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Full text of "Report for the academic year"

EINSTEIN DRIVE 

ON. NFW IFRSFY l 



24-8399 (Idx) 




Institute 

/or ADVANCED STUDY 



REPORT 



FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 



2 000-2001 



PRINCETON ■ NEW JERSEY 



Institute 

/or ADVANCED STUDY 



REPORT 

FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 

20G0 - 200 1 



EINSTEIN DRIVE 

PRINCETON • NEW JERSEY • 08540-0631 

609-734-8000 

609-924-8399 (Fax) 

www.ias.edu 



Extract from the letter addressed by the Institute's Fnunders, Louis Bamberger 
and Mrs. Felix Fuld, to the Board of Trustees, dated June 4, 1930. 

Newark, New Jersey. 

It is fundamental in our purpose, and our express desire, that 
in the appointments to the staff and faculty, as well as in the 
admission of workers and students, no account shall be taken, 
directly or indirectly, of race, religion, or sex. We feel strongly 
that the spirit characteristic of America at its noblest, above all 
the pursuit of higher learning, cannot admit of any conditions 
as to personnel other than those designed to promote the objects 
for which this institution is established, and particularly with 
no regard whatever to accidents of race, creed, or sex. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



4 • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 

7 • FOUNDERS, TRUSTEES, AND OFFICERS OF THE BOARD 
AND OF THE CORPORATION 

10 • ADMINISTRATION 

12 • PRESENT AND PAST DIRECTORS AND FACULTY 

15 • REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN 

18 • REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 

22 • OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR - RECORD OF EVENTS 

27 ■ ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

41 ■ REPORT OF THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 
FACULTY 

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 
MEMBERS, VISITORS, AND RESEARCH STAFF 
RECORD OF EVENTS 

59 • REPORT OF THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 
FACULTY 

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 
MEMBERS AND VISITORS 
RECORD OF EVENTS 

77 ■ REPORT OF THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 
FACULTY 

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 
MEMBERS AND VISITORS 
RECORD OF EVENTS 

91 • REPORT OF THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 
FACULTY 

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 

MEMBERS, VISITORS, AND RESEARCH STAFF 
RECORD OF EVENTS 

101 • REPORT OF THE PROGRAM IN THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 

107 • REPORT OF THE INSTITUTE LIBRARIES 

111 ■ REPORT OF THE INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY/PARK CITY 
MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 

MENTORING PROGRAM FOR WOMEN IN 
MATHEMATICS 

125 • INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT 



INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY 
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 

The Institute for Advanced Study was founded in 1930 with a major gift from New 
Jersey businessman and philanthropist Louis Bamberger and his sister, Mrs. Felix 
Fuld, who wished to use their fortunes to make a significant and lasting contribution 
to society. They sought the advice of educator Abraham Flexner, who developed the 
concept of the Institute as a community of scholars whose primary purpose would be 
the pursuit of advanced learning and scholarly exploration. The Institute for 
Advanced Study has sustained its founding principle for over seventy years. This 
commitment has yielded an unsurpassed record of definitive scholarship. 

The Institute fills a unique role in postgraduate education and scientific and schol- 
arly research. As "the university to universities," in the words of Trustee Vartan 
Gregorian, the Institute serves all colleges and universities by providing a place 
where scholars can hone their skills and do their best work, thereby adding substan- 
tially to their ability to contribute as both teachers and scholars to the academic 
institutions where they base their careers. For young scholars just entering the aca- 
demic world, an opportunity to work at the Institute can set the direction for life- 
long research interests and thereby determine professional careers. The Institute 
provides more mature scholars with the opportunity to take a new direction in their 
research or to complete a major piece of work away from the many obligations and 
distractions of working life at a contemporary university. In our era, a time when 
pure research and scholarly activities are undervalued, these opportunities are 
exceedingly rare. 

The Institute's foremost objective is the advancement of knowledge and the deepen- 
ing of understanding across a broad range of the humanities, sciences, and social sci- 
ences. One of the Institute's unique strengths is its small and distinguished perma- 
nent Faculty, well-established scholars whose broad interests and extensive ties to the 
larger academic world are reflected in their own work and also in the guidance and 
direction they provide to the Institute's visiting Members. The Faculty defines the 
major themes and questions which become the focus of each School's seminars and 
other activities, and the Faculty selects and works closely with visiting Members. 
Small in number and organized in four Schools (Historical Studies, Mathematics, 
Natural Sciences, and Social Science), the Faculty and Members can interact with 
one another without the departmental and disciplinary barriers found in universities. 

Each year the Institute awards fellowships to some 180 visiting Members from 
universities and research institutions throughout the world. The Institute's nearly 
5,000 former Members hold positions of intellectual and scientific leadership in the 
United States and abroad. More than a dozen Nobel laureates have been Institute 
Faculty or Members, and many more are winners of the Wolf or MacArthur 
prizes. Twenty-nine out of forty-two Fields Medalists have been Institute Faculty or 
Members. 

The Institute does not receive income from tuition or fees. Resources for operations 
come from endowment income, grants from private foundations and government 
agencies, and gifts from corporations and individuals. 




r 



't seemed to me that the time was ripe for the creation in America of 

an institute in the field of general scholarship and science . . . not a graduate 

school, training men in the known and to some extent in methods of 

research, hut an institute where everyone — faculty and members — took for 

granted what was known and published, and in their individual ways endeavored 

to advance the frontiers of knowledge." 

— Abraham Fiexner, Founding Director (1930-39) 

of the Institute, Memorandum to the Board of Trustees 

of the Institute for Advanced Study, September 26, 1931 



Fuid Hall 



FOUNDERS, TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS OF 
THE BOARD AND OF THE CORPORATION 

Founders 

LOUIS BAMBERGER 

CAROLINE BAMBERGER FULD 



Board and Corporate Officers 

JAMES D. WOLFENSOHN 
Chairman of the Board 

LEON LEVY 

Chairman of the Executive Committee 

Vice Chairman of the Board 

President of the Corporation 

ALLEN I. ROWE 
Treasurer 

RACHEL D. GRAY 
Secretary of the Corporation 



The Board of Tritstees 

JAMES G. ARTHUR 

University Professor 

Department of Mathematics , University of Toronto 

Toronto, Canada. 

RICHARD B. BLACK 

Chairman, ECRM Incorporated 

Tewksbury, Massachusetts 

MICHAEL R. BLOOMBERG 

President and Founder, Bloomberg 

New Ycrrk, New York 

MARTIN A. CHOOLJIAN 

President, CH Capital Corporation 

Princeton, New Jersey 

ANNE d'HARNONCOURT 

The George D. Widener Director and CEO 

Philadelphia Museum of Art 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

MARIO DRAGHI 

Director General of the Treasury 

Ministry of the Italian Treasury 

Rome, Italy 



VARTAN GREGORIAN 

President, Carnegie Corporation of New York 

New York, New York 

PHILLIP A. GRIFHTHS 

Director, Institute for Advanced Study 

Princeton, New Jersey 

TORU HASHIMOTO 

Chairman, The Fuji Bank, Limited 

Tokyo, japan 

JON M. HUNTSMAN, Jr. 

Vice Chairman, Huntsman 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

PETER R. KANN 

Chairman and CEO, Dow Jones & Company, Incorporated 

New York, New York 

HELENE L. KAPLAN 

Of Courxsel 

Skadden, Arps, Slate, Mea^\er & Flom 

New York, New York 

IMMANUEL KOHN 

Senior Partner and Chairrruin of the Executive Committee 

Cahill Gordon & Reindel 

New York, New York 

MARIE-JOS^E KRAVIS 

Senior Fellow, Hudson Institute, Incorporated 

New York, New York 

MARTIN L. LEIBOWITZ 

Vice Chairman and Chief Investment Officer 

TIAA'CREF 

New York, New York 

LEON LEVY 

Odyssey Partners 

New York, New York 

DAVID K.R LI 

Chairman and Chief Executive, The Bank of East Asia, Limited 

Hong Kong, China 

DAVID E MARQUARDT 

Managing Partner, August Capital 

Menlo Park, California 

ROBERT B. MENSCHEL 

Goldman Sachs & Company 

New Ycrrk, New Yoric 



NATHAN P. MYHRVOLD 

Co-President, Intellectual Ventures 

Bellevue, Washington 

MARTIN J. REES 

Royal Society Research Professor 

lr\stitute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge 

Cambridge, United Kingdom 

JAMESJ. SCHIRO 

Chief Executive Officer, PricewaterhouseCoopers 

New York, New York 

RONALDO H. SCHMITZ 

Member of the Board of Managing Directors 

Deutsche Bank AG 

Frankfurt, Germany 

CHARLES SIMONYI 

Distinguished Engineer, Microsoft Corporation 

Redmond, Washington 

MICHEL L. VAILLAUD 
New York, New York 

LADISLAUS von HOFFN-IANN 

President, Omicron investments, Incorporated 

Washington, DC 

MARINA V.N. WHITMAN 

Professor, Business Administration and Public Policy 

University of Michigan 

Ann Arbor, Michigan 

JAMES D. WOLFENSOHN 

President, The World Bank 

Washington, DC 

GAVIN WRIGHT 

The William Robertson Coe Professor in American Economic History 

Stanford University 

Stanford, California 

BRIAN F WRUBLE 

Special Limited Partner, Odyssey Investment Partners 

New York, New York 

MORTIMER B. ZUCKERMAN 

Chairman arul Editor-in-Chief, U.S. News & World Report 

New York, New York 



Trustees Emeriti 

CHARLES L. BROWN RALPH E. HANSMANN 

THEODORE L. CROSS HAMISH MAXWELL 

JOSEPH L. DOOB MARTIN E. SEGAL 

SIDNEY D. DRELL DONALD B. STRAUS 

WILFRIED GUTH FRANK E. TAPLIN, Jr. 



ADMINISTRATION 



PHILLIP A. GRIFFITHS 
Director 

ALLEN I. ROWE 
Associate Director and Treasurer 

RACHEL D. GRAY 
Associate Director and Secretary of the Corporation 

JAMES H. BARBOUR, Jr. 
Manager of Administration 

ROBERTA B. GERNHARDT 
Manager of Human Resources 

ARLEN K. HASTINGS 
Executive Assistant to the Director 

PAMELA R. HUGHES 
Development Officer 

ANNE BAXTER HUMES 
Institutional Advancement Officer 

CATHERINE E. GIESBRECHT 
Administrator, IAS/Park City Mat/iematics Institute 

JULIANNE KMIEC 
Member Services Coordinator 

MARY J. MAZZA 
Comptroller 

CAROLINE MOSELEY 
Public Affairs Associate 

DONNE PETITO 
Develofnnent Associate 

MICHEL REYMOND 
CheffManager, Dining Hail 

GEORGIA WHIDDEN 
Public Affairs Officer 



10 



LIBRARY ADMINISTRATION 

MOMOTA GANGULl 
Librarian, Mathematics and Natural Sciences 

MARCIA TUCKER 

Librarian, Historical Studies and Social Science 

(also, Coordinator of Information Access for Computing, Telecommunications, 

and hletuiorking Administration) 



SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION 

MARY JANE HAYES 
Administrarive Officer, School of Mathematics 

DEBOR-AlH KOEHLER 
Administrative Officer, School of Social Science 

MICHELLE SAGE 
Administrative Officer, School of Natural Scieru:es 

MARIAN GALLAGHER ZELAZNY 
Administrative Officer, School of Historical Studies 



COMPUTING, TELECOMMUNICATIONS. AND NETWORKING ADMINISTRATION 

TRACEY L. CHOULAT 
Senior Network Administrator 

JONATHAN PEELE 
Comfniter Manager, PC Systems 

DAVID SAXE 
Senior Technolo^t 

THOMAS HOWARD UPHILL 
Computer Manager, School of Mathematics 

EDNA WIDGERSON 
Computer Manager, School of Natural Sciences 



PROFESSOR-AT-LARGE EMERITUS 

HARRY WOOLF 

ARTISTS-IN-RESIDENCE 

JON MAGNUSSEN 

ROBERT TAUB 



PRESENT AND PAST DIRECTORS* 
(1930-2001) 

ABRAHAM aEXNER FRANK AYDELOTTE 

J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER CARL KAYSEN HARRY WOOLF 

MARVIN L. GOLDBERGER PHILLIP A. GRIFHTHS 



PRESENT AND PAST FACULTY 
(1930-2001) 

STEPHEN L. ADLER JAMES W. ALEXANDER 

ANDREW E. Z. ALFOLDI • MICHAEL F ATIYAH 

JOHN N. BAHCALL ARNE K. A. BEURLING 

ENRICO BOMBIERl • ARMAND BOREL JEAN BOURGAIN 

GLEN W. BOWERSOCK • LUIS A. CAFFARELLI 

HAROLD F CHERNISS • MARSHALL CLAGETT 

GILES CONSTABLE PATRICIA CRONE ■ ROGER F DASHEN 

PIERRE DELIGNE FREEMAN J. DYSON ■ EDWARD M. EARLE 

ALBERT EINSTEIN • JOHN H. ELLIOTT • CLIFFORD GEERTZ 

FELIX GILBERT JAMES E GILLIAM ■ KURT GODEL 

HETTY GOLDMAN OLEG GRABAR CHRISTIAN HABICHT 

HARISH-CHANDRA ■ ERNST HERZFELD • ALBERT O. HIRSCHMAN 

LARS V. HORMANDER • PIET HUT • JONATHAN ISRAEL 

ERNST H. KANTOROWICZ ■ GEORGE F KENNAN ROBERT R LANGLANDS 

IRVING LAVIN ■ T. D. LEE ■ ELIAS A. LOWE ■ ROBERT D. MacPHERSON 

ERIC S. MASKIN • JACK E MATLOCK, Jr. • MILLARD MEISS 

BENJAMIN D. MERITT • JOHN W. MILNOR • DAVID MITRANY 

DEANE MONTGOMERY MARSTON MORSE ABRAHAM PAIS 

ERWIN PANOFSKY PETER PARET • TULLIO E. REGGE WINFIELD W. RIERER 

MARSHALL N. ROSENBLUTH ■ JOAN WALLACH SCOTT 

NATHAN SEIBERG ■ ATLE SELBERG KENNETH M. SETTON 

CARL L. SIEGEL ■ THOMAS SPENCER • WALTER W. STEWART 

BENGT G. D. STROMGREN • HOMER A. THOMPSON 

OSWALD VEBLEN • JOHN von NEUMANN • HEINRICH von STADEN 

MICHAEL WALZER ROBERT B. WARREN • ANDR^ WEIL HERMANN WEYL 

MORTON WHITE HASSLER WHITNEY AVI WIGDERSON 

FRANK WILCZEK • EDWARD WITTEN ERNEST LLEWELLYN WOODWARD 

C. N. YANG • SHING-TUNG YAU 



In order of service 



12 




I 



did not exactly know what to expect, but what I found has surpassed all my 
expectations. It seemed that everybody here was (and is) determined to 
provide us with the best environment possible for an intellectually 
productive and fruitful stay." 

— Member, School of Historical Studies 



The Common Room 



REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN 2000-01 

As I reflect on this past year, I see more clearly than ever the amazing intellectual rich- 
ness of the Institute for Advanced Study and the invaluahle opportunities it offers to trav- 
el freely in the realms of knowledge. It is of vital importance that we continue to meet 
successfully the many challenges inherent in creating an environment where the best 
scholarship and science are encouraged and can thrive. We must do all that we can to 
ensure the free pursuit of knowledge for those who will need these opportunities in years 
to come. 

At our spring meeting of the Board of Trustees, one of our Faculty members spoke elo- 
quently about the difficulties of working in political climates that are prejudicial to objec- 
tive scholarship and that exert powerful pressure to bend scholarship to conform to the 
prevailing political perspective. As we discussed this issue, we were reminded of the 
importance of the Institute's scholarly climate, where the freedom to pursue knowledge 
without pressure or prejudice is at the heart of all the work that takes place. The Insti- 
tute has been dedicated to the preservation and support of unrestricted scholarship since 
its founding in 1930. 

Although the Institute remains faithful to its original mission, I observe that change of 
many kinds is a constant at the Institute. \X^ile its Director and Faculty provide the 
stable presence that anchors and guides the work of each School, every September the 
majority of the scholars working here are new to the Institute community. These 
scholars come to the Institute from universities large and small throughout the world - in 
fact, half of these individuals come from countries other than the United States. With 
their varied interests and experience, each year they create an intellectual environment 
that is always different from the ones that preceded it and the ones that will follow. This 
is a type of change that serves the community well, and provides a fertile base for the 
interactions that occur here. 

A second kind of change is the exploration of new fields of knowledge. New directions 
in scholarship can be observed in each of the Institute's four Schools, as well as the pro- 
gram in theoretical biology, and the Director will address this in greater detail in his 
report. 

Significant change can be noted on the Institute campus also. A highlight of the year 
was the groundbreaking ceremony for Bloomberg Hall, which will be the new home of 
the School of Natural Sciences. This is the first new construction that has taken place 
on the Institute campus since the completion in 1993 of Simonyi Hall for the School of 
Mathematics and Wolfensohn Hall for Institute lectures and concerts. A structure 
composed of new and existing buildings that will total 30,000 square feet when 
completed, Bloomberg Hall's 17,000 square feet of new construction will link two build- 
ings constructed in 1948 and 1953. Named in honor of Trustee Michael Bloomberg, to 
recognize his leadership and generous support, Bloomberg Hall will mark a new era in the 
School of Natural Sciences, currently housed in three separate buildings. An important 
goal in housing the entire School in one building is to encourage the informal interac- 
tions which are a central part of both scientific research and postdoctoral education in 
the sciences. 



15 



INblUUlh hUK ADVANUbU OlUUt 



Another area of char\ge affects the Board itself, to which I am pleased to welcome four 
new trustees: John H. D'Arms, Nancy S. MacMillan, Edward J. Nicoll, and James H. 
Simons. John H. D'Arms, since 1997 the President of the American Council of Learned 
Societies, is also an Adjunct Professor of History and Classics at Columbia University. He 
was previously Professor of Classical Studies and Professor of History at the University of 
Michigan, Dean of the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies, and Vice 
Provost for Academic Affairs. From 1977 to 1980, he was Director of the American 
Academy in Rome and the A.W. Mellon Profes^pr in its School of Classical Studies. His 
scholarly work focuses on the history and archaeology of Ancient Rome and the Bay of 
Naples. A graduate of Princeton University and New College, Oxford, Dr. D'Arms 
earned his Ph.D in classical philology from Harvard University. He was a Member in the 
School of Historical Studies at the Institute in 1975-76. 

Nancy S. MacMillan has served as publisher of the Princeton Alumni Weekly, the offi- 
cial alumni magazine of Princeton University, since 1990. A graduate of Connecticut 
College, Mrs. MacMillan also holds a master's degree in economics from Hunter College 
and an M.B.A. in finance from Rider University. She has been an active volunteer for 
various nonprofit organizations and institutions in the Princeton community, and for 
many years has served as chair of the American Repertory Ballet. Mrs. MacMillan is a 
grandniece of Herbert Maass, who was counsel to Louis Bamberger, his sister Mrs. Felix 
Fuld, and Dr. Abraham Flexner during their deliberations over founding the Institute. 
Mr. Maass served as a founding Trustee, chaired several committees, and was Chairman 
of the Board from 1946-1957. 

Edward J. Nicoll is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Datek Online Holdings 
Corp., a financial services and technology enterprise that is the parent company of four sep- 
arately managed subsidiaries: Datek Online Brokerage Services LLC; iClearing Corporation; 
Big Think; and The Island ECN. Before joining Datek, Mr. Nicoll was co-founder and pres- 
ident of Waterhouse Investor Services, Inc., which, under his leadership, became the nation's 
second largest discount brokerage firm. He is also a trustee of the New Community Founda- 
tion. Mr. Nicoll holds a J.D. from Yale University Law School; he was the first student to be 
admitted to the Law School with no prior college experience. While at Yale he was appoint- 
ed a fellow of the Olin Center for Studies in Law, Economics, and Public Policy. 

James H. Simons is the founder and president of Renaissance Technologies Corporation, 
an investment management firm dedicated to the use of mathematical methods. Prior to 
founding Renaissance, Dr. Simons served as chairman of the Mathematics Department at 
the State University of New York at Stony Brook, was a cryptanalyst at the Institute for 
Defense Analysis in Princeton and was a professor of mathematics at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and Harvard University. His work in mathematics includes the 
discovery and application of certain measurements called the Chem-Simons Invariants, 
which have wide use, particularly in theoretical physics. !>. Simons, who was a Member 
in the Institute's School of Mathematics in 1972-73, received his bachelor's degree from 
the Massachusetts institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in mathematics from the 
University of California at Berkeley. 

TTie terms of two Trustees ended this year, and we are extremely appreciative of how gen- 
erously each has served the Institute, which has benefited greatly from their participation 
on our Board. 



16 



REPORT OF THE CHAIRMAN 



Anne d'Hamoncourt joined the Board of Trustees of the Institute in 1994 as the Acade- 
mic Trustee for the School of Historical Studies. During the past seven years, she has 
enriched our discussions with her knowledge of the complexity of cultural institutions 
and her deep conviction that true quality, clearly revealed, will find the sponsorship it 
deserves. We have valued immensely her positive presence and are grateful for all she has 
done to deepen our understanding of the purposes we serve. We particularly appreciate 
that although Ms. d'Hamoncourt 's Board term originally ended in 1999, she graciously 
agreed to a two-year reappointment term. 

Helene Kaplan joined the Institute's Board of Trustees in 1987. During her fifteen years 
on the Institute's Board, she was a Member of the Executive Committee, chair of the 
Nominating Committee for two terms (1989-1995), served on the Search Committee 
that chose a new Director in 1991, co-chaired the Decadal Review Committee (1995- 
1997), and chaired the Academic Affairs Committee from its inception in 1997 to her 
resignation in 2001. In addition, Mrs. Kaplan contributed expert advice on a variety of 
legal matters. She has been an incomparable partner, combining deliberative skills with 
decisive intervention. Her wisdom, counsel, and action have helped to shape and sustain 
the Institute in its ongoing mission. 

A significant aspect of our Board's commitment to preserving a flourishing environment 
for scholarship is maintaining the financial resources that have received such careful and 
committed stewardship from the Institute's Trustees since its founding in 1930. The 
Institute's broad financial investment strategy is based on the fact that without the 
advantages of tuition or other streams of earned income, the Institute is much more 
dependent upon its endowment than are most institutions. Because of this, it is appro- 
priate to take a relatively conservative and long-term viewpoint. The academic growth 
that the Institute plans and implements each year is vital to the Institute's continuing 
intellectual richness, but even though this growth is carefully planned and comparative- 
ly modest, it still presents a challenge to the budget. The pressure to provide additional 
resources to support the Institute's work is significant, and we must always be concerned 
that our current stewardship will support the Institute's next seventy years as admirably 
as past stewardship has supported the first seventy. 

I am particularly pleased to note that over the past ten years, the Institute has made sig- 
nificant strides in broadening the base of support for its work. With this increased sup- 
port from Trustees and other individuals, from foundations, and from state and federal 
government, the Institute has been able to strengthen each School, provide the flexibil- 
ity to explore new fields, create and sustain strong and successful outreach programs, 
maintain and build new facilities, enhance the computing environment at the Institute, 
and preserve nearly 600 acres of Institute woods and farmlands. 

To all who make this unique mix of continuity and change such rich ground for the 
pursuit of knowledge - to the Faculty, current and past Members, Friends, Trustees, the 
Director aind his Staff - I offer my deepest gratitude. 



James D. Wolfensohn 
Chairman 



17 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 2000-01 

1 am pleased to announce the appointment of Jos^ Cutileiro as the George F Kennan Pro- 
fessor in the School of Historical Studies. An influential diplomat who has made histo- 
ry as well as studied it, Professor Cutileiro has had a distinguished career that combines 
scholarship with public service. Bom in 1934, Professor Cutileiro read architecture and 
medicine in Lisbon before receiving a Diploma in Anthropology ( 1964) and a doctorate 
(1968) from Oxford University, where he became a Research Fellow of St. Antony's Col- 
lege (1968-71). He was lecturer in Social Anthropology at the London School of Eco- 
nomics and Political Science from 1971 to 1974, when he began a twenty-year career 
with the Portuguese Foreign Service. He was the first Portuguese Permanent Represen- 
tative to the Council of Europe (1977-80), Ambassador in Maputo (1980-83), Head of 
the Portuguese Delegation to the Stockholm Conference on Disarmament in Europe 
(1984-86), Political Director at the Foreign Ministry (1986-88), Ambassador in Pretoria 
(1989-91), Special Adviser to the Foreign Minister (1992-94), and the first President of 
the Portuguese Diplomatic Institute (1994). Secretary General of the Western European 
Union from 1994-1999, Professor Cutileiro is currently the Special Representative of the 
U.N. Commission on Human Rights for Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Federal Repub- 
lic of Yugoslavia. The author of two published collections of poems (1959, 1961), Pro- 
fessor Cutileiro has also written numerous articles and opinion pieces in newspapers and 
periodicals, and a monograph, A Portuguese Rural Societal (1971). 

Irving Lavin, a Faculty member in the School of Historical Studies, became Professor Emer- 
itus as of June 30. Professor Lavin received degrees in art history from New York Universi- 
ty (M.A. 1953) and Harvard (M.A. 1953; Ph.D. 1955). He taught at Vassar College and 
New York University's Institute of Fine Arts before becoming a Faculty member at the Insti- 
tute in 1973. His work, which has included a particular interest in the Baroque artist Gian- 
lorenzo Bernini, has been honored on both sides of the Atlantic. Three-time winner of the 
College Art Association of America's Porter Prize, Professor Lavin has also been awarded 
the Premio Daria Borghese and the Medal of Honor of the City of Rome. He is a fellow of 
the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a Foreign Member of the Accademia 
Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome and the Accademia Clementina, Btilogna, former President 
of the National Committee for the History of Art, and a member and past President of the 
International Committee of the History of Art. He has publi.shed widely in the history of 
art, on topics that range from late antiquity to Jack.son Pollock. 

Jack F. Matlock, Jr. completed a tive-year term as the first George F. Kennan Professor in 
the School of Historical Studies. Prior to his term at the Institute, during which he wrote 
and spoke frequently on the topics ot U.S. -Soviet relations, Soviet and Russian foreign 
policy, the Soviet government, and Russian literature, Professor MatliKk taught at Columbia 
University. From 1987 to 1991, during his thirty-five year career in the American Foreign 
Service, Professor Matlock served as the last United States Ambassador to the Soviet 
Union, through the collapse and dissolution of the Soviet regime. He is the author of an 
account of the events of that period, Auto{)sy on ar\ Empire: The American Ambassador's 
Accour\t of the CoUcipse of the Soviet Uniorx. 

The Mellon Visiting Professor Program in the School of Historical Studies allows the 
School to have in residence, for two-year periods, a senior distinguished visiting professor 
and a group of Members with research interests in an area that the School wishes to 
explore. This year, Benjamin A. Elman, Professor of Chinese History at the University of 



18 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 



California, Los Angeles, completed his two-year stay at the Institute as the Mellon 
Visiting Professor. With the sponsorship of the Mellon Foundation as well as John P. 
Birkelund and Ladislaus von Hoffmann, Professor Elman organized a series of events under 
the title "East Asian Studies at the School ot Historical Studies, 2000-2001: Seminars and 
CoUoquia on East Asian Culture and History." In Novemher 2000, Professor Elman orga- 
nized a colloquium entitled "Qing Dynasty History (1600-1900) Through Things,'" and in 
April 2001, he co-organized with the Princeton University East Asian Studies 
Program a colloquium entitled "East Asian Culture and History." The coUoquia included 
presentations hy scholars from Dartmouth College, Princeton and Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sities, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of British Columbia, the University of 
Chicago, SUNY Stony Brook, and the University of California, Irvine, as well as partici- 
pation by the Institute Members in East Asian Studies. 

"Creativity: The Sketch in the Arts and Sciences" was the title of a public symposium 
co-organized by art historian Irving Lavin and Henry A. Millon and held at the Institute 
for Advanced Study on May 24 and 25, with a related series of lectures held on May 23 
in Washington at the National Gallery of Art. The symposium was co-sponsored by the 
Institute's School ot Historical Studies and the Center for Advanced Study in the 
Visual Arts, National Gallery of Art. The purpose of the event was to explore the history 
of the creative process by examining the evidence for trial and error-or its absence-in a 
variety of periods and disciplines. The conference included artists as well as scholars, in 
the hope of shedding light on the edges of conception. Different sessions focused on 
architecture, literature, music, dance, natural sciences and mathematics, and visual arts. 
The symposium was made possible by the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations, the j. 
Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts, and Mrs. F. Merle-Smith. 

The School of Mathematics organized a year-long special program oil Computational 
Complexity Theory, funded by the National Science Foundation and led by Faculty 
member Avi Wigderson together with senior scientists J. HSstad (Sweden), P. Pudlak 
(Czech Republic), R. Raz (Israel), and A. Razborov (Russia). Fifteen of the School's 
Members were also participants in this special program, which included lectures, three 
seminars each week, a regular reading seminar, and two workshops. Another major area 
of focus in the School during the year was automorphic forms. James Arthur of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto gave an advanced course entitled "Representations of Classical 
Groups." In April, a conference, "Automorphic Forms, Concepts, Techniques, Applica- 
tions, and Influence," was organized by V. Drinfeld, R. Langlands, P. Samak, and A. 
Wiles, and funded by the National Science Foundation. Fourteen distinguished mathe- 
maticians lectured; their talks were videotaped and are now available on the Internet. 
Other activities in the School included the continuation of a lecture series by V. Voevod- 
sky on Motivic Cohomology; these lectures will soon be published. The School also con- 
ducted seminars jointly with Rutgers University and Princeton University on Nonlinear 
Theory and on Number Theory and Harmonic Analysis. 

Together with Rutgers University, the School of Natural Sciences organized the W.M. 
Keck Workshop "Galaxies and the Dark Matter Problem" from May 31 -June 2. Over the 
past few years, there has been dramatic improvement in astronomical and cosmological 
data. Some of these data appear to conform remarkably well with the "standard cold dark 
matter (plus cosmological constant) model." Other data, particularly on galaxy scales, 
appear to disagree with theoretical predictions. Have astrophysicists converged on the 
correct cosmological model or are the dark matter/dark energy problems and the low 



19 



Institute for advanced study 



central densities in galaxy cores symptoms of new physics? TTie goal of this workshop was 
to bring together leading researchers in this field for a discussion of this question and 
related issues. 

"Information Technology and Society" was the theme during 2000-01 in the School of 
Social Science. Visiting Associate Professor Adam Ashforth chaired a seminar that 
explored the social, political, and economic implications of developments in new media 
and information technology. Two of the questions seminar participants focused on were 
"What is at stake for human societies in the changes associated with new technologies?" 
and "What is at stake for social science.'" The School held a conference June 8-10, to 
reflect upon its year-long examination of this theme. In addition to papers by members of 
this year's seminar and numerous visiting scholars, there were several special panels. A 
roundtable discussion on "Information Technologies and the Social Sciences" included an 
international panel of scholars, and a discussion of "Art in the Age of New Media" includ- 
ed both scholars and artists. Funding for the program on Information Technology and 
Society was provided by The Ford Foundation, the Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation, 
The John D. and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation, and The Rockefeller Foundation. 

This was also the first year of the School's renewed presence in economics, and Eric 
Maskin, the new Albert O. Hirschman Professor, worked with a group of six mathemati- 
cally-oriented Member economists on a variety of research topics. 

The Program in Theoretical Biology, led by Martin Nowak, completed its third year at the 
Institute. Five Members and two Visitors worked with Dr. Nowak in areas of research that 
included evolutionary theory, the dynamics of infectious agents, and mathematical models 
of tumor progression. The group continued to develop collaborations established with 
numerous experimental groups both in the United States and abroad. The Biology Lecture 
Series offered nine public lectures on topics that included "Pathogenesis and Origin of 
HIV-1," "Origin and Evolution of Genes," and "Unanswered Questions in Ecology." 

Robert Taub completed a seven-year term as the Institute's first Artist-in-Residence. 
Once again the nine performances in the Institute Concert Series attracted full houses to 
Wolfensohn Hall, and Dr. Taub gave pre-concert lectures to the Institute community as 
well as a separate series of lectures presented as "Musical Conversations," with invited 
guests Mary E. Davis (Case Western Reserve University), Lewis Lockwood {Harvard 
University), and Jonathan Dawe (The Juilliard School). Dr. Taub continued to maintain 
a very active international concert schedule that included an eight-concert tour in 
Germany and Italy with the Munich Philharmonic, conducted by James Levine; a 
continuation of the Beethoven Piano Sonata series with three concerts in New York 
City; solo concerts in Boston, Cleveland, and San Francisco; and chamber music concerts 
in Ireland (with the Vanbrugh String Quartet) and California (with the Ives String Quartet). 

Our new Artist-in-Residence, composer Jon Magnussen, began his term at the Institute 
in June 2000. In May 2001, Magnussen's "The Winged," a ballet choreographed by Jos^ 
Lim6n, was performed in New York City by the Orchestra of St. Luke's and the LimtSn 
Dance Company. The ten performances were part of the St. Luke's Arts Education 
Program for New York school children, which also includes intensive in-school work- 
shops. The new Artist-in-Residence program website, www.admin.ias.edu/air, provides 
further information about the program and the Institute Concert Series. 



20 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR 



From May 15-25, the Institute ht)sted the IAS/Park City's annual Mentoring Program for 
Women in Mathematics, organized by Karen Uhlenheck of the University of Texas at 
Austin. Over fifty women graduate students, undergraduates, postdoctoral scholars, and 
senior researchers participated in the lectures, seminars, working problem groups, and 
mentoring and networking sessions, and benefited from the opportunities to meet and 
interact with leading mathematicians. 

The Summer Session of the IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute (PCMI) was held in Park 
City, Utah, from July 8 - July 28. The research topic for PCMl's Graduate Summer School 
and Research Program was "Quantum Field Theory, Supersymrretry, and Enumerative 
Geometry," organized by Daniel Freed of the University of Texas at Austin, David Morrison 
of Duke University, and Isadore Singer of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Over 
275 participants attended six separate but overlapping programs for researchers, high school 
teachers, undergraduate faculty, mathematics education researchers, and undergraduate and 
graduate students. New to PCMI this year were changes to the High School Teacher Pro- 
gram, which saw increased focus on active problem-solving sessions as well as the formation 
of working groups on specific topics, with the goal of producing teacher-created lesson activ- 
ities for publication. PCMI also formed a new affiliation with the Ross Summer Mathe- 
matics Program at Ohio State University and the PROMYS for Teachers program at Boston 
University. Finally, PCMI convened, for the first time, an International Seminar on the 
standards and goals of K-12 mathematics education. The panel included educators from 
Brazil, Egypt, France, India, Japan, Kenya, and Sweden as well as the United States. This 
panel, which represented several different types of educational systems, initiated an ongo- 
ing international conversation on improving mathematics education. 

