaches 
maturity. It is thought there are at least four broods a season. 

The damage is done by the insect robbing the tree of sap and food 
and by the growing of a black mould which lives upon the honey-dew 
produced by the psylla. 

Successful control seems to involve the following operations: 

1. The rough bark should be scraped off during the fall and winter, 
taking care not to injure the live tissue. The scrapings should be 
gathered and burned, in order that all hibernating psylla sheltering in it 
may be destroyed. 

2. During warm days in late fall and early winter or late winter and 
early spring many of the adult psylla are crawling about over the bark« 
Thoroughly spraying the whole tree before leaving it for another at this 
time with winter-strength soluble oil or with 40 per cent nicotine, soap 
and water (1 pint nicotine to SOO parts of water with soap at the rate or 
1 ounce to the gallon) will destroy many. The liquid must not freeze 
on the trees. 

3. Thoroughly spraying with winter-strength lime-sulphur Just before 
the blossom buds open will destroy many, perhaps most of the eggs. 

4. Thoroughly spraying with 40 per cent nicotine, soap and water 
win destroy all the n3rmphs that are well wetted. Use here 1 part of 
nicotine to 1000 parts of water and add soap at the rate of 1 ounce to the 
gallon. 

During the last two years in the experience of the writer no one of the 
methods has by itself been successful. A combination of the first three 
has been eminently so. 

White Grabs. 

Large fleshy white grubs tvith dark-broum heads, brown sprawlly legs, 
enlarged abdomen and bodies that curl into a semi-circle; found in the 
soil about the roots of plants. 

Three or more species of white grubs have been concerned in the injury 
which has taken place. Collections from north and central New Jersey 
show Lachnostema fusca Froehl and possibly L. arcuata Smith while 
those from the southern portlton show Cyclocephala immaculata Oliv. 
and Polyphylla varilosa Hentz^. Doubtless the first species is the one 
which has wrought most of the hann. 

Injury by white grubs, the young of the June bug and to some extent 
of the rose bug has been very noticeable in lawns, golf courses, and 
strawberry fields. In some instances the sod has been entirely cut loose 
from the soil beneath. In most cases the injury has appeared in spots 
only. Strawberry patches in many instances have lost more than 60 per 
cent of their plants. 

>The species were determined by Mr. John J. Davis. 



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3IO NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Brown patches in lawna and golf courses during the past season have 
been excellent signs of grub trouble. Reddening and browning of straw- 
berry foliage have been indication of the work of white grubs. If the 
spots and plants thus showing injury are dug up and carefully examined, 
the root system will be seen to be partly or wholly destroyed and white 
grubs will usually be found in the soil. 

In some places in the red shale soil where the land has been in grass 
and weeds for several years the grubs average one for each two square 
foot of surface. 

The infestation by white grubs is sruch, especially in view of their 
large size, as is not likely to give serious trouble next season, for these 
almost mature grubs will do only a little feeding next summer and then 
pupate. In the summer of 1917 there ought to be a large emergence of 
adults and in 1918 grub injury should again be troublesome. Natural 
enemies or unfavorable weather may, of course, prevent the beetles from 
appearing in large numbers or may destroy their progeny. 

While methods of controlling white grubs under field cropping conditions 
have been fairly well worked out, practically nothing has been discovered 
to prevent their work on lawns and golf courses. With a view of sup- 
plying this lack of information studies of control measures adapted to 
th^se conditions have been undertaken. An account of the study and its 
result is given under the head of "White Grub Remedies." 

Rosebug. 

(Marcodactylus suhspinosus Fabr.) 

Light'hrotpn beetles (1/2 in. in length) with long spint/ sprawly legs 
appearing in early summer and feeding vora^ously upon roses, sassafroM, 
apple, and many other trees and shruts. 

While the young of this insect, which resembles a white grub, has done 
a considerable amount of harm to lawns in South Jersey, the adults 
seemed to have done still more harm. At times during the rose bug 
season the beetles fairly filled the air. Rose bushes, sassafras, apple 
trees, grape vines and berry bushes have suffered most of the damage but 
com in some cases has been partly destroyed. 

The southern part of the State suffered most but the bugs were pres- 
ent in sufficient numbers to occasion complaint throughout the central 
portion. Practically no reports were received from the northern part of 
the State. 

On the farm of Mr. John H. Barclay near Cranbury the pest assumed 
serious proportions on a variety of apple known as Duchess. Curiously 
enough none of the other varieties, which were Mcintosh Red, Twenty 
Ounce Pippin, Stayman Winesap, Rome Beauty, Greening, and Fall Pip- 
pin, were touched. There were three rows of Duchess — ^two on one side 
of the orchard and one on the other. There were scattering trees of this 
variety mixed through rows of other varieties. In every instance the 
beetles picked out the Duchess. Some. studies of control measures were 
made in the course of which the carbolic acid-whale oil soap mixture, 
powdered arsenate of lead and sulphur, and self-boiled lime-sulphur were 
tried. An account of the results is given under the head of "Rosebug 
Remedies." 

Flee Beetles. F""* — • =»^ ^"^ — i 

(Epitrix sp.) 
Bmall (size of a pin head) black beetles found on potatoes, tomatoes 
and various solanaceae; they jump like fleas and fill the leaves uHth small 
irregular holes. 

Never in the writer's experience have the flea beetles (Epitrix cucum- 
eH9 Harr.) been go abundant. The potato foliage was filled with holee 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 311 

before the planta were six inches high and on at least two other periods 
tlie amount of fenestration was large. Tomato foliage suffered severely. 

Treatments of various sorts as will be set forth in the section devoted 
to the investigation of this insect showed that home-made Bordeaux mix- 
ture eliminated about 50 per cent of the injury. 

Anny Wonn. 

(Leucania unipuncta Harv.) 

Dark-gray to dingy-black plump caterpillars with three narrow yellouHah 
Mtripes above and a slightly broader and darker one at each side; usually 
occurring in large numbers in grass lands, cultivated fields and lawns; 
feeds almost entirely at night except when food becomes exhausted then 
migrates in armies and feeds in broad day destroying grass and similar 
vegetation as it goes. 

The army worm has this year been practically absent Absolutely no 
complaints of serious injury were received and no cases were observed. 
Both the moths and the larvs were occasionally found. This is quite 
in accord with the common experience with this insect — a year of great 
abundance is usually followed by a year of scarcity. 

Angoumols Grain Moth. 

{Sitotroga cerealella Oliv.) 
Small (1/4 in, long) clap colored moths almost totally unthout color 
markings^ found flying about or resting on the walls and grain of bins 
and granaries or small (1/5 in. or less) white larvce enclosed in com or 
wheat grains. 

For the first time in several years the angoumois grain moth, locally 
known as the "fiy weevil/' appeared in sufficient numbers to occasion 
complaint The damage seems to have occurred mostly along the Dela- 
ware River from Trenton south and the principal crop suffering harm has 
been com, although some damage to wheat has been reported. Doubtless 
the limiting of injury mainly to com is connected with the fact that 
comparatively very little wheat is grown in that section. 

As might be expected from a knowledge of the angoumois grain moth's 
habits the seed com stored in warm places and that part of the 1914 
crop held over during the summer of 1915 have been the grain damaged. 
The fact, which by the way, is borne out by this year's experience, that 
com is not seriously attacked until the summer following the one in 
which it is grown, except when stored in heated buildings, narrows the 
problem of protection in a highly satisfactory fashion. 

To prevent injury to hold-over com it is' necessary to store the new 
crop in an uninfested place considerably removed from possible sources 
of infestation or to provide means of regular fumigation. To prevent 
Injury to com stored in heated buildings adequate provision for fumiga- 
tion must be made. 

To carry out the first method it is necessary to prepare a new crib or 
to clean out the old one together with the surrounding sources of infesta^ 
tion. Cleaning out the old crib is a matter of removing all grain and 
thoroughly freeing all cracks and crevices from grain accumulations and 
dusts about 30 days before the new crop is to be stored. Cleaning out 
other sources of infestation refers to other grain accumulations in the 
same building or other near-by structures in the same manner as that 
prescribed for the crib itself. As a matter of fact, it is likely under 
ordinary farm conditions to prove difficult if not impracticable to clear 
tip the crib and other sources of infestation. 



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312 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

To carry out the fumigation it would be necessary to have the crib 
sufficiently separate from other buildings to permit its complete enclosure 
by a tarpanlin. With this sort of arrangement the farmer has meieiy to 
cover hia crib and fumigate whenever the weevils appear in sufficiently 
numbers to render the treatment necessary. Com stored In heated 
buildings is usrually small in quantity and can therefore be easily enclosed 
in a tight box and fumigated whenever infestation appears. 

The best fumlgant is carbon bisulphide. Details concerning its use are 
published in the Station circulars and may be obtained on request. 

Bnropean Pine-^oot Moth. 

{Evetria huoliana Schiff.) 

Dark hroum larvw with deep hlack head and thoracic shield found 
inside dead and dying terminal shoots of pine; presence indicated by 
sickly look of shoot and mass of gum. 

This insect which was first observed by the writer in the early summer 
of 1913 on pine shoots sent in from Long Island, has appeared in large 
numbers on Imported nursery stock. In the course of his duties tiie 
assistant to the State Entomologist, Mr. Harry B. Weiss, found a sur- 
prising infestation on seven shipments from Holland. As many as ten 
Infested buds were found on a single small plant. Unfortunately, the 
species seems to have been established in the State for several years. 

The pine-shoot moth is a well known pest of the pine in Europe and 
annually causes serious damage by eating out and destroying the terminal 
buds. This results in a distortion of the tree's growth, preventing the 
formation of good straight trunks. The insect confines its attention to 
conifers and the problem of its control in North Jersey is therefore com- 
paratively simple, being merely a question of protecting pines growing 
. under cultivation. In South Jersey, however, the question of control 
may prove to be very difiTerent While the conmion species of pine in 
South Jersey are not listed among its food plants, no one can say 
whether it will under our conditions attack them successfully. 

Pruning ofT the infested buds in the spring when they are easily seen 
and still contain the larvae, and destroying them with fire is the best 
method of control thus far discovered. Cutting in the fall is effective but 
is attended with more difficulty for the infested buds are harder to detect 
at that season than they are in the spring. 

The European Mole Cricket. 

{Qryllotalpa gryllotalpa Linn.) 

Large (2 in, in length) cricket-like creatures found in the soil and tun- 
nelling hither and thither cutting off the sterna and roots of plants. 

For several years at Rutherford tunnelling by some creature other 
than moles and mice has been noted. The tunnels range from 1/4 to 1 inch 
in diameter and perforate the soil in every direction. This season the 
agent was discovered by Mr. Weiss to be a large mole cricket, which was 
later determined by Mr. J. A. G. Rehn as the European mole cricket. 

It is interesting to note that this species is regarded by Curtis and 
others as a serious pest in many parts of Europe where it appears in 
early summer "in myriads" and "nothing in the herbaceous way is proof 
against Its ravages." 

The life history of this mole cricket has been well known for many 
years. At the beginning of summer the female constructs in the neighbor- 
hood of her burrows a nest about 6 inches below the surface. It is shaped 
like a bottle with a curved neck, 2 inches long and 1 inch wide. The 
neck of the bottle communicates with the surface, 300 to 400 eggs are laid 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 313 

in it and the entrance closed. The oval brownish-yellow eggs hatch in 
July and August, about one month after they are laid, and the young 
mole crickets begin to feed on the tender roots of plants whether grass 
or vegetables. At thd end of about one month after hatching the group 
disperses. 

Maturity is reached the following spring after which they pair and lay 
eggs. Winter is passed in the soil. 

Many measures of control have been suggested by various European 
students, among which may be mentioned that of digging in September 
three or four pits per 500 to 600 square yards, each two or three feet 
deep and a foot wide, filling them with horse dung and covering them 
with soil. The mole crickets apparently attracted by the warmth con- 
gregate in thes-e pits on the first frost and may be easily destroyed. 

Whether the life history or measures of control will be the same in 
this country as in Europe is a question which only time and investigation 
can ansrwer. 

Lawn Ants. 

Ants that infest lawns and golf courses have been unusually trouoiesome 
this season. Many cases in which the grass has been destroyed have 
come to our notice. The species principally concerned is a small reddish 
brown ant iTetramorium cespitum Linn.) which constructs small hills 
ranging from 1 to 2 inches at their bases, each of which centers at a 
burrow about 1/4 of an inch in diameter. In some cases 6 to 10 of these 
ant hills could be counted on a square foot The damage did not stop 
with the destruction of the grass, but the species made its way into 
houses and infested such sweet materials as it could find. The sugar 
syrup and tartar emetic described in the last edition of Bulletin No. 203 
proved very successful in repelling house invasions. 

Onion Thrips. 

(Thrips tabaci Linden.) 
Very small (1/25 in, long) slender, dark-colored, slowly-moving crea- 
tures that appear when the onion leaves are pulled away frovi the stem; 
usually quite distinct against the white hack ground of the separated 
stem or leaf; presence indicated hy small whitening spots in the leaves. 

This insect is playing a large part in onion culture. It was stated to 
the writer by Mr. Frank H. Hall of the Campbell Soup Co., that the 
growing of onions from seed had been practically eliminated by the 
thrips. Everywhere throughout the southwestern part of the State evi- 
dence of its work on onions grown from sets could be detected. It seems 
obvious that either the measures of control worked out for this insect are 
inadequate or that the grower's utilization of them is very unsatisfactory. 

From the writer's observation he is inclined to believe that the trouble 
lies primarily in the use of measures of control in the proper fashion. 

Cabbage Maggot. 

iPhorhia hrassicw Bouche.) 
Smxtll (S/16 in. long) white maggots either tunnelling in the roots of 
cabhage or engaged in skinning them; indication of presence is lack of 
growth f wilting and death; best test for presence is careful examination 
of the roots of the injured plant. 

This year the cabbage maggot appeared in exceptionally large numbers 
and did much harm. It seemed as if the growers have had so little 
difficulty In recent years that they have ceased to trouble themselves 
about measures of control. As a consequence the first Intimation of 



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314 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE I 

trouble came after the plants were well along and the maggots buried 
in the roots. Unfortunately all studies of the subject have shown that 
remedies at this stage are practically useless. 

Carbon bisulphide fumigation of the soil about the roots followed by 
the use of quick acting fertilizer was tried but with slight success. The 
carbolic acid emulsion was also tried but without encouragement 

It should be remembered by cabbage and cauliflower growers that suo^ 
cessful treatments begin shortly after the plant is set out 

Garden Webworm. 

{Loxostege similalis Gn.) 

Black-dotted, slightly-hairy caterpillars varying in color from pale 
through greenish yellow to dark-yellow^ feeding upon pigweed (Amaran- 
thus Bpp.Jy alfalfa and various kinds of garden truck. 

In the latter part of the season this insect appeared in the guise of 
an alfalfa pest In most instances it was present in ever widening 
patches scattered oyer the field. The plants were defoliated and threat* 
ened with destruction. The extent of territory covered was such as to 
forbid local work. Accordingly, the infested fields were sprayed with 
potato sprayers, using 3 pounds of lead arsenate of 50 gallons of water 
and using about 100 gallons to the acre. The worms were promptly 
destroyed by this treatment 

Maple Leaf Stem Miner. 

{Priophorus acericaulis MacGillivray.) 

Small white larva found mining out the petiole of maple and causing 
the leaf vnth the infested petiole to fall from the tree. 

This injurious saw fiy appears to be on the increase, two new localitiea 
being found. It has now been taken at Hackensack, Bloomfield* Mont- 
dair, and Englewood. Kerosene emulsion was applied to the soil as the 
larvae were entering it in 1914 and the past summer has shown no 
appreciable effect 

Wheat-Head Army-Worm. 

(Leucania albilinea Hbn.) 

Smooth greenish or hrovmish striped caterpillar, an inch or more in 
length, feeding upon the heads of wheat and timothy. 

This species was reported from two localities — Newton and New 
Brunswick — ^not as working upon wheat but timothy. Parts of the field 
examined showed the heads completely stripped. Damage by this insect 
is unusual and ordinarily accomplished before the grower becomes aware 
of its presence. 

Periodical Cicada. 

Brood No. VI of the periodical cicada which is listed as occurring in 
small numbers in the State was represented by very small numbers, 
specimens being taken at Cranford, Upper Monclair, Oak Ridge and 
Princeton. 

Pitted Ambrosia Beetle. 

(Corthylus punctalissimu^ Zinlm.) 

This ambrosia beetle, which has been recorded from Eagle Rock and 
Cape May County, being taken at the later place in the roots of huckle- 
berries has this year been found by Mr. Weiss in rhododendrons Kalmda 
latifoHa and Azalea mollis at Somerville. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 315 

The work of the insect is indicated by a yellowing of the leaves. The 
yellowed leaves wilt and drop off the plant The dead stems break off 
near the surface of the ground where the tunnelling occurs. 

This beetle's attacks appear to be confined to shaded localities where 
there is an abundance of mulch. The species is known to attack sugar 
maple, sassafras, dogwood, hazel, huckleberry, water beech, ironwood and 
rhododendrons. 

The only remedy seems to be that of cutting and burning the infested 
stems taking care to see that the whole stem is secured and a part not 
left in the ground. 

BiiseellaiieoiiB. 

To a certain extent the tabulated list of insect correspondence seems 
to give a notion of the miscellaneous species. Many species, however, do 
a type of work which is so common in character or so small in amount 
that no one will write in concerning it. The list which follows is based 
on direct observation both of the writer and Mr. Harry B. Weiss. 

Tetranychus himaculatuSt Harvey, the red spider was scarce, probably 
because extraordinary amount of rainfall. 

EuJecanium tuUpiferae Cook, the tulip soft scale, seems to be decreasing, 
being less abundant this year than last 

Lepidosaphes ulmi Linn., the oyster shell scale has continued to 
Increase, especially in the nurseries where it was found on comus, snow- 
berry and spirea as well as its usual food plants. 

Leptohyrsa explanata Held., the rhododendron lace bug, was plentiful 
on rhododendrons throughout the State. A related species was taken at 
Palmyra, Arlington, Rutherford and Nutley. It has not yet been deter- 
mined. 

Phenacoccus acericola King, the maple false scale, has been scarce 
during the present season. 

Pulvinaria innumerahilis Rathv., the cottony maple scale was rarely 



Toumeyella pini King, a species of scale new to New Jersey, waff found 
on pine in the woods at Asbury Park on July 26th, seriously damaging 
a few trees. The needles badly infested by the scale drop off. 

Trioza tripunctata Fitch, the bramble flea louse, was found on July 7th 
seriously damaging blackberries of black diamond variety at Cologne and 
Hammonton. 

Oalerucella luteola Mull., the elm leaf beetle was seen at Plainfleld, 
July 14th, Princeton July 12th, Rahway July 13th, Summit June 21st, and 
fiackettstown July 6th. The damage in most cases was slight but the 
species was generally present 

Oastroidea cyanea Mels., one of the leaf beetles, has this year been on 
the increase on poplar and willow at Rutherford, Irvington and other 
points in North Jersey. 

Molasoma scripta Fabr., a leaf beetle on poplar was found July 23rd 
and later at MerchantviUe, Pensauken, Camden, Rutherford and Bridgeton. 

Baperda Candida Fabr., the round headed apple tree borer, was taken 
In small numbers in an orchard at Freehold on June 24th. 

Tricho1>ari8 trinotata Say, potato stalk borer, was reported by BenJ. 
Barrett as injuring tomatoes. 

Alypia octomacuJata Fabr., was numerous on grape vines at Secaucus, 
Homestead and Jersey City. 



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3i6 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

AnUota senatoria Sm. & Abb., occurred in small numbers on oak in 
South Jersey. 

Hemileuca maia Dru., was seen in large numbers on oak at Alloway, 
May 31st 

Ceratomia catalpa Bdv., the catalpa sphinx, has been fairly abundant. 
This species was chiefly interesting becaust; it seemed almost totally free 
from parasitism. 

Crambiis vulvivagellus Clem., corn-root web-worm, was found at work 
on July 15th at Oak Ridge. The Infested land had been in sod for several 
years just preceding the planting of corn. Similar conditions obtained 
on a farm near Newton. 

Macronoctua onusta Grt., was found rarely this season. 

Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh, the apple maggot, was observed on tlie 
farm of Mr. Harold Hornor at Mount Holly. The infestation was slight. 

IV. 

INVESTIGATIONS. 

Mushroom Spring-tail. 

Early in December, 1914, our attention was called to trouble Mr. Jacobi 
of Irvington was having with the mushroom spring-tail {Achoreute* 
armatum, Nicolet et al.), and were requested to see what could be done 
towards remedying the condition. 

Although the best way of avoiding the work of the insect is found in 
the practice of sterilizing the soil and manure and the securing of dean 
spawn, the fact that the insect was already established in made-up beds 
and likely to do much harm, led us to try out a soil treatment with car- 
bon bisulphide. 

On December 12th a preliminary experiment was set by the wriier on 
a badly infested bed. Two of the plots were approximately a square 
yard each and the other about 4 square feet. The small plot was desig- 
nated as A and had numerous mushrooms on its surface; the others 
designated as B and C respectively showed no growth above the soil. 

Plot A was treated with the carbon bisulphide at the rate of 1 ounce 
to the cubic foot. Holes 2^ inches deep were made at points 12 in. apart 
and the liquid poured into each of them closing each as soon as its 
charge was introduced. 

Plot B was treated with carbon bisulphide at the rate of 1/2 ounce to 
the cubic foot and plot C with 1 ounce to the cubic foot 

Check plots were interpolated between the treatments. 

The temperature of the air in this cellar ranged from 50 to 55 ^'F and 
the moisture of the soil was high. 

On December 14th the treatments were examined by Mr. Rlcharoson 
with the following results: 

Plot A. All spring-tails dead; mushrooms softened. 

Check between A & B. All spring-tails alive. 

Plot B. All spring-tails dead. 

Check between B & C. All spring-tails alive. 

Plot Ct AU Bpring-tftUe d^ad. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 317 

On December 18th the treatments were again examined and with the 
I'oUowing results: 

Plot A. All spring-tails dead; no mushroom growth; cellar 45 ^'F. 

Check, all spring-tails alive; no mushroom growth. 

Plot B. All spring-tails dead; no mushroom growth. 

Check, all spring-tails alive; no mushroom growth. 

Plot C. All m^ring-tails dead; no mushrooms. 

On December 2l8t the treatments were again examined and with the 
following results: 

Plot A. Not examined for spring-tails; no mushrooms. 

Check " " " " two " 

Plot B. Spring-tails all dead; three " 

Check, not examined for spring-tails; two 

Plot C " " " " no 

Check between C and the wall no " 

Thus it appeared that 1/2 ounce of carbon bisulphide to the cubic foot 
kills the spring-tails and does not damage the mushrooms. It also 
appeared that 1 ounce to the cubic foot is injurious to the mushrooms. 

The examination of the 14th served to demonstrate that the minimum 
dosage for the spring-tail had not been found. Accordingly a new set 
of exi>eriments was set by Mr. Richardson on December 15th. Three plots, 
each 7.7 square feet, were treated, the first with 1 ounce to the cubic foot, 
the second with 1/2 ounce to the cubic foot, the third with 1/4 ounce to 
tlie cubic foot, the fourth with 1/8 of an ounce, and the fifth with 1/10 
of an ounce. A check plot was interpolated between each pair of treated 
plots. The carbon bisulphide was placed in holes 5 to 7 inches deep. 
The plots were examined on December 16th with the following results: 

Plot No. 1. All spring-tails dead. 

Check No. 1. " " alive. 

Plot No. 2. " " dead. 

Check No. 2. " " alive. 

Plot No. 3. Many spring-tails dead in compost; many alive in surface 
soil; not as many present as in Plot No. 2. 

Check No. 3. All spring-tails alive. 

Plot No. 4. Some spring-tails dead in compost; some alive in surface 
soil. 

Check No. 4. All spring-tails alive. 

Plot No. 5. Some dead; some alive. 

Check No. 5. All alive. 

On December 18th the treatments were again examined, and with the 
following results: 

Plot No. 1. All spring-tails dead; no mushroom growth. 

Check No. 1. " " alive; " 

Plot No. 2. . " " dead; 4 " to the sq. ft. 

Check No. 2. ' " " alive; 5-1/2 

Plot No. 3. " " dead; 1 

Check No. 3. " " alive; 1/2 

Plot No. 4. " " " 7 

Check No. 4. " " " 4 

Plot No. 5. Some alive; sopae d^a^; HP Tnushroopas. 



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3i8 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Check No. 5. All alive; 2-1/2 mushrooms to the sq. ft 
On December 21st the following results were obtained: 



Plot No. 1. 


5 mushrooms to the sq. ft 


Check No. 1. 


2 


ft tf ft It 


Plot No. 2. 


6 


tt tt tt tt 


Check No. 2. 


12 


tt It tt ft 


Plot No. 3. 





•» It *t tt 


Check No. 3. 


7 


tf ft tt tt 


Plot No. 4. 


8 


tt »» tt tt 


Check No. 4. 


11-1/2 " 


tt tt tt tt 


•Plot No. 5. 


1 


tf tt ft tt 


Check No. 5. 


7-1/2 " 


tt t» «t tf 


On December 26th the following results 


were obtained: 


Plot No. 1. 


6 mushrooms to the sq. ft 


Check No. 1. 


4-1/2 " 


It »» f» ft 


Plot No. 2. 


3 


It tt It It 


Check No. 2. 


15 


tt tt tt tt 


Plot Nd. 3. 


2 


t» n M »f 


Check No. 3. 


26 


ft tt It tt 


Plot No. 4. 


12 


tt tt tt It 


Check No. 4. 


20 


tt tt It »» 


Plot No. 5. 


5 


tt It It It 


Check No. 5. 


25 


tt It tt It 



Desiring further evidence of the effect of treatment on mushrooms 
above the surface, a small bed covered with growing stock wasr treated in 
the usual way with 1/2 ounce to the cubic foot. The mushrooms were 
softened and practically ruined. 

Desiring a notion of the soil temperature, tests were made with the 
following results: 

Dec. 15th 2.15 P.M. 52.7'F and 52.5-P. 

5.00 P.M. 53.6*'F and 52.7'F. 

Dec. 16th 8.30 A.M. 52.7"»F and 53.6''F. 

9.40 A.M. 51.8'*F and 52.7'F. 

It thus appears that while carbon bisulphide offers a ready means of 
destroying the mushroom spring-tails, its use is attended with such 
serious injury to the mushrooms that it cannot be considered as a remedy. 

White Grab Remedies. 

The problem of controlling white grubs has been mainly attacked from 
the standpoint of a field crop pest and comparatively little has been done 
with it as a garden, lawn and golf green problem. Yet in this guise the 
insect has recently done more damage and occasioned more complaint 
than it has as a field pest. 

The measures of control as set forth in Circular No. 26 of the E^xperl- 
ment Station seem satisfactory from the standpoint of, field crops, bat 
without doubt leave much to be desired for protection of g^krdens. lawns 
and golf greens. 

With the purpose of devising some practicable method of meeting thia 
phase of the problem a study of soil disinfection has been undertaken. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 319 

At the outset it was plain that a study of soil treatment would have to 
take into consideration the minimum dosage for each particular insect 
form, the maximum dosage for the useful organisms growing in and on 
the soil, and the relation of these dosages to soil texture, chemistry, 
temperature and moisture. 

Carbon bisulphide, having been extensively considered in Europe, 
occurred to us as the substance that should be first examined. Accord- 
ingly an efTort was made to determine roughly the minimum dosage in 
the red shale soil common at New Brunswick. 

Three areas were laid out in a garden on red shale soil where grubs 
of Lachonstema fusca Froehl. had been abundant all summer. Plot No. 
1 contained 18 square feet and later counts showed grubs at the rate of 
1 to each 2.5 square feet Plot No. 2 contained 80 square feet and 
showed grubs at the rate of 1 to each 2.5 square feet Plot No. 3 contained 
27 square feet, showed grubs at the rate of 1 to each 2.7 square feet 
The temperature of the soil at a point three inches below the surface at 
mid-day averaged about 76 ^F throughout the first five or six days of the 
experiment The soil was just moist enough for good working, not wet 
enough to ball and not dry enough to clod. Plot No. 1 received 1 ounce 
of carbon bisulphide per square foot. Holes 3 inches deep were made 
at points 12 inches apart throughout the plot and 1 ounce of the fluid 
poured carefully into each hole, which was at once closed by pressing the 
heel upon it Plot No. 2 received 7 c. c of liquid per square foot applied 
in the same way. Plot No. 3 received 15 c c. per square foot applied in 
the same way. The application was made in the afternoon of September 
6th, 1915. 

On September 11th the whole of plot No. 1 was dug up and seven 
dead grubs were found. A part of plot No. 2, amounting to 32.25 square 
feet, was examined and seventeen grubs were found eleven of* which 
were alive. On September 25th the balance of plot No. 2, amounting to 
47.75 square feet, was examined and sixteen grubs, thirteen of which 
were alive were found. Plot No. 3 was also examined on ihist date and 
eight grubs, two of which were alive were found. 

It thus seems that the minimum dosage for the conditions under which 
the test was carried out was not far from 3/4 of an ounce to the square 
foot 

As the growing season was drawing to a close and the experiments 
must soon be transferred to the laboratory it seemed well to see how 
the same charge would under outdoor conditions affect the plants which 
had suffered so much from the ravages of the grubs. Accordingly three 
areas, each one square yard in extent, were laid off in the yard within 
fifty feet of the other plots. A mixture of first year blue grass and white 
clover formed a vigorous sod over these plots. The soil was identical 
with that of the garden with only such difference as the surface cultivation 
of a garden through the growing season could produce. The temperature 
three inches below the surface averaged about 70 "F for the first ten days 
of the experiment. The soil moisture was approximately .the same as 



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320 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

in the other experiment, perhaps a little greater. The experiment was 
set September 27th, 1915. 

Plot No. 1 received 1 ounce of the carbon bisulphide per square foot 
applied as outlined In the previous experiment Plot No. 2 received 13 
c. c per square foot and plot No. 3, 7 c. c. per square foot 

Up to November 1st there was no trace of injury to either the blue 
grass or the clover on any of the plots. It seems, therefore, that the 
minimum dosage for the grub is probably well below the maxim um 
dosage for the blue grass and white clover. 

Rosebng Remedies. 

The rosebugs appeared in Mr. John H. Barclay's young apple orchard 
in sufficient numbers to threaten defoliation of the Duchess variety. 
This peculiar varietal preference, which has been mentioned under the 
heading "Insects of the Year" has been characteristic of rosebug injury 
at Mr. Barclay's place for the last four or five outbreaks. 

The abundance of the bugs and the willingness of Mr. Barclay to 
cooperate offered a good opportunity to test out some measures of con- 
trol. Accordingly it was planned to test a new mixture (consisting of 16 
pounds of whale oil soap, 1 pint of crude carbolic acid in 100 gallons of 
water), powdered arsenate of lead and sulphur (made up in proportions 
in one case 1 part to 1 part and in the other one part of lead arsenate to 
5 parts of sulphur), commercial lime sulphur plus arsenate of lead, and 
self-boiled lime-sulphur plus arsenate of lead. 

The tree rows extended east and west and this infestation came in 
from the western end and progressed eastward. Beginning at the western 
end of a Duchess row on June 16th, the first tree was coated with powd- 
ered arsenate of lead and sulphur ( 1 to 1) the second tree with the car- 
bolic-whale-oil-soap mixture, the third with powdered arsenate of lead and 
sulphur (1 to 5), the fourth with powdered arsenate of lead and sulphur 
(1 to 1), the fifth with carbolic-acid-whale-oil-soap mixture, the sixth 
(another variety, Stayman Winesap) untreated, the seventh with powdered 
arsenate of lead and sulphur (1 to 5) and the balance of the row with car- 
bolic acid-whale-oil-soap mixture. The east half of two Duchess rows on 
the north side of the orchard wefre sprayed with self-boiled lime-sulphur 
to which arsenate of lead had been added at the rate of 2 pounds to 50 
gallons. The west half of the same two rows were treated with com- 
mercial lime-sulphur to which arsenate of lead had been added at the rate 
of 2 pounds to 50 gallons. The lime-sulphurs had been applied on June 
15th. 

On June 16th the trees were kept under observation for two hours. 
The powdered lead and sulphur treatment shdwed no effect except that 
perhaps a few more beetles were found on the ground than under the 
untreated trees. The carbolic-acid-whale-oil-soap mixture knocked about 
50 per cent of the beetles off the trees, seemed partly to paralyze many, 
and to kill some. After the first few minutes the mortality did not seem 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 321 

to increase and in fact of the 10 paralyzed beetles which were placed in 
a paste-board box and carried to the laboratory, not one died. 

The trees treated with the self-boiled and commercial lime-sulphurs 
showed a few bugs, nothing like the numbers on the untreated trees. 
There were decidedly fewer bugs and absolutely no new feeding on the 
trees treated with the former. 

On June 17th Mr. Richardson examined the conditions at the Barclay 
orchard and found them as follows: 

Tree No. 1. Powdered lead arsenate and sulphur (1 to 1), 55 dead 
beetles under the tree; many beetles on the tree, some of which were 
feeding. 

Tree No. 2. Carbolic-acid-whale-oil-soap mixture, 6 dead beetles under 
the tree; same conditions on tree as in No. 1. 

Tree No. 3. Powdered lead arsenate and sulphur (1 to 5), none dead 
under the tree; same conditions on tree as in No. 1. 

Tree No. 4. Powdered lead arsenate and sulphur (1 to 1), 11 dead 
beetles under tree, fewer beetles and less feeding than in 1, 2, or 3; not 
perfect control however. 

Tree No. 5. Carbolic-acid-whale-oil-soap mixture, 2 dead beetles under 
tree; beetles on tree about as No. 1. 

Tree No. 6. Other variety, (Stayman Winesap), no treatment. Only 
one beetle found on this tree; no signs of feeding; leaves are stiffer-than 
those of Duchess variety. 

Tree No. 7. Powdered lead arsenate and sulphur (1 to 5), no dead 
beetles under tree; fewer beetles, and less fresh feeding than in No. 1; 
not perfect control however. 

Trees 8 and so on to end of row, carbolic-acid-whale-oll-soap mixture. 

Practically no dead beetles under trees, many beetles on trees but not 
as many as at west end of orchard; considerable fresh feeding; odor 
of soap still strong. 

Trees treated with commercial lime-sulphur plus arsenate of lead aver- 
age 5 to 6 dead beetles under each tree; not as many beetles or anything 
like the amount of fresh feeding found on trees of plots 1, 2, 3. 4, 5. 7, 
and t. 

Trees treated with self -boiled lime-sulphur and arsenate of lead; no dead 
beetles under tree; few beetles on trees; no fresh feeding. 

All later observations served only to confirm the evidence gathered on 
the 17th that of all treatments used the self-boiled lime-sulphur plus 
lead arsenate was most effective, giving in fact almost perfect protection. 
In view of the fact that no dead beetles were found under the trees 
treated with self-boiled lime-sulphur, it seems likely that the mixture 
acted purely as a repellent and that the lead arsenate had little or nothing 
to do with the result. 

Potato Flee Beetle. 

The prevalent species this year was Epitrix cucumeris Harris., and its 
abundance was much greater than usual, attacking seriously both potato 
and tomato. 



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322 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The mixture recommended by Mr. Cameron^ consisting of one pound 
of pyrethrum, 10 gallons of water with enough soap to insure that a film 
of the spray will adhere to the leaves after spraying, was given a field 
trial. When the early planted potatoes on Mr. J. Harry Handle's place 
were about four inches high they were heavily infested with the flea 
beetle. Two rows were sprayed with a mixture composed of 1 pound ol 
pyrethrum, 10 ounces of whale oil soap and 10 gallons of water and two 
other rows with a combination of 10 ounces of whale oil soap and 10 
gallons of water. The mixtures were applied under a pressure of about 
100 pounds and about 100 gallons per acre were used. 

The potatoes treated with pyrethrum, soap and water were freed from 
beetles and kept free for fully ten days, and exhibited no traces of spray- 
ing injury. The potatoes treated with the soap and water alone were 
freed from the beetles for a very short time and were stunted. By the 
former large numbers of the insects were destroyed; by the latter very 
few were killed. 

Although the pyrethrum, soap and water mixture was efTective the 
cost of the operation is practically prohibitive. Pyrethrum costs under 
present conditions 50 cents a poimd at retail, which means about five 
dollars an acre for 10 days' protection. 

The tests with Bordeaux mixture on a field scale showed this year as 
last a 50 per cent reduction of the beetles' work on plants given four 
treatments with home-mixed 5-5-50 Bordeaux. The protection afforded by 
Bordeaux was better than that given by the dust mixture, apparently 
because of its greater adhesiveness and consequent longer period ot 
repellency. 

Strawberry WeeviL 

The life history, habits and methods of controlling this insect nxe set 
forth in New Jersey Bulletin No. 225 and no attempt will be made to 
review them in this account. The past season has brought out what 
appears to be a new method of hibernating. Many of the patches in 
southern New Jersey lie adjacent to woodlands in which popular opinion 
says that the beetles pass the winter. In company with Mr. Elwood 
Douglass on August 12th the writer searched the field in which the 
studies had been made when the weevils were very abundant and 
was unable in the course of an hour to find any traces of them. Elxamina- 
tion of the golden rod blooming along the edge of an adjacent woodland 
revealed a few specimens at work on the blossoms. Search of the wood- 
land itself was then undertaken. The forest floor was examined leaf by 
leaf, needle by needle, and stick by stick without finding a trace of the 
insect The patches of moss growing on the soil about the base? of the 
tree trunks and scattered over the soil between were then examined. 
Here on the moss stems, about 1/4 of an inch below the simimits, the 
beetles were found in abundance indicating that this type of wintering 
place was preferred to that which lies prone. The species of moss thus 
being utilized for winter quarters proved to be Dicranum acoparium (L) 

IN. J. SUUon Beport for 1914, pp. 377-878. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 3^3 

Hedw. There is a curious and interesting resemblance between the place 
selected by this insect for winter quarters and that used by the chinch 
bogs on the plains. The close standing stems of the moss like those of 
the bunch grass serve to prevent the insects from experiencing the large 
changes of temperature which take place in unprotected places. The 
upstanding stems of the moss» again like those of the bunch grass, enable 
the insect by moving up and down to regulate at least to some degree its 
relation to soil moisture. Approximately every two weeks since the 
beetles were found in the moss they have been examined. No changes 
have taken place except that they seem slowly to be migrating down the 
stems. 

A study of the methods of control was undertaken because many of 
the growers were losing about 50 per cent of the buds and none of the 
measures of control usually advocated appealed to them as practicable. A 
summary of the measures of control hitherto proposed shows that the 
methods fall into three groups: first, measures intended to prevent the 
insect from reaching the plants to be protected ; second, measures intended 
to render the protected plants distasteful; third, measures intended to 
destroy the insect 

Under the first head comes the practice of covering the beds with muslin 
or other similar material; a proceeding which is practicable in a garden 
but hardly to be considered on a field scale. Cultivating pistillate varie- 
ties is a most effective method of circumventing the pest but one which 
has few followers because the berries produced by such varieties are 
thought not to meet the market conditions well. The planting of pro- 
fusely blooming varieties is not adopted by the growers because the 
varieties in question are not thought to equal in returns the ones now 
in use. 

Trap crops in this as in most insect problems is largely an impracticable 
solution because of the additional labor involved all of which a change 
in the weather or the increase of the weevil's natural enemies may set 
at naught 

Under the second head come various sprays and dusts such as crude 
carbolic acid, Bordeaux mixture, lime, ashes, etc. None of these sub- 
stances or any others tried appear to afford a really satisfactory degree 
of protection. 

Under the third head are included the arsenical treatments. In the 
season of 1913 several growers were advised that it might be worth while 
to try the arsenate of lead applying it thoroughly with an undershot 
nozzle, Jnst before the buds opened. Satisfactory control by this means 
was not obtained. 

The damage done by the strawberry weevil Is practically all accom- 
plished between the opening of the earliest buds and the opening of the 
latest and the problem of its control is thereby limited to preventing its 
work during that period which is between two and three weeks in extent 
If a treatment could be found by means of which the plants could be 
protected either by destroying the beetles dr repelling them during this 
period the problem of preventing serious harm to the strawberry crop 



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324 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

would be solved. The ezperlmeiits of 1915 were laid out with a view to 
finding this type of remedy. 

The fact that Cameron^ had been able to destroy the potato flea beetle 
{Epitrix cucumeria Harr.) with a mixture of pyrethrum, soap and water, 
lead us to include this mixture among those to be tested. The recent 
development in the production of exceedingly finely divided dry arsenate 
of lead and sulphur led to a test of them alone and in combination. The 
well known repellent and insecticidal action of tobacco dust and decoction 
led us to include tests of these substances. For the sake of comparison 
powdered lime and powdered arsenite of zinc and arsenate of lead spray 
were included. 

The place selected for the work was a three- to four-acre sand field 
on the farm of Mr. Oesei^-near Ck)logne. A woodland bordered the 

southern and western aspects. All of the work was done on Heritage and 
the limited number of rows prevented the interpolation of checks. 

The northeast comer of the field was set aside for experimental work 
and the blocks were outlined as shown in the following diagram. The 
standard length of block was 40 feet. It was planned to start the treat- 
ments as soon as the beetles began to work and to maintain the coating 
until th^ maximum bloom was past 

Table of Treatments and Results. 



Plot No. 



Tbeatiiknt. 



Nature. 



Dates of 



Percentaee of 
Buds Cut 

5/5, 191575714, 1915 



Effects in 
Plants. 



Check at 
becinninK. 
1 

2 

8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 



10 

11 

12 

13 

Check at 
► end 



Nothing 

Whale oil soap and water, 1 os. 
to 1 gal 



Whale oil soap (10 oa.) Pyreth- 
nim (1 lb.) and water (10 gals.) 

Arsenate of lead (3 lbs.) ana 
watw (50 gals.) 

Arsenate of lead (1 lb.) and sul- 
phur (1 lb.) dust 

Arsenate of lead (1 lb.) and sul- 
phur (5 lbs.) dust 

Home-miTed Bordeaux (5-6-50). 

Tobacco dust 

Powdered arsenate of lead 

Powdered arsen te of zinc 



Hydrated lime 

Whale oil soap (600 ozs.) black 
leaf 40 (1 gal.) and water (500 
gab.) 



Dry pryethrum 

Pyrethrum (1 lb.) whale oil soap 
(10 OS.) and water 10 gals. . . . 



Nothing. 



4/30 

4/27 

4/28 

4/30, 5/6. 

4/28. 5/6 
4/28 
4/30 
4/30. 5/6 
4/30 

4/30. 5/6 



4/30 

4/30. 
4/30 



20 



10 
7 

6 
20 
12 

7 
Badly 



6 
11 
14 
38 



48 
52 

42 

25 

8 

12 
49 
51 
19 
burned. 

41 



42 
41 
53 
60 



Soorohed 
slightly. 
Soorohed 
slightly. 

None. 

None. 

None. 
None. 
None. 
None. 
Burned 
badiy. 
None. 



Scorched 
subtly. 
None. 

Soorohed 
sUi^t^ 



»Beport N. I Afl, JJxpt. BU., pp. S78-S80. 1914. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 325 

Limited application of the two miztoree of anenate of lead and anlpliiir 
made on May 18th when the strawberries were in full bloom did not 
apparently injure the open blossoma 

The field was selected and the plan of work laid out before the buds 
were showing at alL Owing to a brief illness and consequent pressure 
of routine duties the writer was unable to reach the field again until some 
of the first blossoms were beginning to open. At this time (April 27th) 
the beetles were present everywhere throughout the field* but were 
markedly more numerous as the woodland to the south was approadied. 

The whale oil soap, whale oil soap and pyrethrum, '^lackleaf 40," and 
whale oil soap having scorched the plants were not repeated. The arse- 
nite of zinc burned the plants badly and was discontinued. The arsenate 
of lead in water, pyrethrum, Bordeaux, tobacco dust, having proven 
relatively ineffective were not repeated. The powdered arsenate of lead 
and sulphur combinations, the powdered arsenate of lead and the hydrated 
lime having been found to give good protection between April 80th and 
May 5th were repeated on May 6th. 

Thus it appears that the mixture of powdered arsenate of lead and 
sulphur gave better protection than any substances tried and that the. 
mixture composed of one part of lead to one part of sulphur is a little 
the more effective. 

In view of this fact that neither the mixture containing the largest 
amount of sulphur nor the pure lead gave so good results as the mixture 
which had a smaller amount of sulphur it is obvious that it is neither 
the arsenate of lead alone nor the sulphur by itself which is effective but 
the mixture of the two. 

When the plants reached maximum bloom the effect of the successful 
treatments was very marked, the successfully treated blocks being as 
white as snow while the checks were green with a sprinkling of blossoms. 

There can be no question as to the effectiveness of this year's treat- 
ments. Whether these results can be duplicated next year remains to 
be seen. 

Anti-Peach-Borer CoAtAngs, 

Thus far in the study of the peach borer all the really promising 
measures of control have been concerned with an effort to prevent the 
larvse from gaining an entrance to the tree or to destroy it after it has 
entered. 

Extensive studies of coatings to prevent the larvse from entering the tree 
have been made by PetersS Smith', Sllngerland', Cory*,and others. The 
upshot of the whole effort seems to have been that while many of the 
coatings do not hurt the trees and do reduce the borers, none of them are 
entirely effective. 



^Memoirs Phlla. Soc. Prom. Agr. 1, PP 15-19, 190S. 
«N. J. Sto. Bull. 128, 1898. 
»N. T. Cornell SUtion, Bull, 176, 1899. 
'Maryland Station Bull. 176, 1913. 



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326 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Of all the agents used for destroying the larvae after it has entered the 
tree the knife and wire have proven the most efTectlve and are the 
dependence of the most successful peach growers at the present time. 

The insistent demand for methods of control whereby the injury done 
by the borer before it can be killed and removed may be prevented, has 
lead us in spite of the iailures of the past to see what could be done 
towards developing a method of preventing the larvae from entering. 

A number of the more promising substances were experimented with, 
tanglefoot, white wash (government formula), Borowax, sulfocide, white 
lead and pure linseed oil, concentrated lime and sulphur, and asphaltum 
of both soft and hard grades. 

The test with tanglefoot began in 1912 and covered a period of two 
years. The first year it greatly reduced the number of borers and did 
not apparently injure the trees. The second year of test on the same 
tree, it again reduced the borers but killed some of the trees and seriously 
injured more. 

The test with white wash began in 1913 covered two years ana 
reduced the borers without injuring the tree. The test with Borowax 
began in 1912 and covered three years. The first year it reduced the 
borers but seriously injured the trees to which it had been applied as a 
coating. The second and third year it was applied as a collar about the 
base of the tree and reduced the borers without injuring the tree. The 
test with sulfocide began in 1913, covered two years and reduced the 
borers very slightly without injuring the trees. The test with white 
lead and pure linseed oil began in 1913, covered two years and reduced 
the borers without injuring the trees. 

The test with winter-strength lime sulphur began in 1913 covered two 
years and reduced the borers without injuring the trees. The test with 
asphaltum began in 1913 covered two years and reduced the borers 
without injuring the trees. 

Thus it appears that this work has simply confirmed that of previous 
years — that there are many coatings which reduce the borers without 
injuring the tree, but that none of them absolutely or even approximately 
prevented infestation. Naturally of course, the question is "Why do 
they not prevent?" Here again our experience is quite in accord with 
that of other observers that these coatings do not prevent because they 
are not sufficiently complete. 

All lack completeness within the limits of the coating itself, that is, 
uncovered spots exist as the result of imperfect application or weathering. 
The coatings made with a soft grade of asphalt when applied with care 
appeared to show no uncovered spots but allowed them to appear as the 
result of the first season's weathering. In the trials of 1913 and 1914 
the material was applied with a brush or a paddle and the obtaining of 
a complete coating seemed difficult, but in 1915 a method of pouring the 
coating was devised and it was found easy to make it complete. 

Matters were at this point when Blakeslee and Scott came out with 
their card collar protectors. Both described their protectors before the 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 327 

27th annual meeting (1914-1915) of the American Association of Economic 
Entomologists, and the pieces of apparatus by means of which they pro- 
posed to prevent the entrance of the borer were practically Identical. 

Essentially the method consisted in the placing of a wide paper or 
fiber collar about the base of the trees having first mounded the soil 
about the tnmk to serve as a support, and cementing it firmly to the 
tree in such a fashion that the larvae have to crawl over and under the 
outer rim before reaching the tnmk of the tree below the coating. The 
theory seems to have been that the larvse would not have strength enough 
to make this long journey successfully. 

A test of these protectors as compared with asphalt coatings was 
planned and executed by Mr. Harry B. Weiss and the writer. Cards 
were purchased from Scott together with a couple of gallons of sealing 
material. Three different orchards were selected — two on very sandy 
soil near South Amboy and one on considerably heavier soil near Middle- 
town. The first orchard at South Amboy consisted of young peach trees 
averaging about 2 1/2 inches in diameter and the second of peach trees 
about 5 to 6 inches through. The orchard at Middletown was composed 
of peach trees 6 Inches or more in diameter. On June 17th and 18th 
the Scott Protector of proper size was applied according to directions to 
32 of the five- to six-inch trees at South Amboy. On the same date the 
Scott cards were applied to 19 of the two and one half-inch trees. On 
June 24th the Scott protectors were placed on 20 of the six-inch trees at 
Biiddletown. 

At South Amboy three types of soft asphaitum coatings were used, 
the first of which was simply a two and one-half to three-inch plate or 
collar poured on the soil about the base of the tree, the second a coating 
starting 6 to 8 inches above the soil and extending downward to the 
surface where it spread out as a collar 2^ to Z inches wide, the third 
a coating beginning 6 to 8 inches above the surface of the soil and extend- 
ing down to the points where the first large roots came off and then 
spreading out to form a two andone-half to three inch-wide collar. The 
asphalt treatments were limited to the two and one-half inch trees. 

A check stood beside every treated row and where possible a check 
row on each side of the treated row was secured. 

The summer rains were heavy and the winds strong. The soil was 
washed and the trees were whipped about. In the young orchard great 
cavities were found about the bases of many of the trees. 

The trees at South Amboy were wormed on November 4th and Novem- 
ber 5th by Mr. Weiss with the following results. 

"LarvK were one-eighth to three-quarters of an inch long, the majority 
measuring one-half an inch or less. Many of the protectors have broken 
loose and slid down the trunk. Others are twisted. Some have flattened 
out following the washing away of the supporting soil. Only one was 
perfectly sealed at time of worming. The few cards which were sealed 
with soft asphaitum showed imperfections. Sealing materials sticks 
to the tree but not to the protector. Many of the flaps are open. Under 



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328 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

each protector on the young trees there is a cavity around the trunk due 
to swaying. No larvae are found above the protector. All are below, 
some just under and others five, six, seven and eight inches below. 
Soil under the protectors and close to the trunk is dry. In a grassy 
orchard this wQuld make an ideal condition for field mice. 

"In the old orchard the protectors have stood up better. There is no 
cavity about the trees such as found about the young trees. Many breaks 
occur in the sealing material and borers have entered through them. 
Flaps have stuck imperfectly. Under protectors were found a nest of 
field mice, colonies of sow bugs, crickets, ground beetles, cocoons, angle- 
worms, and empty peach borer cocoons. One tree here was found per 
fectly sealed and no borers were discovered in it. 

"The row treated with asphalt coating and surface collar showed two 
trees on which the collar and coating were in good condition. Coatings 
on many of the trees have weathered badly. Lenticels show through. 
Some of the collars have broken away and slipped down. Many borers 
have entered breaks in asi)halt above the collar and at the collar where 
it has broken loose. 

"The row treated with the asphalt collar showed only the collar slipped 
down or broken away and largely covered up with sand. 

"The row treated with a coating and below-ground collar showed most 
of the borers above the ring where it had broken away from the coating. 
Borers also entered lentlcles where, the same had broken through the 
asphalt coating." 

At Middletown the trees were wormed on November 10th and the 
following notes were taken. 

"Protectors are in good shape as far as form is concerned. Much 
grass is around them. Everyone is imperfectly sealed, especially about 
the flap. Sealing material failed to hold the cards close to the trunk. 
This orchard has been regularly wormed by the owner for years." 



Pa 



Character of protector. 



Time of 
placing — ^worming. 






pi 






S- Amboy ^ 

young orchard. . Scott Protector 6/17 & 18 11 /4 A 5 i 

** . . None I ** I ** I 

*' . . Asphalt coating and surface I | 

collar I '* " 

'* . . None I *' " I 

" . . Surface collar of asphalt . . . ' " *' j 

. . None •* *' I 

** . . Asphalt coating with below ** " 

, ground collar 1 

S. Amboy 

old orchard .... Scott protector *' i *' 

** .... None '* *• 

Middletown Scott protector 6/24 1 1 /lO 

** None " *• i 



19 
19 

18 
19 
19 
17 
13 



32 
11 
20 

14 



3.3 .7 

4.0 ^ 

I 

2.4 

4.2 1.8 

2.4 4.8 

7.2 

4.3 29 

7.5 5 5 
13 ^ 

1.6 4.8 
6.3 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 329 

It thus appears that neither the Scott protectors nor the asphalt coat- 
ings give satisfactory protection, and that result Is due to Incompleteness 
of the covering. 

Effect of Moisture Upon lietfaal Hij^ Temperature. 

The work of Goodwin^ has shown that moisture In the form of relative 
humidity of the air Influences the temperature, at which Insects suc- 
cumb, only to a slight extent. He shows that moist heat kills the rice 
weevil iCatandra oryzae L.) at from S'C. to 4*C. lower than dry heat, 
that as a rule the difference between the lethal temperature with moist 
and with dry heat is much less, and that the Indian meal moth {Plodia 
interpunctella Hbn.) succumbs somewhat more readily to dry heat than 
to moist heat. 

The maximum difference between dry and moist heat appears to have 
been about 60 per cent, which is probably but not necessarily as large as 
would obtain in practical work of utilizing heat as an insecticide. Furth- 
ermore, it occurred to the writer, that the introduction of seeds, which 
seems a perfectly practical proceeding, into an already heated chamber 
with the consequent sudden rise of temperature might give dlfTerent 
results. 

As the opportunity has arisen in connection with other studies, a 
series of tests with the bean weevil {Bruchus obtectus Say.) supple- 
mented with a few experiments on the pea weevil {B. pisorum Say.) have 
been made. In general the plan has been (1) to determine the lethal 
temperature by heating dlfTerent stages of the insect on a water bath 
until death resulted, consuming not more than ten minutes In the rise 
of temperature from that of room 70 "F. to 80**F. to the lethal degree, 
without regard to factors other than temperature; (2) to standardize 
the temperature and moisture in the incubatohs using about the lethal 
temperature in both Instruments and saturation In one chamber and the 
lowest possible relative humidity in the other; (3) to introduce Into 
each Incubator wire cages containing as many individuals of the stage 
being studied as possible; (4) to remove a wire cage from each incu- 
bator at half hour intervals thereafter. The air taken from outside the 
building for each machine was drawn through the incubators at the 
rate of approximately 1 liter per minute. The water used for saturating 
was distilled. 

In the case of the bean weevil, twelve adults were subjected to a 
rapidly rising temperature. Signs of heat rigor appeared at 104 "F. 
(40*C.) and all were dead at 122'*F. (50"C.). The experiment with many 
more specimens was reported with the same results. Putting the matter 
more in detail we may summarize the first experiment by saying that four 
died at 104"^ (40''C.) three more at 113°F. (45''C.) three more at 
117.5'F. (47.5''C.) and two more at 122*'F. (50'C.). 

In the case of the weevil inside the bean, two lots of beans, composed 
of twenty-five each, were subjected to 125''F. (37.40*C.) with no mortality 
In larvae, pupae or adults. A lot of 25 was subjected to 135"^ (43*C.) with 



Vounial of Kconomic Entomology, Vol. 7, pp. 313-322. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



330 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

a 100 per cent killed of stages above mentioned. A lot subjected to 
140'F. (45.7*'C.) showed all infestation dead. 



Test of tlie Adnlt Weevils. 



Date. 



Time exposed. 



Temper- 
ature. 



Relative 
humidity. 



Number 
living. 



Number 
deeuL 



July 16, '15. 



30 min. . . 
60 min. . . 

1 ^ hours, 

2 hours. . . 
30 min . . . 
60 min. . . 

1 Vi hours. 

2 hours. . . 



125°F. 



10 




10 






O 
lO 
lO 
lO 

o 

lO 
lO 
lO 



Test of Larvae, Papae, and Adults. 



Date. 


Time exposed. 


Temper- 
ature. 


ReUtive 
humidity. 


Number of 

larvae 
aUve-dead 


Number of 

pupe 
aUve^dead 


Number o 

adulta 
afive-deKl 


July 16,*15 


30 min 


135°F 

** 


100% 
100% 


aU 
aU 
aU 

a.i 


aU 
all 
all 
all 


all 




Ihr. to2>ghr8. 

30 min 






1 hr. to 2 H hrs 




July 24/15 


30 min 

I hrto2Hhrs 

30 min ... 


i35°F, 


4% 

4% 

100% 

100% 


aU 

aU 
aU 

aU 


aU 

aU 
aU 

aU 






I hr. to 2.4 hrs 




July29,'15,Hto2Hhrs 

i>4to2Hhr8 


130°F. 
.30°F. 


5% 
100% 


aU 
all 


aU 
aU 





The first table shows clearly that a difference of from 92 to 94 per 
cent relative humidity has practically no effect upon the lethal tem- 
perature for the unprotected bean weevil. It also indicates that time of 
exposure is an important factor, but comparing this table with the first 
item of the next table shows clearly that an increase of 10*F. in the 
lethal high temperature is quite sufficient to annul the influence of time. 

The second table is more complex and requires closer study. The 
July 16th item indicates that 94 per cent increase in relative humidity 
has no effect upon the lethal temperature. The July 24th item Indi- 
cates that time is a consideration. The July 29th item indicates that a 
drop of b^F. in the lethal temperature gives complete inununity. Taking 
the second table as a whole it indicates that large increases in relative 
humidity — say 94 to 96 per cent — ^have less influence on the lethal tempera- 
ture than has a change of S^F. 

Test of the Ijarvae of the Pea Weevil Inside. 



Date. 


Time exposed. 


Temper- 
ature. 


Relative 
humidity. 


Larvae 
dead-afive. 


Remarks. 


Aug. 4, '15. . . 


30 min 

60 min 

30 min 

60 min 


135° F. 


5.4% 
5.4% 
100% 
100% 


9 
8 
7 
9 


No pupMor 
adults preMnC 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 331 

This table seems to indicate that both time and relative humidity 
influences the lethal temperature for the pea weevil. As a matter of 
fact tbe peas still contained a great deal of moisture and that may 
have influenced the result 

Potato I>ii8tliig and Spraying. 
B^golar Crop. 

This year as last the work of dusting and spraying potatoes, while 
a cooperative project between the Departments of Plant Pothology and 
Entomology, has been carried on under the immediate direction of the 
writer. In this case, however, he was assisted by Mr. H. Clay Lint, 
Research Fellow in the Department of Plant Pathology, and in view 
of the large measure of independence accorded to Mr. Lint, the Ehitomolo- 
gist has requested him to write up the detailed results and suggested 
that his report be published as a part of Plant Pathologist's report. 
Persons who may be interested in the detailed account will flnd it in 
that report The writer purposes merely to set forth certain general 
phases of this work. 

The acreage and distribution of the work this year was slightly 
less than last, about 18 acres at Freehold, 25 acres at Mt. Holly and 10 
acres at BUmer. The cooperation with Mr. Frank Jones of Freehold and 
Mr. J. Harry Handle of Elmer was continued while Mr. John Black of 
Mt Holly took the place of Mr. Robert Dilatush of Robbinsville. 

The plan of work was not materially changed. The experiments were 
so arranged as to show the relative values of the arsenical dusts and 
Bordeaux sprays in the control of insects and diseases and in increasing 
the yields per acre. The work was again organized as a cooperation 
between certain insecticide, fungicide and spraying-machinery manu- 
facturers and the Experiment Station on the one hand and between the 
Eixperiment Station and certain potato growers on the other. The com- 
mercial concerns were the Union Sulphur Company, the Corona Chemical 
Company, the Kil-Tone Company, the Dust Sprayer Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and the Bateman Manufacturing Company. The Union Sulpnur 
Company furnished the sulphur and made up the dust mixtures. The 
Corona Chemical Company furnished the arsenate of lead. The Kil-Tone 
Company furnished the Kil-Tone. At this point it should be said that 
Mr. F. B. Embree, Manager of the Burlington County Farmers' Exchange, 
furnished a potato spray called Tonicide, took personal interest in ana 
very materially contributed towards the successful issue of the work at 
Mt Holly. The Dust Sprayer Manufacturing Company furnished three 
dusters. The Bateman Manufacturing Company furnished two new 
sprayers — one at Freehold and one at Mt. Holly. The Experiment Station 
furnished the materials for Bordeaux, and put on and carried cut the 
test The cooperating growers furnished the fields, plants and the 
labor necessary to make the applications and helped to keep account of 
the results. 



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332 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Spraying and dusting started when the potatoes were about six inches 
high and was continued at intervals of about two weeks until the vineB 
met in the rows and rendered further treatment likely to do more harm 
than good. 

At Freehold the vines grew so rapidly that only three sprayings could 
be given but at both Mt. Holly and Elmer four applications were made. 
At Freehold the variety grown was the Giant and at Mt Holly and 
Elmer the variety was Cobbler. The mixtures were applied at all places 
in such a fashion as to give the potato plants as complete a coating as 
practicable. Approximately 100 gallons of spraying mixture was used 
in each application for each acre of plants. Approximately 30 pounds of 
the dust mixture were used on each acre in each application. 

These amoimts meant: (1) 10 pounds of copper sulphate, 10 pounds 
of lime and 6 pounds of lead arsenate (30+ per cent arsenic oxide) for 
each acre each application of home-mixed Bordeaux; (2) 25 pounds of 
sulphur and 6 pounds of lead arsenate (30+ per cent arsenic oxide) for 
each acre each application of powdered sulphur lead; (3) 25 pounds of 
sulphur and 6 pounds of arsenite of zinc for each acre each application 
of powdered sulphur zinc; (4) 6 pounds of lead arsenate (30+ per cent 
arsenic oxide); (5) 20 pounds of Kil-Tone, (6) 20 pounds of Tonicide 
(7) 2 pounds of Paris Green. 

Insofar as practicable a block of potatoes treated as a check was inter- 
polated between each of the treatments. At Freehold the check was 
Paris green, at Elmer the check was really Bordeaux, and at Mt Holly 
the check was arsenate of lead. 

Freehold. 



Plot Number. 


1 Treatment. 

1 


Yields in Bushels per acre. 
Firsts. Seconds Totals 


Increase 

over Paris 

Green. 


1 and 7 


Bordeaux. 


407.75 
407.49 
403.00 
429.50 


.26 


2, 4. 6, 8. 10, 12 

3 and 9 

5 and 11 


Paris Green 

Sulphur Zinc 

Sulphur Lead 


0.00 

4.49 

21.76 . 



Elmer. 



Plot Numb^. 


Treatment 


Yields in Bushels r er acre. 


Increaae 




Firsts. 


Seconds. 


Totals. 


over lead. 


1 and 11 

2, 6, 8, 12 

3 and 9 

4 and 10 

Sand 11 


Sulphur Lead. 298.4 
Bordeaux 323.275 
Sulphur Zinc. . . 338.16 

Kil-Tone ! 328.3 

J.<ad 303.85 


67.22 

64.075 

63.775 

62.835 

74.65 


365.62 

387.35 

401.925 

391.135 

378.50 


12.88 

8.85 

23.42 



Mt. HoUy. 





Treatment. 


Yields 


in Bushels per acre. 


Increase over 


Plot Number. 


Firsts. 


Seconds. 


Totals. 


lead alone. 


1 


Sulphur Lead. . 

Bordeaux 

Sulphur Zinc. . . 

Tonicide 

Lead 

Bordeaux 


238.68 

273.85 

261.51 

220.0 

209.95 

242.86 


34.88 
32.16 
34.46 
34.62 
38.65 
27 75 


273.56 
306.01 
295.97 
254.62 
248.60 
270.61 


24.96 


2 


57.41 


3 


47.37 


4 

6 


e.03 
0.0 J 


6 


22.01 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



33S 



The dust distributing machines gave satisfactory service. The "Iron 
Age" sprayers in use at Freehold and Mt Holly were very satisfactory, 
maintaining 100 pounds pressure when covering four rows at « single 
trip. 

Examining the Freehold table shows that the yields of all treatments 
are very similar, repeating the experience of lasit year. Examination 
of the Elmer table shows the same slight variation in yield. Examina- 
tion of the Mt Holly table shows an increase for all treatments ranging 
from 6.02 bushels for "Tonicide" to 57.41 bushels for home-mixed Bor- 
deaux. 

All insects except the potato flea beetle were satisfactorily controlled 
by all treatments. 

Some figures on the relative effect of the different dusts and sprays 
upon flea beetle feeding have been accumulated and are set forth in the 
following table. 



nut 

No. 


Treatment 


Total 
puneturee. 


Number of 
leaves. 


Average 

number of 

holea per leaf. 


1 


Sulphur LecMi 


47.828 
30.722 
39.665 
30.638 
44.015 
19.680 
74 .410 


358 
353 
379 
336 
360 
262 
360 


183.60 


2 
3 


Bordeaux. 

Sulphur Zino 


87.03 
104 66 


4 
5 
• 
7 


Tonioida. 

Lead Araenata 

Bordeaux. 

Paris Green 


117.96 
124.76 
75.115 
206.20 



These fttcts confirm the conclusions reached last year by Mr. Cameron 
that of all the substances tested Bordeaux gives the best protection and 
that it eliminates about one-half the usual injury. 

When ft is understood that the difference in flea beetle control exerted 
by the different mixtures are about the same in all places it does not seem 
likely that the difference is adequate to explain the large increases at 
Mt Holly. Insect control exerted by the different treatments must 
therefore, be eliminated as the principal cause of the difference in yield. 
Likewise because the amount of disease has been inadequate to bring 
about these differences, diseases must be eliminated in our search for 
the principal cause. Differences in the soil conditions in different parts 
of the experimental fields, which are doubtless responsible for small 
variations in yield will not explain such differences as now found at Mt 
Holly. No doubt the slight amount of insect injury, the small amount 
of plant disease injury, and differences in soil conditions may well serve 
to explain such variations as were found at Freehold and Elmer, but 
they are inadequate to account for such variations in yield as are 
exhibited at Mt Holly. 

It will be remembered that last year the outstanding difference between 
Bhner and Robbinsville on the one hand which showed large increases in 
yield in the treated block, and Freehold on the other, which showed only 
■light Increases was the greater yield per acre, the lowest yielding block 
at Freehold giving 84.93 bushels per acre more than the lowest yielding 

12 



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iU N£W JERSEY AC^RICULtURAL C6LL£<3E 

at RobbinsTille and 62.26 bushels more than the lowest at Elmer. It 
would seem that this difference In favor of Freehold must be due to the 
better growing conditions with which the potato plant was surrounded 
or possibly to the variety (which does not seeifi lilcely), and Mr. Cameron 
at the time advanced the idea that the excellent growing conditions at 
Freehold may have stimulated the plant to such an extent that the 
simulative effect of the mixture was overcome. 

This year the same thing seems to have happened at Elmer, the grow- 
ing conditions have been so good that the stimulation they afforded tlie 
potato plants has ovoMome the stimulative effect afforded by the mixtaree. 

In the light of these conclusions — that when extra large yields axe 
obtained, the stimulative effect of Bordeaux is likely to be lost — ^it is 
significant to examine the Mt. Holly case. Here the Bordeaux yield is 
81.3 bushels an acre less than at Elmer, 101.7 bushels less than at Free- 
hold and the stimulative effects of the spraying and dusting treatments 
is marked. It seems to be very much as Mr. Jones has summed it up 
to the writer, "it pays well to spray the roots of the potato." 

At the same time we should remember that such growing conditions 
as were furnished to parts of New Jersey last year are comparatively 
rare, and that such soil conditions as Mr. Jones has at Freehold are still 
more rare. 

Figures on acre cost of the different dusts and spray depend upon 
such variable factors that no really satisfactory notion can be given. 
Speaking roughly however, it is safe to say that it will vary from Hve 
to ten dollars. There was really very little difference between the cost 
of dusting and spraying except when an arsenical was used by itself. 

For facts regarding the relative values of dusts and sprays attention 
must this year largely be limited to Mt. Holly. It is there shown that 
while the returns from sulphur zinc and sulphur lead are not as large 
as those from home-mixed Bordeaux, they are good. 

Second Crop. 

After the preceding discussion was written the data from dusting and 
spraying on second crop of Cobblers on Mr. Handle's farm came in. 
Briefly stated, the field consisted of fourteen acres planted with last 
year's second crop seed which had been kept in cold storage. Although 
the time of planting extended over a considerable period — July 27th 
to August 10th — the rate of growth was such that effects of the difference 
in time of starting were apparently overcome. The following blocks, 
consisting of more than one-half acre each, were laid off and treated as 
indicated: Plot No. 1 home-mixed Bordeaux (5-5-50) plus 3 pounds of 
arsenate of lead (30+ per cent arsenic oxide); Plot No. 2 sulphur (5 
lbs.) lead arsenate (1 lb.) (dust); Plot No. 3 lead arsenate (3 lbs. to 50 
gals, of water); Plot No. 4 home-mixed Bordeaux; Plot No. 5 sulphur 
(6 lbs.) zinc arsenite (1 lb.) (dust); Plot No. 6 lead arsenate; Plot No. 
7 Bordeaux; Plot No. 8 sulphur lead arsenate; Plot No. 9 lead arsenate; 
Plot No. 10 Bordeaux; Plot No. 11 sulphur zinc arsenite; Plot No. 12 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



335 



lead arsenate; Plot No. 13 Bordeaux; Plot No. 14 sulphur lead arsenate. 

Three triplications of dusting and spraying mixtures were made, tlie 
last occurring at a time when the Tines were meeting In the rows. 
The first application came August 23rd, the second September 8th, and 
the third September 24th. Approximately 100 gallons of spray were used 
on each acre each application and approximately 30 pounds of dust were 
used for each acre each treatment. 

No Insects other than the Colorado potato beetle were present In 
troublesome numbers and that species succumbed to arsenlcals. Early 
blight was, however, very abundant The Bordeaux treated plots were 
much better protected from blight than any other and remained green 
after the others of similar date of planting were dead. 



Plot No. 



Treatment. 



Budiek 
perAore. 


iDereaeein 

budiebper 

Aore over lead 


236.75 
281.34 
227.34 
229.13 


00.00 
44.60 
-9.41 
-7.62 



3, 6, aad 12.. . . 
4.7. 10 and 12... 

Sand 14 

Sand 11 



Lead Arsenate. 

Home-mixed Bordeaux. . 

Sulphur Lead 

Su^ur Zing 



In ealculating the results, plots 1 and 2 have been omitted because 
the Colorado beetle damage before the regular treatments were made was 
such as materially to affect the yield. 

No doubt the substantial increase which followed treatment with Bor- 
deaux mixture was the natural result of its better control of early blight 
The differences between the yields from lead sulphur and zinc sulphur 
on the one hand and lead arsenate alone on the other are easily within 
the limits of experimental error. 

As a matter of fact, Mr. Handle sold a considerable portion of his 
second crop at the rate of $1.12 a bushel and could haye sold all of It 
at the same figure if he had cared to do so. In view of the fact that his 
Bordeaux application cost him about $8.25 an &cre his net profit on spray- 
Ing was In this Instance not less than |40 an acre. 



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REPORT ON MOSQUITO WORK 
FOR 1915 



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Report on Mosquito Work for 1915 

Thomas J. Headlee. 



The attention of the Entomologist and his field assistants has been 
devoted to forwarding the control of the salt marsh mosquito, the exten- 
sion of aid to boards of health a;id others interested in mosquito control, 
and to furthering in every practical way the work of the county mosquito 
extermination conunissions. 