AMI AS (the Association of Members of the Institute for Advanced Study) held its bien- 
nial conference at the Institute on March 23 and 24. Featured speakers were Patricia 
Crone, Professor in the School of Historical Studies; Eric Maskin, Professor in the School 
of Social Science; Nathan Seiberg, Professor in the School of Natural Sciences; and Mar- 
tin Nowak, Head, Program in Theoretical Biology. In addition to the conference, sever- 
al AMIAS talks and receptions took place both nationally and internationally over the 
past academic year. In January, my wife Marian and I hosted a luncheon at the Taj Mahal 
Hotel in Mumbai, India. In March, AMIAS member Mina Teicher hosted an evening 
reception for us in Tel Aviv. In April, AMIAS trustee Jim Stasheff and I cohosted a 
reception in Durham, North Carolina. 

I am pleased to report that the Institute has continued to improve its computing infra- 
structure and capabilities. Highly sophisticated computing technology is, for many of our 
scholars, essential to their research work. All of the Schools are concerned with making 
the research that is done here available to a wider audience, and to this end maintain pages 
on the Institute website that make this work accessible to scholars all over the world. 

Each year, as I reflect upon the activities that have taken place at the Institute over the 
past twelve months, I am keenly aware of how many individuals contribute to the 
strength and health of this remarkable institution, and of how vital their contributions 
are. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the Faculty, Trustees, Members and 
former Members, the Friends of the Institute, and our Staff. 

Phillip A. Griffiths 
Director 



21 



OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR 
RECORD OF EVENTS 

The following is a calendar of events sponsored by the Office of the Director 



Academic Year 2000-01 



SeptcMiiher 2t 

New Member Reception 

October 2 

Member Family Barbecue 

October 3 

Institute Playreading Series 
An Experiment with an Air-Pump 
by Shelagh Stephenson 

October 5 
Institute Film Series 

m 

October 13 

Institute Concert Series 

Musical Conversation: "To Perform or To 

Compose: Is That the Question?" 

ROBERT TAUB, Arrisi-in-Residence, Jrwritute 

for Advanced Study and MARY E. DAVIS, 

Cose Western Reserve University 

Friends of the Institute 

Ffiends Culture & Cuisine Series: "The 

Animal That Cooks" 

SIDNEY MINTZ, Professor Emeritus of 

Anthropology. The Johns Hopkiris University 

Oar.txT !>■ 

Friends of the Institute 

Friends Forum: "The Politics of Monuments 

in Jerusalem, or How to Preserve the Past in 

the Future" 

OLEG GRABAR, Professor Emeritus, School of 

Historical Studies, lr\stitute for Advanced Study 

OctoK>r23 
Faculty Reception 

Octiihcr 2t 

Institute Lecture 

"Is Majority Rule the Best Election Methixl.'" 

ERIC MASKIN, Professor. School of Social 

Scietice, /mtitMte for Advanced Study 

October 26 
Institute Film Series 
Woro/t/ie Worlds 



October 31 

Children's Halloween Celebration 

November 7 

Institute Playreading Series 

Defying Gravity by Jane Anderson and 

Flight by Arthur Giron 

November 8 
Faculty/Colleague Dinner 

Nmeiiiber 9 
Institute Film Series 
King of Masks 

November 1 3 

Institute Concert Series 

Pre-Concert Talk 

ROBERT TAUB, Artisi-in-Residence, Institute 

for Advanced Study and BRUCE BRU BAKER, 

pianist 

November 14, 17, IS 

Institute Concert Series 

Schubert: Fantasy in F Minor; Debussy: 

En Blanc Et Noir; Brahms: Variations on a 

Theme of Haydn; Lutoslawski: Variations on 

a Theme of Paganini 

ROBERT TAUB, Amst-in-Residence , InsDmte 

for Advanced Study and BRUCE BRUBAKER. 

pianist 

November 19 
Institute Trip 
Philadelphia Art Museum 

November 1^> 

Friends of the Institute 

Friends Forum: "Darwin, Viruses and the 

Genome: An Intnxluction to Evolutionary 

Genomics" 

DAVID KRAKAUER, Member. Program in 

Theoretical Biology, Institute for Advanced 

Study; "Infection D>'namics and 

Immunological Memory" 

IX^MINIK WODARZ, Member, Program in 

Thcarctical Biology' , /nstitute for Adiwnced Stiid\ 

December ^ 

Friends of the Institute 

Friends Holiday Party 



22 



RECORD OF EVENTS 2000-01 



December 4 

Institute Playreading Series 

Moving Bodies by Arthur Giron 

December 6 

Institute Lecture 

"The New Cosmology" 

DAVID SPERGEL, W.M. Keck Dmngioshed 

Visiring Professor, School of Natural Sciences , 

Institute for Advanced Study 

December 7 
Institute Film Series 
Raisin in the Sun 

December 10 

Institute Trip 

Wagner Free Institute of Science, 

Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, 

University of Pennsylvania Library, and 

University of Pennsylvania Museum 

December 12 

Institute Playreading Series * 

Breaking the Code by Hugh Wliitemore 

December 14 

Children's Holiday Celebration 

December 20 
Institute Film Series 
His Girl Friday 



Institute Playreading Series 
R.U.R. byKarelCapek 

Januarv' 10 
Institute Film Series 
Horseman on the Roof 

januar\' 12 

Institute Concert Series 

Musical Conversation: "The Wider the 

Brook, the Deeper the Tone" 

ROBERT TAUB, Arrisi-in-Residence, 

Instnute for Advanced Study and 

LEWIS LOCKWOOD, Harvard University 

lanuar\- 20 

Institute Trip 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 

January 25 
Institute Film Series 
Signs of Life 



January 29 

New Member Reception 

January' 31 

Institute Lecture 

"Some Infinite Sums, First Investigated by 

Euler, and Still Mysterious" 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Professor, School of 

Mathematics, Institute for Advanced Study 

February (i 

Institute Playreading Series 

Hapgood by Tom Stoppatd 

February- 7 

Institute Concert Series 

Pre-Concert Talk 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence, 

Institute for Advanced Study and 

VANBRUGH STRING QUARTET 

February- 7, 9, 10 

Institute Concert Series 

Beethoven: String Quartet m A minor, 

Op. 132; Brahms: Piano Quintet in F minor. 

Op. 34 

ROBERT TAUB, Arrist-in-Residence, Irxstitute 

for Adimmd Study and VANBRUGH 

STRING QUARTET 

February- 1 3 
Institute Film Series 
Pi 

February 24 
Institute Trip 
Barnes Foundation 

Midwinter Party 

February 27 
Institute Film Series 
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof 

March 6 

Institute Playreading Series 

Now Then Again by Penny Penniston 

March 7 

Institute Lecture 

"Classicism, Civil Examinations, and Natural 

Studies in Late Traditional China, 1600- 1900" 

BENJAMIN A. ELMAN, Mellon Visiting 

Professor, School of Historical Studies, Institute 

for Advanced Study 



23 



Institute for advanced study 



M.kK'' 

Institute Concert Series 

Musical Conversation: "The Genesis of a 

New Work" 

ROBERT TAUB, ArtJst-in-Residence, Jnsatuie 

for Advanced Study and JONATHAN DAWE, 

The Juilliard School 

March 10 
Institute Trip 
Philadelphia Flower Show 

March 12 

Institute Concert Series 

Pre-Concert Talk 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence, 

Institute for Advanced Stitdy 

March n. 16, 17 

Institute Concert Series 

Scarlatti: Two Sonatas; Beethoven: Sonata in 

C major, Op. 53 "Waldstein"; 

Chopin: Twenty-four Preludes, Op. 28 

ROBERT TAUB, Artist-in-Residence, Institute 

for Advanced Study 

March 14 
Faculty/Colleague Dinner 

March 21 

Institute Film Series 

Fragrance of Wild Flouiers 

March 1 i 

AMIAS Conference 

Einstein Legacy Society Event: "The Impact 
on You of Recent Developments Affecting 
Retirement and Estate Plans" 
DOUGLAS ROTHERMICH. TIAA-CREF 

March 24 

AMIAS Conference 
"Virus Dynamics" 

MARTIN NOWAK, Head, Program in 
Theorecicoi Biology, Institute for Advanced 
Study, 

"Should Software be Patented?" 
ERIC MASKIN, Pro/essor, School ofSocicd 
Science. Institute for Advanced Study; 
"The Pursuit of Unification: Fulfilling 
Einstein's Dream" 

NATHAN SEIBERG, Pro/essor, School of 
Natural Sciences, /mtituie for Advanced Study; 
"Post-Gilonialism in Tenth and Eleventh- 
Century Islam" 

PATRlt:iA C:R0NE, Pro/essor, School of 
Hisioncal Studies, /nstitute for Advanced Studv 



April ^ 

Institute Playreading Series 

Galileo by Bertolt Brecht 

ArnI -t 

Institute Film Series 

Contempt 

April 22 

Institute Trip 

Walters Art Museum, Baltimore Museum of 

Art, and Inner Harbor 

April 25 

Friends of the Institute 

Friends Forum: "Privacy and Technologies of 

Information" 

HELEN NISSENBAUM, Member, School of 

Social Science, Irvstitute for Advanced Study 



Institute Playreading Series 
Space by Tina Landau 

May 24, 25 

Art Histoty Symposium: "Creativity: 

The Sketch in the Arts and Sciences" 

M,i\ -(. 

Art History Symposium 

Trip to Guggenheim Museum 

June 6 

Friends of the Institute 

Annual Meeting and Picnic 



24 




All in all, I have never seen my own work exposed to such penetrating 
criticism from specialists in all the different relevant fields. That 
L by itself would justify the time I spent here. But 1 also got started 
on two book projects based on presentations I gave at the Institute . . . Overall, 
in terms of exposure to constructive criticism, new ideas, and concrete projects, 
these ten months have been some of the most productive in my life." 

■ — Member, School of Social Science 



Fuld Hall Library 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Institute for Advanced Study expresses deep appreciation 

for all gifts and grants to its endowment and capital funds, for annual 

operating support and for in-kind contributions in fiscal year 2001. 

MAJOR DONORS 

American Council of Learned Societies 

AMIAS (Association of Members of the Institute for Advanced Study) 

John R Birkelund 

Richard B. Black 

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company 

Helen and Martin Chooljian 

Clay Mathematics Institute 

Harry and Helen Cohen Charitable Foundation 

The Edward T. Cone Foundation 

Datek Online Holdings Corporation 

Deutsche Bank AG 

Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation 

Jeffrey E. Epstein 

Friends of the fnstitute for Advanced Study 

The J. Paul Getty Trust* 

The Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation 

Vartan Gregorian 

Doris M. and Ralph E. Hansmann 

Jon and Karen Huntsman Foundation 

The Island ECN, Inc. 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Jaffin 

Jewish Communal Fund 

J. Seward Johnson, Sr. Charitable Trusts 

Peter R. Kann 

Helene L. Kaplan 

W. M. Keck Foundation 

Mr. and Mrs. Immanuel Kohn 

Marie-Josee Kravis 
Samuel H. Kress Foundation 

Martin L. Leibowitz 

Leon Levy and Shelby NX'hite 

Jon B. Lovelace 

The Henry Luce Foundation, Inc. 

The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation 

Hamish Maxwell 

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

Robert and Joyce Menschel Family Foundation 

Mrs. F Merle-Smith 

Merrill Lynch &. Company Foundation, Inc. 

Microsoft Corporation 

The Ambrose Monell Foundation 

Mount Sinai School of Medicine 



*Matching gift to an individual contribution 



27 



Institute for advanced study 



National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

National Endowment for the Humanities 

National Science Foundation 

NEC Research Institute 

State of New Jersey 

TTie New York Community Tnist 

The David and Lucile Packard Foundation 

Max Palevsky 

Elena and Giorgio Petronio 

The Rockefeller Foundation 

William M. Roth 

William A. Schreyer 

The Seaver Institute 

Martin E. Segal 

TTie Simons Foundation 

Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Observatory 

Space Telescope Science Institute 

The Starr Foundation 

Toyota USA Foundation 

United States Department of Energy 

Marina v.N. Whitman 

Mr. and Mrs. James D. Wolfensohn 

Wolfensohn Family Foundation 

Brian F. Wruble 

Mortimer B. Zuckerman 

REQl'ESTS 

Estate of Jael Nathan 

Estate of Carolyn B. Snider 

EINSTEIN LEGACY SOCIET)' 

The Institute acknowledges with gratitude the members of the Einstein Legacy 

Society, which was established in 1996 to honor all those who have supported 

the Institute with a planned gift or through their estate plans. 



28 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



FRIENDS OF THE INSTITUTE 

CHAIRMAN'S CIRCLE 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Brown 

Helen and Martin Chooljian 

♦ Mary and Tom Evslin 

Sally and Jim Hill 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Jaffin 

Lynn and Robert Johnston 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert W. Loughlin 

Nancy and Duncan MacMillan 

Lauren K. and J. Ezra Merkin 

Elena and Giorgio Petronio 

DIRECTOR'S CIRCLE 
Mr. and Mrs. James E. Burke 

Barbara Chancellor 

Donna and Morton Collins 

Dr. and Mrs. William Greenberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Ward S. Hagan 

Mr. and Mrs. George H. Heilbom 

Keke Li 

Sharon and Frank Lorenzo 

Ann R and John L. McGoldrick 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin H. Morgens 

Anne and John Rassweiler 

Cindy and John Reed 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael R Schulhof 

Kit and Amie Snider 

Susan and Donald Wilson 

BENEFACTORS 

Joyce and Georg Albers-Schonberg Mr. and Mrs. Nathaniel Burt 

Sheila and Stephen Albert (Jacquelin Foundation Fund of the 

Robert J. Aresty Princeton Area Community Foundation) 

Shelly and Michael Atkinson Betty Wold Johnson and Douglas F. Bushnell 

Penny and Bill Bardel Mr. and Mrs. Michael Gary 

Leonora Florian Barnard and William S. Barnard Melanie and John Clarke 

Elizabeth and Peter Baughan Edward T. Cone 

Leonard E. Baum Joanne and Dan Cuoco 

Mr. and Mrs. B. Richard Benioff Lydia de Botton-Edrei 

Phoebe and Charles Biddle Rysia de Ravel 

Helena and Peter Bienstock Katherine and Robert Del Tufo 

Corinne Black Pierre R. Deligne and Elena Vladimirovna Alexeeva 

Susan Bombieri Mr. and Mrs. Charles P. Dennison 

Addie and Harold Broitman Judi and Sam deTuro 

Mrs. John J. Bums Elizabeth C. Dilworth 

Lisa Bums Marlene and Aiden Doyle 



29 



Institute for advanced study 



Mr. anJ Mrs. K. Philip Dresdner 

Wells Drorbaugh 

Sandi and Charles Ellis 

Hanni and Jack Ellis 

Liz and Jon Erickson 

Elizabeth S. Ettinghausen 

Lynne and Rcibert Eagles 

Ruth and Jo.seph Path 

Elizabeth and Miguel Fernandez 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Gallagher 

Diana Garrett 

Evelyn and Robert Geddes 

Nancy N. Genung 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter F. Gips 

(Gips Fund of the Princeton Area 

Community Foundation) 

Colleen A. Goggins 

Barbara F. Graham and Theodore S. Meth 

Rachel and Charles Gray 

Mr. and Mrs. Alan R. Griffith 

Mr. and Mrs. Peter Hagan 

Mr. and Mrs. Harleston J. Hall, Jr. 

Joan and Jack Hall 

Samuel M. Hamill, Jr. 

Lavinia Hall and Charles Heckscher 

Karen C. Hegener 

Lucille Heller 

Virginia and Robert Hendrickson 

(Virginia Hendrickson deceased March 6, 2001) 

Sarah and Lincoln HoUister 

Drs. Frances and Simeon Hutner 

Janina and Charles Issawi 

(Charles hsauii deceased December 8, 2000) 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas C. Jamieson, Jr. 

(Thomas Jamieson deceased July 10, 2001) 

Deane Anne Johnson 

Jacqueline and James Johnson 

Jeanne K. Perantoni and Bruce W. Jordan 

Florence and Steven Kahn 

Arianne and Allen Kassof 

Elizabeth F. and Walter Kauzmann 

Mary P. Keating 

Suzanne Keller 

Ruth Boulet and William Kerins 

Nora and John Kerr 

Shirley Kobak 

Mr. and Mrs. Immanuel Kohn 

Sylvette and William Krause 

Helene and Russell Kulsrud 



Patricia and George Labalme 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel W Lambert III 

Hsini and John Langlois 

Mr. and Mrs. William T Lifland 

Mr. and Mrs. D. E. Littlefield 

Nancy and Pablo Lorenzo 

P. J. Lucchesi 

Catharine and Charles Macdonald 

Pamela and Roland Machold 

C>r. and Mrs. James W MacKenzie 

Jane L. and Robert S. MacLennan 

Emily Rose and James H. Marrow 

Anne Martindell 

James F. Mathis 

Eleonore B. McCabe 

Mr. and Mrs. James R. McCredie 

Joseph F. McCrindle 

Charles W. McCutchen 

Harriette and John McLoughlin 

Jackie and Cy Meisel 

Mrs. F. Merle-Smith 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael J. Myers 

Etsuko Nakajima 

Rosemary' and James O'Brien 

Esther and Robert Palmer 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Paneyko 

Jean and Larry Parsons 

Fayne and Samuel Petok 

Jacquie and Woody Phares 

Althea Grace Pineda 

George Pitcher 

Ann and Conrad Plimpton 

Dorothy and Charles Plohn, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard G. Poole 

Frances F. and Eric H. Reichl 

Millard M. Riggs, Jr. 

Barbara and Lester Robbins 

Harriet C. Robertson Foundation, 

David and Harriet Robertson, Trustees 

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Rose 

Diane D. and Leon E. Rosenberg 

Louise Rosenblatt 

Mrs. Frederic Rosengarten, Jr. 

William M. Roth 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen 1. Rowe 

Carol W. Royal and James R. Bliss 

Nancy and James Russell 

Ingrid and Bernard Saint-Donat 

Jeffrey and Laurel Saltzman 



30 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Carolyn and George Sanderson 

Dr. and Mrs. William H. Scheide 

Ruhy E. and Robert K. Schmidt 

Helmut Schwab 

Alice and David Sengstack 

Janet and Winthrop Short 

Pamela Aarons and Saul Skoler 

Margaret and Robert Slighton 

Roberta and Fred Slivon 

Marjorie and David Smith 

Marjorie R. and Stanley C. Smoyer 

Margaret R. Spanel 

Andrew Steginsky 

Wendy Steginsky 

Joshua L. Steiner 

Fritz Stem 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Barnwell Straut 

Martha and William Sword, Jr. 



Mr. and Mrs. Frank E. Taplin, Jr. 

Dorothy Morgenstem Thomas 

Penny and Ted Thomas 

W. Bryce Thompson 

Judith Ogden Thomson 

Kathrin W Poole and Howard H. Tomlinson 

Georgia and Peter Travers 

Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin B. Tregoe 

Mr. and Mrs. Jesse 1. Treu 

Gail and Richard UUman 

Harriet and Jay Vawter 

George B. Weathersby 

Dr. and Mrs. Fong Wei 

Theodore Weiss 

Caroline S. and E Helmut Weymar 

Laura and Roscoe White 

Rosemary and John Wise 

Dr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Zawadsky 



31 



Institute for advanced study 



AMIAS 
(ASSOCIATION OF MEMBERS OF THE INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY) 



William Abikoff 

Stephen L. Adler 

Alan Adolphson 

John F. Ahner 

Susan Ames 

Christiane D. Andersson 

Anonymous 

Giles Auchmuty 

Femande Auslander 

(In memory of her husband Louis Auslander) 

Sherhume Barber 

Felice and Paul Bateman 

Rainer Baubiick 

Greg Bayer 

Brigitte Miriam Bedos-Rezak 

Haim Beinart 

Anna S. Benjamin 

Georgia Benkart 

Emmett Bennett 

Dr. and Mrs. Paul Berg 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Bernard 

Alan E. Bernstein 

Jeremy Bernstein 

Daniel Bertrand 

Maggie and Christopher Bickford 

Henry Bienen 

Norman Bimbaum 

David Bjelajac 

Herbert Bloch 

Christof Boehringer 

John Boler 

Larissa Bonfante 

Armand Borel 

Philippe Borgeaud 

Anne L. Bredon 

(In memory of her husband Glen E. Bredon) 

John D. Breit 

T. Corey Brennan 

Ward Briggs 

Joseph E. Brown 

Nicholas Buchdahl 

Glenn Richard Bugh 

Robert J. C. Butow 

C'laude Calame 
David K. Campbell 
James C. Cantrell 



Eugene A. Carroll 

John Whiteclay Chambers II 

Sun-Yung A. Chang and Paul C. Yang 

Hoi Fung Chau 

Erhan Cinlar 

Anne L. Clark 

Ed Cline 

James W Cogdell 

Getzel M. Cohen 

Harvey Cohn 

Richard M. Cohn 

Owen Connelly 

Maria and Bruno Coppi 

Dario A. Covi 

Roger J. Crum 

Charles W Curtis 

Martin Davis 

Pilar de la Torre 

Jacob C. E. Dekker 

Harold G. Diamond 

John M. Dillon 

Xiaomei Liu and Kequan Ding 

Walter Dittrich 

W F Doney 

J. L. Doob 

Robert S. Doran 

Ronald G. Douglas 

Susan B. Downey 

Julia and Pierre Du Prey 

Peter Duignan 

Mary Maples Dunn 

Bemice and Loyal Durand 

Peter L. Duren 

Freeman Dyson 

Clifford J. Earle 

Bruce S. Eastwood 

Paul Ehrlich 

Christiane Eisenberg 

Dyan Elliott 

ThetxJore Evergates 

William Ewald 

Alex J. Feingold 

Carter V. Findley 

Val L. Fitch 

Thomas R. Flynn 

Ilene Forsyth 



32 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Sonia Paban and Dan Freed 

John Freed 

Freed Family Foundation 

Karl Galinsky 

Reinhold W. Gebert 

Ross Geoghegan 

Murray Gerstenhaber 

Abolghassem Ghaffari 

Charles C. Gillispie 

Leslie C. Glaser 

George Glauberman 

James Glazebrook 

Daniel A. Goldston 

Richard J. Gonsalves 

Sue Goodman 

Naomi and George Gorse 

Andrew R Gould 

Andreas Graeser 

John C. Greene 

Michel Gros 

Erich S. Gruen 

Mauro F. Guillen 

Robert Gutman 

Albert N. Hamscher 

Mary-Elizabeth Hamstrom 

Michael Handel 

Nicholas Hanges 

Bert Hansen 

Lily Harish-Chandra 

Morton E. Harris 

Evelyn B. Harrison 

Jane Hathaway 

Thomas Head 

D. C. Heggie 

Maurice H. Heins 

Henry Helson 
Anna S. Henriques 

Haruzo Hida 

Erwin N. Hiebert 

A. Alexandrou Himonas 

Lawrence Paul Horwitz 

R. Howe 

Robert C. Howell 

James E. Humphreys 

Richard L. Ingraham 

Ron and Gail Irving 

Walter A. Jackson 

Howard Jacobson 

James J. John 



Francis E. A. Johnson 

Aravind K. Joshi 

OUi K. Jussila 

Marc Kamionkowski 

Charles Kannengiesser 

Martin L. Karel 

Goro Kato 

Michael B. Katz 

Akio Kawauchi 

M. H. and E. S. Kennedy 

Robert M. Kingdon 

Dale Kinney 

Toichiro Kinoshita 

John R. Klauder 

Martin J. Klein 

Helmut Klingen 

Georg Nicolaus Knauer 

Ronald KniU 

Marvin Knopp 

Milton R. Konvitz 

A. A. Kosinski 

David Kraines 

Rob Kusner 

John Kwan 

Nickolaos D. Kylafis 

Patricia H. Labalme 

Henry J. Landau 

William E. Lang 

Charlotte and Robert Langlands 

Richard K. Lashof 

Robert Lee 

Pierre Lelong 

H. W. Lenstra, Jr. 

James Lepowsky 

Yanguang Charles Li 

Zhiping Liang 

Hans Wolfgang Lieb 

Marcia and David Lieberman 

Harry Liebersohn 

Wen-Ching Lien 

Joram Lindenstrauss 

Juan J. Linz 

J.J. Loeffel 

Robert MacPherson 

Victor H. Mair 

Blair Rogers Major 

(/n memory of her husband]. Russell Major) 

Philip Mannheim 

Albert Marden 



33 



Institute for advanced study 



Greg Martin 

Bruce Ma:lish 

James R. McCredie 

Neil McWilliam 

Ronald Mellor 

Lucy Shoe Meritt 

Martin Meyerson 

Michael R Mezzatesta 

Erika and Ernest Michael 

Judith and Henry Millon 

Vernon Hyde Minor 

Rick Miranda 

Maria Teresa Marabini Moevs 

L. E. Morris 

Karl F. Morrison 

C. J. Mozzochi 

Benjamin I. Nadel 

Sara T. Nalle 

Melvyn B. Nathanson 

Carol Neuman de Vegvar 

Catharine Newbury 

Y. Jack Ng 

Timothy O'Meara 

Emiko Ohnuki-Tiemey 

Sherry B. Ortner 

Martin Ostwald 

Burt A. Ovrut 

Leonard Parker 

Francois Paschoud 

Christian Peters 

James V. Peters 

Ilya Piatetski-Shapiro 

Jonathan Pila 

David Pingree 

John C. Polking 

Karla Pollmann 

Carlo Poni 

Marian Boykan Pour-El 

William L. Pressly 

Murray H. Protter 

Michael C. J. Putnam 

Linda and Richard Randell 

M. M. Rao 

Claudia Rapp 

Richard T. Rapp 

B. P Reardon 

Erica Reiner 

P J. Rhodes 

L. Richardson, Jr. 



Douglas Richstone 

Melvin Richter 

Jennifer T. Roberts 

David Rohrlich 

Fritz Rohrlich 

Avraham Ronen 

Paul Rorem 

Laura Giannetti and Guido Ruggiero 

Seth L. Schein 

Carl E. Schorske 

John Schrecker 

Juergen Schulz 

Atle Selberg 

Richard Sennett 

Irfan A. Shahid 

Freydoon Shah id i 

Alan E. Shapiro 

Martin Sicherl 

Israel Michael Sigal 

Allan J. Silberger 

Maxine F. Singer 

Robert C. Sleigh, Jr. 

Neal Snyderman 

Bridget and Thomas Spencer 

T. A. Springer 

Larry Spruch 

K. R. Sreenivasan 

Nancy K. Stanton 

Harold Stark 

Clarence F. Stephens 

George Sterman 

Ronald J. Stem 

Wilhelm Stoll 

Jenny and Neil Stratford 

Susan M. Stuard 

EarlJ.Taft 

Richard J. A. Talbert 

Bette Talvacchia 

Tsuneo Tamagawa 

Jean E. Taylor 

Emery Thomas 

Leslie L. Threatte, Jr. 

Burt Totaro 

Loring W. Tu Charitable Gift Fund 

David Underdown 

W. R. Ut: 

Baron Herman van der Wee 

Francine Frankel and Dtiuglas Vemey 

Andrei Verona 



34 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Linda Ehrsam Voigts Robert L. Wilson 

Samuel S. Wagstaff, Jr. Dr. and Mrs. Louis Witten 

Jonathan Wahl Kenneth B. Wolf 

Roben K. Webb Mitsuru Yasuhara 

TiUa Weinstein M. Crawford Young 

Marit Werenskiold J. K. Zawodny 

John Wermer Gaoyong Zhang 

Mrs. Albert Leon Whiteman Ernst- Wilhelm Zink 
Robert F. Williams 



OTHER CONTRIBUTORS 

Stephen L. Adler 

Anonymous 

Dr. and Mrs. Jean-Pierre Amoux 

Robert J. C. Butow 

(In honor of Homer A. Thompson) 

A.C. Eschenlauer 

Professor and Mrs. Harold Falk 

Thbmas R. Flynn 

Linda L. Geraci 

James F. Hawkins 

Pamela and Brian Hughes 

Patricia and George Labalme 

Mr. and Mrs. Peter Lawson-Johnston 

Peter Mitchell 

Dorothy and Lloyd Moote 

Louise J. Morse 

Harold J. Rivkin 

Barbara H. Roberts 

Eugene R. Speer 

Fritz Stem 

Jesse J. Taub 

June W. Allison and Stephen V. Tracy 

Diana F. Waltman 

Howard D. Weinbrot 



GIFTS-IN-KIND 

Peter R. Kann 

Lauren K. and J. Ezra Merkin 

Mina Teicher 



35 



Institute for advanced study 



PROFESSORSHIPS AND MEMBERSHIPS 

The Institute for Advanced Study is deeply appreciative of gifts in fiscal year 2001 
designated to provide annual support for Professorships and Memberships. 

PROFESSORSHIPS 

W. M. Keck Distinguished Visiting Professorship 

by the W. M. Keck Foundation 

Two-Year Mellon Visiting Professorship 
by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

Distinguished Visiting Professorship 
by The Ambrose Monell Foundation 

New Jersey Albert Einstein Professorship 
by the State of New Jersey 

MEMBERSHIPS 

American Council of Learned Societies 

AMIAS (Association of Members of the Institute for Advanced Study) 

Friends of the Institute for Advanced Study 

Gerda Henkel Stiftung 

Hubble Space Telescope Fellowships 

W. M. Keck Foundation 

Samuel H. Kress Foundation 

The John D. and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation 

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

The Ambrose Monell Foundation 

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 

National Endowment for the Humanities 

National Science Foundation 

State of New Jersey 

The Rockefeller Foundation 

The Seaver Institute 

Smithsonian Institution Astrophysical Obser\atory 

Space Telescope Science Institute 

Fritz Thyssen Stiftung 

United States Department of Energy 



36 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



The Institute fcir Advanced Study continues to he grateful to donors for their past generosity in 
providing major gifts to establish endowed Professorships and Memberships. 

ENDOWED PROFESSORSHIPS 

Richard Black Professorship 

Albert O. Hirschman Professorship 

IBM von Neumann Professorship 

George F. Kennan Professorship 

Harold F Liiider Professorship 
Andrew W. Mellon Professorship 

Charles Simonyi Professorship 

UPS Foundation Professorship 

Hermann Weyl Professorship 

ENDOWED MEMBERSHIPS 

The Bell Companies Fellowship 

Martin A. and Helen Chooljian Membership 

Edward T. Cone Membership in Music Studies 

The Coming Glass Works Foundation Fellowship 

George William Cottrell, Jr. Membership 

Deutsche Bank Memberships 

Elizabeth and j. Richardson Dilworth Fellowships in Historical Studies 

The Ellentuck Fund 

The 50''' Anniversary Fellowship in Social Science 

Richard B. Fisher Membership 

Marvin L. Goldberger Membership 

The Hetty Goldman Membership Fund 

The Florence Gould Foundation 

Agnes Gund and Daniel Shapiro Membership 

The Ralph E. and Doris M. Hansmann Membership 

The Herodotus Fund 

The IBM Einstein Fellowships 

The Andrew W Mellon Foundation 

Otto Neugebauer Fund 

Patrons' Endowment Fund 

Raymond and Beverly Sackler Foundation 

The Sivian Fund 

Frank and Peggy Taplin Memberships 

The Oswald Veblen Fund 

The von Neumann Fund 

The Weyl Fund 

Edwin C. and Elizabeth A. Whitehead Fellowship 

The James D. Wolfensohn Fund 



37 




My stay at the Institute this fall enabled me to complete and 
advance several projects to which 1 otherwise could have 
devoted only very limited time . . . what I cherished most was 
the unfailingly supportive attitude ... 1 could focus on my work with nothing 
standing in the way. There is an established atmosphere of intellectual vitality 
and exchange. The Institute is a supportive environment in every way and there 
is no better place for productive scholarship. I am immensely grateful to have 
been given this opportunity." 

— Member, School of Historical Studies 



Benjamin Elman (center) , the Two-Year Mellon Visiting Professor m the School of Historical Stupes . and Members Alexander Des 

Forges (left) and Jonathan Best, examine a scroll painting of prefectural ciinl examinations being held in the goi'emment office of 

Suzhou in China. The scroll, by %u Yang, dates to 1759. 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



Faculty 

GLEN W. BOWERSOCK 

GILES CONSTABLE 

PATRICIA CRONE, Amireui W. Mellon Professor 

JONATHAN ISRAEL 

IRVING LAVIN 

JACK E MATLOCK, Jr., George F. Kenrmn Professor 

HEINRICH von STADEN 



Two-Year Mellon Vbidng Professor 
BENJAMIN ELMAN 



Professors Emeriti 

MARSHALL CLAGETT 

OLEG GRABAR 

CHRISTIAN HABICHT 

GEORGE E KENNAN 

PETER PARET 

MORTON WHITE 

The School of Historical Studies is concerned principally with the history of Western and 
Near Eastern civilization. Within this wide area of study, a large range of topics has been 
explored at one time or another by Faculty and Members, but the emphasis has been par- 
ticularly strong in the fields of Greek and Roman civilization, medieval, early modem 
and modem European history, Islamic culture, and the history of art, science, and ideas. 

The particular emphases of the School are a product of its own history. Two years after 
the opening of the School of Mathematics in 1933, a School of Economics and Politics 
and a School of Humanistic Studies were established. In Humanistic Studies, the first 
professor was Benjamin Dean Meritt, a specialist in Greek history and epigraphy, who was 
closely associated with excavations in the Athenian Agora. The second appointment to 
the Faculty of the School of Humanistic Studies was that of the German art historian 
Erwin Panofsky. Panofsky's work ranged through the entire gamut of European art from 
the middle ages to motion pictures, but he was most closely associated with the develop- 
ment of the field of iconology. 

Three additional appointments strengthened the field of classical and Near Eastern 
studies: Elias Avery Lowe, a Latin paleographer who worked on the handwriting of pre- 
hinth century manuscripts; Emst Herzfeld, a Near Eastern archaeologist and historian, 
whose scholarly work comprised nearly 200 titles; and Hetty Goldman, one of the 
pioneering American women archaeologists, whose discoveries at Tarsus in Turkey were 



41 



Institute for advanced study 



published in six volumes. Modem history was represented at the Institute from the out- 
set with the appointment of the mihtary and political historian Edward M. Earle. Earle 
was an original member of the School of Economics and Politics, which merged in 1949 
with the School of Humanistic Studies to become the School of Historical Studies. 

After World War II, classical studies were further augmented by the appointments of 
Homer A. Thompson in Greek archaeology, Harold F Chemiss in Greek philosophy, and 
Andrew Alfoldi in ancient history and numismatics. Although Alfoldi published tire- 
lessly on a wide range of subjects during his years at the Institute, he was mainly preoc- 
cupied with the history of early Rome and Julius Caesar, and wrote several books on both 
subjects. Medieval history came to the Institute Faculty with Ernst Kantorowicz, whose 
interests ranged in time from the later phases of classical antiquity to the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, and in space embraced both Western Europe and the Byzantine and 
Islamic East. The art historical tradition was carried on by Millard Meiss, who was able 
to complete his great work on late medieval manuscript painting in Burgundy during his 
years at the Institute. 

Additions to the Faculty in modem history came with the appointments of Sir Ernest Llewe- 
lyn Woodward in British diplomatic history; George F. Kennan, former Ambassador to the 
Soviet Union, in Russian history and international relations; Felix Gilbert in Renaissance 
as well as modem history; Morton White in the history of modem philosophy; and Peter 
Paret in modem European history. Roman military history and papyrology were represented 
by James F Gilliam; medieval history of the Latin East, Venice, and the relatior\s between 
the Papacy and the Levant by Kenneth M. Setton; medieval science, especially the classical 
heritage, by Marshall Clagett; Islamic art and culture by Oleg Grahar; and Greek and 
Roman history, especially the Hellenistic period, by Christian Habicht. 

While these traditions have remained strong in the School of Historical Studies, they 
have not excluded scholars working in other fields who have come here as Members. 
More than one thousand Members have come to the School since its foundation. The 
articles and books resulting from their research at the Institute are wimess to the quality 
and productivity of their scholarly activity here. 



academic activities 
facl;ltv 

In the past academic year PROFESSOR GLEN BOWERSOCK contributed papers to 
several international symposia. He spoke at Tours on the Syrian Leja in the Hellenistic 
period, at Capri on current historiography of late antiquity, at Princeton on David 
Magic's work on Asia Minor, at Toronto on foreigners in Flavian Rome, and at Gubbio 
on the use of documents in ancient historical writings. He gave the concluding remarks 
at a three-day conference held at the British Museum on "The World of the Herods and 
the Nabataeans." He also delivered a lecture at the Louvre on "L'actualisation du pass^ 
dans I'antiquit^ tardive," and a lecture entitled "The People of AntiiKh" at the Worces- 
ter Art Mu.seum in connection with the Antioch exhibition. In the spring of 2001, he 
delivered an Italian version of his Louvre lecture at La Sapienza in Rome, and he lectured 
at the German Archaeological Institute in Rome on late antique mosaics from the Near 



42 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



East. At the invitation of the Grolier Club, he went to Williams College for an exhibi- 
tion devoted to Edward Gibbon, where he presented a paper on "Gibbon's Library." He 
also delivered the annual Lax Memorial Lecture at Mount Holyoke College. 

In Florence, Professor Bowersock served as a member of the Consiglio Scientifico of a newly 
founded Isrituto di studi umanistici, composed of several major Italian universities and 
foundations. In Helsinki, he served together with former Institute Member Alan Bow- 
man (Oxford) to advise the Academy of Finland on the Center of Excellence, which is 
concerned with the newly discovered Petra papyri. For the American Philosophical Soci- 
ety, Professor Bowersock organized a panel on "The Great Libraries" for the autumn 
meeting and another panel on "European Culture Between Greek and Maori" for the 
spring meeting (held jointly with the Royal Society and the British Academy). His Fic- 
tion as History appeared recently in an Italian translation (La storia irwenujta) with an 
introduction by Mario Mazza. On the occasion of the recent publication of his Selected 
Papers on Late Antiquity, he participated in a presentazione of the book in Rome with for- 
mer Institute members Aldo Schiavone and Leilia Cracco Ruggini. 

Among the papers published by Professor Bowersock in the past academic year were an 
analysis of the homeland of Strabo the geographer, an examination of late antique 
Cyprus, and a detailed treatment, originally presented to the Academie des Inscriptions 
et Belles-Lettres in Paris, of a Greek inscription from Asia Minor in the context of local 
associations that he calls confreries joyeuses. For a larger public. Professor Bowersock pub- 
lished articles on Neapolitan gestures, ancient Petra, and the movie "Gladiator." Two 
new volumes appeared in the series Revealing Anti^uit^, of which he is the general editor 
for the Harvard University Press. 

In the academic year 2000-01 PROFESSOR GILES CONSTABLE saw the publication, 
after twenty years of preparation, of B^^antine Monastic Foumiation Documents. A Com- 
plete Translation of the Surviving Founders' Typika and Testaments (Washington, D.C., 
2000), in five volumes, edited by John Thomas and Angela Hero, in collaboration with 
Giles Constable, who also wrote the introduction. Professor Constable also published 
three articles, three memoirs (two in collaboration with colleagues), and two book 
reviews. He gave lectures at a conference in Trento (Italy) in October, at the Universi- 
ty of Delaware in November, at the Pontifical Institute for Mediaeval Studies (Toronto) 
in March, and at Tourtour (France) in June. Professor Constable attended professional 
meetings in Tucson in October (in honor of Heiko A. Oberman), Tempe in March 
(Medieval Academy of America), Philadelphia in April (American Philosophical 
Society), and Kalamazoo in May (International Congress on Medieval Studies). He also 
attended, and spoke briefly at, meetings at Princeton University and the Institute for 
Advanced Study, where he arranged the meeting of the Delaware Valley Medieval Asso- 
ciation held in December. 

PROFESSOR PATRICIA CRONE continued to work on medieval Islamic political 
thought, especially Farabi and the Greek tradition, on which she gave a seminar at the 
Institute. She also spoke in Chicago on problems to do with the rise of Islam, in Prince- 
ton on an early Shiite text, at a conference in Holland on the relationship between non- 
Arab converts and Shiism, and at a conference at the Institute for Advanced Study in 
Jerusalem, where she also gave a seminar on aspects of Islamic messianism. Professor 
Crone taught a graduate seminar on tenth- and eleventh-century views of the right 



43 



Institute for advanced study 



relationship between religion and socio-political organization at the University of 
Pennsylvania, using some of the seminar materials as part of a presentation to AMIAS. 
Again this year, Professor Crone ran two seminars at the Institute: a formal one for all 
those interested in Islamic history, and an informal and much smaller one for people 
interested in reading medieval Arabic texts. She continued to serve as editor of Arabica 
and Studia Islamica. Her book with Friedrich Zimmermann, The Epistle of Salim b. 
Dhakwan, appeared in 2001, as did some of her articles. 

PROFESSOR BENJAMIN ELMAN's edited volume entitled Rethinking Con/Mcianism: 
Past and Present in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, which was co-edited with John Dun- 
can and Herman Ooms of UCLA, has been accepted for publication in the UCLA Asia 
Pacific Institute Monograph Series, forthcoming in 2002. The volume is based on a 
series of workshops and a conference held previously at UCLA, sponsored by The Uni- 
versity of California Pacific Rim Research Program, The University of California 
Humanities Research Institute, and organized by the UCLA Center for Chinese Studies. 
Besides preparing the "Introduction" chapter, Elman also prepared the chapter entitled 
"Rethinking 'Confucianism' And 'Neo-Confucianism' In Modem Chinese History." 
Professor Elman's article "Tlie Search for Evidence from China: Qing Learning and 
Koshogaku in Tokugawa Japan," a paper presented at the Institute for Advanced 
Study/School of Historical Studies Symposium on East Asian Culture and History, on 
April 13, 2001, is forthcoming in the volume entitled Chinese Views of japan in the Ming- 
Qing Period, edited by Joshua Fogel of the University of California, Santa Barbara (East 
Bridge Press). His article entitled "Classical Reasoning in Late Imperial Chinese Civil 
Examination Essays," has been published in the special issue of KuoAi Chung-yang 
ta-hsueh wen-hsueh-yuan jen-wen hsueh-pao, which includes the articles from the 
conference, "Chinese Traditions in Classical Hermeneutics," held at National Taiwan 
University, Taipei, June 1-2, 2000. 

Professor Elman presented lectures in China, Germany, Japan, and Taiwan, in addition 
to several local universities. Based on his two research projects while at the Institute for 
Advanced Study, he presented the keynote address entitled "'Universal Science' versus 
'Chinese Science': The Changing Identity of Natural Studies in China, 1850-1930," for 
the conference, "Chinese Historiography and Historical Thinking," organized by Susan 
Weigelin-Schwiedrzik and Axel Schneider, held at Heidelberg University, Germany, 
May 23-27, 2001. Professor Elman also lectured at the Institute tor Chinese Studies at 
Leiden University on May 21. The paper, "Rethinking Confucianism for the 21 
Century: Past and Present in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam," was prepared for the 
International Academic Symposium on "Globalization of the World Economy and the 
Future of Chinese Civilization," and presented at the first meeting ot the "Forum on 
Chinese Civilization in the 21*' Century," Beijing, China, October 25-28, 2000. "The 
Problem of Modem Science in China: From the Ming Jesuits and Qing Protestants to 
Qian Mu," was presented at the "Academic Conference Commemorating the Tenth 
Anniversary of the Passing of Qian Mu," held at the National Tiiwan University, Taipei, 
Taiwan, November 24-26, 2000. All of the above conference presentations will be pub- 
lished in their respective conference volumes in the near future. In addition. Professor 
Elman presented the ft)llowing public lectures: "The Scope of the 'Investigation of 
Things' in Late Imperial China," for the Early Chinese History Seminar, Har\'ard 
University, February 5, 2001; "From Jesuits to Protestants: Problems in the Transmission 
of McxJem Science in China, 1600-1900," as part of the Nichols Distinguished Lecture 



44 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



Series, sponsored by the Asian/Pacific Studies Institute, Duke University, February 15, 
2001; "New Perspectives on the Jesuits in China, 1550-1750," for a conference entitled 
"East/West: Points of Contact," Lycoming College, Williamsport, Pennsylvania, March 
16-17, 2001; and "The Cultural Role of Civil Examinations in Late Imperial China," for 
the History Department, Swarthmore College, March 29, 2001. 

In his final year at the School of Historical Studies, Professor Elman again organized a 
series of events sponsored by The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, with funds also gener- 
ously provided by John P. Birkelund and Ladislaus von Hoffmann under the title "East 
Asian Studies at the School for Historical Studies, 2000-01: Seminars and Colloquia on 
East Asian Culture and History." In addition to leading one seminar on November 14, 
2000, on his own current research project dealing with the influence of late imperial 
Chinese classical scholarship in Tokugawa Japan (1600-1867) before the Meiji Restora- 
tion, Professor Elman organized colloquia in the fall of 2000 and spring of 2001: 1 ) "Qing 
Dynasty History (1600-1900) TTirough 'TTiings"' (November 3-4, 2000), co-organized 
with the Princeton University East Asian Studies Program; 2) "East Asian Culture and 
History" (April 13-14, 2001). The two colloquia included presentations by the Institute 
Members and Visitors in East Asian Studies as well as non-Institute scholars including 
Pamela Crossley (Dartmouth College), Susan Naquin (Princeton University), Tobie 
Meyer-Fong (Johns Hopkins University), Evelyn Rawski (University of Pittsburgh), 
Alexander Woodside (University of British Columbia), James Ketelaar (University of 
Chicago), Mark Setton (SUNY, Stony Brook), and R. Bin Wong (University of Califor- 
nia, Irvine). Professor Elman also presented an illustrated talk entitled "Classicism, Civil 
Examinations, and Natural Studies in Late Traditional China, 1600-1800," for the School 
of Historical Studies Faculty Lecture at the Institute on March 7, 2001. 

Since joining the Institute in January, PROFESSOR JONATHAN ISRAEL has contin- 
ued with his main research project on the impact of Spinoza and Spinozism on the Euro- 
pean early Enlightenment as well as with subsidiary projects on the politics of the Dutch 
Golden Age and early modem Jewish history. His latest book, Radical Enlightenment, 
Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750 was published by Oxford University 
Press, England, in February. At the invitation of the Press, Professor Israel undertook a 
book tour of several Dutch cities and was interviewed on Dutch radio. 

Also in February, Professor Israel met with the history of political ideas research unit of the 
Folger Library, in Washington, to help plan a future international conference on inter- 
action between England and the Netherlands in early modem political thought. In late 
March, he delivered a paper on the Dutch role in the European Enlightenment at the 
Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuettel, Germany, and, at The Hague, a public lecture 
on the statecraft of the early eighteenth-century Dutch statesman, Anthony Heinsius. 
Also at The Hague, he gave a talk to the research staff of the Royal Library on historians' 
use of the extensive body of source materials which the Royal Library edits and publishes. 

In late April, Professor Israel delivered a public lecture at the American Jewish Histori- 
cal Society in New York to mark the publication of the collective volume to which he 
was a contributor, The Jews and the Expansion of Europe to the West, 1450-1800 (New York, 
2001) published under the auspices of the John Carter Brown Library. During May, 
Professor Israel was interviewed for Dutch television in the royal apartments and gardens 
at Hampton Court Palace, near London, discussing the Stadholder-king, William III, and 



45 



Institute for advanced study 



the general significance of the so-called 'Glorious Revolution' for the Netherlands and 
Britain. In late May, he visited Poland, where he has estahlished academic contacts and 
carried out library research. Professor Israel gave two lectures at the University of 
Wroclaw (Breslau), one on the early Enlightenment and the other-as part of an interna- 
tional conference on Dutch cultural influence in Central Europe-on the place of Silesia 
in Dutch anti-Hahsburg strategy at the outset of the Thirty Years' War. 

PROFESSOR IRVING LAVIN gave a course .of lectues at the Institute Italiano per gli 
Studi Filosofici in Naples, and presented a number of lectures and papers at symposia 
both here and abroad, including: TTie J. Paul Getty Mu.seum, The University of Jena in 
Germany, and the Palazzo delle Esposizioni in Rome. In May, Professor Lavin co-orga- 
nized a three-day colloquium, sponsored and hosted jointly by the Institute for Advanced 
Study and the National Gallery of Art in Washington, entitled "Creativity: The Sketch 
in the Arts and Science." 

Professor Lavin continued to serve as a member of the National Committee for the 
History of Art and as advisor to the architect Michael Graves for the decorative program 
of a new Federal Court House in Washington, D.C., and for a proposed monument in 
Richmond, Virginia, to the Virginia Proclamation of Religious Freedom; and on the 
editorial board of a number of scholarly journals, including "Quademi d'italianistica," 
"History of European Ideas," "Art e Dossier," and "Palladio, rivista di storia dell' architet- 
tura e restauro." 

Publications include a book and several papers in Italian and English: Caravagg^o e La 
Tour. La luce occulta di Dio (Rome, 2000); "Georges de La Tour. The Tears of St. Peter 
and the 'Occult' Light of Penitence," in M. Seidel, ed., LEuropa e I'arte italiana, (Venice, 
2000), 352-75; "Bernini in San Pietro," in A. Pinelli, ed.. La basilica di San Pieno in 
Vaticano, 4 vols., (Modena, 2000), Saggi, 177-236; "Storm King: The Genius of the 
Place," in Earth, Sky, and Sculpture. Storm King Art Center, (Mountainville, NY, 2000), 
53-63; "Bemini-Bozzetti: One More, One Less. A Beminesque Sculptor in Mid-Eigh- 
teenth Century France," in H. Baader et al., eds., Ars et scriptura. Festschrift fUr Rudolf 
Preimesberger zwn 65. Gehurtstag, (Berlin, 2001), 143-156. 

PROFESSOR JACK F MATLOCK, Jr. delivered lectures at the National Democratic 
Institute, the EastWest Institute, Princeton University, the New Jersey Council for 
History Education, the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations, the 
Philadelphia Committee on Foreign Relations, Central Intelligence Agency, the Rand 
Business Leaders Forum, and the John F. Kennedy School ot Government at Harvard 
University. He also gave a luncheon presentation hosted by the Institute for Advanced 
Study at the Dow Jones offices in New York. 

Professor Matlock participated in conferences and discussions at the Council on Foreign 
Relations, Princeton University, University of Oklahoma, Global Green USA, and the 
Harriman Institute, where he received the Alumnus of the Year Award. He also partici- 
pated in an international conference in Mo.scow sponsored by the Library of Foreign Lit- 
erature and the Association of International Cooperation. He gave interviews to Har- 
vard University Press and the BBC regarding Mikhail Gorbachev. 

His publications include contributions in various projects and collective volumes: 
Challenges and Opportunities in U.S.'Russian Relations, for the National Defense Universi- 



46 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



ty; "Russia, Europe, and 'Western Civilization'" for a Festschrift to Martin Malia; "1980- 
1983: The End of Detente and the Reformulation of American Strategy," for Hoover 
Institution Press; U.S. Policy on Human Rights in Relatiom with the USSR: 1961-1991 for 
a Human Rights Implementation project sponsored by the U.S. Institute of Peace, and 
"Mikhail Gorbachev and the End of the Cold War," for a book dedicated to Gorbachev's 
70 birthday. He also wrote an essay on Dmitri Likhachev for the American Philosoph- 
ical Society. 

Professor Matlock has completed his research for Reagan arui Gorbachev: How the Cold 
War Ended, and continues work on it and other book-length projects. 

PROFESSOR HEINRICH von STADEN participated in a workshop in July 2000 at the 
Needham Research Institute, University of Cambridge, on a recent comparative study 
(undertaken by Sir Geoffrey Lloyd and Nathan Sivin) of the emergence of ancient Greek 
and Chinese science. In August, he chaired a panel on "History and philosophy of sci- 
ence: state of the relationship" in St. Louis at the joint meeting of the History of Science 
Society with its British and Canadian counterparts. In early September 2000, he partic- 
ipated in a three-day conference in Houston on a new history of medical ethics (to be 
published by Cambridge University Press), to which he also has contributed a 
chapter. Professor von Staden subsequently gave a lecture on Homeric conceptions of 
healers and healing at a meeting of the' International Society for the History' of Medicine 
in Galveston. In late September 2000, he gave a keynote lecture on the transmission of 
science in Greco-Roman antiquity at a symposium in Japan (Kyoto University). At the 
opening plenary session of the annual meeting of the History of Science Society in 
Vancouver in early November, he gave an invited paper on particularity and the language 
of exception in Greek science. In mid-November 2000, he gave the Corbett Lecture in 
the Faculty of Classics at the University of Cambridge on "Reading as Therapy: Literacy 
and the Practice of Medicine." Throughout the autumn term, he also taught a graduate 
seminar in the Department of Classics at Princeton University on "Medicine, Language, 
and Culture." In February 2001, he gave a lecture at the University of Bochum, Ger- 
many, on the earliest commentaries on scientific and medical texts in ancient Greece. In 
late February, he lectured at the University of Cincinnati on literacy and medicine in the 
Roman empire, and in March 2001 he gave two graduate seminars and a lecture at the 
University of Texas at Austin. While in Austin, Professor von Staden also presented a 
commentary on a paper on Aristophanes of Byzantium at an international symposium 
organized by Project Theophrastus. At a symposium at the Dibner Institute (MIT) in 
May 2001, he gave an invited paper on 'art' and 'nature' in Greek medicine. At the invi- 
tation of the Departments of Philosophy and Classics at Union College in Schenectady, 
he gave the Harry Guttman Memorial Lecture on Hippocratic Ethics in late May. In June 
2001, he gave the keynote address in Cuma, Italy, at the annual Symposium Cumanum 
sponsored by The Vergilian Society. 

His publications in the academic year 2000-01 included "Body, Soul, and Nerves," in 
Psyche arui Soma. Physicians and Metaphysicians on the Mirui-Body Problem from Antiquity 
to the Enlightenment, edited by John P Wright and Paul Potter (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 
2000), pp. 79-1 16; "Metaphor and the Sublime: Longinus," in Desde los poemas homericos 
hasta la prosa griega del siglo IV d.C. Veintiseis estudios filologicos, edited by Juan Antonio 
Lopez Ferez (Madrid: Ediciones Clasicas, 2000), pp. 359-380; "The Transmission of 



47 



Institute for advanced study 



Science in Greco-Roman Antiquity. Memory and Loss, Agency and Form," in Koiengaku 
no saikochiku (Towards a Reconstitucion of Classical Studies), no. 8, edited by Akiyoshi Kida 
(Kobe: Hideaki Nakatani, Kobegakui University, 2000), pp. 31-41; "The Dangers of 
Literature and the Need for Literacy: A. Cornelius Celsus on Reading and Writing," 
in Les textes medicaux latin comme litterature. Actes du Vie colhxjue mtemational sur les lexies 
medicaux latins, edited by Alfrieda and Jackie Pigeaud (Nantes: Institut Universitaire 
de France, Universite de Nantes, 2000), pp. 355-368; seven articles ("Anatomy and Phys- 
iology," "Dioscurides," "Galen," "Health," "Hewphilus," "Hippocrates," and "Nicander") 
in Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition, vols. 1 and II (London and Chicago: 
Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001), pp. 69-72, 493-94, 637-39, 716-18, 746-47, 755-57, 1153-54; 
and several book reviews. In February 2001 , the Presses Universitaires de France appoint- 
ed him to the 'Comit^ scientifique international' of the Dictionnaire d'histoire et philoso- 
phic de la medecine. He also continued to serve on the editorial boards of the journals Con- 
figurations: Literature, Science and Technology and Fihlogia antica e modema, on the 'comit^ 
scientifique' of the new journal Methodos: Savoirs et Textes (Universite de Lille), and as a 
member of a research unit ('U.P.R.E.S.A.') of the Comit^ National de Recherche Scien- 
tifique at the Sorbonne (Universite de Paris-lV). 

PROFESSORS EMERITI 

PROFESSOR MARSHALL CLAGETT contmued preparation of the fourth and last 
volume of his Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book. It includes an introductory analy- 
sis of some of the chief Egyptian medical papyri, and English translation of these papyri, 
together with their hieratic texts and hieroglyphic transliterations. The ancient Egypt- 
ian techniques of representing nature are also being examined in this volume. Professor 
Clagett continued to serve on committees of the American Philosophical Society during 
the past year, as he has done for the last forty years. 

PROFESSOR OLEG GRABAR was awarded the eleventh Charles L. Freer Medal from 
the Smithsonian Institution for contributions to the field of Asian art. He ser\ed on the 
Executive Committee of the Visiting Review Committee for the Humanities at Brown 
University, was an examiner at a doctoral defense at the University of Paris, spoke at a 
colloquium on the dimensions of art at the University of California at San Diego, and 
lectured twice in courses at Princeton University. He also gave the Florovsky Memorial 
Lecture at Princeton University and the first Norma Jean Calderwood Lecture at the 
Harvard University Art Museums, as well as a lecture at the Los Angeles County Art 
Museum. He participated in seminars at New York University and MIT. Professor 
Grabar's publications included: 

"Kunst und Kultur in der Welt der Islam," M. Hattstein and P. Delius, eds., Islam, Kunst und 
Architektur (Koln, 2000), pp. 35-53; "Ritual Objects and Private Devotion," in Lirry D. 
Perkins ed., Intimate RttuaLs and Personal Deiotiom (Gainesville, Fl, 2000); "Art and Expres- 
sion," in M.A. Al-Bakhit and others, eds. Histtrry of Humanity: Scientific and Cultural Dei'el- 
opmeni, 7'^ to J6''' Centunes (UNESCO and London, l^yX), pp. 143-163; 2W1 "About Two 
Mughal Miniatures," Damas:ener Mitteilungen (Fest.schrift Michael Meinecke), 11 (2000); 
"Graffiti or PriKlamations: Why Write On Buildings," Doris Behrens-AKiuseif ed.. The Cairo 
Heritage (Giiro, 2000), pp. 69-75; "The Haram al-Sharif: An Essay in Interpretation," Bul- 
letin of the Royal iastitute firr Inter-Faith Studies, 2;2 (2000), pp. 1-14; "The Cru.sades and the 
Development of Islamic Art," in A. E. Laiou and R. P. Mottahedeh, eds. The Crusades /rom 
the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World (Washington, 2000), pp. 235-245. 



48 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



PROFESSOR CHRISTIAN HABICHT was inducted into the Academy of Athens on 
Octobet 31, 2000, and delivered a lecture entitled "Athenian Citizens with Foreign 
Names," forthcoming in the Transactions of the Academy. 

From November 2-4, he participated in an international symposium in Athens, organized 
by Austrian and Greek institutions in memory of the death of Adolph Wilhelm in 1950. 
Professor Habicht was the first of two keynote speakers and gave a presentation entitled 
"Adolf Wilhelm und die attischen Inschriften," forthcoming in the proceedings of the 
symposmm. On November 5, he took part in a joint meeting of the Advisory Commit- 
tee and the Editorial Board responsible for the new edition of the inscriptions of Attica. 

On December 9-10, Professor Habicht participated in an international conference held 
at Princeton University celebrating the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of David 
Magie's Rorruin Rule in Asia Minor. 

On May 18-19, 2001, an international colloquium was held at the Haus of the Aby Warburg- 
Stiftung of the University of Hamburg on the occasion of Professor Habicht's seventy- 
fifth birthday. Of the thirteen speakers presenting "Neue Beitrage zur Geschichte der 
Griechischen Welt," ten had been members of the School of Historical Studies between 
1974 and 1996. 

Professor Habicht continued to serve on several committees. His publications were: 
"Delphi und die athenische Epigraphik," in Delphes Cent Am Apres la Grande Fouille, 
2000, pp. 149-156; "Foreign Names in Athenian Nomenclature," in Proceedings of the 
British Academy 104, 2000, pp. 119-127; "Neues aus Messene," Zeitschrift fur Papyrolo^e 
und Epigraphik 130, 2000, pp. 121-126; "Zur Chronologie der hellenistischen Eponyme 
von Kos," Chiron 30, 2000, pp. 303-332; "Steinepigramme aus dem griechischen Osten," 
Tyche 14, 1999 [2000], pp. 93-99; also reviews of K. W Arafat, Paiisanias' Greece, Gno- 
mon 72, 2001, pp. 109-1 1 1, and of I. Savalli- Lestrade, Les Phibi Royaux dans I'Asie Hel- 
lenistujue, Topoi 9, 1999 [2000], pp. 333-338. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE KENNAN completed and published, in the year 2000, a small 
history of the first three generations of his own family. Stimulated by the research that 
effort involved, he also read extensively, as age permits him to do, and for the edification 
of none but himself, the history of the founding of the American republic. 

PROFESSOR PETER PARET published German Encounters with Modernism, J 840- 1 945 
(Cambridge University Press, 2001, hardcover and paperback), a sequence of nine 
connected essays on art, society, and politics, some previously published and expanded, 
others new. Makers of Modem Strategy (Princeton University Press, 1986), a collection of 
writings by various authors, to which he contributed the introduction and essays on 
Napoleon and Clausewitz, was published in a Portuguese translation by the Biblioteca do 
Exercito Editore de Brazil, and in a new English language edition by the World Affairs 
Press in China. The book has already appeared in Italian, Japanese, Greek, and Spanish 
editions. During the academic year Professor Paret continued work on a study of the con- 
flict between the sculptor Ernst Barlach and the Third Reich, which he expects to com- 
plete before the end of 2001. 



49 



Institute for advanced study 



PROFESSOR MORTON WHITE delivered a talk entitled "Some Reminiscences of W. 
V. Quine" at a meeting in memory of the late Professor Quine at Harvard University on 
March 2, 2001. He also delivered an expanded version of that talk at a similar meeting 
at Princeton University on April 13, 2001. Professor White has agreed with Questia 
Media to puhlish twelve of his books in electronic form, thereby permitting parts of them 
to be downloaded. He has also agreed to allow Bell and Howell to publish these same 
works in full in their series "Books on Demand." Professor White was re-elected a Mem- 
ber of Council by the American Philosophical Society and served on its committee to 
award fellowships in the humanities. He has completed a book tentatively entitled 
"Experience and Culture," which will be published by Princeton University Press. 



50 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 
MEMBERS, VISITORS, AND RESEARCH STAFF 



WALTER AMELING 

Ancient History 

University of Jena, Germany 

AMI AYALON 
Near Eastern Studies 
Tel Aviv University • s 

CHRISTOPHER BASWELL 

Medieval Literature and Classical Tradition 

University of California, Los Angeles ■ n 

JANE BAUN 
Byzantine History 
New York University 

PAUL-ALAIN BEAULIEU 

Assyriology 

Harvard University 

ANNETTE BECKER 
20''^ Century History 
University Pans X, Nanterre 

JONATHAN BEST 
Korean Cultural History 
Wesleyan University • / 

URSZULA BORKOWSKA 
Medieval and Early Modem History 
Catholic University of Lublin ■ / 

JAN BREMMER 

Classics. Comparative Religion 

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen • / 

SCOTT BRUCE 

Medieval History 

Institute for Advanced Study • a 

ALEXANDER DES FORGES 
East Asian Studies 
University of Michigan • / 

HELMA DIK 

Classics 

University of Chicago 

PATRICIA EMISON 
Art History (Renaissance) 
University of New Hampshire ■ s 

ROBERT ENGLISH 

Political Science, Russian and East European History 

Johns Hopkins University • n 



KARL GALINSKY 

Classics 

University of Texas, Austin • vf 

THOMAS GALLANIS 
History of English Law 
The Ohio State University 

JONATHAN CLASSMAN 
African History 
Northwestern University 

ALLAN GOTTHELF 
Ancient Pliilosof)hy arxd Science 
The College of New Jersey • s 

KAREN HAGEMANN 

Modem German and European History, Women and 

Gender History 

Technical University of Berlin 

FERAS HAMZA 

Islamic History 

Institute for Advanced Study • a 

MARTA HANSON 

History of Chinese Science 

University of California, San Diego • vs 

BERNARD HAYKEL 

Islamic Studies 

New York University 

SCOTT HENDRIX 
European Reformation History 
Princeton Theological Seminary • vs 

JOHN HOWE 

Medieval History 

Texas Tech University • s 

DOUGLAS HOWLAND 
East Asian History 
DePaul University 

RICHARD J ANKO 

Classics 

University College, London • / 

STEPHEN JONES 
Georgian Politics and History 
Mount Holyoke College • s 



a Research Assistant • / First Term • n NEH Supported • s Second Term • v Visitor 



51 



Institute for advanced study 



DOROTHY KO 

East Asian History 

Rutgers University, New Brunswick • n 

ETAN KOHLBERG 

Islamic History 

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem • v 

EWA LAJER-BURCHARTH 

Art arul Cultural History 
Harvard University • s 

MICHAEL LEWIS 

Histoni of Art arxd Architecture 

Williams College 

MICHELE LOWRIE 

Classics 

New York University 

MICHAEL MAAS 

Ancient History/Late Antiquity 

Rice University 

GREGORY MAERTZ 

Art arxd Cultural History 
St. John's University • s 

SARAH McHAM 

Histot7 of Art 

Rutgers University, New Brunswick ■ f • vs 

STEPHEN MENN 
Ancient Philosophy 
McGill University • s 

JORG MERZ 
History of Art 
University of Augsburg, Germany 

CONSTANT MEWS 

Medieval History 

Monash University, Australia • vf 

VERA MOREEN 

Near Eastern Languages and Civilisations 

Swarthmore College ■ / 

WILLIAM NEWMAN 
History of Science 
Indiana University 

JOHN PAOLETTl 
History of Art 
Wesleyan University • s 

PIOTR PIOTROWSK! 

History of Art 

Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland • / 



RANDALL POOLE 
European and Russian History 
Boston University • / 

AIMEE BROWN PRICE 
Art History 
Independent Scholar ■ v 

CHARLES RADDING 
Medieval History 
Michigan State University 

ERIC REBILLARD 
Late AntiijMe History 
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris 

NORMAN SAUL 
Russian History 
University of Kansas • / 

KARIN SCHULLER 

Iberian ar\d Latin American History 

Universitat 2u Koln, Germany 

DUDLEY SHAPERE 
Philosophy and History of Science 
Wake Forest University • js 

D. VANCE SMITH 
Middle English Literature 
Princeton University • v 

DEBORAH STEINER 

Classics 

Columbia University • s 

LIANA VARDI 

Early Modem European History 

State University of New York, Buffalo 

FRIEDRICH ZIMMERMANN 

Graeco- Arabic Philosophy and Science, Medieval Arabic 

Thought 

University of Oxford 



The following information was mistakenly omitted 
from the 1999-2000 Annual Report: 

RONA GOFFEN 

Art History 

Rutgers University • v 



f First Term • j Joint Membership with Natural Sciences • s Second Term • v Visitor 



52 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 
RECORD OF EVENTS 



The following is a calendar of events sponsored hy 
the School of Historical Studies 



Academic Year 2000-01 



October 4 

The Islamicist Seminar: "What Did al-Farabi 
Say about the 'Imamic' Constitution?" 
PATRICIA CRONE, Professor. Institute fc/r 
Advanced Study 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "TTie Predica- 
ment of Ideas in Culture: Translation and 
Historiography" 

DOUGLAS HOWLAND, DePaul University; 
Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

Ocr<iber !0 

East Asian Studies Seminar: "Society Reified: 

Herbert Spencer and Political Theory in Early 

Meiji Japan" 

DOUGLAS HOWLAND, DePaul University; 

Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

October In 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "Science, 
Religion and the Origins of Literary Criticism 
in Fifth-Century Greece" 
RICHARD J ANKO, University College Lon- 
don; Member, Insritute for Advanced Study 

October 1 7 

Medieval Seminar: "Aeneas in 1381" 
CRISTOPHER BASWELL, University of 
California, Los Angeles; Member, Institute for 
Adi'anced Study 

October 23 

Historical Studies Colloquium; "The Conver- 
sion of Constantine and its Significance" 
JAN BREMMER, Rijfcsuniversiteit Groningen; 
Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

October 2'3 

East Asian Studies Seminar: "Scholarship, 

Rebellion, and the Perfect Man: Themes in 

Chinese Muslim History" 

ZVI BEN-DOR, Rutgers University, 

New Brunswick 



October 30 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "Was There a 

Physiocratic Aesthetic?" 

LIANA VARDI, State University of New York, 

Buffalo; Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

October 31 

Medieval Seminar: "The Birth of Christian 

Afterlife" 

JAN BREMMER, Reijksuniversiteit Groningen; 

Member, Insrituie for Advanced Study 

November 3-4 

East Asian Studies Colloquium: "Qing 
History (1600-1900) Through 'Things"' 
(co-sponsored by Princeton University and 
the Institute for Advanced Study) 
"Qing Horse Tools" 

PAMELA CROSSLEY, Dartmouth College 
"What Are 'TTiings' in Ming-Qing Encyclope- 
dias?" 