Salt Marsh Mosquito Woric 

The salt marsh work must be considered under two divisions, the 
first of \i^hich is concerned with direct work of survey and drainage in 
cooperation with local boards of health, and second with the drainage 
of the salt marsh through the work of the county mosquito extermination 
commissions. 

Salt Bfarsh Drainage by tiie Experiment Station. 

Plans have been prepared for six different pieces of work and four 
have been carried out. The pieces planned for were: (i) ditching in 
Maps I, 2, 3 of Bergen County; (2) diking, sluicing, tide gating, Map 
I of Bergen Coimty; (3) ditching in Map 4 of Bergen County; (4) 
cleaning of the ditching in Ocean County; (5) ditching in Stafford 
Township, Ocean County; (6) ditching in the Borough of Ocean City 
and Upper Township of Cape Ma/ County. The pieces of work 
carried out a,rc numbers i, 3, 5, and 6. 

In Bergen County. 

As set forth in last year's report, the inspection service maintained on 
the Hackensack Valley throughout the mosquito breeding season of 1914 
served to demonstrate that at certain times mosquitoes bred at various 
points throughout the entire area and that the Bergen section as well 
as the Hudson County section must be drained if the cities and towns 
lying along Its edges and for many miles to the north and west were to 
be protected. Accordingly, drainage plans were prepared and the Experi- 
ment Station decided to spend approximately $7,000. This sum, when 
taken with the amount the county mosquito commission expected to 
spend on the marsh, it was hoped would prove sufficient to drain the 
worst spots. 

In order to relieye that portion of Bergen, Essex and Passaic counties, 
which In previous years had suffered from flights of Aedea cantator 

(339) 



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340 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Coq., it was decided to begin work in the southern portion of the county. 
Accordingly, after complying with the provisions of Chapter 134, Iawb 
of 1906, bids for cutting 200,000 feet or more of ditching on Maps 1, 2, S, 
and 4 of Bergen County were advertised for, and on May 22nd, 1915 tluree 
bids were presented; that of the U. S. Drainage and Irrigation Company 
being the lowest was accepted and a contract entered Into with that oon- 
cem to cut 225,000 linear feet of 10 by 30 inch ditching or its equlviaent 
On March 31st all preliminaries had been completed and the contractor 
was notified to begin work. 

Scarcely had the trenching begun when an enormous brood of mosquito 
wrigglers was discovered on the central part of Map 1. Throogfaout 
about six hundred acres of the tract lying between Klngsland Creek and 
Saw Mill Creek the breeding was bad — as bad as any the writer has 
ever seen. The ditching of this area was hastened to the utmost extent, 
the water run off and a whole brood practically eliminated. 

No sooner had this brood been eliminated than another made its 
appearance in the north end of the area on Map 3 on the marsh lying 
near the woodlands and to some extent in the woodlands themaetvas. 
The gangs rapidly worked north putting the minimum amount of ditching 
in Map 2 and concentrating on the breeding grounds on Map 3. Here 
the utmost speed succeeded in eliminating only about 95 per cent of the 
brood. 

The very speed with which the territory had been covered. Involving 
the cutting of 225,000 linear feet of 10 by 30 inch ditching or its equiva- 
lent, prevented the proper operation of the cleaning and deepening; gangs. 
In Map 3 that portion of the ditches near the woodlands ran for several 
hundred feet over what had apparently only recently been cedar erwamp 
and ditches cut with the ordinary patented ditching spade were so full 
of roots and obstructions as to be imserviceable. Gangs of men were 
then set to work on cleaning out this ditching by cutting out and 
removing roots, tree trunks and stumps. This was hard and slow work 
and the contractor asked for an adjustment on the ditches about the 
woodland. Report from the inspector in charge, Mr. Chas. S. Beckwith. 
supplemented by personal study led the writer to conclude that to insist 
on putting the ditches down to 30 inches would fail to give better drainage 
to the area. Accordingly, he prepared a modification of the specifications 
as applied to this particular cedar swamp area and submitted the same to 
the Director of the New Jersey State Experiment Station for his approval 

After making a personal investigation of the conditions the Director 
approved the change and the contractor was promptly informed of the 
action. Briefly stated the modification applied to only those ditches about 
the central woodlands in Map 3 and required that the ditcfaeff be not 
less than 12 Inches at their sources, that they have a regular and even 
fall to their outlets, and that they be so cleared of obstructions that water 
could lie dead in them nowhere. This modification was granted only 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT, 341 

wiUi the proviso that they should efficiently drain the area. In ease 
they did not do this they should be driven deeper. As a matter of tact 
the drainage afforded by them has been efficient. 

An immense amount of time was consumed in this work and the time 
limit of the contract was reached and passed. As the contractor was 
steadily at work and as he made every effort to prevent breeding over 
the territory served by the ditching it seemed well to allow him to con- 
tinue. In this way all the ditching on Maps 2 and 3 was brought up to 
satisfactory compliance with the requirements. By this time the con- 
tractor had received two-thirds of the stipulated pay. The question tiien 
became one of bringing the ditches on Map 1 up to standard. 

The territory comprised in Map 1 was placed under dike and riuiee 
gates many years ago, apparently for agricultural purposes. The usual 
result followed — the marsh shrank and the surface level was lowered. 
Much of the old dike had been washed away and the sluice gates at 
KlngBland Creek destroyed. Through a ten to fifteen foot breach Just 
south of the Boonton Branch of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western 
Railroad bridge the waters of the Hackensack River poured into the area 
from a point a little above low water to high tide, and the monthly 
extra high tides poured over the remains of the dike for long distances. 
The only outlet for all this inflow in addition to the rainfall waa two 
tide sluices each six feet wide by three feet high. Obviously this opening 
was barely enough to take care of the inflow through the breach Just 
south of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad bridge not to 
mention the water which came in the monthly extra high tides and the 
rainfall. In normal seasons this area was covered by water in the spring 
but by midsummer was usually uncovered by evaporation. 

This breach was eliminated by building an earthen dam, and two 
sluices were set in the mouth of Kingsland Creek. Thus the daily 
intake from the river was stopped and the outlet doubled. Under good 
conditions the water fell to a point between four and six inches below the 
surface of the low parts of the marsh and from ten to twelve inches 
bdow the surface in the central portion. 

As most of the roots left in the ditches on Map 1 were fifteen inches 
or more below the surface of the sod they were constantly under water 
and exceedingly difflciUt to remove. 

When formally requested to remove the roots from these ditches, the 
contractor mainthined that the drainage was as satisfactory now as it 
would be after they were removed, and that their removal, exc^t at 
unreasonable cost, was impossible. 

Both the Entomologist as Executive Officer and the Director of the 
Experiment Station felt that the drainage effected by the ditches in their 
present condition was not satisfactory, that conditions would be decidedly 
better if they were deepened to conform to specifications, and that the 
speelfications upon which the contractor bid gave him due wmmlnc. 
Aecordingly the whole matter was turned over to the Attorney General 
for advice. 



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342 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Realizing the extent to which the drainage of the territory on Bfap 1 
depended upon keeping the waters of the Hackensack Riyer out and 
providing ample outlets, a plan for completing the dike along the rtfSt 
from the mouth of Saw Mill Creek to the Boonton Branch of the Deli- 
ware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad and the placing of a double 
tide gate with necessary bulk-heading at the mouth of Kingsland Creek 
and two single gates at other points was worked out Bids for the dik- 
ing and tid^gating were called for separately. One bid of practically 
fifty cents a linear foot was offered for the diking and two blda— one of 
four thousand and another of three thousand dollars — ^for the tide-gating. 
The bid on the diking was rejected on the groimd that a single bid did 
not constitute competition and the others on the ground that the eon- 
struction of the full number of gates without the dike would be an 
unwise expenditure of the funds in hand. Later on, Bergen County 
placed a pair of tide gates with perhaps one hundred and fifty feet of 
bulk-heading in the mouth of Kingsland Creek following more or less 
completely the specifications prepared by us at a contract cost of $1,800. 

At this juncture, the office of the State Comptroller decided to hold 
up all funds for permanent improvement until the exact relation between 
the State's income and outgo could be determined. When the funds 
for permanent improvement were released we found it impossible because 
of technical difficulties in administration of the act of 1906, coupled with 
the short period of time left in the fiscal year, to do further work on 
Maps 1, 2 and 3, and therefore turned our attention to the salt marsh of 
the Borough of Carlstadt which lies just north of Map 3. Sealed pro- 
posals for cutting 60,000 feet or more of 10 by 30 inch ditching on this 
marsh were opened on October llth, 1916. Three bids were offered, the 
lowest of which was 2 2/3 cents a foot. 

Mr. Fred. A. Reiley of Atlantic City being the lowest bidder and 
having demonstrated that he had the tools and machinery with which to 
do the work was awarded the contract, subject to the filing of proper 
papers. Mr. Reiley was given a contract for the cutting of 90,000 linear 
feet of 10 by 80 inch ditching or its equivalent and at a total cost of 
|2,400. Three hundred dollars were reserved with which to do such 
additional work on the area as could not be classified under the 10 by 
80 inch ditching or its equivalent 

All papers relative to the initiation of the work were filed with the 
State Comptroller on October 31, 1915, and the contractor was instructed 
to begin work. This he did. 

The work began promptly and was in progress at the close of the fiscal 
year. Owing to the presence of roots and stumps throughout this area the 
cutting of the ditching contemplated is certain to prove a difficult matter. 
AnUdpation of this cov4iUon doubUess lead the cootra^or^ to bid the 
w\ie\i»U7 hi^h fiiwei, 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 343 

In Ocean Ooontjr. 

Being aware that much of the salt marsh trenching in Ocean County 
has become so clogged as not only to fail to drain but actually to increase 
the water surface for breeding mosquitoes it was planned to clean the 
ditching that had already been installed. It was planned to dean 
thoroughly 100,000 linear feet and to remove the blockages from 600,000 
more. Proposals were submitted for this work, the lowest of which was 
13,400. Bids were rejected because the figures were belieyed to be too 
high. Just at this junction the holp-up in funds for permanent improye- 
ment occurred and it was decided in conference that the county mosquito 
commission (which had Just at Ihat time receiyed a small appropriation) 
should do the cleaning with its own labor tod that the money from the 
State should be spent in new work. Accordingly, the county undertook 
the work of cleaning and coyering all the ditches of the county, which 
totaUed 1,349,217 feet, and did the work for about |1,200. 

In accordance with the understanding reached with the county author- 
ities, as soon as funds were released we adyertised for bids for cutting 
150,000 or more linear feet of 10 by 30 inch ditching or its equivalent 
on the salt marsh of Stafford Township, Ocean County, as laid down on 
'Stafford Township Maps 1, 2, and 3. Four bids were received on September 
14th, 1915, and that of the U. S. Drainage and Irrigation Company being the 
lowest ($.0148 linear foot) was accepted and a contract for cutting 
189489 linear feet of 10 by 30 inch ditching or its equivalent was awarded 
to that concern subject to the filing of the necessary papers. Three 
hundred dollars were set aside for doing such necessary additional work 
as could not properly be included under the 10 by 30 inch ditching or its 
equivalent. 

On October 26th, 1915, all the papers necessary to the beginning of the 
work were placed on file with the State Comptroller and the contractor 
waa notified to begin work. 

The territory comprised in Stafford Township, Map 1, was already partly 
ditched, having on it about 90,378 linear feet of 10 by 30 inch ditching or 
its equivalent. The territory comprised in Stafford Township, Map 2, was 
also partly drained. About 134,000 linear feet of 10 by 30 inch ditching 
or its equivalent had been cut Such footage as may be left after com- 
pleting the drainage in the territory covered by Maps 1 and 2 will be 
placed in that represented by Map 3. At the end of the fiscal year the 
drainage under this contract was going forward. 

In Gape May County. 

The willingness of Atlantic Coimty to spend its own money in trenching 
the salt marsh to the north and south of Atlantic City and Pleasantville 
has led us to execute three contracts for salt marsh drainage laid out in 
relation to the country work. This year, however, the drainage had 
proceeded as far to the south as the county line and mosquitoes breeding 
over in Cape May County were found to make their way on occasion into 
Longport, Margate and Somer's Point 



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344 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

It thus became evident that the next step was to start drainage In 
Cape May County. Accordingly, it was planned to spend the available 
funds in the Borough of Ocean City and Upper Township. Sealed pro- 
posals were received and opened on October 14th, 1915. Three bids were 
presented and that of Mr. Fred. A. Reiley of Atlantic City (^.0139 per 
linear foot), being the lowest and Mr. Reiley having demonstrated that 
he had the tools and machinery with which to do the work, was accepted. 
He was given a contract for cutting 209,634 linear feet of 10 by 30 indi 
ditching or its equivalent. Four hundred dollars were set aside for 
doing such additional work as could not properly be included under the 
regular contrart ditching. 

At the close of the fiscal year the work under this contract was going 
forward. 

Other Counties. 

The Experiment Station during the present fiscal year has paid for 
salt marsh drainage at no other point in the State than at those already 
specified, but it has kept in close touch with drainage all along the coa^ 
and has directed the salt marsh drainage work in Ocean County, ^vhich 
was done with the county funds under the authority of the Moequlto 
Commission of that county. The Ehitomologist and his assistants have be^ 
called upon in an advisory function to aid in practically all the salt mash 
mosquito drainage undertaken throughout the State. 

As a matter of fact from a place in which the Experiment Station paid 
for practically all the salt marsh drainage carried out it has reached the 
point where it pays for the smallest part. Tet, never before have so 
many feet of ditching been cut in a single year, so many rods of dike 
be^i built, and so many tide gates been installed. 

Local authorities are doing what the State could not be induced to do- 
making appropriations of sufficient size to cover their salt marsh territory 
rapidly. 

TABULAR STATEMENT. 
Tabular Statement of the Salt Marsh Ditching Woik From 
Beginning to and Tnclnding tfab Year 1915. 





Acrea. 


Feet of 
ditching. 


Cost to ths Statv 


PERIOD. 


Ditohinc. 


studies and 
publications. 


Admiiii*. 
tratioo. 


Up to 1907, aa reported. 

Tn^lOO? mm rsDorted. 


15.851 
10.961 
6.669 
2.672 
4.660 
8.628 
6.195 
7.174 


2.215.524 

1.606.524 

888.650 

365.800 

350.000 

712.000 

1.000.180 

1.564.842 

1 .293 .840 

2.685.071 


$19,466.66 

15.758.00 

9.917.00 

4.471.00 

19.650.00 

21.660.00 

21.580.00 

7.638.86 

13,426.26 


$11,000.00 


S4'.i66:66 

4.242.00 
4.6^.00 

!1;S 


In 1908, as reported 

Tn 1000 Ail rcfDorted. . 




639.00 


Tn'IOlO am reoorted. 






Tn 1012 OM remnied. 




Tn 1013 fifl reDorted. . 


Tn -1014 ma, renorted 






In 1916. BM reported. ! 





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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 343 

Tabular Statement of 1015 Salt Manh Dltchiiic Work. 



MEADOW. 


Number of 

acres in 

area. 


Number of feet 

of 10x30 ineh 

Ditohinaor 

iU equivident. 


Goer TO THB Sr&TB 

T>ifiAing-f!l^yf^>itn 


Saw Mill OMk north to the Pstcnon 
Plank Road. . 


5*500 
addi 


225.000 
tional 


•4,218.75 




106.50 


the Patenon Flank Bead north to the 
northern boundaiy of the Borough of 
Oarlntadt 


2.000 


00.000 


2,400.00 




additional 


300.00 


Stafford Townahip (OM mirvey) 


5.400 189.189 
additional 


2.800.00 
300.00 


Soroush of Ocean Citf and Upper Town- 
ship from the Meadow Road north to 
end of Peek's Island on the east and to 
Beaideys Point on the west 


1 .500 209 .634 


2.900.00 




addi tional 


400.00 



Totals. 



14.400 



713.823 $13,425.25 



Adminietration 

AJfSiUsiiiji for proposals $108 

MBt> drawinc. blue printing, etc 134 . 16 

Eouipment (moton^ele, surves^ioff instruments, and other appcuatus) 

Office suppl as and printing 



Telephone and 

Postf^fe. 

Sandnes. 



and fi eight , 

id telegr^h 



Part of salary and travelling expenses, 
derieal work and temporary labor. . . . 



.50 



535.92 

103.05 

1.60 

44.87 

27.20 

35.85 

682.91 

207.34 



$4.885.40 



Tabular Statement of the Salt Marsh I>niiiiaee Done by the State 
Experiment Station and by the County Mosquito 
Extermination CommissionB. 



DATE. 


DrrcBiNO. 


COUNTT GoMlflSSIOM 




Number'of 
feet cut. 


Number of 
feet cleaned. 


Number of 
feet out. 


Number of 
feet cleaned. 


1^12. 


1.036.1«0» 
689,842 
321 .601 
713.823 




289.800 

879.365 

1.057,167 


470,000 


1013. 


Minimumamount 
None 
None 


1,300.000 


1014 


919,000 


1915 


1 .971 .248 


3.171,128 



'* Maximum figures, probably 25 or more per cent, too high. 



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346 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Financial Statement of the Experiment Station's Moequito 
Work for 1915. 

Total appropriation 120,000.00 

Salt marsh ditching (contracts and inci- 
dental labor) 113,426.26 

Advertising for proposals 108.60 

Map making, blue printing, etc 134.16 

Equipment, (motorcycle, surveying instru- 
ments, and other apparatus) 636.92 

Office supplies and printing 103.06 

Express and freight 5.60 

Telegraph and telephone 44.87 

Postage 27.20 

Salaries of regular and temporary employees. 3,720.00 

Travelling expenses of same 1,462.91 

Clerical and laboratory assistance 207.34 

Sundries 36.85 

Balance reverting to State Treasury 189.36 



120,000.00 

Aid Extended to Boards of HealtlL, Goimty Mosquito Exteiminallon 
OommlssionSf and Others. 

BOARDS OF HBAIiTH. 

In past years most of the requests for aid in fighting the mosquito 
pest came from boards of health, which were located in the coast counties 
somewhere between Cape May and Jersey City. Their efforts appear 
to have contributed to the formation of active mosquito extermination 
commissions under whose direction the work of control has been taken 
up in an efficient and vigorous manner. 

Still, some boards of health in counties where the county-wide move- 
ment for mosquito control does not find favor are actively trying to bring 
about local control. As might be expected the interest in such places is 
mainly in eliminating the malarial species {Anopheles quadritnaculatu* 
Say). 

On August 23rd the writer at the request of the Board of Health of the 
City of Trenton examined and reported on some breeding plaee& The 
first place examined was a branch of a canal which had been cut off by 
South Warren street and thus transformed into a dead end. A heavy 
growth of spatterdock and other water weeds lined one side and the place 
was suspected of breeding malarial mosquitoes. Nearly thirty minutes of 
the most careful search failed to reveal any mosquito wrigglers whatever. 
In a small tin can partly filled with water and standing on the bank 
of this pocket, were large numbers of the house mosquito wrigglers. 

Two other areas were examined both lying almost opposite the end 
of Hoff Avenue, one on the north and one on the south side of Oakland 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 347 

Avenue. Several pools were found in each area. LArvs of the genua 
Anopheles and of Uranotaenia sapphirina O. S. were found on the south 
side and larvs of Uranotaenia sapphirina O. S. were found on the north 
sida 

These two depressions are within the building area of the city and th« 
process of filling them has already been begun. The water should be 
oiled as the breeding appears until the areas are eliminated by filling. 

The Board of Health of the Borough of Princeton has this year shown 
more anti-mosquito activity than any other similar local organization. 
More than 100 cases of malaria were reported in Princeton during the 
season of 1914 and that is probably the reason for its activity. The 
Borough itself was ready to spend the money for work within its confines 
but the Board felt that the best efforts of the Borough Authorities might 
go for naught unless the breeding in surrounding townships could be 
brought under control. 

Accordingly the Entomologist called a meeting of the Board of Health 
authorities of the Borough of Princeton and of the surrounding townships 
for June 18th. A good representation was present and the problem dis- 
cussed from various angles. Dr. A. Clark Hunt of the State Board of 
Health presenting the malarial side. A representative committee with 
Dr. Ulric Dahlgren as chairman was appointed to take charge of the work 
and cooperation of surrounding townships promised. 

The first step seemed to be to find out the mosquito breeding condi- 
tions. For this survey Mr. W. H. W. Komp was detailed from this office 
and Mr. W. T. Eakins from the State Board of Health. The survey 
started on June 2l8t and was continued until completed. A formal report 
of the finding was prepared and submitted to the conunittee. Through 
the activity of the committee a detailed map of Princeton and of adjacent 
parts of surrounding townships was prepared. On this map the locations 
of the breeding places were indicated. 

For the purpose of checking up the results of elimination work under- 
taken in and about Princeton and to determine what places most needed 
attention, a series of night collections was undertaken. The results of 
these studies were placed in the hands of the above committee and. it is 
the writer's understanding that this committee proposes to prepare and 
perhaps to publish a formal report covering the mosquito extermination 
work done by it during the season Just past 

Mosquito Commissions. 

Throughout the past year the Entomologist has held himself ready to 
respond to the needs of the county mosquito commissions. He has filled 
54 appointments and spent about 42 days of 10 to 12 hours each. In 
addition to this plans of action have been formulated, surveys have been 
made, maps and specifications have been prepared. In fact, all the prob- 
l^ns incident to starting and carrying on the work of mosquito extermina- 
tion both on the salt mash and the uplfoid have had to be met and som^ 
solutions worked outt 



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348 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Olliers. 

Two years ago the Entomologist helped to form the New Jersey 
Mosquito Extermination Association and has served continuously as its 
Secretary-Treasurer. In this capacity he has edited the proceedings oC 
the annual meetings for 1914 and 1915. 

On July 1st Mr. E. T. Judd who hasr a boys' camp south of New Egypt 
complained of mosquito trouble and requested help. A careful inspection 
rerealed the fact that the species of mosquito concerned was the white- 
banded salt marsh mosquito, which breeding on the salt marshes of the 
coast or river had winged its way across the pines to this camp. It was 
necessary to report that local work would be useless and to advise him 
to move the camp out of the salt marsh mosquito range. 

XASt winter at the request of State Entomologist of Connecticut, the 
Entomologist appeared before the Committee of Public Safety of the 
Connecticut Legislature in behalf of the mbsquito extermination bill 
that is now one of the statutes of that State. At the request of Dr. C. B. 
Davenport and others interested, he gave a talk on mosquito extermina- 
tion work before a representative group of Nassau Coxmty people who 
were vitally interested in mosquito controL At the request of one of 
the property owners (Mr. E. B. Walden) and with the consent of the 
Connecticut authorities he appeared before a large group of property 
owners at Sachems Head for the purpose of explaining mosquito eontrol 
and its results as carried on and realized in New Jersey. 

Many letters have been received from individual citizens of the State 
relative to habits and methods of controlling mosquitoes and in every 
case the fullest information available has been furnished. A considerable 
number of letters have been received from persons and organizations 
in other parts of the country requesting information on mosquito control 
methods being used in New Jersey. In practically all cases these persons 
or organizations were looking for a solution of a particular local problem. 

County Mosquito Extermination Work. 

The county mosquito work has this year covered the largest territory 
in its history of four years. Something like 118 miles of the Atlantic 
coast has been patrolled, 850,000 acres of territory have been covered, 
and about one and one-half millions of people received a considerable 
measure of protection. 

Although a large part of the salt marshes in this coastal strip had 
been ditched by the Experiment Station before the County unit for anti- 
mosquito work had been created it was not until the creation of the 
county unit was authorized that the movement for the control of all 
species assumed a large enough aspect to be promising. Previousr to 1912 
local cooperation over a sufficient extent of contiguous territory to render 
the work free from being spoiled by migrations from outside the pro> 
tected district seemed impossible. 

With the enactment of a bill authorizing the creation of the oovsty 
anti-mosquitQ uhUp the rapid growth of local effort began. In 1913 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 349 

and Union Counties began work throughout their territories. In 1913 
Atlantic and Hudson Counties took up the same work covering all land 
within their limits. In 1915 Bergen Joined the above four. Beginning in 
a small way with educational work, one or two years previously, active 
work covering a part of the territory in each case has been carried on 
during the present season In Middlesex (salt marsh only) with all species 
in two municipalities, Monmouth (salt marsh only), Ocean (salt mash 
only and only the drained part of that), and Passaic (the southern half) 
Counties. 

Hudson County. 

In considering the work of mosquito control in Hudson C:k>unty in any 
given season it is necessary to keep in mind the nature of the problem 
with which the mosquito commission has to deal. In the 1914 report on 
pages 459-460 the writer briefly described the mosquito problem of Hudson 
Coimty as he understood It and the following discussion of this years' 
work will be based upon that description. 

The control of fresh water breeding was continued along the lines of 
last year. The number of breeding places exclusive of sewer basins, 
owing to the heavy rainfall. Increased from 4,121 in 1914 to 7,468 in 1915. 
This merely refers to the number and does not cover the increase in 
size which is more important for while the number has been almost 
doubled the actual water surface has probably been multiplied by 19. 
Of the breeding places mentioned 5,206 or almost 70 per cent were perma- 
nently eliminated. The remaining places are old wells, cesspools, and 
cisterns. 

The control of salt marsh breeding as might be expected from the large 
marsh to be covered has proven more difficult. Hudson County originally 
had about 11,468 acres of tidal marsh. Something over 1300 acres have 
been filled leaving approximately 10,000 acres throughout practically all 
of which mosquitoes would breed under proper conditions. Experience 
in salt marsh ditching has shown that not much less than 300 linear 
feet 10 X 30 inch ditching is necessary to drain an acre of open salt 
marsh when good tidal creeks exist. On this basis, the Hudson County 
salt marsh would need 3,300,000 linear feet of ditching. As a matter of 
fact, about 660,000 feet have been cut. Furthermore much of the Hudson 
County salt marsh is not furnished with good outlets. The activity of 
man In building roadways, railways, fills and dikes has destroyed the 
excellent drainage system established by nature and rendered the removal 
of the water from certain parts of this marsh extremely difficult To 
make a bad matter worse certain cities along both the eastern and west- 
ern ridges have poured sewage Into the marshes adjacent to them and 
thereby created enormous breeding areas hundreds of acres in extent 
from which the small dark species which penetrates the screens and 
troubles the sleeper, migrates into adjacent houses and makes sleep a 
nightmare. 



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350 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The Ck)unty Mosquito Commission seems to have done everytbing its 
funds would permit to eliminate these places but the work is as yet Tery 
incomplete. That portion of the marshes at Constable Hook and Port 
Johnston, which is still unfilled, appears to have been rather adequately 
drained although a small amount of breeding can occasionally be found 
on the latter. 

The salt marsh extending between the Hackensack River and Jersey 
City highland to the east is, with the exception of the Pen Horn Creek 
Valley from the Lackawanna and Erie Railroads to the Paterson Plank 
Road, fairly open meadow and likely to be mosquito-proofed by the usual 
type of marsh ditching. This area which includes between four and flye 
thousand acres has 195,000 feet of ditching or less than one-fifth the 
amount that would normally be required on bad breeding meadow. 

That part of the salt marsh included in the valley of the Pen Horn 
Creek is entirely inadequately drained, llie twelve to thirteen hundred 
acres not only have less than 1/19 the usual ditching for such areas but 
the outlets are stopped up in such a fashion that the accumulated water 
from rains simply cannot quickly escape. 

To make matters worse many sewers are spilling their contents into 
the cattails with which this area is covered. 

That portion of the Hudson County marsh which lies west of the 
Hackensack River is with the exception of the territory between the 
Lincoln Highway and the Central Railroad of New Jersey, entirely 
enclosed by dikes and has been so for many years. In addition to this 
interference with natural drains many railway grades and roadways 
cross and divide this shut-in territory into a considerable number of 
more or less independent areas of various sizes and shapes. 

The exception, that part laying between the Lincoln highway and the 
Central Railroad still depends upon a tidal creek for outlet but even there* 
one creek is now doing the work of two. 

That area lying north of the Lincoln Highway and extending northward 
to the Pennsylvania Railroad, down-town line, is in process of being 
filled. The fills extend along each side and shut off proper access to the 
river. Temporary work of oiling is the only method of preventing 
mosquito development at present possible and naturally leaves much to be 
desired. 

The area that lies north of the Lackawanna Railroad and extends 
northward to the Greenwood Lake branch of the Erie Railroad dep^&da 
upon two creeks and some ditches for outlets. About 2500 acres are 
Included in this tract and it is served by about 65,000 feet of ditching. 
To make the drainage yet more difficult a part ot this area is apparently 
below sea-level. Along the highland to the east of Kearny and Harrison 
several sewers discharge and formerly flooded the meadow Just as the 
sewers now flood the Pen Horn Creek Valley. The ditching already cut 
when taken with the two centrifugal pumps is sufficient to keep down 
heavy breeding under ordinarily moist weather l)yt i§ imtdequat^ 4uri|if 
ptasofis of )|eav7 rai^fal). 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 351 

That portion of the salt mash lying north of the Greenwood Lake 
branch of the Erie Railroad and extending northward to Saw Mill Creek 
includes more than 1000 acres, has very little ditching and in parts is a 
heayy breeder of mosquitoes. It is one area which demands careful and 
extensive drainage. 

liong strides have this year been made toward solying certain of the 
most difficult problems of the salt marsh. The low lying marsh lying 
just east of Harrison and Kearny bounded on the north by the Green- 
wood Lake branch of the Brie, and the east by the Bellville Turnpike 
and the "uptown" lintf of the Pennsylvania Railroad and on the south 
by the mass of tracks rimning east from Manhattan Transfer, and known . 
as the Frank Creek section of the Kearny marsh consisting of about 
1300 acres has this year, for the first time, been almost eliminated as a 
mosquito breeder. The opening of the channel of Frank Creek and the 
connecting of the various sewers from Harrison with its channel, had 
in 1914, markedly improved conditions. 

In the latter part of the season of 1915 a four-inch high-head gasoline 
driven centrifugal pump was installed Just east of Frank Creek where 
that stream enters the tunnel under the Lackawanna and Pennsylvania 
Railroad tracks and was connected with a three hundred acre area by 
means of ditching. With one exception during the past season this pump 
has kept the 300 acres far from breeding. The exception followed the 
heavy rains of midsummer when the pump was taxed beyond its capacity 
and six barrels of oil had to be used. In the season before the pump was 
operating $300 were expended for labor and sixty barrels of oil were used 
on this area. 

The entire cost of the pump ready to run and protected by a corru- 
gated iron house was about $600. 

In the spring of 1915 a twelve-inch low-head electrically driven centri- 
fugal pump was installed on the east bank of Frank Creek about one- 
half mile north of the four-inch pump at a cost of about |1,300. It was 
expected that this pump would draw the water from 800 acres. Am a 
matter of fact this pump could never be worked to capacity because the 
drainage channels were not so constructed as to bring the water in with 
sufficient rapidity. The efficiency of the pump was such as to show that 
it could easily take care of 1000 acres if connected with the proper 
^annels. In spite of the relatively inadequate arrangements for utilizing 
the pumps' full power, the writer has never seen this area in so good 
condition. 

The Conunission has begun the cutting of drains from the area of 
marsh, lying Just east of the Arlington Highland and between the Green- 
wood Lake Branch of Erie and the Belleville Turnpike, into the lower 
course, of Saw Mill Creek where the same is an active stream. 

About 215,000 feet of old ditches have been cleaned and 181,076 feet4>f 
now ditching have been cut 



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35i NEW JERSEY AGRiCliLfUftAL COLLEGE 

Bergen Govmty. 

This year Bergen County undertook a general campaign against all 
species of mosquitoes. This meant an effort to meet the woodland pool 
mosquito, the fresh water swamp species, the house mosquito, and the 
salt marsh mosquitoes. 

On the salt marsh the County and the Experiment Station together h&Te 
cut more than 500,000 feet of ditching, without douht eliminating the 
worst breeding places. Nevertheless there is good evldenoe to show that 
more is needed. If figured on a three hundred foot to the acre basis more 
than 1.500,000 feet more would be needed. The excellent system of tidal 
creeks may however, render such a large amount unnecessary. 

With the possible exception of an area lying in the extreme south- 
western portion of the salt marsh the drainage of the entire 8000 acres 
may be had by a gravity flow. 

The Commission has installed two excellent tide gates at the mouth 
of Kingsland Creek and plans to repair the dike along the Hackensack 
River from Saw Mill Creek to the Boonton Branch of the D. L. ft W. Bail- 
road. This, together with some additional ditching, should afford the 
best gravity drainage possible to the marsh comprised in draina^ Map 
Number 1. 

The methods of upland work exhibited no features new to mosquito 
control work. Owing to the emphasis placed on the salt marsh it was 
naturally done less completely than would otherwise have been the case. 

Passaic County. 

In Passaic County this year the work was limited to the southern half 
of the County and largely to the Cities of Paterson and Passaic Perhaps 
the most striking development of the season was the finding of heavy 
breeding of the house mosquito along the shores of the Passaic River. 
This breeding occurred above the dam where the vrater was not affected 
by the tide. It was met by shearing off the overhanging weeds and brush 
and by regularly oiling. 

The other methods used were the same as those already employed in 
upland work in previous years and need no comment 

Essex County. 

This is the fourth season of work in Essex County. The metliods of 
fresh water mosquito control have undergone no great change. PwiuuM 
the most important innovation was a change in the method of cheeUng 
up the work. Under the new scheme a complete record of all permanent 
breeding places was kept in the central office and a special small force 
proceeded from one part of the country to another following the r^;ular 
inspectors; first in this section then in another to see that these prema- 
nent places were properly looked after. 

The problem of salt marsh breeding has been attacked from a new 
angle. Dikes and tide gates have been installed in such a fashion as to 
keep the sea off of about 3000 acres and to let the normal water out at 



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Experiment station report. 353 

every low tide. In order to carry the normal water to the sluices about 
879,903 linear feet of ditches ranging from 10 to 50 inches In width were 
cleaned. The results of this work have been most gratifying. Never has 
the writer seen the Newark marsh so free from breeding. 

Union Conn^. 

This is the fourth season of work for (Tnion County. No radical 
changes have been made in upland work. As previously carried on In 
tills county, the practice of placing the bulk of the cost of permanently 
eliminating the upland breeding places upon the shoulders of land owners 
has been continued and the county in that way is getting an amount of 
work done at private expense which represents in a single year as much 
as tbe county appropriates for the entire work. This practice of securing 
private cooperation cannot be too strongly cdinmended. To give an idea 
of the extent of this cooperation the following brief table is submitted. 



Year 


Estimated Coat 


of 


Percentage of toi 




Private Work, 




Inland Drainage. 


1912 


1 2.000 




41% 


1913 


25,000 




77% 


1914 


25,000 




88% 


1915 


20.000 




87% 



The Union County Commission has made an attempt to eliminate 
moeqnito breeding on several hundred acres of the North Elizabeth 
meadow by means of dikes and sluice gates built according to the sug- 
gestions of Mr. James E. Brooks. The Chief Inspector's description of 
tbe results is quoted as follows. "The observation of the embanked 
meadow, west of the Central Railroad of New Jersey shows an interesting 
comparison with the meadow exposed to the tide east of the Central 
Railroad in the North Elizabeth section. This embanked meadow, after 
tbe diking and tide gate work was completed in the late spring, quickly 
dried out and the water in the ditches remained at an average of one 
foot below the meadow level, even at times when the other meadows 
exposed to the tide's action were completely flooded. This same condition 
continued with no serious breeding found in the embanked meadows, 
up to the first of August although scattered serious breeding had been 
observed east of the Central Railroad, which is exposed to the tidal action 
and which had been flooded during the monthly high tides. 

"The big storm of early August partially flooded the embanked meadow, 
and at the same time the water remained at almost constant high water 
level outside of the gates, which kept the gates closed for several days 
after the big storm and prevented the proper run-off of the water. 
In other words, a period of continuous high tides and heavy rain storms 
coincided. It was observed that breeding commenced in the ditches and 
that fish which were inside of the embanked meadow as well as outside, 
did not move out of the deeped holes In the meadow and salt ponds into 
the smaller ditching. Efforts were made to attract the fish into the small 



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354 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

ditches by baiting these ditches and by other means, but without success. 
It then became necessary to oil the ditches which were breeding in the 
embanked area, which was done, and a few days later when the tide had 
gone down outside of the gates sufficiently so as to flood the meadow as 
the gates were raised. The sluices were then opened, more fish were 
admitted and the tide allowed to circulate through the ditches, and no 
further breeding was then observed for the remainder of the season, 
although the gates were again lowered and remained so until the end 
of the summer. 

"The same condition of inactivity of the fish in the ditches during this 
period in August, was noticed all along the Atlantic Coast from Cape 
May to the Hadcensack Valley. 

"The results of the observation of the diked meadow would tend to 
show that by a proper procedure of keeping the gates open for a portion 
of each month so as to keep up the fish supply inside of the embanked 
meadows, although at the same time preventing the flooding of the mea- 
dows, practically no breeding will take place except during a period of 
ten days or two weeks in early August, when the fish in the ditches are 
inactive, and then only if there is a combination of high tide coincident 
with the short period of inactivity of the killi-flsh. In this case it will 
be necessary to oil the ditches in the embanked meadow, which is not 
an exceedingly difficult matter. If the tide is low during early August 
and breeding appears in the ditches, oiling will not be necessary as 
breeding can be prevented by flushing out the ditches through raising 
the gates for several days. The system of diking and tide-gating there- 
fore, through its effect in reducing the water table on the embanked 
meadow and in preventing submerging from high tides, seems to keep 
the meadow dry and to prevent almost 100 per cent of the normal breed- 
ing. It therefore seems advisable as funds will permit from time to time 
to continue the diking and tide-gating work on the Union County salt 
marsh in order to get better results in cutting down salt marsh mosquito 
breeding." 

Middlesex County. 

This is the second season for Middlesex County and this year as last 
the mosquito commissions' attention was devoted primarily to the salt 
marsh and secondarily to demonstration campaigns in a municipality 
or two. 

The work in Middlesex has differed from that in other counties in that 
the Freeholders were informed from the start that the mandatory feature 
of the law would not be invoked. They were asked to make an appro- 
priation in response to popular sentiment 

Although the demand this year for larger funds in order that more than 
the salt marsh breeding could be prevented was larger and much more 
insistant, the Board of Freeholders was under such pressure to cut down 
expenditures that it failed to appropriate a larger sum. 

The work had therefore to be limited to the salt marsh and to the 
supervision of such fresh water mosquito control as Individual munici- 
palities would pay for. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 355 

The Borough of Metuchen and the Township of Woodbridge were the 
only municipalities that made appropriations. The methods employed In 
this work were those commonly used and hence deserve no especial con- 
sideration. The 8,199 acres of salt marsh have only 541,064 linear feet 
of ditching and surely require much more to make them free from breed- 
ing. 116,564 linear feet of ditching were cut and 424,500 feet were cleaned. 
In Middlesex more perhaps than in any other county the practice of 
patrolling all the salt marsh throughout the mosquito breeding season 
has given good results. In both 1914 and 1915 it has given the final 
touch to efficient mosquito control. 

The barrels of oil are distributed throughout the salt marshes at the 
beginning of the season and as remnants of developing broods left by 
the drainage ditches appear about ready to emerge they are destroyed 
by the judicious use of small amount of oil. 

In one instance during the past season an Inspector proved inefficient 
and allowed the mosquitoes to develop letting off a sufficient brood to dis- 
tress greatly residents living within two miles of the neglected section. 
This happening served to emphasize the value of efficient patrol. 

Monmoutti Covmty. 
The Mosquito Problem. 

Physically Monmouth County rises rapidly from a rather narrow sand 
beach into high lying level or rolling fertile land. A range of low hills 
begins at Atlantic Highlands and extends southwestward across the coun- 
try to Mt Holly gradually becoming lost in the general elevation. To 
the north of this range the land rises from Rarltan Bay and to the south 
from the ocean. The beaches on the bay are shallow and salt marsh 
areas large and plentiful. Along the ocean the beach runs rapidly into 
deep water and the marshes are limited to river courses. In fact, the 
vast acreage of the salt marsh of Monmouth County is found along the 
Shrewsbury and Naveslnk Rivers and Rarltan Bay. Small marshes are 
found on the Shark River and larger ones along the Manasquan. As 
one goes southward, the beach widens and shallows. Back of the imme- 
diate sandy shore area the soil nms into a fertile loam which is thickly 
settled by successful farmers. 

The limited woodlands and the porous soil prevent the woodland pool 
and to very large extent the fresh water swamp mosquito problems. The 
streams give a serious malarial mosquito problem in parts of the county, 
the water holding receptacles incidental to settlement of the land by 
people give rise to a house mosquito problem, and the salt marshes pro- 
vide a salt marsh mosquito problem. 

It does not seem likely that the house or malarial mosquito problem 
is of sufficient importance anywhere except in the towns and cities to 
render county-wide control practicable. It seems therefore best to under- 
take the control of the salt marsh species, which fly far and give trouble 
over a wide range, with coimty funds and to let the municipalities fiandl^ 
|he frefh water species iu tbelr own ftrnds, ^ a (o^al problem, 



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356 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

This is the first season of anti-mosquito work in Monmouth County 
under the direction of its mosquito commission. It is not the first season 
of effort against the salt marsh mosquito, however. Some of the earliest 
practical work of trenching the marsh to prevent the breeding of the 
salt marsh mosquito was done along the Shrewsbury River. This project 
was undertaken and carried out for the purpose of getting rid of the 
occasional visitations that the imperfectly drained marshes still permitted 
to develop. 

The work on the Little Silver area was maintained by the same con- 
cern which cut the ditching and the Commission kept a patrol on the 
marsh as a check on the work of the contractor and did, the writer 
understands, a certain amount of oil spreading to kill off bad breeding 
in limited spots. 

During the present season the attention of the mosquito commission 
was given almost wholly to the problem of controlling the salt marsh 
mosquito and most excellent results followed wherever the funds permitted 
the work to be suflQciently well done. All told 263,441 linear feet of 
10x30 inch ditching or its equivalent was dug or re-dug. On the basis 
of 300 linear feet per acre, disregarding the Little Silver area altogrether, 
about 389,000 linear feet additional will be required to furnish all the 
marshes with satisfactory drainage. 

An effort was made to interest the various shore towns in locally srup- 
ported campaigns against the fresh water breeding species, but no satis- 
factory response was obtained and the house mosquito became abundant 
in places. 

Ocean Oountgr* 
The Mosquito Problem. 

Physically Ocean County rises from the Ocean as a low narrow strip 
of sand beach behind which lies Barnegat Bay with salt marshes border- 
ing both sides. Behind the bay the gently rising sand land quickly 
passes into the pine woods, which cover almost all of the back lying 
portions. To the northeast the county runs into some fertile loam where 
the business of farming is practiced with great success. Scattered 
through the pines are low-lying water filled cedar swamps, some of which 
are enormous in extent. 

The porous nature of the soil appears to prevent the woodland pool 
mosquito problem and the nature of the cedar swamp water appears to 
be hostile to the larvse of all important species. 

The mosquito problem of Ocean County is thus limited to the house 
mosquito, breeding in water-holding receptacles about human habitations 
or in streams and pools polluted with human waste and the salt mash 
species bred upon its large costal and river marshes. 

The salt marsh mosquito is so completely the all-prevalent species and 
the amount of money (|3,000) furnished by the Board of Freeholders 
was so small that all of the commission's ellforts were directed to the 
control of breeding on the salt marsh. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 357 

The county has 40,400 acres of salt marshes, 22,893 of which have been 
partly drained and 18,007 have been untouched. The mosquito commis- 
sion cleaned 1,349,217 feet of ditching in such a fashion as to put it into 
efficient working order. The drained marshes were patrolled and 30,000 
additional feet were cut at points where the patrol indicated such work 
as necessary. 

A great deal of local interest was manifested. Lx)ng Beach cleaned 
its ditching and cut such additional ditching as was necessary at its 
own expense. Ocean Gate furnished needed supplies of oil for use in 
adjacent marshes and the Tribune Company which was engaged in devel- 
oping Beech wood, contributed $250. Seaside Park and Bay head made 
efforts to destroy their local breeding. 

The great need in Ocean County is more salt marsh drainage. 

Atlantic Covmty. 

This is the third season that Atlantic County has been at work. The 
large problem in Atlantic is the control of the salt marsh mosquito, and 
to that phase of the problem the principal attention of the commission 
has consequently been devoted. 

Nevertheless very efficient work has been done in controlling the fresh 
water species of which the house mosquito is the principal member. The 
beneficial efforts of fresh water control have been felt in Atlantic City, 
Ventnor, Margate, Pleasantville and Hammonton, but in May's Landing 
and Egg Harbor and smaller places between Hammonton and the coast, 
they have been almost swallowed up by the migration of salt marsh 
species from the undrained marshes both of Atlantic and adjacent 
counties. 

The salt marsh work of the present season, amounting to 825,100 linear 
feet of 10 X 30 inch ditching or its equivalent has completed the drainage 
of the salt marsh from a point 5 miles north of Absecon to Somers Point 
and up the Great Egg Harbor River with its northern affluents to Powell's 
Creek, a distance of 22 miles freeing approximately 12,000 acres from 
breeding. Thus it is seen that two blocks of salt marsh aggregating 
18,731 acres, one amounting to about 8,496 acres and lying south of the 
Great Egg Harbor River and along both sides of its upper course and the 
balance on Brigantine Island, along Great Bay, and the Mullica River, 
yet remain to be drained. 

Atlantic County deserves great credit for having developed a machine 
by means of which the cost of ditching has been reduced from 2.5 cents a 
linear foot for 10x30 inch ditching to between .5 and 1 cent. In fact. 
it Is this development that has enabled the Commission to cover so large 
a territory with so small an amount of money at its disposal. 

In spite of the large territory lying within the limits of county adja- 
cent thereto which is yet to be covered, the reductions in salt marsh 
mosquitoes in Atlantic City, Ventor, Margate and the towns along the 
Shore Road from Somers Point to Absecon is remarkable. 



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358 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Cape May Gounty. 

Physically Cape May County is a low wide penninsula projecting into 
the Atlantic Ocean. On the east coast the low narrow strip of sand 
beach characteristic of Atlantic County is continued to the end of Cape 
May, and back of it lies the usual open water bordered by salt marsh. 
To the west the shore is unprotected by a beach strip and the salt marshes 
are largely limited to the water courses. As one proceeds northward 
along the Delaware Bay coast the marsh strips are seen to widen and 
to become confluent. 

Cape May County is credited with 53,638 acres of salt marsh, and an 
examination of the species of mosquito on the wing during the summer 
season shows that the mosquito problem is one of suppressing breeding 
on the salt marsh. 

Thus far the task of taking up the burden of salt marsh drainage has 
been impossible and the Commission has devoted its time to educational 
and a little survey work. 

Oamden County. 

The work in Camden County this year has been very limited. Owing 
probably to a determination on the part of the mosquito commission to 
have enough funds to cover the County or none at all, it proved imprac- 
ticable to obtain any additional funds, and such work as was done had 
to be supported on funds left over from the preceding year. This 
amounted to about |1,500 the writer understands, and was spent in a 
limited campaign in the municipality of Collingswood. 

A Summary and Dlscnssion of Expenditures for Mosquito OontroL 

For some time there has existed a desire for such a statement of the 
facts relative to the cost of mosquito control in the various counties as 
would give a real basis for comparing the expenditure of one county com- 
mission with that of another. The tabular statement of expenditure 
(see table below) will, I hope, give such a basis. The preparation of 
this table has been made possible through the willingness of the various 
commissions and their employees to fill out the information blanks fur- 
nished. 

The writer will attempt to give a very brief survey of the expenditures 
on the salt marsh and inland work, to state such of the general prin- 
ciples upon which the expenditure is based as his study has developed 
clearly, and to comment upon the general efficiency of the work. 

Up to the year 1912, when the county mosquito extermination commis- 
sions were created, the State Experiment Station had expended about 
$130,000.00 in salt marsh mosquito work, and municipalities, groups of 
individuals and individuals had spent about $70,000.00 more in the same 
work. The known breeding places on the salt marshes from Jersey City 
to Toms River had been drained and a measure of protection given to 
perhaps, a million people. Along the lower part of Newark Bay, the 
Arthur Kill, Raritan Bay and the Monmouth shore, owing to the com- 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 359 

paratively open and easily drained nature of the marsh, the elimination 
of serious breeding was with a few exceptions much more complete than 
it was either at the northern or southern end of the area. 

Tabular Statement of Bxpenditares. 

ESSEX COUNTT. 

'-1912, 6 mos.- 

Total Expended $35,317.28 % 

Administration 4,108.38 12 

Inspection 15,846.90 45 

Elimination — 

Permanent Work 4,412.75 12 

Salt Marsh 2,196.25 6 

Inland 2,216.50 6 

Temporary Work 7,285.49 21 

Salt Marsh 1,843.99 5 

Inland 5.441.50 16 

Equipment 3,211.04 9 

Miscellaneous 457.67 1 

Per Capita Cost (Cts.) .. 6.37 .. 

Cost Per Sq. Mile (|) 278.00 . . 

UNION COUNTY. 

^1912, 6 mos.-. 

Total Expended $15,792.54 % 

Administration 1,529.70 9 

Inspection 3,829.81 24 

Elimination — 

Permanent Work 7,202.50 46 

Salt Marsh 4,340.93 28 

Inland 2,861.57 18 

Temporary Work 2,106.04 13 

Salt Marsh 

Inland 2,106.04 .. 

Equipment 988.00 6 

Miscellaneoua 136.49 2 

Per Capita Cost (Cts.) ... 10.57 .. 20.82 .. 15.89 

Cost Per Sq. Mile (I) .... 153.00 .. 302.00 .. 230.00 

HUDSON COUNTY. 

1913 ► 1914- 

Total Expended $25,917.06 % 

Administration 3,865.82 15 

Inspection 5,173.25 19 

Elimination — 

Permanent Work 6,524.74 25 

Salt Marsh 4,071.09 16 

Inland 2,453.65 9 

Temporary Work 8,246.92 32 

Salt Marsh 1.608.14 . . 

Inland 6,638.78 .. 

Equipment 1,498.15 6 

Miscellaneous 355.12 3 

Per Capita Cost (Cts.) 5.08 . . 

Cost Per Sq. Mile (|) 675.00 . . 



^1913- 




< 1914— 


_ . ^ 


$65,313.99 


% 


$62,997.75 


% 


8,915.60 


14 


9,673.46 


16 


21,354.85 


33 


19,475.54 


31 


17,357.84 


26 


10,447.48 


16 


14,570.95 


22 


9,627.23 


15 


2,786.89 


4 


820.25 


1 


14,026.68 


21 


16,250.58 


26 


4,040.49 


6 


5,029.44 


8 


9.986.19 


15 


11,221.14 


18 


3,098.47 


5 


4,556.78 


7 


360.55 


1 


2,592.91 


4 


11.08 


, , 


11.37 




514.00 




488.00 


•• 


1913 - 




. ^1914- 




131,107.05 


% 


$23,746.35 


% 


3.963.63 


13 


4,074.26 


17 


8,696.19 


28 


7,770.74 


33 


12,718.31 


40 


8,753.70 


37 


4,500.02 


14 


4,526.81 


19 


8,218.29 


26 


4,226.89 


18 


1,324.62 


4 


953.75 


4 


50.00 




200.00 




1,274.62 


, , 


753.75 


, , 


1,032.82 


6 


1,335.96 


6 


2,573.48 


9 


857.94 


4 



$31,063.36 


% 


4,472.74 


15 


6,207.30 


20 


8,377.88 


26 


5,711.93 


18 


2,665.95 


8 


10,542.15 


34 


3.260.86 


21 


7,281.29 


13 


1,108.17 


4 


355.12 


1 


5.42 




722.00 





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36o NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL CXDLLEGE 

ATI^imC OOTTNTY. 

-1913, 6 mos.- ' 1914 

Total Expended $16,666.75 % $24,702.01 % 

Administration 2,231.27 13 3,890.22 15 

InspecUon 2,672.37 16 4,906.39 20 

Elimination — 

Permanent Work 9,410.48 57 11,968.47 48 

Salt Marsh 9,364.48 57 11,911.47 48 

Inland 46.00 .. 57.00 2 

Temporary Work 131.77 1 661.06 2 

Salt Marsh 7.92 .. 

Inland 131.77 1 653.04 2 

Equipment 1,292.32 8 2,081.76 8 

Miscellaneous 1,058.31 5 1,855.17 7 

Per Capita Cost (Cts.) 21.07 . . 32.02 . . 

Cost Per Sq. Mile ($) 29.29 . . 43.41 . . 

CAMDEN COUNTY. 

1913 ' 1914 

Total Expended $504.32 % $2,929.44 % 

AdministraUon 477.82 99 920.2S S2 

Inspection 99 636.63 22 

Elimination — 

Permanent Work 900.73 81 

Salt Marsh 

Inland 900.73 31 

Temporary Work 163.59 6 

Salt Marsh 

Inland 163.59 5 

Equipment 221.49 6 

Miscellaneous 26.50 1 86.65 8 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 

1914 

Total Expended $5,427.46 % 

Administration 1,043.67 18 

Inspection 1.209.91 23 

Elimination — 

Permanent Work 1.529.23 31 

Salt Marsh 1.519.23 31 

Inland 10.00 . . 

Temporary Work 461.58 7 

Salt Marsh 369.47 6 

Inland * 92.11 1 

Equipment 1,131.97 20 

Miscellaneous 51.10 1 

In the year 1912 the county mosquito extermination commissions 
became active and for the first time the ditching placed by the State 
Experiment Station had, at certain points, that maintenance and extension 
which experience has shown to be so essential. Most of the active com- 
missions, are operating in counties possessing at least 4,000 acres of salt 
marsh and a very considerable part of the total expenditure has been 
devoted to the elimination of breeding on the marsh. For the initiated 
there is little need to explain why year out and year in a large percentage 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 361 

of total expenditures is devoted to the salt marsh, but many persons who 
may read this report may not understand. In our experience no salt 
marsh has ever been so drained that breeding could not later be found 
on it When the systems of ditching were installed under the direction 
of the Experiment Station the ditches were cut only where breeding 
could be found. Later years have revealed that other places, not at that 
time supposed to breed, are really heavy breeders. The drainage itself 
sets up certain changes that create breeding where none before existed. 
A good example of the former is the Bergen County Hackensack salt 
marsh. Reported as free from breeding in past years, it has been shown 
since 1913 to be a very heavy breeder and to supply much of northeastern 
Essex and southern Passaic as well as Bergen Counties with Aedes Can- 
tatar Coq. The type of breeding plkce that comes about as the result of 
drainage is usually a cat-tail swamp, the drainage of which is incident 
to cleaning up breeding areas adjacent to it In such a swamp the water 
formerly stood at a fairly constant level, and, as at no time was the 
wet mud exposed for deposition of eggs, no breeding occurred. The 
drainage allows the water level to rise and fall with the tide, thus 
exposing the bottom for egg deposition. Under drainage the cat-tails 
eventually disappear and sedges take their place. 

In fact, so variable is the location of breeding on a given salt marsh 
that the writer has almost reached the conclusion that the only safely 
drained marsh is one from which the water is completely removed. It 
is not his thought that such complete drainage should be cut as rapidly 
as the marsh is covered, for he seriously doubts whether the necessary 
funds could be obtained. 

The usual practice is to drain those parts where breeding is known to 
exist, to keep the ditches already cut open and to install additional ditch- 
ing as new breeding places appear. This method seems best from the 
standpoint of obtaining necessary fimds and from the standpoint of 
expending them most effectively. The writer realizes that some persons 
would be inclined to take issue with him on this point, but he feels that 
its truth is borne out by experience. 

With the creation of the County Mosquito Extermination Commission 
a really effective agency for the control of fresh-water breeding species 
was formed. The problem facing most commissions has been first, of 
obtaining funds; second, of forming an efficient mosquito-fighting machine; 
tliird, of finding the local breeding places; fourth, of eliminating them; 
and fifth, of combating mosquito invasions. 

The first phase has usually been solved by a campaign of education in 
tlie course of which the purposes and methods of mosquito control have 
been explained and discussed and substantial public support obtained. 

The second has been largely determined by the statute itself. Com- 
petent persons with a knowledge of the technique of mosquito control 
work have been employed as chief inspectors, and the selection and 
organization of subordinates, largely left to them. 

The third has been met by periodically examining every square yard 
of territory of the protected area for water in which mosquito larvQ 



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362 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Inreed, and by tracing the moequitoes found on the wing to the places 
where they originate. 

The fourth has has been met by draining^ filling, cleaning, 8to<^ng 
with fish, or oiling at regular intervals all pools in which breeding is 
found. 

The fifth has never been adequately met» owing principally to the 
attitude of Boards of Freeholders that no money should be spent outside 
of county limits. Thus far, it has been limited to tracing broods and 
oiling. The good results of even such limited extra-territorial work are 
shown in the Hackensack Valley marsh report, which forms a part of 
the 1914 Report of the Experiment Station. There is given a detailed 
statement of the breeding throughout the season of 1914 as determined by 
a force of inspectors made up of employees from Union, Essex, Hudson 
and the Experiment Station. 

In every county having a salt marsh the control of breeding upon It 
has proven thus far as least to be the most difficult part of the mosquito 
problem. An average of 26 per cent of all expenditures in the counties, 
covering their whole territories, has been devoted to salt marsh mosquito 
elimination, and as high as 57 per cent was reached in one case. 

Tet in spite of all this care from time to time broods of greater or 
less size have issued. Ordinarily, from the standpoint of the householder 
living near the marsh, the broods have been negligible, yet at times they 
have been too large. It is the writer's opinion that the proportion spent 
upon the salt marsh is rarely too large and in some cases imdoubtedly 
too small. 

In every coimty having a salt marsh and attempting to cover only a 
part of the problem of mosquito control, the salt marsh has first received 
attention. 

Any study made for the purpose of finding the general principles under- 
lying the cost of mosquito control work must be concerned with an 
analysis of the effeet which increase in population has on the mosquito 
breeding places, for obviously mosquito control becomes important only 
as the land is transformed from a wilderness into homes for people. 

Before the settlement of the country there existed the fresh and salt- 
water marshes, streams and woodland pools. With the coming of popu- 
lation many fresh-water swamps and woodland pools have been drained 
or filled, while the drainage of others has been rendered more difficult 
and many have been polluted with human wastes. Many streams have 
been cleaned and straightened, but others have been stopped up and 
swamps created where none before existed. Many have been so polluted 
with human wastes that they have become virulent producers of mos- 
quitoes. The salt marsh drains established by nature have been stopped 
up, the water held on the marsh, and the areas transformed into worse 
breeders of mosquitoes than they were formerly. Many of the salt 
marshes have become polluted with human wastes. Many entirely arti- 
ficial breeding places, such as rain barrels, tubs, buckets, old tin cans, 
stopped-up roof gutters, privies, lot and roadside pools; cesspools and 
sewer catch-basins, have been created. 



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EXPERIMENT STATIOI^ REfOftT. 363 

Thus far at least the settlement of the land by man has Increased 
rather than diminished the mosquito output Examination of the tabu- 
lated list of expenditure shows clearly that on a county-wide basis in 
New Jersey the cost of mosquito extermination increases as the population 
increases in density. Hudson, with a population of 14,000 per square 
mile, spent |675 in 1913, $722 in 1914; Essex, with 5,000, $514 and $488; 
and Union, with 1,400, $302 and $230. There is of course, a difference of 
opinion as to whether permanent improvement of the mosquito breeding 
places incident to increase in population will not eventually overtake 
the increase in number and effectiveness of breeding places; and that the 
cost of mosquito control from that point will decrease as the population 
Increases. From what we see in the most densely populated sections of 
our large cities where sewering and grading has reached its highest 
perfection it looks as if such a point might be reached. 

Thus we have the relation which the cost of mosquito extermination 
bears to the whole population, and we have now to examine its relation 
to the individual. The tabular statement of expenditures shows clearly 
that per capita cost decreases as population increases. Hudson, with a 
population of 14,000 per square mile, had a per capita cost of 5.08 cents 
in 1913, 5.42 cents in 1914; Essex with 5,000, 11.8 cents and 11.37 cenU; 
Union, with 1,400, 20.82 cents and 15.89 cents. 

In county units, at least, increase in population means increase in 
wealth. Increase in density of population means, therefore, a decrease 
in the proportion paid by the individual taxpayer. In no case can the 
tax be greater than one mill, and in no case has any mosquito commission 
asked for the full amount available under the statute. 

The efficiency of mosquito extermination work may be measured by 
increased freedom from mosquito-bon^e disease, increased real estate 
values, and by the public support accorded to it. 

The amount of malaria recorded within the limits of the counties at 
work is so small, and the diagnosis so rarely founded on blood tests, 
that it is impossible to draw any definite conclusions as to the effect of 
the work on public health. 

The increase in values is however, a different matter. Unfortunately, 
nothing like a complete collection of data has ever been made relative 
to it In the course of some studies of the increase in ratables along the 
shore alone it was found that since the salt marshes had been drained 
there has occurred an increase of $5,600,000 in shore values alone in the 
territory from Jersey City to and including Sea Bright and that the 
increase ranged from 15 per cent in the manufacturing sections to 300 
per cent in some of the residential sections. Statistics set forth by Dr. 
Lipman^ serves to show the possibilities of this phase of the work. 

With a few minor exceptions, the completion of the first season's work 
has been sufficient to enlist the hearty support of the public press. 

Repeatedly the legislators from the counties in which the work was 
going on have withstood attempts to repeal the law made by representa- 



^Upman, J. G., Proceeding ad Ann. Meeting N. J. Mos. Kxter. Aw'n, pp. 6-9-74, 191 S* 



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364 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

lives of counties where no work had been done. During the fall of 1914 
an inquiry was prepared and sent out for the purpose of ascertaining iB 
still another way the attitude of the public toward anti-mosquito work. 
From the telephone directories in each of the principal towns and villages 
in the protected districts, so many persons whose srumames began with 
"A" were selected, so many persons whose surnames began with "B" and 
so on through the alphabet. To each of these persons so selected a brief 
statement of the expenditures since work began in this county was made, 
and he was requested to state whether he had been benefited an amount 
equal to the stated per capita cost of the work and whether he favored 
its continuance. 

Eighty per cent of the persons replied that benefit had been received, 
and 95 per cent favored the continuance of the work. 

MosquitoeB of the Year. 

Neither the time nor the space is available within the limits of this 
report to present an adequate discussion of this subject In fact so 
large is the mass of accurate data that it is deemed worthy of presen- 
tation in a separate paper. 

As usual the brown salt marsh mosquito (Aedea cantator Cog.) appeared 
this year to our certain knowledge from Cape May 10 Jersey City. 
From midsummer on it was replaced from Jersey City soutn by the 
white-banded salt marsh mosquito {Aedes aollicitana Wlk.). In the lat- 
ter part of summer, the latter became in the territory adjacent to the 
undrained marsh a terrible pest. Cape May and Cumberland Counties 
suffering especially. In the northern portion of the Hackensack valley 
A. cantator bred throughout the season. 

Among the fresh water species this was a year when the tmusual 
species bred commonly. The heavy rainfall of midsummer multiplied 
the breeding water surface by ten and In the unprotected parts of the 
State the fresh water species were a veritable scourge. This condition 
seems to have obtained practically all over the country. 

The principal species concerned in this trouble in New Jersey were 
the house mosquito {Culex pipiens Linn.) and the fresh-water swamp 
mdsqulto i Aedea aylveatria Theob). Contrary to the usual experience, 
the latter bred everywhere. 

While the salt marsh species in the protected area as a whole were 
imder better control than formerly, being entirely absent from many 
places where last year they were bad, the fresh water species were most 
unusually hard to control and the local mosquito fighting organizations 
were given a most severe test. 



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-'-?£. 3 



M. Ul ^^PO^T 



OF THE 



Department of Entomology 



OP THE 



New Jersey Agricultural 
Q)llege Experiment Station 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

BY 

THOMAS J. HEADLEE, Ph.D. 

For the Year Ending 
October 31, 1916 



TRENTON. N. J. 
MacCiellish & QuiGLEY Co., State Printert 

I917 



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REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT 
OF ENTOMOLOGY 



(465) 



30 EX 

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Digitiz 



Department of Entomology 



Thomas J. Headi^e, Ph.D., Entomologist. 
*Chari,es H. Richardson, Jr., M.Sc, Assistant Entomologist. 
tAi^VAH Peterson, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist. 
§H'ENRY H. Brehme, Field Assistant in Entomology. 
♦♦Charles S. Beckwith, B.Sc, Assistant Entomologist, 

Augusta E. Meske, Stenographer and Clerk. 



♦Resigned September 15, 1916. 
t Appointed October i, 1916. 
{Resigned January 31, 1916. 
tOn State Station. 

♦♦Promoted from Field Assistant to Assistant Entomologist February z, 
1916. 



CONTENTS. 

page 

I. Introduction, 467 

11. Correspondence, 467 

Tabular Statement of Insect Correspondence, 1916, 467 

III. Insects of the Year, 475 

IV. Species of Insects Recently Recorded as Present in the State, 477 

V. Investigations, 486 

Influence of Atmospheric Moisture on Insect Metabolism, 486 

The Strawberry Weevil, 490 

Apple Plant Lice, 494 

The False Cabbage Aphis, 501 

Pear Psylla, 503 

Wintering Bees, 504 

Miscellaneous, 506 

VI. The Response of the House-Fly to Certain Foods and their Fer- 
mentation Products 511 

Introduction, 511 

Methods, 512 

Conclusions, • 518 

Bibliography, 519 

Report of Mosquito Work for 1916, 521 

Salt Marsh Drainage Previous to 1916, 521 

Salt Marsh Drainage in 1916, 522 

Financial Statement of Mosquito Work, 534 

Summary of Mosquito Control by Counties, 534 

Mosquitoes of the Year, 546 

Aid Extended to Organizations and Persons, 551 

The Mosquito Exterminator 553 

The New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association, 553 

Larvicides 554 

Conclusions, 557 

(466) 



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Report of the Department of Entomology 

Thomas J. Headlbe 



INTRODUCTION 

The attention of tiie entomologist and his assistants has been 
devoted: (i) to the carr)dng on of correspondence with 
Jerseymen in need of information about the control of injurious 
insects or the management of beneficial ones, (2) to the in- 
vestigation of the influence of atmospheric moisture upon insect 
metobolism; (3) to the investigation of the strawberry weevil, 
apple aphis, the false cabbage aphis, the pear psylla, and vari- 
ous miscellaneous species; (4) to the investigation of the effi- 
ciency of certain types of covers for wintering bees; (5) to the 
investigation of the food preferences of the common house or 
typhoid fly as a basis for making up an efficient poisoned bait; 
and (6) to the work of mosquito control. 

II 

CORRSePONDENCE 

The following table serves to show the species about which 
inquiries were made. The nimiber of letters relative to each 
species has been omitted because such data do not seem to serve 
any good purpose. The scientific names are those employed in 
"Insects of New Jersey,*' which was issued in 1909. 

It is proposed to revise this list in 191 9 and during the 
interim to use it as a standard. The changes in nomenclature 
are so rapid and extenivc that it seems best to adopt something 
and stkk to it. 