BENJAMIN A. ELMAN, University of 
California, Los Angeles; Mellon Visiting 
Professor, Institute for Advanced Study 
"The Order of Things: Shoes as Material 
Culture" 

DOROTHY KO, Rutgers University; Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 
"Making Historical Sites in the Early Qing" 
TOBIE MEYER-FONG, The ]ohns Hopkins 
University 

"Local Cultures and the Representations of 
Gods" 

SUSAN NAQUIN, Princeton University 
"Tibetan Buddhist Objects at the Qing Court" 
EVELYN RAWSKI, University o/ Pittsburgh 

November 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "The Use of 
Manuscripts in Medieval History: The Earliest 
Manuscripts of Justinian's Code" 
CHARLES RADDING, Michigan State Uni- 
versity; Member, Insritute for Advanced Study 

November 8 

School of Historical Studies Lecture: "The 

Insane in Islamic Law" 

BABER J OH AN SEN, Ecoie des Hautes Etudes 

en Sciences Sociales, Paris 



53 



Institute for advanced study 



November 1 ? 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "The Role of 
Alchemy in the Scientific Revolution" 
WILLIAM NEWMAN, Indiana Unwersicy; 
Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

November 14 

East Asian Studies Seminar; "Tine Impact of 
Qing Chinese Classicism in Tokugawa Japan 
up to the Kansei Heterodoxy Brouhaha" 
BENJAMIN A. ELMAN, L'mversit^i of 
California, Los Angeles; MeUtm Visiting 
Professor, Institute for Advanced Study 

Medieval Seminar: "Four Brands of Alchemy: 
The Corpora of Roger Bacon, Geber, John of 
Rupescissa, and Bernard ot Trien" 
WILLIAM NEWMAN, Indiana University; 
Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

Niiveinbcr 1 7 

East Asian Studies Seminar: "The Rectification 

of Time: The Systematic Redating of 

Anachronisms in the Samguk Sagi's Chronicling 

of Early Korean History" 

JONATHAN BEST, Wesleyan University; 

Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

November 20 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "Tlie Intellectu- 
al Milieu of Cracow in the Fifteenth Century" 
URSZULA BORKOWSKA, CaiholK University 
of Lublin; Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

November 27 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "William 

Allen White and Russia" 

NORMAN SAUL, University of Kansas; 

Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

November 2M 

Medieval Seminar: "The University of Cracow 
in the Fifteenth Century: Sources and Problems" 
URSZULA BORKOWSKA, Catholic Univer- 
sity of Lublin; Member, Institute for Advanced 
Study 

l\-i. ember -1 

Historical Studies ColKx)uium: "Making an 
Exemplum of Yourself: Cicero and Augustus" 
MICHELE LOWRIE, New York Umversiry; 
Member, Irxstitute for Advanced Study 

IVeember i 

East Asian Studies Seminar: "The Closing of 
the Archive on Ftxitbinding, China, 1930s" 
DOROTHY KO, Rutgers Umversiry; Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 



DecernK't 6 

The Islamicist Seminar: "A Seventeenth- 
Century Jewish Philosopher from Iran on 
Jewish Messianism" 
VERA MOREEN, Su-art/imore College; 
Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

l^Vcembcr 1 1 

Historical Studies ColUxjuium: "Words Afire: 
Economies of Censorship and Veneration" 
ALEXANDER DES FORGES, University of 
Michigan; Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

December 12 

East Asian Studies Semirwr: "Opium-Leisure- 
Shanghai: Urban Economies of Consumption" 
ALEXANDER DES FORGES, University of 
Michigan; Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

Medieval Seminar: "Hugh Metel, Heloise and 
Peter Abelard: Reinterpreting Scholastic 
Culture of the Twelfth Century" 
CONSTANT MEWS, Monash University; 
Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

rVeembci IS 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "Female 

Patriots: Gendering the History of Early 

German Nation.ilism" 

KAREN HAC^EMANN, Technical University 

of Berlin; Member, Institute for Adt'anced Study 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "The Rome of 
Alexander VII (1655-1677)" 
JORG MERZ, University of Augsburg; 
Member, Insptute for Advanced Study 

January 16 

Medieval Seminar: "The Exegesis of Junillus 

Africanus: A Byzantine Contribution to the 

Early Medieval Latin Text" 

MICHAEL MAAS, Rice University; Member, 

Institute for Advanced Study 

January 22 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "Nazi Art: 

The Secret Postwar History" 

GREGORY MAERTZ, St. John's Uni««rsity; 

Member. Institute for Advanced Study 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "'LVath, 
Where Is Thy Victory.'' Remembering and 
Forgetting the Great War" 
ANNETTE BECKER, University of Paris X, 
Nanterre; Member. Institute for Adwnced Study 



54 



THE SCHOOL OF HISTORICAL STUDIES 



Jnnu;\n' 31 

The Islamicist Seminar: "Two Yemeni 

Imposters" 

BERNARD HAYKEL, New York University; 

Member, Institute fcxr Advanced Study 

I-Vhru.irv 5 

School of Historical Studies Lecture: 
"Eighteenth-Century Travel Books on Sicily: 
Between Literature and Hellenic Revival" 
GIOVANNI SALMERl, University of Pisa 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "Medici 

Patronage Strategies During the Fifteenth 

Century" 

JOHN PAOLETTl, Wesleyan University; 

Member, Institute for Advanced Study 

Fi-liruarv '" 

East Asian Studies Seminar: "Epidemics, 

Epidemiology, and Cosmological Criticism at 

the End of the Ming Dynasty" 

MARTA HANSON, University ofCaUfomia, 

San Diego; Visitor, Institute for Advanced Study 

Febru.irv 1 2 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "Aristotle as 

Scientist: A Proper Verdict (With Emphasis 

on His Biological Works)" 

ALLAN GOTTHELF, The College of New 

Jersey; Member, Institute for Advanced Study 



March 5 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "'Divino': The 

Renaissance Attist as Undisguised Symbol" 

PATRICIA EMISON, University of New 

Hampshire; Member, Institute /or Advanced 

Study 

March 1 5 

East Asian Studies Seminar: "Protest from the 

Floating World: Fashion, State, and Category 

Formation in Early Modem Japan" 

EIKO IKEGAMI, New School for Social 

Research and Director, Center for Studies of 

Social Change 

Medieval Seminar: "The Millenial Reform of 
the Medieval Church" 
JOHN HOWE, Texas Tech University; 
Member, Institute for Advanced Study 



School of Historical Studies Lecture: "Books 
of Medieval Islam: From the History of the 
Book to the History of Collections" 
LAHOUARI TOUATI, Ecole des Hautes 
Etudes en Sciences Sociales , Paris 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "Georgian 

Menshevism" 

STEPHEN JONES, Mount Hol^oke College; 

Member, Institute for Advanced Study 



Medieval Seminar: "The Mixed Economy of 
Health Care in the Eatly Middle Ages" 
PEREGRINE HORDEN, University of Oxford 

Febru<ir\ lb 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "'Music of the 

Spheres?': Did the Line Staff System of 

Musical Notation Develop Out of 

Astronomical Figures?" 

JOHN HOWE, Texas Tech University; 

Member, Institute for AdvarKed Study 

February Z7 

Medieval Seminar: "Inside the Scholar's 
Workshop: Legal Manuscripts of Eleventh- 
Century Italy" 

CHARLES RADDING, Michigan State 
University; Member, Insritute for Advanced Study 

Fchru,ir\ 1 •■ 

The Islamicist Seminar: "The Adab al-kabir 

of Ibn al-Muqaffa" 

ANDRAS HAMORI, Princeton University 



March 26 

Historical Studies Colloquium: "'An Everlast- 
ing Possession': The History of Thucydides" 
WALTER AMELING, University o/Jena; 
Member, Institute for Advanced Study 



Medieval Seminar: "The Living and the Dead 
in Middle Byzantine Apocalypses: Commem- 
oration, Patronage, and Purgation" 
JANE BAUN, New York University; Member, 
Institute for Advanced Study 



The Islamicist Seminat: "Jewish Charity as 
Reflected in the Cairo Geniza" 
MARK COHEN, Princeton University 



Historical Studies Colloquium: "Ethnography 
Between Antiquity and the Middle Ages" 
MICHAEL MAAS, Rice University; Member, 
Insritute for Advanced Study 



55 



Institute for advanced study 



April n-14 

East Asian Studies Colloquium: "East Asian 

Culture and History" 

"Evidential Studies in Qing China and 

Tokugawa Japan" 

BENJAMIN A. ELMAN, University of 

California, Los Angeles, Mellon Visiring 

Professor. Imtitute for Advanced Study 

"Chinese Medicine in the Manchu Court of 

the Early Qing" 

MARTA HANSON, University ofCdifomia, 

San Diego; Visitor, Institute for Advanced Study 

"The Barbarian in Japanese History" 

JAMES KETELAAR, fniversit:* of Chicago 

"The Closing of the Archives on Footbinding, 

China, 1934-1941" 

LX^ROTHY KO, Rutgers University; Member, 

Institute for Advanced Study 

"Practical Studies and Ancient Learning in 

Choson Korea and Tokugawa Japan" 

MARK SETTON, State University of New 

York. Stony Brook 

"East Asia as a Confucian World" 

R. BIN WONG, University of California, Irvine 

"The Developmental Ambiguities of East 

Asian Classical Politics" 

ALEXANDER WOODSIDE, University of 

British Columbia 

April 24 

East Asian Studies Seminar: "Liberating and 
Killing Outcastes in Early Meiji Japan" 
DAVID L. HOWELL, Princeton University 

M..V N 

East Asian Studies Seminar: "Military Culture 
in Qing China Before 1 800" 
JOANNA WALEY-COHEN, New York 
University 



Mav 24-25 

Creativity Symposium: "The Sketch in the 
Arts and Sciences" 

(This symposium was co-spcmsored by the 
Naticmal Gallery of Art and the Institute for 
Advanced Study. The list of talks which follows 
includes only tAose which took place at the Insti- 
tute. The Symposium also included talks at the 
National Gallery of Art in Washington. D.C. on 
'May 23.) 

"Writing Music, Sketching Music" 
LEO TREITLER, City University of New York 
(emeritus) 

"Beethoven's Sketches: From Conceptual 
Image to Realization" 
LEWIS LOCKWOOD, Harvard University 
"Experience, Discipline, Fantasy: Improvisa- 
tion in Classical Music and Jazz" 
ROBERT LEVIN, Harvard University 
"Sketching and Choreography" 
TWYLA THARP, New York. NY 
"Creation in Mathematics: The Question of 
the Sketch of a Proof 

JEAN DHOMBRES, Ecole des Hautcs Etudes 
en Sciences Sociales 

"Sketching Science in the Seventeenth Century" 
MICHAEL S. MAHONEY, Princeton Univer- 
sity 

"Sketching as Re-representation: Edison and 
the Development of the Telephone, 1875- 
1879" 

W. BERNARD CARLSON, University o/ Vir- 
ginia 

"Uses of Sketches by Chinese Painters" 
JAMES CAHILL, University o/Cali/oniia, 
Berkeley (ementus) 

"Bozzetti and Modelli. Notes on Sculptural 
Procedure from the Early Renaissance through 
Bernini. 

IRVING LAVIN, Institute for Advanced Study 
"The Sketch in the History of the Visual 
Arts" 

HORST BREDEKAMP, HumiwUt-Universitdt 
zu Berlin 

"A Miidemiry of Obsessive Calculations and 
Heedless Haste" 
KIRK VARNELX1E, Museum of Modem Art 



In addition to the events listed above, some groups also met informally. This included weekly gath- 
erings over lunch for Members and Visitors in art history, who met to discuss ongoing projects and 
specific problems encountered in their research, and Islamic historians who met peruxlicallv for an 
informal seminar to study specific Islamic texts. Individual Faculty members also iKcasionally 
arranged informal talks by invited speakers. Although these do not appear on the above list, which 
reflects only formal activities of the School, these informal gatherings also played an important role 
in the intellectual life of the School. 



56 




I 



enjoyed the beauty of the Institute and really appreciated being here. 
The staif seems to know what the role of the Institute is, and they 
even seem to like mathematicians ... In fact I am sorry to leave 
now. The opportunity to work in so stimulating, comfortable, 
and beautiful a place is a privilege." 

— Member, School of Mathematics 



Walking towards the Instituu Woods, past Wolfensohn Hall and Simonyi Hall (far right), home of the School of Mathematics 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



Faculty 

ENRICO BOMBIERI, IBM von Neumann Professor 

JEAN BOURGAIN 

PIERRE DELIGNE 

ROBERT P. LANGLANDS, Hermann Weyl Professin 

ROBERT D. MacPHERSON 

THOMAS SPENCER 

AVI WIGDERSON 



Professors ETtieriti 

ARMAND BOREL 
ATLE SELBERG 



ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 

During the academic year 2000-01, the School of Mathematics organized a special pro- 
gram entitled "Computational Complexity Theory." With funds from the National Sci- 
ence Foundation, this program was led by School Faculty member Avi Wigderson togeth- 
er with four senior scientists: J. HSstad (Sweden), P. Pudlak (Czech Republic), R. Raz 
(Israel), and A. Razborov (Russia). In addition to these senior scientists, there were fif- 
teen participants (mostly junior) in residence for the year. The program attracted many 
scientists from Princeton and Rutgers Universities as well as from NEC and AT&T 
research laboratories. 

The year began with a series of introductory lectures by each of the senior researchers. 
There were three seminars each week. The topics were extremely varied and touched 
almost every aspect of complexity theory, from quantum computation to the complexity 
of testing knots to probalistically checkable proofs and optimization. However, most 
talks and mini-courses centered around two main themes in which there was special 
strength and interest among the residents. One was "Proof Complexity," a study centered 
on quantifying the difficulty of proving theorems in a variety of algebraic, combinatorial 
and geometric proof systems. The other was "Derandomization and Pseudo-randomness," 
a study of the power and limitations of randomness in computation (including the con- 
struction of random-like objects as expanders and extractors). The breadth and depth of 
the seminars made them a great educational experience even to experts, and certainly to 
the more junior participants as well as the many outsiders, mainly mathematicians, who 
attended these seminars. 

In addition, there was a regular reading seminar conducted by the participants. Some of the 
highlights from the reading seminar included polynomial time algorithms for the approxi- 
mation of permanants, and leamability and applications of Fourier analysis to complexity. 



59 



Institute for advanced study 



Research was quite intensive, with diverse contributions to a variety of topics in com- 
plexity theory made hy the special-year program participants. Some of these were cen- 
tral to intrinsic studies within computational complexity, e.g. major advances towards 
understanding the power of the resolution proof system, and near-optimal constructions 
of extractors. Others were on the meeting grounds of computational complexity with 
various mathematical disciplines, such as the new algorithms that provide an under- 
standing of the topology of knots, and the impacts of new combinatorial methods of con- 
structing expander graphs on problems in group theory. 

There were also two workshops: "Complexity of Proofs and Computations" in the fall, 
and "Asymptotic and Computational Aspects of Coding" in the spring. These were 
attended by the world's leading experts as well as by graduate students. The two work- 
shops were very different due to the nature of research in these two areas. The first was 
very focused and coherent, as essentially all participants had the same background. The 
second involved researchers from the four or five different communities interested in 
codes from different perspectives. The effects of the cross-fertilization should be lasting. 

Alexander Razhorov has accepted a three-year appointment in the School. His presence 
will further strengthen research in complexity theory at the Institute over the next few 
years. 

During 2001-02, the main activity in the School will be in symplectic geometry and holo- 
morphic curves. This program is being organized by Robert MacPherson and Yakov Eliash- 
berg (Stanford University) who will be Distinguished Visiting Professor. Other senior par- 
ticipants include H. Hofer (Courant Institute) and D. MacDuff (SUNY at Stony Brook). 

Another major focus of activity during the year was automorphic forms. The senior par- 
ticipants included J. Arthur, G. Henniart, R. Kottwitz, D. Shelstad, P. Sarnak, and M-F. 
Vigneras. 

James Arthur gave an advanced course, "Representations of Classical Groups." The 
object of the course was to describe how to classify automorphic representations of matrix 
groups by means of the trace formula. Classical matrix groups are the setting for a major 
part of the Langlands program. TTieir representations are thought to carry fundamental 
arithmetic information. The course met for one hour per week from October to April. 
Many members of the Institute took part, as did a number of graduate students from 
Princeton University. 

In April, there was a conference on "Automorphic Forms, Concepts, Techniques, Appli- 
cations and Influence." The conference, organized by V. Drinfeld, R. Langlands, P. Sar- 
nak, and A. Wiles, was funded by the National Science Foundation. The lectures, pre- 
sented by fourteen prominent mathematicians, were video-taped and are now on the 
Internet. 

Vladimir Voevodsky continued his lecture series on "Motivic Cohomology," giving a sys- 
tematic exposition of motivic homotopy theory' and focusing especially on generalizations of 
Steenrod operations. These are important ingredients tor his proof of the Milnor conjecture 
and should also be useful in approaching the Bloch-Kato conjectures. These lectures will 
soon appear in written form. 



60 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



Other regular seminars in the School included one on nonlinear theory and another on 
number theory and harmonic analysis. These seminars were conducted jointly with Rut- 
gers University and Princeton University. The seminar on nonlinearity covered many 
equations arising in differential geometry and mathematical physics such as the Chem- 
Simons equation, wave maps, and Einstein equations. The number theory seminar 
focused on automorphic forms, including random matrices as well as classical aspects of 
of primes. 

In the spring term, Don Richards and Peter Samak organized a seminar on random matri- 
ces. There were expository lectures by J. Baik, D. Richards, S. Sahi, and T Spencer which 
explained connections of random matrices with orthogonal polynomials, statistics, repre- 
sentation theory, and mathematical physics. 

There were several noteworthy seminar series. In March, the Marston Morse Memorial 
Lectures were delivered by David Gabai (Caltech) on "Geometric and Topological Rigid- 
ity of Hyperbolic 3-Manifolds" and "The Smale Conjecture for Hyperbolic 3-Manifolds." 
In these lectures, Gabai outlined the geometry behind the computer-assisted proof that 
hyperholicity is a homotopy invariant. This is joint work with G. Mayerhoff and N. 
Thurston. 

In February, Joseph Bernstein (Tel Aviv University) gave three lectures entitled "Ana- 
lytic Continuation of Eisenstein Series." In March, Dennis Gaitsgory (Harvard Univer- 
sity) presented lectures on an "Introduction to the Geometric Langlands Correspon- 
dence." Gaitsgory showed that classical arithmetic questions can be naturally reformu- 
lated and proved in a geometric setting. 

Pierre Deligne gave several lectures on his recent research on rational relations of multi- 
zeta values. These values can be expressed in terms of integrals over cycles on certain 
algebraic varieties. The main idea of his proof is to use the relations between various 
cohomology theories. 

In the area of applied mathematics, there were two one-day workshops on turbulence 
organized by Victor Yakhot. TTiese informal workshops presented some new experimen- 
tal and theoretical results, and succeeded in bringing about lively interdisciplinary dis- 
cussions involving mathematicians, engineers, and physicists. Among the participants 
were U. Frisch (France), M. Jensen (Bohr Institute), A. Polykov (Princeton University), 
Y. Sinai (Princeton University), and K. Sreenivasan (Yale University). 

Enrico Bombieri received an honorary doctorate from the University of Pisa in the fall of 
2000, and L'Academie des Sciences de Paris awarded Robert Langlands the Grand 
Medaille d'Or. 



61 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 
MEMBERS AND VISITORS 



MIKHAIL ALEKHNOVITCH 

Complexity Theory 

Moscow State University, Russia 

JAMES ARTHUR 

Automorphic Forms and Trace Formulas 

University of Toronto 

JINHO BAIK 

Integrable Systems and Random Permutations 

Institute for Advanced Study ■ i 

VLADIMIR BARANOVSKY 

Moduli of Sheaves and Bundles cm Curves and Surfaces 

University of Chicago • / 

MARGHERITA DlSERTORl 
Constructive Renormalization 
ficole Polytechnique, France 

HAROLD DONNELLY 

Arwlysis on Manifolds, Partial Differential Equations 

Purdue University 

NICOLA GALESI 

Complexity of Propositiowil Proof Systems 

Universitat Politecnica de Cataiunya, Spain 

WEE TECK CAN 

Representation Theory, Automorphic Forms 
Institute for Advanced Study • i 

MICHAEL GOLDSTEIN 
Nonlinear Equations, Spectral Theory 
Institute for Advanced Study • / 

DIOGO GOMES 

Viscosity Solutioru of Hamilton-] acobi Equatioru 

University of California, Berkeley 

MARK GORESKY 
Geometry, Automorphic Forms 
Institute for Advanced Study 

ULRICH GORTZ 

Algebraic Geometry; Bad Reduction of Shimura Varien'es 

UniversitSt zu Koln, Germany 



ANTON ELLA GRASS! 

Algebraic Geometry, Physics of String Theory 

University of Pennsylvania 

JESPER GRODAL 

Algebraic Topology 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

CEMALETTIN GUNTURK 

Harmonic Analysis Methods in Signal Qiuintization and 

Compression 

Princeton University 

NADYA GUREVICH 

Automorphic Fcnms, Trace Formula. L-Functions 

The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel • i 

THOMAS HAINES 

Automorphic Forms and Shimura Varieties 

University of Toronto 

ZHENG-CHAO HAN 

Partial Differential E(}uatior\s 

Rutgers University, New Brunswick • vf 

JOEL HASS 

Topology, Differentid Geometry 

University of California, Davis 

JOHAN hASTAD 

Complexirv Theory 

Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden 

GUY HENNIART 

Automorphic Forms and Representations of P-Adic 

Groups 

University de Paris-Sud • s 

RICHARD HORJA 

Complex Algebraic Geometry, Mirror Symmetry 

Duke University • s 

POHV 

Homotopy Theory o/ Algebraic Vaneties, 

Stable Homotopy Theory 

University of Chicago 



/ First Term ■ i Veblcn Research Instructurship < Seciind Term ■ v Visitor 



62 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



TAMOTSU IKEDA 
Automorphic Forms 
Kyoto University, Japan 

DIHUA JIANG 

Automorphic Representations arul L-Functions 

University of Minnesota • / 

VALENTINE KABANETS 
Computational Complexity 
University of Toronto 

GIL KALAI 

Combinatorics 

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem • / 

KALLE KARU 

Algebraic Geometry, Toric Geometry, Moduli Spaces, 

Combirvitoncs 

Harvard University 

ROWAN KILLIP 

Differential Operators , especially Schrbdinger Operatcrrs 

California Institute of Technology 

ANTHONY KNAPP 

Lie Groups arui Representation Theory 

State University of New York, Stony Brook ■ v 

JOSEPH KOHN 

Several Complex Variables arul Partial Differential 

Equations 

Princeton University 

ROBERT KOTTWITZ 
Automorphic Forms , Shimura Varieties 
University of Chicago • s 

OLEG KOVRIJKINE 
Estimates of Fourier Transforms 
California Institute of Technology 

EMMANUEL KOWALSKI 
Automorphic Forms and L-Functions 
Institute for Advanced Study • fi 

EREZ LAPID 

Automorphic Forms, Trace Formula 

The Ohio State University • s 

ELON LINDENSTRAUSS 
Ergodic Theory, Topological Dyrmmics 
Institute for Advanced Study 



SATYANARAYANA LOKAM 
Computational Complexity m Combinatorial and 
Algebraic Models 
Loyola University 

DIANE MACLAGAN 
Algebraic Combinatorics 
University of California, Berkeley 

GEORGIY MEDVEDEV 

Applications of Partial Differenaal Equations 

Institute for Advanced Study • i 

ROY MESHULAM 

Comhiruitorics 

Technion-Israel Institute of Technology 

PHILIPPE MICHEL 

Arudytic Number Theory, Modular Forms 

Institute for Advanced Study ■ / 

IRINA MITREA 

Harmonic Aruilysis and Partial Differentitd Equations 

University of Minnesota 

AMBRUS PAL 

Arithmetic Algebraic Geometry 

Columbia University 

PAVEL PUDLAK 

Computational Complexity 

Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic • / 

STEPHEN RALLIS 

L-Functions and Automorphic Forms 

The Ohio State University • s 

RANRAZ 

Complexity Theory 

The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel 

ALEXANDER RAZBOROV 
Combinatorics, Theoretical Computer Science, 
Complexity Theory 
Institute for Advanced Study 

OMER REINGOLD 

Cr^iptogroph)!, Computationai Complexity 

Institute for Advanced Study • */ 

CHARLES REZK 
Horrxotopy Theory 
Institute for Advanced Study ■ s 



/ First Term ■ i Veblen Research Instructorship • s Second Term ■ v Visitor 

63 



Institute for advanced study 



DONALD RICHARDS 

Representarion Theory and Special Functions 

University' of Virginia 

DANIEL SAGE 
Representation Theory 
Louisiana State Universiry ■ vs 

WAN SAINT-AUBIN 

Statistical Physics . Conformal Field Theory 

University de Montreal 

ALEX SAMORODNITSKY 

Coding Theory, Complexity, Extremal Set Theory 

Institute for Advanced Study 

PETER SARNAK 

Ar\alytic Number Theory. Automorphic Forms 

Princeton University ■ / 

ALEXANDER SCORICHENKO 

Genera/ Linear Homology, Homological Algebra 

Northwestern University 

DIANA SHELSTAD 
Automorphic Representation Theory 
Rutgers University • s 

KANNAN SOUNDARARAJAN 
Number Theory, Modular Forms 
Institute for Advanced Study 

VENKATESH SRINIVASAN 

Randomness and Computation, Comf>inatoriai Methods 

in Complexity Theory 

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India 

BENJAMIN SUDAKOV 

Combirmtorics 

Institute for Advanced Study ■ i 

DINESH THAKUR 

Arit/imetic of Function Fields , Dnnfeld Modules 

University of Arizona 

ABIGAIL THOMPSON 

3-Mani/olds and Knot Theorii, Algorithms 

University of California, Davis 

LISA TRAYNOR 
Symplectw Topology 
Bryn Mawr College • s 



SALIL VADHAN 
Computatiorud Complexity Theory 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology • v 

DIETER VAN MELKEBEEK 
Computational Complexity 
University of Chicago 

'MARIE-FRANCE VIGNERAS 
Lie Groups, Representation Theory 
University Paris 7 • s 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY 

K-Theory and Arithmetical Algebraic Geometry 

Institute for Advanced Study 

ANDREW WILES 
Algebraic Number Theory 
Institute for Advanced Study and 
Princeton University • s 

VICTTOR YAKHOT 

Turinilcnce Theory, Hydrodyrmmics, Cotr^mstion 
Theory, Dyrmmic Critical Phenomena 
Boston University 

CATHERINE YAN 

Algebraic Combinatorics . Lattice Theory 

Texas A & M Universiry 

PAUL YANG 

Extremal Metrics on 3- and 4-Mani/olds 

Princeton University 

YIFAN YANG 

AnaKric, Combinatorial and Probabilistic Metiuxis in 

Number Theory 

University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign 

EDUARD ZEHNDER 

Svmplectic Georrxetry 

Eidgeniissische Technische HiKhschule Zurich ■ / 

ILIA ZHARKOV 

Algebraic Geomerrv and Smng Dualities 

University of Pennsylvania 



/ First Term ■ i Vchlen Rescnrch Instructorship • s Second Term ■ v Visitor 



64 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 
RECORD OF EVENTS 



The following is a calendar of events sponsored by 
the School of Mathematics 



Academic Year 2000-01 



September 28 

Princeton/IAS/Rutgers Nonlinear Theory Seminar: 
"Perturbation and Scalar Curvature" 
ANTONIO AMBROSETTl, Scuola Intemazionak 
Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Jwly 

September 1^> 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "The Principle of 
Functorialify: An Elementary Introduction" 
JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Study and 
Univeriity of Toronto 

o..>.Ki : 

Combinatorics and Complexity Theory Seminar: 
"Graph Coloring in Expected Polynomial Time" 
MICHAEL KRIVELEVICH, Tel Aviv University 

October 1 

Complexity Year Seminar I: "Inttoduction to Proof 

Complexity" 

ALEXANDER RAZBOROV, Imriiute for Advanced 

Study 



Complexity Year Seminar II: "Expander Graphs - 

Motivations and Constructions" 

AVI WIGDERSON, Institute for Advanced Study 

Princeton University/IAS/Rutgers Number TTieory 
and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "A New Example 
of Theta Power" 
NADYA GUREVICH, Institute for Advanced Study 

October 6 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Parameters for 

Classical Groups" 

JAMES ARTHUR, Insritute for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Complexity and Combinatorics Reading Seminar: 
"Integer Division Using Logarithmic Workspace" 
DIETER VAN MELKEBEEK, Universiry of Chicago 



October ] 

Complexity Year Seminar I: "Introduction to Proof 

Complexity" (continued) 

ALEXANDER RAZBOROV, Jmritute for Advanced 

Study and PAVEL PUDLAK, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

October 1 1 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

>\:,,Ker 12 

Complexity Year Seminar II: "Expander Graphs - 

Explicit Constructions" 

AVI WIGDERSON, Imntuie for Advanced Study 

Pfinceton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory 
and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "The Local Con- 
verse TTieorem for SO(2n + l) and Applications" 
DIHUA JIANG, Institute for Advanced Study 

October 13 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar 

Combinatorics and Complexify Theory Seminar: 
"Entropy, Hypergraphs and Inequalities" 
EHUD FRIEDGUT, The Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Parameters fot 
Classical Gtoups" (continued) 
JAMES ARTHUR, Imritute for Advanced Study and 
University of Toronto 



Complexity Year Seminat I: "Topics in Proof Com- 
plexity" 
JAN KRAIJCEK, Mat/ieTnarics Imritute, Prague 



65 



Institute for advanced study 



October 18 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Insntuie for Advanced 

Study 

October 19 

Gsmplexity Year Seminar IL "Extractors - 

Motivations and Explicit Constructions" 

OMER REINGOLD, Institute for Advanced Study and 

RONEN SHALTIEL, Insiiiute for Advarxced Study 

October 20 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "'A Polynomial- 
Time Approximation Algorithm for the Permanent 
of a Matrix with Non-Negative Entries,' by J. Jerrum, 
A. Sinclair and E. Vigoda" 

ALEX SAMORODNITSKY. Imtitute for Advanced 
Study 

October 2 3 

Automorphic Forms Seminar; "Parameters for 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Jmritute for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Complexity and Combinatorics Seminar: 
"Do Quantum Drunks Walk Faster?" 
DORIT AHARONOV, University ofCaUfomia, 
Berkeley and The Hebrew University of feruiolem 

October 24 

Complexity Year Seminar 1: "More on Feasible 

Interpolation in Proof Complexity" 

PAVEL PUDLAK, institute for Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Term Rewriting and 

Computational Complexity" 

HARVEY FRIEDMAN, The Ohio State University 

October 25 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

C^crobiT 26 

Complexity Year Seminar II: "Extractors - 
Applications and Explicit Constructions" 
RONEN SHALTIEL, Institute for Advanced Study 

Princeton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Tlieory 
and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "Diophantine 
Approximation in Finite Characteristic" 
DINESH THAKUR, Institute for Advanced Study 



Octobet 27 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "A Polynomial- 
Time Approximation Algorithm for the Permanent 
of a Matrix with Non-Negative Entries" (continued) 
ALEX SAMORODNITSKY, Insmute for Advanced 
Study 

October 30 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Parameten for 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Complexity and Combinatorics Seminar: "Estimating 
the Distance Distribution of Codes" 
ALEXANDER BARG, Beli Labs 

October M 

Complexity Year Seminar 1: "Techniques for Proving 

Lower Bounds in Resolution" 

ELI BEN-SASSON, Institute for Advanced Study 

November 1 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Insdtute/or Advanced 

Study 

November 2 

Complexity Year Seminar II: "Construction of 

Extractors (continued) and Hardness vs. 

Randomness" 

RONEN SHALTIEL, Insntute for Advanced Study and 

DIETER VAN MELKEBEEK, University of Chicago 

Princeton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory 
and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "Bounds for the 
Riemann Zeta Function, and New Results for the 
Prime Race Problem" 
KEVIN FORD, University of South Carolina 

NovL-inbcr i 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar 

November 6 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Parameters for 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Study and 

L'niversity of Toronto 

Gimplexity and Combinatorics Seminar: "On the 
Strength of Comparisons in Property Testing" 
ELDAR FISCHER, NEC Research Instituu 



66 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



Members Seminar: "Finiteness in Conformal Geometry" 
PAUL YANG, hismute jor Advanced Siudy 



Complexity Year Seminar I: "Monotone Proof 
Complexity and Resolution Refinements" 
NICOLA GALESI, Imritute /or Advanced Study 

November S 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "'Constant-Depth 

Circuits, Fourier Transform and Leamabiliry,' by N. 

Linial, Y. Mansour and N. Nisan" 

SATYA LOKAM, Imritute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Imritute for Advanced 

Study 

November ^ 

Complexity Year Seminar II: "Hardness Amplifica- 
tion Using Error-Correcting Codes" and "Extraction 
of Randomness from 'Efficient' Sources" 
SALIL VADHAN, Insritute for Advanced Study and 
Harvard University 

November 1 3 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Parameters for 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Imritute for Adfanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Complexity and Combinatorics Seminar: "Scaling 
Limits of Random Processes and the Outer Boundary 
of Planar Brownian Motion" 
ODED SCHRAMM, Microsoft Corporarion and 
The Wei^mann Imritute of Science, Israel 

Members Seminar: "Harmonic Functions on 
Manifolds of Non-Negative Ricci Curvature" 
HAROLD DONNELLY, Imritute for Advanced Study 

November 1 5 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Imritute for Advanced 

Study 

November 16 

Complexify Year Seminar II: "Derandomization 

Under Uniform Assumptions" 

VALENTINE KABANETS, Imritute for Advanced 

Study 



Princeton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory 
and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "Rational Points 
Close to an Arc of a Curve" 
MARTIN HUXLEY, University of Wales 

November 1 7 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar 

No\ember 20 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Parameters for 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Imritute for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Complexity and Combinatorics Seminar: "The 
Number of Different Instances of k-SAT" 
BELA BOLLOBAS, Trinity College CamlTridge and 
University of Memphis 

Members Seminar: "Isoperimetry, Noise, and First- 
Passage Percolation" 
GIL KALAl, Imritute for Advanced Study 

November 22 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Imritute for Advanced 

Study 

November 27 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Parameters for 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Imritute for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Complexify and Combinatorics Seminar: "Construc- 
tive Lower Bounds for Off-Diagonal Ramsey 
Numbers" (joint work with Noga Alon) 
PAVEL PUDLAK, Imritute for Advanced Study 

Members Seminar: "Pseudoholomorphic Curves and 

Dynamics in Three Dimensions" 

EDUARD ZEHNDER, Imritute for Advanced Study 

November 28 

Complexity Year Seminar 1: "Regular Resolution 
Lower Bounds for the Weak Pigeonhole Principle" 
RAN RAZ, Imritute for Advanced Study 

November 29 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Imritute for Advanced 

Study 



67 



Institute for advanced study 



November W 

Complexity Year Seminar II: "Extracting Random- 

ness from Samplahle Distributions" 

SALIL VADHAN, Institute fur Advanced Study and 

Harvard University 

Complexity Year Seminar II: "The Bitprobe Com- 
plexity of Set Membership" 

VENKATESH SRINIVASAN, Institute for Advanced 
Study 

December 1 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "'The Influence 

of Variables on Boolean Functions,' by J. Kahn, G. 

Kalai and N. Linial" 

GIL KALAI, Institute for Advanced Study 

December 4 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Parameters for 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Instnuu for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Complexity and Combinatorics Seminar: "A 
Combinatorial Problem in Abelian Groups" 
GYULA KAROLYI, Eotvcis Ltrand Universini, 
Hungary 

Complexity and Combinatorics Seminar; "Random 

Walks on Truncated Cubes and Sampling Knapsack 

Solutions" 

ALISTAIR SINCLAIR, University ofCcdifomia, 

Berkeley 

Members Seminar: "Combinatorics Relating to Local 

Models of Shimura Varieties" 

THOMAS HAINES, Institute for Advanced Study 

Complexity Year Seminar 1: "Exponential Lower 
Bounds for the Weak Pigeonhole Principle in Regular 
Resolution" (continued) 
RAN RAZ, Institute for Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Approximating Permanents" 
ALISTAIR SINCLAIR. Universit^i of California. 
Berkeley 

December 6 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 



December 7 

Complexity Year Seminar II: "Robustness Functioi« 

of Matrix Rank with Applications in Complexity 

Theory" 

SATYA LOKAM, Institute for Advanced Study 

December 8 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "Some Very Easy 

Uses of the Fourier Transform" 

JOHAN HASTAD, Irutituu for Advanced Study and 

Royal Institute ofTechnolo^. Svueden 

IVxciiilvr 10. 11. 12, n, 14, 15 
Workshop on Complexities of Proofs and 
Computations 

LVxcmk-i 11 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Parameters for 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Studv and 

University of Toronto 

December 1 i 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, /nsaiute /or Advanced 

Study 

IVccmlxT 14 

Princeton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory 

and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "Derivatives of 

Siegel Modular Forms and Fields of Periods of 

Abelian Varieties" 

DANIEL BERTRAND, Universite Pierre of Marie Curie 

IVccmk-r IS 

Complexity and Combinatorics Seminar: "Mixed 

Volumes of Hypersimplices" 

ERIC BABSON, Universit:* o/ Washington 

Complexity and Combinatorics Seminar: "A New 
Connectivity Theory for Simplicial Complexes" 
HELENE BARCELO, Arizona State University 

IVcemlx-r N 

Complexity Year Seminar I: "Resolution Is Not 

Automatizable Unless MMSA Can Be Efficiently 

Approximated tor Small Weights" 

MIKHAIL ALEKHNOVITCH, /rnntute /or Advanced 

Study 

IVcember 20 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY. Instituu for Advanced 

Study 



68 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



]anuar\' 1 5 

Automoqjhic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 

Classical Groups" 

JAMES ARTHUR, Immuie for Advanced Study and 

Unit'ersit^ of Toronto 

January' 1 7 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

]anuar\' 18 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Some Optimal Inapprox- 

imability Results, Part 1" 

JOHAN HASTAD, Institute for Advanced Study and 

Royal Institute o/ Technology, Sweden 



Januar\' 29 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, /nsritute for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Members Seminar: "Representations of Gl(n, Qp) 
Modulo Ell and Quantum Groups" 
MARIE-FRANCE VIGNERAS, Institute for 

Advanced Study 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "Testing of Function That Have Small 
Width Branching Programs" 
ILAN NEWMAN, NEC Research (nsritute and 
Haifa University' 



Januar\- \9 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 

Organizational Meeting 

l.inuar\ ,^_ v 

Automorphic Forms Semmar: "Representations of 
Classical Groups" (continued) 
JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Study and 
University of Toronto 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "Equilateral Sets" 
CLIFF SMYTH, Rutgers University 



Complexity Year Reading Seminar 

January' Z4 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

JanuarN' 25 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Some Optimal Inapprox- 

imahility Results, Part 11" 

JOHAN HASTAD, Institute for Advanced Study and 

Ro\al Institute o/ Technology, Su'eden 

Ptinceton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory 
and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "On Some 
Constructions of Siegel Cusp Forms" 
TAMOTSU IKEDA, Insritute /or Advanced Study 

January' 26 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: "The 

Wishart Distributions" 

DONALD RICHARDS, Institute for Advanced Study 



January iO 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"The Wishart Distributions" (continued) 
DONALD RICHARDS, Institute for Advanced Study 

January' 31 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Insritute for Advanced 

Study 

Febaiarv 1 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Some Optimal Inapprox- 

imability Results, Part III" 

JOHAN HASTAD, Insritute for Advanced Study and 

Royal Insritute of Technology , Sweden 

Ptinceton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory 

and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "Lattice Point 

Problems and Distribution of Values of Quadratic 

Forms" 

FRIEDRICH GOTZE, Universit^i of Btelefeld 

Februarv 5 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Insritute for Advanced Study and 

L'niversity of Toronto 

Members Seminar: "On Parabolic Induction and 
Restriction Functors: The Example of Gl2(qp)" 
GUY HENNIART, Insritute for Advanced'Study 



69 



Institute for advanced study 



Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "Matching and Covering via Homology" 
ROY MESHULAM, Insatute for Advanced Study and 
Technion-lsrael Institute of Technology 

FcbriKirv (■> 

Complexity Year Reading Semmar: "L] Embeddings 

of Graphs" 

YURI RABINOVICH, Haifa University 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 

"The Complex Wishart Distributions" 

DONALD RICHARDS, Institute for Advanced Study 

Februnrv 7 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Multi Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Institute for Advanced Stud> 



Februars' I 3 

Complexify Year Reading Seminar "'Noise-Tolerant 
Learning, the Parity Problem, and the Statistical Query 
Model,' by A. Blum, A. Kalai and H. Wasserman" 
OMER REINGOLD, Jmntute for Advanced Study 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"Universality Classes and Orthogonal Polynomiak" 
EDUARDO DUENEZ, Princeton Universiry 

Fobrujr>' 14 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Insatute for Advanced 

Study 

Multi Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Institute for Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Analytic Continuation of 

Eisenstein Series" (continued) 

JOSEPH BERNSTEIN, Tel Aviv Universiry 



FVbni,ir\ ^ 

Complexify Year Seminar: "Lower Bounds for 

Polynomial Calculus" 

ALEXANDER RAZBOROV, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Febniar\' '^ 

Special Seminar: "Analytic Continuation of 

Eisenstein Series" 

JOSEPH BERNSTEIN, Tel Aviv University 



Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 
Classical Groups" (continued) 
JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Study and 
University of Toronto 

Members Seminar: "Generic Automt>rphic Forms on 

SO(2n+l): Descent from GL(2n)" 

STEPHEN RALLIS, Institute for Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Analytic Continuation of 

Eisenstein Series" 

JOSEPH BERNSTEIN, Tel Aviv University 

Theoretical Qimputer Science/Discrete Math Semi- 
nar: "Quasi-Worst Case Analysis: Why the Simplex 
Algorithm Usually Takes Polynomial Time" 
DAN SPIELMAN, Massachusetts Institute ofTechnolo^ 



hfbru.irv 1 1 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Lower Bounds for 
Polynomial Calculus" (continued) 
ALEXANDER RAZBOROV, Insritute for Advanced 

Study 

Princeton Universify/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory' 
and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "Linear Indepen- 
dence Over q of Infinitely Many Values of Zeta at 
Odd Integers" 

TANGUY RIVOAL, Centre Naaonal de la Recherche 
Scientifique 

Fohni.irv l(> 

Special Seminar: "Analytic Continuation of 

Eisenstein Scries" (continued) 

JOSEPH BERNSTEIN, Tel Aviv University 

Fcl^ru.irv 20 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: '"Extractor 

Codes,' by A. Ta-shma and D. Zuckerman" 

VENKATESH SRINIVASAN, Insritute for Advanced 

Stud> 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 

"C'ompact Symmetric Space and Their Matrix 

Ensembles" 

EDUARDO DUENEZ, Pnnceton L'nii'ersitN 



70 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



February 21 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY. Institute for Admnced 

Study 

Multi Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Institute for Advanced Study 

February 22 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Extracting Randomness 

from Samplable Distributions" 

SALIL VADHAN, Institute for Admnced Study and 

Harvard University 

February 26 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Imritute for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Members Seminar: "The Distribution of Values of 

L(l,\chi)" 

KANNAN SOUNDARAR^AJAN, Institute for 

Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Descent from GL(2n): Endoscopy, 

Base Change and A-Packets" 

STEPHEN RALLIS, Imritute for Advanced Stud> 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 

Seminar: "Groups and Expanders" 

ALEX LUBOTZKY, The Hebrew University of 

Jerusakm 

Febnian' 27 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "Switching 
Lemmas and (Simple) Lowet Bounds for Bounded- 
Depth Frege" 
ELI BEN-SASSON, Imritute for Advanced Study 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"The Variational Principle for the Eigenvalue 
Density Random Matrices" 
MICHAEL KIESSLING, Rutgers University 

February 2>> 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Imritute /or Advanced 

Study 

Multi Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Imritute for Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Some Functorial Properties of the 

Unitary Dual" 

DAN BARBASCH, Cornell University 



March 1 

Princeton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory 

and Harmonic Analysis Seminar; "High Derivates for 

L-Functions" 

JEFF VANDERKAM, IDA/CCR 

Special Analysis Seminar: "On Rigidity of Invariant 
Measures for Smooth Actions of Higher-Rank 
Abelian Groups" 
ANATOLE KATOK, The Penrxsylvania State University 

March 5 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 

Classical Gtoups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Imritute for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Marston Morse Memorial Lecture: "Geometric and 
Topological Rigidity of Hyperbolic 3-Manitolds, Part I" 
DAVID GABAl, California Institute of Technology 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "Approximating Coloring and Maximum 
Independent Sets in 3-Uniform Hypergraphs" 
BENJAMIN SUDAKOV, Imritute /or Advanced Study 
and Princeton University 

March 6 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "'Unbalanced 
Expanders and Improved Extractors and Dispersers,' 
by A. Ta-shma, C. Umans and D. Zuckerman" 
RONEN SHALTIEL, Imritute for Advanced Study 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"Riemann-Hilbert Problems and Universality" 
JINHO BAIK, Imritute for Advanced Study and 
Princeton University 

March 7 

Marston Morse Memorial Lecture: "Geometric and 
Topological Rigidity of Hyperbolic 3-Manitolds, Part 11" 
DAVID GABAl, California Imritute of Technology 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Imritute for Advanced 

Study 

March 8 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Discrete Uncertainty 

Inequalities" 

ROY MESHULAM, Imritute for Advanced Study and 

Technion-lsrael Imritute of Technology 



71 



Institute for advanced study 



Marston Morse Memorial Lecture: "The Smale 
Conjecture for Hyperbolic 3-Manifolds" 
DAVID GABAl, California Insdtuu of Technology 

March 9 

Membeis Seminar: "Geometry, Topology and 

Computational Complexity" 

JOEL HASS, Institute for Advanced Study 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 
Classical Groups" (continued) 
JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Study and 
University of Toronto 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Introduction to Coding 

Theory" 

ALEXANDER BARG, Lucent Technob^ 

Members Seminar: "Geometry, Topology and 

Computational Complexity" 

JOEL HASS, Institute for Advanced Study 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "Learning Mixtures of Arbitrary Gaussians" 
SANJEEV ARORA, Princeton University 

Mnrch li 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "'Parallel Strate- 
gies,' by Pavel PudlSk" 
PAVEL PUDLAK, Institute for Advanced Study 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"Permanents of Random Matrices" 
GABOR SZEKELY, Bou-dng Green State University 
and Eotvos Lordnd University, Hungary 

M.ir.h N 

Muiti Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Institute for Advanced Study 

March 15 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Intrcxluction to Coding 

Theory" 

ALEXANDER BARG. Lucent Technolo^i 

Princeton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory 
and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "Uniform Distribu- 
tion of Some Sequences from Cryptography" 
JOHN FRIEDLANDER, University of Toronto 



M.irch IP 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Study and 

Universit^i of Toronto 

Members Seminar: "Boundary Behavior of the 
.Critical Two-Dimensional Ising Model" 
YVAN SAINT-AUBIN, Institute for Advanced Study 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "A Sieve Algorithm for the Shortest Lattice 
Vector Problem" 
RAVI KUMAR, IBM Alrrmden Research Center 

M;irch 20 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "'Unbalanced 
Expanders and Improved Extractors and Dispensers,' 
by A. Ta-shma, C. Umans and D. Zuckerman" 
RONEN SHALTIEL, Institute for Advanced Study 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"Selberg's Beta Integral and Determinants of 
Girrelation Functions" 
DONALD RICHARDS. Institute for Advanced Study 

March21,22. 23, 26. 27, 28, 29, 30 
Workshop on Asymptotic and Computational 
Aspects of Coding Theory 

March 2 1 

Multi Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Institute for Advanced Study 

M.irch 12 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Some New Results on 

the Complexity of Computing Genus" 

JOEL HASS, Insptuie for Advarwed Study 

Much 23 

Introduction to the Geometric Langlands Correspon- 
dence: "Sheaves-Functions Correspondence and the 
Moduli Stack of Bundles" 
DENNIS GAITSGORY, Harvard L'niversitv 

M;irch 26 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Study and 

Uruversity of Toronto 



72 



THE SCHOOL OF MATHEMATICS 



M.irch 27 

Introduction to the Geometric Langlands Correspon- 
dence: "Definition of Hecke Eigen-Sheaves" 
DENNIS GAITSGORY, Harvard Vnwersity 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: "An 
Introduction to Jack Polynomials" 
SIDDHARTHA SAHI, Rutgers Unwersivy 

MircK > 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advarxced 

Study 



April 4, 5, 6, 7 

Automorphic Forms Conference: Concepts, 

Techniques, Applications and Influence 

April 4 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

April S 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Resolution Lower Bounds 

for the Weak Pigeonhole Principle" 

RAN RAZ, Institute for Advanced Study 



Multi Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Insritute for Advanced Study 

March 30 

Introduction to the Geometric Langlands Correspon- 
dence: "The Dnnfeld-Laumon Construction of 
Hecke Eigen-Sheaves" 
DENNIS GAITSGORY, Harvard University 

April 2 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Institute far Advanced Study and 

L'nii'ersiry of Toronto 

TTieoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "Approximating Coloring and Maximum 
Independent Sets in 3 -Uniform Hypergraphs" 
BENJAMIN SUDAKOV, Insritute for Advanced Study 
and Princeton University 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "On Phase Transition in the Hard-Core 
Model on Z 
JEFF KAHN, Rutgers University 



Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "'Resolution 
Lower Bounds for the Weak Pigeonhole Principle,' 
by Ran Ra!" 
RAN RAZ, Imritute for AdvaxKed Study 

Introduction to the Geometric Langlands Correspon- 
dence: "Drinfeld's Compactifications of Parabolic 
G-Bundles" 
DENNIS GAITSGORY, Harvard University 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: "An 
Introduction to Jack Polynomials" (continued) 
SIDDHARTFL\ SAHI, Rutgers Universiry 



April 9 

Automorphic Forms Seminar: "Representations of 

Classical Groups" (continued) 

JAMES ARTHUR, Institute for Advanced Study and 

University of Toronto 

Members Seminar: "On the Spectra of Elliptic Layer 

Potentials on Lipschitz Domains" 

IRINA MITREA, Insritute for Advanced Study 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Insritute for Advanced 

Study 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "Dimension Reduction in the Hamming 
Cube and Its Applications" 
RAFAIL OSTROVSKY, Telcordia Technologies 

April K'' 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"Multiple Integrals, jack Polynomials, and General- 
ized Hypergeometric Equations" 
PETER FORRESTER, Universiry of Melbourne 

Special Seminar: "New Null Sets and Frechet Differ- 
entiability of Lipschitz Functions" 
JORAM LINDENSTRAUSS, The Hebrew University 
of ]eruscdem 

April i 1 

Motivic Cohomology Lecture 

VLADIMIR VOEVODSKY, Insritute for Advanced 

Study 

Multi Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Insritute for Advanced Study 



73 



Institute for advanced study 



April 12 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Semi-Direct Product in 
Groups and Zig-Zag Product in Graphs - Connec- 
tions and Applications" 
AVI WIGDERSON, Institute for Advanced Study 

April 1 ^ 

Princeton University/IAS/Rutgers Number Theory 

and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "A General Divisor 

Problem" 

ROBERT VAUGHAN, The Pennsylvania State Universivy 

April 16 

Members Seminar: "Derived Category Automor- 
phisms from Mirror Symmetry" 
RICHARD HORJA. Institute for Advanced Study 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "Improved Bounds on the Mixing Time of 
Markov Chains" 
RAVI KANNAN, Yale University 

April 17 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "'A Linear Lower 
Bound on the Unbounded Error Probabilistic Com- 
munication Complexity,' by J. Forster" 
SATYA LOKAM, Institute for Advanced Study 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"An Introduction to Jack Polynomials" (continued) 
SIDDHARTHA SAHI, Rutgers Universiry 

April hs 

Multi Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE. Imtitute for Advanced Study 

Special Seminar: "Algebraic Loop Groups" 
GERD FALTINGS, Max Planck Institute. GenTUin> 

April 19 

Complexity Year Seminar: "Black-Box Concurrent 
Zero-Knowledge Requires - Omega (Log N) Rounds" 
RAN CANETTI, IBM Research 

Princeton Universiry/IAS/Rutgers Number Tlieory 
and Harmonic Analysis Seminar: "Finding Arith- 
metic Progressions" 

BEN GREEN, Cambridge University and Pnnceton 
University 



April 2? 

Members Seminar: "Generalizations of the FKG 

Inequality, and Connections with Harmonic Analysis 

and Combinatorics" 

DONALD RICHARDS, Institute for Advanced Study 

April 24 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar: "'Optimization 

and Approximate Counting,' by A. Barvinok and 

A. Samorodnitsky" 

ALEX SAMORODNITSKY, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"Supersymmetry and Spectral Theory of Random 
Schroedinger Operators" 
WEI-MIN WANG, Universite de Paris-Sud 

April Z^ 

Multi Zeta Values Lecture 

PIERRE DELIGNE, Institute for Advanced Study 

April 26 

Special Seminar: "Domino Tilings and the Gaussian 

Free Field" 

RICHARD KENYON, Universite de Pans-Sud 

April lO 

Theoretical Computer Science/Discrete Math 
Seminar: "A Trace Bound for the Discrepancy" 
BERNARD CHAZELLE, Pnnceton University and 
NEC Research Institute 

Mas 1 

Complexity Year Reading Seminar 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 
"An Introduction to Supersymmetric Methcxis for 
Random Matrices, Part 1" 
THOMAS SPENCER, Imtitute for Advanced Study 

May 8 

Seminar on Random Matrices and Eigenvalues: 

"An Introduction to Supersymmetric Methinis for 

Random Matrices, Part 11" 

THOMAS SPENCER, Institute for Advanced Study 



74 




B 



ecause of the diversity of my interests, the research freedom I have at the 
Institute is particularly valuable. I very much appreciate the opportunity 
to advance my research and work with a variety of collaborators." 

— Member, School of Natural Sciences 



Daivi N. Spergel (kft), the 2000-2001 WM. Keck Distinguished Visiting Professor in the School of Natural Sciences. 
with (left to right) Members Anthony Aguiire, Sara Seager, andjoop Schaye 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



Faculty 

STEPHEN L. ADLER, Particle Physics 

New ]ersey Albert Einstein Professor 

JOHN N. BAHCALL, Astrophysics 

Richard Block Professor 

PIET HUT, Astrophysics 

NATHAN SEIBERG, Theoretical Physics 

EDWARD WITTEN, Mathematical Physics 

Charles Simonyi Professor 

\ isning, Long-Term Professor 
PAWAN KUMAR, Astrophysics 

/"•iv't/ngnis/ied Visiting Professor 
JUAN MALDACENA, Theoretical Physics 

W.M^ Keck Distmirnished Visiting Professor 
DAVID N. SPERGEL, Astrophysics 

Professor Enieritus 
FREEMAN J. DYSON, Mathematical Physics and Astrophysics 

ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 

Part of PROFESSOR STEPHEN ADLER's work this year dealt with supergravity- 
induced effective actions, motivated by their possible application to dynamical symmetry 
breaking. He also continued his research on modified forms of quantum mechanics, in 
particular his work on stochastic phenomenological modifications of the Schrodinger 
equation, and on trace dynamics as a possible pre-quantum mechanics. 

In supergravity, Adler wrote an article giving a simple method, based on the idea of com- 
pleting the square, to calculate the supersymmetric matter field effective action induced 
by leading-order graviton and gravitino exchange, expressed as a quadratic form in the 
components of the current supermultiplet. The supersymmetry invariance of the final 
expression for the effective action was then directly checked using the supersymmetry 
transformation properties of the current multiple! components. Tlie calculation gives a 
nice illustration of the importance of the supergravity auxiliary fields, since supersymme- 
try invariance of the effective action involves cancellations between the nonlocal gravi- 
ton and gravitino and the local auxiliary field contributions. Adler plans to return later 
on to possible applications of this effective action to dynamical symmetry breaking in 
supersymmetric theories. In a second supergravity-related paper, Adler classified various 
possibilities for spontaneous symmetry breaking in theories with supersymmetric matter 



77 



Institute for advanced study 



coupled to .super^;ravity, in terms of the possible vacuum expectation values of compo- 
nents of the current supermultiplet. When the vacuum expectation of the energy 
momentum tensor is zero, but the scalar current or pseudoscalar current gets an expecta- 
tion, evaluation of the gravitino self energy using the supersymmetry-current algebra 
shows that there is an induced gravitino mass term. The structure of this term general- 
izes the supergravity action with the cosmological constant to theories with CP violation. 
When the vacuum expectation of the energy momentum tensor is nonzero, supersymme- 
try is broken; requiring cancellation of the cosmological constant gives the correspond- 
ing gravitino mass formula generalized to the case in which CP violation is present. 

In the area of quantum mechanics, Adler and T. Brun discussed two directions for gener- 
alization of the stochastic Schrodinger equations proposed by a number of authors, which 
were studied in detail in last year's paper by Adler and Horwitz. First of all, they consid- 
ered a general class of norm preserving stochastic Schrodinger equations, and showed 
that even after making several specializations, there is an infinity of possible equations for 
which state vector collapse is provable. Tliis is relevant for attempts to derive a stochas- 
tic Schrodinger equation from a new pre-quantum dynamics, to which the usual 
Schrodinger equation is a leading approximation. Secondly, they explored the problem 
of formulating a relativistic stochastic Schrodinger equation, using a manifestly covariant 
equation for a quantum field system based on the interaction picture of Tomonaga and 
Schwinger. The stochastic noise term in this equation can couple to any local scalar den- 
sity that commutes with the interaction energy density, and leads to collapse onto spa- 
tially localized eigenstates. However, as found in a similar model by Pearle, the equation 
predicts an infinite rate of energy nonconser\'ation, arising from the local double com- 
mutator in the "drift term." So the local generalization of the stochastic models does not 
give a satisfactory answer to the problem of achieving relativistic covariance. 

Adler is currently returning to his earlier work on global unitar>' invariant matrix models 
("trace dynamics"), to try to further advance the proposal that these models can serve as a 
pre-quantum mechanics, with quantum mechanics arising in the limit where statistical iher- 
modyamics applies. One aim of the current investigation is to try to get the leading fluctu- 
ation corrections to the Schrodinger equation, and to see if these corrections can be related 
to the stochastic Schrodinger equations tor which state vector reduction is provable. 

Finally, Adler wrote a memorial article about the lite and work ot his thesis advisor Sam 
Bard Treiman, to be published in the National Academy of Sciences' Biographical Memoirs. 

For PROFESSOR JOHN BAHCALL, this was a good year. An international collabora- 
tion of scientists working at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) in Sudbury, 
Ontario, Canada, used a detector containing one thousand tons of heavy water in a deep 
mine to measure the number of electron-type neutrinos that reach the earth from the 
center of the .sun. This number is less than the total number measured by Japanese and 
American scientists, the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, using twenry-two thousand 
tons of pure, light water in a mine in the Japanese Alps. The Japanese- American exper- 
iment is sensitive to neutrinos of all types; the SNO experiment is sensitive to neutrinos 
of only the electron type. 

Comparing the results of the two experiments, the SNO scientists conclude that neutri- 
nos have split personalities, i.e., they oscillate from one type (the electron type produced 



78 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



in the center of the sun) to other types that are more difficult to detect. This may pro- 
vide an important clue for developing the next generatitin of particle theories. 

The SNO results also permitted the first direct determination of the total number of 
(higher-energy) neutrinos produced by the sun. The result is in excellent agreement with 
the number calculated by Bahcall and his collaborators in 1968 and refined by him, 
together with many different collaborators, over the past three-and-a-half decades. 

The SNO measurement caused rejoicing in the ranks of astronomers. The predicted neu- 
trino flux depends upon the twenty-fifth power of the central temperature of the sun. 
The prediction and the measurement agree to better than ten percent, less than the esti- 
mated uncertainty in the experimental value. The agreement between calculation and 
experiment is a triumph for the theory of stellar evolution. 

Bahcall worked with a series of collaborators on using the results of SNO to help deter- 
mine the masses and other fundamental properties of neutrinos. In a very different pro- 
fessional activity, Bahcall chaired a committee of nuclear and particle physicists that 
selected and proposed establishing a national underground laboratory in the Homestake 
Gold Mine in South Dakota. 

PROFESSOR PIET HUT has led the Starlab team, a group of astrophysicists and com- 
puter scientists, into a new phase of exploration of dense stellar systems such as globular 
clusters and galactic nuclei. Given the increase of a factor of 100 in computer speed, 
delivered by the GRAPE-6 computers specially designed for stellar dynamics, data han- 
dling and analysis has now become the bottleneck in Starlab's large-scale simulations. 
Hut and his colleagues are currently exploring three avenues to manage this data flood: 
1 ) the design of a publicly accessible archive, allowing guest observers to view and ana- 
lyze the results of the largest simulations 2) the development of visualization tools, in col- 
laboration with the Hayden Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History in 
New York City 3) the exploration of connections with the National Virtual Observato- 
ry, a new initiative aimed at creating a seamless digital sky in all wavelengths based on 
data sets available from various telescopes and surveys. The Starlab work has been 
supported by a grant to Hut from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. 

Hut organized a summer school, "Ways of Knowing," which took place in August 2000, 
together with cognitive psychologist Roger Shepard from Stanford, philosopher of sci- 
ence Bas van Fraassen from Princeton University, physicist Arthur Zajonc from Amherst 
College, and writer Steven Tainer from Berkeley. This was the third public offering of 
the Kira Institute. Together with David De Young from the National Optical Astrono- 
my Observatories in Tucson, Hut organized two two-day workshops to study theoretical 
aspects of virtual observatories, one in March in Tucson and one in June in Aspen. 
Together with David Waltz, president of the NEC Research Institute in Princeton, Hut 
organized a series of lunch meetings at the Institute, leading up to a one-day workshop in 
March with Brian Smith, from the University of Indiana at Bloomington, and Robert 
Sokolowski, from the Catholic University in Washington, D.C., to discuss their respec- 
tive books On the Origin of Objects and Introduction to Phenomenology. In February, Hut 
was elected Member of the Husserl Circle. 

PROFESSOR PAWAN KUMAR worked primarily on gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). These 
explosions, which radiate much of their energy in gamma-ray photons, are seen on the 



79 



Institute for advanced study 



average of once a day and are typically at a distance of several billion light years from us. 
Although the duration of these bursts is a few seconds, we continue to receive emission 
from these events for days to months, and the frequency of the peak of the spectrum shifts 
to smaller values with time. By modeling the observed broad-band emission, Kumar and 
Panaitescu, of Princeton University, found that the energy release in the form of highly 
relativistic ejecta in these explosions varies by less than a factor of four from one burst to 
another. This result is based on detailed analysis of eight bursts which have data in the 
x-ray, optical, and radio bands with good temporal coverage of at least a week. The nar- 
row distribution of energy in the explosions is surprising for the currently popular coUap- 
sar model for GRBs; according to this model, a massive star at the end of its nuclear burn- 
ing phase undergoes collapse and releases a small fraction of its binding energy to drive a 
relativistic explosion. This result is also obtained by a completely different technique 
used by Kumar and collaborators, which exploits the observed distribution for x-ray after- 
glow flux at a fixed elapsed time since the explosion. The work of Panaitescu and Kumar 
shows that the density of the medium in the vicinity of these explosions varies by three 
to four orders of magnitude, and the beaming angle of the explosion varies by about an 
order of magnitude from one burst to another. These results should provide important 
clues to the nature of these enigmatic explosions. 

PROFESSOR NATHAN SEIBERG, with L. Susskind and N. Toumbas, explored field 
theories based on noncommutative spacetime. Such theories exhibit very distinctive 
nonlocal effects, which mix the ultraviolet with the infrared in bizarre ways. In particu- 
lar, if the time coordinate is involved in the noncommutativity, the theory seems to be 
seriously acausal and inconsistent with conventional Hamiltonian evolution. To illus- 
trate these effects, they studied the scattering of wave packets in a field theory with 
space/time noncommutativity. In this theory, they found effects which seem to precede 
their causes, and rigid rods which grow instead of Lorentz contract as they are boosted. 
TTiese field theories are evidently inconsistent and violate causality and unitarity. 

On the other hand, open string theory in a background electric field is expected to exhib- 
it space/time noncommutativity. This raises the question of whether this also leads to 
acausal behavior. They showed that this is not the case. Stringy effects conspire to can- 
cel the acausal effects that are present in the noncommutative field theory. 

Searching for space/time noncommutativity, the same authors reconsidered open strings 
in a constant background electric field. The main difference between this situation and 
its magnetic counterpart is that here there is a critical electric field beyond which the 
theory does not make sense. They showed that this critical field prevents a limit in which 
the theory becomes a field theory on a noncommutative spacetime. However, an appro- 
priate limit toward the critical field leads to a novel noncritical string theory on a non- 
commutative space/time, which decouples from gravity. Similar work was done inde- 
pendently by R. Gopakumar, J. Maldacena, S. Minwalla, and A. Strominger, who called 
such theories NCOS (Non-Commutative Open String). 

In continuation of this line of research, Seiberg, with R. Gopakumar, S. Minwalla, and 
A. Strominger, extended the newly discovered NCOS theories. They proposed dual 
de.scriptions for the strong coupling limit of these theories in six or fewer spacetime 
dimensions. In particular, they conjectured that the five-dimensional NCOS theory at 
strong coupling is a theory of light Open Membranes (OM), decoupled from gravity, on 



80 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



an M5-brane with a near-critical three-form field strength. The relation of OM theory 
to NCOS theories resembles that of M-theory to Tvjie 11 closed string theories. In two 
dimensions, they conjectured that supersymmetric LJ(n) gauge theory with a unit of elec- 
tric flux is dual to the NCOS theory with string coupling 1/n. A construction based on 
NS5-branes led to new theories in six dimensions generalizing the little string theory. A 
web of dualities relates all the above theories when they are compactified on tori. 

Using the construction of D-hranes with nonzero B field in the matrix model, Seiberg 
gave a physical interpretation of the known background independence in gauge theories 
on a noncommutative space. The background independent variables were identified as 
the degrees of freedom of the underlying matrix model. This clarified and extended some 
recent results about the end point of tachyon condensation in D-branes with a B field. 
TTiis work also explained the freedom in the description which is parametrized by a two- 
form - from the points of view of the noncommutative geometry on the world volume of 
the branes, and of the first quantized string theory. 

Finally, Seiberg, in collaboration with J. Maldacena and G. Moore, showed that one can 
construct D-branes in parafermionic and WZW theories (and their orbifolds), which 
have very natural geometrical interpretations, and yet are not automatically included in 
the standard Cardy construction of D-branes in rational conformal field theory. The rela- 
tion between these theories and their T-dual description has led to an analogy between 
these D-branes and the familiar A-branes and B-branes of N=2 theories. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD WITTEN's most significant new direction in 2000-01 was to 
explore the behavior of M-theory compactification on manifolds of Gj holonomy, most- 
ly in collaboration with Michael Atiyah. This is of interest as a natural way to generate 
a supersymmetric model of particle physics in four dimensions. Witten and Atiyah 
explored the behavior of M-theory near a conical singularity of a G2-manifold, and 
obtained convincing arguments about the dynamics for all of the known examples of such 
singularities. Toward the end of the year, Witten began to examine how chiral fermions 
can arise from manifolds of G2 holonomy. 

PROFESSOR EMERITUS FREEMAN DYSON spent most of the year giving lectures 
and attending meetings away from Princeton. The most interesting of the meetings was 
the World Economic Forum at Davos, Switzerland, in January 2001. There he was a 
speaker in three public debates on scientific issues of concern to the world business com- 
munity. When not engaged in public activities, he worked on a problem of atomic 
physics in collaboration with the experimenter William Happer at Princeton University. 
Happer discovered experimentally an unexplained degeneracy of states in the spectrum 
of a rubidium atom in a magnetic field. Dyson and Happer succeeded in proving by ana- 
lytical calculation that the degeneracy is exact. Happer found a simple theoretical model 
of three coupled spins in which the degeneracy is still exact. Until now, Dyson and Hap- 
per's efforts to explain the degeneracy in terms of an underlying physical symmetry have 
been unsuccessful. They shall continue to hunt for the hidden symmetry. 