Tabular Statement of Insect Correspondence, 1916 

Ammsuda 
Latim Nmm^ C omm§n Name LecoUty Date 

umbfkus sp., Earthworm, Moorestown, Mar. 9 

" " Wcftficld, Nov. 14, 'xs 

OtUSTAOU 

Kpoda sp^ .Sow Bufi Newaili, Mar ^9 

(467) 



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468 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

DXPLOPODA 

Latin Namti Common Name Locality Dai* 

Julus sp,, Thousand-legged Worm, ...Newton, April 29 

Diphpoda sp., " " ...Newark, May 5 

Abachnxda 

Briophyes pyri FgsL Pear-leaf Blister Mite, Rutherford, June a 

" " " " Bound Brook, July xo 

Briophyes quadripes Shrimer, Maple Gall Mite Ridgewood, June 30 

" Short Hills May 31 

Pedicnloidts dianthopkilus, . Mite, Sea Girt, Nov. 8, *t% 

Psendoscorpionida sp., . . . . Pseudoscorpion, Millbum Oct- 9 

Tetranychtu sp., Red Spider Wcstwood Oct 23 

" " " W. Englewood, June 15 

** " " Mt HoUy, June 16 

" •• •• Salem May 29 

" ** " " Caldwell, April 13 

" " " Little Silver June 24 

" " " Nclsonville. June a6 

" •• " Short Hills, Dec 24, 'x$ 

•* " •* RiTerton, Dec 7, *i5 

" " " Westfield, Nov. 17, 'xs 

Trombidium sp., Chigger, Lebanon, Sept. xs 

Tyroglyphus sp., Mite, Atlantic Highlands, ....Sept. 7 

Imsscta 

Homoptera 

Aphididet sp., Plant Lice, Tottenville, N. Y Oct, x6 

" " " Princeton, Sept. x6 

" " " Greenlock, Sept 9 

" " " Louisville, Ky Nor. 9. 'xS 

" " " Morristown, May x8 

" '* " " Hammonton, June 24 

" " " " Rahway, Juxie 8 

" " " " Glassboro April 5 

" " " Oxford, May 18 

" " " Paterson Not. 39, 'iS 

" " " Phillipsburg, Jane x 

" " " " Morristown, June 4 

" " " Atlantic City, June 6 

** " " " Nutley June xo 

" " " " Hackensack, Mar. 30 

" " " Newark May 24 

" " " Elizabeth July 8 

" " " Atsion, July 5 

" " " Rutherford, July 24 

" " " Jersey City, July 20 

" *• " New Brunswick, Not. x7, '1$ 

" " " Riverton Dec. 7. 'xs 

" " " " Moorestown, Dec 9, '15 

" " " Nutley, June 9 

" " " Hackensack, Sept 23 

" " " " Blue Anchor, Feb. X4 

" " Aphid Gall, New York City June 8 

Aphis brassicet Linn., Cabbage Louse, Glassboro, Sept 20 

" " AUendale Mar. 30 

" " MonroeviUe, Oct 10 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 469 

JLaHm Nam4 Common Nmm4 Locality Datg 

\phis nuiJi Fabr., Apple Plant Louse, DuneUen, April 17 

" " " " " Crowwicks Sept i 

" " " " Scwell JtUj 5 

\phis p^rsic^-niggr Smith, . Black Peach Louse, Brentwood, Nor. 24, '15 

iphis ps^titdobrtMsska DaTis, False Cabbage Louse Freehold, Oct zs 

UpidiottAS pemiciotuM 

Cotii»t-, San Jos^ Scale, Elltabeth, BCay x$ 

Itpidiofm^ pemiciosus 

CoroMt. " " " Caldwell Aprils 

ispidiotM^ p^rniciosus 

Conwt. " " " Xew York City UtLj 3 

itpidiott^^ pemiciosus 

Coexist., " " ** Leonia, Jan. as 

isfndiot't^ tsugti Mar., ....Hemlock Scale, Mahwah Feb. 19 

Teresa Ifsthalus Fabr., Buffalo Tree Hopper, Caldwell, April 24 

Zhemt€s abietis Linn, Spruce Gall Louse, Ridgewood, , May 9 

Zk€rm€s pinicorticis Fitch,. . Pine Bark Aphid, Merchantville May 5 

" .. " " " Ridgewood, May 9 

" .. " " " ..- New Market June as 

Chionaspis euonymi Comst, .Euonymous Scale Matawan May 9 

Chionaspis pinifolia Pitch, .Pine-leaf Scale Caldwell, April J4 

Cocciddt sp., Scale Insect, Livingston, April j6 

" " •' MiUington, Oct t8 

" " " Newark, Oct 16 

Coccms pseudohesperidum, . . Soft Scale, Rutherford, 

Coccus hesperidum Unn., .. " " Riverton April 8 

Colopha ulmicola Fitch, ...Coxcomb Clm Gall Red Bank, May 30 

Diedrocephalc coccinea 

Porst., Leaf Hopper, Passaic, Oct 3 

BuUcanium nigrofasciaium 

Pere., Terrapin Scale Morristown Mar. i 

BuUcanium nigrofasciaium 

Pcrg. " " Elixabeth, Mar. 12 

ButeatUum tulipiftra Cook, .Tulip Soft Scale PUinfield July ao 

- " " " Metuchen, Aug. 30 

Jassid^ sp., Leaf Hopper, Westwood, Oct J3 

" " " Morristown June 4 

LepidosaphMS ulmi Linn., . .Oyster-shell Scale, Newton, July 18 

- •• " " " Plainfield July 14 

*• •• " " " Plainfield, April a8 

" •• " •• " Mendham, April 26 

•• " - " Sebago Lake, Me., Mar. 30 

" .. " " " Leonia, Jan. aa 

Longistigma carya Harr., ..Aphid, Merchantville, Sept a8 

Macrosiphum pisi Kalt, ...Pea Louse, Riverton Oct i 

•* " ** ..." " Hightstown, June 26 

My»us cerasi Fabr., Cherry Louse, Crawford, July 13 

•• " " J^ewark May 15 

Pemphigus vagabundus 

Walah, Aphid Gall Newton, July 18 

Fhyllaphis fagi Linn., Wooly Beech Aphis, Edgewater Park June 27 

Phylloxera carya-canHs 

Pitch Aphia Gall, Bloomfield, June 12 

Psylla pyricola Porat, Pear Psylla, Vineland, April 13 

Puhnnatria acericola W. ft R., Cottony Maple Scale, Hammonton, June 24 

Saissetia hsmtsphasrica 

Targ., Hemiapherical Scale, Cedar Brook, Dec, 31, '15 

SaissetiA hsmisphaeriea 

Targ., " " Rutherford Feb. 11 

THoma magnolia, Psyllid, Rutherford, June 15 



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470 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Hemipiera 
Lotim Nam^ Comtncn Nam$ Locality Date 

Anasa tristis DeG., Squash Bug, Madison, Oct. 17 

Cimex Uctularms Linn., . . . Bed Bug, Jersey City, . Nov. 16, '15 

•• - ..." " Moorcstown, Feb. 12 

•• ... " " Newark Mar. 23 

- ... " " Palmyra, Aug. at 

Lfptobyrsa explanata "Hmd, .Rhododendron I<ace Bug, ..Jersey City, Nov. xa, '15 

Suphamiis pyw^dis Scott, .Iracc Bug, New York City, Nov. X2, '15 

Orthoptera 

*Blahtrus discoidalis Say, . Roach, Secaucus, 

Blatta orientaHs Linn., Oriental Cockroach, Windsor, June 30 

Gryllut sp., Cricket, Red Bank July 26 

Oicanthus fasciatus Pitch, . .Tree Cricket, Caldwell, April u 

Coltopttra 

Anthonomus signatus Say, . . Strawberry Weevil, Frankford, Del., Dec 2, '15 

•• .. - " Pleasantville, June 14 

" " .. - - Elmira, N. Y June 1 

" .. " - Kulpsville, Pa., May 8 

" .. " - .., Millvine May 8 

" " .. - " North East, Pa. May 6 

" .. " « Wading River, May i 

" .. " - MiUviUe April 8 

" .. " •• Bridgeville, Del., April 6 

" .. " - Moorcstown Mar. 9 

'*..•* - Merchantrifle, Mar. 6 

" " " .. " " ^ Bridgeton, , Feb. 24 

•• .. " " Medford Mar. 21 

" .. " - Bridgeville, Del Feb. 14 

" " .. " - MerchantviUe Dec is, '15 

Balaninus rectus Say, Chestnut Weevil, Beverly, Mar. 6 

Bruchns obtechts Say^ Bean Weevil May's Landing, Sept 9 

Calandra orystf Linn. Rice Weevil, Laurel Springs, Aug. 23 

Calandra sp„ Grain Weevil, May's Landing, Oct 18 

Cathartus advena Wahh., ..Foreign Grain Weevil, Atlantic Highlands* ....Sept 7 

Cerambycidm sp,, Long-honed Borer, New Brunswick, July 19 

" " " Ridgewood June 17 

Ceratoma trifurcata Torat,. ."Bean-lesii Beetle, Glen Gardner, June 3 

Chrysomelidtt sp,, Flea Beetle, Hackensack Sept aj 

Coccinellida sp., Lady Bird Beetle, Atlantic Qty June 6 

Conotrachelus nenuphar 

Hbst Plum Curcullo, New York City, Dec xo, '15 

Conotrachelus nenuphar 

Hbst " " Belmar ICay x6 

Conotrachelus nenuphar 

Hbst, " " East Orange, May ix 

Conotrachelus nenuphar 

Hbst., " " Burlington, June 7 

Conotrachelus nenuphar 

Hbst, " " Elizabeth, May 19 

Conotrachelus nenuphar 

Hbst, " " South River, June 17 

Conotrachelus nenuphar 

Hbst " *• Cresskill, Jnly 7 

Criocerjis asporagi Linn., . . . Asparagtis Beetle Glassboro, June 2 

•'••«• ... " " Mendham June $ 

•« ... " " Summit, Sept. 4 

* New insects for New Jersey. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



471 



DimbroHca vihaia Pabw, 



.Striped Cucumber Beetle, 



.New York Qty April 4 

--..." - - •.den Gardner June 3 

... " " " ..Moorertown, July 24 

DtrmtsUdtt j#., Dermetted, Cape May Court House, S^t' xa 

D^smoctrus pglliahu Forst, Long-homed Beetle, New York City, June a7 

Bcdytohpha ituUiciana ZelL, Locust Twig Borer, Spring Lake, Sept 9 

Blaphidion vUhsum Fab., . . Maple & Oak Twig Pruner, Vineland, Sept 29 

Blattridg sp^ Wire Worm Little Falls Dec 14, 

. Uacketutown, April 23 



IS 



Epiirix eucMtm»is Harr., . . . Potato Plea Beetle^ 



iMchnostmma sp„ 



.Glasaboro, June 

. " " '• ....Paterson, June 

•« ** " Pertli Amboy, July 

•••*•• ....Manchester, Conn., ....July 

" " " Oradell. July 

•Rose Chafer, Glendola, 

. " " Bayonne, May 

. " " Plainfield, May 



»7 
M 
19 
'3 
3« 
31 

X 

17 
so 

S 

16 

S 

IS 

18 



10 



"4 



• . . South RiTor, Jan. 

...Phillipsburg, May 

. " " " New Brunswick July 

. " " " Ehntr, May 

. • AUentown May 

. " " " Bernardsville, May 

. " " " PWUipaburg, June 

. " " " South River June 

. " " " Rocky HUl, June 

.White Grubs, Madison, Feb. 

. " " PhUaddphia, Pa. May 

" " " W. LaFayette, Ind., ....Ju»e 

•• ,.. " " W. Englewood, Jnne 

" " " Jersey Qty, July 

LepHnotorsa dtc^mliwtota 

Say, Colorado Potato Beetle, 

LtptimoUitsa dtctmHnMota 

Say, " 

UpHnotarsa dtcgmUmata 

Say, " 

Ltpiimotmrsa dtcrnnUntata 

Say. m H u 

Leptinotorsm' dtc^mUnfoia 

Say 

Macrodactylus subspinosus 

Fabr. 

Uttcrodaetylus subspinotus 

Fabr., 

iiacrodactylus tubspinosus 

Fabr., 

Macrodaetylus subfpinosus 

Fabr. " " Carmcl, May 

Monarikrwn maU Pitch, ...Scolytid Beetle Rutherford, May 

Nodonota punctieoUit Say, . .Beetle, Princeto'b, Jime 

Oncidtrts cmgulatus Say, ..Hickory Twig Girdler, High Bridge, Oct 

Phytononms ^wcfoliii Fabr., Clover-leaf Beetle, Trenton, Sept 

Pusodts strobi Teek White Pine WeevU, Far Hills, Sept 

•• " " " Rutherford, Jnne 

" " " " Ridgewood, May 

" " " " Sterlington, N. Y., Jan. 

Plagionotus speciosns Say, . .Sugar Maple Borer, Cranford, Sept 

PolyphyUa variolosa Henty, . Scarabaeid, Ocean City, Nov. 17, 

Scolytus qnadrispmotus S%jtYi\cVovy Bark-borer, Plainfield, June 26 

" rugulos$u Rata, ...Fruit-tree Bark-beetle, Paterson June 10 

Sihanus surinamensis Linn., Corn Silvanus Trenton, Nov. 6, 

Lfpidopt^a 

Aneyhs comptana, Strawberry Leaf Roller, . . . Sewell, '. .June 16 

Anitota sanatoria Sm. 9c Abb,, Oak Worm, Richmond, Mass., Sept. 2$ 



Ner. IX, '15 



at 

«y 

9 

8 
so 
a4 
as 

26 



'«S 



'«5 



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472 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Latin Nam€ Common Namt Locality Date 

Arctiid^ sP„ Arctiid Moth, Berlik., Ang. j9 

Carposapsa pomonella Linn.» Codling Moth, New Brunswick, May i6 

^Castnia ihtrapon Kail., . . .Hesperid (in greenhouse), . .Bound Brook, Feb. 2 

CUheronia regaiis Fsbr., .... Hickory Homed Devil Woodbine, i Sept 18 

Dtttana integerrima G. & R., Walnut Datana Hasbrouck Heights, Aug. 38 

" ministra Dru., Yellow*necked caterpillar, ..Chatham, Sept. i 

Desmia funeralis Hubnr., . .Grape-leaf Polder, Hackensack, Jaae t 

.. " " *' Bridgeton. Oct 8 

Buclea indetermina Bdv., . . Slug Caterpillar, Englewood, Sept u 

" .. " " tyndhurst, Sept 11 

Heliothis armiger Hbn., ...Com Ear-worm, Westfield Sept 18 

" ... " " " Goshen, Mar. m 

"... " " " New York City, May 19 

•• ... " " " Moorestown, July 24 

Hemerocampa leucostigma 

S. fit A., White-marked Tussock Moth, Englewood Oct 23 

Hemerocampa leucostigma 

S. & A " " " " Camden, Dec, a, '15 

Hemerocampa leucostigma 

S. & A., " " " " Camden, Dec. 4, ''S 

Hyphantria cunea Dm., . . . .Fall Web-worm, Dover » Sept 13 

Limenitis archippus Cram., Nymphalid Butterfly Newton, Aug. 29 

Malacosoma americana Fabr., Apple Tree Tent Caterpillar, Elizabeth, Mar. m 

White Plains, N. Y Mar. t 

Newark, Feb. 23 

Hampton Feb. 13 

New York aty May 13 

Rahway, June 5 

" " " " Avalon May S4 

•• " " " Far Hills, April a; 

Dover, Jan. j8 

" " " " Bridgeton, April 19 

** " " " " Millbum, June 16 

" " " " " " " Stockton June 8 

Marmara salictella Clem., . . Montdair, Sept 14 

Melittia satyriniformis Hbn., Squash Vine Borer Phillipsburg, Aug. as 

Silverton, June 8 

Noctuids sp., Cutworms, Trenton, Oct 7 

" " " New York aty Nov. 4. 'xs 

" " " " Dorchester, June 12 

Oxyptilus periscelidactylus 

Fitch, Grape Plume Moth, East Orange, June 13 

Papaiptma nitela Gn., Stalk Borer, Atco, July 25 

" " " Allendale, July xo 

" " " Hamburg, July 5 

Papilio polyxenus Fabr Celery Caterpillar, Frenchtown, July 16 

Pegomyia brassica Bouche, . Cabbage Maggot, Vineland, .Oct 25 

Peridroma margaritosa Haw., Variegated Cut Worm, Trenton, Nov. 24f '*S 

Philosamia cynthia Dm., . . Moth, Belvidere June 27 

Phobetron piihecium S. & A., Hag Moth, W. Milford, Sept 9 

Phlyctaenia ruhigalis Guen., Greenhouse Leaf Tier, W. Norwood, Mar. 23 

Pieris rapa Linn., Cabbage Worm Allendale, Mar. 30 

" " Bloomfield July x8 

Porthetria dispar Linn., ... Gipsy Moth,t Newark, June 6 

Prolimacodes scapka Harr., . Slug Caterpillar, New Egypt, Sept i 

'Swmia cecropia Linn., Cecropia Moth, Hackensack, 



• New insects for New Jersey, 
t Request for warning cards. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



473 



Latin Nam^ Common Nome LocaUiy Dat0 

Sttnninoidea txitiosa Sa7» ..Peach Borer Merchantville, Nov. ii, 

Glassboro, April 22 



15 



SUotrogo certolelh OHt., . . Angoumoia Grain Moth, 



Thytidopteryx ephemerae' 
formis Steph 

Thytidopteryx ephemerae- 
formis Steph., 



.MiilviUe, April 

.Burlington May 

.Brookaide, June 

.Pateraon, June 

. Summit, July 

.Plainfield, Nov. 

. Robbinaville, Nov. 

.Roselle, Jan. 

.New York City, Dec 

. Delanco, Nov. 

.Woodbine, Feb. 

.Allendale, Mar. 

. May's Landing, Sept. 

. Newton, Sept. 

.Trenton, July 

. Laurel Springs, Aug. 

.Cape May Court House, Sept 



*Diprion simile Hartig, 



.Pear Slug, Pleaaantville, June 

. " " New Brunswick, July 



Briocampoides Kmacina 

RstM,, 

Briocampoides limacina 

RstM,, 

Briocampoides limacina 

RsU., *' " Burlington, July 

Bxvtema permundana Clem.» Raspberry Leaf -roller Grantwood, Mar. 

Pormidda sp,, Ants, Teaneck, June 

" " East Orange June 

" " Somerville May 

" " Elizabeth, May 

" " " Flcmington, May 

" " '* Paterson, June 

" " Elizabeth July 

* Janus abhreviatus Say, ...Saw-fly Bound Brook July 

•• ... " " Elizabeth, July 

" ... " " Irvington July 

" ... " " South Orange. July 

" ... " " Springfield, July 

Ophion sp., Ichneumon Ply MontcUir, Sept. 

Pteronus ribesi Scop., Imported Currant Worm, ..Staten Island, N. Y., ..May 

Tenthredinida sp., Saw-fly, Mahwah Sept 

" " " Middlebush May 

Vespa crabro Linn., European Hornet, Blackwood, Oct 

Siphonaptera 

CUnocophalus canis LUm., ..Cat and Dog Flea, Cream Ridge, ...June 

" .. " " " " Newark, May 

" .. " " " " Medford June 

Pntex irriians Linn., Human Flea, Cream Ridge, June 



. Bag Worm Mount Holly, July 

. " " Lakewood, Sept 

Hymsnoptera 

Apis melUfica Linn., Honey Bee, Branchville, Nov. 

Cimbex americana Leach, . .Willow Saw-fly, Newark, June 

. European Pine Saw-fly, .... Elizabeth 

" " " ....Rutherford 

" " ....South Orange, 



4 
10 

5 

I 

22, 'i$ 
24. 'is 
5 

a8. 'is 

I 
28 
«5 
15 

6 
23 
12 

14 



'«5 



XI 

as 

2 

6 

22 

6 

2 
7 

XI 

2 
8 

JO 

X4 
»S 

X4 
28 
ao 
3t 
23 



* New insects for New Jersey. 



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474 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

DipUn 

LoUrn ^atfut Common Name Locality D§t$ 

Acidia 9auvi» Lowe, Trypetid, Bridgeton, Mar. 24 

Anophtlo* sp,, Malaria Mosquito, New Brunswick, July 19 

Bibionida sp., .....Fly, Irvington, ....May h 

Cecidomyia pomum Walsh, . .Cecidomyid, Flemington, Sept 13 

Cecidomyiidm sp„ Galls, Daodleii, .Aug. 7 

Culicidg, Mosquitoct, Avalon May 24 

" Belmar, June 15 

" Blythe, CaL, Mar. is 

** " Boonton, Feb. as 

" " Boston, Mass., April 24 

" CaldweU, Feb. ta 

" CUffside, Nov. 27. '«5 

" Coocord. May 5 

" «• Demarest, Dec 17. '15 

" " Elwood, Feb. 18 

" Highland^ N. Y., May 18 

" Ithaca, N. Y., . ." May 9 

" New Brunswick, May 8 

" " New Haves, Conn., ....May S9 

" " New Haven, Conn., . . . .June 10 

" New York City, June is 

«• ••••••• Biay 26 

" " " " June 19 

** •• ** - •« Feb. 10 

" " •• •« " Jan. 30 

" " " •• " Jm. jy 

" " " •* Nov. SI. '15 

" Palmerton, Pa. May 13 

" " Penns Grove, June 5 

•* Trtnton, April a6 

Dasyntura hguminicota 

Lint, ..Fly, Newton, ...Jane 27 

Lasioptera viHs P. S., Potato Gall, Mahwah, June as 

" •* " " Beach Haven, June ly 

•• - - - Elisabeth, Jtme » 

- - " " Nutley, June 15 

Meromyga omgricono Pitch., Wheat Bulb-worm, Cream Ridge, June 13 

" Newton, July ,3 

*MoHarthro palpus buxi Lab., Box-leaf Miner, Rumson, Nov. ai, *i5 

Musca dom^stica Itirm. House Fly, Highland, N. Y., May 18 

•• .... " " St Paul, Minn. Mar. 19 

" " .... " " Boonton, Feb. 15 

" .... - " New York aty, Jiily«5 

•• .... " " Summit, July I, 

• .... " " Far Hilhi, ....: April 17 

" .... " " Penns Grove. June s 

*ParalModiphsis cattleya 

Moll Orchid Midge in greenhouse, Chatham, Jan. x8 

Pegomyia hrassica Bouche,. .Cabbage Maggot, » . . Garwood May 29 

*PAy<0fn3fjra o^wi/f^ Hardy, Columbine Leaf Miner, ....Springfield, July 6 

....Rutherford July a9 

" - " - M ....Riverton. July 18 

....ElUabeth. July 3 

Pollenia rudis Fabr., Muscid, Hamburg, Sept t? 

Rhagoletii pomonella Walsh., Apple Maggot, New York Oty, Nov. 16, *iS 

Sciara sp,, Sciara Army Worm, Bound Brook, .July »S 

* New insects for New Jersey. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 475 

The volume of correspondence this year has been much the 
same as last, but with an evident increase. Not far from an 
average of 25 ^ letters have been sent out from the office each 
working day. The correspondence related to 146 species of 
insects and their near relatives of which 25 were species of 
mosquitoes. 

HI 

INSECTS OF THE YEAR 

Some notion of the species which were troublesome may be 
obtained by consulting the tabular statement of insect correspond- 
ence, but neither the species excessively abundant nor those 
which are new to the State get sufficient emphasis in a statement 
of this sort. 

T«nt Caterpillar 

(Malacosoma americana Harr.) 

The tent caterpillar was again sufficiently abundant to constitute an out- 
breal^ although the amount of damage was considerably lessened. The 
distrioution of the outbreak was this year about the same as last— mainly 
in the northern part of the State, with its greatest severity in the north- 
eastern section, but it was pceseat to some extent in all parts of the State. 

Apple Plant Lice 

The principal, but not the only, species concerned has been the rosy aphis 
(Aphis sorhi Kalt.)- To a less extent the green aphis (Aphis pomi De Gr.) 
was a factor. The distribution of the rosy aphis was apparently ^^eral, 
and the damage done by it considerable. Especial attention was given to 
it by the entomologist in the orchards of Mr. John H. Barclay, of Cranbury, 
and of the J. L. Lippincott Co., of Riverton. In both cases complete^ 
satisfactory control was obtained The results of thb work are set forth 
under a special heading elsewhere in this report. 

Pear Pay I la 

(Psylla pyricola Forst.) 

During the last few years the damage done by this species appears to 
have been increasing. In ipi4 Mr. J. C. Richdale, of Phalanx, complained 
of trouble with it in his Kieffer ^ar ordiards, and sought out aid in con- 
trolling it. In 1915 the J. L. Lippincott Co., of Riverton, sought help in 
controlling the same speaes in its Kieffer orchards. In 1916 Mr. Wm. H. 
Blackwell complained of trouble in his Bartlett orchard at Titusville, and 
Mr. Lester Collins, of Moorestown, stated that not only was the psylla 

*Last year the correspondence of the State entomologist was mentioned 
in speaking of the volume of correspondence. This year the correspondence 
of the State entoaologiat is not included. 



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476 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

injurious in his Kieffer orchards, but that his control had been unsatbfac- 
tory. 

It seems that the species has, during the last few years, been experiendngr 
one of its periodical increases in numbers, and consequently injurious 
power. 

An account of the work done against it and of the results obtained will 
be fotmd in another part of this report. 

The False Cabbage Aphis 

(Aphis pseudobrassicae Davis) 

For several years the growers of turnips about Freehold have been 
troubled with a plant louse which has at times been so abundant as to destroy 
the crop. This year the matter was brought to the entomologist's attention 
by Mr. Wm. B. Duryea, the Monmouth County farm demonstrator. 

The nature and the extent of the infestation were investigated, and the 
species, proving to be one of which we had no duplicate, was forwarded to 
Mr. John J. Davis and by him pronounced the false cabbage aphis. While 
this is the first time it has been taken in the State, there is httle doubt in the 
writer's mind that the species has been present in injurious numbers for 
several and perhaps many years. 

The nature and the results of the work done upon this species are set 
forth in a special section of this report. 

The Oak Worm 

(Anisota senatoria Smith and Abbott) 

In the early fall the work of the oak worm attracted much notice. The 
outbreak seemed to be limited mainly to the scrub oak in the central por- 
tions of the State. Even in this area its distribution was patchy, defolia- 
tion appearing in many cases at widely separated points. All the common 
species of scrubby oak were attacked, but the birch seemed to be the only 
species other than the oak to suffer. 

The attack came so late in the season that little real damage was done^ 
the buds having been largely made before injury began. 

The Rose Bug 

(Macrodactylus subspinosus Fab.) 

The species, while not so abundant this year as last, appeared in suffi- 
cient numbers to do serious harm. It is mentioned primarily because z^pm 
this year the self-boiled lime-sulfur has satisfactorily protected apple foliage 
from injury. 

The Elm Leaf Beetle 

(Galerucella luteola Mull.) 

This species has been remarkably reduced this year. The elms on the col- 
lege campus were so little infested as not to reqmre spraying. 

Sclara Army Worm 

{Sciara sciaphila Loew.) 

On July 27 the entomologist investigated report of army worm trouble in 
Bound Brook. The army worms in question were really in every case 
aggregations of fungous gnat larvse. The individual larvae were a half- 
inch or less long, but crowded so close together that they formed a con- 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 477 

dnuous string, ranging from 2 inches to 24 in length. The largest ones 
were about 2 inches wide. These strings ai>peared immediately aiter soak- 
ing rains, on lawns, along stone, brick, and cement walks, as well as upon 
them, exciting the surprise and interest and in some cases fear of those who 
saw them. The larvae were identified by Dr. A. H. Johannsen as Sciara 
sciaphUa Loew. They were fully grown and probably m search of a satis- 
factory place to pupate. 

IV 

SPECIES OF INSECTS RECENTLY RECORDED AS PRESENT IN 

THE STATE 

First List 

This list falls into two divisions. The first is concerned with species that 
are probably native, or at any rate not certainly known to have been !«n- 
ported. The second includes species definitely knorwn to have been imported 
within the last ten or twelve years. 

Order Thysanura 

Achorcutes armatum Nicolet. The Mushroom Spring Tail Occurs in mushroom cellars 
in New Jersey. 

Order Mallophaca 

Docophorus platyrhynchus Nitxsch. From Buteo Uneatus. C H. Richardson. 

Order NvumoPTXBA 

HfSperoUon placidus Navas. Point Pleasant, July 2$, Bueno. (B'klyn. Bui, ▼. lo, No. 3-) 
Conwentsia kageni Banks. Rutherford, May 30, bred from evergreens, E. L. Dickerson. 
Conwgntsia angulata Navas. Westfield, August 31, de la Torre Bueno. 

Order Mscoptsba 

Panorpa latipennis HSne. Hewitt, June 18, Davis. (Bui. B'klyn Soc., v. 10. p. 109.) 
Panorpa subfnrcata West. Ramsey, June 23; Hewitt, June 18; Davis. (Bui. B'klyn Soc, 

V. 10, p. 109.) 
Mtfopt tuber Newman. Chester, Dickerson. (Bui. B'klyn Soc., v. lo, p. 3) 

Order TmiCHOPTi«A 

Neuronic paradalis Walker. Lakehurst, June 5, 1909. L. B. Woodruff. (Jour. N. Y. 

Ent. Soc, V. 21, p. 163.) 
Neuronic smfthi. Banks. Lakehurst, July 4. Englehart. 
(Ecetina fumosa Bks. Pemberton, June 20. H. B. Scammell. 
Plectroenemia cinereus Hg. Pcmberton, June 24. H. B. Scammell. 

Order Odokata 

Agrion ttquabile Say. Great Notch, May 30. W. T. Davis. (Jour. N. Y. Ent Soc, 

Mar., 19x3) 
Lestes uneatus Kirby. Newfoundland, August 4. W. T. Davis. (Jour. N. Y. Ent Soc, 

Mar., 1913.) 
Bnallagma recurvatum Davis. Lakehurst, June 28, 191 3. W. T. Davis. 
Bnallagma cyathigerum Charpentier (annexum Hagen) Ramsey, May 20. (Jour. N. Y. 

Ent Soc, Mar., 1913.) 
Bnallagma ehrium Hagen. Newfoundland, Lake Htopatcong, July. (Jour. N. Y. Ent 

Soc, Mar., 1913.) 
Gomphus abbreviatus Hagen. Greenwood Lake, June 18, 19x1. P. M. Schott. 
Cordulegaster erroneus Hagen. Bear Swamp, Ramapo Mts., August 18, 19x0. Chas. E. 

Slight (Jour. N. Y. Ent Soc, Mar., 1913) 



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478 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Tttragoneurta spimigera Sclyu Newfoundlmnd, May a8, W. T. DmwU; Greenwood Lake, 

June 30, Wauon. (Jour. N. Y. Soc^ Mar^ 1913) 
tibettula exusta d»pUmta Rambur. Woodbaty, May X4« igxa. P. Laumit. 
iMUku* aUnstylus Hagcn. Bear Swamp, Ramapo Mtt., June, July. C E. SUght Qtmr. 

N. Y. £iiL Soc^ Mar., 1913.) 
WiiUamsomia Mmin^ Hagcn. Paterson, May 4. J. A. Groatbeck. (BuL Bldyn Bat. Soc., 

V. 8, p. 93.) 

Order Thysanoptbra 

Cryptothrips gilvipes Hood. Pembcrton, April. 1915. In cocoons of GeUckia trialbama- 

CHlella, H. B. Scammell. 
Hoplothrips kamyi Hood. Pcmberton, August 29, 1914, on dead tree. H. K. Plank. 

Order HoMOPTsaA 

Cicada auietes Germar. This should replace C. marginata Say of the 1909 list (Jour. 

N. Y. Ent. Sac, v. 33, p. 2) Davis. 
Cicada pruinosa var. UUifasciata Davis. Cape May County, Davis. This record should 

replace C. pruinosa Say in the 1909 list (Jour. N. Y. Ent Soc, ▼. a3, p. 8) 

Davis. 
Telamona qu^ci. Summit, F. M. Schott 
Cyrtolobus tub^rosus. Summit, F. M. Schott 
Phylloscelis otra Germ. Harrisia, New Egypt. Three forms: black, long- winged; black, 

short- winged; brown, short-winged. Injurious to cranberry. H. B. Scammell. 
Xeitocephaltu tessellatus Van D. Newark. E. L. Dickerson. 
Chlorotettix galbanata Van D. Newark. E L. Dickerson. 
Livia vemali* Fkch. Tronton, July a. E L. Dickerson. 
Pachypsylla celHdis-mamma Riley. Makes leaf galls on Celtis. Riverton, June 35. E. L. 

Dickerson. 
Trioaa alacris Flor. Rutherford, August 18. On bay trees. 
Phylloxera fovela Pergande. New Brunswick and other parts of the State. Common on 

leaves of hickory. C. H. Richardson. 
Pemphigus ulmifusus Walsh. GaH on leaf of Utmus pubescent. H. B. Wdst. 
Aphis hedera Kalt In greenhouses on English ivy. Not common. H. B. Weiss. 
Aphis houghtonensis Troop. Riverton, on gooseberry. T. J. Headlee. 
Aphis nern Fonsc. In greenhousM on oleander. Not oonunan. H. B. Weiaa. 
Aphis sorbi Kaltenbacfa. Throughout the State on apple. The rosy apple aphis. T. J. 

Headlee and C. H. Richardson. 
Mysus rosarum Kalt On roses in greenhouses. H. B. Weisa 

Macrosiphum sanbomi Gill. Black aphis of chrysanthemum, in greenhouses. H. B. Weisa. 
Aleyrodes mori Quaint, var. maculata Morr. Palmyra, August 6, on tweet gum. E. I«- 

Dickerson. 
Aleyrodes coryli Britten. Norwood, August, on harel nut. H. B. Weiss. 
Aleyrodes packardi Morrill. Wcstwood, May, i9i5» on strawberry. G. Kircher. 
Aleyrodes waldeni Britton. Somervllle, July, on leaves of Jugfans 8p. H. B, Weiss. 
Pseudococcus pseudonipa Ckll. Occurs in greenhouses on Kentia sp. H. B. WeiM. 
Coccus pseudohesperidum CkW. Rutherford, Sotith Orange, Summit, in greenhouses on 

(^ttleya orchids and other greenhouse plants. H. B. Weiss. 
Sttissetia ole<g Bern. In greehouses on orange and lemon. H. B. Weisa. 
Diaspis bromelia Kern. In greenhouses on pineapple. H. B. Weiss. 
Aulacaspis samia Morg. On Cycas rej'oluta in greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. 
A*pidiotus britianwicut Newst In greenhouses on bay trees. H. B. Weiss. 
Chrysomphalus tenebricosus Comst. Rutherford, Nov., 1912. On red maple H. B, Weisi. 
Ischnaspis longirostris Sign. Montclair, on palms in greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. 
Pseudaonidia paeonite Ckll. Riverton, Princeton. On Japanese azaleas. Not common. 

Probably introduced from Japan. H. B. Weiss. 
T9%meyeUa pini King. Aabury Park, July 26, on pine. E L. Dickerson and H. B. Weiat. 
Bucalymnatus tesseUUus Sign. On palms in greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. 
Iccrya purchari Mask. In greenhouses on Acacia sp. H. B. Weiss. 
Cerephstes cirripediformis Comst In greenhouses on dtrus trees. H. B. Weisa. 
Ceroplastes Horidensis Comst In greenhouses on citrous trees. H. B. Weiss. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 479 

Order HSMirmtA 

Bonosa sordida Uhl. Hadison. P. M. Schott 

Aradus sktmumi Heid. Lakdiorst, May 25- Torre Bueno. 

Lygidea tnendax Rent. New Brunswick, High Bridge, Bridgeton and other parts of 

the state. False apple red bug. 
Drymus crossus VanD. Camden. Torre Bueno. 

Jalysus multispinosus Ashm. Lakehurtt, Barber. (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., v. 19, p. «3.) 
Corythuca nutrmorata Uhl. Vindand, July 21. E. W. Stafford. 
Ranaira kirkaldyi Bno. Totowa, July. Wintersteiner. 
AcantholofM dgnticulata StaL Schooley^ Mt.. May 20, F. L. Lntr. (Jour. N. Y. Ent. 

Soc., V. ao» p. 138.) 
Pseudocntmodus canadensis Prov. Lakehurst, July 11. Davis. (Jour. N. Y. Ent, Soc., 

V. 19, p. 26,) 
Sphaerobi9is quadristriata Barber. Lakehurst, July 4, Sept 7. Davia & Barber. (Jour. 

N. Y. Ent Soc, v. 19, p. 34.) 

Order OiTHommtA 

Blaberus discoidalis Serv. New Jersey flreenhouses. H. B. Weiss. 
Pycnoscelus surinamensis Linn. Rutherford* in greenhouses. H. B. Weisi. 

Order CoutorrttA 

Tr^chus boreaUs Schaeffer. New Jersey, Nicolay. (Jour. N. Y. Ent Soc, Mar., 1915.) 

Cercyon lateralis. Staten Island, May 25, 1908. Probably occun in New Jersey. Davis. 

Atheta virginica Bmhv. Vineland, March 10. H. B. Weiss. 

Oxypoda (Sphenoma) obliqua Casey. Vineland, September 14, H. B. Weiss. 

Pkilonthus varians Payk. Franklin Furnace. F. M. Schott. (Jour. N. Y. Ent Soc, Mar., 
i9>5.) 

Sunius discopunctatut Say. Vineland, March 2. H. B. Weiss. 

Baeoccra concohrr Fab. Vineland, March a. 

Phalacrus consimiHs Marsh. Vineland, March 2, 

Cocdnetla transvtrscgnttata Fabr. Malaga, April 29, 191 1. H. W. Wenzel. 

Litargus nebulosus Lee Vineland, March 2. 

Ips calatus Eichh. Rutherford, May 10, 191 5. In shoots of Finns mughns. H. B. 
Weiss. 

Uonotoma paraUela Lee Anglesea, March. H. B. Weiss. 

Sandalus niger. New Jersey Palisades. Nicolay. 

Agri\us masculinus Horn. Newark. H. B. Weiss. 

Agriius crinicomis Horn. Newark. H. B. Weiss. 

Trichodea nuttalH Kirby. Red Bank, July 4, 1908. Kaeber. 

Dinoiierus punetatus Say. Vineland, May 4. H. B. Weiss. 

Aphodius haemotrhoidalis. Snake Hill; Paterson; under cow manure. Wintersteiner. 

Dyscinetus (Chalepus) rubra Web. New Egypt, May ai. H. B. Scammell. 

Leptnra exigm Newm. Hewitt, June 21, on flowers of Camus paniculata. Woodruff. 
(Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, Mar., 1915.) 

Sugnamptns coUaris Fab. var. fuscipes Pierce Egg Harbor, June 15. H. B. Weiss. 

Bugnamptus collaris Fa^. var. nigripes Melsh. Egg Harbor, June 15. H. B. Weiss. 

Phytonomus mehts Fabr. The clover weevil. Ramsey, Hewitt, Lake Hopatcong, New- 
foundland, Rahway, from late May to end of July. Springfield. E. A. Bischoff. 

Magdatis barbicomis Latr. Burlington, May. H. B. Weiss. 

Ceutorhynchus aMuentus Dietx. This should replace C. rapa Gyll. in the 1909 list as 
Mr. Dietz states that C. rapa so-called is not the same as the European species 
of that name. C A. Frost 

Spkenophorus solitaris, Whitesbog, July t6. H. B. Scammell. 

Xyleborus saxeseni, Tuckahoe, October s# in dead sugar maple T. J. Headlee. 

Hylecoetns lugnbris Say. Coytesvflle, April 18, 1915. R. P. Dow. 

Molamba fasciata Say. Tenafly, June 5, in bark of maple tree H, O. Pond. 

Scymnillus aterrimus Horn. Whitesbog. H. B. Scammell. 

Zenoa picea Beauv. Red Bank, July 4, 1908. Kaeber. (Ent News, v. 26, p. 238,) 



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48o NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Order Lkfidoptbha 
Basilcrckia archippus var. lantkanis. Cook and Watson. Athenia, August 13, 1911. F. 

E. Watson. 
Diacrisia virginica Fab. var. fumosa Strccker. Passaic Park. January 20. 19x5. Found 

in house on window. M. H. Mead. 
Hyphantria Textot Harris. Passaic Park, June 26. Local, not common. M. H. Mead. 
Apantesis intermedia Stretch. Lake Hopatcong, September 15. i9»3. F. Lemmcr. 
Apaniesis vittata Fab. form radians Wlk. Passaic Park, June 4, 19*^6. Local, rare, 

taken at light. M. H. Mead. 
Acronycta radcliffei Harv. Orange Mts., May 4. 191 3- F. Lemmcr. 
Acronycta (Apatela) albarufa Grt. Lakehurst, middle of July. O. Buchholz. 
Acronycta (Apatela) brumosa Gn. Lakehurst, end of May. O. Buchholr. 
Acronycta {Apatela) lanceolaria Grt. Elizabeth, June 22. O. Buchholx. 
Apatela (Acronycta) aMicta Grt. Passaic, Rutherford, July 2. M. H. Mead- 
Chytonix sensilis Grt Cassville, August 17, 1910. W. T. Davis. 
Baileya doubledayi Guence. Passaic, May, June, at light. 
Xylophatia nigrior Smith. Passaic Park, July. M. H. Mead. 
Hadena misera Grt. Rutherford, August 3, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Hadena stipata Morr. Elitabeth, first half of August O. BuchhoU. 
Semiphora tensbrifera Wlk. Passaic, April 26: M. H. Mead. 
Pachnobia salicarum Walker. Passaic Park, April, 19I4' M. H. Mead. 
Noctua fennica Tausher. Passaic, July 2, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Noctua rubifera Grt Lakehurst, August and September. O. Buchhols. 
Euxoa redimicula Morr. Passaic, July 28, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Mamestra assimilis Morr. Rutherford, July at light M. H. Mead. 
Mamestra copsularis Guenec. Passaic, May 27, at light M. H. Mead. 
Leucania (Heliophila) juncicola Gn. Lakehurst, middle July. O. Buchholz. 
Leucania linita Gn. Newark (Ang.); Elizabeth, M^y, August (Bt) ; Five-milc Beach. 

August 12 (Haim). 
Leucania scirpicola Gn. Eizabcth, Lakehurst, July, August. O. Buchholz. 
Leticania minorata Smith. Passaic Park, May and June. M. H. Mead. 
Leucania subpuncta Harvey. Lakehurst, October 9, 1914. Shoemaker and Davis. 
Xylina baileyi Grt. Passaic, October 12, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Xylina disposita Morr. Passaic Park. M. H. Mead. 
Xylina petulca Grt Rutherford, May 5, 1914. M. H. Mead. 
Xyliva pexata Grt. Passaic Park, April 17,' 1906, Nov., 1911. M. H. Mead. 
Nonagtia letta Morr. Elizabeth, 1913. F. Lemmer . 

Hydroecia stramentosa Guenee. Passaic Park, September 18. At arc light M. H. Mead. 
Papaipema anargyria Dyar. Elizabeth, September 7. Larva in Eupatorium. O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema astuta Bird. Union and Essex Counties, September 5 to 22. Larva in horse 

balm. O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema baptisiae Bird. Union and Essex Counties, September 15 to 30. Larva in 

false indigo. O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema cerina Grt. Union County, middle September. Larva in Lilium condense. 

O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema duvoata Bird. Larva in Solidago sempervirens. Elizabeth, September 14 W 

30. O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema duplicata Bird. Union and Essex Counties, September 15 to 30. Larva in 

horse balm. O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema eupatorii Lyman. Larva in Eupatorium purpurea. Elizabeth, September JO 

to 30. O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema frig^da Sm, Larva in meadow rue. Union County, September i to 30. 0. 

Buchholz. 
Papaipema harrisii Grt Record in 1909 list based on misidentification. Does not occur 

south of Maine. O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema impecuniosa Grt Larva in Aster puniceus. Union County, September 1$ 

to 30. O. Buchholz. Passaic Park, September. M. H. Mead. 
Papaipema lysimachia Bird. Union County, September 5 to 30. Larva Lysimackia 

quadrifolia, O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema maritima Bird. Union County, September 20 to October 10. Larva in 

Helianthus giganteus and H. tubcrnsus. This record should take the place of 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 481 

necopinaHn the 1909 list, which was wrongly identified. Necopina has never been 

taken south of Buffalo, N. Y. O. Buchholx. 
Papaipema merricata Bird. Eliaabeth, September 20. Larva in May apple. O. Buchholx. 
Papaipema moeseri Bird. Union County, end September. Larva in Chelone glabra. 

O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema necopina Grt. Passaic Park, October. At light. M. H. Mead. 
Papitipema pterisU Bird. Larva in Pteris aquilina. Union County, August 25 to 

September 5, O. Buchholz; Passaic Park, September, M. H. Mead. 
Papaipema rigida Grt. Union County, September s to 30. Larva in Hetiopsis hell- 

anthoides, O. Buchholz. 
Papaipema stenocelis Dyar. Lakehurst, September 8 to as. Larva in Woodxvardia 

vtrginica. O. Buchholz. 
Xantihia flavago Fab. Passaic Park, October. M. H. Mead. 
Ortkosia lutosa Andrews. Passaic, June 30, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Parastichtis disdvaria Wlk. Passaic, July 31, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Scopelosoma ceromatica Grt. Passaic Park, April. M. H. Mead. 

Bpiglaea apiata Grt New Egypt. Moths taken on cranberry vines. H. B. Scammell. 
Bpi^laea pasHUicans Morr. Lakehurst, October lyi Buchholz and Letnmer. 
Epifjaea tremula Harv. Lakehurst, September 25. O. Buchholz. 
Calymnia orina Guenee. Passaic, July 13, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Chhridea virescens Fab. Lakehurst, October 11, 1 914. E. Shoemaker, W. T. Davis. 
Derrima henrietta Grt. Passaic Park, July. M. H. Mead. 
Schinia obscurata Strk. Elizabeth, June 5 to 30. O. Buchholz. 
Plutia simplex Gn. Whitesbog, Pemberton, moths resting on cranberry vines. H. B. 

Scammell. 
Autographa rogationis Gn. Elizabeth, September 15 to 30. O. Buchholz. 
Anomis erosa Hbn. Irvington, November 10, 191 2. Bred from larvae found on hollyhock. 

(Food plant new record.) F. Lemmer. 
Exyra rolandiana Grt. Spring Lake, Toms River, Pleasantville. Larva in Sarracenia. 

F. M. Jones. 
Catocala connubialis Gn. South Elizabeth, July 26, 1912. H. H. Brehme. 
Catocala fratercula Grt. var. jaguenetta Hy. Edwards, Lakehurst, July. O. Buchholz. 
Catocala epione Dru. Irvington, July 12, 191 3. Larvae on butternut (Food plant new 

record.) F. Lemmer. 
Catocala innubens Gn. var. hinda French. Passaic Park. M. H. Mead. 
Anticarsia gemmatilis Hbn. Passaic Park. October 11, 1904. M. H. Mead. 
Episeuxis nigellus Strk. Elizabeth, Lakehurst, July. O. Buchholz. 
Bomohcka deceptalis Wlk. Passaic, July 26. M. H. Mead. 
Melatopha strigosa Grt. Passaic, May 29, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Schinira apicalis G. & R. Passaic, May 26, at light M. H. Mead. 
Harpyia scolopendrina Bois. Passaic Park, May 3, 1904. Local, rare, taken at light. 

M. H. Mead. 
Harpyia albicoma Stretch. August 3, 1905, at Passaic Park. M. H. Mead. 
Coenocalpe magnoliata Gn. Lake Uopatcong, July i^. Lemmer. 
Gypsochroa sitellata Gn. Irvington, August 16, 191 3. F, Lemmer. 

Erastria includens Wlk. Elizabeth, July 5 to 20. Larva in Carex striata. O. Buchholz. 
Eois demissaria Hbn. Lakehurst, May 30 to June 30, O. Buchholz; Elizabeth, Aug. 

15, F. Lemmer. 
Synchlora liquoraria Gn. Passaic Park, May, June. Common. M. H. Mead. 
Anaplodca remotaria Wlk. Union and Passaic Counties, July 20 to August 20. O. 

Buchholz. 
OrthoMonia exomata Wlk. Lyons Farms, April 29, May 2. F. Lemmer. 
ApaecQsia deductaria Wlk. Eilzabeth, June 7. O. Buchholz. 
Cleora indicataria Walk. Orange Mts., July 5, 191 3. F. Lemmer. 
Cleora tacenaria Pearsall. Lakehurst, July 17. O. Buchholz. 
Metrocampa praegrandnria Guenee. Passaic Park, June 24, 1909, August 26, 1910. 

At light and on tomato vine. M. H. Mead. 
Xanthotype crocataria Fabr. var. atlaria Hulst Passaic. M. H. Mead. 
Plagodis fervidaria H. S. Passaic, April 28, May 3, at light. M. H. Mead. 
Plagodis alcodaria Gn. Passaic, May 19, at light M. H. Mead. 



31 BX 



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482 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

BuchUtna obtusaria Him. Lakeharst, May, July, September. O. Buchhok. 

Priccycla decoloraria Hultt Lakehorst, July 3. O. BuchhoU. 

Sesia rhododendri Beutm. Somerville, August, 1914. Larva in rhododendron stem. 

H. B. Weiss. 
Diaihrausta daecktoHs Haimbach. Browns Mills Jc, June 23, 1907. E. Daccke. 

(Ent. News. ▼. 26, No. 7.) 
Pinipestis simmermanni Grt. Eaton town, August 5* Larvae in terminal shoots of 

Austrian and other pines. H. B. Weiss. 
Rhyacionia rigidana Pern. Manumuskin. Larvx taken May 21, 191 a. E. Daecke. 
Epagoge lycopodiana Kcarf. Pemberton, August 25, September 23, October 7, sweeping 

cranberry bog. H. B. Scamraell and H. K. Plank. 
Sporganothis violaceana Rob. Pemberton. H. B. ScaramelL 

Archips georgiana Wlk. Whitesbog. On cranberry and huckleberry. Elizabeth White. 
Tortrix hergmannuma Linn. Whitesbog. H. B. ScammelL 
Zelleria oimbachi Busck. Wenonah. Bred from short needle pine. P. Haimbach. 

(Proc. Wash. Soc., June, 191 5-) 
Geltchia trialbnmacuUlla Cham. Pemberton, among cranberry vines. H. B. ScammelL 
Dichomeris vacciniella Busck. Pemberton. Bred from cranberry. H. B. ScamradL 

(Proc Wash. Soc., June, 1915-) 
Stenoma algidella Wlk. Whitesbog, May 26 , 1914. Adult retting on cranberry vise. 

H. B. ScammelL 
CoUophora laricella Hbn. Rutherford, on larch. H. B. Weiss. The larch case bearer. 
CoUopkora limosipennella Dup. Hackensack, summer of 1914. Oue bearer on ehn. 

H. B. Weiss. 
Anaphora busckella Haimbach. Jamesburg, July 4. Haimbach. (Ent News, v. 26, 

No. 7.) 
Anckocelis digitalis Grt Passaic Park, August, 191 3. M. H. Mead. 
Callopistra Aoridensis Guenee. Passaic, 1907. M H. Mead; Riverton, Rutiierford. in 

greenhouses, larvx doing much damage to ferns, H. B. Weiss. 
Cissura spadix Cramer. Passaic, May 6, at light. Probably a visitor. M. H. Mead. 
Com^la simpUx Walk. Paaouc Park, July 12, 1906. Taken at light M. H. Mead. 
Dasychira pudibunda Linn. European red-taiL Bergen County. Probably intiodnced 

on nursery stock. H. Wormsbacher. 
Buharveya carbonaria Harvey. Passaic Park, April 7, 1914. At light M. H- Mead. 
Graphiphcra garmani Grt Passaic, April, 1901 and 1914- M. H. Mead. 
Notolphus antiqtta Linn. Rutherford, on roses in nursery. H. B. Weiss. 
Ockria (Gortyna) buffahensis Grt. Elizabeth, end of August O. Buchholz. 
Pero marmoratus Grossb. Irvington, August 10. P. Lemmer. 
Symmoca novimundi Busck. Montclair. W. D. Kearfott (Proc Wash. Soc, Jane 

1915.) 
Tornos scohpacinarius Gn. Irvington, August 15, 1914* P> Lemmer. 
Xylomiges dolosa Grt Passaic Park, April 24, i9M- M. H. Mead. 

Order Hymsnoptsra 

Strongylogaster alboannulatus Rohwer. Brown's Mills Jc Daecke. (Proc U. S. Nat 

Mus., v. 42, p. 238.) 
Pteronus hudsonii Dyar. Rutherford, August 19; Trenton, August 20. Larva on 

poplar. H. B. Weiss. 
Kaliosysphinga dohmU Tischb. Elizabeth, .\ugust, 191 3 and 1914. H. B. Wdss. 
Kaliosysphinga ulmi Lund. Westfield, summer of 191 4. Lead miner of elm. H. B. 

Weiss. 
Acordulecera carya Rohwer. Fort Lee, larvae on new shoots of pignut hickory. Dyax". 

(Proc U. S. Nat Mus., v. 43, p. 248.) 
Acordulecera parva Rohwer. Fort Lee, September 3, larvae on young leaves of black 

oak. Dyar. (Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., v. 43, p. 248.) 
Acordulecera quercus Rohwer. Fort Lee. Larvae on young leaves of black oak. Djf* 

(Proc U. S. Nat Mus., v. 43, p. 251.) 
Janus abbreviatus Say. Bound Brook, Rutherford, Irvington, Elizabeth, South Orange, 

Springfield. H. B. Weiss. 
Neuroterus saltatorius Hy. Edwards. New Jersey. Galls occur on burr oak, white oak. 



post oak. W. BeutenmuUer. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 483 

Callirhytis fruUicola Ashm. New Jersey. Galls in acorns of scarlet, red and black oaks. 

W. Beutcnmaller. 
Andrieus glandulus Beut New Jersey. Acorn gall of swamp white oak, chestnut oak, 

and dwarf chestnut oak. W. Beutenmuller. 
Andrieus operatola Bassett. New Jersey. Galls on acorns of red, scarlet, black and 

scrub oaks. W. Beutenmuller. 
Andrieus perditor Bassett. New Jersey. Gall is deformed acorn of scrub oak. W. 

Beutenmuller. 
Diastrophua fragarut Bt. Athenia, August The strawberry leaf petiole gall maker. 

E. L. Dickerson. 
Anlacidea nabali Brodie. New Jersey. Gall at base of stems of Nabalns altissimi. W. 

Beutenmuller. 
Rhodites mayeri Schl. New Brunswick, J. B. Smith (Bt.) (BuL Bklyn, Ent. Soc, Dec, 

1914.) 
Perilitus cpitricis Viereck. Elmer, Robbinsville, Freehold. From middle of July to 

beginning of September. Also bred from adult Epitrix cucumgris. A. E. Cameron. 
Apanteles choreuti Vier. Anglesea, July. Reared from Chortutis carduiella. Kearfott. 
Apanteles epinotla Vier. Anglesea, June 15. 
Apanteles plesius Vier. Essex Co., June 2g. 
Apanteles traehynotns Vier. Little Silver, June 20. 

Phytodietus vulgaris Cress. New Brunswick. Bred from pupa of 7*. PolUanP, 
Coccophagus lumulatus Howard. Bred from a soft scale on Euonymus received from 

Japan. Elizabeth, April 13, 19x1. H. B. Weiss. 
Spalangia muscidarum Richardson. Bred from pupae of Musca domssfica at New 

Brunswick. C. H. Richardson. 
Encyrtus Aavus Howard. Bred from Coccus hsspsridmm, H. B. Weiss. 
Isosoma orchidearum Westwood. The "cattleya fly." Occurs in greenhouses where 

Cattleya spp. are grown. H. B. Weiss. 
Pheidole onastasii Emery. Rutherford, April 14. 19 14. In greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. 
Tetramorium guinetnse Pabr. Rutherford, April 8. 1914. In greenhouses. H. B. 

Weiss. 
Prenolepis fulva Mayr. subsp. pubens Forel. Rutherford, April 14, 1914- In green- 
houses. H. B. Weiss. 
SHgmus conestogorum Rob. New Brunswick, mid-summer. C. H. Richardson. 
Aspidiotiphagus citrinus Craw. Bred from Diaspis carueli Targ. August, 19x3. C H. 

Richardson. 
ItoplecHs conqwisitor Say. Brown's Mills, September 24, 19 14. Bred from Peronea 

minuta Rob. H. B. Scammell. 
Monogonogastra rugator Say. New Brunswick, August 6, 19 12. Collected in pupal 

cell of Lixus concavus in Rumex crispus. H. B. Weiss. 
Monodontomerus dentipes. Parasitic on Diprion simile Hartig. Elizabeth, Rutherford, 

South Orange. H. B. Weiss. 
Oxylabis bifoveolatus Brues. Snake Hill. (Can. EnL, April, 1904*) 
Signopkora nigrita Ashm. Bred from San Jos^ scale, October, 19x3. H. B. Weiss. 
Tenthredella nortoni Smulyan. New Jersey. (Can. Ent., v. 47, p. 321.) 

Order Diptera 

Boletina obscura Johannsen. Forest Hill, April. Weidt. 

Exechia absoluta Johannsen. Riverton. C. W. Johnson. 

Bxeckia attrita Johannsen. Forest Hill, April, November. Weidt 

Exechia canalicula Johannsen. New Jersey, July. 

Exechia capiiva Johannsen. Cape May, September. Viereck. 

Exechia quadrata JohannseiL Cape May, September, Viereck; Hemlock Falls, August. 

Weidt 
Mycetophila fastosa JohannseiL Riverton, Delaware Water Gap. C W. Johnson. 
Sciara sciophila Lw. Newark, E. I. Dickerson. 
Lasioptera comi Felt Mountainville, September 34. Dogwood leaf galL On leaf of 

Cornus paniculata, H. B. Weiss. 
Dasyneura parthenocissi Steb. Different parts of State. Midrib gall of Virginia creeper. 

H. B. Weiss. 



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484 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Dasyneura trifolii Lw. Newark, September 15. Bred from cocoons on sorface of 

clover leaf. The clover leaf midge. E. L. Dickerton. 
Dasyllus champlaiHi Walton. Brown's Mills Jc, July xo, 1906. 
Proctacanthus nigriventris Macquart. New Jersey. H. S. Harbeck. (Ann. Ent Soc. 

Amer., v. 4, No. a.) 
PsUopodimns flavipes Aid. Merchantville, July 28. E. W. Stafford. 
PsUopodinus viruHcoxa Aid. Trenton, Jane 8, 1911. E. W. Stafford. 
Asyndetus horheckii V. Duzee. Wenonah, June 26. H. S. Harbeck. 
Medgterus lobatus V. Duzee. Bamegat City Jc, August xi, 1910. H. S. Harbeck. 
Medttetus modestus V. Duzee. Avon, September 27, 1908. H. S. Harbeck. 
Hyihrophorus indentus Aid. Atlantic City, May 6. Johnson. (Psyche, April, 191 1, 

p. 51.) 
Gymnoptemus chalcochrus Lcew. Wenonah, May 15, 1910. C T. Greene. 
Aphiochata Hsheri Malloch. Delaware Water Gap. C W. Johnson. 
Aphiochsta irofjuiana MalL Pasadena, October a, 6, 7. Bred from grasshopper. H. K. 

Plank. 
Aphioch/eta lutea Meig. Delaware Water Gap, July 12. 

PipMHculus tuquus Cress. Delaware Water Gap, June and July. C W. JohnsoiL 
PipHHculus minor Cress. Riverton, C. W. Johnson. 
PipUrt albopilosa Will. Palisades, May 10. Osbum. (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc.. v. 22, ?. 

336.) 
Myiolepta strigilata Loew. lona. May X7, X914. H. S. Harbeck. 
Syrphus Htktri Walton. Riverton, July 9, 19x0. G. M. Greene. 
Eristalis arbustorum LiniL Palisade, Lakehurst, Ramsay (R. C Osbum); Fairlawn, 

Sewell (E. L. Dickerson). (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc, ▼. 23, p. 14a.) 
SrittaHs laHfrons Loew. Snake Hill, July x6, Grossbeck. (Jour. N. Y. Ent Soc. 

v. 33, p. 142.) 
Zodion intermedium Banks. Malaga, September 15, 1909. C T. Greene. 
Alophora nitida Coq. Pemberton, July 11, 1909. C T. Greene. 

Hypostena tortricis Coq. Cliffwood. Endoparasitic upon larvae of Bellnra obliqua. H. 
• H. Brehme. 

Cfuttona nitens Coq. Wenonah, September 5, 1910. C. T. Greene. 
Sarcophaga bullata Mans. New Brunswick, May 19, July 18. C H. Richardson. 
Sarcophaga dalmatina Schiner. New Brunswick, August 21. C H. Richardson. 
Sarcophaga falculata Pand. New Brunswick, July 21. C. H. Richardson. 
Sarcophaga scoparia Pand. New Brunswick, July x8. C H. Richardson. 
Sarcophaga utilis Aid. New Brunswick, May 25, October 5. C. H. Richardson 
Helicobia quadrisetosa Coq. Wenonah, August 21, 19 10. C. T. Greene 
Coenosia pallipes Stein. Newark, August 22. E. L. Dickerson. 
Scatophaga volucricaput Walk. Newark, July to October. E. L. Dickerson. 
Leptocera (Limosina) ferruginata Steub. New Brunswick, July to September. C H. 

Richardson. 
Leptocera palHceps Johnson. Clemcnton, May 12, 1899. (Psyche, v. 22, p. 22.) 
Lonchaa deutschi Zett. New Brunswick, July 22, August 25. C. H. Richardson. 
Sapromyza conjuncta Johnson. Jamcsburg, July 4; Avalon, June 8. C W. Johnson. 
Sapromyaa djisjuncta Johnson. Delaware Water Gap, July 8; Wildwood, August 12. 
Agromysa maculosa Mull. Newark, September i. E. L. Dickerson. 
Allodia bulbosa Johannscn. Forest Hill. Weidt. 
Allodia falcata Johannsen. Cape May. 

Bottcheria atistema Parker. New Brunswick, September 28. C. H. Richardson. 
Coquillettina plankii Walton. Pasadena, August 8. Reared from grasshoppers. H. K. 

Plank. (Proc Wash. Ent Soc, v. 17, p. 104.) 
Diachlorus ferrugatus Fabr. Weymouth, July 30, 1904; Stone Harbor, August 3, i^- 

Daecke. 
Hormomyia cratagifolia Felt Kingston, August 20. Coxcomb gall on Crataegus lea^- 

H. B. Weiss. 
Hormomyia verruca Walsh. Mountainville, September 24. Gall on willow leaf. H. 

B. Weiss. 
Mycothera impellans Johannsen. Lavallette, May. Viereck. 
Neocereta rhodophaga Coq. The rose midge Pound in greenhouses. Maggots in 

leaf and flower buds of rose. H. B. Weiss. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 485 

Ntolasiopttera perfoliata Felt Mountainville, September. Bonetet stem gmll. H. B. 
Weiss. 

Oecotkea fenestralis Pall. Newark, September 18. E. L. Dickerson. 

Phytomysa aquiUgia Hardy. Rutherford, Riverton, Elisabeth, New Brunswick. (Inad- 
vertently omitted from the 1909 list) H. B. Weiss. 

Profimulium Mrtipes Fries. New Brunswick, May 10. C H. Richardson. 

Prosimulium mutatum Malloch. Glassboro, March 38, 1910; Oementon, May 7f 1910* 
C. T. Greene. 

Prostmulium notatum Mall. Pemberton, April 22. H. B. Scammell. 

Prosimulium pecuarum Riley. lona, April 21, 1907. C. W. Johnson. 

Pseudostenophora bispinosa Malloch. Westville, April xi, 1900. 

Ravinia communis Parker. New Brunswick, May 19 to September 26, Also reared from 
cow and pig dung. C. H. Richardson. 

Ravinia latisetosa Parker. New Brunswick, May 19 to Aug\»t 7. Also reared from 
cow and pig dung. C H. Richardson. 

Pkytophaga viclicola Coq. The violet gall midge. Maggots curl • leaves. Found in 
greenhouses. Not common. H. B. Weiss. 

Second List 

Order Homoptkra 

Lecttnium comi Bouche. Rutherford, Elizabeth. Riverton. On boxwood in nurseries. 
Not common. Probably introduced from Holland. H. B. Weiss. (Bnt News, 
v. 26. p. 102.) 

Hgmichionaspis aspidistras Sign. In greenhouses on ferns and Aspidistra, H. B. Weiss. 
(Ent News, v. 26, p. loa.) 

Aspidiotus tsugag Marlatt Rutherford. March, 1914. on Japanese hemlock. Intro- 
duced from Japan. H. B. Weiss. (Ent News, v. 26, p. 102.) 

Targionia biformis Ckll. In greenhouses on orchids. H. B. Weiss. (Ent News, v. 
26, p. Z02.) 

Chionaspi^ wistoria4 Cooley. Rutherford on wistaria. Plants originally came from 
Japan. H. B. Weiss. (Ent News, y. 27, p. 11.) 

Chrysomphalus perstae Comst. In greenhouses on orchids. H. B. Weiss. (Ent News, 

v. 27, p. II.) 

Leucaspis bambusaa Kuwana. Riverton, March 16. 191 1. On bamboo. H. B. Weiss. 
(Ent News, v. 27, p. 11.) 

Rhopalosiphum Hgustri Kalt. Jersey City, July 15, on privet H. B. Weiss and E. L. 
Dickerson. (Ent. News. v. 27, p. 163.) 

Pssudococcus kraunhiae Kumana. Rutherford, July, i9Z5f on Taxus cnspidata. Evi 
dently introduced from Japan. H. B. Weiss. (Ent News, v. 27, p. 163.) 

Amtonina crowi Ck)l. On Bambusa henonis and B. aurea. Riverton, August 6. Evi- 
dently introduced from Japan. H. B. Weiss. (Ent News, v. 27, p. 163.) 

Chrysomphalus rossi Mark. On orchids, rubber plants in greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. 
(Ent News. v. 27, p. 163.) 

Order Hsmipt«ha 

Stephanitis Pyriodes Scott {asaleat Horv.). Rutherford, Arlington, Palmyra, Riverton, 
Nutley and other parts of the State. August to November. Feeds on foliage 
of azaleas. Originally imported from Japan. H. B. Weiss and E. L. Dickerson. 

Order Okthoftsra 

Periplaneta australasias Fabr. South Orange, May 21. 1914. In greenhouses. H. B. 

Weiss. (Ent News, v. 27, p. 103.) 

Grylhptalpa gryllotalpa Linn. Rutherford, May, June, July, Ai^tist Lives in burrows 

underground and cuts off the roots of various plants. The European mole 

cricket, introduced from Europe. (N. J. Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rpt ig^St P« 3i3*) 

Blaberus discoidalis Senr. In New Jersey greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. (Jour. Econ. 

Ent, V. 10, p. 224.) 



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486 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Order CoutoPxetA 

Eucactophagus graphipterus Champion. Summit One specimen only in an orchid 
houjie H. B. Weiss. (N. J. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 296, p. 19.) 

Myelophilus piniperda Linn. Rutherford, Sept, 19 13. T. J. Headlee. European pine 
beetle. (N. J. Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rpt 19131 p. 627.) 

Phaedon iPhlagiodera Redt) versicolora Laich. Arlington, Elizabeth, August 13, 
Inrington, July 28. Dickerson and Weiss. Adults and larvae destructive to the 
foliage of poplars and willows. This is the common P. armoricae of Europe. 
(Ent News, v. 27. p. 164.) 

Order Lvpiooptira 

Gracilaria sachrysa Myr. Larvc on azaleas. In greenhouses in northern New Jersey. 

Not common. H. B. Weiss. (N. J. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 296, p. zo.) 
Bveiria huoliana Schiff. Somerville, Rutherford, May 12, 191 5. In Pinus mughiu. 

H. B. Weiss. The European pine shoot moth. (U. S. Dept Agr. Bur. Ent 

Bui. 170.) 
Castnia therapon Koll. In New Jersey greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. (N. J. Agr. Exp. 

Sta. BuL 296, p. 19.) 

Order Hymsnoftsra 

Diprion simile Hartig. Elizabeth, Rutherford, South Orange. European pine saw fly. 
H. B. Weiss. (Jour. Econ. Ent, v. 10, p. 224.) 

Order Diptkra 

Merodon equestris Linn. Orange, October 17, 191 3. The Narcissus fly. (Ent. News, 

V. 26, p. 107.) 
Pkytomysa aquifoUi Gour. Rutherford. Leaf miner in English holly. Has also been 

taken on holly imported from Holland. H. B. Weiss. (Ent News, v. 27, p. 13.) 
Monarthropalpus busi Lab. Rumson, Peapack, July, 19 14. Boxwood leaf miner. (N. 

J. Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rpt 1916. p. — •) 
Parallelodiplosit cattUya Moll. In New Jersey greenhouses. H. B. Weiss. CN. J. Agr. 

Exp. Sta. Bui. 296, p. 19.) 

V 
INVESTIGATIONS 

Influence of Atmospheric Moisture on Insect Metabolism 

Under this head attention has been given to the influence of atmospheric 
moisture on the speed of insect metabolism; the bean weevil (Bruchus 
obtectus Say) was used as the principal species for experiment but the 
angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Oliv.) and the Indian meal moth 
(Plodia inter punctella Hbn.) also were tried. 

In summing up the .status of knowledge regarding the influence of atmos^ 
pheric moisture upon insect metabolism, Bachmetjew* said in substance 
that there is an optimim degree of atmospheric moisture for the develop- 
ment of insects but that degree is not the same for all species. Atmospheric 
moisture operates both directly and indirectly upon insects — directly ^y 
reducing the body fluids and indirectly by encouraging fungous diseases 
both by supplying the atmospheric conditions for g^rowth of the fungus and 
by weakening the insect through affecting its food in such a manner as to 
render it especially^usceptible to disease. 

The nine years that have passed since the publication of Bachmetjew's 



^ Bachmetjew, P. Experimentelle Entomol ogiscbe studien, Einfluss der Auiserep 
Faktoren Auf Insekton. Bd. a, pp. 689-^90. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



487 



^^^ 

^ ^ 




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UTING 

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f^. /. — Diagram of apparatus used in the study of the effect of atmos- 
pheric moisture. C c\c\cAo 

Digitized by VjOOv IC 



488 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

summary seem not materially to have changed his conclusions. A few 
studies have been made but the prime need is still the derivation of facts. 
With this in mind the writer set out to determine the response of metabolism 
of one or more insects to atmospheric moisture. The rate of metabolism 
was chosen as the principal measuring stick of the response. 

Four constant-temperature chambers were chosen and the glass containers 
in each were placed in such a fashion that through each set one liter of 
air from out-doors was drawn every 12 minutes. In some instances the 
speed of air was much g^reater but in few if any cases was the change less 
rapid. The air currents in all chambers had the same temperature but that 
in each had a different degree of atmospheric moisture. 

In order to obtain perfectly fresh material it was necessary to cause the 
insect-infested seed and grain to develop the adults of the species concerned. 
Advantage was taken of this fact to accumulate data on the influence of 
atmospheric moisture on emergence. Approximately equal numbers of in- 
fested beans were placed in each of four flasks and the same disposition 
was made of infested com. One bean and one com flask was placed in 
each chamber and subjected 80** F. and different degrees of moisture The 

results appear in Table I. 

Table I 

Influence of Atmospheric Moisture on Emergence of the Angoumols Moth 
and the Bean Weevil 







^ 




GMEBGBNCB 




DBATH 






h 


c 
^ a 


1 
























CHAMBER 


m 


^1 


§f 


■ 


II 






:i 


Ki 




^ ^ 
0.-* 


fi: 


jg-S 


g 


J 


£% 


H 




1 


S 
8 2 





11 


li 


^1 


^ 9 


is 


li 



ANG0UM01S GRAIN MOTH 




1A7 


17 


9 


96 


1/21 


18 


8 


1/17 


17 


7 


8 


1/21 


16 


7 


1/16 


16 


11 


8 


1/22 


15 


8 


1/16 


12 


6 


16 


1/21 


15 


6 



BEAN WEEVIL 



No. 


1 


80" 


100 


No. 


2 


.... 80' 


71.5 


No. 


3 


...' 80* 


44.6 


No. 


4 


80» 


21.5 



100 


1,16 


22 


5 


82 


71.5 


1/16 


21 


6 


27 


44.6 


1A5 


14 


4 


89 


21.5 


1A5 


15 


7 


81 




In* dealing with emergence, decrease in atmospheric mobture appears lo 
hasten the emergence and to decrease the period occupied by it It appears 
also to shorten the period from beginning to maximum emergence. In 
dealing with death, decrease in atmospheric moisture appears to hasten the 
beginning of death, and to shorten both the period and time to maximum 
death in the moth but to lengthen both for the beetle. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



489 



With fresh material iq hand the main study was started. The bean weevil 
has been the only species that we have succeeded in breeding in an entirely 
satisfactory way. Table II sets forth the results of the study. (Plate I.) 

Table II 
Influence of Atmospheric Moisture on Three Broods of the Bean Weevil 



1 






II 






No. of 


Period of 


1 


h 


s 


ii 


a 


SpeclmeDB 


Emergence 














• 


t 


'z 


as 




^ 








CHAB.IBBR 


1 
1 
1 


O4 

i 

1 


8| 


Hi 


OB 

1 

55 > 


•a 
< 


I 


Q 

1 

I 


2 


1 
1 



FIRST BROOD 



No. 


1 


... 80' 


100 


2/5 


2/25 


20 1 


25 


150 


2/21 


8/4 


12 


No. 


2 


. . . 80" 


68.8 


2/4 


2/27 


28 ' 


25 


129 


2/28 


8/8 


8 


No. 


8 


80» 


44.1 


2/2 


2/29 


27 ; 


25 


11 


2/25 


3/1 





No 


4. .... 


80» 


20.5 


1/81 


• 


1 


25 


00 























SECX)7«D BROOD 










1 1 

fiO I ' SAO 1 irVk 


t2/25 
t2/27 
t2/29 


4/8 
4/6 
4/10 


88 1 131 

89 129 
41 15 


491 
27 
14 








No.. 2 

No 3 


80» 
SO- 
SO" 


sb.i 

89.9 
23.0 














\o 4 ... 


















1 











THIRD BROOD 



No. 1, 

No. 2. 

No. 8. 

No. 4, 



: so. ' 


100 


9/8 


t 


, SO- 


62 


9/8 


10/4 


: 80- 


26 


9/2 


f 


80" 


1 


9/1 


f 



ll 



25 
25 
23 
25 



00 

101 

00 

00 



• Not at all. 

t Date of maximam emergence. 

t Fnngi destroyed both beetles and beans. 

I Nothing emerged. 

It thus appears: (i) that the rate of metabolism as measured by the 
length of life cycle varies as the atmospheric moisture; (2) that repro- 
ductive ability varies as the atmospheric moisture, and that relative humidity 
of 26 per cent, or less effectually prevents reproduction of the species; (3) 
that while 100 per cent is the optimum of atmospheric moisture for the 
beetle's activity if promotes the growth of destructive fungi to such an extent 
that the optimum must be placed between 75 per cent and 100 per cent at 
the point where the fungi are unable to develop. 

Further data on the effect of low atmospheric moisture on the develop- 
ment of progeny came from a set of experiments which was devised for 
the purpose of determining whether concentrated sulphuric acid, which we 
wished to use in drying the air, gave off any matter injurious to the adult 
bean weevil. Five glass museum jars each with a capacity of 1,000 c.c were 
selected. In the first, 250 c.c. of concentrated acid was placed ; in the second, 
a mixture of 125 c.c. of water and 125 c.c of acid; into the third, a mix- 
ture of 83 CO. of add and 167 cc of water; in the fourth, 250 c.c. of dis- 
tilled water, and in the fifth no liquid whatever. Into each of five 2-ounce 
wide-mouthed bottles enough beans were introduced to cover the bottom. 



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490 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

25 vigorous beetles were added and the opening covered with gauze. Each 
bottle was suspended by a short piece of wire into the inside of the jar cover. 
The lids were put into places and screwed down on the rubber contact band 

In a little over one month the beans over air only produced a new brood 
of beetles. The beans over distilled water were destroyed by fungi and 
no beetles were produced. The beans over the mixture composed of about 
J4 acid and Yz water produced a small brood. The beans over the half- 
and-half mixture of acid and water and those over the concentrated acid 
showed no injury whatever. 

Studies intended to develop whatever may be practicable in the way of 
storing seeds and grain in an atmospheric moisture so small as to render 
them free from insect injury are now under way but have not yet reached 
a point where they can be satisfactorily reported. 

The Strawberry Weevil 
The study of this insect last year brought out the remarkable eflkiency 
of the mixtures of powdered arsenate of lead and sulfur in protecting the 
strawberry from its ravages. Two applications — ^the first just as the bud- 
cutting began and the second about one week later, gave aknost perfect 
protection with the half-and-half mixture and only a little less complete 
results with the mixture composed of i part of lead arsenate to 5 parts of 
sulfur. 