81 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 
MEMBERS AND VISITORS 



ANTHONY AGUIRRE 

Astrophysics 

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 

JEEVA ANANDAN 

Particle Physics 

University of South Carolina • v 

LARS BERGSTROM 

Astrophysics 

Stockholm University ■ v 

JULIAN BIGELOW 
Applied Mathematics 
Institute for Advanced Study • m 

TODD BRUN 

Quantum Theory 

Carnegie Mellon University 

CLIFFORD BURGESS 
Particle Physics 
McGill University 

EUGENE CHIANG 

Astrophysics 

California Institute of Technology • m 

ARLIN CROTTS 
Astrophysics 
Columbia University 

KESHAV DASGUPTA 
Mathematical Physics 
Institute for Advanced Study 

EMANUEL DIACONESCU 
Mathematical and Particle Physics 
Institute for Advanced Study 

XIAO HUl FAN 
Astrophysics 
Princeton University 



ALEXANDER FRIEDLAND 
Neutrino Astrophysics 
.Lawrence Berkeley National Lab 

RAJMEHTA GANDHI 
Neutrino Astrophysics 
Research Institute, India • v 

SCOTT GAUDI 

Astrophysics 

Ohio State University 

ERIC GIMON 

MathcTTUiiicai and Particle Physics 

California Institute of Technology 

PETER GOLDREICH 

Astrophysics 

California Institute of Technology • v 

ANDREI GRUZINOV 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study • m/ 

AKIKAZU HASHIMOTO 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Theoretical Physics 

DAVID HOGG 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study • mf 

LANE HUGHSTON 

Particle Physics 

Kings College, London ■ v 

ANTON KAPUSTIN 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study ■ m 

BARAK KOL 

MathematicoJ ami Particle Physics 

Tel Aviv University 



/First Tenn • v Visitor ■ m Long Term Member 



82 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



PLAMEN KRASTEV 

Astrophysics 

University of Wisconsin • / 



DUDLEY SHAPERE 

Histoid and Phibsophy of Science 

Wake Forest University • js 



ELIGIO LISI 

Neutrino Astrophysics 
Universita di Bari, Italy • v 



STEVE SHENKER 
Particle Physics 
Stanford University • v 



JORDl MIRALDA-ESCUDE 

Astrophysics 

University of Pennsylvania • s 



STEPHAN STIEBERGER 
MathcTTuitical and Particle Physics 
Institute for Advanced Study • / 



CHIARA NAPPI 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study • m 



LEONARD SUSSKIND 
Particle Physics 
Stanford University ■ v 



HORATIU NASTASE 

Particle Physics 

State University of New York, Stony Brook 



OLEG TCHERNYSHYOV 

Condensed Matter 

Institute for Advanced Study 



YOSEF NIR 

Particle Physics 

The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel • v 



CLAUDIO TEITELBOIM 

Particle Physics 

Centro de Estudios Cientificos, Chile • dm 



DETLEF NOLTE (deceased April 17, 2001) 

Particle Physics 

University of California, San Diego 



ACHIM WEISS 

Astrophysics 

Max Planck Institute, Germany • v 



GOVINDAN RAJESH 
Mathematical and Particle Physics 
Institute for Advanced Study 



EDWARD WRIGHT 

Astrophysics 

University of California, Los Angeles 



MERCEDES RICHARDS 

Astrophysics 

University of Virginia ■ v 



ZHENG YIN 

Particle Physics 

Institute for Advanced Study 



JOOP SCHAYE 

Astrophysics 

St. John's College, United Kingdom 



MATIAS ZALDARRIAGA 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study • mf 



ROMAN SCOCCIMARRO 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study ■ / 



REN-JIE ZHANG 
Particle Physics 
University of Wisconsin 



SARA SEAGER 

Astrophysics 

Institute for Advanced Study 



d Director's Visitor ■ / First Term • j Joint Membership with Historical Studies ■ s Second Term 
V Visitor • m Long Term Member 



83 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 
RECORD OF EVENTS 



The following is a calendar of events sponsored by 
the School of Natural Sciences 



Academic Year 2000-01 



September 18 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Cosmological 

Breaking of Supersymmetry ?" 

TOM BANKS, Rutgers University 

Sepremher 1 '■' 

Astrophysics Talk: "CDM and Galaxies: Evidence 

for New Physics?" 

DAVID N. SPERGEL, Institute for Advanced Study 

and Princeton University 

September 22 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "Gauge 

Invariance and Noncommutative Geometry" 

AKIKAZU HASHIMOTO, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

September 2^' 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 
"Strings, Branes and the Quantum Hall System" 
LEONARD SUSSKIND, Stanford University 

October 2 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "D-Branes as 

Lumps of Flux" 

SHIRAZ MINWALLA, Harvard University 

Oli..Ixi i 

Astrophysics Talk: "New Tests of Einstein's 

Equivalence Principle and Newton's Inverse 

Square Law" 

ERIC ADELBERGER, University of Washington. 

Seattle 

October 5 

Astrophysics Talk: "Cosmology with the Sunyaev- 

Zel'dovich Effect" 

GIL HOLDER, University of Chicago 

October 6 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "High- 
Energy Scattering in AdS and Holography" 
SEBASTIAN DE HARO. University of Utrecht. 
Netherlands 



October 10 

Astrophysics Talk: "Global Hydrodynamic and 

MHD Models of Accretion Flows Around 

Compact Object" 

JIM STONE, University of Maryland 

October 16 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Superstrings and 

Topological Strings at Large N" 

CUMRUN VAFA, Harvard University 

October 17 

Astrophysics Talk: "Cepheid Stars: Where NextT' 

DIMITAR SASSELOV, Harvard University 

October 18 

Astrophysics Talk: "Weak Lensing with the 

SDSS" 

PHIL FISCHER, University of Toronto 

October 19 

Astrophysics Talk: "Life After Acoustic Peaks" 

ASANTHA COORAY, Universit^i of Chicago 

October 24 

Astrophysics Talk: "Recent Developments in 

Gamma-ray Bursts" 

PAWAN KUMAR, Institute for Advanced Study 

October k"* 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "D-Branes, 
Categories and N = l Supersymmetry" 
MICHAEL LX~)UGLAS, Rutgers University 

October U 

Astrophysics Talk: "Characterizing Extrasolar 

Planets" 

SARA SEAGER, Institute /or Advanced Stud\ 

N'ln ember ' 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "What 
Should Particle Physicists Believe from Q\smolog>?" 
DAVID N. SPERGEL, Institute for Advanced Study 
and Priru^eton University 



84 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



Niivcmhor 7 

Astrophysics Talk: "Early Results from the FUSE 

Mission" 

WARREN MOOS, Johns Hopkins Universky 

Nownilier *■' 

Astrophysics Talk: "The Cult of Microlensing" 

SCOTT GAUDI, Institute for Advanced Study 

November I ^ 

Astrophysics Talk: "Metal-rich Stars in Metal- 
poor Globular Clusters: A New Perspective on the 
Blue Horizontal Branch" 
BRADFORD BEHR, University of Texas 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 
"Solitons in Non-Commutative Gauge Theories" 
DAVID GROSS, Institute for Theoretical Physics 

November 2 1 

Astrophysics Talk: "X-Ray Observations of Jets in 

Galactic Microquasars" 

RON REMILLARD, Center for Space Research, 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

November 22 

Astrophysics Talk: "A New Model for Black Hole 

Accretion" 

ANDREI BELOBORODOV, Stockholm Observatory 

November 27 

Astrophysics Talk: "New Results on Brown 

Dwarfs" 

JOHN GIZIS, California Institute of Technology 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "BPS Spectra of 

Calabi-Yau Compactifications from a Low Energy 

Perspective" 

FREDERIK DENEF, Columbia Unii-ersit^ 

November 28 

Astrophysics Talk: "Full-Sky Astrometric 

Mapping Explorer (FAME)" 

KEN SEIDELMANN, U.S. Naval Observatory 

December 1 

Astrophysics Talk: "The Dwarf Satellite Problem 

and the Galaxy's Stellar Halo" 

JAMES S. BULLOCK, Ohio State University 



High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 

"Applications of the Multiplet of Currents: 

Supersymmetric Matter Effective Action Induced 

by Linearized Supergraviry, and Supersymmetry 

Breaking from the Viewpoint of the Current 

Multiplet" 

STEPHEN L. ADLER, Insritutc for Advanced Study 

December 5 

Astrophysics Talk: "Why Are Nearby Galactic 

Nuclei So Dim?" 

ELIOT QUATAERT, Insritute for Advanced Study 

December 7 

Astrophysics Talk: "Gamma-Ray Bursts for Trans- 

Relativistic Blast Waves in Supemovae" 

JONATHAN TAN, Unii;ersit> of California, 

Berkeley 

December 8 

Astrophysics Talk: "Cosmology with a Local Bubble" 

KENJI TOMITA, Kyoto University 

December! 5 

Astrophysics Talk: "Photon-Electron Interactions 

in Strong Gravitational Fields" 

DIMITRIOS PSALTIS, Massachusetts Institute of 

Technology 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 

"Non-Abelian Geometry" 

ZHENG YIN, Institute for Advanced Study 

Janu:irvl6 

Astrophysics Talk: "The Role of Heating and 

Enrichment in Galaxy Formation" 

EVAN SCANNAPIECO, University of California, 

Berkeley 

January 18 

Astrophysics Talk: "Strange Stars and Heavy 

Neutron Stars: Mind Games or Real Objects?" 

DIMITRIOS PSALTIS, Mossoc/iusetts Institute of 

Technology 

Januarv- 1*) 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 
"Quantifying Quantum Entanglement" 
TODD BRUN, Zmtituie for Advanced Study 



85 



Institute for advanced study 



laniuirv 29 

High Energy Theory Seminar; "R^ Couplings, the 

Fundamental BPS Membrane, and Exceptional 

Theta Correspondences" 

BORIS PIOLINE, Harvard Urxiversity 

January 30 

Astrophysics Talk: "Dynamics of Eccentric 

Planetary Rings and Planets" 

EUGENE CHIANG, Institute for Advanced Study 

Fohnuirv ? 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 
"Critical Behavior of Simple Statistical Models" 
WAN SAINT'AUBIN, School of Mathematics , 
Institute for Advanced Study 

February 6 

Astrophysics Talk: "The Cosmic Infrared Back- 
ground" 

EDWARD WRIGHT, Institute for Advanced Study 
and University of California, Los Angeles 

February 1 2 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Recent Results 
from the LEP Combmed Higgs Searches" 
CHRIS TULLY, Pnnceton Universiry 

Febniary 1 3 

Astrophysics Talk: "Chandra Observations of 

Groups and Clusters of Galaxies" 

LARRY DAVID, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for 

Astrophysics 

February' 16 

Astrophysics Talk: "Star and Planet Formation 

with SIRTF" 

DAVID KOERNER, University of Pennsylvania 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "Strong 
CP Problem and Supersymmetry" 
MARTIN SCHMALTZ, Permilab 

February 20 

Astrophysics Talk: "Problems with Dark Matter" 

JERRY SELLWOOD, Rutgers University 

February 2 1 

Astrophysics Talk: "Hipparcos and Extra-Solar 

Planets: End of a Controversy?" 

DIMITRI POURBAIX, Prirv:eum Universit^r 



Febniary 26 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Boundary Mirror 

Symmetry" 

HENTARO HORI, Harvard University 

i-ci^ru.irv :; 

Astrophysics Talk: "Waking with Shock in a 

Protoplanetary Disk" 

JEREMY GOODMAN, Princeton Universitry 

i-cbru.irv 2.N 

Astrophysics Talk: "The Physics of Reionization 

and Limits on Warm Dark Matter" 

RENN AN BARKAN A, Canadian Institute fcrr 

Theoretical Astrophysics 

M.ircli : 

Astrophysics Talk: "What SDSS Can Do For You 
- An Introduction to the SDSS Database" 
XIAO HUl FAN, Insritute for Advanced Study 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 
"Aspects of Short Distance Physics and Cosmology" 
GARY SHIU, University o/ Pennsylvania 

NLirch 

Astrophysics Talk: "Early Results from the FUSE 

Mission" 

WARREN MOOS, Johns Hopkins University 

March ') 

Astrophysics Talk: "Full-Orbit Spectra, Doppler 

Tomograms, and Hydrodynamic Simulations of 

Accretion Structures in Algol-type Interacting 

Binaries" 

MERCEDES RICHARDS, Insritute for Advanced 

Study and University o/ Virginia 

M,.uh i: 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Supersymmetry 
and Composite Extra Dimensions" 
MARKUS LUTY, University of Maryland 

March 1 3 

Astrophysics Talk: "Detection of Supersymmetric 

Dark Matter" 

LARS BERGSTROM, Stockholm University 

M.irch 1(- 

Astrophysics Talk: "The Stability of Minor B<xlies 

in the Inner Solar System" 

SERGE TABACHNIK, Pnnceton University 



86 



THE SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



March 20 

Astrophysics Talk: "Evidence for Neutrino Mass" 

ELIGIO LISI, Universita di Bari, Italy 

March 23 

High Energy TTieory Lunchtime Seminar: "Nonper- 
turbative Superpotentials in Heterotic M-Theory" 
jAEMO PARK, Universky of Pennsylvania 

March 26 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Fluxbranes in 

String Theory" 

ANDREW STROMINGER, Harvard University 

Marcli 27 

Astrophysics Talk: "Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars" 

SHRI KULKARNl, CaUfomia Institute of Technology 

Mard. H^ 

Astrophysics Talk: "Distant Supemovae: The 

(Other) Wonderful Things You Can Do with 

TTiem" 

DANI MAOZ, Columbia University 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "More 
About D-Branes on Calabi-Yau Manifolds" 
MICHAEL DOUGLAS, Rutgers University 

April 3 

Astrophysics Talk: "Distance Determination 

Using Binary Stars" 

BOHDAN PACZYNSKI, Princeton University 

April ^' 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Supersymmetric 

Conical Defects" 

VIJAY BALASUBRAMANIAN, University of 

Pennsylvania 

April 10 

Astrophysics Talk: "Exploring the Kuiper Belt" 

CHARLES ALCOCK, Unii-ersit^ of Pennsylvania 

April 1 1 

Astrophysics Talk: "Cosmological Parameters, 

Boojums, and Epicycles" 

MAX TEGMARK, University of Pennsylvania 

April 1 3 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: Basic 
Notions of Deformation Theory for Physicists" 
PIERRE DELIGNE, School of Mathematics, 
Institute for Advanced Study 



April 17 

Astrophysics Talk: "Things Invisible to See: 

Black Holes in Galaxy Centers" 

DOUG RICHSTONE, University of Michigan 

April 1^) 

Astrophysics Talk: "Planetesimal Formation by 

Gravitational Instability" 

ANDREW YOUDIN, University of California, 

Berkeley 

April 23 

High Energy Theory Seminar: "Deconstructing 

Dimensions" 

NIMA ARKANI-HAMED, University of 

California, Berkeley 

April 24 

Astrophysics Talk: "Manned Space Missions in 

the Next Twenty Years" 

ED LU, NASA Shuttle Astronaut 

April 25 

Astrophysics Talk: "Space-Based Gravitational 

Microlensing: The 'Easy Way' to Find Terrestrial 

Extra-solar Planets" 

DAVID BENNETT, University of Notre Dame 

April 27 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 

"Supersymmetric Cigar/LiouviUe Duality as Mirror 

Symmetry" 

ANTON KAPUSTIN, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

Mav9 

Astrophysics Talk; "Magnetars in Nature: What 

Would They Look Like, How Would They Pulse, 

and Have We Observed Them?" 

FERYAL OZEL, Harvard-Smit/isonian Center for 

Astrophysics 

Astrophysics Talk: "The Edge of the Solar System" 
MICHAEL BROWN, California Institute of 
Technology 

Mav 1 1 

High Enetgy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "Orien- 

tifolds, RR Torsion, and K-Theory" 

ERIC GIMON, Institute for Advanced Study 



87 



Institute for advanced study 



M<iy 16 

Astrophysics Talk: "Towards the Progenitors of 

Gamma-Ray Bursts" 

JOSH BLOOM, California Institute o/ Technology 

May 17 

Astrophysics Talk: "Extremely Cool White Dwarfs 

and Galactic Structure" 

BEN OPPENHEIMER, University of California. 

Berkeley 

May 22 

Astrophysics Talk: "Simulations of the Formation 
and Evolution of the Galaxy Population" 
SIMON WHITE. Max Planck Institute. Germany 

M.iy 25 

Astrophysics Talk: "Unified Models for the Evolu- 
tion of Quasars and Their Host Galaxies" 
GUINEVERE KAUFFMAN, Max Planck Institute. 
Germany 

High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: 

"Extremal Two-Dimensional Black Holes 

Revisited" 

SERGEI GUKOV, Princeton University 



May 30 

Astrophysics Talk: "Astrophysical Dynamos: 
Basics, Controversies, Progress, and a Related 
Speculation about Planet Formation" 
ERIC BLACKMAN, University of Rochester 

May 31- June 2 

W.M. Keck Workshop: "Galaxies and the Dark 

Matter Problem" 

Organizers; DAVID N. SPERGEL, Jmritu£e/or 

Advanced Study and Princeton University; 

JERRY SELLWOOD, Rutgers University 



High Energy Theory Lunchtime Seminar: "A 3-D 

Gauge Theory with Dynamical SUSY Breaking 

and its Supergravity Dual" 

HORATIU N ASTASE, Institute for Advanced 

Study 

June IS 

Astrophysics Talk: "Origins of the First Planetary 

Materials: Chondrules and Their Cousins" 

HAROLD CONNOLLY. Califomia InsritMte of 

Technology 



88 




As a young academic scholar, 1 was most impressed by the devotion, 
seriousness, and genuine passion for the highest level possible of 
I- intellectual pursuit which 1 found in the daily, undivided attention 
to scholarship manifested by the permanent Faculty members. This has been a 
lesson for life, one for which I am truly grateful. I entered academia with the 
expectation that creative thinking and writing should be the task of a scholar, 
and I am happy to have found this substantiated by life at the Institute." 

— Member, School of Social Science 



The Institute Dining Hall, foreground, with West Building in the background. West Building is home to both the 
School of Hisunical Studies and the School of Social Science . 



THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 



Faculty 

ERIC S. MASKIN, Albert O. Hirschman Professor 
JOAN WALLACH SCOTT, Harold F. Lmder Professor 
MICHAEL WALZER, UPS Foundation Professor 

Professor Emeriti 

CLIFFORD GEERTZ 
ALBERT O. HIRSCHMAN 

Visiting Associate Professor 
ADAM ASHFORTH 



ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES 

Nineteen scholars from the United States and abroad were invited to be part of the 
School's scholarly community as Members and Visitors for the 2000-01 academic year- 
from a pool of 195 individuals who applied for membership. Three research assistants 
also participated in the year's activities. The National Endowment for the Humanities 
partially or fully funded three fellows, The Ford Foundation funded one fellow, The John 
D. and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation partially or fully funded three fellows, and 
the Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation funded two fellows. Fields of inquiry of the 
School's Members and Visitors included anthropology, three; art history, one; digital 
media, one; economics, five; history, one; law, two; philosophy, two; political science, 
two; and sociology, two. 

TTie theme during 2000-01 was Information Technology and Society. Faculty and Visit- 
ing Members explored the following sorts of questions: How far-reaching are the changes 
associated with new technologies.' What challenges do they pose to established modes of 
thinking and acting? Are metaphors drawn from the worlds of computers and the logics 
of networks gaining explanatory weight in the social sciences and becoming models guid- 
ing practice? In general, what is at stake for human societies in the changes associated 
with new technologies? And what is at stake for social science? TTie School was espe- 
cially interested in research that focused on specific instances of technological change 
and its impact. 

In May of last year, the Albert O. Hirschman Chair in Economics in the School of Social 
Science was inaugurated at the Institute for Advanced Study. Eric Maskin, formerly of 
Harvard University, was appointed the first holder of the Hirschman Chair, and began his 
tenure in the fall of 2000. 

VISITING ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR ADAM ASHFORTH began a new research 
project on the political impact of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa. He presented 



91 



Institute for advanced study 



papers relating to this work at an Advanced Seminar at the School of American 
Research, Santa Fe; the International Conference on AIDS in Social and Historical 
Context, Johanneshurg; the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales (Paris), 
sponsored by the journal Critique Internationale (Fondation Nationale des Sciences Poli- 
tiques, Paris); and the Center for International Development at Harvard University. Pro- 
fessor Ashforth also lectured at the State University of New York's Stony Brook and 
Albany campuses, and made a presentation relating to his research to the Board of 
Trustees of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation in New York. 

PROFESSOR EMERITUS CLIFFORD GEERTZ gave the Sabbagh Lecture on Arabic 
Culture at the University of Arizona, Tucson, in February; lectured on ritual at the 
Princeton Theological Seminary in December; and lectured on Indonesia to the Institute 
trustees in May. His most recent book. Available Light, was the subject of a special sym- 
posium at the American Philosophical Association meetings in San Francisco in March. 
He was a commentator at a symposium on model systems at Princeton's History of 
Science Program in December. He also published a number of articles and reviews, and 
tried to learn how to retire. 

At the end of September 2000, PROFESSOR EMERITUS ALBERT O. HIRSCHMAN 
participated in a conference on economic doctrines in Latin America. Organized by Pro- 
fessor Rosemarie Thorp of Saint Antony's College, Oxford University, the conference 
explored economic doctrines in Latin America, their revolution, transmission, and 
power. After this conference, Professor Hirschman spent some time in London, 
Cambridge, and Paris. 

At the end of April 2001, Professor Hirschman participated in a conference on the con- 
tinuing influence of Karl Polanyi, author of The Great Transformation (Beacon Press, 
1994). This conference was organized by Anthony Marx of Columbia University, who 
had been a student of Professor Hirschman 's at Princeton and is now an associate profes- 
sor of political science at Columbia University. 

In May 2001, Professor Hirschman traveled to Madrid, Spain, to receive a doctorate 
honoris causa from the Universidad Compulutense de Madrid together with Professor 
Robert A. Dahl of Yale University and Professor Giovanni Sartori of Columbia Univer- 
sity and the University of Florence. In his speech. Professor Hirschman talked about his 
various contacts with Spanish intellectuals, and in particular expressed his regrets about 
the recent death, resulting from terrorist action by the Basque separatist group ETA, of 
Professor Ernest Lluch. Professor Lluch had spent a year at the Institute for Advanced 
Study in 1989-90, invited at that time by Professor John Elliott. Professor Hirschman and 
his wife spent another four days in Madrid, and three days each in Granada and Seville. 

Upon returning to Princeton, Professor Hirschman learned that his book Crossing Bound- 
aries - Selected Writings, 1998, was to be published by Zone Books as a paperback in the 
fall of 2001. In addition, one of his earlier books, Exit, Voice, and Loyalty, will be 
published in Chinese and in Greek in 2002. 

Last August, PROFESSOR ERIC MASKIN gave the Seattle Lecture entitled "Auctions 
and Efficiency" at the Eighth World Congress of the Econometric Society, held in Seat- 
tle. Auctions were also the subject of his Lionel McKeruie Lecture at the University of 



92 



THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 



Rochester in April, and of lectures in Heidelberg, Bilbao, Toulouse, and Baltimore. He 
gave graduate courses on auction theory at Princeton University and the University of 
Pennsylvania. In October and November, Professor Maskin made presentations to the 
European and Belgian Parliaments on the question of whether software should be patent- 
ed. He also gave lectures on this topic at the Universities of Paris and Frankfurt and at 
the biennial AMIAS conference in March. In his faculty lecture in November at the 
Institute, Professor Maskin compared the theoretical properties of different electoral 
methods. He also gave talks on this issue at Princeton and Columbia Universities and 
the University of Pennsylvania. This year, he served as consultant to the British gov- 
ernment on how to create incentives for firms to participate in the market for pollution 
permits that is being set up in the U.K. That government issued a report incorporating 
his recommendations in May. Professor Maskin continues to serve on the executive com- 
mittee of the Econometric Society. He was elected second vice-president of the Society 
last December and will serve as its president in 2003. 

PROFESSOR JOAN SCOTT published an article, "Fantasy Echo: History and the Con- 
struction of Identity," in Critical Inquiry, Winter 2001. She gave a keynote address at the 
Fourth International Feminist Research Conference in Bologna, Italy, and organized a 
conference on Feminism and the Changing Boundaries of Public and Private, held at the 
Rockefeller Foundation's Bellagio Study and Conference Center in Italy. She gave papers 
at Brown University, the University of Frankfurt (Germany), and the Berlin Technical 
Institute. She taught a graduate course in the Rutgers University History Department in 
the fall of 2000, and she continued to serve as the chair of the Committee on Academic 
Freedom and Tenure of the AAUP. 

PROFESSOR MICHAEL WALZER delivered the G. Theodore Mitau Lecture at 
Macalaster College in St. Paul, Minnesota, and the Morgenthau Memorial Lecture on 
Ethics and Foreign Policy for the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs 
in New York. He also lectured at Princeton University, the Harvard Divinity School, the 
Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science of New School University, Cardozo Law 
School of Yeshiva University, Mount Holyoke College, Wesleyan University, and the 
Einstein Forum in Berlin. The major focus of his work this year was volume two of The 
Jewish Political Tradition (volume one was published by Yale University Press last year). 
His Horkheimer Lectures, published in German in 1999, appeared in Italian and Korean 
translations. On Toleration came out in Chinese and Polish. His Lucas Price Lecture at 
the University of Tubingen (1998) was published in Germany under the title Exilpolitik 
in der Hebraischen Bibel. 



93 



THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 
MEMBERS. VISITORS, AND RESEARCH STAFF 



SANDEEP BALIGA 

Economics 

Kellogg Graduate School of Management 

YITZHAK BENBAJI 

Philosophy 

Shalom Hartman Institute ■ a 

MANUEL DELANDA 

Philosophy 

Columbia University ■ FF 

JAMES DER DERIAN 

Political Science 

Brown University and University of 

Massachusetts, Amherst ■ MF 

KIM FORTUN 

Anthropology 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute • vs 

MICHAEL FORTUN 

Ant/irof)olog> 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 

JOAN FUJIMURA 

Sociology 

Stanford University • v 

MAITREESH GHATAK 

Economics 

University of Chicago 

VICTORIA HATTAM 

Political Science 

New School for Social Research • n 

MARK HUDDLE 

History 

Bradford College • a 

PHILIPPE JEHIEL 

Economics 

University College London 

JOHN MacDOUGALL 
Anthropology 
Princeton University • a 



MARGARET MORSE 

Digital Media 

University of California, Santa Cruz ■ DF 

HELEN NISSENBAUM 

Philosophy 

Princeton University • DF 

MONROE PRICE 

Law 

Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law • MF 

SYLVIA SCHAFER 

History 

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee • n 

AYELET SHACHAR 

Law 

University of Toronto 

RAN SPIEGLER 
Economics 
University of Oxford 

THOMAS STREETER 

SocioIog;y 

The University of Vermont • RF 

MICHELE WHITE 

Art History 

University of California, Santa Cruz • nMF 

MENAHEM YAARI 

Economics 

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

MAYFAIR YANG 

Anthropology 

University of California, Santa Barbara 



a Research Assistant ■ DF The Gladys Kriehle Delmas Foundation supported 

FF The Ford Foundation supported • MF The John D. and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation supported 

n National Endowment for the Humanities supported • RF Rockefeller Foundation supported 

s Second Term • v Visitor 

94 



THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 
RECORD OF EVENTS 



The following is a calendar of events sponsored hy 
the School of Social Science 



Academic Year 2000-01 



Septemher 28 

Social Science TTiursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Admitting the Stranger: The Rule of Law, the 
Ethics of Medical Hospitality, and the Borders of 
Governmental Imagination in Nineteenth- 
Century France" 

SYLVIA SCHAFER, Vniversky of Wisconsin, 
Milwaukee; Member, School of Social Science 

October 4 

Information Technology and Society: 

Organizational Meeting 

ADAM ASHFORTH, Visiting Associate Professor, 

School of Social Science 

October 5 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Gene Pools, Stock Markets, Democracy, and 

Other Promises: Volatilities of Genomics in and 

around Iceland" 

MICHAEL FORTUN, Rensselaer Polyuchnic 

Institute; Member, School of Social Science 

L\tober i; 

Social Science TTiursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Justice and the Market" 

MENAHEM YAARI, The Hebrew University of 

Jerusalem; Member, School of Social Science 



Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of Bill Joy, "Science and Safety in the Information 

Age" 

MANUEL DELANDA, Columbia University; 

MICHAEL FORTUN, Rensselaer Polytechnic 
Institute; and MARGARET MORSE, University of 
California, Santa Cruz; Members, School of Social 
Science 



October 19 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Virtuous WarA'irtual Theory/Army Goes to 

Hollywood" 

JAMES DER DERI AN, Brown University and 

University of Massachusetts , Amherst; Member, 

School of Social Science 

October 26 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Fictitious Unities: 'Gender,' 'East,' and 'West'" 

JOAN W. SCOTT, Professor, School of Social 

Science 

November 1 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of Monroe Price, "The Internet and the Newness 

of New Technology" 

MONROE PRICE, Benjamin N. Cardozo School of 

Law; Member, School of Social Science 

November 2 

Social Science TTiursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Limited Foresight and Analogy-Based Reasoning 

in Multi-Stage Games" 

PHILIPPE JEHIEL, University College Lonaon; 

Member, School of Social Science 

November 9 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Towards a Foreign Policy of Media Structures" 
MONROE PRICE, Benjamin N. Cardoso School of 
Law; Member, School of Social Science 

November lo 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"What Can the Philosophy of Science Do for 

Social Science?" 

MANUEL DELANDA, Columbia University; 

Member, School of Social Science 



95 



Institute for advanced study 



November 29 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of Helen Nissenbaum, "Securing Tmst On-Line: 

Wisdom or Oxymoron" 

HELEN NISSENBAUM, Princeton University; 

Member, School of Social Science 

November ^0 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "The 

Argument About Humanitarian Intervention" 

MICHAEL WALZER, Professor, School of Social 

Science 

December 7 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Ethics and Information Technology: Philosophical 

Perspectives" 

JAMES MOOR, Darmouth College 

December 1 3 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of Joan Fujimura, "Future Imaginaries: Genomic 

Practices and Discourses in Japan" 

JOAN FUJIMURA, Stanford University; Visitor, 

School of Social Science 

December 14 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"From Local Cult to Transnational Pilgrimage: 

Media, Popular Religion, and State Discourse 

across the Taiwan Straits" 

MAYFAIR YANG, University of California, Santa 

Barbara; Member, School of Social Science 

January 25 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "Per- 
sonhood, Law, and Communication Technology: 
Making Sense of (and with) Internet Commer- 
cialization" 

THOMAS STREETER, The University of 
Vermont; Member, School of Social Science 

Jiinuar^' ^\ 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of Michele White, "Too Close to See: Men, 

Women and Webcams" 

MICHELE WHITE, University of California, Santa 

Cruz; Member, School of Social Science 

February 1 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: "The 
Role of Argumentation in Economic Interactions" 
RAN SPIEGLER, University of Oxford; Member, 
School of Social Science 



February 8 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Law and Diversity: A New Approach to Multi- 
cultural Accommodation" 
AYELET SHACHAR, University of Toronto; 
Member, School of Social Science 

Fobnr,ir\- 14 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of James Der Derian, "Between War and Theory: 

A Virtual Trip" 

JAMES DER DERIAN, Brown University and 

University of Massachusetts , Amherst; Memiier, 

School of Socid Science 

February 1 5 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"A Game-Theoretic Model of Arms Races and 

Negotiations" 

SANDEEP BALIGA, Keiiogg Graduate School of 

Management; Member, School of Social Scierxce 

Februar\' 22 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"The Laboratory for a Great Race-Welding: The 
Harlem Renaissance and Mixed-Race America" 
MARK HUDDLE, Bradford College; Research 
Assistant, School of Social Science 

Fcbru.iry 28 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of Margaret Morse, "Differing Multitudes: On 

Collective and Collaborative Interactivity and 

Connectivity" 

MARGARET MORSE, University of California, 

Santa Cruz; Member, School of Social Scierve 

March 1 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Information Technology: Shaping Values, 

Shaped by Values" 

HELEN NISSENBAUM, Pnnceton University; 

Member, School of Socid Science 

M.ir.b S 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 
"Burnt Offerings: Virtual Smell and Community" 
MARGARET MORSE, University of California, 
Santa Cruz; Member, School of Social ScieiKe 



96 



THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCE 



March 15 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Religious Modernity and Regional Rivalries: 

Post-Suharto Politics and the Rites of Organized 

Violence in Lomhok, Indonesia" 

JOHN MacDOUGALL, Princeton University; 

Research Assistant, School of Social Science 

M.iivli 1\ 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of Michael Fortun, "Volatilities - OrganisimsX- 

GenomicsXEconomics" 

MICHAEL FORTUN, Rensselaer Polytechnic 

Institute; Member, School of Social Science 

March 22 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Ethnicity: TTie Pernicious Politics of American 

Pluralism?" 

VICTORIA HATTAM, New School of Social 

Research; Member, School of Social Science 



April 1 1 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of Manuel DeLanda, "Markets, Anti-Markets and 

Network Economics" 

MANUEL DeLANDA, Columbia University; 

Member, School of Social Science 

April i: 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"Credit Market Imperfections and Economic 

Development: TTieory, Evidence, and Policy 

Implications" 

MAITREESH GHATAK, University of Chicago; 

Member, Sc/iool of Social Science 

April 18 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 
of Thomas Streeter, "Digital Discourse Networks: 
The Internet and the New White Collar Style" 
THOMAS STREETER, The University of Ver- 
mont; Member, School of Social Science 



March 20 

Social Science Thursday Luncheon Seminar: 

"The Good, the Bad, and the Virtual: Ethics in 

the Age of Information" 

MARK POSTER, University of California, Irvine 



Mav 2 

Information Technology and Society: Discussion 

of Adam Ashforth, "AIDS, Witchcraft, and the 

Problem of Public Power in Post-Apartheid South 

Africa" 

ADAM ASHFORTH; Visiting Associate Professor, 

School of Social Science 



97 



(. 




M 



y stay at the Institute was a perfect opportunity to widen the fields of 
interest of my research. It gave me time to learn new techniques, 
to finish several works, and more importantly, to start a new set 
of projects. I fully realize how unique the conditions of work (both intellectual 
and material) at the Institute are ... 1 simply don't think 1 have ever 
met such a level of excellence." 

— Member, School of Mathematics 



PCMI participants (from left) Art Mobbotl, mai/iematics coordinator, Seattle, WA; Blaga Pauley, rruxthematics faculty, 

Riverside Communiry College, Riverside, CA, and PCMI Steering Committee member James R. King, 

Associate Professor of Matherruitics , Universit^i o/ Was/iington, Seattle, WA. 



PROGRAM IN THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 
Martin A. Nowak, Head 



The current areas of research in the Program in Theoretical Biology are evolutionary 
theory, the dynamics of infectious agents, and mathematical models of tumor progression. 
The program is led by Martin Nowak and includes five Members: Natalia Komarova, 
David Krakauer, Alun Lloyd, Karen Page, and Dominik Wodarz. David Tilman, Profes- 
sor in the Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior at the University of Minneso- 
ta, was a Visitor for the fall term. Anirvan Sengupta, a Senior Scientist from Bell Labs, 
is a Visitor who started in the spring term. Nowak also works with two Ph.D. students 
from Princeton University, Garrett Mitchener and Joshua Plotkin. 

Collaborations have been established with numerous experimental groups, including: 
Robert Darnell (The Rockefeller University) on immune response to cancer cells; Arnold 
Levine (The Rockefeller University) on apoptosis; Jeffrey Lifson (National Cancer Insti- 
tute) on SIV/HIV dynamics; George Shaw (University of Alabama at Birmingham) on 
HIV infection; Allan Thomsen (University of Copenhagen) on LCMV infection; Peter 
Doherty (St. Jude's Children's Research Hospital) on murine respiratory infections; Lynn 
Enquist (Princeton University) on CNS infection; Stuart Sealfon (Mount Sinai School 
of Medicine) on signal transduction; and Shirley Tilghman (Princeton University) on 
genomic imprinting. 

Research Projects 

Martin Nowak has worked on mathematical models of tumor initiation and progression. 
He has formulated a theory that describes how mutational events affect intracellular sig- 
naling pathways that normally prevent cells from turning into tumor cells. Most tumor 
cells display a loss of apoptotic functions, increased proliferation rates and an enormous 
amount of mutations. A fundamental question is how somatic selection gives rise to 
genetic instability in cancer cells and to what extent genetic instability is responsible for 
tumor progression. 

Nowak has a long-standing research interest in the dynamics of viral and other infectious 
diseases and, with Robert May, he recently completed a book. Virus Dynamics, published 
by Oxford University Press. 

Nowak has also developed a mathematical theory for the population dynamics of lan- 
guage acquisition. The main goal is to understand the conditions that the genetically 
encoded language acquisition device (Universal Grammar) has to fulfill in order to 
induce linguistic coherence in a population. This approach can be used for analyzing ( 1 ) 
the evolution of animal communication and human language, (2) language change in the 
context of historical linguistics, and (3) empirical observations of language acquisition in 
children (parameter setting). In May 2001, Nowak hosted a workshop at the Institute for 
Advanced Study that brought together scientists in the field of linguistics, animal com- 
munication, and learning theory. 

In October 2000, Nowak gave the Akira Okubo Lecture at Shizuoka University in Japan. 
In February 200L he gave the Benjamin and Anne A. Pinkel Lecture at the Institute for 
Research in Cognitive Science at the University of Pennsylvania. Nowak was recently 
elected a corresponding member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. 



101 



Institute for advanced study 



Natalia Komarova has focused on problems of mathematical modeling of the evolution 
of language. A system of ordinary differential equations can be used to describe a popu- 
lation dynamics of language learning. It includes the possibility of learning mistakes and 
innovation as well as some selection mechanism. In the framework of this model, 
language is a self-organizing system where high-coherence states manifest themselves as 
stable equilibria of the dynamical system. One of the advantages of the model is that it 
is possible to get some analytical insights into the dynamics of linguistic coherence. 

Komarova, along with P. Niyogi, M. Nowak, and 1. Rivin, used this framework to describe 
different aspects of language, such as the lexical matrix and grammar. One of the questions 
asked is how accurately children have to learn the language of their parents in order for the 
population to be able to maintain a coherent communication system. Another question 
asked is what are the evolutionary forces that shape the Universal Grammar. It has also 
been possible to model natural selection of the critical period of language acquisition and 
address the issue of convergence rate for different language learning mechanisms. 

David Krakauer's work has focused on ( 1 ) molecular quality control as a mechanism of 
genomic robustness, (2) a detailed study of the dynamics of positive strand RNA viruses, 
(3) a consideration of the importance of genetic instability in cancer progression, and (4) 
a new perspective on the dynamics of neurodegenerative disease. 

Molecular quality control can be thought of as all of those cellular processes that have 
evolved to minimize the impact of genetic or environmental damage on the phenotype. 
Krakauer has sought to classify these mechanisms according to a small number of para- 
meters. Two have emerged: the effective population size and the mutation rate. Using a 
stochastic quasispecies framework, he describes continuous variation in the degree of 
redundancy genomes that should encode to serve as quality control and as a function of 
these parameters. 

RNA viruses have evolved as a large number of ingenious means of subverting and 
exploiting the protein synthesis pathways of their host cells. Krakauer models, using 
reaction kinetics, the replication and translation mechanics of the virus life cycle. A 
number of paradoxical results emerge, namely that increasing the decay rate of the virus 
genome increases the abundance of viral proteins and that there is a critical tradeoff 
between genome replication and virion export. 

Alun Lloyd's research has been on the spread of infectious diseases and how this spread 
depends on the way in which human populations are structured. For instance, rates of 
disease transmission will be higher in cities than in rural areas, as each person tends to 
encounter many more people each day. Lloyd's research tries to address such issues, using 
a combination of mathematical modeling and statistical analysis of historical records of 
disease incidence. One particular approach Lloyd has been exploring during the last year 
is .so-called network modeling, which explicitly considers each individual in a population 
and his or her connections (e.g. social encounters) with others. Using this technique, he 
has been able to draw interesting parallels between the spread of computer viruses on the 
internet and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV. 

Another project examines the incidence records of childhood diseases (such as measles, 
mumps, and rubella) in the United States. These records, which Lloyd has computerized, 



102 



PROGRAM IN THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 



begin in 1952 and continue to the present day. TTiis period includes the introduction of 
mass vaccination programs. Study of these records has revealed interesting spatial 
patterns and changes which occur with the onset of vaccination. These studies are help- 
ing to illuminate the relative importance of local and global transmission events in the 
spread of childhood diseases, as well as aiding in the development of more reliable 
models for disease transmission. 

Karen Page has been working on mathematical models of cancer. Vaccinations of anti- 
gens present on the surface of cancer cells can induce immune responses which limit 
tumor growth, such that tumors remain at a small, fixed size. Within these tumors, some 
cells are nonetheless dividing. Page has developed models to describe how the cell divi- 
sion can be exactly matched by cell death, and to estimate the parameters necessary for 
this dormant state, as well as the dependence of the tumor size and proportion of cycling 
cells on these parameters. A further aim of this research is to suggest methods of pre- 
venting escape from dormancy, perhaps using combined immuno- and chemo-therapy. 
Page has also developed a unified framework for evolutionary dynamics, which helps to 
clarify the concept of selection. She is working on developing a "selection theory" akin 
to information theory. 

Joshua Plotkin has continued to research both ecological and evolutionary theory. Based 
upon data from forests across the globe, he has developed predictive methods to assess 
large-scale tropical forest biodiversity from small-scale censuses. Plotkin is applying these 
mathematical models to design a new forestry protocol for the Government of Malaysia, 
under a grant from the United Nations' Development Fund. He has also been research- 
ing the evolution, in multicellular organisms and especially mammals, of natural defense 
mechanisms against genomic instability, i.e. against cancer. Plotkin has developed 
stochastic models which predict the timing of tumorigenesis in terms of the mutational 
and genetic profile of a cell. These models have both evolutionary and medical implica- 
tions in the study of carcinogenesis. 

Dominik Wodarz has continued his work on immunity to HIV infection and on therapy 
regimes aimed at inducing immune-mediated, long-term control of the infection. He has 
applied his models of hepatitis C virus, with special focus on anti-viral therapy. Wodarz 
has continued his work on virus infections in mice deficient in various components of the 
immune system, as well as work on CD4 cell help. In relation to cancer, Wodarz has 
examined mathematical models looking at the use of viruses as anti-tumor weapons, the 
role of the immune system in relation to progression and therapy, the role of angiogene- 
sis in cancer progression, models of chemotherapy, and the relevance of genetic instabil- 
ity in cancers. All of his projects are done in close collaboration with experimental 
groups in the United States and Europe. 



103 



Institute for advanced study 



The Program in Theoretical Biology Lecture Series 

Each year, distinguished scientists in diverse areas of biology are invited to lecture at the 
Institute for Advanced Study. The lecture series is coordinated with a similar series at 
Princeton University. The following lectures were presented during the 2000-01 acade- 
mic year: 

September 13 "The World's Smallest Rotary Motor: The Mechanochemistry of ATP 
Synthase" 
George Oster, University of California, Berkeley 

September 27 "From Genome to Organism: A Virus- World View" 
John Yin, University of Wisconsin, Madison 

October 4 "The Tree of Life: The Origin of Universal Scaling Laws in Biology 

from Molecules and Cells to Whales" 
Geoffrey B. West, Santa Fe Institute 

October 18 "Causes, Consequence, and Conservation of Biodiversity: Theoretical 

Musings" 
David Tilman, University of Minnesota 

November 8 "The Evolution of Evolvahility: Fact or Mirage?" 
GiJnter P. Wagner, Yale University 

November 15 "Genes as Physiological Prisoners, Illustrated with Mathematical 
Modeling of the Heart" 
Denis Noble, University of Oxford 

March 21 "Pathogenesis and Origin of HIV-1" 

George Shaw, University of Alabama, Birmingham 

April 18 "Origin and Evolution of Genes" 

Walter Gilbert, Harvard University 

May 2 "Unanswered Questions in Ecology" 

Robert May, University of Oxford 

Language Learning and Evolution 

The aim ot this meeting was to discuss to what extent evolutionary biology and learn- 
ing theory can shed light on the nature ot human language. 

May 1 7 "Possible Stages in the Evolution of the Language Capacity" 

Ray Jackendoff, Department of Psychology, Brandeis University 

"Language Learning from Multi.sensory Input" 

Deb Roy, Media luihoraiory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

"Mathematical Models lor Language Learning and Evolution" 
Martin Nowak, Program in Theoretical Biology, Institute for Advanced 
Study 



104 



PROGRAM IN THEORETICAL BIOLOGY 



"Variation, Acquisition, and Change" 

Charles D. Yang, Department of Linguistics and Computer Science, 

Yale University 

"Why Animals Don't Have Language" 

Dorothy Cheney, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 

"Do You Speak Chimpanzee? A Neglected Moment in the History of 

Theorizing About Language Origins" 

Stephen R. Anderson, Department of Linguistics , Yale University 

"The Evolution of Language: What are the Uniquely Human 

Computational Mechanisms?" 

Marc Hauser, Department of Psychology, Harvard University 

May 1 8 "The Course of Syntactic Development and the Current State of 

Learning Theory" 

Kenneth Wexler, Department o/ Linguistics, Massachusetts Irustitute of 
Technology 

"Reflections on the Specificity of the Language Acquisition Device" 
Daniel Osherson, Department of Psychology, Rice University 

"Evolutionary Dynamics of Linguistic Cohetence" 
Natalia Komarova, Program in Theoretical Biology, 
Institute for Adi^anced Study 

"Language Evolution: A Population Genetics Perspective" 
Salikoko Mufwene, Department of Linguistics , University of Chicago 

"The Evolution of the Language Faculty" 

Scott Weinstein, Department of Philosophy , University of Pennsylvania 

"Neural Computation and Language" 

Leslie Valiant, Division of Engineering and Applied ScierKes, Harvard 

University 

"Punctuated Equilibrium and Language Change" 

David Lightfoot, Department of Linguistics , University of Maryland 

May 19 "TLie Computational Intetaction of Learning and Change in 

Linguistic Systems" 
Partha Niyogi, Department of Computer Science, University of Chicago 

"The Emergence of Gestural Structures in the Development of 

Phonology" 

Louis Goldstein, Departments of Linguistics and Psychology, 

Yale University 



105 



Institute for advanced study 



"Language Evolution and Leaky Grammars" 

William Shi-yuan Wang, Chair of Language Engineering, Department 

of Electronic Engineering, City Liniversiry of Hong Kong 

"Leamability, Optimization, and Grammar" 

Bruce Tesar and Alan Prince, Linguistics, Rutgers University 

"Innate Grammatical Knowledge? Explorations of Universal 
Grammar in Optimality Theory through Infant Behavioral 
Experiments and Abstract Genomic Encoding" 
Paul Smolensky, Department of Cognitive Science, 
The Johns Hopkins University 



106 



THE LIBRARIES 

The Historical Studies-Social Science Library [Marcia Tucker, Librarian] contains some 
100,000 volumes and has subscriptions to about 1,000 journals. The library is strongest 
in classical studies, ancient history and archaeology, but it contains basic document col- 
lections, reference works and important secondary works of scholarship in most fields of 
history and the social sciences. The journal collection is extensive, and fairly complete 
back runs exist to the founding of the Institute. The library has occupied its present 
building since 1964. 

The Institute's rare book collection, the gift of Lessing J. Rosenwald, consists of about 
2,000 volumes on the history of science and was compiled by Herbert M. Evans in the 
1930's. TTie collection, which is housed in a special room, includes numerous first edi- 
tions of important scientific works in mathematics, astronomy, physics, and the life sci- 
ences. 

The library has an extensive collection of offprints including those received by Professors 
Andrew E.Z. Alfoldi, Kurt Godel, Ernst H. Kantorowicz, Elias Avery Lowe, Millard 
Meiss, Erwin Panofsky, and former Members Robert Huygens and Walther Kirchner. 

The microfilm collections of the library include a large selection from Manuscripta, a col- 
lection of several thousand fifteenth- to nineteenth-century printed books from the Vat- 
ican Library. TTie Bavarian Academy has given the Institute a microfilm copy of slips pre- 
sented for the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. The library has microfilm copies of the papers 
of Albert Einstein, Kurt Godel, and Simone Weil. 

The Historical Studies-Social Science Library houses the Institute archives. The papers 
in the collection date from the 1930s and include official correspondence of the Direc- 
tor's Office, minutes of meetings of the Faculty and the Board of Trustees, miscellaneous 
correspondence concerning past Faculty members, records of the Electronic Computer 
Project and other documents. TTie archives also include the Institute's extensive photo- 
graph collection. 

The Mathematics-Natural Sciences Library [Momota Ganguli, Librarian] is located on 
the second floor of Fuld Hall and contains some 30,000 volumes (bound periodicals and 
monographs) plus subscriptions to nearly 180 journals. Its collection of older periodicals 
is housed in compact shelving on the lower level of the Historical Studies-Social Science 
Library. TTie subject areas covered by the library are pure and applied mathematics, astro- 
physics, and theoretical, particle, and mathematical physics. 

Both of the Institute's libraries participate in the shared cataloging system of the Research 
Libraries Group, which gives Institute scholars computerized access to a database that 
contains more than twenty-two million records. Searches of this database retrieve bibli- 
ographic information and identify the location of materials in all participating libraries. 
Access to electronically-cataloged titles is available via Horizon, the Institute's web- 
accessible online catalog. The Institute's libraries are participants in the JSTOR project, 
which makes available archival electronic versions of many core journals in mathemat- 
ics and the humanities. 



107 



Institute for advanced study 



The Historical Studies-Social Science Library maintains a computer center with access 
to a variety of word processing packages for both PCs and Macintoshes, access to data- 
bases in the fields of Classical Studies, the History of Science, Islamic and French stud- 
ies, and connection software to the Internet for additional information resources. The 
Mathematics-Natural Sciences Library's electronic resources include an online catalog, a 
variety of indexes, and a growing collection of full-text journals. 

All scholars affiliated with the Institute enjoy the same privileges as Princeton Universi- 
ty faculty in the Harvey S. Firestone Memorial Library and the nineteen special-subject 
libraries in the Princeton University Library system and also in the Robert E. Speer 
Library of the Princeton Theological Seminary. 

The librarians and the Faculties of all four Schools at the Institute warmly appreciate gifts 
of books and articles from former and current Members of the Institute. 



108 




T 



his was a highly fruitful year for me. My most remarkable experience, 
however, has been the high level of intellectual exchange with the 
other colleagues at the Institute, and, above all, with the permanent 
Faculty . . . whom I can only praise for the truly unique environment they create 
every year for the Members and visitors at the Institute. My conversations with 
all these scholars have resulted in the elaboration of a number of ideas and 
projects for future research." 

— Member, School of Historical Studies 



The bietiniai AM/AS (Association o/ Members of the Institute for Advanced Study) conference, held March 23-24 at the Irutitute. 

featured four lectures given by (left to right^ Patricia Crone, School of Historical Studies Faculty; Eric Masldn, who holds 

the Albert O. Hirschman Professorship in the School of Social Science; Martin Nowak, Head of the Program in T/ieoretica/ Biology; 

and Nathan Seiberg, School of Natural Sciences Faculty. 



INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY/PARK CITY 
MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 

The IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute (PCMI) is an integrated mathematics program 
that has been sponsored by the Institute for Advanced Study since 1994. Participants in 
PCMI include research mathematicians, graduate students, undergraduate students, 
mathematics education researchers, undergraduate faculty, and high school teachers. 
The interaction among these groups fosters a stronger sense of the mathematical enter- 
prise as a whole. In addition, it raises awareness of the roles of professionals with diverse 
responsibilities in the mathematics-based professions. 

A Summer Session is the flagship activity of PCMI. Additional programs take place through- 
out the year and include the year-long High School Teacher Program, the Mentoring Program 
for Women in Mathematics, and the Lecture Publication Series. 

Summer Session 

The 11"*' annual Summer Session of the IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute (PCMI) 
was held July 8-28, 2001 in Park City, Utah. As is the case each year, a specific area of 
mathematics is chosen to provide the focus for the overall programming. The 2001 
emphasis centered on topics in mathematical physics. The research and graduate sum- 
mer school topic for this summer was Quantum Field Theory, Supersymmetry , and Enu- 
merative Geometry, organized by Daniel Freed of the University of Texas at Austin, David 
Morrison of Duke University, and Isadore Singer of the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology. Professors Freed and Morrison were important participants in the related Special 
Year in Quantum Field Theory, a joint program of the Institute for Advanced Study 
Schools of Mathematics and Natural Sciences during the 1996-97 academic year. Relat- 
ed topics in the Undergraduate Faculty Program and High School Teachers Program were 
Differential Equations and Physics in the Math Curriculum respectively. 

This year's PCMI Summer Session, with a total of 290 participants, included the follow- 
ing programs: 

Research Program in mathematics and physics 

Graduate Summer School 

Undergraduate Summer Program 

High School Teacher Program 

Undergraduate Faculty Program 

Mathematics Education Research Program 

International Seminar on Mathematics Education 

In addition, PCMI hosted the summer meeting of the Standards Impact Resource Group 
of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 

Each of the programs met daily for its own series of courses and seminars. The groups also 
met together for an afternoon Cross-Program Activity four days per week. A complete 
listing of courses, seminars, and activities follows. 

Graduate Summer School 

The Graduate Summer School met for three formal lectures each day and two problem 

sessions. TTiere were courses in physics as well as in mathematics this year, culminating 



111 



Institute for advanced study 



in a lecture series on Mirror Symrr\evry that synthesized results from both fields. Tlie 
courses were: 

Enumerative Geometry 1, William Fulton (University of Michigan) 

Enumerative Geometry 11, Barbara Fantechi (University of Udine, Italy) 

Enumerative Geometry 111, Aaron Bertram (University of Utah) 

Classical Field Theory and Supersymmetry, Daniel Freed (University of Texas at Austin) 

Genera! Relativity, Clifford Johnson (University of Durham, England) 

Introduction to Quantum Field Theory, Orlando Alvarez (University of Miami) 

Introduction to String Theory, David Morrison (Duke University) 

Mirror Symmetry, Ronen Plesser (Duke University) 

One of the lectures from the research program (/ntroduction to supermanifolds , by John 
Morgan of Columbia University) was aimed at graduate students as well as researchers, 
and formed a part of the Graduate Summer School. In addition, PCMl ran very popular 
'translation sessions' between the language of physics and the language of mathematics. 

Research Program 

TTiis year's research program had two separate themes, with some participants involved 
with only one, and others involved with both. One or two meetings per day were held 
in the research program. 

In the first theme, a series of seminars that extended through the entire summer session 
was organized around recent advances in Enumerative Geometry and their relationship to 
theoretical physics. There were twelve lectures in this part of the program: 

Michael Thaddeus (Columbia University), Mirror symmetry and Langlands duality 

Jim Bryan (Tulane University), The Gopakumar-Vafa conjecture 

Melissa Liu (Harvard University), Disk imtanton^ 

Ravi Vakil (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Vanis/iing conjectures on the moduli 

space of curves 

Robert Bryant (Duke University), Three remarks on special Lagrangian cycles 

Prakash Belkale (University of Utah), Small quantum cohomology of Grassrruinnians 

lonut Ciocan-Fontanine (University of Minnesota), Derived moduli spaces 

Y. P. Lee (University of California, Los Angeles), Quantum K-theory 

Alistair Craw (University of Warwick), The McKay corresporuience and moduh of G- 

constellations 

Rahul Pandharipande (Caltech), Gromov-Witten theory and the moduli space of curves 

Holger Kley (Colorado State University), New recursions for genus Gromov-Witten 

invariants 

Yongbin Ruan (University of Wisconsin), Cohomology ring of crepant resolutions of 

orbifolds. 

The second theme was a workshop on Supergravity and its Mat/iematicoJ Ramifications, held 
during the second and third weeks of the summer session. In addition to a number of dis- 
cussion sessions devoted to open problems in the field, this workshop featured thirteen 
formal lectures: 

John Morgan (Columbia University), Introduction to supermaiiifolds 



112 



lAS/PARK CITY MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 



Savdeep Sethi (University of Chicago), Survey of supergravity in high dimensions 

Martin Rocek (SUNY Stony Brook), Introduction to supergravity in low dimensions (two 

lectures) 

John Morgan (Columbia University), Supermanifolds and superspace 

Robbert Dijkgraaf (University of Amsterdam), BPS equations ami solutions in supergravity 

S. J. Gates, Jr. (University of Maryland), Introduction to local supergeometry (two lectures) 

Robbert Dijkgraaf (University of Amsterdam), The i-Form in M-Theory 

John Lott (University of Michigan), Geometry of torsion constraints 

Albion Lawrence (Stanford University), Black holes and attractors on moduli space 

Sergei Gukov (Princeton University), M-theory on G2 manifolds 

Martin Rocek (SUNY Stony Brook), Harmonic superspace 

The High School Teacher Program 

The High School Teacher Program underwent a substantial review and revision prior to 
the 2001 summer session, and by every indication, the new program was a great success. 

A strong group of teachers came to Park City from across the United States (and one 
teacher from Canada), and they rose to the challenge of the new program with a high 
degree of competence, engagement and enthusiasm. 

Each morning was devoted to two courses, one on number theory and one on geometry. 
The number theory course was notable in that it was brought to PCMl from the 
PROMYS program of Boston University, which has become affiliated with PCMl. The 
course was a two-hour problem-based session taught solely by high school teachers. It 
engaged the participating teachers for the entire two hours every day and attracted at 
least a dozen visitors from other PCMl programs as well. The geometry course was an 
hour of investigative work that focused especially on problems concerning three-dimen- 
sional polyhedra and the packing of space. While the first course comprised the 'contin- 
ued learning of mathematics' component of the teachers' program and the second com- 
prised the 'analysis of practice' component, in fact, both courses offered models for the 
teaching and learning of mathematics. 

For two hours each afternoon, the teachers were divided into six small working groups, 
each devoted to focused in-depth study over a 12-24 month period of a single topic in 
mathematics and teaching. TTie purpose of these groups is to train the participants to 
become resources for the mathematics teaching community on the particular topic, and 
to eventually produce a publication that can be shared with that broader community. All 
six groups were very focused and spirited, and met their twin goals of teacher involve- 
ment and resource preparation. Draft documents to be shared within the PCMl group 
have been posted on a special web site hosted by the MathForum, and the work will be 
continued throughout the coming academic year. TTie topics covered were: Algebra and 
Number Theory, Japanese Lesson Study, Geometry Models, Making Mathematics Meaningful, 
Physics in the Math Curriculum, and Analysis of Data. 

The remaining time in the High School Teacher Program's daily schedule was devoted to 
Cross-Program activities, to teacher presentations, to an extended session with Professor 
Isadore Singer of the Research Program, and to various hands-on activities. 

A notable feature of the 2001 High School Teacher Program was the increased role of the 
Internet in communicating and disseminating information. This weis facilitated by the 



113 



Institute for advanced study 



participation during the Summer Session of staff from the MathForum. The Forum web 
site contains a discussion board, journals of the HSTP working groups and drafts of mate- 
rials. The site will play a pivotal role in keeping the teachers in touch as they work on 
their projects. 

A second feature of the 2001 High School Teacher Program was the substantial informal 
interaction with the International Seminar of education policy makers and teachers that 
was convened July 19-24. The work of the International Seminar was closed to casual 
visitors, but the teachers of the HSTP were asked to take on hosting duties for the visi- 
tors from abroad, with the result that strong bonds were forged with the visiting Seminar 
members. This informal and ad hoc relationship was remarkably robust and dynamic. 
Not only were the.se contacts interesting and valuable for the HSTP teachers, but their 
friendly interest was clearly reciprocated by the International Seminar members. 

Undergraduate Program 

The Undergraduate PCM I program for 2001 was organized by Roger Howe of Yale Uni- 
versity and William Barker of Bowdoin College. The undergraduate courses offered were 
focused on topics complementary to the research program in mathematical physics. As 
has been the practice, there were two undergraduate courses, one at a fairly advanced 
level and one more introductory. 

The advanced course was given by Sheldon Katz of Oklahoma State University, on the 
topic of mathematical physics and enumerative geometry. Although the course was 
advanced, nearly all of the undergraduate students attended. In addition, a sizable con- 
tingent of graduate students attended, and the lectures had to be moved to the main lec- 
ture theater to accommodate the audience. As well as giving the daily lectures. Profes- 
sor Katz prepared extensive lecture notes and ran problem sessions. 

An introduction to differential geometry was given by Ruth Gomet of Texas Technical 
University. Although introductory in nature, this course was also at a high level, and in 
the last week treated the fundamental theorem of Riemannian geometry using differen- 
tial forms and the Gauss-Bonnet Theorem using complex line bundles. (Professor Cor- 
net chose this particular formulation after consultation with her students as the course 
progressed.) Professor Gomet maintained an informal atmosphere of give-and-take, ask- 
ing many questions of her audience and also welcoming questions. Her course was 
attended by approximately two-thirds of the undergraduates and by a large group of the 
undergraduate faculty program participants. 

Undergraduate Faculty Program 

The Undergraduate Faculty program was directed by John Polking of Rice University and 
Paul Blanchard of Boston University, with assistance from David Arnold of The College 
of the Redwoods. There were ten participants from a wide variety of institutions across 
the nation, including four-year and two-year colleges. The topic was The Teaching of 
Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The group met three times every day, twice for 
seminars and once for a se.ssion in the computer lab. 

The participants were informed by e-mail a month before the meeting that they were 
expected to complete a project of their own choice by the end of the three weeks. As a 



14 



lAS/PARK CITY MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 



result, two web pages were developed during the Summer Session, and several write-ups 
of student projects were prepared. All of these will eventually be made available on the 
PCMl web site. 

In the computer lab, the participants were introduced to a wide variety of computer pro- 
grams aimed at instruction in ordinary differential equations. They were then encour- 
aged to experiment with those programs they found to be most effective. 

In the two daily seminars a variety of topics were discussed. Included were the contents 
of the ODE course; the effective use of computation; the interaction between linear alge- 
bra and ODEs; the use of qualitative analysis; modeling and applications; dealing with 
client disciplines; the efficacy of teaching systems before higher order equations; and the 
use of student projects. Some sessions were devoted to homework exercises. In addition, 
there were meetings with participants from the Undergraduate Program, the High School 
Teacher Program, and the Math Education Research Program. Finally, there was a very 
well-received session with participants from the Graduate and Research Programs. 

Mathematics Education Research Program 

The Mathematics Education Research Program tor 2001 focused for the second year on the 
work of the Probability and Statistics Research Group. It was organized by Timothy Kelly 
of Hamilton College and Richard Lehrer of the University of Wisconsin. The week- long 
summer meeting at PCMl was the third working meeting of the group. The first was the 
Summer 2000 Mathematics Education Research Program of PCMl, and the second took 
place prior to the Joint Mathematical Meetings in New Orleans in January, 2001. 

Some examples of the twice-daily seminars: 

Richard Lehrer presented current work with fourth grade students (and teachers) as they 
developed an understanding of distributional markers such as center, spread, and symme- 
try, through a series of tasks using Fast Plant growth as the context of inquiry. 

Kathleen Metz reported on work that focused on the nature of first and second graders' 
generalizations from sample to population following investigations in the area of animal 
behavior and botany. 

Timothy Kelly presented results of a study of college students' misconceptions regarding 
the distributional basis for the construction of confidence intervals, and the use of a 
dynamic programming technique intended to enhance conceptual understanding of the 
topic. 

Patrick Thompson discussed work on the conceptualizations of high-school students set 
on the task of creating their own measures of association for bivariate data. 

The group also continued work on an edited volume documenting their innovative cross- 
disciplinary collaboration and its outcomes, and began drafting proposals for funding to 
support future collaborative initiatives. 



115 



Institute for advanced study 



Finally, the group presented, in an all-institute activity, two pieces of reseajch on statis- 
tical reasoning, and met formally with participants in both the Undergraduate Faculty 
and High School Teacher Programs. 

Standards Impact Research Group (S/RG) 

As part of the 2001 PCMI Mathematics Education Research Program, PCMI hosted the 
summer working meeting of the national Standards Impact Research Group, commis- 
sioned by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) to monitor the 
impact and implementation of the NCTM's recently revised PrirKipks and Standards for 
School Mathematics. SIRG members: 

Deborah Ball, University of Michigan 

Joan Ferrini-Mundy, Michigan State University (chair) 

Bob Floden, Michigan State University 

Ken Krehbiel, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics 

Frank Lester, Indiana State University 

Gary Martin, Auburn University 

Mary Kay Stein, University of Pittsburgh 

Mathematics Education Around the World: Bridging Policy and Practice 
In a major innovation this year, as part of its Mathematics Education Research Program, 
PCMI hosted a week-long international workshop whose participants compared systems of 
mathematics education from a diverse selection of countries and cultures. The seminar was 
coordinated by Joan Ferrini-Mundy, Director of the PCMI Mathematics Education 
Research Program, and Gail Burrill, Director of the PCMI High School Teachers Program. 
Teams consisting of one mathematics education policy-maker and one currently practicing 
secondary school mathematics teacher representing each of eight countries (Brazil, Egypt, 
France, India, Japan, Kenya, Sweden, USA) participated. Each international team led the 
examination of one major aspect of secondary mathematics education: 

Issues Session One (Antoine Bodin and Catherine Sackur, France): What is the rela- 
tionship of national standards and national curriculum to teaching practice in classrooms 
in your country? 

Issues Session Two (Fayez Mina and Khaled Etman, Egypt): What is the system of teacher 
education in your country and how does it relate to teaching practice? 

Issues Session Three (George Eshiwani and Beatrice Shikuku, Kenya): Describe the role 
of algebra in the middle and secondary mathematics curriculum in your country. Simi- 
larly, how are ideas from probability and statistics currently configured in your system? 

Issues Session Four (Yoshihiko Hashimoto and Miho Ueno, Japan): How does your coun- 
try handle the balance between tradition and reform in mathematics education? What 
do tradition and reform mean within your mathematics education system? 

Issues Session Five (Sudhakar Agarkar and Shailesh Shirali, India): How does your edu- 
cational system decide the balance between depth and breadth, that is, between insis- 
tence on in-depth knowledge of relatively fewer core topics vs. a broad inclusion of top- 
ics, with less emphasis on each? How is this decision effected in practice? 



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lAS/PARK CITY MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 



Issues Session Six (Gerd Brandell and Susanne Gennow, Sweden): How do your country 
and culture deal with the challenges of excellence and accessibility in mathematics 
education? What is the balance of power and input into the system among the various 
educational constituencies? 

Issues Session Seven (Romulo Lins and Carlos Francisco, Brazil): What is the role of 
mathematics education as a profession and of mathematics education research in your 
country? 

The U.S. team, which did not make a formal presentation, was composed of Gail Burrill, 
Director of the PCMI High School Teacher Program, and high school mathematics 
teachers Susan Eddins and Carol Hattan. 

Discussion was followed by reflections from observer-participants Deborah Ball of the 
NCTM Standards Impact Research Group, and Hyman Bass and Hiroshi Fujita, both of 
the International Council on Mathematics Instruction (ICMI). 

Proceedings are being prepared for eventual publication, and a continuation of the dia- 
logue was organized and will be facilitated through a joint PCMI/MathForum website. 

Cross-Program Activities 

A defining feature of PCMI is its focus on building understanding, professional respect 
and a sense of shared purpose among all the constituents of the mathematical enterprise. 
To that end, a formal Cross-Program Activity was held four afternoons each week, and 
there were various evening activities and participant-coordinated weekend trips. 

Titles of the formal 2001 Cross Program Activities were as follows: 

The Role of Mathematics in Science, Dr. Irving Adler, with an introduction by Professor 

Stephen Adler of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New jersey. 

Million Dollar Math I: Yang-Milb Existence and Mass Gap, Lorenzo Sadun, University of 

Texas at Austin. 

Research as a probe of student reasoning and as a guide for effective instruction; examples 

from physics, the University of Washington Physics Education Group. 

Million Dollar Math U: The Hodge Conjecture, Daniel Freed, University of Texas at 

Austin. 

Pre-concert lecture, Robert Tauh, Artist-in-Residence at the Institute for Advanced 

Study. 

Geomerry and Cosmology, Isadore Singer of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

and Orlando Alvarez of the University of Miami. 

Stats, kids, and other conundrums: a collaboration between mathematicians and 

mathematics education researchers, participants of the Mathematics Education 

Research Program. 

Geometry of Area vs . Geometry of Length, Roger Howe, Yale University. 

Mathematics Education around the World: Bridging Policy and Practice, participants of 

the International Seminar on Mathematics Education. 

Elkonin-Dai'ydov Primary Curriculum from Russia: A Model for Early Mathematics 

Education in the U.S., Gail Richardson, Best Practices in Education; Zaur Berkaliev, 

Indiana University; Barbara Dougherty, Curriculum Research & Development 

Group, University of Hawaii. 



117 



Institute for advanced study 



Evening activities included barbecue dinners and pizza parties for participants and their 
families, a piano concert by Robert Taub, Artist-in-Residence at the Institute for 
Advanced Study, and a special screening of Fermat's Last Tango sponsored by the Clay 
Mathematics Institute followed by a discussion with Karl Rubin, Stanford University, and 
Arthur Jaffe, Clay Mathematics Institute. 

PCMl participants organized various sports activities that took place daily: biking, soccer, 
basketball, volleyball, running, hiking, etc. Weekend trips for everything from horseback 
riding to rock climbing were also arranged by PCMI participants. 

Publication Series 

PCMI is very pleased to make the proceedings of its Summer Session available to the pub- 
lic. Volume 9 of the Graduate Summer School lectures is currently in press, and Volume 
10 should be published in 2002. The full series, which includes nearly all of the lectures 
ever given in PCMI's Graduate Summer School, now includes the following titles: 

Volume 1 : Geometry ami Quamum Field Theory 

Volume 2: Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations in Differential Geometry 

Volume 3: Complex Algebraic Geometry 

Volume 4: Gauge Theory and Four Manifolds 

Volume 5: Hyperbolic Equations and Frequency /nteractioru 

Volume 6: Probability Theory and Applications 

Volume 7: Symplectic Geometry and Topology 

Volume 8: Representation Theory of Lie Groups 

All titles are available from the American Mathematical Society or through popular 
bookstores such as Barnes and Noble. 

A Park Cit^i Mathematics Institute Subseries was established within the AMS Student 
Mat/iemarics Series last year. These volumes are aimed at undergraduate students and are 
published independently of the Park City Mathematics Series mentioned above. Pub- 
lished thus far are: 

Lectures on Contem/)orar;y Probability by Gregory F. Lawler and Lester N. Coyle 
An Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Waves by Roger Knobel 
Codes ar\d Curves by Judy L. Walker 

The High School Teacher Program will begin dissemination of its teacher-created mate- 
rials and other resources sometime in the next two years, either via a special web site or 
in printed form. 

Funding 

The 2001 Summer Session was made possible by generous support from the following 
major funders: The National Science Foundation; the State of New Jersey; The Starr 
Foundation; and Datek Online Holdings Corporation. PCMI is grateful for additional 
support received from Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation; Chautauqua Programs; the 
Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation; Toyota USA Foundation; and the Wolfensohn Family 
Foundation. 