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Pig. 2.— Diagram of strawberry plots on Mr. Oeser's farm near Cologne: 
xxxxx ^ rows. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



PleATE I. 



Photograph showing the protection afforded beans in storage by being 
kept in a dry atmosphere: left — under dry atmosphere; right — under a moist 
atmosphere. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



rj.ATi: 



Reduction in crop possibilities by the strawberry weevil; lo buds out of 14 
destroyed. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 







EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 


















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Digiti 



ized by Google 



492 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

This year the successful mixtures were given a trial on a field scale in 
three different counties. In Atlantic the most careful study was made 
again on the farm of Mr. Wm. Oeser, of Cologne, in close cooperation with 
Mr. Ellwood Douglass, the farm demonstrator of that county. In addi- 
tion to the work on Mr. Oeser's place, Mr. Douglass observed the results 
on 17 other places in Atlantic Cotmty and reports similar results obtained 
everywhere. Mr. Warren Oley, farm demonstrator for Cumberland, tried 
the mixtures on four places. Mr. George T. Reid, farm demonstrator for 
Burlington, applied the treatment in three different places. 

Table III shows the results on Mr. Oeser's place. The area treated here 
totalled 2j^ acres. The results are, however, figured on an acre basis for the 
sake of making the comparisons more easily comprehended. 

Table IV 

Results of Experiment on Control of the Strawberry Weevil on the Farm 
of Richard Smith, Leesburg, N. J. 



Variety 


Treatment 


Per Cent of Buds 
Cut on June 


Increased Tleld Orer 

Check. Stated in 

Percent 


Darlington, 
Old Bed 


None 


47.6 




Darlington, 
Old Bed 


Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 lb.) + 

Sulfur (1 m.) 


16.0 


50 


Gandy, 
Old Bed 


None 


17JI 




Oandy, 
Old Bed 


Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 Part) + 

Sulfur (1 Part) 


6.6 


SB 


Gandy, 
Old Bed 


Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 Part) + 

Sulfur (5 Parts) 


4.S 


Perceptible 


Darlington 
New Bed. 


None 


42.6 




Darlington 
New Bed 


Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 Part) + 

Sulfur (5 Parts) 


18.2 


80 


Shropahire 


None 


18,7 




Shropshire 


Arsenate (1 Part) + 
Sulfur (5 Parts) 


10.8 


ao to86 



In Cumberland County on the farm of Mr. Richard Smith, near Lees- 
burg, the most carefully conducted tests took place. Here the plots were 
laid out in two fields by the writer and the treatments were made by Mr. 
Oley. The larger of the two fields consisted of old beds and covered about 
2.6 acres, while the smaller was made up of new beds and occupied about 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



493 



Table V 

Results of Experiments on Control of the Strawberry Weevil on Farms at 
Marlton and Moorestown, N. J. 


Piac« 


Owner 


Variety 


Treatment 


Percentage of 

Buds Cnt br 

Junes 


fitoxlton 


Chai. Day 


Unknown 
Old Bed 


None 


25.2 




Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 part) 

4- Sulfnr (5 

Parts) 


10.7 




HeriUge. 
Old Bed 


None 


20.8 




Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 part) 

+ Sulfur (1 

Part) 


13.6 




Unknown, 
New Bed 


None 


58.2 




Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 part) 

+ Sulfur (5 

Parte) 


22.2 


Marlton 


H. J. Alt 


Wm. Ball 


None 


48.0 




Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 part) 

+ Sulfur (5 

Parts) 


16.1 








None 


25.5 








Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 part) 

+ Sulfur (1 

Part) 


1.3.4 


Moowitown 


Rills Bndderow 


Success with a 
PIstllate Variety. 

1 Row 
Stamlnate to 4 
Rows PIstllate 


None 


29.7 




Powdered Lead 

Arsenate (1 part) 

4- Sulfur (5 

Parts) 


8.8 



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494 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

a8 acre. The statements of yield have been furnished by Mr. Smith and 
were not verified by either Mr. Oley or the writer. The determination of 
the percentage of buds cut was made by Mr. Chas. H, Richardson. 

In Burlington County Mr. Reid made the applications himself. Mr. Chas. 
H. Richardson made a count of the buds cut on each of the plots under 
treatment. 

The increase in cutting which followed the application of the sulfur-lead 
dusts last year was almost negligible. This year the treatments began at a 
time when very little cutting had occurred, and in every case showed con- 
siderable increase. The applications this year were not made with quite 
the same completeness as those of last year, largely owing to an effort to 
carry out the test under commercial conditions. The consequently less com- 
plete coating is probably to be blamed for the increased cutting. This merely 
means that better results from the standpoint of reduced cutting than those 
listed above may be had by more careful work. 

The machine used in making all the treatments, which is a one-man dust 
gun made by the Tow-Lemons Mfg. Co., while more satisfactory for this 
work than the Leggett gun of a similar type, is very unsatisfactory both 
from the standpoint of effecting a good coating in a limited time and from 
the standpoint of the operator's comfort It will answer for small patches, 
but a traction or power machine must be had for fields. 

The better results obtained on the farm of Mr. Oeser are probably due to 
the fact that his plots had one more dusting than any other, and by the 
further fact that the materials were there applied by persons who had the 
greater experience. 

Summarizing the results of the tests we may say that the application of 
a mixture of powdered lead arsenate and sulfur reduced the bud cutting 
from 50 to 75 per cent and increased the 3deld from 25 to aoo per cent, that 
this meant on the Oeser farm a net return at the rate of more than $100 
an acre, that the mixture composed of i part of lead arsenate and 5 parts 
of sulfur is almost, if not quite, as effective as the one composed of i part of 
lead arsenate to i part of sulfur, that an efficient traction or power duster 
is needed, and that more efficient distribution of the mixture will be fol- 
lowed by still better results (p. 491). 

Apple Plant Lice 

Apple plant lice did so much harm in the season of 1915 that it seemed 
something must be done to prevent their ravages. For the first time in 
many years they did not yield to the ordinarily recommended treatments. 
For several years previous to 191 5 the growers in New York State had 
been feeling the inadequacy of the usual methods. A study of the species 
concerned^ in the New Jersey injury revealed the fact that the rosy aphis 
(Aphis sorhi Kalt.) was almost exclusively to blame for the trouble. 
Previous to 1915 this species had not been numerous enough in the State 
to attract attention. The fact that its appearance in large numbers is 
coincident with the failure of the common methods of control leads one 
naturally to think that it is a more difficult species to destroy. At any 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



495 



rate the measures that had answered for Aphis pomi Fabr. for years abso- 
lutely failed to control Aphis sorbi Kalt satisfactorily. 

When the 191 5 outbreak had gotten well started Mr. John H. Barclay, 
of Cranbury, brought some badly curled leaves to the office, and the writer 
set a test to see what strength of nicotine was necessary to effect prompt 
destruction of the pest. The under sides of the leaves were covered with 
A. sorbi in all stages of development. The writer applied the mixture with 
a strong atomizer, holding the curled leaves open, and continuing the treat- 
ment until the under side of each of the leaves was drenched. Each group 
of treated leaves, which had at least 200 lice on them, was then placed on 
heavy paper at the center of a ring of tanglefoot ranging from 6 to 8 
inches in diameter. The treatments were made during the afternoon and 
the results taken the following forenoon. 

Table VI 
Results of Laboratory Experiment on Control of Apple Plant Lice 



Number of 
Lemves 


Treatment 


Percentage Liv- 
ing at End of 
Experiment 


2 


Water only 


100 


2 


Black leaf 40 (1 part) + water (900 parts) 


00 


2 


Black leaf 40 (1 ©art) +. water (900 parti) + soap 
(2 lbs. to 50 gal.) 


10 


2 


Black leaf 40 (1 part) + water (700 parts) + soap 
(2 lbs. to 50 gal.) 


1 


2 


Black leaf 40 (1 part) + water (500 parU) 


10 


2 


Black leaf 40 (1 part) 4- water (500 parts) + soap 
(2 lbs. to 50 gaL) 






Thus it became clear that any strength less than i to 500 had an element 
of risk in it. An actual orchard test put on soon after these laboratory 
results had been obtained showed that while all lice which were hit with 
the mixture, composed of i part of "black-leaf 40" to 500 parts of water 
and soap at the rate of 2 pounds to 50 gallons, were promptly killed, sucli 
a large proportion were protected from the spray by the curled leaves that 
the control of the species even by this strength was impracticable. 

The lice cost Mr. Barclay not less than a thousand dollars. In the fore 
part of June they left the orchard and did not return until early November. 
They came back in sufficient numbers to deposit an enormous supply of 



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496 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

eggs. Mr. Barclay was thus made to realize that the task of protecting his 
crop in 1916 was certainly not any less and perhaps much greater than 
it was in 191 5. Accordingly a very close watch of conditions was instituted 
and preparations were made for treating the orchard with lime-stdfur (i 
to 9) + "black-leaf 40" (i to 1,000) when the buds showed green. 

The dose watch was kept to determine just when the lice hatched, for the 
191 5 experience had caused both Mr. Barclay and the writer to suspect that 
the period between hatching and the stage when the buds were opened 
sufficiently not only to permit burning but to afford protection to the lice, 
was too short to permit adequate treatment of the orchard. As a matter 
of fact, the aphis began hatching in considerable numbers on the afternoon 
of Saturday, April 15, and by noon on the following day nearly every flower 
bud of the unsprayed trees had a half-dozen or more aphis. The trees 
which had received either lime-sulfur or scalecide during dormancy showed 
rarely more than one specimen per bud and many of the buds were absolutely 
free from infestation. At this time the most advanced flower buds showed 
the first green leaves separating from the cluster. 

On April 18 the writer again visited the Barclay orchard and went over 
it in a detailed manner. The buds were now well opened and the leaves 
separated from the flower cluster although the flower buds still adhered 
to each other. Under these conditions the lime-sulfur at winter strength 
would not only bum the tips of the leaves but, what is still more serious, 
the lice could obtain shelter from the spray. Furthermore, two days are 
insufficient to allow for spraying an orchard under spring conditions. The 
minimum time for the Barclay orchard is 5 days and with the not unusual 
spells of bad weather a week would be required. It thus seems clear that 
there exists an element of risk in attempting to control aphis with the de- 
layed winter-strength lime-sulfur. 

The 191 5 experience with the inadequacy of the formerly effective measures 
led the writer to plan a set of tests, the nature and results of which will 
now be recorded. The scene of the experiments was the young apple 
orchard of Mr. John Barclay. Mr. Barclay made the applications planned, 
in his characteristically thorough manner, and the results obtained are 
largely due to his excellent and valuable cooperation. 

The plots were arranged as shown in the diagram on page 497. 

The nature and the results of the treatments are set forth in Table VII. 

When we remember that unsprayed trees showed an average of 6 aphis 
per fruit bud, the preceding table makes it very clear that each treatment 
applied reduced the pest materially. 

Scalecide of winter strength applied just as the buds began to show 
green seemed effective, but, unfortunately, killed fully 50 per cent of the 
fruit buds. Observation outside the experimental plots as well as direct 
records in the above table showed clearly that lime-sulphur of winter strength 
applied in the green bud stage would not effect a control. 

Plot 2 when compared with Plots 4 and 5 shows that the winter applica- 
tion of lime-sulfur when followed by treatment at the green bud stage 
is not important. 

Comparison of the results on Plot i with those on Plot 2 shows clearly 
that the "black-leaf 40" plus soap is more effective than the combination of 
"black-leaf 40" and lime-sulfur. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



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500 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Comparison of the results on Plot 4 with those on 5 clearly shows that 
lime-sulfur of winter strength plus "hlack-leaf 40" (i to 500) is decidedly 
more effective than lime-sulfur of winter strength plus "black-leaf 40" 
(i to 1,000). 

The plot which had been treated with lime-sulfur (i to 9) at the green 
bud stage showed such an infestation of aphis on April 20 that the writer 
felt that something must be done to prevent later damage. This afforded 
an opportunity for testing the effectiveness of "black-leaf 40" at lower 
strength than i to 500 and accordingly two of the four rows were thorough 
sprayed with "black-leaf 40" (i to 800) plus soap (2 lbs. to 50 gal.). The 
following day fhe writer visited the orchard and examined the treatment 
The counts recorded were made on Mcintosh and the cluster buds had 
separated but the bloom was not yet open. 

Thirty-eight fruit buds on the treated trees showed 8 lice and 36 fruit 
buds on the untreated trees showed 20 lice. The results of the counts were 
checked by a great nimiber of random examinations and the writer be- 
lieves that they fairly represent the conditions. All four rows were then 
sprayed with "black-leaf 40" (i to 500) plus soap (2 lbs. to 50 gal) and 
the infestation wiped out 

Summarizing this work we may say that the results of these experi- 
ments indicate that rosy aphis can best be destroyed by making a dormant 
treatment with lime-sulfur or scaledde and following that with a green-bud 
treatment of "black-leaf 40" (t to 1,000) plus soap (2 lbs. to 50 gal), or 
by delaying the dormant treatment of lime-sulfur until the buds begin to 
show green and then applying it mixed with "black-leaf 40" (i to 500). 

The writer realizes that this conclusion does not coincide with the results 
of rosy aphis control as set forth by the Geneva, N. Y., Experiment Station. 
It is, furthermore, his experience that a treatment with winter-strength 
lime-sulfur plus "black-leaf 40" (i to 1,000), in the J. L. Lippincott orchard 
at Riverton, gave this past season an entirely satisfactory control 

The factor which causes this disagreement is in all probability the natural 
control effected by the weather or natural enemies or both. If the weather 
should promptly become warm and stay warm and thus encourage the 
ever ready natural enemies of the rosy aphis or should become for a brief 
period cold enough to destroy them, the application of a relatively in- 
effective treatment would give entirely satisfactory control, for Ae few 
that the treatment left would be promptly destroyed by natural forces. So 
far as the writer knows, no one has determined just what percentage of 
kill constitutes satisfactory control under the varied conditions of weather 
and natural enemies. 

In view of this uncertainty as to just what percentage of the total num- 
ber of lice must be destroyed in order to effect satisfactory control it would 
seem that the treatment which destroys the largest percentage should be 
the one adopted. 

The time of application is a matter which depends on aphis and bud 
development. Application must be made after the lice hatch from the eggs 
or the material and labor is largely wasted. It seems that it should be easy 
to tell when the bud first shows green, but, as a matter of fact, the bud 
exhibits in the course of its unfolding several shades of green. In A. 



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C Plate III. 




D E F G 

Photograph of the opening buds to illustrate proper time for spraying. 
Perfectly safe until fourth stage (D) is reached. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 501 

the bud scales have separated and the . light green tips are projecting. 
Hie lightness of the green is due to the felt-like covering and silvery hairs on 
the under sides of the leaves. In B, the green becomes a little darker but 
the silvery shade is still very prominent In Q some of the leaves have 
begun to project from the buds like the ears of a squirrel. The inside 
of these projecting leaves is characteristically green while their outsides 
still have the silvery shade. The development of D is about that of C. By 
the time the stage illustrated by E is reached the lice can find some protec- 
tion and by the time the condition illustrated by G is reached a considerable 
percentage of the lice have safe shelter and the lime-sulfur is likely to do 
harm. 
The buds show green from the stage illustrated by A to G. 

The False Cabbage Aphis 

This season is the first during which the false cabbage aphis (Aphis 
Pseudobrassic<B Davis) has been taken in New Jersey, but the experience 
of the past four years about Freehold and some years ago in Long Island 
leads one to think that the species has been present for a considerable 
period and has been during that time confused with other species. 

In Bulletin 185 of the Indiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Mr. 
John J. Davis records an extensive study of the species in the course of 
which he concludes that the insect may occur wherever the wild mustard 
grows and that it may be destructively abundant where turnips and radishes 
are planted. He further records that it is usually seriously inj urious only in the 
fall. Mr. Davis was unable to find that it produces a migrating generation 
at any time of the year and he was unable to produce the sexed indi- 
viduals. It would therefore seem likely that the species lives throughout 
the year on the wild mustard and that it passes the winter in the egg stage. 
In addition to its importance as a field pest of turnips and radishes he 
holds that it is likely to prove a greenhouse pest of importance. 

Mr. Davis' breeding experiments of the false cabbage louse show that 
the insect under outdoor conditions produced a maximum of 25 generations 
and a minimum of 11. The average number of young is shown to be 99 
individuals. This makes this species the most prolific of all plant louse 
species that have been studied. 

Mr. Davis recommends spraying with a mixture of 40 per cent nicotine 
(i to 1.200) 4- soap (4 lbs. to 50 gal). He further recommends the keep- 
ing down of all weeds of the cabbage family such as black mustard, pep- 
per grrass, and shepherd's purse by clean cultivation, rotation of crops, and 
fall plowing or spading of the turnip fields. In greehouses he recommends 
the application of the spray mentioned or fumigation with hydrocynic 
acid gas. 

During the present fall the entomologist's attention was directed to 
measures of control by the occurrence of heavy infestation in turnip fields 
in the vicinity of Freehold. He first tested an orchard sprayer, but found 
that the amount of material used (about 1,500 gal.) per acre was prohibi- 
tive. He then devised an apparatus which could be attached to a traction 



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502 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 




DETAIL 




Am 4-attacited to 
I floor Koct 



R»P 



Pig- J.— Diagram of the spraying machine used against the false cabbage 
aphis : A = side view of lifter ; B = soil ; C = space through which plants 
pass; D & E = nozzles; F = arrangement for lifting the, lifter. at end of 
row when machine is turning. digitized b!7VjV:)OglV 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 503 

sprayer for lifting the foliage in such a manner as to expose the under 
side of the turnip leaves to the mist delivered by the low hung nozzles of 
a potato machine. Success with this sort of apparatus demands the main- 
tenance of high pressure. The nature of this apparatus and its method of 
use on a sprayer is illustrated in figure 3. 

Pear Ptylla 

In the annual report for last year (1915) the entomologist gave the 
following procedure as the one likely to give satisfactory control : 

1. The rough bark should be scraped off during the fall and winter, 
care being taken not to injure the live tissue. The scrapings should be 
gathered and burned, in order that all hibernating psylla sheltering in 
them may be destroyed. 

2. During warm days in late fall and early winter or late winter and 
early spring, preferably after the scraping has been conipleted, when the 
psylla are crawling over the bark, the trees should be thoroughly sprayed 
with winter-strength soluble oil or with 40 per cent nicotine (i to 800) 
+ soap (i oz. to the gal.)- The spray must not freeze on the tree. 

3. Just before the blossom buds open and after the eggs are laid, spray 
thoroughly with lime-sulfur (i to 9). 

The first treatment is intended to deprive the psylla of the cover which 
protects it both from storms and spraying mixtures. The second is 
planned to destroy the adults after they have been induced by the warmth 
to come out of their hiding places and move about over the bark. The 
third is intended to destroy the eggs. 

During the past season the J. L. Lippincott Co., of Riverton, N. J., tried 
this plan in their Kieffer orchard. One block was given the third treatment 
and the rest of the orchard received all three. 

When examined in the fall considerable numbers of maturing and matured 
psylla could be found throughout the orchard. The fruit had been picked 
when the entonK>logist arrived, but was reported by Mr. Lewis as being 
absolutely free from staining. The block which had been g^ven the one 
treatment only showed considerable staining on the fruit spurs and the 
under sides of the leaves, while the rest of the orchard, which had received 
the three treatments, showed no staining on the fruit spurs and very little 
on the under sides of the leaves. 

The Kieffer pear orchard belonging to Mr. Lester Collins, of Moores- 
town, was examined the same day. This orchard was 35 or more years 
old, had not been scraped or winter-treated, but had received a treatment 
with lime-sulfur (i to 9) just before the flower buds opened. The amuont 
of staining here on the fruit spurs and leaves was very considerable and the 
fruit exhibited some injury. 

In the winter and spring of 1915 Mr. J. S. Rich dale, of Phalanx, New 
Jersey, attempted to control of psylla in his Kieffer pear orchard. To the 
older and better grown part of the orchard he applied the three treatments 
outlined at the beginning of this article, except that instead of burning 
the scrapings he plowed them under deeply. To the portion he applied 



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504 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

the lime-sulfur just before the blossoms opened. The entomologist ex- 
amined his orchard about two weeks later and was unable to find any 
psylla at all in the former portion, but found it abundantly in the latter. 
A further examination in the fall of 1916 failed to show any psylla in the 
part, which had received the three treatments in 1915, although that block 
had been treated with sumfcner-strength lime-sulfur and arsenate of lead 
only. 

It thus seems that the adoption and carrying out of the three treatments 
are necessary in an orchard where the psylla has been unchecked for a num- 
ber of years. Of course, we have in the last two years no direct experi- 
ments to show that the scraping is worth while, but it stands to reason 
that the rough bark of a KiefFer pear should prove a hindrance to reaching 
the psylla with spraying materials. 

Wintering Beet 

Enough has been written on this subject to fill a book, but there seems, 
nevertheless, still to be room for definite and accurate data. For many 
reasons it is desirable to winter bees out-of-doors and the questions of whether 
cover is worth while and what sort of cover is efficient are ones upon which 
accumulations of facts are needed. In the season of 1914-1915 the oppor- 
tunity to contribute to this matter came along and a set of experiments 
was planned by the entomologist and Mr. E. G. Carr and carried out by 
the latter. 

In the fall the colonies, which were in 8-fran»e hives, were equalized as 
regards size and winter stores. Three groups were made. The first, con- 
sisting of 9 colonies, were left totally without packing. The second, con- 
sisting of 9 colonies^ were protected with the C. H. Root cover. The third, 
consisting of 12 colonies, was packed in 3 quadruple covers. 

The C. H. Root case consists of three parts — the bottom^ the body and the 
cover. The first is 16 inches wide, 4 inches deep and 22 inches at the top 
and 28 at the bottom. The slant is covered and acts as an alighting board. 
This box base has a bottom but no top and is packed with leaves. Along 
each side and across the back, about i inch below the upper edges, is nailed 
a ^-inch strip. The body is a double- walled box just large enough inside 
to fit over the hive body minus its hand-hole cleats and regular cover, and 
the double walls inclose a space between them of 2 inches, which is packed 
with ground cork. The cover is simply a shallow box of the proper size 
to fit closely over the body in a telescoping manner, and is covered with 
good roofing paper. The roof of the cover is packed with 6 inches of leaves, 
held in place with burlap. The name of the case is that of the orginator, 
Mt. C. H. Root, of Red Bank, New Jersey. 

The quadruple case is a wooden box, the sides of which arc fastened 
together with hooks and eyes. This box is 50 inches long, 46 inches wide 
and 27 inches deep. It is just large enough to slip down over tfie bottom, 
which is also made of lumber, and is not in any way attached to the sides. 
The fitting is sufficiently close to prevent mice from making their way into 
the packing. The cover is a shallow box, the outside of which is covered 
with good roofing paper, made just large enough to telescope over the 
body. 



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Pl.ATK IV. 



Photograph of the winter cases : left — hives uncovered ; middle — hives 
with Root cases; right — hives with Holterman cases. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



505 



On the floor, 4 pieces of 2 x 2-inch lumber, each 3 feet long, are laid in 
such a fashion as to form supports for the hives. The bottom is then cov- 
ered 2 inches deep with leaves or planer shavings. 

The 4 hives were then set on these supports in pairs back to back, and 
the passageway from the entrance of each to the six ffi-inch holes, which 
were bored through the cover wall exactly opposite, kept open by inserting 
a rectangular box with one open end over the hive entrance and the other 
over the holes. The entire space was then filled with leaves and the cover 
put in place. The bottoms of the hives were thus insulated 3 inches — i inch 
of lumber and 2 of leaves; the sides were protected by 8 inches, the fronts 
by 6, and the tops by 12. 

The colonies were packed about December i, but the thermometers, owing 
to delay in their receipt, were not inserted until February 9. The colonies 
were opened and the data' taken April 20. 

Winter covering is put on for purposes of insulation and it was to be 
expected that its effect would appear in the more stable temperatures 
obtained. Stability of this sort is greatly to be desired because the amount 
of energy necessary to maintain the needed temperature, and consequently 
the loss of bees by exhaustion and the amount of stores used, are reduced 

The eflfects of the different types of cover on temperature changes is 
shown by the four columns of figures. The first shows the conditions in 
the hives protected by the C. H. Root cover, the second those in the hives 
in the quadruple cases, the third those in the unpacked hives, and the 
fourth the temperature out-of-doors. 

It thus appears that the bees protected by the C. H. Root case were 
able to maintain both the highest and the most stable temperatures. 

The eflfects of these conditions are shown in Table VIII. 



Table VIII 
Results of Experiment In Wintering Beet 





TRBATMBNT 


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The nine colonies with the C. H. Root cover used less stores, had more 
brood and experienced no losses. The twelve colonies in the quadruple 
covers used more stores, had less brood, and lost 2 colonies. The unpacked 
hives used less stores than the quadruple cases, but more than tho'se covered 
by the C. H. Root cases, had the least brood of all, and lost 4 colonies. 



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So6 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

It is thus clearly shown that the insulation paid well and that the C. H. 
Root insulator gave the best results. The actual number of inches of 
insulation about the hives protected by the C. H. Root case was less than in 
the quadruple covers, but it is, of course, applied in a different way. This 
fact would seem to indicate that the thickness of the insulating material is 
not always a measure of its efficiency and that the method of applying may 
be an important consideration. (Plate II, p. 501.) 

MItcellaneout 

White grubs. Last year the entomologist found as the result of some 
preliminary experiments that three-fourths of an ounce of carbon bisulfide 
per square foot of red shale soil destroyed all grubs (principally Lachno^ 
sterna fusca Froehl) when applied at a temperature ranging from 70** to 
7§°F., and that one oimce per square foot used tftider the same conditions 
did not injure one-season-old mixtures of blue grass and white clover. 

This year Mr. William H. W. Komp undertook as the subject of his 
undergraduate major thesis the study of carbon bisulfide as a destroyer of 
white grubs. By methods which are explained in his paper he reached the 
following conclusions: (i) that from ^ to i ounce of carbon bisulfide 
will destroy all grubs in a red shale soil in a temperature of 70^F. up; (2) 
that the degree of soil moisture which will give the results is neither very 
dry nor very wet but medium; (3) that the cost for material ranges from 
?I35 to $180 an acre, and that its application, while effective, is not practicable 
save in limited areas. 

The Cattelya fly. The orchid pest, known as the Cattelya fly, was made 
a subject for an imdergraduate thesis by Mr. Jared B. Moore. Mr. Moore's 
investigation revealed the fact that this insect is really a limiting factor in 
the conmierdal production of orchid blooms; that tmder our greenhouse 
conditions, although its life cycle cavers from 4 to 6 months, it is almost con- 
stantly emerging ; that the destruction of the larvae without serious damage to 
the plant by cutting out, or injecting carbon bisulfide, chloroform, ether or 
tobacco juice, or by raising the temperature either under dry or moist condi- 
tions is impracticable; that the adult fly does not jrield to the strength of 
tobacco normally used in greenhouse fumigation. 

The Onion tkrips. A uttle work on this insect was undertaken in co- 
5peration with Mr. R. W. DeBaun, extension specialist in v^etable garden- 
ing, on the farm of Mr. Theodore Brown, of Swedesboro. "Black-leaf 40" 
(i to 1,000) plus soap (2 lbs. to So gal.) was thoroughly applied under high 
pressure with an orchard sprayer when the thrips first apg^red. Although 
the onions were large, in 10 days there was a marked difference between 
the sprayed and the unsprayed plots. 

Com ear worm. The application of powdered arsenate of lead and sulfur 
(consisting of i part of lead to i part of the sulfur) to sweet com plots 
in Atlantic, Cumberland, and Cape May Counties, eliminated about 80 per 
cent of the normal injury. The work was done l^ the farm demonstrators 
in cooperation with Mr. DeBaun. 

Onion Maggot. The sodium arsenite and molasses spray bait consisting 
of yi of an ounce of sodium arsenite, i gallon of water, i pint of molasses 
and a small amount of aqueous onion extract, was tried by Mr. DeBatm and 
the farm demonstrators in Cumberland, Mercer, Monmouth and Gloucester 
Counties with most encouraging results. The protection obtained b such 
that a large increase in demonstration work along that line is planned by 
Mr. DeBaun. 

Melon aphis. Tobacco extract and soap— "black-leaf 40" (i to 500) plus 
soap (2 lbs. to 50 gal.) were used as a spray for cantaloupes on more 
than a dozen farms in South Jersey, under the direction of Mr. DeBaum, 
and found satisfactory to control the melon aphis. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 507 

Coccidae of N«w Jersey Greenhouses. Mr. Harry B. Weiss/ assistant to 
the State entomologist, has prepared a list of the scale insects found on 
the greenhouse crops of the State. The list follows. 

IcSRYA Sign. 
7. purckasi Mask. On acacia, orange, lemon. 

OkthXzu Bosc 

0. insignis Dougl. On ooleus, gardenia, verbena, dtnii, chrysanthemum, tomato and 
other plants. 

Pstuoococcus Westw. 

P. citri Risso. On bouvardia, coleus, citrus, fuchsia, croton, ferns, bay trees, tomato, 

palms, geranium and many others. 
P. longispinns Targ. On ferns, citrus, palms, dracena, coleus and many others. 
P. pseudonipa CklL On Kentia sp. and Cocos sp. 

CmmotUlvtu Gray 

C. cirripediformis Comst On citrus. 

C. Horidensis Comst On citrus, oleander. 

EUCALYMNATUS CklL 

B, teuelUauM Sign. On palms. 

Coccus Linn. 

C. hespetidum Linn. On bay trees, oleander, crotons, begonias, palms, ficus, citrus, 

cyclamen, orchids, camellia and many others. 
C. hngulus DougL On citrus, ficus, euphorbia, ferns and others. 

C. pseudohuptridum CklL On orchids (Cattleya and Dendrobium 8pp.)< 

Sazssstu DepL 

S, hemispharica Targ. On palms, ferns, oleander, croton, orchids, citrus, camellia and 

many others. 
S. oigte Bern. On camellia, citrus. 

D1A8PI8 Costa. 

D. boisduvaia Sign. On palms, orchids. 

•0. bromelut Kern. On pineapple, oleo fragrans, latania. 

AuuiCASPXS CklL 
A, gamia Morg. On cycas revoluta. 

HSMXCHIONASPIS Ckll. 

H. aspidistra Sign. On ferns, aspidistra, pandanus, orchids. 

FioiNiA Targ. 
P. Horinidf Targ. On camellia, palms, ficus, orchids and others. 

AspiDioTus Bouche. 

A, britannieus Newst On bay trees. 

A, cyanophylli Sign. On palms, orchids, ficus. 



* Weiss, H. B., Psyche, v. 23, pp. 22-24, 



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5o8 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

A. heders Vail. On orchids, palms, cycadt, oleander, citrus, ivy and many others. 
A. rapax Comst. On bay treea, palms, camellia. 

CURYSOMPHAX.US Ashm. 

C. conidum Linn. On palms, pandanus, ficns, bay trees, camellia, citrus. 

C, aurantii Mask. On citrus, palms, pandanus. 

C. dictyospermi Morg. On palms, pandanus latania. 

C. pgrsea Comst. On orchids. 

C. rossi Mask. Qn orchids. 

TAaciONiA Sign. 

T. biformis Ckll. On orchids. 

LSPiDOSAPHEs Schimer. 

L. beckii Ncwm. On citrus, croton. 
L. gloverii Pack. On palms, citrus. 

IscuNASPis Dougl. 
/. iongirostris Sign. On palms, pandanus. 

Parlatoria Tag. 
P. pergandii Comst. On citrus. 

The above verifies most of the records furnished by Dr. W. E. Britton 
for Smith's 1909 list of "The Insects of New Jersey," and increases the 
number of greenhouse species from 19 to 32. 

Periodical Cicada, Recently it has been possible to get together the facts 
relative to the distribution of the periodical cicada, or 17-year locust, in 
this State. In the year 1902 a summary of the situation was published' 
and what follows is an effort to bring the matter up to date. Brood VIII 
is to be expected next year. The entomologist is indebted to Mr. Harry B. 
Weiss for preparing the following statement and the accompanying list 

Brood II 

1877 — Union, Essex, Morris, Monmouth Counties in large numbers ; War' 
ren Co., Hainesburg; Sussex Co., Monroe Comer. 

i8g4— Bergen Co., throughout, especially from Tenafly, Carlstadt, River 
Vale, Mahwah. Pc^saic Co., Paterson, Greenwood Lake district Sussex 
Co., Huntsburg and Papakating. Morris Co., Boonton and eastern dis- 
tricts. Essex Co., everywhere. Hudson Co., everywhere, except flats 
and marshy portions. Union Co., everywhere. Somerset Co., in a 
few localities. Warren Co., Rocksburg. Hunterdon Co., northwestern 
comer. Mercer Co.. along road to Hightstown. Middlesex Qo^ irregularly 
distributed, more plentiful north of Raritan River, becoming less toward 
south and west; along Raritan River from Perth Amboy to Bound Brook; 
Jamesburg. Monmouth Co., slight in eastem part Ocean Co., in small 
patches; Toms River, Cassville. Burlington Co., in small patches; Pcm- 
berton. Camden Co.. Pensauken, Clementon; along Camden and Atlwutk 
and Reading Railroads toward Atlantic Cotmty line. Gloucester Co., Frank- 
linville and north of this at several places; along line of Cape May Rail- 
road. Scdem Co., Friesburg. Atlantic Co., irregular throughout; Hammon- 
ton to coast along Atlantic City Railroad. Cumberland Co., irregular 

1 Weiss, H. B., Ent. News, v. 27, pp. 337-339. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 509 

throughout; between Bridgeton and Millville; along railroad from Vine- 
huid to Cape May County line. Cape May Co., throughout in large num- 
bers, except on lowlands; plentiful at Woodbine. 

191 1 — Bergen Co., from Fort Lee northward to New York State line; 
along top of Palisades and on both slopes; none in Hackensack valley and 
in low marsh areas; Rutherford, Ramsey, Westwood, Tenafly, Carlstadt, 
River Vale, Mahwah, Englewood, Alpine. Passaic Co., Paterson, Totowa, 
Little Falls ; along line of S. & W. Railroad they extended to Morris County 
line; in Lake Macopin region; Hackensack. Sussex Co., Sparta^ Newton, 
Hantsburg, Papkating. Warren Co., L. & W. Railroad to Lake Hopatcong; 
Morristown, Morris Plains; from Newfoundland and Charlottesburg to 
Sparta along line of S. & W. Railroad ; Newark watershed, Chatham, Den- 
ville, Dover to Wharton, Mendham, Millington» Mt Tabor; north and 
south of Dover ; Pleasant Hill in patches ; Mt. Olive. Bssex Co., infested 
everywhere. Hudson Co., Snake Hill; very little Cicada ground now re- 
mains in this county. Somerset Co., Washington Valley back of Pluckamin 
and along road to Basking Ridge ; in spots from Bound Brook to Bernards- 
ville; Somerville, Raritan. Hunterdon Co., High Bridge, throughout hills 
southeast toward Lebanon; Fairmount. Lambertville, Stockton, Ravenrock. 
Union Co., Roselle, Fanwood, Summit, Elizabeth, Spring^eld, Rahway; 
county generally covered in much reduced extent. Middlesex Co., New 
Brunswick, College Farm; from Stelton to Union County line; along 
north bank of Raritan River from Bound Brook to county line; Rahway 
to Perth Amboy; Metuchen to Perth Amboy along north bank of Raritan 
River; Old Bridge, Milltown, South Amboy. Mercer Co., between Hights- 
town and Yardville; Princeton. Monmouth Co., Matawan, Cliffwood. 
Ocean Co., around Lakewood, South Lakewood; west of Lakewood, Ridge- 
way. Burlington Co., no records. Camden Co., Clementon; along line to 
Atlantic City Railroad to Atlantic County line; Almonesson, Blue Anchor, 
Florence to Williamstown Junction, and along this branch to Gloucester 
County; Haddonfield. Gloucester Co., Woodbury, Malaga; along line from 
Williamstown to Glassboro. Atlantic Co., irre^larly throughout on gravelly 
knolls or areas. Cumberland Co., Husted, Bndgeton; Bridgeton to Rosen- 
hayn along Central Railroad; Vineland, along trolley line between Malaga 
and Newfield; Millville, irregular throughout county. Salem Co., between 
Elmer and Palatine only. Cape May Co., all wooded areas of peninsula in 
gravelly lands; Woodbine, Ocean View, Tuckahoe, Dennisville, Sea Isle 
Junction, Wildwood Junction, Seaville, Swain, South Seaville. 

Brood VI 

1881 — Essex Co., Caldwell in small numbers. 

1898 — Middlesex Co., Piscatawaytown. Passaic Co., Charlotesburg. Mor- 
ris Co., Hanover. Cumberland Co., Vineland. 

191 5 — Union Co., Cranford. Essex Co., Upper Montclair. Passaic Co., 
Oak Ridge. Mercer Co., Princeton. 

Brood VIII 

1900 — No records in Smith's reports. Essex Co. (Marlatt). 

Brood X 

i^S— Burlington, Camden, Mercer, Middlesex, Monmouth, Morris, Pas- 
saic, Sanerset, Hunterdon Counties. 

1902 — Warren Co., southwestern corner; well covered south of Central 
Railroad of New Jersey and along Delaware River. Hunterdon Co., south- 
cm half. Mercer Co., pretty well distributed, except in extreme south. Som- 
erset Co^ not heavily visited, except at Rocky Hill, Middlebush. Martinsville, 
Franklin Park, Bound Brook, Raritan, Somerville, Neshanic, Three Bridges, 
Harlingen, Kingston. Middlesex Co., Piscatawaytown. Monmouth Co., 



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5IO NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Hig^ands of Navesink, Locust Point. Ocean Co.. New Egypt, Collier^s 
Mill, Prospertown; between Jacobstown and Ellisdale (Burlington Co.)- 
Burlington Co., Ellisdale, Indian Mills. Camden Co., Delaware Township. 
Salem Co., Salem, Yorktown, Woodstown. Gloucester Co., Swedesboro and 
between Swedesboro and Harrisonville. Cumberland Co., Shiloh; no rec- 
ords from Hudson, Essex, Bergen, Union, Passaic, Sussex, Cape May, Mor- 
ris and Atlantic Counties. 

Brood XIV 

iS8g— Bergen Co., Englewood. Mercer Co., Princeton. Burlington Co., 
Palmyra. Gloucester Co., Red Bank. 
1906 — No reports of occurrence, except in Bergen County, by Marlatt. 

Brffod XV 

1890 — Bssex Co., Cape May Co., Anglesea. 

1907 — Cape May Co., Union Co., Plainfield to Westfield. Morris Co., New- 
foundland. 

Leptoypha mutica Say. Recently this species, which was recorded by 
Dr. Smith in 1909 as rare and having been taken at Madison only, was 
reported by Mr. Weiss and Mr. Dickerson* as damaging every leaf on the 
fringe bushes (Chionanthus znrginica L.) in a nursery at Hanrnionton. 
"The injury first appears as a slight, whitish discoloration on the upper 
surface along the midrib, due to the abstraction of sap by the insect 
along the undersurface. These whitish patches gradually enlarge until 
the leaf has a mottled appearance, and in severe infestations the entire 
leaf becomes yellowish-brown and withers completely. Wlien the plants 
are growing in the sun, most of the insects are found on the under 
sides of the leaves, but in shaded situations and when the foliage is 
dense, many of the nymphs are found on the upper surfaces. After the 
second stage the nymphs seem to migrate somewhat and feed singly and in 
colonies on any portion of the leaf which is shaded. No particular portion 
of the plant seems to be preferred, as entire bushes were found infested 
from top to bottom." 

Tropidosteptes saxeus Dist. This bug, which was recorded in 1909 from 
New Brunswick on ash, has recently been reported from Somerville, Mill- 
bum, South Orange, Kingston, Springfield, Irvington, Rutherford, Morris 
Plains and Elizabeth by Mr. Weiss and Mr. Dickerson. The species is re- 
ported by the above as causing a white spotting of the upper surfaces of the 
leaves by feeding on their undersurfaces. Severe infestations cause the 
leaves to dry and curl. The adults appear at New Brunswick in the latter 
part of May and early June. Eggs are laid in the midribs of the younger 
leaves. Adults of the second brood appear the latter part of August 

Stephonitis pyrioides Scott. Recently this species of lace bug (the azalea 
lace bug) has become abundant enough to do a considerable amount of dam- 
age to azaleas. Mr. Weiss and Mr. Dickerson carried out an investigatioa 
of the species and reached the following conclusions: (z) it is kno¥m to 



' Dickerson, Edgar L., and Weiss, H. B., Ent. News, v. 27, p. 308. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 511 

occur at Arlington, Rutherford, Far Hills, Rivcrton, Palmyra, Springfield, 
Nutley and New Brunswick in New Jersey, at Bala in Pa., in Washington, 
D. C, and in Hollands and Japan ; (2) it has probably come into New Jersey 
in the tgg stage on evergreens and azaleas from Japan; (3) it attacks Hino- 
degeri, Amoena, Ledifolia alba, Benigeri, Yodogawa, Kaempheri, Pontica, 
Mollis, Indica, Shirogeri, Hatsugeri, Shibori, Amurasaki, Schilippenbachii, 
etc., but is less severe on the deciduous than on the evergreen ones; (4) in- 
jury is due to robbing the foliage of sap, and when severe may cause the 
leaves to become white; (5) it winters in the leaf in the egg stage and has 
three broods per season; (6) it may be controlled by spraying with whale 
oil soap at the rate of 5 to 6 pounds of soap to 50 gallons of vrater just after 
the winter eggs have hatched. The spray must hit the under sides of the 
leaf. 

Monarthro palpus huxi Lab. Thb small fly, known commonly as the Euro- 
pean boxwood leaf miner, has recently assumed the position of a pest of 
considerable importance. Mr. H. B. Webs has had an opportunity to make 
a study of it and reports the following conclusions: (i) this insect is now 
known to occur at Rutherford, Far Hills, Gladstone, Peapack, South Orange 
and Eatontown, and will doubtless be found in other places in the near 
future ; (2) it has been introduced from Holland within the past five years ; 
(3) it has been taken on freshly imported stock from France and Holland, 
especially the latter; (4) the uniform green of valuable plants is ruined hy 
yellowish spotted leaves and in bad cases with dead and dying foliage; (5) 
egg laying begins in the latter part of May and doubtless continues through 
early June, the eggs are laid in the leaves and as many as 35 eggs have been 
found in a single leaf under laboratory conditions, the eggs hatch and the 
yellowish-white maggots mine the leaves all summer and pass the winter in 
the mines and transformation to pupae occurs in the spring; (6) that, con- 
sidering the damage which this midge is capable of doing and the lack of 
really efficient remedies, together with the fact that partly injured boxwoods 
are no longer ornamental, it would seem that prompt destruction of- the 
infested plants before the adults emerge in the spring should prove the best 
method of control. 

VI 

THE RESPONSE OF THE HOUSE-FLY TO CERTAIN FOODS AND 
THEIR FERMENTATION PRODUCTS 

C. H. RiCHABDSON 

Introduction 

Experience teaches that the house-fly, like most insects, seeks its food 
largely by means of a keenly developed olfactory sense. The present paper 
gives the results of a series of experiments conducted at New Brunswick, 
N. J., during the summer of 1916 on the response of the house-fly to certain 
foods and their fermentation products. It is a continuation of the writer's 
work on responses of the house-fly to environmental factors, a part of which 
has already appeared (5). 



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512 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Investigation of the food preferences of this insect is beset with numer- 
ous difficulties. Climatic conditions, especially temperature and light, 
affect its activities, but more puzzling is the great difference in abundance 
often observed on two consecutive days when conditions of temperature, 
moisture and light appear to be nearly uniform. Many explanations sug- 
gest themselves, such as the appearance of new broods, disposition to 
migrate and the desire to vary the diet. Under such conditions it is para- 
mount that all experiments be repeated a number of times as isolated 
experiments may lead to entirely erroneous results. 

The data given here must be considered a preliminary treatment of this 
subject, awaiting further verification and extension. 

One of the first studies made on the food preferences of the house-fly was 
r^orted by Morrill (4). A large number of substances, including sucrose 
(cane sugar), cane syrup, vinegar, bread, bran, sweet and sour milk, fresh 
and stale beer, fresh and decomposed meat, fresh and decomposed fish, 
dead flies, dried blood and a number of less complex chemical substances, 
including ethyl alcohol, formaldehyde solution (40 per cent), potassium 
dichromate, cobalt and water were used alone and in various combina- 
tions. Some of the results obtained have a bearing on the present investi- 
gation. Sucrose was comparatively unattractive when used in aqueous solu- 
tion with formaldehyde. The addition of 95 per cent ethyl alcohol (i part 
to 20 parts of water), increased its attractiveness. Vinegar in combination 
with sucrose was eagerly sought by house-fiies. Vinegars contain from 3 
to 9 per cent absolute acetic acid and it is possible that this was respon- 
sible for the result, although one cannot assume too much since vinegar 
is a very complex product. Ethyl alcohol when added to beer did not form an 
attractive mixture. The explanation is probably to be found in the fact 
that the mixture contained too much alcohol. American beers have an 
alcohol content of from 3 to 5 per cent ethyl alcohol. The addition of 
dilute alcohol (i to 10) would raise the alcohol content of the solution to 
a point which would render it less attractive. The experiments reported 
here show that 10 per cent ethyl alcohol is considerably less attractive than 
4 per cent. Morrill's studies further point out the irregularity of response 
to the same bait on different days. 

Buck (2) conducted a series of experiments similar to Morrill's. He 
advocated not less than 3 per cent or over 8 per cent of 95 per cent ethyl 
alcohol when used in water alone. Sucrose was found to be a valuable 
addition to various baits, sometimes increasing their attractiveness from 
i(T to 20 per cent. 

Methoda 

The experiments were conducted on a shelf along the south side of a 
barn, in a well-lighted location, where flies were always plentiful. Screen- 
wire fly-traps, gH inches high and 6 inches in diameter at the base, were 
used in all experiments. The screen was given a coat of spar varnish to 
prevent rusting. White glazed earthenware dishes, 122 m.m, in diameter at 
the top, with a capacity of 125 c.c, were used as containers for the various 
solutions. The metal traps, pans, and the earthenware dishes were care- 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 513 

fully washed at the cotodusion of each experiment. All solutions were 
made up with distilled water. 

Special care was exercised to see that no trap containing the same ma- 
terial occupied the same location in two consecutive experiments. The 
traps were placed in a linear series along the shelf 3 feet apart. During 
the course of a series of experiments, a single material was exposed near 
the east and west ends and near the mliddle of the space occupied by the 
traps. As far as possible, the same trap was not used twice consecutively 
with the same material Unless otherwise stated, only one portion of a 
substance was used in each experiment. 

The results given apply only to the house-fly {Musca dotnesHca L.), 
although a number of other species often frequented the traps. Careful 
counts and estimates made throughout the course of these experiments 
show that more than 95 per cent of the flies captured were house-flies. The 
percentage of other species was a little higher during July, but diminished 
during August. 

All the substances used in these experiments captured, on the average, 
nearly equal numbers of males and females. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH CASBOHYDRATES 

Carbohydrates form a large part of the foods which the house-fly ordi- 
narily ingests. It was therefore decided to test the attractiveness of aqueous 
solutions of some of the carbohydrates of wide occurrence in nature. Glu- 
cose (dextrose), fructose (levulose) and galactose were chosen from the 
monosaccharides, maltose, lactose, and sucrose' (cane sugar) from the di- 
saccharides and dextrin and starch from the polysaccharides. 

Solutions of I gm. to 50 c.c, 2 gm, to 50 c.c. and 5 gm, to 50 c.c. of dis- 
tilled water were employed and 50 c.c. were placed in each trap. The experi- 
ments with galactose were not completed because of the difficulty of obtaining 
this compound. The results of these experiments are expressed in Table IX. 

On the whole, these carbohydrates in aqueous solution were not very at- 
tractive to house-flies. Considering all the experiments, lactose caught the 
largest number of flies, starch the least Dextrin also caught a comparatively 
large number of flies. Sucrose was consistently a poor bait There were 
often great variations in the numbers caught on different days, which fre- 
quently bore no relation to the length of time the traps were exposed. 

From the foregoing experiments I believe it is safe to state that the car- 
bohydrates of common occurrence, at least when not undergoing fermenta- 
tion, are not very attractive. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH AI^COHOI^ AND ACIDS 

The decomposition of foods containing large amounts of the fermentable 
sugars results in the formation of a long list of compounds, prominent of 
which are ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide, acetic add, lactic add, fusd oil, and 
succinic add. It is practically impossible to control the fermentation in any 
food mixttire so that one or even two or three compounds will form at the 
exdnsion of all others. For this reason it was dedded to experiment with 
dilute solutions of certain of these fermentation products both in aqueous 

33 ^ 



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514 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



515 



sohition and in solutions with certain carbohydrates. In this way mixtures 
reasonably free from impurities can be obtained. 

It should be stated at this point that the amylic alcohol (technical) used 
in these experiments was a mixture of isoamyl and active amyl alcohols, the 
former predominating. These alcohols, together with some others, are found 
in the fusel oil obtained from crude spirit by distillation. They are derived 
from the amino acids in mixtures which are undergoing alcoholic fermenta- 
tion. 

Table X gives the results of these experiments: 



Table X 
Response of the House-Fly to Alcohols and Acids 



Material 


8/28-29 
22hr8. 


8/29-aO 8/30-31 
20 hra. 24 hrs. 


8/81- 

9/2 

46 hra. 


9/4-7 
66 hrs. 


9/7-8 
30 hra. 


•3 

1 




Average Per 
Hr. (AUBx- 
porintents) 


50 c.c. 
4% Bdhyl alcohol 


146 


67 37 


82 


14 


546 


891 


148.5 


4.30 


60 c.c. 
10% EU17I alcohol 


19 


21 


12 


166 


3 


333 


544 


90.6 


2.62 


50 c.c. 

4% amylic alcohol 

(tech.) 


142 


128 


106 


292 


17 


576 


1256 


209.3 


6.06 


60 ex. 

10% amylic alcohol 

(tech.) 


203 


41 


31 


59 


7 


778 


1119 


186.5 


5.40 


50 c.c 
4% acetic acid 


S8 


22 


2 


101 


4 


235 


452 


75.3 


2.18 


60 cc 

10% aceUc add 


173 


11 


4 


IT 


8 


1029 


1242 


207.0 


6.00 


60 e.e. 
4% lactic acid 


5 


6 








10 


6.0 


0.28 


60e.e. 
10% lactic acid 


39 


11 








50 

1 


25.0 


1.19 


60 ce. 
4% tQcdnic acid 


64 


12 










76 


88.0 


1.80 



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5i6 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Four per cent ethyl alcohol was considerably more attractive than lo per 
cent. Four per cent amylic alcohol (technical) was slightly more attracttre 
than 10 per cent Ten per cent acetic acid was more attractive than 4 per 
cent. Lactic and succinic acids were also attractive, but too few experiments 
were performed with them to lead to any conclusions. 

Amylic alcohol (tech.) of 4 per cent concentration caught more flies than 
any other substance used in this series. Although the averages per experi- 
ment and per hour of 10 per cent acetic add closely approach those given 
for 4 per cent amylic alcohol (tech.), a comparison of the individual experi- 
ments will show that amylic alcohol (tech.) gave more consistent results. 
Amylic alcohol (tech.) was more than twice as attractive as 10 per cent 
acetic acid in 4 experiments, while the acetic add was more attractive (thougji 
not twice so) in two experiments. 

EXPCRIMENTS WITH CASBOHYDRATES IN SOI^UTION WITH ACSTIC ACID AXD 

ALCOHOLS. 

Aqueous solutions of maltose, lactose, sucrose and dextrin containing ethyl 
alcohol, amylic alcohol (tech.) or acetic acid were made, 5 gm. of carbo- 
hydrate to 50 c.c. of solution being used. The alcohols and acetic acid were 
used in 4 per cent concentrations. The results are stated in the following 

Table: 

Table XI 

Response of the House-Fly to Solutions Containing Carbohydrates, Alco- 
hols and Acetic Acrd 



Material, 5 gm. In SO c.c. 
of SolatlOQ 



8/22-28 
22hr8. 



\ r 
I I 

8/28^26|8/26-28| 



41 hra. I 76 brs. I 



5 



Si 



lb 



Maltose and distUled water 

Maltose and 495? ethyl alcohol 

Maltose and 4% acetic acid 

Maltose and 4% amylic alcohol (tech.). 



Lactose and dlsUlled water, 

Lactose and 4% ethyl alcohol, 

Lactose and 4% acetic add 

Lactose and 4% amylic alcohol (tech.). 



Socrose and distilled water 

Sucrose and 4% ethyl alcohol 

Sucrose and 4% acetic acid, 

Sucrose and 4% amyUc alcohol (tech.), 



Dextrin and distilled water, 

Dextrin and 4% ethyl alcohol 

Dextrin and 4% acetic acid 

Dextrin aiMl 4% amylic alcohol (tech.), 



2 

11 

2 



21 

600 
100 
440 



90 
160 

eo 

270 



7 
155 
75 
650 



28 
400 
150 
044 



62 
200 
175 
460 



6 
78 



880 



28 

500 
105 
1078 



152 
800 
235 
720 



18 



106 
080 



25 

411 
150 
946 



11.5 
250.0 

52.6 
689.0 



76.0 
180.0 
117.5 
860.0 



6.5 

116.6 

51.5 

466.0 



12.5 
205.6 

76.0 
478.0 



0.8 
7.8 
1.8 
17.1 



1.2 
8.0 
8.0 



0.1 
1.0 

as 

7.9 



Oi8 
6.5 
2.8 
16.0 



In every case the attractiveness of the carbohydrate was increased by die 
addition of amylic alcohol (tech.), ethyl alcohol or acetic add. Amylic alco- 
hol (tech.) was more effective when used with a carbohydrate than when used 
alone ; indeed, with maltose and dextrin, it appeared to be remarkably effect* 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 517 

ivc Ethyl alcohol was more attractive with maltose and dextrin than when 
used alone, but less so when used with lactose and sucrose. Acetic add 
seemed to be a little more attractive when used alone than when added to 
solutions of the carbohydrates employed in these experiments. 

While these experiments are not as extensive as one might desire, when 
compared with the results obtained in the e3q>eriments on carbohydrates and 
on adds and alcohols, they form a significant series. 

BXPSRIHBNTS WITH OTHER fOOD SUBSTAKCBS 

Wheat Flour. Bread has often been used as a fly bait, and, when added to 
other food mixtures, it seems to enhance their attraction to house-flies 
almost invariably. This led into a study of the response of house-flies to 
certain constituents of wheat flour, but it was not possible to pursue this 
work very far in the time allotted. 

The studies on carbohydrates showed that starch, at least when not under- 
going diemical change, was practically unattractive. Wheat flour, in addi- 
tion to its large starch content, is rich in proteins, principally gliadin and glu- 
tenin with smaller quantities of water-soluble proteins. It was therefore 
dedded to test the attractiveness of certain wheat protdns. 

By kneading white wheat flour dough in water till practically all the starch 
granules have been freed, it is possible to prepare a substance consisting 
largely of gliadin and glutenin Imown as crude gluten. The crude gluten 
cannot be entirely freed of water-soluble protein by this method 

One gm. of crude gluten in 50 cc. of water was used in each trap. Other 
traps contained an equal amount of wheat flour in 50 cc. of water. Two ex- 
periments were made with the following results: Crude gluten and water, 
2 traps in each experiment, total 6 flies. White wheat flour and water, 2 traps 
in each experiment, total 332 flies; control (water), 2 traps in each experi- 
ment, total 7 flies. 

In view of the poor success of the crude gluten it did not seem advisable 
to try gliadin and glutenin separately. 

Other experiments were made with solutions containing the starch gran- 
ules (in suspension), and all the water-soluble constituents except those re- 
moved with the crude gluten. Results of these experiments follow: i gm. 
starch and water-soluble constituents in 50 cc. water, 3 traps, total 2,112 flies; 
control (water), 2 traps, total 3 flies; 1.35 gm. starch and water-soluble con- 
stituents in 50 cc water, 2 traps, total 7 flies; same, 2 traps, total 218 flies; 
2.5 gm. starch and water-soluble constituents in 50 cc. water, 2 traps, total 
855 flies; control (water), 2 traps, total 4 flies. 

These experiments with solutions containing the starch and water-soluble 
substances of wheat flour indicate that some of the ingredients are attractive 
to the house-fly. 

Further experiments with solutions containing only the water-soluble sub- 
stances present in wheat flour (the suspended starch bdng removed by filtra- 
tion) gave the following results: 0.1 gm. water-soluble constituents in 50 cc 
water, 3 traps, total 4 flies; control (water), 3 traps, total i fly; ai gm. water- 
soluble constituents in 50 cc. water, 2 traps, total 2,400 flies ; control (water) , 
2 traps, total 21 flies. 



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5i8 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

While too much reliance cannot be placed in this small nmnber of experi- 
ments, the indications are that the water-soluble constituents alone of wheat 
flour arc eagerly sought by house-flies. 

Milk. Milk is uniformly a good fly bait It is, however, like idieat floor, 
so complex that any adequate study of its attractiveness to the house-fly 
would require considerable time. A few tests were made on fresh milk in 
the following manner. The milk was acidified with dilute acetic add until 
the casein was precipitated. The liquid portion was separated from the solid 
casein, which also held much butterfat, by filtration. In two experiments, 
the casein-fat mixture did not attract flies. Treatment with ether removed 
the butterfat. The fat- free casein caught 77 flies in one experiment; 10 cc 
of butterfat (ether extract) caught 2 flies in one experiment. 

These experiments merely indicate that fat-free casein is attractive, while 
butterfat is not. 

PRACnCAI, APiOJCATlON 

A number of experiments with poisoned baits were conducted during tlie 
stunmer. Previous work of Mally (3) in South Africa and Berlese (z) in 
Italy has demonstrated the effectiveness of solutions of molasses pdsoatd 
with sodium arsenite as a bait for house-flies. Several tests made at New 
Brunswick with Mal^s formula or slight modifications of it gave fair re- 
sults. The molasses solution was spread over boards and rockwork where 
flies were abtmdant, and although many were killed, the method was not as 
successful as was anticipated. 

Two trap experiments with molasses solution (25 cc molasses in 75 cc 
water) to which i gm. of sodium arsenite and 4 cc amy lie alcohol (tech.) 
were added to each 100 cc, gave 2,000 and 468 flies, respectively. In the 
same series a sohition of the water-soluble part of wheat flour with the 
starch in suspension (1.35 gm. in 50 cc water) containing the same amotuit 
of sodium arsenite and amylic alcohol (tech.) captured 1,052 and 206 flies, 
respectively. The attractiveness of the wheat flour solution was greatly in- 
creased by the addition of amylic alcohol (tech.). Four per cent acetic 9^d 
solution of wheat flour, containing sodium arsenite, was not as attractive as 
the solution without add. The addition of both acetic acid and amylic alco- 
hol (tech.) (4 per cent concentrations) gave little better results than wiien 
amylic alcohol only was added to the solution. 

The following mixture was used with considerable success in a bam : blade 
strap molasses 800 cc, water 1,600 cc, sodium arsenite 24 gm., amylic alcohol 
(tech.) 100 cc This mixture was placed in shallow pans in which Hts of 
straw were dropped. Although cool, cloudy weather prevailed durixig the 
course of the experiment a considerable number of flies were poisoned. 

Amylic alcohol (tech.) is scarcely soluble in water, and for this reason it 
is impossible to distribute it evenly throughout an aqueous solution. More- 
over, it is quite volatile and usually disappears within 24 hours. 

Conclusions 

The following conclusions are drawn from these experiments. As stated 
elsewhere in this article, they must be considered as tentative, awaiting more 
extended investigation. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 519 

(i) Glucose, fructose, galactose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, starch and dex- 
trin were not very attractive to house-flies. Lactose and dextrin cau^t the 
largest number of flies, starch the least Sucrose was consistently a poor bait 

(2) The acids and alcohob Itu-ed flies in the following order: 4 per cent 
amy lie alcohol (tech.), zo per cent acetic add, 10 per cent amy lie alcohol 
(tech.), 4 per cent ethyl alcohol, 10 per cent ediyl alcohol and 4 per cent 
acetic acid. Succinic and lactic adds showed some attractive qualities in two 
experiments. 

(3) Maltose, lactose, sucrose and dextrin in 4 per cent solutions of amylic 
alcohol, ethyl alcohol and acetic add were more frequently visited by house- 
flies than the corresponding aqueous solutions. Maltose and dextrin solu- 
tions were more effective than lactose and sucrose. The order of response to 
the alcohols and acetic add was the same as in (2). 

(4) Crude gluten from wheat flour, consbting largely of gliadin and glu- 
tenin was not attractive. Solutions of the water-soluble portion of wheat 
flour, with or without the starch in suspension, were deddedly attractive. 

(5) Several experiments with milk indicate that fat- free casein is at- 
tractive, while butter fat (ether extract) b not 

(6) Experiments suggest that aqueous solutions of molasses to which so- 
dium arsenite and amylic alcohol (tech.) are added have considerable value 
as a poisoned bait for house-flies. The water-soluble portion of wheat flour 
containing the starch in suspension also gave good results with the same 
additions. 

Bibliography 

(i) Berlete, A. 

1 9 12. La distruzione della Mosca domestica. Redia, v. 8, p. 462-470. 
(a) Buck, J. E. 

1 91 5. Fly baits. Ala. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. 32, 39 p. 

(3) MaUy. C. W. 

191 5. Notes on the use of poisoned bait for controlling the house-fly, 
domestica L- In South African Jour. Sci., v. 9, no. 9. p. 321-328. 

(4) Morrill, A. W. 

1914. Experiments with house-fly baits and poisons. In Jour. Econ. Ent, v. 7, 
no. 3. p. 268-274. 

(5) Richardson. C H. 

1 91 6. The response of the house-fly {Musca domestica L.) to ammonia and other 
substances. N. J. Agri. Exp. Sta. Bui. 292, 19 p. 



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Report of the Mosquito Work for 1916 

Thomas J. Headlee 

The attention of the entomologist and his assistants have this 
year been directed to finishing the work contemplated under 
four contracts that were executed but not finished last year, to 
general oversight of the county mosquito work, and to extend- 
ing such aid along mosquito control lines to various organiza- 
tions and individuals applying for it as the means at hand would 
permit. The funds of 1916 were so limited as to forbid the 
letting of any new contracts. 

8ALT-MAR8H DRAINAGE IN 1916 

The entomologist has found so many discrepancies in the 
statements relative to the amounts and kinds of drainage estab- 
lished on the salt-marsh and so little solid information on which 
to base a complete statement that he has b^;un the gathering of 
the data necessary to a complete detailed statement of the entire 
matter. Until the facts are in hand any further attempt to state 
the matter appears to be inadvisable. 

Table XII 
Salt-Marsh Ditching Work Up to and Including 1916 



PaBIOD 



ii- 



Cost to the State 



■? « OS 



I: 



Up to 1907. 

In 1907, as 

In 1906, as 

In 1909, as 

In 1910, as 

In 1911, as 

In 1912. as 

In 1918, as 

In 1914, as 

In 1916, as 

In 1916, as 



as reported, 

reported, ... 

reported, ... 

reported, ... 

reported, ... 

reported, . . . 

reported, ... 

reported, ... 

reported, ... 

reported, ,., 

reported, ... 



15.S51 
10,951 
6,669 
2,672 
4.650 
S.528 
6,195 
7.174 



2,215,524 

1,505,524 I 

888,650 

865.800 

350,000 

712.000 

1,000,180 

1.564.842 

1.293,840 

2.685,071 

2,543,713 



19,400.00 

15,758.00 

9.917.00 

4.471.00 

19,650.00 

21.650.00 

21.680.00 

7,688.88 

18.100.28 



11.000.00 



589.00 



4,100.00 
4.242.00 
4.648.00 
4,242.00 
4,643.00 
2,628.00 
6,860.00 
8.360.00 
4,886.40 
4.718.86 



(521) 



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522 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Salt-Marth Drainage in 1916 

The salt-marsh drainage work carried on by the Experiment 
Station in 1916 consisted of bringing the contracts of the pre- 
vious year to completion. The fiscal year of 191 5 came to a 
close with four contracts still incomplete : ( i ) one for the cut- 
ting of 225,000 linear feet of 10 x 30-inch ditching or its equiva- 
lent on that area of salt-marsh which extends from the Bergen- 
Hudson dividing line northward between the Hackensack River 
and the highland to the west to the Paterson Plank Road, which 
leads across the valley southeastward from Carlstadt; (2) 
another for cutting 90,000 linear feet or its equivalent on that 
area of salt marsh which extends from the Paterson Plank Road 
northward between the Hackensack River and the highland to 
the west to the northern boundary of the borough of Carlstadt; 
(3) another for the cutting of 189,189 linear feet of 10 x 30-inch 
ditching or its equivalent on the salt-marsh area which extends 
from the southern boundary of Stafford Township, Ocean Co., 
between Bamegat Bay and the highland to the west to the north- 
em boundary of the same; (4) another for the cutting of 
209,634 linear feet of 10 x 30-inch ditching or its equivalent on 
the salt-marsh areas extending southward from Great Egg Har- 
bor on both sides of Pecks Bay to the meadow boulevard or 
highway which extends from Ocean City to Marmora. 

First Area 

(AH that salt marsh beginning at the southern boundary of Bergen County 
and extending northward, between the Hackensack River and the highland 
to the west, to the Paterson Plank Road.) 

This area of salt marsh lies in the limits of the boroughs of North Arling- 
ton, Rutherford, and East Rutherford, and the township of Union. For con- 
venience it was mapped in three divisions and marked, beginning at the 
southern border, as "Bergen Co. Map i," "Bergen Co. Map z' and "Bergoi 
Co. Map 3." The first map included all the area from its southern limit 
northward to the Boonton Branch of the D., L. & W. R. R. The second map 
covered the territory from that line northward to the Eric The third rep- 
resented the marsh from Erie R. R. northward to the Paterson Plank Road. 

MAP I 

In this section of marsh, which includes about 1,230 acres, 147,899 linear 
feet of ID X 30-inch ditching or its equivalent was cut. Two large creeks 
penetrate this area and determine the type of drainage. Saw Mill crcdc 
forms most of its southern boundary and Kingsland Creek nms through it 
near its northern boundary. By means of a southward running branch of 
Kingsland Creek and Fox's Ditch the water from one creek can pass into the 
other. When the work began the connection had been almost entirdy closed 
by plant growth. FurthermorCj the upper courses of both creeks had become 
shallow through the accumulation of sediment, and at one point in its lower 
course the channel of Kingsland had been obstructed by throwing pieces of 
old timber, principally railroad ties, into it. To make a bad matter worse at 
every extra high tide the water of the river passed over its banks and spread 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



523 



on the back portions of the marsh. In fact, the drainage conditions were 
such that large portions of the marsh surface were never free from water 
except during a dry period of considerable length. 



BERCCN COUNTY 

MAP NQI 

LCOGr«> 

STATC OJTCHIW 

COUNTY OnrCHfNC — - 




Fig. 4. — Drainage Map No. i of Bergen County. 



The ditching had hardly begun before the heaviest kind of breeding ap- 
peared over an inundated area at the center of about 600 acres. Utmost 
haste was made with the trenching to run this water off and kill the brood. 
Time was not taken to clean the ditches out. Hardly had this area been 
trenched and the brood destroyed before heavy breeding appeared in Maps 
2 and 3, and the gangs were hurried into these areas. The result of the haste 
was that while the mosquitoes were largely eliminated, the trenching was 
almost completely outlined before the clearing of the ditching was under- 



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524 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

taken. Qeaning began on Map 3 and progressed southward. As shown in 
last year's report, when the contractor reached the ditch clearing on Map i 
he balked, and the matter had to be referred to the attorney-general On the 
attorney-general directing the contractor to complete the work by clearing 
the ditches on Map i of obstructions and putting them down to d^th, he 
undertook and earned out the work. On June 17, 1916, the entomologist was 
able to certify that the work had been satisfactorily completed and that the 
last payment was due. 

While this ditching unquestionably eliminated the worst breeding, it was 
neither sufficient in amount nor furnished with good enougji outlets. The 
building of a dike along the west bank of the Hackensack River from Saw 
Mill Creek to the Boonton Branch of the D., L. & W. R. R., the installation 
of a pair of tide gates in the mouth of Kingsland Creek, and the clearing of 
the channel of the southern branch of Kingsland Creek, and of Fox's Ditch, 
thereby providing for a circulation of water through the back part of the 
marsh between Saw Mill and Kingsland Creek, was also planned. A techni- 
cal ruling of the comptroller and his temporary hold-up of funds, for reasons 
explained in the last report, prevented the doing of further work on this area. 
The county mosquito commission undertook to supplement this work, built 
the tide gates in 1015, and the dike in 1916, and partly cleaned the channels 
of the Creek and Fox's Ditch in 1916, besides cutting 105,886 feet of addi- 
tional ditching. 

The area is now in good shape for ordinary seasons, but further clearing 
of the above outlets and the cutting of certain additional ditching will prob- 
ably be found necessary to render it free from breeding under extreme high 
tide and rainfall. 

The drainage systems established in the course of this work are shown on 
the accompanying map. 

MAP 2 

This area, which amounts to 1,542 acres, consists of a number of different 
subdivisions that must be drained more or less independently. At the soutii- 
em end an irregular patch covering 154 acres lies between the Boonton 
Branch of the D., L. & W. R. R. and the Jersey City water pipe line. This 
section was covered with water, well-stocked with fish, showed no breeding, 
and received no drainage. Almost the entire northwestern comer, amounting 
to 700 acres, has been enclosed in a dike for agricultural purposes, but unfor- 
tunately the southern wall has been breached in two places and a certain part 
of the area flooded. Very little breeding was found in this section, and very 
little ditching was put in. A third division lies east of Berry's Creek and be- 
tween the southern end of this diked area and the Jersey Gty water pipe 
line. This area was deeply flooded, showed no breeding, and was not ditched. 
The fourth and last section lay between Berry's Creek and the Erie R. R. 
Breeding was found here, and 171669 feet of drainage were cut to rdieve it 

There can be no question as to whether this area was insufficiently drained, 
but the breeding in Maps.i and 3 was so much more serious that the ento- 
mologist felt justified in giving this section the minimum amount of drainage. 

Since that time, in both 191 5 and 1916, the county mosquito commission has 
cut additional ditching. The accompanying: map will show both the drainap 
established by the Experiment Station and that cut later by the county in 
such a way that two can be distinguished. Even with the additional ditchmg, 
the drainage of the area is not complete. 

MAP 3 

This area, which consists of 1,830 acres, was found breeding between the 
New Jersey and New York R. R, and the highland to the west, especially at 
the foot of Orchard Street, where it was soaked with sewage. Both the 
woodlands and the marsh surrounding them, especially the latter, were found 
to be breeding badly. All the ditching placed in this area, amounting to 86^147 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



525 



BERGCN COUNTY 
MAP N0.2 

LCCCfO 

STATE orrcMNc 

COUNTY OITCHINC 




Fig. 5' — Drainage Map No. 2 of Bergen County. 



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526 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

feet, has been cut in the above sections. Although the drainage has unde- 
niably eliminated the worst breeding spots in the area, the amount cut is too 
small to suffice for the area as a whole. A certain amount of additional ditch- 
ing has since been placed in the area by the county commission. The accom- 
panying map serves to show the details of the drainage system thus estab- 
lished. 

BIMCNOOUKTY 

HAPNOd 

LOSCND 

5TATE0fTCWNC 

COUNTY 0ITCHIN( 




Fig. 6. — Drainage Map No. 3 of Bergen Count>'. 

A feature of the drainage in this area and in the central portion of the first 
area is the presence of many old stumps and roots, which in some places arc 
so close together that the roots form an interlacing network. In attempting 
to cut the trenches in a root-filled region, the heavy spades could not be 
driven through and the contractor was compelled to resort to the axe, saw, 
and slicing bar. The prevalence of this condition is without doubt the prin- 
cipal cause of the contractor failing to finish his work on time. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 527 

Second Area (Carlstadt Marsh) 

(All that salt marsh beginning at the Paterson Plank Road and extending 
northward between the Hackensack River and the highland to the west, to 
the northern boundary of the Borough of Carlstadt,) 

A certain amount of ditching had been done on this area by the county 
mosquito commission before the contract referred to was let. A part of this 
drainage had been placed between the Moonachie Road and the highland to 
the west, while the other part had been placed just south and southeast of 
the larger wooded area. The ditching comprehended in this contract began 
on the southeast side of the large woodland and continued along the east ^d 
north sides of the same; then crossed Moonachie Creek and circled about 
the small woodland which lay to the eastward. 

The contractor, Mr. Fred A. Reiley, proceeded during the fine weather of 
the fall with extreme slowness while trying to use a marsh ditching machine 
(one of the Eaton type). It cut fairly good ditches, even though there were 
many roots and some stumps, until the first one inch of the marsh surface 
became frozen. Thereafter neither ditcher nor hand spades could be used. 
Nothing further was done until the following spring. When spring came, 
labor was extremely hard to get, and only a small number of men were em- 
ployed. This, together with the amount of stmnp and root underlain area 
delayed the work until there was no hope of finishing in the time specified. 
The contractor averred the extreme difficulty of getting labor, and requested 
an extension of time. What seemed then to be a reasonable extension was 
granted, but the state of the labor market became worse and worse, and a 
still further extension was granted. The work was finally completed on 
October 31, 1916. 

All told, 94,667 linear feet of 10 x 30-inch ditching or its equivalent was 
cut in this marsh. The extra 4,667 linear feet were cut to make up the re- 
duction in depth permitted in the upper ends of the ditches about the smaller 
woodland. By a change in the specifications prepared and executed accord- 
ing to section 10 of the specifications, the contractor's price per linear foot 
was cut 5 per cent for the shallowing of each inch, and he was compelled to 
cut as many additional linear feet of ditching as the total reduction would buy 
at the specified rate of 2^' cents per foot. 

The drainage system established is as good as any that the entomologist 
has seen. It is not likely, however, that the combined drainage established by 
both the county and the State will prove entirely sufficient for the entire area 
specified above. The worst places are drained, but doubtless others less im- 
portant exist, and a pneriod of extreme high tide and heavy rainfall during 
the mosquito season will serve to bring them out. 

The accompanying map sets forth the location and the nature of the drain- 
age systems established by both State and county. 

Third Area (Stafford Township, Ocean County) 

{All that salt-marsh area beginning at the northern boundary of Stafford 
Township, Ocean County {old survey) and extending southward between 
Barnegat Bay and the highland to the west, to the southern boundary of 
the said township,) 

For sake of convenience this area had been mapped in three divisions, 
named respectively, beginning at the north— "Stafford Township Map i/' 
''Stafford Township Map 2," and "Stafford Township Map 3." A large 
amount of ditching had already been cut in Map t and in Map 2. 

About 84,588 linear feet of 10 x 30-inch ditching, or its equivalent, was 
placed in the territory of Map i as a means of supplementing the already 
existing drainage. In the course of this work three interesting and rather 
difficult drainage problems presented thentselves. The water in Newell 
Ditch, which was the natural outlet for a large portion of the back part 
of this marsh, was stagnant, and there seemed no good way to relieve it. 
Finally, it was decided to open an old overgrown ditch extending from 



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528 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

its lower end southwestward to Cedar Creek. The result was marvelous — 
Newell Ditch and its dependent system began to work immediately. The 
second problem was to find an outlet for the section of the meadow which 
was flooded by a cedar swamp at the inner edge of the area. After much 
thought it was decided to open an old overgrown ditch known locally as 



BCf«€CN COUNTY 
HAPN0.4 

LXCCND 

STATE DfTCHlNG 

COUNTY DITCHING 




fig. 7. — Drainage Map No. 4 of Bergen County. 

"Snapping Turtle Ditch." As a result the area was promptly laid dry. The 
third problem was the drainage of certain pockets on a knoll at the inner 
edge of this marsh. The sod here varied from 10 to 2 inches in thickness 
and the distance to the outlet was long. The problem was solved by secur- 
ing a good team of horses and a breaking plow and plowing furrow ditches 
by which the water was led to the outlets. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



529 




34 KX 



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S30 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The location and the nature of ditching are shown on the accompanying 
map. 

On the territory of Map 2 no additional ditching was cut as the need 
for it did not at the tinie appear. 

The remainder of the drainage, amounting to 104,609 linear feet of 10 x 30- 
inch ditching, or its equivalent, was placed in the territory covered by Map 
3 as laid down on the accompanying map. Near the upland in this area a 
small section, which was more or less underlain by roots and stumps, was 
encountered, but the trenches were sunk to depth by the use of axe and 
spade. 



^^r 










^\^^^ 




r 




-? 


V ^ 


\36S' 


-i 


v^ 




^ 


lu / 


^'-— ^ 




^ 




\ ifl^ y^' — 




4 


X 


fe%^&. 


^ 



^NAma 



ffo^ 



\. 






^l'\~' 



\ 



OCEAN COUNTY 



'■^'\y"~^\ 



MAP Na2 



)\ 



fig. p. — Drainage Map No. 2 of Stafford Township, Ocean County. 

On April 22, 1916, the entomologist was able to certify that the drainage 
contemplated under this contract with the U. S. Drainage and Irrigation 
Co., had been satisfactorily completed. 

The entomologist feels that the drainage in Maps i and 2 is reasonably 
thorough, but that a considerable amount of spurring is needed in the 
system established in Map 3, and that there is much undrained territory 
between the end of the drained area and the southern boundary of Staf- 
ford Township. 

Fourth Area (Ocean City and Upper Township, Cape May Co.) 

(All that salt marsh beginning on the south side of Great Egg H(fbor 
and extending southward betiveen the sand strip and the mainland, to the 
meadow Boulevard in the Borough of Ocean City and Upper Township of 
Cape May County.) 

This section of marsh has three well-marked divisions— the island area, 
the area adjacent to the sand strip and the area adjacent to the mainland. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



531 




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532 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The first consists of a considerable number of low-lying islands, which 
because of the frequency with which they are flushed by the tide, do not 
apparently breed. This section received no ditching whatever. 

Mr. Fred A. Reiley, the contractor, began the trenching at the north end 
of the area adjacent to the sand strip and continued southward toward the 
meadow boulevard. Much difficulty was experienced in obtaining satisfactory 
outlets for sections of the salt marsh that had been left partly surrounded by 
sand fills, and for areas which had been cut off from the normal outlets by 
railway grades. Fortunately, only a few of the former were present Two 
lines of railway run parallel southward from Ocean City and both cut off 
considerable sections of the salt marsh from all adequate outlets, and create 
great breeding places for mosquitoes. Such culverts as were in place under 
the grades were for the most part set too high to aflFord any really effective 
drainage. 

Effective cooperation of the city and of the railways was secured, and 
culverts were placed as necessary under the streets and under the railway 
grades in such a fashion as to establish proper outlet for the drainage cut by 
die State Experiment Station. The area adjacent to the sand strip was rather 
thoroughly drained. 

Ditching on the area adjacent to the mainland began at the meadow 
boulevard and proceeded northward. No problems of especial interest arose 
because the marsh was of quite the usual type. The remainder of feet was 
utilized in cutting long ditches and the spurring was neglected. Without 
doubt this area will have to be spurred before it is thoroughly drained. 

Taking the fourth area as a whole a new problem presented itself in the 
form of floating sods. The floating of spade sods has long been known and 
held as one of the drawbacks to salt-marsh drainage. Soon after this job 
had gotten a good start a series of high tides lifted the long ribbons, moved 
them in some cases a considerable distance from the places where they were 
originally placed. As this would greatly interfere with the harvesting of 
the hay an effort was made to fasten the upper ribbon, which was the one 
that floated badly, in place. Rough 30-inch stakes were driven through the 
sod into the soil below, and it was found that when placed at intervals of 
50 feet they held the sod satisfactorily. 

The labor problem entered into this job, as into others, and necessitated 
an extension of time. On September 25, 1916, the entomologist was able to 
certify that the work had been completed. The accompan3ring map serves to 
show the location and nature of the ditching. 

In the course of the work under the contract of 1915, covering 225,000 feet 
of ditching in Bergen County Maps i, 2 and 3. were found cases in which 
was work subsidiary but plainly necessary to the drainage system being 
established, but of a nature to render its equation in terms of feet of 
10 X 30-inch ditching impracticable. The State Comptroller objected to the 
expenditure of additional money for such purposes, because the same had 
not been planned for in the original estimates. Accordingly, in the three 
following contracts certain additional sums over and above the contract price 
were set aside for this type of work. In the Ocean County and the Cape 
May County contracts, the plan worked admirably, but in the Carlstadt agree- 
ment in Bergen County, it proved almost useless. 

Summary 

Four separate contracts started in 191 5 were finished in 191 6. The first 
which covered the ditchins: in Bergen County, Maps i, 2, and 3- ^^ 
finished Tune I7. IQ16, with 251,615 linear feet of 10 x 30-inch ditching. 
The second, which covered the ditchino: in Boroueh of Carlstadt, Bcrcen 
County. Map 4. was finished October 31. 1916. with 94.667 linear feet of 
10 X 30-inch ditchincr. The third, which covered ditching in Stafford Town- 
ship. Maps 1, 2 and 3, of Ocean Countv. was finished April 22, 1916, with 
189,189 linear feet of 10 x 30-inch ditching or its equivalent. The fourth, 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 533 

which covers the ditching in certain marshes in the Borough of Ocean City 
and Upper Township of Cape May County, was finished September 25, 1916, 
with 209,634 linear feet of 10 x 30-inch ditching or its equivalent. 



Fig, II. — Drainage Map No. i of Cape May County. 
Statement of 1915 Salt-Marsh Ditching Work Completed In 1916 

No. of feet of 
lo^nch ditches or 
Meadow Acres their equivalent Cost 

Hackensack Valley, west of River from 
Saw Mill Creek north to Paterson 

Plank Road, 4.600 251,715 $4,218 75 

Additional money was used in construct- 
ing temporary dike across creek just 
south of the D., L. & W. R. R., and 
also in cutting across old sunken stone 
roads found near Kingsland Creek, . . 106 50 

Hackensack Valley, west of River from 
the Paterson Plank Road north to the 
Northern boundary of Carlstadt, 2,000 94,667 2,400 00 

Additional money used in labor in assist- 
ance in measuring ditches in this area, 25 50 



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534 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

l^^u'"^ Township (old survey) 5.400 189,189 2,80000 

Additional money was used for the ^> ^ .ow w 

cleaning of old farmers' ditches; ^or 

plowing shallow ditches near upland 

and in buying stakes for the lining out 

o^ ^»tches, 27260 

Borough of Ocean City and Upper 
Township and Meadow Road north 
to end of Peck's Island on the east 

A AAi^^'^^^^ft ^°'"* on west, 1,500 209,634 2,900 00 

Additional labor m digging shallow 
ditches, spurring, filling holes, etc., . . 385 88 

^^^^^^f 13,500 745,105 $13,10923 

Throughout the areas covered by the drainage in the Bergen County 
contracts, sufficient ditching has been cut to protect the area treated, but as 
only the badly breeding parts were trenched a large part of the marsh was 
left totally without ditches. The areas covered by Stafford Township Maps 
I and 2 are pretty completely drained but the portion in Map 3, which has 
been covered, needs a certain amount of spurring. That part of the Cape 
May County area which falls in Ocean City has been thoroughly drained, 
but the part in Upper Township, which has been covered, is in need of 
spurring. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT OF MOSQUITO WORK 

Total appropriation $4,800 00 

Equipment (lantern slides) $14 00 

Office supplies and printing 68 85 

Telephone and telegraph 22 07 

Postage 50 50 

Salaries of regular and temporary employees 3,009 68 

Traveling expenses of same 1,342 80 

Clerical and laboratory assistance 151 91 

Sundries (rubber boots, motorcycle repairs, etc.) 59 05 

Balance reverted to treasury 81 14 

$4,80000 
SUMMARY OF MOSQUITO CONTROL BY COUNTIES 

Hudson County 

This is the fourth season of work for Hudson County. In addition to 
maintaining a regular patrol of the 10,000 acres of salt marsh and eliminat- 
ing in so far as possible all breeding found, the drainage of various por- 
tions has been improved by the cutting of the equivalent of 140,000 linear 
feet of 10 X 30-inch ditching in the form of 20 and 30-inch-wide drains. On 
the 75,786 acres of upland, where more than one-half a million of people 
have their homes, a regular patrol was maintained throughout the mosquito 
season and all breeding found destroyed. 

Bergen County 

This is the second year of extensive work in Bergen County. Starting 
with an undrained salt marsh of 8,378 acres and upland of 143,470 of dty. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



.■>oo 



farmland and forest, the mosquito commission aided by the State Experi- 
ment Station cut or contracted for the cutting of more than one-half mil- 
lion linear feet of the iox30-inch salt-marsh trenching for the purpose 
of eliminating the worst breeding spots on the salt marsh; the county 
mosquito conmiission early in the season caused an inspection of the upland 
to be made and on the basis of information thus gained made an arrange- 
ment whereby each pool and swamp should be reinspected every two weeks 
during the mosquito breeding season and treated as might be necessary 
to suppress the breeding. The inspection work on the upland involved 
72,252 individual examinations of individual properties and revealed the 
following mosquito breeding nuisances: 2,395 i"^ barrels, 580 tubs, 148 
old wells, 349 cans, pails, etc, 153 cesspools, 170 open drains, 98 dstems, 
96 open cellars, 534 miscellaneous receptacles, 205 swamps, 56 brooks, 284 
pools, 51 ponds, 160 ditches, 15 miscellaneous water-holding places of a 
permanent character. More than 6,590 of the nuisances were reported as 
being done away with. 

Ehiring 1916 further attention was given to the salt marsh. In addition 
to maintaining a regular patrol a large amount of drainage work was 
done. 

The drainage system on that area of salt marsh lying between the Hacken- 
sack River and the highland to the west and extending from the southern 
boundary of the coimty to the Boonton Branch of the D., L. & W. R. R. 
was improved by building a pair of 3x6-feet sluice gates with necessary 
bulkheads across the mouth of Kingsland Creek and by constructing a. dike 
along the west bank of the Hackensack River from the mouth of Saw Mill 
Creek to the Boonton Branch of the D., L. & W. R. R. for the purpose of 
preventing the low-lying part of the marsh near the highland from being 
flooded by every extra-high tide. This was an important step in mosquito 
proofing this area for once the water came on the marsh it escaped, be- 
cause of the small amotmt of fall, so slowly that the mosquitoes could 
reach maturity before it disappeared, especially if the tides ran extra high 
during the period and the weather was cloudy with consequently little 
evaporation. The sluices at the mouth of Kingsland Creek were described 
in the last annual report. The dike was a work of considerable magnitude, 
being 3.3 feet high, 3 feet wide at the top with a slope of 45 degrees, and 
6,200 feet long. 

The drainage was further supplemented by clearing a channel 3 feet 
wide as deep as necessary to establish a living stream from the north 
branch of Kingsland Creek through the south branch to Fox's Ditch and 
thence into Saw Mill Creek, thus establishing a circulation channel be- 
tween the two main outlets — Saw Mill and Kingsland Creeks — and afford- 
ing an outlet to the ditching on the back part of the marsh. Wherever the 
falling water revealed shoal places in Kingsland Creek channeling was 
undertaken and carried out. 

About 100,000 feet of the usual narrow trenching was placed in this 
area for the purpose of relieving spots not already drained, the principal 
one of which lay just east of the old copper mine. 

The next job imdertaken by the county mosquito commission was the 
improvement of the drainage of a section of salt marsh designated as the 



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536 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

"Moonachie Meadow." This area extends from the Carlstadt ditching 
northward between the Moonachie Road and the Hackensack River to the 
Little Ferry Line. The 20-inch band ditch along the highland was widened 
to 30 inches and a lo-inch ditch running west from this widened into a 
20-inch ditch. In addition the construction of a large sluice and bulkhead 
across Moonachie Creek was carried out. The sluice box is open at the 
top, 10 feet wide, and 12 feet long and is guarded by two gates. On one 
side the box was connected with the shore by a line of heavy 3-inch piling 
50 feet long and on the other with a similar string 60 feet long. To pre- 
vent the high water from running around the ends of the bulkhead a 
string of low dike was built from each end out into the meadow, in one 
case 100 feet and in the other 200 feet in length. 

The drainage of the Ridgefield meadow, which extends between the 
Hackensack River and the highland to the east from Bullman's Creek north- 
ward to the highland, was supplemented. 

The county mosquito commission maintained a patrol of the upland 
throughout the mosquito season and eliminated all breeding found. This 
patrol revealed 1,690 rain barrels in which 517 cases of breeding were 
fotmd, 576 tubs and 141 cases of breeding, 154 cesspools and 34 cases of 
l)recding, 24 privies and 3 cases of breeding, 64 cellars and 12 cases of 
breeding, 55 cisterns and 13 cases of breeding, 25 wells and 5 cases of 
breeding, 32 manure pits and 3 cases of breeding, 539 pools and 194 cases 
of breeding, 378 ditches and drains and 185 cases of breeding, 899 sewer 
basins and cases of breeding, 66 ponds and 16 cases of breeding, 392 
swamps and 160 cases of breeding, 115 brooks and 60 cases of breeding, 
8 lakes and o cases of breeding, 740 miscellaneous water-holding places and 
receptacles and 163 cases of breeding. 

Essex County 

This is the close of the fifth season of work in Essex County. When 
the year began, Essex had 3,000 of her 4,000 acres of salt marsh not only 
well ditched but had supplemented the original drainage system by keeping 
out the tide with dikes and allowing the water to escape through tide gates. 

During the present season, in addition to maintaining a patrol throughout 
the mosquito-breeding time and applying such measures of control as the 
particular cases of breeding seemed to require, the county mosquito com- 
mission placed or planned to place the remaining acreage, with the ex- 
ception of several hundred that had been filled and 130, under the pro- 
tection of dike and sluice. All the rest of the marsh, amounting to about 
500 acres, had been trenched in years previous. None of the areas in ques- 
tion required the building of a dike for all had railway grades of fills 
that could be made to serve in lieu thereof. Placing these areas under 
protection was therefore only a matter of building and installing sluices 
and tide gates. 

An area consisting of about 75 acres lying east of the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey and extending north of the North Newark fill to the Greenville 
Branch of the Pennsylvania Railroad, was protected by placing a tide 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 537 

gate on a large pipe that ran beneath a railroad spur into the water of 
Newark Bay. This area has been designated as the "Hassock Meadows." 
The Hamburg place section lies east of the Central Railroad of New 
Jersey and extends from the Greenville Branch of the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road to the Central Railroad of New Jersey, which crosses Newark Bay. 
The area, which included about 300 acres, was drained by installing three 
sluices and tide gates in a convenient railroad spur which almost paralleled 
the shore of Newark Bay. Just northeast of the Central Railroad, which 
crosses the Bay, there lies a fringing marsh of about 30 acres in which 
the tide gating is not yet completed. The shore line of this area is filled 
and may be used as a dike. In order to save footage, the dikes along Bound 
Creek were given a deep foreshore and no attention paid to its meander- 
ings. Curiously enough, breeding appeared in this foreshore and the ter- 
ritory had either to be repeatedly oiled or drained. The latter alternative 
was chosen and about 60 acres were drained with the usual narrow 
trenching. 

About 30 acres of the Essex marsh Ijring between the southern section 
of the Port Newark fill and Maple Island Creek has been left with only 
the usual narrow trenching as protection. About 100 acres east of the 
Central Railroad of New Jersey and between Maple Island and Bound 
Creeks, was given a new sort of treatment as an experimtent. It had 
already been drained by the usual narrow trenching. The number of out- 
lets was reduced and those remaining were furnished with sluice boxes 
12 X 12 inches x 5 feet and gate of appropriate size. Five such outlets were 
treated at a cost of $62.50. This meadow passed through the present season 
without serious breeding. 

To provide against the possibility of a failure of present means to re- 
move the marsh water in time to prevent the emergence of a brood of 
mosquitoes, one of the most low-lying and formerly the most prolific breeder 
of mosquitoes of any spot on the marshes, consisting of about 100 acres, 
has been connected with the old sewage pumping station. 

The 76,746 acres of upland on which more than otie-half a million 
people live has been carefully patrolled throughout the mosquito season, 
and mosquito breeding eliminated wherever found. This work has in- 
volved the making of 681,800 individual inspections of individual properties 
and the finding of breeding in barrels 3,441 times, in tubs 1,212, in cisterns 
402. in cesspools 195, in cellars 339, in wells 115, in vats 397, in miscel- 
laneous receptacles 2,036 times. It has involved the finding of breeding 
on permanent pools 2,373 times, in swamps 560, in ditches 340, and in 
brooks 166 times. As might be anticipated the great bulk of the breeding 
found was temporarily eliminated with oil, but a considerable amount of 
permanent work was done as shown by the fact that out of 1,363 pools 
146, out of 285 swamps 85, out of 317 ditches 121. and out of 92 brooks 7 
were filled, drained or cleaned in such a fashion as to eliminate the breeding. 

Union County 

This is the fifth season of work in Union County. The county mosquito 
commission has maintained a regular patrol of its 4,000-acre salt marsh 
throughout the mosquito season and in so far as possible has destroyed 



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53« NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

all breeding which the drainage systems did not prevent. In addition to 
this work it has improved the drainage systems by cutting 13,814 feet of 
10 X 30-inch ditching or its equivalent on the North Elizabeth marsh, 434 feet 
on the South Elizabeth meadow, and 39,708 feet on the Linden meadow, 
and by the placing of sluices and tide gates in the openings of the drainage 
channels of that portion of the North Elizabeth marsh which lies east 
of the Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

The sluicing and tide-gating of the openings of the above salt marsh 
represents a new departure and was adopted after the results of a simiJar 
process on the Essex meadow had been seen. The problem in Union County 
was much more extensive than in Essex for the area was not only 12 
times as large but the drainage outlets were much larger and more numer- 
ous. Some supplementing of the present system was rendered necessary 
by the fact that the marsh was so wide, about i mile, and the drainage 
channels so narrow that high water would not escape in time to prevent 
the maturing of large amounts of breeding. It had become obvious that 
either greater outlets must be opened, or the tide must be prevented from 
overflowing the meadow. The county commission felt financially able 
neither to open the gpreater outlets nor to inclose the area in a dike. The 
summer's experience in Essex with the practice of tide-gating the outlets 
without building a dike appeared to offer a solution for the problem of 
making a start and to form the first step in the process of keeping the 
tide out. It was decided to build sluices and tide gates to control the 
outlets with a view later, if necessary, to supplementing them by build- 
ing a dike. All told, 6 sluices and 7 gates have been required. 

The 61,304 acres of upland have been regularly patrolled throughout 
the mosquito season and all breeding found eliminated in so far as pos- 
sible. Most of this elimination has been done by spreading oil, but a con- 
siderable amount of permanent work of draining and filling has been 
effected. One hundred and eighty-three of the larger breeding places 
such as ponds, pools, and swamps have been drained and 109 have been 
filled; 55 of these places have been done by the county mosquito com- 
mission, and 237 by the owners. The report of the county mosquito com- 
mission shows that of the 5,590 swamps, pools, ponds, brooks, etc, about 
I1364 were eliminated in the season of 1916. 

Middlesex County 

This is the third season of mosquito work for Middlesex County. As 
in previous years the size of the appropriation forbade any attempt to 
cover the county, and compelled the county mosquito commission to limit 
its effort to a part of the problem. 

Accordingly the mosquito commission gave its first attention to main- 
tenance of a patrol of the salt marsh, to the elimination of such breeding 
as the present drainage systems did not prevent, and to the cutting of as 
large an amount of additional trenching as the funds would permit 

For the purpose of making the funds available for salt-marsh trenching 
go farther, one of the Eaton salt-marsh ditchers was purchased in con- 
nection with Monmouth County. By use of this machine the county 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 539 

mosquito commission has been able to cut 186,100 linear feet of loxjo-inch 
ditching, or 15,000 more feet than were cut in the two previous years com- 
bined. This was done in the face of no increase in the appropriation 
available for salt-marsh work and a 40 per cent increase in the cost of 
labor. 

The county mosquito commission's appropriation was increased this year 
by $1,000 for the purpose of permitting the commission to offer oversight 
in local anti-mosquito campaigns. In accordance with this provision, such 
service was offered to every town in the county. Metuchen, Highland 
Park, and Woodbridge availed themselves of the offer and the work of 
fresh-water mosquito control was carried on in those places. 

• 
Monmouth County 

This is the second season of work for Monmouth. As was the case 
last year, the funds compelled the commission to limit its activity to the 
maintenance of a regular patrol of the salt marsh, the elimination in so 
far as possible of all breeding found, and to the cutting of as large an 
amount of ditching as the funds would permit 

The Monmouth Cotmty Mosquito Commission joined with Middlesex in 
the purchase of an Eaton machine and was able to cut 110,000 linear feet 
of 10 X 30-inch ditching or its equivalent on marshes at Belford, 6,000 feet 
at Port Monmouth, 18,000 at Pews Creek, 2,500 at Rimison, and small vary- 
ing amounts at other points. The work at the first three places was done 
by machine — a total of I34,cxx) linear feet — while the remainder was done 
with hand spades. 

Private citizens in the Rimison Road district raised a fimd of $2,000 
which was expended in especially thorough patrol of both the Shrews- 
bury salt marshes and of the adjacent upland. 

Ocean County 

This is the second year of anti-mosquito work by the county mosquito 
commission of Ocean. Last year the appropriation was nuerely large 
enough to clean the already established drainage, which covered about 
20,000 acres of salt march and to patrol the same during the mosquito 
season. 

This year the appropriation has been large enough to enable the county 
mosquito commission to clean the ditches, patrol the marsh and carry out 
a cans!derable amount of new drainage as shown in Table 13. 

Atlantic County 

This is the fourth season of anti-mosquito work in Atlantic Coimty. 
Starting in 1913 with 50,000 acres of salt marsh and 307,409 acres of upland, 
the coimty mosquito commission had, with the help of the State Experi- 
ment Station, by the end of 1915 cut 2,843,832 linear feet of ditching, 
thereby draining 12,013 acres, discovered by means of a careful patrol that 
19,244 acres did not require drainage, and 18,731 acres remained still to be 
drained. On the upland the mosquito commission maintained a patrol of 
the inhabited portions, destroyed all mosquito breeding found and met 
and solved many minor problems in upland mosquito work. 



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540 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

In 1916 the county commission cut, by use of two Eaton ditching ma- 
chines, 1,391,912 feet of ditching. On both the upland and the marsh a 
regular patrol has been maintained and wherever fresh-water mosquito 
breeding has been found it has been eliminated by draining, filling and 
using oil. 

Table XIII 
Statement of 8alt-Marsh Mosquito Work in Ocean County 





Number of Unear Feet 


AREA 


10 X ao-inch 
Trenching 


Spurring 


Eecuttlnf 
Old Wide 
Ditches 


Barnegat City Jmictlon to Surf City Borough. 


60.000 






Between Bamesat and Waretown 






26,000 






North and soath of PennsylTanla Railroad to 
Beach Haven, near the upland west of 
Barneeat Bay 


«,075 
2.100 










Beach Hayen Creek 










Peahala 


eoo 










Beach Haven Terrace 


6,687 










Spring Beach, 


1,200 










South of Stlnkbole Creek in Stafford Town- 
ship 


19.087 










Spurring in Map 8 of Stafford Township. .. 




xm 




South of MiU Creek in Stafford Township... 


n,i82 






Contracted for in the salt marsh at the 
southern end of the county 


200.000 










Totals 


887.080 


2.490 


26.000 



Cape May County 

This is the first year of work in Cape May County and all the effort of 
the county mosquito commission has been directed toward the drainage of 
the salt marsh. A contract for 300,000 linear feet was let and the work 
up to date is as follows: 

Pond Creek Marsh, 20,195 linear feet 

Schellenger's Landing to Mill Creek, 52,994 linear feet 

Cape Island Creek Marsh, 39»05o linear feet 

North of Mill Creek, 20,000 linear feet 

Total, 132,239 linear feet 

In the hope and the expectation of giving some portion of the cotmty 
quick relief, the drainage was started at Cape May City because the winds 
which normally carry salt-marsh mosquitoes can reach it only after passing 
over wide waterways, and it was to be expected that when the adjacent 
marshes were drained it would be free from salt-marsh mosquito trouble 



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{^' 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



Table XIV 



541 



Salt-Marsh Drainao* Done by the State Experiment Station and County 
Mosquito Commleelon 



TEAR 



1912, 
1918. 
1914. 
1915. 
1916. 



Experiment Station 
Ditchlnff 



County Oommlsslon 
mtchinff 



Number ot 
reet Cnt 



•1,088,188 
689.842 
821,601 
745.105 
None 



Number of 
Feet Cleaned 



I 

Mintmnm amt. , 

None ( 

None j 

None 



Number ot 
Feet Cnt 



239.800 

879.865 

1.057,167 

1.971.242 

2,548,718 



Number of 
Feet Cleaned 



470.000 
1.300,000 

919.000 
3.171.128 
••500.000 



* Maxlmnm flgurea, probably 25 or more per cent too high. 
•• Blockage was remoTed trom the entire drainage system, tlie above inelndes only com- 
plete cleaning. 

Passaic Coutity 

This is the fourth season of work in Passaic County. The anti-mosquito 
work of the first year was limited to a small amount of demonstration work 
at Pompton Lakes. The second year an effort was made to control the 
mosquitoes in the city of Passaic. The third year the work included both 
Passaic and Paterson. The fourth year Paterson, Passaic and Acquack- 
anock were covered. 

The results of the first season were pretty good but the area chosen 
was sparsely settled and the results did not gain the credit they deserved. 
The results of the second season failed to be appreciated because the 
flights of the salt-marsh mosquito A. cantator swamped the effect of 
the absence of fresh-water species. The results of the third season were 
greatly minimized by the breeding which escaped from pools that were 
formed everywhere by the exceedingly heavy rains in early August. Never- 
theless, the results were not by any means as good as more efficient organiza- 
tion might have made them. 

In 1916, however, the organization at last reached a highly effective point 
and the patrol and elimination work was ably and effectively done with 
a result that people in the protected territory — about 215,000 — were afforded 
a high degree of protection indeed. 

The patrol maintained during 1916 by the county mosquito commission 
involved the making of 205,007 individual inspections of individual proper- 
ties, covered 3,922 possible breeding places and 913 instances of breeding. 
These possible breeding places consisted of 13 vats, 947 tubs and barrels, 
95 cesspools, 5 privies, 12 cellars, 1,229 cisterns, 458 wells, 17 street gutters, 
540 sewer basins, 2 manure pits, 308 miscellaneous water-holding re- 
ceptacles, 178 pools, 26 ditches and drains, 11 swamps, 7 brooks, 9 rivers, 
and I lake. 

All breeding was promptly destroyed when found and 321 of 3,922 pos- 
sible places were permanently done away with. 



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542 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Somerset County 

The work in this county was of a purely survey nature but the county 
commission intends to do a certain amount of educational work. The survey 
has covered all the worst breeding areas of the county, and shows that 
certain parts of the county have a very real mosquito problem. 

Mercer County 

This is the first year of active work in Mercer County and the entire 
effort has been limited to the Borough of Princeton and vicinity. The 
leaders in Princeton are without doubt responsible for the initiation of 
the work. The borough offered to raise $5,000 if the county board of 
freeholders would appropriate a like sum for the use of the county mosquito 
commission. To this proposition the board assented and the mosquito coro- 
mission has this year had the expenditure of $10,000. 

The problem here is purely one of suppressing the breeding of fresh- 
water mosquitoes. The salt-marsh species only rarely reach Princeton and 
then in negligible nimibers. It can not be said that Princeton has an ex- 
ceptionally large number of mosquitoes or that the malarial species are 
there peculiarly abundant. In fact, the malarial species at Princeton do 
not compare in numbers with those of certain other points in the State. 
It was not the anno3rance of the mosquito pest that induced anti-mosquito 
work at Princeton but an alarming increase in the number of cases of 
malarial fever existing in the borough. 

In the early part of the season of 191 5 a meeting was called by the 
writer at the request of certain interested citizens to consider the problem 
and methods that should be adopted in solving it. At this meeting a sp^ 
cial committee known as the "Princeton mosquito committee" vras ap- 
pointed and charged with the duty of working out the nature of the 
mosquito control problem and in so far as possible its solution. Prof. 
Ulric Dahlgren was made chairman. 

Regarding the status of malaria in and about Princeton, the committee 
made the following report: 

"The records of the Borough Board of Health show that in 1913 there 
were 64 cases of malaria reported. Many of these were not properly 
diagnosed and were not malaria. Twenty-five blood examinations were 
made — 13 positive results. On the other hand a g^reat many cases of real 
malaria were not reported because no physician was called in and the 
cases were treated by the family of the patients with quinine pills or with 
nostrums. 

"In 1914, 131 cases of malaria were reported. Forty. blood examinations 
were made — 10 positive. 

"The reports for 191 5 are not yet in but will show an increase in new 
cases according to present indications; 65 cases — 85 blood examinations— 27 
positive. 

"The College Infirmary shows in 1912-13— 10 cases. 

"The College Infirmary shows in 1913-14— 9 cases. 

"The College Infirmary shows in 1914-15— 22 cases. 

"During the first third of 191 5- 16 there have been 10 cases. 



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Experiment station report. 543 

"From the local report of many inhabitants the committee secured state- 
ments that malaria has always existed, that at times it has assumed an 
epidemic form and has aroused the town. But at all times it has been 
plentiful and these periodical crises have perhaps been the result of more 
virulent cases rather than an excessive number of cases. These reports 
have all tended to show that the most malaria has existed on the southern 
limits of our town along the course of Stony Brook, the Millstone River, 
and the Delaware and Raritan Canal. 

"Dr. Raycroft, Mr. Ballinger, Dr. Stewart Paton, and the chairman of 
the Committee have gone over most of the ground from Kingston to the 
Basin and have found an excessive number of cases. Mr. Ballinger's re- 
port on his survey reads in part as follows: 

"This survey included a house-to-house canvas of the southern ex- 
tremity of Alexander Street and those bordering along the Delaware and 
Raritan Canal in the vicinity of Alexander Street; 19 houses in all. In 
formation was obtained from 16 houses and the following results are 
based on that number. 

"Histories were given at the 16 houses of 32 cases of malaria during 
191 5» averaging two cases to each house. Histories were obtained of 55 
present residents having had malaria at some time during their residence 
in the district, making an average of 3.5 cases to each house. Of these 
55 persons, only two had ever suffered from the disease previous to their 
residence in this district. Several houses were encountered which con- 
tained persons sick in bed with the disease at the time of the survey, others 
gave a history of having had malaria as long as 15 to 20 years ago, while 
some discouraged sufferers said that they 'always had it.' One family 
of eight gave a history of never having had malaria previous to their mov- 
ing into this district twelve years ago, and since that time every member 
of the family had suffered from the disease every year. Another family 
of two stated that they had lived in this district and in New Jersey but 
three months, and were both suffering from a severe attack of the disease 
at the time of making the survey. 

"Practically speaking, nearly every person who has lived in this district 
for a year or more has suffered from malaria. The average t3rpe of the 
residents in this district is characterized by an anaemic physical condi- 
tion confirming the great prevalence of the disease. With this large 
reservoir of the disease adjacent to some very extensive areas breeding the 
Anopheles mosquito, no better facilities could be provided for the trans- 
mission of malaria. 

"The Committee feels satisfied that the disease has been increasing dur- 
ing the past ten years and wish to call attention to the two main factors 
in this increase: 

'*Tst. The presence in Princeton during the last few years of large bodies 
of Italians working on such large projects as Lake Carnegie, the Stadium, 
the two large laboratories, and other buildings. Doubtless many of these 
men were (and are) subject to chronic forms of malaria and supplemented 
the old sources of infection for the adult Anopheles mosquitoes that have 
transmitted it to our new cases. 

**^nd. The new breeding place for these Anopheles mosquitoes furnished 
by the pools of water and swamps created by several extensive back-waters 



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544 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

that arose owing to the raising of the level of the Stony Brook and the 
Millstone River to form Lake Carnegie. Also by the degeneration of the 
banks of several abandoned basins, through falling earth and the growth 
of grasses and weeds which have furnished better conditions for 
Anopheles larvae. This latter process has been going on for a much longer 
period, as much as ten or fifteen 3rears. 

"It is only fair to state at this point that for die greater part of its course 
the lake has improved certain large districts by converting them from 
swamps into open water. At the same time, however, we must declare 
that it has created the lesser areas spoken of above which are situated at 
its two heads where it is entered by Stony Brook and the Millstone River. 

"It also appears that the borough has been effectually cleaned from 
mosquito breeding places during the past year by the Board of Health 
through the work of Mr. Ballinger and his assistants, and that our mosquito 
trouble both malarial and as a nuisance came mostly from sources outside 
the borough." 

The town of Princeton is located on the eastern portion of the sum- 
mit of an almost east and west irregularly oval ridge which slopes off 
rather gently in every direction. The highest point on this ridge is 227 
feet above the sea. A small stream known as Stony Creek flows along 
the western, southern, and southeastern faces of this ridge and on the 
southeast aspect reaches a level of 50 feet, creating a sharp slope in that 
direction. At a point slightly south of east, Stony Brook joins the 
Millstone River and continues along the eastern aspect of the ridge. 

Stony Brook and its branches form the drains for most of this ridge. 
A small brook takes its origin in the northeastern aspect of the ridge and 
runs a northeast course to the Millstone River. 

Several years ago, for the purpose of creating a lake, a dam was thrown 
across the Millstone River just south of Kingston, and the lower valleys of 
the Millstone and of Stony Brook were drowned to form Carnegie Lake. 
The shores of the new lake were rather carefully shaped but a long suc- 
cession of swamps and pools lying on the south side of the Delaware and 
Raritan Canal, which runs parallel to Stony Brook and the Millstone 
south and southeast of Princeton, that were formerly emptied by drains 
passing under the caral bed. havin;r been kept full and transformed into breed- 
ing places. Furthermore, Stony Brook and low spots along its bank for 
some distance above the head of Carnegie Lake have become stagnant, 
and the more stagnant portions have become partially filled with water 
plants creating an ideal breeding: place for the malarial mosquitoes. The 
Millstone from the point where it diverges from Carnegie Lake to the 
Pennsylvania Railroad has flooded its valley and forms a shallow marsh 
in which the fresh-water swamp and the malarial mosquitoes breed. 

When the mosquito survey was made the main breeding areas were 
located along the bottom of the southern slope of the Princeton ridge, in 
these areas of badly-drained territory which have just been described. 

The estimates prepared indicated that the first cost for the Mercer 
County work alone would aggregate almost $10,000 and that almo«^t $5,000 
more of the needed improvements lay in Middlesex County. The opera- 
tions recommended were draining, filling, bank trimming and ripraping. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 545 

The county mosquito commission placed Mr. C. S. Sinccrbeaux of Prince- 
ton in charge and took up the work on the basis of the recommendations 
of the conunittee. 

On August 10, 1916, the writer went over the work with Mr. Sincer- 
beaux. The work in the borough which he believes he is paid for by the 
borough, seemed to be pretty well looked after, although some breeding was 
found. The first and only large piece of work examined was the filling of two 
large deep depressions between the canal and Stony Brook, well above 
the head of Carnegie Lake. This is a large job, involving the expendi- 
ture of about $3,500. For the purpose of permitting the operation to take 
place with the least trouble, Mr. Sincerbeaux caused the level of Carnegie 
Lake to be lowered a foot and thereby discovered a unique and probably 
one of the most important anti-mosquito measures in the whole problem. 
This lowering of the water left a muddy and pebbly beach and rendered 
almost the entire lake edge free from breeding by giving the fish access 
to all parts. The writer at once recommended that the process be repeated 
annually as soon as heavy breeding appears and that the level be left 
down until the university opens in the fall 

Information concerning progress since August 10, 1916, is not at hand. 

EfTectiveness of the County and State Work 

The effect of the large amount of work, which has just been outlined,, 
should be pronounced. It might be expected to appear in at least three 
forms, a very decided reduction in the numbers of the pest, approval of 
the people who have been protected, and in the advancement of taxable 
values. 

Before attempting to discuss these points it is necessary to define what 
is meant by the protected districts. The present area in which all species 
are combatted includes all of Hudson County, most of Bergen, less than half 
of Passaic, all of Essex, all of Union, Metuchen, Highland Park, and 
Woodbridge in Middlesex, Rumson district in Monmouth, Atlantic City, 
Pleasantville, Hammonton and other towns and villages in Atlantic County 
and Cape May City in Cape May County. The work has been going on 
longer and is better organized in Hudson, Bergen, Passaic, Essex and 
Union Counties than elsewhere. The sole exception to the above state- 
ment is Atlantic County where, owing to an immense undrained salt marsh 
both in Atlantic and adjacent counties, the work of local control is obscured 
by flights of salt-marsh mosquitoes. It can be said, however, that Atlantic 
City has enjoyed an immunity, especially this year, through this work that 
is scarcely second to any in the State and, what is still more remarkable, 
both Pleasantville and Hammonton have had such relief as they have not 
before known. 

In Middlesex the county commission kept the salt-marsh species down 
in a satisfactory manner and had very good results in the municipalities 
mentioned. In Monmouth the same conditions obtained with the excep- 
tion of the Belford and a portion of the Manasquan areas where consider- 
able amounts of breeding matured, owing to inadequate drainage. In 
Ocean the effort was limited to the control of breeding of the salt-marsh 

35 ^ 



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546 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

mosquito within the drained area. Of course, mosquitoes bred in the un- 
drained marshes between Seaside Park and Barnegat Junction and to 
the southward of the ditched area along the mainland migrated as far to 
the north as Forked River and in some cases farther. With the exception 
of very small issues in overlooked places the territory from Toms River 
north to Point Pleasant was very free from the salt-marsh mosquito. In 
Cape May County the salt-marsh drainage had just made a start and an 
effort was made by the Board of Health of Cape May City to control the 
fresh-water species. It was not until nearly the end of the season that the 
adjacent marshes were drained. 

It thus becomes clear that we must look mainly to the northeastern sec- 
tion of the State for the most tangible effects of mosquito control work 
With the exception of a few limited areas within the protected district 
covered by the five counties of Hudson, Bergen, Passaic, Essex, and Union, 
the number of mosquitoes is but a small fraction of what they were in 
years before the work began. This is the universal testimony of practically 
all the thinking people who have lived in the district long enough to pass 
judgment. Two years ago the scheme of determining the extent and 
density of the mosquito faima by regular collections of mosquitoes on the 
wing, was put into practice and a comparison of the collections of dus 
year with those of last show that the control work of this year left but 
a fraction of the number that survived the efforts of the preceding season. 
The mosquito is not exterminated in these districts but many of the house- 
holders declare that they have seen none all sununer. With a few excep- 
tions, where uncontrolled local breeding has let off enough mosquitoes to 
be troublesome, the mosquito pest has been severe nowhere throughout the 
protected areas. These conditions obtained in spite of the fact that in 
many of the unprotected areas the mosquito pest was very severe, especially 
previous to August. 

The approval of the people served has been most satisfactory. The 
newspapers have strongly endorsed the effectiveness of the work, many 
organizations and individuals have expressed themselves as pleased vidi 
the protection which the work has afforded. 

It seems yet too early for the increase in taxable values due to success- 
ful mosquito control to be discerned. 

MOSQUITOES OF THE YEAR 

It has occurred to the writer that the best method of giving a picture 
of the mosquitoes of the year is to select excerpts from the weekly issue of 
the "Mosquito Exterminator." 

April 24. "A brood of A, cantator with a few A. sollicitans is on Ac 
marshes from Cape May to Jersey City. The wrigglers are growing slowly 
and range from very small to nearly full grown. Emergence of such as 
are not destroyed may be looked for early in May. Mr. David Young; in- 
spector in charge of the work in Passaic Coimty, reports the finding of 
A. sylvestris in small numbers." 

May I. "Mr. Young, of Passaic County, reports that he is unable to 
find any widespread or heavy breeding of A. sylvestris. He has made an 
especial study of this matter because he feared the tremendous abundance 
of this species late last summer might be followed by a large brood early 
in this season." "The brood of wrigglers now on the Atlantic coastal 
marshes have made but little growth during the past week and no pupae 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 547 

whatever have been reported. The impression seems to be that the size 
of the brood on the drained marshes is negligible. No brood can safely 
be considered negligible so long as it exists in discoverable numbers in 
easy reach of supposedly protected populations. On the undrained marshes 
near the upland the breeding among the partially submerged grasses is 
heavy and larvae one-fourth of an inch long were on the twenty-seventh 
taken in water reading 48° F." 

May 30. "The first spring brood of salt-marsh mosquitoes, which began 
emerginjr Mav i at Cape May Point and on May 6 in the lower Hacken- 
sack Valley, has completed its emergence and apparently reached its maxi- 
mum of distribution. It travelled m troublesome niunbers from the salt 
marshes of the bay coast at least as far north as Bridgeton and from the 
lower Atlantic Coast far into the Pines of Ocean, Burlington, and parts 
of Atlantic Counties. It was present in troublesome numbers in various 
parts of Cape May County. It is a pleasure to report that the people liv- 
inj^ adjacent to the drained marshes of Atlantic, Ocean, Monmouth, 
Middlesex, Union, Essex and Hudson Counties were not troubled by this 
brood. The trouble experienced near the Belford meadows in Monmouth, 
the Cheesequake meadows in Middlesex, the stump lots and Frank Creek 
section of the Kearney marshes of Hudson, the Kingsland, Lyndhurst, 
Rutherford, and Carlstadt meadows of Bergen was of short duration and 
at no time severe. It is of great interest to note that the areas which 
showed infestation sufficient to attract attention lay adjacent to or ¥dihin 
easy reach of incompletely-drained salt marsh, as shown by the fact that 
the Belford meadows are almost without drainage, the Cheesequake 
meadows need additional drainapre in certain parts, the Kearney meadows 
of Hudson County, especially those portions which lie just west of the 
Hackensack River and are known as the "Cedar Stump Lots" need addi- 
tional ditching, and that the drainage of the Kingsland, Lyndhurst, Ruther- 
ford and Carlstadt marshes is incomplete. Furthermore, the places within 
the reach of the partially-drained marsh have been less troubled than by 
the corresponding brood of last year, and Passaic County, which last year 
was rather severely punished by this brood, is this year reported free 
from it It is certainly not without significance that more than 100 miles 
of the coast, all of which are in reach of the drained or partially-drained 
salt marsh, have been free from mosquitoes or markedly less troubled 
than last year, while those parts within reach of the undrained salt marsh 
have had mosquitoes abundantly. It is further of great importance to 
note that Atlantic City and the shore road to the west of it have not been 
troubled and that this portion of the coast lies adjacent to several miles of 
drained marsh while huge undrained areas lie both to the north and south 
of it. The experience with this and previous broods has demonstrated 
that broods of mosquitoes can be eliminated and adequate protection given 
by a rather incomplete but vigorously working? systems of drainage when 
supplemented by careful oversight, the digging of short supplementary 
ditches and the application of a small amount of oil at the right time. It 
has further shown that dependence upon drainage systems wiUiout careful 
oversight leads to the emergence of serious numbers of mosquitoes, re- 
gardless of how complete the drainage system may be. The first step in 
the spring is to see that the existing drainage systems are in good work- 
ing order, and the work of a repair must be started early enough to have 
it completed before the first of May. As the brood approaches maturity, 
oil should be placed near bad spots and the remnant of the brood should 
be promptly oiled oflF as soon as pupation begins." 

June 6. "The second brood of salt-marsh mosquitoes got on the wing 
the latter part of last week. Alonjar the Delaware Bay coast the issue was 
large enough to be troublesome. Neither Atlantic City nor the^ shore road 
lying west of it have been troubled. North of the Mullica River a large 
brood escaped and worked its way north and northeast. On Saturday 
the entomologist found the northern border of this brood at Bamegat. 
He was informed by Mr. Stephen Johnson, who is in charge of the work 
in Ocean County, that this brood first appeared at Manahawkin, which 



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548 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

lies four miles to the south of Bamegat, on the morning of the same dar)r. 
How far this brood will migrate up the bay cannot at this time be told. 
It had already flown five miles northward on the drained marsh. From 
Bamegat north to Middlesex G^unty this brood appears to be negligible. 
In Middlesex, Union, Essex, Bergen and Hudson Counties the same satis- 
factory conditions are reported." 

July 5. "About the middle of July during each of the past three years 
a great brood of the salt-marsh mosquitoes has emerged and invaded terri- 
tory, which up to that time had been free from the pest That time Ais 
season is now approaching and while our present information does not 
show the marshes unusually wet, all persons doing salt-marsh mosquito 
control work would do well to keep their areas under especially careful 
and close observation. Provisions for the prompt and efficient destruc- 
tion of that portion of the brood which the drainage does not eliminate 
from the ditched marsh should be made. The fresh-water swamp mosquito 
is more troublesome than it has been in any previous year with which wc 
are familiar. In many parts of the State, which are without timber and 
free from the salt-marsh mosquitoes, it was the first species to appear, 
and up to the present has remained the dominant form. The only parallel 
of this condition with which we are familiar was seen late last summer 
when the fresh- water swamp mosquito bred everywhere in the temporary 
pools which were created by the tremendous rainfall of early August Docs 
the dominance of this species indicate a change in its habits and a cor- 
responding complication of the problem of mosquito control? Whether it 
does or not every effort should be made to find and eliminate its breed- 
ing places and thus to reduce it at least to its former status." 

July 12. "The drained salt marshes are this year drier than they have 
been at this period of the year in any of the preceding three seasons. By 
this date in previous years a larp^e brood of salt-marsh mosquitoes has 
been in course of development. This year the drained marshes show little 
breeding. In the course of a meeting of chief inspectors of Passaic, Bergen, 
Hudson, Essex, Union and Middlesex, held in Newark on July 10, it de- 
veloped that in all these counties the dominant fresh- water mosquito for 
the last two months has been the fresh-water swamp species. This bears 
out the point made in the last issue of the 'Exterminator* — that the habits 
of this well-known species appear to have changed and that it is now 
breeding much more generally than was the case in previous years. The 
reports submitted at this meeting showed that mosquitoes on the wing at 
this time were scarce or absent, and that no complaints of trouble were 
being received." 

July 18. "The conditions on the drained salt marsh continue good and 
no broods of considerable size have anywhere gotten under way. Here 
and there a small brood has started and in a few instances a small num- 
ber of adults have escaped. The practice of assuming that any part of 
a salt marsh where water exists is and will continue free from breeding 
is a dangerous one which will sooner or later permit the escape of a brood 
of size sufficient to cause serious annoyance. Complete removal of all 
stagnant water appears to afford the only real assurance that breeding 
will not occur. Water of a stagnant nature which for any reason cannot 
be removed should be kept under the most careful scrutiny and the examina- 
tions should be both exhaustive and frequent. The fresh- water mosquito 
conditions are reported good throughout the protected districts." 

July 25. "On Tuesday and Wednesday of last week Dr. Jacob G. Lip- 
man, director of the New Jersey Experiment Stations, Mr. Alfred Gaskill, 
director of the Department of Conservation and Developrnent, and Dr. 
Thomas J. Headlee, entomologist of the New Jersey Experiment Stations 
and executive officer in charj^e of mosquito work, made a trip along the 
coast from Jersey City to Ocean City for the purpose of observing the 
prevalence of mosquitoes.^ At the outset, and before beginning the coastal 
trip proper, an examination was made of the northern and northwestern 

Sarts of Union and Essex Counties, southern Bergen and eastern Hudson, 
fosquito conditions were determined by daylight collections. All collec- 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 549 

tions were five minutes in length and were made in shady places in the 
midst of bushes or high weeds. Speaking generally, few or no mosquitoes 
whatever were taken nat any station until Barnegat was reached. The 
largest collection previous to that point was taken at Forked River where 
five specimens were secured. The next to the largest was found in Wee- 
quahic Park where four were caught. The most significant thing in the 
collections was the absence of the dominant form of salt-marsh mosquito, 
the white-marked variety. When the undrained marshes were reached there 
was an obvious increase in the mosquitoes, but there was not that over- 
whelming onset which usually marks the transition from drained to un- 
drained marsh. The reader will remember that in the two last issues of 
the 'Exterminator' mention was made of the absence of the usual heavy 
brood of wrigglers in early July and that the conditions of the marsh were 
whatever were taken at any station until Barnegat was reached. The 
experience of this trip shows beyond question that no general brood issued 
during the middle of July. The recent tides have been hi^ and accom- 
panied by storms, and at several points local salt-marsh broods are de- 
veloping. The fresh-water mosquito control is at present very good 
although many of the improtected sections of the State are suffering 
severely from the house mosquito. The time of the mosquito fighters trial 
is at hand. Practically all pools of whatever nature are warm enough 
to breed and the mosquito can complete its development in the minimum 
time. Only the most vigilant can hope to cope adequately with the 
mosquito pest at this time of the year." 

August J. "We are gravely informed by an editorial writer in a recent 
issue of the *New York Evening Post' that the mosquito pest has invaded 
New York City and has not been satisfied with attacking persons who 
live on or near the ground, but has appeared in places as high as the twenty- 
ninth floor, that although science has turned her hand to the job of 
mosquito extermination the beast is still unconquered and the coming of 
the fearless knight who shall slay the pest is eagerly awaited by the tor- 
tured ones. Thus able writer says that Dr. Doty almost conquered the 
mosquito in Staten Island and that Dr. Howard had done a good deal 
toward reducing the pest. In New Jersey within 50 miles of the editorial 
office from which these 'facts' emerged live fully a million people whose 
homes border on the salt marshes of Newark Bay and the Hackensack 
River, the home of the 'Jersey bird,' from which, by the way, according to 
metropolitan newspaper opinion, formerly came New York City's supply of 
mosquitoes. Thousands of these people are occupying their unscreened 
porches every pleasant evening without being troubled by mosquitoes and 
bcttef still occupying their sleeping rooms without disturbance. With the 
exception of a few limited localities the hundreds of thousands of people 
in this area have experienced a relief from the pest which they characterize 
as a wonderful improvement Shortly after the mosquito pest appeared 
this season in New York City, one evening a gentleman whom the writer 
knows well was crossing the Hudson from New York to the Jersey side. 
The mosquitoes were bad in the ferry boat slip on the New York side and 
the passengers were slapping them energetically. In the midst of the tur- 
ii.v.ii a voice suddenly said 'wait till we get across to Jersey, then we will 
get away from the mosquitoes. We used to have them over there but 
now we don't.' These facts not to mention the more than one hundred 
miles of marsh-bordered coast which is under patrol and the summer resorts 
that have been freed of mosquitoes, are overlooked by the Post's editorial 
writer. Why should a great newspaper constitute itself a bureau of mis- 
information? The first of August is here and no great brood of mosquitoes 
has emerged from the drained marshes yet. About ten days ago the un- 
drained marshes of New Jersey and of Long Island gave off a tremendous 
brood of the white-marked salt-marsh mosquito and all the upland within 
reach has been flooded. The record of the partly-drained marsh has again 
shown that the only safe drainage is that which eliminates all stagnant 
water. All standing water on the marsh is potentially dangerous." 



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550 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

August 9. "At the meeting of the chief inspectors of Hudson, Berg^en, 
Passaic, and Union Counties held in Newark, at 2:00 P. M. yesterday it 
was shown that the month of July and the early part of August had passed 
without serious mosquito trouble. Breeding in both fresh and salt water 
was reported wherever water had stagnated and the general impression 
was given that breeding during the latter part of July and early August 
had been hard to overcome." 

August 15, "The tides have been running high and many of the salt 
meadows are wet. A brood of the white-marked salt-marsh mosquitoes 
{A. solicitans) has hatched and is developing. Present reports do not 
show the extent of the marsh involved but do indicate that it is sufficientnly 
large to warrant the sharpest attention by all persons charged vnih the 
duty of controlling salt-marsh breeding. The temperatures are high and 
but little more than a week will suffice for the pest to pass from hatching 
of egg to winged mosquito. The recent dry weather has dried up many 
breemng pools but has reduced the brooks and permanent pools to a place 
where they are breeding. The work of controlling the swamp mosquito, 
the house mosquito and the malarial mosquito will admit of no relaxa- 
tion. Mr. David Young, inspector in charge for the Passaic Coimty 
Mosquito Commission, reports the breeding of the swamp mosquito {A. 
sylvestris) in the sewage-polluted water of the Passaic River above the 
dam. Tlus record was made by collecting the larvse and breeding out the 
adults." 

August 22, "The Augfust brood of salt-marsh mosquitoes is on the 
wing, and again the drained and patrolled marshes have stood the test 
The reports from different counties, which are due the latter part of this 
week, will reveal in detail the nature of this issue of mosquitoes. Mr. 
Leslie, chief inspector of the Bergen County commission, reported on 
August 18 substantially as follows: Collections, even when made along the 
edge of the meadow, show a marked scarcity of A, cantator (the brovm 
salt-marsh mosquito), and Mr. Kraft, who lives in the meadows beside the 
Paterson Plank Roao, reports but few mosquitoes about his house. Speak- 
ing generally the collections show some sylvestris (the fresh- water swamp 
mosquito) and a few pipiens (the house mosquito). In Englewood, 
Tenafly, Ridgewood, Bogota, and Leonia we find mosquitoes on the wing 
to be very scarce indeed. During the present season the only places whicn 
have even at times had serious trouble with mosquitoes are Hasbrouck 
Heights, Woodbridge, Carlstadt and certain parts of Hawor^ and of 
Hadcensack. The collections from Union and Essex Counties with which 
the writer is familiar, show that the salt-marsh species have been reduced 
to a point where they are nowhere abundant. They also show that the 
fresh-water swamp mosquito is the dominant species and that pipiens are 
scarce. Both Mr. Gies and Mr. Dobbins report that the number of 
mosquitoes on the wing is small enough to render this the best year they 
have thus far had in their respective counties of Union and Essex. Mr. 
Young, of Passaic County, reports a very satisfactory freedom from mos- 
quitoes in the protected parts of his county, and the results of his collec- 
tions, which the entomologist has the privilege of seeing, bear out his state- 
ments. The people of Paterson and Passaic are to be congratulated on the 
freedom from the mosquito pest which thus far this season has been theirs 
and should give Mr. Young the credit which is due him. Mr. Paterson 
reports the control of salt-marsh mosquitoes in Middlesex County as thus 
far good, but not entirely complete on every part of the marsh. Mr. Van 
Note, of Monmouth County, reports in much the same strain as Mr. Pater- 
son. He points especially to the absolute control obtained on the Shrews- 
berry River. Mr. Johnson, of Ocean Count\', reports mosquitoes in large 
numbers as far north at Barnegat, and in steadily diminishing numbers as 
far north as Toms River. Between Toms River and Point Pleasant he 
reports very satisfactory control. Mr. Reiley, acting chief inspector of 
Atlantic Coimty, said under date of August 18: 'The entire inspected area 
of the county is practically free of pipiens' (the house mosquito). 'We 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 551 

still have a few of the salt-marsh brood of three weeks ago and expect a 
large issue from the undrained marshes between Uie nineteenth and twenty- 
first Taken as a whole, Atlantic County for the time of year has never 
been in better condition regarding mosquitoes.' Mr. Beckwith, in describ- 
ing a collecting trip from Cape May City to Woodbine, said: 'Every time 
after leaving the coast I stopped the motorcycle to make a collection, sol- 
licitans' (the white-marked salt-marsh mosquito) *came about my head in 
clouds.' •' 

In the undraind marshes of South Jersey a vicious brood emerged dur- 
ing September and a small one during October. On the drained marshes 
the issue was so small as to be completely negligible. 

AID EXTENDED TO ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONS 

In the course of the year the entonwlogist has made 80 trips relating to 
mosquito work, involving the giving of about 93 days of time ; has prepared 
and mailed the "Mosquito Exterminator/' and has served the New Jersey 
Mosquito Extermination Association as secretary. 

Mr. Charles S. Beckwith, assistant entomologist, has served as engineer 
in charge of the drainage work of the Cape May County Mosquito Com»- 
mission during the present season and acted as advisor in mosquito-control 
niatters to various boards of health in that county. 

Last fall one year ago the Cape May City Board of Health requested the 
entomologist to furnish a plan for the control of local breeding mosquitoes. 
An investigation of conditions was made and a detailed report of breeding 
places prepared and submitted. Based on this report, the following recom- 
ncKndations were given: 

There should be a house-to-house inspection made in West Cape May once 
every lo days, and, as there is no sewer system in West Cape May, C. pipiens 
will be found breeding in unsealed cesspools. These should be oiled about 
once every lo days. There will be found a number of out-houses, which 
should be oiled in the same way. The rain-water barrels and other recep- 
tacles found should be done away with entirely, or oiled once every lo days 
during the mosquito-breeding season. 

As you will see from the foregoing, there is evidently a considerable amount 
of opportunity for mosquito breeding withih the limits of Cape May City, 
West Cape May and Cape May Point, and that the boards of health con- 
cerned could do a great deal of excellent work in protecting the people from 
nwsquitocs that are bred right at home. Of course, the large marsh men- 
tioned by Mr. Henry Brehme, lying between Cape May City and Cape May 
Point, has already been taken care of. The report is intended to point out 
the main lines along which a local mosquito campaign should be run. I am 
not convinced that the putting on of a thorough house-to-house canvass for 
the control of local breeding is the best policy for the present year, because 
the collections thus far made in Cape May City indicate that the principal 
nwsquito is the salt-marsh variety. On the other hand, if the people were 
troubled by mosquitoes in their bedrooms, it is likely that a campaign against 
the house species would result in affording speedy relief. All things con- 
sidered, I suspect that the best plan would be for the Board of Health to 
undertake the permanent elimination of as large a proportion of these 
breeding places as possible, and to spend the minimum amount of money 
on the control of breeding in cesspools, privies, lot pools and sewer catch 



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552 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

basins. I should think that proceedings taken under the DuflSeld amend- 
ment to the general health laws for the year 1904 should enable the board 
to bring about the elimination of most of these minor permanent breeding 
places at the expense of the property owners. 

On August 8, 1916, on request of the Board of Health of Avalon, the 
entomologist, accompanied by Mr. Beckwith, examined the mosquito-breeding 
conditions in that borough, and submitted the following report: 

"At your request, I am submitting to you a statement of the results of 
the inspection made recently. Two places on the beach front were first 
examined. One on the beach just at the Casino, and the other along the 
shore of the Inlet, between Mr. Runk's place and the railroad. 

**In the first instance, shallow ditches had been cut in such a fashion as 
to draw the water into certain sand pits near the beach. When the area 
was examined, it was obvious that the outlet ditch had not been properly 
graded, or had filled up, for water was standing in the ditches at the center 
of the area and the lower end of the outlet ditch was dry. I would suggest 
regrading of the outlet ditch. Mr. Hall's man informs me that he examines 
this area once every week, and whenever wrigglers are found in the water, 
promptly oils the surface of the ditches. Until this area can be filled, I am 
inclined to think that this is the best plan. 

"In the second area a system of shallow ditches has been cut. Here the 
grading of the outlet ditch is not satisfactory, for, while the ditches were 
all dry yesterday, in many places in the upper course the bottoms were a 
greenish-brown, indicating unmistakably that water had stood in them long 
enough for a heavy growth of algae to take place. When the water finally 
dried up, this growth of algae was left on the ditch bottom, and soon assumed 
the color mentioned. I would suggest that a good outlet ditch, extending 
well up into the area, be cut, of sufficient depth that the tide will ebb and 
fall in it from one end to the other, and that the water will run from it 
into this central ditch. This central ditch will furnish the area with an 
abundance of killifish, which will ordinarily make it unnecessary to use oil 
It was suggested by an employee of Mr. HialFs that a central sump, or hole, 
be dug. that all drainage of this area be turned into it, and that the water 
be pumped out over the beach as often as accumulated. This plan, if car- 
ried out completely, would, undoubtedly, be successful; but, entirely aside 
from the question of expense, the human factor in starting the pumps at 
the right time is large, and the chances are that the area would produce 
mosquitoes before the water was removed. Under the other plan, so long 
as the ditches are kept open, nature takes care of the situation and acts when 
action is needed. 

"Several small lot areas, something like three or four, were examined in 
the upper portion of the boroujcrh. In no case was there any indication 
that drainage was practicable. Fillintr seemed to be the only real remedy. 
Oiling at regular lo-day intervals throughout the breeding season until 
such filling is done should prevent breeding. 

"An area located in the woodland just south of the sewage disposal plant 
was considered, and I am informed the level of the bottom of this depression 
is naturally lower than the outlet which is provided. I am also informed 
that ordinary high tide is sufficient to penetrate the culvert opening under 
the roadway. Now, if this is true, it seems to me it would be well to lower 
the level of the outlet ditch until high-tide water can be sent strongly in tfie 
said depression, in order that killifish may be brought in and roosqmW 
larvse destroyed. This would probably take care of the situation until such 
time as the area is filled. 

"We then went south on the roadway until we came to a truck growers 
home, below which there seemed to be a little improvement on the sand 
strip. Here I noted a considerable number of enclosed pockets, apparently 
depressions, between the sand dunes, one of which just dried up, and, in dry- 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 553 

ing up, had apparentiy given off a brood of mosquitoes. I have no doubt that 
a considerable number of these pockets exist south of this point. Breeding in 
such places can be prevented only by the use of oil until such time as Siey 
can be drained or filled. 

"It might be well to have a board of health inspector charged with the 
duty of looking after these and other permanent breeding places and see that 
they are oiled whenever breeding occurs in them. 

"We then drove south on the new Stone Harbor-Avalon road, and noted 
that the road builder had cut off a good many natural drains and had pro- 
vided little passageway for the water to escape. I saw one culvert, and it 
seems to me more should be put in. I am inclined to think that the cutting 
off of these natural drains will make it necessary to establish an artificial 
drainage system, such as might be brought about by cutting a 20-inch ditch, 
30 inches deep, about half way between the sand dimes and the roadway, and 
connecting the same with culverts underneath the roadway. It is, or course, 
assumed that the culverts will be placed at points where the natural drains 
lead off into the thoroughfares, and that they will be set sufficiently low to 
take care of the water at low tide. 

"In closing this brief report, we desire to congratulate the Borough of 
Avalon on the small amount of breeding places found on and along the sand 
strip. The amount of filling done is enormous, and most of the worst places 
have been eliminated by it. 

"Of course, the Borough of Avalon can never hope to be free from occa- 
sional heavy infestations by the mosquitoes which breed on the marshes 
until the west and southwest are drained. 

"I presume that you are aware that nearly $15,000 worth of salt-marsh 
drainage will have been done in Cape May County by the time the mosquitoes 
fly next year. This is, however, only a beginning, for approximately $100,000 
will be required before the marshes of Cape May County can be adequately 
taken care of." 

THE MOSQUITO EXTERMINATOR 

For the purpose of keeping all persons in the State who are vitally inter- 
ested in mosquito-control work informed in the prog^ress of the work, and 
to form a clearing house for mosquito-control information in general, the 
entomologist this year prepared and issued each week a circular under the 
title of "The Mosquito Exterminator." All told, 22 numbers have been 
issued and mailed to all members of the State association and such others 
as indicated a desire for them. The mailing list began on April 24, with 257 
names, and closed with 435. 



THE NEW JERSEY MOSQUITO EXTERMINATION ASSOCIATION 

This association was formed nearly four years ago, has held three annual 
meetings and published an account of the proceedings in each case. The 
program for the fourth annual meeting is now being made up. The first 
year's proceedings had 92 pages, the second 136, and the third 159. The 
nature of the association and its purposes are well shown in the following 
constitution : 

Article i. The name of this organization shall be the New Jersey Mosquito 
Extermination Association. 

Article 2. The purpose of this association shall be the advancement of the 
cause of mosquito extermination in New Jersey. 



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554 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Article 3. The oflficcrs shall be a president, first vice-president, second 
vice-president and secretary-treasureer. 

There shall also be an executive committee, composed of the oflfccrs ex 
officio and four members selected at large. These officers shall be elected 
annually at the regular annual meeting or convention of the Association. 

A nominating committee of three, appointed by the executive committee, 
shall propose the names of candidates for the officees and of the four mem- 
bers at large of the executive committee, and shall also present such otfier 
names as are offered by petition signed by five members of the Association. 
Such names as are presented by petition must be in the hands of the nominat- 
ing committee 10 days before the regular annual meeting. A majority vote 
of the membership present shall be sufficient to elect 

Article 4. This Association shall hold one regular annual meeting and 
such special meetings at such tinies and places as Shall be selected ^ the 
executive comnvittee. 

Article 5- Membership in this Association shall consist of County Mos- 
quito Extermination Commissions, Boards of Health, Boards of Trade, vari- 
ous civic organizations, or members of these organizations, and of persons 
connected with them, and of such other persons as may be interested in the 
work of mosquito extermination. 

Article 6. Any of the organizations or persons mentioned in Article 5 may 
become men^rs of this Association on making application, without payment 
of dues or assessments. 

Article 7. The expenses of this Association shall be met annually by a 
pro rata apportionment to all the active County Mosquito Extermination 
Commissioners in the State. 

Article 8. This Constitution may be amended at any regular meeting by 
a two-thirds vote of the members present. 

The present membership is 257. 

LARVICIDE8 

A certain amount of time was given to the testing of various substances 
as larvicides. In the main the study was limited to such substances of J 
mineral or organic nature which the cost and recognized properties indicated 
might form larvicide. 

NaCl and CaCU. The work on these substances confirmed the results 
obtained by Chidester* and showed that the amount necessary (NaG and 
CaCla) was such as to render the use of either impracticable from the stand- 
point of cost. 

NaOH. The resistance of fully-grown larvse of A. canfator and A. sollicf 
fans to NaOH was determined by adding it to creek water (2.9 per cent 
salinity) in doses ranging from o.oooi gm. to 0.2 gm. per l.ooo c.c. Two- 
tenths gm. had killed everything in 3 days. Another test, in the course of 
which tap water was substituted for the creek water, was then set up with 
amounts of NaOH ranging from 0.5 gm. to 20 gm. per 1,000 c.c. In two days 
some killing was visible in the i-gm. solution, more in the 5-gm., and com- 
plete killing in the 20-gm. A brown precipitate appeared in all jars frow 
o.T gm. up. 

Sodium sulfo carbonate. CThis is a commercial article and not C P." 
was prepared by the Dow Chemical Co.). It was used in testing the resist- 
ance of fully-grown larvae of A. canfator and A, soUicitans in tap water to 
strength ranging from i to 3 c.c. of the material to 100 c.c. of water. In two 
days the larvae had transformed to pupse and some adults had emerged. 

Borax. (This is marked refined, and furnished by Eimer and Amend.) The 
resistance of 2 to 4-mm. C. pipiens larvae to borax in tap water, in amonnts 
ranging from 3.5 to 20 gm. to 1,000 c.c, was tested. In the first six days the 



> Chidestcr. F. E., N. J. A gr. Exp. Sta. Bui. 29Q. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 555 

larvae seemed to be quite normal. The charge was then increased so that 
the amounts ranged from 30 to 50 gm. In two days more everything seemed 
nortnal. Two days later the charge was in every case increased to 100 gm. 
In one day more there were no changes. 

Capper sulfate. The resistance of 2 to 4 mm. larvae of C pipiens to cop- 
per sulphate in tap water ranging from i to 20 gnu per 1000 c.c. was tested. 
In one day all in 20 gm. were dead, and most of those in 10 gnv had suc- 
cumbed. In one day more all in 10 gm. and all in 5 gnu were dead. In one 
day more all in i gm. were dead. The doseage for killing in 48 hours 
seems to be 5 gm. to 1,000 c.c. 

Iron sulfate. (This is the American Steel and Wire product.) The re- 
sistance of 2 to 5 mm. larvae of A. sollicitans to iron sulfate in tap water, 
using amounts ranging from 2.5 to 50 gm. per 1,000 c.c, was tested. Two 
days later all were dead in the 50-gm. solution, but all in weaker strengths 
were alive. 