118 



lAS/PARK CITY MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 



Oversight Board 

The IAS/Park City Mathematics Institute is governed by an Oversight Board: 

Chairperson: 

Phillip A. Griffiths, Director, Institute for Advanced Study 

Board Members: 

Hyman Bass, Professor, University of Michigan 

C. Herbert Clemens, Professor, University of Utah 

Ronald L. Graham, Professor, University of California at San Diego 

Shirley A. Hill, Professor Emeritus, University of Missouri-Kansas City 

Robert D. MacPherson, Professor, School of Mathematics, Institute for 

Advanced Study 

Elaine B. Wolfensohn, New York, New York 

Steering Committee 

Members of the Steering Committee plan and manage the activities of PCMI 

Chair: 

C. Herbert Clemens, Professor, University of Utah 
Member at large: 

John C. Polking, Professor, Rice University 
2001 Graduate Summer School/Research Program Organizers: 

Daniel S. Freed, Professor, University of Texas at Austin 

David R. Morrison, Professor, Duke University 

Isadore Singer, Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Editor, Lecture Series: 

David R. Morrison, Professor, Duke University 
High School Teachers Program: 

Gail Burrill, Director, Mathematical Sciences Education Board 

James R. King, Professor, University of Washington 

Carol Hattan, Teacher, Skyview High School 

Susan Addington, Professor, California State University at San Bernardino 
Mathematics Education Research Program: 

Joan Ferrini-Mundy, Associate Dean for Science and Mathematics Education, 

College of Natural Science of Michigan State University 

Timothy Kelly, Professor, Hamilton College 
Recruitment: 

Nathaniel Whitaker, Professor, University of Massachusetts at Amherst 
Research Program: 

Karl Rubin, Professor, Stanford University 
Undergraduate Faculty Program: 

Daniel Goroff, Harvard University 
Undergraduate Program: 

William Barker, Bowdoin College 

Roger Howe, Yale University 

The organizers of the 2002 Graduate Summer School/Research Program, whose topic wil 
be Automorphic Forms, will be Peter Samak of Princeton University and Freydoon Shahi- 
di. 



119 



MENTORING PROGRAM FOR WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS 

The eighth annual mentoring program for women in mathematics was held at the Insti- 
tute for Advanced Study from May 1 5 to May 25, 2001 . TTie topic of the PCMI summer 
school for the year 2001, Quantum Field Theory, Supersymmetry , and Enumerative Geome- 
try, was the scientific topic of the Women's Program as well. 

Janet Talvacchia, Swarthmore College, and tCaren Uhlenbeck, University of Texas at 
Austin, taught the undergraduate course on the topic Mechanics from the Point of View of 
a Geometer. Antonella Grassi, University of Pennsylvania, organized the graduate 
sessions. The first set of graduate lectures was given by Ranee Brylinski, Pennsylvania 
State University, on Geometric Quantization of the Kepler Manifold. Xenia de la Ossa, 
University of Oxford, gave a second course on Calabi-Yau Manifolds over Finite Fields. In 
between the two lecture series, Antonella Grassi gave one lecture on Tied up with Strings.' 
(A literary approach to Calabi-Yau) . Linda Chen and Agnes Szilard, both of Columbia 
University, organized the research seminar, and Lisa Traynor, Bryn Mawr College, led the 
Women- in-Science seminar. 

TTie undergraduate course on mechanics was designed to be different from standard 
undergraduate course material, and the students also were encouraged to work on their 
own projects and present them to their colleagues. Ten undergraduates gave presenta- 
tions of their own during the last two days of the program. 

Both of the graduate courses were on subjects that were somewhat unusual, and the com- 
bination was good preparation for the upcoming Graduate Summer School of the IAS/Park 
City Mathematics Institute. Many undergraduate students (including two physics majors) 
attended the graduate course on Geometric Quantization of the Kepler Manifold given by 
Ranee Brylynski. The lectures of Xenia de la Ossa also were very well attended. While 
both courses had a number of outside visitors from Princeton University and other institu- 
tions, there were more in the second course. Between the two courses, Antonella Grassi 
gave an overview of the interaction between mathematics and physics. 

Linda Chen and Agnes Szilard organized this year's Research Seminar. The seminars pre- 
sented were as follows: 

ERM, SRM, RN, SVM, and other topics in statistical learning theory, Cynthia Rudin, 
Princeton University 

Seiberg-Witten imegrable systems and how I got involved with mathematical physics, Amy Ksir, 
SUNY Stony Brook 

Parametric Gromov-Witten invariants and symplectomorphism groups, Olguta Buse, 
SUNY Stony Brook 

D-branes and K-theory: a pedagogical approach, Greg Moore, Rutgers University 
Harmonic maps T^-S^: an algebro-geometric perspective, Emma Carberry, Princeton Uni- 
versity 
Analytic rigidity of contractions of smooth threefolds, Csilla Tamas, Purdue University 

Lisa Traynor organized the Women-in-Science Seminar for the first time, assisted by one 
of the graduate students. While these seminars are designed to appeal to undergraduate 
students, many graduate students were involved as well. Topics were: 
The Graduate School Phase of a Science Career 



120 



lAS/PARK CITY MATHEMATICS INSTITUTE 



The Postdoctoral Phase of a Science Career 

Interview withjoan Feigenbaum, Yale University (formerly of AT&T Research) 

Interview with Nurit Krausz, New York Stock Exchange 

The Chilly Classroom Environment 

Mentoring and Networking 

Andrew Wiles and Peter Samak, both of Princeton University, had lunch with the 
undergraduate students as a group, an activity that was much enjoyed by the students. 

Planning Committee 

The Women's Program Committee assists the organizers in planning and promoting the 
program and recruiting lecturers and participants. Members include: Alice Chang, Pro- 
fessor, Princeton University; Ingrid Daubechies, Professor, Princeton University; Joan 
Feigenbaum, Professor, Yale University; Antonella Grassi, Professor, University of Penn- 
sylvania; Nancy Hingston, Professor, The College of New Jersey; Rhonda Hughes, Pro- 
fessor, Bryn Mawr College; Robert MacPherson, Professor, Institute for Advanced Study; 
Janet Talvacchia, Professor, Swarthmore College; and Lisa Traynor, Professor, Bryn Mawr 
College. 



121 




I 



would like to express my gratitude to the Faculty 
and staff of the Institute, and to my fellow Members, 
for this 'golden' year." 

— Member, School of Historical Studies 



Anist'in-Reiidence ]on Magnussen, composer, at w(nk 



INDEPENDENT AUDITORS' REPORT 

The Board of Trustees, 

Institute for Advanced Study - 

Louis Bamberger and Mrs. Felix Fuld Foundation 

We have audited the accompanying balance sheet of Institute for Advanced Study - 
Louis Bamberger and Mrs. Felix Fuld Foundation (the "Institute") as of June 30, 2001 
and the related statements of activities and cash flows for the year then ended. These 
financial statements are the responsibility of the Institute's management. Our responsi- 
bility is to express an opinion on these financial statements based on our audit. TTie 
prior year's summarized comparative information has been derived from the Institute's 
June 30, 2000 financial statements, and in our report dated September 20, 2000, we 
expressed an unqualified opinion on those financial statements. 

We conducted our audit in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in 
the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the 
audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of 
material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence support- 
ing the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes 
assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by manage- 
ment, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe 
that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion. 

In our opinion, such financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the 
financial position of the Institute at June 30, 2001 and the changes in its net assets and 
its cash flows for the year then ended in conformity with accounting principles general- 
ly accepted in the United States of America. 




f fi^t^ccAt/ uue 



November 21, 2001 



125 



Institute for advanced study 



BALANCE SHEET 

JUNE 30, 2001 (WITH COMPARATIVE TOTALS FOR 2000) 



ASSETS 

CASH 

SHORT-TERM INVESTMENTS - 
Held by Trustees (Note B) 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

GOVERNMENT GRANTS AND 
CONTRACTS RECEIVABLE 

ACCRUED INCOME ON INVESTMENTS 

PREPAID AND OTHER ASSETS 

CONTRIBUTIONS RECEIVABLE - NET (Note M) 

UNAMORTIZED DEBT ISSUANCE EXPENSE 

LAND, BUILDINGS AND IMPROVEMENTS, 
EQUIPMENT AND RARE BOOK 
COLLECTION - NET (Note C) 

INVESTMENTS (Note B) 

TOTAL ASSETS 



2001 


2000 


$ 2,882,443 


$ 746,898 


13,146,755 


6,368,517 


289,450 


249,764 


1,332,804 


1,017,761 


1,555,940 


1,479,613 


311,517 


422,840 


794,755 


1,283,664 


789,446 


680,447 


45,290,995 


40,527,807 


363,342,832 


372,634,749 


$429,736,937 


$425,412,060 



See notes to firumciai statements. 

126 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



LIABILITIES AND FUND BALANCES 2001 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 
AND ACCRUED EXPENSES 

REFUNDABLE ADVANCES (Note F) 

TRUST FUND OBLIGATIONS 

NOTE PAYABLE (Note C) 

ACCRUED INVESTMENT 
MANAGEMENT FEES 

LONG-TERM DEBT (Note D) 

Total liabilities 

NET ASSETS: 

Unrestricted 

Temporarily restricted (Note A, J) 

Permanently restricted (Note A, J) 

Total net assets 

TOTAL LIABILITIES AND NET ASSETS 



2000 



$ 8,475,595 


$ 8,537,727 


6,958,257 


4,787,827 


2,769,922 


2,769,922 


1,033,365 


1,087,671 


1,860,588 


1,017,270 


51,195,043 


41,466,859 


72,292,770 


59,667,276 


236,026,790 
79,021,668 
42,395,709 


244,176,515 
28,563,649 
93,004,620 


357,444,167 


365,744,784 


$ 429,736,937 


$425,412,060 



127 



Institute for advanced study 



STATEMENT OF ACTIVITIES 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 2001 (WITH COMPARATIVE TOTALS FOR 2000) 



TEMPORARILY 
UNRESTRICTED RESTRICTED 



REVENUES, GAINS AND OTHER SUPPORT: 
Private contributions and grants $ 2,129,120 $ 3,378,205 

Government grants - 4,711,549 

Income on long-term investments 4,221,428 1,943,270 

Net realized and unrealized gains and (losses) 

on long-term investments (includes 

$2,369,158 and $3,911,854 in unrealized losses 

in 2001 and 2000, respectively) 1,646,504 1,208,416 

(Loss) gain on sale of capital assets (140,761) 

Net assets released from restrictions - satisfaction of 

program restrictions 14,542,035 (14,542,035) 

Reclassification of true endowment (Note A) - 53,758,614 

Total revenues, gains and other support 22,398,326 50,458,019 



EXPENSES AND LOSSES: 

School of Mathematics 6,307,384 

School of Natural Sciences 5,175,080 

School of Historical Studies 4,465,924 

School of Social Science 2,858,415 

Libraries and other academic expenses 5,230,092 

Administration and general 6,096,539 
Auxiliary activity - tenants' housing expenses, 

net of unrestricted revenue $200,757 414,617 



Total expenses and losses 30,548,051 



CHANGES IN NET ASSETS (8,149,725) 50,458,019 

NET ASSETS, BEGINNING OF YEAR 244,176,515 28,563.649 

NET ASSETS, END OF YEAR $236,026,790 $79,021,668 



See notes to financial statements. 
128 



FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



2001 



PERMANENTLY TOTAL TOTAL 

RESTRICTED 2001 2000 



$ 3,374,147 $ 8,881,472 $ 11,211,026 

4,711,549 3,790,775 

6,164,698 13,316,479 



(224,444) 2,630,476 22,798,857 

(140,761) 162,037 



(53,758,614) 



(50,608,911) 22,247,434 51,279,174 



6,307,384 5,998,078 

5,175,080 5,316,261 

4,465,924 4,205,045 

2,858,415 2,238,971 

5,230,092 4,748,689 

6,096,539 5,525,697 

414,617 246,128 



30,548,051 28,278,869 



(50,608,911) (8,300,617) 23,000,305 

93,004,620 365,744.784 342,744.479 

$42,395,709 $357,444,167 $365,744,784 



129 



Institute for advanced study 



STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS 

YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 2001 (WITH COMPARATIVE TOTALS FOR 2000) 



CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES: 
Change in net assets 
Adjustments to reconcile change in net assets to 

net cash used in operating activities: 

Depreciation 

(Increase) decrease in accrued income 

(Increase) decrease in accounts and grants receivable 

Decrease in contributions receivable 

Decrease in accounts payable 

Decrease in prepaid and other assets 

Increase in refundable advances 

Increase (decrease) in accrued management fees 

Contributions restricted for long-term investments 

Net realized and unrealized gains on 
long-term investments 

Gain on sale of capital assets 

Net cash used in operating activities 

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES: 
Proceeds from sale of capital assets 
Purchase of capital assets 
Proceeds from sale of investments 
Purchase of investments 

Net cash provided by (used in) 
investing activities 

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES: 
Proceeds from contributions restricted for: 
Investment in endowment 
Investment in plant 

Investment subject to annuity agreements 

3,440,410 7,753,013 

Other financing activities: 
Increase in trust fund obligations - 771,204 

(Increase) decrease in unamortized 

debt issuance expense 
Increase (decrease) in long-term debt 
Decrease in notes payable 
(Increase) decrease in investments 
held by trustee (6,778,238 ) 9.400,139 

2,786,641 9.244.389 



2001 


2000 


$(8,300,617) 


$ 23.000,305 


2,506,901 


2,479,525 


(76,327) 


49,303 


le (354,729) 


304,337 


488,909 


149,996 


(62,132) 


(99,212) 


111,323 


61,928 


2,170,430 


368,413 


843,318 


(2,024,258) 


(3,440,410) 


(7,753.013) 


(2,630,476) 


(22,798,857) 




(162,037) 


(8,743,810) 


(6,423,570) 


156,842 


2,389,680 


(7,426,931) 


(8,628,309) 


97,527.319 


181,766,108 


(85,604,926) 


(188,032,433) 


4,652,304 


(12,504,954) 


3,374,147 


6.123.952 


66.263 


387,806 




1,241.255 



(108,999) 


48,790 


9,728,184 


(922,508) 


(54,306) 


(53,236) 



Net cash provided by financing activities 6,227,051 16.997.402 

NET INCREASE (DECREASE) IN CASH 2.135,545 (1,931.122) 

CASH. BEGINNING OF YEAR 746.898 2.678.020 

CASH. END OF YEAR $ 2,882,44^ S 746,898 
SUPPLEMENTAL DATA: 

Interest paid $ 2,47^,357 $ :.4H783 



See notes to financial statements . 

130 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 
YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 2001 

A. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES 

The Institute for Advanced Study (the "Institute"), an independent, private institution 
devoted to the encouragement, support and patronage of learning, was founded in 1930 as 
a community of scholars where intellectual inquiry could be carried out in the most favor- 
able circumstances. 

Focused on mathematics and classical studies at the outset, the Institute today consists of 
the School of Historical Studies, the School of Mathematics, the School of Natural 
Sciences, and the School of Social Science. Each school has a small permanent faculty, 
and some 180 fellowships are awarded annually to visiting members from other research 
institutions and universities throughout the world. 

The objectives of the Institute were described as follows in the Founders' original letter to 
the first Trustees: "The primary purpose is the pursuit of advanced learning and explo- 
ration in fields of pure science and high scholarship to the utmost degree that the facilities 
of the institution and the ability of4;he faculty and students will permit." 

Basis of Presentation - The accompanying financial statements are prepared on the accru- 
al basis and are presented in accordance with recommendations contained in Not-for-Profit 
Organizations issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Certain 
prior year amounts presented for comparative purposes have been reclassified to conform to 
the current year presentation. 

\Jse of Estimates - The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally 
accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions 
that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets 
and liabilities at the date of the financial statements. Estimates also affect the reported 
amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ 
from those estimates. 

Fund Accounting - TTie accounts of the Institute are maintained in accordance with the 
principles of "fund accounting." This is the procedure by which resources for various pur- 
poses are classified for accounting and reporting purposes into funds that are in accordance 
with activities or objectives specified. Separate accounts are maintained for each fund; 
however, in the accompanying financial statements, funds that have similar characteristics 
have been combined into net asset classifications. 

Fund balances restricted by outside sources are so indicated and are distinguished from 
unrestricted funds allocated or designated to specific purposes by action of the governing 
board. Externally restricted funds may only be utilized in accordance with the purpose 
established by the grantor of such funds. In contrast, the governing board retains full con- 
trol over unrestricted funds to be used in achieving any of the Institute's objectives. 

True endowment funds are subject to the restrictions of the gift instruments which require 
that the principal be invested in perpetuity; only income earned and gained on such funds 



131 



Institute for advanced study 



may be utilized. Quasi-endowmenc funds have been established by the governing board to 
function as endowment funds and any portion of these funds may be expended. Unre- 
stricted quasi-endowment funds have no external restrictions. However, certain of these 
funds have been internally designated to support specific needs of the Institute. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 2001 , the Institute completed its study of true endow- 
ments and determined that a portion, $53.8 million, should have been classified as tem- 
porarily restricted. 

The Institute reports gifts of cash and other assets as restricted support if they are received 
with donor stipulations that limit the use of the donated assets. When a donor restriction 
expires, that is, when a stipulated time restriction ends or purpose restriction is accom- 
plished, temporarily restricted net assets are reclassified to unrestricted net assets and 
reported in the statement of activities as net assets released from restrictions. 

The Institute reports gifts of buildings and equipment as unrestricted support unless explicit 
donor stipulations specify how the donated assets must be used. Gifts of long-lived assets 
with explicit restrictions that specify how the assets are to be used and gifts of cash or other 
assets that must be used to acquire long-lived assets are reported as restricted support. 
Absent explicit donor stipulations about how long those long-lived assets must be main- 
tained, the Institute reports expirations of donor restrictions when the donated or acquired 
long-lived assets are placed in service. 

All gair« and losses arising from the sale, collection, or other disposition of investments 
and other noncash assets are accounted for in the fund which owned such assets. Ordineiry 
income earned on investments and receivables is generally accounted for in the fund own- 
ing such assets. However, unrestricted income earned on investments of endowment and 
similar funds is accounted for as revenue in unrestricted operating funds, and restricted 
income is accounted for as deferred restricted revenue until used in accordance with the 
terms of the restriction or transferred to endowment and similar funds. 

Plant Assets and Depreciation - Proceeds from the sale of plant assets, if unrestricted, are 
transferred to operating funds, or, if restricted, to amounts temporarily restricted for plant 
acquisitions. Depreciation is provided over the estimated useful lives of the respective 
assets on a straight-line basis (buildings and capital improvements 20-40 years, equipment 
3-6 years). Interest expense, net of related interest income, is capitalized on construction 
in progress of qualifying assets. 

B. INVESTMENTS 

Effective July I, 1996, the Institute adopted the provisions of Statement of Financial 
Accounting Standards No. 1 24. Accounting for Certain Investments Held by Not-for-Prof- 
it Organizations ("SFAS No. 124"). SPAS No. 124 requires that investments in equity 
securities with readily determinable fair values and all investments in debt securities be 
reported at fair value with gains and los.ses included in the statement of activities. Previ- 
ously, investments purchased by the Institute were recorded at cost: investments received 
by gift were recorded at the fair market value at the date of donation. 



132 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



Endowment and similar funds investments at June 30, 2001 are comprised of the following: 



REPORTED FAIR 

VALUE VALUE 
Pooled investments: 

Equity securities $152,189,505 $205,085,444 

Debt securities 204,172,633 208,050,652 
Mortgages 

from faculty and staff 2,313,192 2,313,192 

Total pooled investments 358,675,330 415,449,288 

Funds invested separately: 
Equity securities 4,667,502 4,905,687 

Total $ 363,342,832 $420,354,975 

Marketable debt and equity securities are carried at market value. Realized gains and losses 
are computed based on the average cost of the investment. Fair values are determiiied uti- 
lizing fair market prices. 

Equity securities include the Institute's interests in certain limited partnerships with a 
reported value of approximately $92,279,390 and a fair value of approximately 
$108,939,701 at June 30, 2001. The Institute accounts for these investments under the 
equity method and, accordingly, recognizes its proportionate share of ordinary 
income/expenses and net realized gains/losses attributable to the investments of the part- 
nerships. The Institute's proportionate share of ordinary expense and net realized loss was 
$1,570,856 and $5,735,517, respectively, for the year ended June 30, 2001. 

In addition, equity securities include the Institute's interests in three open-ended invest- 
ment funds (the "Funds") incorporated in the Cayman Islands with carrying values of 
$59,910,113 and fair values of $96,145,743 at June 30, 2001. The Institute accounts for 
these investments at the lower of cost or market value. Fair value is determined as the 
number of shares held by the Institute multiplied by the net asset value for such shares. 
Net asset value, as determined by the Funds, reflects the underlying assets held by the 
Funds and any investment gain or loss. Realized gains and losses are computed based on 
the actual cost of the investment. 

The Institute's interests in limited partnerships and Funds represent 26% and 17%, respec- 
tively, 43% collectively of total investments held by the Institute at June 30, 2001. These 
instruments may contain elements of both credit and market risk. Such risks include, but 
are not limited to, limited liquidity, absence of regulatory oversight, dependence upon key 
individuals, emphasis on speculative investments (both derivatives and nonmarketable 
investments) and nondisclosure of portfolio composition. 

Substantially all of the assets of endowment and similar funds are pooled with each indi- 
vidual fund subscribing to or disposing of units on the basis of the market value per unit, 
determined on a quarterly basis. 



133 



Institute for advanced study 



The following table summarizes the investment return and its classification in the statement 
of activities for the year ended June 30, 2001: 



TEMPORARILY 
UNRESTRICTED RESTRICTED 



Dividends and 
interest 

Realized gain on 
investments 
reported at 
fair value 

Realized gain (loss) on 
investments reported 
at other than fair 
value 



$ 4,221.428 



762,586 



2,452,309 



Total realized 
gain/(loss) 

Unrealized loss 

Total realized and 
unrealized gain 



3,214,895 
(1.568.390) 

$ 1,646,505 



$ 1,943,270 



476,586 



1.532,598 

2,009,184 
(800.768) 

$ 1.208,416 



Investments, beginning of year 

Investment purchases 
Investment sales 

Investment returns: 
Realized gains 
Unrealized losses 

Total realized and unrealized gain 

Investments, end of year 

Investments, beginning of year 

Gifts available for investment: 
Gifts creating a permanent endowment fund 
Gifts creating a temporary endowment fund 
Gifts for trust funds 

Investment returns: 
Dividends and interest 
Realized gains 
Unrealized losses 

Total return on investments 

Amounts appropriated for current operations 

Annuity trust income payment 

Investments, end of year 



PERMANENTLY 
RESTRICTED 



(53,239) 



(171.206) 



(224,445) 



TOTAL 

$ 6,164,698 

1.185.933 

3.813.701 

4.999.634 
(2.369.158) 



$ (224.445) $ 2,630,476 



$ $4,999,634 
(2,369,158) 



$ 6.164.898 
4.999.634 
(2,369.158) 



$372,634,749 

85.604.926 
(97,527.319) 



2.630,476 
$363,342.832 
$372,634,749 



3.774.454 
1.034,050 
1,095,070 



8,795,374 

(23,616.126) 

(374.739) 

$363,342,832 



134 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



The participation in the pool and ownership of the other investments at June 30, 2001 
is shown in the table below: 

Permanently restricted net assets $ 41^445 747 

Temporarily restricted net assets 

Accumlated earnings on permanently 

restricted net assets 53,758,614 

Other temporarily restricted net assets 27,595,301 



Total Temporarily restricted net assets 81,353,915 

Unrestricted net assets 240,542,170 

$ 363,342,832 

Short-term investments held by trustee represent the balance of the proceeds from the 
1997 and 2001 NJEFA bonds that have not yet been expended for construction purposes. 
These funds are being held in trust by The Bank of New York. Such funds are invested 
in U.S. Government obligations with maturities of less than one year. At June 30, 2001 , 
the market value of such securities approximates their carrying value. 

C. PHYSICAL PLANT 

Physical plant and equipment are stated at cost at date of acquisition, less accumulated 
depreciation. Library books, other than rare books, are not capitalized. 
A summary of plant assets at June 30, 2001 follows: 

Land and improvements $ 1,114,898 

Buildings and improvements 61,253,952 

Equipment 15,779,120 

Rare book collection 203,508 

Joint ownership property 921,717 

Total 79,273,195 

Less accumulated depreciation (33,982,200) 

Net book value $45,290,995 



During 1997, the Institute entered into a Deed of Pathway and Conservation Easement 
(the "Easement") whereby the Institute has received $11,794,600 in cash and 
$1,274,196 in contributions receivable at June 30, 1997, in consideration for the sale of 
land development rights for certain Institute properties. The Easement requires that 
those properties, set forth therein, be preserved to the greatest extent possible in their 
existing natural, scenic, open, wooded and agricultural state and be protected from uses 
inconsistent therewith. 

Of the $11,794,600 in cash received by the Institute, $5,625,000 represents monies 
received from the New Jersey Green Acres Fund to be repaid by the parties to the Ease- 
ment. The Institute's pro rata share of $1,033,365 has been recorded as a note payable 



135 



Institute for advanced study 



in the accompanying statement of financial position at June 30, 2001. The note payable 
bears interest at a rate of 2% and requires semi-annual payments through January 8, 2017. 

The note is payable as follows at June 30, 2001: 

2002 $ 55,397 

2003 56,511 

2004 - 57,647 

2005 58,805 

2006 59,987 
Through 2017 745,018 

Total $ 1.033,365 

D. LONG-TERM DEBT 

A summary of long-term debt at June 30, 2001 follows: 



Series F &. G 1997 - NJEFA $40,780,000 

Series A 2001 - NJEFA 1 1 ,000,000 

Less unamortized bond discount (584,957) 

Total long-term debt $51,195,043 

Interest expense on long-term debt for the year ended June 30, 2001 was $2,069,930. 



In November 1997, the Institute received proceeds of the New Jersey Educational Facili- 
ties Authority offering of $16,310,000 Revenue Bonds, 1997 Series F and $26,565,000 
Revenue Bonds, 1997 Series G of the Institute for Advanced Study Issue. A portion of the 
proceeds ($16,969,355) was used to retire the existing Revenue Bonds, 1991 Series. The 
remainder of the proceeds is to be used for renovations of members housing, construction 
of a new academic building, and additional capital projects. In May 2001, the Institute 
received proceeds of the New Jersey Educational Facilities Authority offering of 
$11,000,000 Revenue Bonds, 2001 Series A of the Institute for Advanced Study issue. 
Proceeds are to be used for the construction of Bloomberg Hall. 

TTie bonds bear interest at rates ranging from 4% to 5%, payable semi-annually, are subject 
to redemption at various prices and require principal payments and sinking fund install- 
ments through July 1, 2031. The obligation to pay the Authority on a periodic basis, in 
the amounts sufficient to cover principal and interest due on the bonds, is a general oblig- 
ation of the Institute. 



136 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



The bonds are repayable as follows at June 30, 2001: 

2002 $ 1,195,000 

2003 1,445,000 

2004 1,515,000 

2005 1,585,000 

2006 1,665,000 
Through 2031 44,375,000 
Total $51,780,000 



E. PENSION PLANS AND OTHER POST RETIREMENT BENEFITS 

Separate voluntary defined contribution retirement plans are in effect for faculty members 
and eligible staff personnel, both of which provide for annuities which are funded to the 
Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association and/or the College Retirement Equities 
Fund. Contributions are based on the individual participants' compensation in accordance 
with the formula set forth in the plan documents on a nondiscriminatory basis. Contribu- 
tions for the year ended June 30, 2001 totaled approximately $1,192,500. 

In addition to providing pension benefits, the Institute provides certain health care and life 
insurance benefits for retired employees and faculty. Substantially, all of the Institute's 
employees may become eligible for these benefits if they meet minimum age and service 
lequirements. The Institute accrues these benefits over a period in which active employees 
become eligible under existing benefit plans. 

The components of the periodic expense for these postretirement benefits for 2001 are as 
follows: 

Postretirement Benefit Costs: 
Service Cost - benefits attributable to service during the year $ 1 13,408 

Interest Cost on Accumulated Postretirement Benefit Obligation 330,743 

Total $444,151 

The actuarial and recorded liabilities for these benefits, none of which have been funded, 
are as follows at June 30, 2001: 

Accumulated Postretirement Benefit Obligation 

Retirees $2,556,513 

Fully Eligible Active Plan Participants 853,989 

Other Active Plan Participants 1,340,123 

Total $4,750.625 

For measurement purposes, an 1 1.0% trend rate was used for 2001 health care costs, with 
the rate decreasing ratably until the year 2009, and then remaining constant at 5.0% there- 
after. The health care cost trend rate assumption has a significant effect on the amounts 
reported. For example, a 1% increase in the health care trend rate would increase the 
accumulated postretirement benefit obligation by $655,732 at June 30, 2001 and the net 
periodic cost by $85,014 for the year. The weighted average discount rate used in deter- 
mining the accumulated postretirement benefit obligation was 7.5%. 



137 



Institute for advanced study 



F. CHANGES IN DEFERRED RESTRICTED REVENUE (REFUNDABLE ADVANCES) 

Restricted receipts, which are recorded initially as deferred restricted revenue, are reported 
as revenues when expended in accordance with the terms of the restriction or transferred to 
quasi-endowment funds. Changes in deferred restricted revenue amounts are as follows: 

Total Deferred 
Restricted Revenue 

Balance at June 30, 2000 $ 4,787,827 

Additions: 

Contributions, grants, etc. 10,673,674 

Restricted endowment income 809,019 

Total additions 11,482,693 



Deductions: 

Funds expended from contributions, grants, etc. 8,503,244 

Funds expended from restricted endowment 2,11 7,683 

Quasi-endowment funds utilized (1,308,664) 

Total deductions 9,312,263 

Balance at June 30, 2001 $ 6.958,257 

G. FUNDS HELD IN TRUST BY OTHERS 

The Institute is the residuary beneficiary of a trust and, upon the death of the life tenant, 
will be entitled to receive the corpus thereof. Tlie approximate market value ot the trust's 
assets, as reported by the administrator of the trust, aggregated $3,634,642 as of June 30, 
2001, and is not included in the accompanying financial statements. 

H. FUNCTIONAL ALLOCATION OF EXPENSES 

The costs of providing the various programs and other activities have been summarized on 
a functional basis in the statement of activities and cash flows. Accordingly, certain costs 
have been allocated among the programs and supporting services benefited. The net costs 
incurred by the Institute in operating both the Dining Hall ($252,779 net of $865,614 in 
revenues) and members' housing ($1,694,282, net of $1,384,695 in revenues) have been 
allocated among the programs and supporting services benefited. Included in the net costs 
incurred by the Institute that are allocated among the program is $1,283,000 worth of 
depreciation expenses. An overhead charge is allocated to certain schools generally based 
upon their ability to recover such costs under the terms of various grants and contracts. 
Overhead allocated from administration and general expenses to various programs totaled 
$3,876,525 for the year ended June 30, 2001. 

Interest expense on plant fund debt, net o( interest income on short-term investments, is 
allocated to schools based upon their occupancy of academic buildings funded with such 
debt. Allocated interest expense totaled $2,137,781 and allocated interest income totaled 
$240,086 for the year ended June 30, 2001. 



138 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



I. TAX STATUS 

The Institute is exempt from Federal income taxes pursuant to Section 501(c)(3) of the 
Internal Revenue Code and is listed in the Internal Revenue Service Publication 78. 

J. TEMPORARILY AND PERMANENTLY RESTRICTED ASSETS 
Temporarily restricted net assets are available for the following purposes: 

2001 
Academic Services: 
Educational Programs $79,021,668 



Permanently restricted net assets are restricted to: 
Investments to be held in perpetuity, the income from which is 
expendable to support academic services $42,395,709 



Net assets were released from donor restrictions by incurring expenses satisfying the 
restricted purposes or by occurrence of other events specified by donors. 

Purpose restrictions accomplished: 

2001 
Program expenses: 

School of Mathematics $ 4,125,596 

School of Natural Sciences 2,312,493 

School of Historical Studies 1 ,690,356 

School of Social Science 2,545,030 

Academic support costs: 

Libraries and other academic 3,147,390 

Computing ' 79^800 

Administration and general: 

Fund raising 20,568 

Tenants' housing 175,359 

Equipment acquired and placed in service 66,263 

Trust fund disbursements 379,180 

Total restrictions released $14,542,035 



139 



Institute for advanced study 



K. FUNCTIONAL EXPENSES 

The Institute provides academic services to a community of scholars, including permanent 
faculty and visiting members. Expenses related to providing these services are as follows: 

2001 
Expenses incurred were for: 

Salaries, wages, and benefits $16,538,401 

Stipends 5,446.977 

Honoraria 121,284 

Grants to other organizations 306,724 

Supplies and travel 2,590,307 

Services and professional fees 2,891,061 

Depreciation 1,545,390 

Interest 1.107,907 

Total expenses $30.548,051 

L. DISCLOSURES ABOUT FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS 

The Institute is required by SFAS No. 107, Disclosure About Fair Value of Financial Instru- 
ments, to disclose the estimated fair value of financial instruments, both assets and liabilities 
recognized and not recognized in the balance sheet, for which it is practicable to estimate 
fair value. 

The estimated fair value amounts in the following disclosure have been determined by the 
Institute using available market information and appropriate valuation methodologies. 
The estimates are not necessarily indicative of the amounts the Institute could realize in a 
current market exchange, and the use of different market assumptions or methodologies 
could have a material effect on the estimated fair value amounts. 

Estimated 
Reported Fair 

June 30, 2001 Amount Value 

Assets: 

Cash $ 2,882,443 $ 2,882,443 

Investments 363,342,832 420,354,975 

Grant/contributions Receivable 2,127,559 2,127,559 

Liabilities: 
Long-term debt 51,195,043 51.195,043 

Note payable 1,033,365 1,033,365 

The fair value of investments is based on fair market prices. The fair market valuation of 
grant/contributions receivable was estimated based on past cash collection experience. For 
long-term debt, the fair values are estimated using the interest rates currently offered for 
debt with similar terms and remaining maturities. The estimated fair value of mortgages 
for faculty and staff is based upon similar terms at which similar institutions would provide 
as part of an overall compensation package to such individuals. The estimated fair value 
of the note payable is based on the discounted value ot the future cash flows expected to 
be received from the note. 



140 



NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 



The fair value estimates presented are based on information available to the Institute as of 
June 30, 2001, and have not been revalued since that date. While the Institute is not 
aware of any significant factors that would affect the estimates since that date, current esti- 
mates of fair value could differ significantly from the amounts disclosed. 

M. DISCLOSURES OF PROMISES TO GIVE (CONTRIBUTIONS RECEIVABLE) 

June 30, 
2001 
Unconditional promises to give: 

Less than one year $ 259,000 

One to five years 569,992 

828!992 
Discount on promises to give (34,237) 

$ 794.755 



141 



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609-734-8000 

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