Pyrethrum, The resistance of C. pipiens larvae ranging from 3 to 6 mm. in 
length, by placing amounts ranging from i to 10 gm. to 100 c.c. of tap water, 
was tested. The mixture was allowed to stand over night and 25 specimens 
placed in each jar the following morning. In one day all were dead in the 
tested jars. The same process was then repeated by using strengths ranging 
from I gm. to 2,000 c.c. down to i gm. to 10,000 c.c. In two days all larvae 
were dead. The test was then turned around, and jars in which the larvae 
had been placed in tap water were treated with a water extract of pyrethrum 
at strength ranging from 7 gm, to 3,000 c.c. to i gm. to 20,000 c.c. In one day 
all were dead in the i to 2,000 c.c. In two days an were dead in i to 3,000. In 
three days all were dead in i to 20,000. 

Nicotine, The resistance of 5-min. larvae of A. sollicitans to 40 per cent 
nicotine in tap water at strength ranging from i c.c. to 1,000 c.c. to i c.c. to 
40,000 cc, was tested. In one day all larvae were dead in i to 10,000 or 
grreater. Also, the resistance of 2 to 4 mm. larvae of C. pipiens to nicotine, in 
tap water, was tested, at strengths varying from i cc. to 30,000 cc. to i cc. 
to 60,000 cc In 2 days all were dead in i to 40,000, and in 4 days all were 
dead in i to 60,000. 

Quassia, A water extract of quassia was prepared by macerating 50 gm. of 
quassia chips in So cc of distilled water. The resistance of 2 to 4 mm. larvae 
of C. pipiens to quassia, in tap water varying from i cc. to 1,000 cc. to 50 c.c. 
to 1,000 cc, was tested. In two days all were dead in 501 cc. to 1,000 cc. In 
three days no further killing was visible. 

Hellebore. The resistance of 2 to 4 mm. larvae of C. pipiens to hellebore, in 
strengths ranging from 6 to 40 gm. to 1,000 cc of tap water, was tested. 
Eight hours before the larvae were introduced, the hellebore was placed 
in the water and thoroughly mixed with it. In two days all were dead in 
the 40 to 1,000. In three days a few were dead in the 30 to 1,000. In 
eight days all were dead. 

Ginger. The resistance of 2 to 4 mm. larvae of C. pipiens to ginger, in 
strength ranging from 0.5 to 5 gm^ per 1,000 cc tap water, was tested. In 
T day all were dead in 5 to 1,000, and most of the specimens were dead in 
2 to i.ooo. In two days all were dead. 

Pyroligneous acid. (This is the purified product made by the Malhn- 
kodt Chemical Works.) The resistance of 2 to 4 mm. larvae of C. pipiens 
to pyroligneous acid in tap water at strenjfth varying from i cc. to 1,000 
c.c. to I c.c. to 40,000 c.c. was tested. At the end of 6 days all were alive. 
The dose was then increased i to 500, and in 2 days later all were alive. 

Carbo-sul. This is a commercial preparation. It is an emulsified carbon 
disulfiide. The resistance of fully-grown lar\'ae and some pupae of A. can- 
tator and A. sollicitans to carbo-sul was tested in tap water at strengths 
varying from 3 cc to 100 cc to i cc to 1,000 cc. In one day all larvae 
in 3 to TOO were killed. The pupae gave up adults which died before they 
could take wing. The weakest strength killed a few larvae in 36 hours. 



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556 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Pyridine. (This is the technical from Eimer and Amend.) The resist- 
ance of fully-grown larva and some pupae of A, cantator, A. sollicitans, 
and C. salanarius to pyridine in tap water was tested, at strengths varying 
from o.ooooi ex. to i,ooo c.c. to 0.2 c.c. to 1,000 c.c. In one day all were 
dead in 0.2 to 1,000. In two days some were dead in o.i to i,0Q0. In the 
latter strength some of the pupae gave up adults which, however, perished 
before they could take wing. 

Cresol. (This is U. S. P. from Eimer and Amend.) The resistance 
of 2 to 4 mm. C. pipiens larvae to cresol in tap water at strengths varying 
I c.c. to 8,000 c.c. to I c.c. to 50,000 c.c. was tested. In one day all were 
dead in i to 30,000 and greater strengths. In two days all were dead in 
I to 50,000. 

Lysol. (This is a commercial product manufactured -by Leher and 
Fink.) The resistance of 2 to 4 mm. C. pipiens larvae to ly^ol in tap water 
in strengths varying from/ i c.c. to 8,000 c.c. to i c.c. to 50,000 c.c. was 
tested. In one day all were dead in i to 40,000. 

Phenol. (This is 100 per cent crude carbolic acid furnished by Eimer 
and Amend.) The resistance of C. pipiens larvae 2 to 4 mm. long to phenol 
was tested in tap water at strength varying from i c.c. to 1,000 c.c. to i ex. 
to 40,000 c.c. In two days all were dead in i to 20,000 and in greater 
strengths. In four days all were dead in i to 30,000. 

^Mixture of 10 c.c. pyridine, 10 c.c. xylol, and rosin to make 2$ c.c. The 
resistance of 2 to 4 mm. larvae of C. pipiens to this mixture in tap water in 
strengths varying from i c.c. to 20.000 c.c. to i c.c. to 50,000 cc. was tested. 
In one day all were dead in i to 40,000. This experiment was repeated 
under the same conditions with the same species of larvae, and in two 
days all were dead in the i to 50,000. 

Standard Oil samples. During the winter of 191 5 the writer requested 
the Standard Oil Company to prepare an oil which would give good spread- 
ing power with strong staying ability. The company responded with three 
samples. No. i and No. 2 of which were black in color, while No. 3 was a 
straw yellow. On February 24, 191 5, the writer selected three glass dishes, 
filled to the same height with distilled water. Each dish had about 70 
square inches of water surface. Each was treated with 5 c.c. of oil The 
first received its supply from Sample I, the second from Sample 2, and the 
third from Sample 3. Thirty-one days later the oil film of No. 3 was com- 
plete, while on both No. i and No. 2 it was broken. Three large glass 
dishes were then prepared, filled to the same height with water, and 
each made the recipient of 50 or more 2 mm. larvae of C. pipiens. Oil was 
introduced at the rate of 3 c.c. to the square foot. The first was treated 
with sample No. i, the second with No. 2, and the third with No. 3. One 
day later 8 larvae were alive in No. i, 10 in No. 2, and o in No. 3. 

A test of the lasting power of some of the more promising substances 
was arranged Seven wooden wash-tubs were arranged in 3 pairs and a 
chock. One series was filled about half full of red shale soil. 

It thus appears that none of the mixtures tried in the above experiment 
persist to a satisfactory extent, and that the best from that standpoint is 
Standard Oil sample No. 3. 

It is easy to find substances that will kill mosquito larvae very quickly, 
but to get one that will remain effective over a long period seems attended 
with difficulties. All tubs were filled to the same height with water. The 
tubs were allowed to stand until larvae of C. pipiens appeared in each. 

Pair No. i was then treated with a proprietary substance, known as Khan's 
mixture, at the rate of 10 gms. to the gallon of water. Pair No. 2 was 
treated with Standard Oil sample No. 3 at the rate of 1.5 cc to the gallon. 
Pair No. 3 with pyridine at the rate of 1.5 c.c. to the gallon. Pair No. 4 with 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



557 



the mixture pyridine, xylol and rosin at the rate of 1.5 c.c to the gallon. 
The tubs were left outdoors throughout the experiment The results are 
set forth in Table XV. 

Table XV 
Results of Experiment with Samples of Oil as Larvlcides 



DATE 


No. 1 Khan's 
Mixture 


No. 2 
Standard 
oa No. 3 


No. 8 
Pyridine 


No. 4 

Pyddin & 

Xylol & Rosin 


No. 5 
No Treatment 


9/4 


Bxperlment a 


et np. 












9/5, 


All aUve 


All alive 


All dead ex- 
cept pupae 


All dead ex- 
cept pupae 


All alive 






9/e 


Few dead 


Few dead 


AU dead 


All dead 


All a&lve 






9/7, 


All dead 


AU dead " " 


" .'* 








9/10 


•• •* 


•• •» C. living plpiens 
1 preaent 


C. living plpiens 
present 








9/11 


.. .. 


" .. 




.. .. 








9/12 


C. llTing plpiens 
preaent 


•• *• 




*• *• 








9/lS 


" •• 


.. .. 




t* •• 








9/14 


.. M 


C. Uvlng plplena 
preaent 




«4 •• 








9/16 


.. .. 






.. .. 





CONCLUSIONS 

The four contracts between the State and various contractors for salt- 
marsh ditching, which were executed but not finished last year, have been 
satisfactorily completed this year, with a total of 745.105 linear feet of narrow 
ditching. 

The counties have cleaned thoroughly 500,000 linear feet of ditching, and 
removed obstructions throughout all the drainage systems to keep them in 
working order. The counties have cut 2,543,713 linear feet of new 10 x 30-inch 
ditching or its equivalent on the salt marsh. They have patrolled 95,000 acres 
of salt marsh (covering a coast line of 125 miles), have patrolled 315.000 
acres of upland, and have afforded a good measure of protection to one and 
three-fourths millions of people. 

The investigation of larvicides, which included a test of substances con- 
sisting of metal salts, drugs and more or less pure organic chemicals, shows 
that while a number of compounds that would destroy mosquito larvae were 
found, none had the ability to remain effective for more than a limited 
period after the application was made. 



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REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT 
OF ENTOMOLOGY 



(425) 



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Department of Entomology 



Thomas J. Hiqadlee, Ph.D., Entomologist 
♦Charles S. Beckwith, B.Sc, Assistant Entomologist 
Alvah Peterson, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist 
Augusta E. Meske, Stenographer and Clerk, 

*On State Station. 



CONTENTS 

PAGB 

Introductory 427 

Insect Correspondence 427 

Insects of the Year 4S6 

Orchard Plant Lice 437 

Plum Curcuuo 437 

Potato Flea Beetle 438 

Cabbage Worms 438 

June Bugs 488 

Rose Bug 439 

Vegetable Plant Lice 439 

Tussock Moths ...- 439 

Chrysanthemum Midge 440 

The Rose Typophorus 440 

Recently Introduced Foreign Insects 440 

Insect Scouting 442 

Climate and Insect Investigations 442 

' Atmospheric Humidity and the Augoumois Grain 

Moth 443 

A Further Test of the Effect op Atmospheric Moisture 

Upon the Bean Weevil. 444 

Conclusions 445 

Orchard Insect Investigations 44^ 

Pear Psylla 446 

Peach Tree Borer 449 

Eggs 459 

Summary ^ 463 

Small Fruit Insect Investigations 464 

S^TRAWBERRY WEEVIL 464 

Orchard Plant Lice 464 

Rose Bug 465 

Vegetable Insect Investigations 465 

Bean Maggot ,..^ 465 

Greenhouse Insect Investigations 467 

The Use of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas for Greenhouse 

Fumigation ^ 467 

Soil-Infesting Insect Investigations 469 

Laboratory and Field Experiments With Sodium Cyanide 

AND Other Chemicals Against Wireworms In the Soil 469 

House-Fly Investigations 479 

Fly Control at Beach Haven, New Jersey 479 

Report on Mosquito Work 485 

(426) 



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Report of the 
Department of Entomology 

Thomas J. Headlee, Ph.D. 



INTRODUCTION 

The attention of the entomologist has this year been devoted to : 
(i) the dissemination of information about injurious insects 
through the medium of letters to persons who have written request- 
ing help; (2) the dissemination of timely information on the nature 
of and the methods to be used in combating specific insects which 
were this year sufficiently abundant to do large harm; (3) the 
prosecution of investigations on lines later to be described; (4) 
the prosecution of the work of mosquito control. 

The personnel of the staflf has not changed except that an addi- 
tional stenographer has been employed. 



INSECT CORRESPONDENCE 

Besides advice of a general sort information concerning at least 
171 different species of mites and insects has been requested. 



(427) 



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428 



NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



ABACHMIDA 



Latin Nam« 
Bryobia pratenses Qarman.. 

Brlophyes pyri Pffst 



" quadripes Shlmer 

Tetranychus bimaoulatus Harv. 



Trombidium xnuscarlum. . . 
Tyroflrlyphus lintneri Osb . 



Common Name 
Clover mite 



Pear-leaf blister mite. 



Maple mite . 
Red spider. . 



Harvest mite... 
Mushroom mite. 



Bud mites. 



IXMsality 

Elizabeth 

Barleiffh Heights. Md. 

Montclair 

Paterson 

NelsonvHle 

Mantua 

New Brunswick 

Keansburff 

Mt. Holly 

Trenton 

SomervUle 

Hackenaaek 



Date 

ICar. IS. 

ICar. 19. 

June S. 

June SS. 

June 27. 

Aug. 8. 

Aug. 16. 

Sept 12. 

Oct. 6. 

Dec 6. '1«. 

Jan. 7. 

July JB. 



INSBCTA 
ThyMMiiir» 

L^plsma saccharina Linn Silver fish La Gloria, Cuba . 



Thrips sp.. 



Aleyrodes packardl, Morr. 



Thrips Pensauken 

Hommitera 
Strawberry White fly. 



Nov. 7, 'li. 
. July 1«. 



vaporariorum Westa. 



Aphis brassicae Linn . 
gossypl Qlover. 
pomi DeQ 



Oreenhouse 



Cabbage aphis.... 

Melon aphis 

Green apple aphis. 



pseudobrassicsB Davis .. i False cabbage aphis. 



setarisB Thos. 
sorbi Kalt... 



Aphididn 



Rusty plum louse. 
Rosy apple aphis.. 



Montclair .' 

Summit 

Princeton 

Clinton 

Sea Bright 

Morristown 

Quinton 

B. Rutherford 

Washington 

New Brunswick. . . . 

Haokensack 

Lyndhurst 

Allendale 

Haddonfleld 

Bgg Harbor 

B. Rutherford ..... 

Matawah 

S. Orange 

Plant lice i Haddon Hts 

eggs I MerchantviUe 

, I Dunellen 

Belle Mead 

! Tenafly 

! Barleigh Hts.. Md . 

, I Riverton 

; Maplewood 

t Caldwell 

' Bound Brook 

, Long Branch 

1 Hackensack 

I Pocono, Pa. 

I Louisville. Ky 

I Westfleld 

I Allentown 

Riverton 

Bloomfleld 

Paterson 

Plalnfleld 

Port Richmond, N. 

Rahway 

Plalnfleld 

Rldgewood 

Bound Brook 

Bound Brook 

Ramsey 

Rldgewood 

RiegelsviUe 

W. Bnglewood 

Madison 



Aug. 

Aug. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Sept 

Sept 

Sept 

Sept 

Oct 

Dec. 

Apr. 

July 

Aug. 

Nov. 

Oct 

Sept 

June 

June 

Nov. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May 

May 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

June 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 

July 



•II. 



1«. 

4. 

8. 

t. 
11 
SO. 
20. 
28. 
SO. 
21. 'It 

4. 

7. 
84. 
11, '16. 

4. 
S8. 
10. 

20, '16. 
31. 'li 

S. 

s. 

SI. 
SI. 

so. 
so. 

S6. 

S8. 

f. 

7. 

7. 
14. 
SS. 

ss. 

S6. 

so. 

8. 
8. 
8. 
8. 
8. 
7. 
7. 
f. 
t. 

i. 
f. 
f. 
f. 

18. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



429 



HOMOPTBBA— Continued 



Latin Nam« 



Aphidlde 



Common Name 
Plant lice 



Aplirophora paraliela Bay 

AapldlotM hedene Vail 

" pemiciosus Conurt.. 
▲ulacaipia roM» Bouche 



Frog hoppers... 
Oleander Scale . . 
San Jose Scale . 
Rose Scale 



LK>oality 
New York City. 

Westfleld 

New York City. 

Paterson 

Allendale 

No. Hampton . . . 

Ramsey 

Rutherford 

Berarenfleld . . . . 
Bound Brook... 

Hahwah 

Somenrille 

Westfleld 

Bloomsbury 

Lyndhurst 

North Bergen . . . 

Paterson 

Wyckoff 

Hohokus 

NuUey 

New Helford 

Waldwick 

Westwood 

Paterson 

Union 

Hanover 

Iffadlson 

Nauffhrierht 

Newton 

Paterso«i 

Ridffewood 

Blue Anchor. . . 

Caldwell 

Blberon 

Summit 

Verona 

Newark 

Woodbridge . . . 

Newark 

Morris Plains... 

Newark 

Bound Brook... 

Caldwell 

Denvllle 

Elizabeth 

Perth Amboy... 
Ridgefleld Park. 

Andover 

Blizabeth 

Qlen Ridge 

Garwood 

Irvington 

Rahway 

Elmer 

New York City. 
Roselle Park... 
Bast Orange.... 

Matawan 

New Brunswick, 
New York City. 

Parlln 

New York City. 

Flndeme 

Clayton 

Jersey City 

Arlington 

Rahway 

Asbury Park.... 
Bemardsville 

Princeton 

LaCrosse. Wis.. 

Metuchen 

Iffontclair 



Date 

July 10. 

July 10. 

July 10. 

July 10. 

July 11. 

July 11. 

July 11. 

July 11. 

July 12. 

July 12. 

July 12. 

July 12. 

July 12. 

July IS. 

July IS. 

July IS. 

July IS. 

July IS. 

July 14. 

July 14. 

July 14. 

July 14. 

July 14. 

July 16. 

July 16. 

July 17. 

July 17. 

July 17. 

July 17. 

July 17. 

July 17. 

July 18. 

July 18. 

July 18. 

July 18. 

July 18. 

July 19. 

July 10. 

July 10. 

July 19. 

July 19. 

July 19. 

July 20. 

July 20. 

July 20. 

July 20. 

July 20. 

July 20. 

July 2S. 

July 28. 

July 28. 

July 28. 

July 28. 

July 28. 

July 24. 

July 24. 

July 24. 

July 26. 

July 26. 

July 26. 

July 26. 

July 26. 

July 27. 

July 28. 

July 29. 

July 80. 

July 81. 

Aug. 8. 

Aug. 4. 

Aug. 4. 

June 28. 

May 2. 

Oct. 19. 

May 17. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



430 



NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



HOMOPTEJRA— Continued 



Latin Name 

Ceresa bubalus Fab 

Chermaphli abi«tiooIens Thos. 



plnicortls Fitch. 



Chionaspis euonymi Comst. . 

pinifolifle Fitch 

Chx78omphalu0 aonidum Linn 

Coccide 

Coccus hesp^ridum Linn 

Bulocanium nigrofasciatum 

Berg. 



quercicltronia Fitch 
tullpiferse Cook. 



Ja88id» Sp 

Lachnufl sp 

Lepidosaphes ulmi Linn 



Longistigma caryoe Harr 

Myzus libis Linn 

Nectarophora pisi Kalt 

Phenacoccus acericola Kinsr. . 

Phyllocoptis phloescoptis Nal . 

Pseudococcua sp 

Psylla buxi Linn 

•• pyrioola Forst 

Pulvinaria acericola Walsh & 
Riley 



" . innumerabills " " 

Salssetla hemlspherica Tarer. 
Schizoneura lanigera Hausm. 



Tibicen septendedm Linn. 
Typhlocyba comes Say 



Common Name 
Buffalo tree hopper 
Spruce gall louse 



Pine bark louse. 



Buonymous Scale 
Pine -leaf Scale. 
Circular Scale.. 

Soft scale 

Soft Brown Scale 

Teil-apln Scale.. 



Soft Scale 

Tulip soft scale. 



Leaf hopper. . 
Oyster-shell scale 



Plant louse 

Currant aphis. .. 



Qreen pea aphis 
Maple false scale 

Plum gall 

Mealy bug 

Box psylla 

Pear psylla 

Cottony maple scale 



Hemispherical scale 
Woolly apple louse 



17-year locust... 
Orape leaf hopper 



Locality 

Barleigh Hts.* Md 

BemardsTllle , 

Kingston 

CaldweU 

Ridgewood 

Maplewood 

Coloeme , 

New York City , 

Princeton , 

Plainneld 

Elizabeth 

Mt. Bphraim «...., 



Somerville 
Rutherford . . . 
Hackensack . . . 
Hackensack . . . 
Lacrosse, Wis.. 



Date 

Mar. 80. 

Apr. S. 

Dec. a, '16. 

June 21. 

Aug. 6. 

Dec 28, '16. 

Apr. 26. 

May 10. 

June SO. 

July 30. 

Aug. 6. 

Occ 24. 

July 12. 

Mar. 2. 

May S. 

May 2. 

May 2. 



Swedesboro j J*n» 

Collingswood ' Sept 

Moorestown ^p** 

Morristown June 

Haddon Hts > Jan. 

No. Paterson Feb. 

New Brunswick. 

Elizabeth 

Ridgewood 



Apr. 

Augr. 

Augr. 

Ridgewood ) Sept 



Hillsdale 

Camden 

White House 

Princeton 

So. Orange 

Moorestown 

Newark 

Dumont 

Blberon 

Orange 

Plainneld 

Ridgewood 

Tuckerton 

Plalnfleld 

Jersey City 

Mt Holly 

Montclair 

W. Orange 

Cresskill 

New Brunswick. . . . 

Fleminsrton 

Pompton Plains.... 

Pensauken 

Jersey City 

Bemardsville 

Morrestown 



Aug. 

Aug. 

July 

Oct 

Sept 

Oct 

June 

Aug. 

Oct 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

Apr. 

July 

Sept 

Nov. 

May 

June 

June 

Dec 

Sept 

July 

Feb. 

Aug. 

June 

Oct 



6. 
II. 
26. 
IS. 

4. 
27. 
26. 
16. 
18. 

7. 

8. 
11. 
19. 

6. 
29. 
26. 
28. 

6. 

6. 

2. 
20. 
18. 
19. 
14. 
88. 

9, 'It. 
27. 
18. 
24. 
81, '16. 

6. 
16. 
27. 
81. 
19. 

6. 



Stockton 

New York City. 

Arlington 

Sussex 

Manasquan .... 

Plalnfleld 

Elisabeth 

Gladstone 

New York City. 

P. Amboy 

Verona 

Irvington 

Hilton 

New York City. 
Wyomissing, Pa. 
Merohantville . . 



May 8. 

June 28. 

July 2. 

July 14. 

Aug. 7. 

June 7. 

Jan. 19. 

June 9. 

Nov. 28, '1%, 

Nov. 20, •!«. 

July 28. 

July 17. 

Sept 18. 

Feb. 6. 

June 89. 

Aug. 8. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



43^ 



HOMOPTERA— Continued 



Latin Nam« 
▲BttMk tristia DeO 

AwUmm cristatua Linn 

CtiwMi'r lectulariiM Linn 

H«tarooordyla8 malinus Reuter 
Lgrsns pratensis Linn 

P«ita.toinSd« sp. 

AerWtdc 

Biattide .'.!!'.'.!'.!!!!!!!'.!!!!! 

aryUiOm 

merooentmni rhoxnbifollum 

Sauss. 



Oeeaatbns nisricomia Walker. 
Pmratenodera sinensis Sauss . . 

Ptaroplkylla persplcellata L. . . . 

gtagmoman tis Carolina Johann 



ocnlatus Linn 

Ampblcems bioandatus Say . . . 
ABtltonomiM si^rnatus Say 



HBMIPTBRA 
Conunon Name 
Squash bus 



Wlieel buff. 
Bed buff. . . 



Apple red hug 

Tarnish plant buff. 

Stink bug 



Orthopt«r» 

Locusts 

Grasshoppers 

Cockroaches 

Cricket. 



Katydid. 



Tree cricket 

Chinese Mantld. 



Katydid. 



Mantld 

Coleopteni 

Click beetle # 

Apple twiflr borer 

Strawberry weevil.... 



J 



BalaalAiM caryae Horn. 
BnKkiM obtectus Say. . 



Hickory-nut weevil...^ 
Bean weevil 



■p. 



By iu ti M onlcolor Say. 



orya 
ChrwmomeUdm 



Linn. 



Golaoptera 

CoBotrachelns nenuphar Hbst. 



Locality 

Stockton 

Port Jervis 

Roselle Park .... 

Trenton 

Great Meadows. 

Oradell 

Dunellen 

Mooi;estown 

E. Rutherford.. 

Dumont 

Short Hills 



New Brunswick. 

Elisabeth 

Plainfleld 

Belmar 



Date 

July 16. 

July 25. 

Sept 8. 

July 16. 

' July SO. 

(Nov. 14, 

May 7. 

j Feb. 20. 

I July 28. 

Aug. 6. 

'Aug. 27. 



: Aug. 9, 

Aug. 4. 

I Aug. 14. 

'Sept. 17. 



16. 



Sewell ' Feb. 

Belmar | Feb. 

Elisabeth Aug. 

Riverton ' Mar. 

Bnglewood Nov. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Apr. 

Feb. 



Secaucus 
Moorestown 
Ridgewood . 
Riverton . . . 

Haddonfleld t Apr. 

Roselld Jan. 

Ridgewood Apr. 

Maple Shade < Feb. 

Woodbury June 

Linwood May 

Pleasantville ! Dec. 

Jersey City I Mar. 

Wading River Apr. 

Hammonton ' May 

Atco May 

New York City Nov, 



Weevils 

Borer 

American raspberry 

beetle 



Summit 
New York City. 
Bound Brook . . . , 
Perth Amboy... 
New York City., 

Plainfleld , 

Caldwell 

Paterson , 

Jdaya Landing. . . 
Bloomsbury . . . . , 

Newark 

Haddon Heights. 

Summit 

Belle Meade 

Lakewood 

Gillette 

Franklinville . . . . 

Haddonfleld 

Moorestown 

Pattenburg 



Rloe weevil. 
Flea beetle . 



Borer 

Plum curculio. 



Sparta 

Sparta 

Agassis, B. C... 

Fiuo«rne 

Lebanon 

Keyport 

Hahway 

Toms River 

Palmjrra 

Lambertville . . . . 
Aura 



Dec. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
Apr. 
May 
May 
June 
July 
July 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Feb. 
July 

May 

June 

Nov. 

July 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Apr. 

Oct. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Feb. 



8. 
26. 
80. 
SO. 

27, '16. 
10. 

1. 

2. 

6. 
16. 

6. 

2. 

2. 

6. 

29. *16. 
18. 
12. 
20. 

1. 
28. 

21, '16. 
11, '16. 

1. 
29. 
11. 
18. 
27. 
28. 

2. 
18. 
28. 
10. 
13. 
16. 
22. 
26. 
27. 
26. 
18. 

3. 
17. 

29. 
26. 

11, '16. 
28. 

1, 

3. 
26. 

81, '16. 
21. 

4. 
12. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



432 



NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



COLBOPTBRA— Continued 



Ijatin Name 
ConotracheluB nenuphar Hbst. 



Common Nama 
Plum curcullo 



Cotalpa lanigera Linn 

Cryptorhynchus lapathi Linn. 
Diabrotica 12 -punctata Oliv. . 



Blateridse 



▼ittata Fab. 



Bpitrix cucumeris Harris. 



Goldamith beetle 

Poplar borer | 

Southern com root 

worm 
Striped cucumber beetle 
Wire worms 



Locality 
Philadelphia. Pa. 

Blisabetn 

Lonff Branch.... 

Flemington 

8. Orange 

Teaneck 

PUinfleld 

Metuchen 

Burlington 

Kinkora 



Potato flea beetle. 



Buphoria inda Linn 

FIdia vitlclda Walsh 

Ithycerus nova-boracensis 

Forst 
Lachnosterna fusca Froehl. 
sp. 



Leptinotarsa lO-Uneata Say 



If acrodactylus subspinosus Fab, 



Mononychus vulpeculus Fab 

Oberea bimaculata Oliv 

Phyllotreta armoracle Fowlr 
Platydema excavatum Smith 
Saperda Candida Fab 



Scolytns rugulosus Rats. 



SilTanus surinamensis Linn. 
Strigoderma arboricola Fab. 



B town fruit-chafer . 
O rape root- worm .... 



Curculionid . 
May beetle . 



Potato beetle. 



Rose bug. 



Beetle 

Cane borer. . 
Flea beetle. 



Round-headed apple tree 

borer 

Fruit tree bark beetle. 



Saw-toothed grain beetle 
Beetle 



Brldgeton 

Bnglewood 

New York City.... 

Bnglewood 

Great Meadows . . . 

New York City 

Newark 

RobbinsvUle 

Haokettatown 

Flemington 

Trenton 

New Brunswick.... 

Bamegat 

Chester 

Montdalr 

Boonton 

Bound Brook 

Rahway 

Cream Ridge 

Pompton Plains. . . . 
Woodbury Heights. 

Martinsville 

Garwood 

Trenton 

Princeton 

Westfleld 

Newton 

Morristown, Pa. . . . 
Batontown 



Jersey City 

AtlanUe City 

Morristown 

Merchantville 

Linden 

Trenton 

New York City 

Bamegat 

Freehold 

Far HlUs 

Trenton 

LitUe SUvar 

Vlneland 

Bnglewood 

Plainfleld 

Teaneck Park 

West Bnd 

West New York 

Plainfleld 

Hopewell 

Rutherford 

Hopewell 

Rutharf ord 

Newton , 

Paterson 

Cape May Court House, 



Haokettstown 

W. Bnglewood 

Barlelgh Heights. Md. 

Flemington 

Haokettstown 

Woodbury 



D»to 

Mar. 20. 

May 21. 

June 7. 

June 17. 

June 26. 

July 7. 

Sept e. 

Oct. 19. 

May 26. 

July 20. 



Nov. 
Apr. 
Oct. 
Feb. 
June 
June 
June 
Mar. 
May 
May 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
July 
July 
July 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Aug. 
June 

Jan. 
Jan. 
Mar. 
May 

June 
June 
Dec 
June 
July 
July 
Apr. 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
July 
July 
July 
July 
July 
June 
May 
June 
Oct 



16, '16. 
20. 

20. 'll. 
26. 

4. 
16. 
20. 
16. 
20. 
22. 
17. 

6. 

f. 

t. 

8. 

t. 

9. 
12. 
20. 
2L 
26. 
26. 
22. 
29. 
80. 

6. 

8. 
10. 
26. 

24. 
28. 
88. 

24. 
li. 
26. 
27. '10. 

8. 

6. 
24. 

9. 
16. 
19. 
88. 
86. 
88. 
88. 

8. 

8. 

4. 

8. 
29. 
It 
88. 

1 
88. 



Sept It 
Jan. 14. 
Apr. 18. 
Sept It 
Sept 86. 
July i. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



433 



L.BP1DOPTBRA 



Ijatln Name 
Ampelophava myron Cram. 



Archtpa sp 

BembMda marglnata Harr. 
Callosamla promethea Dra. 



Carpocapaa pomonella Linn 



CltlMronla regalia Fab . . . 
Datana inteserrlma G. & 



minlatra Dm. 



Diacrlala Tirginlca Fab . . . 
Dlaphania nltidalla Cram. 



«Draaterla erechtea Cram . . . 
Dryocampa rubicunda Fab. 
Bnarmonia prunivora Walsh 



Oallerla melonella Unn. 
Halisldota sp 



tessellaris a & A 



Harrisina amerlcana Harr. 
Hellothis obsoleta Fab 



Hemerocampa leucostlgma 



& A. 



Hyphantrla cvnea Dru 

Letilla coccidlTora Comst.. 
Laspeyresla molesta Busck. . 

Lepidoptera 

Leucanla nnipuncta Haw . . . 

Limacodidse 

Malacosoma amerlcana Fab. 



Common Name 
Grapevine hog-caterplll 

ar 

Leaf roller 

Raspberry root-borer. . 
Promethea moth 

Codling moth 

Hickory homed devil. 
Black walnut caterpillar 

Yellow necked 

caterpillar 

Moth 

Pickle worm 

Moth '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 

Maple worm 

Lesser apple worm . . . 

Bee Moth 

Moth 

Pale tussock moth . . . 

Grape leaf skeletonixer 
Corn ear worm 

White marked tussock 
moth 



Fall web worm 

Oriental peach moth 

Caterpillar 

« 

Moth !!!!!!!!! 

Caterpillar 

Moth '/.'.'.'..'.'.'. 

Caterpillar 

Army worm 

Caterpillar 

Tent caterpillar 



Locality 

Atlantic City 

Tonally 

Cape May 

Frwiaau 

Allmuchy 

Tonxs Rlrer 

Geneva 

New York City 

Glen Ridge 

Cream Ridge 

Pittstown 

Delaware 

Flemington 

Camden 

Metuchen 

Monmouth Junction.... 

Freehold 

BUsabeth 

Bemardsvllle 

Plalnfleld 

Flemington 

Atlanta. Ga 

Milwaukee. Wis 

Flemington 

Palmyra 

Toms River 

Toms River 

Springfield 

New York City 

Bemardsvllle 

Titusvllle 

B. Rutherford 

Newton 

Woodstown 

Toms River 

New Brunswick 

Jersey City 

Asbury Park 

Mt Holly 

PhfTlipsburg 

Newark 

Elizabeth 

Chatham 

B. Rutherford 

Rleglesvllle 

Bemardsvllle 

N. Paterson 

Springfleld 

Brooklyn, N. Y 

Newark 

Wllliamstown 

New Brunswick 

Bloomfleld 

MerchantviUe 

Williamstown 

Perth Amboy 

Trenton 

Newark 

N. Montclair 

Paterson 

Great Meadows 

Cape May Court House. 

Glbbsboro 

Moorestown 

Pompton Plains 

Morristown 

Rldgewood 

Green Village 

Allendale 

Elizabeth 



Date 



Jan. 

Mar. 

Dec. 

Apr. 

Mar. 

Oct 

Nov. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

Apr. 

May 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Aug. 

May 

Aug. 

A«g. 

Aug. 
May 
May 

Sept. 

May 

July 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Apr. 

June 

Feb. 

July 

July 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

July 

Aug. 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

May 

June 

June 

July 

June 

July 

Aug. 

Aug. 

June 

Aug. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

Apr. 

May 

July 



24. 
30. 
18. 
16. 

8. 
31. 
11. 
22. 
12. 
14. 
26. 
26. 
28. 
11. 
19. 
28. 

31 
13. 

6. 
SO. 
88. 

IS. 
24. 
28. 
22. 
31. 

1. 

1. 
S3. 
18. 
IS. 
28. 

6. 

4. 
20. 

3. 
80. 
27. 

27. 
17. 
23. 
23. 

4. 
10. 

t. 
13. 
27. 
24. 
29. 
28, 
16. 
18. 
10. 
16. 
23. 
24. 
26. 
27. 

8. 
11. 

4. 
11. 
84. 
13. 
21. 
22. 

2. 
It. 

3. 
27. 



10. 
16. 
16. 
16. 



16. 
16. 
If. 



16. 



Ag28 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



434 



NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



UBPIDOPTBRA— Continued 



LAtln Name 
Mellttia satyrlnlformla Hbn. 



Melalopha Inoluaa 
Noctuide Bp 

•• «« 

•« «« 

•« *• 

Ozyptilttfl pertaoelldactylus 

Fitoh 



Papalpema nltela On 

Perldroma savcia Hbn 

Phalonla ruUlana Hbn 

Phlegethontius sexta Johnn.. 
Phobetron pltbeoium 8. & A. 
Plerls rapa Linn 



Plodia interpnnctella Hbn. 
PolycbroaU viteana Clem.. 



Samla oeoropla Linn 

Sanninoidea exiUoea Say. 



Scbisura concinna 8. & A... 

Beslida sp 

Slbine stlmnlea Clem 

SUotroffa cerealella oVit 

«« «• *',,,.. 

«• «« «« 

«« •« *« 

Sphecodlna abbottil Swains.. 

Sphlnffld» 

Thyrldopteryx ephemernformiB 
Steph. 



Common Name 
SQuaah vine borer 


Locality 
Keyport 


Da 
Nor. 
May 

Apr. 
Aug. 
Jan. 
Oct, 
June 
June 
June 
July 
July 
July 

June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
Aug. 
Feb. 
June 
Aug. 
Aug; 
May 
Aug. 
June 
Aug. 
July 
Sept 
Sept. 
Mar. 
Sept 
Jan. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
D^ 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
May 
May 
May 
May 
June 
June 
June 
July 
Aug. 
Sept 
Sept 
Sept 
Oct 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Sept 

Sept 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Oct 

July 

July 

Jan. 
F^ 
Apr. 
Apr. 
July 
Aug. 
Aug. 


to 
19. 'It 




Hackensack . . , , 


IS. 


•« «• t« 


Qlen Ridge 


2L 


«« «• «< 


Elisabeth 


IS. 


Poplar t«nt mAJcAr 


Atlantic City 


ss. 


Cnt wor 
«< «« 
«« «« 
«« (« 
•« «« 
i» «« 
«• •« 

Grape pli_ 


m 


New York aty 

Riverton 


4. 






Bound Brook 


1. 




Washington ........ 


11 




Stelton 


i. 




Paterson 


IS. 




Orange 


St. 


am moth 


HMmmIt ............ ^ ^ 


L 




Caldwell 


9. 


«« ** •« 


Red Bank 


IL 


Stalk bo 
Variegate 


•* •« 

rer 


Hackensack 

Cranford 

New Brunswick 

Wortendyke 


11. 

1«. 

7. 


d ent worm . . 


11. 




Mt Holly 


L 


Soutbem 

Hag mol 

Cabbage 

•• 

«• 


tobacco worm 
.h 


Passaic 

Westfleld 


IS. 
S4. 


worm 


Bngllshtown 


1 


•« 


Passaic 


IS. 


«« 
•« 


New Brunswick 

Passaic . . .... 


IS. 
T. 


«« «• 


R&hway 


17. 


«« «« 
Indian meal moth. . 


Highland Park 

Hackettatown 


27. 
SS. 


Qrape berry moth 


Philadelphia. Pa 

Camden .......... 


SS. 
28. 


Ceoropia 
Peach tr 


moth .• 


B. Rutherford 


26. 


ee borer 


Burlington 


7, '11 




• *' . . . 

« •« 

• •• 

• «« 

• •• 

• *' • .... I 
« •« 

« •• 


Bordentown 


S, '11 


«( 


Rutherford 


2S. '11 


« 


W. Bnglewood 


2S. '11 


(« 


Oibbsboro 


IS. 


«« 


W. Bnglewood 


14. 


tt 


Convent 


SS. 


«< 


Morristown 


21. 


«• 


Plainfleld 


4. 


<t 


Bngllshtown 


21. 


t< 


Colllngswood 


2L 


(4 


Westfleld 


21 


M 


Hawthorne 


28. 


«« 


Washington . .* 


IS. 


«• 
«• 


Bnglewood 

S. Orange 

New York City 

Brooklyn 


SS. 
St 
S4. 

11. 


„ 


Camden 

B. Rutherford 


It 
19. 


l« i 


Camden 


ik 


«« « 


BlberoA 


s. 


Red hvmped apple 

caterpillar 
Clear winged moth 


Sussex 

MerchantTille 


14. 
11 


Saddle back caterpillar 
«« «« «« 

Angovmola grain moth 


Trenton 

Arlington 


11 
IS. 

s. 


Beverly 


1 


«• «« «« 


Buena 


S7. 


«• 
Sphinx m 

" Of 

Bag won 
«« •« 
«« «« 

«« M 
•« M 


M «« 

oth 


Philadelphia, Pa 

Stockton 


1 
S4. 


kterpUlar 

n. 


Hackensack a 


SI 


Oibbsboro 


S4. 




Moorestown 


1. 




Freneau 


11 




Salem 


14. 




Haddottfleld 

Mullca Hill 


1 
7. 




Philadelphia, Pa 


7. 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



43S 



LBPIDOPTBRA— Continued 



Latin, Name 

Thyridopteryx ephemereformls 

Steph. 



TortrioidflB 

Apic melllfera Lilnn... 



Apt* sp 

Caliroa cerasi !• 

Camponotue heronleanus 

pennaylvanlcua Dea. 
Camponotua herculeanua 

pennalyvanicuB DeO. 
Diaatrophna cnacutttfonnla 

Harr 
Formlcldae ap 



lohnemnonldte 

laoeoma orchideamm Westw.. 



Uonomorimn pharaonls Linn.. 

M «« «« 

Pteronna rlbeall Scop 

Vespa crabro Idnn 

Ctenooephalaa canla Curt 

Pulez irrltana Unn 

Aeidia auaTls Loaw 

*« •• •« 

•• •« «« 

AgTomyaa sp 

ChlronomidsB ap 

Cttllclda Bp 



Common Name 
Baff worm 

M «• 

«« «• 

«« «« 

«• «« 

«« •« 

M •« 

Leaf roller 

Honey bee 



Beet 

Poplar aluff 

Carpenter ant... 
/ 

Cane call 

Ants 

«« 

«• 
«« 
«« 

«« 

Ichneumon fly.. 
Cattleya fly 

Red ants 

Cicada kiUer!.'.' 
European hornet 
«• «« 

SIplMHUI 

Cat and dog flea 

•• «« «« «« 
Human flea 

M «• 

«• «• 

Diptera 

ICanrot in Bng. walnut 
huaks 



Leaf miner 

Midffa 

Moaqulto . 



Locality 

Bordentown 

Bordentown 

AtlanUc Highlands . . . 
Montolair Helffhta. . . . 

Vlneland 

Paterson 

Prinoeton 

Mt. Bphriam 

N. Pateraon 

Hasbrouck Heights.... 

B. Orange 

Caldwell 

New York City 

Salem 

Brooklyn , 

Washington 

Vlneland 

Demarest 

Singac 

Columbua 

Campgaw 

Mahwah 

Rockaway 

Andover 

Plalnfleld 

Metnchen 

Maple Shade 

Atlantic City 

MerchantvUle 

Boonton 

Asbury Park 

Plalnfleld 

Spring Lake 

Newark 

Callfon 

Orange 

Camden 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Long Branch 

Long Branch 

Plalnfleld 

Camden 

Convent 

Fall River, Mass 

Old Bridge 

Sewell 

Broadway 

Princeton 

Monmouth Junction... 

Bridgeton 

Forked River 

Belleville 

Bordentown 

Bridgeton 

Woodbine 

Bridgeton 

Hartford 

Bridgeton 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Rye Beach, N, B 

Boston, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Vancouver, B. C 

Arlington. Mass 

Rio Grande 

MillvUle 



Date 



Aug. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Dec. 

Deo. 

Jan. 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

May 

June 

June 

June 

July 



17. 
SL 
8S. 

28. 

6. 
11. 
18. 

6. 
27. 

11. 'If. 
16. 'If. 

2, 

L 
10. 
14. 
14. 
16. 
22. 
22. 
28. 
28. 
28. 
SO. 
28. 



Apr. 12. 

Oct. 19. 

May 9. 

Mar. 8. 

Apr. 22. 

May 20. 

June 1. 

June 2. 
June 
June 
June 
June 

June 19. 

June 20. 

June 27. 

July 6. 

July 10. 

Aug. 2. 

Feb. 7. 

Jan. 11. 

Sept. 11. 

Sept. 26. 

Aug. 2. 

Oct. 24. 

Oct. 28. 



2. 

4. 
4. 
4. 



June 
July 
Sept. 
Apr. 
June 
July 



Jan. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Nov. 



Jan, 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Mar. 



26. 
18. 
8. 
24. 
20. 
18. 



8. 

2. 
10. 
14, 'If. 



IS. 
16. 

1. 
27. 

6. 
12. 



Digitized by VjOO' 



gle 



436 



NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



DIPTSRA— Continued 



liatin Name 
Culicide sp 

Dlarthronomyia hypogna 

H. Lw. 



BristalU tenax L 

Laeioptera vltls O. 8 

Ifansonla perturbana 

MonarthropalpuB buxi Lab 

Mnsca domestica Linn 

•t •• «• 

Peffomyia vlclna .Llntn 

Phorbla braaslce Bouche 

cepamm Melff 

fUBOlceps Zett 

Phytoniza aQullegle Hardy. . 
chry'&nthemi 

Kowarz 

Psychoda sp 

Phagoletla pomonella Walsh 

Solara multiseta Felt 

Tipniidae ep 



Common Name 
Moequito 



Chrysanthemum midge. 



Drone fly 

Potato gall on grape . . 

Irritating mosqblto . . . 
Boxwood leaf miner... 
House fly 

Spinnach leaf miner . . 
Cabbage maggot 

Onion maggot 

Seed com maggot 

Columbine leaf -miner.. 
Chrysanthemum leaf- 
miner 

Moth fly 

Apple maggot 

Mushroom fty 

Crane fly 



Locality 
Llvermore» Me.... 

Dayton. O 

Rahway 

Providence, R. I.. 

Rahway 

Port Tatia, N. D. 

Lewes, Del 

Morsemere 

Baltimore, Md.... 

Chatham 

Browns Mills. . . . 

Chatham 

New York City... 

Mlddletown 

Jersey City 

Rldgewood 

Lawrence 

Newark 



Warren Point 

New Brunswick 

Philadelphia, Pa 

New Brunswick 

Rutherford 

Secane, Pa 

Cape May Court House . 

Passaic 

Mendham 

Middietown 

Rumson 

Elizabeth 

Maplewood 

Montclalr 

Boonton 

New Egypt 

New Brunswick 

Bay Head 

MiUviUe 

Elizabeth 

Harlingen 

Brielle 

Llnwdbd 

Old Bridge 

Brldgeton 

Lumberton . . . 

Keyport 

Newton 

Salem 



Date 
Mar. It. 
Mar. 20. 
Apr. 9. 
Apr. 11. 
Apr. If. 
May 1. 
May If. 
May SI. 
May SS. 
June 18. 
June SI. 
June 25. 
June 30. 
July 2. 
July 10. 
July 12. 
July 14. 
Cfct. 10. 



Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 
May 
May 
Oct, 
June 
June 
July 
Jan. 
May 
May 
July 
Aug. 
May 
June 
July 
July 
July 
Jan. 
Apr. 
June 
June 
Dec 
May 
Juns 
June 
June 



12. 
18. 
19. 
19. 

1. 
21. 
22. 
21. 
24. 

9. 
11. 
22. 
28. 
11. 

8. 

8. 
19. 

2. 
28. 
30. 
SO. 
28. 

8. 
11. 

18. '11. 
20. 
20. 
29. 

2. 



Atlantic City ' July 23. 

Asbury Park \ Aug. 21. 

Trenton Oct 8. 

Toms River 1 Oct 21. "K. 

Sea Bright : Sept 14. 

Leonia | Oct 8. 

Wyoming June 18. 



INSECTS OF THE YEAR 

This year has been especially marked by a widespread outbreak of 
plant lice on fruit and vegetables, an unusual activity of the plum 
curcuHo, the potato flea beetle, cabbage worms, June bugs, and rose 
bug, and various species of tussock moths. In greenhouses the 
chrysanthemum midge and the rose Typophorns have claimed at- 
tention. Among foreign species which have gained a foothold the 



Digiti 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 437 

recognizedly injurious Japanese beetle (Popilia japonica) and a bay 
tree infesting psyllid are noteworthy, especially the former. No 
year in the writer's experience has better illustrated the need for 
that sort of insect scouting which will give a thorough fore-knowl- 
edge of insect outbreaks as an essential step in adequately protect- 
ing crops from injury. 

Orchard Plant Lice 

Before the opening of spring the presence of large numbers of 
shining blatk eggs on the twigs and smaller -branches of the apple 
orchards in many parts of the state clearly indicated that damage 
by orchard plant lice was likely to occur. The season opened late 
;ind remained cold. When the lice hatched from the eggs they 
thrived mightily and soon accomplished large damage. 

Three species were concerned — the green apple aphis, the rosy 
apple aphis, and the oat aphis. Although the apple growers were 
warned of the danger many failed to get a control and suffered 
large damage. It is a pleasure, however, to say that all who sprayed 
properly obtained control of the insects and suffered no serious 
harm. 

The oat aphis has already begun to return to the trees in large 
numbers and if the rosy comes back later, the outlook for trouble 
next year will be excellent. 

Plum Curculio 

The damage done this year by this insect was at once the most 
widespread and locally the most severe of the past five seasons. 
Orchards, the crops of which normally are not seriously troubled, 
have this year been badly damaged. 

The attack seems to have come between the blossom-fall and the 
ten-days-after-blossom- fall spraying, at the time when the former 
had been practically eliminated _by the washing of the rains and the 
growth of the fruit. Very little harm was done following the appli- 
cation of the latter spraying. In orchards standing near woodlands 
or plantings interspersed with old stumps or carpeted with grass, 
the damage was particularly severe. 

Clean culture in the forepart of the season followed by a cover 
crop not producing a dense sod, the removal of stumps and tfie 



Digiti 



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438 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

cleaning out of overgrown fence rows will rob the beetles of their 
wintering quarters and reduce the number which must be fought 
If followed by that type of spraying which will preserve the coating 
practically intact for the first month after the blossoms fall, dam- 
age by this insect, even under unfavorable conditions, will be 
greatly reduced if not rendered negligible. It seems reasonably 
certain that normally the regular and efficient spraying of the apple 
orchard will year by year cut down the amount of curculio injury 
to a point where it will be entirely negligible. 

This season's experience most conclusively shows, however, that 
the application of merely the sprays listed in the spra)ring schedule 
may permit an unusual abundance of curculio to be followed by 
a failure to obtain satisfactory protection. 

Potato Flea Beetle 

This and other species of flea bettles have this season been ex- 
tremely abundant. Appreciation of the damage which they do ap- 
pears to be so slight among the growers that little effort has been 
made to control them. 

Cabbage Worms 

Th^ caterpillars (principally of the imported cabbage worm) have 
been so unusually abundant this season that the cabbage crop has 
been considerably damaged. Here again failure to act against the 
worms has been followed by considerable harm. 

June Bugs 

This year has witnessed the largest number of these big, blunder- 
ing, night-flying insects for several years. Tender foliage in the 
tops of poplar and oak trees has been badly eaten. Small trees and 
shrubs have in some places suffered severely. Rose bushes have 
been badly eaten. The work was done entirely at night and the 
grower usually did not discover the marauder. 

The June bug is the parent of the white grub. Eggs have been 
laid in grass lands. If weather, or natural enemies do not greatly 
reduce the brood thus started, we may expect large damage next 
year and the year after to lawns, golf greens and crops planted on 
land this year in timothy, blue-grass and other grass sod. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 439 

Rose Bug 

The rose bug appeared this year with more than its usual severity. 
The prevention of its work in apple orchards in 1915 and 1916 by 
the prompt application of self-boiled lime-sulfur has this year 
teen extended to grape, peach and cherry with satisfactory results. 

Vegetable Plant Lice 

Potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, cabbages, cauUflower, beans, pep- 
pers and other vegetable crops were this year very seriously and in 
5ome cases mortally damaged by various species of plant lice*. 

In the latter part of June it became evident from the number of 
winged lice found on various vegetables that an outbreak was prob- 
able. By the tenth of July large damage had been done to potatoes 
ihroughout the northern half of the state. Later at certain points 
in South Jersey similar but less serious damage was done. 

Wherever a mixture composed of i part of 40 per cent nicotine to 
500 parts of water to which soap was added at the rate of 2 potinds 
to 50 gallons of soft water, or 3 to 4 pounds to the same quantity of 
hard water, was applied in §uch a fashion as to wet thoroughly all 
the lice, they were destroyed and the damage promptly checked. 

Great difficulty in making satisfactory applications of this mix- 
ture was experienced in some instances, owing to the fact that 
potatoes had met in the row when this insect was discovered, thus 
rendering treatments with wheeled machinery impracticable, and 
owing to the great scarcity of adequate spraying machinery. 

Tussock Moths 

Three species of tussock moths have attacked the foliage of elm, 
maple and other shade trees during the past season. While thev 
have not done much real damage because the buds were well formed 
before any considerable defoliation took place, they have excited 1 
great deal of alarm. 

The white marked species {Hemerocampa leucastigma S. & A.), 
while more abundant during the forepart of the season did little 
harm at that time. On the twenty-first of July the writer saw 

*The principal species upon cabbage, potatoes, tomatoes and eggplant 
was the green peach aphis (Myzus persicae Sulz). The species upon 
beans were (Myzus lycopersieae and AptUa psetuiobraasieae Davis). 



Digiti 



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440 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

the greatest abundance of both the cocoons and eggs masses on the 
maple trees in the city of Trenton. The partial second brood ap- 
peared in only small numbers. 

The hickory tussock moth (Halisidota caryae Harr.) and the 
pale tussock caterpillar (Halisidota tessellaris S. & A.) appeared 
in large numbers during the last days of August and continued feed- 
ing until the first of October. 

Chrysanthemum Midge 
During the last of March a prominent florist of Irvington called 
our attention to the work of this insect (Diarthronomyia hypogcp 
H. Lw.) upon chrysanthemums. The examination, which was 
promptly made, indicated that the infestation had just become estab- 
lished. This fact when taken with the well-known ability of the 
species to do large damage led us to advise the prompt destruction 
of all injured plants. 

During the investigations of this problem it became clear that 
the insect was more widely distributed than had been thought. A 
letter of inquiry which was sent out for the purpose gave the fol- 
lowing distribution: — Madison, Morris County; Rutherford and 
Warren Point, Bergen County ; North Bergen, Hudson County, and 
New Brunswick, Middlesex County, in New Jersey, and Phila- 
delphia in Pennsylvania. 

The Rose Typophorus 
jMLJ^SSJls^Typophorus exc avatm^Jm) 

iil- 
md 
3rk 
is 
jms 



The species of Rose Typophorus referred to on this page should 
read: 



Typophorus Canellus Fab., var. Quadrinotatus Say. 

ow, 
*lc 
mic 

acid gas it almost disappeared, but during October it again became 

troublesome. 

Recently Introduced Foreign Insects 

Perhaps the most important of this year's developments is the find- 
ing of a serious infestation of the Japanese Popilia {PopHia 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 441 

japonica) in Burlington County. This insect, which reminds one in 
its feeding habits of the rose-bug, has a long list of fdod plants 
including grape, cherry, roses, Virginia creeper, elder, Crataegus, 
althea, smartweed, tear thumb, evening primrose, ragweed, velvet 
leaf and jewel weed. It seems to have a peference for smartweed, 
grape, cherry, and rose. In Japan it is recorded as an enemy of 
string beans, grapes, peas, and peanuts. The damage is done pri- 
marily by the adult beetle. 

The beetles begin emerging in the latter part of June and remain 
on the wing into September. Eggs are laid in the soil above which 
the beetles are feeding. The grubs hatch and' live in the soil 
throughout the rest of the summer, the following winter, and as 
much of the following summer as is necessary to reach maturity. 

The present infestation covers an area in a scattering fashion of 
several square miles. The heavy infestation is confined to an 
area about a half-mile square. 

It is expected that the State Department of Agriculture will next 
season undertake a campaign for the eradication of this species. 

A European psyllid known as Triosa alacris was introduced into 
New Jersey on imported stock, apparently from Belgium, several 
years ago. It attacks the foliage of bay both under glass and in 
the open. Its activity causes the leaves to curl, discolor and blister. 
When a curled leaf is opened the small lice are found within covered 
by a white waxy secretion. The insect which belongs to the sucking 
group, inserts its beak through the rind and withdraws the sap un- 
til the trees have a sickly appearance. 

Winter is passed in the bay trees as an adult and the species be- 
lomes active when the trees are removed from cold storage and 
placed outside. Eggs are laid on the under-sides of the leaves near 
the margin. There are two broods out-of-doors during the summer 
reason. 

Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas or tobacco during winter 
has been found to destroy the species. 

The infestation of the European mole cricket (Gryllotalpa 
gryllotalpa) described in the Annual Report for 1915 is still present, 
but no spread has taken place nor have any new infestations been 
discovered. The owners of the land on which this infestation 
occurs are fighting the insect by hunting out and destroying the 
nests during June and July. 



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442 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Insect Scouting 

Perhaps the most important factor in furnishing timely in- 
formation to growers on the i;nethods of controlling insects is a 
thorough knowledge of the activities of all injurious species at all 
times of the year. It has been the writer's experience that nearly 
every species exhibits an undue number of healthy representatives 
for some time previous to the doing of sufficient damage to consti- 
tute an outbreak. 

With foreknowledge it would be practicable to draw the growers' 
attention to impending danger in time to permit the taking of 
reasonably adequate measures of prevention. This foreknowledge 
of insect outbreaks can be had only through a system of scouting 
which covers all parts of the state with sufficient frequency to keep 
track of the status of all seriously injurious species. 

CLIMATE AND INSECT INVESTIGATIONS 

This investigation deals with the problem of measuring the effect 
of climate upon the life and seasonal cycles of injurious insects 
and their natural enemies. It is an attempt to attack the problem 
from the standpoint of measuring the effect of specific climatic fac- 
tors such as temperature, moisture, light, etc. 

During the present season our attention has been devoted to: (i) 
ihe effect of atmospheric moisture upon the activity of the 
angoumois grain moth or "fly weevil," one of the most serious of 
the insects attacking stored grains; and (2) further tests of the 
effect of atmospheric humidity on the activity of the bean weevil. 

Just at present our attention is centered upon the problem of 
measuring the effect of atmospheric moisture upon the grain-in- 
festing species. 

These factors of climate in their extremes are powerful in- 
secticides and a study of them is not only certain to teach us how to 
forecast the effect of weather conditions and thus to know when to 
strike a species that may soon develop into a serious pest, but will 
yield new specific methods of controlling many of the species worked 
with. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



443 



Atmospheric Humidity and the Angoumois Grain Moth 

A set of experiments was arranged to determine the effect of 
atmospheric humidity upon the rate of metabolism of the angoumois 
grain moth. Five flasks were selected. In each a section of a 
3'ellow flint com ear (cob and all) was placed. Ten moths were 
introduced into each flask. 

One was set aside as a check. Each of the other four was placed 
in an incubator chamber held constantly at 8o°F. and quite dark 
except for little flashes now and then from the thermostat and pilot 
lights and the short periods during which the doors were open to 
permit examinations. Each flask by means of its glass inlet and 
outlet tubes is connected with an air line, through which an air 
current of 8o**F. and of a specified moisture content travels at the 
rate of about a Uter in ten minutes. The insects are left under 
these conditions until the entire life cycle has been completed. 

Table i 

Effect Upon Amount of Atmospheric Moisture on the 
Angoumois Grain Moth 



Chamber 
number 



Atmoepherio 
moiature 
per cent 



Date of 

maximum 

death 



Date of 
maximum 
emerirence 



Lengrth of 

life cycle 

in days 



Number 
of indi- 
viduals 

produced 



Remarks 



T^ 



1 
2 

3 

4 
Check 



Less than 1 

100 

78 

24 



8/24. '17 
8/28, '17 
8/24, '17 
8/24, '17 
8/23, '17 




4/26 
4/28 






88 
85 





nothing out 6/18. 

I I 





1 

21 



1917 



Fungi active 



All alive 



The rate of metabolism in the life cycle of the angoumois grain 
moth appears to increase with the moisture, being most rapid at 
ICO per cent (table i). Owing to the fact that fungi attack and 
destroy the insect at such high moistures, the optimum moisture 
must be specified as the highest percentage which will not encour- 
age the heavy growth of fungi. 

It is alsQ clear that this insect,, like the bean weevil, is unable to 
withstand low atmospheric moisture. 



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444 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

A Further Test of the Effect of Atmospheric Moisture Upon the 

Bean Weevil 

The fact that the machines were employed on a study of the 
angoumois grain moth was taken advantage of to run another ex- 
periment on the effect of atmospheric moisture upon the rate of 
metabolism in the bean weevil. 



Table 2 
Effect of Amount of Atmospheric Moisture on the Bean Weevil 



Chamber 
number 



1 
2 
3 
4 
Check 



Atmospheric 
moiature 
per cent 



Lesfl than 1 
100 
73 
24* 



D«te of 

maximum 

death 



3/25, '17 

8/27, '17 

8/27, '17 

8/26. '17 

8/2«, '17 



Date of 
maximum 
emerirence 



4/28 

4/26 

6/8 



Len^h of 

life cycle 

In days 




27 
29 
88 



Number 
of indi- 
viduals 
produced 





168 

209 

IS 



not out 6/18. 1917 

I l_ 



Renuirks 



A consider- 
able amount 
of funfftts 



All alire 



Thus again we see that the rate of metabolism in the bean weevil 
life cycle increases as the moisture, and that the optimum lies in 
the highest per cent of moisture that will not encourage heavy 
growth of fungi (table 2). 

The question of the effect of atmospheric moisture upon the life 
cycle is important from the standpoint of the use of low atmospheric 
moistures as an insecticide. While the machines were running a 
set of experiments bearing upon this point were carried out. 

Enough small white beans were placed in each of twelve flasks 
to cover the bottom evenly. Twenty-five bean weevils were placed 
in each flask. The charged flasks were divided into three lots — ^the 
first to be placed under the controlled conditions at once, the second 
to be placed only after the eggs had hatched and the larvae pene- 
trated the beans and the third to be introduced only after the pupal 
stage had begun. 

*A break occurred in this line giving for a short period a higher per 
cent of humidity. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



445 



Table 3 

Effect of Atmosphere Moisture on Different Stages of the 

Bean Weevil 



Staffe of 


Date when 
placed In 
incubator 


Number Bhnerffinff in Chamber 




insect when 
placed in 
incubator 


Less than ^^- * 


No. 3 

73 

per cent 


No. 4 
24 

percent* 


Remarks 


l^arva 
Papa 


3/13, 1917 
8/20, 1917 
4/17. 1917 





I 
■ 


98 

17 

1 


42 
13 
17 


3 
6 

10 


Some funffua 
on No. 2 

Some funffua 
on No. 2 

Covered with 
runiri in No. 2 



*A break in the air line running through chamber No. 4 and a 
consequent rise in the relative humidity will serve to explain ^ the ability 
of the egg stage to survive the apparently prohibitively dry air. 

The results as set forth in table 3 conclusively indicate that low 
atmospheric humidity most strongly affects the eggs, then the larvae, 
and finally the pupae. 



Conclusions 

The results set forth above when taken with those described in 
the 1 91 6 report show clearly: 

( 1 ) That for at least two widely divergent species of the stored 
grain insect group — one a beetle and the other a moth — increase in 
atmospheric humidity means increase in speed of metabolism as 
measured by length of life cycle. 

(2) That the optimum per cent of atmospheric humidity is the 
Inghest which will not encourage a heavy growth of fungi. 

(3) That 100 per cent atmospheric humidity destroys by en- 
couraging the growth of fungi and that low atmospheric moisture 
destroys directly — probably by the abstraction of water. 

(4) That while the egg stage of the bean weevil, at least, is most 
sensitive to the effect of low atmospheric humidity, other stages 
are unfavorably affected. 

(5) That low atmospheric moisture might be developed into an 
efficient insiecticide for certain species of stored grain insects. 



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446 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

ORCHARD INSECT INVESTIGATIONS 

Pear Psylla 

The study of pear psylla control has been continued and increased 
in scope because of the contradictory results which the growers re- 
ported. Three orchards, each of which was a representative of its 
section of the state, were included. The orchard of Mr. W. H. 
Blackwell in the Delaware River Valley near Titusville, was taken 
to represent the northern portion of the state; the orchard of Mr. 
Lester Collins near Merchantville for the central rich loam region; 
and the orchard of Mr. W. H. Ellis near Vineland for the southern 
part. The two southern plantings consisted mainly of the Kieflfer 
variety, while the northern one was composed principally of Bart- 
lett 

Blackwell Orchard. — ^This orchard; consisting of about two 
acres of Bartlett trees, most of which are 25 feet high, has been 
very seriously troubled by psylla for several years. In the season 
of 1916, owing perhaps to application of the winter-strength lime- 
sulfur at too early a date, the psylla was not successfully controlled, 
and the fruit was considerably stained. 

In 1917 it proved impracticable either to scrape the trees or to 
give them a winter treatment. When the flower buds were ready 
to open, the trees were thoroughly sprayed with commercial lime- 
i-ulfur (i to 9). 

In the course of an examination of the orchard on May 2, a 
very few psylla could be found on about one tree in ten. On this 
date the codling moth spray was being applied and "Black-leaf 40" 
at the rate of i to 500 was included. On July 30 a light infestation 
of pear psylla was found on the trees nearest the house. On 
October 25, all the trees, especially those near the house, had lost 
the foliage from the lower limbs and the psylla was very abundant 

Mr. Blackwell reports that the heavy infestation developed the 
last of August, almost coincidently with picking time, but that fniit 
was not blemished. 

Ellis Orchard.— Although Mr. Ellis has three blocks of Kicffcr 
pear the psylla has been troublesome only in the one nearest 
the house. There more or less damage has been experienced 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 447 

annually for some years. In 1917 the entomologist looked over 
this orchard and recommended both winter and spring treatment. 
The application of the former proved impracticable. Winter- 
strength lime-sulfur was applied thoroughly just as the flower buds 
were ready to open. About two weeks later the trees were again 
sprayed thoroughly with a mixture of nicotine (^ pint of "Black- 
leaf 40"), soap (2 lbs.) and water (50 gal.) . 

On July 31 only a very light infestation could be found in the 
orchard nearest the house. On October 4 the orchard nearest the 
house showed a decided infestation on the leaves. The fruit showed 
only very slight staining. On November i, adult psylla and 
nymphs about to mature were found on the trees, but all the young 
forms had disappeared. 

Collins Orchard. — ^This planting, consisting of more than 100 
acres, includes several varieties, the principal one of which is 
Ki^er. With a few exceptions the Kieflfer is the crop producer 
and the other varieties are interplanted for the sake of cross fer- 
tilization. 

In this orchard a large block was scraped, winter-treated, and 
spring-treated; and a small block was spring-treated only. At the 
outset, the winter treatment was applied very incompletely but 
later more care was exercised. 

Before the blossoms opened psylla eggs were extremely abundant 
m all parts of the orchard but appeared in much greater numbers 
in those parts when the trees were large enough and dense enough 
to afford shade. 

On July 26 pear psylla was found to be abundant in this orchard. 
The portions of the orchard which received no winter treatment 
were the most badly infested. The scraped and sprayed blocks were 
the clearest. The difference between the trees of the unscraped 
blocks that were treated with both scalecide and commercial lime- 
iiulfur and those that were treated with commercial lime-sulfur 
alone was much greater than the diflference between the twice- 
sprayed unscraped trees and the twice-sprayed scraped trees. This 
indicates, as might be expected, that the dormant spraying with 
scalecide was much more important than the scraping. 

On October 5 an inspection of the entire orchard showed some 
infestation throughout. The scraped portion was only lightly 
infested. 



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448 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

At this time the fruif was reported to have been only slightly 
stained and much cleaner than last year. 

Discussion of Results. — In all orchards the treatments reduced 
the infestation. In the Blackwell and Ellis orchard the fruit was 
practically unstained but the foliage was marked. In the Collins 
orchard the fruit was somewhat stained. 

In the Blackwell and the Ellis orchards the psylla appears to have 
steadily increased in numbers from the last spraying until the close 
of the season. In the Collins orchard the psylla appears to have 
increased until late midsummer, then to have experienced a reduc- 
tion. 

In the Collins orchard ^here appeared a great number of new 
eggs and a considerable number of new nymphs within too short a 
period for them to have come from eggs which were laid previous 
to the treatments. Furthermore, some adults were found shortly 
after the spraying was completed. The small number of old 
nymphs found testifies to the egg destruction wrought by the spray, 
for previous to the treatment as many as two dozen eggs were 
found on a single fruit spur. 

With these facts in hand it is obvious that scraping and winter 
spraying left a large number of adults, that the spring treatments 
failed to destroy all of the eggs, and that a considerable number 
of adults were still alive and actively laying eggs after the blossoms 
fell. 

The facts gathered during this season's experience seem to show 
conclusively that while the number of psylla destroyed by the treat- 
ments at present recommended may sufficiently reduce the insect 
to prevent serious staining of the fruit, damage will in all probability 
be done to the foliage, and with a favorable season harm may be 
done to the fruit itself. 

In view of the susceptibility of the adult to the action of 40 per 
cent nicotine, it may be that spraying just before the blossoms open 
with commercial lime-sulfur (i to 9) to which nicotine has been 
added at the rate of ^ pint to 50 gallons would destroy both the 
eggs and hang-over adults, and thus give a degree of reduction 
which would constitute control. What effect this mixture would 
have on the opening blossoms cannot be told without further study. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 449 

Peach Tree Borer 

some experiments on the adults and eggs and other notes 

Alvah Peterson, Ph.D. 

During the summer of 1917 a study was made of the peach borer at 
the peach orchard of Mr. James M. Moon and Son near Clementon, N. 
J. This orchard has about eighty acres of seven to eight year old peach 
trees of different varieties which for several years has been heavily in- . 
fested with borers. The larger part of the orchard is on a light white 
sand soil and the smaller portion on a heavier gravel sand soil. 

The majority of experiments were conducted under two large screen 
eagles located in the white sand portion of the orchard where the in- 
festation was most severe. One all wire screen cage 12x12x9 feet 
was constructed about a peach tree while a second wire screen cage 
8x8x6 feet with a wooden roof covered with tarred paper was placed in 
an open space beside ttte large cage. These cages were built and put 
into position by Mr. J. B. Moon and Mr. Robert Schellenger to whom 
we are greatly indebted for their cooperation and interest in this in^ 
▼estigation. 

The problem of the peach borer was approached from several aspects^ 
but the principal lines of investigation were the feeding habits of the 
adult, the response of the female when ovipositing to various materials 
conunonly used in spraying and other chemicals, the susceptibility of 
the eggs to certain contact insecticides and other compounds and the 
effectiveness of Scott tree protectors and various spray mixtures in 
keeping the larvae out of the tree. The last-mentioned phase of the in- 
vestigation cannot be reported on at this time, for it will be necessary 
to wait until the spring boring (1918) has been completed in order to 
obtain the desired data. 

In respect to the food and feeding habits of the adult stage, it can be 
said that in all the experiments and observations made under cages or 
throughout the orchard and in nearby woods, no adult was ever seen to 
partake of or show any desire for food or liquid during its entire adult 
existence. Furthermore, it was repeatedly noted that males and females 
would emerge from pups in captivity and copulate, and then the female 
would proceed to deposit at least two-thirds the total number of eggs 
within her body. In one case 511 eggs were deposited, and during this 
period the female showed no desire for food or liquid of any description. 
In brief, these observations show clearly the improbability of develop- 
ing an attractive poison bait for the adult. 

From an anatomical point of view the mouth-parts of the adult and 
their connection with the oesophagus seems to be normal and compares 
favorably with similar structures in adults of other species of the 
Lepidoptera which are known to feed. This anatomical condition is 
readily seen in dissections made under a binocular microscope. 

The following chemicals, along with decayed peaches and fresh peach 
gyim, were used in a number of experiments to tempt the adults to 
Ag29 

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450 NEW JF^RSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

feed; com syrup ("Karo", diluted one-half) » cane sugar, honey, maltose, 
lactose, fructose, dextrine, acetic acid (25 per cent solution), ammonium 
hydroxide (weak solution), pyridine, alcohol (70 per cent solution), 
formic acid, clove oil and distilled water. All these materials were 
used in liquid form (when in dry state 1 gm. was dissolved in 10 cc. of 
water). Small Syracuse watch glasses were placed about the orchard 
near peach trees on inverted tin cans and filled with the various solu- 
tions. A careful watch was kept of these throughout a number of days, 
,from 10 a. m. to 4 p. m. when the adults were abundant The same 
materials were used under the 8x8x6 foot wire cage with numerous 
adults freely flying about in the cage. The various materials were 
also placed separately under small round cages, 6x9 inches, with one of 
more adults in each case. In all these experiments no adult peach borer 
ever visited any of the above liquids or showed any desire for them. 
In the course of the experiments, particularly those about the orchard, 
a number of insects visited the various solutions. Ants, flies and honey- 
bees came to the honey and some of the sugan while. male ants were 
also attracted by the fonnic acid solution. 

For the purpose of obtaining adults for study some 250 to 300 pupe 
were collected during the latter part of July and the first two weeks 
in August. These were buried one-half inch below the surface of moist 
sand held in discarded tin cans. There were 8 to 12 pnpie in each tin 
and the tin cans themselves were embedded to their full depth in the 
soil under the large covered cage. A small round wire cage, 6 inches 
in diameter, 9 inches high and opened at the bottom, was placed over 
each tin; consequently, the adults on emerging were in captivity. In 
only one or two cases did more than one adult emerge on the same day 
from pups in the same tin throughout the entire season. No definite 
records were kept on the exact length of the pupal stage, but, as a rule 
it took from three to four weeks to obtain adults from freshly con- 
structed pupal cases. Some adults were also secured from underneath 
mosquito netting which was placed in the form of a cone about the 
base of 100 trees that were heavily infested with larve. This method 
of securing adults required considerable work and a daily inspection of 
the trees, and on the whole was not as satisfactory as the foregoing 
method. 

During the past season the adults did not emerge in great abundance 
until the middle of August. A few were seen throughout the month of 
July, but they did not begin to appear in numbers until the last week 
In July, reaching their maximum emergence about the 15th of August 
and continuing to emerge until September 15, so far as known. All 
adults emerged during the early hours of the morning and, so far as 
observed, never came out after 9 a. m. Copulation between the male and 
female in all cases occurred between 9 a. m. and 1 p. m., but usually be- 
tween 11 a, m. and 12:30 p. m. The time intervsd between emergence 
and the appearance of a desire for' copulation varied considerably in 
different individuals and in the sexes. In one instance, less than an hoar 
elapsed before one female was copulating with a captive male, while in 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 451 

other cases 24 hours might elapse before the female showed any desire 
for copulation. From all observations it seems that females are ready 
to copulate sooner than males after emerging, at least it was noted 
that it was generally more difficult to induce males to copulate with 
females when both had emerged on the same day than if one introduced 
an older male or one caught at large. 

Some investigators have been unable to get males and females to 
copulate in captivity, but my experience has been quite contrary to this. 
Whenever a female emerged she was transfered to a small round wire 
screen cage, 6 inches in diameter, 9 inches high and open at the bottom, 
which stood on an inverted peach carrier with a clean manila paper be- 
neath the cage. Sometime between 9 a. m. and 12:80 p. m. the female 
would cling to the side of the cage, elevate and project the .tip end of 
her abdomen and generally within a few minutes, usually not over five, 
one or more males from the orchard would be hovering about the cage. 
In one case some fifty males were captured about one caged female in 
less than one hour. The males always approached a female ready for 
copulation agfainst the wind, which shows that the female emits some 
attractive odor. Also, in most instances the males would remain on the 
side of the cage opposite to that from which the wind was coming, even 
though the female might be on the other side. If one or more of the wild 
males were captured in a net and transferred to the cage in a large 
wide-mouthed bottle, copulation usually took place immediately. In a 
number of experiments reared males were used with as much success as 
to 90 minutes, varying with different individuals. 

A male in copulating hovers over the female and strikes at the 
elevated caudal end of her abdomen with the caudal end of his abdomen. 
Often the male may strike several times before he succeeds in clasping. 
When successful he reverses his position and has his head in the opposite 
direction to that of the female. Usually he continues to fly for a few 
seconds after clasping but he soon settles down and copulates for 45 
to 90 minutes, varying with different individuals. 

Copulation in this species resembles closely copulation as it occurs 
in the lesser peach borer, as described by Mr. King. A more detailed 
account might be g^iven concerning this act, but this has been carefully 
discussed by other workers. One i)oint, however, should be mentioned 
concerning the behavior of the male. Apparently the male is very much 
excited when copulating, for he may strike at another male or even 
copulate with a dead female. In one experiment an unfertilized female 
had been accidentally killed some 18 hours previous to the experiment 
and she was on the bottom of the cage on her dorsal aspect with the 
caudal portions of her abdomen projecting. Two recently emerged 
inactive males and one active unfertilized female ready for copulation 
^ were also present in the same small cage. Several males were hovering 
about the outside of the cage and it was noted that one of these struck 
repeatedly at a male within which was clinging to the side of the cage 
opposite to that from which the wind was blowing (the female was on the 
opposite side) . The wild male without the cage was caught in a net and 



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452 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



Plate 1: Peach Borer. 

Abbreviations: a — abdominal segment; b — ^normal depression on egg; 
c — exit or opening made by larva in hatching; e. s. — egg shell; h— 
head; r — ^resticulations or wax-like elevations on the egg; x — ^frag- 
ments of egg shell broken off by larva in hatching; y — ^hexagonal and 
variously shaped areas on egg; Ch — check branch; F — ^fish-ofl soap, 
1 gm. to 82 cc; LS— Imie-sulfur, 1-9; Sc— Scalecide, 1-15; Sk— "fly- 
skat", 1-10; T. C. — tin cans containing pupae in center between cul 
branches. 

1. Normal egg of peach borer, view of broad side. 

2. Normal egg of peach borer, view of narrow side. 

8. Collapsed or shrivelled egg of peach borer, view of broad side. 

4. Diagrammatic section through egg of peach borer, showing U-shaped 

position of larva before hatching. 

5. Hatched egg of peach borer, view of narrow side showing exit and 

egg fragments. 

6. Hatched egg of peach borer, view of broad side showing exit and er 

fragments. 

7. Diagram showing arrangement of peach branches (numerals) anc 

materials used (letters) in experiment started on August 21 a. 
continued until September 31 (see discussion of certain chemical^ 
and common sprays in female when ovipositing). 
Fio. 1. Map of New Jersey showing drainage and mosquito conditions 

at the end of 1916. 
Fio. 2. Map of the drainage established in Upper Township of Cape 

May County. 
Fig. 8. Map of the drainage established in Egg Harbor Township of 

Ocean County. 
Fio. d. — Statistics of Mosquito work in Essex County. 



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Plate I 




North 

Ch P I£ Ch L5 P Ch 

"5 27 7 28 TC 29 TI SO 15 31 T3 32 14 

5ic ^ 5c 5c ^ Sit 



Sc/15 

West, LS/16 

Sc/17 



T.C. T.C. T.C. T.C. T.C. 
T.C. T.C. T.C. T.C. T.C. 



16/Sc 

19/LS, East 
20/Sc 



Sk Ch P P Ch Sk 

I5r2?5 355 45T 555 655 7 

5H y IS 5E 13 y 5h 

South 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 453 

placed in the cage. After flying about for a few seconds, he was attracted 
by the dead femcde on the bottom of the cage and immediately struck at 
her abdomen and succeeded in clasping. He continued to copulate with 
the dead female for ten minutes. In the meantime, another male was 
introduced and copulation took place with the active female. It is noted 
in a number of cases, that an unfertilized female will continue to elevate 
and project the caudal end of her abdomen for two or three days and 
during this period males will continually visit the cage and try to copu- 
late with the female within. During this period the unfertilized female 
may deposit some of her eggs but in no instance will she give forth the 
normal number. The largest number coming from an unfertilized 
female was 14, so far as known, and probably never over 50. Unfertilized 
f ggs collapse (plate 1, fig. 3) on exposure to air after several days and 
never hatch. 

After copulating the female starts to deposit eggs in 5 to 30 minutes. 
In depositing eggs she sways her abdomen from side to side and acts 
as though she were feeling about with the tip end for a suitable location 
for the eggs. When a desired spot is apparently found, which may be 
a crevice in the branch, under a piece of bark or even on the smooth 
surface of the branch, one to six eggs are usually deposited. She then 
flys about the cage 'for several seconds, at times two or three minutes, 
and will probably return to the same place where she deposited her 
first batch. Often the eggs are congregated in continuous areas of 50 
to 100 eggs. The female will also deposit eggs on the wire screen of 
the cage, on the tin parts, on plain pine boards, on decayed peaches, 
peach leaves, fresh peach gum, on manila paper and other objects, but 
jn the majority of the experiments the greater number of eggs were 
found on branches cut from peach trees. 

Bright sunshine is not altogether necessary for copulation or egg 
deposition when adults are in captivity. No dark cloudy days occurred 
during the entire season, but on a few days the sun was obscured by 
clouds, most of the time, and under such conditions copulation took 
place as usual and some eggs were deposited, but not as many as on 
bright days. 

During the bright days in August the female deposited eggs between 9 
a. m. and 4:30 p. m. The majority of eggs were deposited on the after- 
noon of the day copulation took place, but the female usually continued 
to deposit eggs throughout the following day and in exceptional cases 
deposited some eggs on the third day; however, these were usually found 
on the floor of the cage, for the female on the third day was, as a rule, 
too weak to crawl up on the branch. In most experiments the female 
died on the third or fourth day, but before dying she became inactive 
and sluggish for 12 hours or more. Males and unfertilized females 
usually outlived the fertilized females by 24 hours, but so far as observed 
no adult lived over 5 days. 

Table 4 gives the number of eggs deposited, the eggs retained within 
the abdomen and the total number of eggs possessed by 10 females used 
in various experiments. 



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454 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Table 4 
Eggs Deposited and in the Abdomen of Ten Females Usea m 

Experiments 



Female 


Deposited 
462-74% 


In abdomen 


ToUl 


Female 


DepoBlted 


In abdomen 


Total 


Bxpt D. 


164-26% 


60(> 


Bxpt M. 


823-76% 


104-26% 


427 


Bxpt. I 


76-39% 


117-61% 


192 


Bxpt P. 


305-66% , 


164-34% 


469 


Bxpt J. 


313-70% 


132-30% 


446 


Bxpt 0. 


218-34% 


420-66% 


688 


Bxpt K 


511-73% 


187-27% 


698 


Bxpt S.* 


884-68% 


188-87% 


8«7 


Bxpt L. 


372-69% 


165-31% 


587 


Bxpt v.* 


342-69% 


168-31% 


49S 



♦Female given only one day to deposit eggs. 

The average number of eggs deposited by the ten females was 314.5 
or 64.6 per cent of the average number of normal eggs, 484.4, i>ossessed 
by an average female. The smallest number of eggs deposited by one 
female was 75 (Expt. I) and the greatest number 511 (Expt K). The 
smallest female had a total of 192 eggs, while the largest possessed 698 
eggs, or more than three times as many. In the above figures, the large 
white immature eggs found in the abdomen of all the females are not 
taken into consideration, but only the normal apparently mature chest- 
nut brown eggs are included. As a rule, the large white eggs were not 
abundant, and so far as observed, were about 10 per cent of the total 
number of mature eggs. If the female will deposit two-thirds of all 
her mature eggs under cage conditions, it is likely that a greater pro- 
portion would be deposited under natural out-of-door conditions. 

In watching the female deposit eggs it was noted that she seemed to 
use some care in choosing a favorable location. With this observaticm 
in mind, a few experiments were conducted to see what effect certain 
spray materials might have on the female when she was seeking a place 
to put her eggs. Various common sprays were tried such as "Scaledde," 
nicotine resinate, lime-sulfur, fish-oil soap and "Fly-skat," a commercial 
product which possesses a considerable amount of creosote (put up by 
Kil-Tone Chemical Company of Newark, N. J.). Crude carbolic acid also 
was tried in combination with "Scalecide" and fish-oil soap. 

In each experiment one fertilized female was placed in a small round 
wire cage (6 inches in diameter and 9 inches high) along with two 
branches (1 inch in diameter and B inches long) cut from peach trees. 
These were placed in an upright position, one on the east side and one 
on the west, and every hour or so during the period when the female 
was depositing egg^s the position of the branches was reversed in order 
that the light might not have any influence on the female. S*o far as 
known, light does not influence the female when depositing her eggs. 
One of the branches was sprayed and allowed to dry before using while 
the other served as a check. No branch was ever used in any experi- 
ment which had been cut and sprayed more than three days in advance 
of the experiment. Table 5 gives the time of spraying, which was 
always just after the branches were cut. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 
Table 5 

Repellant EflFcct of Various Sprays on Female During 
Oviposition 



455 



8c 


Spray used 




.1 


1 

q5 


9 

a 


•0 

1 






c 

c 


a 

o 

is 


li 


A 


••Scaleclde/' 
1-16. 


Aug. 




Aug. 7-8 


Aug. 


8 j 129 


t 1« 


3 


37 


185 




Aug. 


oi 129 

I 


16 


3 


45 


192 


B 


'•Scaleclde/' 

1-20. Car- 

boUc acid, 1-ff. 


Auk. 




Aug. 7-8 


Aug. 


8j 137 


8 





11 


166 




Aug. 


9| 211 


42 


44 


24 


821 


c 


Nicotine 

retinate, 

1-100. 


Aug. 




Aug. 8-10 


Aug. 




46 


48 


20 





114 




Aug. 


11 


93 


66 


20 





179 


I> 


Llme-Sttlfor, 


Aug. 


^ 


Aug. 8-10 


Aug. 


9' 96 

( 


60 


186 


7 


349 




Aug. 




163 


86 


196 


7 


452 


■• 


Flah-oU soap, 1 
ffm.-lOO cc Car- 
bolic add, 1-99. 


Aug. 




Aug. 8-10 


Aug. 




16 


14 








30 




Aug. 




20 


18 





11 


49 


JP* 


"Ply -skat," 
1-10 


Aug. 


' 


Aug. 9-12 


Aug. 






8 


. 





16 




Aug. 


13 




13 


8 


29 


52 


o»» 


No spray. 




Aug. 11-12 


Aug. 


13 


14 











14 


H 


"Ply-skat." 
1-10. 


Auff. 


11 


Aug. 11-18 


Aug. 




64 


56 


72 


25 


217 




Aug. 




64 


75 


72 


88 


239 


I 


Piah-oU soap, 1 
ffm.-100 cc. Car- 
lK>Uc add, 1-99. 


Au». 


11 


Aug. 11-13 


Aug. 




24 


31 


17 


3 


75 




Aug. 




24 


31 


17 


3 


75 


J 


"Scaleclde," 
1-16. 


Aug. 


14 


Aug. 14-16 


Aug. 




37 


63 


141 


82. (6) 


313 




Aug. 




37 


" 


141 


82. (6) 


313 


E 


Plsh-oll soap 
1 gttL-l9 cc. 


Aug. 


14 


Aug. 14-16 


Aug. 




313 


27 


92 


8.(1) 


440 




Aug. 




313 


27 


118 


63. (6) 


511 


L. 


Lilme-siilfiir, 
1-9. 


Aug. 


14 


Aug. 14-16 


Aug. 




8. 


6 


130 


76, (1) 


35; 




Aug. 




80 


6 


130 


96. (11) 


872 


Mt 


Plsh-oll soap, 
1 flrin.-16 cc. 


Aug. 


14 


Aug. 16-18 


Aug. 


17*104 


16 


48t 


10 


177 




Aug. 


18 1 133 


15 


48t 


127 


323 


Nt 


Li me -sulfur, 
1-9. 


Aug. 


14 


Aug. 16-19 


Aug. 


17 j 5 





Of 





' 




Aug. 


18 25 


8 


Ot 





33 


Ot 


"Ply-skat," 


Aug. 


17 


Aug. 17-19 


Aug. 


18 160 


25 


174t 


10 


369 




Aug. 


20 , 160 


26 


174t 


133 


492 


Ft 


1 "Scaleclde." 
1-16. 


Aug. 


17 


Aug. 17-19 


Aug. 


18 j 76 


S4 


40t 


35 


355 




Aug. 
Aug. 
AUJC. 


20 
20 


76 


84 


40t 


105 


305 


Qt 


Plsh-oil soap 
1 gm.-Z2 cc. 


Aujf. 


18 


Aug. 18-20 


154 


30 
30 


14t 
14t 


8 


206 




21 1 154 


20 


218 


Rt 


"Ply-skat," 
1-10 


Aug. 


20 


Aug. 20 


Aug. 


21 212 


16 


41t 


3 


.3 


8t 


Lime-sulfur, 
1-9. 


Aug. 


20 


Aug. 20 


Aug. 


21 


103 


53 


72 


6 


234 



•Fertility of female questioned, 
tCage sprayed with same material as 



Unfertilized female. ()Egg8 on leaf, 

sprayed on branch ;^gecPS^I*^^jy^*a'lC 



456 NEW JERSEY AGRICUI-TURAL COLLEGE 

The results in the above experiments as recorded in table 6 are not as 
definite as might be wished for; however, they do bring out a few im- 
portant points. 

"Scalecide," 1-15, was used in experiments A, B, J and P, and in ex- 
periments A and B there was a decided repellent effect, while in ex- 
periment J and P the number of eggs on the sprayed branch was some- 
what larger than the number on the check. This difference is not easily 
understood. 

Nicotine resinate, 1-100, was used in one experiment and the results 
show that this material does not repel. 

Lime-sulfur, 1-9, has some repellent effect, at leaaft the number of 
eggs on the sprayed branches in experiments D, L, N and S was never 
more than 60 per cent (and usually less) of the number of eggs on the 
check, or unsprayed branch. 

Fish-oil soap acted as a decided repellent in exi)eriments K, M and 0, 
while in Experiments E and I when combined with crude carbolic, 1-99, 
the repellent effect was counteracted. This combination seems to be 
less effective than soap alone, but the results are questioned, for the 
females in these two experiments (E and I) did not deposit the usual 
number of eggs, and the fertility of the female in experiment E is 
doubtful. 

"Fly-skat," 1-9 and 1-10, a commercial product possessing a large 
quantity of creosote, showed a decided repellent effect in experiments 
and R, while in experiment H it did not repel. Experiment F is 
questioned for the fertility of the female was not known. 

On August 21, an experiment was set up in the large cage (8x8x6 
feet) to determine the response of the female to various spray materials 
and was run continuously until September 21. Thirty-two peach 
branches, 1 to 2 inches in diameter and 18 inches long, were cut on . 
August 21 and sprayed; 6 with **Scalecide," 1-15 (Sc), 4 with "Fly-skat," 
1-10, (Sk), 6 with lime-sulfur, 1-9 (LS), 6 with fish-oil soap, 1 gm. to 32 
cc. (F) , and 10 checks (Ch) , or unsprayed branches. These branches were 
placed under a wooden frame structure (36x18x18 inches) which was 
covered with white mosquito netting. The branches were arranged 
as in plate 1, figure 7. Branches 1 to 20 stood upright in the soil about 
8 inches from the edge of the cage while branches 21 to 32 stood in the 
same line with 1 to 20, but were tilted (45** angle) toward the middle, 
and those opposite each other tied together at their top ends. Ten tin 
cans filled with moist sand soil and each possessing from 10 to 12 living 
pups in cases were buried in the soil in the middle between the rows of 
branches. 

This experiment was carried on for 30 days, and during this period 
60 adults emerged; at least 60 empty pupal skins were seen in all the 
tins on September 21, but what proportion of these adults were females 
is unknown. Some adults appeared as late as September 15, but none 
were seen after this date. Table 6 g^ves the number of eggs deposited 
en the various branches, st)rayed and otherwise. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 
Table 6 



457 



Number of Eggs Deposited in Experiments on the Peach Tree 

Borer 



side and 
total eggB 



South 
1523 



North 
2271 



West 

766 



Baat 
461 



South* 
699 



North* 
468 



No. of 
branch 



1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

fai 

22 
23 
24 
26 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
82 



Spray 



Check 

Fl8h-oil toap . . 
Lime-sulfur . . . 

Check 

Llme-suIfur . . . 
Whale-oil soap 

Check 

Check 

Fish-oil soap . . 
Lime-sulfur . . . 

Check 

Lime-BUlfur . . . 
Fish-oil soap . . 
Check 

'Scaloclde" 
Lime-sulfur . . . 

Scalecld**'" . . . 

Scaieclde" ... 
Lime-sulfur . . . 

Scalecide" . . . 

"Fly-skat" 

Check 

Fish-oil soap . . 
Fish-oU soap . . 
Check 

Fly-skat" 

Fly-skat" 

Check , 

Scalecide" . . . 

Scalecide" . . . 

Check 

"Fly-skat" 



Bffga 



685 

108 

72 

176 

95 

126 

261 

525 

203 

234 

342 

182 

245 

540 

266 

176 

235 

180 

170 

111 

22 

164 

83 

176 

118 

36 

76 

101 

118 

51 

91 

31 



'Branches inclined toward middle. , , 

Table 7 gives the average number of eggs per branch, also the largest 
number on any one branch and the smallest number. 

A study of the average number of eggs per branch in the above ex- 
periment shows that the average number of eggs on the check branches 
exceeds the average number of eggs on all the sprayed branches. The 
average number of eggs on branches sprayed with fish-oil soap (com- 
paring similar averages) is 40 to 90 per cent that of the check. Branches 
sprayed with lime-sulfur show 50 per cent of the number found on the 
checks, while on the "Fly-skat" branches the eggs are reduced to 35 
per cent that of the check. The number of eggs on "Scalecide" branches 
is between 46 to 86 per cent of the number found on the check branches. 
Since this experiment ran for 30 days one must take into consideration 
the possibility of considerable loss in the effectiveness of the various 
sprays on the different branches. How great this decrease was and its 
importance is unknown. 



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458 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The above experiments, along with the individual experiments in table 
6, show that the female in depositing eggs in captivity is undoubtedly 
influenced somewhat by various spray mixtures present on the branches 
of the tree, but in no case did any of the materials used completely re- 
pel the female and prevent her from depositing some eggs. In a num- 
ber of cases the repellent served to cut down the number of eggs 50 
per cent and in some instances the reduction was much greater than this. 
How the female would respond to these various mixtures when applied 
to the trees in the orchard and not under any sort of confinement is 
unknown, but so far as we know, she would probably behave in a 
similar manner. There is a possibility that field observations could de- 
termine this point, but the results might be questioned for it is a difficult 
task to find the eggs on a large tree, and furthermore, one would never 
be certain that all had been seen. , 

Table 7 
Peach Borer Eggs If'ound with Different Treatments 



Branches 


Average 

number 

of eggs 

per branch 


Largest 

number 

of eggs 

per bran6h 


SmaHeat 

number 

of ens 

per branolt 


Check, upright. No. 1, 4, 7, 8, 11 and 14 

Check, slant. No. 22. 26, 28 and 81 


421 
116 
300 
170 
129 
166 
164 

41 
196 

84 
168 


686 
164 
686 
246 
176 
246 
234 
76 
266 
118 
266 


176 
91 


Check, averacro tor all 


91 


Fish- oil soap, nprlffht. No. 2, 6, 9. and 13 

Flsh-oU soap, slant. No. 23 and 24 


108 
8S 


Flsh-oll soap, average for all. 


82 


Llme-Bulfur, upright. No. 8. 6. 10. 12. 16 and 19 

••Fly-skaV slant. No. 21, 26. 27 and 32 

"Scaleclde." upright. No. 16. 17. 18 and 20 

"Scaleclde." slant. No. 29 and 30 


72 
22 

111 
il 


"Scaleclde," average for all 


61 



NOTB. — For branches No. 28 and 24. with an average of 129 eggs, adjacent cbeok 
branches No. 22 and 26, with an average of 141 egga. come closer to being tnM 
checks than the average number of eggs in all slants (116). Also for branches 
No. 29 and 30, with an average of 84 eggs, adjacent check branches No. 28 and 81, 
with an average of 96 eggs, come closer to being true checks than the average 
number of eggs in all slants (116). 

It may be possible to find some sort of material which would repel the 
female and prevent her from depositing eggs wherever the material is 
found on the tree, but one point which must be considered in this phase 
of the peach-borer problem is the unknown probability that larvsB hatch- 
ing from eggs well up on the branches in the tree may crawl or drop 
to the ground and eventually gain entrance to the tree. What is the 
fate of larvae hatching from eggs deposited on the smaller branches and 
leaves of the tree? Personally, I have never seen a female deposit eggs 
on any other part of the tree than the main trunk, but a number of 
workers have recorded that eggs may be deposited almost anj^here on 
the tree and on weeds and grasses about the tree. If larvas hatching 
from eggs on various parts of the tree eventually enter the tree near 
the crown of the plant, repellent sprays or washes would not be sufficient 
to prevent the female from depositing eggs unless the entire tree is 
treated. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



459 



Lig^t seems to have little or no influence on the female when she 
chooses a place to deposit her eggs. A comparison of the number of 
eggs deposited on the branches on each side of the cage in the above 
lar^e experiment shows but little difference. This also was true of 
the small cage experiments with various individuals, as shown in table 8, 
where two unsprayed branches were placed in an upright i>osition on 
the east and west sides of the cage and allowed to remain in this 
position. The morning light was the strongest on the east branch and 
the afternoon light on the west branch. 

Table 8 
Borer Eggs Deposited in Different Parts of Cage 



No. ot 
Bxpt. 


Date 
deposited 


Date 
observed 


Bggs on 
west branch 


Bggs on 
east branch 


Bggs on 
cage 


Bggs on 
floor 


Total 
eggs 


T 


Aug. 20 ^ 


Aur 21 


1 70 


61 


79 


26 


226 


U 


Auff. 20 

1 


Aug. 21 


76 


113 


196 


6 


390 


V 


Auk. 20 


Aug. 21 


133 


20 


183 


6 


842 



Eggs 

A few experiments were conducted with the eggs of the peach borer. 
A niimber of common sprays and other chemicals were used on the 
twigs, on which eggs were afterwards deposited, and also directly on 
the eggs before they hatched, and their effect noted. 

The egg of the peach borer (plate 1, Fig. 1, 2) is a small flattened 
ellipsoidal body with one end broader (more obtuse) than the other 
and also slightly depressed (d). The egg averages 0.65 mm., or 1/40 
of an inch in length, and 0.4 mm., or 1/60 of an inch at its greatest 
width. Two opposite surfaces of the egg are flattened (d) , and in most 
cases slightly concave, one of these surfaces is adjacent to the object 
on which the egg is deposited. The egg has a soft chestnut brown color, 
and distinct hexagonal and variously shaped areas (y), marked off by 
somewhat elevated white lines (r) and these areas are more prominent 
toward the large end of the egg, 

A distinct larva may be found within the eggs two or three days be- 
fore hatching. It is in a U-shaped position with the head and caudal 
portions located near the large end of the egg (plate 1, fig. 4). When 
the larva is ready to emerge it breaks through the small thin depressed 
area (d) at the large end of the egg. It punctures the shell (e) with 
its mandibles and then continues to tear down the egg shell ventrad of 
its head until the opening is large enough for it to crawl out (plate 1, 
fig. 5, 6). In the tearing down process the bits and frag^ments (x) of 
the egg shell are not eaten by the larva, so far as observed, but pushed 
to one side, as shown in plate 1, figures 5 and 6. Since the egg shell is 
not consumed, as is the case with some insects, it is impractical to apply 



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46o NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



seme sort of a stomach i>oison to the egg with the hope of killing the 
larva as it eats its way out of the shell. The eggs of the peach borer 
require 9 to 11 days to hatch, but in a few cases it took a day or two 
longer. An examination of a large number of eggs used in the various 
checks shows that in the majority of cases, 100 per cent of the eggs 
hatched which were deposited by fertilized females. 

A few experiments were conducted to see what effct various spray 
mixtures would have on the hatching ability of *peach borer eggs when 
the eggs were deposited on freshly sprayed branches (branches sprayed 
from 3 to 6 hours before eggs were deposited). Table 9 shows the re- 
sults of these experiments. 



Table 9 

Effect of Various Sprays on Eggs When Applied Before 

Deposition 



If 
It 


Spray 


a 




u 


a 

11 


3^ 


1 




1 


Fish-oil soap, 

1 Km.-100 CO. 

Crude carbolic, 

1-99. 


Aug. 11 


Aug. 11-13 


Aug. 23? 


31 






1 


Check. 




Aug. 11-13 


Aug. 23? 


24 






2 


"Scaleclde," 
1-16. 


Ausr. 14 


Aug. 14-16 


Aug. 24? 


63 






2 


Check. 




Aug. 14-16 


Aug. 24 7 


37 






3 


Fish-oil soap, 
1 Km.-16 CO. 


AuK. 14 


Au>f. 14-16 


Aug. 26-26 


27 






4 


Lime-sulfur. 
1-9. 


Aug. 14 


Aug. 14-16 


Aug. 25 


6 






5 


"Scaleclde," 
1-15. 


Aug. 17 


Aug. 17-19 


Aug. 28 


28 






6 


Check. 




Aug. 17-19 


Aug. 28 


42 






6 


"Fly-skat." 
1-10. 


Auk. 20 


Aug. 20 


Aug. 81- 
Sept 4 


17 






7 


Lime-sulfur, 
1-9. 


Aug. 20 


Aug. 20 


Aug. 81- 
Sept 4 


24 






8 


"Fly-skat," 
1-10. 


Aug. 17 


Aug. 17-19 


Aug. 27-28 


25 







In no experiment where the spray material was applied before the 
eggs were deposited did the spray materially affect the hatching of the 
eggs. Except for experiments 2, 5 and 6 all eggs on the sprayed 
branches hatched, and the few that failed to hatch may be explained on 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



461 



other grounds. When experiment 6 is compared with experiment 8 one 
readily sees the probability of some other factor entering into experi- 
ment 6 than that of the spray alone. 

The results of the experiments where the insecticide was sprayed on 
the eggs sometime within 1 to 5 days after dei>osition are shown in 
table 10. 

Table 10 
EfiFect of Various Sprasrs on Eggs 



5 
zS5 


Spray 


Date of 
application 


Date eggi 

were 

depoaited 


II 


1 


it 


11 




"Scaledde." 
1.16. 


Auff. 6 


Aug. 4 


Aug. 7 


47. (3) 





44 




••Scaledde/* 

1-16. 

Crude carbolic. 

1-99. 


Aug. 6 


▲Ug. 4 


Aug. ? 


41 





41 




NlcoUne 

resixiate, 

1-100. 


Aug. 6 


Aug. 4 


Aug. ? 


4 


■1 4 


1 1 




Lime-sulfur. 


AU«. 6 


Aug. 4 


Aug. ? 


41, (6) 


23 


18 




Check. 




Aug. 4 


Aug. ? 


60. (21) 


27 


2 




••Fly-ekat" 
1-10. 


Auff. 20 


Aug. 18 


Aug. 27 


46 


16 


80 




Check. 




Aug. 18 


Aug. 27 


44 


44 

2 







Pish-oll soap, 
1-10. 


Auk. 20 


Aug. 18 


Aug. 27 


67 


66 




Check. 




Aug. U 


Aug. 27 


84 


84 







Fleh-oll soap, 

1-10. 
Crude carbolic, 

2-98. 


Auff. 20 


Aug. 18 


Aug. 27 


61 





61 




Check. 




Aug. 18 


Aug. 27 


88 


88 







••Scaledde," 
1-20. 
Crude carbolic. 
1-: 


Aug. 18 


Aug. 8 


Aug. 17 


40 


7 


88 




Ch€ 




Aug. 8 


Aug. 17 


98 


98 







Lilme-i mrt 

1-3 


Aug. 18 


Aug. 8 


Aug. ls-19 


42 


82 


10 




Che 




Aug. 8 


Avg. 18-19 


68 


44 


9 




'Tly-8 
1-1 


Aug. 17 


Aug. 14-16 


Aug. 26-27 


. 47 


46 


2 




Nicotine 4*»» « * 
l-K 


Aug. 21 


Aug. 16-18 


Aug. 27-28 


64 


61 


8 




Che< 




Aug. 16-18 


Aug. 27-28 


88 


24 


* 



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462 



NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



Table 10— (Continued) 
E£Fect of Various Sprays on Eggs 



5 


Spray 


d 



11 


il 
III 




3& 


Si 


51 




"Scaledde," 
1-30. 


1 AUK. 21 


Aug. 17-19 


Aug. 27-29 


103 


43 


60 




Check. 




Aug. 17-19 


Aug. 27-29 




11 


• 




"Scaleclde." 
1-20. 


Aug, 21 


Aug. 18-20 


Aug. 30- 

Sept. 1 


102 


28 


74 




Check. 

••Scaledde," 
1-10. 


Auff. 21 


Aug. 18-20 
Aug. 20 


Aug. 30- 
Sept. 1 

Aug. 31- 
Sept. 1 


104 


13 
24 


2 
80 




Check. 

Laundry soap. 
1-200. 


1 

Aug. 21 


Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 


Aug. 31- 
Sept. 4 

Aug. 31- 
Bept. 4 




27 
54 


3 
• 




Nicotine reslnate. 
1-100. 


Aug. 21 


Aug. 20 


Aug. 31- 
Sept. 4 




29 


1 




Check. 

Nicotine resinate. 
1-2B0. 


Aug. 21 


Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 


Aug. 31- 
Sept 4 

Aug. 31- 
Sept 4 


102 


38 

100 


S 
S 




Check 

Nicotine resinate. 
1-600. 


Aug. 21 

1 


Aug. 20 
Aug. 20 


Aug. 81- 
Sept 4 

Aug. 31- 
Sept. 4 




11 
82 


• 
• 


20 


Check. 

••Ply-»kat." 
l-«. 


Aug. 21 


Aug. 20 
Aug. 18? 


Aug. 31- 

Sopt 4 
Aug. 28-29 




67 
19 


S 


20 


Check. 




Aug. 18? 


Aug. 28-29 




15 


1 



Numbers in parenthesis indicate eggs lost 

Bxpt. 1-9, eggs on wood or paper kept in small tin boxes. 

Bxpt 9-20, eggs under normal conditions on bark of branches. 

In the above sets of experiments no material was sufficiently effective 
consistently to kill 100 per cent of the eggs or enough to make any one 
material worthy of being considered an infallible agent in killing peacfa 
borer eggs. Eggs which were killed by the different chemicals usually 
collapsed as shown in plate 1, figure 3. ''Scalecide" at varying strengths 
gave the best results, killing 40 to 100 per cent of the eggs in the 
different trials (Expt. 1, 2, 9, IS, 14 and 15) and the stronger concentra- 
tions were the most effective. "Scalecide" combined with crude carbolic 
(Expt. 2 and 9) killed 100 and 82.5 per cent. Lime-sulfur was 
given two trials (Expt. 4 and 10) and it killed between 20 and 
30 per cent of the eggs. "Fly-skat," 1-10, (largely a creosote 
compound) was given several trials and the results vary some- 
what In experiment 11, 2 eggs failed to hatch out of 47 while in ex- 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 463 

periments 6 and 20 about 66 per cent of the eggs were killed. A few 
experiments were conducted with fish-oil soap alone, fish-oil soap and 
crude carbolic, and laundry soap and creosol but these are not extensive 
enough to base any conclusions on them. Nicotine resinate was given a 
miinber of trials (Expt. 3, 12, 17, 18 and 19) at varying strengths of 
1-100, 1-250, and 1-500, yet in no experiment was there a sufficient 
number of eggs killed to warrant the statement that this material might 
kill the egg. It was thought i^en the material was used that it might 
act as a stomach poison and kill the larva as it ate (apparently) its 
-wray out of tiie shell, but as pointed out before, the larva probably does 
not consume any considerable portion of the shell as it breaks through 
'with its mandibles. Nicotine resinate has good lasting qualities and is 
not readily decomposed after spraying, consequently, any larva which 
consumes its shell would suffer if nicotine resinate were present. 

The lasting effect of nicotine resinate is shown in one experiment 
^where on July 16 the lower portions of 15 seven-year-old peach 
trees were sprayed with 2% gallons of nicotine resinate, 1-100 
(1 gallon for 6 trees). Small pieces of bark were removed on 
July 23, July 30, August 5, August 13 and August 20 from 
the trees which received only one treatment, and placed in a 
clean test tube with a small amount of distilled water and shaken. 
After standing for about 30 minutes the solution was filtered and 
a few drops of silico-tungstic acid solution were added to the clear 
filtrate. Immediately the solution became cloudy, having the appearance 
of a white milky solution. The same test, each time, was given to bits 
of bark removed from unsprayed check trees and in no case was there 
any indication of a cloudiness. The sprayed trees were tested again on 
September 21, but at this time there was no indication of nicotine. The 
above qualitative test for nicotine is recommended by Mr. V. I. Safro 
(see "How to Test for the Presence of Nicotine on Sprayed Plants", 
Joor. Econ. Ent., 1917, vol. 10, p. 459-561). The above experiment shows 
a definite test for nicotine on the bark of peach trees five weeks after 
application of nicotine resinate, 1-100. 

Summary 

The results in the above experi:r.ents are largely negative, so far as 
they may help to develop a much-needed control measure for the peach 
tree borer. In brief, they show the improbability of developing a poison 
bait for the adult, the partial repellent effect of certain chemicals on the 
female while ovipositing and the partial destruction of eggs when cer- 
tain substances are applied as a spray. A number of experiments have 
been started and are now in operaion on the use of various chemical 
and mechanical tree protectors, but the evidence obtained thus far is 
insufficient to warrant a statement at this time. The author is of the 
opinion that the peach tree borer problem will be solved by a mechanical 
or chemical barrier which will kill the larva before it enters the tree 
or prevent it from getting into the tree. The development of any con- 
trol measure along the line of killing the larva after it enters the tree 
is not advisable. 



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464 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 
SMALL FRUIT INSECT INVESTIGATIONS 

Strawberry Weevil 

The study of 1915 and 1916 had developed the fact that keep- 
ing the strawberry buds covered with a mixture of finely ground 
sulfur (such as will pass through a sieve with 200 wires to the 
inch) and powdered arsenate of lead (5 to i) from the time the 
injury begins until they open, will give adequate protection from 
mjury by the strawberry weevil. As during neither year had satis- 
factory means of distributing the dust been found, with the pos- 
sible exception of a screen wire sifter invented by Mr. Tony Riz- 
zotti, of Hammonton, it seemed best in 1917 to concentrate on the 
problem of machinery. 

Accordingly, in 1917 a test of distributing machinery was made 
on the farm of and in co-operation with Mr. Howard F. DeCou, 
of Haddonfield. The screen wire sifter proved best for small 
acreages, while a power duster seemed best for larger areas. 

Bulletin No. 324 of ths station covering the entire problem of 
controlling this insect has been prepared and will soon be off the 
press. 

Orchard Plant Lice 

Attention was this year devoted to the question of destroying the 
eggs of each of the three common species of apple plant lice — ^the 
green apple aphis, the rosy apple aphis, and the oat aphis. Dr. 
Peterson discovered that the egg had at least three layers — an 
outer brittle transparent layer, a middle heavily pigmented layer, 
and an inner thin transparent envelope. He found that about one 
week before hatching took place the outer layer split open, and that 
thereafter the egg was especially sensitive to loss of moisture and 
to the action of various insecticides and other chemicals. 

Dr. Peterson found that commercial lime-sulfur when applied 
to the egg at winter-strength apparently so hardened the shell that 
hatching did not occur. He found that a 2 per cent solution of 
crude carbolic acid in water to which enough soap had been added 
to break the surface tension destroyed the egg and caused it to 
shrivel. He found that the addition of 40 per cent nicotine to the 
lime-sulfur resulted in the destruction of a larger percents^ of 
eggs. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 465 

In the course of some orchard tests, it was found that the 
thorough application of commercial lime-sulfur (i gallon to 9 
gallons of water), to which 40 per cent nicotine had been added at 
the rate of }i pint to each 50 gallons of spray mixture, to the trees 
just before the leaves began to project from the buds, gave a prac- 
tically perfect control of the three species of plant lice. 

The details of this work are set forth in another bulletin about to 
be published of this station and touched upon in Bulletin 32S. 

Rose Bug 

The investigations of the rose bug were limited to the extension 
of the use of self -boiled lime-sulfur to peach, cherry and grape. For 
two years rose-bug injury to apple has been promptly stopped by a 
single thorough application of self-boiled lime-sulfur. This year 
when Mr. Warren Oley requested suggestions for control of a 
threatening outbreak at and in the vicinity of Vineland, the 
entomologist suggested a treatment with self-boiled lime-sulfur. 
Mr. Oley reported that this treatment gave prompt relief on 
peaches, grapes, and cherries. 

VEGETABLE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS 
Bean Maggot 

For some years the growers of lima beans along the Delaware 
Bay coast have lost their early seeding through the action of a 
small white maggot. This creature which is only about % inch 
long when fully grown, bores into and mines the seed before it 
has a chance to get the plant above the ground. 

The species concerned appears to be the seed com maggot 
(Pegomyia fusiceps Zett.) ; an insect which is recognized as oc- 
casionally injurious to bean seed in various parts of the Mississippi 
Valley and eastward to the Atlantic Ocean. Unfortunately, its life 
history is not understood, but is usually assumed to be like that of 
the cabbage maggot 

Assuming, because of its relationship, that it might be repelled 
by tar and carbolic acid, plans were made to treat the surface of 
the hills as soon as the early seed was planted. 

The plan included two groups of treatments — the first applied 
just after the beans were planted, and the second to otherwise un« 
treated rows 12 days after the seed was put into the ground. 

Air 80 



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466 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

It thus appears that the nearest to a perfect stand (47.5 per cent) 
was obtained by use of the tarred paper card (table 11). 

Observation clearly indicated that the single treatments had been 
broken up or washed away by the rains. It was therefore decided 
to try the effect of maintaining the most promising treatments. 

Table 11 

Treatments and Results of Bean Maggot Investigations 
May 4, 191 7 






^ Treatment applied the day of planting. 






1 


Untreated 


0.7 
0.7 

1.1 
1.9 
1.4 
0.9 
0.8 


4 
4 

4 

4 
4 
4 
4 


17.6 


t 


Tarred seed 


17.6 


t 


Lime and carbolic add (just enouffh of the latter to 
give a strong odor) 


SO.O 


4 


Tarred paper disks ' 


47.6 


5 


Tarred sand 


S6.0 


6 


Tarred seed 


22.6 


T 


Untreated 


20.0 









Treatment applied 12 days after planting. 



1 Tarred sand 


1.2 
0.0 
0.0 
1.0 


4 

4 
4 

4 


S0.0 


2 Acid phosphate 




8 2-12 fertilizer 




4 Sheep manure 


26.0 







Accordingly, on May 4, 1917, some new rows were planted. Every 
other row was left as a check. All materials were aj^lied as a 
continuous band six inches wide. Tarred sand, whitewash, and 
carbolized whitewash (just enough crude carbolic to give the mix- 
ture a strong odor) were applied. 

By May 28 such plants as wtre coming up had gotten through. 
Examinations made on that date showed that most of the seed 
had rotted in the ground and that neither checks nor treated rows 
were injured by the maggots. Either the planting on May 4 was 
made when the fly was no longer on the wing or the weather was 
too cold for it to be active. • 

It seems likely that the planting came between broods, for on 
this date the flies were emerging from the soil in large numbers 
and Mr. Moore informed the entomologist that they had been com- 
ing out for some days previous to that time. 

Plantings made on this date and every week thereafter through- 
out the first half of the summer season showed no traces of injury 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 467 

by this species and Mr. Moore reports that such has been his ex- 
perience since he first began to notice the pest. 



Conclusions 

It thus appears that an early spring brood of flies emerges and 
lays eggs in. the soil upon or in the vicinity of the bean seed, and 
that the maggots which hatch from the eggs concentrate upon the 
bean seed and destroy it. The problem of control in this area 
appears to narrow down to the prevention of injury to the early- 
planted seed, and the experiments indicate that much is to be hoped 
from the continuous wide band of tarred sand or strip of tarred 
paper. 

GREENHOUSE INSECT INVESTIGATIONS 

The Use of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas for Greenhouse Fumigation 
The use of hydrocyanic acid gas for the destruction of green- 
house insects is at present greatly limited by the fear of damaging 
the crops on which the insects are feeding. This fear has strong 
foundation in the fact that many thousands of dollars worth of 
crops have been destroyed by improper dosages. 

The dosage or the time of exposure or both must vary with the 
crop, the stage of development of the crop, the construction of the 
house and possibly with the temperature and the moisture. A 
great mass of facts relative to the dosage various greenhouse plants 
will stand has been accumulated at various experiment stations and 
by the United States Department of Agriculture. Also some facts 
bearing upon the effect of temperature, moisture and light have 
been gathered. 

Unfortunately, the tremendous effects of house construction, 
especially as regards glazing and air currents, on dosage have been 
largely neglected. A recommended dosage that may be perfectly 
efficient in one greenhouse, may destroy the crop in another, or fail 
to kill the insects in another. The difference lies primarily in the 
distribution and the density of the gas atmosphere. Before much 
progress in determining the effect of house conditions, either a 
long and probably costly series of trials must be made, or some way 
of determinmg the density of the gas atmosphere must be devised. 



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468 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

During the past year an effort to devise an apparatui for this 
purpose and to make a study of the gas distribution under green- 
house conditions was begun. The work was carried on by a grad- 
uate student, Mr. W. H. W. Komp. 

The essential unit of the apparatus finally settled upon consisted 
of one aspirator jar, a test tube absorber and glass and rubber tub- 
ing. Both the jar and the absorber were placed on a stand out- 
side the section being fumigated but in a temperature as high as or 
higher than that of the house under fumigation. The rubber tub- 
ing passed into the greenhouse to be fumigated to the point where 
the concentration of gas was to be investigated. Enough units 
were employed to give an idea of the gas concentration throughout 
a section of the house. As many test tubes, each partly filled with 
one-hundreth normal sodium hydroxide solution, as there were 
readings to be taken were prepared for each unit. 

When each of the units had been made ready, the fumigation was 
set Immediately the tubing of each unit was cleared of air by 
drawing one liter of water from each aspirator bottle. A test tube 
containing the sodium hydroxide was then placed in the pipe line 
and the air charged with the first up-rush of gas drawn through 
the solution by drawing off another liter of water from each as- 
pirator bottle. The tube was then taken out of the line and set 
aside. The pipe lines were then cleared by drawing off another 
liter from the aspirator bottle. The second test tube was then in- 
serted in the line and another absorption made. 

In this way samples of gas concentration were absorbed at short 
intervals throughout the course of fumigation. After the com- 
pletion of the fumigation the absorbed gas was titrated with one- 
thousandth normal silver nitrate solution. 

The upshot of the study seemed to be that the gas reached 
maximum general concentration within 8 minutes or less of the 
time when fumigation began. There was first a s^-ift up-rush of 
the gas that produced a heavy concentration in the comb entirely 
above the insect-infested plants. The gas then distributed out- 
ward and downward until maximum general concentration was 
reached. Thereafter the concentration gradually decreased until 
it fell below the minimum dosage for the insects, or was released by 
opening the ventilators. 

Irregularities in distribution occurred, which are at present with- 
out adequate explanation. Indeed the irregularity may b^ sufficient 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 469 

to damage the plants if concentration is markedly greater, or to 
fail to kill the insect if the concentration is much less. These 
irregularities may be partly overcome by increasing the number of 
generators. 

The details of the work upon which the preceding statements 
are based will be found in a later bulletin of this station. 

SOIL-INFESTING INSECT INVESTIGATIONS 

Laboratory and Field Experiments vdth Sodium Cyanide and 
Other Chemicals Against Wireworms in the Soil 

Alvah Peterson, Ph.D. 

During the summer of 1916, Mr. J. P. Quinn, of the Orange City 
Poor Farm at Livingston, N. J., brought to the laboratory samples of 
potatoes and other vegetables badly injured by wireworms. A trip was 
made to Livingston during October, 1916, and it was noted that the 
2-acre piece of land south of the home was heavily infested with wire- 
worms. Consequently, this gave us the opportunity to try to control 
these insects by treating the soil with cyanide. In order that we might 
know how to proceed and what strength to use, a number of experi- 
ments were performed at the laboratory, out-of-doors and in the green- 
house, using soil and wireworms obtained from Livingston. 

Laboratory experiments 

Sodium Cyanide, The first series (A, B, C and D) of experiments 
I>erformed were conducted in small flower pots, 6 inches deep and 6 
inches in diameter at the top and 3 inches at the bottom, using streng^ths 
of sodium cyanide ranging from 10 to 500 pounds to the acre. Each 
pot contained 5 active larvs and was set up as follows on November 9. 
Four inches of subsoil was placed in each pot and 5 larvs dispersed 
throughout the same. The hole in the bottom of each pot was closed 
by a rubber stopper. The pots in series A, B and C were buried in the 
ground out-of-doors in an open space near the laboratory and covered 
with boards to keep out the rain while the pots in series D were kept 
in the greenhouse; the temperature ranging between 55** and 65*F. and 
the moisture between 60 and 80 per cent. The temperature of the soil 
in the out-of-door experiments averaged about 50**F. or somewhat lower. 
In each series there were 7 treated pots, as indicated in the table, and 
one check for the series in the greenhouse and one for those out-of-doors. 

In series A, including experiments 3-9, the required amount of cyanide 
was dissolved in lOcc. of water and poured on the surface of the sub- 
soil, while in series B (Expt. 10-16) the necessary amount of poison 
was pulverized and sprinkled on top of the subsoil, but in Series C 



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470 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

(Expt. 17-24) and D (Exprt. 25-31), the cyanide was dissolved in 175 cc 
of water and poured on the subsoil. In all the above experiments, 2 
inches of top soil was put over the subsoil immediately after the treat- 
ment was given. 

The amounts of sodium cyanide used were 10, 25, 50, 100, 150, 250, and 
600 pounds to the acre, and the exact quantity required for each pot 
was figured on the basis of the number of square inches (19.6) in the 
circular area, 5 inches in diameter, at the top of the subsoil. The fol- 
lowing proportion gives the required amount of sodium cyanide in grams 
per pot: 19.6 square inches is to 48,560 square feet in an acre times 
144 square inches to a square foot as the unlmown F is to 10, 25, 50, 100» 
150, 2^0 and 500 pounds (changed to grams). Table 12 lists the results 
of the experiments after 7 days' (Nov. 9-16) exposure. 

Table 12 

The Effect of Sodium Cyaxiide on Wireworms in Four Series of 

Experiments A, B, C and D (Soil and Larvae in Flower Pots, 

November 9-16, 1916) 



No. and 


Amount nsed and 


Ss 


Si 


No. and 


Amount used and 


?? 


?1 


Mriea 


rate per acre 


u — 


u S 


series 


rate per acre 


,3" 


a« 


2- A. B. C 


Check 






17-C 


.72 gm..-600 lbs. 






3-A 


.72 ffm..-500 lbs. 






18-C 


.86 gm...260 lbs. 






4-A 


.36 sm..-260 lbs. 






10-C 


.21 gm..-160 lbs. 






6-A 


.21 flrm.,-160 lbs. 






20-C 


.14 gm.,-100 lbs. 






«-A 


.14 gm.,-100 Iba. 






21-C 


.072 gm.,- 60 lbs. 






7-A 


.072 erm..- 50 lbs. 






22-C 


.036 gm..- 25 lbs. 






8-A 


.035 gm.,' 25 lbs. 






23-C 


.021 gm..- 10 lbs. 






9-A 


.021 gm..- 10 lbs. 






24-D 


Check 






10-B 


.72 gm..-500 lbs. 






26-D 


.72 gm..-500 Iba 






11-B 


.36 gm.,-260 Iba. 






26-D 


.36 gm..-250 lbs. 






12-B 


.21 ffm..-150 lbs. 






27-D 


.21 gm..-150 lbs. 






13-B 


.14 gm.,-100 lbs. 






28-D 


.14 gm.,-100 lbs. 






14-B 


.072 gm..' 60 lbs. 






29-D 


.072 gnu- 60 lbs. 






IB-B 


.035 gm.,- 25 lbs. 






80-D 


.036 gm..- 25 lbs. 






16-B 


.021 gm.,- 10 lbs. 






81-D 


.021 gm..- 10 lbs. 







Series A. B and C in soil out-of-doors. 
Series D in greenhouse. 

The results of these pot experiments show some interesting and un- 
expected facts. The killing point in all four series is almost identical. 
This shows that it makes little or no difference whether the salt is dis- 
solved or applied in crystalline or powdered form, also the difference of 
lOT. in the temperature of the out-of-door and greenhouse experiments 
made no decided difference in the percentage killed. The larvae were 
all killed in strengths of 500 and 250 pounds to the acre, and only two 
lived (No. 5- A and 27-D), at the 150-pound treatment while only one 
larva was killed (30-D) where 25 pounds and 10 pounds to the acre 
were used. The pots treated at the rate of 50 and 100 pounds to the 
acre showed, respectively, a total of 16 alive and 4 dead, and 7 alive and 
18 dead. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 471 

The larvsB when removed from the pots were examined carefully, and 
as a number of them were sluggish, they were examined again in 48 
hours, being kept in moist untreated soil during this period. In some 
csi^ses a few recovered but the majority of the slugg^ish larvs were dead 
at the end of the period. This fact suggested the possibility of a 
greater kill if the larvae were exposed for two weeks or longer. Fur- 
thermore, it was also not known how long the treated soil would be 
effective against wireworms, so on November 22, two weeks after the 
sail was treated, in series A, B, C and D, 8 fresh active larvaB were 
placed in the subsoil of pots 17, 18> 19 and 20 of series C, and in pots 
24, 25, 26, 27 and 28 of series D, without adding any more cyanide, 
and allowed to remain in these until December 7, when they were ex- 
amined. All the larvae were alive except in pots 17-C and 25-D, where 
one dead wireworm was found in each. This test shows the decided 
loss in the effectiveness of sodiimi cyanide after four weeks had elapsed 
from the time of treatment, for only pots treated at the rate of 500 
pounds to the acre showed any killing power whatsoever. 

The larvae in series A, B, C and D were exposed for only 7 days be- 
fore they were examined, consequently it was thought that a longer 
exposure might give a greater percentage of kill. Four pots (plus a 
check pot) each containing from 4 to 7 larvae were treated on November 
22 with sodium cyanide dissolved in 25 cc. of tap water at the rate of 
100 pounds to the acre. These were examined, one at each date, on 
December 7, 14, 21 and January 1, and all the larvae were found dead 
in each treated pot while the larvae in the check pot were alive. These 
pots were kept out-of-doors during the whole period, and the tempera- 
ture of the soil in which they were buried ran between 32* and 40**F., 
but usually SS^'F. or below. This experiment shows that an exposure 
of two weeks or more will kill all the larvae when cyanide is used at 
the rate of 100 pounds to the acre, while this was not true in previous 
6xx>eriments when the wireworms were kept in the treated soil for only 
7 days. Temperature may have had some influence here, for it was 
.10®F. or more below that of series A, B, C and D, and it is possible that 
this may account for the greater kill, but this is seriously questioned. 

If sodium cyanide at the rate of 100 pounds to the acre will kill during 
an exposure of two weeks or longer, possibly smaller amounts would be 
as effective. Four more pots were treated along with a check pot on 
December 8, two with sodium cyanide at the rate of 75 pounds to the 
acre and two at the rate of 50 pounds. These were placed out-of-doors 
in the soil which had an average temperature of 33**F. and one of each 
strength was examined on December 21 and January 6 (two week in- 
terval). On December 21 all the larvae were dead in the pot receiving 
75 pounds to the acre, while three were dead and two alive in pots 
treated with 50 pounds to the acre. On January 6, the pot treated with 
sodium cyanide at the rate of 75 x)ounds to the acre showed one alive 
and four dead, while the pot with 50 pounds to the acre gave the same 
results as those examined on December 21, three dead and two alive. 
This experiment again indicates that an exposure of two weeks or 



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472 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

longer will produce a greater kill than one week, and also the mini- 
mum dosage in flower-pot experiments is beftween 75 and 100 pounds 
to the acre. 

The problem of how the sodium cyanide in the soil kills the wire- 
worms was considered in connection with this study. So far as known, 
little or no. work has been performed to determine how the wireworms 
or other soil-infesting insects are killed when the cyanide is introduced 
into the soil where they live. Are they killed by inhaling the fumes 
coming from the sodium cyanide, or are they killed by contact with 
this material in solution, or does it act as a stomach poison? 

Several experimenrts were conducted which may throw some light 
on this question. On January 12 four double wire screen cages w^ne 
constructed. The inner or smaller cage was made of a 3-inch strip of 
wire screen which was rolled to form a cylinder 1 inch in diameter and 
rubber corks placed in each end. A larger cage, similarly con- 
structed, was 2 inches in diameter and made from a 5-inch strip of 
wire screen. The small cage was suspended within the larger cage 
by two strings in such a manner that no part came in contacrt with the 
outer cage and leaving a %-inch air chamber between the inner and 
outer cage on all sides. Soil and several wire worms were introduced 
into the small inner cages of No. 1 and 3, while wireworms only were 
placed in the small inner cages of No. 2 and 4. All four double cages 
were buried in subsoil in flower pots and the subsoil in pots 1 and 2 
possessing respective cages was treated in the usual manner with 
sodium cyanide dissolved in 25 cc of water at the rate of 150 pounds 
to the acre. After treating, the pots were tilled with topsoil. Pots 3 
and 4 served as checks. The cages were examined on January 26 
and all the larvae in the cages removed from the treated pots were 
dead while those in the untreated pots were alive and active. The 
results of this experiment indicate that the larvae are killed by in- 
haling the poisonous fumes, for the larva were removed from direct 
contact with the poisoned soil, consequently they could not come in 
contact with the same or consume poisoned particles. It is possible 
that the fumes might have been taken up by the moist untreated soil 
in the inner cage of No. 1, but this could not have occurred in No. 2, 
for no soil was present in the inner cage. The only possible way for 
the poison to have reached the larvae would have been over the two 
strings which held the inner cage in suspension. 

In experimenting with ^wireworms and sodium cyanide in flower 
pots measuring 6 inches in diameter at the top, 3 inches at the bottom 
and 6 inches deep, it was realized that the results obtained in these 
comparatively • small and confined spaces would not necessarily hold 
in larger vessels or in field experiments. To determine the depth to 
which the poisonous eSedt of the sodium cyanide would penetrate the 
soil in sufficient quantity to kill, a number of experiments were ccm- 
ducted in glazed sewer pipes, 5 inches in diameter (inner space) and 
25 inches long. These pipes were closed at their collar end with a 
circular tin disc and stood upright (collar down) in the soil on a 
greenhouse bench. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 473 

On January 12 fifteen larve were placed in each of three tiles and in a 
check lot. In two of the tiles, No. 1 and 2, the larve were distributed 
throughout the tile and separated from each other by round wire 
screen discs 5% inches in diameter. Starting with the bottom thexe 
were 3 larve in the first inch cd subsoil (23 to 24 inches deep) and 
these were confined in this space by a wire screen 23 inches from the 
toiK Two larvsB and 5 inches of subsoil occupied the space between 18 
to 23 inches from the top and at 18 inches and 17 inches there were 
2 wire screens and 3 larvae included in the soil between them. Above 
17 inches and up to 12 inches 2 larva and soil were introduced and 
then again at 12 inches and 11 inches 2 wire screens enclosed 3 larva 
and subsoil. Above 11 inches and up to 6 inches deep 2 larvae and sub- 
soil were introduced. The top six inches of the tile was not filled 
until after the sodium cyanide was applied. Tile No. 1 was treated 
with sodium cyanide dissolved in 50 cc of water at the rate of 150 
pounds to the acre, while title No 2 received treatment of cyanide at 
the rate of 100 pounds to the acre. 

In tile No. 3 five small cylindrical wire screen cages 3!4 inches long 
and 2 inches in diameter were placed in the center of the tile end to 
end and on top of each other; the top cage being 7 inches from the top of 
the tile. The cages were filled with subsoil, 3 large larvae put in each 
and the space surrounding the cages filled with diit. The sodium 
cyanide at the rate of 100 pounds was dissolved in 50 cc of water 
and applied 6 inches from the top of the tile, and then the tile was 
filled to the top. The cages served the purpose of confining the 
larvae to definite depths, thus making it possible to learn to what depth 
the poison penetrates in sufiicient quantity to kill. 

The above experiments were examined two weeks after they were 
iftarted. In tile No. 1 where the cyanide was applied at the rate of 
160 pounds to the acre it was found that all larv» within 12 inches of 
the top of the tile, or 6 inches from point of treatment were dead. One 
or two were dead below the treated surface, but all others were alive 
and active. Where sodium cyanide was used at the rate of 100 pounds 
to the acre, all larvae within 10 inches of the top of the tile, or 3 to 5 
inches from the point of treatment were dead, while below this the 
larvae were alive and active. 

Since sodium cyanide would not consistently kill larvae below 6 
inches when used at the rate of 150 pounds to the acre, three other 
tile experiments were started on January 26, using sodium cyanide at 
the rate of 200 pounds (tile No. 4), 300 pounds (tile No. 5) and 400 
pounds (tile No. 6) to the acre. In these experiments the wire screens 
were omitted, but the 15 larvae were evenly distributed at varjring 
depths throughout the length of the sewer pipe (6 to 24 inches). The 
material was dissolved in 50 cc. of water and poured upon the subsoil 
6 inches from the top of the tile, and then the tile was filled with soil. 

These tiles were examined on February ^. About 50 per cent of the 
larvae had escaped through the lower end of the tiles into the soil on 
the bench, but enough remained in the upper portions of the tile to 



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474 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

srive some clue in regard to the depth that the sodium cyanide was 
effective. In tile No. 4 all the larvss 6 inches below the place of treat- 
ment (12 inches from the top) were dead, while in tile No. 5 one was 
alive at 11 inches from the top of the tile, or 5 inches from the place 
of treatment, but all others in this zone were dead. In title No. 6 
all were dead above 15 inches, or 9 inches from the treated surface. 
The above experiments indicate that strengths of sodiimi cyanide 
greater than 150 pounds to the acre penetrate to greater depths in 
sufficient ^rength to kill. Greater strengths are more effective, but 
even cyanide at the rate of 400 poimds to the acre, was not strong 
enough to kill all of the larvse throughout the tiles, for below 12 and 
15 inches a number of active larvae were found. In determining the 
depth to which sodiimi cyanide will penetrate in sufficient quantity to 
kill it is necessary to confine the larvffi to definite parts of the soil, for 
they will migrate considerably if this is not done. 

Other Chemieals. A few other chemicals, such as lime-sulfur, sodium 
sulfocarbonate and pryidine, and one commercial product, "carbol-sul,'' 
which is composed of 40 to 50 per cent of carbon bisulfide, were ex- 
perimented with, and will be briefly reported on at this time. 

Lime-sulfur, 20°B. (3 i>ots) and sodium sulfocarbonate (3 pots) were 
used separately at the jrate of 500, 250 and 100 gallons per acre. Each 
was diluted in 50 cc. of water put on the subsoil in flower i>ots as in 
experiments with sodium carbonate and the pots filled after the treat- 
li^ents were made. In another pot using lime-sulfur at the rate of 
100 gallons to the acre, 10 drops of pyridine were added, also 10 drops 
of pyridine were added to still another pot where sodium sulfocar- 
bonate was used at the rate of 100 gallons to the acre, and 10 drops 
of pyridine alone was used in one pot. In all of the above experi- 
ments there were 3 larvae in each pot. After 7 days of exposure all 
were alive and active, showing the ineffectiveness of the respective 
chemicals. 

"Carbo-sul" is manufactured by the Carbo-sul Company, Inc., of 
New York City and claims are made by these people that "carbo-sul" 
?s an effective insecticide against soil infesting insects. On January 
27 ten flower pots were prepared as in the sodium cyanide experi- 
ments with 3 active larvae at varying levels in each. These pots were 
kept in the greenhouse and No. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were treated re- 
spectively with "carbo-sul" at the rate of 500, 250, 100, 50, 25 and 10 
gallons per acre. The required amount of carbo-sul was dissolved 
in 100 cc. of water and poured on the subsoil, and then the pots were 
filled with dirt immediately. In i>ots 7, 8 and 9 the entire pot was 
filled with soil and then a surface treatment was made with "carbo-sul" 
at the rate of 500, 250 and 100 gallons per acre by dissolving the 
respective quantities in 300 cc. of water and pouring the same upon 
the filled pots. Pot No. 10 served as a check in the above experiments. 

On February 3, seven days after treating, all the pots were ex- 
amined and, altogether, only 3 dead larvae were foimd, two of these 
occurring in pot No. 1 and one in pot No. 2. All larvae were alive and 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 475 

active in pots where a surface treatment (No. 7, 8, and 9) was made. 
Hie above experiment shows the ineffectiveness of "carbo-sur* in 
flower-pot experiments and from onr experience with sodium cyanide 
under laboratory conditions, it would probably be less effective in field 
work with wireworms. 

''Carbo-suP has a very decided odor and in the above experiments 
the odor disappeared within four or five days after treating while in 
the cyanide experiments the indistinct odor coming from sodium cyanide 
was detected in the soil after two weeks' exposure, especially in pots 
receiving the larger amounts of cyanide. 

Field work 

While the laboratory experiments were being performed, one field ex- 
periment was conducted at Livingston in cooperation with Mr. J. P. Quinn 
on December 5, 1916, and we are indebted to him for the interest shown 
in this problem and his willingness to cooperate with us in every pos- 
sible manner. At this time the wireworms were scattered through- 
out the lower strata of the top soil and the upper portion of the sub- 
soiL In the infested field the subsoil varied somewhat in depth, 10 to 
15 inches, and in digging into the infested areas it was noted that the 
larvie were going down and leaving behind dis^tinct burrows through 
the sandy and day-like soil. With these observations in mind, it was 
tbiought that it might be possible to kill the wireworms provided the 
sodimn cyanide was placed at some depfth in the soil and covered at 
once. This was done by plowing deep furrows, applying the cyanide 
dissolved in water and then immediately covering the treated furrows 
with the dirt from newly-formed furrows. With this method it seemed 
that the sodium cyanide or gas which it evolves might i)enetrate the 
burrows and reach the wireworms in sufficient quantity to kill. 

A plot 74 by 390 feet was staked off in the heaviest infested poi1;ion 
(N. E.) of the 2-acre field south of the home. This was plowed to 
a depth of 6 to 8 inches and each furrow averaged 12.7 inches in 
vridth. Two furrows in the center were left untreated, serving as a 
check, while the first eight furrows on each side of the check were 
treated with cyanide at the rate of 100 pounds to the acre (10 pounds 
of sodium cyanide dissolved in 50 gallons of water and 6 gallons 
sprinkled in each furrow 390 feet long) and the outside 50 furrows 
(25 on each side) received cyanide at the rate of 150 pounds to the 
acre (15 pounds of sodium cyanide dissolved in 50 gallons of water 
and 6 gallons sprinkled in each furrow 390 feet long). The individual 
making the treatment walked a short distance ahead of the team of 
horses and plow which was making a new furrow, and sprinkled the 
cyanide solution into the open furrow by means of a 3 gallon water- 
ing pot, and then the plow threw the dirt into the treated furrow, 
thus covering the cyanide with several inches of soil almost as soon as 
it was applied. 

At the time of treatment the temperature of the soil (6 inches) was 
43'*F. In about four days heavy rains came and then a cold spell 
which froze the land. It remained in this condition until late in the 



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476 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

spring making it impossible to dig into the ground to determine the 
effect of the cyanide treatments. On May 9 the plot was examined 
in various parts and it was apparent that the cyanide had not killed 
the majority of the larva but there was undoubtedly some reductiout 
probably not over 25 per cent. So far as observed, no difference could 
be detected in the two plots where the cyanide was used at the rate of 
100 pounds and 150 pounds to the acre, respectively. 

The majority of the larvs on May 9, were fouikl at the surface of 
the subsoil and a few in the top soil. On May 25, 1917, Mr. J. P. Quinn re- 
ported that the larvae were up in the top s(m1 and attacking newly 
planted com, and at this time the heaviest infestation was in the 
southwest part of the field. On May 28 a trip was made to Livingston 
with Dr. Headlee and Mr. F. A. Kaufman of the Boessler and Has- 
slacker Chemical Company, of New York City, for the purpose of con- 
ducting some experiments on surface treatment with sodium cyanide. 
In cooperation with the above men and Mr. J. P. Quinn, 7 plots 12 by 
18 feet were laid out with check plots between them in the worst in- 
fested portion of the field, and treated as indicated in table 18. At this 
time the larvae were congregated about the com in the various hills 
and within 1 to 3 inches of the surface of the top soil. The number 
of larvae in each hill ran between 10 and 25 while occasionally as many 
as 45 were found in a hill. With the larvae congregated in this fashion 
it was thought that a thorough surface treatment with sodium cyanide 
dissolved in water might penetrate the soil and kill the wiieworma. 
The cyanide solution was sprinkled upon the plots from a 8 gallon 
watering pot. 

Table 13 
Plan of Field Experiment in Control of WirewcMrms 



Plot No. 


Condition of soil 
before troatlnr 


Amount of NaCN and 
rate per aero 


Amount of 
water 




Soil undisturbed 
Raked llffhUy 
Undisturbed and hills only 
treated 
Raked lightly 
Raked lightly 
Raked lightly 
Raked lightly 


8 oz.=: (100-lb. rate) 
8 oz.= (100-lb. rate) 

8 os.= (100-lb. rate) 
2 oz.= ( 26-lb. rate) 
4 02.= ( 60-lb. rate) 
6 ox.= ( 75-lb. rate) 
12 0%.= (160-lb. rate) 


20 gaL 

20 gaL 

10 gaL 
20 gaL 
20 gaL 
20 gal. 
20 gal. 



The above treatments recorded in tl» table were examined on June 
6 and it was found that some' of the Is^rvm were killed in the com 
hills in plots 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7, but no plot showed an effective contrt^ 
Plot 7 showed the greatest number dead, but these did not exceed 25 
per cent of all the larvae in the hills. The above experiment shows the 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



477 



impossibility of killing wireworms by treating the surface of infested 
land with sodium cyanide at the rate of 25 to 150 pounds to the acre. 

After the above results were obtained it was thought that the 
sodium cyanide must be covered and not directly exposed to the sun- 
shine and air currents in order to be effective, consequently another 
large plot was plowed and treated in a manner similar to the field 
experiment performed on December 5, 1916. This experiment was 
conducted on June 5, 1917, in the same part pi the field as on Decem- 
ber 5, but the area treated was only 40 feet wide and 195 feet long 
and plowed to a depth of 6 inches. The field was staked off at each 
end at intervals of 5 feet (see diagram) making 5 furrows to each plot. 



.195 feet- 



D ISO lbs. NaCN plua ammonium sulfate D 


C 100 lbs. NaCN plua ammonium aulfate C 


B 160 lbs. NaCN B 


A 100 IbB. NaCN A 


A 100 lb«. NaCN A 


B 160 lbs. NaCN B 


C 100 lbs. NaCN plus ammonium sulfate C 


D 150 lbs. NaCN plus ammonium sulfate D 


•Corn planted June 5. 



The required amount of sodium cyanide was dissolved in 50 gallons 
of water and the treatments made on June 5. The solution was, 
sprinkled into the open furrow with a watering pot, 8 gallons to 
each furrow, in front of a team of horses pulling a plow that filled the 
treated furrow at once. In plot A the cyanide was used at the rate 
of 100 pounds to the acre (72 ounces dissolved in 80 gallons of water) 
and in plot B at the rate of 150 pounds to the acre (108 ounces dis- 



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478 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

solved in 30 gallons of water). Plots C and D were respectiv^y 
treated with cyanide as in A and B, but in addition to tbis treatmentt 
a solution of ammonium sulfate was used. Ammonium sulfate with 
sodium cyanide probably liberates HCN (Kaufman) and thus this 
combination should be more effective. For plot C, 10 pounds of 
ammonium sulfate was dissolved in 30 gallons of water and for plot 
D, 15 pounds to 30 gallons of water. In treating plots C and D the 
sodium cyanide solution was applied with a watering pot in the 
usual manner and immediately followed by a similar quantity of h 
solution of ammonium sulfate, and then the furrow was covered at 
once. After all the plots were treated, the western half of the en- 
tire block was rolled in order to harden the surface of the soil and 
thus probably help to keep the gas within the soil. Four rows of 
com, two at each end of the block, were planted across each half of 
the treated area, and in each row there were two hills in every 
plot, as indicated by asterisks in the diagram. 

The above experiment was observed on June 11, and a number of 
active wireworms were found in all the hills of com, regardless of the 
treatment given, but on the whole they were not nearly so abundant as 
in the infested untreated portion of the field at the west end. There 
was considerable variation in the number of larvae found in liie dif- 
ferent plots, yet these differences did not accord in any definite man- 
ner with the treatments given. There was also no decided differ- 
ence In the number of larvae in the plots where the ammonium sul- 
fate was used. This experiment shows some reduction in the num- 
ber of larvse, but on the whole the treatments did not give a sat- 
isfactory control. 

On November 6, 1917, some final counts were made of the in- 
festation in the various plots of the field by removing soil to the 
depth of 15 to 20 inches from areas covering nine square feet. Table 
14 shows the resutls. 

Table 14 
Restilts of Field Experiments in Control of Wireworms 







Date of 




Plot No. 


Treatment 


application 


No. of lami 


1 


Check 




15 


2 


160 lbs. to acre 


Dec 8, 19ie 


t 




160 lbs. to acre 


Dec 6. 19ie 




t 


100 lbs. to acre 


June 6. 1917 


11 




160 lbs. to acre 


Dec 6. 191 < 




4 


( 160 lbs. to acre 


Jane 6, 1917 J 


7 



At this time the number of larv» throughout the field was much 
less than in the previous year, and the table gives indication of some 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 479 

reduction in the plots treated with cyanide, yet it also shows the in- 
effectiveness of sodium cyanide when used at strengths no greater 
than 150 pounds to the acre. 

As a last attempt to kill wireworms with sodium cyanide a num- 
ber of hills of com, heavily infested with larvae and in an untreated 
section of the field, were uncovered with a hoe on June 5 and about 
one quart of water, in which sodium cynaide was dissolved at the 
rate of 300 pounds per acre, was poured upon the larvae within each 
hill and then immediately covered with soiL The same treatment 
plus an equal amount of ammonium sulfate was also tried on a num- 
lier of infested com hills. These hills were examined on June 11 and 
all the larvae found dead, 15 to 40 to the hilL This dracrtic method of 
treating hills is apparently very effectfve, yet even in this treatment 
some of the larvae may have been repelled by the sodium cyanide 
which we do not know of. The results of this experiment show that 
it is possible to kill wireworms if one uses large doses of cyanide and 
applies the material directly upon the larvae. 

In conclusion it can be said that wireworms can be killed with 
large quantities of sodium cyanide, but the amoimt necessary to 
bring about a satisfactory control makes this method of soil treatment 
too expensive for ordinary use in the field. 

Since we were unable to control wireworms satisfactorily with 
sodium cyanide at the Orange City Poor Farm, a system of crop 
rotation dosigned to meet the problem of wireworm control was 
worked out by Dr. Headlee and Mr. Quinn, which will be put into 
operation during the coming season. 

Note, We are indebted to Mr. Kaufman of the Roessler and Hasslacker 
Chemical Company at Perth Amboy, N. J., for the interest shown in 
this work and for furnishing us with the greater portion of the sodium 
cyanide and ammonium sulfate used in the various experiments. Also, 
I am indebted to Dr. Headlee for the sincere interest shown in this 
problem and for many valuable suggestions. 



HOUSE-FLY INVESTIGATIONS 
Fly Control at Beach Haven, New Jersey 

Alvah Peterson, Ph. D. 

For several years this department has been trying out various con- 
trol measures against the house-fly and its allies and also studying 
their breeding and feeding habits. During 1913 an effort was made 
to control the flies in the city of New Brunswick, while in 1914 the 
problem of control was restricted to the College Farm. In 1915 and 
1916 careful studies were made by Mr. Richardson on the breeding 
and feeding habits of the house-fly and closely related forms. For 



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48o NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

1917 it was thought that we should take charge of the fly control 
work in some community, and make a practical demonstration of 
some of the well-known control measures. In looking about for a 
suitable place, we desired a small community, 500 to 8000 people, in 
order that one man might keep in close touch with the entire opera- 
tion. It was also necessary that the place chosen be well isolated 
from nearby cities or places where flies might breed and migrate. 
Beadi Haven, N. J., seemed to fulfill these requirements, so the city 
council was approached with the proposition and we met with a hearty 
response from the very beginning. 

Beach Haven is a small seacoast town ¥rith a residential popula- 
tion of about 500 people, and during the summer months from 2500 
to 8000 people. It is located at the southern end of a long narrow 
island (20 to 25 miles) which is several miles off the coast of New 
Jersey. The town is well isolated, for the nearest community of any 
size is Tuckerton, and this place is six or seven miles west of Beach 
Haven with an extensive body of water between the two places. The 
small communities on the island, several miles north of Beach Haven, 
are smaller than Beach Haven and possess few, if any, places where 
flies might breed abundantly. Beach Haven also has a good sewage 
disposal system and no out-of-door privies are permitted within the 
limits of the borough. The garbage is also cared for by the city, be- 
ing collected at least three times a week, placed on a large barge 
and transi>orted to a disposal plant across the bay. The above con- 
ditions at Beach Haven are in many respects quite ideal, thus mak- 
ing it possible to obtain definite results provided the remaining breed- 
ing places were cared for. These places were almost entirely con- 
fined to horse and cow stables, of which there are only eight in the 
borough and within one mile of its limits. The total number of 
animals inhabiting these places during the past season did not ex* 
ceed 25 horses, 1 pony and 8 cows. 

Undsr these conditions the control of the house-fly in this town 
largely resolved itself into caring for the manure and the stalls at 
the various stables. The first step toward fiy control was accom- 
plished in this borough on June 25 when, under personal supervi- 
sion, all the stalls and breeding places (except some large piles of 
manure) were thoroughly treated with borax (crystals). At this 
time comparatively few adults were about and only a few larv» 
were found under the floor boards in a few stalls, but some of the 
piles contained a considerable number of larvae which were sufficient 
to increase the population of flies materially if. not treated at once. 
The floor boards of stalls and other parts of the bam were examined 
every two weeks during the summer, and only once did any stable 
require more than two treatments in order to prevent breeding in 
these places. The manure piles were inspected once a week during 
June, July and August and the breeding found was reported to the 
city authorities and to the caretaker when at home. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 481 

The stable men were given instractions in respect to the disposal 
of the manure or treating when this was necessary. In the majority 
of cases a hearty response was met with, but in one or two instances 
the desired results were not obtained by this method. It is hoped 
that this difficulty may be overcome in another season. 

The manure was cared for in one of four ways at the different 
stables. The manure from two stables was removed daily (at least 
three times a week) and spread out on nearby gardens or vacant lots. 
Manure handled in this manner dries rapidly and is not suited for 
breeding; at least no larvae were found in this manure. One stable 
man removed the manure from the stable twice a week and placed it 
out on the marshes where the tides kept it soaked with salty water. 
Another stable possessed a large cement pit and the manure was 
thrown into this pit and covered with water. This method was very 
satisfactory in eliminating breeding until the pit was filled and the 
manure was exposed above the top of the pit and about its margin. 
Under these conditions a large amount of breeding was found sev- 
eral times during the season and it was necessary to use borax. All 
manure which was not cared for according to the above methods was 
treated with a solution of borax at the rate of 0.62 pounds to 8 
bushels of manure. 

The borough furnished each stable, where the borax treatment was 
necessary, with one or two large SO-gallon cans, one 10-quart water- 
ing pot and all the necessary borax for making treatments. The 
stable men were instructed to sprinkle 2hi gallons of solution on the 
daily output of manure from one horse and to make this application 
every day. One ounce of borax to one cubic foot of manure will kill 
90 per cent or more of the larvae and inhibit the eggs from hatching 
provided it is applied in solution form and the larvae and eggs come in 
contact with it. It was fignired out that the average output from one 
horse is 1% cubic feet of manure per day and that 2% gallons of water 
containing 1% ounces of borax should i>enetrate all parts of this amount 
of manure. The large stock cans held about 80 gallons of solution (18 
ounces of borax) and this was sufficient to- make 12 treatments for one 
horse. In making treatments it was noted that wet manure which had 
been soaked by rains or when located in low wet areas was difficult to 
treat, for it was next to impossible to make any additional water (by 
sprinkling) penetrate the wet manure. When manure is in this condi- 
tion, particularly in low wet areas, and contains numerous larvae, it 
should be put on higher ground in order that it may dry out somewhat; 
or a thick layer of gravel or cinders placed imder the manure in wet 
and low areas will help considerably. 

At the begimung of the season we planned to use hellebore in treat- 
ing infested manure, but this cost 30 cents a pound on the Philadelphia 
market while borax could be purchased in 100-pound lots at 9 cents a 
pound. Manure treated with borax is detrimental to some plants when 
the manure is used as a fertilizer, but, so far as known, it will not in- 
jure plants provided one does not use over 15 tons of treated manure 
to the acre. 

Ag 31 

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482 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

In the weekly inspections the manure piles were carefully examined 
and also a lookout was kept for dead fish and grarbage which might 
breed blow files and the like. One striking thing noted in respect to 
the adult flies about the town was the small percentage of common 
house-flies and the large percentage of stable and blow flies. Un- 
doubtedly the latter came from dead fish scattered here and there on 
the beach, in the marshes and about the town. At times the garbage 
was not disposed of as rapidly as it should have been and occasionally 
the cans were alive with blow-fly larvs breeding in meat and fish. The 
control of blow flies is a matter of proper disposal of all decaying 
meat and dead fish. 

Besides caring for manure, fly traps and poisoned baits were used 
during July and August, but these indoubtedly played only a minor 
part in the efforts made toward the control of flies. Poisoned baits gave 
some promise of becoming an important factor in fly controL 

Fly Traps. Wire fly traps, 10 inches in diameter and 10 inches high, 
were furnished the various stables one hotel and one restaurant Ck)m- 
paratively few adults were captured during the season, and so far as 
observed, the traps were of little value in controlling the flies. Pos- 
sibly a larger trap might have given better satisfaction. The traps 
were baited once a week by placing decayed bananas and molasses in 
a paper plate beneath the trap. 

Poisoned Bait. At the outset it was planned to make an extensive 
investigation of poisoned baits but other work would not permit. It is 
desirable to find a poisoned bait which is attractive to adult flies, easily 
applied, with good lasting qualities and which kills rapidly. Experi- 
ments were conducted with only one bait (sodium arsenite, molasses 
and water) which has recently been used by C. W. Malley with good re- 
mits in Africa. 

A number of experiments were conducted in small round traps, 6 
inches in diameter and 9 inches high, with the above bait. It was ap- 
plied to the sides of the cage by means of a brush and rhe flies within 
readily consumed the bait. After a fly had partaken of the poisoned 
solution it required from 1 to 6 hours or more for the i>olson to kill 
Table 15 shows the results of one of a number of similar experiments 
that were performed for the purpose of determining the effect of the 
varying strengths of poison and the amount necessary to kill. In this 
experiment the designated amount of sodium arsenite was dissolved in 
one-half the necessary amount of water and then an equal amount of 
com syrup ("Karo") was added. The experiment was started on July 
13 at 11 A. M. and continued until 7 A. M. the next day. Each trap 
possessed one or more individuals of Stomoxys calcitrans, Musca dames- 
tica, Calliphora eryth/rocephalfl., Lucilia sericata, Phormia regina, Fannia 
canicularis and other species but 75 per ^ cent of the flies were Stomoxys 
calcitrans. 

Individuals of all species consumed some of the i)oisoned bait and 
died. The table shows that all the strengths used, 1 ounce to 1/8 
ounce of sodium arsenite per gallon of solution, were sufficient to kHl, 
but the rapidity of kill was considerably higher with the greats 



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kxpi:riment station report. 



483 



strengrths and also the percen'tage killed (in 20 hours) was somewhat 
greater. An examination of the number of dead at 2 P. M. shows clearly 
the rapidity of kill for the various strengths. Since the above poison acts 
slowly in killing the adults this undoubtedly accounts for the fact that 
comparatively few dead flies may usually be found near the bait when 
used on a bam or otherwise. In other words, the fly may go some 
cistance before it dies. 



\ 



Table 15 



Effect of Poison of Varjdng Strength on Flies 















i 










ex 


Strength of anenite 




1? 


Q09 


I: 


Is 


a 


1! 


.6 


u 


1 


1 oz. to 1 ral. 





2 


10 


14 


14 


17 


20 


2 


22 


2 


V& OS. to 1 gal. 





s 


8 




12 


15 


17 


" 


SO 


3 


% oz. to 1 gal. 


1 


1 


6 




12 


12 


17 


6 


22 


3 


% 08. to 1 gal. 





1 


4 


6 > 


10 


13 


20 


12 


82 


5 


Check, molasses only 






















20 


20 



The poison bait used by C. W. Malley in South Africa contained 1 
i>ound of sodium arsenite, 2 gallons of cheap molasses and 10 gallons 
of water. This mixture is very thin and was found to dry rapidly on 
exposure to air, and on hardening was not as attractive as when moist. 
The above bait was thickened by using equal amounts of molasses (or 
pyrup) and water, and adding sodium arsenite at the rate of 1 ounce 
to 1 gallon of solution. Even this concentration of molasses would 
harden in the course of three of four hours, especially on a warm day 
when exposed 'to the direct rays of the sun. It was found that the ad- 
dition of honey (honey 25 per cent, molasses 25 per cent and water 50 
per cent) would keep the bait from hardening rapidly, but the use of 
honey would probably be unsafe in territories where bees are pres- 
ent. Flies are attracted in considerable numbers to freshly applied 
bait, but compartively few can be found on hardened bait, conse- 
quently it is desirable to find some material which will not dry out and 
harden rapidly but retain its moisture and remain more or less sticky. 
So far nothing satisfactory has been found outside of honey. 

The bait was applied at the various stables in the borough. A 2- 
quart pail and an ordinary paint brush were furnished and the stable 
man was asked to make a daily application of the material to the 
sides of the bam, fences or sheds where flies naturally congregate in 



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484 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

considerable numbers. At two of these stables buncbes of Eftraw were 
clipped into poisoned bait and suspended above the manure piles. It 
was noted that a considerable number of flies visited these bundles, 
especially when the bait was fresh and sticky. 

Just how many flies or what proportion of the adults were killed by 
the use in the borough of poisoned baits is unknown. In some definite 
trials it was undoubtedly effective. During the latter part of July 
Stomoxys oalcitrans and other species, including green-headed flies, 
were particularly abundant in a private garage in the southern part 
of the town (garage adjacent to a stable) so the mechanic made use 
of the poison bait by brushing a goodly quantity of the material on 
the screens in the windows. On the following day the majority of the 
flies had disappeared and numerous dead flies could be seen about the 
garage and on the window sill. Among the dead flies were a number of 
green-headed flies which the man claims readily consumed the bait 

So far as can be observed, it may be said that flies were by no 
means so abundant at Beach Haven in 1917 as in the previous season. 
Whether this was due entirely to the control measures used or to 
weather conditions and parasites we are unable to say. The only way 
definitely to determine the ffectiveness of the control measure will be 
by carrying on these various measures for several S€»^sons. In making 
the weekly inspections, it was noted that adults were abundant twice at 
one stable and once at another and these outbreaks were predicted on 
the basis of conditions at the respective bams some ten days previous 
to the appearance of the adults. Numerous comments by people who 
had lived for a number of years in Beach Haven all confirmed the fact 
that the flies were not as abundant as in former years. This was 
particularly true at one hotel where only a few flies could be found 
about the kitchen while in previous years it was said to be fairly black 
with adults throughout most of the summer. The experience of the 
past season should help considerably in combating this insect in 1918. 

Note, We are particularly indebted to Mr. Ireland and Mr. Engle for 
the interest shown in\the problem and their constant attention to nec- 
essary enforcement of treatments, etc. We also wish to express our 
thanks to those men in particular who cared for their manure in the 
proper manner and thus eliminated breeding in their piles. Personally, 
I am indebtedly to Dr. Headlee for the cooperation shown in this work 
and for the many valuable suggestions received. 



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REPORT ON MOSQUITO WORK 

Thomas J. Headlee, Ph.D. 
PREVIOUS TO 191 7 

The map which follows will serve to show in a graphic way 
what has been accomplished in salt-marsh drainage by all agencies 
up to 1916-1917, and the effect of this work on the prevalence of 
the salt-marsh species (fig. i). 

The migration of the salt-marsh mosquitoes over the upland is 
shown by dots, in the places and in relative abundance as indicated 
by last year's reports. 

The occurrence of infested areas in the region of the salt-marsh 
which is marked drained is due to the incompleteness of the drain- 
age system installed. 

An3rthing like complete elimination throughout this large area 
involves the installation of more complete drainage systems than 
now exist in more than a very few places. For the purpose of 
showing lack of completeness in the drainage system, table 
I, giving estimates prepared about January i, 1917, is presented. 

Table i 
Status of Salt-Marsh Drainage in New Jersey, January i, 191 7 



Countj 


Total area 
acres 


Drained or not in 
. need of draining 
, per cent 


Undrained 
per gent 


TTudaon 


11.468 
8.378 
4.631 
4,41S 
8.199 
8,878 


66 
60 
98 
90 
60 
AO 


44 


Bergen 


40 


Basex 


2 


Union 


10 


Mlddleaez 


60 


Monmouth 


40 


Ocean 


40.400 1 fio 


40 


Atlantic 


63.335 
53.688 
52.661 


66 
11 

4 


45 


Cape May 


89 


Cumberland 


96 







In Bergen, the lower end of Ocean, Atlantic, and Cape May 
as well as in certain limited areas in other counties the ground 
which was covered was sufficiently drained, and the percentage 
marked as undrained represents areas that are practically un- 

(485) 



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Condition in m 

^\\i Aw1W i I. 

AREA OF OPtCINAL 
IT HAQSH MOSQUITO 
INFESTATION ENCLOSCO BV 

BROKEN LINE 

TIDAL MARSH UNORAINED ■ 
TIDAL MARSH PARTLY OR 
COMPLETELY DRAINED B 

AREA PRACTICALLY FREED OF 
SALT MARSH MOS(HJITOeS IP. 

AREA STILL INFESTED W 
SALT MARSH MOSQUITOES S 



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££& 






EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 487 

touched. In the other counties, however, with the v limited areas 
expected, the shortage is due to lack of completeness within areas 
already covered by drainage systems. 

The same point is shown by the fact that the average number 
of linear feet per acre in the area covered is about 120, while rather 
careful investigations of the past three years have shown that about 
3cx> linear feet of iox30-inch ditching, or its equivalent, per acre 
is necessary to effect mosquito drainage in open salt meadows. In 
sections shut in by railway grades, roadways, and fills the number 
of feet required may be less, but the cost of dike, sluice, and tide- 
gate construction, or the installation of pumps and the maintenance 
of all will more than offset the difference. 

Although not by any means complete, the amount of work ac- 
complished is large and the results in mosquito control gratifying. 
Al)out January i, 191 7, a general statement of the work up to that 
time was prepared, which reads as follows : 

"Approximately 95,000 acres of salt marsh have been rendered 
reasonably free from mosquito breeding. This has involved the 
cutting of 11,500,000 feet of ditches 10 inches wide and 30 inches 
deep, or their equivalent, the building of 17.2 miles of dike, the 
installation of 76 sluice and tide-gates (representing 842 square feet 
of cross section outlet opening), the installation of one 4 and one 
12-inch centrifugal pump and the connection of 100 acres of marsh 
with a large sewage pumping plant. 

'*The best testimony as to the efficiency of the work is the fact 
that not a single brood of mosquitoes of any consequence has 
emerged during the past season (1916) from the 95,000 acres which 
have been drained." 

Previous to 1912 the burden of salt-marsh drainage was borne 
by the State of New Jersey, through its Agricultural Experiment 
Station, alone and in some cases in cooperation with certain munic- 
ipalities such as Jersey City, Newark, and Elizabeth. In 1912, how- 
ever, the county mosquito unit was authorized and local effort be- 
came at once pronounced. With the county unit come the regular 
maintenance of the trenching already cut and the establishment 
of new drainage systems. In 1912 Essex and Union counties began. 
In 1913, Hudson, Passaic and Atlantic became active and Essex 
and Union continued. In 19 14, Bergen, Middlesex, Monmouth and 
Ocean began and the others continued. In 1915 Cape May took up 
the work and the others continued. Local efforts were under- 



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488 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

taken in Somerset, Mercer and Camden but in every case the prob- 
lem of mosquito control was found to be local and not of sufficient 
importance to merit county-wide activity. 

The salt-marsh work of a drainage character done by the counties 
soon reached and passed the state's efforts. At the beginning of 
the county work (1912) the state was doing about 75 per cent 
and the counties 25 per cent of the salt-marsh drainage, while in 
19 1 5 the state was doing 28' per cent and the counties 72 per cent, 
and in 1916 they were doing all of it. 

While endeavoring to economize on state expenditures during 
the winter of 191 5- 16, the Legislature provided only $4,800, just 
enough to keep the force together, and consequently no new drain- 
age work could be undertaken by the State Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

Table 2 

Salt-Marsh Ditching in New Jersey, 1912-1916 





Experiment Station Ditchinir 


County Commission Dltcbinc 


Tear 


No. of feet 
cut 


No. of feet 
cleaned 


No. of feet 
cut 


No. of feet 
cleaned 


i»n 

1$13 

1914 

1915 

1916 


1,086,188* 

689,842 

821,601 

745.106 

None 


Minimum amount 
None 
None 
None 


289.800 

879.365 

1,057,167 

1.971.242 

2.542.713 


470.000 
1.800.000 

919.000 
8.171.128 

600.000»» 



Many of the county units undertone the control of fresh-water 
species as well as those which bred on the salt marsh. This was 
true of Hudson, Bergen, Essex, Union, and Atlantic counties. 
Passaic had no salt marsh and so devoted its entire attention to the 
fresh-water species. 

One portion of the statement mentioned on page 487 bears on 
the volume of fresh-water work accomplished. "Approximately 
50 per cent of the reasonably permanent fresh-water mosquito breed- 
ing pools, scattered over 315,000 acres of upland, have been per- 

* Maximum figures, probably 26 per cent or more too high. 

**Blockare was removed from the entire system; the above Inolndes complete 
oleanlnf only. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 489 

manently eliminated. Approximately 315,000 acres of upland have 
been likewise patrolled (during 1916) and as nearly as possible all 
residual breeding destroyed." 

Throughout the development of the county work the anti-mos- 
quito knowledge and force of the State Agricultural E3q)eriment 
Station has been at the command of the county units and has been 
very freely used by them. 

WORK OF 1917 

Mosquito Control Work of the State Agricultural Experiment 
Station — Salt-Marsh Drainage 

Two pieces of drainage work were undertaken and carried out 
during 1916-17. One was located in Upper Township of Cape May 
County on both sides of Beesley's Point and another in Little Egg 
Harbor Township of Ocean County on the marsh lying about Well's 
Island. 

Upper Township, Cape May County Work. The area laid 
out for drainage extended from the Meadow Boulevard West 
of Peck's Bay northward along the upland to Beesley's Point 
and southward along the west side of the upland from Beesley's 
Point to Schooner Creek. More than half that portion of the area 
lying east of the upland was already covered by drainage systems, 
but it was included with the thought that such additions as might 
be necessary to complete could be made. As a matter of fax:t, the 
marsh owners were so opposed to such action that it did not seem 
practicable to make any addition to the system as already established, 
especially in view of the fact that the drainage was reasonably good 
as it stood. 

Bids were called for and Mr. Harold I. Eaton, having submitted 
the lowest bid, was awarded the contract on February 7, 1917, for 
100,000 linear feet of ditching, 10 inches wide and 30 inches deep, 
or its equivalent, for the sum of $2,400. By "equivalent" is meant 
ditches of greater width or less depth reckoned on the basis of the 
standard iox30-inch ditch. 

The actual work of drainage began at the point where the last 
work left off, continued northward to Beesley's Point and from 
thence southwestward as far toward Schooner Creek as the funds 



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490 NEW JERSEY -AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 491 

could permit. Not as much spur ditching was cut as the type of 
salt marsh demanded, but quite as much was put in as could be in- 
stalled and allow us to live on terms of amity with the small 
owners. (Fig. 2.) 

All told 99,579 linear feet of iox3o-inch, or its equivalent, of 
main ditching was put in and 2,408 linear feet of spur ditches were 
cut. The system thus established covers 650 acres. 

Little Egg Harbor Township, Ocean County Work. The area 
laid out for drainage practically surrounds Well's Island and in- 
cluded all that territory between the Mullica River and Great Bay 
on the one hand and Deep and Roundabout Creeks on the other. 

Bids were called for and Mr. Harold I. Eaton's proposal, be- 
ing the lowest of all submitted, was accepted and a contract for 
cutting 1 14,285 linear feet of iox3o-inch ditching, or its equivalent, 
was let for the sum of $2,400 on April 24, 1917. 

As a matter of fact, the footage contracted for failed to cover 
the whole of the areas as above outlined. It covered the marsh 
surrounding Well's Island only and included about 640 acres. 

Although parts of the area were such as to demand a large amount 
of spurring, very little was put in because it was thought that the 
Ocean County Mosquito Extermination Commission could do that 
more cheaply with its own labor. The Commission agreed thus to 
supplement the ditching system established. After the contracted 
amount (114,285 feet) had been cut 5,220 feet additional for the 
purpose of securing better outlets were cut at a labor cost of $100. 
All told 119,505 linear feet of ditching was cut by the State Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station on this area. 

The nature and the arrangement of the system thus established 
are shown in figure 3. 

Table 3 serves to show year by year the amount of salt-marsh 
drainage that has been established. Up to 1913 the amount stated 
is based upon estimates for the most part. Beginning in 1913 the 
amount of drainage stated is based on measurements. It has been 
deemed advisable to omit the acreage because so much of the drain- 
age is placed in areas already covered by inadequate drainage sys- 
tems. The cost of administration up to 1913 included the diflference 
between the contract price of ditching and the total amoimt ex- 
pended. With the formation of the county commission unit, local 
interest in mosquito control became such that expenditures for 
salaries, traveling, preparation of plans and matters necessary there- 



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492 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 




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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



493 



to increased to a point where the difference between the money 
spent for ditching and the total expenditure could not be justifiably 
charged to administration of salt-marsh drainage. In 1913, I9i4» I9IS» 

Table 3 

Statement of Salt-Marsh Drainage from the Beginning to and 
Including the Year 191 7 











COST TO THE STATE 






Feet of 




1 


ADMINISTRATION 


PBRIOD 


Acres 


ditching 




Necessary ! 








Ditching 


studies and j 


For actual 


For other 










publications 

1 


ditch 
cutting 


purposes 
of the act 


Up to 1907. as reported 


1 

16.861 


2,216.624 




111.000.00 


. 




In 1907. as reported... 


10.961 


1.605.524 


119.400.00 




$4,100.00 




In 1908. as reported... 


6.669 


888.660 


16.768.00 




4.242.00 




In 1909. as reported... 


2.672 


365.800 


9.917.00 


589.00 


4.648.00 




In 1910, as reported... 


4.650 


860.000 


4,471.00 




2.628.00 




In 1911. as reported... 


8.628 


712.000 


19.660.00 




6.850.00 




In 1912. as reported... 


6.196 


1.000.180 


21.660.00 




3.360.00 




In 1913. as measured.. 


7,174 


1.664.842 


21,580.00 




4,028.70 


I4.89S.S0 


In 1914. as measured.. 




1.298.840 


7.5SS.86 




6.213.66 


2.224.09 


In 1915, as measured.. 




2.686,071 


18,426.26 




4.085.40 


1.600.00 


In 1916. as measured.. 




2.643.718 






2.378.88 


1.800.00 


In 1917, as measured.. 




2,897.869 


4.900.00 




2,772.00 


2.296.81 



Table 4 

Statement of the Salt-Marsh Drainage Work Done by the 

State Experiment Station and the County Mosquito 

Extermination Commissions 





Experiment Station Ditching 


County Commission Ditching 


Date 


Number of 
feet cut 


Number of 
feet cleaned 


Number of 
feet cut 

289.800 
879.366 
1.067.187 
1.971,248«« 
2.642.718 
2,176,492 


Number of 
feet cleaned 


1912 

1913 

1914 

1916 

1916 

1917 


1,0S6,180« 
689.842 
821.601 
71S.823 
None 
221.492 


Minimum amount 
None 
None 
None 
None 


470.000 

1.300,000 

919,000 



1916 and 1917 an attempt was made to charge that portion which it 
seemed should properly belong to salt-marsh drainage under that 
head. In 1916 the only salt-marsh drainage work consisted of the 
finishing of contracts let the previous year. 

•Maximum figures, probably 26 per cent too high. 
**In 1916 the practice of going over every foot of the entire system obtained. 



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494 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The large number of feet listed for the present and the past sev- 
eral years is due to the work of the county mosquito commissions 
in their attempt to drain the salt marshes that come within the limits 
of their counties. Table 4 serves to show this point. 

Aid Extended and Surveys Made 

During the year the entomologist has made 87 trips to various 
points in the interests of mosquito-control work, occupying approx- 
imately 108 days. 

Two surveys were made — the first a fresh-water problem at AI- 
lamuchy Lake artd the second a salt-marsh problem at Sea Isle City. 

Allamuchy Lake Report. The lake itself is an artificial pond 
caused by damming across a narrow valley. As is customary 
with such lakes the head of it is shallow and runs out into a ty|rical 
marsh. The sides are timbered to the very water's edge and many 
trees have fallen over into the water. Just above the lake (No. i) 
is another dam and another lake (No. 2) which is about one- fourth 
the size of Lake No. i. The marsh above is about the same size as 
the marsh adjoining the first lake. Just beyond the camp buildings, 
that is ,southwest of the camp, is another inlet with its corresponding 
marsh. 

The following procedure was advised : 

(1) Lake No. 1 

(a) Clear edges of all vegetation and fallen timber and stock 
with fish. 

(b) Cut main outlet through marsh at its head, either dig or 
dynamite. 

(c) Clear all inlet streams of any obstruction and drain swamp 
southwest of the camp. 

(2) Lake No. 2. 

(a) Lower surface of lake by taking out 3 feet of dam so as to 
drain marsh near upland. 

(b) Keep camp clear of all tinware and crockery so that there may 
be no standing water in the camp. 

The woods within a radius of one mile of the camp should be 
inspected and all woodland pools be located and either filled or 
drained. 

Mosquitoes may fly from the large marsh areas about Waterloo, 
or from the marsh just beyond the divide above the camp, but 
these may be drained in the same manner as the other marshes by a 
deep straight central outlet. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 495 

Sea Isle City Report. The area concerned in this rei>ort 
is that part of Ludlam Beach which extends from the point where 
the West Jersey and Seashort Railroad enters to Corson's Inlet. 
Iti this section the natural drainage of the beach is greatly inter- 
fered with by the roadway and the roadbeds of the West Jersey 
and Seashore and Atlantic City Railroads. 

The purpose' of the plan and specifications which follow is to re- 
lieve this congestion and re-establish eflFective drainage. 

The proposed drainage system is planned to carry all the surface 
water oflF the marsh inclosed by the railroads. The railroad ctd- 
verts are all placed 30 inches below the surface of the marsh through- 
out plan I and 24 inches below the surface in plans II and III, 
and are so provided with ditches that the water may run out with 
every low tide. The most northerly culvert has a special g^de. 

The culverts under the street shall be placed as low as possible 
without actually digging into the sand itself. The ditches must 
be so graded as to carr>' the standing water out readily. 

The plan of this system has been drawn to an approximate scale 
of I inch equal to 200 feet. The streets, etc., were taken directly 
from the tax maps; and the switches, the marsh line and some of 
the creek outlets were sketched in on the ground. All are approxi- 
mately correct. 

The plan calls for a ditch between the Atlantic City Railroad 
and the West Jersey and Seashore Railroad thrpughout the length 
of the marsh, except where the fills are over 50 feet in width 
and in such places this ditch is omitted. The same applies to be- 
tween the West Jersey and Seashore Railroad and the trolley, and 
between the trolley and Commonwealth Avenue on maps II and III. 

The ditching east of Commonwealth Avenue is merely indicated, 
the exact location is to be staked as the work starts. 

Drain No. 1 is located just across Landis Avenue from House 
Street It is a 20 by 30-inch ditch. It goes under the West Jersey 
and Sea Shore Railroad tracks 6.2 feet below base of rail and under 
the Atlantic City Railroad 2.8 feet below base of rail and outlets into 
Beach Creek. • 

Drain No. 2 consists of a 20 by 30-inch ditch under Landis Ave- 
nue, 75 feet north , of Matilda Street. It runs as far but does not 
cross the West Shore and Seashore tracks. 

Drain No. 3 consists of a 20 by 30-inch ditch, starting 100 feet east 
of Landis Avenue just north of Farrand Street. From there it runs 
in a westerly direction crossing Landis Avenue and crosses the 
West Jersey and Sea Shore Railroad 6.2 feet below base of rail 
and the Atlantic City Railroad 2.8 feet below base of rail. It then 
continues across the marsh and outlets into Swimming Creek. 



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496 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Drain No. 4 is a 20 by 30-iiich ditch crossing Landis Avenue just 
north of Elm Street. It outlets into the middle ditch and runs as far 
as the West Jersey and Seashore Railroad tracks. 

Drain No. 5 is situated 600 feet north of Drain No. 4. It starts 75 
feet east of Landis Avenue and crosses Landis Avenue running in 
a wesfterly direction across the West Jersey and Seashore Railroad at 
a grade of 6.2 feet below base of rail and across the Atlantic City 
Railroad 2.8 feet below base of rail, thence across the marsh into 
Swimming Creek. 

Drain No. 6 runs parallel to Drain No. 5 and is situated 500 feet 
north of it. 

Drain No. 7 starts 200 feet east of Landis Avenue just north of 
Prospect Street. It crosses Landis Avenue by culvert and under the 
freight switch of the West Jersey and Seashore Railroad. Thence, 
it crosses the main track of the West Jersey and Seashore Railroad 
6.2 tenths feet below base of rail and the Atlantic City Railroad 2JS 
feet below and thence across the marsh into Swimming Creek. A 
branch from Drain No. 7 cix)sses Prospect Street by culvert and 
drains the block east. 

Drain No. 8 is located just south of proposed Philadelphia Street. 
It crosses Landis Avenue by culvert and thence crosses the Wert 
Jersey and Seashore tracks 5.2 feet below base of rail and across the 
Atlantic City Railroad 2.8 feet below base of rail and thence across 
the marsh and into Ludlam Bay. 

Drain No. 9 is 1300 feet north of Drain No. 8. It crosses Landis 
Avenue, the West Jersey and Seashore Railroad at a grade of 5.2 
feet below base of rail, the Atlantic City Railroad at a point 
2.2 feet below base of rail thence across into Ludlam Bay. As this 
part of the cut is through sand, it must be made with sloping sides 
and should be 8 feet wide and 2 feet deep. 

Drain No. 10 is 1400 feet north of Drain No. 9 and otherwise simi- 
lar to it 

Drain No. 11 is 1500 feet north of Drain No. 10 and otherwise simi- 
lar to it. 

Drain No. 12 is 1650 feet north of Drain No. 11. It crosses Landis 
Avenue and thence across the West Jersey and Seashore tracks at a point 
5.2 feet below base of rail and across the Atlantic City Railroad 2.8 
feet below base of rail, directly across the marsh into Ludlam Bay. 

Drain No. 13 is just north of the Whale Beach switch. This crosses 
the trolley tracks and the West Jersey and Seashore tracks through old 
culvert No. 7, which is low enough to drain low spots between Com- 
monwealth Avenue and the Wert Jersey and Seashore Railroad. The 
Atlantic City Railroad crossing must be 2.8 feet below base of rail, 
however, and then directly across into Ludlam Bay. 

Drain No. 14 is located 1400 feet north of Drain No. 13. It crosses 
Commonwealth Avenue, the trolley, the West Jersey and Seashore at 
a grade of 5.2 feet below base of rail and the Atlantic City Railroad 
at a grade of 2.8 feet below base of rail, thence directly across ix^ 
Ludlam Bay. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 497 

Drain No. 15 is 1600 feet north of Drain No. 14 and drains into 
the iK>nd» outlets and grade remaining the same. 

Drain No. 16 is 900 feet north of Drain No. 15 and runs at the 
same grade across the railroad emptying into the pond. 

Drain No. 17 is just south of Prescptt Avenue. It crosses Com- 
monwealth Avenue, the trolley tracks, the Wert Jersey and Seashore 
Eailroad at a grade of 5.2 feet below "base of rail and the Atlantic 
City Railroad at 2.8 feet below base of rail, thence across the marsh 
into Strathmere Bay. 

Drain No. 18 is at the northern end of Strathmere. It has two culverts 
across Commonwealth Avenue, one across Willard Road and then it 
runs as a railroad ditch to a point 75 feet north of Webster Road 
where it crosses the railroad at a grade of 5.8 feet below base of rail. 
Then it crosses sand hills where the sides must be kept in place by 
planks 1 inch thick on each side. It is dug thus for 200 feet, crosses 
Bay View Drive and opens directly into the Bay. Grade stakes are 
^ven for all road culverts in this drain. 

Cross drains as given are connected by cross ditches in many 
places. These are shown on the maps. 

There are at present lo culverts under the West Jersey and Sea- 
shore Railroad tracks as they cross the tidal marsh from Hartson 
Street, Sea Isle to the Corson Inlet Station, Strathmere. These 
do not include the street culverts in Sea Isle proper. 

Cu]|rert No. 1 is located at the most southerly part of the marsh. 
It is just north of the fill on which Hailson Street is to be built. It 
consists of a round iron culvert about 10 inches in diameter, the bot- 
tom of which is probably 4 feet below the top of the rail. There is 
a comparatively good ditch leading to it but the ditch leading from 
it is badly choked with cinders, sand and weeds. The situation is 
very bad if a drainage into the Atlantic City Railroad culvert is to 
be considered. 

Culvert No. 2 is located about 800 feet north of Culvert No. 1. It 
is set with the bottom approximately 5 feet below the top of the rail 
at this point. At present there is 1 foot of water standing in it as 
a result of no outlet. It opens at a point where it would have to 
cross two switches in order to go straight to any good outlet. It 
is an iron culvert 2 feet in diameter. 

Culvert No. 3 is an old box culvert set about 250 feet south of 
Prospect Street Station. This needs lowering to grade. 

Ciriveyt No. 4 is an old wooden culvert set just opposite Philadelphia 
Avenue. This is a box 18 by 12 inches and set 4 feet below the top 
of the rail. 

Culvert No. 5 is just about 100 feet north of Culvert No. 4. It is 
a wooden box and is unnecessary if Culvert No. 4 is lowered. 

Culvert No. 6, is located just south of the switch at Whale Beach. 
This is a very small 6 by 10-inch box culvert set 4 feet below the 
top of the rail. This needs lowering and an increase in size. 

Ag32 



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498 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Culvert No. 7 is loca'ted just north of Whale Beach switch. This 
is cast iron protected on the west side with terra cotta. It acts as 
a street culvert for the road crossing at this place and if proi)er out- 
let and inlet were furnished it would be in very good shape. 

Culvert No. 8 is located opposite Emerson Road. This is a wooden 
box culvert set 4 feet below the top of the rail. It is open for its 
entire length but needs lowering. 

Culvert No. 9 is situated in line with Franklin Road. It consists 
of a box culvert which is set 4 feet below the top of the raiL It is 
not able to drain the ponds properly until it is set lower and pro- 
vided with a proper outlet. 

Culvert No. 10 is situated just opposite the center line of Otis Ave- 
nue. It is an iron pipe set 4 feet below the* top of the rail. No good 
outlet has been provided so that it has rapidly become filled. It is 
low enough at this point, but a much better place to drain would be 
just sourth of Prescott Street (one block north of Otis). Here the old 
grade of 5 feet below the top of the rail would be sufficient. 

The culverts under the triangular switch of the Atlantic Qty 
Railroad near Matilda Street are all good, but those under the 
main line are all worn and broken, the only active one being at 
a point 200.feet north of Culvert No. i on the West Jersey and 
.Seashore Railroad. The other culverts are all broken, and all need 
resetting. 

The culverts in the triangle switch near Sea Isle are new and are 
draining the inclosed marsh well. 

Taken as a whole, the grade of the bottom of the Atlantic City 
Railroad culverts should be 2.18 feet below the base of the rail and 
they should be arranged so that they will be opposite those proposed 
for the West Jersey* and Seashore tracks. 

Financial Statement of State Experiment Station's 
Mosquito Work 

Total appropriation $10,000.00 

Salt-mav6h ditching (contracts and incidental 

labor) $4,900.00 

Advertising for proposals 32.37 

Equipment 307.69 

Telephone and telegraph 30.26 

Postage 65.00 

Salaries of regular and temporary employees 3,135.00 

Traveling expenses 1,800.30 

Clerical and laboratory assistance 65.00 

Labor and technical assistance 82.20 

Reverting to State Treasury 82.19 

$10,000.00 

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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 499 

County Mosquito Extermination Commission Work 
Hudson, Bergen, Essex and Union have continued their eflforts 
to find and destroy all mosquito breeding which occurs within their 
limits. Passaic did the same work for the territory covered by the 
cities of Paterson and Passaic and adjacent boroughs. Middlesex, 
Monmouth, Ocean and Cape May have devoted their whole attention 
to the suppression of saltrmarsh breeding. Atlantic has given pri- 
mary attention to the suppression of breeding on her salt-marshes but 
has also made an eflfort to suppress the local fresh-water species in 
Atlantic City and other towns and cities of the county. 

Hudson County 

The plan of discovering by regular examinations of all parts of 
th^ county all mosquito breeding and of destroying it in so far as 
possible has been continued during the present year. The effort to 
eliminate the reasonably permanent breeding places in a permanent 
manner by proper drainage and filling has been continued to the 
extent of the commission's funds. 

During March and April the entire drainage system was thor- 
oughly gone over and cleared wherever thought to be necessary. 
About 700,000 feet of marsh trenching were thus put in shape for 
tlie summer. 

During the season 109,943 linear feet (reckoning on the basis of 
ditches 10 inches wide and 30 inches deep) of ditching was done. 
Most of this was cut in areas filled with old cedar stumps and was 
both difficult and expensive to install. The detail of this work is 
indicated in the following statement : 

Apr. 12. J. C. Meadows west of West Side Park, 15,000 ft. at 2% 

cents per ft. 
May 10. Dennis property, Belleville Turnpike, stump-lot ditching, 2,120 

ft at 7 cents per ft. 

Peat House, Snake Hill, for County Board of Health, 826 ft. 

at 2% cents per ft. 

J. C. Meadows, 2,507 ft. at 2% cents per ft. 

County Road near P. R. R., 2,235 ft. at 2% cents per ft. 

County Road near P. R. R., 1,835 ft. at 7 cents per ft. 

Harrison Turnpike & D., L. & W. R. R., 3,266 ft. at 2^^ cents 

per ft 

Saw Mill Creek, stump-lots, 5,200 ft. at 7 cents per ft 
May 25. Kearny Meadows, north of Belleville Turnpike, stump-lots, 

17,100 ft. at 7 cents per ft. 

Same ditch, clear, 483 ft. at 2% cents per ft 



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500 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

Clear Meadow ditches, parallel with Harrison Turnpike, 4,460 

ft. at 2^ cents per ft. 
June 14. New Ditch, Saw Mill Creek section, 10,570 ft. at 7 cents per 

ft. 

Repairing old ditch from P. R. R. west to pump, 6^50 ft. at 

5 cents per ft. 

Repairing stump-lot ditch, P. R. R. east to Dead Horse Credt 

section, 2,400 ft. at 7 cents per ft. 
July 12. Stump-lots, Saw Mill Creek, 15,372 ft. at 7 cents per ft. 

Dead Horse Creek section, 4,400 ft. at 7 cents per ft. 
Aug. 9. From Saw Mill Creek towards Erie R. R, 1,480 ft. at 7 cents 

per ft. 

Belleville Pike near Arlington, 8,789 ft. at 7 cents per ft. 

Near P. R. R., Secaucus, 8,800 ft. at 7 cents per ft. 
Oct 25. Kearny stump-lots near D., L. & W. R. R., 6,000 ft at 7 cents 

per ft. 
Nov. 1. Kearny stump-lots north of Belleville Turnpike, 4,500 ft at 

7 cents per ft. 

Cleaning and recutting 400 ft. of same territory at 10 cents 

per ft 
The Commission reports as follows on the prevalence of mos- 
quitoes : 

"Briefly stated, the conditions were by no means discouraging, 
considering the weather and other conditions which we had to con- 
tend with. Mosquitoes were not at all troublesome in any part of 
the county until well along in July. In Arlington, where they were 
found in greater numbers than in any other part of the county, they 
did not appear until about July I2, and were not troublesome after 
August 15; in fact, by that date had almost entirely disappeared. 
In Harrison and East Newark, the adjourning communities, they 
were not troublesome at any time during the season. 

"At Snake Hill they were not noticed until about July 20, and 
were troublesome there only about four weeks. Bayonne was not 
afflicted seriously until about August i, and then the trouble ex- 
isted only along the shore front,, principally on the east and south 
sections of the city and along Newark Bay. Lafayette, Hoboken, 
West Hoboken and Union Hill experienced far less trouble than 
in previous years. In North Hudson, adjourning the Bergen County 
line, pipiens were found troublesome as early as July i. In Jersey 
City, particularly along the western section from Newark Avenue 
to the Bayonne line and west of Summit Avenue and the Boulevard, 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 501 

salt-marsh mosquitoes were considerably trouhjesome subsequent to 
July 20, for about three weeks. Jersey City, east of Summit Ave- 
nue from Lafayette to Hoboken, was practically free of mosquitoes 
during the entire season. 

"Considering the conditions found in reference to the mosquito 
pest throughout the state, we think we have reason to feel pleased 
with the scarcity of the mosquito pest in this county and the short 
duration of their period of annoyance. We find but a few who 
complain of being annoyed indoors, and the use of bed canopies for 
protector purposes is a thing of the past. 

"Among the communicable diseases reported throughout the 
county, we find only two cases of malaria reported to the Kearny 
Board of Health, both of which appeared after the patients had 
returned from a vacation in the country." 

Bergen County 

The mosquito commission started this year with the definite plan 
of devoting a large proportion of the labor budget to upland drain- 
age and retaining for the salt-marsh work merely enough properly 
to maintain the work already done. The commission's idea in mak- 
ing this plan was to test the efficiency of the drainage system 
already established on the salt marsh. On the whole, salt marsh 
as judged by the breeding found seemed to be pretty well drained. 
It appeared that the North Arlington meadow would be more easily 
controlled if some cross ditching were placed to secure a better 
circulation by breaking the long diagonal ditches, some of which 
are nearly one mile in length. It appeared that the Lyndhurst 
meadow drainage would be greatly improved by the constructing of a 
modem automatic tide-gate in Stump Creek. It seemed that the wi- 
dening of certain sewage-charged ditches in the East Rutherford 
meadow would be advisable. Walden's and Leive's woodlands, 
the first lying south and the second north of the Paterson Plank 
Road, must be drained. The Overpeck Creek meadow should be 
drained. 

Plans for the efficient carrying out of the work just mentioned 
are being worked out. 

The commission feels that its work on the upland has involved 
the completion of a number of pieces of drainage work that are of a 
real importance to the communities where the work occurred. The 
policy followed in carrying out this work has been to secure the 



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S02 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



financial cooperation of the community in which the work was to be 
done. In this way many miles of drainage have been installed and 
many of the worst breeding spots in the county have been eliminated. 

In this way extensive pieces of drainage were done at West 
Moonachie, Hasbrouck Heights, Ramsey, Fort Lee, Oradell, Ruther- 
ford, Palisade Township, Haworth, Englewood, East Paterson, 
Riverside, Teaneck, Westwood, Emerson and Camp Merritt. 

Most of the ditching is of the open or uncovered type and the 
eflfect of the frost is bound to be felt in the sliding in of the banks 
and the formation of obstruction which must be removed from 
time to time. 

Tabic 5 
Record of Mosquito Collections in Bergen County 







Total number of mosquitoes 
















caught 














1 












c 


% c 






0. 

i 




1 
1 


B 1 

i;5 


Date 


1 

1 

g 
g 


i 

i 


cc 

S 

u 

s 

1 


o 

a 
s 

1 


o 

9 

s 

9 
O 

X 


1 

o 


1 

Eh 


11 
If 


It 


5^w 

111 

5?i 




















minutes 


6/8, 1917 


7 


4 


4 




8 




13 


1.6 


20 


12.6 


e/19, 1917... 


29 


19 


29 


14 


8 




70 


2.4 


20 


8.6 


e/26, 1917... 


86 


8 


23 




8 




44 


1.2 


20 


16.6 


7/8, 1917.... 


42 


21 


96 




88 




166 


3.7 


20 


6.4 


7/10, 1917... 


26 


6 


16 




26 




68 


2.8 


20 


S.6 


7/17, 1917... 


19 


4 


29 


, , 


40 


, , 


78 


8.6 


20 


6.2 


7/24. 1917... 


42 


71 


121 




28 




226 


6.3 


20 


S.7 


8/1. 1917.... 


40 


24 


188 




27 




188 


4.7 


20 


4.2 


8/8, 1917.... 


48 


17 


60 




86 




118 


2.6 


20 


7,6 


8/14. 1917... 


40 


47 


83 




49 




189 


8.4 


20 


8.8 


8/21, 1917... 


29 


40 


10 




41 




98 


8.8 


20 


e.6 


8/28, 1917... 


42 


18 


S7 


^ , 


17 




74 


1.7 


20 


11.0 


9/14. 1917... 


86 


2 


4 




12 


, . 


18 


.6 




4«.4 


9/11, 1917... 


9 

























For the purpose of giving some notion of the prevalence of mos- 
quitoes, table 5, based upon the regular weekly night collections, is 
introduced. In interpreting it one must remember that these col- 
lections are made in weed patches and in shrubbery where the mos- 
quitoes are much more abundant than in the open streets, roadways, 
and yards. 



Note: Salt-marsh species include A. cantator, A. solUcltans. and A. taenlorliTiiehiiB. 

Fresh-water swamp species include M. pertnrbans and A. sylvestris, mostly the latter. 

Woodland pool species include A. suboantans and A. 

House mosquito O. plpiens. 

other species A. panottplnnls' and A. qaadrlmaculatiis. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 503 

The dominance of the fresh-water swamp mosquito is strikingly 
shown in the colimin entitled "Total number of mosquitoes caught." 
There were evidently three main issues horn the salt marshes — the 
first reaching its highest point abount June 19, the second about 
July 3 and the third, the largest of all, about July 24. The fresh- 
water swamp brooks follow the same plan, but became relatively 
more abundant in the late midsimimer issue. 

Passaic Coimty 

In Passaic County the work of mosquito control was limited to 
the cities of Paterson and Passaic, Aquacknock Township, and the 
boroughs of Hawthorne, Prospect Park, Totowa, and West Park. 
This territory amounts to 75 square miles and has a population of 
241,000, or 91 per cent of the entire population of the county. The 
funds were too small to make it practicable to include the whole 
county. 

In the absence of salt marshes the entire attention was given to 
the suppression of fresh-water species. 

At regular intervals throughout the mosquito-breeding season, 
all parts of the territory were examined and all breeding discovered 
eliminated in so far as possible. Owing to lack of funds most of the 
elimination work was of a temporary character. 

Breeding in 223 swamps and reasonably permanent pools, 1,220 
barrels and tubs, 1,690 cisterns and wells, 648 sewer catch basins 
and 116 cesspools and drains was revealed by the inspection work. 

The Passaic River from Dundee Dam to Wagaraw Bridge, a dis- 
tance of about five miles, became at times, along the banks and the 
shores of the sludge islands, an intense breeder of mosquitoes. Pa- 
trol by means of a boat and elimination by covering the breeding 
surface with oil was necessary throughout the summer. Along that 
part of the river from the Dundee Dam south to the Ackerman 
Avenue Bridge, a number of isolated pools proved to be virulent 
breeders and had to be regularly treated with oil. 

An effort to invoke the authority of the mosquito section of 
general health laws was made with little success. Only two boards 
of health responded in a way to get any real results. 

For the purpose of giving an idea of the prevalence of mosquitoes 
throughout the cities of Paterson and Passaic during the present 
season, table 6, based upon regular collections, is presented. It 
must be remembered that the collections here recorded were made 



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504 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

in weed patches or shrubbery where the mosquitoes are much more 
abundant than in the open street or dooryard. 

Taolc 6 

Record of Mosquito Collections in Passaic Cotmty 







Total number of mosquitoes 












caugrht 




« 


a 


« 














H a 


Date 


■ 
a 
o 

5 

a 

o 
It 


1 


S 

U 

"3 


1 

a 

•d 

c 


o 
"3 

S 
H 






e number of 
to per statloi 


9 


— ^ o 
o«2 




9 


2 


SE 


c3 








«•-= 


9 d 


ts o-s 




.O 


B 


J: 

SB 




3 


s 


5 


9 B 


■«♦* 

^g 


feP 




z 


i 


£ 

h 


1 


O 


5 




I 


>2 
<B 


9 ® 

Is 


^!l 


6/21, 1917... 


1 

48 


22 


1 
106 1 2 


1 




180 


2.7 






6/27, 1917... 


48 


88 


114 


.. 


6 






168 


SS.0 






7/5. 1917.... 


48 


20 1 23 


.. 










0.8 






7/11. 1917... 


51 


1 1 9 




i 














7/19. 1917... 


57 


5 1 22 


2 


7 














7/26, 1917... 


61 


17 1 147 


17 


17 






181 








8/2. 1917 


51 


9 ' 71 


4 


8 








1.8 






8/9, 1917.... 


51 


5 1 68 


3 


16 








1.8 






8/16. 1917... 


48 


10 ; 14 




14 














8/28, 1917... 


54 


3 , U 


'.'. 


27 




L 











»te: Salt-marsh species include A. cantator, A. soUleltens, and A. taenii^iyiiekiiB. 

Fresh-water swamp species include M. pcrturbans and A. sylTestiiSy mostly tbe lattw. 

Woodland pool species includ^ A. subcantans and A. eanadensi^- 

House mosquito C. plplens. 

Other species A. ponctipfnnis and A. qaadrimacnlatiu. 

It is obvious that early in June there was an outbreak of the 
fresh- water swamp mosquito, and that a similar emergence occurred 
during the latter part of July. 

Judging by the expression of public opinion as reflected in the 
newspapers the mosquito pest was this year greatly reduced. 

Essex County 

The mosquito control work in Essex this year as in previous 
seasons has been county-wide. Throughout the mosquito-breeding 
season at regular intervals all parts of the county were carefully 
examined for mosquito breeding. Whenever any was found it was 
as completely destroyed as the conditions would permit. 

Without doubt the inspection and elimination work of this county 
were more intensive than those of any other county. More men were 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 






! 



op 



op 



s 



"il 



ss 



SB 



S?3 









CtJf^Oi CD 



ss 



ss 



S5 



38 



S£ 



?^ 



SS 



?^ 



^S 



S 



9S 



§S 



^«SS 



;^^ 



ion 



s 



s 



HH 



o 



» 



-2 

o 



I 



S 






SOS 



Digiti 



ized by Google 



5o6 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

employed, more oil was spread and more money was spent. The 
tremendous amount of inspection done and the large number of 
breeding places found are shown in figure 4. 

On the salt marsh only such work as was necessary to prevent 
industrial development from destroying drainage was undertaken. 
Owing to the absence of killifish in the ditches behind the dikes, 
there was much mosquito breeding in them. This had to be killed 
by oiling, but as is usually the case not all the breeding could be 
caught by this means. The establishment of a circulatory system 
by means of which the drainage systems are more or less flushed 
and supplied with a abundance of fish is necessary to eliminate 
this breeding in the ditches which always follows shutting oflF an 
area from penetration by fish. 

Table 7 

Record of Mosquito Collections in Essex County 









Total number of mosquitoes 










1 

• 






cauvbt 


a 


i! 






4 
Date 




1 
i 


1 


s 
I 






1-1 




u 


1 


It 


1 


1 














z 


1 


1 


1 


1 




5 


1! 


'4 

zi 


III 






1 
















minntss 


6/10. 1917... 


26 


14 


92 


12 


2 




126 


2.8 


20 


6.t 


6/27, 1»17... 


42 


27 


160 


12 


2 




192 


4.4 


20 


4.6 


7/6, 1917.... 


66 


28 


84 


9 


6 


, . 


127 


2.4 


20 


8.2 


7/11, 1»17... 


64 


10 


22 


11 


16 




69 


0.9 


20 


22.0 


7/18, 1917... 


60 


61 


49 


8 


18 




126 


2.1 


20 


9.4 


7/25, 1917... 


67 


72 


163 


11 


70 




316 


4.7 


20 


4.1 


8/1. 1917.... 


78 


76 


204 


6 


84 




418 


6.3 


20 


2.f 


8/8. 1917 


74 


47 


82 


2 


49 


i 


182 


2.4 


20 


8.2 


8/16, 1917... 


69 


28 


68 




74 


2 


167 


2.8 


20 


7.1 


8/22. 1917... 


78 


12 


38 


2 


45 




93 


1.1 


20 


18.0 


8/29, 1917... 


76 


6 


16 


2 


82 




55 


0.7 


. 20 


28.0 


9/6. 1917 


76 


1 




.. 


8 1 


10 


0.1 


20 


200.0 



Note: Salt-marsh species Include A. oantator, A. sollicltans. and A. taenlorliymehva. 

Fresh-water swamp species Include M. perturbans and A. sylveatris, mostly the latter. 

Woodland pool species include A. svbcantans and A. canadensis. 

House mosquito C. piplens. 

Other species A. ponotipliiiiis and A. qvadrimacalatni. 

For the purpose of giving a notion of the prevalence of mos- 
quitoes during the past season, table 7, based upon regular collec- 
tions, is submitted. It should be remembered in interpreting this 
table that the collections were made in weed patches and shrubbery 
where the mosquitoes were much more abundant than in streets 
and open dooryards. 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 507 

A consideration of the table shows that about June 27 there was 
a noticeable outbreak, principally of the fresh-water swamp mos- 
quito, and that a similar thing occurred the latter part of July and 
the first part of August. 

Union County 

In Union County the mosquito control work was of county-wide 
character and consisted of the regular examinations of the entire 
territory of the county for breeding followed by Its destruction 
in so far as the conditions would permit whenever found, and in 
the accomplishment of as much permanent elimination work through 
drainage as the funds rendered possible. 

Approximately 250,000 linear feet of ditching obstructed with 
mud or sod was cleaned early in the season. 

The enclosure of that portion of the North Elizabeth meadow, 
which lies just east of the Central Railroad of New Jersey by tide- 
gating the creek and principal ditches and closing up the rest was 
completed, and 1,300 acres were thereby protected from flooding 
by high tide. 

The need for a more efficient method of cleaning out the large 
outlet ditches and creeks led to the purchase of a small dredge 
carrying a 9-cubic foot orange-peel bucket. It was used to clean 
out Great Ditch on which the drainage of all the south end of the 
western section of the North Elizabeth meadow depends. This 
machine which cut a channel 5 feet deep and 13 feet wide removed 
12,080 cubic yards of mud at a cost of 13 cents a cubic yard, and 
cleaned the ditch for a distance of 6,035 linear feet. 

An area of about 40 acres on the Linden meadow lying just 
ba^k of the Grasselli Chemical Plant became a virulent breeder. 
The Company not only furnished a large gang of men for tem- 
porary work but contributed the sum of $500 toward the installa- 
tion of a tide-gate in Pylis Creek, which when taken with a tide- 
gated sluice-way to be introduced by the Central Railroad Com- 
pany through the Sound Shore Railway just south of the chemical 
plant, will shut the high tides off of about 235 acres, including 
this 40-acre spot. 

To the systems already present, 57,941 linear feet of iox3b-inch 
trenching was added, making a grand total on the 4,000 acres of 
974,260 feet of ditch, ij4 miles of dike and 18 sluices and tide 
gates. 



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5o8 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

The drainage of pools and swamps has gone forward this year, 
about loo being treated. Since the beginning of the work approx- 
imately 1,900 such places have been eliminated through the drainage 
by cooperation between the mosquito commission and the owners. 

For the purpose of giving an idea of the prevalence of mosquitoes, 
table 8, based on the night collections, is submitted. In interpreting 
this table one must remember that the collections were made in 
weed patches and shrubbery where mosquitoes are more abundant 
than in the open streets, roadways, and open yards. 

Tables 
Record of Mosquito Collections in Union County 



6/6-7. 1917 
6/12-13, 1917 
6/19-20. 1917 
6/27, 1917... 

7/5, 1917 

7/12, 1917... 
7/18-19. 1917 
7/25-26. 1917 
8/1-2, 1917.. 
8/8-9, 1917.. I 



28 
27 
88 
88 
86 
88 
33 
33 
30 
30 



4 

19 
22 
16 
26 
2 
56 
64 
28 
38 



>tal number 


of mosquitoes 












caugrht 


















c 


— c 














1- 


eg 










=» * t 


d 


^0 


> • 








"5 










-2 


2 i 


G 


S 
6 








II 

9 •^ 


ao 
2^ 


? 1 


« 






«■= tc 


M(d 


■3 • 




5 


9> 


5 


1 


■0 s* 
3 > 


i! 




£ 1 


^ 


w 


5 


& 


ZB< 


<^ 


Bt 
















minutes 


8 


s 






6 


0.2 


20 


100.0 


28 




14 




61 


2.2 


20 


0.0 


117 


6 




*i 


166 


4.6 


20 


4.S 


144 


1 


11 


1 


172 


5.2 


20 


t.8 


97 


8 


18 


1 


160 


4.0 


20 


0.0 


18 




16 


1 


87 


1.1 


20 


18.0 


45 


'.'. 






108 


8.2 


20 


6.2 


126 


2 


21 


*i 


206 


6.2 


20 


8.1 


124 


4 


10 


6 


171 


6.7 


20 


8.1 


56 


" 


36 


" 


ISO 


4.3 


20 


4.0 



Note: Salt-marsh species Include A. cantator, A. solUettMis, and A. taenlorfa j f ifc c li— . 

Fresh-water swamp species Include M. pertnrbans and A. svlrwtiiB, mostly tba lattar. 

Woodland pool species Include A. subcantans and A. OMiadeiiais. 

House mosquito C. pipiens. 

Other species A. punctlpinnls and A. qaadrlnmcalatos. 

It is evident that there was an outbreak about the middle of June 
reaching its chmax about June 27, and that the fresh-water swamp 
mosquito was mostly to blame. 

A second outbreak came about July 25, in which both the salt- 
marsh and fresh-water swamp species were concerned. 

Middlesex County 
In Middlesex County the mosquito commission has continued its 
work of (i) keeping the present drainage systems in operation; 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



509 



(2) examining the entire salt marsh at regular intervals through- 
out the mosquito-breeding season; (3) using oil to destroy such 
breeding as the drainage systems failed to kill ; (4) cutting as much 
additional ditching as the funds would permit; (5) furnishing 
expert oversight and management for locally-supported campaigns 
against fresh-water mosquitoes. 

In the early spring sod and mud blockage was removed from all 
the drainage systems throughout the county. As the examinations 
exhibited the need of further attention of this sort it was given. 
Upon the superintendent fell the duty of carrying out the regular 
salt-marsh examinations. When breeding was found in sections 
where the drainage would remove enough of it to render the use of 
oil practicable, oil was applied and the residual breeding destroyed. 

Table 9 will show the drainage established in previous years and 
the amount which it has this year been able to add. 

Table 9 
Salt-Marsh Drainage in Middlesex County, 1914-1917 



Meadow 



Linear Feet of Ditches Cut 



Previous 
to 1914 



Carteret 

Sewaren 

Woodbridse Creek 

Rarltan 

Sayreville 

South Amboy .... 

Cheeaequake 

Marquis Creek . . . 
Whale Creek , 



678 

447 

711 

2.236 

832 

204 

1.600 

86 

77 



61.700 

66.600 

80,000! 

106,600] 

8.000 

18.000 

144,000 

4.000 

6,000 



Cut During 



1914 



6,000 
1.000 

'32,000 
'iV.ooo 



1916 



1916 



9,849 600 

10.9651 2.100 

17.8191 I.600I 

68,000! 171.050 



7.246 
760 
379 
986 



6.270 438,900 66.000 114.943 186,400 76.634 848.696 



11,250 



1917 

~l7766 

767 
1.1601 
66.6771 



945 
3.140 
1.200 



Total 



78.814 

71,412 

82,688 

443.327 

8,000 

54.439 

167.900 

6.679 

6,986 



During this season for the first time industrial development of 
the salt marshes has interfered with the progress of mosquito work. 
The principal interference has come from the effluent discharged 
from gun-cotton factories. The effluent contains from i to 3 per 
cent of acid, composed of both sulfuric and nitric acid. At that 
strength mosquitoes can not breed in it, but when diluted with 
marsh water it becomes a medium in which they will breed. Unfor- 
tunately, the killifish upon which the success of the drainage system 
depends is more sensitive to acid than the mosquito wriggler. Acid- 
charged water areas may become heavily charged with breeding and 
not a single killifish will penetrate them. The situation demands a 



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5IO NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

prompt remedy, but thus far nothing really practicable has been 
found. 

Another sample of industrial interference occurred at Carteret o» 
the Rahway River meadow. Here the Mexican Petroleum Corpor- 
ation, in the course of filling a large area along the Arthur Kill, 
filled up one of the main outlets of the marsh and transformed what 
was formerly a reasonably well-drained salt marsh into a virulent 
breeder of salt-marsh mosquitoes. This corporation, when once it 
understood the situation, financed the construction of a 6-foot ditch 
to serve as a new outlet. 

With the exception of an undrained section on the upper course 
of the Cheesequake Creek, the acid-soaked section near the Nixon 
Nitration Works near Millville, and the shut-oflF section of the 
Carteret meadow, the breeding of salt-marsh mosquitoes was well 
controlled. Broods from the first furnished bad mosquito trouble 
to the village of Cheesequake, Parlin and parts of South River. 
Two broods— one in July and one in August — from the second made 
trouble in Metuchen, Highland Park and Stelton. Broods from the 
third troubled Carteret. Woodbridge, Sewaren, Perth Amboy, the 
main portion of South Amboy and Morgan were scarcely at all 
troubled. 

Monmouth County 

In Monmouth, almost the entire attention of the mosquito com- 
mission is centered on the salt-marsh of 3,315 acres. The only 
exception is the maintenance of fresh-water work in the Riunson 
and Little ^ilver district. 

All parts of the salt marshes were examined at regular intervals 
throughout the mosquito-breeding seasons. Wherever mosquito 
breeding was found additional drainage was established. The dis- 
tribution and the amount of ditching follows: 

Lmear Feet 

Belford 8,931 

Port Monmouth 3,000 

Keansburrg . . •. 440 

Union 16,253 

Oyster Creek 441 

Matawan 2,565 

Whale Creek 582 

Rumson and Little Silver 5,200 

Manasquan 9,074 

Total 46.476 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 511 

In the fresh-water mosquito work in the Rumson and Little 
Silver district the entire area was carefully examined at regular 
intervals and the breeding destroyed whenever found. During the 
season, of the 375 places found breeding, 350 were temporarily 
eliminated and 300 were later permanently abated. These 375 
places consisted of 70 cesspools, 15 catch basins, 5 row boats, i 
roof gutter, i cellar, i pond, 50 barrels, 150 tin cans and 82 pools 
and marshy places. 

The fresh-water breeding in the vicinity of Camp Vail of the 
Signal Corps Unit located at Oceanport was kept under control, 
the men working in cooperation with camp sanitary corps. 

Relative to prevalence of mosquitoes in Monmouth, the superin- 
tendent of the work reports as follows : 

"The result of the season's work was not as satisfactory as had 
been hoped for during the first part of the season, but with con- 
stant and extra efforts on the part of the entire working force at 
hand the remaining part of the season proved to be successful and 
kept up to standard." 

Ocean County 

As in previous years the mosquito commission has devoted its 
attention primarily to the salt marsh ; paying little attention to the 
regular examination of the drained areas and giving almost its 
entire efifort to the cutting of new drainage. 

At the beginning of the season, the sod, weed and worst mud 
blockages were removed from the entire system and all ditches put 
into operation. 

During the year a total of 538,277 linear feet have been arranged 
for, nearly all or quite all of which have been cut. The bulk of 
this work has been done in the south end of the county, relieving 
almost 5,000 acres from serious mosquito breeding. Moreover, the 
small depressions in this area are being filled with sod taken from 
the ditches. 

Concerning the prevalence of mosquitoes the commission reports 
as follows: 

"The summer of 1917 has been a severe test of the faith of those 
who are not conversant with the habits of mosquitoes and the work 
done for their control. 



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512 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

"When there is a combination of heavy rains and high tides it 
taxes any system of meadow drainage, however perfect, to carry oflF 
the water within 8 days, or the time it takes from hatching to adult. 

"There were three of these combinations this simmier, one of 
which caused a brood that got off July 15 and this was followed 
by another August 20. Another emerged September 20. 

'The meadows have been examined frequently by our superin- 
tendent, and breeding conditions noted, and we know that such 
mosquitoes as reached the adult stage on the drained areas of Ocean 
County, or the part north of Manahawkin, were comparatively 
few and would not have been commented upon had it not been for 
the terrible flights from the undrained salt marshes. The spots on 
the drained meadows from which the mosquitoes came are known 
and will come in for an early treatment in 1918, Some have 
already been corrected." 

Atlantic County 

While Atlantic County has devoted the greater part of her atten- 
tion to the suppression of salt-marsh mosquitoes she has made a 
successful effort to combat the fresh-water species that breed within 
the limits of her towns and cities. All the drained salt marshes 
and all territory covered by the towns and cities are regularly exam- 
ined throughout the mosquito-breeding season and such breeding as 
is found is eliminated in so far as possible. In addition to this work 
as large a part of the undrained salt marsh as the funds will permit 
is selected and drained. 

Previous to 1917, 4,355,138 feet of mosquito ditching had been 
cut on the salt marsh. The cost of labor necessary to put this sys- 
tem in good operation at the outset of the present season amoimted 
to $1,857.72. During the season of 1917, 992,735 feet have been 
added at a cost of $12,668.12 making a total of 5,347,873 linear 
feet of mosquito ditching on the salt marshes of the county. With 
the exception of Brigantine, the salt marsh of Atlantic is now 
drained from Leed's Point to Somer's Point, along the north shore 
of the Egg Harbor River, and work is now going on between Egg 
Harbor and Middle Rivers. 

Very few mosquitoes escaped from the drained marshes, but the 
enormous broods produced on the undrained marshes of Atlantic 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 513 

and her immediate neighbors flooded the county at times with a 
severe pest of mosquitoes. The June brood covered the Shore Road 
and reached Egg Harbor and Hammonton. Fortunately, it scat- 
tered quickly and lasted only a short time. The July brood from 
the undrained areas was very large. Egg Harbor and Hammonton 
probably had more mosquitoes than at any time since the work 
b^;an. May's Landing was severely infested. The Shore Road 
was troubled. The August brood came off the undrained marshes 
in a scattering fashion. 

Although some mosquitoes were present in Longport, Margate 
and Ventor and about the inlet, Atlantic Qty got no mosquitoes 
until the twenty-fifth of August when a northwest wind brought in 
a supply which reached the board-walk in several places. They 
quickly disappeared and the city was not troubled during the rest 
of the season. 

Cape May Coimty 

The plan adopted last year by the mosquito commission of devot- 
ing practically all the funds at its disposal to salt-marsh drainage 
work and of beginning the work at the south end of the county and 
working northward has been continued this year. It is the plan 
which will give noticeable protection in the shortest space of time 
because the warm, moist, slow-moving winds on which mosquitoes 
love to travel normally come from the southeast, south, southwest 
and west. As the marshes are drained mosquitoes which formerly 
bred there and were carried by the wind to the towns lying to the 
east, northeast, north and northwest will not come, and the towns 
will be relieved. Only rarely will the mosquitoes which breed to 
the northwest, north and northeast be carried in. 

As the towns and cities are relieved from the salt-marsh species 
the house mosquito becomes troublesome; not because of greater 
abundance but because the removal of the greater pest affords peo- 
ple an opportunity to take note of the lesser. 

The ditching necessary in the Cape Island Creek meadows, the 
Spicer Creek Marsh, the meadows along the sound from Schel- 
lenger's Landing east to Jones* Creek near Wildwood road, the 
meadows of Pond Creek, New England Creek, and Cox Hall Creek, 
has been completed. This means that all the salt marsh from the 

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314 NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 

»uthem end of the Cape May Point to Jones* meadows along the 
Delaware Bay shore, a distance of about 7 miles, and all the salt 
marsh along the Atlantic Ocean side from the Cape May Point to 
Turtle Gut Inlet, a distance of 8 miles, has had the necessary initial 
trenching installed. This has involved the cutting in 1916-17 of 
533f702 linear feet. 

The shifting sand of the Bay shore has compelled the installation 
of a special tide-gated outlet for Pond Creek, and it now seems 
likely that similar outlets will for the same reason have to be pro- 
vided for both New England and Cox Hall Creeks. 

The South Cape May marsh lies so low and has such an inade- 
quate outlet through Cape Island Creek that the installation of a 
tide-gate to prevent overflow at extra high tides seems advisable. 

The city and